WorldWideScience

Sample records for alighting

  1. Yoga from the Mat up: How Words Alight on Bodies

    Science.gov (United States)

    McIlwain, Doris; Sutton, John

    2014-01-01

    Yoga is a unique form of expert movement that promotes an increasingly subtle interpenetration of thought and movement. The mindful nature of its practice, even at expert levels, challenges the idea that thought and mind are inevitably disruptive to absorbed coping. Building on parallel phenomenological and ethnographic studies of skilful…

  2. Open field host selection and behavior by tamarisk beetles (Diorhabda spp.)(Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae) in biological control of exotic saltcedars (Tamarix spp.) and risks to non-target athel (T. aphylla) and native Frankenia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biological control of exotic, invasive saltcedars (Tamarix spp.) in the western USA involves releases of exotic saltcedar leaf beetles, Diorhabda elongata Brullé sensu lato. Adults in cages alight, feed and oviposit on athel (Tamarix aphylla), an evergreen cold-intolerant tree used for shade and as...

  3. Estimation of train dwell time at short stops based on track occupation event data

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Li, D.; Daamen, W.; Goverde, R.M.P.

    2015-01-01

    Train dwell time is one of the most unpredictable components of railway operations mainly due to the varying volumes of alighting and boarding passengers. For reliable estimations of train running times and route conflicts on main lines it is however necessary to obtain accurate estimations of dwell

  4. “Preaching-Non-Violence” Rioters Rampage in Lhasa-Recounting the Rioting in Lhasa on March 14~(th)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Amy

    2008-01-01

    It was about 11a.m.,March 14th,2008.Lhasa,a Tibetan city used to peace and tranquility,was suddenly subjected to relentless rioting by mobs in the name of"non-violence resistance".They smashed,looted, vandalized,set property alight,beat and even killed people they encountered.

  5. Repellent Action Of Neem (Azadiracta India Seed Oil Against Aedes Aegypti Mosquitoes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hati A K

    1995-01-01

    Full Text Available Neem (Azadiracta India seed oil in appropriate amount when smeared on the surface of the hand showed excellent repellent action against Aedes aegypti mosquitoes. When 1 ml of oil was spread on the hand, with an approximate area of 160 sq cm the percentage of alighting and blood fed mosquitoes in the experimental cages varied from 14 to 78 and 4 to 46 respectively. This percentage decreased to 6 to 18 and 0 to 16 respectively when the amount of oil applied was 1.5 ml. Only 0-4% of the mosquitoes alighted on the skin of which 2% only took the blood meal when 2 ml of the oil was used to cover the hand. In the control cages cent percent of the mosquitoes alighted and sucked blood. The repellent action was directly proportional to the hour of exposure to the oil. It was also observed that even after alighting on a oil- smeared skin a sizeable proportion of mosquitoes were not able to imbibe blood meal. Neem seed oil was non-toxic, non- irritating to skin.

  6. Population ageing in the Netherlands: Demographic and financial arguments for a balanced approach

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    W. Salverda

    2007-01-01

    Dutch policy makers recently set the public debate on ageing alight by enforcing drastic cuts in early retirement opportunities; increasing taxation of the aged and augmenting retirement age are also considered. The prime argument is to diminish a burden on public finances far in future. This paper

  7. Estimating passenger numbers in trains using existing weighing capabilities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Bo Friis; Frølich, Laura; Nielsen, Otto Anker;

    2013-01-01

    Knowing passenger numbers is important for the planning and operation of the urban rail systems. Manual and electronic counting systems (typically infrared or video) are expensive and therefore entail small sample sizes. They usually count boarding and alighting passengers, which means that error...

  8. Theoretically Investigation Of Smoke Production In A Tunnel Fire

    OpenAIRE

    DOBRUCALI, Erinç

    2013-01-01

    Fire is the heat and light energy released during a chemical reaction, in particular a combustion reaction. Depending on the substances alight, and any impurities outside, the color of the flame and the fire's intensity might vary. Fire in its most common form can result in conflagration, and has the potential to cause physical damage through burning. Fires in buildings and transportation systems are a threat to human lives and also to buildings and cultural heritage. In a fire inferno, most ...

  9. Constraint Programming Formulation for the Elevator Trip Origin-Destination Matrix Estimation Problem

    OpenAIRE

    Kuusinen, Juha-Matti; Malapert, Arnaud

    2014-01-01

    We present a constraint programming formulation for the elevator trip origin-destination matrix estimation problem, and propose different approaches to solve the problem. An elevator trip consists of successive stops in one direction of travel with passengers inside the elevator. It can be defined as a directed network, where the nodes correspond to the stops on the trip, and the arcs to the possible origins and destinations of the passengers boarding and alighting at the stops. The goal is t...

  10. Thermomagnetic studies on transition metal pnictides

    OpenAIRE

    Vieira Leitão, J.C.

    2014-01-01

    The magnetocaloric effect (MCE) consists, in simple terms, in the heating of a magnetic material by the application of an external magnetic field. This can be easily understood if one but imagines a magnetic material with randomly applied spins; as a magnetic field is applied the spins will tend to alight with this field and as a result the overall Entropy of the system decreases, which consequently results in an exchange in Heat. This idea then becomes analogous to the vapor compression cycl...

  11. Chinese Beauty Rules

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    Beijing beauty Zhang Zilin walked away with the Miss World 2007 crown before a partisan crowd on December 1,daz- zling the judging panel with her high-voltage smile and elegant confidence. The 23-year-old Miss China set the night alight in Sanya,in south China’s Hainan Province,when she emerged from a bevy of 106 of the world’s most beautiful women to become China’s first Miss World in 57 years

  12. Influence of Light and Heat on the Stability of Nitrofurazone Solution

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李志毅; 詹先成; 李琳丽; 李开兰; 杨秀岑; 林涛; 李成蓉

    2005-01-01

    The influence of both light and heat on the stability of nitrofurazone aqueous solution was studied. Results show that in either heating experiments or the exposure to light at high temperatures, the degradation rate obeyed zero-order kinetics. The total rate constant ktotal caused by both light and heat can be divided into two parts: ktotal =kdark+klight, where kdark and klight are the degradation rate constants caused by heat and light, respectively. The klight can be expressed as klight=Alight*exp(-Ea,light/RT)*E, where E is the illuminance of light, and Alight and Ea,light both are experimental constants. The values of these kinetic parameters were determined based on the experiments in the dark and upon exposure to three different light sources. Results show that the values of Alight and Ea, light varied with the light source. To save time, labor, and drugs, exponential heating experiments were employed and compared with the isothermal experiments. Results indicated that kinetic parameters obtained by exponential heating experiments are comparable to those obtained by isothermal experiments either in the dark or upon exposure to light.

