WorldWideScience

Sample records for alkaline storage battery

  1. Alkaline battery operational methodology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sholklapper, Tal; Gallaway, Joshua; Steingart, Daniel; Ingale, Nilesh; Nyce, Michael

    2016-08-16

    Methods of using specific operational charge and discharge parameters to extend the life of alkaline batteries are disclosed. The methods can be used with any commercial primary or secondary alkaline battery, as well as with newer alkaline battery designs, including batteries with flowing electrolyte. The methods include cycling batteries within a narrow operating voltage window, with minimum and maximum cut-off voltages that are set based on battery characteristics and environmental conditions. The narrow voltage window decreases available capacity but allows the batteries to be cycled for hundreds or thousands of times.

  2. Ultrastable α phase nickel hydroxide as energy storage materials for alkaline secondary batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Haili; Guo, Yinjian; Cheng, Yuanhui

    2018-03-01

    α Phase nickel hydroxide (α-Ni(OH)2) has higher theoretical capacity than that of commercial β phase Ni(OH)2. But the low stability inhibits its wide application in alkaline rechargeable batteries. Here, we propose a totally new idea to stabilize α phase Ni(OH)2 by introducing large organic molecule into the interlayer spacing together with doping multivalent cobalt into the layered Ni(OH)2 host. Ethylene glycol is served as neutral stabilizer in the interlayer spacing. Nickel is substituted by cobalt to increase the electrostatic attraction between layered Ni(OH)2 host and anion ions in the interlayer spacing. Polyethylene glycol (PEG-200) is utilized to design a three-dimensional network structure. This prepared α-Ni(OH)2-20 exhibits specific capacity as high as 334 mAh g-1and good structural stability even after immersing into strong alkaline zincate solution for 20 days. Ni(OH)2 electrode with a specific capacity of 35 mAh cm-2 is fabricated and used as positive electrode in zinc-nickel single flow batteries, which also shows good cycling stability. This result can provide an important guideline for the rational design and preparation of highly active and stable α phase Ni(OH)2 for alkaline secondary battery.

  3. Study on workers exposed to cadmium in alkaline storage battery manufacturing and PVC compounding

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chan, O.Y.; Tan, K.T.; Kwok, S.F.; Chio, L.F.

    1982-01-01

    The extent of cadmium exposure was studied in a cadmium-nickel battery factory and 8 PVC factories using cadmium stabilisers in the compounding of PVC. A total of 101 cadmium-exposed workers and 21 control subjects matched by sex, age, ethnic group and smoking history was investigated. Blood and urine cadmium levels were considerably elevated in the battery workers but were not raised in the PVC workers. These findings were consistent with the results of cadmium-in-air assessments. Among the female battery workers, urine cadmium excretion increased significantly with employment time. There was good correlation between blood and urine cadmium levels among the female subjects. A significant association between blood cadmium levels and prevalence of chest pain was also noted among the females. No low molecular weight proteinuria was detected, but two female battery workers had slight albuminuria and one male PVC worker had glucosuria but had abnormal GTT results.

  4. Secondary alkaline batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    McBreen, J.

    1984-03-01

    The overall reactions (charge/discharge characteristics); electrode structures and materials; and cell construction are studied for nickel oxide-cadmium, nickel oxide-iron, nickel oxide-hydrogen, nickel oxide-zinc, silver oxide-zinc, and silver oxide-cadmium, silver oxide-iron, and manganese dioxide-zinc batteries.

  5. Batteries: from alkaline to zinc-air.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dondelinger, Robert M

    2004-01-01

    There is no perfect disposable battery--one that will sit on the shelf for 20 years, then continually provide unlimited current, at a completely constant voltage until exhausted, without producing heat. There is no perfect rechargeable battery--one with all of the above characteristics and will also withstand an infinite overcharge while providing an equally infinite cycle life. There are only compromises. Every battery selection is a compromise between the ideally required characteristics, the advantages, and the limitations of each battery type. General selection of a battery type to power a medical device is largely outside the purview of the biomed. Initially, these are engineering decisions made at the time of medical equipment design and are intended to be followed in perpetuity. However, since newer cell types evolve and the manufacturer's literature is fixed at the time of printing, some intelligent substitutions may be made as long as the biomed understands the characteristics of both the recommended cell and the replacement cell. For example, when the manufacturer recommends alkaline, it is usually because of the almost constant voltage it produces under the devices' design load. Over time, other battery types may be developed that will meet the intent of the manufacturer, at a lower cost, providing longer operational life, at a lower environmental cost, or with a combination of these advantages. In the Obstetrical Doppler cited at the beginning of this article, the user had put in carbon-zinc cells, and the biomed had unknowingly replaced them with carbonzinc cells. If the alkaline cells recommended by the manufacturer had been used, there would have been the proper output voltage at the battery terminals when the [table: see text] cells were at their half-life. Instead, the device refused to operate since the battery voltage was below presumed design voltage. While battery-type substitutions may be easily and relatively successfully made in disposable

  6. Development of flexible secondary alkaline battery with carbon nanotube enhanced electrodes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Zhiqian; Mitra, Somenath

    2014-11-01

    We present the development of flexible secondary alkaline battery with rechargeability similar to that of conventional secondary alkaline batteries. Multiwalled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) were added to both electrodes to reduce internal resistance, and a cathode containing carbon black and purified MWCNTs was found to be most effective. A polyvinyl alcohol-poly (acrylic acid) copolymer separator served the dual functions of electrolyte storage and enhancing flexibility. Additives to the anode and cathode were effective in reducing capacity fades and improving rechargeability.

  7. Battery energy storage system

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tol, C.S.P.; Evenblij, B.H.

    2009-01-01

    The ability to store electrical energy adds several interesting features to a ships distribution network, as silent power, peak shaving and a ride through in case of generator failure. Modern intrinsically safe Li-ion batteries bring these within reach. For this modern lithium battery applications

  8. Primer on lead-acid storage batteries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-09-01

    This handbook was developed to help DOE facility contractors prevent accidents caused during operation and maintenance of lead-acid storage batteries. Major types of lead-acid storage batteries are discussed as well as their operation, application, selection, maintenance, and disposal (storage, transportation, as well). Safety hazards and precautions are discussed in the section on battery maintenance. References to industry standards are included for selection, maintenance, and disposal.

  9. Battery storage for supplementing renewable energy systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None, None

    2009-01-18

    The battery storage for renewable energy systems section of the Renewable Energy Technology Characterizations describes structures and models to support the technical and economic status of emerging renewable energy options for electricity supply.

  10. A Micro-Grid Battery Storage Management

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mahat, Pukar; Escribano Jiménez, Jorge; Moldes, Eloy Rodríguez

    2013-01-01

    systems under its administration. This paper presents an optimized scheduling of a micro-grid battery storage system that takes into account the next-day forecasted load and generation profiles and spot electricity prices. Simulation results show that the battery system can be scheduled close to optimal...

  11. Lithium batteries and other electrochemical storage systems

    CERN Document Server

    Glaize, Christian

    2013-01-01

    Lithium batteries were introduced relatively recently in comparison to lead- or nickel-based batteries, which have been around for over 100 years. Nevertheless, in the space of 20 years, they have acquired a considerable market share - particularly for the supply of mobile devices. We are still a long way from exhausting the possibilities that they offer. Numerous projects will undoubtedly further improve their performances in the years to come. For large-scale storage systems, other types of batteries are also worthy of consideration: hot batteries and redox flow systems, for example.

  12. All-solid-state Al-air batteries with polymer alkaline gel electrolyte

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Zhao; Zuo, Chuncheng; Liu, Zihui; Yu, Ying; Zuo, Yuxin; Song, Yu

    2014-04-01

    Aluminum-air (Al-air) battery is one of the most promising candidates for next-generation energy storage systems because of its high capacity and energy density, and abundance. The polyacrylic acid (PAA)-based alkaline gel electrolyte is used in all-solid-state Al-air batteries instead of aqueous electrolytes to prevent leakage. The optimal gel electrolyte exhibits an ionic conductivity of 460 mS cm-1, which is close to that of aqueous electrolytes. The Al-air battery peak capacity and energy density considering only Al can reach 1166 mAh g-1-Al and 1230 mWh g-1-Al, respectively, during constant current discharge. The battery prototype also exhibits a high power density of 91.13 mW cm-2. For the battery is a laminated structure, area densities of 29.2 mAh cm-2 and 30.8 mWh cm-2 are presented to appraise the performance of the whole cell. A novel design to inhibit anodic corrosion is proposed by separating the Al anode from the gel electrolyte when not in use, thereby effectively maintaining the available capacity of the battery.

  13. Alkaline and non-aqueous proton-conducting pouch-cell batteries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Young, Kwo-hsiung; Nei, Jean; Meng, Tiejun

    2018-01-02

    Provided are sealed pouch-cell batteries that are alkaline batteries or non-aqueous proton-conducing batteries. A pouch cell includes a flexible housing such as is used for pouch cell construction where the housing is in the form of a pouch, a cathode comprising a cathode active material suitable for use in an alkaline battery, an anode comprising an anode active material suitable for use in an alkaline battery, an electrolyte that is optionally an alkaline or proton-conducting electrolyte, and wherein the pouch does not include or require a safety vent or other gas absorbing or releasing system as the anode active material and the cathode active material do not increase the internal atmospheric pressure any more than 2 psig during cycling. The batteries provided function contrary to the art recognized belief that such battery systems were impossible due to unacceptable gas production during cycling.

  14. Battery energy storage market feasibility study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kraft, S. [Frost and Sullivan, Mountain View, CA (United States); Akhil, A. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States). Energy Storage Systems Analysis and Development Dept.

    1997-07-01

    Under the sponsorship of the Department of Energy`s Office of Utility Technologies, the Energy Storage Systems Analysis and Development Department at Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) contracted Frost and Sullivan to conduct a market feasibility study of energy storage systems. The study was designed specifically to quantify the energy storage market for utility applications. This study was based on the SNL Opportunities Analysis performed earlier. Many of the groups surveyed, which included electricity providers, battery energy storage vendors, regulators, consultants, and technology advocates, viewed energy storage as an important enabling technology to enable increased use of renewable energy and as a means to solve power quality and asset utilization issues. There are two versions of the document available, an expanded version (approximately 200 pages, SAND97-1275/2) and a short version (approximately 25 pages, SAND97-1275/1).

  15. Battery energy storage market feasibility study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kraft, S.; Akhil, A.

    1997-07-01

    Under the sponsorship of the Department of Energy's Office of Utility Technologies, the Energy Storage Systems Analysis and Development Department at Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) contracted Frost and Sullivan to conduct a market feasibility study of energy storage systems. The study was designed specifically to quantify the energy storage market for utility applications. This study was based on the SNL Opportunities Analysis performed earlier. Many of the groups surveyed, which included electricity providers, battery energy storage vendors, regulators, consultants, and technology advocates, viewed energy storage as an important enabling technology to enable increased use of renewable energy and as a means to solve power quality and asset utilization issues. There are two versions of the document available, an expanded version (approximately 200 pages, SAND97-1275/2) and a short version (approximately 25 pages, SAND97-1275/1)

  16. Nickel hydroxide positive electrode for alkaline rechargeable battery

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Young, Kwo; Wang, Lixin; Mays, William; Reichman, Benjamin; Chao-Ian, Hu; Wong, Diana; Nei, Jean

    2018-04-03

    Certain nickel hydroxide active cathode materials for use in alkaline rechargeable batteries are capable of transferring >1.3 electrons per Ni atom under reversible electrochemical conditions. The specific capacity of the nickel hydroxide active materials is for example .gtoreq.325 mAh/g. The cathode active materials exhibit an additional discharge plateau near 0.8 V vs. a metal hydride (MH) anode. Ni in an oxidation state of less than 2, such as Ni.sup.1+, is able to participate in electrochemical reactions when using the present cathode active materials. It is possible that up to 2.3 electrons, up to 2.5 electrons or more may be transferred per Ni atom under electrochemical conditions.

  17. Nickel hydroxide positive electrode for alkaline rechargeable battery

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Young, Kwo; Wang, Lixin; Mays, William; Reichman, Benjamin; Chao-Ian, Hu; Wong, Diana; Nei, Jean

    2018-02-20

    Certain nickel hydroxide active cathode materials for use in alkaline rechargeable batteries are capable of transferring >1.3 electrons per Ni atom under reversible electrochemical conditions. The specific capacity of the nickel hydroxide active materials is for example .gtoreq.325 mAh/g. The cathode active materials exhibit an additional discharge plateau near 0.8 V vs. a metal hydride (MH) anode. Ni in an oxidation state of less than 2, such as Ni.sup.1+, is able to participate in electrochemical reactions when using the present cathode active materials. It is possible that up to 2.3 electrons, up to 2.5 electrons or more may be transferred per Ni atom under electrochemical conditions.

  18. Energy storage mechanism for hybrid battery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Jun; Chernova, Natasha; Omenya, Fredrick; Rastogi, Alok; Whittingham, Stanley

    Many devices require both high energy and high power density, and lithium ion batteries and super-capacitors cannot separately always meet the requirements. In this work, we study the operating mechanism of a hybrid battery, which combines the best properties of batteries and supercapacitors. We analyze the lithium ion storage mechanism using XRD, Raman, TEM and electrochemical measurements. The model system studied combines a non-intercalating carbon black anode with a LiFePO4 cathode. At 50% state of charge, XRD data for LiFePO4 cathode material shows a mixture of LiFePO4 and FePO4, indicating battery reaction. On the other hand, the activated carbon remains structurally unchanged. We also discuss the impact of a range of activated carbon/ LiFePO4 (AC/LFP) ratios. From cyclic voltammetry and charge/discharge results, the system exhibits battery-domain characteristics when the AC/ LFP ratio is below one, but showing more supercapacitor-domain traits when the ratio is higher. Besides, the systems have higher rate capacity at AC/LFP ratio around four as compared to one. This research is supported by NSF under Award Number 1318202.

  19. Battery Energy Storage Technology for power systems-An overview

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chandrashekhara, Divya K; Østergaard, Jacob

    2009-01-01

    the present status of battery energy storage technology and methods of assessing their economic viability and impact on power system operation. Further, a discussion on the role of battery storage systems of electric hybrid vehicles in power system storage technologies had been made. Finally, the paper...... suggests a likely future outlook for the battery technologies and the electric hybrid vehicles in the context of power system applications....

  20. ENERGY EFFICIENCY AND ENVIRONMENTALLY FRIENDLY DISTRIBUTED ENERGY STORAGE BATTERY

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    LANDI, J.T.; PLIVELICH, R.F.

    2006-04-30

    Electro Energy, Inc. conducted a research project to develop an energy efficient and environmentally friendly bipolar Ni-MH battery for distributed energy storage applications. Rechargeable batteries with long life and low cost potentially play a significant role by reducing electricity cost and pollution. A rechargeable battery functions as a reservoir for storage for electrical energy, carries energy for portable applications, or can provide peaking energy when a demand for electrical power exceeds primary generating capabilities.

  1. Economic models for battery energy storage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reckrodt, R.C.; Anderson, M.D.; Kluczny, R.M.

    1990-01-01

    While the technology required to produce viable Battery Energy Storage System exists, the economic feasibility (cost vs. benefits) of building these systems requires justification. First, a generalized decision diagram was developed to ensure that all of the economic factors were considered and properly related for the customer-side-of-the meter. Next, two economic models that had consistently given differing results were compared. One was the McKinney model developed at UM-Rolla in 1987; the second was the SYSPLAN model developed by Battelle. Differences were resolved on a point by point basis with reference to the current economic environment. The economic model was upgraded to include the best of both models based on the resolution of these differences. The upgrades were implemented as modifications to the original SYSPLAN (1986 version) to preserve user friendliness. In this paper four specific cases are evaluated and compared. The results are as predicted, since comparison was made with two known models

  2. Pilhas alcalinas: um dispositivo útil para o ensino de Química Alkaline battery: a useful device in the teaching of chemistry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elaine Y. Matsubara

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the alkaline battery (MnO2/Zn as a useful device in the teaching of chemistry. The preparation of the battery, the materials used in the preparation of the MnO2 electrode, the mechanism of energy storage and the parameters often used in the understanding of general batteries are discussed in detail. In addition, a schedule and a questionnaire that can be applied in an experimental class have been developed, which allow the assembly of an alkaline battery, its discharge using a galvanostatic or a load-resistance procedure, and the elaboration of a report based on the main text. This experimental class has been offered in the chemistry course of FFCLRP.

  3. Research on Battery Energy Storage System Based on User Side

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Qian; Zhang, Yichi; Yun, Zejian; Wang, Xuguang; Zhang, Dong; Bian, Di

    2018-01-01

    This paper introduces the effect of user side energy storage on the user side and the network side, a battery energy storage system for the user side is designed. The main circuit topology of the battery energy storage system based on the user side is given, the structure is mainly composed of two parts: DC-DC two-way half bridge converter and DC-AC two-way converter, a control strategy combining battery charging and discharging characteristics is proposed to decouple the grid side and the energy storage side, and the block diagram of the charging and discharging control of the energy storage system is given. The simulation results show that the battery energy storage system of the user side can not only realize reactive power compensation of low-voltage distribution network, but also improve the power quality of the users.

  4. Grid Converters for Stationary Battery Energy Storage Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Trintis, Ionut

    to hours, rated at MW and MWh, battery energy storage systems are suitable and ecient solutions. Grid connection of the storage system can be done at dierent voltage levels, depending on the location and application scenario. For high power and energy ratings, increase in the battery and converter voltage...... was realized for a 100 kW active rectier to be used in a 6 kV battery energy storage test bench. In the second part, dierent solutions for power converters to interface energy storage units to medium voltage grid are given. A new modular multilevel converter concept is introduced, where the energy storage......-voltage 100 kW bidirectional grid converter, to be used in a high voltage battery energy storage test bench. The control structure proved to be stable without damping. The converter was tested in the test bench and the experimental results are presented. Multilevel converters are replacing the classical two...

  5. Utility Battery Storage Systems Program plan: FY 1994--FY 1998

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-02-01

    The Utility Battery Storage Systems Program, sponsored by the US Department of Energy (DOE), is addressing needed improvements so that the full benefits of these systems can be realized. A key element of the Program is the quantification of the benefits of batteries used in utility applications. The analyses of the applications and benefits are ongoing, but preliminary results indicate that the widespread introduction of battery storage by utilities could benefit the US economy by more than $26 billion by 2010 and create thousands of new jobs. Other critical elements of the DOE Program focus on improving the batteries, power electronics, and control subsystems and reducing their costs. These subsystems are then integrated and the systems undergo field evaluation. Finally, the most important element of the Program is the communication of the capabilities and benefits of battery systems to utility companies. Justifiably conservative, utilities must have proven, reliable equipment that is economical before they can adopt new technologies. While several utilities are leading the industry by demonstrating battery systems, a key task of the DOE program is to inform the entire industry of the value, characteristics, and availability of utility battery systems so that knowledgeable decisions can be made regarding future investments. This program plan for the DOE Utility Battery Storage Systems Program describes the technical and programmatic activities needed to bring about the widespread use of batteries by utilities. By following this plan, the DOE anticipates that many of the significant national benefits from battery storage will be achieved in the near future.

  6. Third International Conference on Batteries for Utility Energy Storage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1991-03-18

    This is a collection of essays presented at the above-named conference held at Kobe, Japan, from March 18 through 22, 1991. At the utility energy storage session, a power research program plan, operational and economic benefits of BESP (battery energy storage plant), the Moonlight Project, etc., were presented, respectively, by EPRI (Electric Power Research Institute) of the U.S., BEWAG Corporation of Germany, and NEDO (New Energy and Industrial Technology Development Organization) of Japan, etc. At the improved lead-acid batteries session, the characteristics of improved lead-acid batteries, load levelling and life cycle, problems in BESP, comparisons and tests, etc., were presented by Japan, Italy, the U.S., etc. At the advanced batteries session, presentations were made about the sodium-sulfur battery, zinc-bromine battery, redox battery, etc. Furthermore, there were sessions on consumer energy systems, control and power conditioning technology, and commercialization and economic studies. A total 53 presentations were made. (NEDO)

  7. Single stage grid converters for battery energy storage

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Trintis, Ionut; Munk-Nielsen, Stig; Teodorescu, Remus

    2010-01-01

    Integration of renewable energy systems in the power system network such as wind and solar is still a challenge in our days. Energy storage systems (ESS) can overcome the disadvantage of volatile generation of the renewable energy sources. This paper presents power converters for battery energy...... storage systems (BESS) which can interface mediumvoltage batteries to the grid. Converter topologies comparison is performed in terms of efficiency, common mode voltage and redundancy for a 6kV series connected medium voltage batteries with a nominal power of 5MVA to act as a battery charger/discharger....

  8. Battery energy storage systems life cycle costs case studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Swaminathan, S.; Miller, N.F.; Sen, R.K. [SENTECH, Inc., Bethesda, MD (United States)

    1998-08-01

    This report presents a comparison of life cycle costs between battery energy storage systems and alternative mature technologies that could serve the same utility-scale applications. Two of the battery energy storage systems presented in this report are located on the supply side, providing spinning reserve and system stability benefits. These systems are compared with the alternative technologies of oil-fired combustion turbines and diesel generators. The other two battery energy storage systems are located on the demand side for use in power quality applications. These are compared with available uninterruptible power supply technologies.

  9. Review of storage battery system cost estimates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brown, D.R.; Russell, J.A.

    1986-04-01

    Cost analyses for zinc bromine, sodium sulfur, and lead acid batteries were reviewed. Zinc bromine and sodium sulfur batteries were selected because of their advanced design nature and the high level of interest in these two technologies. Lead acid batteries were included to establish a baseline representative of a more mature technology.

  10. Second International Conference on Batteries for Utility Energy Storage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1989-07-24

    This is a collection of essays presented at the above-named conference held at New Port Beach, U.S., from July 24 through 28, 1989. At the utility energy storage session, it is found that the 100kW-capable Na-S battery system of the Kansai Electric Power Company, Inc., works effectively in levelling peakloads at storage efficiency of 70%. A Chino lead-acid battery system is also described. A lead-acid battery system of the BEWAG Corporation of Germany equipped with tubular electrodes is described. For application by the consuming party, system behavior relative to duty cycle control, sudden request for energy storage, power factor, and load adjustment is discussed. Use of a valve-controlled lead-acid battery is introduced, which is to be used as a stand-by system (such as an uninterruptible power supply) or for certain types of cyclic duties. At the 4th session, economic and technical models are exhibited. Computer-aided peakload prediction, battery storage system technology, economic parameters, profitability, etc., are explained for use by the consuming party in a peakload shaving battery system. The Zn/Br battery, redox-flow battery, and other advanced technologies are also presented. (NEDO)

  11. 46 CFR 112.55-10 - Storage battery charging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... gas turbine driven generator set, must have apparatus to automatically maintain the battery fully... 46 Shipping 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Storage battery charging. 112.55-10 Section 112.55-10 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING EMERGENCY LIGHTING...

  12. Specific systems studies of battery energy storage for electric utilities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Akhil, A.A.; Lachenmeyer, L. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States); Jabbour, S.J. [Decision Focus, Inc., Mountain View, CA (United States); Clark, H.K. [Power Technologies, Inc., Roseville, CA (United States)

    1993-08-01

    Sandia National Laboratories, New Mexico, conducts the Utility Battery Storage Systems Program, which is sponsored by the US Department of Energy`s Office of Energy Management. As a part of this program, four utility-specific systems studies were conducted to identify potential battery energy storage applications within each utility network and estimate the related benefits. This report contains the results of these systems studies.

  13. Secondary batteries with multivalent ions for energy storage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Chengjun; Chen, Yanyi; Shi, Shan; Li, Jia; Kang, Feiyu; Su, Dangsheng

    2015-09-14

    The use of electricity generated from clean and renewable sources, such as water, wind, or sunlight, requires efficiently distributed electrical energy storage by high-power and high-energy secondary batteries using abundant, low-cost materials in sustainable processes. American Science Policy Reports state that the next-generation "beyond-lithium" battery chemistry is one feasible solution for such goals. Here we discover new "multivalent ion" battery chemistry beyond lithium battery chemistry. Through theoretic calculation and experiment confirmation, stable thermodynamics and fast kinetics are presented during the storage of multivalent ions (Ni(2+), Zn(2+), Mg(2+), Ca(2+), Ba(2+), or La(3+) ions) in alpha type manganese dioxide. Apart from zinc ion battery, we further use multivalent Ni(2+) ion to invent another rechargeable battery, named as nickel ion battery for the first time. The nickel ion battery generally uses an alpha type manganese dioxide cathode, an electrolyte containing Ni(2+) ions, and Ni anode. The nickel ion battery delivers a high energy density (340 Wh kg(-1), close to lithium ion batteries), fast charge ability (1 minute), and long cycle life (over 2200 times).

  14. Battery energy storage market feasibility study -- Expanded report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kraft, S. [Frost and Sullivan, Mountain View, CA (United States); Akhil, A. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States). Energy Storage Systems Analysis and Development Dept.

    1997-09-01

    Under the sponsorship of the US Department of Energy`s Office of Utility Technologies, the Energy Storage Systems Analysis and Development Department at Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) contracted Frost and Sullivan to conduct a market feasibility study of energy storage systems. The study was designed specifically to quantify the battery energy storage market for utility applications. This study was based on the SNL Opportunities Analysis performed earlier. Many of the groups surveyed, which included electricity providers, battery energy storage vendors, regulators, consultants, and technology advocates, viewed battery storage as an important technology to enable increased use of renewable energy and as a means to solve power quality and asset utilization issues. There are two versions of the document available, an expanded version (approximately 200 pages, SAND97-1275/2) and a short version (approximately 25 pages, SAND97-1275/1).

  15. Battery energy storage market feasibility study - Expanded report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kraft, S.; Akhil, A.

    1997-09-01

    Under the sponsorship of the US Department of Energy's Office of Utility Technologies, the Energy Storage Systems Analysis and Development Department at Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) contracted Frost and Sullivan to conduct a market feasibility study of energy storage systems. The study was designed specifically to quantify the battery energy storage market for utility applications. This study was based on the SNL Opportunities Analysis performed earlier. Many of the groups surveyed, which included electricity providers, battery energy storage vendors, regulators, consultants, and technology advocates, viewed battery storage as an important technology to enable increased use of renewable energy and as a means to solve power quality and asset utilization issues. There are two versions of the document available, an expanded version (approximately 200 pages, SAND97-1275/2) and a short version (approximately 25 pages, SAND97-1275/1)

  16. Utility battery storage systems. Program report for FY95

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Butler, P.C.

    1996-03-01

    Sandia National Laboratories, New Mexico, conducts the Utility Battery Storage Systems Program, which is sponsored by the U.S. Department of Energy`s Office of Utility Technologies. The goal of this program is to assist industry in developing cost-effective battery systems as a utility resource option by 2000. Sandia is responsible for the engineering analyses, contracted development, and testing of rechargeable batteries and systems for utility energy storage applications. This report details the technical achievements realized during fiscal year 1995.

  17. Ultrafine polybenzimidazole (PBI) fibers. [separators for alkaline batteries and dfuel cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chenevey, E. C.

    1979-01-01

    Mats were made from ultrafine polybenzimidazole (PBI) fibers to provide an alternate to the use of asbestos as separators in fuel cells and alkaline batteries. To minimize distortion during mat drying, a process to provide a dry fibrid was developed. Two fibrid types were developed: one coarse, making mats for battery separators; the other fine, making low permeability matrices for fuel cells. Eventually, it was demonstrated that suitable mat fabrication techniques yielded fuel cell separators from the coarser alkaline battery fibrids. The stability of PBI mats to 45% KOH at 123 C can be increased by heat treatment at high temperatures. Weight loss data to 1000 hours exposure show the alkali resistance of the mats to be superior to that of asbestos.

  18. Technoeconomic Modeling of Battery Energy Storage in SAM

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    DiOrio, Nicholas [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Dobos, Aron [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Janzou, Steven [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Nelson, Austin [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Lundstrom, Blake [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2015-09-01

    Detailed comprehensive lead-acid and lithium-ion battery models have been integrated with photovoltaic models in an effort to allow System Advisor Model (SAM) to offer the ability to predict the performance and economic benefit of behind the meter storage. In a system with storage, excess PV energy can be saved until later in the day when PV production has fallen, or until times of peak demand when it is more valuable. Complex dispatch strategies can be developed to leverage storage to reduce energy consumption or power demand based on the utility rate structure. This document describes the details of the battery performance and economic models in SAM.

  19. Separator for alkaline electric batteries and method of making

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pfluger, H. L. (Inventor); Hoyt, H. E.

    1970-01-01

    Battery separator membranes of high electrolytic conductivity comprising a cellulose ether and a compatible metallic salt of water soluble aliphatic acids and their hydroxy derivatives are described. It was found that methyl cellulose can be modified by another class of materials, nonpolymeric in nature, to form battery separator membranes of low electrolytic resistance but which have the flexibility of membranes made of unmodified methyl cellulose, and which in many cases enhance flexibility over membranes made with unmodified methyl cellulose. Separator membranes for electrochemical cells comprising a cellulose ether and a modified selected from the group consisting of metallic salts of water soluble alphatic acids and their hydroxy derivatives and to electrochemical cells utilizing said membranes are described.

  20. Laboratory study on the behaviour of spent AA household alkaline batteries in incineration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almeida, Manuel F; Xará, Susana M; Delgado, Julanda; Costa, Carlos A

    2009-01-01

    The quantitative evaluation of emissions from incineration is essential when Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) studies consider this process as an end-of-life solution for some wastes. Thus, the objective of this work is to quantify the main gaseous emissions produced when spent AA alkaline batteries are incinerated. With this aim, batteries were kept for 1h at 1273K in a refractory steel tube hold in a horizontal electric furnace with temperature control. At one end of the refractory steel tube, a constant air flow input assures the presence of oxygen in the atmosphere and guides the gaseous emissions to a filter system followed by a set of two bubbler flasks having an aqueous solution of 10% (v/v) nitric acid. After each set of experiments, sulphur, chlorides and metals (As, Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Fe, Hg, Mn, Ni, Pb, Sb, Tl and Zn) were analyzed in both the solutions obtained from the steel tube washing and from the bubblers. Sulphur, chlorides and metals were quantified, respectively, using barium sulfate gravimetry, the Volhard method and atomic absorption spectrometry (AAS). The emissions of zinc, the most emitted metal, represent about 6.5% of the zinc content in the batteries. Emissions of manganese (whose oxide is the main component of the cathode) and iron (from the cathode collector) are negligible when compared with their amount in AA alkaline batteries. Mercury is the metal with higher volatility in the composition of the batteries and was collected even in the second bubbler flask. The amount of chlorides collected corresponds to about 36% of the chlorine in the battery sleeve that is made from PVC. A considerable part of the HCl formed in PVC plastic sleeve incineration is neutralized with KOH, zinc and manganese oxides and, thus, it is not totally released in the gas. Some of the emissions are predictable through a thermodynamic data analysis at temperatures in the range of 1200-1300K taking into account the composition of the batteries. This analysis was done

  1. Economic Optimization of Component Sizing for Residential Battery Storage Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Holger C. Hesse

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Battery energy storage systems (BESS coupled with rooftop-mounted residential photovoltaic (PV generation, designated as PV-BESS, draw increasing attention and market penetration as more and more such systems become available. The manifold BESS deployed to date rely on a variety of different battery technologies, show a great variation of battery size, and power electronics dimensioning. However, given today’s high investment costs of BESS, a well-matched design and adequate sizing of the storage systems are prerequisites to allow profitability for the end-user. The economic viability of a PV-BESS depends also on the battery operation, storage technology, and aging of the system. In this paper, a general method for comprehensive PV-BESS techno-economic analysis and optimization is presented and applied to the state-of-art PV-BESS to determine its optimal parameters. Using a linear optimization method, a cost-optimal sizing of the battery and power electronics is derived based on solar energy availability and local demand. At the same time, the power flow optimization reveals the best storage operation patterns considering a trade-off between energy purchase, feed-in remuneration, and battery aging. Using up to date technology-specific aging information and the investment cost of battery and inverter systems, three mature battery chemistries are compared; a lead-acid (PbA system and two lithium-ion systems, one with lithium-iron-phosphate (LFP and another with lithium-nickel-manganese-cobalt (NMC cathode. The results show that different storage technology and component sizing provide the best economic performances, depending on the scenario of load demand and PV generation.

  2. An unusual electrical burn caused by alkaline batteries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tyng-Luen Roan

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Electrical burns caused by low-voltage batteries are rarely reported. We recently encountered a male patient who suffered from a superficial second-degree burn over his left elbow and back. The total body surface area of the burn was estimated to be 6%. After interviewing the patient, the cause was suspected to be related to the explosion of a music player on the left-side of his waist, carried on his belt while he was painting a bathroom wall. Elevated creatine kinase levels and hematuria indicated rhabdomyolysis and suggested an electrical burn. Initial treatment was done in the burn intensive care unit with fluid challenge and wound care. The creatine kinase level decreased gradually and the hematuria was gone after 4 days in the intensive care unit. He was then transferred to the general ward for further wound management and discharged from our burn center after a total of 11 days without surgical intervention.

  3. Energy Scheduling of Battery Storage Systems in Micro Grids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Armstorfer Andreas

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Microgrids in island mode with high penetration of renewable energy sources in combination with gensets and battery storage systems need a control system for voltage and frequency. In this study the main goal is maximization of the energy feed-in by renewable sources. Therefore it is necessary to keep the State of Energy for the Battery Storage System in a range that the excess energy can be absorbed and used in a later period of the day. In this paper an approach for State of Charge scheduling based on load and generation prediction is described.

  4. REopt Lite Web Tool Evaluates Photovoltaics and Battery Storage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2018-03-08

    Building on the success of the REopt renewable energy integration and optimization platform, NREL has developed a free, publicly available web version of REopt called REopt Lite. REopt Lite evaluates the economics of grid-connected photovoltaics (PV) and battery storage at a site. It allows building owners to identify the system sizes and battery dispatch strategy that minimize their life cycle cost of energy. This web tool also estimates the amount of time a PV and storage system can sustain the site's critical load during a grid outage.

  5. Stationary battery storage of energy transition a central component

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vetter, Matthias; Lux, Stephan

    2017-01-01

    In a regenerative energy system with strong fluctuations in electricity production, the importance of short-term storage is increasing - on the one hand, in order to optimal need-oriented use of the energy supply, on the other hand, at any time to ensure a high network quality. The present overview of stationary battery storage shows how important it will be especially in the area of larger storage facilities with direct link to regenerative power plants, as a district storage or in the industry. [de

  6. Lessons Learned from the Puerto Rico Battery Energy Storage System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    BOYES, JOHN D.; DE ANA, MINDI FARBER; TORRES, WENCESLANO

    1999-09-01

    The Puerto Rico Electric Power Authority (PREPA) installed a distributed battery energy storage system in 1994 at a substation near San Juan, Puerto Rico. It was patterned after two other large energy storage systems operated by electric utilities in California and Germany. The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Energy Storage Systems Program at Sandia National Laboratories has followed the progress of all stages of the project since its inception. It directly supported the critical battery room cooling system design by conducting laboratory thermal testing of a scale model of the battery under simulated operating conditions. The Puerto Rico facility is at present the largest operating battery storage system in the world and is successfully providing frequency control, voltage regulation, and spinning reserve to the Caribbean island. The system further proved its usefulness to the PREPA network in the fall of 1998 in the aftermath of Hurricane Georges. The owner-operator, PREPA, and the architect/engineer, vendors, and contractors learned many valuable lessons during all phases of project development and operation. In documenting these lessons, this report will help PREPA and other utilities in planning to build large energy storage systems.

  7. Severe Vaginal Burns in a 5-Year-Old Girl Due to an Alkaline Battery in the Vagina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Semaan, Alexander; Klein, Tobias; Vahdad, Mohammad Reza; Boemers, Thomas M; Pohle, Rebecca

    2015-10-01

    The ingestion or insertion of alkaline batteries in the body can cause severe damage to hollow organs. We report here a case of severe vaginal burns in a young patient caused by an alkaline battery. A 5-year-old girl presented to our outpatient department with pelvic pain and vaginal discharge. Further workup suggested the presence of a vaginal foreign body. Under general anesthesia, an alkaline battery was removed from her vagina, which showed severe burns with partial-thickness necrosis. Complete healing was confirmed at 3 months after initial presentation. In this rare case of an alkaline battery present in the vagina of a prepubescent girl, we discuss the available treatment and management options in comparison to similar previously reported cases. Copyright © 2015 North American Society for Pediatric and Adolescent Gynecology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Seeking effective dyes for a mediated glucose-air alkaline battery/fuel cell

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eustis, Ross; Tsang, Tsz Ming; Yang, Brigham; Scott, Daniel; Liaw, Bor Yann

    2014-02-01

    A significant level of power generation from an abiotic, air breathing, mediated reducing sugar-air alkaline battery/fuel cell has been achieved in our laboratories at room temperature without complicated catalysis or membrane separation in the reaction chamber. Our prior studies suggested that mass transport limitation by the mediator is a limiting factor in power generation. New and effective mediators were sought here to improve charge transfer and power density. Forty-five redox dyes were studied to identify if any can facilitate mass transport in alkaline electrolyte solution; namely, by increasing the solubility and mobility of the dye, and the valence charge carried per molecule. Indigo dyes were studied more closely to understand the complexity involved in mass transport. The viability of water-miscible co-solvents was also explored to understand their effect on solubility and mass transport of the dyes. Using a 2.0 mL solution, 20% methanol by volume, with 100 mM indigo carmine, 1.0 M glucose and 2.5 M sodium hydroxide, the glucose-air alkaline battery/fuel cell attained 8 mA cm-2 at short-circuit and 800 μW cm-2 at the maximum power point. This work shall aid future optimization of mediated charge transfer mechanism in batteries or fuel cells.

  9. Use of steam storage batteries at breweries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gavrilenkov, A.M.; Kulakov, V.I.

    1982-01-01

    In the example of the brewing shop, a technique is examined for calculating the main technical-economic characteristics of the heat storage. The main consumers of steam at the breweries with the existing technological plans operate cyclically which results in considerable nonuniform graph for steam consumption. In order to smooth the fluctuations in steam consumption one can successfully use the proposed Roots steam storage, a sealed vessel filled partially with water, with devices for bubbling steam.

  10. Magnesium Borohydride: From Hydrogen Storage to Magnesium Battery

    OpenAIRE

    Mohtadi, Rana; Matsui, Masaki; Arthur, Timothy S.; Hwang, Son-Jong

    2012-01-01

    Beyond hydrogen storage: The first example of reversible magnesium deposition/stripping onto/from an inorganic salt was seen for a magnesium borohydride electrolyte. High coulombic efficiency of up to 94 % was achieved in dimethoxyethane solvent. This Mg(BH_4)_2 electrolyte was utilized in a rechargeable magnesium battery.

  11. Bidirectional converter interface for a battery energy storage test bench

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Trintis, Ionut; Thomas, Stephan; Blank, Tobias

    2011-01-01

    This paper presents the bidirectional converter interface for a 6 kV battery energy storage test bench. The power electronic interface consists a two stage converter topology having a low voltage dc-ac grid connected converter and a new dual active bridge dc-dc converter with high transformation...

  12. Batteries for storage of wind-generated energy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwartz, H. J.

    1973-01-01

    Cost effectiveness characteristics of conventional-, metal gas-, and high energy alkali metal-batteries for wind generated energy storage are considered. A lead-acid battery with a power density of 20 to 30 watt/hours per pound is good for about 1500 charge-discharge cycles at a cost of about $80 per kilowatt hour. A zinc-chlorine battery that stores chlorine as solid chlorine hydrate at temperatures below 10 C eliminates the need to handle gaseous chlorine; its raw material cost are low and inexpensive carbon can be used for the chlorine electrode. This system has the best chance to replace lead-acid. Exotic alkali metal batteries are deemed too costly at the present stage of development.

  13. Influence of Battery/Ultracapacitor Energy-Storage Sizing on Battery Lifetime in a Fuel Cell Hybrid Electric Vehicle

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schaltz, Erik; Rasmussen, Peter Omand; Khaligh, Alireza

    2009-01-01

    Combining high-energy-density batteries and high-power-density ultracapacitors in fuel cell hybrid electric vehicles (FCHEVs) results in a high-performance, highly efficient, low-size, and light system. Often, the battery is rated with respect to its energy requirement to reduce its volume and mass....... This does not prevent deep discharges of the battery, which are critical to the lifetime of the battery. In this paper, the ratings of the battery and ultracapacitors are investigated. Comparisons of the system volume, the system mass, and the lifetime of the battery due to the rating of the energy storage......, the battery, and the ultracapacitors, are proposed. A charging strategy, which charges the energy-storage devices due to the conditions of the FCHEV, is also proposed. The analysis provides recommendations on the design of the battery and the ultracapacitor energy-storage systems for FCHEVs....

  14. Profitability of Residential Battery Energy Storage Combined with Solar Photovoltaics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christoph Goebel

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Lithium-ion (Li-Ion batteries are increasingly being considered as bulk energy storage in grid applications. One such application is residential energy storage combined with solar photovoltaic (PV panels to enable higher self-consumption rates, which has become financially more attractive recently due to decreasing feed-in subsidies. Although residential energy storage solutions are commercially mature, it remains unclear which system configurations and circumstances, including aggregator-based applications such as the provision of ancillary services, lead to profitable consumer investments. Therefore, we conduct an extensive simulation study that is able to jointly capture these aspects. Our results show that, at current battery module prices, even optimal system configurations still do not lead to profitable investments into Li-Ion batteries if they are merely used as a buffer for solar energy. The first settings in which they will become profitable, as prices are further declining, will be larger households at locations with higher average levels of solar irradiance. If the batteries can be remote-controlled by an aggregator to provide overnight negative reserve, their profitability increases significantly.

  15. Bidirectional converter interface for a battery energy storage test bench

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Trintis, Ionut; Thomas, Stephan; Blank, Tobias

    2011-01-01

    This paper presents the bidirectional converter interface for a 6 kV battery energy storage test bench. The power electronic interface consists a two stage converter topology having a low voltage dc-ac grid connected converter and a new dual active bridge dc-dc converter with high transformation...... ratio. The dc-dc converter controls the battery charge/discharge current while the grid converter controls the common dc-link voltage and the grid current. The applied control structures and the hardware implementation of both converters are presented, together with their interaction. Experimental...

  16. A thermophysical battery for storage-based climate control

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Narayanan, Shankar; Kim, Hyunho; Umans, Ari; Yang, Sungwoo; Li, Xiansen; Schiffres, Scott N.; Rao, Sameer R.; McKay, Ian S.; Rios Perez, Carlos A.; Hidrovo, Carlos H.; Wang, Evelyn N.

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • The concept of a thermophysical battery for storing thermal energy is demonstrated. • The battery provides heating and cooling for stationary and mobile applications. • Energy storage mechanisms: adsorption-desorption and evaporation-condensation. • Max. heating: 103 W/l and 65 W/kg; Max. Cooling: 78 W/l and 49 W/kg. • Novel adsorbents further enhance performance for a compact and lightweight system. - Abstract: Climate control applications in the form of heating and cooling account for a significant portion of energy consumption in buildings and transportation. Consequently, improved efficiency of climate control systems can significantly reduce the energy consumption and greenhouse gas emissions. In particular, by leveraging intermittent or continuous sources of waste heat and solar energy, thermally-driven energy storage systems for climate control can play a crucial role. We demonstrate the concept of a thermophysical battery, which operates by storing thermal energy and subsequently releasing it to provide heating and cooling on demand. Taking advantage of the adsorption-desorption and evaporation-condensation mechanisms, the thermophysical battery can be a high-power density and rechargeable energy storage system. We investigated the thermophysical battery in detail to identify critical parameters governing its overall performance. A detailed computational analysis was used to predict its cyclic performance when exposed to different operating conditions and thermodynamic cycles. In addition, an experimental test bed was constructed using a contemporary adsorptive material, NaX-zeolite, to demonstrate this concept and deliver average heating and cooling powers of 900 W and 650 W, respectively. The maximum power densities and specific powers observed were 103 W/l and 65 W/kg for heating, and 78 W/l and 49 W/kg for cooling, respectively, making the thermophysical battery competitive with the state-of-the-art climate control systems that

  17. Optimal bidding strategy of battery storage in power markets considering performance based regulation and battery cycle life

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    He, Guannan; Chen, Qixin; Kang, Chongqing

    2016-01-01

    Large-scale battery storage will become an essential part of the future smart grid. This paper investigates the optimal bidding strategy for battery storage in power markets. Battery storage could increase its profitability by providing fast regulation service under a performance-based regulation...... mechanism, which better exploits a battery’s fast ramping capability. However, battery life might be decreased by frequent charge–discharge cycling, especially when providing fast regulation service. It is profitable for battery storage to extend its service life by limiting its operational strategy to some...... degree. Thus, we incorporate a battery cycle life model into a profit maximization model to determine the optimal bids in day-ahead energy, spinning reserve, and regulation markets. Then a decomposed online calculation method to compute cycle life under different operational strategies is proposed...

  18. Second Use of PEV Batteries: A Massive Storage Resource for Revolutionizing the Grid

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Neubauer, Jeremy; Pesaran, Ahmad; Wood, Eric; Smith, Kandler

    2015-05-27

    The market penetration of plug-in electric vehicles (PEVs) and deployment of grid-connected energy storage systems are both presently impeded by the high cost of batteries. Battery second use (B2U) strategies-in which a single battery first serves an automotive application, then is redeployed into a secondary market-could help address both issues by reducing battery costs to the primary repurposed PEV batteries to serve grid applications for energy storage. The authors view this as of significant importance, as our expectation is that such batteries will be both cheap and plentiful. Understanding the dynamics of B2U will be important for customers and utilities in need of storage to understand when and where such batteries will be applicable. It will also be important for suppliers of other energy storage technologies, as repurposed PEV batteries could pose a significant threat to their business model.

  19. Advanced Redox Flow Batteries for Stationary Electrical Energy Storage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Liyu; Kim, Soowhan; Xia, Guanguang; Wang, Wei; Yang, Zhenguo

    2012-03-19

    This report describes the status of the advanced redox flow battery research being performed at Pacific Northwest National Laboratories for the U.S. Department of Energy’s Energy Storage Systems Program. The Quarter 1 of FY2012 Milestone was completed on time. The milestone entails completion of evaluation and optimization of single cell components for the two advanced redox flow battery electrolyte chemistries recently developed at the lab, the all vanadium (V) mixed acid and V-Fe mixed acid solutions. All the single cell components to be used in future kW-scale stacks have been identified and optimized in this quarter, which include solution electrolyte, membrane or separator; carbon felt electrode and bi-polar plate. Varied electrochemical, chemical and physical evaluations were carried out to assist the component screening and optimization. The mechanisms of the battery capacity fading behavior for the all vanadium redox flow and the Fe/V battery were discovered, which allowed us to optimize the related cell operation parameters and continuously operate the system for more than three months without any capacity decay.

  20. Metabolic effect of alkaline additives and guanosine/gluconate in storage solutions for red blood cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Alessandro, Angelo; Reisz, Julie A; Culp-Hill, Rachel; Korsten, Herbert; van Bruggen, Robin; de Korte, Dirk

    2018-04-06

    Over a century of advancements in the field of additive solutions for red blood cell (RBC) storage has made transfusion therapy a safe and effective practice for millions of recipients worldwide. Still, storage in the blood bank results in the progressive accumulation of metabolic alterations, a phenomenon that is mitigated by storage in novel storage additives, such as alkaline additive solutions. While novel alkaline additive formulations have been proposed, no metabolomics characterization has been performed to date. We performed UHPLC-MS metabolomics analyses of red blood cells stored in SAGM (standard additive in Europe), (PAGGSM), or alkaline additives SOLX, E-SOL 5 and PAG3M for either 1, 21, 35 (end of shelf-life in the Netherlands), or 56 days. Alkaline additives (especially PAG3M) better preserved 2,3-diphosphoglycerate and adenosine triphosphate (ATP). Deaminated purines such as hypoxanthine were predictive of hemolysis and morphological alterations. Guanosine supplementation in PAGGSM and PAG3M fueled ATP generation by feeding into the nonoxidative pentose phosphate pathway via phosphoribolysis. Decreased urate to hypoxanthine ratios were observed in alkaline additives, suggestive of decreased generation of urate and hydrogen peroxide. Despite the many benefits observed in purine and redox metabolism, alkaline additives did not prevent accumulation of free fatty acids and oxidized byproducts, opening a window for future alkaline formulations including (lipophilic) antioxidants. Alkalinization via different strategies (replacement of chloride anions with either high bicarbonate, high citrate/phosphate, or membrane impermeant gluconate) results in different metabolic outcomes, which are superior to current canonical additives in all cases. © 2018 AABB.

  1. Profit by storage value analysis of battery energy storage applications; Profit durch Speicherung. Analyse zur Wirtschaftlichkeit von Batteriespeicher-Anwendungen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oudalov, A.; Chartouni, D.; Ohler, C.; Buehler, T.; Linhofer, G. [ABB-Forschungszentrum (Switzerland)

    2006-07-01

    Energy storage systems based on batteries can be employed profitably in power systems under specific circumstances. In the following manuscript three potential applications are analysed. It is shown that a battery energy storage system used as a primary reserve is the economically most viable application. (orig.)

  2. Economic Analysis Case Studies of Battery Energy Storage with SAM

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    DiOrio, Nicholas [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Dobos, Aron [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Janzou, Steven [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2015-11-01

    Interest in energy storage has continued to increase as states like California have introduced mandates and subsidies to spur adoption. This energy storage includes customer sited behind-the-meter storage coupled with photovoltaics (PV). This paper presents case study results from California and Tennessee, which were performed to assess the economic benefit of customer-installed systems. Different dispatch strategies, including manual scheduling and automated peak-shaving were explored to determine ideal ways to use the storage system to increase the system value and mitigate demand charges. Incentives, complex electric tariffs, and site specific load and PV data were used to perform detailed analysis. The analysis was performed using the free, publically available System Advisor Model (SAM) tool. We find that installation of photovoltaics with a lithium-ion battery system priced at $300/kWh in Los Angeles under a high demand charge utility rate structure and dispatched using perfect day-ahead forecasting yields a positive net-present value, while all other scenarios cost the customer more than the savings accrued. Different dispatch strategies, including manual scheduling and automated peak-shaving were explored to determine ideal ways to use the storage system to increase the system value and mitigate demand charges. Incentives, complex electric tariffs, and site specific load and PV data were used to perform detailed analysis. The analysis was performed using the free, publically available System Advisor Model (SAM) tool. We find that installation of photovoltaics with a lithium-ion battery system priced at $300/kWh in Los Angeles under a high demand charge utility rate structure and dispatched using perfect day-ahead forecasting yields a positive net-present value, while all other scenarios cost the customer more than the savings accrued.

  3. Selective leaching of Zn from spent alkaline batteries using environmentally friendly approaches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maryam Sadeghi, S; Vanpeteghem, Guillaumme; Neto, Isabel F F; Soares, Helena M V M

    2017-02-01

    The main aim of this work was to evaluate the possibility of using microwave or ultrasound to assist the efficient and selective leaching of Zn from spent alkaline batteries and compare the results with those obtained using the conventional method. Two different strategies were applied: acid leaching of a washed residue and alkaline leaching of the original residue. In both (acid and alkaline) approaches, the use of microwave- or ultrasound-assisted leaching increased the extraction of Zn compared with the best results obtained using conventional leaching [acid leaching (1.5mol/L H 2 SO 4 , 3h, 80°C), 90% of Zn extracted; alkaline leaching (6mol/L NaOH, 3h, 80°C), 42% of Zn extracted]. With acid leaching, 94% of the Zn was extracted using microwave-assisted leaching (1 cycle, 30s, 1mol/L H 2 SO 4 ), and 92% of the Zn was extracted using ultrasound-assisted leaching (2min, 0.1p, 20% amplitude, 1mol/L H 2 SO 4 ). Ultrasound-assisted leaching resulted in a more selective (Zn/Mn ratio of 5.1) Zn extraction than microwave-assisted leaching (Zn/Mn ratio of 3.5); both processes generated a concentrated Zn solution (⩾18.7g/L) with a purity (83.3% and 77.7%, respectively) that was suitable for electrowinning. With alkaline leaching, microwave- (1 cycle, 3 min, 4mol/L NaOH) and ultrasound-assisted (14min, 0.1p, 20% amplitude, 4mol/L NaOH) leaching extracted about 80% of the Zn and less than 0.01% of the Mn, which resulted in lesser concentrated Zn solutions (approximately 16.5g/L) but with high purity (>99.5%) that was suitable for the recovery of Zn by precipitation. The microwave- and ultrasound-assisted leaching strategies used in this work proved to be efficient and environmentally-friendly approaches for the extraction of Zn from spent alkaline residues since a concentrated Zn solution with adequate purity for subsequent Zn recovery was obtained using significantly decreased leaching times and concentrations of chemicals. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights

  4. Electrodeposition of preferentially oriented zinc for flow-assisted alkaline batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Desai, Divyaraj; Wei, Xia; Steingart, Daniel A.; Banerjee, Sanjoy

    2014-06-01

    Preferred orientation of zinc deposits during charging is shown to significantly improve performance and cycle life in flow-assisted alkaline zinc batteries, which has not been demonstrated earlier. The preferred orientation of zinc deposits was investigated using X-ray diffraction (XRD). Compact zinc is found to have (11 2 bar 2) preferred orientation on brass, which contributes to ∼60% of the texture. The effect of charging current and zincate concentration on morphology was investigated in a rotating hull cell and correlated with anodic efficiency. Compact zinc deposits are found to have a fine-grained, bright finish and the highest anodic efficiency. Electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) proves that compact zinc corresponds to the minimum in the half-cell resistance. Morphological control using compact zinc could be accomplished using innovations such as pulse charging or enhanced mass-transfer to improve anode performance without affecting the cathode.

  5. New Class of Flow Batteries for Terrestrial and Aerospace Energy Storage Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bugga, Ratnakumar V.; West, William C.; Kindler, Andrew; Smart, Marshall C.

    2013-01-01

    Future sustainable energy generation technologies such as photovoltaic and wind farms require advanced energy storage systems on a massive scale to make the alternate (green) energy options practical. The daunting requirements of such large-scale energy systems such as long operating and cycle life, safety, and low cost are not adequately met by state-of-the-art energy storage technologies such as vanadium flow cells, lead-acid, and zinc-bromine batteries. Much attention is being paid to redox batteries specifically to the vanadium redox battery (VRB) due to their simplicity, low cost, and good life characteristics compared to other related battery technologies. NASA is currently seeking high-specific- energy and long-cycle-life rechargeable batteries in the 10-to-100-kW range to support future human exploration missions, such as planetary habitats, human rovers, etc. The flow batteries described above are excellent candidates for these applications, as well as other applications that propose to use regenerative fuel cells. A new flow cell technology is proposed based on coupling two novel electrodes in the form of solvated electron systems (SES) between an alkali (or alkaline earth) metal and poly aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH), separated by an ionically conducting separator. The cell reaction involves the formation of such SES with a PAH of high voltage in the cathode, while the alkali (or alkaline earth metal) is reduced from such an MPAH complex in the anode half-cell. During recharge, the reactions are reversed in both electrodes. In other words, the alkali (alkaline earth) metal ion simply shuttles from one M-PAH complex (SES) to another, which are separated by a metal-ion conducting solid or polymer electrolyte separator. As an example, the concept was demonstrated with Li-naphthalene//Li DDQ (DDQ is 2,3-Dichloro-5,6-dicyano- 1,4-benzoquinone) separated by lithium super ion conductor, either ceramic or polymer (solid polymer or gel polymer) electrolytes. The

  6. Joint optimisation of arbitrage profits and battery life degradation for grid storage application of battery electric vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kies, Alexander

    2018-02-01

    To meet European decarbonisation targets by 2050, the electrification of the transport sector is mandatory. Most electric vehicles rely on lithium-ion batteries, because they have a higher energy/power density and longer life span compared to other practical batteries such as zinc-carbon batteries. Electric vehicles can thus provide energy storage to support the system integration of generation from highly variable renewable sources, such as wind and photovoltaics (PV). However, charging/discharging causes batteries to degradate progressively with reduced capacity. In this study, we investigate the impact of the joint optimisation of arbitrage revenue and battery degradation of electric vehicle batteries in a simplified setting, where historical prices allow for market participation of battery electric vehicle owners. It is shown that the joint optimisation of both leads to stronger gains then the sum of both optimisation strategies and that including battery degradation into the model avoids state of charges close to the maximum at times. It can be concluded that degradation is an important aspect to consider in power system models, which incorporate any kind of lithium-ion battery storage.

  7. Optimizing MEMS-Based Storage Devices for Mobile Battery-Powered Systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Khatib, M.G.; Hartel, Pieter H.

    An emerging storage technology, called MEMS-based storage, promises nonvolatile storage devices with ultrahigh density, high rigidity, a small form factor, and low cost. For these reasons, MEMS-based storage devices are suitable for battery-powered mobile systems such as PDAs. For deployment in such

  8. Dry cell battery poisoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Batteries - dry cell ... Acidic dry cell batteries contain: Manganese dioxide Ammonium chloride Alkaline dry cell batteries contain: Sodium hydroxide Potassium hydroxide Lithium dioxide dry cell batteries ...

  9. Lithium-Ion Battery Storage for the Grid—A Review of Stationary Battery Storage System Design Tailored for Applications in Modern Power Grids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Holger C. Hesse

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Battery energy storage systems have gained increasing interest for serving grid support in various application tasks. In particular, systems based on lithium-ion batteries have evolved rapidly with a wide range of cell technologies and system architectures available on the market. On the application side, different tasks for storage deployment demand distinct properties of the storage system. This review aims to serve as a guideline for best choice of battery technology, system design and operation for lithium-ion based storage systems to match a specific system application. Starting with an overview to lithium-ion battery technologies and their characteristics with respect to performance and aging, the storage system design is analyzed in detail based on an evaluation of real-world projects. Typical storage system applications are grouped and classified with respect to the challenges posed to the battery system. Publicly available modeling tools for technical and economic analysis are presented. A brief analysis of optimization approaches aims to point out challenges and potential solution techniques for system sizing, positioning and dispatch operation. For all areas reviewed herein, expected improvements and possible future developments are highlighted. In order to extract the full potential of stationary battery storage systems and to enable increased profitability of systems, future research should aim to a holistic system level approach combining not only performance tuning on a battery cell level and careful analysis of the application requirements, but also consider a proper selection of storage sub-components as well as an optimized system operation strategy.

  10. 78 FR 15753 - Maintenance, Testing, and Replacement of Vented Lead-Acid Storage Batteries for Nuclear Power Plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-12

    ...-Acid Storage Batteries for Nuclear Power Plants AGENCY: Nuclear Regulatory Commission. ACTION: Draft...-Acid Storage Batteries for Nuclear Power Plants.'' The draft guide describes methods that the NRC staff..., testing, and replacement of vented lead-acid storage batteries in nuclear power plants. DATES: Submit...

  11. Performance characterization of sintered iron electrodes in nickel/iron alkaline batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Periasamy, P.; Ramesh Babu, B.; Venkatakrishna Iyer, S.

    A nickel/iron storage battery with a porous, sintered, iron negative electrode and a nickel positive electrode is a high power system by virtue of its low internal resistance. A dry-powder sintering procedure is used to fabricate negative and positive electrodes. Negative iron electrodes are activated with various salt solutions such as CdSO 4, BaCl 2, HgCl 2 and sulfur. Positive electrodes are impregnated with nickel hydroxide by a chemical method. Tests are performed in 10 Ah capacity nickel/iron cells and two types of activated iron electrodes are used. The present work deals with electrode fabrication, charge/discharge studies, self-discharge, temperature performance and cycle life. Finally, the best iron electrodes are coupled with nickel electrodes to obtain a 1.37 V, 75 Ah nickel/iron cell. The performance of this cell is discussed.

  12. Second life battery energy storage system for residential demand response service

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Saez-de-Ibarra, Andoni; Martinez-Laserna, Egoitz; Koch-Ciobotaru, Cosmin

    2015-01-01

    The integration of renewable energies and the usage of battery energy storage systems (BESS) into the residential buildings opens the possibility for minimizing the electricity bill for the end-user. This paper proposes the use of batteries that have already been aged while powering electric...... vehicles, during their main first life application, for providing residential demand response service. The paper considers the decayed characteristics of these batteries and optimizes the rating of such a second life battery energy storage system (SLBESS) for maximizing the economic benefits of the user...

  13. Investigation of the Dissolution Behaviors in Different Solvents of the Zinc and Manganese Powders Obtained from the Spent Alkaline Batteries

    OpenAIRE

    TURHAN ÖZDEMİR, Gülistan Deniz; DEMİRKIRAN, Nizamettin

    2017-01-01

    In this study, after the zinc and manganese powders were individually obtained from the spent alkaline batteries, their dissolution behaviors in different solvents were examined to determine the appropriate leaching reagent for each species. The aqueous solutions of the sodium hydroxide, ammonia, ammonium chloride, ammonium acetate, acetic acid, sulfuric acid, and hydrochloric acid were used as the leaching reagents with the aim of dissolving the zinc and manganese powders. In the dissolution...

  14. Suggested Operation Grid-Connected Lithium-Ion Battery Energy Storage System for Primary Frequency Regulation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stroe, Daniel Ioan; Knap, Vaclav; Swierczynski, Maciej Jozef

    2015-01-01

    there are worldwide demonstration projects where energy storage systems based on Lithium-ion batteries are evaluated for such applications, the field experience is still very limited. In consequence, at present there are no very clear requirements on how the Lithium-ion battery energy storage systems should...... be operated while providing frequency regulation service and how the system has to re-establish its SOC once the frequency event has passed. Therefore, this paper aims to investigate the effect on the lifetime of the Lithium-ion batteries energy storage system of various strategies for re...

  15. Operation of Grid -Connected Lithium-Ion Battery Energy Storage System for Primary Frequency Regulation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stroe, Daniel Loan; Knap, Vaclav; Swierczynski, Maciej Jozef

    2017-01-01

    there are worldwide demonstration projects where energy storage systems based on Lithium-ion batteries are evaluated for such applications, the field experience is still very limited. In consequence, at present there are no very clear requirements on how the Lithium-ion battery energy storage systems should...... be operated while providing frequency regulation service and how the system has to re-establish its SOC once the frequency event has passed. Therefore, this paper aims to investigate the effect on the lifetime of the Lithium-ion batteries energy storage system of various strategies for re...

