WorldWideScience

Sample records for alighting

  1. Low-floor bus design preferences of walking aid users during simulated boarding and alighting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'souza, Clive; Paquet, Victor; Lenker, James; Steinfeld, Edward; Bareria, Piyush

    2012-01-01

    Low-floor buses represent a significant improvement in accessible public transit for passengers with limited mobility. However, there is still a need for research on the inclusive design of transit buses to identify specific low-floor bus design conditions that are either particularly accommodating or challenging for passengers with functional and mobility impairments. These include doorway locations, seating configuration and the large front wheel-well covers that collectively impact boarding, alighting and interior movement of passengers. Findings from a laboratory study using a static full-scale simulation of a lowfloor bus to evaluate the impact of seating configuration and crowding on interior movement and accessibility for individuals with and without walking aids are presented (n=41). Simulated bus journeys that included boarding, fare payment, seating, and alighting were performed. Results from video observations and subjective assessments showed differences in boarding and alighting performance and users' perceptions of task difficulty. The need for assistive design features (e.g. handholds, stanchions), legroom and stowage space for walking aids was evident. These results demonstrate that specific design conditions in low-floor buses can significantly impact design preference among those who use walking aids. Consideration of ergonomics and inclusive design can therefore be used to improve the design of low-floor buses.

  2. Yoga from the Mat up: How Words Alight on Bodies

    Science.gov (United States)

    McIlwain, Doris; Sutton, John

    2014-01-01

    Yoga is a unique form of expert movement that promotes an increasingly subtle interpenetration of thought and movement. The mindful nature of its practice, even at expert levels, challenges the idea that thought and mind are inevitably disruptive to absorbed coping. Building on parallel phenomenological and ethnographic studies of skilful…

  3. Etiology of Fall-Related Injuries in the Army: Review of Narrative Incident Reports, January to December 2011

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-12-01

    479 Instrumentalities of War-Enemy 480 - 499 Instrumentalities of War-Self 500 - 599 Guns , explosives 600 - 699 Machinery, tools 700 - 799...required/notes Rail Accidents E804.X Boarding/alighting, fall out/in .0 Employee .1 Passenger .2 Pedestrian .3 Pedal cyclist .4 Other

  4. Repellent Action Of Neem (Azadiracta India Seed Oil Against Aedes Aegypti Mosquitoes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hati A K

    1995-01-01

    Full Text Available Neem (Azadiracta India seed oil in appropriate amount when smeared on the surface of the hand showed excellent repellent action against Aedes aegypti mosquitoes. When 1 ml of oil was spread on the hand, with an approximate area of 160 sq cm the percentage of alighting and blood fed mosquitoes in the experimental cages varied from 14 to 78 and 4 to 46 respectively. This percentage decreased to 6 to 18 and 0 to 16 respectively when the amount of oil applied was 1.5 ml. Only 0-4% of the mosquitoes alighted on the skin of which 2% only took the blood meal when 2 ml of the oil was used to cover the hand. In the control cages cent percent of the mosquitoes alighted and sucked blood. The repellent action was directly proportional to the hour of exposure to the oil. It was also observed that even after alighting on a oil- smeared skin a sizeable proportion of mosquitoes were not able to imbibe blood meal. Neem seed oil was non-toxic, non- irritating to skin.

  5. Estimation of train dwell time at short stops based on track occupation event data

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Li, D.; Daamen, W.; Goverde, R.M.P.

    2015-01-01

    Train dwell time is one of the most unpredictable components of railway operations mainly due to the varying volumes of alighting and boarding passengers. For reliable estimations of train running times and route conflicts on main lines it is however necessary to obtain accurate estimations of dwell

  6. Delay propagation and process management at railway stations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Goverde, R.M.P.; Hansen, I.A.

    2001-01-01

    Process operators at large railway stations have the difficult task to secure a fluent train traffic flow while minimizing deviations from established timetables. Variation in actual train departure times is inevitable due to many circumstances such as arrival delays and fluctuations in alighting an

  7. British theatre and performance 1900-1950

    OpenAIRE

    D’Monté, R.

    2015-01-01

    British theatre from 1900-1950 has been subject to radical re-evaluation with plays from the period setting theatres alight and gaining critical acclaim once again; this book explains why, presenting a comprehensive survey of the theatre and how it shaped the work that followed.

  8. “Preaching-Non-Violence” Rioters Rampage in Lhasa-Recounting the Rioting in Lhasa on March 14~(th)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Amy

    2008-01-01

    It was about 11a.m.,March 14th,2008.Lhasa,a Tibetan city used to peace and tranquility,was suddenly subjected to relentless rioting by mobs in the name of"non-violence resistance".They smashed,looted, vandalized,set property alight,beat and even killed people they encountered.

  9. Population ageing in the Netherlands: Demographic and financial arguments for a balanced approach

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Salverda, W.

