Exploring consumption- and asset-based poverty dynamics in Ethiopia
African Journals Online (AJOL)
This paper examines the dynamics of wellbeing in Ethiopia by assessing changes in poverty status based on consumption and asset ownership. Using panel data from the first two waves of the Ethiopia Socioeconomic Survey (ESS), we discover that although the cross-sectional poverty remains relatively unchanged ...
Dynamic training algorithm for dynamic neural networks
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Tan, Y.; Van Cauwenberghe, A.; Liu, Z.
1996-01-01
The widely used backpropagation algorithm for training neural networks based on the gradient descent has a significant drawback of slow convergence. A Gauss-Newton method based recursive least squares (RLS) type algorithm with dynamic error backpropagation is presented to speed-up the learning procedure of neural networks with local recurrent terms. Finally, simulation examples concerning the applications of the RLS type algorithm to identification of nonlinear processes using a local recurrent neural network are also included in this paper
Next Generation Suspension Dynamics Algorithms
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Schunk, Peter Randall [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Higdon, Jonathon [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Chen, Steven [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)
2014-12-01
This research project has the objective to extend the range of application, improve the efficiency and conduct simulations with the Fast Lubrication Dynamics (FLD) algorithm for concentrated particle suspensions in a Newtonian fluid solvent. The research involves a combination of mathematical development, new computational algorithms, and application to processing flows of relevance in materials processing. The mathematical developments clarify the underlying theory, facilitate verification against classic monographs in the field and provide the framework for a novel parallel implementation optimized for an OpenMP shared memory environment. The project considered application to consolidation flows of major interest in high throughput materials processing and identified hitherto unforeseen challenges in the use of FLD in these applications. Extensions to the algorithm have been developed to improve its accuracy in these applications.
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
WANG ShunJin; ZHANG Hua
2007-01-01
Based on the exact analytical solution of ordinary differential equations,a truncation of the Taylor series of the exact solution to the Nth order leads to the Nth order algebraic dynamics algorithm.A detailed numerical comparison is presented with Runge-Kutta algorithm and symplectic geometric algorithm for 12 test models.The results show that the algebraic dynamics algorithm can better preserve both geometrical and dynamical fidelity of a dynamical system at a controllable precision,and it can solve the problem of algorithm-induced dissipation for the Runge-Kutta algorithm and the problem of algorithm-induced phase shift for the symplectic geometric algorithm.
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
2007-01-01
Based on the exact analytical solution of ordinary differential equations, a truncation of the Taylor series of the exact solution to the Nth order leads to the Nth order algebraic dynamics algorithm. A detailed numerical comparison is presented with Runge-Kutta algorithm and symplectic geometric algorithm for 12 test models. The results show that the algebraic dynamics algorithm can better preserve both geometrical and dynamical fidelity of a dynamical system at a controllable precision, and it can solve the problem of algorithm-induced dissipation for the Runge-Kutta algorithm and the problem of algorithm-induced phase shift for the symplectic geometric algorithm.
Parallel algorithms for continuum dynamics
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Hicks, D.L.; Liebrock, L.M.
1987-01-01
Simply porting existing parallel programs to a new parallel processor may not achieve the full speedup possible; to achieve the maximum efficiency may require redesigning the parallel algorithms for the specific architecture. The authors discuss here parallel algorithms that were developed first for the HEP processor and then ported to the CRAY X-MP/4, the ELXSI/10, and the Intel iPSC/32. Focus is mainly on the most recent parallel processing results produced, i.e., those on the Intel Hypercube. The applications are simulations of continuum dynamics in which the momentum and stress gradients are important. Examples of these are inertial confinement fusion experiments, severe breaks in the coolant system of a reactor, weapons physics, shock-wave physics. Speedup efficiencies on the Intel iPSC Hypercube are very sensitive to the ratio of communication to computation. Great care must be taken in designing algorithms for this machine to avoid global communication. This is much more critical on the iPSC than it was on the three previous parallel processors
Control algorithms for dynamic attenuators
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Hsieh, Scott S., E-mail: sshsieh@stanford.edu [Department of Radiology, Stanford University, Stanford, California 94305 and Department of Electrical Engineering, Stanford University, Stanford, California 94305 (United States); Pelc, Norbert J. [Department of Radiology, Stanford University, Stanford California 94305 and Department of Bioengineering, Stanford University, Stanford, California 94305 (United States)
2014-06-15
Purpose: The authors describe algorithms to control dynamic attenuators in CT and compare their performance using simulated scans. Dynamic attenuators are prepatient beam shaping filters that modulate the distribution of x-ray fluence incident on the patient on a view-by-view basis. These attenuators can reduce dose while improving key image quality metrics such as peak or mean variance. In each view, the attenuator presents several degrees of freedom which may be individually adjusted. The total number of degrees of freedom across all views is very large, making many optimization techniques impractical. The authors develop a theory for optimally controlling these attenuators. Special attention is paid to a theoretically perfect attenuator which controls the fluence for each ray individually, but the authors also investigate and compare three other, practical attenuator designs which have been previously proposed: the piecewise-linear attenuator, the translating attenuator, and the double wedge attenuator. Methods: The authors pose and solve the optimization problems of minimizing the mean and peak variance subject to a fixed dose limit. For a perfect attenuator and mean variance minimization, this problem can be solved in simple, closed form. For other attenuator designs, the problem can be decomposed into separate problems for each view to greatly reduce the computational complexity. Peak variance minimization can be approximately solved using iterated, weighted mean variance (WMV) minimization. Also, the authors develop heuristics for the perfect and piecewise-linear attenuators which do not requirea priori knowledge of the patient anatomy. The authors compare these control algorithms on different types of dynamic attenuators using simulated raw data from forward projected DICOM files of a thorax and an abdomen. Results: The translating and double wedge attenuators reduce dose by an average of 30% relative to current techniques (bowtie filter with tube current
Control algorithms for dynamic attenuators
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Hsieh, Scott S.; Pelc, Norbert J.
2014-01-01
Purpose: The authors describe algorithms to control dynamic attenuators in CT and compare their performance using simulated scans. Dynamic attenuators are prepatient beam shaping filters that modulate the distribution of x-ray fluence incident on the patient on a view-by-view basis. These attenuators can reduce dose while improving key image quality metrics such as peak or mean variance. In each view, the attenuator presents several degrees of freedom which may be individually adjusted. The total number of degrees of freedom across all views is very large, making many optimization techniques impractical. The authors develop a theory for optimally controlling these attenuators. Special attention is paid to a theoretically perfect attenuator which controls the fluence for each ray individually, but the authors also investigate and compare three other, practical attenuator designs which have been previously proposed: the piecewise-linear attenuator, the translating attenuator, and the double wedge attenuator. Methods: The authors pose and solve the optimization problems of minimizing the mean and peak variance subject to a fixed dose limit. For a perfect attenuator and mean variance minimization, this problem can be solved in simple, closed form. For other attenuator designs, the problem can be decomposed into separate problems for each view to greatly reduce the computational complexity. Peak variance minimization can be approximately solved using iterated, weighted mean variance (WMV) minimization. Also, the authors develop heuristics for the perfect and piecewise-linear attenuators which do not requirea priori knowledge of the patient anatomy. The authors compare these control algorithms on different types of dynamic attenuators using simulated raw data from forward projected DICOM files of a thorax and an abdomen. Results: The translating and double wedge attenuators reduce dose by an average of 30% relative to current techniques (bowtie filter with tube current
Control algorithms for dynamic attenuators.
Hsieh, Scott S; Pelc, Norbert J
2014-06-01
The authors describe algorithms to control dynamic attenuators in CT and compare their performance using simulated scans. Dynamic attenuators are prepatient beam shaping filters that modulate the distribution of x-ray fluence incident on the patient on a view-by-view basis. These attenuators can reduce dose while improving key image quality metrics such as peak or mean variance. In each view, the attenuator presents several degrees of freedom which may be individually adjusted. The total number of degrees of freedom across all views is very large, making many optimization techniques impractical. The authors develop a theory for optimally controlling these attenuators. Special attention is paid to a theoretically perfect attenuator which controls the fluence for each ray individually, but the authors also investigate and compare three other, practical attenuator designs which have been previously proposed: the piecewise-linear attenuator, the translating attenuator, and the double wedge attenuator. The authors pose and solve the optimization problems of minimizing the mean and peak variance subject to a fixed dose limit. For a perfect attenuator and mean variance minimization, this problem can be solved in simple, closed form. For other attenuator designs, the problem can be decomposed into separate problems for each view to greatly reduce the computational complexity. Peak variance minimization can be approximately solved using iterated, weighted mean variance (WMV) minimization. Also, the authors develop heuristics for the perfect and piecewise-linear attenuators which do not require a priori knowledge of the patient anatomy. The authors compare these control algorithms on different types of dynamic attenuators using simulated raw data from forward projected DICOM files of a thorax and an abdomen. The translating and double wedge attenuators reduce dose by an average of 30% relative to current techniques (bowtie filter with tube current modulation) without
Dynamic Programming Algorithms in Speech Recognition
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Titus Felix FURTUNA
2008-01-01
Full Text Available In a system of speech recognition containing words, the recognition requires the comparison between the entry signal of the word and the various words of the dictionary. The problem can be solved efficiently by a dynamic comparison algorithm whose goal is to put in optimal correspondence the temporal scales of the two words. An algorithm of this type is Dynamic Time Warping. This paper presents two alternatives for implementation of the algorithm designed for recognition of the isolated words.
Identifying asset-based trends in sustainable programmes which ...
African Journals Online (AJOL)
We indicate the similarities between the asset-based approach and current discourses focusing on the notion of schools as nodes of support and care.1 We conclude by suggesting that knowledge of asset-based good practices could be shared with families in school-based sessions, thereby developing schools', families' ...
Particle algorithms for population dynamics in flows
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Perlekar, Prasad; Toschi, Federico; Benzi, Roberto; Pigolotti, Simone
2011-01-01
We present and discuss particle based algorithms to numerically study the dynamics of population subjected to an advecting flow condition. We discuss few possible variants of the algorithms and compare them in a model compressible flow. A comparison against appropriate versions of the continuum stochastic Fisher equation (sFKPP) is also presented and discussed. The algorithms can be used to study populations genetics in fluid environments.
Dynamic traffic assignment : genetic algorithms approach
1997-01-01
Real-time route guidance is a promising approach to alleviating congestion on the nations highways. A dynamic traffic assignment model is central to the development of guidance strategies. The artificial intelligence technique of genetic algorithm...
Computational plasticity algorithm for particle dynamics simulations
Krabbenhoft, K.; Lyamin, A. V.; Vignes, C.
2018-01-01
The problem of particle dynamics simulation is interpreted in the framework of computational plasticity leading to an algorithm which is mathematically indistinguishable from the common implicit scheme widely used in the finite element analysis of elastoplastic boundary value problems. This algorithm provides somewhat of a unification of two particle methods, the discrete element method and the contact dynamics method, which usually are thought of as being quite disparate. In particular, it is shown that the former appears as the special case where the time stepping is explicit while the use of implicit time stepping leads to the kind of schemes usually labelled contact dynamics methods. The framing of particle dynamics simulation within computational plasticity paves the way for new approaches similar (or identical) to those frequently employed in nonlinear finite element analysis. These include mixed implicit-explicit time stepping, dynamic relaxation and domain decomposition schemes.
Optimized Bayesian dynamic advising theory and algorithms
Karny, Miroslav
2006-01-01
Written by one of the world's leading groups in the area of Bayesian identification, control, and decision making, this book provides the theoretical and algorithmic basis of optimized probabilistic advising. Starting from abstract ideas and formulations, and culminating in detailed algorithms, the book comprises a unified treatment of an important problem of the design of advisory systems supporting supervisors of complex processes. It introduces the theoretical and algorithmic basis of developed advising, relying on novel and powerful combination black-box modelling by dynamic mixture models
An improved genetic algorithm with dynamic topology
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Cai Kai-Quan; Tang Yan-Wu; Zhang Xue-Jun; Guan Xiang-Min
2016-01-01
The genetic algorithm (GA) is a nature-inspired evolutionary algorithm to find optima in search space via the interaction of individuals. Recently, researchers demonstrated that the interaction topology plays an important role in information exchange among individuals of evolutionary algorithm. In this paper, we investigate the effect of different network topologies adopted to represent the interaction structures. It is found that GA with a high-density topology ends up more likely with an unsatisfactory solution, contrarily, a low-density topology can impede convergence. Consequently, we propose an improved GA with dynamic topology, named DT-GA, in which the topology structure varies dynamically along with the fitness evolution. Several experiments executed with 15 well-known test functions have illustrated that DT-GA outperforms other test GAs for making a balance of convergence speed and optimum quality. Our work may have implications in the combination of complex networks and computational intelligence. (paper)
Dynamic Airspace Managment - Models and Algorithms
Cheng, Peng; Geng, Rui
2010-01-01
This chapter investigates the models and algorithms for implementing the concept of Dynamic Airspace Management. Three models are discussed. First two models are about how to use or adjust air route dynamically in order to speed up air trafï¬c ï¬‚ow and reduce delay. The third model gives a way to dynamically generate the optimal sector conï¬guration for an air trafï¬c control center to both balance the controllerâ€™s workload and save control resources. The ï¬rst model, called the Dynami...
An Asset-Based Approach to Tribal Community Energy Planning
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Gutierrez, Rachael A. [Pratt Inst., Brooklyn, NY (United States). City and Regional Planning; Martino, Anthony [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States). Materials, Devices, and Energy Technologies; Begay, Sandra K. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States). Materials, Devices, and Energy Technologies
2016-08-01
Community energy planning is a vital component of successful energy resource development and project implementation. Planning can help tribes develop a shared vision and strategies to accomplish their energy goals. This paper explores the benefits of an asset-based approach to tribal community energy planning. While a framework for community energy planning and federal funding already exists, some areas of difficulty in the planning cycle have been identified. This paper focuses on developing a planning framework that offsets those challenges. The asset-based framework described here takes inventory of a tribe’s capital assets, such as: land capital, human capital, financial capital, and political capital. Such an analysis evaluates how being rich in a specific type of capital can offer a tribe unique advantages in implementing their energy vision. Finally, a tribal case study demonstrates the practical application of an asset-based framework.
Nonequilibrium molecular dynamics theory, algorithms and applications
Todd, Billy D
2017-01-01
Written by two specialists with over twenty-five years of experience in the field, this valuable text presents a wide range of topics within the growing field of nonequilibrium molecular dynamics (NEMD). It introduces theories which are fundamental to the field - namely, nonequilibrium statistical mechanics and nonequilibrium thermodynamics - and provides state-of-the-art algorithms and advice for designing reliable NEMD code, as well as examining applications for both atomic and molecular fluids. It discusses homogenous and inhomogenous flows and pays considerable attention to highly confined fluids, such as nanofluidics. In addition to statistical mechanics and thermodynamics, the book covers the themes of temperature and thermodynamic fluxes and their computation, the theory and algorithms for homogenous shear and elongational flows, response theory and its applications, heat and mass transport algorithms, applications in molecular rheology, highly confined fluids (nanofluidics), the phenomenon of slip and...
Dynamic programming algorithms for biological sequence comparison.
Pearson, W R; Miller, W
1992-01-01
Efficient dynamic programming algorithms are available for a broad class of protein and DNA sequence comparison problems. These algorithms require computer time proportional to the product of the lengths of the two sequences being compared [O(N2)] but require memory space proportional only to the sum of these lengths [O(N)]. Although the requirement for O(N2) time limits use of the algorithms to the largest computers when searching protein and DNA sequence databases, many other applications of these algorithms, such as calculation of distances for evolutionary trees and comparison of a new sequence to a library of sequence profiles, are well within the capabilities of desktop computers. In particular, the results of library searches with rapid searching programs, such as FASTA or BLAST, should be confirmed by performing a rigorous optimal alignment. Whereas rapid methods do not overlook significant sequence similarities, FASTA limits the number of gaps that can be inserted into an alignment, so that a rigorous alignment may extend the alignment substantially in some cases. BLAST does not allow gaps in the local regions that it reports; a calculation that allows gaps is very likely to extend the alignment substantially. Although a Monte Carlo evaluation of the statistical significance of a similarity score with a rigorous algorithm is much slower than the heuristic approach used by the RDF2 program, the dynamic programming approach should take less than 1 hr on a 386-based PC or desktop Unix workstation. For descriptive purposes, we have limited our discussion to methods for calculating similarity scores and distances that use gap penalties of the form g = rk. Nevertheless, programs for the more general case (g = q+rk) are readily available. Versions of these programs that run either on Unix workstations, IBM-PC class computers, or the Macintosh can be obtained from either of the authors.
Dynamic airspace configuration by genetic algorithm
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Marina Sergeeva
2017-06-01
Full Text Available With the continuous air traffic growth and limits of resources, there is a need for reducing the congestion of the airspace systems. Nowadays, several projects are launched, aimed at modernizing the global air transportation system and air traffic management. In recent years, special interest has been paid to the solution of the dynamic airspace configuration problem. Airspace sector configurations need to be dynamically adjusted to provide maximum efficiency and flexibility in response to changing weather and traffic conditions. The main objective of this work is to automatically adapt the airspace configurations according to the evolution of traffic. In order to reach this objective, the airspace is considered to be divided into predefined 3D airspace blocks which have to be grouped or ungrouped depending on the traffic situation. The airspace structure is represented as a graph and each airspace configuration is created using a graph partitioning technique. We optimize airspace configurations using a genetic algorithm. The developed algorithm generates a sequence of sector configurations for one day of operation with the minimized controller workload. The overall methodology is implemented and successfully tested with air traffic data taken for one day and for several different airspace control areas of Europe.
A formal analysis of a dynamic distributed spanning tree algorithm
Mooij, A.J.; Wesselink, J.W.
2003-01-01
Abstract. We analyze the spanning tree algorithm in the IEEE 1394.1 draft standard, which correctness has not previously been proved. This algorithm is a fully-dynamic distributed graph algorithm, which, in general, is hard to develop. The approach we use is to formally develop an algorithm that is
Continuous Time Dynamic Contraflow Models and Algorithms
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Urmila Pyakurel
2016-01-01
Full Text Available The research on evacuation planning problem is promoted by the very challenging emergency issues due to large scale natural or man-created disasters. It is the process of shifting the maximum number of evacuees from the disastrous areas to the safe destinations as quickly and efficiently as possible. Contraflow is a widely accepted model for good solution of evacuation planning problem. It increases the outbound road capacity by reversing the direction of roads towards the safe destination. The continuous dynamic contraflow problem sends the maximum number of flow as a flow rate from the source to the sink in every moment of time unit. We propose the mathematical model for the continuous dynamic contraflow problem. We present efficient algorithms to solve the maximum continuous dynamic contraflow and quickest continuous contraflow problems on single source single sink arbitrary networks and continuous earliest arrival contraflow problem on single source single sink series-parallel networks with undefined supply and demand. We also introduce an approximation solution for continuous earliest arrival contraflow problem on two-terminal arbitrary networks.
and Asset-based Poverty Dynamics in Ethiopia
African Journals Online (AJOL)
Optiplex 7010 Pro
poverty status based on consumption and asset ownership. Using panel data ... In recent years Ethiopia has experienced remarkable economic growth with a ...... Understanding the relationship between household demographics and poverty ...
An efficient dynamic load balancing algorithm
Lagaros, Nikos D.
2014-01-01
In engineering problems, randomness and uncertainties are inherent. Robust design procedures, formulated in the framework of multi-objective optimization, have been proposed in order to take into account sources of randomness and uncertainty. These design procedures require orders of magnitude more computational effort than conventional analysis or optimum design processes since a very large number of finite element analyses is required to be dealt. It is therefore an imperative need to exploit the capabilities of computing resources in order to deal with this kind of problems. In particular, parallel computing can be implemented at the level of metaheuristic optimization, by exploiting the physical parallelization feature of the nondominated sorting evolution strategies method, as well as at the level of repeated structural analyses required for assessing the behavioural constraints and for calculating the objective functions. In this study an efficient dynamic load balancing algorithm for optimum exploitation of available computing resources is proposed and, without loss of generality, is applied for computing the desired Pareto front. In such problems the computation of the complete Pareto front with feasible designs only, constitutes a very challenging task. The proposed algorithm achieves linear speedup factors and almost 100% speedup factor values with reference to the sequential procedure.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Tanti Octavia
2003-01-01
Full Text Available A Modified Giffler and Thompson algorithm combined with dynamic slack time is used to allocate machines resources in dynamic nature. It was compared with a Real Time Order Promising (RTP algorithm. The performance of modified Giffler and Thompson and RTP algorithms are measured by mean tardiness. The result shows that modified Giffler and Thompson algorithm combined with dynamic slack time provides significantly better result compared with RTP algorithm in terms of mean tardiness.
PACE: A dynamic programming algorithm for hardware/software partitioning
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Knudsen, Peter Voigt; Madsen, Jan
1996-01-01
This paper presents the PACE partitioning algorithm which is used in the LYCOS co-synthesis system for partitioning control/dataflow graphs into hardware and software parts. The algorithm is a dynamic programming algorithm which solves both the problem of minimizing system execution time...
Conjugate-Gradient Algorithms For Dynamics Of Manipulators
Fijany, Amir; Scheid, Robert E.
1993-01-01
Algorithms for serial and parallel computation of forward dynamics of multiple-link robotic manipulators by conjugate-gradient method developed. Parallel algorithms have potential for speedup of computations on multiple linked, specialized processors implemented in very-large-scale integrated circuits. Such processors used to stimulate dynamics, possibly faster than in real time, for purposes of planning and control.
Collaborative design of Open Educational Practices: An Assets based approach
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Kate Helen Miller
2018-04-01
Full Text Available This paper outlines a collaborative approach to the design of open educational resources (OER with community stakeholders so they can be shared with other community practitioners openly, online and repurposed for other contexts. We view curriculum not as something that educationalists provide but rather something that emerges as learners engage with an educational context. We draw on a Project consisting of a partnership between five European Institutions of Higher Education and a range of community stakeholder groups. The partnership will develop a suite of OER for community workers who are implementing assets based approaches in different contexts. We argue that these approaches are negotiated in that one cannot decide how they might operate in a given context without engaging in deliberative discussion. The challenge for us as open education practitioners is how to turn those deliberations into OER and to highlight the important pedagogical aspect of the design process.
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
to as 'divide-and-conquer'. Although there has been a large effort in realizing efficient algorithms, there are not many universally accepted algorithm design paradigms. In this article, we illustrate algorithm design techniques such as balancing, greedy strategy, dynamic programming strategy, and backtracking or traversal of ...