  16. Flexible Grouping for Enhanced Energy Utilization Efficiency in Battery Energy Storage Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Weiping Diao

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available As a critical subsystem in electric vehicles and smart grids, a battery energy storage system plays an essential role in enhancement of reliable operation and system performance. In such applications, a battery energy storage system is required to provide high energy utilization efficiency, as well as reliability. However, capacity inconsistency of batteries affects energy utilization efficiency dramatically; and the situation becomes more severe after hundreds of cycles because battery capacities change randomly due to non-uniform aging. Capacity mismatch can be solved by decomposing a cluster of batteries in series into several low voltage battery packs. This paper introduces a new analysis method to optimize energy utilization efficiency by finding the best number of batteries in a pack, based on capacity distribution, order statistics, central limit theorem, and converter efficiency. Considering both battery energy utilization and power electronics efficiency, it establishes that there is a maximum energy utilization efficiency under a given capacity distribution among a certain number of batteries, which provides a basic analysis for system-level optimization of a battery system throughout its life cycle. Quantitative analysis results based on aging data are illustrated, and a prototype of flexible energy storage systems is built to verify this analysis.

  17. The effect of crystal orientation on the aluminum anodes of the aluminum-air batteries in alkaline electrolytes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Liang; Lu, Huimin; Leng, Jing; Sun, Zegao; Chen, Chunbo

    2015-12-01

    Recently, aluminum-air (Al-air) batteries have received attention from researchers as an exciting option for safe and efficient batteries. The electrochemical performance of Aluminum anode remains an active area of investigation. In this paper, the electrochemical properties of polycrystalline Al, Al (001), (110) and (111) single crystals are investigated using potentiodynamic polarization and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) in 4 M NaOH and KOH. Hydrogen corrosion rates of the Al anodes are determined by hydrogen collection. Battery performance using the anodes is tested by constant current discharge at 10 mA cm-2. This is the first report showing that the electrochemical properties of Al are closely related to the crystallographic orientation in alkaline electrolytes. The (001) crystallographic plane has good corrosion resistance but (110) is more sensitive. Al (001) single crystals display higher anode efficiency and capacity density. Controlling the crystallographic orientation of the Al anode is another way to improve the performance of Al-air batteries in alkaline electrolytes.

  18. Second life battery energy storage system for enhancing renewable energy grid integration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Koch-Ciobotaru, C.; Saez-de-Ibarra, A.; Martinez-Laserna, E.

    2015-01-01

    must be explored especially that large battery energy storage systems are still expensive solutions. Thus, in order to make battery investment economic viable, the use of second life batteries is investigated in the present work. This paper proposes a method for determining firstly, the optimal rating......Connecting renewable power plants to the grid must comply with certain codes and requirements. One requirement is the ramp rate constraint, which must be fulfilled in order to avoid penalties. As this service becomes compulsory with an increased grid penetration of renewable, all possible solutions...... of a second life battery energy storage system (SLBESS) and secondly, to obtain the power exchange and battery state of charge profiles during the operation. These will constitute the cycling patterns for testing batteries and studying the ageing effect of this specific application. Real data from the Spanish...

  19. Nickel-hydrogen battery design for the Transporter Energy Storage Subsystem (TESS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lapinski, John R.; Bourland, Deborah S.

    1992-01-01

    Information is given in viewgraph form on nickel hydrogen battery design for the transporter energy storage subsystem (TESS). Information is given on use in the Space Station Freedom, the launch configuration, use in the Mobile Servicing Center, battery design requirements, TESS subassembley design, proof of principle testing of a 6-cell battery, possible downsizing of TESS to support the Mobile Rocket Servicer Base System (MBS) redesign, TESS output capacity, and cell testing.

  20. Balancing autonomy and utilization of solar power and battery storage for demand based microgrids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawder, Matthew T.; Viswanathan, Vilayanur; Subramanian, Venkat R.

    2015-04-01

    The growth of intermittent solar power has developed a need for energy storage systems in order to decouple generation and supply of energy. Microgrid (MG) systems comprising of solar arrays with battery energy storage studied in this paper desire high levels of autonomy, seeking to meet desired demand at all times. Large energy storage capacity is required for high levels of autonomy, but much of this expensive capacity goes unused for a majority of the year due to seasonal fluctuations of solar generation. In this paper, a model-based study of MGs comprised of solar generation and battery storage shows the relationship between system autonomy and battery utilization applied to multiple demand cases using a single particle battery model (SPM). The SPM allows for more accurate state-of-charge and utilization estimation of the battery than previous studies of renewably powered systems that have used empirical models. The increased accuracy of battery state estimation produces a better assessment of system performance. Battery utilization will depend on the amount of variation in solar insolation as well as the type of demand required by the MG. Consumers must balance autonomy and desired battery utilization of a system within the needs of their grid.

  1. Life-cycle energy analyses of electric vehicle storage batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sullivan, D.; Morse, T.; Patel, P.; Patel, S.; Bondar, J.; Taylor, L.

    1980-12-01

    Nickel-zinc, lead-acid, nickel-iron, zinc-chlorine, sodium-sulfur (glass electrolyte), sodium-sulfur (ceramic electrolyte), lithium-metal sulfide, and aluminum-air batteries were studied in order to evaluate the energy used to produce the raw materials and to manufacture the battery, the energy consumed by the battery during its operational life, and the energy that could be saved from the recycling of battery materials into new raw materials. The value of the life cycle analysis approach is that it includes the various penalties and credits associated with battery production and recycling, which enables a more accurate determination of the system's ability to reduce the consumption of scarce fuels. Battery component materials, the energy requirements for battery production, and credits for recycling are described. The operational energy for an electric vehicle and the procedures used to determine it are discussed.

  2. Storage of a lithium-ion secondary battery under micro-gravity conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sone, Yoshitsugu; Ooto, Hiroki; Yamamoto, Masahiro; Eguro, Takashi; Sakai, Shigeru; Yoshida, Teiji; Takahashi, Keiji; Uno, Masatoshi; Hirose, Kazuyuki; Tajima, Michio; Kawaguchi, Jun'ichiro

    'HAYABUSA' is a Japanese inter-planetary spacecraft built for the exploration of an asteroid named 'ITOKAWA.' The spacecraft is powered by a 13.2 Ah lithium-ion secondary battery. To realize maximum performance of the battery for long flight operation, the state-of-charge (SOC) of the battery was maintained at ca. 65% during storage, in case it is required for a loss of attitude control. The capacity of the battery was measured during flight operations. Along with the operation in orbit, a ground-test battery was discharged, and both results showed a good agreement. This result confirmed that the performance of the lithium-ion secondary battery stored under micro-gravity conditions is predictable using a ground-test battery.

  3. Investigation of Battery/Ultracapacitor Energy Storage Rating for a Fuel Cell Hybrid Electric Vehicle

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schaltz, Erik; Khaligh, A.; Rasmussen, Peter Omand

    2008-01-01

    Combining high energy density batteries and high power density ultracapacitors in Fuel Cell Hybrid Electric Vehicles (FCHEV) results in a high efficient, high performance, low size, and light system. Often the batteries are rated with respect to their energy requirement in order to reduce...... their volume and mass. This does not prevent deep discharges of the batteries, which is critical to their lifetime. In this paper, the ratings of the batteries and ultracapacitors in a FCHEV are investigated. Comparison of system volume, mass, efficiency, and battery lifetime due to the rating of the energy...... storage devices are presented. It is concluded, that by sufficient rating of the battery or ultracapacitors, an appropriate balance between system volume, mass, efficiency, and battery lifetime is achievable....

  4. Ecological and biomedical effects of effluents from near-term electric vehicle storage battery cycles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1980-05-01

    An assessment of the ecological and biomedical effects due to commercialization of storage batteries for electric and hybrid vehicles is given. It deals only with the near-term batteries, namely Pb/acid, Ni/Zn, and Ni/Fe, but the complete battery cycle is considered, i.e., mining and milling of raw materials, manufacture of the batteries, cases and covers; use of the batteries in electric vehicles, including the charge-discharge cycles; recycling of spent batteries; and disposal of nonrecyclable components. The gaseous, liquid, and solid emissions from various phases of the battery cycle are identified. The effluent dispersal in the environment is modeled and ecological effects are assessed in terms of biogeochemical cycles. The metabolic and toxic responses by humans and laboratory animals to constituents of the effluents are discussed. Pertinent environmental and health regulations related to the battery industry are summarized and regulatory implications for large-scale storage battery commercialization are discussed. Each of the seven sections were abstracted and indexed individually for EDB/ERA. Additional information is presented in the seven appendixes entitled; growth rate scenario for lead/acid battery development; changes in battery composition during discharge; dispersion of stack and fugitive emissions from battery-related operations; methodology for estimating population exposure to total suspended particulates and SO/sub 2/ resulting from central power station emissions for the daily battery charging demand of 10,000 electric vehicles; determination of As air emissions from Zn smelting; health effects: research related to EV battery technologies. (JGB)

  5. Recovery of manganese oxides from spent alkaline and zinc-carbon batteries. An application as catalysts for VOCs elimination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallegos, María V; Falco, Lorena R; Peluso, Miguel A; Sambeth, Jorge E; Thomas, Horacio J

    2013-06-01

    Manganese, in the form of oxide, was recovered from spent alkaline and zinc-carbon batteries employing a biohydrometallurgy process, using a pilot plant consisting in: an air-lift bioreactor (containing an acid-reducing medium produced by an Acidithiobacillus thiooxidans bacteria immobilized on elemental sulfur); a leaching reactor (were battery powder is mixed with the acid-reducing medium) and a recovery reactor. Two different manganese oxides were recovered from the leachate liquor: one of them by electrolysis (EMO) and the other by a chemical precipitation with KMnO4 solution (CMO). The non-leached solid residue was also studied (RMO). The solids were compared with a MnOx synthesized in our laboratory. The characterization by XRD, FTIR and XPS reveal the presence of Mn2O3 in the EMO and the CMO samples, together with some Mn(4+) cations. In the solid not extracted by acidic leaching (RMO) the main phase detected was Mn3O4. The catalytic performance of the oxides was studied in the complete oxidation of ethanol and heptane. Complete conversion of ethanol occurs at 200°C, while heptane requires more than 400°C. The CMO has the highest oxide selectivity to CO2. The results show that manganese oxides obtained using spent alkaline and zinc-carbon batteries as raw materials, have an interesting performance as catalysts for elimination of VOCs. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. The joint center for energy storage research: A new paradigm for battery research and development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Crabtree, George

    2015-01-01

    The Joint Center for Energy Storage Research (JCESR) seeks transformational change in transportation and the electricity grid driven by next generation high performance, low cost electricity storage. To pursue this transformative vision JCESR introduces a new paradigm for battery research: integrating discovery science, battery design, research prototyping and manufacturing collaboration in a single highly interactive organization. This new paradigm will accelerate the pace of discovery and innovation and reduce the time from conceptualization to commercialization. JCESR applies its new paradigm exclusively to beyond-lithium-ion batteries, a vast, rich and largely unexplored frontier. This review presents JCESR's motivation, vision, mission, intended outcomes or legacies and first year accomplishments

  7. Energy storage and the environment: the role of battery technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruetschi, Paul

    Batteries can store energy in a clean, convenient and efficient manner. Battery-powered electric vehicles are expected to contribute to a cleaner environment. In today's world, batteries are used everywhere: in electronic watches, pocket calculators, flashlights, toys, radios, tape recorders, cameras, camcorders, laptop computers, cordless telephones, paging devices, hearing aids, heart pacers, instruments, detectors, sensors, memory back-up devices, drug dispensing, wireless tools, toothbrushes, razors, stationary emergency power equipment, automobile starters, electric vehicles, boats, submarines, airplanes and satellites. Worldwide, about 15 billion primary batteries, and well over 200 million starter batteries are produced per year. What is the impact of this widespread use of batteries on the environment? What role can battery technology play in order to reduce undue effects on the environment? Since this paper is presented at a lead/acid battery conference, the discussion refers, in particular, to this system. The following aspects are covered: (i) the three "E" criteria that are applicable to batteries: Energy, Economics, Environment; (ii) service life and environment; (iii) judicious use and service life; (iv) recycling.

  8. Fundamentals of Using Battery Energy Storage Systems to Provide Primary Control Reserves in Germany

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander Zeh

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The application of stationary battery storage systems to German electrical grids can help with various storage services. This application requires controlling the charge and discharge power of such a system. For example, photovoltaic (PV home storage, uninterruptible power supply, and storage systems for providing ancillary services such as primary control reserves (PCRs represent battery applications with positive profitability. Because PCRs are essential for stabilizing grid frequency and maintaining a robust electrical grid, German transmission system operators (TSOs released strict regulations in August 2015 for providing PCRs with battery storage systems as part of regulating the International Grid Control Cooperation (IGCC region in Europe. These regulations focused on the permissible state of charge (SoC of the battery during nominal and extreme conditions. The concomitant increased capacity demand oversizing may result in a significant profitability reduction, which can be attenuated only by using an optimal parameterization of the control algorithm for energy management of the storage systems. In this paper, the sizing optimization is achieved and a recommendation for a control algorithm that includes the appropriate parameters for the requirements in the German market is given. Furthermore, the storage cost is estimated, including battery aging simulations for different aging parameter sets to allow for a realistic profitability calculation.

  9. Influence of Li-ion Battery Models in the Sizing of Hybrid Storage Systems with Supercapacitors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pinto, Claudio; Barreras, Jorge Varela; de Castro, Ricardo

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents a comparative study of the influence of different aggregated electrical circuit battery models in the sizing process of a hybrid energy storage system (ESS), composed by Li-ion batteries and supercapacitors (SCs). The aim is to find the number of cells required to propel......-order dynamics of the battery. Simulation results demonstrate that the adoption of a more accurate battery model in the sizing of hybrid ESSs prevents over-sizing, leading to a reduction in the number of cells of up to 29%, and a cost decrease of up to 10%....

  10. Battery Storage Technologies for Electrical Applications: Impact in Stand-Alone Photovoltaic Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Akinyele

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Batteries are promising storage technologies for stationary applications because of their maturity, and the ease with which they are designed and installed compared to other technologies. However, they pose threats to the environment and human health. Several studies have discussed the various battery technologies and applications, but evaluating the environmental impact of batteries in electrical systems remains a gap that requires concerted research efforts. This study first presents an overview of batteries and compares their technical properties such as the cycle life, power and energy densities, efficiencies and the costs. It proposes an optimal battery technology sizing and selection strategy, and then assesses the environmental impact of batteries in a typical renewable energy application by using a stand-alone photovoltaic (PV system as a case study. The greenhouse gas (GHG impact of the batteries is evaluated based on the life cycle emission rate parameter. Results reveal that the battery has a significant impact in the energy system, with a GHG impact of about 36–68% in a 1.5 kW PV system for different locations. The paper discusses new batteries, strategies to minimize battery impact and provides insights into the selection of batteries with improved cycling capacity, higher lifespan and lower cost that can achieve lower environmental impacts for future applications.

  11. A novel iron-lead redox flow battery for large-scale energy storage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeng, Y. K.; Zhao, T. S.; Zhou, X. L.; Wei, L.; Ren, Y. X.

    2017-04-01

    The redox flow battery (RFB) is one of the most promising large-scale energy storage technologies for the massive utilization of intermittent renewables especially wind and solar energy. This work presents a novel redox flow battery that utilizes inexpensive and abundant Fe(II)/Fe(III) and Pb/Pb(II) redox couples as redox materials. Experimental results show that both the Fe(II)/Fe(III) and Pb/Pb(II) redox couples have fast electrochemical kinetics in methanesulfonic acid, and that the coulombic efficiency and energy efficiency of the battery are, respectively, as high as 96.2% and 86.2% at 40 mA cm-2. Furthermore, the battery exhibits stable performance in terms of efficiencies and discharge capacities during the cycle test. The inexpensive redox materials, fast electrochemical kinetics and stable cycle performance make the present battery a promising candidate for large-scale energy storage applications.

  12. Mission and status of the US Department of Energy's battery energy storage program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quinn, J. E.; Hurwitch, J. W.; Landgrebe, A. R.; Hauser, S. G.

    1985-05-01

    The mission of the US Department of Energy's battery research program has evolved to reflect the changing conditions of the world energy economy and the national energy policy. The battery energy storage program supports the goals of the National Energy Policy Plan (FY 1984). The goals are to provide an adequate supply of energy at reasonable costs, minimize federal control and involvement in the energy marketplace, promote a balanced and mixed energy resource system, and facilitate technology transfer from the public to the private sector. This paper describes the history of the battery energy storage program and its relevance to the national interest. Potential market applications for battery energy storage are reviewed, and each technology, its goals, and its current technical status are described. The paper concludes by describing the strategy developed to ensure effective technology transfer to the private sector and reviewing past significant accomplishments.

  13. Effects of variability and rate on battery charge storage and lifespan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krieger, Elena Marie

    The growing prevalence of hybrid and electric vehicles, intermittent renewable energy sources, and other complex power systems has triggered a rapid increase in demand for energy storage. Unlike portable electronic devices, whose batteries can be recharged according to a pre-determined protocol simply by plugging them into the wall, many of these applications are characterized by highly variable charge and demand profiles. The central objective of this work is to assess the impact of power distribution and frequency on battery behavior in order to improve overall system efficiency and lifespan in these variable power applications. We first develop and experimentally verify a model to describe the trade-off between battery charging power and energy stored to assess how varying power input affects battery efficiency. This relationship is influenced both by efficiency losses at high powers and by premature voltage cutoffs, which contribute to incomplete battery charging and discharging. We experimentally study the impact of variable power on battery aging in lead-acid, nickel metal hydride, lithium-ion and lithium iron phosphate batteries. As a case study we focus on off-grid wind systems, and analyze the impact of both power distribution and frequency on charge acceptance and degradation in each of these chemistries. We suggest that lithium iron phosphate batteries may be more suitable for off-grid electrification projects than standard lead-acid batteries. We experimentally assess the impact of additional variable charging parameters on battery performance, including the interplay between efficiency, frequency of power oscillations, state-of-charge, incomplete charging and path dependence. We develop a frequency-domain model for hybrid energy storage systems that couples non-stationary frequency analysis of variable power signals to a frequency-based metric for energy storage device performance. The experimental and modeling work developed herein can be utilized to

  14. Optimal Sizing of a Lithium Battery Energy Storage System for Grid-Connected Photovoltaic Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dulout, Jeremy; Jammes, Bruno; Alonso, Corinne

    2017-01-01

    This paper proposes a system analysis focused on finding the optimal operating conditions (nominal capacity, cycle depth, current rate, state of charge level) of a lithium battery energy storage system. The purpose of this work is to minimize the cost of the storage system in a renewable DC micro...

  15. Battery Energy Storage Market: Commercial Scale, Lithium-ion Projects in the U.S.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McLaren, Joyce; Gagnon, Pieter; Anderson, Kate; Elgqvist, Emma; Fu, Ran; Remo, Tim

    2016-10-01

    This slide deck presents current market data on the commercial scale li-ion battery storage projects in the U.S. It includes existing project locations, cost data and project cost breakdown, a map of demand charges across the U.S. and information about how the ITC and MACRS apply to energy storage projects that are paired with solar PV technology.

  16. Identifying Critical Factors in the Cost-Effectiveness of Solar and Battery Storage in Commercial Buildings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McLaren, Joyce A [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Anderson, Katherine H [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Laws, Nicholas D [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Gagnon, Pieter J [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); DiOrio, Nicholas A [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Li, Xiangkun [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2018-02-21

    This analysis elucidates the emerging market for distributed solar paired with battery energy storage in commercial buildings across the United States. It provides insight into the near-term and future solar and solar-plus-storage market opportunities as well as the variables that impact the expected savings from installing behind-the-meter systems.

  17. Overnight storage of removable dentures in alkaline peroxide-based tablets affects biofilm mass and composition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duyck, J; Vandamme, K; Muller, P; Teughels, W

    2013-12-01

    Clinical guidelines for denture care are available, but evidence for optimal nocturnal storage is scarce. The aim of the study was to compare the role of the overnight storage state on plaque growth and composition on acrylic removable dentures. In a parallel-group randomized controlled trial of 51 institutionalized participants, 3 denture overnight preservation methods were considered: (i) in water, (ii) dry or (iii) in water with added alkaline peroxide-based cleansing tablet. Biofilm samples were taken on day 7 (developing biofilm - dBF) and day 14 (maturing biofilm - mBF) from a mechanically uncleaned, standardized region, situated distally to the second lower premolars. Total and individual levels of selected perio-pathogenic and commensal species (n=20), and of Candida albicans were calculated by PCR. Differences between storage conditions (water/dry/tablet) and between the samples (dBF/mBF) were assessed by means of unpaired and paired t-tests respectively, with α=5%. Overnight denture storage with cleansing tablet significantly decreased the total bacterial level of dBF and mBF up to 13.8%. Fn, Ec, Cs, Sc, Ao and Vp counts were particularly affected by tablet care. Significant lower amounts of Candida albicans for tablet storage compared to water preservation were recorded in dBF and mBF (-69.3 ± 3.8% and -75.9 ± 3.2% respectively). The mass and pathogenicity of dBF and mBF was equal, irrespective of the overnight storage intervention. The use of cleansing tablets for acrylic removable denture overnight storage reduces denture biofilm mass and pathogenicity compared to dry and water preservation, and may contribute to the overall systemic health. Evidence-based clinical guidelines for overnight storage of removable acrylic dentures are lacking. The findings of this study indicate that alkaline peroxide-based cleansing tablets decrease bacterial and Candida levels in denture biofilms in case of poor oral hygiene. This provides evidence for a clinical

  18. Studies on battery storage requirement of PV fed wind-driven induction generators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rajan Singaravel, M.M.; Arul Daniel, S.

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: ► Sizing of battery storage for PV fed wind-driven IG system is taken up. ► Battery storage is also used to supply reactive power for wind-driven IG. ► Computation of LPSP by incorporating uncertainties of irradiation and wind speed. ► Sizing of hybrid power system components to ensure zero LPSP. ► Calculated storage size satisfied the constraints and improves battery life. - Abstract: Hybrid stand-alone renewable energy systems based on wind–solar resources are considered to be economically better and reliable than stand-alone systems with a single source. An isolated hybrid wind–solar system has been considered in this work, where the storage (battery bank) is necessary to supply the required reactive power for a wind-driven induction generator (IG) during the absence of power from a photovoltaic (PV) array. In such a scheme, to ensure zero Loss of Power Supply Probability (LPSP) and to improve battery bank life, a sizing procedure has been proposed with the incorporation of uncertainties in wind-speed and solar-irradiation level at the site of erection of the plant. Based on the proposed procedure, the size of hybrid power system components and storage capacity are determined. Storage capacity has been calculated for two different requirements. The first requirement of storage capacity is common to any hybrid scheme, which is; to supply both real and reactive power in the absence of wind and solar sources. The second requirement is to supply reactive power alone for the IG during the absence of photovoltaic power, which is unique to the hybrid scheme considered in this work. Storage capacity calculations for different conditions using the proposed approach, satisfies the constraints of maintaining zero LPSP and also improved cycle life of the battery bank

  19. Financial analysis of utility scale photovoltaic plants with battery energy storage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rudolf, Viktor; Papastergiou, Konstantinos D.

    2013-01-01

    Battery energy storage is a flexible and responsive form of storing electrical energy from Renewable generation. The need for energy storage mainly stems from the intermittent nature of solar and wind energy sources. System integrators are investigating ways to design plants that can provide more stable output power without compromising the financial performance that is vital for investors. Network operators on the other side set stringent requirements for the commissioning of new generation, including preferential terms for energy providers with a well-defined generation profile. The aim of this work is to highlight the market and technology drivers that impact the feasibility of battery energy storage in a Utility-scale solar PV project. A simulation tool combines a battery cycling and lifetime model with a solar generation profile and electricity market prices. The business cases of the present market conditions and a projected future scenario are analyzed. - Highlights: • Generation shifting with batteries allows PV projects to generate additional revenues. • Battery lifetime, lifecycles and price are less relevant than electricity market prices. • Installed battery capacity of up to 50% of the daily PV energy boosts project economy. • A 25% higher premium for energy storage could improve NPV by approximately 65%

  20. A flexible model for economic operational management of grid battery energy storage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fares, Robert L.; Webber, Michael E.

    2014-01-01

    To connect energy storage operational planning with real-time battery control, this paper integrates a dynamic battery model with an optimization program. First, we transform a behavioral circuit model designed to describe a variety of battery chemistries into a set of coupled nonlinear differential equations. Then, we discretize the differential equations to integrate the battery model with a GAMS (General Algebraic Modeling System) optimization program, which decides when the battery should charge and discharge to maximize its operating revenue. We demonstrate the capabilities of our model by applying it to lithium-ion (Li-ion) energy storage operating in Texas' restructured electricity market. By simulating 11 years of operation, we find that our model can robustly compute an optimal charge-discharge schedule that maximizes daily operating revenue without violating a battery's operating constraints. Furthermore, our results show there is significant variation in potential operating revenue from one day to the next. The revenue potential of Li-ion storage varies from approximately $0–1800/MWh of energy discharged, depending on the volatility of wholesale electricity prices during an operating day. Thus, it is important to consider the material degradation-related “cost” of performing a charge-discharge cycle in battery operational management, so that the battery only operates when revenue exceeds cost. - Highlights: • A flexible, dynamic battery model is integrated with an optimization program. • Electricity price data is used to simulate 11 years of Li-ion operation on the grid. • The optimization program robustly computes an optimal charge-discharge schedule. • Variation in daily Li-ion battery revenue potential from 2002 to 2012 is shown. • We find it is important to consider the cost of a grid duty cycle

  1. Approach to Hybrid Energy Storage Systems Dimensioning for Urban Electric Buses Regarding Efficiency and Battery Aging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge Nájera

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper focuses on Hybrid Energy Storage Systems (HESS, consisting of a combination of batteries and Electric Double Layer Capacitors (EDLC, for electric urban busses. The aim of the paper is to develop a methodology to determine the hybridization percentage that allows the electric bus to work with the highest efficiency while reducing battery aging, depending on the chosen topology, control strategy, and driving cycle. Three power electronic topologies are qualitatively analyzed based on different criteria, with the topology selected as the favorite being analyzed in detail. The whole system under study is comprised of the following elements: a battery pack (LiFePO4 batteries, an EDLC pack, up to two DC-DC converters (depending on the topology, and an equivalent load, which behaves as an electric bus drive (including motion resistances and inertia. Mathematical models for the battery, EDLCs, DC-DC converter, and the vehicle itself are developed for this analysis. The methodology presented in this work, as the main scientific contribution, considers performance variation (energy efficiency and battery aging and hybridization percentage (ratio between batteries and EDLCs, defined in terms of mass, using a power load profile based on standard driving cycles. The results state that there is a hybridization percentage that increases energy efficiency and reduces battery aging, maximizing the economic benefits of the vehicle, for every combination of topology, type of storage device, control strategy, and driving cycle.

  2. Smart materials for energy storage in Li-ion batteries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ashraf E Abdel-Ghany

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Advanced lithium-ion batteries contain smart materials having the function of insertion electrodes in the form of powders with specific and optimized electrochemical properties. Different classes can be considered: the surface modified active particles at either positive or negative electrodes, the nano-composite electrodes and the blended materials. In this paper, various systems are described, which illustrate the improvement of lithium-ion batteries in term of specific energy and power, thermal stability and life cycling.

  3. Reductive atmospheric acid leaching of spent alkaline batteries in H2SO4/Na2SO3 solutions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morcali, Mehmet Hakan

    2015-07-01

    This work studies the optimum reductive leaching process for manganese and zinc recovery from spent alkaline battery paste. The effects of reducing agents, acid concentration, pulp density, reaction temperature, and leaching time on the dissolution of manganese and zinc were investigated in detail. Manganese dissolution by reductive acidic media is an intermediate-controlled process with an activation energy of 12.28 kJ·mol-1. After being leached, manganese and zinc were selectively precipitated with sodium hydroxide. The zinc was entirely converted into zincate (Zn(OH){4/2-}) ions and thus did not co-precipitate with manganese hydroxide during this treatment (2.0 M NaOH, 90 min, 200 r/min, pH > 13). After the manganese was removed from the solution, the Zn(OH){4/2-} was precipitated as zinc sulfate in the presence of sulfuric acid. The results indicated that this process could be effective in recovering manganese and zinc from alkaline batteries.

  4. A chemistry and material perspective on lithium redox flow batteries towards high-density electrical energy storage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Yu; Ding, Yu; Li, Yutao; Peng, Lele; Byon, Hye Ryung; Goodenough, John B; Yu, Guihua

    2015-11-21

    Electrical energy storage system such as secondary batteries is the principle power source for portable electronics, electric vehicles and stationary energy storage. As an emerging battery technology, Li-redox flow batteries inherit the advantageous features of modular design of conventional redox flow batteries and high voltage and energy efficiency of Li-ion batteries, showing great promise as efficient electrical energy storage system in transportation, commercial, and residential applications. The chemistry of lithium redox flow batteries with aqueous or non-aqueous electrolyte enables widened electrochemical potential window thus may provide much greater energy density and efficiency than conventional redox flow batteries based on proton chemistry. This Review summarizes the design rationale, fundamentals and characterization of Li-redox flow batteries from a chemistry and material perspective, with particular emphasis on the new chemistries and materials. The latest advances and associated challenges/opportunities are comprehensively discussed.

  5. NAS battery demonstration at American Electric Power:a study for the DOE energy storage program.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Newmiller, Jeff (Endecon Engineering, San Ramon, CA); Norris, Benjamin L. (Norris Energy Consulting Company, Martinez, CA); Peek, Georgianne Huff

    2006-03-01

    The first U.S. demonstration of the NGK sodium/sulfur battery technology was launched in August 2002 when a prototype system was installed at a commercial office building in Gahanna, Ohio. American Electric Power served as the host utility that provided the office space and technical support throughout the project. The system was used to both reduce demand peaks (peak-shaving operation) and to mitigate grid power disturbances (power quality operation) at the demonstration site. This report documents the results of the demonstration, provides an economic analysis of a commercial sodium/sulfur battery energy storage system at a typical site, and describes a side-by-side demonstration of the capabilities of the sodium/sulfur battery system, a lead-acid battery system, and a flywheel-based energy storage system in a power quality application.

  6. A Grid Connected Photovoltaic Inverter with Battery-Supercapacitor Hybrid Energy Storage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miñambres-Marcos, Víctor Manuel; Guerrero-Martínez, Miguel Ángel; Barrero-González, Fermín; Milanés-Montero, María Isabel

    2017-08-11

    The power generation from renewable power sources is variable in nature, and may contain unacceptable fluctuations, which can be alleviated by using energy storage systems. However, the cost of batteries and their limited lifetime are serious disadvantages. To solve these problems, an improvement consisting in the collaborative association of batteries and supercapacitors has been studied. Nevertheless, these studies don't address in detail the case of residential and large-scale photovoltaic systems. In this paper, a selected combined topology and a new control scheme are proposed to control the power sharing between batteries and supercapacitors. Also, a method for sizing the energy storage system together with the hybrid distribution based on the photovoltaic power curves is introduced. This innovative contribution not only reduces the stress levels on the battery, and hence increases its life span, but also provides constant power injection to the grid during a defined time interval. The proposed scheme is validated through detailed simulation and experimental tests.

  7. The Research of Super Capacitor and Battery Hybrid Energy Storage System with the THIPWM

    OpenAIRE

    Jianwei Ma; Shanshan Chen

    2014-01-01

    It has to be considered that dynamic performance of Super Capacitor and Battery hybrid energy storage system is poor and the output waveform of AC voltage distorted seriously. The Third Harmonic Injection PWM (THIPWM) with the three-level inverter, which has a excellent performance to improve the dynamic performance of the super capacitor and battery, gathers information from ends of the DC output voltage or current and the total current of the DC side to solve the problem of unbalanced neutr...

  8. The mission and status of the U.S. Department of Energy's battery energy storage program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quinn, J. E.; Landgrebe, A. R.; Hurwitch, J. W.; Hauser, S. G.

    1985-12-01

    Attention is given to the U.S. Department of Energy's battery energy storage program history, assessing the importance it has had in the national interest to date in industrial, vehicular, and electric utility load leveling applications. The development status of battery technology is also evaluated for the cases of sodium-sulfur, zinc-bromine, zinc-ferricyanide, nickel-hydrogen, aluminum-air, lithium-metal disulfide, and fuel cell systems. Development trends are projected into the foreseeable future.

  9. Two-stage energy storage equalization system for lithium-ion battery pack

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, W.; Yang, Z. X.; Dong, G. Q.; Li, Y. B.; He, Q. Y.

    2017-11-01

    How to raise the efficiency of energy storage and maximize storage capacity is a core problem in current energy storage management. For that, two-stage energy storage equalization system which contains two-stage equalization topology and control strategy based on a symmetric multi-winding transformer and DC-DC (direct current-direct current) converter is proposed with bidirectional active equalization theory, in order to realize the objectives of consistent lithium-ion battery packs voltages and cells voltages inside packs by using a method of the Range. Modeling analysis demonstrates that the voltage dispersion of lithium-ion battery packs and cells inside packs can be kept within 2 percent during charging and discharging. Equalization time was 0.5 ms, which shortened equalization time of 33.3 percent compared with DC-DC converter. Therefore, the proposed two-stage lithium-ion battery equalization system can achieve maximum storage capacity between lithium-ion battery packs and cells inside packs, meanwhile efficiency of energy storage is significantly improved.

  10. Optimal sizing of battery storage for stand-alone hybrid (photo-voltaic + diesel) power systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaahid, S. M.; Elhadidy, M. A.

    2005-09-01

    An important element of hybrid photo- voltaic(PV) + diesel sytem is battery storage. Size of battery storage plays a role in optimum operation of the hybrid system. Emphasis needs to be placed on this issue. In this perspective, hourly solar radiation data, for the period 1986 93 recorded at Dhahran, Saudi Arabia, have been analyzed to investigate the optimum size of battery storage capacity for hybrid (PV + diesel) power systems. Various sizing configurations have been simulated. The monthly average daily values of solar global radiation range from 3.61 to 7.96kWh/m2. As a case study, hybrid systems considered in the present analysis consist of 225m2 PV array area (panels/modules) supplemented with battery storage unit and diesel backup generators (to meet the load requirements of a typical residential building with annual electrical energy demand of 35,200kWh). The monthly average energy generated from the aforementioned hybrid system for different scenarios has been presented. More importantly, the study explores the influence of variation of battery storage capacity on hybrid power generation. The results exhibit a trade-off between size of the storage capacity and diesel power to be generated to cope with annual load distribution. Concurrently, the energy to be generated from the diesel generator and the number of operational hours of the diesel system to meet the load demand have been also addressed.The study shows that for optimum operation of diesel system, storage capacity equivalent to 12 18h of maximum monthly average hourly demand need to be used. It has been found that in the absence of battery bank, ˜58% of the load needs to be provided by the diesel system. However, use of 12h of battery storage (autonomy) reduces diesel energy generation by ˜49% and the number of hours of operation of the diesel system get reduced by about ˜82%. The findings of this study can be employed as a tool for sizing of battery storage for PV/diesel systems for other

  11. Promising future energy storage systems: Nanomaterial based systems, Zn-air, and electromechanical batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koopman, R.; Richardson, J.

    1993-10-01

    Future energy storage systems will require longer shelf life, higher duty cycles, higher efficiency, higher energy and power densities, and be fabricated in an environmentally conscious process. This paper describes several possible future systems which have the potential of providing stored energy for future electric and hybrid vehicles. Three of the systems have their origin in the control of material structure at the molecular level and the subsequent nanoengineering into useful device and components: aerocapacitors, nanostructure multilayer capacitors, and the lithium ion battery. The zinc-air battery is a high energy density battery which can provide vehicles with long range (400 km in autos) and be rapidly refueled with a slurry of zinc particles and electrolyte. The electromechanical battery is a battery-sized module containing a high-speed rotor integrated with an iron-less generator mounted on magnetic bearings and housed in an evacuated chamber.

  12. Lithium ion battery energy storage system for augmented wind power plants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Swierczynski, Maciej Jozef

    to their characteristics such as high power, high efficiency, low self-discharge, and long lifetime. The family of the Li-ion batteries is wide and the selection of the most appropriate Liion chemistries for VPPs is one of the topics of this thesis, where different chemistries are compared and the most suitable ones......Future large Wind Power Plants (WPP) will be intended to function like today's conventional power plants seen from the transmission system point of view, by complying with future, more stringent, grid codes and providing ancillary services. This is possible to achieve by integrating WPPs...... with Battery Energy Storage Systems (BESSs) into the so called Virtual Power Plants (VPP). Relatively new energy storage technologies based on Lithium ion (Li-ion) batteries are constantly improving their performance and are becoming attractive for stationary energy storage applications due...

  13. Modeling of battery energy storage in the National Energy Modeling System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Swaminathan, S.; Flynn, W.T.; Sen, R.K. [Sentech, Inc., Bethesda, MD (United States)

    1997-12-01

    The National Energy Modeling System (NEMS) developed by the U.S. Department of Energy`s Energy Information Administration is a well-recognized model that is used to project the potential impact of new electric generation technologies. The NEMS model does not presently have the capability to model energy storage on the national grid. The scope of this study was to assess the feasibility of, and make recommendations for, the modeling of battery energy storage systems in the Electricity Market of the NEMS. Incorporating storage within the NEMS will allow the national benefits of storage technologies to be evaluated.

  14. The economics of using plug-in hybrid electric vehicle battery packs for grid storage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peterson, Scott B.; Whitacre, J. F.; Apt, Jay

    We examine the potential economic implications of using vehicle batteries to store grid electricity generated at off-peak hours for off-vehicle use during peak hours. Ancillary services such as frequency regulation are not considered here because only a small number of vehicles will saturate that market. Hourly electricity prices in three U.S. cities were used to arrive at daily profit values, while the economic losses associated with battery degradation were calculated based on data collected from A123 Systems LiFePO 4/Graphite cells tested under combined driving and off-vehicle electricity utilization. For a 16 kWh (57.6 MJ) vehicle battery pack, the maximum annual profit with perfect market information and no battery degradation cost ranged from ∼US140 to 250 in the three cities. If the measured battery degradation is applied, however, the maximum annual profit (if battery pack replacement costs fall to 5000 for a 16 kWh battery) decreases to ∼10-120. It appears unlikely that these profits alone will provide sufficient incentive to the vehicle owner to use the battery pack for electricity storage and later off-vehicle use. We also estimate grid net social welfare benefits from avoiding the construction and use of peaking generators that may accrue to the owner, finding that these are similar in magnitude to the energy arbitrage profit.

  15. Investigation of zinc recovery by hydrogen reduction assisted pyrolysis of alkaline and zinc-carbon battery waste.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ebin, Burçak; Petranikova, Martina; Steenari, Britt-Marie; Ekberg, Christian

    2017-10-01

    Zinc (Zn) recovery from alkaline and zinc-carbon (Zn-C) battery waste were studied by a laboratory scale pyrolysis process at a reaction temperature of 950°C for 15-60min residence time using 5%H 2(g) -N 2(g) mixture at 1.0L/min gas flow rate. The effect of different cooling rates on the properties of pyrolysis residue, manganese oxide particles, were also investigated. Morphological and structural characterization of the produced Zn particles were performed. The battery black mass was characterized with respect to the properties and chemical composition of the waste battery particles. The thermodynamics of the pyrolysis process was studied using the HSC Chemistry 5.11 software. A hydrogen reduction reaction of the battery black mass (washed with Milli-Q water) takes place at the chosen temperature and makes it possible to produce fine Zn particles by rapid condensation following the evaporation of Zn from the pyrolysis batch. The amount of Zn that can be separated from the black mass increases by extending the residence time. Recovery of 99.8% of the Zn was achieved at 950°C for 60min residence time using 1.0L/min gas flow rate. The pyrolysis residue contains MnO and Mn 2 O 3 compounds, and the oxidation state of manganese can be controlled by cooling rate and atmosphere. The Zn particles exhibit spherical and hexagonal particle morphology with a particle size varying between 200nm and 3µm. However the particles were formed by aggregation of nanoparticles which are primarily nucleated from the gas phase. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. 78 FR 58574 - Maintenance, Testing, and Replacement of Vented Lead-Acid Storage Batteries for Nuclear Power Plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-24

    ...-Acid Storage Batteries for Nuclear Power Plants AGENCY: Nuclear Regulatory Commission. ACTION... for Nuclear Power Plants.'' The guide describes methods that the NRC staff considers acceptable for... replacement of vented lead-acid storage batteries in nuclear power plants. ADDRESSES: Please refer to Docket...

  17. Aluminum anode for aluminum-air battery - Part II: Influence of In addition on the electrochemical characteristics of Al-Zn alloy in alkaline solution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, In-Jun; Choi, Seok-Ryul; Kim, Jung-Gu

    2017-07-01

    Effects of Zn and In additions on the aluminum anode for Al-air battery in alkaline solution are examined by the self-corrosion rate, cell voltage, current-voltage characteristics, anodic polarization, discharge performance and AC impedance measurements. The passivation behavior of Zn-added anode during anodic polarization decreases the discharge performance of Al-air battery. The addition of In to Al-Zn anode reduces the formation of Zn passivation film by repeated adsorption and desorption behavior of In ion onto anode surface. The attenuated Zn passive layer by In ion attack leads to the improvement of discharge performance of Al-air battery.

  18. Investigation of low-cost oligoanthraquinones for alkaline, aqueous rechargeable batteries with cell potential up to 1.13 V

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dražević, Emil; Andersen, Anders Søndergaard; Wedege, Kristina; Henriksen, Martin Lahn; Hinge, Mogens; Bentien, Anders

    2018-03-01

    The transition to renewable energy sources has created need for stationary, low-cost electrical energy storage. A possible technology to address both cost and environmental concerns are batteries based on organic materials. The use of oligoanthraquinones as a replacement for metal hydrides or cadmium in nickel hydroxide rechargeable batteries is investigated in detail regarding polymer composition, electrochemical reversibility and electroactive species cost. Two different oligoanthraquinones are paired with a nickel hydroxide cathode and demonstrate cycling stability dependent on parameters such as supporting electrolyte strength, C-rate, and anode swelling. The energy efficiencies are up to 75% and the cell potential up to 1.13 V. Simple functionalization of the basic structure increases the cell potential by 100 mV.

  19. Charging system and method for multicell storage batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cox, Jay A.

    1978-01-01

    A battery-charging system includes a first charging circuit connected in series with a plurality of battery cells for controlled current charging. A second charging circuit applies a controlled voltage across each individual cell for equalization of the cells to the fully charged condition. This controlled voltage is determined at a level above the fully charged open-circuit voltage but at a sufficiently low level to prevent corrosion of cell components by electrochemical reaction. In this second circuit for cell equalization, a transformer primary receives closely regulated, square-wave voltage which is coupled to a plurality of equal secondary coil windings. Each secondary winding is connected in parallel to each cell of a series-connected pair of cells through half-wave rectifiers and a shared, intermediate conductor.

  20. Life Prediction Model for Grid-Connected Li-ion Battery Energy Storage System: Preprint

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith, Kandler A [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Saxon, Aron R [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Keyser, Matthew A [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Lundstrom, Blake R [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Cao, Ziwei [SunPower Corporation; Roc, Albert [SunPower Corp.

    2017-08-25

    Life Prediction Model for Grid-Connected Li-ion Battery Energy Storage System: Preprint Lithium-ion (Li-ion) batteries are being deployed on the electrical grid for a variety of purposes, such as to smooth fluctuations in solar renewable power generation. The lifetime of these batteries will vary depending on their thermal environment and how they are charged and discharged. To optimal utilization of a battery over its lifetime requires characterization of its performance degradation under different storage and cycling conditions. Aging tests were conducted on commercial graphite/nickel-manganese-cobalt (NMC) Li-ion cells. A general lifetime prognostic model framework is applied to model changes in capacity and resistance as the battery degrades. Across 9 aging test conditions from 0oC to 55oC, the model predicts capacity fade with 1.4 percent RMS error and resistance growth with 15 percent RMS error. The model, recast in state variable form with 8 states representing separate fade mechanisms, is used to extrapolate lifetime for example applications of the energy storage system integrated with renewable photovoltaic (PV) power generation.

  1. Integrating a Photocatalyst into a Hybrid Lithium-Sulfur Battery for Direct Storage of Solar Energy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Na; Wang, Yarong; Tang, Daiming; Zhou, Haoshen

    2015-08-03

    Direct capture and storage of abundant but intermittent solar energy in electrical energy-storage devices such as rechargeable lithium batteries is of great importance, and could provide a promising solution to the challenges of energy shortage and environment pollution. Here we report a new prototype of a solar-driven chargeable lithium-sulfur (Li-S) battery, in which the capture and storage of solar energy was realized by oxidizing S(2-) ions to polysulfide ions in aqueous solution with a Pt-modified CdS photocatalyst. The battery can deliver a specific capacity of 792 mAh g(-1) during 2 h photocharging process with a discharge potential of around 2.53 V versus Li(+)/Li. A specific capacity of 199 mAh g(-1), reaching the level of conventional lithium-ion batteries, can be achieved within 10 min photocharging. Moreover, the charging process of the battery can proceed under natural sunlight irradiation. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  2. Aqueous hybrid ion batteries - An environmentally friendly alternative for stationary energy storage?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peters, Jens F.; Weil, Marcel

    2017-10-01

    Aqueous hybrid ion batteries (AHIB) are being promoted as an environmentally friendly alternative to existing stationary battery technologies. However, no quantification of their potential environmental impacts has yet been done. This paper presents a prospective life cycle assessment of an AHIB module and compares its performance with lithium-ion and sodium-ion batteries in two different stationary energy storage applications. The findings show that the claim of being an environmentally friendly technology can only be supported with some major limitations. While the AHIB uses abundant and non-toxic materials, it has a very low energy density and requires increased amounts of material for providing a given storage capacity. Per kWh of battery, results comparable to those of the alternative lithium- or sodium-ion batteries are obtained, but significantly higher impacts under global warming and ozone depletion aspects. The comparable high cycle life of the AHIB compensates this partially, requiring less battery replacements over the lifetime of the application. On the other hand, its internal inefficiencies are higher, what becomes the dominating factor when charging majorly fossil based electricity, making AHIB unattractive for this type of applications.

  3. Battery storage for electric-powered vehicles; Batteriespeicher fuer Elektrofahrzeuge

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ledjeff, K. [Fraunhofer-Institut fuer Solare Energiesysteme (ISE), Freiburg im Breisgau (Germany)

    1994-12-31

    The individual traffic in urban areas contributes very much to the environmental load. Related to the discussion about the influence of CO{sub 2} and trace gases on the destruction of our climate, more and more political pressure is put on the automobile industry. Due to the Californian laws about the introduction of Zero Emission Vehicles starting in 1998 an international competition began for the development of electric-powered vehicles in series. The greatest challenge will be to provide appropriate batteries, with high energy and performance data, but at considerably low costs. The further development of batteries is supported on an international level and several new concepts are going to be developed not only for conventional systems but also for high energy batteries. (orig.) [Deutsch] Der Individualverkehr traegt in staedtischen Gebieten erheblich zur Umweltbelastung bei. Auch im Zusammenhang mit der Diskussion um die Einfluesse von CO2 uns Spurengasen auf die Schaedigung unseres Klimas, konzentriert sich der politische Druck zunehmend auf den Automobilbereich. Bedingt durch die kalifornischen Gesetze ueber die Einfuehrung der Zero Emission Vehicles ab 1998 wurde ein internationaler Wettkampf zur Entwicklung von serienreifen Elektrofahrzeugen gestartet. Die groesste Herausforderung stellt die Bereitstellung von geeigneten Batterien dar, mit hohen Energie- und Leistungsdaten, jedoch bei guenstigen Kosten. Die Batterieentwicklung wird international erheblich forciert, und es kristallisieren sich verschiedenen neuartige Konzepte heraus, sowohl bei den konventionellen Systemen, als auch bei den Hochenergiebatterien. (orig.)

  4. The emerging chemistry of sodium ion batteries for electrochemical energy storage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kundu, Dipan; Talaie, Elahe; Duffort, Victor; Nazar, Linda F

    2015-03-09

    Energy storage technology has received significant attention for portable electronic devices, electric vehicle propulsion, bulk electricity storage at power stations, and load leveling of renewable sources, such as solar energy and wind power. Lithium ion batteries have dominated most of the first two applications. For the last two cases, however, moving beyond lithium batteries to the element that lies below-sodium-is a sensible step that offers sustainability and cost-effectiveness. This requires an evaluation of the science underpinning these devices, including the discovery of new materials, their electrochemistry, and an increased understanding of ion mobility based on computational methods. The Review considers some of the current scientific issues underpinning sodium ion batteries. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  5. Electric Vehicle Based Battery Storages for Future Power System Regulation Services

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pillai, Jayakrishnan Radhakrishna; Bak-Jensen, Birgitte

    2009-01-01

    The large grid integration of variable wind power adds to the imbalance of a power system. This necessitates the need for additional reserve power for regulation. In Denmark, the growing wind penetration aims for an expedited change of displacing the traditional generators which are currently...... supplying the reserve power requirements. This limited regulation services from conventional generators in the future power system calls for other new reserve power solutions like Electric Vehicle (EV) based battery storages. A generic aggregated EV based battery storage for long-term dynamic load frequency...... simulations is modelled. Further, it is analysed for regulation services using the case of a typical windy day in the West Denmark power system. The power deviations with other control areas in an interconnected system are minimised by the faster up and down regulation characteristics of the EV battery...

  6. An overview—Functional nanomaterials for lithium rechargeable batteries, supercapacitors, hydrogen storage, and fuel cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, Hua Kun

    2013-01-01

    Graphical abstract: Nanomaterials play important role in lithium ion batteries, supercapacitors, hydrogen storage and fuel cells. - Highlights: • Nanomaterials play important role for lithium rechargeable batteries. • Nanostructured materials increase the capacitance of supercapacitors. • Nanostructure improves the hydrogenation/dehydrogenation of hydrogen storage materials. • Nanomaterials enhance the electrocatalytic activity of the catalysts in fuel cells. - Abstract: There is tremendous worldwide interest in functional nanostructured materials, which are the advanced nanotechnology materials with internal or external dimensions on the order of nanometers. Their extremely small dimensions make these materials unique and promising for clean energy applications such as lithium ion batteries, supercapacitors, hydrogen storage, fuel cells, and other applications. This paper will highlight the development of new approaches to study the relationships between the structure and the physical, chemical, and electrochemical properties of functional nanostructured materials. The Energy Materials Research Programme at the Institute for Superconducting and Electronic Materials, the University of Wollongong, has been focused on the synthesis, characterization, and applications of functional nanomaterials, including nanoparticles, nanotubes, nanowires, nanoporous materials, and nanocomposites. The emphases are placed on advanced nanotechnology, design, and control of the composition, morphology, nanostructure, and functionality of the nanomaterials, and on the subsequent applications of these materials to areas including lithium ion batteries, supercapacitors, hydrogen storage, and fuel cells

  7. Stand-alone wind system with Vanadium Redox Battery energy storage

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Teodorescu, Remus; Barote, L.; Weissbach, R.

    2008-01-01

    Energy storage devices are required for power balance and power quality in stand alone wind energy systems. A Vanadium Redox Flow Battery (VRB) system has many features which make its integration with a stand-alone wind energy system attractive. This paper proposes the integration of a VRB system...

  8. Primary frequency regulation with Li-ion battery energy storage system: A case study for Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Swierczynski, Maciej Jozef; Stroe, Daniel Ioan; Stan, Ana-Irina

    2013-01-01

    on the results obtained from accelerated lifetime testing. The developed Li­-ion battery lifetime model is later a base for the analyses of the economic profitability of the investment in the Li-ion battery energy storage system (BESS), which delivers the primary frequency regulation service on the Danish...... lifetime, which introduces significant risk into the business model. This paper deals with the investigation of the lifetime of LiFeP04/C battery systems when they are used to provide primary frequency regulation service. A semi-empirical lifetime model for these battery cells was developed based...... electricity market. Moreover, in this paper a possible improvement of the Li-ion BESS energy management strategy is shown, which allows for obtaining the higher NPV....

  9. Effect of Discharge Rate on Positive Active Material of Lead Carbon Battery for Energy Storage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Kailun; Liu, Hao; Hu, Chen; Gao, Fei; Yang, Kai; Wang, Hao

    2017-10-01

    Lead carbon battery has been widespread concern with its excellent performance of charge and discharge under High Rate Part State of Charge (HRPSoC) as well as its cycle performance. In this paper, the cycling performance of lead carbon battery for energy storage was tested by different discharge rate. The effects of different discharge rate on the composition and morphology of positive active materials in the cycle was studied by XRD and SEM. The effect of different discharge rate on the ohmic impedance of lead carbon battery was studied by testing Electrochemical Impedance Spectroscopy with different capacity retention rates. The results show that with the increase of the discharge rate, the content of PbO2 in the positive active material increases, the active substance utilization and the particle size of PbO2 crystal declines, and the ohmic impedance of the battery decreases.

  10. A Techno-Commercial Assessment of Residential and Bulk Battery Energy Storage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nadkarni, Aditya

    2013-01-01

    Battery energy storage has shown a lot of potential in the recent past to be effective in various grid services due to its near instantaneous ramp rates and modularity. This thesis aims to determine the commercial viability of customer premises and substation sited battery energy storage systems. Five different types of services have been analyzed considering current market pricing of Lithium-ion batteries and power conditioning equipment. Energy Storage Valuation Tool 3.0 (Beta) has been used to exclusively determine the value of energy storage in the services analyzed. The results indicate that on the residential level, Lithium-ion battery energy storage may not be a cost beneficial option for retail tariff management or demand charge management as only 20-30% of the initial investment is recovered at the end of 15 year plant life. SRP's two retail Time-of-Use price plans E-21 and E-26 were analyzed in respect of their ability to increase returns from storage compared to those with flat pricing. It was observed that without a coupled PV component, E-21 was more suitable for customer premises energy storage, however, its revenue stream reduces with addition to PV. On the grid scale, however, with carefully chosen service hierarchy such as distribution investment deferral, spinning or balancing reserve support, the initial investment can be recovered to an extent of about 50-70%. The study done here is specific to Salt River Project inputs and data. Results for all the services analyzed are highly location specific and are only indicative of the overall viability and returns from them.

  11. An investigation of zincite from spent anodic portions of alkaline batteries: An industrial mineral approach for evaluating stock material for recycling potential

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barrett, Heather A.; Borkiewicz, Olaf; Krekeler, Mark P. S.

    The mineralogy of anodic portions of spent alkaline batteries from a leading brand (Duracell) that had been equilibrated in ambient air for approximately 4 months was investigated to determine if material generated from this low energy process may be suitable stock material for recycling. Powder X-ray diffraction (XRD) identified the bulk of the ambient air oxidized anodic material as zincite (ZnO). Scanning electron microscopy investigation indicates a variety of textures of zincite are present with euhedral hexagonal prisms being the most common crystal form. Energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS) analysis indicates that there are no minor amounts of Mn within the zincite. Transmission electron microscopy investigation indicates a variety of textures exist in the zinc oxide. Impurities in the batteries. A promising applications of zincite are numerous, including the development of new solar cell materials. The spent alkaline battery waste stream may serve as promising resource for driving further development of this sector of the economy.

  12. Model Predictive Control for Distributed Microgrid Battery Energy Storage Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Morstyn, Thomas; Hredzak, Branislav; Aguilera, Ricardo P.

    2018-01-01

    -current model and linearized power flow approximations. This allows the optimal power flows to be solved as a convex optimization problem, for which fast and robust solvers exist. The proposed method does not assume that real and reactive power flows are decoupled, allowing line losses, voltage constraints...... feeder, with distributed battery ES systems and intermittent photovoltaic generation. It is shown that the proposed control strategy approaches the performance of a strategy based on nonconvex optimization, while reducing the required computation time by a factor of 1000, making it suitable for a real...

  13. Research on Energy Storage of Super Capacitor, Accumulator and Lithium Batteries in Distributed Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    WANG Wen-Xing

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available In order to maintain power quality and system reliability, distributed power supply system must maintain the dynamic balance of power, energy storage systems ensure stable and reliable quality of power supply system. This paper briefly analyzed the current situation and development of energy storage technologies, described the meaning and value of distributed power supply system suitable for ultra capacitors and lithium hybrid energy storage structural studies, more comprehensive descripted common models of the super capacitors, lithium batteries and accumulators illustrate, and compared the advantages and shortcomings.

  14. Ramping Performance Analysis of the Kahuku Wind-Energy Battery Storage System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gevorgian, V. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Corbus, D. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2013-11-01

    High penetrations of wind power on the electrical grid can introduce technical challenges caused by resource variability. Such variability can have undesirable effects on the frequency, voltage, and transient stability of the grid. Energy storage devices can be an effective tool in reducing variability impacts on the power grid in the form of power smoothing and ramp control. Integrating anenergy storage system with a wind power plant can help smooth the variable power produced from wind. This paper explores the fast-response, megawatt-scale, wind-energy battery storage systems that were recently deployed throughout the Hawaiian islands to support wind and solar projects.

  15. Geometric Process-Based Maintenance and Optimization Strategy for the Energy Storage Batteries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yan Li

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Renewable energy is critical for improving energy structure and reducing environment pollution. But its strong fluctuation and randomness have a serious effect on the stability of the microgrid without the coordination of the energy storage batteries. The main factors that influence the development of the energy storage system are the lack of valid operation and maintenance management as well as the cost control. By analyzing the typical characteristics of the energy storage batteries in their life cycle, the geometric process-based model including the deteriorating system and the improving system is firstly built for describing the operation process, the preventive maintenance process, and the corrective maintenance process. In addition, this paper proposes an optimized management strategy, which aims to minimize the long-run average cost of the energy storage batteries by defining the time interval of the detection and preventive maintenance process as well as the optimal corrective maintenance times, subjected to the state of health and the reliability conditions. The simulation is taken under the built model by applying the proposed energy storage batteries’ optimized management strategy, which verifies the effectiveness and applicability of the management strategy, denoting its obvious practicality on the current application.

  16. The concentration gradient flow battery as electricity storage system

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Egmond, Van W.J.; Saakes, M.; Porada, S.; Meuwissen, T.; Buisman, C.J.N.; Hamelers, H.V.M.

    2016-01-01

    Unlike traditional fossil fuel plants, the wind and the sun provide power only when the renewable resource is available. To accommodate large scale use of renewable energy sources for efficient power production and utilization, energy storage systems are necessary. Here, we introduce a scalable

  17. Rocking-Chair Ammonium-Ion Battery: A Highly Reversible Aqueous Energy Storage System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Xianyong; Qi, Yitong; Hong, Jessica J; Li, Zhifei; Hernandez, Alexandre S; Ji, Xiulei

    2017-10-09

    Aqueous rechargeable batteries are promising solutions for large-scale energy storage. Such batteries have the merit of low cost, innate safety, and environmental friendliness. To date, most known aqueous ion batteries employ metal cation charge carriers. Here, we report the first "rocking-chair" NH 4 -ion battery of the full-cell configuration by employing an ammonium Prussian white analogue, (NH 4 ) 1.47 Ni[Fe(CN) 6 ] 0.88 , as the cathode, an organic solid, 3,4,9,10-perylenetetracarboxylic diimide (PTCDI), as the anode, and 1.0 m aqueous (NH 4 ) 2 SO 4 as the electrolyte. This novel aqueous ammonium-ion battery demonstrates encouraging electrochemical performance: an average operation voltage of ca. 1.0 V, an attractive energy density of ca. 43 Wh kg -1 based on both electrodes' active mass, and excellent cycle life over 1000 cycles with 67 % capacity retention. Importantly, the topochemistry results of NH 4 + in these electrodes point to a new paradigm of NH 4 + -based energy storage. © 2017 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  18. Energy Storage Scheduling with an Advanced Battery Model: A Game–Theoretic Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthias Pilz

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Energy storage systems will play a key role for individual users in the future smart grid. They serve two purposes: (i handling the intermittent nature of renewable energy resources for a more reliable and efficient system; and (ii preventing the impact of blackouts on users and allowing for more independence from the grid, while saving money through load-shifting. In this paper we investigate the latter scenario by looking at a neighbourhood of 25 households whose demand is satisfied by one utility company. Assuming the users possess lithium-ion batteries, we answer the question of how each household can make the best use of their individual storage system given a real-time pricing policy. To this end, each user is modelled as a player of a non-cooperative scheduling game. The novelty of the game lies in the advanced battery model, which incorporates charging and discharging characteristics of lithium-ion batteries. The action set for each player comprises day-ahead schedules of their respective battery usage. We analyse different user behaviour and are able to obtain a realistic and applicable understanding of the potential of these systems. As a result, we show the correlation between the efficiency of the battery and the outcome of the game.

  19. Sodium-ion hybrid electrolyte battery for sustainable energy storage applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Senthilkumar, S. T.; Abirami, Mari; Kim, Junsoo; Go, Wooseok; Hwang, Soo Min; Kim, Youngsik

    2017-02-01

    Sustainable, safe, and low-cost energy storage systems are essential for large-scale electrical energy storage. Herein, we report a sodium (Na)-ion hybrid electrolyte battery with a replaceable cathode system, which is separated from the Na metal anode by a Na superionic conducting ceramic. By using a fast Na-ion-intercalating nickel hexacyanoferrate (NiHCF) cathode along with an eco-friendly seawater catholyte, we demonstrate good cycling performance with an average discharge voltage of 3.4 V and capacity retention >80% over 100 cycles and >60% over 200 cycle. Remarkably, such high capacity retention is observed for both the initial as well as replaced cathodes. Moreover, a Na-metal-free hybrid electrolyte battery containing hard carbon as the anode exhibits an energy density of ∼146 Wh kg-1 at a current density of 10 mA g-1, which is comparable to that of lead-acid batteries and much higher than that of conventional aqueous Na-ion batteries. These results pave the way for further advances in sustainable energy storage technology.