    2007-01-01

    Dutch policy makers recently set the public debate on ageing alight by enforcing drastic cuts in early retirement opportunities; increasing taxation of the aged and augmenting retirement age are also considered. The prime argument is to diminish a burden on public finances far in future. This paper

  10. Military Review. Volume 73. June 1993, Number 6

    Science.gov (United States)

    1993-06-01

    would be unlikely to drag his country into a Vietnam-type situation. Apart from protests, Carter contented himself with boycotting the Olympic Games ...subversive tinder Carter contented himself with boycotting alight. Brezhnev certainly did not want a the Olympic Games being held in Moscow. Balkanized...responsibe for th 46 June 106 * MUTAWr RVLW -ROUNDOUT ORAE ro;uAotuqItmut;be moreinvelvedin the moba ~liation site properly trained as sol- traitig 40d

  11. Theoretically Investigation Of Smoke Production In A Tunnel Fire

    OpenAIRE

    DOBRUCALI, Erinç

    2013-01-01

    Fire is the heat and light energy released during a chemical reaction, in particular a combustion reaction. Depending on the substances alight, and any impurities outside, the color of the flame and the fire's intensity might vary. Fire in its most common form can result in conflagration, and has the potential to cause physical damage through burning. Fires in buildings and transportation systems are a threat to human lives and also to buildings and cultural heritage. In a fire inferno, most ...

  12. Landing Procedure in Model Ditching Tests of Bf 109

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sottorf, W.

    1949-01-01

    The purpose of the model tests is to clarify the motions in the alighting on water of a land plane. After discussion of the model laws, the test method and test procedure are described. The deceleration-time-diagrams of the landing of a model of the Bf 109 show a high deceleration peek of greater than 20g which can be lowered to 4 to 6g by radiator cowling and brake skid.

  13. Influence of Light and Heat on the Stability of Nitrofurazone Solution

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李志毅; 詹先成; 李琳丽; 李开兰; 杨秀岑; 林涛; 李成蓉

    2005-01-01

    The influence of both light and heat on the stability of nitrofurazone aqueous solution was studied. Results show that in either heating experiments or the exposure to light at high temperatures, the degradation rate obeyed zero-order kinetics. The total rate constant ktotal caused by both light and heat can be divided into two parts: ktotal =kdark+klight, where kdark and klight are the degradation rate constants caused by heat and light, respectively. The klight can be expressed as klight=Alight*exp(-Ea,light/RT)*E, where E is the illuminance of light, and Alight and Ea,light both are experimental constants. The values of these kinetic parameters were determined based on the experiments in the dark and upon exposure to three different light sources. Results show that the values of Alight and Ea, light varied with the light source. To save time, labor, and drugs, exponential heating experiments were employed and compared with the isothermal experiments. Results indicated that kinetic parameters obtained by exponential heating experiments are comparable to those obtained by isothermal experiments either in the dark or upon exposure to light.

  14. Differential Life History Trait Associations of Aphids with Nonpersistent Viruses in Cucurbits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Angelella, G M; Egel, D S; Holland, J D; Nemacheck, J A; Williams, C E; Kaplan, I

    2015-06-01

    The diversity of vectors and fleeting nature of virus acquisition and transmission renders nonpersistent viruses a challenge to manage. We assessed the importance of noncolonizing versus colonizing vectors with a 2-yr survey of aphids and nonpersistent viruses on commercial pumpkin farms. We quantified aphid alightment using pan traps, while testing leaf samples with multiplex RT-PCR targeting cucumber mosaic virus (CMV), zucchini yellow mosaic virus (ZYMV), watermelon mosaic virus (WMV), and papaya ringspot virus (PRSV). Overall, we identified 53 aphid species (3,899 individuals), from which the melon aphid, Aphis gossypii Glover, a pumpkin-colonizing species, predominated (76 and 37% of samples in 2010 and 2011, respectively). CMV and ZYMV were not detected, but WMV and PRSV were prevalent, both regionally (WMV: 28/29 fields, PRSV: 21/29 fields) and within fields (infection rates = 69 and 55% for WMV in 2010 and 2011; 28 and 25% for PRSV in 2010 and 2011). However, early-season samples showed extremely low infection levels, suggesting cucurbit viruses are not seed-transmitted and implicating aphid activity as a causal factor driving virus spread. Interestingly, neither noncolonizer and colonizer alightment nor total aphid alightment were good predictors of virus presence, but community analyses revealed species-specific relationships. For example, cowpea aphid (Aphis craccivora Koch) and spotted alfalfa aphid (Therioaphis trifolii Monell f. maculata) were associated with PRSV infection, whereas the oleander aphid (Aphis nerii Bover de Fonscolombe) was associated with WMV spread within fields. These outcomes highlight the need for tailored management plans targeting key vectors of nonpersistent viruses in agricultural systems.

  15. Security of the Internet Transactions

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Felix Musau; Shengbing Ren; Shouyi Yu

    2002-01-01

    The new generation of networked business solutions brings legacy data and applications to the world wide Web, and lets companies redefine internal and external business processes. The present need for internet transaction has forced many business to adopt the internet forms of distribution of its business items. This has threatened security, hence needs to be given a key priority. This paper alights the key areas on how to protect the information we transact on the internet. It also aims at improving the security of our data and the computers we use to access this data.

  16. INJURY EVENTS AMONG BUS AND COACH OCCUPANTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ulf BJÖRNSTIG

    2005-01-01

    Conclusions: The aerodynamic cross-wind factor merits more studies. Injury reducing measures against alighting injuries, addressing especially step height and slippery conditions, may have a great potential to reduce these injuries. Rear-end collisions by other heavy vehicles in urban areas, causing a high number of “whip-lash” injuries, also need to be further addressed. The newly introduced law on compulsory seat belt use in long distance coaches may have a potential to reduce single vehicle crash and some collision injuries.