Congested Link Inference Algorithms in Dynamic Routing IP Network
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Yu Chen
2017-01-01
Full Text Available The performance descending of current congested link inference algorithms is obviously in dynamic routing IP network, such as the most classical algorithm CLINK. To overcome this problem, based on the assumptions of Markov property and time homogeneity, we build a kind of Variable Structure Discrete Dynamic Bayesian (VSDDB network simplified model of dynamic routing IP network. Under the simplified VSDDB model, based on the Bayesian Maximum A Posteriori (BMAP and Rest Bayesian Network Model (RBNM, we proposed an Improved CLINK (ICLINK algorithm. Considering the concurrent phenomenon of multiple link congestion usually happens, we also proposed algorithm CLILRS (Congested Link Inference algorithm based on Lagrangian Relaxation Subgradient to infer the set of congested links. We validated our results by the experiments of analogy, simulation, and actual Internet.
Optimization of Algorithms Using Extensions of Dynamic Programming
AbouEisha, Hassan M.
2017-01-01
of the thesis presents a novel model of computation (element partition tree) that represents a class of algorithms for multi-frontal solvers along with cost functions reflecting various complexity measures such as: time and space. It then introduces dynamic
PM Synchronous Motor Dynamic Modeling with Genetic Algorithm ...
African Journals Online (AJOL)
Adel
This paper proposes dynamic modeling simulation for ac Surface Permanent Magnet Synchronous ... Simulations are implemented using MATLAB with its genetic algorithm toolbox. .... selection, the process that drives biological evolution.
Schilders, W.H.A.; Meijer, P.B.L.; Ciggaar, E.
2008-01-01
In this paper we discuss the use of the state-space modelling MOESP algorithm to generate precise information about the number of neurons and hidden layers in dynamic neural networks developed for the behavioural modelling of electronic circuits. The Bartels–Stewart algorithm is used to transform
New MPPT algorithm based on hybrid dynamical theory
Elmetennani, Shahrazed
2014-11-01
This paper presents a new maximum power point tracking algorithm based on the hybrid dynamical theory. A multiceli converter has been considered as an adaptation stage for the photovoltaic chain. The proposed algorithm is a hybrid automata switching between eight different operating modes, which has been validated by simulation tests under different working conditions. © 2014 IEEE.
Analysing the performance of dynamic multi-objective optimisation algorithms
CSIR Research Space (South Africa)
Helbig, M
2013-06-01
Full Text Available and the goal of the algorithm is to track a set of tradeoff solutions over time. Analysing the performance of a dynamic multi-objective optimisation algorithm (DMOA) is not a trivial task. For each environment (before a change occurs) the DMOA has to find a set...
New MPPT algorithm based on hybrid dynamical theory
Elmetennani, Shahrazed; Laleg-Kirati, Taous-Meriem; Benmansour, K.; Boucherit, M. S.; Tadjine, M.
2014-01-01
This paper presents a new maximum power point tracking algorithm based on the hybrid dynamical theory. A multiceli converter has been considered as an adaptation stage for the photovoltaic chain. The proposed algorithm is a hybrid automata switching between eight different operating modes, which has been validated by simulation tests under different working conditions. © 2014 IEEE.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Okumura, Hisashi
2010-01-01
I review two new generalized-ensemble algorithms for molecular dynamics and Monte Carlo simulations of biomolecules, that is, the multibaric–multithermal algorithm and the partial multicanonical algorithm. In the multibaric–multithermal algorithm, two-dimensional random walks not only in the potential-energy space but also in the volume space are realized. One can discuss the temperature dependence and pressure dependence of biomolecules with this algorithm. The partial multicanonical simulation samples a wide range of only an important part of potential energy, so that one can concentrate the effort to determine a multicanonical weight factor only on the important energy terms. This algorithm has higher sampling efficiency than the multicanonical and canonical algorithms. (review)
Dynamic Uniform Scaling for Multiobjective Genetic Algorithms
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Pedersen, Gerulf; Goldberg, David E.
2004-01-01
Before Multiobjective Evolutionary Algorithms (MOEAs) can be used as a widespread tool for solving arbitrary real world problems there are some salient issues which require further investigation. One of these issues is how a uniform distribution of solutions along the Pareto non-dominated front c...
Dynamic Uniform Scaling for Multiobjective Genetic Algorithms
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Pedersen, Gerulf; Goldberg, D.E.
2004-01-01
Before Multiobjective Evolutionary Algorithms (MOEAs) can be used as a widespread tool for solving arbitrary real world problems there are some salient issues which require further investigation. One of these issues is how a uniform distribution of solutions along the Pareto non-dominated front can...
Using Genetic Algorithms for Navigation Planning in Dynamic Environments
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Ferhat Uçan
2012-01-01
Full Text Available Navigation planning can be considered as a combination of searching and executing the most convenient flight path from an initial waypoint to a destination waypoint. Generally the aim is to follow the flight path, which provides minimum fuel consumption for the air vehicle. For dynamic environments, constraints change dynamically during flight. This is a special case of dynamic path planning. As the main concern of this paper is flight planning, the conditions and objectives that are most probable to be used in navigation problem are considered. In this paper, the genetic algorithm solution of the dynamic flight planning problem is explained. The evolutionary dynamic navigation planning algorithm is developed for compensating the existing deficiencies of the other approaches. The existing fully dynamic algorithms process unit changes to topology one modification at a time, but when there are several such operations occurring in the environment simultaneously, the algorithms are quite inefficient. The proposed algorithm may respond to the concurrent constraint updates in a shorter time for dynamic environment. The most secure navigation of the air vehicle is planned and executed so that the fuel consumption is minimum.
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
2008-01-01
Using functional derivative technique in quantum field theory, the algebraic dy-namics approach for solution of ordinary differential evolution equations was gen-eralized to treat partial differential evolution equations. The partial differential evo-lution equations were lifted to the corresponding functional partial differential equations in functional space by introducing the time translation operator. The functional partial differential evolution equations were solved by algebraic dynam-ics. The algebraic dynamics solutions are analytical in Taylor series in terms of both initial functions and time. Based on the exact analytical solutions, a new nu-merical algorithm—algebraic dynamics algorithm was proposed for partial differ-ential evolution equations. The difficulty of and the way out for the algorithm were discussed. The application of the approach to and computer numerical experi-ments on the nonlinear Burgers equation and meteorological advection equation indicate that the algebraic dynamics approach and algebraic dynamics algorithm are effective to the solution of nonlinear partial differential evolution equations both analytically and numerically.
Optimization algorithm based on densification and dynamic canonical descent
Bousson, K.; Correia, S. D.
2006-07-01
Stochastic methods have gained some popularity in global optimization in that most of them do not assume the cost functions to be differentiable. They have capabilities to avoid being trapped by local optima, and may converge even faster than gradient-based optimization methods on some problems. The present paper proposes an optimization method, which reduces the search space by means of densification curves, coupled with the dynamic canonical descent algorithm. The performances of the new method are shown on several known problems classically used for testing optimization algorithms, and proved to outperform competitive algorithms such as simulated annealing and genetic algorithms.
Synthesizing Dynamic Programming Algorithms from Linear Temporal Logic Formulae
Rosu, Grigore; Havelund, Klaus
2001-01-01
The problem of testing a linear temporal logic (LTL) formula on a finite execution trace of events, generated by an executing program, occurs naturally in runtime analysis of software. We present an algorithm which takes an LTL formula and generates an efficient dynamic programming algorithm. The generated algorithm tests whether the LTL formula is satisfied by a finite trace of events given as input. The generated algorithm runs in linear time, its constant depending on the size of the LTL formula. The memory needed is constant, also depending on the size of the formula.
A Computational Fluid Dynamics Algorithm on a Massively Parallel Computer
Jespersen, Dennis C.; Levit, Creon
1989-01-01
The discipline of computational fluid dynamics is demanding ever-increasing computational power to deal with complex fluid flow problems. We investigate the performance of a finite-difference computational fluid dynamics algorithm on a massively parallel computer, the Connection Machine. Of special interest is an implicit time-stepping algorithm; to obtain maximum performance from the Connection Machine, it is necessary to use a nonstandard algorithm to solve the linear systems that arise in the implicit algorithm. We find that the Connection Machine ran achieve very high computation rates on both explicit and implicit algorithms. The performance of the Connection Machine puts it in the same class as today's most powerful conventional supercomputers.
A dynamic global and local combined particle swarm optimization algorithm
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Jiao Bin; Lian Zhigang; Chen Qunxian
2009-01-01
Particle swarm optimization (PSO) algorithm has been developing rapidly and many results have been reported. PSO algorithm has shown some important advantages by providing high speed of convergence in specific problems, but it has a tendency to get stuck in a near optimal solution and one may find it difficult to improve solution accuracy by fine tuning. This paper presents a dynamic global and local combined particle swarm optimization (DGLCPSO) algorithm to improve the performance of original PSO, in which all particles dynamically share the best information of the local particle, global particle and group particles. It is tested with a set of eight benchmark functions with different dimensions and compared with original PSO. Experimental results indicate that the DGLCPSO algorithm improves the search performance on the benchmark functions significantly, and shows the effectiveness of the algorithm to solve optimization problems.
Parallel algorithms and architecture for computation of manipulator forward dynamics
Fijany, Amir; Bejczy, Antal K.
1989-01-01
Parallel computation of manipulator forward dynamics is investigated. Considering three classes of algorithms for the solution of the problem, that is, the O(n), the O(n exp 2), and the O(n exp 3) algorithms, parallelism in the problem is analyzed. It is shown that the problem belongs to the class of NC and that the time and processors bounds are of O(log2/2n) and O(n exp 4), respectively. However, the fastest stable parallel algorithms achieve the computation time of O(n) and can be derived by parallelization of the O(n exp 3) serial algorithms. Parallel computation of the O(n exp 3) algorithms requires the development of parallel algorithms for a set of fundamentally different problems, that is, the Newton-Euler formulation, the computation of the inertia matrix, decomposition of the symmetric, positive definite matrix, and the solution of triangular systems. Parallel algorithms for this set of problems are developed which can be efficiently implemented on a unique architecture, a triangular array of n(n+2)/2 processors with a simple nearest-neighbor interconnection. This architecture is particularly suitable for VLSI and WSI implementations. The developed parallel algorithm, compared to the best serial O(n) algorithm, achieves an asymptotic speedup of more than two orders-of-magnitude in the computation the forward dynamics.
Algorithm of Dynamic Model Structural Identification of the Multivariable Plant
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Л.М. Блохін
2004-02-01
Full Text Available The new algorithm of dynamic model structural identification of the multivariable stabilized plant with observable and unobservable disturbances in the regular operating modes is offered in this paper. With the help of the offered algorithm it is possible to define the “perturbed” models of dynamics not only of the plant, but also the dynamics characteristics of observable and unobservable casual disturbances taking into account the absence of correlation between themselves and control inputs with the unobservable perturbations.
Dynamic Vehicle Routing Using an Improved Variable Neighborhood Search Algorithm
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Yingcheng Xu
2013-01-01
Full Text Available In order to effectively solve the dynamic vehicle routing problem with time windows, the mathematical model is established and an improved variable neighborhood search algorithm is proposed. In the algorithm, allocation customers and planning routes for the initial solution are completed by the clustering method. Hybrid operators of insert and exchange are used to achieve the shaking process, the later optimization process is presented to improve the solution space, and the best-improvement strategy is adopted, which make the algorithm can achieve a better balance in the solution quality and running time. The idea of simulated annealing is introduced to take control of the acceptance of new solutions, and the influences of arrival time, distribution of geographical location, and time window range on route selection are analyzed. In the experiment, the proposed algorithm is applied to solve the different sizes' problems of DVRP. Comparing to other algorithms on the results shows that the algorithm is effective and feasible.
Heuristic Scheduling Algorithm Oriented Dynamic Tasks for Imaging Satellites
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Maocai Wang
2014-01-01
Full Text Available Imaging satellite scheduling is an NP-hard problem with many complex constraints. This paper researches the scheduling problem for dynamic tasks oriented to some emergency cases. After the dynamic properties of satellite scheduling were analyzed, the optimization model is proposed in this paper. Based on the model, two heuristic algorithms are proposed to solve the problem. The first heuristic algorithm arranges new tasks by inserting or deleting them, then inserting them repeatedly according to the priority from low to high, which is named IDI algorithm. The second one called ISDR adopts four steps: insert directly, insert by shifting, insert by deleting, and reinsert the tasks deleted. Moreover, two heuristic factors, congestion degree of a time window and the overlapping degree of a task, are employed to improve the algorithm’s performance. Finally, a case is given to test the algorithms. The results show that the IDI algorithm is better than ISDR from the running time point of view while ISDR algorithm with heuristic factors is more effective with regard to algorithm performance. Moreover, the results also show that our method has good performance for the larger size of the dynamic tasks in comparison with the other two methods.
Optimization of Algorithms Using Extensions of Dynamic Programming
AbouEisha, Hassan M.
2017-04-09
We study and answer questions related to the complexity of various important problems such as: multi-frontal solvers of hp-adaptive finite element method, sorting and majority. We advocate the use of dynamic programming as a viable tool to study optimal algorithms for these problems. The main approach used to attack these problems is modeling classes of algorithms that may solve this problem using a discrete model of computation then defining cost functions on this discrete structure that reflect different complexity measures of the represented algorithms. As a last step, dynamic programming algorithms are designed and used to optimize those models (algorithms) and to obtain exact results on the complexity of the studied problems. The first part of the thesis presents a novel model of computation (element partition tree) that represents a class of algorithms for multi-frontal solvers along with cost functions reflecting various complexity measures such as: time and space. It then introduces dynamic programming algorithms for multi-stage and bi-criteria optimization of element partition trees. In addition, it presents results based on optimal element partition trees for famous benchmark meshes such as: meshes with point and edge singularities. New improved heuristics for those benchmark meshes were ob- tained based on insights of the optimal results found by our algorithms. The second part of the thesis starts by introducing a general problem where different problems can be reduced to and show how to use a decision table to model such problem. We describe how decision trees and decision tests for this table correspond to adaptive and non-adaptive algorithms for the original problem. We present exact bounds on the average time complexity of adaptive algorithms for the eight elements sorting problem. Then bounds on adaptive and non-adaptive algorithms for a variant of the majority problem are introduced. Adaptive algorithms are modeled as decision trees whose depth
Incremental Centrality Algorithms for Dynamic Network Analysis
2013-08-01
literature. 7.1.3 Small World Networks In 1998, Watts and Strogatz introduced a model that starts with a regular lattice (ring) of n nodes and...and S. Strogatz , "Collective Dynamics of ‘Small-World’ Networks," Nature, vol. 393, pp. 440-442, 1998. [13] T. Opsahl, "Structure and Evolution of...34On Random Graphs," Publicationes Mathematicae, vol. 6, 1959. [167] D.J. Watts and S.H. Strogatz , "Collective Dynamics of ‘Small-World’ Networks
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
WANG; Shunjin; ZHANG; Hua
2006-01-01
The problem of preserving fidelity in numerical computation of nonlinear ordinary differential equations is studied in terms of preserving local differential structure and approximating global integration structure of the dynamical system.The ordinary differential equations are lifted to the corresponding partial differential equations in the framework of algebraic dynamics,and a new algorithm-algebraic dynamics algorithm is proposed based on the exact analytical solutions of the ordinary differential equations by the algebraic dynamics method.In the new algorithm,the time evolution of the ordinary differential system is described locally by the time translation operator and globally by the time evolution operator.The exact analytical piece-like solution of the ordinary differential equations is expressd in terms of Taylor series with a local convergent radius,and its finite order truncation leads to the new numerical algorithm with a controllable precision better than Runge Kutta Algorithm and Symplectic Geometric Algorithm.
Dynamic Algorithm for LQGPC Predictive Control
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Hangstrup, M.; Ordys, A.W.; Grimble, M.J.
1998-01-01
In this paper the optimal control law is derived for a multi-variable state space Linear Quadratic Gaussian Predictive Controller (LQGPC). A dynamic performance index is utilized resulting in an optimal steady state controller. Knowledge of future reference values is incorporated into the control......In this paper the optimal control law is derived for a multi-variable state space Linear Quadratic Gaussian Predictive Controller (LQGPC). A dynamic performance index is utilized resulting in an optimal steady state controller. Knowledge of future reference values is incorporated...... into the controller design and the solution is derived using the method of Lagrange multipliers. It is shown how well-known GPC controller can be obtained as a special case of the LQGPC controller design. The important advantage of using the LQGPC framework for designing predictive, e.g. GPS is that LQGPC enables...
STREAM PROCESSING ALGORITHMS FOR DYNAMIC 3D SCENE ANALYSIS
2018-02-15
PROCESSING ALGORITHMS FOR DYNAMIC 3D SCENE ANALYSIS 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER FA8750-14-2-0072 5b. GRANT NUMBER N/A 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 62788F 6...of Figures 1 The 3D processing pipeline flowchart showing key modules. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12 2 Overall view (data flow) of the proposed...pipeline flowchart showing key modules. from motion and bundle adjustment algorithm. By fusion of depth masks of the scene obtained from 3D
Lorentz covariant canonical symplectic algorithms for dynamics of charged particles
Wang, Yulei; Liu, Jian; Qin, Hong
2016-12-01
In this paper, the Lorentz covariance of algorithms is introduced. Under Lorentz transformation, both the form and performance of a Lorentz covariant algorithm are invariant. To acquire the advantages of symplectic algorithms and Lorentz covariance, a general procedure for constructing Lorentz covariant canonical symplectic algorithms (LCCSAs) is provided, based on which an explicit LCCSA for dynamics of relativistic charged particles is built. LCCSA possesses Lorentz invariance as well as long-term numerical accuracy and stability, due to the preservation of a discrete symplectic structure and the Lorentz symmetry of the system. For situations with time-dependent electromagnetic fields, which are difficult to handle in traditional construction procedures of symplectic algorithms, LCCSA provides a perfect explicit canonical symplectic solution by implementing the discretization in 4-spacetime. We also show that LCCSA has built-in energy-based adaptive time steps, which can optimize the computation performance when the Lorentz factor varies.
Gradient descent learning algorithm overview: a general dynamical systems perspective.
Baldi, P
1995-01-01
Gives a unified treatment of gradient descent learning algorithms for neural networks using a general framework of dynamical systems. This general approach organizes and simplifies all the known algorithms and results which have been originally derived for different problems (fixed point/trajectory learning), for different models (discrete/continuous), for different architectures (forward/recurrent), and using different techniques (backpropagation, variational calculus, adjoint methods, etc.). The general approach can also be applied to derive new algorithms. The author then briefly examines some of the complexity issues and limitations intrinsic to gradient descent learning. Throughout the paper, the author focuses on the problem of trajectory learning.
Node-Dependence-Based Dynamic Incentive Algorithm in Opportunistic Networks
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Ruiyun Yu
2014-01-01
Full Text Available Opportunistic networks lack end-to-end paths between source nodes and destination nodes, so the communications are mainly carried out by the “store-carry-forward” strategy. Selfish behaviors of rejecting packet relay requests will severely worsen the network performance. Incentive is an efficient way to reduce selfish behaviors and hence improves the reliability and robustness of the networks. In this paper, we propose the node-dependence-based dynamic gaming incentive (NDI algorithm, which exploits the dynamic repeated gaming to motivate nodes relaying packets for other nodes. The NDI algorithm presents a mechanism of tolerating selfish behaviors of nodes. Reward and punishment methods are also designed based on the node dependence degree. Simulation results show that the NDI algorithm is effective in increasing the delivery ratio and decreasing average latency when there are a lot of selfish nodes in the opportunistic networks.
Dynamic Sensor Management Algorithm Based on Improved Efficacy Function
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
TANG Shujuan
2016-01-01
Full Text Available A dynamic sensor management algorithm based on improved efficacy function is proposed to solve the multi-target and multi-sensory management problem. The tracking task precision requirements (TPR, target priority and sensor use cost were considered to establish the efficacy function by weighted sum the normalized value of the three factors. The dynamic sensor management algorithm was accomplished through control the diversities of the desired covariance matrix (DCM and the filtering covariance matrix (FCM. The DCM was preassigned in terms of TPR and the FCM was obtained by the centralized sequential Kalman filtering algorithm. The simulation results prove that the proposed method could meet the requirements of desired tracking precision and adjust sensor selection according to target priority and cost of sensor source usage. This makes sensor management scheme more reasonable and effective.
Parallel conjugate gradient algorithms for manipulator dynamic simulation
Fijany, Amir; Scheld, Robert E.
1989-01-01
Parallel conjugate gradient algorithms for the computation of multibody dynamics are developed for the specialized case of a robot manipulator. For an n-dimensional positive-definite linear system, the Classical Conjugate Gradient (CCG) algorithms are guaranteed to converge in n iterations, each with a computation cost of O(n); this leads to a total computational cost of O(n sq) on a serial processor. A conjugate gradient algorithms is presented that provide greater efficiency using a preconditioner, which reduces the number of iterations required, and by exploiting parallelism, which reduces the cost of each iteration. Two Preconditioned Conjugate Gradient (PCG) algorithms are proposed which respectively use a diagonal and a tridiagonal matrix, composed of the diagonal and tridiagonal elements of the mass matrix, as preconditioners. Parallel algorithms are developed to compute the preconditioners and their inversions in O(log sub 2 n) steps using n processors. A parallel algorithm is also presented which, on the same architecture, achieves the computational time of O(log sub 2 n) for each iteration. Simulation results for a seven degree-of-freedom manipulator are presented. Variants of the proposed algorithms are also developed which can be efficiently implemented on the Robot Mathematics Processor (RMP).
Multiscale equation-free algorithms for molecular dynamics
Abi Mansour, Andrew
Molecular dynamics is a physics-based computational tool that has been widely employed to study the dynamics and structure of macromolecules and their assemblies at the atomic scale. However, the efficiency of molecular dynamics simulation is limited because of the broad spectrum of timescales involved. To overcome this limitation, an equation-free algorithm is presented for simulating these systems using a multiscale model cast in terms of atomistic and coarse-grained variables. Both variables are evolved in time in such a way that the cross-talk between short and long scales is preserved. In this way, the coarse-grained variables guide the evolution of the atom-resolved states, while the latter provide the Newtonian physics for the former. While the atomistic variables are evolved using short molecular dynamics runs, time advancement at the coarse-grained level is achieved with a scheme that uses information from past and future states of the system while accounting for both the stochastic and deterministic features of the coarse-grained dynamics. To complete the multiscale cycle, an atom-resolved state consistent with the updated coarse-grained variables is recovered using algorithms from mathematical optimization. This multiscale paradigm is extended to nanofluidics using concepts from hydrodynamics, and it is demonstrated for macromolecular and nanofluidic systems. A toolkit is developed for prototyping these algorithms, which are then implemented within the GROMACS simulation package and released as an open source multiscale simulator.