  20. Toward an Aqueous Solar Battery: Direct Electrochemical Storage of Solar Energy in Carbon Nitrides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Podjaski, Filip; Kröger, Julia; Lotsch, Bettina V

    2018-03-01

    Graphitic carbon nitrides have emerged as an earth-abundant family of polymeric materials for solar energy conversion. Herein, a 2D cyanamide-functionalized polyheptazine imide (NCN-PHI) is reported, which for the first time enables the synergistic coupling of two key functions of energy conversion within one single material: light harvesting and electrical energy storage. Photo-electrochemical measurements in aqueous electrolytes reveal the underlying mechanism of this "solar battery" material: the charge storage in NCN-PHI is based on the photoreduction of the carbon nitride backbone and charge compensation is realized by adsorption of alkali metal ions within the NCN-PHI layers and at the solution interface. The photoreduced carbon nitride can thus be described as a battery anode operating as a pseudocapacitor, which can store light-induced charge in the form of long-lived, "trapped" electrons for hours. Importantly, the potential window of this process is not limited by the water reduction reaction due to the high intrinsic overpotential of carbon nitrides for hydrogen evolution, potentially enabling new applications for aqueous batteries. Thus, the feasibility of light-induced electrical energy storage and release on demand by a one-component light-charged battery anode is demonstrated, which provides a sustainable solution to overcome the intermittency of solar radiation. © 2018 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  1. Nitrogen-doped carbonaceous catalysts for gas-diffusion cathodes for alkaline aluminum-air batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davydova, E. S.; Atamanyuk, I. N.; Ilyukhin, A. S.; Shkolnikov, E. I.; Zhuk, A. Z.

    2016-02-01

    Cobalt tetramethoxyphenyl porphyrin and polyacrylonitrile - based catalysts for oxygen reduction reaction were synthesized and characterized by means of SEM, TEM, XPS, BET, limited evaporation method, rotating disc and rotating ring-disc electrode methods. Half-cell and Al-air cell tests were carried out to determine the characteristics of gas-diffusion cathodes. Effect of active layer thickness and its composition on the characteristics of the gas-diffusion cathodes was investigated. Power density of 300 mW cm-2 was achieved for alkaline Al-air cell with an air-breathing polyacrylonitrile-based cathode.

  2. Higher-capacity lithium ion battery chemistries for improved residential energy storage with micro-cogeneration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Darcovich, K.; Henquin, E.R.; Kenney, B.; Davidson, I.J.; Saldanha, N.; Beausoleil-Morrison, I.

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: • Characterized two novel high capacity electrode materials for Li-ion batteries. • A numerical discharge model was run to characterize Li-ion cell behavior. • Engineering model of Li-ion battery pack developed from cell fundamentals. • ESP-r model integrated micro-cogeneration and high capacity Li-ion storage. • Higher capacity batteries shown to improve micro-cogeneration systems. - Abstract: Combined heat and power on a residential scale, also known as micro-cogeneration, is currently gaining traction as an energy savings practice. The configuration of micro-cogeneration systems is highly variable, as local climate, energy supply, energy market and the feasibility of including renewable type components such as wind turbines or photovoltaic panels are all factors. Large-scale lithium ion batteries for electrical storage in this context can provide cost savings, operational flexibility, and reduced stress on the distribution grid as well as a degree of contingency for installations relying upon unsteady renewables. Concurrently, significant advances in component materials used to make lithium ion cells offer performance improvements in terms of power output, energy capacity, robustness and longevity, thereby enhancing their prospective utility in residential micro-cogeneration installations. The present study evaluates annual residential energy use for a typical Canadian home connected to the electrical grid, equipped with a micro-cogeneration system consisting of a Stirling engine for supplying heat and power, coupled with a nominal 2 kW/6 kW h lithium ion battery. Two novel battery cathode chemistries, one a new Li–NCA material, the other a high voltage Ni-doped lithium manganate, are compared in the residential micro-cogeneration context with a system equipped with the presently conventional LiMn 2 O 4 spinel-type battery

  3. Adaptive heat pump and battery storage demand side energy management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sobieczky, Florian; Lettner, Christian; Natschläger, Thomas; Traxler, Patrick

    2017-11-01

    An adaptive linear model predictive control strategy is introduced for the problem of demand side energy management, involving a photovoltaic device, a battery, and a heat pump. Moreover, the heating influence of solar radiation via the glass house effect is considered. Global sunlight radiation intensity and the outside temperature are updated by weather forecast data. The identification is carried out after adapting to a time frame witch sufficiently homogeneous weather. In this way, in spite of the linearity an increase in precision and cost reduction of up to 46% is achieved. It is validated for an open and closed loop version of the MPC problem using real data of the ambient temperature and the global radiation.

  4. Grid Inertial Response with Lithium-ion Battery Energy Storage Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Knap, Vaclav; Sinha, Rakesh; Swierczynski, Maciej Jozef

    2014-01-01

    of this paper is to evaluate the technical viability of utilizing energy storage systems based on Lithium-ion batteries for providing inertial response in grids with high penetration levels of wind power. In order to perform this evaluation, the 12-bus system grid model was used; the inertia of the grid...... was varied by decreasing the number of conventional power plants in the studied grid model while in the same time increasing the load and the wind power penetration levels. Moreover, in order to perform a realistic investigation, a dynamic model of the Lithium-ion battery was considered and parameterized...

  5. Battery selection for space experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Francisco, David R.

    1992-10-01

    This paper will delineate the criteria required for the selection of batteries as a power source for space experiments. Four basic types of batteries will be explored, lead acid, silver zinc, alkaline manganese and nickel cadmium. A detailed description of the lead acid and silver zinc cells while a brief exploration of the alkaline manganese and nickel cadmium will be given. The factors involved in battery selection such as packaging, energy density, discharge voltage regulation, and cost will be thoroughly examined. The pros and cons of each battery type will be explored. Actual laboratory test data acquired for the lead acid and silver zinc cell will be discussed. This data will include discharging under various temperature conditions, after three months of storage and with different types of loads. A description of the required maintenance for each type of battery will be investigated. The lifetime and number of charge/discharge cycles will be discussed.

  6. A Statistical Analysis of the Economic Drivers of Battery Energy Storage in Commercial Buildings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Long, Matthew; Simpkins, Travis; Cutler, Dylan; Anderson, Kate

    2016-11-21

    There is significant interest in using battery energy storage systems (BESS) to reduce peak demand charges, and therefore the life cycle cost of electricity, in commercial buildings. This paper explores the drivers of economic viability of BESS in commercial buildings through statistical analysis. A sample population of buildings was generated, a techno-economic optimization model was used to size and dispatch the BESS, and the resulting optimal BESS sizes were analyzed for relevant predictor variables. Explanatory regression analyses were used to demonstrate that peak demand charges are the most significant predictor of an economically viable battery, and that the shape of the load profile is the most significant predictor of the size of the battery.

  7. Electric Vehicle Based Battery Storages for Large Scale Wind Power Integration in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pillai, Jayakrishnan Radhakrishna

    . In Denmark, there are many hours of surplus wind power production every year. This could be consumed locally through demand side management of electric vehicles by controlled charging of their batteries. Also, the EV batteries could discharge the stored electricity to the grid on demand, which...... is improving on a rapid scale and the battery cost is also reducing which could enable the electric cars to be competitive in the market. The electric vehicles could also benefit the electricity sector in supporting more renewable energy which is also one of the most important driving forces in its promotion...... the clean wind energy and latter could be expensive and limited as the neighbouring countries are also installing more renewable energy across their borders. One of the other alternative solutions lies with the local distributed storages which could be provided by the flexible, efficient and quick start...

  8. The Research of Super Capacitor and Battery Hybrid Energy Storage System with the THIPWM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jianwei Ma

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available It has to be considered that dynamic performance of Super Capacitor and Battery hybrid energy storage system is poor and the output waveform of AC voltage distorted seriously. The Third Harmonic Injection PWM (THIPWM with the three-level inverter, which has a excellent performance to improve the dynamic performance of the super capacitor and battery, gathers information from ends of the DC output voltage or current and the total current of the DC side to solve the problem of unbalanced neutral line voltage of three-level inverter .It also keeps super capacitor and battery controlled smoothly during the operation, and reduces the final output waveform distortion index. The simulation results verify the practicality and correctness of the three-level inverter topology and its control algorithm.

  9. A Statistical Analysis of the Economic Drivers of Battery Energy Storage in Commercial Buildings: Preprint

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Long, Matthew; Simpkins, Travis; Cutler, Dylan; Anderson, Katie

    2016-11-01

    There is significant interest in using battery energy storage systems (BESS) to reduce peak demand charges, and therefore the life cycle cost of electricity, in commercial buildings. This paper explores the drivers of economic viability of BESS in commercial buildings through statistical analysis. A sample population of buildings was generated, a techno-economic optimization model was used to size and dispatch the BESS, and the resulting optimal BESS sizes were analyzed for relevant predictor variables. Explanatory regression analyses were used to demonstrate that peak demand charges are the most significant predictor of an economically viable battery, and that the shape of the load profile is the most significant predictor of the size of the battery.

  10. Application of battery-based storage systems in household-demand smoothening in electricity-distribution grids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purvins, Arturs; Papaioannou, Ioulia T.; Debarberis, Luigi

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: ► Battery system application in demand smoothening in distribution grids is analysed. ► Five European countries are studied with and without high photovoltaic deployment. ► A sensitivity analysis for different battery system parameters is performed. ► A simple battery system management is sufficient for low demand smoothening. ► More elaborate management is required for high demand smoothening. - Abstract: This article analyses in technical terms the application of battery-based storage systems for household-demand smoothening in electricity-distribution grids. The analysis includes case studies of Denmark, Portugal, Greece, France and Italy. A high penetration of photovoltaic systems in distribution grids is considered as an additional scenario. A sensitivity analysis is performed in order to examine the smoothening effect of daily demand profiles for different configurations of the battery system. In general, battery-storage systems with low rated power and low battery capacity can smooth the demand sufficiently with the aid of a simple management process. For example, with 1 kW of peak demand, a 30–45% decrease in the variability of the daily demand profile can be achieved with a battery system of 0.1 kW rated power and up to 0.6 kW h battery capacity. However, further smoothening requires higher battery-system capacity and power. In this case, more elaborate management is also needed to use the battery system efficiently.

  11. Optimal operation strategy of battery energy storage system to real-time electricity price in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hu, Weihao; Chen, Zhe; Bak-Jensen, Birgitte

    2010-01-01

    Since the hourly spot market price is available one day ahead, the price could be transferred to the consumers and they may have some motivations to install an energy storage system in order to save their energy costs. This paper presents an optimal operation strategy for a battery energy storage...... markets in some ways, is chosen as the studied power system in this paper. Two kinds of BESS, based on polysulfide-bromine (PSB) and vanadium redox (VRB) battery technologies, are studies in the paper. Simulation results show, that the proposed optimal operation strategy is an effective measure to achieve...... system (BESS) in relation to the real-time electricity price in order to achieve the maximum profits of the BESS. The western Danish power system, which is currently the grid area in the world that has the largest share of wind power in its generation profiles and may represent the future of electricity...

  12. Grid-tied photovoltaic and battery storage systems with Malaysian electricity tariff

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Subramani, Gopinath; Ramachandaramurthy, Vigna K.; Padmanaban, Sanjeevikumar

    2017-01-01

    , and will hence result in commercial and industrial customers focussing on alternative energy supply to minimize the billing cost. This paper aims to review the technical assessment methods of a grid-connected solar photovoltaic (PV)-battery storage system-with respect to maximum demand shaving. An effective......Under the current energy sector framework of electricity tariff in Malaysia, commercial and industrial customers are required to pay the maximum demand (MD) charge apart from the net consumption charges every month. The maximum demand charge will contribute up to 20% of the electricity bill...... battery storage system can provide the extra energy needed during the peak energy consumption periods, as well as when renewable energy (RE) sources go offline. Based on the reviews, maximum demand shaving with good Return-of-Investment (ROI) can be achieved by considering the actual load profile...

  13. Sodium nickel chloride battery technology for large-scale stationary storage in the high voltage network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benato, Roberto; Cosciani, Nicola; Crugnola, Giorgio; Dambone Sessa, Sebastian; Lodi, Giuseppe; Parmeggiani, Carlo; Todeschini, Marco

    2015-10-01

    The extensive application of Sodium-Nickel Chloride (Na-NiCl2) secondary batteries in electric and hybrid vehicles, in which the safety requirements are more restrictive than these of stationary storage applications, depicts the Na-NiCl2 technology as perfectly suitable for the stationary storage applications. The risk of fire is negligible because of the intrinsic safety of the cell chemical reactions, related to the sodium-tetrachloroaluminate (NaAlCl4) content into the cell, which acts as a secondary electrolyte (the primary one being the ceramic β″-alumina as common for Na-Beta batteries). The 3 h rate discharge time makes this technology very attractive for load levelling, voltage regulation, time shifting and the power fluctuation mitigation of the renewable energy sources in both HV and EHV networks.

  14. Aqueous Lithium-Iodine Solar Flow Battery for the Simultaneous Conversion and Storage of Solar Energy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Mingzhe; McCulloch, William D; Beauchamp, Damian R; Huang, Zhongjie; Ren, Xiaodi; Wu, Yiying

    2015-07-08

    Integrating both photoelectric-conversion and energy-storage functions into one device allows for the more efficient solar energy usage. Here we demonstrate the concept of an aqueous lithium-iodine (Li-I) solar flow battery (SFB) by incorporation of a built-in dye-sensitized TiO2 photoelectrode in a Li-I redox flow battery via linkage of an I3(-)/I(-) based catholyte, for the simultaneous conversion and storage of solar energy. During the photoassisted charging process, I(-) ions are photoelectrochemically oxidized to I3(-), harvesting solar energy and storing it as chemical energy. The Li-I SFB can be charged at a voltage of 2.90 V under 1 sun AM 1.5 illumination, which is lower than its discharging voltage of 3.30 V. The charging voltage reduction translates to energy savings of close to 20% compared to conventional Li-I batteries. This concept also serves as a guiding design that can be extended to other metal-redox flow battery systems.

  15. Life Prediction Model for Grid-Connected Li-ion Battery Energy Storage System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith, Kandler A [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Saxon, Aron R [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Keyser, Matthew A [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Lundstrom, Blake R [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Cao, Ziwei [SunPower Corporation; Roc, Albert [SunPower Corporation

    2017-09-06

    Lithium-ion (Li-ion) batteries are being deployed on the electrical grid for a variety of purposes, such as to smooth fluctuations in solar renewable power generation. The lifetime of these batteries will vary depending on their thermal environment and how they are charged and discharged. To optimal utilization of a battery over its lifetime requires characterization of its performance degradation under different storage and cycling conditions. Aging tests were conducted on commercial graphite/nickel-manganese-cobalt (NMC) Li-ion cells. A general lifetime prognostic model framework is applied to model changes in capacity and resistance as the battery degrades. Across 9 aging test conditions from 0oC to 55oC, the model predicts capacity fade with 1.4% RMS error and resistance growth with 15% RMS error. The model, recast in state variable form with 8 states representing separate fade mechanisms, is used to extrapolate lifetime for example applications of the energy storage system integrated with renewable photovoltaic (PV) power generation.

  16. Control strategies and cycling demands for Li-ion storage batteries in residential micro-cogeneration systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Darcovich, K.; Kenney, B.; MacNeil, D.D.; Armstrong, M.M.

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Canadian home energy system modeled with PV, ICE CHP, battery and power grid. • Battery function is modeled on fundamental electrochemical principles. • Techno-economics of control strategies assessed. • Impact of control strategies battery cycles is developed for wear analysis. • Non-monotonic nature of battery cycles with transient renewables is discussed. - Abstract: Energy storage units have become important components in residential micro-cogeneration (MCG) systems. As MCG systems are often connected to single residences or buildings in a wide variety of settings, they are frequently unique and highly customized. Lithium-ion batteries have recently gained some profile as energy storage units of choice, because of their good capacity, high efficiency, robustness and ability to meet the demands of typical residential electrical loads. In the present work, modeled scenarios are explored which examine the performance of a MCG system with an internal combustion engine, photovoltaic input and a Li-ion storage battery. An electricity demand profile from new data collected in Ottawa, Canada is used to provide a full year energy use context for the analyses. The demands placed on the battery are examined to assess the suitability of the battery size and performance, as well as control related functionalities which reveal significantly varying battery use, and led to a quantitative expression for equivalent cycles. The energy use simulations are derived from electrochemical fundamentals adapted for a larger battery pack. Simulation output provides the basis for techno-economic commentary on how to assess large-scale Li-ion batteries for effective electrical storage purposes in MCG systems, and the impact of the nature of the control strategy on the battery service life

  17. Analysis of battery storage in wind-energy systems for commercial buildings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caskey, D. L.; Broehl, J.; Skelton, J.

    1981-09-01

    The performance of wind energy systems in commercial buildings was analyzed with and without storage to assess the economic value of storage. The SOLSTOR program used in the simulations is briefly described. Life-cycle energy cost and performance measures were calculated for different wind turbine and storage capacity levels. The analyses focused on Dodge City (average wind speed of 5.8 m/s) and Washington, DC (wind speed 2.9 m/s). Levelized system costs are computed for warehouse and office applications. To assess the sensitivity of the system performance measures and cost, two series of sensitivity tests were performed. The first determined the increase in system cost for an increase of storage capacity, and the second examined the effect of doubling the battery cost for the office building application.

  18. Stationary battery storage of energy transition a central component; Stationaere Batteriespeicher der Energiewende eine zentrale Komponente

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vetter, Matthias; Lux, Stephan [Fraunhofer-Institut fuer Solare Energiesysteme ISE, Freiburg (Germany)

    2017-01-15

    In a regenerative energy system with strong fluctuations in electricity production, the importance of short-term storage is increasing - on the one hand, in order to optimal need-oriented use of the energy supply, on the other hand, at any time to ensure a high network quality. The present overview of stationary battery storage shows how important it will be especially in the area of larger storage facilities with direct link to regenerative power plants, as a district storage or in the industry. [German] In einem regenerativen Energiesystem mit starken Fluktuationen der Stromproduktion nimmt die Bedeutung der Kurzzeitspeicherung zu - einerseits, um das Energieangebot bedarfsgerecht optimal zu nutzen, andererseits, um zu jedem Zeitpunkt eine hohe Netzqualitaet zu gewaehrleisten. Der vorliegende Ueberblick ueber stationaere Batteriespeicher zeigt, wie wichtig vor allem der Bereich groesserer Speicher in direkter Koppelung mit regenerativen Kraftwerken, als Quartiersspeicher oder im Gewerbe sein wird.

  19. Optimal Sizing of Battery Storage Systems for Industrial Applications when Uncertainties Exist

    OpenAIRE

    Guido Carpinelli; Anna Rita di Fazio; Shahab Khormali; Fabio Mottola

    2014-01-01

    Demand response (DR) can be very useful for an industrial facility, since it allows noticeable reductions in the electricity bill due to the significant value of energy demand. Although most industrial processes have stringent constraints in terms of hourly active power, DR only becomes attractive when performed with the contemporaneous use of battery energy storage systems (BESSs). When this option is used, an optimal sizing of BESSs is desirable, because the investment costs can be signific...

  20. Battery Energy Storage Sizing When Time of Use Pricing Is Applied

    OpenAIRE

    Carpinelli, Guido; Khormali, Shahab; Mottola, Fabio; Proto, Daniela

    2014-01-01

    Battery energy storage systems (BESSs) are considered a key device to be introduced to actuate the smart grid paradigm. However, the most critical aspect related to the use of such device is its economic feasibility as it is a still developing technology characterized by high costs and limited life duration. Particularly, the sizing of BESSs must be performed in an optimized way in order to maximize the benefits related to their use. This paper presents a simple and quick closed form procedur...

  1. Simulation-based design of energy management system with storage battery for a refugee shelter in Japan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaji, K.; Zhang, J.; Horie, H.; Akimoto, H.; Tanaka, K.

    2013-12-01

    Since the massive earthquake hit eastern Japan in March, 2011, our team has participated in the recovery planning for Kesen Association, which is a group of cities in northeastern Japan. As one of our proposals for the recovery planning for the community, we are designing energy management system with renewable energy (RE) and storage batteries. Some public facilities in the area have been used as refugee shelters, but refugees had to put up with life without electricity for a while after the disaster. If RE generator and storage batteries are introduced into the facilities, it is possible to provide refugees with electricity. In this study, the sizes of photovoltaic (PV) appliances and storage batteries to be introduced into one public facility are optimized. The optimization is based on simulation, in which electric energy is managed by charge and discharge of storage battery.

  2. Simulation-based design of energy management system with storage battery for a refugee shelter in Japan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kaji, K.; Zhang, J.; Horie, H.; Tanaka, K. [Department of Technology Management for Innovation, Graduate School of Engineering, The University of Tokyo (Japan); Akimoto, H. [Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology (Korea, Republic of)

    2013-12-10

    Since the massive earthquake hit eastern Japan in March, 2011, our team has participated in the recovery planning for Kesen Association, which is a group of cities in northeastern Japan. As one of our proposals for the recovery planning for the community, we are designing energy management system with renewable energy (RE) and storage batteries. Some public facilities in the area have been used as refugee shelters, but refugees had to put up with life without electricity for a while after the disaster. If RE generator and storage batteries are introduced into the facilities, it is possible to provide refugees with electricity. In this study, the sizes of photovoltaic (PV) appliances and storage batteries to be introduced into one public facility are optimized. The optimization is based on simulation, in which electric energy is managed by charge and discharge of storage battery.

  3. Simulation-based design of energy management system with storage battery for a refugee shelter in Japan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaji, K.; Zhang, J.; Horie, H.; Tanaka, K.; Akimoto, H.

    2013-01-01

    Since the massive earthquake hit eastern Japan in March, 2011, our team has participated in the recovery planning for Kesen Association, which is a group of cities in northeastern Japan. As one of our proposals for the recovery planning for the community, we are designing energy management system with renewable energy (RE) and storage batteries. Some public facilities in the area have been used as refugee shelters, but refugees had to put up with life without electricity for a while after the disaster. If RE generator and storage batteries are introduced into the facilities, it is possible to provide refugees with electricity. In this study, the sizes of photovoltaic (PV) appliances and storage batteries to be introduced into one public facility are optimized. The optimization is based on simulation, in which electric energy is managed by charge and discharge of storage battery

  4. Applying wind turbines and battery storage to defer Orcas Power and Light Company distribution circuit upgrades

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zaininger, H.W.; Barnes, P.R.

    1997-03-01

    The purpose of this study is to conduct a detailed assessment of the Orcas Power and Light Company (OPALCO) system to determine the potential for deferring the costly upgrade of the 25-kV Lopez- Eastsound circuit, by the application of a MW-scale wind farm and battery storage facilities as appropriate. Local wind resource data has been collected over the past year and used to determine MW-scale wind farm performance. This hourly wind farm performance data is used with measured hourly Eastsound load data, and recent OPALCO distribution system expansion plans and cost projections in performing this detailed benefit-cost assessment. The OPALCO distribution circuit expansion project and assumptions are described. MW-scale wind farm performance results are given. The economic benefit-cost results for the wind farm and battery storage applications on the OPALCO system using OPALCO system design criteria and cost assumptions are reported. A recalculation is presented of the benefit-cost results for similar potential wind farm and battery storage applications on other utility systems with higher marginal energy and demand costs. Conclusions and recommendations are presented. costs. Conclusions and recommendations are presented

  5. Simulation of the Interaction Between Flywheel Energy Storage and Battery Energy Storage on the International Space Station

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trouong, Long V.; Wolff, Frederic J.; Dravid, Narayan V.; Li, Ponlee

    2000-01-01

    Replacement of one module of the battery charge discharge unit (BCDU) of the International Space Station (ISS) by a flywheel energy storage unit (FESU) is under consideration. Integration of these two dissimilar systems is likely to surface difficulties in areas of system stability and fault protection. Other issues that need to be addressed include flywheel charge and discharge profiles and their effect on the ISS power system as well as filter sizing for power Ability purposes. This paper describes a SABER based simulation to study these issues.

  6. Novel Co(OH)2 with cotton-like structure as anode material for alkaline secondary batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, W.; Liao, Y. L.; Qiu, S. J.; Chu, H. L.; Zou, Y. J.; Xiang, C. L.; Zhang, H. Z.; Xu, F.; Sun, L. X.

    2018-01-01

    The cotton-like Co(OH)2 (S-Co(OH)2) was successfully synthesized and its electrochemical performance was systematically investigated. S-Co(OH)2 was prepared through the “destruction” of the newly formed colloid Co(OH)2 by the reduction using sodium borohydride. The crystal structure and surface morphology were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and energy dispersive spectrometry (EDS). Used as an anode material for alkaline secondary batteries, S-Co(OH)2 sample exhibited better cycle stability, higher electrochemical capacity, and higher rate performance than those of conventional β-Co(OH)2. At a discharge current density of 100 mA/g, the initial discharge capacity of S-Co(OH)2 is 549.3 mAh/g and the discharge capacity is still sustained to be 329.2 mAh/g after 100 charge-discharge cycles with a capacity retention of 59.9%.

  7. Alkaline sodium borohydride gel as a hydrogen source for PEMFC or an energy carrier for NaBH 4-air battery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, B. H.; Li, Z. P.; Chen, L. L.

    In this preliminary study, we tried to use sodium polyacrylate as the super absorbent polymer to form alkaline NaBH 4 gel and explored its possibilities for borohydride hydrolysis and borohydride electro-oxidation. It was found that the absorption capacity of sodium polyacrylate decreased with increasing NaBH 4 concentration. The formed gel was rather stable in the sealed vessel but tended to slowly decompose in open air. Hydrogen generation from the gel was carried out using CoCl 2 catalyst precursor solutions. Hydrogen generation rate from the alkaline NaBH 4 gel was found to be higher and impurities in hydrogen were less than that from the alkaline NaBH 4 solution. The NaBH 4 gel also successfully powered a NaBH 4-air battery.

  8. A simplified equivalent circuit model for simulation of Pb-acid batteries at load for energy storage application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhu, Wenhua H.; Zhu Ying; Tatarchuk, Bruce J.

    2011-01-01

    Highlights: → Pb-acid battery is reexamined in electrode structure and capacitance enhancement. → Pb-acid batteries were tested through the electrochemical impedance at loads. → Electrode behaviors are evaluated by simulation using an equivalent circuit model. → A defective and a failed Pb-acid battery was used in non-destructive analysis. → Potential applications are for power reserve and sustainable electricity storage. - Abstract: Three main types of battery chemistries in consideration for vehicle applications are Pb-acid, nickel-metal hydride, and lithium-ion batteries. Lead-acid batteries are widely used in traditional automotive applications for many years. Higher voltage, high-rate discharge capability, good specific energy, lower temperature performance, lower thermal management requirement, and low-cost in both manufacturing and recycling are the advantages of the rechargeable battery. Disadvantages of the lead-acid battery are: weight concerns of lead metal (lower energy density and lower power density) and limited cycle-life (especially in deep-cycle duties). If two major disadvantages have been significantly changed to a proper state to compete with other battery chemistries, the Pb-acid battery is still a good candidate in considering of cost/performance ratio. The lead-acid battery is always a good power source for fast starting of cold vehicles, for recharging from either a stop-start braking system, or for a charge from the engine itself, which consumes battery energy or stores electricity back into chemical energy. The main reasons for reexamining this battery chemistry are cost-savings and life-cycling considerations upon advances in electrode structure design and enhancement of capacitance behavior inside the battery pack. Several Pb-acid batteries were evaluated and tested through a unique method, i.e., the electrochemical impedance method at different loads, in order to characterize and further understand the improved electrode

  9. Nickel based alloys as electrocatalysts for oxygen evolution from alkaline solutions. [Metal--air batteries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lu, P.W.T.; Srinivasan, S.

    1977-01-01

    The slowness of the oxygen evolution reaction is one of the main reasons for significant energy losses in water electrolysis cells and secondary air--metal batteries. To date, data on the kinetics of this reaction on alloys and intermetallic compounds are sparse. In this work, mechanically polished alloys of nickel with Ir, Ru or W and Ni--Ti intermetallic compounds were studied as oxygen electrodes. Since the oxygen evolution reaction always takes place on oxide-film covered surfaces, the nature of oxide films formed on these alloys were investigated using cyclic voltametric techniques. Steady-state potentiostatic and slow potentiodynamic (at 0.1 mV/s) methods were employed to obtain the electrode kinetic parameters for the oxygen evolution reaction in 30 wt. percent KOH at 80/sup 0/C, the conditions normally used in water electrolysis cells. The peaks for the formation or reduction of oxygen-containing layers appearing on the pure metals are not always found on the alloys. The maximum decreases in oxygen overpotential at an apparent current density of 20 mA cm/sup -2/ (as compared with that on Ni) were found for the alloys of 50Ni--50Ir and 75Ni--25Ru and the intermetallic compound Ni/sub 3/Ti, these decreases being about 40, 30, and 20 mV, respectively. On the long-term polarization in the potential region of oxygen evolution, the oxygen-containing layers on Ni--Ir or Ni--Ru alloys are essentially composed of nickel oxides instead of true mixed oxide films of two components. The present work confirms that, possibly because of coverage by oxide films, there is no direct dependence of the electrocatalytic activities of the alloys on their electronic properties. 11 figures, 1 table.

  10. Imidazolium-based Block Copolymers as Solid-State Separators for Alkaline Fuel Cells and Lithium Ion Batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nykaza, Jacob Richard

    In this study, polymerized ionic liquid (PIL) diblock copolymers were explored as solid-state polymer separators as an anion exchange membrane (AEM) for alkaline fuel cells AFCs and as a solid polymer electrolyte (SPE) for lithium-ion batteries. Polymerized ionic liquid (PIL) block copolymers are a distinct set of block copolymers that combine the properties of both ionic liquids (e.g., high conductivity, high electrochemical stability) and block copolymers (e.g., self-assembly into various nanostructures), which provides the opportunity to design highly conductive robust solid-state electrolytes that can be tuned for various applications including AFCs and lithium-ion batteries via simple anion exchange. A series of bromide conducting PIL diblock copolymers with an undecyl alkyl side chain between the polymer backbone and the imidazolium moiety were first synthesized at various compositions comprising of a PIL component and a non-ionic component. Synthesis was achieved by post-functionalization from its non-ionic precursor PIL diblock copolymer, which was synthesized via the reverse addition fragmentation chain transfer (RAFT) technique. This PIL diblock copolymer with long alkyl side chains resulted in flexible, transparent films with high mechanical strength and high bromide ion conductivity. The conductivity of the PIL diblock copolymer was three times higher than its analogous PIL homopolymer and an order of magnitude higher than a similar PIL diblock copolymer with shorter alkyl side chain length, which was due to the microphase separated morphology, more specifically, water/ion clusters within the PIL microdomains in the hydrated state. Due to the high conductivity and mechanical robustness of this novel PIL block copolymer, its application as both the ionomer and AEM in an AFC was investigated via anion exchange to hydroxide (OH-), where a maximum power density of 29.3 mW cm-1 (60 °C with H2/O2 at 25 psig (172 kPa) backpressure) was achieved. Rotating disk

  11. Investigation of Synergy Between Electrochemical Capacitors, Flywheels, and Batteries in Hybrid Energy Storage for PV Systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miller, John; Sibley Lewis, B.; Wohlgemuth, John

    1999-01-01

    This report describes the results of a study that investigated the synergy between electrochemical capacitors (ECs) and flywheels, in combination with each other and with batteries, as energy storage subsystems in photovoltaic (PV) systems. EC and flywheel technologies are described and the potential advantages and disadvantages of each in PV energy storage subsystems are discussed. Seven applications for PV energy storage subsystems are described along with the potential market for each of these applications. A spreadsheet model, which used the net present value method, was used to analyze and compare the costs over time of various system configurations based on flywheel models. It appears that a synergistic relationship exists between ECS and flywheels. Further investigation is recommended to quantify the performance and economic tradeoffs of this synergy and its effect on overall system costs

  12. Investigation of Synergy Between Electrochemical Capacitors, Flywheels, and Batteries in Hybrid Energy Storage for PV Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miller, John; Sibley, Lewis, B.; Wohlgemuth, John

    1999-06-01

    This report describes the results of a study that investigated the synergy between electrochemical capacitors (ECs) and flywheels, in combination with each other and with batteries, as energy storage subsystems in photovoltaic (PV) systems. EC and flywheel technologies are described and the potential advantages and disadvantages of each in PV energy storage subsystems are discussed. Seven applications for PV energy storage subsystems are described along with the potential market for each of these applications. A spreadsheet model, which used the net present value method, was used to analyze and compare the costs over time of various system configurations based on flywheel models. It appears that a synergistic relationship exists between ECS and flywheels. Further investigation is recommended to quantify the performance and economic tradeoffs of this synergy and its effect on overall system costs.

  13. Case Studies of Energy Storage with Fuel Cells and Batteries for Stationary and Mobile Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nadia Belmonte

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, hydrogen coupled with fuel cells and lithium-ion batteries are considered as alternative energy storage methods. Their application on a stationary system (i.e., energy storage for a family house and a mobile system (i.e., an unmanned aerial vehicle will be investigated. The stationary systems, designed for off-grid applications, were sized for photovoltaic energy production in the area of Turin, Italy, to provide daily energy of 10.25 kWh. The mobile systems, to be used for high crane inspection, were sized to have a flying range of 120 min, one being equipped with a Li-ion battery and the other with a proton-exchange membrane fuel cell. The systems were compared from an economical point of view and a life cycle assessment was performed to identify the main contributors to the environmental impact. From a commercial point of view, the fuel cell and the electrolyzer, being niche products, result in being more expensive with respect to the Li-ion batteries. On the other hand, the life cycle assessment (LCA results show the lower burdens of both technologies.

  14. Reactivation of dead sulfide species in lithium polysulfide flow battery for grid scale energy storage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Yang; Zhou, Guangmin; Shi, Feifei; Zhuo, Denys; Zhao, Jie; Liu, Kai; Liu, Yayuan; Zu, Chenxi; Chen, Wei; Zhang, Rufan; Huang, Xuanyi; Cui, Yi

    2017-09-06

    Lithium polysulfide batteries possess several favorable attributes including low cost and high energy density for grid energy storage. However, the precipitation of insoluble and irreversible sulfide species on the surface of carbon and lithium (called "dead" sulfide species) leads to continuous capacity degradation in high mass loading cells, which represents a great challenge. To address this problem, herein we propose a strategy to reactivate dead sulfide species by reacting them with sulfur powder with stirring and heating (70 °C) to recover the cell capacity, and further demonstrate a flow battery system based on the reactivation approach. As a result, ultrahigh mass loading (0.125 g cm -3 , 2 g sulfur in a single cell), high volumetric energy density (135 Wh L -1 ), good cycle life, and high single-cell capacity are achieved. The high volumetric energy density indicates its promising application for future grid energy storage.Lithium polysulfide batteries suffer from the precipitation of insoluble and irreversible sulfide species on the surface of carbon and lithium. Here the authors show a reactivation strategy by a reaction with cheap sulfur powder under stirring and heating to recover the cell capacity.

  15. Tunable Reaction Potentials in Open Framework Nanoparticle Battery Electrodes for Grid-Scale Energy Storage

    KAUST Repository

    Wessells, Colin D.

    2012-02-28

    The electrical energy grid has a growing need for energy storage to address short-term transients, frequency regulation, and load leveling. Though electrochemical energy storage devices such as batteries offer an attractive solution, current commercial battery technology cannot provide adequate power, and cycle life, and energy efficiency at a sufficiently low cost. Copper hexacyanoferrate and nickel hexacyanoferrate, two open framework materials with the Prussian Blue structure, were recently shown to offer ultralong cycle life and high-rate performance when operated as battery electrodes in safe, inexpensive aqueous sodium ion and potassium ion electrolytes. In this report, we demonstrate that the reaction potential of copper-nickel alloy hexacyanoferrate nanoparticles may be tuned by controlling the ratio of copper to nickel in these materials. X-ray diffraction, TEM energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy, and galvanostatic electrochemical cycling of copper-nickel hexacyanoferrate reveal that copper and nickel form a fully miscible solution at particular sites in the framework without perturbing the structure. This allows copper-nickel hexacyanoferrate to reversibly intercalate sodium and potassium ions for over 2000 cycles with capacity retentions of 100% and 91%, respectively. The ability to precisely tune the reaction potential of copper-nickel hexacyanoferrate without sacrificing cycle life will allow the development of full cells that utilize the entire electrochemical stability window of aqueous sodium and potassium ion electrolytes. © 2012 American Chemical Society.

  16. Li-O2 and Li-S batteries with high energy storage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruce, Peter G; Freunberger, Stefan A; Hardwick, Laurence J; Tarascon, Jean-Marie

    2011-12-15

    Li-ion batteries have transformed portable electronics and will play a key role in the electrification of transport. However, the highest energy storage possible for Li-ion batteries is insufficient for the long-term needs of society, for example, extended-range electric vehicles. To go beyond the horizon of Li-ion batteries is a formidable challenge; there are few options. Here we consider two: Li-air (O(2)) and Li-S. The energy that can be stored in Li-air (based on aqueous or non-aqueous electrolytes) and Li-S cells is compared with Li-ion; the operation of the cells is discussed, as are the significant hurdles that will have to be overcome if such batteries are to succeed. Fundamental scientific advances in understanding the reactions occurring in the cells as well as new materials are key to overcoming these obstacles. The potential benefits of Li-air and Li-S justify the continued research effort that will be needed.

  17. Modeling, Design and Simulation of Stand-Alone Photovoltaic Power Systems with Battery Storage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abd Essalam BADOUD

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Stand alone renewable energy based on photovoltaic systems accompanied with battery storage system are beginning to play an important role over the world to supply power to remote areas. The objective of the study reported in this paper is to elaborate and design a bond graphs model for sizing stand-alone domestic solar photovoltaic electricity systems and simulating the performance of the systems in a tropical climate. The systems modelled consist of an array of PV modules, a lead-acid battery, and a number of direct current appliances. This paper proposes the combination of lead acid battery system with a typical stand alone photovoltaic energy system under variable loads. The main activities of this work purpose to establish library graphical models for each individual component of standalone photovoltaic system. Control strategy has been considered to achieve permanent power supply to the load via photovoltaic/battery based on the power available from the sun. The complete model was simulated under two testing including sunny and cloudy conditions. Simulation of the system using Symbols software was performed and the results of simulation show the superior stable control system and high efficiency. These results have been contrasted with real measured data from a measurement campaign plant carried on electrical engineering laboratory of Grenoble using various interconnection schemes are presented.

  18. Optimal Scheduling of a Battery-Based Energy Storage System for a Microgrid with High Penetration of Renewable Sources

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dulout, Jeremy; Hernández, Adriana Carolina Luna; Anvari-Moghaddam, Amjad

    2017-01-01

    A new scheduling method is proposed to manage efficiently the integration of renewable sources in microgrids (MGs) with energy storage systems (ESSs). The purpose of this work is to take into account the main stress factors influencing the ageing mechanisms of a battery energy storage system (BES...

  19. Control of a lithium-ion battery storage system for microgrid applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pegueroles-Queralt, Jordi; Bianchi, Fernando D.; Gomis-Bellmunt, Oriol

    2014-12-01

    The operation of future microgrids will require the use of energy storage systems employing power electronics converters with advanced power management capacities. This paper presents the control scheme for a medium power lithium-ion battery bidirectional DC/AC power converter intended for microgrid applications. The switching devices of a bidirectional DC converter are commanded by a single sliding mode control law, dynamically shaped by a linear voltage regulator in accordance with the battery management system. The sliding mode controller facilitates the implementation and design of the control law and simplifies the stability analysis over the entire operating range. Control parameters of the linear regulator are designed to minimize the impact of commutation noise in the DC-link voltage regulation. The effectiveness of the proposed control strategy is illustrated by experimental results.

  20. Rechargeable Batteries with High Energy Storage Activated by In-situ Induced Fluorination of Carbon Nanotube Cathode

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cui, Xinwei; Chen, Jian; Wang, Tianfei; Chen, Weixing

    2014-06-01

    High performance rechargeable batteries are urgently demanded for future energy storage systems. Here, we adopted a lithium-carbon battery configuration. Instead of using carbon materials as the surface provider for lithium-ion adsorption and desorption, we realized induced fluorination of carbon nanotube array (CNTA) paper cathodes, with the source of fluoride ions from electrolytes, by an in-situ electrochemical induction process. The induced fluorination of CNTA papers activated the reversible fluorination/defluorination reactions and lithium-ion storage/release at the CNTA paper cathodes, resulting in a dual-storage mechanism. The rechargeable battery with this dual-storage mechanism demonstrated a maximum discharging capacity of 2174 mAh gcarbon-1 and a specific energy of 4113 Wh kgcarbon-1 with good cycling performance.

  1. Report on Lithium Ion Battery Trade Studies to Support the Exploration Technology Development Program (ETDP) Energy Storage Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green, Robert D.; Kissock, Barbara I.; Bennett, William R.

    2010-01-01

    This report documents the results of two system related analyses to support the Exploration Technology Development Program (ETDP) Energy Storage Project. The first study documents a trade study to determine the optimum Li-ion battery cell capacity for the ascent stage battery for the Altair lunar lander being developed under the Constellation Systems program. The battery cell capacity for the Ultra High Energy (UHE) Li-ion battery initially chosen as the target for development was 35 A-hr; this study concludes that a 19.4 A-hr cell capacity would be more optimum from a minimum battery mass perspective. The second study in this report is an assessment of available low temperature Li-ion battery cell performance data to determine whether lowering the operating temperature range of the Li-ion battery, in a rover application, could save overall system mass by eliminating thermal control system mass normally needed to maintain battery temperature within a tighter temperature limit than electronics or other less temperature sensitive components. The preliminary assessment for this second study indicates that the reduction in the thermal control system mass is negated by an increase in battery mass to compensate for the loss in battery capacity due to lower temperature operating conditions.

  2. Lithium-antimony-lead liquid metal battery for grid-level energy storage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Kangli; Jiang, Kai; Chung, Brice; Ouchi, Takanari; Burke, Paul J; Boysen, Dane A; Bradwell, David J; Kim, Hojong; Muecke, Ulrich; Sadoway, Donald R

    2014-10-16

    The ability to store energy on the electric grid would greatly improve its efficiency and reliability while enabling the integration of intermittent renewable energy technologies (such as wind and solar) into baseload supply. Batteries have long been considered strong candidate solutions owing to their small spatial footprint, mechanical simplicity and flexibility in siting. However, the barrier to widespread adoption of batteries is their high cost. Here we describe a lithium-antimony-lead liquid metal battery that potentially meets the performance specifications for stationary energy storage applications. This Li||Sb-Pb battery comprises a liquid lithium negative electrode, a molten salt electrolyte, and a liquid antimony-lead alloy positive electrode, which self-segregate by density into three distinct layers owing to the immiscibility of the contiguous salt and metal phases. The all-liquid construction confers the advantages of higher current density, longer cycle life and simpler manufacturing of large-scale storage systems (because no membranes or separators are involved) relative to those of conventional batteries. At charge-discharge current densities of 275 milliamperes per square centimetre, the cells cycled at 450 degrees Celsius with 98 per cent Coulombic efficiency and 73 per cent round-trip energy efficiency. To provide evidence of their high power capability, the cells were discharged and charged at current densities as high as 1,000 milliamperes per square centimetre. Measured capacity loss after operation for 1,800 hours (more than 450 charge-discharge cycles at 100 per cent depth of discharge) projects retention of over 85 per cent of initial capacity after ten years of daily cycling. Our results demonstrate that alloying a high-melting-point, high-voltage metal (antimony) with a low-melting-point, low-cost metal (lead) advantageously decreases the operating temperature while maintaining a high cell voltage. Apart from the fact that this

  3. Dynamic Prediction of Power Storage and Delivery by Data-Based Fractional Differential Models of a Lithium Iron Phosphate Battery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yunfeng Jiang

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available A fractional derivative system identification approach for modeling battery dynamics is presented in this paper, where fractional derivatives are applied to approximate non-linear dynamic behavior of a battery system. The least squares-based state-variable filter (LSSVF method commonly used in the identification of continuous-time models is extended to allow the estimation of fractional derivative coefficents and parameters of the battery models by monitoring a charge/discharge demand signal and a power storage/delivery signal. In particular, the model is combined by individual fractional differential models (FDMs, where the parameters can be estimated by a least-squares algorithm. Based on experimental data, it is illustrated how the fractional derivative model can be utilized to predict the dynamics of the energy storage and delivery of a lithium iron phosphate battery (LiFePO 4 in real-time. The results indicate that a FDM can accurately capture the dynamics of the energy storage and delivery of the battery over a large operating range of the battery. It is also shown that the fractional derivative model exhibits improvements on prediction performance compared to standard integer derivative model, which in beneficial for a battery management system.

  4. Using CPE Function to Size Capacitor Storage for Electric Vehicles and Quantifying Battery Degradation during Different Driving Cycles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cong Zhang

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Range anxiety and battery cycle life are two major factors which restrict the development of electric vehicles. Battery degradation can be reduced by adding supercapacitors to create a Hybrid Energy Storage System. This paper proposes a systematic approach to configure the hybrid energy storage system and quantifies the battery degradation for electric vehicles when using supercapacitors. A continuous power-energy function is proposed to establish supercapacitor size based on national household travel survey statistics. By analyzing continuous driving action in standard driving cycles and special driving phases (start up and acceleration, the supercapacitor size is calculated to provide a compromise between the capacitor size and battery degradation. Estimating the battery degradation after 10 years, the battery capacity loss value decreases 17.55% and 21.6%, respectively, under the urban dynamometer driving schedule and the US06. Furthermore, the battery lifespan of the continuous power-energy configured system is prolonged 28.62% and 31.39%, respectively, compared with the battery alone system.

  5. Design of a Reliable Hybrid (PV/Diesel Power System with Energy Storage in Batteries for Remote Residential Home

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vincent Anayochukwu Ani

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper reports the experience acquired with a photovoltaic (PV hybrid system simulated as an alternative to diesel system for a residential home located in Southern Nigeria. The hybrid system was designed to overcome the problem of climate change, to ensure a reliable supply without interruption, and to improve the overall system efficiency (by the integration of the battery bank. The system design philosophy was to maximize simplicity; hence, the system was sized using conventional simulation tool and representative insolation data. The system includes a 15 kW PV array, 21.6 kWh (3600 Ah worth of battery storage, and a 5.4 kW (6.8 kVA generator. The paper features a detailed analysis of the energy flows through the system and quantifies all losses caused by PV charge controller, battery storage round-trip, rectifier, and inverter conversions. In addition, simulation was run to compare PV/diesel/battery with diesel/battery and the results show that the capital cost of a PV/diesel hybrid solution with batteries is nearly three times higher than that of a generator and battery combination, but the net present cost, representing cost over the lifetime of the system, is less than one-half of the generator and battery combination.

  6. The hybrid energy storages based on batteries and ultracapacitors for contact microwelding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bondarenko Yu. V.

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Micro resistance welding is an effective way to reliably join small-scale parts. It is widely used in electronics and instrument-making. The important particularities of micro resistance welding are pulse character of energy consumption, non-linear load and special form of current pulses. So, these particularities of welding process cause negative influence on the mains. One of the known ways to avoid it is to use autonomous power supplies for micro resistance welding machines. The important task for building autonomous power supplies is to choose effective energy storages, which have high capacity and small internal resistance, and which are capable to be charged and deliver energy to load very quickly. The solution of this task is seen in using hybrid energy storages, which include accumulators and ultracapacitors. The accumulators are able to provide high energy capacitance and the ultracapacitors are able to provide fast energy delivery. The possibility of application of hybrid energy storages, based on accumulator batteries and ultracapacitors, in micro resistance welding machines is confirmed with computer simulation. Two variants of hybrid energy storages are proposed. These hybrid energy storages have high power and dynamic characteristics, which are sufficient to generate current pulses for welding according to necessary settings.

  7. Super-capacitor and Thin Film Battery Hybrid Energy Storage for Energy Harvesting Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Wensi; Wang, Ningning; Vinco, Alessandro; Siddique, Rashid; Hayes, Mike; O'Flynn, Brendan; O'Mathuna, Cian

    2013-12-01

    This paper presents the design of hybrid energy storage unit (HESU) for energy harvesting applications using super-capacitor and thin film battery (TFB). The power management circuits of this hybrid energy storage unit are proposed to perform "smart" charge/discharge control in order to optimize the HESU from the perspectives of energy loss due to leakage current and equivalent series resistance (ESR). This paper shows the characterizations of ESUs for energy harvesting powered wireless sensor networks (WSN) applications. A new design of power management circuits is proposed in order to utilize the low ESR characteristics of super-capacitor and the low leakage current characteristics of the TFB in the hybrid energy storage. The average power loss due to leakage current is measured at 38μW in the proposed system. When Compared to the super-capacitor energy storage with the similar capacity, the proposed hybrid energy storage unit reduces the leakage power by approximately 45% whilst maintains a similar (<100 mΩ) ESR.

  8. Super-capacitor and Thin Film Battery Hybrid Energy Storage for Energy Harvesting Applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Wensi; Wang, Ningning; Vinco, Alessandro; Siddique, Rashid; Hayes, Mike; O'Flynn, Brendan; O'Mathuna, Cian

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents the design of hybrid energy storage unit (HESU) for energy harvesting applications using super-capacitor and thin film battery (TFB). The power management circuits of this hybrid energy storage unit are proposed to perform ''smart'' charge/discharge control in order to optimize the HESU from the perspectives of energy loss due to leakage current and equivalent series resistance (ESR). This paper shows the characterizations of ESUs for energy harvesting powered wireless sensor networks (WSN) applications. A new design of power management circuits is proposed in order to utilize the low ESR characteristics of super-capacitor and the low leakage current characteristics of the TFB in the hybrid energy storage. The average power loss due to leakage current is measured at 38μW in the proposed system. When Compared to the super-capacitor energy storage with the similar capacity, the proposed hybrid energy storage unit reduces the leakage power by approximately 45% whilst maintains a similar (<100 mΩ) ESR

  9. Excess Li-Ion Storage on Reconstructed Surfaces of Nanocrystals To Boost Battery Performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duan, Yandong; Zhang, Bingkai; Zheng, Jiaxin; Hu, Jiangtao; Wen, Jianguo; Miller, Dean J; Yan, Pengfei; Liu, Tongchao; Guo, Hua; Li, Wen; Song, Xiaohe; Zhuo, Zengqing; Liu, Chaokun; Tang, Hanting; Tan, Rui; Chen, Zonghai; Ren, Yang; Lin, Yuan; Yang, Wanli; Wang, Chong-Min; Wang, Lin-Wang; Lu, Jun; Amine, Khalil; Pan, Feng

    2017-10-11

    Because of their enhanced kinetic properties, nanocrystallites have received much attention as potential electrode materials for energy storage. However, because of the large specific surface areas of nanocrystallites, they usually suffer from decreased energy density, cycling stability, and effective electrode capacity. In this work, we report a size-dependent excess capacity beyond theoretical value (170 mA h g -1 ) by introducing extra lithium storage at the reconstructed surface in nanosized LiFePO 4 (LFP) cathode materials (186 and 207 mA h g -1 in samples with mean particle sizes of 83 and 42 nm, respectively). Moreover, this LFP composite also shows excellent cycling stability and high rate performance. Our multimodal experimental characterizations and ab initio calculations reveal that the surface extra lithium storage is mainly attributed to the charge passivation of Fe by the surface C-O-Fe bonds, which can enhance binding energy for surface lithium by compensating surface Fe truncated symmetry to create two types of extra positions for Li-ion storage at the reconstructed surfaces. Such surface reconstruction nanotechnology for excess Li-ion storage makes full use of the large specific surface area of the nanocrystallites, which can maintain the fast Li-ion transport and greatly enhance the capacity. This discovery and nanotechnology can be used for the design of high-capacity and efficient lithium ion batteries.

  10. Grid-Scale Energy Storage Demonstration of Ancillary Services Using the UltraBattery Technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seasholtz, Jeff [East Penn Mfg. Co., Inc., Lyons, PA (United States)

    2015-08-20

    The collaboration described in this document is being done as part of a cooperative research agreement under the Department of Energy’s Smart Grid Demonstration Program. This document represents the Final Technical Performance Report, from July 2012 through April 2015, for the East Penn Manufacturing Smart Grid Program demonstration project. This Smart Grid Demonstration project demonstrates Distributed Energy Storage for Grid Support, in particular the economic and technical viability of a grid-scale, advanced energy storage system using UltraBattery ® technology for frequency regulation ancillary services and demand management services. This project entailed the construction of a dedicated facility on the East Penn campus in Lyon Station, PA that is being used as a working demonstration to provide regulation ancillary services to PJM and demand management services to Metropolitan Edison (Met-Ed).

  11. Integration of Lithium-Ion Battery Storage Systems in Hydroelectric Plants for Supplying Primary Control Reserve

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabio Bignucolo

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The ever-growing diffusion of renewables as electrical generation sources is forcing the electrical power system to face new and challenging regulation problems to preserve grid stability. Among these, the primary control reserve is reckoned to be one of the most important issues, since the introduction of generators based on renewable energies and interconnected through static converters, if relieved from the primary reserve contribution, reduces both the system inertia and the available power reserve in case of network events involving frequency perturbations. In this scenario, renewable plants such as hydroelectric run-of-river generators could be required to provide the primary control reserve ancillary service. In this paper, the integration between a multi-unit run-of-river power plant and a lithium-ion based battery storage system is investigated, suitably accounting for the ancillary service characteristics as required by present grid codes. The storage system is studied in terms of maximum economic profitability, taking into account its operating constraints. Dynamic simulations are carried out within the DIgSILENT PowerFactory 2016 software environment in order to analyse the plant response in case of network frequency contingencies, comparing the pure hydroelectric plant with the hybrid one, in which the primary reserve is partially or completely supplied by the storage system. Results confirm that the battery storage system response to frequency perturbations is clearly faster and more accurate during the transient phase compared to a traditional plant, since time delays due to hydraulic and mechanical regulations are overpassed. A case study, based on data from an existing hydropower plant and referring to the Italian context in terms of operational constraints and ancillary service remuneration, is presented.

  12. Development method of Hybrid Energy Storage System, including PEM fuel cell and a battery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ustinov, A.; Khayrullina, A.; Borzenko, V.; Khmelik, M.; Sveshnikova, A.

    2016-09-01

    Development of fuel cell (FC) and hydrogen metal-hydride storage (MH) technologies continuously demonstrate higher efficiency rates and higher safety, as hydrogen is stored at low pressures of about 2 bar in a bounded state. A combination of a FC/MH system with an electrolyser, powered with a renewable source, allows creation of an almost fully autonomous power system, which could potentially replace a diesel-generator as a back-up power supply. However, the system must be extended with an electro-chemical battery to start-up the FC and compensate the electric load when FC fails to deliver the necessary power. Present paper delivers the results of experimental and theoretical investigation of a hybrid energy system, including a proton exchange membrane (PEM) FC, MH- accumulator and an electro-chemical battery, development methodology for such systems and the modelling of different battery types, using hardware-in-the-loop approach. The economic efficiency of the proposed solution is discussed using an example of power supply of a real town of Batamai in Russia.

  13. Design of Hydrogen Storage Alloys/Nanoporous Metals Hybrid Electrodes for Nickel-Metal Hydride Batteries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, M M; Yang, C C; Wang, C C; Wen, Z; Zhu, Y F; Zhao, M; Li, J C; Zheng, W T; Lian, J S; Jiang, Q

    2016-06-07

    Nickel metal hydride (Ni-MH) batteries have demonstrated key technology advantages for applications in new-energy vehicles, which play an important role in reducing greenhouse gas emissions and the world's dependence on fossil fuels. However, the poor high-rate dischargeability of the negative electrode materials-hydrogen storage alloys (HSAs) limits applications of Ni-MH batteries in high-power fields due to large polarization. Here we design a hybrid electrode by integrating HSAs with a current collector of three-dimensional bicontinuous nanoporous Ni. The electrode shows enhanced high-rate dischargeability with the capacity retention rate reaching 44.6% at a discharge current density of 3000 mA g(-1), which is 2.4 times that of bare HSAs (18.8%). Such a unique hybrid architecture not only enhances charge transfer between nanoporous Ni and HSAs, but also facilitates rapid diffusion of hydrogen atoms in HSAs. The developed HSAs/nanoporous metals hybrid structures exhibit great potential to be candidates as electrodes in high-performance Ni-MH batteries towards applications in new-energy vehicles.

  14. Rechargeable Batteries with High Energy Storage Activated by In-situ Induced Fluorination of Carbon Nanotube Cathode

    OpenAIRE

    Xinwei Cui; Jian Chen; Tianfei Wang; Weixing Chen

    2014-01-01

    High performance rechargeable batteries are urgently demanded for future energy storage systems. Here, we adopted a lithium-carbon battery configuration. Instead of using carbon materials as the surface provider for lithium-ion adsorption and desorption, we realized induced fluorination of carbon nanotube array (CNTA) paper cathodes, with the source of fluoride ions from electrolytes, by an in-situ electrochemical induction process. The induced fluorination of CNTA papers activated the revers...

  15. Real-Time Dynamic Simulation of Korean Power Grid for Frequency Regulation Control by MW Battery Energy Storage System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tae-Hwan Jin

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to develop a real-time dynamic simulator of a power grid with power plant and battery model. The simulator was used to investigate the frequency control characteristics of a megawatt-scale high-capacity energy storage system connected to the electric power grid. In this study, a lithium-ion secondary battery was chosen as one of the batteries for a grid-connected model. The dynamics of the model was analysed in both steady and transient states. The frequency control system of the battery model plays a role in regulating the grid frequency by controlling the power of energy storage systems according to process variables and grid frequencies. The power grid model based on the current power network of South Korea, included power plants, substations and power demands. The power supply is classified by the type of turbine generator as thermal, nuclear, hydro power, pumped power storage, combined power plants, and batteries, including high-capacity energy storage systems rated for a maximum of 500 MW. This study deals with an installed capacity of 87.17 GW and peak load of 77.30 GW in the Korean power grid. For 24 hours of operation, the maximum and minimum power outputs were simulated as 61.59 GW and 46.32 GW, respectively. The commercialized real-time dynamic simulation software ProTRAX was used. The simulation was conducted to observe the operation characteristics of the frequency control system during a breakdown of power plants, as well as under governor-free operation, auto generation control operation, and with the battery energy storage system connected. The results show that the model is valid for each power plant breakdown simulation. They also confirm that the output power and frequency controls of the battery operated well during simulations.

  16. Battery selection for Space Shuttle experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Francisco, David R.

    1993-04-01

    This paper will delineate the criteria required for the selection of batteries as a power source for space experiments. Four basic types of batteries will be explored, lead acid, silver zinc, alkaline manganese, and nickel cadmium. A detailed description of the lead acid and silver zinc cells and a brief exploration of the alkaline manganese and nickel cadmium will be given. The factors involved in battery selection such as packaging, energy density, discharge voltage regulation, and cost will be thoroughly examined. The pros and cons of each battery type will be explored. Actual laboratory test data acquired for the lead acid and silver zinc cell will be discussed. This data will include discharging under various temperature conditions, after three months of storage, and with different types of loads. The lifetime and number of charge/discharge cycles will also be discussed. A description of the required maintenance for each type of battery will be investigated.

  17. Synchronization method for grid integrated battery storage systems during asymmetrical grid faults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Popadić Bane

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper aims at presenting a robust and reliable synchronization method for battery storage systems during asymmetrical grid faults. For this purpose, a Matlab/Simulink based model for testing of the power electronic interface between the grid and the battery storage systems has been developed. The synchronization method proposed in the paper is based on the proportional integral resonant controller with the delay signal cancellation. The validity of the synchronization method has been verified using the advanced laboratory station for the control of grid connected distributed energy sources. The proposed synchronization method has eliminated unfavourable components from the estimated grid angular frequency, leading to the more accurate and reliable tracking of the grid voltage vector positive sequence during both the normal operation and the operation during asymmetrical grid faults. [Project of the Serbian Ministry of Education, Science and Technological Development, Grant no. III 042004: Integrated and Interdisciplinary Research entitled: Smart Electricity Distribution Grids Based on Distribution Management System and Distributed Generation

  18. Solar plus: Optimization of distributed solar PV through battery storage and dispatchable load in residential buildings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    O' Shaughnessy, Eric; Cutler, Dylan; Ardani, Kristen; Margolis, Robert

    2018-03-01

    As utility electricity rates evolve, pairing solar photovoltaic (PV) systems with battery storage has potential to ensure the value proposition of residential solar by mitigating economic uncertainty. In addition to batteries, load control technologies can reshape customer load profiles to optimize PV system use. The combination of PV, energy storage, and load control provides an integrated approach to PV deployment, which we call 'solar plus'. The U.S. National Renewable Energy Laboratory's Renewable Energy Optimization (REopt) model is utilized to evaluate cost-optimal technology selection, sizing, and dispatch in residential buildings under a variety of rate structures and locations. The REopt model is extended to include a controllable or 'smart' domestic hot water heater model and smart air conditioner model. We find that the solar plus approach improves end user economics across a variety of rate structures - especially those that are challenging for PV - including lower grid export rates, non-coincident time-of-use structures, and demand charges.

  19. Rechargeable Metal-Air Proton-Exchange Membrane Batteries for Renewable Energy Storage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagao, Masahiro; Kobayashi, Kazuyo; Yamamoto, Yuta; Yamaguchi, Togo; Oogushi, Akihide; Hibino, Takashi

    2016-02-01

    Rechargeable proton-exchange membrane batteries that employ organic chemical hydrides as hydrogen-storage media have the potential to serve as next-generation power sources; however, significant challenges remain regarding the improvement of the reversible hydrogen-storage capacity. Here, we address this challenge through the use of metal-ion redox couples as energy carriers for battery operation. Carbon, with a suitable degree of crystallinity and surface oxygenation, was used as an effective anode material for the metal redox reactions. A Sn 0.9 In 0.1 P 2 O 7 -based electrolyte membrane allowed no crossover of vanadium ions through the membrane. The V 4+ /V 3+ , V 3+ /V 2+ , and Sn 4+ /Sn 2+ redox reactions took place at a more positive potential than that for hydrogen reduction, so that undesired hydrogen production could be avoided. The resulting electrical capacity reached 306 and 258 mAh g -1 for VOSO 4 and SnSO 4 , respectively, and remained at 76 and 91 % of their respective initial values after 50 cycles.

  20. An economic comparison of battery energy storage to conventional energy efficiency technologies in Colorado manufacturing facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nataf, Kalen; Bradley, Thomas H.