  17. Spin polarization of electrons in a magnetic impurity doped semiconductor quantum dot – The effect of electron–phonon interaction

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Misra Deepanjali; Tripathy Sukanta Kumar

    2016-03-01

    A theoretical model is presented in this paper for degree of spin polarization in alight emitting diode (LED) whose epitaxial region contains quantum dots doped with magnetic impurity. The model is then used to investigate the effect of electron–phonon interaction on degree of spin polarization at different temperatures and magnetic fields. It is found that magnetic impurityincreases the degree of spin polarization irrespective of temperature, while the electron–phonon interaction decreases the degree of spin polarization. Results are found to be in better agreement with experiments.

  18. Mechanical behavior of PMMA due to artificial aging by means of a xenon-test chamber; Comportamiento mecanico del polimetilmetacrilato sometido a envejecimiento artificial mediante camara xenotest

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Colom, X.; Nogues, F.; Valldeperas, J.; Carrillo, F.; Gordillo, A.

    2001-07-01

    In this investigation, the mechanical behavior of poly(methylmethacrylate) due to aging in Xenon test chamber, using a xenon-arch lamp as alight radiation to simulate natural sun light has been studied. This work studies the mechanical properties (elongation at break, Young's modules, tensile strength and toughness) of PMMA samples exposed to different aging conditions (until 1560 h xenotest that correspond to 750 days exposure at natural light). The evolution of different mechanical properties characterizes the PMMA's process of degradation. (Author) 10 refs.

  19. Azimuth orientation of the dragonfly (Sympetrum)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hisada, M.

    1972-01-01

    Evidence is presented of directional orientation by an alighting dragonfly relative to the azimuth of the sun. The effects of wind direction on this orientation are analyzed. It was concluded that wind does not play a major role in orientation but may have some secondary function in helping greater numbers of dragonflies face windward more often than leeward. A search was made to find the principle sensory receptor for orientation. Two possibilities, the large compound eye and the frontal ocelli, were noted; however, no conclusive evidence could be found.

  20. Development of maternal and child health services in the minority communities of Israel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rebecca Adams

    1981-09-01

    Full Text Available TO get to the maternal and child health station in Mahamadia, a Moslem Arab village, you alight from the bus at the foot of Mount Tabor, slide down a hill, and find yourself in a courtyard with children and sheep. Bahija, the practical nurse, greets you and laughs as she tells of the Jewish paediatrician who, because of religious tenets forbidding touching a strange woman, refused to take her helping hand and proceeded to fall all the way. From the entrance shed you are led to two rooms with light coming from the open doors. The rooms are clean with stone floors that are easily washed and with the standard blue and white furniture seen in every Ministry of Health or Kupat Holim (General Sick Fund of the Federation of Labor station in Israel.

  1. Molecular Markers: an Introduction and Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Firas Rashad Al-Samarai

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The dramatic development of molecular genetics has laid the groundwork for genomics. It has introduced new generations of molecular markers for use in the genetic improvement of farm animals. These markers provide more accurate genetic information and better understanding of the animal genetic resources. Scientists, unfamiliar with the different molecular techniques tend to get lost as each has its own advantages and disadvantages. This review represents a trail to shade alight on the different types of molecular markers by introducing a brief summary on the development of genetic markers including both the classical genetic markers and more advanced DNA-based molecular markers. This review could be helpful to better understand the characteristics of different genetic markers and the genetic diversity of animal genetic resources.

  2. Fighting fires... with science

    CERN Multimedia

    Anaïs Schaeffer

    2016-01-01

    CERN firefighters are working with a research centre in the United States to develop more effective firefighting techniques.   One of the UL FSRI’s model houses is set alight... in the interest of science. (Photo: ©UL FSRI) For around ten years, the Underwriters Laboratories Firefighter Safety Research Institute (UL FSRI) has been carrying out scientific research on the various techniques used by firefighters in the United States and around the world. This research has focused on evaluating the effectiveness and safety of current practices worldwide with the aim of developing even better techniques. In many cases the research has shown that a combination of techniques gives the best results. The interiors of the model houses are fully furnished. (Photo: ©UL FSRI) Art Arnalich, who has worked with fire brigades in the United States and Europe and is now a member of CERN’s Fire Brigade, has actively participated in this research since 2013. His knowledge of ...

  3. Statistical graphics: mapping the pathways of science.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wainer, H; Velleman, P F

    2001-01-01

    This chapter traces the evolution of statistical graphics starting with its departure from the common noun structure of Cartesian determinism, through William Playfair's revolutionary grammatical shift to graphs as proper nouns, and alights on the modern conception of graph as an active participant in the scientific process of discovery. The ubiquitous availability of data, software, and cheap, high-powered, computing when coupled with the broad acceptance of the ideas in Tukey's 1977 treatise on exploratory data analysis has yielded a fundamental change in the way that the role of statistical graphics is thought of within science-as a dynamic partner and guide to the future rather than as a static monument to the discoveries of the past. We commemorate and illustrate this development while pointing readers to the new tools available and providing some indications of their potential.