  13. Differential Life History Trait Associations of Aphids with Nonpersistent Viruses in Cucurbits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Angelella, G M; Egel, D S; Holland, J D; Nemacheck, J A; Williams, C E; Kaplan, I

    2015-06-01

    The diversity of vectors and fleeting nature of virus acquisition and transmission renders nonpersistent viruses a challenge to manage. We assessed the importance of noncolonizing versus colonizing vectors with a 2-yr survey of aphids and nonpersistent viruses on commercial pumpkin farms. We quantified aphid alightment using pan traps, while testing leaf samples with multiplex RT-PCR targeting cucumber mosaic virus (CMV), zucchini yellow mosaic virus (ZYMV), watermelon mosaic virus (WMV), and papaya ringspot virus (PRSV). Overall, we identified 53 aphid species (3,899 individuals), from which the melon aphid, Aphis gossypii Glover, a pumpkin-colonizing species, predominated (76 and 37% of samples in 2010 and 2011, respectively). CMV and ZYMV were not detected, but WMV and PRSV were prevalent, both regionally (WMV: 28/29 fields, PRSV: 21/29 fields) and within fields (infection rates = 69 and 55% for WMV in 2010 and 2011; 28 and 25% for PRSV in 2010 and 2011). However, early-season samples showed extremely low infection levels, suggesting cucurbit viruses are not seed-transmitted and implicating aphid activity as a causal factor driving virus spread. Interestingly, neither noncolonizer and colonizer alightment nor total aphid alightment were good predictors of virus presence, but community analyses revealed species-specific relationships. For example, cowpea aphid (Aphis craccivora Koch) and spotted alfalfa aphid (Therioaphis trifolii Monell f. maculata) were associated with PRSV infection, whereas the oleander aphid (Aphis nerii Bover de Fonscolombe) was associated with WMV spread within fields. These outcomes highlight the need for tailored management plans targeting key vectors of nonpersistent viruses in agricultural systems. PMID:26313961

  14. Bioreplicated visual features of nanofabricated buprestid beetle decoys evoke stereotypical male mating flights.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Domingue, Michael J; Lakhtakia, Akhlesh; Pulsifer, Drew P; Hall, Loyal P; Badding, John V; Bischof, Jesse L; Martín-Palma, Raúl J; Imrei, Zoltán; Janik, Gergely; Mastro, Victor C; Hazen, Missy; Baker, Thomas C

    2014-09-30

    Recent advances in nanoscale bioreplication processes present the potential for novel basic and applied research into organismal behavioral processes. Insect behavior potentially could be affected by physical features existing at the nanoscale level. We used nano-bioreplicated visual decoys of female emerald ash borer beetles (Agrilus planipennis) to evoke stereotypical mate-finding behavior, whereby males fly to and alight on the decoys as they would on real females. Using an industrially scalable nanomolding process, we replicated and evaluated the importance of two features of the outer cuticular surface of the beetle's wings: structural interference coloration of the elytra by multilayering of the epicuticle and fine-scale surface features consisting of spicules and spines that scatter light into intense strands. Two types of decoys that lacked one or both of these elements were fabricated, one type nano-bioreplicated and the other 3D-printed with no bioreplicated surface nanostructural elements. Both types were colored with green paint. The light-scattering properties of the nano-bioreplicated surfaces were verified by shining a white laser on the decoys in a dark room and projecting the scattering pattern onto a white surface. Regardless of the coloration mechanism, the nano-bioreplicated decoys evoked the complete attraction and landing sequence of Agrilus males. In contrast, males made brief flying approaches toward the decoys without nanostructured features, but diverted away before alighting on them. The nano-bioreplicated decoys were also electroconductive, a feature used on traps such that beetles alighting onto them were stunned, killed, and collected. PMID:25225359

  15. Mechanical behavior of PMMA due to artificial aging by means of a xenon-test chamber; Comportamiento mecanico del polimetilmetacrilato sometido a envejecimiento artificial mediante camara xenotest

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Colom, X.; Nogues, F.; Valldeperas, J.; Carrillo, F.; Gordillo, A.

    2001-07-01

    In this investigation, the mechanical behavior of poly(methylmethacrylate) due to aging in Xenon test chamber, using a xenon-arch lamp as alight radiation to simulate natural sun light has been studied. This work studies the mechanical properties (elongation at break, Young's modules, tensile strength and toughness) of PMMA samples exposed to different aging conditions (until 1560 h xenotest that correspond to 750 days exposure at natural light). The evolution of different mechanical properties characterizes the PMMA's process of degradation. (Author) 10 refs.

  16. Security of the Internet Transactions

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Felix Musau; Shengbing Ren; Shouyi Yu

    2002-01-01

    The new generation of networked business solutions brings legacy data and applications to the world wide Web, and lets companies redefine internal and external business processes. The present need for internet transaction has forced many business to adopt the internet forms of distribution of its business items. This has threatened security, hence needs to be given a key priority. This paper alights the key areas on how to protect the information we transact on the internet. It also aims at improving the security of our data and the computers we use to access this data.

  17. Repellent Action Of Neem (Azadiracta India) Seed Oil Against Aedes Aegypti Mosquitoes

    OpenAIRE

    Hati A K; Bhowmik Keya; Banerjee A; Mukherjee H; Poddar G; Basu D; Dhara K P

    1995-01-01

    Neem (Azadiracta India) seed oil in appropriate amount when smeared on the surface of the hand showed excellent repellent action against Aedes aegypti mosquitoes. When 1 ml of oil was spread on the hand, with an approximate area of 160 sq cm the percentage of alighting and blood fed mosquitoes in the experimental cages varied from 14 to 78 and 4 to 46 respectively. This percentage decreased to 6 to 18 and 0 to 16 respectively when the amount of oil applied was 1.5 ml. Only 0-4% of the ...

  18. Light energy matching method in high-resolution image reconstruction

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ling Wang(王凌); Zhihai Xu(徐之海); Huajun Feng(冯华君); Ping Zhang(张平)

    2003-01-01

    Many approaches for high-resolution image reconstruction have been proposed in some literatures. One ofthe most commonly ways is to reconstruct a high-resolution image from a number of rotated and translatedimages with low resolution. In this process, the exposure difference among original images will decreasethe quality of the reconstructed image. In order to remove the influence of the exposure difference, alight energy matching method is proposed in this paper. The theoretical analysis is illustrated in details.Experimental results show that the theoretical analysis is correct and the proposed method is valid.

  19. Azimuth orientation of the dragonfly (Sympetrum)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hisada, M.

    1972-01-01

    Evidence is presented of directional orientation by an alighting dragonfly relative to the azimuth of the sun. The effects of wind direction on this orientation are analyzed. It was concluded that wind does not play a major role in orientation but may have some secondary function in helping greater numbers of dragonflies face windward more often than leeward. A search was made to find the principle sensory receptor for orientation. Two possibilities, the large compound eye and the frontal ocelli, were noted; however, no conclusive evidence could be found.

  20. Spin polarization of electrons in a magnetic impurity doped semiconductor quantum dot – The effect of electron–phonon interaction

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Misra Deepanjali; Tripathy Sukanta Kumar

    2016-03-01

    A theoretical model is presented in this paper for degree of spin polarization in alight emitting diode (LED) whose epitaxial region contains quantum dots doped with magnetic impurity. The model is then used to investigate the effect of electron–phonon interaction on degree of spin polarization at different temperatures and magnetic fields. It is found that magnetic impurityincreases the degree of spin polarization irrespective of temperature, while the electron–phonon interaction decreases the degree of spin polarization. Results are found to be in better agreement with experiments.

  1. Treatment of burns casualties after fire at Bradford City football ground.

    OpenAIRE

    Sharpe, D. T.; Roberts, A. H.; Barclay, T L; Dickson, W. A.; Settle, J A; Crockett, D J; Mossad, M G

    1985-01-01

    On 11 May 1985 the main stand of Bradford City Football Club caught fire. Within four minutes the stand was alight from end to end. Fifty three people were burnt to death and about 250 injured; 83 required admission to hospital, and 55 of these were treated by primary excision of their burns and skin grafting. In such disasters the help of staff from other hospitals and areas is essential. Patients should be assessed to see whether they have burns that will ultimately be fatal; if they have t...