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Energy storage’s and efficiency technologies’ economic payback is compared. • Conventional efficiency technologies have shorter payback for the customers studied. • Hypothetical incentives can lower the payback periods of battery energy storage. - Abstract: Battery energy storage (BES) is one of a set of technologies that can be considered to reduce electrical loads, and to realize economic value for industrial customers. To directly compare the energy savings and economic effectiveness of BES to more conventional energy efficiency technologies, this study collected detailed information regarding the electrical loads associated with four Colorado manufacturing facilities. These datasets were used to generate a set of three scenarios for each manufacturer: implementation of a BES system, implementation of a set of conventional energy efficiency recommendations, and the implementation of both BES and conventional energy efficiency technologies. Evaluating these scenarios’ economic payback period allows for a direct comparison between the cost-effectiveness of energy efficiency technologies and that of BES, demonstrates the costs and benefits of implementing both BES and energy efficiency technologies, and characterizes the effectiveness of potential incentives in improving economic payback. For all of the manufacturing facilities modeled, results demonstrate that BES is the least cost-effective among the energy efficiency technologies considered, but that simultaneous implementation of both BES and energy efficiency technologies has a negligible effect on the BES payback period. Incentives are demonstrated to be required for BES to achieve near-term payback period parity with more conventional energy efficiency technologies.

  1. Utilization of Pb and PbO2 from lead storage battery waste for batik wastewater treatment using electrochemical method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riyanto; Wulandari, Siti

    2017-11-01

    In this study, we developed of utilization of Pb and PbO2 from lead storage battery waste for batik wastewater treatment using electrochemical method. This research aimed to degrade batik wastewater with direct oxidation in the electrolysis cell. Degradation has been done by electrolysis of 50 mL batik waste using Na2SO4 as electrolyte with various concentrations and voltages. The electrolysis result were analyzed by Spectrophotometer UV-Visible. The result showed that PbO2/Pb electrode from lead storage battery waste has high effect for electrochemical degradation of batik wastewater. Based on UV-Visible spectrum showed that the optimum several of electrolyte concentration and voltage for degradation batik waste was 0.4 M and 9 V, respectively. As conclusions, Pb and PbO2 from lead storage battery waste can be used for electrode for batik wastewater treatment using the electrochemical method.

  2. Identifying Potential Markets for Behind-the-Meter Battery Energy Storage: A Survey of U.S. Demand Charges

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McLaren, Joyce A [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Gagnon, Pieter J [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Mullendore, Seth [Clean Energy Group, Montpelier, Vermont

    2017-08-07

    This paper presents the first publicly available comprehensive survey of the magnitude of demand charges for commercial customers across the United States -- a key predictor of the financial performance of behind-the-meter battery storage systems. Notably, the analysis estimates that there are nearly 5 million commercial customers in the United States who can subscribe to retail electricity tariffs that have demand charges in excess of $15 per kilowatt (kW), over a quarter of the 18 million commercial customers in total in the United States. While the economic viability of installing battery energy storage must be determined on a case-by-case basis, high demand charges are often cited as a critical factor in battery project economics. Increasing use of demand charges in utility tariffs and anticipated future declines in storage costs will only serve to unlock additional markets and strengthen existing ones.

  3. Electricity storage - A challenge for energy transition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bart, Jean-Baptiste; Nekrasov, Andre; Pastor, Emmanuel; Benefice, Emmanuel; Brincourt, Thierry; Cagnac, Albannie; Brisse, Annabelle; Jeandel, Elodie; Lefebvre, Thierry; Penneau, Jean-Francois; Radvanyi, Etienne; Delille, Gautier; Hinchliffe, Timothee; Lancel, Gilles; Loevenbruck, Philippe; Soler, Robert; Stevens, Philippe; Torcheux, Laurent

    2017-01-01

    After a presentation of the energetic context and of its issues, this collective publication proposes presentations of various electricity storage technologies with a distinction between direct storage, thermal storage and hydrogen storage. As far as direct storage is concerned, the following options are described: pumped energy transfer stations or PETS, compressed air energy storage or CAES, flywheels, various types of electrochemical batteries (lead, alkaline, sodium, lithium), metal air batteries, redox flow batteries, and super-capacitors. Thermal storage comprises power-to-heat and heat-to-power technologies. Hydrogen can be stored under different forms (compressed gas, liquid), in saline underground cavities, or by using water electrolysis and fuel cells. The authors propose an overview of the different services provided by energy storage to the electricity system, and discuss the main perspectives and challenges for tomorrow's storage (electric mobility, integration of renewable energies, electrification of isolated areas, scenarios of development)

  4. Control of a Multi-Functional Inverter for Grid Integration of PV and Battery Energy Storage System

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mousazadeh, Seyyed Yousef; Firoozabadi, Mehdi Savaghebi; Beirami, A.

    2015-01-01

    power point tracking (MPPT) of PV array. The power system is 3-phase 4-wires and the DC/AC inverter is chosen 4-leg three phase inverter which has good performance in presence of zero sequence components. Battery energy storage is connected to PV system in common DC bus and a power management strategy......This paper presents a multi-functional control of a DC/AC inverter for Power Quality compensation of nonlinear and unequal local loads and grid integration of hybrid photovoltaic (PV) and battery energy storage systems. Multi-layer neural network estimator and a DC/DC converter are used for maximum...

  5. Key challenges and recent progress in batteries, fuel cells, and hydrogen storage for clean energy systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chalk, Steven G.; Miller, James F.

    Reducing or eliminating the dependency on petroleum of transportation systems is a major element of US energy research activities. Batteries are a key enabling technology for the development of clean, fuel-efficient vehicles and are key to making today's hybrid electric vehicles a success. Fuel cells are the key enabling technology for a future hydrogen economy and have the potential to revolutionize the way we power our nations, offering cleaner, more efficient alternatives to today's technology. Additionally fuel cells are significantly more energy efficient than combustion-based power generation technologies. Fuel cells are projected to have energy efficiency twice that of internal combustion engines. However before fuel cells can realize their potential, significant challenges remain. The two most important are cost and durability for both automotive and stationary applications. Recent electrocatalyst developments have shown that Pt alloy catalysts have increased activity and greater durability than Pt catalysts. The durability of conventional fluorocarbon membranes is improving, and hydrocarbon-based membranes have also shown promise of equaling the performance of fluorocarbon membranes at lower cost. Recent announcements have also provided indications that fuel cells can start from freezing conditions without significant deterioration. Hydrogen storage systems for vehicles are inadequate to meet customer driving range expectations (>300 miles or 500 km) without intrusion into vehicle cargo or passenger space. The United States Department of Energy has established three centers of Excellence for hydrogen storage materials development. The centers are focused on complex metal hydrides that can be regenerated onboard a vehicle, chemical hydrides that require off-board reprocessing, and carbon-based storage materials. Recent developments have shown progress toward the 2010 DOE targets. In addition DOE has established an independent storage material testing center

  6. Hydrogen storage property of alkali and alkaline-earth metal atoms decorated C24 fullerene: A DFT study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yafei; Cheng, Xinlu

    2018-04-01

    The hydrogen storage behavior of alkali and alkaline-earth metal (AM = Li, Na, K, Mg, Ca) atoms decorated C24 fullerene was investigated by using density functional theory (DFT) study. Our results indicate that the AM atoms prefer to adsorb atop the center of tetragon of C24 fullerene with the largest binding energy than other possible adsorption sites. Moreover, the hydrogen storage gravimetric density of 24H2/6Li/C24, 24H2/6Na/C24 and 36H2/6Ca/C24 configurations reaches up to 12.7 wt%, 10.1 wt% and 12 wt%, higher than the year 2020 target from the US department of energy (DOE). Also, the average adsorption energies of H2 molecules of the 24H2/6Li/C24, 24H2/6Na/C24 and 36H2/6Ca/C24 configurations are -0.198 eV/H2, -0.164 eV/H2 and -0.138 eV/H2, locate the desirable range under the physical adsorption at near ambient conditions. These findings will have important implications on designing new hydrogen storage materials in the future.

  7. A New Battery Energy Storage Charging/Discharging Scheme for Wind Power Producers in Real-Time Markets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Minh Y Nguyen

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Under a deregulated environment, wind power producers are subject to many regulation costs due to the intermittence of natural resources and the accuracy limits of existing prediction tools. This paper addresses the operation (charging/discharging problem of battery energy storage installed in a wind generation system in order to improve the value of wind power in the real-time market. Depending on the prediction of market prices and the probabilistic information of wind generation, wind power producers can schedule the battery energy storage for the next day in order to maximize the profit. In addition, by taking into account the expenses of using batteries, the proposed charging/discharging scheme is able to avoid the detrimental operation of battery energy storage which can lead to a significant reduction of battery lifetime, i.e., uneconomical operation. The problem is formulated in a dynamic programming framework and solved by a dynamic programming backward algorithm. The proposed scheme is then applied to the study cases, and the results of simulation show its effectiveness.

  8. Battery Storage Systems as Grid-Balancing Measure in Low-Voltage Distribution Grids with Distributed Generation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bernhard Faessler

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Due to the promoted integration of renewable sources, a further growth of strongly transient, distributed generation is expected. Thus, the existing electrical grid may reach its physical limits. To counteract this, and to fully exploit the viable potential of renewables, grid-balancing measures are crucial. In this work, battery storage systems are embedded in a grid simulation to evaluate their potential for grid balancing. The overall setup is based on a real, low-voltage distribution grid topology, real smart meter household load profiles, and real photovoltaics load data. An autonomous optimization routine, driven by a one-way communicated incentive, determines the prospective battery operation mode. Different battery positions and incentives are compared to evaluate their impact. The configurations incorporate a baseline simulation without storage, a single, central battery storage or multiple, distributed battery storages which together have the same power and capacity. The incentives address either market conditions, grid balancing, optimal photovoltaic utilization, load shifting, or self-consumption. Simulations show that grid-balancing incentives result in lowest peak-to-average power ratios, while maintaining negligible voltage changes in comparison to a reference case. Incentives reflecting market conditions for electricity generation, such as real-time pricing, negatively influence the power quality, especially with respect to the peak-to-average power ratio. A central, feed-in-tied storage performs better in terms of minimizing the voltage drop/rise and shows lower distribution losses, while distributed storages attached at nodes with electricity generation by photovoltaics achieve lower peak-to-average power ratios.

  9. Enhancing Near Zero Volt Storage Tolerance of Lithium-ion Batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crompton, Kyle R.

    There are inherent safety risks associated with inactive lithium ion batteries leading to greater restrictions and regulations on shipping and storage. Maintaining all cells of a lithium ion battery at near zero voltage with an applied fixed resistive load is one promising approach which can lessen (and potentially eliminate) the risk of a lithium ion battery entering thermal runaway when in an inactive state. However, in a conventional lithium ion cell, a near zero cell voltage can be damaging if the anode electrochemical potential increases to greater than the potential where dissolution of the standard copper current collector occurs (i.e. 3.1 V vs. Li/Li+ at room temperature). Past approaches to yield lithium ion cells that are resilient to a near zero volt state of charge involve use of secondary active materials or alternative current collectors which have anticipated tradeoffs in terms of cell performance and cost. In the the present dissertation work the approach of managing the amount of reversible lithium in a cell during construction to prevent the anode potential from increasing to greater than 3.1 V vs. Li/Li+ during near zero volt storage is introduced. Anode pre-lithiation was used in LiCoO 2/MCMB pouch cells to appropriately manage the amount of reversible lithium so that there is excess reversible lithium compared to the cathodes intercalation capacity (reversible lithium excess cell or RLE cell). RLE LiCoO 2/MCMB cells maintained 99% of their original capacity after three, 3-day and three, 7-day storage periods at near zero volts under fixed load. A LiCoO2/MCMB pouch cell fabricated with a pre-lithiated anode also maintained its original discharge performance after three, 3-day storage periods under fixed load at 45°C. The strong recharge performance after near zero volt storage is attributed to the anode potential remaining below the copper dissolution potential during near zero volt storage as informed by reference electrode measurements. Pulse

  10. Primary Frequency Regulation with Li-Ion Battery Energy Storage System - Evaluation and Comparison of Different Control Strategies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thorbergsson, Egill; Knap, Vaclav; Swierczynski, Maciej Jozef

    2013-01-01

    market. The revenues and degradation of the Lithium-ion batteries are obtained by simulations. Furthermore, an energy management strategy based on variable state-of-charge (SOC) set-point is evaluated. Preliminary, the influence of different state-of-charge levels on the cycle lifetime is estimated...... different degradation levels of the Lithium-ion batteries were observed. Furthermore, it was found that the economic benefits are declining by increasing the batteries' SOC set-point....... devices is becoming more attractive, the aim of this paper is to analyse the viability of providing primary frequency regulation with Lithium-ion based energy storage systems. Three control strategies of the energy storage system are analysed and compared in terms of economic benefits on the Danish energy...

  11. Recent Developments of Photovoltaics Integrated with Battery Storage Systems and Related Feed-In Tariff Policies: A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angel A. Bayod-Rújula

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents a review of the recent developments of photovoltaics integrated with battery storage systems (PV-BESs and related to feed-in tariff policies. The integrated photovoltaic battery systems are separately discussed in the regulatory context of Germany, Italy, Spain, United Kingdom, Australia, and Greece; the attention of this paper is focused on those integrated systems subject to incentivisation policies such as feed-in tariff. Most of the contributions reported in this paper consider already existing incentive schemes; the remaining part of the contributions proposes interesting and novel feed-in tariff schemes. All the contributions provide an important resource for carrying out further research on a new era of incentive policies in order to promote storage technologies and integrated photovoltaic battery systems in smart grids and smart cities. Recent incentive policies adopted in Germany, Italy, Spain, and Australia are also discussed.

  12. Optimal Sizing and Control of Battery Energy Storage System for Peak Load Shaving

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chao Lu

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Battery Energy Storage System (BESS can be utilized to shave the peak load in power systems and thus defer the need to upgrade the power grid. Based on a rolling load forecasting method, along with the peak load reduction requirements in reality, at the planning level, we propose a BESS capacity planning model for peak and load shaving problem. At the operational level, we consider the optimal control policy towards charging and discharging power with two different optimization objectives: one is to diminish the difference between the peak load and the valley load, the other is to minimize the daily load variance. Particularly, the constraint of charging and discharging cycles, which is an important issue in practice, is taken into consideration. Finally, based on real load data, we provide simulation results that validate the proposed optimization models and control strategies.

  13. Active and reactive power support of MV distribution systems using battery energy storage

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wang, Jiawei; Hashemi Toghroljerdi, Seyedmostafa; You, Shi

    2017-01-01

    shaving and voltage support service from the perspective of Distribution System Operators (DSOs). An active power support algorithm is implemented and the effects of various load profiles as well as different Photovoltaic (PV) penetration scenarios on the operation of BESS and the optimal BESS converter......Adoption of Battery Energy Storage Systems (BESSs) for provision of grid services is increasing. This paper investigates the applications of BESS for the grid upgrade deferral and voltage support of Medium Voltage (MV) distribution systems. A BESS is modelled in Matlab/Simulink to perform peak load...... size for peak load shaving are investigated. The BESS annual lifetime degradation is also estimated using a rainflow counting algorithm. A reactive power support algorithm embedded with Q-U droop control is proposed in order to reduce the voltage drop in a part of 10 kV distribution network of Nordhavn...

  14. Stand-alone wind system with Vanadium Redox Battery energy storage

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Teodorescu, Remus; Barote, L.; Weissbach, R.

    2008-01-01

    Energy storage devices are required for power balance and power quality in stand alone wind energy systems. A Vanadium Redox Flow Battery (VRB) system has many features which make its integration with a stand-alone wind energy system attractive. This paper proposes the integration of a VRB system...... with a typical stand-alone wind energy system during wind speed variation as well as transient performance under variable load. The investigated system consists of a variable speed wind turbine with permanent magnet synchronous generator (PMSG), diode rectifier bridge, buck-boost converter, bidirectional charge...... controller, transformer, inverter, ac loads and VRB (to store a surplus of wind energy and to supply power during a wind power shortage). The main purpose is to supply domestic appliances through a single phase 230V, 50Hz inverter. Simulations are accomplished in order to validate the stability of the supply....

  15. Battery energy storage sizing when time of use pricing is applied.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carpinelli, Guido; Khormali, Shahab; Mottola, Fabio; Proto, Daniela

    2014-01-01

    Battery energy storage systems (BESSs) are considered a key device to be introduced to actuate the smart grid paradigm. However, the most critical aspect related to the use of such device is its economic feasibility as it is a still developing technology characterized by high costs and limited life duration. Particularly, the sizing of BESSs must be performed in an optimized way in order to maximize the benefits related to their use. This paper presents a simple and quick closed form procedure for the sizing of BESSs in residential and industrial applications when time-of-use tariff schemes are applied. A sensitivity analysis is also performed to consider different perspectives in terms of life span and future costs.

  16. Battery Energy Storage Sizing When Time of Use Pricing Is Applied

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guido Carpinelli

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Battery energy storage systems (BESSs are considered a key device to be introduced to actuate the smart grid paradigm. However, the most critical aspect related to the use of such device is its economic feasibility as it is a still developing technology characterized by high costs and limited life duration. Particularly, the sizing of BESSs must be performed in an optimized way in order to maximize the benefits related to their use. This paper presents a simple and quick closed form procedure for the sizing of BESSs in residential and industrial applications when time-of-use tariff schemes are applied. A sensitivity analysis is also performed to consider different perspectives in terms of life span and future costs.

  17. Control and management of energy in a PV system equipped with batteries storage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kamal Hirech

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we present a work concerning the conception, implementation and testing of a photovoltaic system that is equipped with a new concept of control and manage the energy in a PV system with a battery storage. The objective is to exploit the maximum of power using Hill climbing improved algorithm that considers optimal electrical characteristics of PV panels regardless of the system perturbation, to manage the energy between blocs of PV system in order to control the charge/discharge process and inject the energy surplus into the grid and also to estimate the state of charge with precision. Moreover, the system guarantees the acquisition and presentation of results on computer, supervision and so on. The results obtained show the robustness of the PV system, good control and protection of batteries under the maximum of energy provided by the PV panels. The state of charge estimation is evaluated by using measured parameters in real time; it shows an improvement of around 5% compared to the conventional technique.

  18. Coordinated Control Scheme of Battery Energy Storage System (BESS) and Distributed Generations (DGs) for Electric Distribution Grid Operation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cha, Seung-Tae; Zhao, Haoran; Wu, Qiuwei

    2012-01-01

    This paper describes a coordinated control scheme of battery energy storage system (BESS) and distributed generations (DGs) for electric distribution grid operation. The BESS is designed to stabilize frequency and voltages as a primary control after the electric distribution system enters...

  19. Optimal Sizing and Placement of Battery Energy Storage in Distribution System Based on Solar Size for Voltage Regulation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nazaripouya, Hamidreza [Univ. of California, Los Angeles, CA (United States); Wang, Yubo [Univ. of California, Los Angeles, CA (United States); Chu, Peter [Univ. of California, Los Angeles, CA (United States); Pota, Hemanshu R. [Univ. of California, Los Angeles, CA (United States); Gadh, Rajit [Univ. of California, Los Angeles, CA (United States)

    2016-07-26

    This paper proposes a new strategy to achieve voltage regulation in distributed power systems in the presence of solar energy sources and battery storage systems. The goal is to find the minimum size of battery storage and its corresponding location in the network based on the size and place of the integrated solar generation. The proposed method formulates the problem by employing the network impedance matrix to obtain an analytical solution instead of using a recursive algorithm such as power flow. The required modifications for modeling the slack and PV buses (generator buses) are utilized to increase the accuracy of the approach. The use of reactive power control to regulate the voltage regulation is not always an optimal solution as in distribution systems R/X is large. In this paper the minimum size and the best place of battery storage is achieved by optimizing the amount of both active and reactive power exchanged by battery storage and its gridtie inverter (GTI) based on the network topology and R/X ratios in the distribution system. Simulation results for the IEEE 14-bus system verify the effectiveness of the proposed approach.

  20. A Novel Degradation Estimation Method for a Hybrid Energy Storage System Consisting of Battery and Double-Layer Capacitor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuanbin Yu

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a new method for battery degradation estimation using a power-energy (PE function in a battery/ultracapacitor hybrid energy storage system (HESS, and the integrated optimization which concerns both parameters matching and control for HESS has been done as well. A semiactive topology of HESS with double-layer capacitor (EDLC coupled directly with DC-link is adopted for a hybrid electric city bus (HECB. In the purpose of presenting the quantitative relationship between system parameters and battery serving life, the data during a 37-minute driving cycle has been collected and decomposed into discharging/charging fragments firstly, and then the optimal control strategy which is supposed to maximally use the available EDLC energy is presented to decompose the power between battery and EDLC. Furthermore, based on a battery degradation model, the conversion of power demand by PE function and PE matrix is applied to evaluate the relationship between the available energy stored in HESS and the serving life of battery pack. Therefore, according to the approach which could decouple parameters matching and optimal control of the HESS, the process of battery degradation and its serving life estimation for HESS has been summed up.

  1. Sulfur-containing compounds heated under alkaline condition: antibrowning, antioxidative activities, and their effect on quality of shrimp during iced storage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phonpala, Yoottana; Benjakul, Soottawat; Visessanguan, Wonnop; Eun, Jong-Bang

    2009-08-01

    Sulfur-containing compounds heated under alkaline condition (pH 10) were determined for inhibitory activity toward polyphenol oxidase (PPO) from Pacific white shrimp (Litopenaeus vannamei) and for antioxidative activity. Cysteine and glutathione (GSH) (20 mM) heated at 100 degrees C at pH 10 strongly inhibited PPO activity. Heated alkaline cysteine showed the greater 2,2-azino-bis(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid) (ABTS) and 2,2-diphenyl-1-picryl hydrazyl (DPPH) radical scavenging activity, copper-chelating activity and reducing power than cysteine and glucose-cysteine Maillard reaction products (P alkaline cysteine at different concentrations (0, 20, and 100 mM) on the quality changes of Pacific white shrimp during iced storage was investigated. Shrimp treated with 100 mM heated alkaline cysteine had the lowest melanosis score, thiobarbituric acid-reactive substances (TBARS) value and total viable count (TVC), compared with those without treatment and treated with 20 mM heated alkaline cysteine, throughout the storage of 12 d (P alkaline cysteine can be used as a novel additive to retard melanosis and extend the quality of postmortem shrimp.

  2. Development and Implementation of a Battery-Electric Light-Duty Class 2a Truck including Hybrid Energy Storage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kollmeyer, Phillip J.

    This dissertation addresses two major related research topics: 1) the design, fabrication, modeling, and experimental testing of a battery-electric light-duty Class 2a truck; and 2) the design and evaluation of a hybrid energy storage system (HESS) for this and other vehicles. The work begins with the determination of the truck's peak power and wheel torque requirements (135kW/4900Nm). An electric traction system is then designed that consists of an interior permanent magnet synchronous machine, two-speed gearbox, three-phase motor drive, and LiFePO4 battery pack. The battery pack capacity is selected to achieve a driving range similar to the 2011 Nissan Leaf electric vehicle (73 miles). Next, the demonstrator electric traction system is built and installed in the vehicle, a Ford F150 pickup truck, and an extensive set of sensors and data acquisition equipment is installed. Detailed loss models of the battery pack, electric traction machine, and motor drive are developed and experimentally verified using the driving data. Many aspects of the truck's performance are investigated, including efficiency differences between the two-gear configuration and the optimal gear selection. The remainder focuses on the application of battery/ultracapacitor hybrid energy storage systems (HESS) to electric vehicles. First, the electric truck is modeled with the addition of an ultracapacitor pack and a dc/dc converter. Rule-based and optimal battery/ultracapacitor power-split control algorithms are then developed, and the performance improvements achieved for both algorithms are evaluated for operation at 25°C. The HESS modeling is then extended to low temperatures, where battery resistance increases substantially. To verify the accuracy of the model-predicted results, a scaled hybrid energy storage system is built and the system is tested for several drive cycles and for two temperatures. The HESS performance is then modeled for three variants of the vehicle design, including the

  3. Break-Even Points of Battery Energy Storage Systems for Peak Shaving Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudia Rahmann

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available In the last few years, several investigations have been carried out in the field of optimal sizing of energy storage systems (ESSs at both the transmission and distribution levels. Nevertheless, most of these works make important assumptions about key factors affecting ESS profitability such as efficiency and life cycles and especially about the specific costs of the ESS, without considering the uncertainty involved. In this context, this work aims to answer the question: what should be the costs of different ESS technologies in order to make a profit when considering peak shaving applications? The paper presents a comprehensive sensitivity analysis of the interaction between the profitability of an ESS project and some key parameters influencing the project performance. The proposed approach determines the break-even points for different ESSs considering a wide range of life cycles, efficiencies, energy prices, and power prices. To do this, an optimization algorithm for the sizing of ESSs is proposed from a distribution company perspective. From the results, it is possible to conclude that, depending on the values of round trip efficiency, life cycles, and power price, there are four battery energy storage systems (BESS technologies that are already profitable when only peak shaving applications are considered: lead acid, NaS, ZnBr, and vanadium redox.

  4. Porphyrin-Based Symmetric Redox-Flow Batteries towards Cold-Climate Energy Storage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Ting; Pan, Zeng; Miao, Licheng; Chen, Chengcheng; Han, Mo; Shang, Zhenfeng; Chen, Jun

    2018-03-12

    Electrochemical energy storage with redox-flow batteries (RFBs) under subzero temperature is of great significance for the use of renewable energy in cold regions. However, RFBs are generally used above 10 °C. Herein we present non-aqueous organic RFBs based on 5,10,15,20-tetraphenylporphyrin (H 2 TPP) as a bipolar redox-active material (anode: [H 2 TPP] 2- /H 2 TPP, cathode: H 2 TPP/[H 2 TPP] 2+ ) and a Y-zeolite-poly(vinylidene fluoride) (Y-PVDF) ion-selective membrane with high ionic conductivity as a separator. The constructed RFBs exhibit a high volumetric capacity of 8.72 Ah L -1 with a high voltage of 2.83 V and excellent cycling stability (capacity retention exceeding 99.98 % per cycle) in the temperature range between 20 and -40 °C. Our study highlights principles for the design of RFBs that operate at low temperatures, thus offering a promising approach to electrochemical energy storage under cold-climate conditions. © 2018 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  5. A micro-grid operation analysis for cost-effective battery energy storage and RES plants integration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barelli, L.; Bidini, G.; Bonucci, F.

    2016-01-01

    Penetration of renewable energy is strongly slowed by its characteristic intermittency and fluctuating trend and by the inadequacy of electricity networks. These issues can be addressed through the development of new or improved storage technologies with higher performance, availability, durability, safety and lower costs. In the present work, micro-grids characterized by the presence of different subsections including renewable plants coupled with batteries storage solution are investigated through the development of a suitable code. Several design conditions and features, related to RES plant, storage system and users, were considered in order to realize a sensitivity analysis aimed to examine, on a yearly base and with one minute time step, interactions among the different micro-grid subsections and to identify the best solutions from both economic and energy point of views. - Highlights: • Storage systems coupling to RES plants is investigated for micro-grids. • Interactions between RES plants, storage batteries and users are analyzed. • Self-consumption increases with storage installation. • Investment pay-back analysis is performed varying plant configurations. • Pay-back reduction up to 30–40% for new RES/Storage integrated installations.

  6. A Power Smoothing Control Strategy and Optimized Allocation of Battery Capacity Based on Hybrid Storage Energy Technology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yong Li

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Wind power parallel operation is an effective way to realize the large scale use of wind power, but the fluctuations of power output from wind power units may have great influence on power quality, hence a new method of power smoothing and capacity optimized allocation based on hybrid energy storage technology is proposed in terms of the uncontrollable and unexpected characteristics of wind speed in wind farms. First, power smoothing based on a traditional Inertial Filter is introduced and the relationship between the time constant, its smoothing effect and capacity allocation are analyzed and combined with Proportional Integral Differential (PID control to realize power smoothing control of wind power. Then wavelet theory is adopted to realize a multi-layer decomposition of power output in some wind farms, a power smoothing model based on hybrid energy storage technology is constructed combining the characteristics of the Super Capacitor (SC and Battery Energy Storage System (BESS technologies. The hybrid energy storage system is available for power fluctuations with high frequency-low energy and low frequency-high energy to achieve good smoothing effects compared with a single energy storage system. The power fluctuations filtered by the Wavelet Transform is regarded as the target value of BESS, the charging and discharging control for battery is completed quickly by Model Algorithm Control (MAC. Because of the influence of the inertia and the response speed of the battery, its actual output is not completely equal to the target value which mainly reflects in high-frequency part, the difference part uses SC to compensate and makes the output of battery and SC closer to the target value on the whole. Compared with the traditional Inertial Filter and PID control method, the validity of the model was verified by simulation results. Finally under the premise of power grid standards, the corresponding capacity design had been given to reduce the

  7. Optimized Sizing, Selection, and Economic Analysis of Battery Energy Storage for Grid-Connected Wind-PV Hybrid System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hina Fathima

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Energy storages are emerging as a predominant sector for renewable energy applications. This paper focuses on a feasibility study to integrate battery energy storage with a hybrid wind-solar grid-connected power system to effectively dispatch wind power by incorporating peak shaving and ramp rate limiting. The sizing methodology is optimized using bat optimization algorithm to minimize the cost of investment and losses incurred by the system in form of load shedding and wind curtailment. The integrated system is then tested with an efficient battery management strategy which prevents overcharging/discharging of the battery. In the study, five major types of battery systems are considered and analyzed. They are evaluated and compared based on technoeconomic and environmental metrics as per Indian power market scenario. Technoeconomic analysis of the battery is validated by simulations, on a proposed wind-photovoltaic system in a wind site in Southern India. Environmental analysis is performed by evaluating the avoided cost of emissions.

  8. Alkaline solid polymer electrolytes and their application to rechargeable batteries; Electrolytes solides polymeres alcalins application aux generateurs electrochimiques rechargeables

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guinot, S.

    1996-03-15

    A new family of solid polymer electrolytes (SPE) based on polyoxyethylene (POE), KOH and water is investigated in view of its use in rechargeable batteries. After a short review on rechargeable batteries, the preparation of various electrolyte compositions is described. Their characterization by differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), thermogravimetric analysis, X-ray diffraction and microscopy confirm a multi-phasic structure. Conductivity measurements give values up to 10 sup -3 S cm sup -1 at room temperature. Their use in cells with nickel as negative electrode and cadmium or zinc as positive electrode has been tested; cycling possibility has been shown to be satisfactory. (C.B.) 113 refs.

  9. Optimization of Battery Capacity Decay for Semi-Active Hybrid Energy Storage System Equipped on Electric City Bus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaogang Wu

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available In view of severe changes in temperature during different seasons in cold areas of northern China, the decay of battery capacity of electric vehicles poses a problem. This paper uses an electric bus power system with semi-active hybrid energy storage system (HESS as the research object and proposes a convex power distribution strategy to optimize the battery current that represents degradation of battery capacity based on the analysis of semi-empirical LiFePO4 battery life decline model. Simulation results show that, at a room temperature of 25 °C, during a daily trip organized by the Harbin City Driving Cycle including four cycle lines and four charging phases, the percentage of battery degradation was 9.6 × 10−3%. According to the average temperature of different months in Harbin, the percentage of battery degradation of the power distribution strategy proposed in this paper is 3.15% in one year; the electric bus can operate for 6.4 years until its capacity reduces to 80% of its initial value, and it can operate for 0.51 year more than the rule-based power distribution strategy.

  10. Study of the alloying additives and alkaline zincate solution effects on the commercial aluminum as galvanic anode for use in alkaline batteries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rashvand avei, M.; Jafarian, M.; Moghanni Bavil Olyaei, H.; Gobal, F.; Hosseini, S.M.; Mahjani, M.G.

    2013-01-01

    The corrosion behavior of different grades of commercial aluminum such as AA1040, AA5083, AA6060 and AA7075 in ZnO-containing 4 M NaOH has been determined by using open circuit potential-time measurements (OCP), galvanostatic and potentiodynamic polarization and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS). The results of scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and energy dispersive analysis of X-ray (EDAX) reveal that ZnO produces the inhibition effect by the formation of a zinc-containing deposit layer on the surface of aluminum electrodes. Although the influence of zincating on the performance of aluminum alloys and considering the amount of alloying elements such as zinc, magnesium and manganese in AA7075 and AA5083 alloys is much more than AA6060 one, the AA6060 aluminum exhibits negligible corrosion rate. Alloying aluminum with other elements and modifying the composition of the electrolyte is a necessary condition for reducing the self-corrosion of the aluminum anodes, whereas the proportion of the amount of additive elements is sufficient and important condition. As AA6060 with a low amount of Zn and Mg, but the high value of the ratio of (Mg/Zn) content (>400) can serve as a good galvanic anode in the alkaline media. - Highlights: • Decreasing the corrosion rate of tested alloys in 4 M NaOH solution specially AA6060. • Lowering the extent of anodic polarization at a current density of 50 mA cm −2 . • High inhibitor efficiency about 97% for AA6060

  11. Multiple Electron Charge Transfer Chemistries for Electrochemical Energy Storage Systems: The Metal Boride and Metal Air Battery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stuart, Jessica F.

    The primary focus of this work has been to develop high-energy capacity batteries capable of undergoing multiple electron charge transfer redox reactions to address the growing demand for improved electrical energy storage systems that can be applied to a range of applications. As the levels of carbon dioxide (CO2) increase in the Earth's atmosphere, the effects on climate change become increasingly apparent. According to the Energy Information Administration (EIA), the U.S. electric power sector is responsible for the release of 2,039 million metric tons of CO2 annually, equating to 39% of total U.S. energy-related CO2 emissions. Both nationally and abroad, there are numerous issues associated with the generation and use of electricity aside from the overwhelming dependence on fossil fuels and the subsequent carbon emissions, including reliability of the grid and the utilization of renewable energies. Renewable energy makes up a relatively small portion of total energy contributions worldwide, accounting for only 13% of the 3,955 billion kilowatt-hours of electricity produced each year, as reported by the EIA. As the demand to reduce our dependence on fossils fuels and transition to renewable energy sources increases, cost effective large-scale electrical energy storage must be established for renewable energy to become a sustainable option for the future. A high capacity energy storage system capable of leveling the intermittent nature of energy sources such as solar, wind, and water into the electric grid and provide electricity at times of high demand will facilitate this transition. In 2008, the Licht Group presented the highest volumetric energy capacity battery, the vanadium diboride (VB2) air battery, exceedingly proficient in transferring eleven electrons per molecule. This body of work focuses on new developments to this early battery such as fundamentally understanding the net discharge mechanism of the system, evaluation of the properties and

  12. A Simple Operating Strategy of Small-Scale Battery Energy Storages for Energy Arbitrage under Dynamic Pricing Tariffs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Enrico Telaretti

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Price arbitrage involves taking advantage of an electricity price difference, storing electricity during low-prices times, and selling it back to the grid during high-prices periods. This strategy can be exploited by customers in presence of dynamic pricing schemes, such as hourly electricity prices, where the customer electricity cost may vary at any hour of day, and power consumption can be managed in a more flexible and economical manner, taking advantage of the price differential. Instead of modifying their energy consumption, customers can install storage systems to reduce their electricity bill, shifting the energy consumption from on-peak to off-peak hours. This paper develops a detailed storage model linking together technical, economic and electricity market parameters. The proposed operating strategy aims to maximize the profit of the storage owner (electricity customer under simplifying assumptions, by determining the optimal charge/discharge schedule. The model can be applied to several kinds of storages, although the simulations refer to three kinds of batteries: lead-acid, lithium-ion (Li-ion and sodium-sulfur (NaS batteries. Unlike literature reviews, often requiring an estimate of the end-user load profile, the proposed operation strategy is able to properly identify the battery-charging schedule, relying only on the hourly price profile, regardless of the specific facility’s consumption, thanks to some simplifying assumptions in the sizing and the operation of the battery. This could be particularly useful when the customer load profile cannot be scheduled with sufficient reliability, because of the uncertainty inherent in load forecasting. The motivation behind this research is that storage devices can help to lower the average electricity prices, increasing flexibility and fostering the integration of renewable sources into the power system.

  13. Design and Construction of a Test Bench to Characterize Efficiency and Reliability of High Voltage Battery Energy Storage Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Blank, Tobias; Thomas, Stephan; Roggendorf, Christoph

    2010-01-01

    system efficiency. High voltage batteries may be advantageous for future medium voltage DC-grids as well. In all cases, high availability and reliability is indispensable. Investigations on the operating behavior of such systems are needed. For this purpose, a test bench for high voltage storage systems...... was built to analyze these processes for different battery technologies. A special safety infrastructure for the test bench was developed due to the high voltage and the storable energy of approximately 120 kWh. This paper presents the layout of the test bench for analyzing high voltage batteries with about...... 4,300 volts including all components, the safety requirements with the resultant safety circuit and the aim of the investigations to be performed with the test bench....

  14. Cost-Benefit Analysis of a Novel DC Fast-Charging Station with a Local Battery Storage for EVs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gjelaj, Marjan; Træholt, Chresten; Hashemi Toghroljerdi, Seyedmostafa

    2017-01-01

    models by increasing the size of the batteries. To satisfy EV load demand of the new EV models in urban areas the public DC Fast-Charging Station (DCFCS) is indispensable to recharge EVs rapidly. The introduction of the Battery Energy Storage within the DCFCSs is considered in this paper an alternative...... and decrease the connection fees. Finally, an economic evaluation is done to evaluate the feasibility and the cost-benefit analysis (CBA) of the DCFCSs. The proposed approach considers various technical and economic issues, such as cost of installation, connection fees and life cycle cost of the batteries....... The proposed cost-benefit analysis can be used to verify the effectiveness and applicability of DCFCS in large scale....

  15. High-performance batteries for electric-vehicle propulsion and stationary energy storage. Progress report, October 1977--September 1978

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nelson, P.A.; Barney, D.L.; Steunenberg, R.K.

    1978-11-01

    The research, development, and management activities of the programs at Argonne National Laboratory (ANL) and at industrial subcontractors' laboratories on high-temperature batteries during the period October 1977--September 1978 are reported. These batteries are being developed for electric-vehicle propulsion and for stationary-energy-storage applications. The present cells, which operate at 400 to 500/sup 0/C, are of a vertically oriented, prismatic design with one or more inner positive electrodes of FeS or FeS/sub 2/, facing electrodes of lithium--aluminum alloy, and molten LiCl--KCl electrolyte. During this fiscal year, cell and battery development work continued at ANL, Eagle--Picher Industries, Inc., the Energy Systems Group of Rockwell International, and Gould Inc. Related work was also in progress at the Carborundum Co., General Motors Research Laboratories, and various other organizations. A major event was the initiation of a subcontract with Eagle--Picher Industries to develop, design, and fabricate a 40-kWh battery (Mark IA) for testing in an electric van. Conceptual design studies on a 100-MWh stationary-energy-storage module were conducted as a joint effort between ANL and Rockwell International. A significant technical advance was the development of multiplate cells, which are capable of higher performance than bicells. 89 figures, 57 tables.

  16. An Optimal Control Strategy for DC Bus Voltage Regulation in Photovoltaic System with Battery Energy Storage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhamad Zalani Daud

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents an evaluation of an optimal DC bus voltage regulation strategy for grid-connected photovoltaic (PV system with battery energy storage (BES. The BES is connected to the PV system DC bus using a DC/DC buck-boost converter. The converter facilitates the BES power charge/discharge to compensate for the DC bus voltage deviation during severe disturbance conditions. In this way, the regulation of DC bus voltage of the PV/BES system can be enhanced as compared to the conventional regulation that is solely based on the voltage-sourced converter (VSC. For the grid side VSC (G-VSC, two control methods, namely, the voltage-mode and current-mode controls, are applied. For control parameter optimization, the simplex optimization technique is applied for the G-VSC voltage- and current-mode controls, including the BES DC/DC buck-boost converter controllers. A new set of optimized parameters are obtained for each of the power converters for comparison purposes. The PSCAD/EMTDC-based simulation case studies are presented to evaluate the performance of the proposed optimized control scheme in comparison to the conventional methods.

  17. Deployment strategy for battery energy storage system in distribution network based on voltage violation regulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, H.; Zhou, L.; Xu, T.; Fang, W. L.; He, W. G.; Liu, H. M.

    2017-11-01

    In order to improve the situation of voltage violation caused by the grid-connection of photovoltaic (PV) system in a distribution network, a bi-level programming model is proposed for battery energy storage system (BESS) deployment. The objective function of inner level programming is to minimize voltage violation, with the power of PV and BESS as the variables. The objective function of outer level programming is to minimize the comprehensive function originated from inner layer programming and all the BESS operating parameters, with the capacity and rated power of BESS as the variables. The differential evolution (DE) algorithm is applied to solve the model. Based on distribution network operation scenarios with photovoltaic generation under multiple alternative output modes, the simulation results of IEEE 33-bus system prove that the deployment strategy of BESS proposed in this paper is well adapted to voltage violation regulation invariable distribution network operation scenarios. It contributes to regulating voltage violation in distribution network, as well as to improve the utilization of PV systems.

  18. An optimal control strategy for DC bus voltage regulation in photovoltaic system with battery energy storage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daud, Muhamad Zalani; Mohamed, Azah; Hannan, M A

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents an evaluation of an optimal DC bus voltage regulation strategy for grid-connected photovoltaic (PV) system with battery energy storage (BES). The BES is connected to the PV system DC bus using a DC/DC buck-boost converter. The converter facilitates the BES power charge/discharge to compensate for the DC bus voltage deviation during severe disturbance conditions. In this way, the regulation of DC bus voltage of the PV/BES system can be enhanced as compared to the conventional regulation that is solely based on the voltage-sourced converter (VSC). For the grid side VSC (G-VSC), two control methods, namely, the voltage-mode and current-mode controls, are applied. For control parameter optimization, the simplex optimization technique is applied for the G-VSC voltage- and current-mode controls, including the BES DC/DC buck-boost converter controllers. A new set of optimized parameters are obtained for each of the power converters for comparison purposes. The PSCAD/EMTDC-based simulation case studies are presented to evaluate the performance of the proposed optimized control scheme in comparison to the conventional methods.

  19. NASA's Exploration Technology Development Program Energy Storage Project Battery Technology Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reid, Concha M.; Miller, Thomas B.; Mercer, Carolyn R.; Jankovsky, Amy L.

    2010-01-01

    Technical Interchange Meeting was held at Saft America s Research and Development facility in Cockeysville, Maryland on Sept 28th-29th, 2010. The meeting was attended by Saft, contractors who are developing battery component materials under contracts awarded through a NASA Research Announcement (NRA), and NASA. This briefing presents an overview of the components being developed by the contractor attendees for the NASA s High Energy (HE) and Ultra High Energy (UHE) cells. The transition of the advanced lithium-ion cell development project at NASA from the Exploration Technology Development Program Energy Storage Project to the Enabling Technology Development and Demonstration High Efficiency Space Power Systems Project, changes to deliverable hardware and schedule due to a reduced budget, and our roadmap to develop cells and provide periodic off-ramps for cell technology for demonstrations are discussed. This meeting gave the materials and cell developers the opportunity to discuss the intricacies of their materials and determine strategies to address any particulars of the technology.

  20. High-performance sodium-organic battery by realizing four-sodium storage in disodium rhodizonate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Minah; Hong, Jihyun; Lopez, Jeffrey; Sun, Yongming; Feng, Dawei; Lim, Kipil; Chueh, William C.; Toney, Michael F.; Cui, Yi; Bao, Zhenan

    2017-11-01

    Sodium-ion batteries (SIBs) for grid-scale applications need active materials that combine a high energy density with sustainability. Given the high theoretical specific capacity 501 mAh g-1, and Earth abundance of disodium rhodizonate (Na2C6O6), it is one of the most promising cathodes for SIBs. However, substantially lower reversible capacities have been obtained compared with the theoretical value and the understanding of this discrepancy has been limited. Here, we reveal that irreversible phase transformation of Na2C6O6 during cycling is the origin of the deteriorating redox activity of Na2C6O6. The active-particle size and electrolyte conditions were identified as key factors to decrease the activation barrier of the phase transformation during desodiation. On the basis of this understanding, we achieved four-sodium storage in a Na2C6O6 electrode with a reversible capacity of 484 mAh g-1, an energy density of 726 Wh kg-1cathode, an energy efficiency above 87% and a good cycle retention.

  1. Optimal Sizing of Battery Storage Systems for Industrial Applications when Uncertainties Exist

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guido Carpinelli

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Demand response (DR can be very useful for an industrial facility, since it allows noticeable reductions in the electricity bill due to the significant value of energy demand. Although most industrial processes have stringent constraints in terms of hourly active power, DR only becomes attractive when performed with the contemporaneous use of battery energy storage systems (BESSs. When this option is used, an optimal sizing of BESSs is desirable, because the investment costs can be significant. This paper deals with the optimal sizing of a BESS installed in an industrial facility to reduce electricity costs. A four-step procedure, based on Decision Theory, was used to obtain a good solution for the sizing problem, even when facing uncertainties; in fact, we think that the sizing procedure must properly take into account the unavoidable uncertainties introduced by the cost of electricity and the load demands of industrial facilities. Three approaches provided by Decision Theory were applied, and they were based on: (1 the minimization of expected cost; (2 the regret felt by the sizing engineer; and (3 a mix of (1 and (2. The numerical applications performed on an actual industrial facility provided evidence of the effectiveness of the proposed procedure.

  2. Implementation of a real option in a sustainable supply chain: an empirical study of alkaline battery recycling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cucchiella, Federica; D'Adamo, Idiano; Gastaldi, Massimo; Lenny Koh, S. C.

    2014-06-01

    Green supply chain management (GSCM) has emerged as a key approach for enterprises seeking to become environmentally sustainable. This paper aims to evaluate and describe the advantages of a GSCM approach by analysing practices and performance consequences in the battery recycling sector. It seeks to integrate works in supply chain management (SCM), environmental management, performance management and real option (RO) theory into one framework. In particular, life cycle assessment (LCA) is applied to evaluate the environmental impact of a battery recycling plant project, and life cycle costing (LCC) is applied to evaluate its economic impact. Firms, also understanding the relevance of GSCM, have often avoided applying the green principles because of the elevated costs that such management involved. Such costs could also seem superior to the potential advantages since standard performance measurement systems are internally and business focused; for these reasons, we consider all the possible value deriving also by uncertainty associated to a green project using the RO theory. This work is one of the few and pioneering efforts to investigate GSCM practices in the battery recycling sector.

  3. Electrochemical and Thermodynamic Study of Electrode Materials on Li-ion Batteries and Aqueous Energy Storage and Conversion Applications

    OpenAIRE

    Seo, Joon Kyo

    2017-01-01

    The energy storage and conversion is one of the key issues for human beings to live sustainably on earth since our living environment has been deteriorating with the development of industrialization. We can alleviate the waste of energy consumption and corresponding environmental pollutions by storing and converting energy efficiently. The electrochemical cells are drawing considerable attention recently as a promising solution. In this thesis, electrode materials for Li-ion batteries and aqu...

  4. Renewable rural electrification: Prediction of sustainability in South Africa: Case study: Wind and solar photo-voltaic with lead acid battery storage

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Rogers, DEC

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available A case study methodology and assessment of renewable energy technology and sustainable development is applied to a DME rural village project. Wind, solar and lead acid battery energy storage technology were used for off-grid electrification...

  5. Batteries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yang Lijuan

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Fe3O4/carbon microspheres (Fe3O4/C were prepared by a facile hydrothermal reaction using cellulose and ferric trichloride as precursors. The resultant composite spheres have been investigated as anode materials for the lithium-ion batteries, and they show high capacity and good cycle stability (830mAhg−1 at a current density of 0.1C up to 70 cycles, as well as enhanced rate capability. The excellent electrochemical performance is attributed to the high structural stability and high rate of ionic/electronic conduction arising from the porous character and the synergetic effect of the carbon coated Fe3O4 structure and conductive carbon coating.

  6. Optimal Scheduling of Energy Storage System for Self-Sustainable Base Station Operation Considering Battery Wear-Out Cost

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yohwan Choi

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available A self-sustainable base station (BS where renewable resources and energy storage system (ESS are interoperably utilized as power sources is a promising approach to save energy and operational cost in communication networks. However, high battery price and low utilization of ESS intended for uninterruptible power supply (UPS necessitates active utilization of ESS. This paper proposes a multi-functional framework of ESS using dynamic programming (DP for realizing a sustainable BS. We develop an optimal charging and discharging scheduling algorithm considering a detailed battery wear-out model to minimize operational cost as well as to prolong battery lifetime. Our approach significantly reduces total cost compared to the conventional method that does not consider battery wear-out. Extensive experiments for several scenarios exhibit that total cost is reduced by up to 70.6% while battery wear-out is also reduced by 53.6%. The virtue of the proposed framework is its wide applicability beyond sustainable BS and thus can be also used for other types of load in principle.

  7. A Flywheel Energy Storage System Based on a Doubly Fed Induction Machine and Battery for Microgrid Control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thai-Thanh Nguyen

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Microgrids are eco-friendly power systems because they use renewable sources such as solar and wind power as the main power source. However, the stochastic nature of wind and solar power is a considerable challenge for the efficient operation of microgrids. Microgrid operations have to satisfy quality requirements in terms of the frequency and voltage. To overcome these problems, energy storage systems for short- and long-term storage are used with microgrids. Recently, the use of short-term energy storage systems such as flywheels has attracted significant interest as a potential solution to this problem. Conventional flywheel energy storage systems exhibit only one control mode during operation: either smoothing wind power control or frequency control. In this paper, we propose a new flywheel energy storage system based on a doubly fed induction machine and a battery for use with microgrids. The new flywheel energy storage system can be used not only to mitigate wind power fluctuations, but also to control the frequency as well as the voltage of the microgrid during islanded operation. The performance of the proposed flywheel energy storage system is investigated through various simulations using MATLAB/Simulink software. In addition, a conventional flywheel energy storage system based on a doubly fed induction machine is simulated and its performance compared with that of the proposed one.

  8. Enhancement of micro-grid performance during islanding mode using storage batteries and new fuzzy logic pitch angle controller

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kamel, Rashad M.; Chaouachi, A.; Nagasaka, Ken

    2011-01-01

    Research highlights: → Novel fuzzy pitch angle controller is proposed for smoothing wind fluctuation. → Storage batteries are used for performance improve of MG in islanding mode. → Those new techniques are compared with conventional PI pitch angle controller. -- Abstract: Power system deregulation, shortage of transmission capacities and needing to reduce green house gas have led to increase interesting in distributed generations (DGs) especially renewable sources. This study developed a complete model able to analysis and simulates in details the transient dynamic performance of the Micro-Grid (MG) during and subsequent islanding process. Wind speed fluctuations cause high fluctuations in output power of wind turbine which lead to fluctuations of frequency and voltages of the MG during the islanding mode. In this paper a new fuzzy logic pitch angle controller is proposed to smooth the output power of wind turbine to reduce MG frequency and voltage fluctuations during the islanding mode. The proposed fuzzy logic pitch controller is compared with the conventional PI pitch angle controller which usually used for wind turbine power control. Results proved the effectiveness of the proposed fuzzy controller in improvement of the MG performance. Also, this paper proposed using storage batteries technique to reduce the frequency deviation and fluctuations originated from wind power solar power fluctuations. Results indicate that the storage batteries technique is superior than fuzzy logic pitch controller in reducing frequency deviation, but with more expensive than the fuzzy controller. All models and controllers are built using Matlab (registered) Simulink (registered) environment.

  9. Analysis of the value of battery storage with wind and photovoltaic generation to the Sacramento Municipal Utility District

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zaininger, H.W. [Zaininger Engineering Co., Inc., Roseville, CA (United States)

    1998-08-01

    This report describes the results of an analysis to determine the economic and operational value of battery storage to wind and photovoltaic (PV) generation technologies to the Sacramento Municipal Utility District (SMUD) system. The analysis approach consisted of performing a benefit-cost economic assessment using established SMUD financial parameters, system expansion plans, and current system operating procedures. This report presents the results of the analysis. Section 2 describes expected wind and PV plant performance. Section 3 describes expected benefits to SMUD associated with employing battery storage. Section 4 presents preliminary benefit-cost results for battery storage added at the Solano wind plant and the Hedge PV plant. Section 5 presents conclusions and recommendations resulting from this analysis. The results of this analysis should be reviewed subject to the following caveat. The assumptions and data used in developing these results were based on reports available from and interaction with appropriate SMUD operating, planning, and design personnel in 1994 and early 1995 and are compatible with financial assumptions and system expansion plans as of that time. Assumptions and SMUD expansion plans have changed since then. In particular, SMUD did not install the additional 45 MW of wind that was planned for 1996. Current SMUD expansion plans and assumptions should be obtained from appropriate SMUD personnel.

  10. Alkaline fuel cells applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kordesch, Karl; Hacker, Viktor; Gsellmann, Josef; Cifrain, Martin; Faleschini, Gottfried; Enzinger, Peter; Fankhauser, Robert; Ortner, Markus; Muhr, Michael; Aronson, Robert R.

    On the world-wide automobile market technical developments are increasingly determined by the dramatic restriction on emissions as well as the regimentation of fuel consumption by legislation. Therefore there is an increasing chance of a completely new technology breakthrough if it offers new opportunities, meeting the requirements of resource preservation and emission restrictions. Fuel cell technology offers the possibility to excel in today's motive power techniques in terms of environmental compatibility, consumer's profit, costs of maintenance and efficiency. The key question is economy. This will be decided by the costs of fuel cell systems if they are to be used as power generators for future electric vehicles. The alkaline hydrogen-air fuel cell system with circulating KOH electrolyte and low-cost catalysed carbon electrodes could be a promising alternative. Based on the experiences of Kordesch [K. Kordesch, Brennstoffbatterien, Springer, Wien, 1984, ISBN 3-387-81819-7; K. Kordesch, City car with H 2-air fuel cell and lead-battery, SAE Paper No. 719015, 6th IECEC, 1971], who operated a city car hybrid vehicle on public roads for 3 years in the early 1970s, improved air electrodes plus new variations of the bipolar stack assembly developed in Graz are investigated. Primary fuel choice will be a major issue until such time as cost-effective, on-board hydrogen storage is developed. Ammonia is an interesting option. The whole system, ammonia dissociator plus alkaline fuel cell (AFC), is characterised by a simple design and high efficiency.

  11. Life-cycle energy analyses of electric vehicle storage batteries. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sullivan, D; Morse, T; Patel, P; Patel, S; Bondar, J; Taylor, L

    1980-12-01

    The results of several life-cycle energy analyses of prospective electric vehicle batteries are presented. The batteries analyzed were: Nickel-zinc; Lead-acid; Nickel-iron; Zinc-chlorine; Sodium-sulfur (glass electrolyte); Sodium-sulfur (ceramic electrolyte); Lithium-metal sulfide; and Aluminum-air. A life-cycle energy analysis consists of evaluating the energy use of all phases of the battery's life, including the energy to build it, operate it, and any credits that may result from recycling of the materials in it. The analysis is based on the determination of three major energy components in the battery life cycle: Investment energy, i.e., The energy used to produce raw materials and to manufacture the battery; operational energy i.e., The energy consumed by the battery during its operational life. In the case of an electric vehicle battery, this energy is the energy required (as delivered to the vehicle's charging circuit) to power the vehicle for 100,000 miles; and recycling credit, i.e., The energy that could be saved from the recycling of battery materials into new raw materials. The value of the life-cycle analysis approach is that it includes the various penalties and credits associated with battery production and recycling, which enables a more accurate determination of the system's ability to reduce the consumption of scarce fuels. The analysis of the life-cycle energy requirements consists of identifying the materials from which each battery is made, evaluating the energy needed to produce these materials, evaluating the operational energy requirements, and evaluating the amount of materials that could be recycled and the energy that would be saved through recycling. Detailed descriptions of battery component materials, the energy requirements for battery production, and credits for recycling, and the operational energy for an electric vehicle, and the procedures used to determine it are discussed.

  12. Hybrid battery/supercapacitor energy storage system for the electric vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kouchachvili, Lia; Yaïci, Wahiba; Entchev, Evgueniy

    2018-01-01

    Electric vehicles (EVs) have recently attracted considerable attention and so did the development of the battery technologies. Although the battery technology has been significantly advanced, the available batteries do not entirely meet the energy demands of the EV power consumption. One of the key issues is non-monotonic consumption of energy accompanied by frequent changes during the battery discharging process. This is very harmful to the electrochemical process of the battery. A practical solution is to couple the battery with a supercapacitor, which is basically an electrochemical cell with a similar architecture, but with a higher rate capability and better cyclability. In this design, the supercapacitor can provide the excess energy required while the battery fails to do so. In addition to the battery and supercapacitor as the individual units, designing the architecture of the corresponding hybrid system from an electrical engineering point of view is of utmost importance. The present manuscript reviews the recent works devoted to the application of various battery/supercapacitor hybrid systems in EVs.

  13. An improved control method of battery energy storage system for hourly dispatch of photovoltaic power sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Daud, Muhamad Zalani; Mohamed, Azah; Hannan, M.A.

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: • Control of BES for smoothing and hourly dispatch of a PV farm output is developed. • Optimal control strategy for SOC and size of BES are evaluated using GA. • Effectiveness of the control system has been investigated for the case of Malaysia. • The proposed optimal SOC feedback controller has been found effective. • Payback calculations of BES investment is given to highlight the economic benefits. - Abstract: The effects of intermittent cloud and changes in temperature cause a randomly fluctuated output of a photovoltaic (PV) system. To mitigate the PV system impacts particularly on a weak electricity network, battery energy storage (BES) system is an effective means to smooth out the power fluctuations. Consequently, the net power injected to the electricity grid by PV and BES (PV/BES) systems can be dispatched smoothly such as on an hourly basis. This paper presents an improved control strategy for a grid-connected hybrid PV/BES systems for mitigating PV farm output power fluctuations. A feedback controller for BES state of charge is proposed, where the control parameters are optimized using genetic algorithm (GA). GA-based multi objective optimization utilizes the daily average PV farm output power profile which was obtained from simulation using the historical PV system input data of Malaysia. In this way, the optimal size for the BES is also determined to hourly dispatch a 1.2 MW PV farm. A case study for Malaysia is carried out to evaluate the effectiveness of the proposed control scheme using PSCAD/EMTDC software package. Furthermore, the validation of results of the proposed controller and BES size on the actual PV system output data are also given. Finally, a simple payback calculation is presented to study the economical aspects of the BES investment on the proposed mitigation strategy under Malaysian Feed-in Tariff program

  14. Dental erosion in workers exposed to sulfuric acid in lead storage battery manufacturing facility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suyama, Yuji; Takaku, Satoru; Okawa, Yoshikazu; Matsukubo, Takashi

    2010-01-01

    Dental erosion, and specifically its symptoms, has long been studied in Japan as an occupational dental disease. However, in recent years, few studies have investigated the development of this disease or labor hygiene management aimed at its prevention. As a result, interest in dental erosion is comparatively low, even among dental professionals. Our investigation at a lead storage battery factory in 1991 found that the work environmental sulfuric acid density was above the tolerable range (1.0mg/m(3)) and that longterm workers had dental erosion. Therefore, workers handling sulfuric acid were given an oral examination and rates of dental erosion by tooth type, rates of erosion by number of working years and rates of erosion by sulfuric acid density in the work environment investigated. Where dental erosion was diagnosed, degree of erosion was identified according to a diagnostic criterion. No development of dental erosion was detected in the maxillary teeth, and erosion was concentrated in the anterior mandibular teeth. Its prevalence was as high as 20%. Rates of dental erosion rose precipitously after 10 working years. The percentages of workers with dental erosion were 42.9% for 10-14 years, 57.1% for 15-19 years and 66.7% for over 20 years with 22.5% for total number of workers. The percentages of workers with dental erosion rose in proportion to work environmental sulfuric acid density: 17.9% at 0.5-1.0, 25.0% at 1.0-4.0 and 50.0% at 4.0-8.0mg/m(3). This suggests that it is necessary to evaluate not only years of exposure to sulfuric acid but also sulfuric acid density in the air in factory workers.

  15. Obtainment of Hg-free Mn/Zn solutions from spent alkaline batteries; Obtencion de soluciones de Mn/Zn libres de Hg provenientes de pilas alcalinas gastadas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Perez-Nicolas, L.; Espinosa-Ramirez, I. [Instituto Politecnico Nacional, UPALM, Mexico, D.F. (Mexico)]. E-mail: lepeni@hotmail.com; Aguilar, M. [Instituto de Fisica, UNAM, Mexico, D.F. (Mexico); Palacios-Beas, E. [Instituto Politecnico Nacional, UPALM, Mexico, D.F. (Mexico)

    2009-09-15

    As in many other countries, the excessive consumption of alkaline batteries in Mexico has generated highly contaminating wastes, with heavy metal contents such as Mn, Zn, Fe, Hg, Cu and Ni, among others. This has caused a large degree of environmental degradation with repercussions for the health of living beings. Because there are no regulations regarding the disposal of spent batteries, they are thrown out with the rest of the domestic wastes or directly into nature, ending up in open-air landfills or containers where they are incinerated, thereby contaminating the planet's environment, soil and springs. The present work studies the obtainment of solutions of Hg-free Mn and Zn (Mn/Zn {>=} 1) from spent alkaline batteries for use in synthesis of (Mn,Zn)Fe{sub 2}O{sub 4} ferrite by a wet method. The effect is analyzed of the dissolution medium (H{sub 2}SO{sub 4}/H{sub 2}O{sub 2}, HCl and HCl/NO{sub 3}) temperature and time on the percentage of dissolution of the metals present in the electrode material, characterized by atomic absorption (AA) spectroscopy and x-ray diffraction (XRD). The results of the investigation indicate that the best dissolution conditions are MD=H{sub 2}SO{sub 4}/H{sub 2}O{sub 2}, T=50 degrees Celsius and t =30 min, where 94.1 and 90.7 % (w/w) of Mn and Zn are obtained, respectively, with Mn/Zn = 1.51. The mercury content was determined to be 3.91%, higher than that stated by the battery specifications, which is recovered by dissolving with HCl/HNO{sub 3} in the residual solid. [Spanish] En Mexico como en muchos otros paises, el consumo excesivo de pilas alcalinas ha generado desechos altamente contaminantes, con contenidos de metales pesados como Mn, Zn, Fe, Hg, Cu y Ni entre otros, que han provocado un gran deterioro en el medio ambiente repercutiendo en la salud de los seres vivos. Dado que no se tiene una regulacion en cuanto a la disposicion de pilas gastadas, estas se desechan con el resto de las residuos domesticos o directamente

  16. Ag/C nanoparticles as an cathode catalyst for a zinc-air battery with a flowing alkaline electrolyte

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Jia-Jun; Li, Ning; Zhang, Tian-Yun

    The cyclic voltammetry indicated that the oxygen reduction reaction (ORR) proceeded by the four-electron pathway mechanism on larger Ag particles (174 nm), and that the ORR proceeded by the four-electron pathway and the two-electron pathway mechanisms on finer Ag particles (4.1 nm), simultaneously. The kinetics towards ORR was measured at a rotating disk electrode (RDE) with Ag/C electrode. The number of exchanged electrons for the ORR was found to be close to four on larger Ag particles (174 nm) and close to three on finer Ag particles (4.1 nm). The zinc-air battery with Ag/C catalysts (25.9 nm) was fabricated and examined.