Coulomb interactions via local dynamics: a molecular-dynamics algorithm
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Pasichnyk, Igor; Duenweg, Burkhard
2004-01-01
We derive and describe in detail a recently proposed method for obtaining Coulomb interactions as the potential of mean force between charges which are dynamically coupled to a local electromagnetic field. We focus on the molecular dynamics version of the method and show that it is intimately related to the Car-Parrinello approach, while being equivalent to solving Maxwell's equations with a freely adjustable speed of light. Unphysical self-energies arise as a result of the lattice interpolation of charges, and are corrected by a subtraction scheme based on the exact lattice Green function. The method can be straightforwardly parallelized using standard domain decomposition. Some preliminary benchmark results are presented
High speed railway track dynamics models, algorithms and applications
Lei, Xiaoyan
2017-01-01
This book systematically summarizes the latest research findings on high-speed railway track dynamics, made by the author and his research team over the past decade. It explores cutting-edge issues concerning the basic theory of high-speed railways, covering the dynamic theories, models, algorithms and engineering applications of the high-speed train and track coupling system. Presenting original concepts, systematic theories and advanced algorithms, the book places great emphasis on the precision and completeness of its content. The chapters are interrelated yet largely self-contained, allowing readers to either read through the book as a whole or focus on specific topics. It also combines theories with practice to effectively introduce readers to the latest research findings and developments in high-speed railway track dynamics. It offers a valuable resource for researchers, postgraduates and engineers in the fields of civil engineering, transportation, highway & railway engineering.
Overview of fast algorithm in 3D dynamic holographic display
Liu, Juan; Jia, Jia; Pan, Yijie; Wang, Yongtian
2013-08-01
3D dynamic holographic display is one of the most attractive techniques for achieving real 3D vision with full depth cue without any extra devices. However, huge 3D information and data should be preceded and be computed in real time for generating the hologram in 3D dynamic holographic display, and it is a challenge even for the most advanced computer. Many fast algorithms are proposed for speeding the calculation and reducing the memory usage, such as:look-up table (LUT), compressed look-up table (C-LUT), split look-up table (S-LUT), and novel look-up table (N-LUT) based on the point-based method, and full analytical polygon-based methods, one-step polygon-based method based on the polygon-based method. In this presentation, we overview various fast algorithms based on the point-based method and the polygon-based method, and focus on the fast algorithm with low memory usage, the C-LUT, and one-step polygon-based method by the 2D Fourier analysis of the 3D affine transformation. The numerical simulations and the optical experiments are presented, and several other algorithms are compared. The results show that the C-LUT algorithm and the one-step polygon-based method are efficient methods for saving calculation time. It is believed that those methods could be used in the real-time 3D holographic display in future.
Partial multicanonical algorithm for molecular dynamics and Monte Carlo simulations.
Okumura, Hisashi
2008-09-28
Partial multicanonical algorithm is proposed for molecular dynamics and Monte Carlo simulations. The partial multicanonical simulation samples a wide range of a part of the potential-energy terms, which is necessary to sample the conformational space widely, whereas a wide range of total potential energy is sampled in the multicanonical algorithm. Thus, one can concentrate the effort to determine the weight factor only on the important energy terms in the partial multicanonical simulation. The partial multicanonical, multicanonical, and canonical molecular dynamics algorithms were applied to an alanine dipeptide in explicit water solvent. The canonical simulation sampled the states of P(II), C(5), alpha(R), and alpha(P). The multicanonical simulation covered the alpha(L) state as well as these states. The partial multicanonical simulation also sampled the C(7) (ax) state in addition to the states that were sampled by the multicanonical simulation. In the partial multicanonical simulation, furthermore, backbone dihedral angles phi and psi rotated more frequently than those in the multicanonical and canonical simulations. These results mean that the partial multicanonical algorithm has a higher sampling efficiency than the multicanonical and canonical algorithms.
An algorithm for the solution of dynamic linear programs
Psiaki, Mark L.
1989-01-01
The algorithm's objective is to efficiently solve Dynamic Linear Programs (DLP) by taking advantage of their special staircase structure. This algorithm constitutes a stepping stone to an improved algorithm for solving Dynamic Quadratic Programs, which, in turn, would make the nonlinear programming method of Successive Quadratic Programs more practical for solving trajectory optimization problems. The ultimate goal is to being trajectory optimization solution speeds into the realm of real-time control. The algorithm exploits the staircase nature of the large constraint matrix of the equality-constrained DLPs encountered when solving inequality-constrained DLPs by an active set approach. A numerically-stable, staircase QL factorization of the staircase constraint matrix is carried out starting from its last rows and columns. The resulting recursion is like the time-varying Riccati equation from multi-stage LQR theory. The resulting factorization increases the efficiency of all of the typical LP solution operations over that of a dense matrix LP code. At the same time numerical stability is ensured. The algorithm also takes advantage of dynamic programming ideas about the cost-to-go by relaxing active pseudo constraints in a backwards sweeping process. This further decreases the cost per update of the LP rank-1 updating procedure, although it may result in more changes of the active set that if pseudo constraints were relaxed in a non-stagewise fashion. The usual stability of closed-loop Linear/Quadratic optimally-controlled systems, if it carries over to strictly linear cost functions, implies that the saving due to reduced factor update effort may outweigh the cost of an increased number of updates. An aerospace example is presented in which a ground-to-ground rocket's distance is maximized. This example demonstrates the applicability of this class of algorithms to aerospace guidance. It also sheds light on the efficacy of the proposed pseudo constraint relaxation
A dynamic inertia weight particle swarm optimization algorithm
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Jiao Bin; Lian Zhigang; Gu Xingsheng
2008-01-01
Particle swarm optimization (PSO) algorithm has been developing rapidly and has been applied widely since it was introduced, as it is easily understood and realized. This paper presents an improved particle swarm optimization algorithm (IPSO) to improve the performance of standard PSO, which uses the dynamic inertia weight that decreases according to iterative generation increasing. It is tested with a set of 6 benchmark functions with 30, 50 and 150 different dimensions and compared with standard PSO. Experimental results indicate that the IPSO improves the search performance on the benchmark functions significantly
Multiscale Reaction-Diffusion Algorithms: PDE-Assisted Brownian Dynamics
Franz, Benjamin
2013-06-19
Two algorithms that combine Brownian dynami cs (BD) simulations with mean-field partial differential equations (PDEs) are presented. This PDE-assisted Brownian dynamics (PBD) methodology provides exact particle tracking data in parts of the domain, whilst making use of a mean-field reaction-diffusion PDE description elsewhere. The first PBD algorithm couples BD simulations with PDEs by randomly creating new particles close to the interface, which partitions the domain, and by reincorporating particles into the continuum PDE-description when they cross the interface. The second PBD algorithm introduces an overlap region, where both descriptions exist in parallel. It is shown that the overlap region is required to accurately compute variances using PBD simulations. Advantages of both PBD approaches are discussed and illustrative numerical examples are presented. © 2013 Society for Industrial and Applied Mathematics.
Fast stochastic algorithm for simulating evolutionary population dynamics
Tsimring, Lev; Hasty, Jeff; Mather, William
2012-02-01
Evolution and co-evolution of ecological communities are stochastic processes often characterized by vastly different rates of reproduction and mutation and a coexistence of very large and very small sub-populations of co-evolving species. This creates serious difficulties for accurate statistical modeling of evolutionary dynamics. In this talk, we introduce a new exact algorithm for fast fully stochastic simulations of birth/death/mutation processes. It produces a significant speedup compared to the direct stochastic simulation algorithm in a typical case when the total population size is large and the mutation rates are much smaller than birth/death rates. We illustrate the performance of the algorithm on several representative examples: evolution on a smooth fitness landscape, NK model, and stochastic predator-prey system.
Dynamic Synchronous Capture Algorithm for an Electromagnetic Flowmeter.
Fanjiang, Yong-Yi; Lu, Shih-Wei
2017-04-10
This paper proposes a dynamic synchronous capture (DSC) algorithm to calculate the flow rate for an electromagnetic flowmeter. The characteristics of the DSC algorithm can accurately calculate the flow rate signal and efficiently convert an analog signal to upgrade the execution performance of a microcontroller unit (MCU). Furthermore, it can reduce interference from abnormal noise. It is extremely steady and independent of fluctuations in the flow measurement. Moreover, it can calculate the current flow rate signal immediately (m/s). The DSC algorithm can be applied to the current general MCU firmware platform without using DSP (Digital Signal Processing) or a high-speed and high-end MCU platform, and signal amplification by hardware reduces the demand for ADC accuracy, which reduces the cost.
Parameter identification for structural dynamics based on interval analysis algorithm
Yang, Chen; Lu, Zixing; Yang, Zhenyu; Liang, Ke
2018-04-01
A parameter identification method using interval analysis algorithm for structural dynamics is presented in this paper. The proposed uncertain identification method is investigated by using central difference method and ARMA system. With the help of the fixed memory least square method and matrix inverse lemma, a set-membership identification technology is applied to obtain the best estimation of the identified parameters in a tight and accurate region. To overcome the lack of insufficient statistical description of the uncertain parameters, this paper treats uncertainties as non-probabilistic intervals. As long as we know the bounds of uncertainties, this algorithm can obtain not only the center estimations of parameters, but also the bounds of errors. To improve the efficiency of the proposed method, a time-saving algorithm is presented by recursive formula. At last, to verify the accuracy of the proposed method, two numerical examples are applied and evaluated by three identification criteria respectively.
A Dynamic Neighborhood Learning-Based Gravitational Search Algorithm.
Zhang, Aizhu; Sun, Genyun; Ren, Jinchang; Li, Xiaodong; Wang, Zhenjie; Jia, Xiuping
2018-01-01
Balancing exploration and exploitation according to evolutionary states is crucial to meta-heuristic search (M-HS) algorithms. Owing to its simplicity in theory and effectiveness in global optimization, gravitational search algorithm (GSA) has attracted increasing attention in recent years. However, the tradeoff between exploration and exploitation in GSA is achieved mainly by adjusting the size of an archive, named , which stores those superior agents after fitness sorting in each iteration. Since the global property of remains unchanged in the whole evolutionary process, GSA emphasizes exploitation over exploration and suffers from rapid loss of diversity and premature convergence. To address these problems, in this paper, we propose a dynamic neighborhood learning (DNL) strategy to replace the model and thereby present a DNL-based GSA (DNLGSA). The method incorporates the local and global neighborhood topologies for enhancing the exploration and obtaining adaptive balance between exploration and exploitation. The local neighborhoods are dynamically formed based on evolutionary states. To delineate the evolutionary states, two convergence criteria named limit value and population diversity, are introduced. Moreover, a mutation operator is designed for escaping from the local optima on the basis of evolutionary states. The proposed algorithm was evaluated on 27 benchmark problems with different characteristic and various difficulties. The results reveal that DNLGSA exhibits competitive performances when compared with a variety of state-of-the-art M-HS algorithms. Moreover, the incorporation of local neighborhood topology reduces the numbers of calculations of gravitational force and thus alleviates the high computational cost of GSA.
A self-learning algorithm for biased molecular dynamics
Tribello, Gareth A.; Ceriotti, Michele; Parrinello, Michele
2010-01-01
A new self-learning algorithm for accelerated dynamics, reconnaissance metadynamics, is proposed that is able to work with a very large number of collective coordinates. Acceleration of the dynamics is achieved by constructing a bias potential in terms of a patchwork of one-dimensional, locally valid collective coordinates. These collective coordinates are obtained from trajectory analyses so that they adapt to any new features encountered during the simulation. We show how this methodology can be used to enhance sampling in real chemical systems citing examples both from the physics of clusters and from the biological sciences. PMID:20876135
Cone Algorithm of Spinning Vehicles under Dynamic Coning Environment
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Shuang-biao Zhang
2015-01-01
Full Text Available Due to the fact that attitude error of vehicles has an intense trend of divergence when vehicles undergo worsening coning environment, in this paper, the model of dynamic coning environment is derived firstly. Then, through investigation of the effect on Euler attitude algorithm for the equivalency of traditional attitude algorithm, it is found that attitude error is actually the roll angle error including drifting error and oscillating error, which is induced directly by dynamic coning environment and further affects the pitch angle and yaw angle through transferring. Based on definition of the cone frame and cone attitude, a cone algorithm is proposed by rotation relationship to calculate cone attitude, and the relationship between cone attitude and Euler attitude of spinning vehicle is established. Through numerical simulations with different conditions of dynamic coning environment, it is shown that the induced error of Euler attitude fluctuates by the variation of precession and nutation, especially by that of nutation, and the oscillating frequency of roll angle error is twice that of pitch angle error and yaw angle error. In addition, the rotation angle is more competent to describe the spinning process of vehicles under coning environment than Euler angle gamma, and the real pitch angle and yaw angle are calculated finally.
Rigorous lower bound on the dynamic critical exponent of some multilevel Swendsen-Wang algorithms
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Li, X.; Sokal, A.D.
1991-01-01
We prove the rigorous lower bound z exp ≥α/ν for the dynamic critical exponent of a broad class of multilevel (or ''multigrid'') variants of the Swendsen-Wang algorithm. This proves that such algorithms do suffer from critical slowing down. We conjecture that such algorithms in fact lie in the same dynamic universality class as the stanard Swendsen-Wang algorithm
Algorithms for optimal sequencing of dynamic multileaf collimators
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kamath, Srijit; Sahni, Sartaj; Palta, Jatinder; Ranka, Sanjay
2004-01-01
Dynamic multileaf collimator (DMLC) intensity modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) is used to deliver intensity modulated beams using a multileaf collimator (MLC), with the leaves in motion. DMLC-IMRT requires the conversion of a radiation intensity map into a leaf sequence file that controls the movement of the MLC while the beam is on. It is imperative that the intensity map delivered using the leaf sequence file be as close as possible to the intensity map generated by the dose optimization algorithm, while satisfying hardware constraints of the delivery system. Optimization of the leaf-sequencing algorithm has been the subject of several recent investigations. In this work, we present a systematic study of the optimization of leaf-sequencing algorithms for dynamic multileaf collimator beam delivery and provide rigorous mathematical proofs of optimized leaf sequence settings in terms of monitor unit (MU) efficiency under the most common leaf movement constraints that include leaf interdigitation constraint. Our analytical analysis shows that leaf sequencing based on unidirectional movement of the MLC leaves is as MU efficient as bi-directional movement of the MLC leaves
Algorithms for optimal sequencing of dynamic multileaf collimators
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Kamath, Srijit [Department of Computer and Information Science and Engineering, University of Florida, Gainesville, FL (United States); Sahni, Sartaj [Department of Computer and Information Science and Engineering, University of Florida, Gainesville, FL (United States); Palta, Jatinder [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Florida, Gainesville, FL (United States); Ranka, Sanjay [Department of Computer and Information Science and Engineering, University of Florida, Gainesville, FL (United States)
2004-01-07
Dynamic multileaf collimator (DMLC) intensity modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) is used to deliver intensity modulated beams using a multileaf collimator (MLC), with the leaves in motion. DMLC-IMRT requires the conversion of a radiation intensity map into a leaf sequence file that controls the movement of the MLC while the beam is on. It is imperative that the intensity map delivered using the leaf sequence file be as close as possible to the intensity map generated by the dose optimization algorithm, while satisfying hardware constraints of the delivery system. Optimization of the leaf-sequencing algorithm has been the subject of several recent investigations. In this work, we present a systematic study of the optimization of leaf-sequencing algorithms for dynamic multileaf collimator beam delivery and provide rigorous mathematical proofs of optimized leaf sequence settings in terms of monitor unit (MU) efficiency under the most common leaf movement constraints that include leaf interdigitation constraint. Our analytical analysis shows that leaf sequencing based on unidirectional movement of the MLC leaves is as MU efficient as bi-directional movement of the MLC leaves.
A new parallel molecular dynamics algorithm for organic systems
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Plimpton, S.; Hendrickson, B.; Heffelfinger, G.
1993-01-01
A new parallel algorithm for simulating bonded molecular systems such as polymers and proteins by molecular dynamics (MD) is presented. In contrast to methods that extract parallelism by breaking the spatial domain into sub-pieces, the new method does not require regular geometries or uniform particle densities to achieve high parallel efficiency. For very large, regular systems spatial methods are often the best choice, but in practice the new method is faster for systems with tens-of-thousands of atoms simulated on large numbers of processors. It is also several times faster than the techniques commonly used for parallelizing bonded MD that assign a subset of atoms to each processor and require all-to-all communication. Implementation of the algorithm in a CHARMm-like MD model with many body forces and constraint dynamics is discussed and timings on the Intel Delta and Paragon machines are given. Example calculations using the algorithm in simulations of polymers and liquid-crystal molecules will also be briefly discussed
Genetic algorithm enhanced by machine learning in dynamic aperture optimization
Li, Yongjun; Cheng, Weixing; Yu, Li Hua; Rainer, Robert
2018-05-01
With the aid of machine learning techniques, the genetic algorithm has been enhanced and applied to the multi-objective optimization problem presented by the dynamic aperture of the National Synchrotron Light Source II (NSLS-II) Storage Ring. During the evolution processes employed by the genetic algorithm, the population is classified into different clusters in the search space. The clusters with top average fitness are given "elite" status. Intervention on the population is implemented by repopulating some potentially competitive candidates based on the experience learned from the accumulated data. These candidates replace randomly selected candidates among the original data pool. The average fitness of the population is therefore improved while diversity is not lost. Maintaining diversity ensures that the optimization is global rather than local. The quality of the population increases and produces more competitive descendants accelerating the evolution process significantly. When identifying the distribution of optimal candidates, they appear to be located in isolated islands within the search space. Some of these optimal candidates have been experimentally confirmed at the NSLS-II storage ring. The machine learning techniques that exploit the genetic algorithm can also be used in other population-based optimization problems such as particle swarm algorithm.
Algorithm for Stabilizing a POD-Based Dynamical System
Kalb, Virginia L.
2010-01-01
This algorithm provides a new way to improve the accuracy and asymptotic behavior of a low-dimensional system based on the proper orthogonal decomposition (POD). Given a data set representing the evolution of a system of partial differential equations (PDEs), such as the Navier-Stokes equations for incompressible flow, one may obtain a low-dimensional model in the form of ordinary differential equations (ODEs) that should model the dynamics of the flow. Temporal sampling of the direct numerical simulation of the PDEs produces a spatial time series. The POD extracts the temporal and spatial eigenfunctions of this data set. Truncated to retain only the most energetic modes followed by Galerkin projection of these modes onto the PDEs obtains a dynamical system of ordinary differential equations for the time-dependent behavior of the flow. In practice, the steps leading to this system of ODEs entail numerically computing first-order derivatives of the mean data field and the eigenfunctions, and the computation of many inner products. This is far from a perfect process, and often results in the lack of long-term stability of the system and incorrect asymptotic behavior of the model. This algorithm describes a new stabilization method that utilizes the temporal eigenfunctions to derive correction terms for the coefficients of the dynamical system to significantly reduce these errors.
Dynamic Programming and Graph Algorithms in Computer Vision*
Felzenszwalb, Pedro F.; Zabih, Ramin
2013-01-01
Optimization is a powerful paradigm for expressing and solving problems in a wide range of areas, and has been successfully applied to many vision problems. Discrete optimization techniques are especially interesting, since by carefully exploiting problem structure they often provide non-trivial guarantees concerning solution quality. In this paper we briefly review dynamic programming and graph algorithms, and discuss representative examples of how these discrete optimization techniques have been applied to some classical vision problems. We focus on the low-level vision problem of stereo; the mid-level problem of interactive object segmentation; and the high-level problem of model-based recognition. PMID:20660950
The Sociological Imagination and Community-Based Learning: Using an Asset-Based Approach
Garoutte, Lisa
2018-01-01
Fostering a sociological imagination in students is a central goal for most introductory sociology courses and sociology departments generally, yet success is difficult to achieve. This project suggests that using elements of asset-based community development can be used in sociology classrooms to develop a sociological perspective. After…
Dynamic airspace configuration algorithms for next generation air transportation system
Wei, Jian
The National Airspace System (NAS) is under great pressure to safely and efficiently handle the record-high air traffic volume nowadays, and will face even greater challenge to keep pace with the steady increase of future air travel demand, since the air travel demand is projected to increase to two to three times the current level by 2025. The inefficiency of traffic flow management initiatives causes severe airspace congestion and frequent flight delays, which cost billions of economic losses every year. To address the increasingly severe airspace congestion and delays, the Next Generation Air Transportation System (NextGen) is proposed to transform the current static and rigid radar based system to a dynamic and flexible satellite based system. New operational concepts such as Dynamic Airspace Configuration (DAC) have been under development to allow more flexibility required to mitigate the demand-capacity imbalances in order to increase the throughput of the entire NAS. In this dissertation, we address the DAC problem in the en route and terminal airspace under the framework of NextGen. We develop a series of algorithms to facilitate the implementation of innovative concepts relevant with DAC in both the en route and terminal airspace. We also develop a performance evaluation framework for comprehensive benefit analyses on different aspects of future sector design algorithms. First, we complete a graph based sectorization algorithm for DAC in the en route airspace, which models the underlying air route network with a weighted graph, converts the sectorization problem into the graph partition problem, partitions the weighted graph with an iterative spectral bipartition method, and constructs the sectors from the partitioned graph. The algorithm uses a graph model to accurately capture the complex traffic patterns of the real flights, and generates sectors with high efficiency while evenly distributing the workload among the generated sectors. We further improve
Algorithms for computational fluid dynamics n parallel processors
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Van de Velde, E.F.