  2. 光和温度对盐酸普鲁卡因注射液稳定性的影响%Influence of light and temperature on the stability of procaine hydrochloride injection

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    林涛; 詹先成; 李开兰; 李琳丽; 李成容

    2004-01-01

    Aim To study the influence of light and heat on the stability of procaine hydrochloride injection. Methods Accelerated tests upon exposure to light at high temperatures were employed.Results In experiments with either isothermal heating or exposure to light at high temperatures, the drug degradation rate obeys first-order kinetics. The total rate constant, ktotal, caused by both light and heat can be divided into two parts: ktotal =kdark + klight, where kdark and klight are the rate constants caused by heat and light, respectively. The klight can be expressed as klight=Alight·E·exp(-Ea, light RT). Where E is the illuminance of light, Alight is an experimental constant related to light sources, and Ea,light is an experimental constant. Conclusion Because the form of klight is similar to the Arrhenius equation, it is suggested that Ea,light might be the observed activation energy of the rate-determining step of the subsequent processes of the photochemical reaction. This viewpoint is supported by the fact that the Ea,light is independent of light sources.%目的研究盐酸普鲁卡因注射液在光和热同时作用下的稳定性.方法采用在高温下进行光照的实验方法.结果该药物在恒温加速实验或高温光照实验中的降解均服从一级反应动力学规律.在光和热同时作用下的总的降解速率常数ktotal由两部分构成:ktotal=kdark+klight,kdark和klight分别为热反应降解速率常数和光反应的降解速率常数,且klight=Alight·E·exp(-Ea,light/RT).式中E为光源的照度,Alight是与光源种类有关的实验常数,Ea,light亦为一实验常数.结论由于klight的表达式与Arrhenius方程形式类似,式中Ea,light可能为光化反应次级过程的表观活化能,其值与光源种类无关支持了这一观点.

  3. Statistical graphics: mapping the pathways of science.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wainer, H; Velleman, P F

    2001-01-01

    This chapter traces the evolution of statistical graphics starting with its departure from the common noun structure of Cartesian determinism, through William Playfair's revolutionary grammatical shift to graphs as proper nouns, and alights on the modern conception of graph as an active participant in the scientific process of discovery. The ubiquitous availability of data, software, and cheap, high-powered, computing when coupled with the broad acceptance of the ideas in Tukey's 1977 treatise on exploratory data analysis has yielded a fundamental change in the way that the role of statistical graphics is thought of within science-as a dynamic partner and guide to the future rather than as a static monument to the discoveries of the past. We commemorate and illustrate this development while pointing readers to the new tools available and providing some indications of their potential.

  4. Fighting fires... with science

    CERN Multimedia

    Anaïs Schaeffer

    2016-01-01

    CERN firefighters are working with a research centre in the United States to develop more effective firefighting techniques.   One of the UL FSRI’s model houses is set alight... in the interest of science. (Photo: ©UL FSRI) For around ten years, the Underwriters Laboratories Firefighter Safety Research Institute (UL FSRI) has been carrying out scientific research on the various techniques used by firefighters in the United States and around the world. This research has focused on evaluating the effectiveness and safety of current practices worldwide with the aim of developing even better techniques. In many cases the research has shown that a combination of techniques gives the best results. The interiors of the model houses are fully furnished. (Photo: ©UL FSRI) Art Arnalich, who has worked with fire brigades in the United States and Europe and is now a member of CERN’s Fire Brigade, has actively participated in this research since 2013. His knowledge of ...

  5. Molecular Markers: an Introduction and Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Firas Rashad Al-Samarai

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The dramatic development of molecular genetics has laid the groundwork for genomics. It has introduced new generations of molecular markers for use in the genetic improvement of farm animals. These markers provide more accurate genetic information and better understanding of the animal genetic resources. Scientists, unfamiliar with the different molecular techniques tend to get lost as each has its own advantages and disadvantages. This review represents a trail to shade alight on the different types of molecular markers by introducing a brief summary on the development of genetic markers including both the classical genetic markers and more advanced DNA-based molecular markers. This review could be helpful to better understand the characteristics of different genetic markers and the genetic diversity of animal genetic resources.

  6. Treatment of burns casualties after fire at Bradford City football ground.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharpe, D T; Roberts, A H; Barclay, T L; Dickson, W A; Settle, J A; Crockett, D J; Mossad, M G

    1985-01-01

    On 11 May 1985 the main stand of Bradford City Football Club caught fire. Within four minutes the stand was alight from end to end. Fifty three people were burnt to death and about 250 injured; 83 required admission to hospital, and 55 of these were treated by primary excision of their burns and skin grafting. In such disasters the help of staff from other hospitals and areas is essential. Patients should be assessed to see whether they have burns that will ultimately be fatal; if they have they should not be sent to regional burns units, where they would take up beds that could be used for patients with treatable burns. All districts should ensure that their plans for accidents in which burns injuries predominate are adequate. Images FIG 1 FIG 2 FIG 3 FIG 4 PMID:3929974

  7. A non-persistently transmitted-virus induces a pull-push strategy in its aphid vector to optimize transmission and spread.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carmo-Sousa, Michele; Moreno, Aranzazu; Garzo, Elisa; Fereres, Alberto

    2014-06-24

    Plant viruses are known to modify the behaviour of their insect vectors, both directly and indirectly, generally adapting to each type of virus-vector relationship in a way that enhances transmission efficiency. Here, we report results of three different studies showing how a virus transmitted in a non-persistent (NP) manner (Cucumber mosaic virus; CMV, Cucumovirus) can induce changes in its host plant, cucumber (Cucumis sativus cv. Marumba) that modifies the behaviour of its aphid vector (Aphis gossypii Glover; Hemiptera: Aphididae) in a way that enhances virus transmission and spread non-viruliferous aphids changed their alighting, settling and probing behaviour activities over time when exposed to CMV-infected and mock-inoculated cucumber plants. Aphids exhibited no preference to migrate from CMV-infected to mock-inoculated plants at short time intervals (1, 10 and 30 min after release), but showed a clear shift in preference to migrate from CMV-infected to mock-inoculated plants 60 min after release. Our free-choice preference assays showed that A. gossypii alates preferred CMV-infected over mock-inoculated plants at an early stage (30 min), but this behaviour was reverted at a later stage and aphids preferred to settle and reproduce on mock-inoculated plants. The electrical penetration graph (EPG) technique revealed a sharp change in aphid probing behaviour over time when exposed to CMV-infected plants. At the beginning (first 15 min) aphid vectors dramatically increased the number of short superficial probes and intracellular punctures when exposed to CMV-infected plants. At a later stage (second hour of recording) aphids diminished their feeding on CMV-infected plants as indicated by much less time spent in phloem salivation and ingestion (E1 and E2). This particular probing behaviour including an early increase in the number of short superficial probes and intracellular punctures followed by a phloem feeding deterrence is known to enhance the transmission

  8. Achievement report for fiscal 1998. Total wheelchair support system; 1998 nendo seika hokokusho. Kurumaisu sogo shien system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-05-01

    Development has been made on the element technologies for a total wheelchair support system. In the research of a manually operated wheelchair support system, the formula support system was verified of its operation, and its completion as a system that can be used practically. In the study on motorized wheelchairs, a questionnaire was given on disorders, remaining functions and environment in which the wheelchairs would be used to select the most suitable formula from among 14 types of basic wheelchairs. After having adjusted the seat and operation lever positions for optimization by using a specific wheelchair for measurement, the power was so outputted that image illustrations after values have been inputted can be checked on the screen. In studying a travel support system, based on the fact that anomaly has occurred in operation of the boarding and alighting device during a test by a third party laboratory, a review was given on the capacity of the device. As a result of changing the motor to the one higher by one rank, the required time was decreased by 25%. In addition, the boarding direction was limited to one direction, and the reverse speed was changed and improved to 60% of the forward speed. In developing the total system, studies were made on methods of binding, and methods of protecting surrounding environment. (NEDO)

  9. Arboreal ants use the "Velcro(R principle" to capture very large prey.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alain Dejean

    Full Text Available Plant-ants live in a mutualistic association with host plants known as "myrmecophytes" that provide them with a nesting place and sometimes with extra-floral nectar (EFN and/or food bodies (FBs; the ants can also attend sap-sucking Hemiptera for their honeydew. In return, plant-ants, like most other arboreal ants, protect their host plants from defoliators. To satisfy their nitrogen requirements, however, some have optimized their ability to capture prey in the restricted environment represented by the crowns of trees by using elaborate hunting techniques. In this study, we investigated the predatory behavior of the ant Azteca andreae which is associated with the myrmecophyte Cecropia obtusa. We noted that up to 8350 ant workers per tree hide side-by-side beneath the leaf margins of their host plant with their mandibles open, waiting for insects to alight. The latter are immediately seized by their extremities, and then spread-eagled; nestmates are recruited to help stretch, carve up and transport prey. This group ambush hunting technique is particularly effective when the underside of the leaves is downy, as is the case for C. obtusa. In this case, the hook-shaped claws of the A. andreae workers and the velvet-like structure of the underside of the leaves combine to act like natural Velcro that is reinforced by the group ambush strategy of the workers, allowing them to capture prey of up to 13,350 times the mean weight of a single worker.