  4. A non-persistently transmitted-virus induces a pull-push strategy in its aphid vector to optimize transmission and spread.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carmo-Sousa, Michele; Moreno, Aranzazu; Garzo, Elisa; Fereres, Alberto

    2014-06-24

    Plant viruses are known to modify the behaviour of their insect vectors, both directly and indirectly, generally adapting to each type of virus-vector relationship in a way that enhances transmission efficiency. Here, we report results of three different studies showing how a virus transmitted in a non-persistent (NP) manner (Cucumber mosaic virus; CMV, Cucumovirus) can induce changes in its host plant, cucumber (Cucumis sativus cv. Marumba) that modifies the behaviour of its aphid vector (Aphis gossypii Glover; Hemiptera: Aphididae) in a way that enhances virus transmission and spread non-viruliferous aphids changed their alighting, settling and probing behaviour activities over time when exposed to CMV-infected and mock-inoculated cucumber plants. Aphids exhibited no preference to migrate from CMV-infected to mock-inoculated plants at short time intervals (1, 10 and 30 min after release), but showed a clear shift in preference to migrate from CMV-infected to mock-inoculated plants 60 min after release. Our free-choice preference assays showed that A. gossypii alates preferred CMV-infected over mock-inoculated plants at an early stage (30 min), but this behaviour was reverted at a later stage and aphids preferred to settle and reproduce on mock-inoculated plants. The electrical penetration graph (EPG) technique revealed a sharp change in aphid probing behaviour over time when exposed to CMV-infected plants. At the beginning (first 15 min) aphid vectors dramatically increased the number of short superficial probes and intracellular punctures when exposed to CMV-infected plants. At a later stage (second hour of recording) aphids diminished their feeding on CMV-infected plants as indicated by much less time spent in phloem salivation and ingestion (E1 and E2). This particular probing behaviour including an early increase in the number of short superficial probes and intracellular punctures followed by a phloem feeding deterrence is known to enhance the transmission

  5. Arboreal ants use the "Velcro(R principle" to capture very large prey.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alain Dejean

    Full Text Available Plant-ants live in a mutualistic association with host plants known as "myrmecophytes" that provide them with a nesting place and sometimes with extra-floral nectar (EFN and/or food bodies (FBs; the ants can also attend sap-sucking Hemiptera for their honeydew. In return, plant-ants, like most other arboreal ants, protect their host plants from defoliators. To satisfy their nitrogen requirements, however, some have optimized their ability to capture prey in the restricted environment represented by the crowns of trees by using elaborate hunting techniques. In this study, we investigated the predatory behavior of the ant Azteca andreae which is associated with the myrmecophyte Cecropia obtusa. We noted that up to 8350 ant workers per tree hide side-by-side beneath the leaf margins of their host plant with their mandibles open, waiting for insects to alight. The latter are immediately seized by their extremities, and then spread-eagled; nestmates are recruited to help stretch, carve up and transport prey. This group ambush hunting technique is particularly effective when the underside of the leaves is downy, as is the case for C. obtusa. In this case, the hook-shaped claws of the A. andreae workers and the velvet-like structure of the underside of the leaves combine to act like natural Velcro that is reinforced by the group ambush strategy of the workers, allowing them to capture prey of up to 13,350 times the mean weight of a single worker.

  6. The use of vulcanic glasses in cellular concrete

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alvarez, J. L.

    1996-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper covers studies made using different mixes for cellular concrete variating silica sand, vulcanic glass and aluminium powder contents. Studies on compressive strenght, dry density and X-ray diffraction are performed on autoclave cured cellular concrete, concluding that best results are attained when vulcanic glass contents reaches 50% of silica sand. When percentage of aluminium powder is diminished from 0.11% to 0.09%, alight increase in density, with noticiable growth of comprensive strength are observed.

    Se hace un estudio con diferentes mezclas, teniendo como variables la arena sílice, el vidrio volcánico y el polvo de aluminio. Al hormigón celular, una vez curado en autoclave, se le hace un estudio de resistencia a la compresión, densidad en estado seco y difracción de rayos X, llegándose a la conclusión de que los mejores resultados se obtienen cuando se emplea el vidrio volcánico al 50% en sustitución de la arena sílice. Cuando se disminuye el porcentaje de polvo de aluminio de 0,11% a 0,09%, se presenta un ligero aumento en la densidad, con un notable crecimiento de la resistencia a la compresión.

  7. B\\"o\\"ogg Bang drives global climate change

    CERN Document Server

    Brennwald, M S; Kipfer, R

    2011-01-01

    The B\\"o\\"ogg is a large model of a snowman, constructed of inflammable materials and filled with explosives. During the traditional festival of Sechsel\\"auten, which takes place each spring in Zurich, Switzerland, the B\\"o\\"ogg is placed atop a wooden pyre, which is set alight. According to popular legend, the time that elapses until the B\\"o\\"ogg's head explodes (the "head-bang" time) is said to give a rough forecast of local weather conditions prevailing during the following summer. However, recent research has questioned the validity of this prediction. To study the B\\"o\\"ogg's predictive powers, we analyzed the B\\"o\\"ogg head-bang time record from 1965-2010 within the context of global climate change. Our analysis shows that the B\\"o\\"ogg head-bang time is a good predictor not of short-term local weather, as might be expected from the legend, but of the behavior of the entire global climate system.