  17. The ability of battery second use strategies to impact plug-in electric vehicle prices and serve utility energy storage applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neubauer, Jeremy; Pesaran, Ahmad

    The high cost of lithium ion batteries is a major impediment to the increased market share of plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (PHEVs) and full electric vehicles (EVs). The reuse of PHEV/EV propulsion batteries in second use applications following the end of their automotive service life may have the potential to offset the high initial cost of these batteries today. Accurately assessing the value of such a strategy is exceedingly complex and entails many uncertainties. This paper takes a first step toward such an assessment by estimating the impact of battery second use on the initial cost of PHEV/EV batteries to automotive consumers and exploring the potential for grid-based energy storage applications to serve as a market for used PHEV/EV batteries. It is found that although battery second use is not expected to significantly affect today's PHEV/EV prices, it has the potential to become a common component of future automotive battery life cycles and potentially to transform markets in need of cost-effective energy storage. Based on these findings, the authors advise further investigation focused on forecasting long-term battery degradation and analyzing second-use applications in more detail.

  18. Energy storage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1992-01-01

    This chapter discusses the role that energy storage may have on the energy future of the US. The topics discussed in the chapter include historical aspects of energy storage, thermal energy storage including sensible heat storage, latent heat storage, thermochemical heat storage, and seasonal heat storage, electricity storage including batteries, pumped hydroelectric storage, compressed air energy storage, and superconducting magnetic energy storage, and production and combustion of hydrogen as an energy storage option

  19. Optimal Utilization of Microgrids Supplemented with Battery Energy Storage Systems in Grid Support Applications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Anvari-Moghaddam, Amjad; Dragicevic, Tomislav; Vasquez, Juan Carlos

    2015-01-01

    in the formulation of the total operating cost but an additional item that takes into account inevitable battery degradation. The speed of degradation depends on battery technology and its mission profile and this effect demands for eventual replacement of the stack. Therefore it can be mapped in additional...

  20. An improved bifunctional oxygen (air) electrode for reversible alkaline fuel cell systems and for rechargeable metal-air batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kordesch, K.; Steininger, K.-H.; Tomantschger, K.

    1988-10-01

    Electrodes with a nickel layer of dual pore structure on the electrolyte side and a PTFE-bonded carbon layer on the oxygen (air) side are discussed, with application to space energy storage. During the electrolyis stage, the oxygen fills the large pores of the porous Ni structure with gas. During the discharge cycle, the iron/air or zinc/air cell of the carbon layer operates as a regular oxygen electrode.

  1. Synthesis of CoO/Reduced Graphene Oxide Composite as an Alternative Additive for the Nickel Electrode in Alkaline Secondary Batteries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fu, Gaoliang; Chang, Kun; Shangguan, Enbo; Tang, Hongwei; Li, Bao; Chang, Zhaorong; Yuan, Xiao-Zi; Wang, Haijiang

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • CoO/RGO nanosheets with sandwiched structures were synthesized by hydrothermal method. • CoO/RGO composite can be as a good additive for Ni-MH battery. • Using CoO/RGO as the additive can greatly reduce the utilization of CoO in the commercial battery. • Particularly, the high rate capability of the electrode was enhanced significantly. - Abstract: A series of CoO/reduced graphene oxide (CoO/RGO) composites with different proportions are successfully synthesized via a hydrothermal method. As an additive for the nickel-based alkaline secondary battery cathode, the electrochemical performances of the proposed CoO/RGO composite are systematically investigated on its cyclic stability, rate capability, capacity recovery performance, cyclic voltammetry (CV) and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS), in comparison with commercial CoO. Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) and Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM) images show that the CoO nanoparticles are in-situ anchored on the surface of soft and flexible graphene sheets. Electrochemical results indicate that the CoO/RGO composites exhibite the highest performance when the weight ratio of CoO and RGO is 5:5. The optimized CoO/RGO composites as an additive for the nickel electrode not only can substantially reduce the CoO additive but also possess good electrochemical performances, especially for the high-rate capability. The discharge capacity of the nickel electrode with 5 wt% of CoO/RGO (5:5) addition deliver a high discharge capacity of 284.3, 264.6,235.4 and 208.6 mAh g −1 at 0.2, 1.0, 5.0 and 10.0 C, respectively. The capacity recovery rate at 0.2 C can reach 98.4%. CV and EIS test indicate that the incorporation of RGO can significantly enhance the reversible property, current density of cathodic peak, proton diffusion and conductivity of the nickel electrode.

  2. DC Fast-Charging Stations for EVs Controlled by a Local Battery Storage in Low Voltage Grids

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gjelaj, Marjan; Træholt, Chresten; Hashemi Toghroljerdi, Seyedmostafa

    2017-01-01

    of EVs and their charging systems are going through a series of changes. This paper addresses the design of a new DC Fast Charging Station (DCFCS) for EVs coupled with a local Battery Energy Storage (BES) by using the IEC 15118, which provides a communication interface among different actors. DCFCS...... is equipped with a bidirectional AC/DC converter for feeding power back to the grid, two lithium batteries and a DC/DC converter. The proposed solution decreases the charging time of EVs and facilitates the integration of fast chargers in existing low voltage (LV) grids. The charging station can also be used...... as a multifunctional grid-utility for ancillary services such as primary frequency control, load levelling and congestion management....

  3. A PSO-Optimized Fuzzy Logic Control-Based Charging Method for Individual Household Battery Storage Systems within a Community

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu-Shan Cheng

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Self-consumption of household photovoltaic (PV storage systems has become profitable for residential owners under the trends of limited feed-in power and decreasing PV feed-in tariffs. For individual PV-storage systems, the challenge mainly lies in managing surplus generation of battery and grid power flow, ideally without relying on error-prone forecasts for both generation and consumption. Considering the large variation in power profiles of different houses in a neighborhood, the strategy is also supposed to be beneficial and applicable for the entire community. In this study, an adaptable battery charging control strategy is designed in order to obtain minimum costs for houses without any meteorological or load forecasts. Based on fuzzy logic control (FLC, battery state-of-charge (SOC and the variation of SOC (∆SOC are taken as input variables to dynamically determine output charging power with minimum costs. The proposed FLC-based algorithm benefits from the charging battery as much as possible during the daytime, and meanwhile properly preserves the capacity at midday when there is high possibility of curtailment loss. In addition, due to distinct power profiles in each individual house, input membership functions of FLC are improved by particle swarm optimization (PSO to achieve better overall performance. A neighborhood with 74 houses in Germany is set up as a scenario for comparison to prior studies. Without forecasts of generation and consumption power, the proposed method leads to minimum costs in 98.6% of houses in the community, and attains the lowest average expenses for a single house each year.

  4. Lithium Ion Battery Chemistries from Renewable Energy Storage to Automotive and Back-up Power Applications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stan, Ana-Irina; Swierczynski, Maciej Jozef; Stroe, Daniel Ioan

    2014-01-01

    systems for stationary applications, as well as power source for sustainable automotive and back-up power supply applications. This paper gives an overview of the Li-ion battery chemistries that are available at present in the market, and describes the three out of four main applications (except...... the consumers’ applications), grid support, automotive, and back-up power, for which the Li-ion batteries are suitable. Each of these applications has its own specifications and thus, the chemistry of the Li-ion battery should be chosen to fulfil the requirements of the corresponding application. Consequently...

  5. Design And Simulation Of A PV System With Battery Storage Using Bidirectional DC-DC Converter Using Matlab Simulink

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mirza Mursalin Iqbal

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available PV Photovoltaic systems are one of the most renowned renewable green and clean sources of energy where power is generated from sunlight converting into electricity by the use of PV solar cells. Unlike fossil fuels solar energy has great environmental advantages as they have no harmful emissions during power generation. In this paper a PV system with battery storage using bidirectional DC-DC converter has been designed and simulated on MATLAB Simulink. The simulation outcomes verify the PV systems performance under standard testing conditions.

  6. New Alkali Metal Flow Battery for Terrestrial and Aerospace Energy Storage Applications

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This seedling task is to develop new lithium-based flow batteries that will provide several fold improvements in specific energy, cost, simplicity and lifetimes,...

  7. Battery storage for voltage boosting in low-voltage mains. Batteriespeicher zur Spannungsstuetzung im Niederspannungsnetz

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Backwinkel, R.; Freund, H. (Technische Werke der Stadt Stuttgart AG (Germany)); Seele, W. (ABB Schaltanlagen GmbH, Mannheim (Germany))

    1992-07-13

    In September 1987 the first sodium sulfur batteries were set up as a mains booster station for voltage boosting in the low-voltage mains of the Technical Utilities of the City of Stuttgart. This pilot project was set up to prove whether the high-energy battery and the control- and steering devices which were specially designed for the semiconductor performance unit can comply with operational demands. (orig.).

  8. A study around the improvement of electrochemical activity of MnO{sub 2} as cathodic material in alkaline batteries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ghaemi, M.; Gholami, A. [Department of Chemistry, Science Faculty, Tarbiat Modares University, Tehran (Iran); Moghaddam, R.B. [Department of Chemistry, K.N. Toosi University of Technology, 15875-4416 Tehran (Iran)

    2008-03-10

    An optimized combination of reduction by methane and sulfuric acid digestion was developed to improve the electrochemical activity of manganese dioxide at a battery set. Chemical manganese dioxide, CMD, and electrolytic manganese dioxide, EMD, which have been destroyed after discharge cycling process in potential window of 900-1650 mV versus Hg/HgO, were reduced in a furnace with a flow of methane at 300 and 250{sup o}C correspondingly. Thereafter, the reduced samples, CMDr and EMDr, were digested in a solution of sulfuric acid with optimized concentration and temperature. It was found that digested samples, CMDro and EMDro, typically show more stability in cycling, higher capacity and more reversible redox reaction. Alternatively, we reported about the effect of digestion temperature on electrochemical and structural properties of the samples. Digestion at temperatures 60 and 98{sup o}C in 1.5 M sulfuric acid as superior concentration was preferred after comparative experiments in the range 40-98{sup o}C. The samples which were digested in 60{sup o}C (CMDro1 and EMDro1) showed superior electrochemical activity at the early stages of discharge cycling. By contrast, the samples which were obtained at 98{sup o}C (CMDro2 and EMDro2) showed more stability and were superior to the former samples in final stages of discharge cycling process. Afterward, the electrochemical behavior of the pretreated samples was investigated by means of cyclic voltammetry technique and discharge cumulative capacity profiles. Also X-ray diffraction was employed to verify the responses of voltammetric methods. In XRD patterns, peak at 2{theta} = 28.6 which is due to {beta}-MnO{sub 2} type was the strongest signal as temperature 98{sup o}C was selected for digestion. After digestion at 60{sup o}C, the characteristic peaks at 2{theta} = 38 and 42 were amplified which are attributed to formation of {gamma}-MnO{sub 2}. Interestingly enough, the results according to the XRD patterns were in good

  9. Energy Storage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eaton, William W.

    Described are technological considerations affecting storage of energy, particularly electrical energy. The background and present status of energy storage by batteries, water storage, compressed air storage, flywheels, magnetic storage, hydrogen storage, and thermal storage are discussed followed by a review of development trends. Included are…

  10. Charge Equalization Controller Algorithm for Series-Connected Lithium-Ion Battery Storage Systems: Modeling and Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahammad A. Hannan

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available This study aims to develop an accurate model of a charge equalization controller (CEC that manages individual cell monitoring and equalizing by charging and discharging series-connected lithium-ion (Li-ion battery cells. In this concept, an intelligent control algorithm is developed to activate bidirectional cell switches and control direct current (DC–DC converter switches along with pulse width modulation (PWM generation. Individual models of an electric vehicle (EV-sustainable Li-ion battery, optimal power rating, a bidirectional flyback DC–DC converter, and charging and discharging controllers are integrated to develop a small-scale CEC model that can be implemented for 10 series-connected Li-ion battery cells. Results show that the charge equalization controller operates at 91% efficiency and performs well in equalizing both overdischarged and overcharged cells on time. Moreover, the outputs of the CEC model show that the desired balancing level occurs at 2% of state of charge difference and that all cells are operated within a normal range. The configuration, execution, control, power loss, cost, size, and efficiency of the developed CEC model are compared with those of existing controllers. The proposed model is proven suitable for high-tech storage systems toward the advancement of sustainable EV technologies and renewable source of applications.

  11. Valuing the Resilience Provided by Solar and Battery Energy Storage Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McLaren, Joyce A [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Gagnon, Pieter J [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Mullendore, Seth [Clean Energy Group

    2018-02-05

    This paper explores the impact of valuing resilience on the economics of photovoltaics (PV) and storage systems for commercial buildings. The analysis presented here illustrates that accounting for the cost of grid power outages can change the breakeven point for PV and storage system investment, and increase the size of systems designed to deliver the greatest economic benefit over time. In other words, valuing resilience can make PV and storage systems economical in cases where they would not be otherwise. As storage costs decrease, and outages occur more frequently, PV and storage are likely to play a larger role in building design and management considerations.

  12. Field tests experience from 1.6MW/400kWh Li-ion battery energy storage system providing primary frequency regulation service

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Swierczynski, Maciej Jozef; Stroe, Daniel Ioan; Stan, Ana-Irina

    2013-01-01

    Lithium-ion battery energy storage systems (BESSs) represent suitable alternatives to conventional generating units for providing primary frequency regulation on the Danish market. This paper presents aspects concerning the operation of the BESSs in the Danish energy market while providing upwards...... on the BESS demonstrator located in Western Denmark and initial results are introduced and discussed. These measurements can be used to validate models for battery ageing during realistic operation or to develop the diagnostic tools for the BESS....

  13. A Low-Cost Neutral Zinc-Iron Flow Battery with High Energy Density for Stationary Energy Storage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Congxin; Duan, Yinqi; Xu, Wenbin; Zhang, Huamin; Li, Xianfeng

    2017-11-20

    Flow batteries (FBs) are one of the most promising stationary energy-storage devices for storing renewable energy. However, commercial progress of FBs is limited by their high cost and low energy density. A neutral zinc-iron FB with very low cost and high energy density is presented. By using highly soluble FeCl 2 /ZnBr 2 species, a charge energy density of 56.30 Wh L -1 can be achieved. DFT calculations demonstrated that glycine can combine with iron to suppress hydrolysis and crossover of Fe 3+ /Fe 2+ . The results indicated that an energy efficiency of 86.66 % can be obtained at 40 mA cm -2 and the battery can run stably for more than 100 cycles. Furthermore, a low-cost porous membrane was employed to lower the capital cost to less than $ 50 per kWh, which was the lowest value that has ever been reported. Combining the features of low cost, high energy density and high energy efficiency, the neutral zinc-iron FB is a promising candidate for stationary energy-storage applications. © 2017 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  14. Battery durability and longevity based power management for plug-in hybrid electric vehicle with hybrid energy storage system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Shuo; Xiong, Rui; Cao, Jiayi

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • A novel procedure for developing an optimal power management strategy was proposed. • Efficiency and durability were considered to improve the practical performance. • Three control rules were abstracted from the optimization results with DP algorithm. • The proposed control strategy was verified under different SoC and SoH conditions. • The proposed strategy could further improve the energy efficiency obviously. - Abstract: Efficiency and durability are becoming two key issues for the energy storage system in electric vehicles together with their associated power management strategies. In this paper, we present a procedure for the design of a near-optimal power management strategy for the hybrid battery and ultracapacitor energy storage system (HESS) in a plug-in hybrid electric vehicle. The design procedure starts by defining a cost function to minimize the electricity consumption of the HESS and to optimize the operating behavior of the battery. To determine the optimal control actions and power distribution between two power sources, a dynamic programming (DP)-based novel analysis method is proposed, and the optimization framework is presented accordingly. Through analysis of the DP control actions under different battery state-of-health (SoH) conditions, near-optimal rules are extracted. A rule based power management is proposed based on the abstracted rules and simulation results indicate that the new control strategy can improve system efficiency under different SoH and different SoC conditions. Ultimately, the performance of proposed strategy is further verified under different types of driving cycles including the MANHATTAN cycle, 1015 6PRIUS cycle and UDDSHDV cycle.

  15. High-performance batteries for stationary energy storage and electric-vehicle propulsion. Progress report, April--June 1977

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1977-10-01

    Research, development, and management activities of the program on lithium--aluminum/metal sulfide batteries during April--June 1977 are described. These batteries are being developed for electric-vehicle propulsion and stationary energy storage. The present cells, which operate at 400--450/sup 0/C, are of a vertically oriented, prismatic design with a central positive electrode of FeS or FeS/sub 2/, two facing negative electrodes of lithium--aluminum alloy, and an electrolyte of molten LiCl--KCl. Testing and evaluation of industrially fabricated cells is continuing. Li--Al/FeS and Li--Al/FeS/sub 2/ cells from Eagle--Picher Industries and from Gould Inc. were tested. These tests provided information on the effects of design modifications and alternative materials for cells. Improved electrode and cell designs are being developed and tested, and the more promising designs are incorporated into the industrially fabricated cells. Among the concepts receiving major attention are carbon-bonded positive electrodes, scaled-up designs of stationary energy storage cells, additives to extend electrode lifetime, alternative electrode separators, and pellet-grid electrodes. Materials development efforts included the development of a lightweight electrical feedthrough; studies of various current-collector designs; investigation of powder separators; wettability and corrosion tests of materials for cell components; and postoperative examinations of cells. Cell chemistry studies were concerned with discharge mechanisms of FeS electrodes and with other transition-metal sulfides as positive electrode materials. Voltammetric studies were conducted to investigate the reversibility of the FeS/sub 2/ electrode. The use of calcium and magnesium alloys for the negative electrode in advanced battery systems were investigated. 8 figures, 12 tables.

  16. State of Charge Balancing Control of a Multi-Functional Battery Energy Storage System Based on a 11-Level Cascaded Multilevel PWM Converter

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wang, Songcen; Teodorescu, Remus; Máthé, Lászlo

    2015-01-01

    This paper focuses on modeling and SOC (State of Charge) balancing control of lithium-ion battery energy storage system based on cascaded multilevel converter for both grid integration and electric vehicle propulsion applications. The equivalent electrical circuit model of lithium-ion battery...... module is established based on the relationship between SOC (State of Charge) and OCV (Open Circuit Voltage) which is obtained from the battery charge and discharge test curves. A hierarchical control structure is proposed to realize different operating modes. The decoupled current control scheme...

  17. Power and Energy Management with Battery Storage for a Hybrid Residential PV-Wind System – A Case Study for Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stroe, Daniel-Ioan; Zaharof, Andreea; Iov, Florin

    2018-01-01

    The energy generation paradigm is shifting from centralized fossil-fuel-based generation to distributed-based renewable generation. Thus, hybrid residential energy systems based on wind turbines, PV panels and/or micro-turbines are gaining more and more terrain. Nevertheless, such a system needs...... to be coupled with an energy storage solution, most often a battery, in order to mitigate its power generation variability and to ensure a stable and reliable operation. In this work, two power and energy management strategies for a hybrid residential PV-wind system with battery energy storage were evaluated...

  18. Assessing the stationary energy storage equivalency of vehicle-to-grid charging battery electric vehicles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tarroja, Brian; Zhang, Li; Wifvat, Van; Shaffer, Brendan; Samuelsen, Scott

    2016-01-01

    A study has been performed to understand the quantitative impact of key differences between vehicle-to-grid and stationary energy storage systems on renewable utilization, greenhouse gas emissions, and balancing fleet operation, using California as the example. To simulate the combined electricity and light-duty transportation system, a detailed electric grid dispatch model (including stationary energy storage systems) was combined with an electric vehicle charging dispatch model that incorporates conventional smart and vehicle-to-grid capabilities. By subjecting smaller amounts of renewable energy to round-trip efficiency losses and thereby increasing the efficiency of renewable utilization, it was found that vehicle-to-grid energy storage can achieve higher renewable utilization levels and reduced greenhouse gas emissions compared to stationary energy storage systems. Vehicle-to-grid energy storage, however, is not as capable of balancing the power plant fleet compared to stationary energy storage systems due to the constraints of consumer travel patterns. The potential benefits of vehicle-to-grid are strongly dependent on the availability of charging infrastructure at both home and workplaces, with potential benefits being compromised with residential charging availability only. Overall, vehicle-to-grid energy storage can provide benefits over stationary energy storage depending on the system attribute selected for improvement, a finding amenable to managing through policy. - Highlights: • Using vehicle-to-grid-based storage increases the efficiency of renewable energy utilization. • Vehicle-to-grid-based energy storage has less overall flexibility compared to stationary energy storage. • The discharge ability of vehicle-to-grid-based provides a significant benefit over one-way smart charging. • Both workplace and home charging are critical for providing vehicle-to-grid-related benefits. • Increasing charging intelligence reduces stationary energy

  19. Large-scale energy storage. Investigating improvements of redox flow batteries

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Swartbooi, A

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available and more sustainable energy source. One problem however lies with the intermittent nature of the solar energy source, coupled with a mismatch between generation and use. Redox flow batteries provide a means to bridge the time lag between the availability...

  20. Lithium Storage Mechanisms in Purpurin Based Organic Lithium Ion Battery Electrodes

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-12-11

    Advances in Lithium-ion batteries (Kluwer Academic/Plenum, New York, 2002). 7. Mizushima, K., Jones, P. C., Wiseman, P. J. & Goodenough , J. B. LixCoO2 (0...P. G. & Goodenough , J. B. Electrochemical extraction of lithium from LiMn2O4. Mat. Res. Bull. 18, 461 (1983). 9. Recham, N., Chotard, J. N., Dupont

  1. Smart power management algorithm in microgrid consisting of photovoltaic, diesel, and battery storage plants considering variations in sunlight, temperature, and load

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koohi-Kamali, Sam; Rahim, N.A.; Mokhlis, H.

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • A novel power management algorithm is developed. • An effective power smoothing index is derived. • Application of battery storage in smoothing the power fluctuations is investigated. • An applicable battery sizing and designing algorithm is proposed. • An efficient battery current control algorithm is designed. - Abstract: Integration of utility scaled solar electricity generator into power networks can negatively affect the performance of next generation smartgrid. Rapidly changing output power of this kind is unpredictable and thus one solution is to mitigate it by short-term to mid-term electrical storage systems like battery. The main objective of this paper is to propose a power management system (PMS) which is capable of suppressing these adverse impacts on the main supply. A smart microgrid (MG) including diesel, battery storage, and solar plants has been suggested for this purpose. MG is able to supply its local load based on operator decision and decline the power oscillations caused by solar system together with variable loads. A guideline algorithm is also proposed which helps to precisely design the battery plant. A novel application of time domain signal processing approach to filter oscillating output power of the solar plant is presented as well. In this case, a power smoothing index (PSI) is formulated, which considers both load and generation, and used to dispatch the battery plant. A droop reference estimator to schedule generation is also introduced where diesel plant can share the local load with grid. A current control algorithm is designed as well which adjusts for PSI to ensure battery current magnitude is allowable. MG along with its communication platform and PMS are simulated using PSCAD software. PMS is tested under different scenarios using real load profiles and environmental data in Malaysia to verify the operational abilities of proposed MG. The results indicate that PMS can effectively control the MG

  2. Low temperature sulfur and sodium metal battery for grid-scale energy storage application

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Gao; Wang, Dongdong

    2018-03-27

    A re-chargeable battery comprising a non-dendrite forming sodium (Na)/potassium (K) liquid metal alloy anode, a sulfur and polyacrylonitrile (PAN) conductive polymer composite cathode, a polyethyleneoxide (PEO) solid electrolyte, a solid electrolyte interface (SEI) formed on the PEO solid electrolyte; and a cell housing, wherein the anode, cathode, and electrolyte are assembled into the cell housing with the PEO solid electrolyte disposed between the cathode and anode.

  3. Simulation of Ni-MH Batteries via an Equivalent Circuit Model for Energy Storage Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ying Zhu

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Impedance measurement was conducted at the entire cell level for studying of the Ni-MH rechargeable batteries. An improved equivalent circuit model considering diffusion process is proposed for simulation of battery impedance data at different charge input levels. The cell capacity decay was diagnosed by analyzing the ohmic resistance, activation resistance, and mass transfer resistance of the Ni-MH cells with degraded capacity. The capacity deterioration of this type, Ni-MH cell, is considered in relation to the change of activation resistance of the nickel positive electrodes. Based on the report and surface analysis obtained from the energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy, the composition formula of metal-hydride electrodes can be closely documented as the AB5 type alloy and the “A” elements are recognized as lanthanum (La and cerium (Ce. The capacity decay of the Ni-MH cell is potentially initiated due to starved electrolyte for the electrochemical reaction of active materials inside the Ni-MH battery, and the discharge product of Ni(OH2 at low state-of-charge level is anticipated to have more impeding effects on electrode kinetic process for higher power output and efficient energy delivery.

  4. Application of a LiFePO4 Battery Energy Storage System to Primary Frequency Control: Simulations and Experimental Results

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabio Massimo Gatta

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents an experimental application of LiFePO4 battery energy storage systems (BESSs to primary frequency control, currently being performed by Terna, the Italian transmission system operator (TSO. BESS performance in the primary frequency control role was evaluated by means of a simplified electrical-thermal circuit model, taking into account also the BESS auxiliary consumptions, coupled with a cycle-life model, in order to assess the expected life of the BESS. Numerical simulations have been carried out considering the system response to real frequency measurements taken in Italy, spanning a whole year; a parametric study taking into account different values of governor droop and of BESS charge/discharge rates (C-rates was also performed. Simulations, fully validated by experimental results obtained thus far, evidenced a severe trade-off between expected lifetime and overall efficiency, which significantly restricts the choice of operating parameters for frequency control.

  5. Distributed Control of Battery Energy Storage Systems for Voltage Regulation in Distribution Networks with High PV Penetration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zeraati, Mehdi; Golshan, Mohamad Esmaeil Hamedani; Guerrero, Josep M.

    2018-01-01

    issues of distribution networks. In this paper, the battery energy storage (BES) systems are used in order to solve the voltage rise during the peak PV generation as well as the voltage drop while meeting the peak load. A coordinated control strategy is proposed to regulate the charge/discharge of BESs...... using a combination of the local droop based control method and a distributed control scheme which ensures the voltages of feeder remain within allowed limits. Therefore, two different consensus algorithms are used: The first algorithm determines the BESs participation in voltage regulation in terms......The voltage rise problem in low voltage (LV) distribution networks with high penetration of photovoltaic (PV) resources is one of the most important challenges in the development of these renewable resources since it may prevent the maximum PV penetration considering the reliability and security...

  6. Fault-Tolerant Control for a Flexible Group Battery Energy Storage System Based on Cascaded Multilevel Converters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Junhong Song

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available A flexible group battery energy storage system (FGBESS based on cascaded multilevel converters is attractive for renewable power generation applications because of its high modularity and high power quality. However, reliability is one of the most important issues and the system may suffer from great financial loss after fault occurs. In this paper, based on conventional fundamental phase shift compensation and third harmonic injection, a hybrid compensation fault-tolerant method is proposed to improve the post-fault performance in the FGBESS. By adjusting initial phase offset and amplitude of injected component, the optimal third harmonic injection is generated in an asymmetric system under each faulty operation. Meanwhile, the optimal redundancy solution under each fault condition is also elaborated comprehensively with a comparison of the presented three fault-tolerant strategies. This takes full advantage of battery utilization and minimizes the loss of energy capacity. Finally, the effectiveness and feasibility of the proposed methods are verified by results obtained from simulations and a 10 kW experimental platform.

  7. User-Preference-Driven Model Predictive Control of Residential Building Loads and Battery Storage for Demand Response: Preprint

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jin, Xin [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Baker, Kyri A. [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Christensen, Dane T. [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Isley, Steven C. [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2017-08-21

    This paper presents a user-preference-driven home energy management system (HEMS) for demand response (DR) with residential building loads and battery storage. The HEMS is based on a multi-objective model predictive control algorithm, where the objectives include energy cost, thermal comfort, and carbon emission. A multi-criterion decision making method originating from social science is used to quickly determine user preferences based on a brief survey and derive the weights of different objectives used in the optimization process. Besides the residential appliances used in the traditional DR programs, a home battery system is integrated into the HEMS to improve the flexibility and reliability of the DR resources. Simulation studies have been performed on field data from a residential building stock data set. Appliance models and usage patterns were learned from the data to predict the DR resource availability. Results indicate the HEMS was able to provide a significant amount of load reduction with less than 20% prediction error in both heating and cooling cases.

  8. User-Preference-Driven Model Predictive Control of Residential Building Loads and Battery Storage for Demand Response

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jin, Xin [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Baker, Kyri A [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Isley, Steven C [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Christensen, Dane T [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2017-07-03

    This paper presents a user-preference-driven home energy management system (HEMS) for demand response (DR) with residential building loads and battery storage. The HEMS is based on a multi-objective model predictive control algorithm, where the objectives include energy cost, thermal comfort, and carbon emission. A multi-criterion decision making method originating from social science is used to quickly determine user preferences based on a brief survey and derive the weights of different objectives used in the optimization process. Besides the residential appliances used in the traditional DR programs, a home battery system is integrated into the HEMS to improve the flexibility and reliability of the DR resources. Simulation studies have been performed on field data from a residential building stock data set. Appliance models and usage patterns were learned from the data to predict the DR resource availability. Results indicate the HEMS was able to provide a significant amount of load reduction with less than 20% prediction error in both heating and cooling cases.

  9. Calendar aging of a 250 kW/500 kWh Li-ion battery deployed for the grid storage application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kubiak, Pierre; Cen, Zhaohui; López, Carmen M.; Belharouak, Ilias

    2017-12-01

    The introduction of Li-ion batteries for grid applications has become evidence as the cost per kWh is continuously decreasing. Although the Li-ion battery is a mature technology for automotive applications and portable electronics, its use for stationary applications needs more validation. The Li-ion technology is considered safe enough for grid storage application, but its lifetime is generally evaluated to be around 10 years. Higher market penetration will be achieved if a longer lifespan could be demonstrated. Therefore, aging evaluation of the batteries becomes crucial. In this paper we investigated the effects of aging after a three years' standby field deployment of a 250 kW/500 kWh Li-ion battery integrated with the grid and solar farm under the harsh climate conditions of Qatar. The development of tools for acquisition and analysis of data from the battery management system (BMS) allows the assessment of the battery performance at the battery stack, string and cell levels. The analysis of the residual capacity after aging showed that the stack suffered from a low decrease of capacity, whereas some inconsistencies have been found between the strings. These inconsistencies are caused by misalignment of a small number of cells that underwent self-discharge during standby at high state of charge.

  10. Hybrid PV/Wind Power Systems Incorporating Battery Storage and Considering the Stochastic Nature of Renewable Resources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnawi, Abdulwasa Bakr

    Hybrid power generation system and distributed generation technology are attracting more investments due to the growing demand for energy nowadays and the increasing awareness regarding emissions and their environmental impacts such as global warming and pollution. The price fluctuation of crude oil is an additional reason for the leading oil producing countries to consider renewable resources as an alternative. Saudi Arabia as the top oil exporter country in the word announced the "Saudi Arabia Vision 2030" which is targeting to generate 9.5 GW of electricity from renewable resources. Two of the most promising renewable technologies are wind turbines (WT) and photovoltaic cells (PV). The integration or hybridization of photovoltaics and wind turbines with battery storage leads to higher adequacy and redundancy for both autonomous and grid connected systems. This study presents a method for optimal generation unit planning by installing a proper number of solar cells, wind turbines, and batteries in such a way that the net present value (NPV) is minimized while the overall system redundancy and adequacy is maximized. A new renewable fraction technique (RFT) is used to perform the generation unit planning. RFT was tested and validated with particle swarm optimization and HOMER Pro under the same conditions and environment. Renewable resources and load randomness and uncertainties are considered. Both autonomous and grid-connected system designs were adopted in the optimal generation units planning process. An uncertainty factor was designed and incorporated in both autonomous and grid connected system designs. In the autonomous hybrid system design model, the strategy including an additional amount of operation reserve as a percent of the hourly load was considered to deal with resource uncertainty since the battery storage system is the only backup. While in the grid-connected hybrid system design model, demand response was incorporated to overcome the impact of

  11. Lithium storage performance of carbon nanotubes prepared from polyaniline for lithium-ion batteries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xiang Xiaoxia; Huang Zhengzheng; Liu Enhui; Shen Haijie; Tian Yingying; Xie Hui; Wu Yuhu; Wu Zhilian

    2011-01-01

    Highlights: → Polyaniline nanotube is synthesized by the self-assembly method in aqueous media. → Carbon nanotubes were prepared from polyaniline nanotube by physical activation. → Activation leads to large surface area, and surface nitrogen and oxygen functional groups. → Such physical and chemical properties lead to the good electrochemical properties. → After 20 cycles, a reversible capacity of 728 mAh g -1 was obtained. - Abstract: Carbon nanotubes with large surface area and surface nitrogen and oxygen functional groups are prepared by carbonizing and activating of polyaniline nanotubes, which is synthesized by polymerization of aniline with the self-assembly method in aqueous media. The physicochemical properties of the carbon nanotubes are characterized by scanning electron microscope, transmission electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction, Brunauer-Emmett-Teller, elemental analyses and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy measurements. The surface area and pore diameter are 618.9 m 2 g -1 and 3.10 nm. The electrochemical properties of the carbon nanotubes as anode materials in lithium ion batteries are evaluated. At a current density of 100 mA g -1 , the activated carbon nanotube shows an enormously first discharge capacity of about 1370 mAh g -1 and a charge capacity of 907 mAh g -1 . After 20 cycling tests, the activated carbon nanotube retains a reversible capacity of 728 mAh g -1 . These indicate it may be a promising candidate for an anode material for lithium secondary batteries.

  12. Fuzzy logic control of stand-alone photovoltaic system with battery storage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lalouni, S.; Rekioua, D.; Rekioua, T.; Matagne, E.

    Photovoltaic energy has nowadays an increased importance in electrical power applications, since it is considered as an essentially inexhaustible and broadly available energy resource. However, the output power provided via the photovoltaic conversion process depends on solar irradiation and temperature. Therefore, to maximize the efficiency of the photovoltaic energy system, it is necessary to track the maximum power point of the PV array. The present paper proposes a maximum power point tracker (MPPT) method, based on fuzzy logic controller (FLC), applied to a stand-alone photovoltaic system. It uses a sampling measure of the PV array power and voltage then determines an optimal increment required to have the optimal operating voltage which permits maximum power tracking. This method carries high accuracy around the optimum point when compared to the conventional one. The stand-alone photovoltaic system used in this paper includes two bi-directional DC/DC converters and a lead-acid battery bank to overcome the scare periods. One converter works as an MPP tracker, while the other regulates the batteries state of charge and compensates the power deficit to provide a continuous delivery of energy to the load. The Obtained simulation results show the effectiveness of the proposed fuzzy logic controller.

  13. A high-rate and long cycle life aqueous electrolyte battery for grid-scale energy storage

    KAUST Repository

    Pasta, Mauro

    2012-10-23

    New types of energy storage are needed in conjunction with the deployment of solar, wind and other volatile renewable energy sources and their integration with the electric grid. No existing energy storage technology can economically provide the power, cycle life and energy efficiency needed to respond to the costly short-term transients that arise from renewables and other aspects of grid operation. Here we demonstrate a new type of safe, fast, inexpensive, long-life aqueous electrolyte battery, which relies on the insertion of potassium ions into a copper hexacyanoferrate cathode and a novel activated carbon/polypyrrole hybrid anode. The cathode reacts rapidly with very little hysteresis. The hybrid anode uses an electrochemically active additive to tune its potential. This high-rate, high-efficiency cell has a 95% round-trip energy efficiency when cycled at a 5C rate, and a 79% energy efficiency at 50C. It also has zero-capacity loss after 1,000 deep-discharge cycles. © 2012 Macmillan Publishers Limited. All rights reserved.

  14. A high-rate and long cycle life aqueous electrolyte battery for grid-scale energy storage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pasta, Mauro; Wessells, Colin D; Huggins, Robert A; Cui, Yi

    2012-01-01

    New types of energy storage are needed in conjunction with the deployment of solar, wind and other volatile renewable energy sources and their integration with the electric grid. No existing energy storage technology can economically provide the power, cycle life and energy efficiency needed to respond to the costly short-term transients that arise from renewables and other aspects of grid operation. Here we demonstrate a new type of safe, fast, inexpensive, long-life aqueous electrolyte battery, which relies on the insertion of potassium ions into a copper hexacyanoferrate cathode and a novel activated carbon/polypyrrole hybrid anode. The cathode reacts rapidly with very little hysteresis. The hybrid anode uses an electrochemically active additive to tune its potential. This high-rate, high-efficiency cell has a 95% round-trip energy efficiency when cycled at a 5C rate, and a 79% energy efficiency at 50C. It also has zero-capacity loss after 1,000 deep-discharge cycles.

  15. Power Flow Distribution Strategy for Improved Power Electronics Energy Efficiency in Battery Storage Systems: Development and Implementation in a Utility-Scale System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Schimpe

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Utility-scale battery storage systems typically consist of multiple smaller units contributing to the overall power dispatch of the system. Herein, the power distribution among these units is analyzed and optimized to operate the system with increased energy efficiency. To improve the real-life storage operation, a holistic system model for battery storage systems has been developed that enables a calculation of the energy efficiency. A utility-scale Second-Life battery storage system with a capacity of 3.3 MWh/3 MW is operated and evaluated in this work. The system is in operation for the provision of primary control reserve in combination with intraday trading for controlling the battery state of charge. The simulation model is parameterized with the system data. Results show that losses in power electronics dominate. An operational strategy improving the energy efficiency through an optimized power flow distribution within the storage system is developed. The power flow distribution strategy is based on the reduction of the power electronics losses at no-load/partial-load by minimizing their in-operation time. The simulation derived power flow distribution strategy is implemented in the real-life storage system. Field-test measurements and analysis prove the functionality of the power flow distribution strategy and reveal the reduction of the energy throughput of the units by 7%, as well as a significant reduction of energy losses in the units by 24%. The cost savings for electricity over the system’s lifetime are approximated to 4.4% of its investment cost.

  16. Primary battery design and safety guidelines handbook

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bragg, Bobby J.; Casey, John E.; Trout, J. Barry

    1994-12-01

    This handbook provides engineers and safety personnel with guidelines for the safe design or selection and use of primary batteries in spaceflight programs. Types of primary batteries described are silver oxide zinc alkaline, carbon-zinc, zinc-air alkaline, manganese dioxide-zionc alkaline, mercuric oxide-zinc alkaline, and lithium anode cells. Along with typical applications, the discussions of the individual battery types include electrochemistry, construction, capacities and configurations, and appropriate safety measures. A chapter on general battery safety covers hazard sources and controls applicable to all battery types. Guidelines are given for qualification and acceptance testing that should precede space applications. Permissible failure levels for NASA applications are discussed.

  17. A review on sizing methodologies of photovoltaic array and storage battery in a standalone photovoltaic system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khatib, Tamer; Ibrahim, Ibrahim A.; Mohamed, Azah

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • We review the current methods for sizing standalone PV systems. • We review the current criteria adapted in sizing standalone PV systems. • We review current method for sizing battery in standalone PV systems. - Abstract: The reliance of future energy demand on standalone PV system is based on its payback period and particular electrical grid parity prices. This highlights the importance for optimum and applicable methods for sizing these systems. Moreover, the designers are being more sensitive toward simple and reliable sizing models for standalone PV system. This paper proposes a review on important knowledge that needs to be taken into account while designing and implementing standalone PV systems. Such a knowledge includes configurations of standalone photovoltaic system, evaluation criteria for unit sizing, sizing methodologies. Moreover, this review provides highlights on challenges and limitations of standalone PV system size optimization techniques.

  18. "Supergreen" Renewables: Integration of Mineral Weathering Into Renewable Energy Production for Air CO2 Removal and Storage as Ocean Alkalinity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rau, G. H.; Carroll, S.; Ren, Z. J.

    2015-12-01

    Excess planetary CO2 and accompanying ocean acidification are naturally mitigated on geologic time scales via mineral weathering. Here, CO2 acidifies the hydrosphere, which then slowly reacts with silicate and carbonate minerals to produce dissolved bicarbonates that are ultimately delivered to the ocean. This alkalinity not only provides long-term sequestration of the excess atmospheric carbon, but it also chemically counters the effects of ocean acidification by stabilizing or raising pH and carbonate saturation state, thus helping rebalance ocean chemistry and preserving marine ecosystems. Recent research has demonstrated ways of greatly accelerating this process by its integration into energy systems. Specifically, it has been shown (1) that some 80% of the CO2 in a waste gas stream can be spontaneously converted to stable, seawater mineral bicarbonate in the presence of a common carbonate mineral - limestone. This can allow removal of CO2 from biomass combustion and bio-energy production while generating beneficial ocean alkalinity, providing a potentially cheaper and more environmentally friendly negative-CO2-emissions alternative to BECCS. It has also been demonstrated that strong acids anodically produced in a standard saline water electrolysis cell in the formation of H2 can be reacted with carbonate or silicate minerals to generate strong base solutions. These solutions are highly absorptive of air CO2, converting it to mineral bicarbonate in solution. When such electrochemical cells are powered by non-fossil energy (e.g. electricity from wind, solar, tidal, biomass, geothermal, etc. energy sources), the system generates H2 that is strongly CO2-emissions-negative, while producing beneficial marine alkalinity (2-4). The preceding systems therefore point the way toward renewable energy production that, when tightly coupled to geochemical mitigation of CO2 and formation of natural ocean "antacids", forms a high capacity, negative-CO2-emissions, "supergreen

  19. Distributed Demand Side Management with Battery Storage for Smart Home Energy Scheduling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Omowunmi Mary Longe

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The role of Demand Side Management (DSM with Distributed Energy Storage (DES has been gaining attention in recent studies due to the impact of the latter on energy management in the smart grid. In this work, an Energy Scheduling and Distributed Storage (ESDS algorithm is proposed to be installed into the smart meters of Time-of-Use (TOU pricing consumers possessing in-home energy storage devices. Source of energy supply to the smart home appliances was optimized between the utility grid and the DES device depending on energy tariff and consumer demand satisfaction information. This is to minimize consumer energy expenditure and maximize demand satisfaction simultaneously. The ESDS algorithm was found to offer consumer-friendly and utility-friendly enhancements to the DSM program such as energy, financial, and investment savings, reduced/eliminated consumer dissatisfaction even at peak periods, Peak-to-Average-Ratio (PAR demand reduction, grid energy sustainability, socio-economic benefits, and other associated benefits such as environmental-friendliness.

  20. A Hydrogen-Evolving Hybrid-Electrolyte Battery with Electrochemical/Photoelectrochemical Charging from Water Oxidation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Zhaoyu; Li, Panpan; Xiao, Dan

    2017-02-08

    Decoupled hydrogen and oxygen production were successfully embedded into an aqueous dual-electrolyte (acid-base) battery for simultaneous energy storage and conversion. A three-electrode configuration was adopted, involving an electrocatalytic hydrogen-evolving electrode as cathode, an alkaline battery-type or capacitor-type anode as shuttle, and a charging-assisting electrode for electro-/photoelectrochemically catalyzing water oxidation. The conceptual battery not only synergistically outputs electricity and chemical fuels with tremendous specific energy and power densities, but also supports various approaches to be charged by pure or solar-assisted electricity. © 2017 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  1. Optimal Design and Operation Management of Battery-Based Energy Storage Systems (BESS) in Microgrids

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Anvari-Moghaddam, Amjad; Dulout, Jeremy; Alonso, Corinne

    2017-01-01

    avoiding high price spikes. Moreover, storage devices can be used as an effective mechanism for shaping the daily load curve in order to reduce electricity bills of consumers. In other words, application of ESSs will enable better utilization of distributed energy sources and provide higher controllability...... at supply/demand side which is helpful for load levelling or peak shaving purposes. Last but not least, ESSs can provide frequency regulation services in offgrid locations where there is a strong need to meet the power balance in different operating conditions. Each of the abovementioned applications...

  2. Fuzzy Logic based Coordinated Control of Battery Energy Storage System and Dispatchable Distributed Generation for Microgrid

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhao, Haoran; Wu, Qiuwei; Wang, Chengshan

    2015-01-01

    Microgrid is an efficient solution to integraterenewable energy sources (RES) into power systems. Inorder to deal with the intermittent characteristics of therenewable energy based distributed generation (DG) units,a fuzzy-logic based coordinated control strategy of thebattery energy storage system...... (BESS) and dispatchableDG units is proposed in this paper for the microgridmanagement system (MMS). In the proposed coordinatedcontrol strategy, the BESS is used to mitigate the activepower exchange at the point of common coupling of themicrogrid for the grid-connected operation, and is used forthe...... frequency control for the island operation. Theeffectiveness of the proposed control strategy was verifiedby case studies using DIgSILENT/PowerFactroy....

  3. Power control for direct-driven permanent magnet wind generator system with battery storage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guang, Chu Xiao; Ying, Kong

    2014-01-01

    The objective of this paper is to construct a wind generator system (WGS) loss model that addresses the loss of the wind turbine and the generator. It aims to optimize the maximum effective output power and turbine speed. Given that the wind generator system has inertia and is nonlinear, the dynamic model of the wind generator system takes the advantage of the duty of the Buck converter and employs feedback linearization to design the optimized turbine speed tracking controller and the load power controller. According to that, this paper proposes a dual-mode dynamic coordination strategy based on the auxiliary load to reduce the influence of mode conversion on the lifetime of the battery. Optimized speed and power rapid tracking as well as the reduction of redundant power during mode conversion have gone through the test based on a 5 kW wind generator system test platform. The generator output power as the capture target has also been proved to be efficient.

  4. Power Control for Direct-Driven Permanent Magnet Wind Generator System with Battery Storage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guang, Chu Xiao; Ying, Kong

    2014-01-01

    The objective of this paper is to construct a wind generator system (WGS) loss model that addresses the loss of the wind turbine and the generator. It aims to optimize the maximum effective output power and turbine speed. Given that the wind generator system has inertia and is nonlinear, the dynamic model of the wind generator system takes the advantage of the duty of the Buck converter and employs feedback linearization to design the optimized turbine speed tracking controller and the load power controller. According to that, this paper proposes a dual-mode dynamic coordination strategy based on the auxiliary load to reduce the influence of mode conversion on the lifetime of the battery. Optimized speed and power rapid tracking as well as the reduction of redundant power during mode conversion have gone through the test based on a 5 kW wind generator system test platform. The generator output power as the capture target has also been proved to be efficient. PMID:25050405

  5. The concentration gradient flow battery as electricity storage system: Technology potential and energy dissipation

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Egmond, W. J.; Saakes, M.; Porada, S.; Meuwissen, T.; Buisman, C. J. N.; Hamelers, H. V. M.

    2016-09-01

    Unlike traditional fossil fuel plants, the wind and the sun provide power only when the renewable resource is available. To accommodate large scale use of renewable energy sources for efficient power production and utilization, energy storage systems are necessary. Here, we introduce a scalable energy storage system which operates by performing cycles during which energy generated from renewable resource is first used to produce highly concentrated brine and diluate, followed up mixing these two solutions in order to generate power. In this work, we present theoretical results of the attainable energy density as function of salt type and concentration. A linearized Nernst-Planck model is used to describe water, salt and charge transport. We validate our model with experiments over wide range of sodium chloride concentrations (0.025-3 m) and current densities (-49 to +33 A m-2). We find that depending on current density, charge and discharge steps have significantly different thermodynamic efficiency. In addition, we show that at optimal current densities, mechanisms of energy dissipation change with salt concentration. We find the highest thermodynamic efficiency at low concentrate concentrations. When using salt concentrations above 1 m, water and co-ion transport contribute to high energy dissipation due to irreversible mixing.

  6. Constructing heterostructured Li-Fe-Ni-Mn-O cathodes for lithium-ion batteries: effective improvement of ultrafast lithium storage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Taolin; Zhou, Na; Zhang, Xiaoxiao; Xue, Qing; Wang, Yuhua; Yang, Minli; Li, Li; Chen, Renjie

    2017-08-23

    Surface modification is proved to be an effective strategy to improve the power density of lithium-ion batteries (LIBs) applied in electric vehicles. In this article, a protective modification layer (FeF 3 /LiF) is successfully deposited onto the surface of a low-cost cathode material, Li 6/5 [Fe 1/10 Ni 3/20 Mn 11/20 ]O 2 , for realizing the improvement of ultrafast lithium storage. The reversible specific capacity and ultrahigh rate capability are effectively improved. The modified sample can achieve a higher reversible discharge specific capacity of 171.8 mA h g -1 at 0.2C. A discharge specific capacity of 150.4 mA h g -1 is delivered at 1C after 60 cycles. Even at 2C and 5C, the discharge specific capacities are still maintained at 135.7 and 124.5 mA h g -1 . Notably, when charged and discharged at 20C, a discharge specific capacity of 73.4 mA h g -1 can be achieved after 200 cycles by the heterostructured Li-Fe-Ni-Mn-O cathode, almost twice that of the bare material. The good fast lithium storage capability can be ascribed to the effective suppression of interfacial side reactions, the conversion reaction from the FeF 3 phase, and the harmonious coexistence of layered and spinel phases. The triple benefits from the heterostructured cathode provide a promising route for constructing advanced LIBs.

  7. Comparative analysis of photovoltaic power storage systems by means of batteries and hydrogen in remote areas of the Amazon region in Brazil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Furlan, Andre Luis; Silva Pinto, Cristiano da [FEM/UNICAMP, Sao Paulo (Brazil). School of Mechanical Engineering; Neves, Newton Pimenta Jr. [IFGW/UNICAMP, Sao Paulo (Brazil). Lab. of Hydrogen

    2010-07-01

    This study analyzes the photovoltaic power storage comparing the traditional lead-acid batteries with electrolytic hydrogen where the gas is reconverted to power in a fuel cell. In order to design the two systems a load profile of the Brazilian Amazon communities was used as well as some practical operational data of equipment tested in the laboratory. A mathematical model was developed, implemented in a spreadsheet that considers the several devices and their efficiencies in order to specify and match the systems components. The results were employed to evaluate the economic viability of the two systems in remote communities. Considering the present conditions, it was verified that the battery system is slightly cheaper. However, it was also observed that a minor cost reduction in the electrolyser, as well as in the buffer and fuel cell would make the hydrogen system very competitive, becoming the best option for photovoltaic power storage with important benefits to the environment. (orig.)

  8. An Energy-Based Control Strategy for Battery Energy Storage Systems: A Case Study on Microgrid Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rui Hou

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Battery energy storage systems (BESSs with proportional-integral (PI control methods have been widely studied in microgrids (MGs. However, the performance of PI control methods might be unsatisfactory for BESSs due to the nonlinear characteristics of the system. To overcome this problem, an energy-based (EB control method is applied to control the converter of a BESS in this study. The EB method is a robust nonlinear control method based on passivity theory with good performance in both transient and steady states. The detailed design process of the EB method in the BESS by adopting an interconnection and damping assignment (IDA strategy is described. The design process comprises three steps: the construction of the port-controlled Hamiltonian model, the determination of the equilibrium point and the solution of the undetermined matrix. In addition, integral action is combined to eliminate the steady state error generated by the model mismatch. To establish the correctness and validity of the proposed method, we implement several case simulation studies based on a test MG system and compare the control performance of the EB and PI methods carefully. The case simulation results demonstrate that the EB method has better tracking and anti-disturbance performance compared with the classic PI method. Moreover, the proposed EB method shows stronger robustness to the uncertainty of system parameters.

  9. Load Frequency Control of Two-Area Network using Renewable Energy Resources and Battery Energy Storage System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Norhafiz Bin SALIM

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available In an interconnected system, the frequency and tie-line power interchange are very susceptible with the diversification of power load demand. Literally, in a multi-area power system, the load frequency control (LFC is substantially aimed to minimise the deviations of these parameters relatively. Knowingly, the power production from renewable energy resources could offer promising solutions despite their intermittency (i.e. photovoltaic/wind generation, hence in this context, a battery energy storage system (BESS is proposed to delineate dynamic response along with grid—connection. This study has proposed LFC with BESS control method to suppress frequency deviations for a power system and being compared with photovoltaic (PV approach. The effectiveness was verified using newly developed AGC30 model of Japanese Power System and was modelled using MATLAB Simulink. Furthermore, an analysis of the tie-line power oscillations also are carried out and comparison analysis demonstrates further the reliability of the proposed model and control methods.

  10. Fuzzy Logic-Based Operation of Battery Energy Storage Systems (BESSs for Enhancing the Resiliency of Hybrid Microgrids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akhtar Hussain

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available The resiliency of power systems can be enhanced during emergency situations by using microgrids, due to their capability to supply local loads. However, precise prediction of disturbance events is very difficult rather the occurrence probability can be expressed as, high, medium, or low, etc. Therefore, a fuzzy logic-based battery energy storage system (BESS operation controller is proposed in this study. In addition to BESS state-of-charge and market price signals, event occurrence probability is taken as crisp input for the BESS operation controller. After assessing the membership levels of all the three inputs, BESS operation controller decides the operation mode (subservient or resilient of BESS units. In subservient mode, BESS is fully controlled by an energy management system (EMS while in the case of resilient mode, the EMS follows the commands of the BESS operation controller for scheduling BESS units. Therefore, the proposed hybrid microgrid model can operate in normal, resilient, and emergency modes with the respective objective functions and scheduling horizons. Due to the consideration of resilient mode, load curtailment can be reduced during emergency operation periods. Numerical simulations have demonstrated the effectiveness of the proposed strategy for enhancing the resiliency of hybrid microgrids.

  11. Optimal Scheduling of a Battery Energy Storage System with Electric Vehicles’ Auxiliary for a Distribution Network with Renewable Energy Integration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuqing Yang

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available With global conventional energy depletion, as well as environmental pollution, utilizing renewable energy for power supply is the only way for human beings to survive. Currently, distributed generation incorporated into a distribution network has become the new trend, with the advantages of controllability, flexibility and tremendous potential. However, the fluctuation of distributed energy resources (DERs is still the main concern for accurate deployment. Thus, a battery energy storage system (BESS has to be involved to mitigate the bad effects of DERs’ integration. In this paper, optimal scheduling strategies for BESS operation have been proposed, to assist with consuming the renewable energy, reduce the active power loss, alleviate the voltage fluctuation and minimize the electricity cost. Besides, the electric vehicles (EVs considered as the auxiliary technique are also introduced to attenuate the DERs’ influence. Moreover, both day-ahead and real-time operation scheduling strategies were presented under the consideration with the constraints of BESS and the EVs’ operation, and the optimization was tackled by a fuzzy mathematical method and an improved particle swarm optimization (IPSO algorithm. Furthermore, the test system for the proposed strategies is a real distribution network with renewable energy integration. After simulation, the proposed scheduling strategies have been verified to be extremely effective for the enhancement of the distribution network characteristics.

  12. Optimal Operation and Management for Smart Grid Subsumed High Penetration of Renewable Energy, Electric Vehicle, and Battery Energy Storage System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shigenobu, Ryuto; Noorzad, Ahmad Samim; Muarapaz, Cirio; Yona, Atsushi; Senjyu, Tomonobu

    2016-04-01

    Distributed generators (DG) and renewable energy sources have been attracting special attention in distribution systems in all over the world. Renewable energies, such as photovoltaic (PV) and wind turbine generators are considered as green energy. However, a large amount of DG penetration causes voltage deviation beyond the statutory range and reverse power flow at interconnection points in the distribution system. If excessive voltage deviation occurs, consumer's electric devices might break and reverse power flow will also has a negative impact on the transmission system. Thus, mass interconnections of DGs has an adverse effect on both of the utility and the customer. Therefore, reactive power control method is proposed previous research by using inverters attached DGs for prevent voltage deviations. Moreover, battery energy storage system (BESS) is also proposed for resolve reverse power flow. In addition, it is possible to supply high quality power for managing DGs and BESSs. Therefore, this paper proposes a method to maintain voltage, active power, and reactive power flow at interconnection points by using cooperative controlled of PVs, house BESSs, EVs, large BESSs, and existing voltage control devices. This paper not only protect distribution system, but also attain distribution loss reduction and effectivity management of control devices. Therefore mentioned control objectives are formulated as an optimization problem that is solved by using the Particle Swarm Optimization (PSO) algorithm. Modified scheduling method is proposed in order to improve convergence probability of scheduling scheme. The effectiveness of the proposed method is verified by case studies results and by using numerical simulations in MATLAB®.

  13. Novel Battery Management System with Distributed Wireless and Fiber Optic Sensors for Early Detection and Suppression of Thermal Runaway in Large Battery Packs, FY13 Q4 Report, ARPA-E Program: Advanced Management Protection of Energy Storage Devices (AMPE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Farmer, J. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Chang, J. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Zumstein, J. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Kovotsky, J. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Puglia, F. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Dobley, A. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Moore, G. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Osswald, S. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Wolf, K. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Kaschmitter, J. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Eaves, S. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States)

    2013-10-08

    Technology has been developed that enables monitoring of individual cells in highcapacity lithium-ion battery packs, with a distributed array of wireless Bluetooth 4.0 tags and sensors, and without proliferation of extensive wiring harnesses. Given the safety challenges facing lithium-ion batteries in electric vehicle, civilian aviation and defense applications, these wireless sensors may be particularly important to these emerging markets. These wireless sensors will enhance the performance, reliability and safety of such energy storage systems. Specific accomplishments to date include, but are not limited to: (1) the development of wireless tags using Bluetooth 4.0 standard to monitor a large array of sensors in battery pack; (2) sensor suites enabling the simultaneous monitoring of cell voltage, cell current, cell temperature, and package strain, indicative of swelling and increased internal pressure, (3) small receivers compatible with USB ports on portable computers; (4) software drivers and logging software; (5) a 7S2P battery simulator, enabling the safe development of wireless BMS hardware in the laboratory; (6) demonstrated data transmission out of metal enclosures, including battery box, with small variable aperture opening; (7) test data demonstrating the accurate and reliable operation of sensors, with transmission of terminal voltage, cell temperature and package strain at distances up to 110 feet; (8) quantification of the data transmission error as a function of distance, in both indoor and outdoor operation; (9) electromagnetic interference testing during operation with live, high-capacity battery management system at Yardney Technical Products; (10) demonstrated operation with live high-capacity lithium-ion battery pack during charge-discharge cycling; (11) development of special polymer-gel lithium-ion batteries with embedded temperature sensors, capable of measuring the core temperature of individual of the cells during charge-discharge cycling

  14. Two-Stage Battery Energy Storage System (BESS in AC Microgrids with Balanced State-of-Charge and Guaranteed Small-Signal Stability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bing Xie

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, a two-stage battery energy storage system (BESS is implemented to enhance the operation condition of conventional battery storage systems in a microgrid. Particularly, the designed BESS is composed of two stages, i.e., Stage I: integration of dispersed energy storage units (ESUs using parallel DC/DC converters, and Stage II: aggregated ESUs in grid-connected operation. Different from a conventional BESS consisting of a battery management system (BMS and power conditioning system (PCS, the developed two-stage architecture enables additional operation and control flexibility in balancing the state-of-charge (SoC of each ESU and ensures the guaranteed small-signal stability, especially in extremely weak grid conditions. The above benefits are achieved by separating the control functions between the two stages. In Stage I, a localized power sharing scheme based on the SoC of each particular ESU is developed to manage the SoC and avoid over-charge or over-discharge issues; on the other hand, in Stage II, an additional virtual impedance loop is implemented in the grid-interactive DC/AC inverters to enhance the stability margin with multiple parallel-connected inverters integrating at the point of common coupling (PCC simultaneously. A simulation model based on MATLAB/Simulink is established, and simulation results verify the effectiveness of the proposed BESS architecture and the corresponding control diagram.

  15. Reclaiming the spent alkaline zinc manganese dioxide batteries collected from the manufacturers to prepare valuable electrolytic zinc and LiNi{sub 0.5}Mn{sub 1.5}O{sub 4} materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ma, Ya; Cui, Yan; Zuo, Xiaoxi; Huang, Shanna; Hu, Keshui; Xiao, Xin; Nan, Junmin, E-mail: jmnan@scnu.edu.cn

    2014-10-15

    Highlights: • The spent Zn–Mn batteries collected from manufacturers is the target waste. • A facile reclaiming process is presented. • The zinc is reclaimed to valuable electrolytic zinc by electrodepositing method. • The manganese elements are to produce valuable LiNi{sub 0.5}Mn{sub 1.5}O{sub 4} battery material. • The reclamation process features environmental friendliness and saving resource. - Abstract: A process for reclaiming the materials in spent alkaline zinc manganese dioxide (Zn–Mn) batteries collected from the manufacturers to prepare valuable electrolytic zinc and LiNi{sub 0.5}Mn{sub 1.5}O{sub 4} materials is presented. After dismantling battery cans, the iron cans, covers, electric rods, organic separator, label, sealing materials, and electrolyte are separated through the washing, magnetic separation, filtrating, and sieving operations. Then, the powder residues react with H{sub 2}SO{sub 4} (2 mol L{sup −1}) solution to dissolve zinc under a liquid/solid ratio of 3:1 at room temperature, and subsequently, the electrolytic Zn with purity of ⩾99.8% is recovered in an electrolytic cell with a cathode efficiency of ⩾85% under the conditions of 37–40 °C and 300 A m{sup −2}. The most of MnO{sub 2} and a small quantity of electrolytic MnO{sub 2} are recovered from the filtration residue and the electrodeposit on the anode of electrolytic cell, respectively. The recovered manganese oxides are used to synthesize LiNi{sub 0.5}Mn{sub 1.5}O{sub 4} material of lithium-ion battery. The as-synthesized LiNi{sub 0.5}Mn{sub 1.5}O{sub 4} discharges 118.3 mAh g{sup −1} capacity and 4.7 V voltage plateau, which is comparable to the sample synthesized using commercial electrolytic MnO{sub 2}. This process can recover the substances in the spent Zn–Mn batteries and innocuously treat the wastewaters, indicating that it is environmentally acceptable and applicable.