  10. Predicting Short-Term Subway Ridership and Prioritizing Its Influential Factors Using Gradient Boosting Decision Trees

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chuan Ding

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Understanding the relationship between short-term subway ridership and its influential factors is crucial to improving the accuracy of short-term subway ridership prediction. Although there has been a growing body of studies on short-term ridership prediction approaches, limited effort is made to investigate the short-term subway ridership prediction considering bus transfer activities and temporal features. To fill this gap, a relatively recent data mining approach called gradient boosting decision trees (GBDT is applied to short-term subway ridership prediction and used to capture the associations with the independent variables. Taking three subway stations in Beijing as the cases, the short-term subway ridership and alighting passengers from its adjacent bus stops are obtained based on transit smart card data. To optimize the model performance with different combinations of regularization parameters, a series of GBDT models are built with various learning rates and tree complexities by fitting a maximum of trees. The optimal model performance confirms that the gradient boosting approach can incorporate different types of predictors, fit complex nonlinear relationships, and automatically handle the multicollinearity effect with high accuracy. In contrast to other machine learning methods—or “black-box” procedures—the GBDT model can identify and rank the relative influences of bus transfer activities and temporal features on short-term subway ridership. These findings suggest that the GBDT model has considerable advantages in improving short-term subway ridership prediction in a multimodal public transportation system.

  11. Altruism during predation in an assassin bug

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dejean, Alain; Revel, Messika; Azémar, Frédéric; Roux, Olivier

    2013-10-01

    Zelus annulosus is an assassin bug species mostly noted on Hirtella physophora, a myrmecophyte specifically associated with the ant Allomerus decemarticulatus known to build traps on host tree twigs to ambush insect preys. The Z. annulosus females lay egg clutches protected by a sticky substance. To avoid being trapped, the first three instars of nymphs remain grouped in a clutch beneath the leaves on which they hatched, yet from time to time, they climb onto the upper side to group ambush preys. Long-distance prey detection permits these bugs to capture flying or jumping insects that alight on their leaves. Like some other Zelus species, the sticky substance of the sundew setae on their forelegs aids in prey capture. Group ambushing permits early instars to capture insects that they then share or not depending on prey size and the hunger of the successful nymphs. Fourth and fifth instars, with greater needs, rather ambush solitarily on different host tree leaves, but attract siblings to share large preys. Communal feeding permits faster prey consumption, enabling small nymphs to return sooner to the shelter of their leaves. By improving the regularity of feeding for each nymph, it likely regulates nymphal development, synchronizing molting and subsequently limiting cannibalism.

  12. The Effect of Transport Accessibility on the Social Inclusion of Wheelchair Users: A Mixed Method Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raquel Velho

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available In recent years the accessibility of London buses has improved with the introduction of ramps and wheelchair priority areas. These advances are meant to remove physical barriers to entering the bus, but new conflicts have arisen particularly over the physical space aboard. We aimed to research the barriers faced by wheelchair users in public transport using a mixed methods approach to establish the breadth of issues faced by wheelchair users. To this end we quantified the push-force used alight a bus and a study to understand the coping mechanisms used by people to propel up a ramp. This quantitative approach found push forces which resulted in a load of 2 to 3 times body weight being transferred through people’s shoulders, forces which can be directly linked to shoulder injury. This could disable the user further, preventing them from being able to push their wheelchair. Alongside the quantitative study, we conducted qualitative research comprising of a number of in-depth interviews with wheelchair users about the barriers they face in public transport. Our main claim, highlighted through this interdisciplinary collaboration, is that proposed ‘solutions’ to accessibility, such as ramps, often generate problems of their own. These barriers can affect the life of wheelchair users, impacting on their confidence and causing social isolation. These can be long-term in nature or immediate.

  13. Modeling and Optimization of Collaborative Passenger Control in Urban Rail Stations under Mass Passenger Flow

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lili Wang

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available With the rapid development of urban rail transit, the phenomenon of outburst passenger flows flocking to stations is occurring much more frequently. Passenger flow control is one of the main methods used to ensure passengers’ safety. While most previous studies have only focused on control measures inside the target station, ignoring the collaboration between stops, this paper puts emphasis on joint passenger control methods during the occurrence of large passenger flows. To provide a theoretic description for the problem under consideration, an integer programming model is built, based on the analysis of passenger delay and the processes by which passengers alight and board. Taking average passenger delay as the objective, the proposed model aims to disperse the pressure of oversaturated stations into others, achieving the optimal state for the entire line. The model is verified using a case study and the results show that restricted access measures taken collaboratively by stations produce less delay and faster evacuation. Finally, a sensitivity analysis is conducted, from which we find that the departure interval and maximum conveying capacity of the train affect passenger delay markedly in the process of passenger control and infer that control measures should be taken at stations near to the one experiencing an emergency.

  14. Electric ignition and airless kindle for underfeed stokers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Crowther, M.E. [CRE Group Ltd., Stoke Orchard (United Kingdom)

    1996-02-01

    The leaflet describes a project carried out to assess the effectiveness and reliability of two methods of reducing the amount of coal used for kindling on boilers fitted with underfeed stokers. Many coal-fired boilers use underfeed stokers to deliver their fuel. When heat is not required, the stoker is put into standby `kindle` mode, and the fire kept alight by the periodic delivery of small amounts of coal and air. CRE Group Ltd., assessed two techniques for reducing the fuel used for kindling: electric ignition and airless kindle. Electric ignition eliminates entirely the need for kindling by automatically re-igniting the coal in the stoker retort using a hot air jet. CRE Group`s development work aimed to overcome earlier design problems and improve cost-effectiveness and reliability. Airless kindle reduces the size and frequency of coal feed in kindle mode. Although it does not entirely eliminate the use of kindle, it saves almost as much fuel for a lower capital outlay and minimal maintenance costs. This option has proved so attractive to the host organisations (Derbyshire Country Council, Nottinghamshire Country Council and Haven Nurseries) that the boiler used for trials for the electric ignition system has now been converted to airless kindle. 3 figs., 4 photos.