  8. Predicting Short-Term Subway Ridership and Prioritizing Its Influential Factors Using Gradient Boosting Decision Trees

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chuan Ding

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Understanding the relationship between short-term subway ridership and its influential factors is crucial to improving the accuracy of short-term subway ridership prediction. Although there has been a growing body of studies on short-term ridership prediction approaches, limited effort is made to investigate the short-term subway ridership prediction considering bus transfer activities and temporal features. To fill this gap, a relatively recent data mining approach called gradient boosting decision trees (GBDT is applied to short-term subway ridership prediction and used to capture the associations with the independent variables. Taking three subway stations in Beijing as the cases, the short-term subway ridership and alighting passengers from its adjacent bus stops are obtained based on transit smart card data. To optimize the model performance with different combinations of regularization parameters, a series of GBDT models are built with various learning rates and tree complexities by fitting a maximum of trees. The optimal model performance confirms that the gradient boosting approach can incorporate different types of predictors, fit complex nonlinear relationships, and automatically handle the multicollinearity effect with high accuracy. In contrast to other machine learning methods—or “black-box” procedures—the GBDT model can identify and rank the relative influences of bus transfer activities and temporal features on short-term subway ridership. These findings suggest that the GBDT model has considerable advantages in improving short-term subway ridership prediction in a multimodal public transportation system.

  9. Achievement report for fiscal 1998. Total wheelchair support system; 1998 nendo seika hokokusho. Kurumaisu sogo shien system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-05-01

    Development has been made on the element technologies for a total wheelchair support system. In the research of a manually operated wheelchair support system, the formula support system was verified of its operation, and its completion as a system that can be used practically. In the study on motorized wheelchairs, a questionnaire was given on disorders, remaining functions and environment in which the wheelchairs would be used to select the most suitable formula from among 14 types of basic wheelchairs. After having adjusted the seat and operation lever positions for optimization by using a specific wheelchair for measurement, the power was so outputted that image illustrations after values have been inputted can be checked on the screen. In studying a travel support system, based on the fact that anomaly has occurred in operation of the boarding and alighting device during a test by a third party laboratory, a review was given on the capacity of the device. As a result of changing the motor to the one higher by one rank, the required time was decreased by 25%. In addition, the boarding direction was limited to one direction, and the reverse speed was changed and improved to 60% of the forward speed. In developing the total system, studies were made on methods of binding, and methods of protecting surrounding environment. (NEDO)

  10. Dynamics of a ‘flying chimney’

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ji, Runda; Sandali, Yahya; Zhu, Changqing; Coileáin, Cormac Ó.; Shi, Qingfan

    2017-01-01

    The ‘flying chimney’, where a paper cylinder floats when set alight, is an interesting phenomenon that lacks both systematic theoretical and experimental investigation. To investigate the dynamics of liftoff, an appropriate chimney material was first selected from 22 kinds of traditional Chinese Xuan paper. Subsequent experiments with this paper, examining the relationship between the likelihood of liftoff and the height of the air-gap under the cylinder, show the necessity of a gap and the ideal minimum height required to assure successful liftoff. We experimentally investigate the cylinder geometry, determining the optimal parameters for height and diameter, and the boundary conditions for which liftoff can occur. In order to reveal the mechanism of liftoff, a physical model in which the viscous force is reasonably suggested to be a key kinetic parameter is proposed. The viscous force can be obtained by substituting the velocity field of heated air-flow into the constitutive equations of a Newtonian fluid. Numerical calculation for the size effect of liftoff is in good agreement with the experimental data.

  11. Approximating actual flows in physical infrastructure networks: the case of the Yangtze River Delta high-speed railway network

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhang Weiyang

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Previous empirical research on urban networks has used data on infrastructure networks to guesstimate actual inter-city flows. However, with the exception of recent research on airline networks in the context of the world city literature, relatively limited attention has been paid to the degree to which the outline of these infrastructure networks reflects the actual flows they undergird. This study presents a method to improve our estimation of urban interaction in and through infrastructure networks by focusing on the example of passenger railways, which is arguably a key potential data source in research on urban networks in metropolitan regions. We first review common biases when using infrastructure networks to approximate actual inter-city flows, after which we present an alternative approach that draws on research on operational train scheduling. This research has shown that ‘dwell time’ at train stations reflects the length of the alighting and boarding process, and we use this insight to estimate actual interaction through the application of a bimodal network projection function. We apply our method to the high-speed railway (HSR network within the Yangtze River Delta (YRD region, discuss the difference between our modelled network and the original network, and evaluate its validity through a systemic comparison with a benchmark dataset of actual passenger flows.

  12. Electric ignition and airless kindle for underfeed stokers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Crowther, M.E. [CRE Group Ltd., Stoke Orchard (United Kingdom)

    1996-02-01

    The leaflet describes a project carried out to assess the effectiveness and reliability of two methods of reducing the amount of coal used for kindling on boilers fitted with underfeed stokers. Many coal-fired boilers use underfeed stokers to deliver their fuel. When heat is not required, the stoker is put into standby `kindle` mode, and the fire kept alight by the periodic delivery of small amounts of coal and air. CRE Group Ltd., assessed two techniques for reducing the fuel used for kindling: electric ignition and airless kindle. Electric ignition eliminates entirely the need for kindling by automatically re-igniting the coal in the stoker retort using a hot air jet. CRE Group`s development work aimed to overcome earlier design problems and improve cost-effectiveness and reliability. Airless kindle reduces the size and frequency of coal feed in kindle mode. Although it does not entirely eliminate the use of kindle, it saves almost as much fuel for a lower capital outlay and minimal maintenance costs. This option has proved so attractive to the host organisations (Derbyshire Country Council, Nottinghamshire Country Council and Haven Nurseries) that the boiler used for trials for the electric ignition system has now been converted to airless kindle. 3 figs., 4 photos.