  16. Investigation of the Storage Behavior of Shredded Lithium-Ion Batteries from Electric Vehicles for Recycling Purposes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grützke, Martin; Krüger, Steffen; Kraft, Vadim; Vortmann, Britta; Rothermel, Sergej; Winter, Martin; Nowak, Sascha

    2015-10-26

    Shredding of the cells is often the first step in lithium-ion battery (LIB) recycling. Thus, LiNi1/3 Mn1/3 Co1/3 O2 (NMC)/graphite lithium-ion cells from a field-tested electric vehicle were shredded and transferred to tinplate or plastic storage containers. The formation of hazardous compounds within, and being released from, these containers was monitored over 20 months. The tinplate cans underwent fast corrosion as a result of either residual charge in the active battery material, which could not fully be discharged because of contact loss to the current collector, or redox reactions between the tinplate surface and metal parts of the shredded material. The headspace compositions of the containers were investigated at room temperature and 150 °C using headspace-gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (HS-GC-MS). Samples of the waste material were also collected using microwave-assisted extraction and the extracts were analyzed over a period of 20 months using ion chromatography-electrospray ionization-mass spectrometry (IC-ESI-MS). LiPF6 was identified as a conducting salt, whereas dimethyl carbonate, ethyl methyl carbonate, and ethylene carbonate were the main solvent components. Cyclohexylbenzene was also detected, which is an additive for overcharge protection. Diethyl carbonate, fluoride, difluorophosphate and several ionic and non-ionic alkyl (fluoro)phosphates were also identified. Importantly, dimethyl fluorophosphate (DMFP) and diethyl fluorophosphate (DEFP) were quantified using HS-GC-MS through the use of an internal standard. DMFP, DEFP, and related compounds are known as chemical warfare agents, and the presence of these materials is of great interest. In the case of this study, these hazardous materials are present but in manageable low concentrations. Nonetheless, the presence of such compounds and their potential release during an accident that may occur during shredding or recycling of large amounts of LIB waste should be considered. © 2015

  17. Oil drilling rig diesel power-plant fuel efficiency improvement potentials through rule-based generator scheduling and utilization of battery energy storage system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pavković, Danijel; Sedić, Almir; Guzović, Zvonimir

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Isolated oil drilling rig microgrid power flows are analyzed over 30 days. • Rule-based diesel generator scheduling is proposed to reduce fuel consumption. • A battery energy storage is parameterized and used for peak load leveling. • The effectiveness of proposed hybrid microgrid is verified by simulations. • Return-of-investment might be expected within 20% of battery system lifetime. - Abstract: This paper presents the development of a rule-based energy management control strategy suitable for isolated diesel power-plants equipped with a battery energy storage system for peak load shaving. The proposed control strategy includes the generator scheduling strategy and peak load leveling scheme based on current microgrid active and reactive power requirements. In order to investigate the potentials for fuel expenditure reduction, 30 days-worth of microgrid power flow data has been collected on an isolated land-based oil drilling rig powered by a diesel generator power-plant, characterized by highly-variable active and reactive load profiles due to intermittent engagements and disengagements of high-power electric machinery such as top-drive, draw-works and mud-pump motors. The analysis has indicated that by avoiding the low-power operation of individual generators and by providing the peak power requirements (peak shaving) from a dedicated energy storage system, the power-plant fuel efficiency may be notably improved. An averaged power flow simulation model has been built, comprising the proposed rule-based power flow control strategy and the averaged model of a suitably sized battery energy storage system equipped with grid-tied power converter and state-of-charge control system. The effectiveness of the proposed rule-based strategy has been evaluated by means of computer simulation analysis based on drilling rig microgrid active and reactive power data recorded during the 30 day period. The analysis has indicated that fuel consumption of

  18. A design of cascade control system and adaptive load compensator for battery/ultracapacitor hybrid energy storage-based direct current microgrid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pavković, Danijel; Lobrović, Mihael; Hrgetić, Mario; Komljenović, Ante

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Battery/ultracapacitor storage is considered for a direct-current microgrid. • Microgrid voltage cascade control system with load compensator is designed. • Current references are allocated so that ultracapacitor takes on transient loads. • Adaptive Kalman filter-based estimator is used for indirect load compensation. • Control strategy has been verified on a downscaled hardware-in-the-loop setup. - Abstract: A control system design based on an actively-controlled battery/ultracapacitor hybrid energy storage system suitable for direct current microgrid energy management purposes is presented in this paper. The proposed cascade control system arrangement is based on the superimposed proportional–integral voltage controller designed according to Damping Optimum criterion and a zero-pole canceling feed-forward load compensator aimed at voltage excursion suppression under variable load conditions. The superimposed controller commands the inner battery and ultracapacitor current control loops through a dynamic current reference distribution scheme, wherein the ultracapacitor takes on the highly-dynamic (transient) current demands, and the battery covers for steady-state loads. In order to avoid deep discharges of the ultracapacitor module, it is equipped with an auxiliary state-of-charge controller. Finally, for those applications where load is not measured, an adaptive Kalman filter-based load compensator is proposed and tested. The presented control strategy has been implemented on the low-cost industrial controller unit, and its effectiveness has been verified by means of simulations and experiments for the cases of abrupt load changes and quasi-stochastic load profiles using a downscaled battery/ultracapacitor hardware-in-the-loop experimental setup.

  19. The equivalence of gravitational potential and rechargeable battery for high-altitude long-endurance solar-powered aircraft on energy storage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gao, Xian-Zhong; Hou, Zhong-Xi; Guo, Zheng; Fan, Rong-Fei; Chen, Xiao-Qian

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: • The scope of this paper is to apply solar energy to achieve the high-altitude long-endurance flight. • The equivalence of gravitational potential and rechargeable battery is discussed. • Four kinds of factors have been discussed to compare the two method of energy storage. • This work can provide some governing principles for the application of solar-powered aircraft. - Abstract: Applying solar energy is one of the most promising methods to achieve the aim of High-altitude Long-endurance (HALE) flight, and solar-powered aircraft is usually taken by the research groups to develop HALE aircraft. However, the crucial factor which constrains the solar-powered aircraft to achieve the aim of HALE is the problem how to fulfill the power requirement under weight constraint of rechargeable batteries. Motivated by the birds store energy from thermal by gaining height, the method of energy stored by gravitational potential for solar-powered aircraft have attracted great attentions in recent years. In order to make the method of energy stored in gravitational potential more practical in solar-powered aircraft, the equivalence of gravitational potential and rechargeable battery for aircraft on energy storage has been analyzed, and four kinds of factors are discussed in this paper: the duration of solar irradiation, the charging rate, the energy density of rechargeable battery and the initial altitude of aircraft. This work can provide some governing principles for the solar-powered aircraft to achieve the unlimited endurance flight, and the endurance performance of solar-powered aircraft may be greatly improved by the application of energy storage using gravitational potential

  20. Analysis of a utility-interactive wind-photovoltaic hybrid system with battery storage using neural network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giraud, Francois

    1999-10-01

    This dissertation investigates the application of neural network theory to the analysis of a 4-kW Utility-interactive Wind-Photovoltaic System (WPS) with battery storage. The hybrid system comprises a 2.5-kW photovoltaic generator and a 1.5-kW wind turbine. The wind power generator produces power at variable speed and variable frequency (VSVF). The wind energy is converted into dc power by a controlled, tree-phase, full-wave, bridge rectifier. The PV power is maximized by a Maximum Power Point Tracker (MPPT), a dc-to-dc chopper, switching at a frequency of 45 kHz. The whole dc power of both subsystems is stored in the battery bank or conditioned by a single-phase self-commutated inverter to be sold to the utility at a predetermined amount. First, the PV is modeled using Artificial Neural Network (ANN). To reduce model uncertainty, the open-circuit voltage VOC and the short-circuit current ISC of the PV are chosen as model input variables of the ANN. These input variables have the advantage of incorporating the effects of the quantifiable and non-quantifiable environmental variants affecting the PV power. Then, a simplified way to predict accurately the dynamic responses of the grid-linked WPS to gusty winds using a Recurrent Neural Network (RNN) is investigated. The RNN is a single-output feedforward backpropagation network with external feedback, which allows past responses to be fed back to the network input. In the third step, a Radial Basis Functions (RBF) Network is used to analyze the effects of clouds on the Utility-Interactive WPS. Using the irradiance as input signal, the network models the effects of random cloud movement on the output current, the output voltage, the output power of the PV system, as well as the electrical output variables of the grid-linked inverter. Fourthly, using RNN, the combined effects of a random cloud and a wind gusts on the system are analyzed. For short period intervals, the wind speed and the solar radiation are considered as

  1. Green synthesis and stable li-storage performance of FeSi(2)/Si@C nanocomposite for lithium-ion batteries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yao; Qian, Jiangfeng; Cao, Yuliang; Yang, Hanxi; Ai, Xinping

    2012-07-25

    Si-based alloy materials have received great attention as an alternative anode for high capacity and safe Li-ion batteries, but practical implementation of these materials is hindered by their poor electrochemical utilization and cyclability. To tackle this problem, we developed a core-shelled FeSi2/Si@C nanocomposite by a direct ball-milling of Fe and Si powders. Such a nanostructured composite can effectively buffer the volumetric change by alloying active Si phase with inactive FeSi2 matrix in its inner cores and prevent the aggregation of the active Si particles by outer graphite shells, so as to improve the cycling stability of the composite material. As a result, the FeSi2/Si@C composite exhibits a high Li-storage capacity of ∼1010 mA g(-1) and an excellent cyclability with 94% capacity retention after 200 cycles, showing a great promise for battery applications. More significantly, the synthetic method developed in this work possesses several advantages of low cost, zero emission, and operational simplicity, possibly to be extended for making other Li-storage alloys for large-scale applications in Li-ion batteries.

  2. Large battery storage systems - state of the technology and perspectives; Grosse Batteriespeicher. Stand der Technik und Perspektiven

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wagner, R.; Koch, H.U. [Hagen Batterie AG, Soest (Germany)

    1998-07-01

    Large stationary lead batteries may play an important role in the field of energy supply. This contribution gives some examples where large batteries are used for frequency regulation, load-levelling and solar applications. Operational experience is presented and the set-up as well as the special technical characteristics of this battery are discussed. In 1986 a 17 MW / 14 MWh battery was installed at the company BEWAG in Berlin. At that point in time it was the largest battery of the world. In order to improve the special energetic island situation of Berlin, the battery was used for frequency regulation and as immediate reserve since the beginning of 1987. In December 1993, after the connection of Berlin to the European grid, the frequency regulation was no longer necessary, but the battery was continued to be used as immediate reserve. Since many years a large battery has been used for load-levelling in the industrial park of HAGEN in Soest. Experience gained from more than ten years of operation clearly shows that load-levelling has many advantages not only for the electric current consumer but also for the public utility. In summer 1992 a 216 V, 2200 Ah lead battery with positive tubular plates and gel electrolyte was installed in a solar plant in Flanitzhuette, a small village located in the Bavarian Forest that is not connected to an electric grid. Up to the present the plant has been operated without any major problems. (orig.) [German] Grosse stationaere Bleibatterien koennen im Bereich der Energieversorgung eine wichtige Rolle spielen. In diesem Bericht werden einige Beispiele vorgestellt, bei denen grosse Batterien fuer Frequenzregulierung, Load-levelling und Solaranwendungen zum Einsatz gekommen sind. Die Betriebserfahrungen werden vorgestellt und der Aufbau und die technischen Besonderheiten dieser Batterie diskutiert. 1986 wurde eine 17 MW/14 MWh Batterie bei der BEWAG in Berlin installiert. Dies war damals die groesste Batterie der Welt. Um die

  3. Energy storage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Odru, P.

    2010-01-01

    This book proposes a broad overview of the technologies developed in the domains of on-board electricity storage (batteries, super-capacitors, flywheels), stationary storage (hydraulic dams, compressed air, batteries and hydrogen), and heat storage (sensible, latent and sorption) together with their relative efficiency, their expected developments and what advantages they can offer. Eminent specialists of this domain have participated to the redaction of this book, all being members of the Tuck's Foundation 'IDees' think tank. (J.S.)

  4. Regenerative flywheel energy storage system. Volume 3: Life cycle and cost-benefit analysis of a battery-flywheel electric car

    Science.gov (United States)

    1980-06-01

    Fabrication of the inductor motor, the flywheel, the power conditioner, and the system control is described. Test results of the system operating over the SAE j227a Schedule D driving cycle are given and are compared to the calculated value. The flywheel energy storage system consists of a solid rotor, synchronous, inductor-type, flywheel drive machine electrically coupled to a dc battery electric propulsion system through a load-commutated inverter. The motor/alernator unit is coupled mechanically to a small steel flywheel which provides a portion of the vehicle's accelerating energy and regenerates the vehicle's braking energy. Laboratory simulation of the electric vehicle propulsion system included a 108 volt, lead-acid battery bank and a separately excited dc propulsion motor coupled to a flywheel and generator which simulate the vehicle's inertia and losses.

  5. Examination of VRLA cells sampled from a battery energy storage system (BESS) after 30-months of operations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    SZYMBORSKI,JOSEPH; HUNT,GEORGE; TSAGALIS,ANGELO; JUNGST,RUDOLPH G.

    2000-06-08

    Valve-Regulated Lead-Acid (VRLA) batteries continue to be employed in a wide variety of applications for telecommunications and Uninterruptible Power Supply (UPS). With the rapidly growing penetration of internet services, the requirements for standby power systems appear to be changing. For example, at last year's INTELEC, high voltage standby power systems up to 300-vdc were discussed as alternatives to the traditional 48-volt power plant. At the same time, battery reliability and the sensitivity of VRLAS to charging conditions (e.g., in-rush current, float voltage and temperature), continue to be argued extensively. Charge regimes which provide off-line charging or intermittent charge to the battery have been proposed. Some of these techniques go against the widely accepted rules of operation for batteries to achieve optimum lifetime. Experience in the telecom industry with high voltage systems and these charging scenarios is limited. However, GNB has several years of experience in the installation and operation of large VRLA battery systems that embody many of the power management philosophies being proposed. Early results show that positive grid corrosion is not accelerated and battery performance is maintained even when the battery is operated at a partial state-of-charge for long periods of time.

  6. Li and Na storage behavior of bowl-like hollow Co3O4 microspheres as an anode material for lithium-ion and sodium-ion batteries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wen, Jian-Wu; Zhang, Da-Wei; Zang, Yong; Sun, Xin; Cheng, Bin; Ding, Chu-Xiong; Yu, Yan; Chen, Chun-Hua

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • A unique bowl-like hollow spherical Co 3 O 4 structure is prepared through a simple, low-cost and mass-yield method. • Such a bowl-like hollow Co 3 O 4 microsphere demonstrates extraordinary rate and cycling performance for Li-storage. • The sodium-storage behavior of Co 3 O 4 is investigated for the first time. - Abstract: Bowl-like hollow Co 3 O 4 microspheres are prepared via a simple and low-cost route by thermally treating Co-containing resorcinol-formaldehyde composites gel in air. Scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscope and N 2 adsorption-desorption measurements demonstrate that these bowl-like hollow Co 3 O 4 microspheres are composed of hollow inner cavities and outer shell walls (70 nm thickness), on which a considerable amount of mesopores centered around 5-17 nm size are distributed. When employed as the anode material for lithium-ion batteries, these bowl-like hollow Co 3 O 4 microspheres exhibit extraordinary cycling performance (111% retention after 50 cycles owing to capacity rise), fairly high rate capacity (650 mAh g −1 at 5 C) and enhanced lithium storage capacity. Meanwhile, the Na-storage behavior of Co 3 O 4 as an anode material of Na-ion batteries is initially investigated based on such a hollow structure and it exhibits similar feature of discharge/charge profiles and a high initial discharge capacity but relatively moderate capacity retention compared with the Li-storage performance

  7. Outstanding Li-storage performance of LiFePO4@MWCNTs cathode material with 3D network structure for lithium-ion batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Xiaodong; Zhang, Le

    2018-05-01

    In this work, the MWCNTs-decorated LiFePO4 microspheres (LiFePO4@MWCNTs) with a 3D network structure have been synthesized by a facile and efficient spray-drying approach followed by solid-state reaction in a reduction atmosphere. In the as-prepared composite, the MWCNTs around LiFePO4 nanoparticles can provide 3D conductive networks which greatly facilitate the transport of Li+-ion and electron during the electrochemical reaction. Compared to the pure LiFePO4 material, the LiFePO4@MWCNTs composite as cathode for lithium-ion batteries exhibits significantly improved Li-storage performance in terms of rate capability and cyclic stability. Therefore, we can speculate that the spray-drying approach is a promising route to prepare the high-performance electrode materials with 3D network structure for electrochemical energy storage.

  8. Study on the influence of storage life expectancy of the Valve Regulated Lead-Acid - VRLA battery; Estudo sobre a influencia da estocagem na expectativa de vida util da bateria chumbo-acida regulada por valvula - VRLA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Soares, A. Pinhel [FURNAS Centrais Eletricas S.A., Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)], Email: pinhel@furnas.com.br; Rosolem, Maria de F.N.C.; Santos, G.R. dos; Frare, P.T.; Arioli, V.T.; Beck, R.F. [Telecomunicacoes do CPqD, Campinas, SP (Brazil)], Emails: mfatima@cpqd.com.br, glauco@cpqd.com.br, pfrare@cpqd.com.br, varioli@cpqd.com.br, raul@cpqd.com; Soares, L.A., Email: luiz.las@gmail.com

    2009-07-01

    When valve regulated lead-acid (VRLA) batteries are acquired and are not placed in operation immediately and remain stored in open circuit, they can loose autonomy and life. In these cases the current practice recommends, that the batteries receive quarterly recharges, which is often unfeasible. Given this scenario, Furnas by the CPqD, decided to verify the real impact of stockpiling in the expectancy of VRLAs battery life to establish the veracity of practice adopted or establish new procedures. The influences of time, the temperature of the local storage and application of charges are evaluated. It was also studied the application of techniques for measuring the internal resistance battery (conductance and impedance) for degradation monitoring and identification of the need for application of charges. As final products, it was developed novel diagnostic techniques that allow more accurate monitoring of the storage process.

  9. Metal-Organic Frameworks Triggered High-Efficiency Li storage in Fe-Based Polyhedral Nanorods for Lithium-ion Batteries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shen, Lisha; Song, Huawei; Wang, Chengxin

    2017-01-01

    Recently, metal organic framework (MOF) nanostructures have been frequently reported in the field of energy storage, specifically for Li-ion or Na-ion storage. By inter-separating the active sites of metal cluster and organic ligands, MOF nanostructures are exceptionally promising for realizing fast ion exchange and high-efficiency transportation and addressing the intricate issues that the energy-intensive Li-ion batteries have faced over many years. The related ion-storage mechanism remains to be explored. Is the traditional redox reaction mechanism operative for these nanostructure, as it is for transitional metal oxide? Herein, taking [Fe 3 O(BDC) 3 (H 2 O) 2 (NO 3 )]n (Fe-MIL-88B) as an example, an Fe-based metal organic polyhedral nanorods of MIL–88 B structure was designed as an anode for Li-ion storage. When tested at 60 mA g −1 , the nanoporous Fe-MIL–88 B polyhedral nanorods retained a reversible capacity of 744.5 mAh g −1 for more than 400 cycles. Ex situ characterizations of the post-cycled electrodes revealed that both the transition metal ions and the organic ligands contributed to the high reversible specific capacity. The polyhedral nanorods electrodes held the metal-organic skeleton together throughout the battery operation, although in a somewhat different manner than the pristine ones. This further substantiated that some MOF nanostructures are more appropriate than others for stable lithiation/delithiation processes. State-of-the-art CR2032 full cells showed that a high capacity of 86.8 mAh g −1 that was retained after 100 cycles (herein, the capacity for the full cell was calculated based on both the weight of the anode and the cathode, and the charge-discharge rate was 0.25C), when commercial LiFePO 4 powders were used as the cathode.

  10. Self-assembly of exfoliated layered double hydroxide and graphene nanosheets for electrochemical energy storage in zinc/nickel secondary batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Long, Jun; Yang, Zhanhong; Huang, Jianhang; Zeng, Xiao

    2017-08-01

    In this work, the Zn-Al layered double hydroxide (Zn-Al LDH) is exfoliated. Ambient temperature ion exchange and chemical exfoliation route have been developed to synthesize the exfoliated layered double hydroxide/graphene compounds (Exfoliated LDH/G). The as-prepared Exfoliated LDH/G nanocomposites demonstrate no obvious impurity and good morphology, being characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscope (SEM) and transmission electron microscope (TEM). Here we intensively study the electrochemical performances of Exfoliated LDH/G and pure LDH electrodes for Zn-Ni secondary battery. It was found that the as-prepared Exfoliated LDH/G here exhibits higher and wide discharge voltage plateaus due to the well electrical conductivity and lower self-corrosion, which could promote charge-transfer of the exfoliated LDH. The preliminary results show that the Exfoliated LDH/G displays superior Zn-Ni secondary battery performance with outstanding reversible capacity, prominent cyclic performance (343 mA h g-1 after 1200 cycles at 1 C), highlighting the practicability of the self-assembly Exfoliated LDH/G for maximum anodic utilization of exfoliated LDH for power storage in Zn-Ni secondary battery.

  11. Impact of Battery Energy Storage System Operation Strategy on Power System: An Urban Railway Load Case under a Time-of-Use Tariff

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hyeongig Kim

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Customer-owned battery energy storage systems (BESS have been used to reduce electricity costs of energy storage owners (ESOs under a time-of-use (TOU tariff in Korea. However, the current TOU tariff can unintentionally induce customer’s electricity usage to have a negative impact on power systems. This paper verifies the impact of different BESS operation strategies on power systems under a TOU tariff by analyzing the TOU tariff structure and the customer’s load pattern. First, several BESS operation strategies of ESO are proposed to reduce the electricity cost. In addition, a degradation cost calculation method for lithium ion batteries is considered for the ESO to determine the optimal BESS operation strategy that maximizes both electricity cost and annual investment cost. The optimal BESS operation strategy that maximizes ESO’s net benefit is illustrated by simulation using an urban railway load data from Namgwangju Station, Korea. The results show that BESS connected to urban railway loads can negative impact power system operation. This is due to the high BESS degradation costs and lack of incentive of differential rates in TOU tariff that can effectively induce proper demand response.

  12. Electrochemical accumulators batteries; Accumulateurs electrochimiques batteries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ansart, F.; Castillo, S.; Laberty- Robert, C.; Pellizon-Birelli, M. [Universite Paul Sabatier, Lab. de Chimie des Materiaux Inorganiques et Energetiques, CIRIMAT, UMR CNRS 5085, 31 - Toulouse (France)] [and others

    2000-07-01

    It is necessary to storage the electric power in batteries to join the production and the utilization. In this domain progresses are done every days in the technics and also in the available materials. These technical days present the state of the art in this domain. Many papers were presented during these two days giving the research programs and recent results on the following subjects: the lithium batteries, the electrolytes performances and behaviour, lead accumulators, economic analysis of the electrochemical storage market, the batteries applied to the transportation sector and the telephones. (A.L.B.)

  13. A Critical Study of Stationary Energy Storage Policies in Australia in an International Context: The Role of Hydrogen and Battery Technologies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jason Moore

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available This paper provides a critical study of current Australian and leading international policies aimed at supporting electrical energy storage for stationary power applications with a focus on battery and hydrogen storage technologies. It demonstrates that global leaders such as Germany and the U.S. are actively taking steps to support energy storage technologies through policy and regulatory change. This is principally to integrate increasing amounts of intermittent renewable energy (wind and solar that will be required to meet high renewable energy targets. The relevance of this to the Australian energy market is that whilst it is unique, it does have aspects in common with the energy markets of these global leaders. This includes regions of high concentrations of intermittent renewable energy (Texas and California and high penetration rates of residential solar photovoltaics (PV (Germany. Therefore, Australian policy makers have a good opportunity to observe what is working in an international context to support energy storage. These learnings can then be used to help shape future policy directions and guide Australia along the path to a sustainable energy future.

  14. Environmental/Economic Operation Management of a Renewable Microgrid with Wind/PV/FC/MT and Battery Energy Storage Based on MSFLA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Morteza Haghshenas

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Microgrids (MGs are local grids consisting of Distributed generators, energy storage systems and dispersed loads which may operate in both grid-connected and islanded modes. This paper aims to optimize the operation of a typical grid-connected MG which comprises a variety of DGs and storage devices in order to minimize both total operation cost and environmental impacts resulted from supplying local demands. Furthermore we will try to achieve an intelligent schedule to charge and discharge storage devices that provides the opportunity to benefit from market price fluctuations. The presented optimization framework is based on multiobjective modified shuffled frog leaping algorithm (MSFLA. To solve environmental/economic operation management (EEOM problem using MSFLA, a new frog leaping rule, associated with a new strategy for frog distribution into memeplexes, is proposed to improve the local exploration and performance of the ordinary shuffled frog leaping algorithm. The proposed method is examined and tested on a grid-connected MG including fuel cell, wind turbine, photovoltaic, gas-fired microturbine, and battery energy storage devices. The simulation results for three scenarios involving the economic operation management of MG, environmental operation management of MG, and environmental/economic operation management of MG are presented separately. The obtained results compared with results of well-known methods reported in the literature and prove the efficiency of the proposed approach to solve the both single objective and multiobjective operation management of the MG.

  15. Electrocatalysis for dioxygen reduction by a μ-oxo decavanadium complex in alkaline medium and its application to a cathode catalyst in air batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dewi, Eniya Listiani; Oyaizu, Kenichi; Nishide, Hiroyuki; Tsuchida, Eishun

    The redox behavior of a decavanadium complex [(VO) 10(μ 2-O) 9(μ 3-O) 3(C 5H 7O 2) 6] ( 1) was studied using cyclic voltammetry under acidic and basic conditions. The reduction potential of V(V) was found at less positive potentials for higher pH electrolyte solutions. The oxygen reduction at complex 1 immobilized on a modified electrode was examined using cyclic voltammetry and rotating ring-disk electrode techniques in the 1 M KOH solutions. On the basis of measurements using a rotating disk electrode (RDE), the complex 1 was found to be highly active for the direct four-electron reduction of dioxygen at -0.2 V versus saturated calomel electrode (SCE). The complex 1 as a reduction catalyst of O 2 with a high selectivity was demonstrated using rotating ring-disk voltammograms in alkaline solutions. The application of complex 1 as an oxygen reduction catalyst at the cathode of zinc-air cell was also examined. The zinc-air cell with the modified electrode showed a stable discharge potential at approximately 1 V with discharge capacity of 80 mAh g -1 which was about five times larger than that obtained with the commonly used manganese dioxide catalyst.

  16. Trash to Treasure: Waste Eggshells as Chemical Reactors for the Synthesis of Amorphous Co(OH)2Nanorod Arrays on Various Substrates for Applications in Rechargeable Alkaline Batteries and Electrocatalysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meng, Xinghua; Deng, Da

    2017-02-15

    Bioinspired synthesis has been attracting much attention. Here, we demonstrate a novel approach to directly use waste eggshells as a reactor system for controlled synthesis of nanostructures formed on different substrates. This approach can recycle and transform the "trash" of waste eggshells into "treasure" of unique reactor systems for nanofabrication. The eggshell reactor system can provide unique conditions for the formation of nanostructures on various substrates. Using Co(OH) 2 as a model, amorphous Co(OH) 2 nanorod arrays, which cannot be synthesized conventionally by direct mixing of precursors, have been successfully formed on various substrates, including Ni foam, metal foil, and glass. To illustrate their potential applications, we use the as-fabricated amorphous Co(OH) 2 nanorod arrays on Ni foam as (1) binder-free electrodes for rechargeable alkaline batteries, demonstrating impressively good electrochemical performances, and (2) electrocatalyst for oxygen evolution reaction, demonstrating improved electrocatalytic performances as compared to their crystalline counterpart. We believe the idea outlined here, using eggshell reactor system, can be further expanded to synthesize many different functional materials and precursors which can find additional applications, including self-cleaning, catalysis, sensor, electrochromic devices, etc.

  17. Technical and Economic Assessment of a 450 W Autonomous Photovoltaic System with Lithium Iron Phosphate Battery Storage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    João Carriço

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a study about an autonomous photovoltaic system making use of the novel Lithium Iron Phosphate as a battery pack for isolated rural houses. More particularly, this paper examines the behavior and efficiency of a low-cost isolated photovoltaic system for typical rural houses near Luena in Angola. The proposed system (solar panel, batteries, controller, and inverter has been projected having in mind the required household daily load of 1,300 Wh and available solar irradiance. The initial batteries charging revealed to be essential to not only ensure a long battery life but using a balanced pack it was possible to achieve more stored energy. On-site, the polycrystalline solar panels used showed a daily average efficiency of 10.8%, with the total system having 75% efficiency. This result was adjusted to the average temperature in Angola. This way, it was made an extrapolation to the monthly irradiation values in Angola. The results achieved showed good energy production during almost all year except January and December, which revealed critical production values of 1,356 Wh and 1,311 Wh, respectively. These values are too close to the daily consumed energy and indicate the addition of a 2nd alternative source of energy (wind generator, diesel generator, etc. to be explored further.

  18. Energy storage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaier, U.

    1981-04-01

    Developments in the area of energy storage are characterized, with respect to theory and laboratory, by an emergence of novel concepts and technologies for storing electric energy and heat. However, there are no new commercial devices on the market. New storage batteries as basis for a wider introduction of electric cars, and latent heat storage devices, as an aid for solar technology applications, with satisfactory performance standards are not yet commercially available. Devices for the intermediate storage of electric energy for solar electric-energy systems, and for satisfying peak-load current demands in the case of public utility companies are considered. In spite of many promising novel developments, there is yet no practical alternative to the lead-acid storage battery. Attention is given to central heat storage for systems transporting heat energy, small-scale heat storage installations, and large-scale technical energy-storage systems.

  19. Ballistic negatron battery

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Prasad, M.S.R. [Koneru Lakshmiah Univ.. Dept. of Electrical and Electronics Engineering, Green fields, Vaddeswaram (India)

    2012-07-01

    If we consider the Statistics there is drastic increase in dependence of batteries from year to year, due to necessity of power storage equipment at homes, power generating off grid and on grid Wind, PV systems, etc.. Where wind power is leading in renewable sector, there is a need to look at its development. Considering the scenario in India, most of the wind resource areas are far away from grid and the remaining areas which are near to grid are of low wind currents which is of no use connecting these equipment directly to grid. So, there is a need for a power storage utility to be integrated, such as the BNB (Ballistic Negatron Battery). In this situation a country like India need a battery which should be reliable, cheap and which can be industrialized. So this paper presents the concept of working, design, operation, adaptability of a Ballistic Negatron Battery. Unlike present batteries with low energy density, huge size, more weight, more charging time and low resistant to wear level, this Ballistic Negatron Battery comes with, 1) High energy storage capability (many multiples more than the present most advanced battery). 2) Very compact in size. 3) Almost negligible in weight compared to present batteries. 4) Charges with in very less time. 5) Never exhibits a wear level greater than zero. Seems like inconceivable but adoptable with simple physics. This paper will explains in detail the principle, model, design, construction and practical considerations considered in making this battery. (Author)

  20. 46 CFR 111.15-5 - Battery installation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... REQUIREMENTS Storage Batteries and Battery Chargers: Construction and Installation § 111.15-5 Battery... must be as close as possible to the engine or engines. (c) Small batteries. Small size battery... and, for a lead-acid battery, the fully charged specific gravity value. This information must be...

  1. A Distributed Control Strategy Based on DC Bus Signaling for Modular Photovoltaic Generation Systems With Battery Energy Storage

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sun, Kai; Zhang, Li; Xing, Yan

    2011-01-01

    Modular generation system, which consists of modular power conditioning converters, is an effective solution to integrate renewable energy sources with conventional utility grid to improve reliability and efficiency, especially for photovoltaic generation. A distributed control strategy based...... charging/discharging and local loads, which is available of either grid-connected operation or islanding operation. By using the proposed control strategy, the operations of a modular PV generation system are categorized into four modes: islanding with battery discharging, grid-connected rectification......, grid-connected inversion, and islanding with constant voltage (CV) generation.The power balance of the system under extreme conditions such as the islanding operation with a full-charged battery is taken into account in this control strategy. The dc bus voltage level is employed as an information...

  2. High-performance batteries for electric-vehicle propulsion and stationary energy storage. Progress report, October 1978-September 1979. [40 kWh, Li-Al and Li-Si anodes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barney, D. L.; Steunenberg, R. K.; Chilenskas, A. A.; Gay, E. C.; Battles, J. E.; Hornstra, F.; Miller, W. E.; Vissers, D. R.; Roche, M. F.; Shimotake, H.; Hudson, R.; Askew, B. A.; Sudar, S.

    1980-03-01

    The research, development, and management activities of the programs at Argonne National Laboratory (ANL) and at contractors' laboratories on high-temperature batteries during the period October 1978 to September 1979 are reported. These batteries are being developed for electric-vehicle propulsion and for stationary energy-storage applications. The present cells, which operate at 400 to 500/sup 0/C, are of a vertically oriented, prismatic design with one or more inner positive electrodes of FeS or FeS/sub 2/, facing negative electrodes of lithium-aluminum or lithium-silicon alloy, and molten LiCl-KC1 electrolyte. During this reporting period, cell and battery development work has continued at ANL and contractors' laboratories. A 40 kWh electric-vehicle battery (designated Mark IA) was fabricated and delivered to ANL for testing. During the initial heat-up, one of the two modules failed due to a short circuit. A failure analysis was conducted, and the Mark IA program completed. Development work on the next electric-vehicle battery (Mark II) was initiated at Eagle-Picher Industries, Inc. and Gould, Inc. Work on stationary energy-storage batteries during this period has consisted primarily of conceptual design studies. 107 figures, 67 tables.

  3. Cobalt-boron amorphous alloy prepared in water/cetyl-trimethyl-ammonium bromide/n-hexanol microemulsion as anode for alkaline secondary batteries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tong, D.G.; Wang, D.; Chu, W.; Sun, J.H.; Wu, P.

    2010-01-01

    Amorphous cobalt-boron (Co-B) with uniform nanoparticles was prepared for the first time via reduction of cobalt acetate by potassium borohydride in the water/cetyl-trimethyl-ammonium bromide/n-hexanol microemulsion system. The sample was characterized by X-ray diffraction, transmission electron microscopy, nitrogen adsorption-desorption, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, inductively coupled plasma, cyclic voltammetry, differential scanning calorimetry, temperature-programmed desorption, scanning electron microscopy, charge-discharge test and electrochemical impedance spectra. The results demonstrate that electrochemical activity of the as-synthesized Co-B was higher than that of the regular Co-B prepared in aqueous solution. It indicates that the homogeneous distribution and large specific surface area helped the electrochemical hydrogen storage of the as-synthesized Co-B. Furthermore, the as-synthesized Co-B even had 347 mAh g -1 after 50 cycles, while the regular Co-B prepared in aqueous solution only had 254 mAh g -1 after 30 cycles at a current of 100 mA g -1 . The better cycling performance can be ascribed to its smaller interfacial impedance between electrode and electrolyte.

  4. Optimized Fuzzy-Cuckoo Controller for Active Power Control of Battery Energy Storage System, Photovoltaic, Fuel Cell and Wind Turbine in an Isolated Micro-Grid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohsen Einan

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a new control strategy for isolated micro-grids including wind turbines (WT, fuel cells (FC, photo-voltaic (PV and battery energy storage systems (BESS. FC have been used in parallel with BESSs in order to increase their lifetime and efficiency. The changes in some parameters such as wind speed, sunlight, and consumption, lead to improper performance of droop. To overcome this challenge, a new intelligent method using a combination of fuzzy controller and cuckoo optimization algorithm (COA techniques for active power controllers in isolated networks is proposed. In this paper, COA is compared with genetic algorithm (GA and particles swarm optimization algorithm (PSO. In order to show efficiency of the proposed controller, this optimal controller has been compared with droop, optimized droop, and conventional fuzzy methods, the dynamic analysis of the island is implemented to assess the behavior of isolated generations accurately and simulation results are reported.

  5. Analysis and optimization of the battery energy storage systems for frequency control in autonomous microgrids, by means of hardware-in-the-loop simulations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Serban, I.; Teodorescu, Remus; Marinescu, C.

    2012-01-01

    This paper presents an original hardware-in-the-loop (HIL) solution for real-time testing and optimization of the frequency control mechanism in autonomous microgrids (MG), when battery energy storage systems (BESS) are integrated along classical and RES-based generators to stabilize the frequency....... The focus is on autonomous MGs that dynamically should perform similarly to the conventional power systems. During MG autonomous operation, the generators should accomplish the frequency control process, by means of their automatic generation control. However, RES-based generators have poor controllability...... of the involved mechanisms in the MG dynamics. An experimental test bench including a real-time digital simulator with BESS controller in the HIL structure is used for assessing the proposed system performances....

  6. Estimating the Size of the Renewable Energy Generators in an Isolated Solar-Biodiesel Microgrid with Lead-Acid Battery Storage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    GRAMA Alin

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Climate change, fossil fuel decline, expensive power grid extensions focused the attention of scientist in developing electrical power systems that use as primary resources renewable energy generators. Romania has a high renewable energy potential and presents interest in developing renewable energy microgrids using: solar energy, wind energy, biomass Hydro, etc. The paper presents a method of estimating the size of the renewable energy generators in an isolated solar-biodiesel microgrid with lead-acid battery storage. The mathematical model is first presented and then an algorithm is developed to give an estimation of the size of the microgrid. The microgrid is installed in the region of Oradea, Romania. The results are validated through comparison with existing sizing software programs like: PV*Sol and PVSyst.

  7. Optimization-based power management of hybrid power systems with applications in advanced hybrid electric vehicles and wind farms with battery storage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borhan, Hoseinali

    Modern hybrid electric vehicles and many stationary renewable power generation systems combine multiple power generating and energy storage devices to achieve an overall system-level efficiency and flexibility which is higher than their individual components. The power or energy management control, "brain" of these "hybrid" systems, determines adaptively and based on the power demand the power split between multiple subsystems and plays a critical role in overall system-level efficiency. This dissertation proposes that a receding horizon optimal control (aka Model Predictive Control) approach can be a natural and systematic framework for formulating this type of power management controls. More importantly the dissertation develops new results based on the classical theory of optimal control that allow solving the resulting optimal control problem in real-time, in spite of the complexities that arise due to several system nonlinearities and constraints. The dissertation focus is on two classes of hybrid systems: hybrid electric vehicles in the first part and wind farms with battery storage in the second part. The first part of the dissertation proposes and fully develops a real-time optimization-based power management strategy for hybrid electric vehicles. Current industry practice uses rule-based control techniques with "else-then-if" logic and look-up maps and tables in the power management of production hybrid vehicles. These algorithms are not guaranteed to result in the best possible fuel economy and there exists a gap between their performance and a minimum possible fuel economy benchmark. Furthermore, considerable time and effort are spent calibrating the control system in the vehicle development phase, and there is little flexibility in real-time handling of constraints and re-optimization of the system operation in the event of changing operating conditions and varying parameters. In addition, a proliferation of different powertrain configurations may

  8. Electrochemical energy storage behavior of Sn/SnO2 double phase nanocomposite anodes produced on the multiwalled carbon nanotube buckypapers for lithium-ion batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alaf, Mirac; Akbulut, Hatem

    2014-02-01

    Recent development of electrode materials for Li-ion batteries is driven mainly by hybrid nanocomposite structures consisting of Li storage compounds and CNTs. In this study, tin/tinoxide (Sn/SnO2) films and tin/tinoxide/multi walled carbon nanotube (Sn/SnO2/MWCNT) nanocomposites are produced by a two steps process; thermal evaporation and subsequent plasma oxidation as anode materials for Li-ion batteries. The physical, structural, and electrochemical behaviors of the nanocomposite electrodes containing MWCNTs are discussed. The ratio between metallic tin (Sn) and tinoxide (SnO2) is controlled with plasma oxidation time and effects of the ratio are investigated on the structural and electrochemical properties. The greatly enhanced electrochemical performance is mainly due to the morphological stability and reduced diffusion resistance, which are induced by MWCNT core and deposited Sn/SnO2 double phase shell. The outstanding long-term cycling stability is a result of the two layers Sn and SnO2 phases on MWCNTs. The nanoscale Sn/SnO2/MWCNT network provides good electrical conductivity, and the creation of open spaces that buffer a large volume change during the Li-alloying/de-alloying reaction.

  9. Analysis of the effects of a passing cloud on a grid-interactive photovoltaic system with battery storage using neural networks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Giraud, F.; Salameh, Z.M.

    1999-12-01

    In this paper, a combined radial-basis-functions (RBF) and backprop network is used to predict the effects of passing clouds on a Utility-Interactive Photovoltaic (PV) system with battery storage. Using the irradiance as input signal, the network models the effects of random cloud movement on the electrical variables of the Maximum Power Point Tracker (MPPT) and the variables of the utility-linked inverter over a short period of time. During short time intervals, the irradiance is considered as the only varying input parameter affecting the electrical variables of the system. The advantages of Artificial Neural Network (ANN) simulation over standard linear model is that it does not require the knowledge of internal system parameters, involves less computational effort, and offers a compact solution for multiple-variable problems. The model can be easily integrated into a typical utility system and resulting system behavior can be determined. The viability of the battery-supported PV system as dispatchable unit is also investigated. The simulated results are compared with the experimental results captured during cloudy days. This model can be a useful tool in solar Energy Engineering design and in PV-integrated utility operation.

  10. Rotating UPS installations and dynamic energy storage. Comparison of static and rotating UPS and comparison of dynamic energy storage using batteries - Final Report; Rotierende USV-Anlagen und dynamische Energiespeicherung. Vergleich der statischen mit rotierenden USV-Anlagen und Vergleich der dynamischen Energiespeicherung mit Batterieanlagen - Schlussbericht

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mauchle, P.; Schnyder, G.

    2010-01-15

    As an alternative to the static UPS-Systems (uninterruptible power supply systems), rotating UPS-Systems can be applied. The application and the realisation of rotating UPS-Systems are different to the one of static UPS-Systems. Furthermore at the rotating UPS-Systems is to distinguish, if the UPS-System is realised as a diesel dynamic UPS-System, with an activity up from 400 kVA, or if the dynamic part is limited to the energy storage, with an activity up from 60 kVA. The diesel dynamic UPS-Systems are composed of a synchronous machine, an asynchronous machine with a flywheel, respectively a kinetic module and the diesel engine. The connection to the critical user at the low voltage network occurs using an inductor and the accordant switchgears. The application of a diesel dynamic UPS-System is optimal when it can be connected with an emergency power supply. With the realisation of dynamic energy storages, battery systems can be avoided respectively can be reduced or the lifetime of batteries can be extended. It is only possible to avoid the batteries if the requested autonomous time of the UPS-System is shorter than two minutes. Is an autonomous time longer than 2 minutes necessary, battery systems have to be realised for the energy storage. Thereby dynamic energy storage in parallel to the battery system is useful, because the dynamic energy storage will compensate temporary voltage drops or short power failures. In this way the number of charge and discharge cycles of the battery system will be reduced and therefore the lifetime of the battery will be extended. The use of a dynamic or static UPS system is dependent on the requirements of the powered load. Taking into account various criteria it can be found for each specific application the optimal type of UPS system. (authors)

  11. Bismuth as a New Chloride-Storage Electrode Enabling the Construction of a Practical High Capacity Desalination Battery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nam, Do-Hwan; Choi, Kyoung-Shin

    2017-08-16

    Materials that can selectively store Na and Cl ions in the bulk of their structures and release these ions with good cycle stability can enable the construction of a high capacity, rechargeable desalination cell for use in seawater desalination. In this study, the ability of a nanocrystalline Bi foam electrode to serve as an efficient and high capacity Cl-storage electrode using its conversion to BiOCl was investigated. When Bi as a Cl-storage electrode was coupled with NaTi 2 (PO 4 ) 3 as a Na-storage electrode, a new type of rechargeable desalination cell, which is charged during desalination and discharged during salination, was constructed. The resulting Bi-NaTi 2 (PO 4 ) 3 cell was tested under various salination and desalination conditions to investigate advantages and potential limitations of using Bi as a Cl-storage electrode. Slow Cl - release kinetics of BiOCl in neutral conditions and an imbalance in Cl and Na storage (i.e., Cl storage requires three electrons/Cl, while Na storage requires one electron/Na) were identified as possible drawbacks, but strategies to address these issues were developed. On the basis of these investigations, optimum desalination and salination conditions were identified where the Bi/NaTi 2 (PO 4 ) 3 cell achieved a desalination/salination cycle at ±1 mA cm -2 with a net potential input of only 0.20 V. The kinetics of Cl - release from BiOCl was significantly improved by the use of an acidic solution, and therefore, a divided cell was used for the salination process. We believe that with further optimizations the Bi/BiOCl electrode will enable efficient and practical desalination applications.

  12. Silver effect of Co–Ni composite material on energy storage and structural behavior for Li-ion batteries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gnanamuthu, RM.; Prasanna, K.; Subburaj, T.; Jo, Yong Nam; Lee, Chang Woo

    2013-01-01

    Ag powder has been comparatively applied to the Co–Ni materials preparing by mixing method and the prepared electrodes were used as negative electrodes for Li-ion batteries applications. The prepared Co–Ni and Ag–Co–Ni with 10 wt.% of Ag composite electrodes are characterized by XRD, FE-SEM with EDX, impedance and electrochemical charge-discharge studies. These electrochemical studies are demonstrated at current rates of 0.1 C and 0.5 C between 0.01 and 2.0 V vs. Li/Li + . The porous Co–Ni and Ag–Co–Ni composite materials are electrochemically tested in lithium half cells. The porous Ag–Co–Ni composite material demonstrates that the initial and end of discharge capacity up to 20th cycles is, respectively, 860 and 715 mAh g −1 at 0.1 C rate maintaining at approximately 83%. The porous Ag–Co–Ni composite electrode may be a good candidate for high power lithium-ion batteries.

  13. Alkaline Electrochemical Capacitor and Electrode Fabrication

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Finello, D

    1999-01-01

    .... With energy density in excess of 300 mJ/cc and the potential to exceed a power density of 100 W/cc, the alkaline electrochemical capacitor represents a significant advancement in technology for high power energy storage.

  14. Alkaline Electrochemical Capacitor and Electrode Fabrication

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Finello, D

    1999-01-01

    Highly capacitive (high surface area) electrodes that are electrochemically stable in strong alkaline electrolyte will form the basis for a new generation of electrical and electrochemical energy storage and conversion devices...

  15. Block copolymer based composition and morphology control in nanostructured hybrid materials for energy conversion and storage: solar cells, batteries, and fuel cells

    KAUST Repository

    Orilall, M. Christopher

    2011-01-01

    The development of energy conversion and storage devices is at the forefront of research geared towards a sustainable future. However, there are numerous issues that prevent the widespread use of these technologies including cost, performance and durability. These limitations can be directly related to the materials used. In particular, the design and fabrication of nanostructured hybrid materials is expected to provide breakthroughs for the advancement of these technologies. This tutorial review will highlight block copolymers as an emerging and powerful yet affordable tool to structure-direct such nanomaterials with precise control over structural dimensions, composition and spatial arrangement of materials in composites. After providing an introduction to materials design and current limitations, the review will highlight some of the most recent examples of block copolymer structure-directed nanomaterials for photovoltaics, batteries and fuel cells. In each case insights are provided into the various underlying fundamental chemical, thermodynamic and kinetic formation principles enabling general and relatively inexpensive wet-polymer chemistry methodologies for the efficient creation of multiscale functional materials. Examples include nanostructured ceramics, ceramic-carbon composites, ceramic-carbon-metal composites and metals with morphologies ranging from hexagonally arranged cylinders to three-dimensional bi-continuous cubic networks. The review ends with an outlook towards the synthesis of multicomponent and hierarchical multifunctional hybrid materials with different nano-architectures from self-assembly of higher order blocked macromolecules which may ultimately pave the way for the further development of energy conversion and storage devices. © 2011 The Royal Society of Chemistry.

  16. From Allergens to Battery Anodes: Nature-Inspired, Pollen Derived Carbon Architectures for Room- and Elevated-Temperature Li-ion Storage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Jialiang; Pol, Vilas G

    2016-02-05

    The conversion of allergic pollen grains into carbon microstructures was carried out through a facile, one-step, solid-state pyrolysis process in an inert atmosphere. The as-prepared carbonaceous particles were further air activated at 300 °C and then evaluated as lithium ion battery anodes at room (25 °C) and elevated (50 °C) temperatures. The distinct morphologies of bee pollens and cattail pollens are resembled on the final architecture of produced carbons. Scanning Electron Microscopy images shows that activated bee pollen carbon (ABP) is comprised of spiky, brain-like, and tiny spheres; while activated cattail pollen carbon (ACP) resembles deflated spheres. Structural analysis through X-ray diffraction and Raman spectroscopy confirmed their amorphous nature. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy analysis of ABP and ACP confirmed that both samples contain high levels of oxygen and small amount of nitrogen contents. At C/10 rate, ACP electrode delivered high specific lithium storage reversible capacities (590 mAh/g at 50 °C and 382 mAh/g at 25 °C) and also exhibited excellent high rate capabilities. Through electrochemical impedance spectroscopy studies, improved performance of ACP is attributed to its lower charge transfer resistance than ABP. Current studies demonstrate that morphologically distinct renewable pollens could produce carbon architectures for anode applications in energy storage devices.

  17. Reputation-based joint scheduling of households appliances and storage in a microgrid with a shared battery

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Alskaif, T.A.; C. Luna, Adriana; Guerreo Zapata, Manel; Guerrero, Josep M.; Bellalta, Boris

    2017-01-01

    Due to the decreasing revenues from the surplus renewable energy injected into the grid, mechanisms promoting self-consumption of this energy are becoming increasingly important. Demand response (DR) and local storage are among the widely used mechanisms for reaching higher self-consumption levels.

  18. Reputation-based Joint Scheduling of Households Appliances and Storage in a Microgrid with a Shared Battery

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    AlSkaif, Tarek; Hernández, Adriana Carolina Luna; Guerrero Zapata, Manel

    2017-01-01

    Due to the decreasing revenues from the surplus renewable energy injected into the grid, mechanisms promoting self-consumption of this energy are becoming increasingly important. Demand Response (DR) and local storage are among the widely used mechanisms for reaching higher self-consumption level...

  19. Understanding the function and performance of carbon-enhanced lead-acid batteries : milestone report for the DOE Energy Storage Systems Program (FY11 Quarter 4: July through September 2011).

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ferreira, Summer Rhodes; Shane, Rodney (East Penn Manufacturing, Lyon Station, PA); Enos, David George

    2011-10-01

    This report describes the status of research being performed under CRADA No. SC10/01771.00 (Lead/Carbon Functionality in VRLA Batteries) between Sandia National Laboratories and East Penn Manufacturing, conducted for the U.S. Department of Energy's Energy Storage Systems Program. The Quarter 4 Milestone was completed on time. The milestone entails the initiation of high rate, partial state of charge (HRPSoC) cycling of the carbon enhanced batteries. The morphology, porosity, and porosity distribution within the plates after 1k and 10k cycles were documented, illustrating the changes which take place in the early life of the carbon containing batteries, and as the battery approaches failure due to hard sulfation for the control battery. Longer term cycling on a subset of the received East Penn cells containing different carbons (and a control) continues, and will progress into FY12. Carbon has been explored as an addition to lead-acid battery electrodes in a number of ways. Perhaps the most notable to date has been the hybrid 'Ultrabattery' developed by CSIRO where an asymmetric carbon-based electrochemical capacitor is combined with a lead-acid battery into a single cell, dramatically improving high-rate partial-state-of-charge (HRPSoC) operation. As illustrated below, the 'Ultrabattery' is a hybrid device constructed using a traditional lead-acid battery positive plate (i.e., PbO2) and a negative electrode consisting of a carbon electrode in parallel with a lead-acid negative plate. This device exhibits a dramatically improved cycle life over traditional VRLA batteries, as well as increased charge power and charge acceptance. The 'Ultrabattery' has been produced successfully by both The Furukawa Battery Co. and East Penn Manufacturing. An example illustrating the dramatic improvement in cycle life of the Ultrabattery over a conventional VRLA battery is shown in a graph. In addition to the aforementioned hybrid device, carbon has

  20. Circulating current battery heater

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ashtiani, Cyrus N.; Stuart, Thomas A.

    2001-01-01

    A circuit for heating energy storage devices such as batteries is provided. The circuit includes a pair of switches connected in a half-bridge configuration. Unidirectional current conduction devices are connected in parallel with each switch. A series resonant element for storing energy is connected from the energy storage device to the pair of switches. An energy storage device for intermediate storage of energy is connected in a loop with the series resonant element and one of the switches. The energy storage device which is being heated is connected in a loop with the series resonant element and the other switch. Energy from the heated energy storage device is transferred to the switched network and then recirculated back to the battery. The flow of energy through the battery causes internal power dissipation due to electrical to chemical conversion inefficiencies. The dissipated power causes the internal temperature of the battery to increase. Higher internal temperatures expand the cold temperature operating range and energy capacity utilization of the battery. As disclosed, either fixed frequency or variable frequency modulation schemes may be used to control the network.

  1. Proper battery system design for GAS experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calogero, Stephen A.

    1992-10-01

    The purpose of this paper is to help the GAS experimenter to design a battery system that meets mission success requirements while at the same time reducing the hazards associated with the battery system. Lead-acid, silver-zinc and alkaline chemistry batteries will be discussed. Lithium batteries will be briefly discussed with emphasis on back-up power supply capabilities. The hazards associated with different battery configurations will be discussed along with the controls necessary to make the battery system two-fault tolerant.

  2. Energy storage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2012-01-01

    After having outlined the importance of energy storage in the present context, this document outlines that it is an answer to economic, environmental and technological issues. It proposes a brief overview of the various techniques of energy storage: under the form of chemical energy (hydrocarbons, biomass, hydrogen production), thermal energy (sensitive or latent heat storage), mechanical energy (potential energy by hydraulic or compressed air storage, kinetic energy with flywheels), electrochemical energy (in batteries), electric energy (super-capacitors, superconductor magnetic energy storage). Perspectives are briefly evoked

  3. Final report on the development of a 250-kW modular, factory-assembled battery energy storage system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Porter, D. [Omnion Power Engineering Corp., East Troy, WI (United States); Nerbun, W. [AC Battery Corp., East Troy, WI (United States); Corey, G. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States). Energy Storage Systems Analysis and Development Dept.

    1998-08-01

    A power management energy storage system was developed for stationary applications such as peak shaving, voltage regulation, and spinning reserve. Project activities included design, manufacture, factory testing, and field installation. The major features that characterize the development are the modularity of the production, its transportability, the power conversion method that aggregates power on the AC side of the converter, and the use of commonly employed technology for system components. 21 figs.

  4. Control Strategies to Smooth Short-Term Power Fluctuations in Large Photovoltaic Plants Using Battery Storage Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Javier Marcos

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The variations in irradiance produced by changes in cloud cover can cause rapid fluctuations in the power generated by large photovoltaic (PV plants. As the PV power share in the grid increases, such fluctuations may adversely affect power quality and reliability. Thus, energy storage systems (ESS are necessary in order to smooth power fluctuations below the maximum allowable. This article first proposes a new control strategy (step-control, to improve the results in relation to two state-of-the-art strategies, ramp-rate control and moving average. It also presents a method to quantify the storage capacity requirements according to the three different smoothing strategies and for different PV plant sizes. Finally, simulations shows that, although the moving-average (MA strategy requires the smallest capacity, it presents more losses (2–3 times more and produces a much higher number of cycles over the ESS (around 10 times more, making it unsuitable with storage technologies as lithium-ion. The step-control shown as a better option in scenery with exigent ramp restrictions (around 2%/min and distributed generation against the ramp-rate control in all ESS key aspects: 20% less of capacity, up to 30% less of losses and a 40% less of ageing. All the simulations were based on real PV production data, taken every 5 s in the course of one year (2012 from a number of systems with power outputs ranging from 550 kW to 40 MW.

  5. Stochastic control of smart home energy management with plug-in electric vehicle battery energy storage and photovoltaic array

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Xiaohua; Hu, Xiaosong; Moura, Scott; Yin, Xiaofeng; Pickert, Volker

    2016-11-01

    Energy management strategies are instrumental in the performance and economy of smart homes integrating renewable energy and energy storage. This article focuses on stochastic energy management of a smart home with PEV (plug-in electric vehicle) energy storage and photovoltaic (PV) array. It is motivated by the challenges associated with sustainable energy supplies and the local energy storage opportunity provided by vehicle electrification. This paper seeks to minimize a consumer's energy charges under a time-of-use tariff, while satisfying home power demand and PEV charging requirements, and accommodating the variability of solar power. First, the random-variable models are developed, including Markov Chain model of PEV mobility, as well as predictive models of home power demand and PV power supply. Second, a stochastic optimal control problem is mathematically formulated for managing the power flow among energy sources in the smart home. Finally, based on time-varying electricity price, we systematically examine the performance of the proposed control strategy. As a result, the electric cost is 493.6% less for a Tesla Model S with optimal stochastic dynamic programming (SDP) control relative to the no optimal control case, and it is by 175.89% for a Nissan Leaf.

  6. Controlling fires in silver/zinc batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boshers, W. A.; Britz, W. A.

    1977-01-01

    Silver/zinc storage battery fires are often difficult to extinguish. Improved technique employs manifold connected to central evacuation chamber to rapidly vent combustion-supporting gases generated by battery plate oxides.

  7. Understanding the function and performance of carbon-enhanced lead-acid batteries : milestone report for the DOE Energy Storage Systems program (FY11 Quarter 2: January through March 2011).

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shane, R. (East Penn Manufacturing, Lyon Station, PA); Enos, David George; Hund, Thomas D.

    2011-05-01

    This report describes the status of research being performed under CRADA No. SC10/01771.00 (Lead/Carbon Functionality in VRLA Batteries) between Sandia National Laboratories and East Penn Manufacturing, conducted for the U.S. Department of Energy's Energy Storage Systems Program. The Quarter 2 Milestone was completed on time. The milestone entails an ex situ analysis of the four carbons that have been added to the negative active material of valve-regulated lead-acid (VRLA) batteries for the purposes of this study. The four carbons selected for this study were a graphitic carbon, a carbon black, an activated carbon, and acetylene black. The morphology, crystallinity, and impurity contents of each of the four carbons were analyzed; results were consistent with previous data. Cycling on a subset of the received East Penn cells containing different carbons (and a control) has been initiated. Carbon has been explored as an addition to lead-acid battery electrodes in a number of ways. Perhaps the most notable to date has been the hybrid 'Ultrabattery' developed by CSIRO where an asymmetric carbon-based electrochemical capacitor is combined with a lead-acid battery into a single cell, dramatically improving high-rate partial-state-of-charge (HRPSoC) operation. As illustrated below, the 'Ultrabattery' is a hybrid device constructed using a traditional lead-acid battery positive plate (i.e., PbO{sub 2}) and a negative electrode consisting of a carbon electrode in parallel with a lead-acid negative plate. This device exhibits a dramatically improved cycle life over traditional VRLA batteries, as well as increased charge power and charge acceptance. The 'Ultrabattery' has been produced successfully by both The Furukawa Battery Co. and East Penn Manufacturing. An example illustrating the dramatic improvement in cycle life of the Ultrabattery over a conventional VRLA battery is shown.

  8. Merits of flywheels for spacecraft energy storage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gross, S.

    1984-01-01

    Flywheel energy storage systems which have a very good potential for use in spacecraft are discussed. This system can be superior to alkaline secondary batteries and regenerable fuel cells in most of the areas that are important in spacecraft applications. Of special importance, relative to batteries, are lighter weight, longer cycle and operating life, and high efficiency which minimizes solar array size and the amount of orbital makeup fuel required. Flywheel systems have a long shelf life, give a precise state of charge indication, have modest thermal control needs, are capable of multiple discharges per orbit, have simple ground handling needs, and have characteristics which would be useful for military applications. The major disadvantages of flywheel energy storage systems are that: power is not available during the launch phase without special provisions; and in flight failure of units may force shutdown of good counter rotating units, amplifying the effects of failure and limiting power distribution system options; no inherent emergency power capability unless specifically designed for, and a high level of complexity compared with batteries. The potential advantages of the flywheel energy storage system far outweigh the disadvantages.

  9. An approach for estimation of optimal energy flows in battery storage devices for electric vehicles in the smart grid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vacheva Gergana

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available While the number of the vehicle actuated with liquid fuels are settled, the count of electric vehicles is increasing. For the present moment most of them are scheduled for daily urban usage. This paper presents an analytical approach for estimation of the impact of electrical vehicle (EV battery charging on the distribution grid. Based on the EV charge profile, load curve and local distributed generation the grid nodes, the time variation of grid parameters is obtained. A set of typical load profiles of EV charging modes is studied and presented. A software implementation and a 24h case study of low voltage distribution network with EV charging devices is presented in order to illustrate the approach and the impacts of EV charging on the grid. In the current paper an approach using variable nonlinear algebraic equations for dynamic time domain analysis of the charge of the electric vehicles is presented. Based on the results, the challenges due to EV charging in distribution networks including renewable energy sources are discussed. This approach is widely applicable for various EV charging and distributed energy resources studies considering control algorithms, grid stability analysis, smart grid power management and other power system analysis problems.

  10. High security ion-lithium batteries with rapid recharge for the terrestrial transport and energy storage; Batteries de type ion-lithium de haute securite a recharge rapide pour le transport terrestre et le stockage d'energie

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zaghib, Karim; Dontigny, M.; Charest, P.; Guerfi, A.; Trotier, J.; Mathieu, M.C.; Zhu, W.; Petitclerc, M.; Veillette, R.; Serventi, A.; Hovington, P.; Lagace, M.; Trudeau, M.; Vijh, A.