  15. Wheeled mobility device transportation safety in fixed route and demand-responsive public transit vehicles within the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frost, Karen L; van Roosmalen, Linda; Bertocci, Gina; Cross, Douglas J

    2012-01-01

    An overview of the current status of wheelchair transportation safety in fixed route and demand-responsive, non-rail, public transportation vehicles within the US is presented. A description of each mode of transportation is provided, followed by a discussion of the primary issues affecting safety, accessibility, and usability. Technologies such as lifts, ramps, securement systems, and occupant restraint systems, along with regulations and voluntary industry standards have been implemented with the intent of improving safety and accessibility for individuals who travel while seated in their wheeled mobility device (e.g., wheelchair or scooter). However, across both fixed route and demand-responsive transit systems a myriad of factors such as nonuse and misuse of safety systems, oversized wheeled mobility devices, vehicle space constraints, and inadequate vehicle operator training may place wheeled mobility device (WhMD) users at risk of injury even under non-impact driving conditions. Since WhMD-related incidents also often occur during the boarding and alighting process, the frequency of these events, along with factors associated with these events are described for each transit mode. Recommendations for improving WhMD transportation are discussed given the current state of PMID:22876731

  16. Fenestration: a window of opportunity for carnivorous plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schaefer, H Martin; Ruxton, Graeme D

    2014-01-01

    A long-standing but controversial hypothesis assumes that carnivorous plants employ aggressive mimicry to increase their prey capture success. A possible mechanism is that pitcher plants use aggressive mimicry to deceive prey about the location of the pitcher's exit. Specifically, species from unrelated families sport fenestration, i.e. transparent windows on the upper surfaces of pitchers which might function to mimic the exit of the pitcher. This hypothesis has not been evaluated against alternative hypotheses predicting that fenestration functions to attract insects from afar. By manipulating fenestration, we show that it does not increase the number of Drosophila flies or of two ant species entering pitchers in Sarracenia minor nor their retention time or a pitcher's capture success. However, fenestration increased the number of Drosophila flies alighting on the pitcher compared with pitchers of the same plant without fenestration. We thus suggest that fenestration in S. minor is not an example of aggressive mimicry but rather functions in long-range attraction of prey. We highlight the need to evaluate aggressive mimicry relative to alternative concepts of plant-animal communication. PMID:24789140

  17. B\\"o\\"ogg Bang drives global climate change

    CERN Document Server

    Brennwald, M S; Kipfer, R

    2011-01-01

    The B\\"o\\"ogg is a large model of a snowman, constructed of inflammable materials and filled with explosives. During the traditional festival of Sechsel\\"auten, which takes place each spring in Zurich, Switzerland, the B\\"o\\"ogg is placed atop a wooden pyre, which is set alight. According to popular legend, the time that elapses until the B\\"o\\"ogg's head explodes (the "head-bang" time) is said to give a rough forecast of local weather conditions prevailing during the following summer. However, recent research has questioned the validity of this prediction. To study the B\\"o\\"ogg's predictive powers, we analyzed the B\\"o\\"ogg head-bang time record from 1965-2010 within the context of global climate change. Our analysis shows that the B\\"o\\"ogg head-bang time is a good predictor not of short-term local weather, as might be expected from the legend, but of the behavior of the entire global climate system.

  18. Approximating actual flows in physical infrastructure networks: the case of the Yangtze River Delta high-speed railway network

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhang Weiyang

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Previous empirical research on urban networks has used data on infrastructure networks to guesstimate actual inter-city flows. However, with the exception of recent research on airline networks in the context of the world city literature, relatively limited attention has been paid to the degree to which the outline of these infrastructure networks reflects the actual flows they undergird. This study presents a method to improve our estimation of urban interaction in and through infrastructure networks by focusing on the example of passenger railways, which is arguably a key potential data source in research on urban networks in metropolitan regions. We first review common biases when using infrastructure networks to approximate actual inter-city flows, after which we present an alternative approach that draws on research on operational train scheduling. This research has shown that ‘dwell time’ at train stations reflects the length of the alighting and boarding process, and we use this insight to estimate actual interaction through the application of a bimodal network projection function. We apply our method to the high-speed railway (HSR network within the Yangtze River Delta (YRD region, discuss the difference between our modelled network and the original network, and evaluate its validity through a systemic comparison with a benchmark dataset of actual passenger flows.

  19. Impact of Train Schedule on Pedestrian Movement on Stairway at Suburban Rail Transit Station in Mumbai, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shah Jiten

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Pedestrian flow takes place in confined environment on stairways under the influence of composition, direction of movement, and schedule of trains. During peak-period, alighting and boarding rate is quite high resulting in very high pedestrian movement from one platform to the other to catch the next train at interchange stations. The transfer of passengers from railway platforms through common undivided stairways becomes difficult, uncomfortable, and unsafe at times when pedestrian flow reaches the capacity level. Understanding of criteria defining quality of flow that affect the effectiveness of facilities like stairways in handling the pedestrian traffic is vital for planning and designing of such facilities to ensure the desired level of service as well as safety in case of emergency. The present paper is based on the study of pedestrian movement on stairways at busy suburban rail transit interchange station at Dadar in Mumbai, India. Pedestrian movements are captured through videography at two stairways and the effect of bidirectional movement on average walking speed is analyzed. The ascending flow in small proportion is found to be more influential in causing speed reduction on undivided stairways. The outcome of the study is useful for capacity and level of service analysis while planning and designing the transit station stairways.

  20. Evaluation of hazards from industrial activity near nuclear power plants. Study of typical accidents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The design and dimensioning of nuclear power plant structures necessitate the evaluation of risks due to industrial activity. Among these risks, those due to the storage or transport of dangerous products merit special attention. They result, inter alia, in the explosion of flammable gas clouds. Such clouds can drift before igniting and, once alight, the resulting pressure wave can cause serious damage, even at a distance. A methodology both deterministic and probabilistic enabling this risk to be quantified has therefore been developed. It is based in part on an analysis of the statistics of actual accidents that have occurred. After briefly recalling the probabilistic model, the typical accidents selected are described and for three usual cases (storage under pressure, rail tank cars and road units) the main characteristics of the rupture are explicited. The deterministic models that have been worked out to calculate the consequences of such an accident: flow rate at the bursting point, evaporation, drift and atmospheric dispersion of the cloud formed, explosion of this cloud, are then described. At the present time the overpressure wave is quantified against a TNT equivalent of the explosive mixture. Some data are given as examples for three commonly employed hydrocarbons (butane, propane, propylene)

  1. A Cross-Sectional Survey on Older Adults' Community Mobility in an Indian Metropolis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramachandran, Meena; D'Souza, Sebestina A

    2016-03-01

    Community mobility supports occupational participation among older adults and promotes active ageing. This study aimed to explore community mobility of older adults within an urban Indian context in view of the limited available literature in this area. A cross-sectional survey was conducted on a convenience sample of 75 older adults residing in Chennai city using a questionnaire and a non-retrospective, open format, two-day time diary. Participants engaged in community mobility and activities outside home for 10% of time over two days. Activities and roles related to religious and spiritual activities and expression, social participation, leisure and informal personal education participation occupied most time and were engaged in most frequently. Walking was the most frequently used mode of transportation and participants reported numerous road-related hazards (lack of proper pavements, disobedience of traffic rules, difficulty crossing roads, crowded roads, and poor condition of roads). Participants used public transport less often. Public transport-related barriers (difficulty boarding and alighting buses/trains due to high steps/insufficient time, inadequate seat reservation for older adults, overcrowding and increased expense on auto rickshaws/taxis) were also expressed as concerns. Participants linked their ability to use public transport with independence and assigned relatively less value to driving. The findings emphasize the significance of community mobility to promote participation in older adults and recommend age-friendly environments in Indian cities. PMID:26706252

  2. Estimating ODs of Transit Routes with a Fluid Analogy Method%公交线路客流 OD 管流类推估算方法的应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    章玉; 郭淑霞; 胡兴华; 黄伟宏