1986-01-01
A study of parallel algorithms for the numerical solution of partial differential equations arising in computational fluid dynamics is presented. The actual implementation on parallel processors of shared and nonshared memory design is discussed. The performance of these algorithms is analyzed in terms of machine efficiency, communication time, bottlenecks and software development costs. For elliptic equations, a parallel preconditioned conjugate gradient method is described, which has been used to solve pressure equations discretized with high order finite elements on irregular grids. A parallel full multigrid method and a parallel fast Poisson solver are also presented. Hyperbolic conservation laws were discretized with parallel versions of finite difference methods like the Lax-Wendroff scheme and with the Random Choice method. Techniques are developed for comparing the behavior of an algorithm on different architectures as a function of problem size and local computational effort. Effective use of these advanced architecture machines requires the use of machine dependent programming. It is shown that the portability problems can be minimized by introducing high level operations on vectors and matrices structured into program libraries
Dynamics of the evolution of learning algorithms by selection
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Neirotti, Juan Pablo; Caticha, Nestor
2003-01-01
We study the evolution of artificial learning systems by means of selection. Genetic programming is used to generate populations of programs that implement algorithms used by neural network classifiers to learn a rule in a supervised learning scenario. In contrast to concentrating on final results, which would be the natural aim while designing good learning algorithms, we study the evolution process. Phenotypic and genotypic entropies, which describe the distribution of fitness and of symbols, respectively, are used to monitor the dynamics. We identify significant functional structures responsible for the improvements in the learning process. In particular, some combinations of variables and operators are useful in assessing performance in rule extraction and can thus implement annealing of the learning schedule. We also find combinations that can signal surprise, measured on a single example, by the difference between predicted and correct classification. When such favorable structures appear, they are disseminated on very short time scales throughout the population. Due to such abruptness they can be thought of as dynamical transitions. But foremost, we find a strict temporal order of such discoveries. Structures that measure performance are never useful before those for measuring surprise. Invasions of the population by such structures in the reverse order were never observed. Asymptotically, the generalization ability approaches Bayesian results
Bidirectional Dynamic Diversity Evolutionary Algorithm for Constrained Optimization
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Weishang Gao
2013-01-01
Full Text Available Evolutionary algorithms (EAs were shown to be effective for complex constrained optimization problems. However, inflexible exploration-exploitation and improper penalty in EAs with penalty function would lead to losing the global optimum nearby or on the constrained boundary. To determine an appropriate penalty coefficient is also difficult in most studies. In this paper, we propose a bidirectional dynamic diversity evolutionary algorithm (Bi-DDEA with multiagents guiding exploration-exploitation through local extrema to the global optimum in suitable steps. In Bi-DDEA potential advantage is detected by three kinds of agents. The scale and the density of agents will change dynamically according to the emerging of potential optimal area, which play an important role of flexible exploration-exploitation. Meanwhile, a novel double optimum estimation strategy with objective fitness and penalty fitness is suggested to compute, respectively, the dominance trend of agents in feasible region and forbidden region. This bidirectional evolving with multiagents can not only effectively avoid the problem of determining penalty coefficient but also quickly converge to the global optimum nearby or on the constrained boundary. By examining the rapidity and veracity of Bi-DDEA across benchmark functions, the proposed method is shown to be effective.
SIMPLE HEURISTIC ALGORITHM FOR DYNAMIC VM REALLOCATION IN IAAS CLOUDS
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Nikita A. Balashov
2018-03-01
Full Text Available The rapid development of cloud technologies and its high prevalence in both commercial and academic areas have stimulated active research in the domain of optimal cloud resource management. One of the most active research directions is dynamic virtual machine (VM placement optimization in clouds build on Infrastructure-as-a-Service model. This kind of research may pursue different goals with energy-aware optimization being the most common goal as it aims at a urgent problem of green cloud computing - reducing energy consumption by data centers. In this paper we present a new heuristic algorithm of dynamic reallocation of VMs based on an approach presented in one of our previous works. In the algorithm we apply a 2-rank strategy to classify VMs and servers corresponding to the highly and lowly active VMs and solve four tasks: VM classification, host classification, forming a VM migration map and VMs migration. Dividing all of the VMs and servers into two classes we attempt to implement the possibility of risk reduction in case of hardware overloads under overcommitment conditions and to reduce the influence of the occurring overloads on the performance of the cloud VMs. Presented algorithm was developed based on the workload profile of the JINR cloud (a scientific private cloud with the goal of maximizing its usage, but it can also be applied in both public and private commercial clouds to organize the simultaneous use of different SLA and QoS levels in the same cloud environment by giving each VM rank its own level of overcommitment.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Huang, Xiaobiao; Safranek, James
2014-01-01
Nonlinear dynamics optimization is carried out for a low emittance upgrade lattice of SPEAR3 in order to improve its dynamic aperture and Touschek lifetime. Two multi-objective optimization algorithms, a genetic algorithm and a particle swarm algorithm, are used for this study. The performance of the two algorithms are compared. The result shows that the particle swarm algorithm converges significantly faster to similar or better solutions than the genetic algorithm and it does not require seeding of good solutions in the initial population. These advantages of the particle swarm algorithm may make it more suitable for many accelerator optimization applications
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Huang, Xiaobiao, E-mail: xiahuang@slac.stanford.edu; Safranek, James
2014-09-01
Nonlinear dynamics optimization is carried out for a low emittance upgrade lattice of SPEAR3 in order to improve its dynamic aperture and Touschek lifetime. Two multi-objective optimization algorithms, a genetic algorithm and a particle swarm algorithm, are used for this study. The performance of the two algorithms are compared. The result shows that the particle swarm algorithm converges significantly faster to similar or better solutions than the genetic algorithm and it does not require seeding of good solutions in the initial population. These advantages of the particle swarm algorithm may make it more suitable for many accelerator optimization applications.
Dynamic characterization of oil fields, complex stratigraphically using genetic algorithms
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Gonzalez, Santiago; Hidrobo, Eduardo A
2004-01-01
A novel methodology is presented in this paper for the characterization of highly heterogeneous oil fields by integration of the oil fields dynamic information to the static updated model. The objective of the oil field's characterization process is to build an oil field model, as realistic as possible, through the incorporation of all the available information. The classical approach consists in producing a model based in the oil field's static information, having as the process final stage the validation model with the dynamic information available. It is important to clarify that the term validation implies a punctual process by nature, generally intended to secure the required coherence between productive zones and petrophysical properties. The objective of the proposed methodology is to enhance the prediction capacity of the oil field's model by previously integrating, parameters inherent to the oil field's fluid dynamics by a process of dynamic data inversion through an optimization procedure based on evolutionary computation. The proposed methodology relies on the construction of the oil field's high-resolution static model, escalated by means of hybrid techniques while aiming to preserve the oil field's heterogeneity. Afterwards, using an analytic simulator as reference, the scaled model is methodically modified by means of an optimization process that uses genetic algorithms and production data as conditional information. The process's final product is a model that observes the static and dynamic conditions of the oil field with the capacity to minimize the economic impact that generates production historical adjustments to the simulation tasks. This final model features some petrophysical properties (porosity, permeability and water saturation), as modified to achieve a better adjustment of the simulated production's history versus the real one history matching. Additionally, the process involves a slight modification of relative permeability, which has
Algorithm for simulation of quantum many-body dynamics using dynamical coarse-graining
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Khasin, M.; Kosloff, R.
2010-01-01
An algorithm for simulation of quantum many-body dynamics having su(2) spectrum-generating algebra is developed. The algorithm is based on the idea of dynamical coarse-graining. The original unitary dynamics of the target observables--the elements of the spectrum-generating algebra--is simulated by a surrogate open-system dynamics, which can be interpreted as weak measurement of the target observables, performed on the evolving system. The open-system state can be represented by a mixture of pure states, localized in the phase space. The localization reduces the scaling of the computational resources with the Hilbert-space dimension n by factor n 3/2 (ln n) -1 compared to conventional sparse-matrix methods. The guidelines for the choice of parameters for the simulation are presented and the scaling of the computational resources with the Hilbert-space dimension of the system is estimated. The algorithm is applied to the simulation of the dynamics of systems of 2x10 4 and 2x10 6 cold atoms in a double-well trap, described by the two-site Bose-Hubbard model.
Dynamic multiple thresholding breast boundary detection algorithm for mammograms
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Wu, Yi-Ta; Zhou Chuan; Chan, Heang-Ping; Paramagul, Chintana; Hadjiiski, Lubomir M.; Daly, Caroline Plowden; Douglas, Julie A.; Zhang Yiheng; Sahiner, Berkman; Shi Jiazheng; Wei Jun
2010-01-01
Purpose: Automated detection of breast boundary is one of the fundamental steps for computer-aided analysis of mammograms. In this study, the authors developed a new dynamic multiple thresholding based breast boundary (MTBB) detection method for digitized mammograms. Methods: A large data set of 716 screen-film mammograms (442 CC view and 274 MLO view) obtained from consecutive cases of an Institutional Review Board approved project were used. An experienced breast radiologist manually traced the breast boundary on each digitized image using a graphical interface to provide a reference standard. The initial breast boundary (MTBB-Initial) was obtained by dynamically adapting the threshold to the gray level range in local regions of the breast periphery. The initial breast boundary was then refined by using gradient information from horizontal and vertical Sobel filtering to obtain the final breast boundary (MTBB-Final). The accuracy of the breast boundary detection algorithm was evaluated by comparison with the reference standard using three performance metrics: The Hausdorff distance (HDist), the average minimum Euclidean distance (AMinDist), and the area overlap measure (AOM). Results: In comparison with the authors' previously developed gradient-based breast boundary (GBB) algorithm, it was found that 68%, 85%, and 94% of images had HDist errors less than 6 pixels (4.8 mm) for GBB, MTBB-Initial, and MTBB-Final, respectively. 89%, 90%, and 96% of images had AMinDist errors less than 1.5 pixels (1.2 mm) for GBB, MTBB-Initial, and MTBB-Final, respectively. 96%, 98%, and 99% of images had AOM values larger than 0.9 for GBB, MTBB-Initial, and MTBB-Final, respectively. The improvement by the MTBB-Final method was statistically significant for all the evaluation measures by the Wilcoxon signed rank test (p<0.0001). Conclusions: The MTBB approach that combined dynamic multiple thresholding and gradient information provided better performance than the breast boundary
Scheduling with Group Dynamics: a Multi-Robot Task Allocation Algorithm based on Vacancy Chains
National Research Council Canada - National Science Library
Dahl, Torbjorn S; Mataric, Maja J; Sukhatme, Gaurav S
2002-01-01
.... We present a multi-robot task allocation algorithm that is sensitive to group dynamics. Our algorithm is based on vacancy chains, a resource distribution process common in human and animal societies...
The Reach-and-Evolve Algorithm for Reachability Analysis of Nonlinear Dynamical Systems
P.J. Collins (Pieter); A. Goldsztejn
2008-01-01
htmlabstractThis paper introduces a new algorithm dedicated to the rigorous reachability analysis of nonlinear dynamical systems. The algorithm is initially presented in the context of discrete time dynamical systems, and then extended to continuous time dynamical systems driven by ODEs. In
A hybrid algorithm for parallel molecular dynamics simulations
Mangiardi, Chris M.; Meyer, R.
2017-10-01
This article describes algorithms for the hybrid parallelization and SIMD vectorization of molecular dynamics simulations with short-range forces. The parallelization method combines domain decomposition with a thread-based parallelization approach. The goal of the work is to enable efficient simulations of very large (tens of millions of atoms) and inhomogeneous systems on many-core processors with hundreds or thousands of cores and SIMD units with large vector sizes. In order to test the efficiency of the method, simulations of a variety of configurations with up to 74 million atoms have been performed. Results are shown that were obtained on multi-core systems with Sandy Bridge and Haswell processors as well as systems with Xeon Phi many-core processors.
Artificial bee colony algorithm with dynamic multi-population
Zhang, Ming; Ji, Zhicheng; Wang, Yan
2017-07-01
To improve the convergence rate and make a balance between the global search and local turning abilities, this paper proposes a decentralized form of artificial bee colony (ABC) algorithm with dynamic multi-populations by means of fuzzy C-means (FCM) clustering. Each subpopulation periodically enlarges with the same size during the search process, and the overlapping individuals among different subareas work for delivering information acting as exploring the search space with diffusion of solutions. Moreover, a Gaussian-based search equation with redefined local attractor is proposed to further accelerate the diffusion of the best solution and guide the search towards potential areas. Experimental results on a set of benchmarks demonstrate the competitive performance of our proposed approach.
Quadtree of TIN: a new algorithm of dynamic LOD
Zhang, Junfeng; Fei, Lifan; Chen, Zhen
2009-10-01
Currently, Real-time visualization of large-scale digital elevation model mainly employs the regular structure of GRID based on quadtree and triangle simplification methods based on irregular triangulated network (TIN). TIN is a refined means to express the terrain surface in the computer science, compared with GRID. However, the data structure of TIN model is complex, and is difficult to realize view-dependence representation of level of detail (LOD) quickly. GRID is a simple method to realize the LOD of terrain, but contains more triangle count. A new algorithm, which takes full advantage of the two methods' merit, is presented in this paper. This algorithm combines TIN with quadtree structure to realize the view-dependence LOD controlling over the irregular sampling point sets, and holds the details through the distance of viewpoint and the geometric error of terrain. Experiments indicate that this approach can generate an efficient quadtree triangulation hierarchy over any irregular sampling point sets and achieve dynamic and visual multi-resolution performance of large-scale terrain at real-time.
Genetic algorithm optimization for dynamic construction site layout planning
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Farmakis Panagiotis M.
2018-02-01
Full Text Available The dynamic construction site layout planning (DCSLP problem refers to the efficient placement and relocation of temporary construction facilities within a dynamically changing construction site environment considering the characteristics of facilities and work interrelationships, the shape and topography of the construction site, and the time-varying project needs. A multi-objective dynamic optimization model is developed for this problem that considers construction and relocation costs of facilities, transportation costs of resources moving from one facility to another or to workplaces, as well as safety and environmental considerations resulting from facilities’ operations and interconnections. The latter considerations are taken into account in the form of preferences or constraints regarding the proximity or remoteness of particular facilities to other facilities or work areas. The analysis of multiple project phases and the dynamic facility relocation from phase to phase highly increases the problem size, which, even in its static form, falls within the NP (for Nondeterministic Polynomial time- hard class of combinatorial optimization problems. For this reason, a genetic algorithm has been implemented for the solution due to its capability to robustly search within a large solution space. Several case studies and operational scenarios have been implemented through the Palisade’s Evolver software for model testing and evaluation. The results indicate satisfactory model response to time-varying input data in terms of solution quality and computation time. The model can provide decision support to site managers, allowing them to examine alternative scenarios and fine-tune optimal solutions according to their experience by introducing desirable preferences or constraints in the decision process.
A parallel algorithm for 3D dislocation dynamics
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Wang Zhiqiang; Ghoniem, Nasr; Swaminarayan, Sriram; LeSar, Richard
2006-01-01
Dislocation dynamics (DD), a discrete dynamic simulation method in which dislocations are the fundamental entities, is a powerful tool for investigation of plasticity, deformation and fracture of materials at the micron length scale. However, severe computational difficulties arising from complex, long-range interactions between these curvilinear line defects limit the application of DD in the study of large-scale plastic deformation. We present here the development of a parallel algorithm for accelerated computer simulations of DD. By representing dislocations as a 3D set of dislocation particles, we show here that the problem of an interacting ensemble of dislocations can be converted to a problem of a particle ensemble, interacting with a long-range force field. A grid using binary space partitioning is constructed to keep track of node connectivity across domains. We demonstrate the computational efficiency of the parallel micro-plasticity code and discuss how O(N) methods map naturally onto the parallel data structure. Finally, we present results from applications of the parallel code to deformation in single crystal fcc metals
A Runtime Analysis of Parallel Evolutionary Algorithms in Dynamic Optimization
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Lissovoi, Andrei; Witt, Carsten
2017-01-01
A simple island model with (Formula presented.) islands and migration occurring after every (Formula presented.) iterations is studied on the dynamic fitness function Maze. This model is equivalent to a (Formula presented.) EA if (Formula presented.), i. e., migration occurs during every iteratio.......). The relationship of (Formula presented.), and the ability of the island model to track the optimum is then investigated more closely. Finally, experiments are performed to supplement the asymptotic results, and investigate the impact of the migration topology.......A simple island model with (Formula presented.) islands and migration occurring after every (Formula presented.) iterations is studied on the dynamic fitness function Maze. This model is equivalent to a (Formula presented.) EA if (Formula presented.), i. e., migration occurs during every iteration....... It is proved that even for an increased offspring population size up to (Formula presented.), the (Formula presented.) EA is still not able to track the optimum of Maze. If the migration interval is chosen carefully, the algorithm is able to track the optimum even for logarithmic (Formula presented...
Ab initio multiple cloning algorithm for quantum nonadiabatic molecular dynamics
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Makhov, Dmitry V.; Shalashilin, Dmitrii V. [Department of Chemistry, University of Leeds, Leeds LS2 9JT (United Kingdom); Glover, William J.; Martinez, Todd J. [Department of Chemistry and The PULSE Institute, Stanford University, Stanford, California 94305, USA and SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory, Menlo Park, California 94025 (United States)
2014-08-07
We present a new algorithm for ab initio quantum nonadiabatic molecular dynamics that combines the best features of ab initio Multiple Spawning (AIMS) and Multiconfigurational Ehrenfest (MCE) methods. In this new method, ab initio multiple cloning (AIMC), the individual trajectory basis functions (TBFs) follow Ehrenfest equations of motion (as in MCE). However, the basis set is expanded (as in AIMS) when these TBFs become sufficiently mixed, preventing prolonged evolution on an averaged potential energy surface. We refer to the expansion of the basis set as “cloning,” in analogy to the “spawning” procedure in AIMS. This synthesis of AIMS and MCE allows us to leverage the benefits of mean-field evolution during periods of strong nonadiabatic coupling while simultaneously avoiding mean-field artifacts in Ehrenfest dynamics. We explore the use of time-displaced basis sets, “trains,” as a means of expanding the basis set for little cost. We also introduce a new bra-ket averaged Taylor expansion (BAT) to approximate the necessary potential energy and nonadiabatic coupling matrix elements. The BAT approximation avoids the necessity of computing electronic structure information at intermediate points between TBFs, as is usually done in saddle-point approximations used in AIMS. The efficiency of AIMC is demonstrated on the nonradiative decay of the first excited state of ethylene. The AIMC method has been implemented within the AIMS-MOLPRO package, which was extended to include Ehrenfest basis functions.
Dynamic load balancing algorithm for molecular dynamics based on Voronoi cells domain decompositions
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Fattebert, J.-L. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Richards, D.F. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Glosli, J.N. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States)
2012-12-01
We present a new algorithm for automatic parallel load balancing in classical molecular dynamics. It assumes a spatial domain decomposition of particles into Voronoi cells. It is a gradient method which attempts to minimize a cost function by displacing Voronoi sites associated with each processor/sub-domain along steepest descent directions. Excellent load balance has been obtained for quasi-2D and 3D practical applications, with up to 440·10^{6} particles on 65,536 MPI tasks.
DSMC multicomponent aerosol dynamics: Sampling algorithms and aerosol processes
Palaniswaamy, Geethpriya
The post-accident nuclear reactor primary and containment environments can be characterized by high temperatures and pressures, and fission products and nuclear aerosols. These aerosols evolve via natural transport processes as well as under the influence of engineered safety features. These aerosols can be hazardous and may pose risk to the public if released into the environment. Computations of their evolution, movement and distribution involve the study of various processes such as coagulation, deposition, condensation, etc., and are influenced by factors such as particle shape, charge, radioactivity and spatial inhomogeneity. These many factors make the numerical study of nuclear aerosol evolution computationally very complicated. The focus of this research is on the use of the Direct Simulation Monte Carlo (DSMC) technique to elucidate the role of various phenomena that influence the nuclear aerosol evolution. In this research, several aerosol processes such as coagulation, deposition, condensation, and source reinforcement are explored for a multi-component, aerosol dynamics problem in a spatially homogeneous medium. Among the various sampling algorithms explored the Metropolis sampling algorithm was found to be effective and fast. Several test problems and test cases are simulated using the DSMC technique. The DSMC results obtained are verified against the analytical and sectional results for appropriate test problems. Results show that the assumption of a single mean density is not appropriate due to the complicated effect of component densities on the aerosol processes. The methods developed and the insights gained will also be helpful in future research on the challenges associated with the description of fission product and aerosol releases.
Monte Carlo algorithms with absorbing Markov chains: Fast local algorithms for slow dynamics
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Novotny, M.A.
1995-01-01
A class of Monte Carlo algorithms which incorporate absorbing Markov chains is presented. In a particular limit, the lowest order of these algorithms reduces to the n-fold way algorithm. These algorithms are applied to study the escape from the metastable state in the two-dimensional square-lattice nearest-neighbor Ising ferromagnet in an unfavorable applied field, and the agreement with theoretical predictions is very good. It is demonstrated that the higher-order algorithms can be many orders of magnitude faster than either the traditional Monte Carlo or n-fold way algorithms
Warehouse stocking optimization based on dynamic ant colony genetic algorithm
Xiao, Xiaoxu
2018-04-01
In view of the various orders of FAW (First Automotive Works) International Logistics Co., Ltd., the SLP method is used to optimize the layout of the warehousing units in the enterprise, thus the warehouse logistics is optimized and the external processing speed of the order is improved. In addition, the relevant intelligent algorithms for optimizing the stocking route problem are analyzed. The ant colony algorithm and genetic algorithm which have good applicability are emphatically studied. The parameters of ant colony algorithm are optimized by genetic algorithm, which improves the performance of ant colony algorithm. A typical path optimization problem model is taken as an example to prove the effectiveness of parameter optimization.
Optimal Dynamic Strategies for Index Tracking and Algorithmic Trading
Ward, Brian
In this thesis we study dynamic strategies for index tracking and algorithmic trading. Tracking problems have become ever more important in Financial Engineering as investors seek to precisely control their portfolio risks and exposures over different time horizons. This thesis analyzes various tracking problems and elucidates the tracking errors and strategies one can employ to minimize those errors and maximize profit. In Chapters 2 and 3, we study the empirical tracking properties of exchange traded funds (ETFs), leveraged ETFs (LETFs), and futures products related to spot gold and the Chicago Board Option Exchange (CBOE) Volatility Index (VIX), respectively. These two markets provide interesting and differing examples for understanding index tracking. We find that static strategies work well in the nonleveraged case for gold, but fail to track well in the corresponding leveraged case. For VIX, tracking via neither ETFs, nor futures\\ portfolios succeeds, even in the nonleveraged case. This motivates the need for dynamic strategies, some of which we construct in these two chapters and further expand on in Chapter 4. There, we analyze a framework for index tracking and risk exposure control through financial derivatives. We derive a tracking condition that restricts our exposure choices and also define a slippage process that characterizes the deviations from the index over longer horizons. The framework is applied to a number of models, for example, Black Scholes model and Heston model for equity index tracking, as well as the Square Root (SQR) model and the Concatenated Square Root (CSQR) model for VIX tracking. By specifying how each of these models fall into our framework, we are able to understand the tracking errors in each of these models. Finally, Chapter 5 analyzes a tracking problem of a different kind that arises in algorithmic trading: schedule following for optimal execution. We formulate and solve a stochastic control problem to obtain the optimal
Dynamic Inertia Weight Binary Bat Algorithm with Neighborhood Search
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Xingwang Huang
2017-01-01
Full Text Available Binary bat algorithm (BBA is a binary version of the bat algorithm (BA. It has been proven that BBA is competitive compared to other binary heuristic algorithms. Since the update processes of velocity in the algorithm are consistent with BA, in some cases, this algorithm also faces the premature convergence problem. This paper proposes an improved binary bat algorithm (IBBA to solve this problem. To evaluate the performance of IBBA, standard benchmark functions and zero-one knapsack problems have been employed. The numeric results obtained by benchmark functions experiment prove that the proposed approach greatly outperforms the original BBA and binary particle swarm optimization (BPSO. Compared with several other heuristic algorithms on zero-one knapsack problems, it also verifies that the proposed algorithm is more able to avoid local minima.