    2010-09-15

    Electrical terrestrial transport is today a hub of innovation and growth for Hydro-Quebec. In the perspective of electrification of terrestrial transports, battery remains the critical factor of future success of rechargeable electrical vehicles. For nearly 20 years, Hydro-Quebec, via its research institute, has worked at developing battery material for the lithium-ion technology. Two types of Li-ion batteries have been developed: the energy battery and the power battery. [French] Le transport terrestre electrique est aujourd'hui un pole d'innovation et de croissance pour Hydro-Quebec. Dans la perspective de l'electrification des transports terrestres, la batterie demeure le facteur critique du succes futur des vehicules electriques rechargeables. Depuis pres de 20 ans, Hydro-Quebec, par le biais de son Institut de recherche, travaille au developpement de materiaux de batteries destinees a la technologie lithium-ion. Deux types de batteries Li-ion ont ete mises au point : la batterie d'energie et la batterie de puissance.

  11. Technology-base research project for electrochemical storage report for 1981

    Science.gov (United States)

    McLarnon, F.

    1982-06-01

    The technology base research (TBR) project which provides the applied reseach base that supports all electrochemical energy storage applications: electric vehicles, electric load leveling, storage of solar electricity, and energy and resource conservation is described. The TBR identifies electrochemical technologies with the potential to satisfy stringent performance and economic requirements and transfer them to industry for further development and scale up. The TBR project consists of four major elements: electrochemical systems research, supporting research, electrochemical processes, and fuel cells for transportation. Activities in these four project elements during 1981 are summarized. Information is included on: iron-air batteries; aluminum-air batteries; lithium-metal sulfide cells; materials development for various batteries; and the characteristics of an NH3-air alkaline fuel cell in a vehicle.

  12. Modeling, Control, and Simulation of Battery Storage Photovoltaic-Wave Energy Hybrid Renewable Power Generation Systems for Island Electrification in Malaysia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nahidul Hoque Samrat

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Today, the whole world faces a great challenge to overcome the environmental problems related to global energy production. Most of the islands throughout the world depend on fossil fuel importation with respect to energy production. Recent development and research on green energy sources can assure sustainable power supply for the islands. But unpredictable nature and high dependency on weather conditions are the main limitations of renewable energy sources. To overcome this drawback, different renewable sources and converters need to be integrated with each other. This paper proposes a standalone hybrid photovoltaic- (PV- wave energy conversion system with energy storage. In the proposed hybrid system, control of the bidirectional buck-boost DC-DC converter (BBDC is used to maintain the constant dc-link voltage. It also accumulates the excess hybrid power in the battery bank and supplies this power to the system load during the shortage of hybrid power. A three-phase complex vector control scheme voltage source inverter (VSI is used to control the load side voltage in terms of the frequency and voltage amplitude. Based on the simulation results obtained from Matlab/Simulink, it has been found that the overall hybrid framework is capable of working under the variable weather and load conditions.

  13. Modeling, Control, and Simulation of Battery Storage Photovoltaic-Wave Energy Hybrid Renewable Power Generation Systems for Island Electrification in Malaysia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samrat, Nahidul Hoque; Ahmad, Norhafizan Bin; Choudhury, Imtiaz Ahmed; Taha, Zahari Bin

    2014-01-01

    Today, the whole world faces a great challenge to overcome the environmental problems related to global energy production. Most of the islands throughout the world depend on fossil fuel importation with respect to energy production. Recent development and research on green energy sources can assure sustainable power supply for the islands. But unpredictable nature and high dependency on weather conditions are the main limitations of renewable energy sources. To overcome this drawback, different renewable sources and converters need to be integrated with each other. This paper proposes a standalone hybrid photovoltaic- (PV-) wave energy conversion system with energy storage. In the proposed hybrid system, control of the bidirectional buck-boost DC-DC converter (BBDC) is used to maintain the constant dc-link voltage. It also accumulates the excess hybrid power in the battery bank and supplies this power to the system load during the shortage of hybrid power. A three-phase complex vector control scheme voltage source inverter (VSI) is used to control the load side voltage in terms of the frequency and voltage amplitude. Based on the simulation results obtained from Matlab/Simulink, it has been found that the overall hybrid framework is capable of working under the variable weather and load conditions. PMID:24892049

  14. A hybrid electrochemical device based on a synergetic inner combination of Li ion battery and Li ion capacitor for energy storage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Jun-Sheng; Zhang, Lei; Shellikeri, Annadanesh; Cao, Wanjun; Wu, Qiang; Zheng, Jim P

    2017-02-07

    Li ion battery (LIB) and electrochemical capacitor (EC) are considered as the most widely used energy storage systems (ESSs) because they can produce a high energy density or a high power density, but it is a huge challenge to achieve both the demands of a high energy density as well as a high power density on their own. A new hybrid Li ion capacitor (HyLIC), which combines the advantages of LIB and Li ion capacitor (LIC), is proposed. This device can successfully realize a potential match between LIB and LIC and can avoid the excessive depletion of electrolyte during the charge process. The galvanostatic charge-discharge cycling tests reveal that at low current, the HyLIC exhibits a high energy density, while at high current, it demonstrates a high power density. Ragone plot confirms that this device can make a synergetic balance between energy and power and achieve a highest energy density in the power density range of 80 to 300 W kg -1 . The cycle life test proves that HyLIC exhibits a good cycle life and an excellent coulombic efficiency. The present study shows that HyLIC, which is capable of achieving a high energy density, a long cycle life and an excellent power density, has the potential to achieve the winning combination of a high energy and power density.

  15. Autonomous power supply. Design and practice of power supply systems with storage batteries; Autonome Stromversorgung. Auslegung und Praxis von Stromversorgungsanlagen mit Batteriespeicher

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brueckmann, P.

    2007-07-01

    The book intends to provide users and planners with insight into the possibilities and technology of autonomous power supply systems. The whole spectrum of power supply systems is covered, from simple lighting to agriculture and trade (e.g. solar systems for lighting a mountain cabin, or a turbine aggregate for power supply to a mountain cabin). The book focuses on low-voltage systems with d.c. of less than 50V (typically, 12 or 24 V), and with a storage battery as a rule. The information provided is based on the author's long years of personal experience in this subject. (orig.) [German] Zweck dieses Buches ist es, Anwendern und Planern einen fundierten Einblick in die Moeglichkeiten und die Technik von autonomen Stromversorgungsanlagen zu vermitteln. Dabei wird das ganze Spektrum von der einfachen Beleuchtungsanlage bis zur Versorgung von produktiven Anwendungen in den Bereichen Landwirtschaft und Handwerk behandelt (z.B. Solaranlage fuer die Beleuchtung einer Alphuette oder Turbinenanlage fuer eine Kuhalp). Das Buch beschraenkt sich auf Kleinspannungsanlagen, die mit Gleichspannung unter 50V arbeiten (typischerweise 12 V oder 24 V) und in der Regel eine Speicherbatterie aufweisen. Auf Wechselspannungs-Kleinkraftwerke oder Generatoren mit Verbrennungsmotoren wird im Rahmen dieses Buches nicht eingegangen. Die Ausfuehrungen sind das Resultat jahrelanger Beschaeftigung mit dieser Thematik und dementsprechend auch von persoenlichen Erfahrungen gepraegt.

  16. Structural and Electrochemical Study of Vanadium-Doped TiO2 Ramsdellite with Superior Lithium Storage Properties for Lithium-Ion Batteries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez-Flores, Juan Carlos; Hoelzel, Markus; García-Alvarado, Flaviano; Kuhn, Alois

    2016-04-04

    Titanium-oxide-based materials are considered attractive and safe alternatives to carbonaceous anodes in Li-ion batteries. In particular, the ramsdellite form TiO2 (R) is known for its superior lithium-storage ability as the bulk material when compared with other titanates. In this work, we prepared V-doped lithium titanate ramsdellites with the formula Li0.5 Ti1-x Vx O2 (0≤x≤0.5) by a conventional solid-state reaction. The lithium-free Ti1-x Vx O2 compounds, in which the ramsdellite framework remains virtually unaltered, are easily obtained by a simple aqueous oxidation/ion-extraction process. Neutron powder diffraction is used to locate the Li channel site in Li0.5 Ti1-x Vx O2 compounds and to follow the lithium extraction by difference-Fourier maps. Previously delithiated Ti1-x Vx O2 ramsdellites are able to insert up to 0.8 Li(+) per transition-metal atom. The initial gravimetric capacities of 270 mAh g(-1) with good cycle stability under constant current discharge conditions are among the highest reported for bulk TiO2 -related intercalation compounds for the threshold of one e(-) per formula unit. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  17. Modeling, control, and simulation of battery storage photovoltaic-wave energy hybrid renewable power generation systems for island electrification in Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samrat, Nahidul Hoque; Bin Ahmad, Norhafizan; Choudhury, Imtiaz Ahmed; Bin Taha, Zahari

    2014-01-01

    Today, the whole world faces a great challenge to overcome the environmental problems related to global energy production. Most of the islands throughout the world depend on fossil fuel importation with respect to energy production. Recent development and research on green energy sources can assure sustainable power supply for the islands. But unpredictable nature and high dependency on weather conditions are the main limitations of renewable energy sources. To overcome this drawback, different renewable sources and converters need to be integrated with each other. This paper proposes a standalone hybrid photovoltaic- (PV-) wave energy conversion system with energy storage. In the proposed hybrid system, control of the bidirectional buck-boost DC-DC converter (BBDC) is used to maintain the constant dc-link voltage. It also accumulates the excess hybrid power in the battery bank and supplies this power to the system load during the shortage of hybrid power. A three-phase complex vector control scheme voltage source inverter (VSI) is used to control the load side voltage in terms of the frequency and voltage amplitude. Based on the simulation results obtained from Matlab/Simulink, it has been found that the overall hybrid framework is capable of working under the variable weather and load conditions.

  18. A hybrid wind-PV system performance investigation for the purpose of maximum hydrogen production and storage using advanced alkaline electrolyzer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khalilnejad, A.; Riahy, G.H.

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • A new index for optimal sizing of system is proposed. • Electromechanical model of all components is designed and simulated using MATLAB. • Detailed and accurate model of advanced alkaline electrolyzer is simulated. • Three different conditions of using WT and PV array for this system are discussed. • Actual data for weekly irradiation, wind speed, and temperature of Sahand are used. - Abstract: In this study, design and modelling of hybrid wind–photovoltaic system is done for the purpose of hydrogen production through water electrolysis. Actual data for weekly solar irradiation, wind speed, and ambient temperature of Sahand, Iran, are used for performance simulation and analysis of the system examined. The detailed model of components is used. The 10 kW alkaline electrolyzer model, which produces hydrogen, is based on combination of empirical electrochemical relationships, thermodynamics, and heat transfer theory. The operation of this system is optimized using imperial competitive colony algorithm. The objective of optimization is to maximize hydrogen production, considering minimum production of average excess power. This system is analysed in three different conditions of using just wind turbine (WT), photovoltaic (PV) array, and combination of them as power source, producing hydrogen of 8297, 4592, and 10,462 mol, respectively. As for this result and with analysing other results of simulation, it is clarified that the hybrid system is more useful for this study. In hybrid form the ratio of average produced power to nominal power for PV array is 0.247 and for WT is 0.493 which demonstrates that WT is more effective in production

  19. Battery Thermal Characterization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Keyser, Matthew A [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2017-08-08

    The operating temperature is critical in achieving the right balance between performance, cost, and life for both Li-ion batteries and ultracapacitors. The chemistries of advanced energy-storage devices - such as lithium-based batteries - are very sensitive to operating temperature. High temperatures degrade batteries faster while low temperatures decrease their power and capacity, affecting vehicle range, performance, and cost. Understanding heat generation in battery systems - from the individual cells within a module, to the inter-connects between the cells, and across the entire battery system - is imperative for designing effective thermal-management systems and battery packs. At NREL, we have developed unique capabilities to measure the thermal properties of cells and evaluate thermal performance of battery packs (air or liquid cooled). We also use our electro-thermal finite element models to analyze the thermal performance of battery systems in order to aid battery developers with improved thermal designs. NREL's tools are used to meet the weight, life, cost, and volume goals set by the U.S. Department of Energy for electric drive vehicles.

  20. Methods for Characterization of Batteries Using Acoustic Interrogation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhadra, Shoham

    Batteries are a ubiquitous form of electrochemical energy storage, but thus far the methods for measuring the mechanical properties of batteries and their component materials in operando have lagged far behind the methods for measuring the corresponding electrical properties. In this thesis, I demonstrate methods for determining the changes in materials properties of an electrochemical energy storage cell both ex situ and in operando.. I begin by establishing the impact of micro-scale morphology changes on the macro-scale dynamic mechanical response in commercial alkaline AA cells. Using a bounce test, the coefficient of restitution (COR) of the cell is shown to increase non-linearly as a function of state of charge (SOC). I show that the reason for the increase in the COR stems from the spatially-dependent oxidation of the Zn anode, with an initial increase corresponding to the formation of a percolation pathway of ZnO-clad Zn particles spanning the radius of the anode. The subsequent saturation of the COR is shown to result from the ultimate solidification and desiccation of the Zn anode. Building from this, I present a generalized in operando solution for materials characterization in batteries using ultrasonic interrogation. The materials properties of battery components change during charge and discharge, resulting in a change in the sound speed of the materials. By attaching transducers to a battery during cycling and sending ultrasonic pulses through each cell I observe the changes in the time of flight (ToF) of the pulses, both in reflection and transmission. I show that the changes in ToF correspond to both SOC and state of health (SOH) in a variety of battery chemistries and geometries, and detail a corresponding acoustic conservation law model framework. Finally, I perform these electrochemical acoustic time of flight (EAToF) experiments on commercial alkaline AA cells. By correlating the results with energy dispersive x-ray diffraction (EDXRD) data and

  1. High-performance batteries for off-peak energy storage and electric-vehicle propulsion. Progress report, January--June 1975. [Li--Al/KCl--LiCl/Fe sulfide, 42 kWh

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1976-03-01

    This report describes the research and management efforts, for the period January--June 1975, of Argonne National Laboratory's program on high-performance lithium/metal sulfide batteries. The batteries are being developed for two applications, off-peak energy storage in electric utility networks and electric-vehicle propulsion. The battery design for the two applications differ, particularly in cell configuration and electrode design, because of the differing performance requirements. The present cells are vertically oriented, prismatic cells with two negative electrodes of a solid lithium--aluminium alloy, a central positive electrode of iron sulfide (FeS/sub 2/ or FeS), and an electrolyte of LiCl--KCl eutectic (mp, 352/sup 0/C). The operating temperature of the cells is about 400--450/sup 0/C. Recent effort in the development of engineering-scale cells was focused on designing and fabricating vertically oriented, prismatic cells and on improving the lifetime capabilities of cells. Work on electrode development was directed toward the evaluation of the factors that influence the performance of the negative electrode and the development of new designs of vertical, prismatic iron sulfide electrodes. Materials studies included work on improving feedthroughs and separators, corrosion tests of candidate materials of construction, and postoperative examinations of cells. Cell chemistry studies included continuing investigations of cell reactions and the identification of advanced cell systems. Battery development work included the design of a battery for an electric automobile and the development of battery components. The transfer of Li--Al/FeS/sub x/ battery technology to industry is being implemented through contracts with industrial firms for the manufacture of components, electrodes, and cells.

  2. Droop Control of Solar PV, Grid and Critical Load using Suppressing DC Current Injection Technique without Battery Storage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dama Mr., Jayachandra; (Mrs. , Lini Mathew, Dr.; Srikanth Mr., G.

    2017-08-01

    This paper presents design of a sustainable solar Photo voltaic system for an Indian cities based residential/community house, integrated with grid, supporting it as supplementary sources, to meet energy demand of domestic loads. The role of renewable energy sources in Distributed Generation (DG) is increasingly being recognized as a supplement and an alternative to large conventional central power supply. Though centralized economic system that solely depends on cities is hampered due to energy deficiency, the use of solar energy in cities is never been tried widely due to technical inconvenience and high installation cost. To mitigate these problems, this paper proposes an optimized design of grid-tied PV system without storage which is suitable for Indian origin as it requires less installallation cost and supplies residential loads when the grid power is unavailable. The energy requirement is mainly fulfilled from PV energy module for critical load of a city located residential house and supplemented by grid/DG for base and peak load. The system has been developed for maximum daily household demand of 50kWp and can be scaled to any higher value as per requirement of individual/community building ranging from 50kWp to 60kWp as per the requirement. A simplified control system model has been developed to optimize and control flow of power from these sources. The simulation work, using MATLAB Simulink software for proposed energy management, has resulted in an optimal yield leading efficient power flow control of proposed system.

  3. Practical high temperature (80 °C) storage study of industrially manufactured Li-ion batteries with varying electrolytes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Genieser, R.; Loveridge, M.; Bhagat, R.

    2018-05-01

    A previous study is focused on high temperature cycling of industrially manufactured Li-ion pouch cells (NMC-111/Graphite) with different electrolytes at 80 °C [JPS 373 (2018) 172-183]. Within this article the same test set-up is used, with cells stored for 30 days at different open circuit potentials and various electrolytes instead of electrochemical cycling. The most pronounced cell degradation (capacity fade and resistance increase) happens at high potentials. However appropriate electrolyte formulations are able to suppress ageing conditions by forming passivating surface films on both electrodes. Compared with electrochemical cycling at 80 °C, cells with enhanced electrolytes only show a slight resistance increase during storage and the capacity fade is much lower. Additionally it is shown for the first time, that the resistance is decreasing and capacity is regained once these cells are cycled again at room temperature. This is not the case for electrolytes without additives or just vinylene carbonate (VC) as an additive. It is further shown that the resistance increase of cells with the other electrolytes is accompanied by a reduction of the cell volume during further cycling. This behaviour is likely related to the reduction of CO2 at the anode to form additional SEI layer components.

  4. Battery equalization active methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallardo-Lozano, Javier; Romero-Cadaval, Enrique; Milanes-Montero, M. Isabel; Guerrero-Martinez, Miguel A.

    2014-01-01

    Many different battery technologies are available for the applications which need energy storage. New researches are being focused on Lithium-based batteries, since they are becoming the most viable option for portable energy storage applications. As most of the applications need series battery strings to meet voltage requirements, battery imbalance is an important matter to be taken into account, since it leads the individual battery voltages to drift apart over time, and premature cells degradation, safety hazards, and capacity reduction will occur. A large number of battery equalization methods can be found, which present different advantages/disadvantages and are suitable for different applications. The present paper presents a summary, comparison and evaluation of the different active battery equalization methods, providing a table that compares them, which is helpful to select the suitable equalization method depending on the application. By applying the same weight to the different parameters of comparison, switch capacitor and double-tiered switching capacitor have the highest ratio. Cell bypass methods are cheap and cell to cell ones are efficient. Cell to pack, pack to cell and cell to pack to cell methods present a higher cost, size, and control complexity, but relatively low voltage and current stress in high-power applications.

  5. Advanced battery development

    Science.gov (United States)

    In order to promote national security by ensuring that the United States has an adequate supply of safe, assured, affordable, and environmentally acceptable energy, the Storage Batteries Division at Sandia National Laboratories (SNL), Albuquerque, is responsible for engineering development of advanced rechargeable batteries for energy applications. This effort is conducted within the Exploratory Battery Technology Development and Testing (ETD) Lead center, whose activities are coordinated by staff within the Storage Batteries Division. The ETD Project, directed by SNL, is supported by the U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Energy Systems Research, Energy Storage and Distribution Division (DOE/OESD). SNL is also responsible for technical management of the Electric Vehicle Advanced Battery Systems (EV-ABS) Development Project, which is supported by the U.S. Department of Energy's Office of Transportation Systems (OTS). The ETD Project is operated in conjunction with the Technology Base Research (TBR) Project, which is under the direction of Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory. Together these two projects seek to establish the scientific feasibility of advanced electrochemical energy storage systems, and conduct the initial engineering development on systems suitable for mobile and stationary commercial applications.

  6. A new insight of recycling of spent Zn-Mn alkaline batteries: Synthesis of Zn{sub x}Mn{sub 1−x}O nanoparticles and solar light driven photocatalytic degradation of bisphenol A using them

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Qu, Jiao, E-mail: qujiao@bhu.edu.cn [School of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Bohai University, Jinzhou, Liaoning 121013 (China); School of Urban and Environmental Sciences, Northeast Normal University, Changchun, Jilin 130024 (China); Feng, Yue; Zhang, Qian [School of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Bohai University, Jinzhou, Liaoning 121013 (China); Cong, Qiao [School of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Bohai University, Jinzhou, Liaoning 121013 (China); School of Urban and Environmental Sciences, Northeast Normal University, Changchun, Jilin 130024 (China); Luo, Chunqiu [School of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Bohai University, Jinzhou, Liaoning 121013 (China); Yuan, Xing [School of Urban and Environmental Sciences, Northeast Normal University, Changchun, Jilin 130024 (China)

    2015-02-15

    Highlights: • Zn{sub 0.5}Mn{sub 0.5}O nanoparticles synthesized using SABs were cylinder with 60 nm diameter. • Adsorption equilibrium of BPA on Zn{sub x}Mn{sub 1−x}O nanoparticles were achieved in 40 min. • Decomposition yields of BPA were increased with light irradiation and Zn{sub x}Mn{sub 1−x}O nanoparticles. • The findings have positive effects on solving the recycling of SABs. - Abstract: This work focuses on the synthesis of Zn{sub 0.1}Mn{sub 0.9}O, Zn{sub 0.3}Mn{sub 0.7}O, and Zn{sub 0.5}Mn{sub 0.5}O nanoparticles using Zn-Mn spent alkaline batteries (SABs) as raw materials and their applications for photocatalytic degradation of bisphenol A in water. Zn-Mn SABs were manually dismantled into scrap (including plastics, copper cap, zinc crust, and carbon rod) and powder. The mashed zinc crust and pretreated powder were successively added into H{sub 2}SO{sub 4} and NH{sub 3}⋅H{sub 2}O, and the formed precipitates were characterized. The yield (wt) of synthesis of Zn{sub 0.5}Mn{sub 0.5}O (ZnMnO{sub 3}) nanoparticles was 57.1%. The synthesized Zn{sub 0.5}Mn{sub 0.5}O nanoparticles were cylinder, with a length of 60 nm. Afterwards, the removal efficiencies of bisphenol A (BPA) under solar light irradiation with the recovered Zn{sub x}Mn{sub 1−x}O nanoparticles were investigated: (1) the adsorption equilibrium of BPA on Zn{sub x}Mn{sub 1−x}O nanoparticles could be achieved after approximate 40 min. The saturation absorbance of BPA was about 32.40 ± 4.76 mg g{sup −1}, 20.40 ± 3.60 mg g{sup −1}, and 14.50 ± 4.55 mg g{sup −1} by Zn{sub 0.1}Mn{sub 0.9}O, Zn{sub 0.3}Mn{sub 0.7}O, and Zn{sub 0.5}Mn{sub 0.5}O nanoparticles, respectively; (2) compared with the 21.7 ± 1.6% degradation of BPA (only solar light irradiation for 180 min), the combination of solar light irradiation and Zn{sub 0.1}Mn{sub 0.9}O, Zn{sub 0.3}Mn{sub 0.7}O, and Zn{sub 0.5}Mn{sub 0.5}O nanoparticles could lead to 59.41 ± 4.32%, 83.43 ± 2.73%, and 71.22 ± 4

  7. Comparative analysis of thermal storage cooling and storage battery cooling using photovoltaic generation. Part 2. Research on architectural systematization of energy conversion devices; Taiyoko hatsuden ni yoru chikunetsu reibo to chikuden reibo ni tsuite. 2. Energy henkan no kenchiku system ka ni kansuru kenkyu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ito, N.; Kimura, G.; Fukao, S.; Shimizu, T.; Sunaga, N.; Tsunoda, M.; Muro, K.; Yamanaka, S. [Tokyo Metropolitan University, Tokyo (Japan)

    1996-10-27

    For use in energy self-sufficient buildings, a system was studied capable of retaining for its own use the excess of power produced by a photovoltaic power generation system without releasing it to the commercial system. Summertime cooling was considered. The storage battery cooling system was provided with two solar cell systems and, in the daytime, one was used for cooling and the other for charging batteries for nighttime cooling. In the cold heat storage cooling system, cold heat accumulators (red bricks) were provided in the wall and floor, and under the floor, and the floor was a grating for proper ventilation between the room and underfloor space. With the solar cell-driven air conditioner out of operation, cold heat was fed to the room from the underfloor cold heat accumulators by a fan. In storage battery cooling, solar power covered 60% of what the air conditioner used. In the presence of sufficient power in storage, the air conditioner stayed on at night without buying commercial power, when the room temperature was 25{degree}C. In the cold heat accumulation cooling, 50% of the air conditioner power consumption was covered by solar power. It is recommended to install cold heat accumulators not in the room but in a separate space, such as the underfloor space, where they are exposed to the cooling cold air direct from an air conditioner for future retrieval of cold heat. 2 refs., 9 figs., 3 tabs.

  8. Battery Aging, Battery Charging and the Kinetic Battery Model : A First Exploration

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jongerden, Marijn R.; Haverkort, Boudewijn R.; Bertrand, Nathalie; Bortolussi, Luca

    2017-01-01

    Rechargeable batteries are omnipresent and will be used more and more, for instance for wearables devices, electric vehicles or domestic energy storage. However, batteries can deliver power only for a limited time span. They slowly degrade with every charge-discharge cycle. This degradation needs to

  9. Battery impedance spectroscopy using bidirectional grid connected ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Shimul Kumar Dam

    Impedance spectroscopy; grid connection; battery converter; state of charge; health monitoring. 1. Introduction. Batteries play an important role as energy storage devices for renewable energy sources, electric vehicle and many other applications. A battery bank is interfaced to load through a power converter, which controls ...

  10. Battery Modeling

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jongerden, M.R.; Haverkort, Boudewijn R.H.M.

    2008-01-01

    The use of mobile devices is often limited by the capacity of the employed batteries. The battery lifetime determines how long one can use a device. Battery modeling can help to predict, and possibly extend this lifetime. Many different battery models have been developed over the years. However,

  11. Understanding the function and performance of carbon-enhanced lead-acid batteries : milestone report for the DOE Energy Storage Systems program (FY11 Quarter 1: October through December 2010).

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shane, R. (East Penn Manufacturing, Lyon Station, PA); Enos, David George; Hund, Thomas D.

    2011-05-01

    This report describes the status of research being performed under CRADA No. SC10/01771.00 (Lead/Carbon Functionality in VRLA Batteries) between Sandia National Laboratories and East Penn Manufacturing, conducted for the U.S. Department of Energy's Energy Storage Systems Program. The Quarter 1 Milestone was completed on time. The milestone entails conducting a thorough literature review to establish the current level of understanding of the mechanisms through which carbon additions to the negative active material improve valve-regulated lead-acid (VRLA) batteries. Most studies have entailed phenomenological research observing that the carbon additions prevent/reduce sulfation of the negative electrode; however, no understanding is available to provide insight into why certain carbons are successful while others are not. Impurities were implicated in one recent review of the electrochemical behavior of carbon additions. Four carbon samples have been received from East Penn Manufacturing and impurity contents have been analyzed. Carbon has been explored as an addition to lead-acid battery electrodes in a number of ways. Perhaps the most notable to date has been the hybrid 'Ultrabattery' developed by CSIRO where an asymmetric carbon-based electrochemical capacitor is combined with a lead-acid battery into a single cell, dramatically improving high-rate partial-state-of-charge (HRPSoC) operation. As illustrated below, the 'Ultrabattery' is a hybrid device constructed using a traditional lead-acid battery positive plate (i.e., PbO{sub 2}) and a negative electrode consisting of a carbon electrode in parallel with a lead-acid negative plate. This device exhibits a dramatically improved cycle life over traditional VRLA batteries, as well as increased charge power and charge acceptance. The 'Ultrabattery' has been produced successfully by both The Furukawa Battery Co. and East Penn Manufacturing. An example illustrating the dramatic

  12. Understanding the function and performance of carbon-enhanced lead-acid batteries : milestone report for the DOE energy storage systems program (FY11 Quarter 3: April through June 2011).

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ferreira, Summer Rhodes; Shane, Rodney (East Penn Manufacturing, Lyon Station, PA); Enos, David George

    2011-09-01

    This report describes the status of research being performed under CRADA No. SC10/01771.00 (Lead/Carbon Functionality in VRLA Batteries) between Sandia National Laboratories and East Penn Manufacturing, conducted for the U.S. Department of Energy's Energy Storage Systems Program. The Quarter 3 Milestone was completed on time. The milestone entails an ex situ analysis of a control as well as three carbon-containing negative plates in the raw, as cast form as well as after formation. The morphology, porosity, and porosity distribution within each plate was evaluated. In addition, baseline electrochemical measurements were performed on each battery to establish their initial performance. These measurements included capacity, internal resistance, and float current. The results obtained for the electrochemical testing were in agreement with previous evaluations performed at East Penn manufacturing. Cycling on a subset of the received East Penn cells containing different carbons (and a control) has been initiated.

  13. Recent advances in energy storage materials and devices

    CERN Document Server

    Lu, Li

    2017-01-01

    This book compiles nine comprehensive contributions from the principle of Li-ion batteries, cathode and anode electrode materials to future energy storage systems such as solid electrolyte for all-solid-state batteries and high capacity redox flow battery.

  14. Technical feasibility for commercialization of lithium ion battery as a substitute dry battery for motorcycle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurniyati, Indah; Sutopo, Wahyudi; Zakaria, Roni; Kadir, Evizal Abdul

    2017-11-01

    Dry battery on a motorcycle has a rapid rate of voltage drop, life time is not too long, and a long charging time. These are problems for users of dry battery for motorcycle. When the rate in the voltage decreases, the energy storage in the battery is reduced, then at the age of one to two years of battery will be dead and cannot be used, it makes the user should replace the battery. New technology development of a motorcycle battery is lithium ion battery. Lithium ion battery has a specification that has been tested and possible to replace dry battery. Characteristics of lithium ion battery can answer the question on the dry battery service life, the rate of decrease in voltage and charging time. This paper discusses about the technical feasibility for commercialization of lithium ion battery for motorcycle battery. Our proposed methodology of technical feasibility by using a goldsmith commercialization model of the technical feasibility and reconfirm the technical standard using the national standard of motorcycle battery. The battery has been through all the stages of the technical feasibility of the goldsmith model. Based on the results of the study, lithium ion batteries have the minimum technical requirements to be commercialized and has been confirmed in accordance with the standard motorcycle battery. This paper results that the lithium ion battery is visible to commercialized by the technical aspect.

  15. Energy Storage

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Bladergroen, B

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available will be an important tool in the toolbox of system designers – together with primary energy providers solar PV, wind, biogas and potentially backup through diesel-based generators. Outside the electricity sector, eMobility will largely drive the demand for battery...-to-Fuel is, together with eMobility, the connector between the historically separated electricity and transport sector. Challenge Questions  What will drive the future battery market?  Is energy storage a necessary condition for a large uptake...

  16. Advanced zinc-air batteries based on high-performance hybrid electrocatalysts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yanguang; Gong, Ming; Liang, Yongye; Feng, Ju; Kim, Ji-Eun; Wang, Hailiang; Hong, Guosong; Zhang, Bo; Dai, Hongjie

    2013-01-01

    Primary and rechargeable Zn-air batteries could be ideal energy storage devices with high energy and power density, high safety and economic viability. Active and durable electrocatalysts on the cathode side are required to catalyse oxygen reduction reaction during discharge and oxygen evolution reaction during charge for rechargeable batteries. Here we developed advanced primary and rechargeable Zn-air batteries with novel CoO/carbon nanotube hybrid oxygen reduction catalyst and Ni-Fe-layered double hydroxide oxygen evolution catalyst for the cathode. These catalysts exhibited higher catalytic activity and durability in concentrated alkaline electrolytes than precious metal Pt and Ir catalysts. The resulting primary Zn-air battery showed high discharge peak power density ~265 mW cm(-2), current density ~200 mA cm(-2) at 1 V and energy density >700 Wh kg(-1). Rechargeable Zn-air batteries in a tri-electrode configuration exhibited an unprecedented small charge-discharge voltage polarization of ~0.70 V at 20 mA cm(-2), high reversibility and stability over long charge and discharge cycles.

  17. Modeling nucleation and growth of zinc oxide during discharge of primary zinc-air batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stamm, Johannes; Varzi, Alberto; Latz, Arnulf; Horstmann, Birger

    2017-08-01

    Metal-air batteries are among the most promising next-generation energy storage devices. Relying on abundant materials and offering high energy densities, potential applications lie in the fields of electro-mobility, portable electronics, and stationary grid applications. Now, research on secondary zinc-air batteries is revived, which are commercialized as primary hearing aid batteries. One of the main obstacles for making zinc-air batteries rechargeable is their poor lifetime due to the degradation of alkaline electrolyte in contact with atmospheric carbon dioxide. In this article, we present a continuum theory of a commercial Varta PowerOne button cell. Our model contains dissolution of zinc and nucleation and growth of zinc oxide in the anode, thermodynamically consistent electrolyte transport in porous media, and multi-phase coexistance in the gas diffusion electrode. We perform electrochemical measurements and validate our model. Excellent agreement between theory and experiment is found and novel insights into the role of zinc oxide nucleation and growth and carbon dioxide dissolution for discharge and lifetime is presented. We demonstrate the implications of our work for the development of rechargeable zinc-air batteries.

  18. A novel rechargeable zinc-air battery with molten salt electrolyte

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Shuzhi; Han, Wei; Cui, Baochen; Liu, Xianjun; Zhao, Fulin; Stuart, Jessica; Licht, Stuart

    2017-02-01

    Zinc-air batteries have been proposed for EV applications and large-scale electricity storage such as wind and solar power. Although zinc-air batteries are very promising, there are numerous technological barriers to overcome. We demonstrate for the first time, a new rechargeable zinc-air battery that utilizes a molten Li0.87Na0.63K0.50CO3 eutectic electrolyte with added NaOH. Cyclic voltammetry reveals that a reversible deposition/dissolution of zinc occurs in the molten Li0.87Na0.63K0.50CO3 eutectic. At 550 °C, this zinc-air battery performs with a coulombic efficiency of 96.9% over 110 cycles, having an average charging potential of ∼1.43 V and discharge potential of ∼1.04 V. The zinc-air battery uses cost effective steel and nickel electrodes without the need for any precious metal catalysts. Moreover, the molten salt electrolyte offers advantages over aqueous electrolytes, avoiding the common aqueous alkaline electrolyte issues of hydrogen evolution, Zn dendrite formation, "drying out", and carbonate precipitation.

  19. Research and development of peripheral technology for photovoltaic power systems. Study of nickel-hydride storage battery for photovoltaic generation systems; Shuhen gijutsu no kenkyu kaihatsu. Taiyoko hatsuden`yo suiso denchi no kenkyu kaihatsu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tatsuta, M. [New Energy and Industrial Technology Development Organization, Tokyo (Japan)

    1994-12-01

    This paper reports the study results on R and D of nickel-hydride storage battery for photovoltaic generation systems in fiscal 1994. (1) On the study on low-cost electrode materials, the physical properties and electrode characteristics were studied of the prototype hydrogen absorbing alloys prepared by substituting Cu or Ni for Co in Mm(Ni-Co-Mn-Al)5 (Mm: mixture of rare earth elements). The result clarified that it is difficult to reduce Co content in the alloy to 0.4 atom or less. Simple heat treatment and milling processes in production of hydrogen absorbing alloy electrodes were achieved by adopting an improved metal mold and gas atomization method. Characteristics and cycle life of the Ni positive electrode prepared by applying active paste material of Ni(OH)2 were studied, however, the result showed only lives of nearly 300 cycles. (2) On the study on electrode structure for high-performance (long-life) battery, the 3-D porous metal electrode support was evaluated, and various battery configurations were studied. 11 figs., 1 tab.

  20. Multi-Objective Scheduling Optimization Based on a Modified Non-Dominated Sorting Genetic Algorithm-II in Voltage Source Converter−Multi-Terminal High Voltage DC Grid-Connected Offshore Wind Farms with Battery Energy Storage Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ho-Young Kim

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Improving the performance of power systems has become a challenging task for system operators in an open access environment. This paper presents an optimization approach for solving the multi-objective scheduling problem using a modified non-dominated sorting genetic algorithm in a hybrid network of meshed alternating current (AC/wind farm grids. This approach considers voltage and power control modes based on multi-terminal voltage source converter high-voltage direct current (MTDC and battery energy storage systems (BESS. To enhance the hybrid network station performance, we implement an optimal process based on the battery energy storage system operational strategy for multi-objective scheduling over a 24 h demand profile. Furthermore, the proposed approach is formulated as a master problem and a set of sub-problems associated with the hybrid network station to improve the overall computational efficiency using Benders’ decomposition. Based on the results of the simulations conducted on modified institute of electrical and electronics engineers (IEEE-14 bus and IEEE-118 bus test systems, we demonstrate and confirm the applicability, effectiveness and validity of the proposed approach.

  1. Advanced energy storage for space applications: A follow-up

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halpert, Gerald; Surampudi, Subbarao

    1994-01-01

    Viewgraphs on advanced energy storage for space applications are presented. Topics covered include: categories of space missions using batteries; battery challenges; properties of SOA and advanced primary batteries; lithium primary cell applications; advanced rechargeable battery applications; present limitations of advanced battery technologies; and status of Li-TiS2, Ni-MH, and Na-NiCl2 cell technologies.

  2. Operational experience and performance characteristics of a valve-regulated lead-acid battery energy-storage system for providing the customer with critical load protection and energy-management benefits at a lead-recycling plant

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunt, G. W.

    The Power Control Division of GNB Technologies, commissioned on May 13, 1996 a new facility which houses a 5-MW battery energy-storage system (BESS) at GNB's Lead Recycling Centre in Vernon, CA. When the plant loses utility power (which typically happens two or three times a year), the BESS will provide up to 5 MW of power at 4160 VAC in support of all the plant loads. Since the critical loads are not isolated, it is necessary to carry the entire plant load (maximum of 5 MVA) for a short period immediately following an incident until non-critical loads have been automatically shed. Plant loading typically peaks at 3.5 MVA with critical loads of about 2.1 MVA. The BESS also provides the manufacturing plant with customer-side-of-the-meter energy management options to reduce its energy demand during peak periods of the day. The BESS has provided a reduction in monthly electric bills through daily peak-shaving. By design, the battery can provide up to 2.5 MWh of energy and still retain 2.5 MWh of capacity in reserve to handle the possibility of a power outage in protecting the critical loads for up to 1 h. By storing energy from the utility during off-peak hours of the night in the batteries when the cost is low (US4.5¢ per kWh), GNB can then discharge this energy during high demand periods of the day (US14.50 per kW). For example, by reducing its peak demand by 300 kW, the lead-recycling centre can save over US4000 per month in its electric bills. The BESS at Vernon represents a first large-scale use of valve-regulated lead-acid batteries in such a demanding application. This paper presents a summary of the operational experience and performance characteristics of the BESS over the past 2 years.

  3. Battery Ownership Model - Medium Duty HEV Battery Leasing & Standardization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kelly, Ken; Smith, Kandler; Cosgrove, Jon; Prohaska, Robert; Pesaran, Ahmad; Paul, James; Wiseman, Marc

    2015-12-01

    Prepared for the U.S. Department of Energy, this milestone report focuses on the economics of leasing versus owning batteries for medium-duty hybrid electric vehicles as well as various battery standardization scenarios. The work described in this report was performed by members of the Energy Storage Team and the Vehicle Simulation Team in NREL's Transportation and Hydrogen Systems Center along with members of the Vehicles Analysis Team at Ricardo.

  4. Assessment of the use of vanadium redox flow batteries for energy storage and fast charging of electric vehicles in gas stations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cunha, Álvaro; Brito, F.P.; Martins, Jorge; Rodrigues, Nuno; Monteiro, Vitor; Afonso, João L.; Ferreira, Paula

    2016-01-01

    A network of conveniently located fast charging stations is one of the possibilities to facilitate the adoption of Electric Vehicles (EVs). This paper assesses the use of fast charging stations for EVs in conjunction with VRFBs (Vanadium Redox Flow Batteries). These batteries are charged during low electricity demand periods and then supply electricity for the fast charging of EVs during day, thus implementing a power peak shaving process. Flow batteries have unique characteristics which make them especially attractive when compared with conventional batteries, such as their ability to decouple rated power from rated capacity, as well as their greater design flexibility and nearly unlimited life. Moreover, their liquid nature allows their installation inside deactivated underground gas tanks located at gas stations, enabling a smooth transition of gas stations' business model towards the emerging electric mobility paradigm. A project of a VRFB system to fast charge EVs taking advantage of existing gas stations infrastructures is presented. An energy and cost analysis of this concept is performed, which shows that, for the conditions tested, the project is technologically and economically viable, although being highly sensitive to the investment costs and to the electricity market conditions. - Highlights: • Assessment of Vanadium Redox Flow Battery use for EV fast charge in gas stations. • This novel system proposal allows power peak shaving and use of deactivated gas tanks. • Philosophy allows seamless business transition towards the Electric Mobility paradigm. • Project is technologically and economically viable, although with long payback times. • Future Cost cuts due to technology maturation will consolidate project attractiveness.

  5. A multi-port power electronics interface for battery powered electric vehicles: Application of inductively coupled wireless power transfer and hybrid energy storage system

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDonough, Matthew Kelly

    Climate change, pollution, and geopolitical conflicts arising from the extreme wealth concentrations caused by fossil fuel deposits are just a few of the side-effects of the way that we fuel our society. A new method to power our civilization is becoming more and more necessary. Research for new, more sustainable fuel sources is already underway due to research in wind, solar, geothermal, and hydro power. However this focus is mainly on stationary applications. A large portion of fossil fuel usage comes from transportation. Unfortunately, the transition to cleaner transportation fuels is being stunted by the inability to store adequate amounts of energy in electro-chemical batteries. The idea of charging while driving has been proposed by many researchers, however several challenges still exist. In this work some of these challenges are addressed. Specifically, the ability to route power from multiple sources/loads is investigated. Special attention is paid to adjusting the time constant of particular converters, namely the battery and ultra-capacitor converters to reduce the high frequency and high magnitude current components applied to the battery terminals. This is done by developing a closed loop model of the entire multi-port converter, including the state of charge of the ultra-capacitors. The development of closed loop models and two experimental testbeds for use as stationary vehicle charging platforms with their unique set of sources/loads are presented along-side an on-board charger to demonstrate the similarities and differences between stationary charging and mobile charging. Experimental results from each are given showing that it is not only possible, but feasible to utilize Inductively Coupled Wireless Power Transfer (ICWPT) to charge a battery powered electric vehicle while driving and still protect the life-span of the batteries under the new, harsher conditions generated by the ICWPT system.

  6. The Lifetime of the LiFePO4/C Battery Energy Storage System When Used For Smoothing of the Wind Power Plant Variations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Swierczynski, Maciej Jozef; Stroe, Daniel Ioan; Stan, Ana-Irina

    2013-01-01

    Fulfilling ambitious goals of the full transition from the centralized, fossil fuel-based conventional generation units into distributed and eco-friendly renewables can be difficult to achieve without energy storage systems due to technical and economical challenges. Energy storage system addition...

  7. Requirements for future automotive batteries - a snapshot

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karden, Eckhard; Shinn, Paul; Bostock, Paul; Cunningham, James; Schoultz, Evan; Kok, Daniel

    Introduction of new fuel economy, performance, safety, and comfort features in future automobiles will bring up many new, power-hungry electrical systems. As a consequence, demands on automotive batteries will grow substantially, e.g. regarding reliability, energy throughput (shallow-cycle life), charge acceptance, and high-rate partial state-of-charge (HRPSOC) operation. As higher voltage levels are mostly not an economically feasible alternative for the short term, the existing 14 V electrical system will have to fulfil these new demands, utilizing advanced 12 V energy storage devices. The well-established lead-acid battery technology is expected to keep playing a key role in this application. Compared to traditional starting-lighting-ignition (SLI) batteries, significant technological progress has been achieved or can be expected, which improve both performance and service life. System integration of the storage device into the vehicle will become increasingly important. Battery monitoring systems (BMS) are expected to become a commodity, penetrating the automotive volume market from both highly equipped premium cars and dedicated fuel-economy vehicles (e.g. stop/start). Battery monitoring systems will allow for more aggressive battery operating strategies, at the same time improving the reliability of the power supply system. Where a single lead-acid battery cannot fulfil the increasing demands, dual-storage systems may form a cost-efficient extension. They consist either of two lead-acid batteries or of a lead-acid battery plus another storage device.

  8. Systems and methods for distributing power using photovoltaic resources and a shifting battery system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mammoli, Andrea A.; Lavrova, Olga; Arellano, Brian; Cheng, Feng; Greenwood, Wesley; Hawkins, Jonathan; Willard, Steve

    2017-06-27

    The present invention is an apparatus and method for delivering energy using a renewable resource. The method includes providing a photovoltaic energy source and applying energy storage to the photovoltaic energy source via a battery storage unit. The energy output from the photovoltaic energy source and the battery system is controlled using a battery control system. The battery control system predicts peak load, develops a schedule that includes when to begin discharging power and when to stop discharging power, shifts power to the battery storage unit when excess power is available, and prioritizes the functionality of the battery storage unit and the photovoltaic energy source.

  9. Optimization of Parameters that Affect the Activity of the Alkaline Protease from Halotolerant Bacterium, Bacillus acquimaris VITP4, by the Application of Response Surface Methodology and Evaluation of the Storage Stability of the Enzyme.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chittoor, Jabeena Thaz; Balaji, Lavanya; Jayaraman, Gurunathan

    2016-03-01

    It was previously shown that the activity of a serine protease from a moderately halotolerant Bacillus aquimaris VITP4 strain is active in a wide range of pH and temperatures and could be modulated by the presence of the divalent metal ions. In the present study, a quantitative analysis was done in order to explore the parameters that are contributing to the protease activity. Changes in the secondary structure of the enzyme was determined by circular dichroism analysis. The conditions for the optimal activity was investigated by Response Surface Methodology. Stability of the enzyme was determined by thermal inactivation experiments. The initial one-factor-at-a-time experiments have indicated that the activity of the enzyme could be enhanced not only by the presence of low concentrations of NaCl but also by divalent metal ions, such as Ca 2+ , Mn 2+ and Cu 2+ . A clear dependence of the activity to the secondary structure of the enzyme could be established using circular dichroism spectroscopy. In the next level of optimization, four factors; viz. pH, temperature, concentration of Ca2+, and Mn 2+ were used to optimize the conditions required for the maximal activity of the enzyme by Response Surface Methodology, and the data could be explained using quadratic model. Under optimal condition of 43°C, pH 8.0, 8.2 mM Ca 2+ , and 4.3 mM Mn 2+ a 1.5 times enhancement in the enzyme activity could be achieved. The storage stability of the enzyme under these selected conditions has indicated a non-linear relation between the conditions for the enzymatic activity as well as stability. However, the condition for the maximal stability (267±18 min) has corresponded to that of the optimal conditions for the maximal activity. This study, for the first time, has explored the possibility of using statistical methods for identifying the optimal conditions for alkaline protease activity isolated from the halotolerant Bacillus aquimaris VITP4.

  10. Green Template-Free Synthesis of Hierarchical Shuttle-Shaped Mesoporous ZnFe2 O4 Microrods with Enhanced Lithium Storage for Advanced Li-Ion Batteries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hou, Linrui; Hua, Hui; Lian, Lin; Cao, Hui; Zhu, Siqi; Yuan, Changzhou

    2015-09-07

    Invited for the cover of this issue is Changzhou Yuan and co-workers at the Anhui University of Technology. The image depicts hierarchical shuttle-shaped mesoporous ZnFe2 O4 micro-rods, as a low-cost yet high-performance anode, for advanced next-generation Li-ion batteries. Read the full text of the article at 10.1002/chem.201501876. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  11. Theoretical Limiting Potentials in Mg/O2 Batteries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Smith, Jeffrey G.; Naruse, Junichi; Hiramatsu, Hidehiko

    2016-01-01

    A rechargeable battery based on a multivalent Mg/O2 couple is an attractive chemistry due to its high theoretical energy density and potential for low cost. Nevertheless, metal-air batteries based on alkaline earth anodes have received limited attention and generally exhibit modest performance...

  12. Energy Storage and Retrieval

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    GENERAL I ARTICLE. Energy Storage and Retrieval. The Secondary Battery Route. A K Shukla and P Vishnu Kamath. Harnessing sunlight for the production of electrical energy is an engrossing prospect. The crucial concept underlying the success of solar power stations is energy storage and its retrieval on demand which ...

  13. Energy Storage Economics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Elgqvist, Emma M [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2017-09-07

    This presentation provides an overview on energy storage economics including recent market trends, battery terminology and concepts, value streams, challenges, and an example of how photovoltaics and storage can be used to lower demand charges. It also provides an overview of the REopt Lite web tool inputs and outputs.

  14. Wind-energy storage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gordon, L. H.

    1980-01-01

    Program SIMWEST can model wind energy storage system using any combination of five types of storage: pumped hydro, battery, thermal, flywheel, and pneumatic. Program is tool to aid design of optional system for given application with realistic simulation for further evaluation and verification.

  15. Manufacturing conductive polyaniline/graphite nanocomposites with spent battery powder (SBP) for energy storage: A potential approach for sustainable waste management

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Duan, Xiaojuan; Deng, Jinxing; Wang, Xue; Guo, Jinshan [State Key Laboratory of Applied Organic Chemistry and Key Laboratory of Nonferrous Metal Chemistry and Resources Utilization of Gansu Province, College of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Lanzhou University, Lanzhou 730000 (China); Liu, Peng, E-mail: pliu@lzu.edu.cn [State Key Laboratory of Applied Organic Chemistry and Key Laboratory of Nonferrous Metal Chemistry and Resources Utilization of Gansu Province, College of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Lanzhou University, Lanzhou 730000 (China); Joint Research Center of Urban Resource Recycling Technology of Graduate School at Shenzhen, Tsinghua University and Shenzhen Green Eco-Manufacturer High-Tech, Shenzhen 518055 (China)

    2016-07-15

    Highlights: • Potential approach to sustainable waste management was established. • Spent battery material was used for manufacturing conductive polymer. • The obtained nanocomposites possessed better electrochemical performance. - Abstract: A potential approach for sustainable waste management of the spent battery material (SBM) is established for manufacturing conductive polyaniline (PANI) nanocomposites as electrode materials for supercapacitors, following the principle of “What comes from the power should be used for the power”. The ternary nanocomposites (G/MnO{sub 2}/PANI) containing PANI, graphite powder (G) and remanent MnO{sub 2} nanoparticles and the binary nanocomposites of polyaniline and graphite powder (G/PANI) are synthesized by the chemical oxidative polymerization of aniline in hydrochloric aqueous solution with the MnO{sub 2} nanoparticles in the spent battery powder (SBP) as oxidant. The G/PANI sample, which was prepared with MnO{sub 2}/aniline mole ratio of 1:1 with 1.0 mL aniline in 50 mL of 1.0 mol L{sup −1} HCl, exhibits the electrical conductivity of 22.22 S cm{sup −1}, the highest specific capacitance up to 317 F g{sup −1} and the highest energy density of 31.0 Wh kg{sup −1}, with retention of as high as 84.6% of its initial capacitance after 1000 cycles, indicating good cyclic stability.

  16. Electrochemical power sources batteries, fuel cells, and supercapacitors

    CERN Document Server

    Bagotsky, Vladimir S; Volfkovich, Yurij M

    2015-01-01

    Electrochemical Power Sources (EPS) provides in a concise way theoperational features, major types, and applications of batteries,fuel cells, and supercapacitors Details the design, operational features, andapplications of batteries, fuel cells, and supercapacitors Covers improvements of existing EPSs and thedevelopment of new kinds of EPS as the results of intense R&Dwork Provides outlook for future trends in fuel cells andbatteries Covers the most typical battery types, fuel cells andsupercapacitors; such as zinc-carbon batteries, alkaline manganesedioxide batteries, mercury-zinc cells, lead

  17. Anodes for alkaline electrolysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soloveichik, Grigorii Lev [Latham, NY

    2011-02-01

    A method of making an anode for alkaline electrolysis cells includes adsorption of precursor material on a carbonaceous material, conversion of the precursor material to hydroxide form and conversion of precursor material from hydroxide form to oxy-hydroxide form within the alkaline electrolysis cell.

  18. Alkaline "Permanent" Paper.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pacey, Antony

    1991-01-01

    Discussion of paper manufacturing processes and their effects on library materials focuses on the promotion of alkaline "permanent" paper, with less acid, by Canadian library preservation specialists. Standards for paper acidity are explained; advantages of alkaline paper are described, including decreased manufacturing costs; and…

  19. Evaluating the Performance of a Battery Using Temperature and Voltage Profiles and a Battery-Resistor Circuit Module

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sawyer, Bryan; Ji, Michelle; Gordon, Michael J.; Suppes, Galen J.

    2010-01-01

    An experimental learning module has been developed to study the mass and energy balance involved with operation of an AA Alkaline battery under a load current. An extension of the module allows evaluation of laboratory-assembled batteries using granular anodic/cathodic materials. The system allows load resistance to be varied and measures voltage…

  20. Photovoltaic power supply systems - control and power conditioning for photovoltaic supply systems with and without battery storage. Final report. Regelung und Energieaufbereitung fuer photovoltaische Versorgungsysteme mit und ohne Batteriespeicher. Schlussbericht

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brueggemann, H.; Caselitz, P.; Doering, W.; Kleinkauf, W.; Pigorsch, W.; Sachau, J.; Willer, B.

    1989-02-01

    The project embraces a closer examination of the methods and concepts used in the control and power conditioning for photovoltaic supply systems. This study has been approached from the angle of systems engineering. Ways of improving battery integration were found by examining the behaviour, the management and the determination of the state of charge in the battery. A number of activities were realized, based on the fundamental properties of the plant's components as found in practice: the development of controllable AC and DC systems, the setting up of an experimental plant, the development of a 2.5 kW solar plant furnished with an energy storage for the formation of an isolated grid as well as the creation of computerized simulations. These are able to reproduce the function and dynamics of individual components and to describe the operating behaviour of different plant configurations. The 2.5 kW isolated grid installations has led to an autonomous energy supply system which uses both improved plant technology and control procedures. The result is a complete, self-contained technical solution which satisfies the demands of the consumer better than in the past. Operating the plant under realistic conditions will produce results about the performance of the individual components and operating procedures which in turn will render well-grounded information for future developments. (orig.) With 60 refs., 1 tab., 125 figs.

  1. High-performance aqueous rechargeable batteries based on zinc ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Administrator

    Battery is based on the solid phase reaction, the large specific surface area will be beneficial for the further improve- ment of the battery system performance. The cycling performance of the Zn–NiCo2O4 recharge- able battery in aqueous alkaline electrolyte at 2 A g–1 based on NiCo2O4 is illustrated in figure 3c. Obviously,.

  2. Mars Li-CO2 Batteries

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Recently, Lithium (Li)-air batteries have attracted significant attention for energy storage in electric vehicles/aircraft because this system utilizes O2 in the air...

  3. Overview of photovoltaic and battery applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murrell, J. D.; Hellman, Karl H.

    1989-10-01

    The use of solar cells and batteries for power generation and vehicle propulsion is examined. Issues such as energy uses and fuel sources, solar electric power, energy storage for solar photovoltaic systems, batteries for electric cars and applications for other mobile sources are also discussed.

  4. Investigating improvements on redox flow batteries

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Swartbooi, AM

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available storage devices coupled to most of their applications. Lead-acid batteries have long been used as the most economical option to store electricity in many small scale applications, but lately more interest have been shown in redox flow batteries. The low...

  5. Flow Battery System Design for Manufacturability.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Montoya, Tracy Louise; Meacham, Paul Gregory; Perry, David; Broyles, Robin S.; Hickey, Steven; Hernandez, Jacquelynne

    2014-10-01

    Flow battery energy storage systems can support renewable energy generation and increase energy efficiency. But, presently, the costs of flow battery energy storage systems can be a significant barrier for large-scale market penetration. For cost- effective systems to be produced, it is critical to optimize the selection of materials and components simultaneously with the adherence to requirements and manufacturing processes to allow these batteries and their manufacturers to succeed in the market by reducing costs to consumers. This report analyzes performance, safety, and testing requirements derived from applicable regulations as well as commercial and military standards that would apply to a flow battery energy storage system. System components of a zinc-bromine flow battery energy storage system, including the batteries, inverters, and control and monitoring system, are discussed relative to manufacturing. The issues addressed include costs and component availability and lead times. A service and support model including setup, maintenance and transportation is outlined, along with a description of the safety-related features of the example flow battery energy storage system to promote regulatory and environmental, safety, and health compliance in anticipation of scale manufacturing.

  6. Assessing ocean alkalinity for carbon sequestration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Renforth, Phil; Henderson, Gideon

    2017-09-01

    Over the coming century humanity may need to find reservoirs to store several trillions of tons of carbon dioxide (CO2) emitted from fossil fuel combustion, which would otherwise cause dangerous climate change if it were left in the atmosphere. Carbon storage in the ocean as bicarbonate ions (by increasing ocean alkalinity) has received very little attention. Yet recent work suggests sufficient capacity to sequester copious quantities of CO2. It may be possible to sequester hundreds of billions to trillions of tons of C without surpassing postindustrial average carbonate saturation states in the surface ocean. When globally distributed, the impact of elevated alkalinity is potentially small and may help ameliorate the effects of ocean acidification. However, the local impact around addition sites may be more acute but is specific to the mineral and technology. The alkalinity of the ocean increases naturally because of rock weathering in which >1.5 mol of carbon are removed from the atmosphere for every mole of magnesium or calcium dissolved from silicate minerals (e.g., wollastonite, olivine, and anorthite) and 0.5 mol for carbonate minerals (e.g., calcite and dolomite). These processes are responsible for naturally sequestering 0.5 billion tons of CO2 per year. Alkalinity is reduced in the ocean through carbonate mineral precipitation, which is almost exclusively formed from biological activity. Most of the previous work on the biological response to changes in carbonate chemistry have focused on acidifying conditions. More research is required to understand carbonate precipitation at elevated alkalinity to constrain the longevity of carbon storage. A range of technologies have been proposed to increase ocean alkalinity (accelerated weathering of limestone, enhanced weathering, electrochemical promoted weathering, and ocean liming), the cost of which may be comparable to alternative carbon sequestration proposals (e.g., $20-100 tCO2-1). There are still many

  7. Functional materials for rechargeable batteries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Fangyi; Liang, Jing; Tao, Zhanliang; Chen, Jun

    2011-04-19

    There is an ever-growing demand for rechargeable batteries with reversible and efficient electrochemical energy storage and conversion. Rechargeable batteries cover applications in many fields, which include portable electronic consumer devices, electric vehicles, and large-scale electricity storage in smart or intelligent grids. The performance of rechargeable batteries depends essentially on the thermodynamics and kinetics of the electrochemical reactions involved in the components (i.e., the anode, cathode, electrolyte, and separator) of the cells. During the past decade, extensive efforts have been dedicated to developing advanced batteries with large capacity, high energy and power density, high safety, long cycle life, fast response, and low cost. Here, recent progress in functional materials applied in the currently prevailing rechargeable lithium-ion, nickel-metal hydride, lead acid, vanadium redox flow, and sodium-sulfur batteries is reviewed. The focus is on research activities toward the ionic, atomic, or molecular diffusion and transport; electron transfer; surface/interface structure optimization; the regulation of the electrochemical reactions; and the key materials and devices for rechargeable batteries. Copyright © 2011 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  8. One-step electrodeposition of Co0·12Ni1·88S2@Co8S9 nanoparticles on highly conductive TiO2 nanotube arrays for battery-type electrodes with enhanced energy storage performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Cuiping; Wang, Yan; Zhang, Jianfang; Yang, Wanfen; Shu, Xia; Qin, Yongqiang; Cui, Jiewu; Zheng, Hongmei; Zhang, Yong; Ajayan, Pulickel M.; Wu, Yucheng

    2017-10-01

    High-performance battery-type electrodes based on TiO2 nanotube arrays decorated with Co0·12Ni1·88S2@Co8S9 (CNCS) nanoparticles have been successfully prepared in this paper. The highly conductive TiO2 nanotube arrays modified with carbon and oxygen vacancies (Ti3+ defects) (m-TNAs) are selected as the three-dimensional backbones to support electroactive materials and offer direct pathways for electron and ions transport. Then CNCS nanoparticles are electrodeposited on each nanotube uniformly, and the loading mass of nanoparticles can be controlled through adjusting electrodeposition cycles. After optimization, a remarkable specific capacity of 680.1 C g-1 is achieved at 2 A g -1 as a result of the intrinsic synergetic contributions from structural/compositional/componental merits. This specific capacity is much higher than most of the TNAs-based energy storage electrodes. In addition, an asymmetric supercapacitor device is assembled by applying the optimized CNCS/m-TNAs and commercial active carbon as positive and negative electrode, respectively. It displays a high energy density of 45.5 Wh kg-1 at a power density of 400.5 W kg-1, after cycling for 3000 cycles at a high current density of 4 A g-1, the specific capacitance could still remain 85.7%. This self-supported and binder-free CNCS/m-TNAs electrode will be a competitive and promising candidate for the application in energy storage.

  9. Tailored synthesis of monodispersed nano/submicron porous silicon oxycarbide (SiOC) spheres with improved Li-storage performance as an anode material for Li-ion batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Huimin; Yuan, Anbao; Xu, Jiaqiang

    2017-10-01

    A spherical silicon oxycarbide (SiOC) material (monodispersed nano/submicron porous SiOC spheres) is successfully synthesized via a specially designed synthetic strategy involving pyrolysis of phenyltriethoxysilane derived pre-ceramic polymer spheres at 900 °C. In order to prevent sintering of the pre-ceramic polymer spheres upon heating, a given amount of hollow porous SiO2 nanobelts which are separately prepared from tetraethyl orthosilicate with CuO nanobelts as templates are introduced into the pre-ceramic polymer spheres before pyrolysis. This material is investigated as an anode for lithium-ion batteries in comparison with the large-size bulk SiOC material synthesized under the similar conditions but without hollow SiO2 nanobelts. The maximum reversible specific capacity of ca. 900 mAh g-1 is delivered at the current density of 100 mA g-1 and ca. 98% of the initial capacity is remained after 100 cycles at 100 mA g-1 for the SiOC spheres material, which are much superior to the bulk SiOC material. The improved lithium storage performance in terms of specific capacity and cyclability is attributed to its particular morphology of monodisperse nano/submicron porous spheres as well as its modified composition and microstructure. This SiOC material has higher Li-storage activity and better stability against volume expansion during repeated lithiation and delithiation cycling.