    2014-01-01

    A fluid analogy method (FAM ) is presented in this paper for estimating ODs of transit passenger in Bei-jing .It is based on the concept of pipe flow ,where transit route and passengers are modeled as the pipes and fluid and the OD matrix of a bus route is estimated based on passenger boarding-alighting counts .The accuracy of the OD matrix esti-mated based on the boarding-alighting data is tested against the observed OD matrix obtained from the transit IC card data over the segmented pricing routes in Beijing .It is found out that the estimation errors for the OD matrix at the AM peak , the PM peak and within the whole day are more than 0 .75 .Meanwhile ,the correlation coefficient between the actual dis-tance traveled and estimated at the AM peak hours ,the PM peak hours and within the whole day is 0 .98 ,0 .98 and 0 .99 respectively ,which supports that the proposed FAM method shows a good accuracy and reliability in estimating OD ma -trix of transit route .Compared with traditional equalization algorithms and other analytical models ,the proposed method is simple ,efficient and has a unique solution .Therefore ,it is believed that the proposed FAM method should be useful for public transportation agencies in their scheduling and dispatching routines .%应用管流类推法(fluid analogy method ,FAM )研究公交线路 OD 矩阵的估算,该方法利用管流概念,将公交线路和乘客分别视为管道和流体,利用乘客在各站上下车人数来估算公交线路 OD 矩阵。将该方法应用于北京市分段计价的公交线路中,通过对比估算结果与实际公交 IC 卡的出行 OD分布,结果表明:在早高峰、晚高峰、全日的 OD 估算误差指数在0.75以上,且早高峰、晚高峰、全日估算的公交乘车站距与实际乘车距离的相关系数分别为0.98,0.98,0.99,验证了 FAM 法在公交线路不同时段 OD 估算中的精度与可靠性,与传统的均衡算法等解析模型

  3. A neglected aspect of the epidemiology of sleeping sickness: the propensity of the tsetse fly vector to enter houses.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Glyn A Vale

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: When taking a bloodmeal from humans, tsetse flies can transmit the trypanosomes responsible for sleeping sickness, or human African trypanosomiasis. While it is commonly assumed that humans must enter the normal woodland habitat of the tsetse in order to have much chance of contacting the flies, recent studies suggested that important contact can occur due to tsetse entering buildings. Hence, we need to know more about tsetse in buildings, and to understand why, when and how they enter such places. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Buildings studied were single storied and comprised a large house with a thatched roof and smaller houses with roofs of metal or asbestos. Each building was unoccupied except for the few minutes of its inspection every two hours, so focusing on the responses of tsetse to the house itself, rather than to humans inside. The composition, and physiological condition of catches of tsetse flies, Glossina morsitans morsitans and G. pallidipes, in the houses and the diurnal and seasonal pattern of catches, were intermediate between these aspects of the catches from artificial refuges and a host-like trap. Several times more tsetse were caught in the large house, as against the smaller structures. Doors and windows seemed about equally effective as entry points. Many of the tsetse in houses were old enough to be potential vectors of sleeping sickness, and some of the flies alighted on the humans that inspected the houses. CONCLUSION/SIGNIFICANCE: Houses are attractive in themselves. Some of the tsetse attracted seem to be in a host-seeking phase of behavior and others appear to be looking for shelter from high temperatures outside. The risk of contracting sleeping sickness in houses varies according to house design.

  4. Related but not alike: not all Hemiptera are attracted to yellow

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kevin eFarnier

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Most innate responses to color stimuli lead herbivorous insects to orient to green and yellow surfaces. Early research showed that aphid orientation to plants is influenced by foliar pigments and leads them to alight on leaves of a specific physiological state regardless of whether or not it is their actual host. In this study, we quantified the color preferences of four psyllids specialized on young to recently expanded leaves of different Eucalyptus hosts presenting distinct between (inter-specific and within canopy (ontogenic optical characteristics. Color preferences of Ctenarytaina eucalypti and C. bipartita were similar to those observed in aphids with more frequent selection of yellow and green stimuli, consistent with the coloration of their host leaves. However, attraction of Anoeconeossa bundoorensis and Glycaspis brimblecombei to a red stimulus contrasts strongly with the literature for hemipteran and herbivorous insects generally for which attraction to red is peculiar. Interestingly, both red-attracted species occur on the same host eucalypt, which expresses anthocyanic (red young leaves. Our experiments demonstrate that these two species are sensitive to long wavelength radiation. Behavioral work and modeling of putative aphid-like photoreceptors were conducted to investigate whether achromatic vision mediates perception of red. Our results do not provide strong evidence for an intensity-dependant type of attraction. Nevertheless, the current knowledge of photoreceptors in Hemiptera identifies the achromatic as the most likely mechanism for detecting long wavelengths. Thus, our findings highlight the need for physiological work with Psylloidea to dissect the mechanisms responsible for such atypical responses. We discuss the ecological implications of our work in relation to red foliar pigments in expanding leaves of perennial plants which differs greatly from the thoroughly studied aphid-autumnal leaves system involving senescing

  5. Skin-piercing blood-sucking moths II: Studies on a further 3 adult Calyptra [Calpe] sp. (Lepid., Noctuidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bänziger, H

    1979-03-01

    1. Of the scarce Calyptra minuticornis, C. orthograpta and C. labilis, 51, 24, and 7 adults, respectively, were observed during some 600 night inspections at over 100 sites in 1965--1967 and 1971--1977. 2. Hitherto biologically completely unknown, and not recorded before in S.E. Asia, the latter two species flew in or near tropical monsoon forests in hilly regions (300--600 m) of N. Thailand (C. orthograpta also N. Laos). C. minuticornis was found in these and in tropical evergreen and semi-evergreen rain forests of S. Thailand and N.W. Malaysia. 3. In N. Thailand the three species were more common at the end of the cool season/start of the hot season and at the start of the rainy season. They were active mainly during the first half of the night 4. Flight and piercing behaviour, alighting, resting, enemies, and the lack of females, were similar to virtually identical with the "classical" skin-piercing blood-sucking C. eustrigata. 5. C. labilis was seen attacking elephant, C. orthograpta also water buffalo and sambar, C. minuticornis also zebu and tapir but not sambar. C. minuticornis settled on man also but did not pierce. 6. Through no piercing of hosts' skin has actually been seen in nature, indirect evidence suggests that the 3 moths are likely to be occasional blood-suckers. They pierced and sucked blood from the author's skin in experiments. 7. Reasons for lack of direct evidence may be: less developed hematophagy, less favoured hosts, lack of easy-to-pierce injured skin (which also trigger the piercing response), different climatic and phytoecological environment, fewer specimens than in the case of C. eustrigata. 8. Field observations and experiments indicate that the closely related, fruit-piercing Oraesia emarginata is not skin-piercing blood-sucking--a habit likely to be exhibited mainly in humid equatorial regions by a few Calyptra only. PMID:35931

  6. Long term effects of aversive reinforcement on colour discrimination learning in free-flying bumblebees.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miguel A Rodríguez-Gironés

    Full Text Available The results of behavioural experiments provide important information about the structure and information-processing abilities of the visual system. Nevertheless, if we want to infer from behavioural data how the visual system operates, it is important to know how different learning protocols affect performance and to devise protocols that minimise noise in the response of experimental subjects. The purpose of this work was to investigate how reinforcement schedule and individual variability affect the learning process in a colour discrimination task. Free-flying bumblebees were trained to discriminate between two perceptually similar colours. The target colour was associated with sucrose solution, and the distractor could be associated with water or quinine solution throughout the experiment, or with one substance during the first half of the experiment and the other during the second half. Both acquisition and final performance of the discrimination task (measured as proportion of correct choices were determined by the choice of reinforcer during the first half of the experiment: regardless of whether bees were trained with water or quinine during the second half of the experiment, bees trained with quinine during the first half learned the task faster and performed better during the whole experiment. Our results confirm that the choice of stimuli used during training affects the rate at which colour discrimination tasks are acquired and show that early contact with a strongly aversive stimulus can be sufficient to maintain high levels of attention during several hours. On the other hand, bees which took more time to decide on which flower to alight were more likely to make correct choices than bees which made fast decisions. This result supports the existence of a trade-off between foraging speed and accuracy, and highlights the importance of measuring choice latencies during behavioural experiments focusing on cognitive abilities.