  13. Modeling and Optimization of Collaborative Passenger Control in Urban Rail Stations under Mass Passenger Flow

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lili Wang

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available With the rapid development of urban rail transit, the phenomenon of outburst passenger flows flocking to stations is occurring much more frequently. Passenger flow control is one of the main methods used to ensure passengers’ safety. While most previous studies have only focused on control measures inside the target station, ignoring the collaboration between stops, this paper puts emphasis on joint passenger control methods during the occurrence of large passenger flows. To provide a theoretic description for the problem under consideration, an integer programming model is built, based on the analysis of passenger delay and the processes by which passengers alight and board. Taking average passenger delay as the objective, the proposed model aims to disperse the pressure of oversaturated stations into others, achieving the optimal state for the entire line. The model is verified using a case study and the results show that restricted access measures taken collaboratively by stations produce less delay and faster evacuation. Finally, a sensitivity analysis is conducted, from which we find that the departure interval and maximum conveying capacity of the train affect passenger delay markedly in the process of passenger control and infer that control measures should be taken at stations near to the one experiencing an emergency.

  14. The Effect of Transport Accessibility on the Social Inclusion of Wheelchair Users: A Mixed Method Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raquel Velho

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available In recent years the accessibility of London buses has improved with the introduction of ramps and wheelchair priority areas. These advances are meant to remove physical barriers to entering the bus, but new conflicts have arisen particularly over the physical space aboard. We aimed to research the barriers faced by wheelchair users in public transport using a mixed methods approach to establish the breadth of issues faced by wheelchair users. To this end we quantified the push-force used alight a bus and a study to understand the coping mechanisms used by people to propel up a ramp. This quantitative approach found push forces which resulted in a load of 2 to 3 times body weight being transferred through people’s shoulders, forces which can be directly linked to shoulder injury. This could disable the user further, preventing them from being able to push their wheelchair. Alongside the quantitative study, we conducted qualitative research comprising of a number of in-depth interviews with wheelchair users about the barriers they face in public transport. Our main claim, highlighted through this interdisciplinary collaboration, is that proposed ‘solutions’ to accessibility, such as ramps, often generate problems of their own. These barriers can affect the life of wheelchair users, impacting on their confidence and causing social isolation. These can be long-term in nature or immediate.

  15. Dynamic Prediction Method of Transfer OD Matrix for Urban Transit Hub%城市公交枢纽换乘客流OD动态预测方法

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    胡华; 刘志钢; 朱海燕

    2013-01-01

    A transfer OD matrix is the basic data for coordination dispatching among transit lines in a transit hub under Advance Public Transportation System (APTS).A BP artificial neural network (ANN) model is applied to track the weights of OD pairs within a transit hub through using the data of boarding and alighting transfer passengers at each transit line.The key issues associated with the estimation process are deeply studied,including the design of ANN,the learning and stopping rules,and the calibration of model parameters through computational experiment.The results of the example from a transit hub reveal that the proposed model provides an economic and effective method for dynamic prediction of transfer OD matrix for a transit hub.%换乘枢纽衔接公交线路的换乘客流OD是APTS下实施公交多线路动态协调调度的基础数据.以公交线路上下车乘客数的自动获取为前提,建立换乘OD推算优化模型,并设计了BP神经网络求解算法,应用数值试验对神经网络中的核心参数进行了标定.算例表明:BP神经网络为动态更新公交枢纽换乘客流OD提供了一种经济、有效的方法.

  16. A comparative study of roentgenographic appearance of periodontal osseous lesions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Jhai Duck [Department of Dental Radiology College of Dentistry, Cho-Sun University, Kwangju (Korea, Republic of)

    1980-11-15

    The purpose of this article is to re-examine the roentgenographic appearance of alveolar osseous in an effort to determine the value of the orthopantomogram in the diagnosis of periodontal disease. A total of 158 osseous lesions from 13 human dry panoramic film are used to obtain radiographs of all defects. The bisecting technic was used, with a target-film distance of 8 inches and exposure factors of 70 kVp, 10 mA and 0.4 sec. at anterior teeth, 0.6 sec at posterior teeth in exposure time. For orthopantomogram, Panoura Eight-C was used with a exposure factors of 90 kVp, 10 mA. and 15 sec. exposure time. All films were developed in alight-tight darkroom at 68 .deg. for 4 1/2 minutes. Comparison of orthopantomogram and intraoral films on the view-box was carefully studied in relation to the types of osseous defect visually evident; Proximal intraosseous defects, Interproximal craters, Interproximal hemisepta, Furcal defects on multirooted teeth, and Facial or Lingual one-walled defects. The results obtained were as follows; 1. Proximal osseous defects throughout the dental arches and furcal defects on facial and lingual surfaces of multirooted teeth can be identified with a high degree of accuracy from their orthopantomographic appearances. 2. Lesions on facial or lingual surface of the alveolar arches are rather difficult to locate or recognize on the dental radiographs. 3. In determining whether the proximal and furcal lesions are located facially or lingually, Orthopantomogram is superior to the conventional film Orthopantomogram obtained with standardization of head in proper position revealed the complete visualization of alveolar bone without showing occlusal surface of molars and proximal superimposition of teeth. Thus, on the standardized orthopantomograms, The roentgenographic characteristics of each defect were determined.