  10. Hybrid Storage Market Assessment: A JISEA White Paper

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ericson, Sean J. [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Rose, Eric [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Jayaswal, Harshit [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Cole, Wesley J. [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Engel-Cox, Jill [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Logan, Jeffery [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); McLaren, Joyce A. [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Anderson, Katherine H [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Arent, Douglas J. [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Glassmire, John [HOMER Energy, Boulder, CO (United States); Klawiter, Steffi [HOMER Energy, Boulder, CO (United States); Rajasekaran, Dhiwaakar [HOMER Energy, Boulder, CO (United States)

    2017-10-09

    This white paper evaluates which markets are best suited for battery storage and storage hybrids and reviews regulations and incentives that support or impede the implementation of standalone storage and battery hybrids. The costs of battery storage technologies have dropped in recent years, resulting in a seven-fold increase in installed capacity over the last decade (1). These technologies offer an attractive rate of return in some locations; however, cost and regulatory barriers still limit the market for storage. Hybridizing a battery (combining the battery with a generator) can in some instances reduce total system costs and increase value compared to separate installations. The fast ramping and dispatchability of a battery can complement the generator to provide services that neither battery nor generator could provide alone. Battery hybrids also benefit from some policy incentives and may be better able to meet market and regulatory requirements.

  11. Electrochemical Energy Storage Technical Team Roadmap

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2013-06-01

    This U.S. DRIVE electrochemical energy storage roadmap describes ongoing and planned efforts to develop electrochemical energy storage technologies for plug-in electric vehicles (PEVs). The Energy Storage activity comprises a number of research areas (including advanced materials research, cell level research, battery development, and enabling R&D which includes analysis, testing and other activities) for advanced energy storage technologies (batteries and ultra-capacitors).

  12. Uranium in alkaline rocks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Murphy, M.; Wollenberg, H.; Strisower, B.; Bowman, H.; Flexser, S.; Carmichael, I.

    1978-04-01

    Geologic and geochemical criteria were developed for the occurrence of economic uranium deposits in alkaline igneous rocks. A literature search, a limited chemical analytical program, and visits to three prominent alkaline-rock localities (Ilimaussaq, Greenland; Pocos de Caldas, Brazil; and Powderhorn, Colorado) were made to establish criteria to determine if a site had some uranium resource potential. From the literature, four alkaline-intrusive occurrences of differing character were identified as type-localities for uranium mineralization, and the important aspects of these localities were described. These characteristics were used to categorize and evaluate U.S. occurrences. The literature search disclosed 69 U.S. sites, encompassing nepheline syenite, alkaline granite, and carbonatite. It was possible to compare two-thirds of these sites to the type localities. A ranking system identified ten of the sites as most likely to have uranium resource potential

  13. Uranium in alkaline rocks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Murphy, M.; Wollenberg, H.; Strisower, B.; Bowman, H.; Flexser, S.; Carmichael, I.

    1978-04-01

    Geologic and geochemical criteria were developed for the occurrence of economic uranium deposits in alkaline igneous rocks. A literature search, a limited chemical analytical program, and visits to three prominent alkaline-rock localities (Ilimaussaq, Greenland; Pocos de Caldas, Brazil; and Powderhorn, Colorado) were made to establish criteria to determine if a site had some uranium resource potential. From the literature, four alkaline-intrusive occurrences of differing character were identified as type-localities for uranium mineralization, and the important aspects of these localities were described. These characteristics were used to categorize and evaluate U.S. occurrences. The literature search disclosed 69 U.S. sites, encompassing nepheline syenite, alkaline granite, and carbonatite. It was possible to compare two-thirds of these sites to the type localities. A ranking system identified ten of the sites as most likely to have uranium resource potential.

  14. Vehicle Battery Safety Roadmap Guidance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Doughty, D. H.

    2012-10-01

    The safety of electrified vehicles with high capacity energy storage devices creates challenges that must be met to assure commercial acceptance of EVs and HEVs. High performance vehicular traction energy storage systems must be intrinsically tolerant of abusive conditions: overcharge, short circuit, crush, fire exposure, overdischarge, and mechanical shock and vibration. Fail-safe responses to these conditions must be designed into the system, at the materials and the system level, through selection of materials and safety devices that will further reduce the probability of single cell failure and preclude propagation of failure to adjacent cells. One of the most important objectives of DOE's Office of Vehicle Technologies is to support the development of lithium ion batteries that are safe and abuse tolerant in electric drive vehicles. This Roadmap analyzes battery safety and failure modes of state-of-the-art cells and batteries and makes recommendations on future investments that would further DOE's mission.

  15. Battery-Supercapacitor Hybrid Devices: Recent Progress and Future Prospects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zuo, Wenhua; Li, Ruizhi; Zhou, Cheng; Li, Yuanyuan; Xia, Jianlong; Liu, Jinping

    2017-07-01

    Design and fabrication of electrochemical energy storage systems with both high energy and power densities as well as long cycling life is of great importance. As one of these systems, Battery-supercapacitor hybrid device (BSH) is typically constructed with a high-capacity battery-type electrode and a high-rate capacitive electrode, which has attracted enormous attention due to its potential applications in future electric vehicles, smart electric grids, and even miniaturized electronic/optoelectronic devices, etc. With proper design, BSH will provide unique advantages such as high performance, cheapness, safety, and environmental friendliness. This review first addresses the fundamental scientific principle, structure, and possible classification of BSHs, and then reviews the recent advances on various existing and emerging BSHs such as Li-/Na-ion BSHs, acidic/alkaline BSHs, BSH with redox electrolytes, and BSH with pseudocapacitive electrode, with the focus on materials and electrochemical performances. Furthermore, recent progresses in BSH devices with specific functionalities of flexibility and transparency, etc. will be highlighted. Finally, the future developing trends and directions as well as the challenges will also be discussed; especially, two conceptual BSHs with aqueous high voltage window and integrated 3D electrode/electrolyte architecture will be proposed.

  16. Flexible Hybrid Battery/Pseudocapacitor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tucker, Dennis S.; Paley, Steven

    2015-01-01

    Batteries keep devices working by utilizing high energy density, however, they can run down and take tens of minutes to hours to recharge. For rapid power delivery and recharging, high-power density devices, i.e., supercapacitors, are used. The electrochemical processes which occur in batteries and supercapacitors give rise to different charge-storage properties. In lithium ion (Li+) batteries, the insertion of Li+, which enables redox reactions in bulk electrode materials, is diffusion controlled and can be slow. Supercapacitor devices, also known as electrical double-layer capacitors (EDLCs) store charge by adsorption of electrolyte ions onto the surface of electrode materials. No redox reactions are necessary, so the response to changes in potential without diffusion limitations is rapid and leads to high power. However, the charge in EDLCs is confined to the surface, so the energy density is lower than that of batteries.

  17. Button batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... recovery. Alternative Names Swallowing batteries References Hess JM, Lowell MJ. Esophagus, stomach and duodenum. In: Marx JA, ... Jacob L. Heller, MD, MHA, Emergency Medicine, Virginia Mason Medical Center, Seattle, WA. Also reviewed by David ...

  18. Development of zinc-bromine batteries for utility energy storage. First annual report, 1 September 1978-31 August 1979. [8-kWh submodule

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Putt, R.; Attia, A.J.; Lu, P.Y.; Heyland, J.H.

    1980-05-01

    Development work on the Zn/Br battery is reported. A major improvement was the use of a bipolar cell design; this design is superior with respect to cost, performance, and simplicity. A cost and design study for an 80-kWh module resulted in a cost estimate of $54/kWh(1979$) for purchased materials and components, on the basis of 2500 MWh of annual production. A cell submodule (nominal 2 kWh) of full-sized electrodes (1 ft/sup 2/) accrued over 200 continuous cycles in a hands-off, automatic routine with efficiencies in the range of 53 to 56%. Initial testing of a full-sized 8-kWh submodule demonstrated energy efficiencies of 65 to 67%. 23 figures, 10 tables. (RWR)

  19. Primary and secondary battery consumption trends in Sweden 1996–2013: Method development and detailed accounting by battery type

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Patrício, João, E-mail: joao.patricio@chalmers.se [Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, Chalmers University of Technology, 412 96 Gothenburg (Sweden); Kalmykova, Yuliya; Berg, Per E.O.; Rosado, Leonardo [Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, Chalmers University of Technology, 412 96 Gothenburg (Sweden); Åberg, Helena [The Faculty of Education, University of Gothenburg, 40530 Gothenburg (Sweden)

    2015-05-15

    Highlights: • Developed MFA method was validated by the national statistics. • Exponential increase of EEE sales leads to increase in integrated battery consumption. • Digital convergence is likely to be a cause for primary batteries consumption decline. • Factors for estimation of integrated batteries in EE are provided. • Sweden reached the collection rates defined by European Union. - Abstract: In this article, a new method based on Material Flow Accounting is proposed to study detailed material flows in battery consumption that can be replicated for other countries. The method uses regularly available statistics on import, industrial production and export of batteries and battery-containing electric and electronic equipment (EEE). To promote method use by other scholars with no access to such data, several empirically results and their trends over time, for different types of batteries occurrence among the EEE types are provided. The information provided by the method can be used to: identify drivers of battery consumption; study the dynamic behavior of battery flows – due to technology development, policies, consumers behavior and infrastructures. The method is exemplified by the study of battery flows in Sweden for years 1996–2013. The batteries were accounted, both in units and weight, as primary and secondary batteries; loose and integrated; by electrochemical composition and share of battery use between different types of EEE. Results show that, despite a fivefold increase in the consumption of rechargeable batteries, they account for only about 14% of total use of portable batteries. Recent increase in digital convergence has resulted in a sharp decline in the consumption of primary batteries, which has now stabilized at a fairly low level. Conversely, the consumption of integrated batteries has increased sharply. In 2013, 61% of the total weight of batteries sold in Sweden was collected, and for the particular case of alkaline manganese

  20. Primary and secondary battery consumption trends in Sweden 1996–2013: Method development and detailed accounting by battery type

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Patrício, João; Kalmykova, Yuliya; Berg, Per E.O.; Rosado, Leonardo; Åberg, Helena

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Developed MFA method was validated by the national statistics. • Exponential increase of EEE sales leads to increase in integrated battery consumption. • Digital convergence is likely to be a cause for primary batteries consumption decline. • Factors for estimation of integrated batteries in EE are provided. • Sweden reached the collection rates defined by European Union. - Abstract: In this article, a new method based on Material Flow Accounting is proposed to study detailed material flows in battery consumption that can be replicated for other countries. The method uses regularly available statistics on import, industrial production and export of batteries and battery-containing electric and electronic equipment (EEE). To promote method use by other scholars with no access to such data, several empirically results and their trends over time, for different types of batteries occurrence among the EEE types are provided. The information provided by the method can be used to: identify drivers of battery consumption; study the dynamic behavior of battery flows – due to technology development, policies, consumers behavior and infrastructures. The method is exemplified by the study of battery flows in Sweden for years 1996–2013. The batteries were accounted, both in units and weight, as primary and secondary batteries; loose and integrated; by electrochemical composition and share of battery use between different types of EEE. Results show that, despite a fivefold increase in the consumption of rechargeable batteries, they account for only about 14% of total use of portable batteries. Recent increase in digital convergence has resulted in a sharp decline in the consumption of primary batteries, which has now stabilized at a fairly low level. Conversely, the consumption of integrated batteries has increased sharply. In 2013, 61% of the total weight of batteries sold in Sweden was collected, and for the particular case of alkaline manganese

  1. Lead acid batteries simulation including experimental validation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Achaibou, N.; Malek, A. [Division Energie Solaire Photovoltaique, Centre de Developpement des Energies Renouvelables, B.P. 62, Route de l' Observatoire, Bouzareah, Alger (Algeria); Haddadi, M. [Laboratoire de Dispositif de Communication et de Conversion Photovoltaique Ecole Nationale Polytechnique, Rue Hassen Badi, El Harrach, Alger (Algeria)

    2008-12-01

    The storage of energy in batteries is a cause of the failure and loss of reliability in PV systems. The battery behavior has been largely described in the literature by many authors; the selected models are of Monegon and CIEMAT. This paper reviews the two general lead acid battery models and their agreement with experimental data. In order to validate these models, the behavior of different battery cycling currents has been simulated. Results obtained have been compared to real data. The CIEMAT model presents a good performance compared to Monegon's model. (author)

  2. Batteries not included

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cooper, M.

    2001-01-01

    This article traces the development of clockwork wind-up battery chargers that can be used to recharge mobile phones, laptop computers, torches or radio batteries from the pioneering research of the British inventor Trevor Baylis to the marketing of the wind-up gadgets by Freeplay Energy who turned the idea into a commercial product. The amount of cranking needed to power wind-up devices is discussed along with a hand-cranked charger for mobile phones, upgrading the phone charger's mechanism, and drawbacks of the charger. Details are given of another invention using a hand-cranked generator with a supercapacitor as a storage device which has a very much higher capacity for storing electrical charge

  3. Nucleation and growth in alkaline zinc electrodeposition An Experimental and Theoretical study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Desai, Divyaraj

    The current work seeks to investigate the nucleation and growth of zinc electrodeposition in alkaline electrolyte, which is of commercial interest to alkaline zinc batteries for energy storage. The morphology of zinc growth places a severe limitation on the typical cycle life of such batteries. The formation of mossy zinc leads to a progressive deterioration of battery performance while zinc dendrites are responsible for sudden catastrophic battery failure. The problems are identified as the nucleation-controlled formation of mossy zinc and the transport-limited formation of dendritic zinc. Consequently, this thesis work seeks to investigate and accurately simulate the conditions under which such morphologies are formed. The nucleation and early-stage growth of Zn electrodeposits is studied on carbon-coated TEM grids. At low overpotentials, the morphology develops by aggregation at two distinct length scales: ~5 nm diameter monocrystalline nanoclusters form ~50nm diameter polycrystalline aggregates, and second, the aggregates form a branched network. Epitaxial (0002) growth above a critical overpotential leads to the formation of hexagonal single-crystals. A kinetic model is provided using the rate equations of vapor solidification to simulate the evolution of the different morphologies. On solving these equations, we show that aggregation is attributed to cluster impingement and cluster diffusion while single-crystal formation is attributed to direct attachment. The formation of dendritic zinc is investigated using in-operando transmission X-ray microscopy which is a unique technique for imaging metal electrodeposits. The nucleation density of zinc nuclei is lowered using polyaniline films to cover the active nucleation sites. The effect of overpotential is investigated and the morphology shows beautiful in-operando formation of symmetric zinc crystals. A linear perturbation model was developed to predict the growth and formation of these crystals to first

  4. Potassium doped MWCNTs for hydrogen storage enhancement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adabi Qomi, S.; Gashtasebi, M.; Khoshnevisan, B.

    2012-01-01

    Here we have used potassium doped MWCNTs for enhancement of hydrogen storage process. XRD and SEM images have confirmed the doping of potassium. For studying the storage process a hydrogenic battery set up has been used. In the battery the working electrode has been made of the silver foam deposited by the doped MWCNTs electrophoretically.

  5. A concept of an electricity storage system with 50 MWh storage capacity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Józef Paska

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Electricity storage devices can be divided into indirect storage technology devices (involving electricity conversion into another form of energy, and direct storage (in an electric or magnetic fi eld. Electricity storage technologies include: pumped-storage power plants, BES Battery Energy Storage, CAES Compressed Air Energy Storage, Supercapacitors, FES Flywheel Energy Storage, SMES Superconducting Magnetic Energy Storage, FC Fuel Cells reverse or operated in systems with electrolysers and hydrogen storage. These technologies have diff erent technical characteristics and economic parameters that determine their usability. This paper presents two concepts of an electricity storage tank with a storage capacity of at least 50 MWh, using the BES battery energy storage and CAES compressed air energy storage technologies.

  6. Federal Tax Incentives for Energy Storage Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anderson, Katherine H [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Elgqvist, Emma M [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Settle, Donald E [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2018-01-16

    Investments in renewable energy are more attractive due to the contribution of two key federal tax incentives. The investment tax credit (ITC) and the Modified Accelerated Cost Recovery System (MACRS) depreciation deduction may apply to energy storage systems such as batteries depending on who owns the battery and how the battery is used. The guidelines in this fact sheet apply to energy storage systems installed at the same time as the renewable energy system.

  7. Alkaline phosphatase: an overview.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Ujjawal; Pal, Deeksha; Prasad, Rajendra

    2014-07-01

    Alkaline phosphatase (ALP; E.C.3.I.3.1.) is an ubiquitous membrane-bound glycoprotein that catalyzes the hydrolysis of phosphate monoesters at basic pH values. Alkaline phosphatase is divided into four isozymes depending upon the site of tissue expression that are Intestinal ALP, Placental ALP, Germ cell ALP and tissue nonspecific alkaline phosphatase or liver/bone/kidney (L/B/K) ALP. The intestinal and placental ALP loci are located near the end of long arm of chromosome 2 and L/B/K ALP is located near the end of the short arm of chromosome 1. Although ALPs are present in many mammalian tissues and have been studied for the last several years still little is known about them. The bone isoenzyme may be involved in mammalian bone calcification and the intestinal isoenzyme is thought to play a role in the transport of phosphate into epithelial cells of the intestine. In this review, we tried to provide an overview about the various forms, structure and functions of alkaline phosphatase with special focus on liver/bone/kidney alkaline phosphatase.

  8. Phase transition in a rechargeable lithium battery

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dreyer, W.; Gaberscek, M.; Guhlke, C.; Huth, R.; Jamnik, J.

    We discuss the lithium storage process within a single-particle cathode of a lithium-ion battery. The single storage particle consists of a crystal lattice whose interstitial lattice sites may be empty or reversibly filled with lithium atoms. The resulting evolution equations describe diffusion with

  9. Design of a hybrid power PV – Genset – Battery storage system for a remote off-grid application in Malaysia

    OpenAIRE

    Marty, Pierre-Francois

    2016-01-01

    The thesis project presented in this report focuses on an analysis of the electrification prospects for a remote village in the Malaysian state of Sabah, where a micro grid is planned to be built. The main goal is to define the best sizing for a hybrid power plant to serve the micro grid, coupling a solar PV array with a storage system and a diesel genset. The first step of the study case consists of defining the energy needs of the village in order to draw its consumption curve and assume it...

  10. Flexible phosphorus doped carbon nanosheets/nanofibers: Electrospun preparation and enhanced Li-storage properties as free-standing anodes for lithium ion batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Desheng; Wang, Dongya; Rui, Kun; Ma, Zhongyuan; Xie, Ling; Liu, Jinhua; Zhang, Yu; Chen, Runfeng; Yan, Yan; Lin, Huijuan; Xie, Xiaoji; Zhu, Jixin; Huang, Wei

    2018-04-01

    The emerging wearable and foldable electronic devices drive the development of flexible lithium ion batteries (LIBs). Carbon materials are considered as one of the most promising electrode materials for LIBs due to their light weight, low cost and good structural stability against repeated deformations. However, the specific capacity, rate capability and long-term cycling performance still need to be improved for their applications in next-generation LIBs. Herein, we report a facile approach for immobilizing phosphorus into a large-area carbon nanosheets/nanofibers interwoven free-standing paper for LIBs. As an anode material for LIBs, it shows high reversible capacity of 1100 mAh g-1 at a current density of 200 mA g-1, excellent rate capabilities (e.g., 200 mAh g-1 at 20,000 mA g-1). Even at a high current density of 1000 mA g-1, it still maintains a superior specific capacity of 607 mAh g-1 without obvious decay.

  11. Advanced alkaline water electrolysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marini, Stefania; Salvi, Paolo; Nelli, Paolo; Pesenti, Rachele; Villa, Marco; Berrettoni, Mario; Zangari, Giovanni; Kiros, Yohannes

    2012-01-01

    A short review on the fundamental and technological issues relevant to water electrolysis in alkaline and proton exchange membrane (PEM) devices is given. Due to price and limited availability of the platinum group metal (PGM) catalysts they currently employ, PEM electrolyzers have scant possibilities of being employed in large-scale hydrogen production. The importance and recent advancements in the development of catalysts without PGMs are poised to benefit more the field of alkaline electrolysis rather than that of PEM devices. This paper presents our original data which demonstrate that an advanced alkaline electrolyzer with performances rivaling those of PEM electrolyzers can be made without PGM and with catalysts of high stability and durability. Studies on the advantages/limitations of electrolyzers with different architectures do show how a judicious application of pressure differentials in a recirculating electrolyte scheme helps reduce mass transport limitations, increasing efficiency and power density.

  12. Wide Temperature Range Hybrid Energy Storage Device, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This proposal concerns the fabrication of a hybrid battery capacitor (HBC) using Eltron's knowledge gained in battery and capacitor research. Energy storage systems...

  13. Energy Storage Materials from Nature through Nanotechnology: A Sustainable Route from Reed Plants to a Silicon Anode for Lithium-Ion Batteries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jun; Kopold, Peter; van Aken, Peter A; Maier, Joachim; Yu, Yan

    2015-08-10

    Silicon is an attractive anode material in energy storage devices, as it has a ten times higher theoretical capacity than its state-of-art carbonaceous counterpart. However, the common process to synthesize silicon nanostructured electrodes is complex, costly, and energy-intensive. Three-dimensional (3D) porous silicon-based anode materials have been fabricated from natural reed leaves by calcination and magnesiothermic reduction. This sustainable and highly abundant silica source allows for facile production of 3D porous silicon with very good electrochemical performance. The obtained silicon anode retains the 3D hierarchical architecture of the reed leaf. Impurity leaching and gas release during the fabrication process leads to an interconnected porosity and the reductive treatment to an inside carbon coating. Such anodes show a remarkable Li-ion storage performance: even after 4000 cycles and at a rate of 10 C, a specific capacity of 420 mA h g(-1) is achieved. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  14. Renewable energies look for mega-batteries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Michaut, Cecile

    2013-01-01

    As the development of wind and photovoltaic energy raises the problem of energy storage because of the intermittent character of these both energies, this article proposes an overview of trends and projects for large scale energy storage. It notably evokes the liquid metal battery project which is expected to be experimented in 2014, and should be able to store 2 MWh for 500 kW. Its operation principle is described. It is inspired by a technique used in aluminium production. It does not need any expensive and fragile separation membrane, it is modular, and it could last about ten years. Two other technologies are then evoked: a sodium-sulphur battery manufactured by NGK in Japan for massive storage, and the lithium-ion battery which is already present in most of electric vehicles. For this last one, energy storage could be an opportunity for manufacturer as the electric vehicle market is not very dynamic

  15. Comparative analysis of photovoltaic electric power storage systems by using batteries and hydrogen, at remote communities of the Amazon region; Analise comparativa de sistemas de armazenamento de energia eletrica fotovoltaica por meio de baterias e hidrogenio, em localidades isoladas da regiao Amazonica

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Furlan, Andre Luis [Universidade Estadual de Campinas (UNICAMP), SP (Brazil). Faculdade de Engenharia Mecanica; Neves Junior, Newton Pimenta [Universidade Estadual de Campinas (UNICAMP), SP (Brazil). Inst. de Fisica Gleb Wataghin. Lab. de Hidrogenio]. E-mail: andrelf@fem.unicamp.br

    2008-07-01

    In this work, comparative analyses of photovoltaic power storage were made, first by the traditional means employing lead-acid batteries, and second by means of electrolytic hydrogen which was later reconverted to power in a fuel cell. In order to design the two systems, it was used a load profile of the communities in Amazon region and by means of a mathematical model, implemented in a spreadsheet, that considers the several devices and their efficiencies in order to make it possible to specify the system components. The results were employed to evaluate the economic viability of the two systems in remote communities. Considering the present conditions, it was verified that the battery system is slightly advantageous. However, it was also observed that a minor cost reduction of the electrolizers/buffer/fuel cell would make the hydrogen system very competitive, becoming the best option for photovoltaic power storage. (author)

  16. [Advances of alkaline amylase production and applications].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Haiquan; Liu, Long; Li, Jianghua; Du, Guocheng; Chen, Jian

    2012-04-01

    Alkaline amylase is one of alkaline enzymes with optimum pH in the alkaline range, and it could keep stability and efficiently hydrolyze starch under alkaline conditions. Alkaline amylase finds wide applications in textile, detergent, pharmaceutical, food and other fields. Alkaline amylases could be produced by alkaliphilic microorganisms. In this work, the advances of alkaline amylase production and applications were reviewed.

  17. Optimal Scheduling for Energy Harvesting Transmitters with Hybrid Energy Storage

    OpenAIRE

    Ozel, Omur; Shahzad, Khurram; Ulukus, Sennur

    2013-01-01

    We consider data transmission with an energy harvesting transmitter which has a hybrid energy storage unit composed of a perfectly efficient super-capacitor (SC) and an inefficient battery. The SC has finite space for energy storage while the battery has unlimited space. The transmitter can choose to store the harvested energy in the SC or in the battery. The energy is drained from the SC and the battery simultaneously. In this setting, we consider the offline throughput maximization problem ...

  18. Microfluidic fuel cells and batteries

    CERN Document Server

    Kjeang, Erik

    2014-01-01

    Microfluidic fuel cells and batteries represent a special type of electrochemical power generators that can be miniaturized and integrated in a microfluidic chip. Summarizing the initial ten years of research and development in this emerging field, this SpringerBrief is the first book dedicated to microfluidic fuel cell and battery technology for electrochemical energy conversion and storage. Written at a critical juncture, where strategically applied research is urgently required to seize impending technology opportunities for commercial, analytical, and educational utility, the intention is

  19. Hierarchically structured materials for lithium batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Jie; Zheng, Jianming; Li, Xiaolin; Shao, Yuyan; Zhang, Ji-Guang

    2013-10-01

    The lithium-ion battery (LIB) is one of the most promising power sources to be deployed in electric vehicles, including solely battery powered vehicles, plug-in hybrid electric vehicles, and hybrid electric vehicles. With the increasing demand for devices of high-energy densities (>500 Wh kg-1), new energy storage systems, such as lithium-oxygen (Li-O2) batteries and other emerging systems beyond the conventional LIB, have attracted worldwide interest for both transportation and grid energy storage applications in recent years. It is well known that the electrochemical performance of these energy storage systems depends not only on the composition of the materials, but also on the structure of the electrode materials used in the batteries. Although the desired performance characteristics of batteries often have conflicting requirements with the micro/nano-structure of electrodes, hierarchically designed electrodes can be tailored to satisfy these conflicting requirements. This work will review hierarchically structured materials that have been successfully used in LIB and Li-O2 batteries. Our goal is to elucidate (1) how to realize the full potential of energy materials through the manipulation of morphologies, and (2) how the hierarchical structure benefits the charge transport, promotes the interfacial properties and prolongs the electrode stability and battery lifetime.

  20. Hierarchically structured materials for lithium batteries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xiao, Jie; Zheng, Jianming; Li, Xiaolin; Shao, Yuyan; Zhang, Ji-Guang

    2013-01-01

    The lithium-ion battery (LIB) is one of the most promising power sources to be deployed in electric vehicles, including solely battery powered vehicles, plug-in hybrid electric vehicles, and hybrid electric vehicles. With the increasing demand for devices of high-energy densities (>500 Wh kg −1 ), new energy storage systems, such as lithium–oxygen (Li–O 2 ) batteries and other emerging systems beyond the conventional LIB, have attracted worldwide interest for both transportation and grid energy storage applications in recent years. It is well known that the electrochemical performance of these energy storage systems depends not only on the composition of the materials, but also on the structure of the electrode materials used in the batteries. Although the desired performance characteristics of batteries often have conflicting requirements with the micro/nano-structure of electrodes, hierarchically designed electrodes can be tailored to satisfy these conflicting requirements. This work will review hierarchically structured materials that have been successfully used in LIB and Li–O 2 batteries. Our goal is to elucidate (1) how to realize the full potential of energy materials through the manipulation of morphologies, and (2) how the hierarchical structure benefits the charge transport, promotes the interfacial properties and prolongs the electrode stability and battery lifetime. (paper)

  1. Two-dimensional layered compound based anode materials for lithium-ion batteries and sodium-ion batteries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Xiuqiang; Wang, Shijian; Kretschmer, Katja; Wang, Guoxiu

    2017-08-01

    Rechargeable batteries, such as lithium-ion and sodium-ion batteries, have been considered as promising energy conversion and storage devices with applications ranging from small portable electronics, medium-sized power sources for electromobility, to large-scale grid energy storage systems. Wide implementations of these rechargeable batteries require the development of electrode materials that can provide higher storage capacities than current commercial battery systems. Within this greater context, this review will present recent progresses in the development of the 2D material as anode materials for battery applications represented by studies conducted on graphene, molybdenum disulfide, and MXenes. This review will also discuss remaining challenges and future perspectives of 2D materials in regards to a full utilization of their unique properties and interactions with other battery components. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. The Mechanical Response of Multifunctional Battery Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsutsui, Waterloo

    research questions: Could we use battery cells and packs as a part of vehicle structures? Could we use battery cells and packs as a part of vehicle impact energy absorption structure? Based on the research results, the answer to the first question is "yes." However, the granular battery assembly configuration is not suitable as a load-bearing battery structure since the main purpose of granular battery assembly, apart from energy storage for vehicle propulsion, is to work as a kinetic energy dissipation device. The answer to the second question is also "yes." However, the kinetic energy dissipation is mainly performed by the sacrificial elements surrounding the battery cells.

  3. Zr - based alloys as hydride electrodes in Ni-MH batteries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Biris, A.R.; Biris, A.S.; Misan, I.; Lupu, D.

    1999-01-01

    Hydrogen storage alloys, MH, are already used in Ni-MH alkaline batteries conquering an important share of the rechargeable nickel-cadmium battery market. This remarkable success is due not only to the replacement of the toxic material, cadmium, by metal hydrides but also to an increased specific energy, which makes them attractive for electric vehicles. Many research groups are concerned in the improvement of the hydride electrode characteristics: hydrogen storage capacity, high-rate discharge ability, increased cycle life. These properties can be modified by substitution of the base components of a given alloy. A comparison of two types of alloys suitable for MH electrodes LaNi 5 able to store 1.36 w/o hydrogen with Zr(Ti)-Ni alloys of the AB 2 Laves phase type structure showed that the latter could absorb higher amounts of hydrogen. We report part of studies on Zr-V-Cr-Ni of the 15 C type Laves phase structure using our original procedure for pasted electrodes. The substitution of Cr for V atoms in ZrV 0.5 Ni 1 . 5 did not increase the discharge capacity. However, it proved to have a remarkable effect on the discharge capacity C at low temperatures. C at - 12 deg. C as compared to 20 deg.C increases up to ∼ 65 % for Cr containing alloys. (authors)

  4. FY2015 Energy Storage R&D Annual Progress Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None, None

    2016-04-30

    The Energy Storage research and development (R&D) subprogram within the DOE Vehicle Technologies Office (VTO) provides support and guidance for projects focusing on batteries for plug-in electric vehicles. Program targets focus on overcoming technical barriers to enable market success including: (1) significantly reducing battery cost, (2) increasing battery performance (power, energy, durability), (3) reducing battery weight & volume, and (4) increasing battery tolerance to abusive conditions such as short circuit, overcharge, and crush.

  5. FY2013 Energy Storage R&D Progress Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    none,

    2014-02-01

    The FY 2013 Progress Report for Energy Storage R&D focuses on advancing the development of batteries to enable a large market penetration of hybrid and electric vehicles. Program targets focus on overcoming technical barriers to enable market success including: (1) significantly reducing battery cost, (2) increasing battery performance (power, energy, durability), (3) reducing battery weight & volume, and (4) increasing battery tolerance to abusive conditions such as short circuit, overcharge, and crush.

  6. Fibrous zinc anodes for high power batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, X. Gregory

    This paper introduces newly developed solid zinc anodes using fibrous material for high power applications in alkaline and large size zinc-air battery systems. The improved performance of the anodes in these two battery systems is demonstrated. The possibilities for control of electrode porosity and for anode/battery design using fibrous materials are discussed in light of experimental data. Because of its mechanical integrity and connectivity, the fibrous solid anode has good electrical conductivity, mechanical stability, and design flexibility for controlling mass distribution, porosity and effective surface area. Experimental data indicated that alkaline cells made of such anodes can have a larger capacity at high discharging currents than commercially available cells. It showed even greater improvement over commercial cells with a non-conventional cell design. Large capacity anodes for a zinc-air battery have also been made and have shown excellent material utilization at various discharge rates. The zinc-air battery was used to power an electric bicycle and demonstrated good results.

  7. Batteries: Overview of Battery Cathodes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Doeff, Marca M

    2010-07-12

    The very high theoretical capacity of lithium (3829 mAh/g) provided a compelling rationale from the 1970's onward for development of rechargeable batteries employing the elemental metal as an anode. The realization that some transition metal compounds undergo reductive lithium intercalation reactions reversibly allowed use of these materials as cathodes in these devices, most notably, TiS{sub 2}. Another intercalation compound, LiCoO{sub 2}, was described shortly thereafter but, because it was produced in the discharged state, was not considered to be of interest by battery companies at the time. Due to difficulties with the rechargeability of lithium and related safety concerns, however, alternative anodes were sought. The graphite intercalation compound (GIC) LiC{sub 6} was considered an attractive candidate but the high reactivity with commonly used electrolytic solutions containing organic solvents was recognized as a significant impediment to its use. The development of electrolytes that allowed the formation of a solid electrolyte interface (SEI) on surfaces of the carbon particles was a breakthrough that enabled commercialization of Li-ion batteries. In 1990, Sony announced the first commercial batteries based on a dual Li ion intercalation system. These devices are assembled in the discharged state, so that it is convenient to employ a prelithiated cathode such as LiCoO{sub 2} with the commonly used graphite anode. After charging, the batteries are ready to power devices. The practical realization of high energy density Li-ion batteries revolutionized the portable electronics industry, as evidenced by the widespread market penetration of mobile phones, laptop computers, digital music players, and other lightweight devices since the early 1990s. In 2009, worldwide sales of Li-ion batteries for these applications alone were US$ 7 billion. Furthermore, their performance characteristics (Figure 1) make them attractive for traction applications such as

  8. Energy analysis of batteries in photovoltaic systems. Part II: Energy return factors and overall battery efficiencies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rydh, Carl Johan; Sanden, Bjoern A.

    2005-01-01

    Energy return factors and overall energy efficiencies are calculated for a stand-alone photovoltaic (PV)-battery system. Eight battery technologies are evaluated: lithium-ion (nickel), sodium-sulphur, nickel-cadmium, nickel-metal hydride, lead-acid, vanadium-redox, zinc-bromine and polysulphide-bromide. With a battery energy storage capacity three times higher than the daily energy output, the energy return factor for the PV-battery system ranges from 2.2 to 10 in our reference case. For a PV-battery system with a service life of 30 yr, this corresponds to energy payback times between 2.5 and 13 yr. The energy payback time is 1.8-3.3 yr for the PV array and 0.72-10 yr for the battery, showing the energy related significance of batteries and the large variation between different technologies. In extreme cases, energy return factors below one occur, implying no net energy output. The overall battery efficiency, including not only direct energy losses during operation but also energy requirements for production and transport of the charger, the battery and the inverter, is 0.41-0.80. For some batteries, the overall battery efficiency is significantly lower than the direct efficiency of the charger, the battery and the inverter (0.50-0.85). The ranking order of batteries in terms of energy efficiency, the relative importance of different battery parameters and the optimal system design and operation (e.g. the use of air conditioning) are, in many cases, dependent on the characterisation of the energy background system and on which type of energy efficiency measure is used (energy return factor or overall battery efficiency)

  9. Energy Storage and Retrieval

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Annual Meetings · Mid Year Meetings · Discussion Meetings · Public Lectures · Lecture Workshops · Refresher Courses · Symposia · Live Streaming. Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 1; Issue 6. Energy Storage and Retrieval The Secondary Battery Route. A K Shukla P Vishnu Kamath.

  10. Primary and secondary battery consumption trends in Sweden 1996-2013: method development and detailed accounting by battery type.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patrício, João; Kalmykova, Yuliya; Berg, Per E O; Rosado, Leonardo; Åberg, Helena

    2015-05-01

    In this article, a new method based on Material Flow Accounting is proposed to study detailed material flows in battery consumption that can be replicated for other countries. The method uses regularly available statistics on import, industrial production and export of batteries and battery-containing electric and electronic equipment (EEE). To promote method use by other scholars with no access to such data, several empirically results and their trends over time, for different types of batteries occurrence among the EEE types are provided. The information provided by the method can be used to: identify drivers of battery consumption; study the dynamic behavior of battery flows - due to technology development, policies, consumers behavior and infrastructures. The method is exemplified by the study of battery flows in Sweden for years 1996-2013. The batteries were accounted, both in units and weight, as primary and secondary batteries; loose and integrated; by electrochemical composition and share of battery use between different types of EEE. Results show that, despite a fivefold increase in the consumption of rechargeable batteries, they account for only about 14% of total use of portable batteries. Recent increase in digital convergence has resulted in a sharp decline in the consumption of primary batteries, which has now stabilized at a fairly low level. Conversely, the consumption of integrated batteries has increased sharply. In 2013, 61% of the total weight of batteries sold in Sweden was collected, and for the particular case of alkaline manganese dioxide batteries, the value achieved 74%. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. The Hybrid Mineral Battery: energy storage and dissolution behavior of CuFeS2 in a fixed bed flow cell.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deen, Kashif Mairaj; Asselin, Edouard

    2018-03-08

    The development of a hybrid system, capable of storing energy, and with the additional benefit of Cu extraction is discussed in this work. A fixed bed flow cell (FBFC) was used in which a composite negative electrode containing CuFeS2 (80 wt. %) and carbon black (20 wt. %) in graphite felt was separated from a positive (graphite felt) electrode by proton exchange membrane. The anolyte (0.2M H2SO4) and catholyte (0.5M Fe2+ in 0.2M H2SO4 with or without 0.1M Cu2+ addition) were circulated in the cell. With the addition of Cu2+ in the catholyte, the electrochemical activity of the Fe2+/Fe3+ redox couple over graphite felt was significantly improved. Ultimately, in the CuFeS2||Fe2+/Cu2+ (CFeCu) FBFC system the specific capacity increased continuously to 26.4 mAh-g-1 in 500 galvanostatic charge/discharge (GCD) cycles, compared to the CuFeS2||Fe2+ (CFe) system (13.9 mAh-g-1). Interestingly, the specific discharge energy gradually increased to 3.6 Wh-kg-1 in 500 GCD cycles for the CFeCu system compared to 3.29 Wh-kg-1 for the CFe system in 150 cycles. In addition to the energy storage, 10.75 % Cu was also extracted from the mineral, which is an important feature of CFeCu system as it would allow for Cu extraction and recovery through hydrometallurgical methods. © 2018 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  12. Zinc electrode and rechargeable zinc-air battery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ross, Jr., Philip N.

    1989-01-01

    An improved zinc electrode is disclosed for a rechargeable zinc-air battery comprising an outer frame and a porous foam electrode support within the frame which is treated prior to the deposition of zinc thereon to inhibit the formation of zinc dendrites on the external surface thereof. The outer frame is provided with passageways for circulating an alkaline electrolyte through the treated zinc-coated porous foam. A novel rechargeable zinc-air battery system is also disclosed which utilizes the improved zinc electrode and further includes an alkaline electrolyte within said battery circulating through the passageways in the zinc electrode and an external electrolyte circulation means which has an electrolyte reservoir external to the battery case including filter means to filter solids out of the electrolyte as it circulates to the external reservoir and pump means for recirculating electrolyte from the external reservoir to the zinc electrode.

  13. Hubble Space Telescope 2004 Battery Update

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hollandsworth, Roger; Armantrout, Jon; Whitt, Tom; Rao, Gopalakrishna M.

    2006-01-01

    Battery cell wear out mechanisms and signatures are examined and compared to orbital data from the six on-orbit Hubble Space Telescope (HST) batteries, and the Flight Spare Battery (FSB) Test Bed at Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC), which is instrumented with individual cell voltage monitoring. The on-orbit HST batteries were manufactured on an expedited basis after the Challenger Shuttle Disaster in 1986. The original design called for the HST to be powered by six 50 Ah Nickel Cadmium batteries, which would have required a shuttle mission every 5 years for battery replacement. The decision to use NiH2 instead has resulted in a longer life battery set which was launched with HST in April 1990, with a design life of 7 years that has now exceeded 14+ years of orbital cycling. This chart details the specifics of the original HST NiH2 cell design. The HST replacement batteries for Service Mission 4, originally scheduled for Spring 2005, are currently in cold storage at NASA Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC). The SM4 battery cells utilize slurry process electrodes having 80% porosity.

  14. NV Energy Electricity Storage Valuation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ellison, James F.; Bhatnagar, Dhruv; Samaan, Nader A.; Jin, Chunlian

    2013-06-30

    This study examines how grid-level electricity storage may benet the operations of NV Energy in 2020, and assesses whether those benets justify the cost of the storage system. In order to determine how grid-level storage might impact NV Energy, an hourly production cost model of the Nevada Balancing Authority (\\BA") as projected for 2020 was built and used for the study. Storage facilities were found to add value primarily by providing reserve. Value provided by the provision of time-of-day shifting was found to be limited. If regulating reserve from storage is valued the same as that from slower ramp rate resources, then it appears that a reciprocating engine generator could provide additional capacity at a lower cost than a pumped storage hydro plant or large storage capacity battery system. In addition, a 25-MW battery storage facility would need to cost $650/kW or less in order to produce a positive Net Present Value (NPV). However, if regulating reserve provided by storage is considered to be more useful to the grid than that from slower ramp rate resources, then a grid-level storage facility may have a positive NPV even at today's storage system capital costs. The value of having storage provide services beyond reserve and time-of-day shifting was not assessed in this study, and was therefore not included in storage cost-benefit calculations.

  15. High-Energy-Density Metal-Oxygen Batteries: Lithium-Oxygen Batteries vs Sodium-Oxygen Batteries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Kyeongse; Agyeman, Daniel Adjei; Park, Mihui; Yang, Junghoon; Kang, Yong-Mook

    2017-12-01

    The development of next-generation energy-storage devices with high power, high energy density, and safety is critical for the success of large-scale energy-storage systems (ESSs), such as electric vehicles. Rechargeable sodium-oxygen (Na-O 2 ) batteries offer a new and promising opportunity for low-cost, high-energy-density, and relatively efficient electrochemical systems. Although the specific energy density of the Na-O 2 battery is lower than that of the lithium-oxygen (Li-O 2 ) battery, the abundance and low cost of sodium resources offer major advantages for its practical application in the near future. However, little has so far been reported regarding the cell chemistry, to explain the rate-limiting parameters and the corresponding low round-trip efficiency and cycle degradation. Consequently, an elucidation of the reaction mechanism is needed for both lithium-oxygen and sodium-oxygen cells. An in-depth understanding of the differences and similarities between Li-O 2 and Na-O 2 battery systems, in terms of thermodynamics and a structural viewpoint, will be meaningful to promote the development of advanced metal-oxygen batteries. State-of-the-art battery design principles for high-energy-density lithium-oxygen and sodium-oxygen batteries are thus reviewed in depth here. Major drawbacks, reaction mechanisms, and recent strategies to improve performance are also summarized. © 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  16. Multiscale simulation approach for battery production systems

    CERN Document Server

    Schönemann, Malte

    2017-01-01

    Addressing the challenge of improving battery quality while reducing high costs and environmental impacts of the production, this book presents a multiscale simulation approach for battery production systems along with a software environment and an application procedure. Battery systems are among the most important technologies of the 21st century since they are enablers for the market success of electric vehicles and stationary energy storage solutions. However, the performance of batteries so far has limited possible applications. Addressing this challenge requires an interdisciplinary understanding of dynamic cause-effect relationships between processes, equipment, materials, and environmental conditions. The approach in this book supports the integrated evaluation of improvement measures and is usable for different planning horizons. It is applied to an exemplary battery cell production and module assembly in order to demonstrate the effectiveness and potential benefits of the simulation.

  17. The stationary storage of energy. Available technologies and CEA researches

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2012-01-01

    After a discussion of the main challenges related to the stationary storage of energy, this publication proposes an overview of the different available technologies: plant for transfer of energy by pumping, compressed air, energy flywheels, hydrogen, lithium-ion battery, redox-flow battery, thermal storage by sensitive heat, thermal-chemical storage coupled to a thermal solar system, thermal storage by phase change, superconductive inductance storage, super-capacitors. It discusses the criteria of choice of storage technology, either for electric energy storage or for heat storage. It proposes an overview of researches performed within the CEA on storage systems: electrochemical, thermal, and hydrogen-based storages. The final chapter addresses current fundamental researches on storage in the field of lithium-ion batteries, hydrogen as a fuel, and thermoelectricity

  18. The lithium air battery fundamentals

    CERN Document Server

    Imanishi, Nobuyuki; Bruce, Peter G

    2014-01-01

    Lithium air rechargeable batteries are the best candidate for a power source for electric vehicles, because of their high specific energy density. In this book, the history, scientific background, status and prospects of the lithium air system are introduced by specialists in the field. This book will contain the basics, current statuses, and prospects for new technologies. This book is ideal for those interested in electrochemistry, energy storage, and materials science.

  19. Battery Safety Basics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roy, Ken

    2010-01-01

    Batteries commonly used in flashlights and other household devices produce hydrogen gas as a product of zinc electrode corrosion. The amount of gas produced is affected by the batteries' design and charge rate. Dangerous levels of hydrogen gas can be released if battery types are mixed, batteries are damaged, batteries are of different ages, or…

  20. Batteries for Electric Vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conover, R. A.

    1985-01-01

    Report summarizes results of test on "near-term" electrochemical batteries - (batteries approaching commercial production). Nickel/iron, nickel/zinc, and advanced lead/acid batteries included in tests and compared with conventional lead/acid batteries. Batteries operated in electric vehicles at constant speed and repetitive schedule of accerlerating, coasting, and braking.

  1. Disk Battery Ingestion A Malpractice Case that Results in Pneumonia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cihat Şarkış

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Alkaline batteries have become the second most swallowed foreign bodies following coins. Most cases have an uncomplicated course, but some may lead to serious complications and even death. Here we report a 28 months old boy who had experienced discomfort, eating refusal, vomiting and slightly wheezing after falling from a sofa bed. He has been in three different county hospitals and two private hospitals due to complaints, has been examined by two pediatricians and a cranial surgeon. A cranial CT imaging, a cranial X-ray radiograph and a chest X-ray radiograph was obtained. Firstly, diagnosed as head and neck trauma, then diagnosed as acute bronchiolitis, and finally pneumonia. Hospitalized twice. Finally, a chest radiograph revealed a button battery in the esophagus. The foreign body was endoscopic removed. The child had a quick clinical impairment after removal of the battery. As a result, alkaline batteries with their increasing risk of engulfment poses very serious problems. The parents and physicians should be informed against increasing frequency of ingestion of alkaline batteries by infants and children. Also, clinicians should be careful about the risk of these batteries that they can cause pneumonia and infiltration which may make it difficult to detect the foreign body.

  2. Control and operation of power sources in a medium-voltage direct-current microgrid for an electric vehicle fast charging station with a photovoltaic and a battery energy storage system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    García-Triviño, Pablo; Torreglosa, Juan P.; Fernández-Ramírez, Luis M.; Jurado, Francisco

    2016-01-01

    Although electric vehicles (EVs) are experiencing a considerable upsurge, the technology associated with them is still under development. This study focused on the control and operation of a medium-voltage direct-current (MVDC) microgrid with an innovative decentralized control system, which was used as a fast charging station (FCS) for EVs. The FCS was composed of a photovoltaic (PV) system, a Li-ion battery energy storage system (BESS), two 48 kW fast charging units for EVs, and a connection to the local grid. With this configuration and thanks to its decentralized control, the FCS was able to work as a stand-alone system most of the time though with occasional grid support. This paper presents a new decentralized energy management system (EMS) with two options to control the power sources of the FCS. The choice of the power source depends on the MVDC bus voltage, the state-of-charge (SOC) of the BESS, and the control option of the EMS. This control was tested by simulating the FCS, when connected to several EVs and under different sun irradiance conditions. Simulation results showed that the FCS operated smoothly and effectively, which confirms the feasibility of using this technology in EVs. - Highlights: • This paper studies a MVDC microgrid for fast charging station of EV. • It is composed of a PV system, a BESS, two EV charging stations and a grid connection. • A decentralized control scheme is applied to control the power sources. • The MVDC bus voltage is the key parameter for controlling the system. • The results demonstrate the feasibility of the system and control under study.

  3. Properties of cathode materials in alkaline cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Salkind, A.J.; McBreen, J.; Freeman, R.; Parkhurst, W.A.

    1985-01-01

    Conventional and new cathode materials in primary and secondary alkaline cells were investigated for stability, structure, electrochemical reversibility and efficiency. Included were various forms of AgO for reserve-type silver-zinc batteries, a new material - AgNiO/sub 2/ - and several nickel electrodes for nickel-cadmium and nickel-hydrogen cells for aerospace applications. A comparative study was made of the stability of electroformed and chemically prepared AgO. Stability was correlated with impurities detected by XPS and SAM. After the first discharge AgNiO/sub 2/ can be recharged to the monovalent level. The discharge product is predominantly silver. Plastic-bonded nickel electrodes display a second plateau on discharge. Additions of Co(OH)/sub 2/ largely eliminate this

  4. Properties of cathode materials in alkaline cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salkind, A. J.; McBreen, J.; Freeman, R.; Parkhurst, W. A.

    1984-04-01

    Conventional and new cathode materials in primary and secondary alkaline cells were investigated for stability, structure, electrochemical reversibility and efficiency. Included were various forms of AgO for reserve type silver zinc batteries, a new material - AgNiO2 and several nickel electrodes for nickel cadmium and nickel hydrogen cells for aerospace applications. A comparative study was made of the stability of electroformed and chemically prepared AgO. Stability was correlated with impurities. After the first discharge AgNiO2 can be recharged to the monovalent level. The discharge product is predominantly silver. Plastic bonded nickel electrodes display a second plateau on discharge. Additions of Co(OH)2 largely eliminate this.

  5. Seasonal energy storage - PV-hydrogen systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leppaenen, J. [Neste Oy/NAPS (Finland)

    1998-10-01

    PV systems are widely used in remote areas e.g. in telecommunication systems. Typically lead acid batteries are used as energy storage. In northern locations seasonal storage is needed, which however is too expensive and difficult to realise with batteries. Therefore, a PV- battery system with a diesel backup is sometimes used. The disadvantages of this kind of system for very remote applications are the need of maintenance and the need to supply the fuel. To overcome these problems, it has been suggested to use hydrogen technologies to make a closed loop autonomous energy storage system

  6. An Overview of Different Approaches for Battery Lifetime Prediction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Peng; Liang, Jun; Zhang, Feng

    2017-05-01

    With the rapid development of renewable energy and the continuous improvement of the power supply reliability, battery energy storage technology has been wildly used in power system. Battery degradation is a nonnegligible issue when battery energy storage system participates in system design and operation strategies optimization. The health assessment and remaining cycle life estimation of battery gradually become a challenge and research hotspot in many engineering areas. In this paper, the battery capacity falling and internal resistance increase are presented on the basis of chemical reactions inside the battery. The general life prediction models are analysed from several aspects. The characteristics of them as well as their application scenarios are discussed in the survey. In addition, a novel weighted Ah ageing model with the introduction of the Ragone curve is proposed to provide a detailed understanding of the ageing processes. A rigorous proof of the mathematical theory about the proposed model is given in the paper.

  7. Radioactive battery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Deaton, R.L.; Silver, G.L.

    1975-01-01

    A radioactive battery is described that is comprised of a container housing an electrolyte, two electrodes immersed in the electrolyte and insoluble radioactive material disposed adjacent one electrode. Insoluble radioactive material of different intensity of radioactivity may be disposed adjacent the second electrode. If hydrobromic acid is used as the electrolyte, Br 2 will be generated by the radioactivity and is reduced at the cathode: Br 2 + 2e = 2 Br - . At the anode Br - is oxidized: 2Br - = Br 2 + 2e. (U.S.)

  8. Wind turbine storage systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ibrahim, H.; Ilinca, A.; Perron, J.

    2005-01-01

    Electric power is often produced in locations far from the point of utilization which creates a challenge in stabilizing power grids, particularly since electricity cannot be stored. The production of decentralized electricity by renewable energy sources offers a greater security of supply while protecting the environment. Wind power holds the greatest promise in terms of environmental protection, competitiveness and possible applications. It is known that wind energy production is not always in phase with power needs because of the uncertainty of wind. For that reason, energy storage is the key for the widespread integration of wind energy into the power grids. This paper proposed various energy storage methods that can be used in combination with decentralized wind energy production where an imbalance exists between electricity production and consumption. Energy storage can play an essential role in bringing value to wind energy, particularly if electricity is to be delivered during peak hours. Various types of energy storage are already in use or are being developed. This paper identified the main characteristics of various electricity storage techniques and their applications. They include stationary or embarked storage for long or short term applications. A comparison of characteristics made it possible to determine which types of electricity storage are best suited for wind energy. These include gravity energy; thermal energy; compressed air energy; coupled storage with natural gas; coupled storage with liquefied gas; hydrogen storage for fuel cells; chemical energy storage; storage in REDOX batteries; storage by superconductive inductance; storage in supercondensers; and, storage as kinetic energy. 21 refs., 21 figs

  9. Strength properties of separators in alkaline solutions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Danko, T. [Viskase Corp., Chicago, IL (United States)

    1996-11-01

    Battery separator non-wovens that were coated with regenerated cellulose via the viscose process were subjected to storage in 40% potassium hydroxide (KOH) over a two month period. Samples were periodically checked for wet MD tensile strength. The test showed that among the non-wovens, the polyamide retained about 93% of its initial tensile strength whereas polyvinyl alcohol and cellulosic non-wovens retained only 55% and 35%, respectively. Adding a viscose coating to the non-wovens improved tensile strength retention by 20--25% for the polyvinyl alcohol and cellulosic materials. The viscose-coated polyamide retained more than 98% of its initial tensile strength.

  10. A Multiscale Approach to Magnesium Intercalation Batteries: Safer, Lighter, and Longer-Lasting

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Lithium-ion batteries are the gold-standard for electrochemical energy storage; however, the ceiling for their storage potential is constrained by the most...

  11. Determination of lead and cadmium contents of dry cell batteries ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    established system for collection, separation, storage and management of municipal and industrial wastes containing primary and secondary battery wastes and similar toxic materials to halt the open burning of such wastes within inhabited areas ...

  12. Performance of Sony's Alloy Based Li-Ion Battery

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Foster, Donald; Wolfenstine, Jeff; Read, Jeffrey; Allen, Jan L

    2008-01-01

    Cells from the new Nexelion battery from Sony Corporation were tested for capacity, low temperature performance, high power capability, high temperature storage, rapid recharge and cycle life on deep discharge...

  13. Hybrid Battery Ultracapacitor System For Human Robotic Systems, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The objective of this proposal is to develop a hybrid battery-ultra capacitor storage system that powers human-robotic systems in space missions. Space missions...

  14. Energy Storage for Aerospace Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perez-Davis, Marla E.; Loyselle, Patricia L.; Hoberecht, Mark A.; Manzo, Michelle A.; Kohout, Lisa L.; Burke, Kenneth A.; Cabrera, Carlos R.

    2001-01-01

    The NASA Glenn Research Center (GRC) has long been a major contributor to the development and application of energy storage technologies for NASAs missions and programs. NASA GRC has supported technology efforts for the advancement of batteries and fuel cells. The Electrochemistry Branch at NASA GRC continues to play a critical role in the development and application of energy storage technologies, in collaboration with other NASA centers, government agencies, industry and academia. This paper describes the work in batteries and fuel cell technologies at the NASA Glenn Research Center. It covers a number of systems required to ensure that NASAs needs for a wide variety of systems are met. Some of the topics covered are lithium-based batteries, proton exchange membrane (PEM) fuel cells, and nanotechnology activities. With the advances of the past years, we begin the 21st century with new technical challenges and opportunities as we develop enabling technologies for batteries and fuel cells for aerospace applications.

  15. Monitoring sealed automotive lead-acid batteries by sparse ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Unknown

    rechargeable battery market and, in terms of value, the present world market for lead-acid batteries is about US$ 10 billion per annum.1 The on-going electrification of automobiles makes a reliable diagnostic necessary for the vehicle's energy storage units. Since sealed. ¶Dedicated to Professor C N R Rao on his 70th ...

  16. Aluminum corrosion mitigation in alkaline electrolytes containing hybrid inorganic/organic inhibitor system for power sources applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gelman, Danny; Lasman, Itay; Elfimchev, Sergey; Starosvetsky, David; Ein-Eli, Yair

    2015-07-01

    The severe corrosion accompanied with hydrogen evolution process is the main obstacle preventing the implementation of Al as an anode in alkaline batteries. It impairs the functionality of alkaline battery, due to a drastic capacity loss and a short shelf life. The possibility to reduce Al corrosion rate in alkaline solution with the use of hybrid organic∖inorganic inhibitor based on poly (ethylene glycol) di-acid (PEG di-acid) and zinc oxide (ZnO) was examined in this work. A correlation between an Al corrosion rates and the concentrations of both PEG di-acid and ZnO in alkaline is shown. Selecting 5000 ppm PEG di-acid and 16 gr/l ZnO provides substantial corrosion protection of Al, reducing the corrosion rate in a strong alkaline solution by more than one order of magnitude. Moreover, utilizing the same formulation results in increase in Al-air battery discharge capacity, from 44.5 (for a battery utilizing only KOH in the electrolyte) to 70 mhA/cm2 (for a battery utilizing ZnO/PEG di-acid hybrid inhibitor in the electrolyte). The morphology and composition of the Al electrode surface (studied by SEM, EDS, and XRD) depend on PEG di-acid and ZnO concentrations.

  17. Conditioning alkaline coolant radioactive waste from research reactor BR-10

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vladimir, Smykov; Mikhail, Kononyuk; Kirill, Butov

    2014-01-01

    In the Institute for Physics and Power Engineering (Russia) has developed and was successfully demonstrated a technology of solid-phase oxidation of alkaline metal by slag from the copper-smelting industry. Neutralization of alkaline metal in the solid-phase oxidation process occurs in a single phase. The solid-phase oxidation process does not result in the generation of hydrogen. The product of alkaline metal radioactive waste processing is solid mineral-like sinter of reaction products, contained inside a steel reaction container, which is immediately shipped for dry storage in a solid radioactive waste storage facility. The presence of a mercury admixture in the research reactor BR-10 (BR-10) reactor alkaline metals radioactive waste makes conditioning of that waste considerably more complicated. Laboratory research demonstrated that mercury could be effectively removed from alkaline metal by pushing the Na-K alloy through chips of metallic magnesium in elevated temperatures. For neutralization of non-drainable sodium residues and admixtures in individual equipment (cold traps, pipe lines, tanks) of the research reactor BR-10 has developed a method for neutralization of non-drainable residues of alkaline liquid metal coolants with a gaseous sub oxide of nitrogen, which is characterized by absence of hydrogen generation, improving the safety of the technology. Currently, the reactor building is undergoing installation of the experimental-industrial plant 'Magma', the purpose of which is processing of accumulated alkaline metals radioactive waste. In according with concept of 'experimental polygon for testing the decommissioning technologies of the BN series of reactors' based on the BR-10 installation, it would appear sensible to start the development of the installation for conditioning by solid-phase oxidation of up to 1000 liters of radioactive waste per loading. (author)

  18. Techno-Economic Analysis of PEV Battery Second Use: Repurposed-Battery Selling Price and Commercial and Industrial End-User Value

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Neubauer, J.; Pesaran, A.; Williams, B.; Ferry, M.; Eyer, J.

    2012-06-01

    Accelerated market penetration of plug-in electric vehicles and deployment of grid-connected energy storage are restricted by the high cost of lithium-ion batteries. Research, development, and manufacturing are underway to lower material costs, enhance process efficiencies, and increase production volumes. A fraction of the battery cost may be recovered after vehicular service by reusing the battery where it may have sufficient performance for other energy-storage applications. By extracting post-vehicle additional services and revenue from the battery, the total lifetime value of the battery is increased. The overall cost of energy-storage solutions for both primary (automotive) and secondary (grid) customer could be decreased. This techno-economic analysis of battery second use considers effects of battery degradation in both automotive and grid service, repurposing costs, balance-of-system costs, the value of aggregated energy-storage to commercial and industrial end users, and competitive technology. Batteries from plug-in electric vehicles can economically be used to serve the power quality and reliability needs of commercial and industrial end users. However, the value to the automotive battery owner is small (e.g., $20-$100/kWh) as declining future battery costs and other factors strongly affect salvage value. Repurposed automotive battery prices may range from $38/kWh to $132/kWh.

  19. A high energy density all solid-state tungsten-air battery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Xuan; Li, Xue; Gong, Yunhui; Xu, Nansheng; Romito, Kevin; Huang, Kevin

    2013-06-14

    An all solid-state tungsten-air battery is reported here, which is based on a new metal-air chemistry, featuring decoupled design of electrodes and energy storage. Benefited from higher specific density and better redox kinetics of tungsten, the new tungsten-air battery exhibits roughly higher energy density (W h L(-1)) than the previously reported iron-air battery.

  20. One-Pot Synthesis of Graphene-Sulfur Composites for Li-S Batteries: Influence of Sulfur Precursors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James Guo Sheng Moo

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Lithium-sulfur (Li-S batteries are postulated as next-generation electrochemical energy storage devices due to their increased storage capabilities. However, challenges persist from the polysulfide-shuttle effect at the cathode. Soluble sulfur-based species in the cathode cross over to the lithium anode through the separator leading to fading capacity with cycling. This has spurred continuous effort by the scientific community to develop novel cathodes where sulfur species can affix better. A conductive nanostructured graphene network is a suitable candidate that can serve as a scaffold for holding sulfur nanoparticles. Here, a one-pot synthesis of chemically reduced graphene oxide networks prepared from easily accessible graphene oxide is demonstrated. The solution-based method simply allows for impregnation of the graphene oxide network with sulfur nanoparticles through a careful manipulation of pH of the chemical environment. Two routes were chosen for the precipitation of such sulfur nanoparticles: firstly, the dissolution of sulfur in sodium hydroxide into polysulfides followed by acidification and secondly, the acidification of sodium thiosulfate from alkaline media into sulfur nanoparticles. Both graphene oxide materials from the two routes were treated with sodium borohydride to achieve conductive graphene. The second route, with the sulfur nanoparticles derived from the acidification of sodium thiosulfate with chemically reduced graphene oxide, demonstrated favorable electrochemical behavior, showing promise as electrode material for Li-S batteries.