  7. 基于平顺性与操纵稳定性的悬架系统多目标优化%Multi-objective optimization of suspension system based on vehicle ride comfort and handling stability

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘伟; 史文库; 桂龙明; 方德广; 郭福祥

    2011-01-01

    针对汽车悬架系统开发设计中行驶平顺性和操纵稳定性两个目标相互矛盾的问题,以某轻型乘用客车后悬架系统为研究对象,建立了汽车悬架系统多目标优化模型。以汽车行驶平顺性、操纵稳定性为优化目标,选择后悬架弹簧刚度、减振器阻尼系数及稳定杆扭转刚度为优化参数,设计了一种基于改进遗传算法NSGA-Ⅱ的悬架系统多目标优化策略。悬架优化前后试验结果表明,本文提出的多目标优化策略在改善汽车行驶平顺性的同时,兼顾了操纵稳定性,具有较好的优化效果。%In view of the trade-off between the handling stability and the ride comfort in the design of the suspension system,taking the rear suspension system of alight passenger bus as a research object,a multi-objective optimization model of the suspension system parameters was established.Taking the handling stability and the ride comfort as the optimization objectives,selecting the suspension spring stiffness,the shock Absorber damping factor and the stabilizer bar torsional stiffness as the optimization variables,a multi-objective optimization strategy based on the improved genetic algorithm NSGA-Ⅱ was designed for the suspension system.The test results show that the proposed optimization approach demonstrated good results in improvement of the vehicle ride comfort without penalty on the handling stability.

  8. Olfactory Responses of the Asiatic Citrus Psyllid (Diaphorina citri to Mineral Oil-Treated Mandarin Leaves

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mofit E. Poerwanto

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: Evidence of rejection or acceptance by phytophagous pests of citrus plants treated with mineral oils suggests that impacts of oils may be related to detection by olfactory and/or contact chemoreceptors of repellent oils or plant volatiles. Alternatively, the oils may mask or suppress attractant host plant volatiles. To date, no studies have reported that oils elicit an olfactory response in Diaphorina citri Kuwayama [Hemiptera: Psyllidae]. Therefore, we undertook two studies to determine how oil deposits on citrus leaves influenced the behaviour of D. citri. Approach: The attractiveness of citrus leaves treated separately with an nC21 horticultural mineral oil and an nC24 agricultural mineral oil to D. citri was evaluated under laboratory conditions. In the first of two studies, the oils were applied as 0.5% aqueous emulsions to mandarin leaves and responses of adults determined after they walked on surfaces saturated with either distilled water or 2% aqueous emulsions of the oils. In the second study, responses of adult psyllids to host-leaf volatiles, mineral oil volatiles emanating from leaves dipped in 2% v/v aqueous emulsions of each oil and similarly treated filter paper paired with water-dipped leaves were determined in single, linear-tube olfactometers. Results: In the first study, deposits of both oils significantly reduced the proportion of D. citri attracted to citrus leaves. Prior exposure of the insects to oil deposits did not influence this response. However, prior contact with the HMO slightly reduced the proportion of psyllids alighting on the water-dipped leaves. In the second study, oil volatiles emanating from filter paper significantly reduced the attractiveness of water-dipped mandarin leaves. Conclusion: These results indicate that application of the oils to the mandarin leaves may have: (a suppressed release of attractant host plant volatiles; (b masked attractant host plant volatiles; (c led to the

  9. Modification and Pedestrian Simulation of Platform Width Calculation Method of Urban Rail Transit%地铁车站站台宽度计算方法改进及仿真评价

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王子甲; 陈峰; 李小红

    2012-01-01

    Based on the current related research and field studies, this paper proposes the calculation method of boarding and alighting area width of platform in the current design manual for urban rail transit. Taking some design manuals of other countries as reference, a modified method is proposed. The new method can reduce the width of the designed platform and the scale of the station. Quantitative analysis should be conducted to determine if the modification significantly affects the circulation of platform before the modified method applied. The pedestrian simulation environment is built according to the stations designed by the original method and the modified one using computer pedestrian simulation tool. The simulation evaluation is also conducted. The evaluation index including pedestrian density, time lost and walking time. Comparisons illustrate that the capacity of the stairway and escalator on the platform determines the circulation efficiency. The modified method can decrease the platform width with little sacrifice of level of service.%针对目前设计手册中城市轨道交通车站站台宽度计算存在的问题,本文根据现场调研,借鉴其他国家或地区的设计规范,提出了计入楼扶梯纵向对应宽度的改进站台乘降区宽度测算方法;并采用计算机行人仿真工具,分别根据原方法和改进方法计算得到的站台宽度建立了案例车站的实体环境,进行仿真分析,得到了两种方法设计的车站的行人密度分布、行人时间损失、站台集散时间等指标.指标对比显示,对站台集散能力起决定作用的是站台楼扶梯,采用改进的计算方法,站台宽度虽然有缩减,但是整体服务水平降低不大,改进的计算方法在满足站台安全舒适性的要求的同时可缩减车站规模.

  10. Relationships among magnetic resonance imaging, histological findings, and IGF-I in steroid-induced osteonecrosis of the femoral head in rabbits

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xing-can CHEN; Jian WENG; Xue-qun CHEN; Ji-zeng DU; Miao-ping ZHU; Yong-qing PAN; Miao LIU

    2008-01-01

    Objective: To study the relationships among magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), histological findings, and insulin-like growth factor-I (IGF-I) in steroid-induced osteonecrosis of the femoral head in rabbits. Methods: Thirty rabbits were randomly divided into experimental Group A (n=15) and control Group B (n=15). The 7.5 mg/kg (2 ml) ofdexamethasone (DEX)and physiological saline (2 ml) were injected into the fight gluteus medius muscle twice at one-week intervals in animals of Groups A and B, respectively. At 4, 8 and 16 weeks after obtaining an MRI, the rabbits were sacrificed and the femoral head from one side was removed for histological study of lacunae empty of osteocytes, subchondral vessels, and size of fat cells under microscopy, and the femoral head from the other side was removed for enzyme-linked immunoadsorbent assay (ELISA) for IGF-I.Results: At 4, 8 and 16 weeks after treatment, no necrotic lesions were detected in Group B, while they were detected in Group A.Light microscopy revealed that the fat cells of the marrow cavity were enlarged, subchondral vessels were evidently decreased,and empty bone lacunae were clearly increased. The IGF-I levels in Group A were significantly higher than those in Group B. At 8 weeks after the DEX injection, the MRI of all 20 femora showed an inhomogeneous, low signal intensity area in the femoral head,and at 16 weeks, the findings of all 10 femora showed a specific "line-like sign". The MRI findings of all femora in Group B were normal. Conclusion: MRI is a highly sensitive means of diagnosing early experimental osteonecrosis of the femoral head. However, the abnormal marrow tissues appeared later than 4 weeks when the expression of IGF-I increased. This reparative factor has an early and important role in response to steroid-induced osteonecrosis of the femoral head, and provides a theoretical foundation for understanding the pathology and designing new therapies.

  11. Observações sobre anofelinos em Santa Catarina, Brasil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mário B. Aragão

    1973-10-01

    , showed that a person placed outside the house intercepts a significant number of mosquitoes; 5 It was clear that anophelines in the region rarely alight on sprayed walls; 6 Besides this, DDT greatly reduces the number of specimens which go to feed inside the houses; for A. cruzii this reduction was of the order of 90%.

  12. História e memórias do banco de leite humano do Instituto de Medicina Integral Prof. Fernando Figueira (1987-2009 em Recife, Pernambuco, Brasil History and memories of the human milk bank of the Instituto de Medicina Integral Prof. Fernando Figueira (1987-2009 in Recife, Pernambuco, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karenina Elice Guimarães Carvalho

    2010-12-01

    's HMB, set up in 1987, was the brainchild of Professor Fernando Figueira and Dr. Vilneide Braga and its aim was to meet the needs of the Maternity hospital and its neonatal intensive care unit. The inauguration was attended by politicians, breastfeeding experts, TV celebrities and hospital staff. CONCLUSIONS: the methods of oral history were used to build up a history of the origins and evolution of the IMIP's HMB based on the testimony of the individuals involved. The history of the IMIP's HMB is an ongoing, living process and force that produces change, dreams and hope and keeps alight the ideal of a better world for children, mothers and for society at large.