A domain specific language for performance portable molecular dynamics algorithms
Saunders, William Robert; Grant, James; Müller, Eike Hermann
2018-03-01
Developers of Molecular Dynamics (MD) codes face significant challenges when adapting existing simulation packages to new hardware. In a continuously diversifying hardware landscape it becomes increasingly difficult for scientists to be experts both in their own domain (physics/chemistry/biology) and specialists in the low level parallelisation and optimisation of their codes. To address this challenge, we describe a "Separation of Concerns" approach for the development of parallel and optimised MD codes: the science specialist writes code at a high abstraction level in a domain specific language (DSL), which is then translated into efficient computer code by a scientific programmer. In a related context, an abstraction for the solution of partial differential equations with grid based methods has recently been implemented in the (Py)OP2 library. Inspired by this approach, we develop a Python code generation system for molecular dynamics simulations on different parallel architectures, including massively parallel distributed memory systems and GPUs. We demonstrate the efficiency of the auto-generated code by studying its performance and scalability on different hardware and compare it to other state-of-the-art simulation packages. With growing data volumes the extraction of physically meaningful information from the simulation becomes increasingly challenging and requires equally efficient implementations. A particular advantage of our approach is the easy expression of such analysis algorithms. We consider two popular methods for deducing the crystalline structure of a material from the local environment of each atom, show how they can be expressed in our abstraction and implement them in the code generation framework.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Pothiya, Saravuth; Ngamroo, Issarachai; Kongprawechnon, Waree
2008-01-01
This paper presents a new optimization technique based on a multiple tabu search algorithm (MTS) to solve the dynamic economic dispatch (ED) problem with generator constraints. In the constrained dynamic ED problem, the load demand and spinning reserve capacity as well as some practical operation constraints of generators, such as ramp rate limits and prohibited operating zone are taken into consideration. The MTS algorithm introduces additional mechanisms such as initialization, adaptive searches, multiple searches, crossover and restarting process. To show its efficiency, the MTS algorithm is applied to solve constrained dynamic ED problems of power systems with 6 and 15 units. The results obtained from the MTS algorithm are compared to those achieved from the conventional approaches, such as simulated annealing (SA), genetic algorithm (GA), tabu search (TS) algorithm and particle swarm optimization (PSO). The experimental results show that the proposed MTS algorithm approaches is able to obtain higher quality solutions efficiently and with less computational time than the conventional approaches
Application of Symplectic Algebraic Dynamics Algorithm to Circular Restricted Three-Body Problem
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Wei-Tao, Lu; Hua, Zhang; Shun-Jin, Wang
2008-01-01
Symplectic algebraic dynamics algorithm (SADA) for ordinary differential equations is applied to solve numerically the circular restricted three-body problem (CR3BP) in dynamical astronomy for both stable motion and chaotic motion. The result is compared with those of Runge–Kutta algorithm and symplectic algorithm under the fourth order, which shows that SADA has higher accuracy than the others in the long-term calculations of the CR3BP. (general)
Lu, Wei-Tao; Zhang, Hua; Wang, Shun-Jin
2008-07-01
Symplectic algebraic dynamics algorithm (SADA) for ordinary differential equations is applied to solve numerically the circular restricted three-body problem (CR3BP) in dynamical astronomy for both stable motion and chaotic motion. The result is compared with those of Runge-Kutta algorithm and symplectic algorithm under the fourth order, which shows that SADA has higher accuracy than the others in the long-term calculations of the CR3BP.
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
polynomial) division have been found in Vedic Mathematics which are dated much before Euclid's algorithm. A programming language Is used to describe an algorithm for execution on a computer. An algorithm expressed using a programming.
Dynamic Harmony Search with Polynomial Mutation Algorithm for Valve-Point Economic Load Dispatch
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
M. Karthikeyan
2015-01-01
mutation (DHSPM algorithm to solve ORPD problem. In DHSPM algorithm the key parameters of HS algorithm like harmony memory considering rate (HMCR and pitch adjusting rate (PAR are changed dynamically and there is no need to predefine these parameters. Additionally polynomial mutation is inserted in the updating step of HS algorithm to favor exploration and exploitation of the search space. The DHSPM algorithm is tested with three power system cases consisting of 3, 13, and 40 thermal units. The computational results show that the DHSPM algorithm is more effective in finding better solutions than other computational intelligence based methods.
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Rong, Aiying; Hakonen, Henri; Lahdelma, Risto
2009-01-01
efficiency of the plants. We introduce in this paper the DRDP-RSC algorithm, which is a dynamic regrouping based dynamic programming (DP) algorithm based on linear relaxation of the ON/OFF states of the units, sequential commitment of units in small groups. Relaxed states of the plants are used to reduce...... the dimension of the UC problem and dynamic regrouping is used to improve the solution quality. Numerical results based on real-life data sets show that this algorithm is efficient and optimal or near-optimal solutions with very small optimality gap are obtained....
Analysis of Ant Colony Optimization and Population-Based Evolutionary Algorithms on Dynamic Problems
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Lissovoi, Andrei
the dynamic optimum for finite alphabets up to size μ, while MMAS is able to do so for any finite alphabet size. Parallel Evolutionary Algorithms on Maze. We prove that while a (1 + λ) EA is unable to track the optimum of the dynamic fitness function Maze for offspring population size up to λ = O(n1-ε......This thesis presents new running time analyses of nature-inspired algorithms on various dynamic problems. It aims to identify and analyse the features of algorithms and problem classes which allow efficient optimization to occur in the presence of dynamic behaviour. We consider the following...... settings: λ-MMAS on Dynamic Shortest Path Problems. We investigate how in-creasing the number of ants simulated per iteration may help an ACO algorithm to track optimum in a dynamic problem. It is shown that while a constant number of ants per-vertex is sufficient to track some oscillations, there also...
End-of-life conversations and care: an asset-based model for community engagement.
Matthiesen, Mary; Froggatt, Katherine; Owen, Elaine; Ashton, John R
2014-09-01
Public awareness work regarding palliative and end-of-life care is increasingly promoted within national strategies for palliative care. Different approaches to undertaking this work are being used, often based upon broader educational principles, but little is known about how to undertake such initiatives in a way that equally engages both the health and social care sector and the local communities. An asset-based community engagement approach has been developed that facilitates community-led awareness initiatives concerning end-of-life conversations and care by identifying and connecting existing skills and expertise. (1) To describe the processes and features of an asset-based community engagement approach that facilitates community-led awareness initiatives with a focus on end-of-life conversations and care; and (2) to identify key community-identified priorities for sustainable community engagement processes. An asset-based model of community engagement specific to end-of-life issues using a four-step process is described (getting started, coming together, action planning and implementation). The use of this approach, in two regional community engagement programmes, based across rural and urban communities in the northwest of England, is described. The assets identified in the facilitated community engagement process encompassed people's talents and skills, community groups and networks, government and non-government agencies, physical and economic assets and community values and stories. Five priority areas were addressed to ensure active community engagement work: information, outreach, education, leadership and sustainability. A facilitated, asset-based approach of community engagement for end-of-life conversations and care can catalyse community-led awareness initiatives. This occurs through the involvement of community and local health and social care organisations as co-creators of this change across multiple sectors in a sustainable way. This approach
Evert, Jessica
2015-03-01
Child Family Health International (CFHI) is a U.S.-based nonprofit, nongovernmental organization (NGO) that has more than 25 global health education programs in seven countries annually serving more than 600 interprofessional undergraduate, graduate, and postgraduate participants in programs geared toward individual students and university partners. Recognized by Special Consultative Status with the United Nations Economic and Social Council (ECOSOC), CFHI utilizes an asset-based community engagement model to ensure that CFHI's programs challenge, rather than reinforce, historical power imbalances between the "Global North" and "Global South." CFHI's programs are predicated on ethical principles including reciprocity, sustainability, humility, transparency, nonmaleficence, respect for persons, and social justice.
A Dynamic Fuzzy Cluster Algorithm for Time Series
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Min Ji
2013-01-01
clustering time series by introducing the definition of key point and improving FCM algorithm. The proposed algorithm works by determining those time series whose class labels are vague and further partitions them into different clusters over time. The main advantage of this approach compared with other existing algorithms is that the property of some time series belonging to different clusters over time can be partially revealed. Results from simulation-based experiments on geographical data demonstrate the excellent performance and the desired results have been obtained. The proposed algorithm can be applied to solve other clustering problems in data mining.
Maintenance of Process Control Algorithms based on Dynamic Program Slicing
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Hansen, Ole Fink; Andersen, Nils Axel; Ravn, Ole
2010-01-01
Today’s industrial control systems gradually lose performance after installation and must be regularly maintained by means of adjusting parameters and modifying the control algorithm, in order to regain high performance. Industrial control algorithms are complex software systems, and it is partic...
Event-chain algorithm for the Heisenberg model: Evidence for z≃1 dynamic scaling.
Nishikawa, Yoshihiko; Michel, Manon; Krauth, Werner; Hukushima, Koji
2015-12-01
We apply the event-chain Monte Carlo algorithm to the three-dimensional ferromagnetic Heisenberg model. The algorithm is rejection-free and also realizes an irreversible Markov chain that satisfies global balance. The autocorrelation functions of the magnetic susceptibility and the energy indicate a dynamical critical exponent z≈1 at the critical temperature, while that of the magnetization does not measure the performance of the algorithm. We show that the event-chain Monte Carlo algorithm substantially reduces the dynamical critical exponent from the conventional value of z≃2.
A Method Based on Dial's Algorithm for Multi-time Dynamic Traffic Assignment
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Rongjie Kuang
2014-03-01
Full Text Available Due to static traffic assignment has poor performance in reflecting actual case and dynamic traffic assignment may incurs excessive compute cost, method of multi-time dynamic traffic assignment combining static and dynamic traffic assignment balances factors of precision and cost effectively. A method based on Dial's logit algorithm is proposed in the article to solve the dynamic stochastic user equilibrium problem in dynamic traffic assignment. Before that, a fitting function that can proximately reflect overloaded traffic condition of link is proposed and used to give corresponding model. Numerical example is given to illustrate heuristic procedure of method and to compare results with one of same example solved by other literature's algorithm. Results show that method based on Dial's algorithm is preferable to algorithm from others.
Efficient conjugate gradient algorithms for computation of the manipulator forward dynamics
Fijany, Amir; Scheid, Robert E.
1989-01-01
The applicability of conjugate gradient algorithms for computation of the manipulator forward dynamics is investigated. The redundancies in the previously proposed conjugate gradient algorithm are analyzed. A new version is developed which, by avoiding these redundancies, achieves a significantly greater efficiency. A preconditioned conjugate gradient algorithm is also presented. A diagonal matrix whose elements are the diagonal elements of the inertia matrix is proposed as the preconditioner. In order to increase the computational efficiency, an algorithm is developed which exploits the synergism between the computation of the diagonal elements of the inertia matrix and that required by the conjugate gradient algorithm.
A New Recommendation Algorithm Based on User’s Dynamic Information in Complex Social Network
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Jiujun Cheng
2015-01-01
Full Text Available The development of recommendation system comes with the research of data sparsity, cold start, scalability, and privacy protection problems. Even though many papers proposed different improved recommendation algorithms to solve those problems, there is still plenty of room for improvement. In the complex social network, we can take full advantage of dynamic information such as user’s hobby, social relationship, and historical log to improve the performance of recommendation system. In this paper, we proposed a new recommendation algorithm which is based on social user’s dynamic information to solve the cold start problem of traditional collaborative filtering algorithm and also considered the dynamic factors. The algorithm takes user’s response information, dynamic interest, and the classic similar measurement of collaborative filtering algorithm into account. Then, we compared the new proposed recommendation algorithm with the traditional user based collaborative filtering algorithm and also presented some of the findings from experiment. The results of experiment demonstrate that the new proposed algorithm has a better recommended performance than the collaborative filtering algorithm in cold start scenario.
Improved dynamic-programming-based algorithms for segmentation of masses in mammograms
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Dominguez, Alfonso Rojas; Nandi, Asoke K.
2007-01-01
In this paper, two new boundary tracing algorithms for segmentation of breast masses are presented. These new algorithms are based on the dynamic programming-based boundary tracing (DPBT) algorithm proposed in Timp and Karssemeijer, [S. Timp and N. Karssemeijer, Med. Phys. 31, 958-971 (2004)] The DPBT algorithm contains two main steps: (1) construction of a local cost function, and (2) application of dynamic programming to the selection of the optimal boundary based on the local cost function. The validity of some assumptions used in the design of the DPBT algorithm is tested in this paper using a set of 349 mammographic images. Based on the results of the tests, modifications to the computation of the local cost function have been designed and have resulted in the Improved-DPBT (IDPBT) algorithm. A procedure for the dynamic selection of the strength of the components of the local cost function is presented that makes these parameters independent of the image dataset. Incorporation of this dynamic selection procedure has produced another new algorithm which we have called ID 2 PBT. Methods for the determination of some other parameters of the DPBT algorithm that were not covered in the original paper are presented as well. The merits of the new IDPBT and ID 2 PBT algorithms are demonstrated experimentally by comparison against the DPBT algorithm. The segmentation results are evaluated with base on the area overlap measure and other segmentation metrics. Both of the new algorithms outperform the original DPBT; the improvements in the algorithms performance are more noticeable around the values of the segmentation metrics corresponding to the highest segmentation accuracy, i.e., the new algorithms produce more optimally segmented regions, rather than a pronounced increase in the average quality of all the segmented regions
Report on dynamic speed harmonization and queue warning algorithm design.
2014-02-01
This report provides a detailed description of the algorithms that will be used to generate harmonized recommended speeds : and queue warning information in the proposed Intelligent Network Flow Optimization (INFLO) prototype. This document : describ...
Dynamic route guidance algorithm based algorithm based on artificial immune system
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
无
2007-01-01
To improve the performance of the K-shortest paths search in intelligent traffic guidance systems,this paper proposes an optimal search algorithm based on the intelligent optimization search theory and the memphor mechanism of vertebrate immune systems.This algorithm,applied to the urban traffic network model established by the node-expanding method,can expediently realize K-shortest paths search in the urban traffic guidance systems.Because of the immune memory and global parallel search ability from artificial immune systems,K shortest paths can be found without any repeat,which indicates evidently the superiority of the algorithm to the conventional ones.Not only does it perform a better parallelism,the algorithm also prevents premature phenomenon that often occurs in genetic algorithms.Thus,it is especially suitable for real-time requirement of the traffic guidance system and other engineering optimal applications.A case study verifies the efficiency and the practicability of the algorithm aforementioned.
A Stereo Dual-Channel Dynamic Programming Algorithm for UAV Image Stitching.
Li, Ming; Chen, Ruizhi; Zhang, Weilong; Li, Deren; Liao, Xuan; Wang, Lei; Pan, Yuanjin; Zhang, Peng
2017-09-08
Dislocation is one of the major challenges in unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV) image stitching. In this paper, we propose a new algorithm for seamlessly stitching UAV images based on a dynamic programming approach. Our solution consists of two steps: Firstly, an image matching algorithm is used to correct the images so that they are in the same coordinate system. Secondly, a new dynamic programming algorithm is developed based on the concept of a stereo dual-channel energy accumulation. A new energy aggregation and traversal strategy is adopted in our solution, which can find a more optimal seam line for image stitching. Our algorithm overcomes the theoretical limitation of the classical Duplaquet algorithm. Experiments show that the algorithm can effectively solve the dislocation problem in UAV image stitching, especially for the cases in dense urban areas. Our solution is also direction-independent, which has better adaptability and robustness for stitching images.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Zhihua Zhang
2016-01-01
Full Text Available Using the RFC technique to estimate refractivity parameters is a complex nonlinear optimization problem. In this paper, an improved cuckoo search (CS algorithm is proposed to deal with this problem. To enhance the performance of the CS algorithm, a parameter dynamic adaptive operation and crossover operation were integrated into the standard CS (DACS-CO. Rechenberg’s 1/5 criteria combined with learning factor were used to control the parameter dynamic adaptive adjusting process. The crossover operation of genetic algorithm was utilized to guarantee the population diversity. The new hybrid algorithm has better local search ability and contributes to superior performance. To verify the ability of the DACS-CO algorithm to estimate atmospheric refractivity parameters, the simulation data and real radar clutter data are both implemented. The numerical experiments demonstrate that the DACS-CO algorithm can provide an effective method for near-real-time estimation of the atmospheric refractivity profile from radar clutter.
Zhang, Zhihua; Sheng, Zheng; Shi, Hanqing; Fan, Zhiqiang
2016-01-01
Using the RFC technique to estimate refractivity parameters is a complex nonlinear optimization problem. In this paper, an improved cuckoo search (CS) algorithm is proposed to deal with this problem. To enhance the performance of the CS algorithm, a parameter dynamic adaptive operation and crossover operation were integrated into the standard CS (DACS-CO). Rechenberg's 1/5 criteria combined with learning factor were used to control the parameter dynamic adaptive adjusting process. The crossover operation of genetic algorithm was utilized to guarantee the population diversity. The new hybrid algorithm has better local search ability and contributes to superior performance. To verify the ability of the DACS-CO algorithm to estimate atmospheric refractivity parameters, the simulation data and real radar clutter data are both implemented. The numerical experiments demonstrate that the DACS-CO algorithm can provide an effective method for near-real-time estimation of the atmospheric refractivity profile from radar clutter.
Du, Mao-Kang; He, Bo; Wang, Yong
2011-01-01
Recently, the cryptosystem based on chaos has attracted much attention. Wang and Yu (Commun. Nonlin. Sci. Numer. Simulat. 14 (2009) 574) proposed a block encryption algorithm based on dynamic sequences of multiple chaotic systems. We analyze the potential flaws in the algorithm. Then, a chosen-plaintext attack is presented. Some remedial measures are suggested to avoid the flaws effectively. Furthermore, an improved encryption algorithm is proposed to resist the attacks and to keep all the merits of the original cryptosystem.
NONLINEAR FILTER METHOD OF GPS DYNAMIC POSITIONING BASED ON BANCROFT ALGORITHM
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
ZHANGQin; TAOBen-zao; ZHAOChao-ying; WANGLi
2005-01-01
Because of the ignored items after linearization, the extended Kalman filter (EKF) becomes a form of suboptimal gradient descent algorithm. The emanative tendency exists in GPS solution when the filter equations are ill-posed. The deviation in the estimation cannot be avoided. Furthermore, the true solution may be lost in pseudorange positioning because the linearized pseudorange equations are partial solutions. To solve the above problems in GPS dynamic positioning by using EKF, a closed-form Kalman filter method called the two-stage algorithm is presented for the nonlinear algebraic solution of GPS dynamic positioning based on the global nonlinear least squares closed algorithm--Bancroft numerical algorithm of American. The method separates the spatial parts from temporal parts during processing the GPS filter problems, and solves the nonlinear GPS dynamic positioning, thus getting stable and reliable dynamic positioning solutions.
An Approach for State Observation in Dynamical Systems Based on the Twisting Algorithm
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Schmidt, Lasse; Andersen, Torben Ole; Pedersen, Henrik C.
2013-01-01
This paper discusses a novel approach for state estimation in dynamical systems, with the special focus on hydraulic valve-cylinder drives. The proposed observer structure is based on the framework of the so-called twisting algorithm. This algorithm utilizes the sign of the state being the target...
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Rong, Aiying; Hakonen, Henri; Lahdelma, Risto
2008-01-01
introduce in this paper the DP-RSC1 algorithm, which is a variant of the dynamic programming (DP) algorithm based on linear relaxation of the ON/OFF states of the units and sequential commitment of units one by one. The time complexity of DP-RSC1 is proportional to the number of generating units...
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Hou, Peng; Hu, Weihao; Chen, Zhe
2015-01-01
Anew approach, Dynamic Minimal Spanning Tree (DMST) algorithm, whichisbased on the MST algorithm isproposed in this paper to optimizethe cable connectionlayout for large scale offshore wind farm collection system. The current carrying capacity of the cable is considered as the main constraint....... It is amore economicalway for cable connection configurationdesignof offshore wind farm collection system....
The primary advantage of Dynamically Dimensioned Search algorithm (DDS) is that it outperforms many other optimization techniques in both convergence speed and the ability in searching for parameter sets that satisfy statistical guidelines while requiring only one algorithm parameter (perturbation f...
Genetic algorithms with memory- and elitism-based immigrants in dynamic environments.
Yang, Shengxiang
2008-01-01
In recent years the genetic algorithm community has shown a growing interest in studying dynamic optimization problems. Several approaches have been devised. The random immigrants and memory schemes are two major ones. The random immigrants scheme addresses dynamic environments by maintaining the population diversity while the memory scheme aims to adapt genetic algorithms quickly to new environments by reusing historical information. This paper investigates a hybrid memory and random immigrants scheme, called memory-based immigrants, and a hybrid elitism and random immigrants scheme, called elitism-based immigrants, for genetic algorithms in dynamic environments. In these schemes, the best individual from memory or the elite from the previous generation is retrieved as the base to create immigrants into the population by mutation. This way, not only can diversity be maintained but it is done more efficiently to adapt genetic algorithms to the current environment. Based on a series of systematically constructed dynamic problems, experiments are carried out to compare genetic algorithms with the memory-based and elitism-based immigrants schemes against genetic algorithms with traditional memory and random immigrants schemes and a hybrid memory and multi-population scheme. The sensitivity analysis regarding some key parameters is also carried out. Experimental results show that the memory-based and elitism-based immigrants schemes efficiently improve the performance of genetic algorithms in dynamic environments.
The Patch-Levy-Based Bees Algorithm Applied to Dynamic Optimization Problems
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Wasim A. Hussein
2017-01-01
Full Text Available Many real-world optimization problems are actually of dynamic nature. These problems change over time in terms of the objective function, decision variables, constraints, and so forth. Therefore, it is very important to study the performance of a metaheuristic algorithm in dynamic environments to assess the robustness of the algorithm to deal with real-word problems. In addition, it is important to adapt the existing metaheuristic algorithms to perform well in dynamic environments. This paper investigates a recently proposed version of Bees Algorithm, which is called Patch-Levy-based Bees Algorithm (PLBA, on solving dynamic problems, and adapts it to deal with such problems. The performance of the PLBA is compared with other BA versions and other state-of-the-art algorithms on a set of dynamic multimodal benchmark problems of different degrees of difficulties. The results of the experiments show that PLBA achieves better results than the other BA variants. The obtained results also indicate that PLBA significantly outperforms some of the other state-of-the-art algorithms and is competitive with others.