  17. Observações sobre anofelinos em Santa Catarina, Brasil

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    Mário B. Aragão

    1973-10-01

    , showed that a person placed outside the house intercepts a significant number of mosquitoes; 5 It was clear that anophelines in the region rarely alight on sprayed walls; 6 Besides this, DDT greatly reduces the number of specimens which go to feed inside the houses; for A. cruzii this reduction was of the order of 90%.

  18. 基于平顺性与操纵稳定性的悬架系统多目标优化%Multi-objective optimization of suspension system based on vehicle ride comfort and handling stability

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘伟; 史文库; 桂龙明; 方德广; 郭福祥

    2011-01-01

    针对汽车悬架系统开发设计中行驶平顺性和操纵稳定性两个目标相互矛盾的问题,以某轻型乘用客车后悬架系统为研究对象,建立了汽车悬架系统多目标优化模型。以汽车行驶平顺性、操纵稳定性为优化目标,选择后悬架弹簧刚度、减振器阻尼系数及稳定杆扭转刚度为优化参数,设计了一种基于改进遗传算法NSGA-Ⅱ的悬架系统多目标优化策略。悬架优化前后试验结果表明,本文提出的多目标优化策略在改善汽车行驶平顺性的同时,兼顾了操纵稳定性,具有较好的优化效果。%In view of the trade-off between the handling stability and the ride comfort in the design of the suspension system,taking the rear suspension system of alight passenger bus as a research object,a multi-objective optimization model of the suspension system parameters was established.Taking the handling stability and the ride comfort as the optimization objectives,selecting the suspension spring stiffness,the shock Absorber damping factor and the stabilizer bar torsional stiffness as the optimization variables,a multi-objective optimization strategy based on the improved genetic algorithm NSGA-Ⅱ was designed for the suspension system.The test results show that the proposed optimization approach demonstrated good results in improvement of the vehicle ride comfort without penalty on the handling stability.

  19. Um balanço da reforma psiquiátrica brasileira: instituições, atores e políticas An assessment of Brazilian psychiatric reform: institutions, actors and policies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Maria Fernandes Pitta

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available O artigo provoca olhares sobre a Reforma Psiquiátrica Brasileira (RPB na última década, após a homologação da Lei Federal 10.216/2001 e pretende suscitar o debate inadiável sobre os novos desafios que ela precisa enfrentar para alimentar ou reciclar a antiga utopia de "cidadania plena para todos, numa sociedade sem manicômios". Estaria a Reforma dando sinais de exaustão? É inegável a reorientação do modelo assistencial de Saúde Mental no Brasil do hospital para a comunidade nessa última década. Ao tomar o uso de Substâncias Psicoativas como objeto de políticas e intervenção, incorpora demandas complexas que o atual drama do Crack somente imediatiza a necessidade de questionar sua história, seus limites, sua potência. O que manterá acesa a chama de um movimento exitoso que, surpreendentemente, resiste à força do tempo e do estigma nesses dez anos da Lei? Essas e outras questões precisam ser equacionadas. Está na hora de reciclar os focos de avaliação e análise no sentido de identificar o que ameaça sua vitalidade. Esse é o desafio que a articulista e debatedores estarão provocados a contribuir.The article takes a look at Brazilian Psychiatric Reform over the past decade, after the approval of Federal Law 10.216/2001 and seeks to elicit long overdue discussion about the pressing challenges that Brazilian Psychiatric Reform needs to tackle to promote or review the long-desired utopia of "full citizenship for all in a society without asylums." Is the Reform showing signs of exhaustion? The redirection of the care model for Mental Health in Brazil from the hospital to the community over the past decade is an undeniable achievement. Taking the use of psychoactive substances as the scope of policy and intervention, this incorporates complex demands that the current Crack drama makes it more urgent to question its history, its limits, its power. What will keep the flame alight of a successful movement that, surprisingly

  20. Relationships among magnetic resonance imaging, histological findings, and IGF-I in steroid-induced osteonecrosis of the femoral head in rabbits

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xing-can CHEN; Jian WENG; Xue-qun CHEN; Ji-zeng DU; Miao-ping ZHU; Yong-qing PAN; Miao LIU

    2008-01-01

    Objective: To study the relationships among magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), histological findings, and insulin-like growth factor-I (IGF-I) in steroid-induced osteonecrosis of the femoral head in rabbits. Methods: Thirty rabbits were randomly divided into experimental Group A (n=15) and control Group B (n=15). The 7.5 mg/kg (2 ml) ofdexamethasone (DEX)and physiological saline (2 ml) were injected into the fight gluteus medius muscle twice at one-week intervals in animals of Groups A and B, respectively. At 4, 8 and 16 weeks after obtaining an MRI, the rabbits were sacrificed and the femoral head from one side was removed for histological study of lacunae empty of osteocytes, subchondral vessels, and size of fat cells under microscopy, and the femoral head from the other side was removed for enzyme-linked immunoadsorbent assay (ELISA) for IGF-I.Results: At 4, 8 and 16 weeks after treatment, no necrotic lesions were detected in Group B, while they were detected in Group A.Light microscopy revealed that the fat cells of the marrow cavity were enlarged, subchondral vessels were evidently decreased,and empty bone lacunae were clearly increased. The IGF-I levels in Group A were significantly higher than those in Group B. At 8 weeks after the DEX injection, the MRI of all 20 femora showed an inhomogeneous, low signal intensity area in the femoral head,and at 16 weeks, the findings of all 10 femora showed a specific "line-like sign". The MRI findings of all femora in Group B were normal. Conclusion: MRI is a highly sensitive means of diagnosing early experimental osteonecrosis of the femoral head. However, the abnormal marrow tissues appeared later than 4 weeks when the expression of IGF-I increased. This reparative factor has an early and important role in response to steroid-induced osteonecrosis of the femoral head, and provides a theoretical foundation for understanding the pathology and designing new therapies.