  13. Development of an in-situ diagnostic for the measurement of the hydrogen content of amorphous hydrocarbon layers in fusion devices; Entwicklung einer In-situ-Messmethode zur Bestimmung des Wasserstoffgehalts amorpher Kohlenwasserstoffschichten in Fusionsanlagen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Irrek, F.

    2008-07-15

    A diagnostic method, the laser-induced thermal desorption spectroscopy (LDS), is developed to measure in situ the hydrogen inventory in the surface of plasma-facing components in fusion experiments. Its capabilities will be demonstrated in TEXTOR. In LDS, during the plasma discharge a laser beam is used to heat a spot on a surface close to the plasma to a temperature of 1400 to 2100 K to a depth of 100 {mu}m. Trapped hydrogen will be released into the plasma where it emits line radiation. The emitted H{sub a}-light is quantitatively measured. The amount of released hydrogen is calculated from the intensity of this emission using conversion factors (S/XB){sub eff}. The laser light (Nd:YAG, 1064 nm) is conducted via light fibres. At TEXTOR, a 5 mm{sup 2} sized homogeneous laser spot is created with a pulse duration of 1.5 ms, and an Energy of 5 J, typically. Below the laser spot a volume of at most 1 mm{sup 3} is desorbed. The generated temperature is calculated numerically and indirectly deduced from surface changings. Depending on the conditions during the layer formation the hydrogen content of the hydrocarbon layer will vary and different fractions of the released molecules (H{sub 2}, CH{sub 4}, C{sub 2}H{sub 4}) are created during the laser heating. The release of atomic hydrogen by laser desorption was not found. The emitted light is measured by means of narrow-band interference filters and a CCD-camera. The fraction of the light emission which lies outside the observation volume is estimated using simulations of the emission by the neutral gas transport Monte Carlo code EIRENE for each molecular fraction. Conversion factors (S/XB){sub eff} were measured in various reference plasmas (T{sub e}=22-30 eV, n{sub e}=1-11 x 10{sup 18} m{sup -3} and T{sub e}=50-74 eV, n{sub e}=1-5 x 10{sup 18} m{sup -3}) by desorbing prepared graphite samples which release a known amount of hydrogen with a known molecular distribution. LDS measurements were carried out in TEXTOR at

  14. 不同修剪模式对有机茶园节肢动物群落多样性的影响%Effects of Pruning on Biodiversity of Arthropod Communities at Organic Tea Plantations

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王友平; 李儒海; 毛迎新; 谭荣荣; 陈勋; 王红娟; 饶辉福; 丁坤明

    2015-01-01

    对夏季轻修剪、深修剪和不修剪的有机茶园中节肢动物群落进行了调查。结果表明,与不修剪相比,轻修剪1、2个月后对茶树害虫和天敌均产生了显著影响,深修剪的影响更大。修剪1个月后,轻修剪和深修剪茶树上假眼小绿叶蝉、茶尺蠖、茶橙瘿螨和蜘蛛的数量显著下降;修剪2个月后,轻修剪和深修剪茶树上假眼小绿叶蝉的数量显著增加,说明两种修剪方式均可推迟假眼小绿叶蝉虫口高峰出现的时间,深修剪还可有效避过茶橙瘿螨的危害。修剪3、4个月后,轻修剪、深修剪和不修剪茶树上节肢动物群落多样性指数和益害比差异不显著。轻修剪对有机茶园吸汁性害虫的持续控制效果可达1个月,深修剪的控制效果更好,但是需要统筹考虑防虫、养蓄天敌和后续茶叶的生产,要慎重选择。%Effect of plant pruning on the biodiversity of arthropod communities at organic tea plantations were investigated in the summer. Tea plants were subjected to light, deep or no pruning for observation in changes on the biodiversity at the plantations. The results indicated that one or two months after alight pruning, both pests and natural enemies were significantly affected. The effect was even greater when a deep pruning was applied. A month after a deep pruning, the number of arthropods including Empoasca vitis, Ectropis obliqua, Acaphyllatheaeand spiders were significantly reduced as compared with that without pruning. However, one month later, the Empoasca vitiscounts began to increase. Both light and deep pruning delayed the initial peak on the small green leafhopper count, and the deep pruning completely avoided the damage caused by the tea pink mites. In 3 or 4 months, no significant difference in arthropod community diversity index, nor the ratio of natural enemy/pest biomass, was observed among the treatments. Light pruning could put the leaf-sucker population

  15. The fruit fly programme in Chile

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: country. In fact, no species of the genera Ceratitis, Bactrocera, Anastrepha, Dacus and Toxotrypana exist in the country. This programme uses the Fruit fly National Detection System, which includes detection of the pest by trapping and fruit sampling in different areas located between the I and XI Regions of the country. This system is approved by the Chilean trade partners on the basis of the fruit fly-free recognition. For the Chilean fresh fruit exports, this is an important advantage, because there is no need to apply quarantine treatments or any other restriction measure. Chile has also a huge fruit industry, whose export revenues last season reached USD 1,900 million. This fact has permitted to undertake continuously a big effort to maintain that phytosanitary condition. Since Chile is the only fruit-fly free Latin American country, it has to face a continuous biological pressure of fruit flies, mainly C. capitata, to invade its territory. But the country has also some important advantages to prevent flies migrating due to its natural isolation. These natural barriers are the Los Andes ranges in the east, thousands of kilometers of desert in the north, the Pacific Ocean in the west and finally an extremely cold, sub polar climate in the south. This isolation has led to the NPPO officials to believe that the passive spread, through smuggling and hidden fruit in passenger's baggage, to be the most likely source of fruit fly entries. Because of that, Chile has a very strict quarantine system with border control stations at every point of entry. The only exception to the mentioned isolation is Arica Province on the border with Peru. There, SAG applies an area-wide preventative approach through the rearing and release of sterile insects, as well as bait spraying in the border area, which is mainly desert, but has some 'green spots' that allow the fly to alight for resting and feeding. Additionally, through bi-national agreements, common activities are

  16. Le grand assemblage du panoptique planétaire. Un travail d’amateurs...

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Thierry

    2014-04-01

    permettront ou non la réutilisation active des fichiers par des amateurs sur des espaces numériques personnels loin du monde des médias. Photographic news is the result of a scenography processed through a typology of conventional structures at the core of which evolve interchangeable actors. The history of photojournalism established a type of canonical framework that defined the expression of several generations of reporters, without real innovation. The massification of purposeful images with the advent of television reinforced these structures with the public. The growing need to produce a flux of dematerialized pictures accelerated technological developments in media and led to important changes in how they are viewed. Expectations lie increasingly in a universality of the panoptic vision, made familiar by the multiplicity of viewing channels. Based on this observation, we highlight an important transformation in the nature of the sources of news images, which demonstrates two main characteristics: first of all, technological advances in the capturing of images make pictures virtually omnipresent at all times and at any point on the planet. As a result, this global web of picture-takers produces images without authors and without intentionality which alight in the established structure. Faced with this loss of meaning on the part of producersof images, the viewers of these billions of dispossessed available images are invited to create new uses for them, in contrast to the news that feeds networked screens. The classic scenes of photojournalism persist, but it is primarily the activity of the viewers of these raw materials that produces news writing according to their unique needs. Questions about the state of the planet, historicity, truth, or bias of the author are replaced by concerns for rapidity, and size and type of file which may or may not allow their reuse by amateurs in personal digital spaces far away from the media. A atualidade fotográfica resulta de