Energy Efficient Routing Algorithms in Dynamic Optical Core Networks with Dual Energy Sources
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Wang, Jiayuan; Fagertun, Anna Manolova; Ruepp, Sarah Renée
2013-01-01
This paper proposes new energy efficient routing algorithms in optical core networks, with the application of solar energy sources and bundled links. A comprehensive solar energy model is described in the proposed network scenarios. Network performance in energy savings, connection blocking...... probability, resource utilization and bundled link usage are evaluated with dynamic network simulations. Results show that algorithms proposed aiming for reducing the dynamic part of the energy consumption of the network may raise the fixed part of the energy consumption meanwhile....
Genetic algorithms with memory- and elitism-based immigrants in dynamic environments
Yang, S
2008-01-01
Copyright @ 2008 by the Massachusetts Institute of Technology In recent years the genetic algorithm community has shown a growing interest in studying dynamic optimization problems. Several approaches have been devised. The random immigrants and memory schemes are two major ones. The random immigrants scheme addresses dynamic environments by maintaining the population diversity while the memory scheme aims to adapt genetic algorithms quickly to new environments by reusing historical inform...
Fractional Dynamics of Genetic Algorithms Using Hexagonal Space Tessellation
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
J. A. Tenreiro Machado
2013-01-01
Full Text Available The paper formulates a genetic algorithm that evolves two types of objects in a plane. The fitness function promotes a relationship between the objects that is optimal when some kind of interface between them occurs. Furthermore, the algorithm adopts an hexagonal tessellation of the two-dimensional space for promoting an efficient method of the neighbour modelling. The genetic algorithm produces special patterns with resemblances to those revealed in percolation phenomena or in the symbiosis found in lichens. Besides the analysis of the spacial layout, a modelling of the time evolution is performed by adopting a distance measure and the modelling in the Fourier domain in the perspective of fractional calculus. The results reveal a consistent, and easy to interpret, set of model parameters for distinct operating conditions.
A computational fluid dynamics algorithm on a massively parallel computer
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Jespersen, D.C.; Levit, C.
1989-01-01
The implementation and performance of a finite-difference algorithm for the compressible Navier-Stokes equations in two or three dimensions on the Connection Machine are described. This machine is a single-instruction multiple-data machine with up to 65536 physical processors. The implicit portion of the algorithm is of particular interest. Running times and megadrop rates are given for two- and three-dimensional problems. Included are comparisons with the standard codes on a Cray X-MP/48. 15 refs
Battiste, Vernol; Lawton, George; Lachter, Joel; Brandt, Summer; Koteskey, Robert; Dao, Arik-Quang; Kraut, Josh; Ligda, Sarah; Johnson, Walter W.
2012-01-01
Managing the interval between arrival aircraft is a major part of the en route and TRACON controller s job. In an effort to reduce controller workload and low altitude vectoring, algorithms have been developed to allow pilots to take responsibility for, achieve and maintain proper spacing. Additionally, algorithms have been developed to create dynamic weather-free arrival routes in the presence of convective weather. In a recent study we examined an algorithm to handle dynamic re-routing in the presence of convective weather and two distinct spacing algorithms. The spacing algorithms originated from different core algorithms; both were enhanced with trajectory intent data for the study. These two algorithms were used simultaneously in a human-in-the-loop (HITL) simulation where pilots performed weather-impacted arrival operations into Louisville International Airport while also performing interval management (IM) on some trials. The controllers retained responsibility for separation and for managing the en route airspace and some trials managing IM. The goal was a stress test of dynamic arrival algorithms with ground and airborne spacing concepts. The flight deck spacing algorithms or controller managed spacing not only had to be robust to the dynamic nature of aircraft re-routing around weather but also had to be compatible with two alternative algorithms for achieving the spacing goal. Flight deck interval management spacing in this simulation provided a clear reduction in controller workload relative to when controllers were responsible for spacing the aircraft. At the same time, spacing was much less variable with the flight deck automated spacing. Even though the approaches taken by the two spacing algorithms to achieve the interval management goals were slightly different they seem to be simpatico in achieving the interval management goal of 130 sec by the TRACON boundary.
Optimization in Quaternion Dynamic Systems: Gradient, Hessian, and Learning Algorithms.
Xu, Dongpo; Xia, Yili; Mandic, Danilo P
2016-02-01
The optimization of real scalar functions of quaternion variables, such as the mean square error or array output power, underpins many practical applications. Solutions typically require the calculation of the gradient and Hessian. However, real functions of quaternion variables are essentially nonanalytic, which are prohibitive to the development of quaternion-valued learning systems. To address this issue, we propose new definitions of quaternion gradient and Hessian, based on the novel generalized Hamilton-real (GHR) calculus, thus making a possible efficient derivation of general optimization algorithms directly in the quaternion field, rather than using the isomorphism with the real domain, as is current practice. In addition, unlike the existing quaternion gradients, the GHR calculus allows for the product and chain rule, and for a one-to-one correspondence of the novel quaternion gradient and Hessian with their real counterparts. Properties of the quaternion gradient and Hessian relevant to numerical applications are also introduced, opening a new avenue of research in quaternion optimization and greatly simplified the derivations of learning algorithms. The proposed GHR calculus is shown to yield the same generic algorithm forms as the corresponding real- and complex-valued algorithms. Advantages of the proposed framework are illuminated over illustrative simulations in quaternion signal processing and neural networks.
Advanced Dynamically Adaptive Algorithms for Stochastic Simulations on Extreme Scales
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Xiu, Dongbin [Univ. of Utah, Salt Lake City, UT (United States)
2017-03-03
The focus of the project is the development of mathematical methods and high-performance computational tools for stochastic simulations, with a particular emphasis on computations on extreme scales. The core of the project revolves around the design of highly efficient and scalable numerical algorithms that can adaptively and accurately, in high dimensional spaces, resolve stochastic problems with limited smoothness, even containing discontinuities.
Algorithmic Information Dynamics of Persistent Patterns and Colliding Particles in the Game of Life
Zenil, Hector
2018-02-18
We demonstrate the way to apply and exploit the concept of \\\\textit{algorithmic information dynamics} in the characterization and classification of dynamic and persistent patterns, motifs and colliding particles in, without loss of generalization, Conway\\'s Game of Life (GoL) cellular automaton as a case study. We analyze the distribution of prevailing motifs that occur in GoL from the perspective of algorithmic probability. We demonstrate how the tools introduced are an alternative to computable measures such as entropy and compression algorithms which are often nonsensitive to small changes and features of non-statistical nature in the study of evolving complex systems and their emergent structures.
An Iterative Algorithm to Determine the Dynamic User Equilibrium in a Traffic Simulation Model
Gawron, C.
An iterative algorithm to determine the dynamic user equilibrium with respect to link costs defined by a traffic simulation model is presented. Each driver's route choice is modeled by a discrete probability distribution which is used to select a route in the simulation. After each simulation run, the probability distribution is adapted to minimize the travel costs. Although the algorithm does not depend on the simulation model, a queuing model is used for performance reasons. The stability of the algorithm is analyzed for a simple example network. As an application example, a dynamic version of Braess's paradox is studied.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Beyersdorff, Dirk; Franiel, T.; Luedemann, L.; Dietz, E.; Galler, D.; Marchot, P.
2011-01-01
Purpose: To evaluate the usefulness of a commercially available post-processing software tool for detecting prostate cancer on dynamic contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and to compare the results to those obtained with a custom-made post-processing algorithm already tested under clinical conditions. Materials and Methods: Forty-eight patients with proven prostate cancer were examined by standard MRI supplemented by dynamic contrast-enhanced dual susceptibility contrast (DCE-DSC) MRI prior to prostatectomy. A custom-made post-processing algorithm was used to analyze the MRI data sets and the results were compared to those obtained using a post-processing algorithm from Invivo Corporation (Dyna CAD for Prostate) applied to dynamic T 1-weighted images. Histology was used as the gold standard. Results: The sensitivity for prostate cancer detection was 78 % for the custom-made algorithm and 60 % for the commercial algorithm and the specificity was 79 % and 82 %, respectively. The accuracy was 79 % for our algorithm and 77.5 % for the commercial software tool. The chi-square test (McNemar-Bowker test) yielded no significant differences between the two tools (p = 0.06). Conclusion: The two investigated post-processing algorithms did not differ in terms of prostate cancer detection. The commercially available software tool allows reliable and fast analysis of dynamic contrast-enhanced MRI for the detection of prostate cancer. (orig.)
Explicit symplectic algorithms based on generating functions for charged particle dynamics
Zhang, Ruili; Qin, Hong; Tang, Yifa; Liu, Jian; He, Yang; Xiao, Jianyuan
2016-07-01
Dynamics of a charged particle in the canonical coordinates is a Hamiltonian system, and the well-known symplectic algorithm has been regarded as the de facto method for numerical integration of Hamiltonian systems due to its long-term accuracy and fidelity. For long-term simulations with high efficiency, explicit symplectic algorithms are desirable. However, it is generally believed that explicit symplectic algorithms are only available for sum-separable Hamiltonians, and this restriction limits the application of explicit symplectic algorithms to charged particle dynamics. To overcome this difficulty, we combine the familiar sum-split method and a generating function method to construct second- and third-order explicit symplectic algorithms for dynamics of charged particle. The generating function method is designed to generate explicit symplectic algorithms for product-separable Hamiltonian with form of H (x ,p ) =pif (x ) or H (x ,p ) =xig (p ) . Applied to the simulations of charged particle dynamics, the explicit symplectic algorithms based on generating functions demonstrate superiorities in conservation and efficiency.
DARAL: A Dynamic and Adaptive Routing Algorithm for Wireless Sensor Networks
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Francisco José Estévez
2016-06-01
Full Text Available The evolution of Smart City projects is pushing researchers and companies to develop more efficient embedded hardware and also more efficient communication technologies. These communication technologies are the focus of this work, presenting a new routing algorithm based on dynamically-allocated sub-networks and node roles. Among these features, our algorithm presents a fast set-up time, a reduced overhead and a hierarchical organization, which allows for the application of complex management techniques. This work presents a routing algorithm based on a dynamically-allocated hierarchical clustering, which uses the link quality indicator as a reference parameter, maximizing the network coverage and minimizing the control message overhead and the convergence time. The present work based its test scenario and analysis in the density measure, considered as a node degree. The routing algorithm is compared with some of the most well known routing algorithms for different scenario densities.
Barthel, Thomas; De Bacco, Caterina; Franz, Silvio
2018-01-01
We introduce and apply an efficient method for the precise simulation of stochastic dynamical processes on locally treelike graphs. Networks with cycles are treated in the framework of the cavity method. Such models correspond, for example, to spin-glass systems, Boolean networks, neural networks, or other technological, biological, and social networks. Building upon ideas from quantum many-body theory, our approach is based on a matrix product approximation of the so-called edge messages—conditional probabilities of vertex variable trajectories. Computation costs and accuracy can be tuned by controlling the matrix dimensions of the matrix product edge messages (MPEM) in truncations. In contrast to Monte Carlo simulations, the algorithm has a better error scaling and works for both single instances as well as the thermodynamic limit. We employ it to examine prototypical nonequilibrium Glauber dynamics in the kinetic Ising model. Because of the absence of cancellation effects, observables with small expectation values can be evaluated accurately, allowing for the study of decay processes and temporal correlations.
A simple greedy algorithm for dynamic graph orientation
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Berglin, Edvin; Brodal, Gerth Stølting
2017-01-01
Graph orientations with low out-degree are one of several ways to efficiently store sparse graphs. If the graphs allow for insertion and deletion of edges, one may have to flip the orientation of some edges to prevent blowing up the maximum out-degree. We use arboricity as our sparsity measure....... With an immensely simple greedy algorithm, we get parametrized trade-off bounds between out-degree and worst case number of flips, which previously only existed for amortized number of flips. We match the previous best worst-case algorithm (in O(log n) flips) for general arboricity and beat it for either constant...... or super-logarithmic arboricity. We also match a previous best amortized result for at least logarithmic arboricity, and give the first results with worst-case O(1) and O(sqrt(log n)) flips nearly matching degree bounds to their respective amortized solutions....
A new algorithm for extended nonequilibrium molecular dynamics simulations of mixed flow
Hunt, T.A.; Hunt, Thomas A.; Bernardi, Stefano; Todd, B.D.
2010-01-01
In this work, we develop a new algorithm for nonequilibrium molecular dynamics of fluids under planar mixed flow, a linear combination of planar elongational flow and planar Couette flow. To date, the only way of simulating mixed flow using nonequilibrium molecular dynamics techniques was to impose
ALGORITHM FOR DYNAMIC SCALING RELATIONAL DATABASE IN CLOUDS
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Alexander V. Boichenko
2014-01-01
Full Text Available This article analyzes the main methods of scalingdatabases (replication, sharding and their supportat the popular relational databases and NoSQLsolutions with different data models: document-oriented, key-value, column-oriented and graph.The article presents an algorithm for the dynamicscaling of a relational database (DB, that takesinto account the speciﬁcs of the different types of logic database model. This article was prepared with the support of RFBR (grant № 13-07-00749.
Information dynamics algorithm for detecting communities in networks
Massaro, Emanuele; Bagnoli, Franco; Guazzini, Andrea; Lió, Pietro
2012-11-01
The problem of community detection is relevant in many scientific disciplines, from social science to statistical physics. Given the impact of community detection in many areas, such as psychology and social sciences, we have addressed the issue of modifying existing well performing algorithms by incorporating elements of the domain application fields, i.e. domain-inspired. We have focused on a psychology and social network-inspired approach which may be useful for further strengthening the link between social network studies and mathematics of community detection. Here we introduce a community-detection algorithm derived from the van Dongen's Markov Cluster algorithm (MCL) method [4] by considering networks' nodes as agents capable to take decisions. In this framework we have introduced a memory factor to mimic a typical human behavior such as the oblivion effect. The method is based on information diffusion and it includes a non-linear processing phase. We test our method on two classical community benchmark and on computer generated networks with known community structure. Our approach has three important features: the capacity of detecting overlapping communities, the capability of identifying communities from an individual point of view and the fine tuning the community detectability with respect to prior knowledge of the data. Finally we discuss how to use a Shannon entropy measure for parameter estimation in complex networks.
Optimal Control of Complex Systems Based on Improved Dual Heuristic Dynamic Programming Algorithm
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Hui Li
2017-01-01
Full Text Available When applied to solving the data modeling and optimal control problems of complex systems, the dual heuristic dynamic programming (DHP technique, which is based on the BP neural network algorithm (BP-DHP, has difficulty in prediction accuracy, slow convergence speed, poor stability, and so forth. In this paper, a dual DHP technique based on Extreme Learning Machine (ELM algorithm (ELM-DHP was proposed. Through constructing three kinds of network structures, the paper gives the detailed realization process of the DHP technique in the ELM. The controller designed upon the ELM-DHP algorithm controlled a molecular distillation system with complex features, such as multivariability, strong coupling, and nonlinearity. Finally, the effectiveness of the algorithm is verified by the simulation that compares DHP and HDP algorithms based on ELM and BP neural network. The algorithm can also be applied to solve the data modeling and optimal control problems of similar complex systems.
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
ticians but also forms the foundation of computer science. Two ... with methods of developing algorithms for solving a variety of problems but ... applications of computers in science and engineer- ... numerical calculus are as important. We will ...
A new simulation algorithm for lattice QCD with dynamical quarks
Bunk, B.; Jegerlehner, B.; Luscher, M.; Simma, H.; Sommer, R.; Bunk, B; Jansen, K; Jegerlehner, B; Luscher, M; Simma, H
1994-01-01
A previously introduced multi-boson technique for the simulation of QCD with dynamical quarks is described and some results of first test runs on a 6^3\\times12 lattice with Wilson quarks and gauge group SU(2) are reported.
An FDTD algorithm for simulating light propagation in anisotropic dynamic gain media
Al-Jabr, A. A.
2014-05-02
Simulating light propagation in anisotropic dynamic gain media such as semiconductors and solid-state lasers using the finite difference time-domain FDTD technique is a tedious process, as many variables need to be evaluated in the same instant of time. The algorithm has to take care of the laser dynamic gain, rate equations, anisotropy and dispersion. In this paper, to the best of our knowledge, we present the first algorithm that solves this problem. The algorithm is based on separating calculations into independent layers and hence solving each problem in a layer of calculations. The anisotropic gain medium is presented and tested using a one-dimensional set-up. The algorithm is then used for the analysis of a two-dimensional problem.
A New Multiobjective Evolutionary Algorithm for Community Detection in Dynamic Complex Networks
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Guoqiang Chen
2013-01-01
Full Text Available Community detection in dynamic networks is an important research topic and has received an enormous amount of attention in recent years. Modularity is selected as a measure to quantify the quality of the community partition in previous detection methods. But, the modularity has been exposed to resolution limits. In this paper, we propose a novel multiobjective evolutionary algorithm for dynamic networks community detection based on the framework of nondominated sorting genetic algorithm. Modularity density which can address the limitations of modularity function is adopted to measure the snapshot cost, and normalized mutual information is selected to measure temporal cost, respectively. The characteristics knowledge of the problem is used in designing the genetic operators. Furthermore, a local search operator was designed, which can improve the effectiveness and efficiency of community detection. Experimental studies based on synthetic datasets show that the proposed algorithm can obtain better performance than the compared algorithms.
A New Fuzzy Harmony Search Algorithm Using Fuzzy Logic for Dynamic Parameter Adaptation
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Cinthia Peraza
2016-10-01
Full Text Available In this paper, a new fuzzy harmony search algorithm (FHS for solving optimization problems is presented. FHS is based on a recent method using fuzzy logic for dynamic adaptation of the harmony memory accepting (HMR and pitch adjustment (PArate parameters that improve the convergence rate of traditional harmony search algorithm (HS. The objective of the method is to dynamically adjust the parameters in the range from 0.7 to 1. The impact of using fixed parameters in the harmony search algorithm is discussed and a strategy for efficiently tuning these parameters using fuzzy logic is presented. The FHS algorithm was successfully applied to different benchmarking optimization problems. The results of simulation and comparison studies demonstrate the effectiveness and efficiency of the proposed approach.
Nagy, Ivan
2017-01-01
This book provides a general theoretical background for constructing the recursive Bayesian estimation algorithms for mixture models. It collects the recursive algorithms for estimating dynamic mixtures of various distributions and brings them in the unified form, providing a scheme for constructing the estimation algorithm for a mixture of components modeled by distributions with reproducible statistics. It offers the recursive estimation of dynamic mixtures, which are free of iterative processes and close to analytical solutions as much as possible. In addition, these methods can be used online and simultaneously perform learning, which improves their efficiency during estimation. The book includes detailed program codes for solving the presented theoretical tasks. Codes are implemented in the open source platform for engineering computations. The program codes given serve to illustrate the theory and demonstrate the work of the included algorithms.
An FDTD algorithm for simulating light propagation in anisotropic dynamic gain media
Al-Jabr, A. A.; San Roman Alerigi, Damian; Ooi, Boon S.; Alsunaidi, M. A.
2014-01-01
Simulating light propagation in anisotropic dynamic gain media such as semiconductors and solid-state lasers using the finite difference time-domain FDTD technique is a tedious process, as many variables need to be evaluated in the same instant of time. The algorithm has to take care of the laser dynamic gain, rate equations, anisotropy and dispersion. In this paper, to the best of our knowledge, we present the first algorithm that solves this problem. The algorithm is based on separating calculations into independent layers and hence solving each problem in a layer of calculations. The anisotropic gain medium is presented and tested using a one-dimensional set-up. The algorithm is then used for the analysis of a two-dimensional problem.
Dynamic population artificial bee colony algorithm for multi-objective optimal power flow
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Man Ding
2017-03-01
Full Text Available This paper proposes a novel artificial bee colony algorithm with dynamic population (ABC-DP, which synergizes the idea of extended life-cycle evolving model to balance the exploration and exploitation tradeoff. The proposed ABC-DP is a more bee-colony-realistic model that the bee can reproduce and die dynamically throughout the foraging process and population size varies as the algorithm runs. ABC-DP is then used for solving the optimal power flow (OPF problem in power systems that considers the cost, loss, and emission impacts as the objective functions. The 30-bus IEEE test system is presented to illustrate the application of the proposed algorithm. The simulation results, which are also compared to nondominated sorting genetic algorithm II (NSGAII and multi-objective ABC (MOABC, are presented to illustrate the effectiveness and robustness of the proposed method.
AbouEisha, Hassan M.; Moshkov, Mikhail; Calo, Victor M.; Paszynski, Maciej; Goik, Damian; Jopek, Konrad
2014-01-01
In this paper we present a dynamic programming algorithm for finding optimal elimination trees for computational grids refined towards point or edge singularities. The elimination tree is utilized to guide the multi-frontal direct solver algorithm
Parallel Multiscale Algorithms for Astrophysical Fluid Dynamics Simulations
Norman, Michael L.
1997-01-01
Our goal is to develop software libraries and applications for astrophysical fluid dynamics simulations in multidimensions that will enable us to resolve the large spatial and temporal variations that inevitably arise due to gravity, fronts and microphysical phenomena. The software must run efficiently on parallel computers and be general enough to allow the incorporation of a wide variety of physics. Cosmological structure formation with realistic gas physics is the primary application driver in this work. Accurate simulations of e.g. galaxy formation require a spatial dynamic range (i.e., ratio of system scale to smallest resolved feature) of 104 or more in three dimensions in arbitrary topologies. We take this as our technical requirement. We have achieved, and in fact, surpassed these goals.
Adaptive Dynamic Programming for Control Algorithms and Stability
Zhang, Huaguang; Luo, Yanhong; Wang, Ding
2013-01-01
There are many methods of stable controller design for nonlinear systems. In seeking to go beyond the minimum requirement of stability, Adaptive Dynamic Programming for Control approaches the challenging topic of optimal control for nonlinear systems using the tools of adaptive dynamic programming (ADP). The range of systems treated is extensive; affine, switched, singularly perturbed and time-delay nonlinear systems are discussed as are the uses of neural networks and techniques of value and policy iteration. The text features three main aspects of ADP in which the methods proposed for stabilization and for tracking and games benefit from the incorporation of optimal control methods: • infinite-horizon control for which the difficulty of solving partial differential Hamilton–Jacobi–Bellman equations directly is overcome, and proof provided that the iterative value function updating sequence converges to the infimum of all the value functions obtained by admissible control law sequences; • finite-...