  1. INTERTEXTUALITY AND SOUND PLAY IN TYUTCHEV’S EPISTLE “ON PUSHKIN’S ODE TO FREEDOM”

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elizabeth Ginzburg

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Poetics of F. I Tyutchev’s early poem “Alight with the Fire of Freedom” (1820 also known as an epistle “On Pushkin’s Ode to Freedom.” (“K ode Pushkina na Vol’nost’” signifies its authors as a future master of versification. The poem’s means, especially those related to sound, are as well characteristic of Tyutchev later work. The Tyutchev Epistle provides an analysis and interpretation of Pushkin text and borrows some lexics and means of word and sound development. This study has its purpose in finding the degree of Tyutchev’s innovation versus continuity in his poem. For both Pushkin and Tyutchev, the exact time is unknown when the poems were created. Neither of them was publish in the lifetime of its author. In both of them, there is a poetic dialogue with their predessessors. Our study offers to add a few new sources of intertextuality in them. In particular, the study points at Tyutchev borrowing a lexical formula created by V.P. Petrov in his long poem (“Aeneus” based on Virgil’s “The Aeneid.” It is common to make comparison between Pushkin and N.A. Radishchev’s “Ode on Freedom” (1781-3. We also compare Pushkin and Tyutchev Odes with V.V. Kapnist odes (1783 and 1786. Tyutchev’s borrowings from Kapnist in his Epistle means, in a way, that he indicates the path Pushkin followed to creat his ode somewhat oriented on his (Pushkin’s predesessors in the genre of ode dedicated to the theme of freedom. There are some poetic devices in Pushkin that Tyutchev revealed and creatively developed in his own piece. What attracts our attention in Pushkin ode is importance of sound connections on the compositional level. In Tyutchev, examples of word-and-sound combinatorics аre to be understood as a result of his analytical interpretation of Pushkin Ode, which he incorporated creatively in his own epistle They are related of course not to the entire Pushkin ode in its entirety but to the strophes and lines that

  2. História e memórias do banco de leite humano do Instituto de Medicina Integral Prof. Fernando Figueira (1987-2009 em Recife, Pernambuco, Brasil History and memories of the human milk bank of the Instituto de Medicina Integral Prof. Fernando Figueira (1987-2009 in Recife, Pernambuco, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karenina Elice Guimarães Carvalho

    2010-12-01

    's HMB, set up in 1987, was the brainchild of Professor Fernando Figueira and Dr. Vilneide Braga and its aim was to meet the needs of the Maternity hospital and its neonatal intensive care unit. The inauguration was attended by politicians, breastfeeding experts, TV celebrities and hospital staff. CONCLUSIONS: the methods of oral history were used to build up a history of the origins and evolution of the IMIP's HMB based on the testimony of the individuals involved. The history of the IMIP's HMB is an ongoing, living process and force that produces change, dreams and hope and keeps alight the ideal of a better world for children, mothers and for society at large.

  3. 探讨地质雷达在隧道衬砌质量检测中的应用效果%To investigate the effect of the application of geological radar in quality detection of tunnel lining

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    宋鹏程

    2014-01-01

    在隧道中的混凝土衬砌其中的重要成分,隧道工程项目的施工质量的梭验和评定是建立在对项目进行单位、分部、分项工程划分基础之上的,以各分项工程作为质量检验控制的单元,逐级加权平均、汇总评定,为提交竣工质量验收评定提供依据。还有地质雷达中的检测具有扫描速度块快、操作简便、重量轻、分辨率高、屏蔽效果好、图像直观等优点,还有利用超高频电磁波探测地下介质分布,它的基本原理是:发射机通过发射天线发射中心频率为12.5M至1200M、脉冲宽度为0.1 ns的脉冲电磁波讯号。在探讨地质雷达在隧道衬砌质量的检测原理、现场的分析隧道的雷达波形图像、数据处理方法和资料解释,在工作中总结和研究使地质雷达在隧道超前预报中得到广泛的应用,在我国隧道建设中发挥重要作用。%An important component in the tunnel concrete lining of the tunnel project,the construction quality inspection and assessment of the spindle is established in the unit,the project division, engineering division basis,to every project as a quality control unit,step by step weighted average, summaryevaluation,to submit quality acceptance evaluation provides a basis for.Geological radar and detection of fast scanning speed,simple operation,alight weight,high resolution,good shielding effect, image intuitive,as well as the use of ultra high frequency electromagnetic wave to detecting the distribution of underground media,its basic principle is:by transmittingantenna transmitter center frequency is 12.5M to 1200M,pulse width of the pulse electromagnetic wave signal of 0.1 ns.In the study of geological radar in the tunnel lining quality detection principle,the analysis of tunnel radar waveform image,the method of data processing and data interpretation,summarize and study the geologic radar in tunnel is widely forecast at work,play an important role in