Fuzzy Dynamic Discrimination Algorithms for Distributed Knowledge Management Systems
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Vasile MAZILESCU
2010-12-01
Full Text Available A reduction of the algorithmic complexity of the fuzzy inference engine has the following property: the inputs (the fuzzy rules and the fuzzy facts can be divided in two parts, one being relatively constant for a long a time (the fuzzy rule or the knowledge model when it is compared to the second part (the fuzzy facts for every inference cycle. The occurrence of certain transformations over the constant part makes sense, in order to decrease the solution procurement time, in the case that the second part varies, but it is known at certain moments in time. The transformations attained in advance are called pre-processing or knowledge compilation. The use of variables in a Business Rule Management System knowledge representation allows factorising knowledge, like in classical knowledge based systems. The language of the first-degree predicates facilitates the formulation of complex knowledge in a rigorous way, imposing appropriate reasoning techniques. It is, thus, necessary to define the description method of fuzzy knowledge, to justify the knowledge exploiting efficiency when the compiling technique is used, to present the inference engine and highlight the functional features of the pattern matching and the state space processes. This paper presents the main results of our project PR356 for designing a compiler for fuzzy knowledge, like Rete compiler, that comprises two main components: a static fuzzy discrimination structure (Fuzzy Unification Tree and the Fuzzy Variables Linking Network. There are also presented the features of the elementary pattern matching process that is based on the compiled structure of fuzzy knowledge. We developed fuzzy discrimination algorithms for Distributed Knowledge Management Systems (DKMSs. The implementations have been elaborated in a prototype system FRCOM (Fuzzy Rule COMpiler.
A Dynamic Programming Algorithm for the k-Haplotyping Problem
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
Zhen-ping Li; Ling-yun Wu; Yu-ying Zhao; Xiang-sun Zhang
2006-01-01
The Minimum Fragments Removal (MFR) problem is one of the haplotyping problems: given a set of fragments, remove the minimum number of fragments so that the resulting fragments can be partitioned into k classes of non-conflicting subsets. In this paper, we formulate the k-MFR problem as an integer linear programming problem, and develop a dynamic programming approach to solve the k-MFR problem for both the gapless and gap cases.
Dynamic Control of Airport Departures: Algorithm Development and Field Evaluation
Simaiakis, Ioannis; Balakrishnan, Hamsa
2012-01-01
Surface congestion leads to significant increases in taxi times and fuel burn at major airports. In this paper, we formulate the airport surface congestion management problem as a dynamic control problem. We address two main challenges: the random delay between actuation (at the gate) and the server being controlled (the runway), and the need to develop control strategies that can be implemented in practice by human air traffic controllers. The second requirement necessitates a strategy that ...
2016-06-01
Filter Algorithms for Stationary, Low-Dynamics, and High-Dynamics Applications Executive Summary The Global Positioning system ( GPS ) is the primary...software that may need to be developed for performance prediction of current or future systems that incorporate GPS . The ultimate aim is to help inform...Defence Science and Technology Organisation in 1986. His major areas of work were adaptive tracking , sig- nal processing, and radar systems engineering
An Adaptive Genetic Algorithm with Dynamic Population Size for Optimizing Join Queries
Vellev, Stoyan
2008-01-01
The problem of finding the optimal join ordering executing a query to a relational database management system is a combinatorial optimization problem, which makes deterministic exhaustive solution search unacceptable for queries with a great number of joined relations. In this work an adaptive genetic algorithm with dynamic population size is proposed for optimizing large join queries. The performance of the algorithm is compared with that of several classical non-determinis...
An algorithm for engineering regime shifts in one-dimensional dynamical systems
Tan, James P. L.
2018-01-01
Regime shifts are discontinuous transitions between stable attractors hosting a system. They can occur as a result of a loss of stability in an attractor as a bifurcation is approached. In this work, we consider one-dimensional dynamical systems where attractors are stable equilibrium points. Relying on critical slowing down signals related to the stability of an equilibrium point, we present an algorithm for engineering regime shifts such that a system may escape an undesirable attractor into a desirable one. We test the algorithm on synthetic data from a one-dimensional dynamical system with a multitude of stable equilibrium points and also on a model of the population dynamics of spruce budworms in a forest. The algorithm and other ideas discussed here contribute to an important part of the literature on exercising greater control over the sometimes unpredictable nature of nonlinear systems.
Asset-Based Community Development as a Strategy for Developing Local Global Health Curricula.
Webber, Sarah; Butteris, Sabrina M; Houser, Laura; Coller, Karen; Coller, Ryan J
2018-02-07
A significant and growing proportion of US children have immigrant parents, an issue of increasing importance to pediatricians. Training globally minded pediatric residents to address health inequities related to globalization is an important reason to expand educational strategies around local global health (LGH). We developed a curriculum in the pediatric global health residency track at the University of Wisconsin in an effort to address gaps in LGH education and to increase resident knowledge about local health disparities for global community members. This curriculum was founded in asset-based community development (ABCD), a strategy used in advocacy training but not reported in global health education. The initial curriculum outputs have provided the foundation for a longitudinal LGH curriculum and a community-academic partnership. Supported by a community partnership grant, this partnership is focused on establishing a community-based postpartum support group for local Latinos, with an emphasis on building capacity in the Latino community. Aspects of this curriculum can serve other programs looking to develop LGH curricula rooted in building local partnerships and capacity using an ABCD model. Copyright © 2018 Academic Pediatric Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Analysis of Population Diversity of Dynamic Probabilistic Particle Swarm Optimization Algorithms
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Qingjian Ni
2014-01-01
Full Text Available In evolutionary algorithm, population diversity is an important factor for solving performance. In this paper, combined with some population diversity analysis methods in other evolutionary algorithms, three indicators are introduced to be measures of population diversity in PSO algorithms, which are standard deviation of population fitness values, population entropy, and Manhattan norm of standard deviation in population positions. The three measures are used to analyze the population diversity in a relatively new PSO variant—Dynamic Probabilistic Particle Swarm Optimization (DPPSO. The results show that the three measure methods can fully reflect the evolution of population diversity in DPPSO algorithms from different angles, and we also discuss the impact of population diversity on the DPPSO variants. The relevant conclusions of the population diversity on DPPSO can be used to analyze, design, and improve the DPPSO algorithms, thus improving optimization performance, which could also be beneficial to understand the working mechanism of DPPSO theoretically.
A Dynamic Multistage Hybrid Swarm Intelligence Optimization Algorithm for Function Optimization
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Daqing Wu
2012-01-01
Full Text Available A novel dynamic multistage hybrid swarm intelligence optimization algorithm is introduced, which is abbreviated as DM-PSO-ABC. The DM-PSO-ABC combined the exploration capabilities of the dynamic multiswarm particle swarm optimizer (PSO and the stochastic exploitation of the cooperative artificial bee colony algorithm (CABC for solving the function optimization. In the proposed hybrid algorithm, the whole process is divided into three stages. In the first stage, a dynamic multiswarm PSO is constructed to maintain the population diversity. In the second stage, the parallel, positive feedback of CABC was implemented in each small swarm. In the third stage, we make use of the particle swarm optimization global model, which has a faster convergence speed to enhance the global convergence in solving the whole problem. To verify the effectiveness and efficiency of the proposed hybrid algorithm, various scale benchmark problems are tested to demonstrate the potential of the proposed multistage hybrid swarm intelligence optimization algorithm. The results show that DM-PSO-ABC is better in the search precision, and convergence property and has strong ability to escape from the local suboptima when compared with several other peer algorithms.
Symbiotic organisms search algorithm for dynamic economic dispatch with valve-point effects
Sonmez, Yusuf; Kahraman, H. Tolga; Dosoglu, M. Kenan; Guvenc, Ugur; Duman, Serhat
2017-05-01
In this study, symbiotic organisms search (SOS) algorithm is proposed to solve the dynamic economic dispatch with valve-point effects problem, which is one of the most important problems of the modern power system. Some practical constraints like valve-point effects, ramp rate limits and prohibited operating zones have been considered as solutions. Proposed algorithm was tested on five different test cases in 5 units, 10 units and 13 units systems. The obtained results have been compared with other well-known metaheuristic methods reported before. Results show that proposed algorithm has a good convergence and produces better results than other methods.
Variable threshold algorithm for division of labor analyzed as a dynamical system.
Castillo-Cagigal, Manuel; Matallanas, Eduardo; Navarro, Iñaki; Caamaño-Martín, Estefanía; Monasterio-Huelin, Félix; Gutiérrez, Álvaro
2014-12-01
Division of labor is a widely studied aspect of colony behavior of social insects. Division of labor models indicate how individuals distribute themselves in order to perform different tasks simultaneously. However, models that study division of labor from a dynamical system point of view cannot be found in the literature. In this paper, we define a division of labor model as a discrete-time dynamical system, in order to study the equilibrium points and their properties related to convergence and stability. By making use of this analytical model, an adaptive algorithm based on division of labor can be designed to satisfy dynamic criteria. In this way, we have designed and tested an algorithm that varies the response thresholds in order to modify the dynamic behavior of the system. This behavior modification allows the system to adapt to specific environmental and collective situations, making the algorithm a good candidate for distributed control applications. The variable threshold algorithm is based on specialization mechanisms. It is able to achieve an asymptotically stable behavior of the system in different environments and independently of the number of individuals. The algorithm has been successfully tested under several initial conditions and number of individuals.
Dynamic gradient descent learning algorithms for enhanced empirical modeling of power plants
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Parlos, A.G.; Atiya, Amir; Chong, K.T.
1991-01-01
A newly developed dynamic gradient descent-based learning algorithm is used to train a recurrent multilayer perceptron network for use in empirical modeling of power plants. The two main advantages of the proposed learning algorithm are its ability to consider past error gradient information for future use and the two forward passes associated with its implementation, instead of one forward and one backward pass of the backpropagation algorithm. The latter advantage results in computational time saving because both passes can be performed simultaneously. The dynamic learning algorithm is used to train a hybrid feedforward/feedback neural network, a recurrent multilayer perceptron, which was previously found to exhibit good interpolation and extrapolation capabilities in modeling nonlinear dynamic systems. One of the drawbacks, however, of the previously reported work has been the long training times associated with accurate empirical models. The enhanced learning capabilities provided by the dynamic gradient descent-based learning algorithm are demonstrated by a case study of a steam power plant. The number of iterations required for accurate empirical modeling has been reduced from tens of thousands to hundreds, thus significantly expediting the learning process
A dynamic material discrimination algorithm for dual MV energy X-ray digital radiography
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Li, Liang; Li, Ruizhe; Zhang, Siyuan; Zhao, Tiao; Chen, Zhiqiang
2016-01-01
Dual-energy X-ray radiography has become a well-established technique in medical, industrial, and security applications, because of its material or tissue discrimination capability. The main difficulty of this technique is dealing with the materials overlapping problem. When there are two or more materials along the X-ray beam path, its material discrimination performance will be affected. In order to solve this problem, a new dynamic material discrimination algorithm is proposed for dual-energy X-ray digital radiography, which can also be extended to multi-energy X-ray situations. The algorithm has three steps: α-curve-based pre-classification, decomposition of overlapped materials, and the final material recognition. The key of the algorithm is to establish a dual-energy radiograph database of both pure basis materials and pair combinations of them. After the pre-classification results, original dual-energy projections of overlapped materials can be dynamically decomposed into two sets of dual-energy radiographs of each pure material by the algorithm. Thus, more accurate discrimination results can be provided even with the existence of the overlapping problem. Both numerical and experimental results that prove the validity and effectiveness of the algorithm are presented. - Highlights: • A material discrimination algorithm for dual MV energy X-ray digital radiography is proposed. • To solve the materials overlapping problem of the current dual energy algorithm. • The experimental results with the 4/7 MV container inspection system are shown.
Explicit K-symplectic algorithms for charged particle dynamics
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
He, Yang; Zhou, Zhaoqi; Sun, Yajuan; Liu, Jian; Qin, Hong
2017-01-01
We study the Lorentz force equation of charged particle dynamics by considering its K-symplectic structure. As the Hamiltonian of the system can be decomposed as four parts, we are able to construct the numerical methods that preserve the K-symplectic structure based on Hamiltonian splitting technique. The newly derived numerical methods are explicit, and are shown in numerical experiments to be stable over long-term simulation. The error convergency as well as the long term energy conservation of the numerical solutions is also analyzed by means of the Darboux transformation.
Explicit K-symplectic algorithms for charged particle dynamics
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
He, Yang [School of Mathematics and Physics, University of Science and Technology Beijing, Beijing 100083 (China); Zhou, Zhaoqi [LSEC, Academy of Mathematics and Systems Science, Chinese Academy of Sciences, P.O. Box 2719, Beijing 100190 (China); Sun, Yajuan, E-mail: sunyj@lsec.cc.ac.cn [LSEC, Academy of Mathematics and Systems Science, Chinese Academy of Sciences, P.O. Box 2719, Beijing 100190 (China); University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049 (China); Liu, Jian [Department of Modern Physics and School of Nuclear Science and Technology, University of Science and Technology of China, Hefei, Anhui 230026 (China); Key Laboratory of Geospace Environment, CAS, Hefei, Anhui 230026 (China); Qin, Hong [Department of Modern Physics and School of Nuclear Science and Technology, University of Science and Technology of China, Hefei, Anhui 230026 (China); Plasma Physics Laboratory, Princeton University, Princeton, NJ 08543 (United States)
2017-02-12
We study the Lorentz force equation of charged particle dynamics by considering its K-symplectic structure. As the Hamiltonian of the system can be decomposed as four parts, we are able to construct the numerical methods that preserve the K-symplectic structure based on Hamiltonian splitting technique. The newly derived numerical methods are explicit, and are shown in numerical experiments to be stable over long-term simulation. The error convergency as well as the long term energy conservation of the numerical solutions is also analyzed by means of the Darboux transformation.
The generation algorithm of arbitrary polygon animation based on dynamic correction
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Hou Ya Wei
2016-01-01
Full Text Available This paper, based on the key-frame polygon sequence, proposes a method that makes use of dynamic correction to develop continuous animation. Firstly we use quadratic Bezier curve to interpolate the corresponding sides vector of polygon sequence consecutive frame and realize the continuity of animation sequences. And then, according to Bezier curve characteristic, we conduct dynamic regulation to interpolation parameters and implement the changing smoothness. Meanwhile, we take use of Lagrange Multiplier Method to correct the polygon and close it. Finally, we provide the concrete algorithm flow and present numerical experiment results. The experiment results show that the algorithm acquires excellent effect.
Dynamical Consensus Algorithm for Second-Order Multi-Agent Systems Subjected to Communication Delay
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Liu Chenglin; Liu Fei
2013-01-01
To solve the dynamical consensus problem of second-order multi-agent systems with communication delay, delay-dependent compensations are added into the normal asynchronously-coupled consensus algorithm so as to make the agents achieve a dynamical consensus. Based on frequency-domain analysis, sufficient conditions are gained for second-order multi-agent systems with communication delay under leaderless and leader-following consensus algorithms respectively. Simulation illustrates the correctness of the results. (interdisciplinary physics and related areas of science and technology)
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
algorithm design technique called 'divide-and-conquer'. One of ... Turtle graphics, September. 1996. 5. ... whole list named 'PO' is a pointer to the first element of the list; ..... Program for computing matrices X and Y and placing the result in C *).
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
algorithm that it is implicitly understood that we know how to generate the next natural ..... Explicit comparisons are made in line (1) where maximum and minimum is ... It can be shown that the function T(n) = 3/2n -2 is the solution to the above ...
A Scheduling Algorithm for Cloud Computing System Based on the Driver of Dynamic Essential Path.
Xie, Zhiqiang; Shao, Xia; Xin, Yu
2016-01-01
To solve the problem of task scheduling in the cloud computing system, this paper proposes a scheduling algorithm for cloud computing based on the driver of dynamic essential path (DDEP). This algorithm applies a predecessor-task layer priority strategy to solve the problem of constraint relations among task nodes. The strategy assigns different priority values to every task node based on the scheduling order of task node as affected by the constraint relations among task nodes, and the task node list is generated by the different priority value. To address the scheduling order problem in which task nodes have the same priority value, the dynamic essential long path strategy is proposed. This strategy computes the dynamic essential path of the pre-scheduling task nodes based on the actual computation cost and communication cost of task node in the scheduling process. The task node that has the longest dynamic essential path is scheduled first as the completion time of task graph is indirectly influenced by the finishing time of task nodes in the longest dynamic essential path. Finally, we demonstrate the proposed algorithm via simulation experiments using Matlab tools. The experimental results indicate that the proposed algorithm can effectively reduce the task Makespan in most cases and meet a high quality performance objective.
Parallel processors and nonlinear structural dynamics algorithms and software
Belytschko, Ted
1989-01-01
A nonlinear structural dynamics finite element program was developed to run on a shared memory multiprocessor with pipeline processors. The program, WHAMS, was used as a framework for this work. The program employs explicit time integration and has the capability to handle both the nonlinear material behavior and large displacement response of 3-D structures. The elasto-plastic material model uses an isotropic strain hardening law which is input as a piecewise linear function. Geometric nonlinearities are handled by a corotational formulation in which a coordinate system is embedded at the integration point of each element. Currently, the program has an element library consisting of a beam element based on Euler-Bernoulli theory and trianglar and quadrilateral plate element based on Mindlin theory.
Algorithm to illustrate context using dynamic lighting effects
John, Roshy M.; Balasubramanian, T.
2007-09-01
With the invention of Ultra-Bright LED, solid state lighting has come to something which is much more efficient and energy saving when compared to conventional incandescent or fluorescent lighting. With the use of proper driver electronics now a days it is possible to install solid state lighting systems with the cost same as that of any other lighting technology. This paper is a part of the research project we are doing in our lab, which deals with using ultra bright LEDs of different colors for lighting applications. The driver electronics are made in such a way that, the color and brightness of the lights will change according to context. For instance, if one of the users is reading a story or listening to music in a Personal Computer or in a hand held device such as a PDA, the lighting systems and the HVAC (Heating Ventilation Air-conditioning) systems will change dramatically according to the content of the story or the music. The vulnerability of solid-state lighting helps to accomplish such an effect. Such a type of system will help the reader to feel the story mentally and physically as well. We developed complete driver electronics for the system using multiple microcomputers and a full software suite which uses complex algorithms to decode the context from text or music and synchronize it to lighting and HVAC information. The paper also presents some case-study statistics which shows the advantage of using the system to teach kindergarten children, deaf and dumb children and for language learning classes.
Dynamic load balance scheme for the DSMC algorithm
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Li, Jin; Geng, Xiangren; Jiang, Dingwu; Chen, Jianqiang
2014-01-01
The direct simulation Monte Carlo (DSMC) algorithm, devised by Bird, has been used over a wide range of various rarified flow problems in the past 40 years. While the DSMC is suitable for the parallel implementation on powerful multi-processor architecture, it also introduces a large load imbalance across the processor array, even for small examples. The load imposed on a processor by a DSMC calculation is determined to a large extent by the total of simulator particles upon it. Since most flows are impulsively started with initial distribution of particles which is surely quite different from the steady state, the total of simulator particles will change dramatically. The load balance based upon an initial distribution of particles will break down as the steady state of flow is reached. The load imbalance and huge computational cost of DSMC has limited its application to rarefied or simple transitional flows. In this paper, by taking advantage of METIS, a software for partitioning unstructured graphs, and taking the total of simulator particles in each cell as a weight information, the repartitioning based upon the principle that each processor handles approximately the equal total of simulator particles has been achieved. The computation must pause several times to renew the total of simulator particles in each processor and repartition the whole domain again. Thus the load balance across the processors array holds in the duration of computation. The parallel efficiency can be improved effectively. The benchmark solution of a cylinder submerged in hypersonic flow has been simulated numerically. Besides, hypersonic flow past around a complex wing-body configuration has also been simulated. The results have displayed that, for both of cases, the computational time can be reduced by about 50%
Dynamic game balancing implementation using adaptive algorithm in mobile-based Safari Indonesia game
Yuniarti, Anny; Nata Wardanie, Novita; Kuswardayan, Imam
2018-03-01
In developing a game there is one method that should be applied to maintain the interest of players, namely dynamic game balancing. Dynamic game balancing is a process to match a player’s playing style with the behaviour, attributes, and game environment. This study applies dynamic game balancing using adaptive algorithm in scrolling shooter game type called Safari Indonesia which developed using Unity. The game of this type is portrayed by a fighter aircraft character trying to defend itself from insistent enemy attacks. This classic game is chosen to implement adaptive algorithms because it has quite complex attributes to be developed using dynamic game balancing. Tests conducted by distributing questionnaires to a number of players indicate that this method managed to reduce frustration and increase the pleasure factor in playing.
Constraint treatment techniques and parallel algorithms for multibody dynamic analysis. Ph.D. Thesis
Chiou, Jin-Chern
1990-01-01
Computational procedures for kinematic and dynamic analysis of three-dimensional multibody dynamic (MBD) systems are developed from the differential-algebraic equations (DAE's) viewpoint. Constraint violations during the time integration process are minimized and penalty constraint stabilization techniques and partitioning schemes are developed. The governing equations of motion, a two-stage staggered explicit-implicit numerical algorithm, are treated which takes advantage of a partitioned solution procedure. A robust and parallelizable integration algorithm is developed. This algorithm uses a two-stage staggered central difference algorithm to integrate the translational coordinates and the angular velocities. The angular orientations of bodies in MBD systems are then obtained by using an implicit algorithm via the kinematic relationship between Euler parameters and angular velocities. It is shown that the combination of the present solution procedures yields a computationally more accurate solution. To speed up the computational procedures, parallel implementation of the present constraint treatment techniques, the two-stage staggered explicit-implicit numerical algorithm was efficiently carried out. The DAE's and the constraint treatment techniques were transformed into arrowhead matrices to which Schur complement form was derived. By fully exploiting the sparse matrix structural analysis techniques, a parallel preconditioned conjugate gradient numerical algorithm is used to solve the systems equations written in Schur complement form. A software testbed was designed and implemented in both sequential and parallel computers. This testbed was used to demonstrate the robustness and efficiency of the constraint treatment techniques, the accuracy of the two-stage staggered explicit-implicit numerical algorithm, and the speed up of the Schur-complement-based parallel preconditioned conjugate gradient algorithm on a parallel computer.
Supercomputer algorithms for reactivity, dynamics and kinetics of small molecules
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Lagana, A.
1989-01-01
Even for small systems, the accurate characterization of reactive processes is so demanding of computer resources as to suggest the use of supercomputers having vector and parallel facilities. The full advantages of vector and parallel architectures can sometimes be obtained by simply modifying existing programs, vectorizing the manipulation of vectors and matrices, and requiring the parallel execution of independent tasks. More often, however, a significant time saving can be obtained only when the computer code undergoes a deeper restructuring, requiring a change in the computational strategy or, more radically, the adoption of a different theoretical treatment. This book discusses supercomputer strategies based upon act and approximate methods aimed at calculating the electronic structure and the reactive properties of small systems. The book shows how, in recent years, intense design activity has led to the ability to calculate accurate electronic structures for reactive systems, exact and high-level approximations to three-dimensional reactive dynamics, and to efficient directive and declaratory software for the modelling of complex systems
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
will become clear in the next article when we discuss a simple logo like programming language. ... Rod B may be used as an auxiliary store. The problem is to find an algorithm which performs this task. ... No disks are moved from A to Busing C as auxiliary rod. • move _disk (A, C);. (No + l)th disk is moved from A to C directly ...
Quantum algorithm for simulating the dynamics of an open quantum system
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Wang Hefeng; Ashhab, S.; Nori, Franco
2011-01-01
In the study of open quantum systems, one typically obtains the decoherence dynamics by solving a master equation. The master equation is derived using knowledge of some basic properties of the system, the environment, and their interaction: One basically needs to know the operators through which the system couples to the environment and the spectral density of the environment. For a large system, it could become prohibitively difficult to even write down the appropriate master equation, let alone solve it on a classical computer. In this paper, we present a quantum algorithm for simulating the dynamics of an open quantum system. On a quantum computer, the environment can be simulated using ancilla qubits with properly chosen single-qubit frequencies and with properly designed coupling to the system qubits. The parameters used in the simulation are easily derived from the parameters of the system + environment Hamiltonian. The algorithm is designed to simulate Markovian dynamics, but it can also be used to simulate non-Markovian dynamics provided that this dynamics can be obtained by embedding the system of interest into a larger system that obeys Markovian dynamics. We estimate the resource requirements for the algorithm. In particular, we show that for sufficiently slow decoherence a single ancilla qubit could be sufficient to represent the entire environment, in principle.
Coherency Identification of Generators Using a PAM Algorithm for Dynamic Reduction of Power Systems
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Seung-Il Moon
2012-11-01
Full Text Available This paper presents a new coherency identification method for dynamic reduction of a power system. To achieve dynamic reduction, coherency-based equivalence techniques divide generators into groups according to coherency, and then aggregate them. In order to minimize the changes in the dynamic response of the reduced equivalent system, coherency identification of the generators should be clearly defined. The objective of the proposed coherency identification method is to determine the optimal coherent groups of generators with respect to the dynamic response, using the Partitioning Around Medoids (PAM algorithm. For this purpose, the coherency between generators is first evaluated from the dynamic simulation time response, and in the proposed method this result is then used to define a dissimilarity index. Based on the PAM algorithm, the coherent generator groups are then determined so that the sum of the index in each group is minimized. This approach ensures that the dynamic characteristics of the original system are preserved, by providing the optimized coherency identification. To validate the effectiveness of the technique, simulated cases with an IEEE 39-bus test system are evaluated using PSS/E. The proposed method is compared with an existing coherency identification method, which uses the K-means algorithm, and is found to provide a better estimate of the original system.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Haug, E.; Rouvray, A.L. de; Nguyen, Q.S.
1977-01-01
This study proposes a general nonlinear algorithm stability criterion; it introduces a nonlinear algorithm, easily implemented in existing incremental/iterative codes, and it applies the new scheme beneficially to problems of linear elastic dynamic snap buckling. Based on the concept of energy conservation, the paper outlines an algorithm which degenerates into the trapezoidal rule, if applied to linear systems. The new algorithm conserves energy in systems having elastic potentials up to the fourth order in the displacements. This is true in the important case of nonlinear total Lagrange formulations where linear elastic material properties are substituted. The scheme is easily implemented in existing incremental-iterative codes with provisions for stiffness reformation and containing the basic Newmark scheme. Numerical analyses of dynamic stability can be dramatically sensitive to amplitude errors, because damping algorithms may mask, and overestimating schemes may numerically trigger, the physical instability. The newly proposed scheme has been applied with larger time steps and less cost to the dynamic snap buckling of simple one and multi degree-of-freedom structures for various initial conditions
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Kazem Mohammadi- Aghdam
2015-10-01
Full Text Available This paper proposes the application of a new version of the heuristic particle swarm optimization (PSO method for designing water distribution networks (WDNs. The optimization problem of looped water distribution networks is recognized as an NP-hard combinatorial problem which cannot be easily solved using traditional mathematical optimization techniques. In this paper, the concept of dynamic swarm size is considered in an attempt to increase the convergence speed of the original PSO algorithm. In this strategy, the size of the swarm is dynamically changed according to the iteration number of the algorithm. Furthermore, a novel mutation approach is introduced to increase the diversification property of the PSO and to help the algorithm to avoid trapping in local optima. The new version of the PSO algorithm is called dynamic mutated particle swarm optimization (DMPSO. The proposed DMPSO is then applied to solve WDN design problems. Finally, two illustrative examples are used for comparison to verify the efficiency of the proposed DMPSO as compared to other intelligent algorithms.
Research on Methodology to Prioritize Critical Digital Assets based on Nuclear Risk Assessment
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Kim, Wonjik; Kwon, Kookheui; Kim, Hyundoo [Korea Institute of Nuclear Nonproliferation and Control, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)
2016-10-15
Digital systems are used in nuclear facilities to monitor and control various types of field devices, as well as to obtain and store vital information. Therefore, it is getting important for nuclear facilities to protect digital systems from cyber-attack in terms of safety operation and public health since cyber compromise of these systems could lead to unacceptable radiological consequences. Based on KINAC/RS-015 which is a cyber security regulatory standard, regulatory activities for cyber security at nuclear facilities generally focus on critical digital assets (CDAs) which are safety, security, and emergency preparedness related digital assets. Critical digital assets are estimated over 60% among all digital assets in a nuclear power plant. Therefore, it was required to prioritize critical digital assets to improve efficiency of regulation and implementation. In this paper, the research status on methodology development to prioritize critical digital assets based on nuclear risk assessment will be introduced. In this paper, to derive digital asset directly affect accident, PRA results (ET, FT, and minimal cut set) are analyzed. According to result of analysis, digital systems related to CD are derived ESF-CCS (safety-related component control system) and Process-CCS (non-safety-related component control system) as well as Engineered Safety Features Actuation System (ESFAS). These digital assets can be identified Vital Digital Asset (VDA). Hereafter, to develop general methodology which was identified VDA related to accident among CDAs, (1) method using result of minimal cut set in PRA model will be studied and (2) method quantifying result of Digital I and C PRA which is performed to reflect all digital cabinet related to system in FT will be studied.
Research on Methodology to Prioritize Critical Digital Assets based on Nuclear Risk Assessment
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kim, Wonjik; Kwon, Kookheui; Kim, Hyundoo
2016-01-01
Digital systems are used in nuclear facilities to monitor and control various types of field devices, as well as to obtain and store vital information. Therefore, it is getting important for nuclear facilities to protect digital systems from cyber-attack in terms of safety operation and public health since cyber compromise of these systems could lead to unacceptable radiological consequences. Based on KINAC/RS-015 which is a cyber security regulatory standard, regulatory activities for cyber security at nuclear facilities generally focus on critical digital assets (CDAs) which are safety, security, and emergency preparedness related digital assets. Critical digital assets are estimated over 60% among all digital assets in a nuclear power plant. Therefore, it was required to prioritize critical digital assets to improve efficiency of regulation and implementation. In this paper, the research status on methodology development to prioritize critical digital assets based on nuclear risk assessment will be introduced. In this paper, to derive digital asset directly affect accident, PRA results (ET, FT, and minimal cut set) are analyzed. According to result of analysis, digital systems related to CD are derived ESF-CCS (safety-related component control system) and Process-CCS (non-safety-related component control system) as well as Engineered Safety Features Actuation System (ESFAS). These digital assets can be identified Vital Digital Asset (VDA). Hereafter, to develop general methodology which was identified VDA related to accident among CDAs, (1) method using result of minimal cut set in PRA model will be studied and (2) method quantifying result of Digital I and C PRA which is performed to reflect all digital cabinet related to system in FT will be studied
Dynamic model to tune a climate control algorithm in pig houses with natural ventilation
Klooster, van 't C.E.; Bontsema, J.; Salomons, L.
1995-01-01
Algorithms for environmental control in livestock buildings have to be tuned for optimum response of actuators. For tuning, a simple, but dynamic, climate model for a pig house was formulated and validated to predict the
environmental changes in a pig house with natural ventilation under varying
Novotny, M.A.; Watanabe, Hiroshi; Ito, Nobuyasu
2010-01-01
The efficiency of dynamic Monte Carlo algorithms for off-lattice systems composed of particles is studied for the case of a single impurity particle. The theoretical efficiencies of the rejection-free method and of the Monte Carlo with Absorbing
Novotny, M.A.
2010-02-01
The efficiency of dynamic Monte Carlo algorithms for off-lattice systems composed of particles is studied for the case of a single impurity particle. The theoretical efficiencies of the rejection-free method and of the Monte Carlo with Absorbing Markov Chains method are given. Simulation results are presented to confirm the theoretical efficiencies. © 2010.
Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database
Larentzos, J.P.; Brennan, J.K.; Moore, J.D.; Lísal, Martin; Mattson, w.D.
2014-01-01
Roč. 185, č. 7 (2014), s. 1987-1998 ISSN 0010-4655 Grant - others:ARL(US) W911NF-10-2-0039 Institutional support: RVO:67985858 Keywords : dissipative particle dynamics * shardlow splitting algorithm * numerical integration Subject RIV: CF - Physical ; Theoretical Chemistry Impact factor: 3.112, year: 2014
A Hybrid Shared-Memory Parallel Max-Tree Algorithm for Extreme Dynamic-Range Images
Moschini, Ugo; Meijster, Arnold; Wilkinson, Michael
Max-trees, or component trees, are graph structures that represent the connected components of an image in a hierarchical way. Nowadays, many application fields rely on images with high-dynamic range or floating point values. Efficient sequential algorithms exist to build trees and compute
P.A.N. Bosman (Peter); J.A. La Poutré (Han); D. Thierens (Dirk)
2007-01-01
htmlabstractThe focus of this paper is on how to design evolutionary algorithms (EAs) for solving stochastic dynamic optimization problems online, i.e. as time goes by. For a proper design, the EA must not only be capable of tracking shifting optima, it must also take into account the future
New segmentation-based tone mapping algorithm for high dynamic range image
Duan, Weiwei; Guo, Huinan; Zhou, Zuofeng; Huang, Huimin; Cao, Jianzhong
2017-07-01
The traditional tone mapping algorithm for the display of high dynamic range (HDR) image has the drawback of losing the impression of brightness, contrast and color information. To overcome this phenomenon, we propose a new tone mapping algorithm based on dividing the image into different exposure regions in this paper. Firstly, the over-exposure region is determined using the Local Binary Pattern information of HDR image. Then, based on the peak and average gray of the histogram, the under-exposure and normal-exposure region of HDR image are selected separately. Finally, the different exposure regions are mapped by differentiated tone mapping methods to get the final result. The experiment results show that the proposed algorithm achieve the better performance both in visual quality and objective contrast criterion than other algorithms.
Dynamically Predicting the Quality of Service: Batch, Online, and Hybrid Algorithms
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Ya Chen
2017-01-01
Full Text Available This paper studies the problem of dynamically modeling the quality of web service. The philosophy of designing practical web service recommender systems is delivered in this paper. A general system architecture for such systems continuously collects the user-service invocation records and includes both an online training module and an offline training module for quality prediction. In addition, we introduce matrix factorization-based online and offline training algorithms based on the gradient descent algorithms and demonstrate the fitness of this online/offline algorithm framework to the proposed architecture. The superiority of the proposed model is confirmed by empirical studies on a real-life quality of web service data set and comparisons with existing web service recommendation algorithms.
Nonuniform Sparse Data Clustering Cascade Algorithm Based on Dynamic Cumulative Entropy
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Ning Li
2016-01-01
Full Text Available A small amount of prior knowledge and randomly chosen initial cluster centers have a direct impact on the accuracy of the performance of iterative clustering algorithm. In this paper we propose a new algorithm to compute initial cluster centers for k-means clustering and the best number of the clusters with little prior knowledge and optimize clustering result. It constructs the Euclidean distance control factor based on aggregation density sparse degree to select the initial cluster center of nonuniform sparse data and obtains initial data clusters by multidimensional diffusion density distribution. Multiobjective clustering approach based on dynamic cumulative entropy is adopted to optimize the initial data clusters and the best number of the clusters. The experimental results show that the newly proposed algorithm has good performance to obtain the initial cluster centers for the k-means algorithm and it effectively improves the clustering accuracy of nonuniform sparse data by about 5%.
Kasatkina, T. I.; Dushkin, A. V.; Pavlov, V. A.; Shatovkin, R. R.
2018-03-01
In the development of information, systems and programming to predict the series of dynamics, neural network methods have recently been applied. They are more flexible, in comparison with existing analogues and are capable of taking into account the nonlinearities of the series. In this paper, we propose a modified algorithm for predicting the series of dynamics, which includes a method for training neural networks, an approach to describing and presenting input data, based on the prediction by the multilayer perceptron method. To construct a neural network, the values of a series of dynamics at the extremum points and time values corresponding to them, formed based on the sliding window method, are used as input data. The proposed algorithm can act as an independent approach to predicting the series of dynamics, and be one of the parts of the forecasting system. The efficiency of predicting the evolution of the dynamics series for a short-term one-step and long-term multi-step forecast by the classical multilayer perceptron method and a modified algorithm using synthetic and real data is compared. The result of this modification was the minimization of the magnitude of the iterative error that arises from the previously predicted inputs to the inputs to the neural network, as well as the increase in the accuracy of the iterative prediction of the neural network.
Stochastic quasi-gradient based optimization algorithms for dynamic reliability applications
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Bourgeois, F.; Labeau, P.E.
2001-01-01
On one hand, PSA results are increasingly used in decision making, system management and optimization of system design. On the other hand, when severe accidental transients are considered, dynamic reliability appears appropriate to account for the complex interaction between the transitions between hardware configurations, the operator behavior and the dynamic evolution of the system. This paper presents an exploratory work in which the estimation of the system unreliability in a dynamic context is coupled with an optimization algorithm to determine the 'best' safety policy. Because some reliability parameters are likely to be distributed, the cost function to be minimized turns out to be a random variable. Stochastic programming techniques are therefore envisioned to determine an optimal strategy. Monte Carlo simulation is used at all stages of the computations, from the estimation of the system unreliability to that of the stochastic quasi-gradient. The optimization algorithm is illustrated on a HNO 3 supply system
An Event-Driven Hybrid Molecular Dynamics and Direct Simulation Monte Carlo Algorithm
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Donev, A; Garcia, A L; Alder, B J
2007-07-30
A novel algorithm is developed for the simulation of polymer chains suspended in a solvent. The polymers are represented as chains of hard spheres tethered by square wells and interact with the solvent particles with hard core potentials. The algorithm uses event-driven molecular dynamics (MD) for the simulation of the polymer chain and the interactions between the chain beads and the surrounding solvent particles. The interactions between the solvent particles themselves are not treated deterministically as in event-driven algorithms, rather, the momentum and energy exchange in the solvent is determined stochastically using the Direct Simulation Monte Carlo (DSMC) method. The coupling between the solvent and the solute is consistently represented at the particle level, however, unlike full MD simulations of both the solvent and the solute, the spatial structure of the solvent is ignored. The algorithm is described in detail and applied to the study of the dynamics of a polymer chain tethered to a hard wall subjected to uniform shear. The algorithm closely reproduces full MD simulations with two orders of magnitude greater efficiency. Results do not confirm the existence of periodic (cycling) motion of the polymer chain.
Li, Haoting; Chen, Rongqing; Xu, Canhua; Liu, Benyuan; Tang, Mengxing; Yang, Lin; Dong, Xiuzhen; Fu, Feng
2017-08-21
Dynamic brain electrical impedance tomography (EIT) is a promising technique for continuously monitoring the development of cerebral injury. While there are many reconstruction algorithms available for brain EIT, there is still a lack of study to compare their performance in the context of dynamic brain monitoring. To address this problem, we develop a framework for evaluating different current algorithms with their ability to correctly identify small intracranial conductivity changes. Firstly, a simulation 3D head phantom with realistic layered structure and impedance distribution is developed. Next several reconstructing algorithms, such as back projection (BP), damped least-square (DLS), Bayesian, split Bregman (SB) and GREIT are introduced. We investigate their temporal response, noise performance, location and shape error with respect to different noise levels on the simulation phantom. The results show that the SB algorithm demonstrates superior performance in reducing image error. To further improve the location accuracy, we optimize SB by incorporating the brain structure-based conductivity distribution priors, in which differences of the conductivities between different brain tissues and the inhomogeneous conductivity distribution of the skull are considered. We compare this novel algorithm (called SB-IBCD) with SB and DLS using anatomically correct head shaped phantoms with spatial varying skull conductivity. Main results and Significance: The results showed that SB-IBCD is the most effective in unveiling small intracranial conductivity changes, where it can reduce the image error by an average of 30.0% compared to DLS.
PRESS-based EFOR algorithm for the dynamic parametrical modeling of nonlinear MDOF systems
Liu, Haopeng; Zhu, Yunpeng; Luo, Zhong; Han, Qingkai
2017-09-01
In response to the identification problem concerning multi-degree of freedom (MDOF) nonlinear systems, this study presents the extended forward orthogonal regression (EFOR) based on predicted residual sums of squares (PRESS) to construct a nonlinear dynamic parametrical model. The proposed parametrical model is based on the non-linear autoregressive with exogenous inputs (NARX) model and aims to explicitly reveal the physical design parameters of the system. The PRESS-based EFOR algorithm is proposed to identify such a model for MDOF systems. By using the algorithm, we built a common-structured model based on the fundamental concept of evaluating its generalization capability through cross-validation. The resulting model aims to prevent over-fitting with poor generalization performance caused by the average error reduction ratio (AERR)-based EFOR algorithm. Then, a functional relationship is established between the coefficients of the terms and the design parameters of the unified model. Moreover, a 5-DOF nonlinear system is taken as a case to illustrate the modeling of the proposed algorithm. Finally, a dynamic parametrical model of a cantilever beam is constructed from experimental data. Results indicate that the dynamic parametrical model of nonlinear systems, which depends on the PRESS-based EFOR, can accurately predict the output response, thus providing a theoretical basis for the optimal design of modeling methods for MDOF nonlinear systems.
A structural dynamic factor model for the effects of monetary policy estimated by the EM algorithm
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Bork, Lasse
This paper applies the maximum likelihood based EM algorithm to a large-dimensional factor analysis of US monetary policy. Specifically, economy-wide effects of shocks to the US federal funds rate are estimated in a structural dynamic factor model in which 100+ US macroeconomic and financial time...... series are driven by the joint dynamics of the federal funds rate and a few correlated dynamic factors. This paper contains a number of methodological contributions to the existing literature on data-rich monetary policy analysis. Firstly, the identification scheme allows for correlated factor dynamics...... as opposed to the orthogonal factors resulting from the popular principal component approach to structural factor models. Correlated factors are economically more sensible and important for a richer monetary policy transmission mechanism. Secondly, I consider both static factor loadings as well as dynamic...
WE-AB-209-06: Dynamic Collimator Trajectory Algorithm for Use in VMAT Treatment Deliveries
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
MacDonald, L [Department of Medical Physics, Dalhousie University, Halifax, Nova Scotia, CA (Canada); Thomas, C; Syme, A [Department of Medical Physics, Dalhousie University, Halifax, Nova Scotia, CA (Canada); Department of Radiation Oncology, Dalhousie University, Halifax, Nova Scotia (Canada); Medical Physics, Nova Scotia Cancer Centre, Halifax, Nova Scotia (Canada)
2016-06-15
Purpose: To develop advanced dynamic collimator positioning algorithms for optimal beam’s-eye-view (BEV) fitting of targets in VMAT procedures, including multiple metastases stereotactic radiosurgery procedures. Methods: A trajectory algorithm was developed, which can dynamically modify the angle of the collimator as a function of VMAT control point to provide optimized collimation of target volume(s). Central to this algorithm is a concept denoted “whitespace”, defined as area within the jaw-defined BEV field, outside of the PTV, and not shielded by the MLC when fit to the PTV. Calculating whitespace at all collimator angles and every control point, a two-dimensional topographical map depicting the tightness-of-fit of the MLC was generated. A variety of novel searching algorithms identified a number of candidate trajectories of continuous collimator motion. Ranking these candidate trajectories according to their accrued whitespace value produced an optimal solution for navigation of this map. Results: All trajectories were normalized to minimum possible (i.e. calculated without consideration of collimator motion constraints) accrued whitespace. On an acoustic neuroma case, a random walk algorithm generated a trajectory with 151% whitespace; random walk including a mandatory anchor point improved this to 148%; gradient search produced a trajectory with 137%; and bi-directional gradient search generated a trajectory with 130% whitespace. For comparison, a fixed collimator angle of 30° and 330° accumulated 272% and 228% of whitespace, respectively. The algorithm was tested on a clinical case with two metastases (single isocentre) and identified collimator angles that allow for simultaneous irradiation of the PTVs while minimizing normal tissue irradiation. Conclusion: Dynamic collimator trajectories have the potential to improve VMAT deliveries through increased efficiency and reduced normal tissue dose, especially in treatment of multiple cranial metastases
WE-AB-209-06: Dynamic Collimator Trajectory Algorithm for Use in VMAT Treatment Deliveries
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
MacDonald, L; Thomas, C; Syme, A
2016-01-01
Purpose: To develop advanced dynamic collimator positioning algorithms for optimal beam’s-eye-view (BEV) fitting of targets in VMAT procedures, including multiple metastases stereotactic radiosurgery procedures. Methods: A trajectory algorithm was developed, which can dynamically modify the angle of the collimator as a function of VMAT control point to provide optimized collimation of target volume(s). Central to this algorithm is a concept denoted “whitespace”, defined as area within the jaw-defined BEV field, outside of the PTV, and not shielded by the MLC when fit to the PTV. Calculating whitespace at all collimator angles and every control point, a two-dimensional topographical map depicting the tightness-of-fit of the MLC was generated. A variety of novel searching algorithms identified a number of candidate trajectories of continuous collimator motion. Ranking these candidate trajectories according to their accrued whitespace value produced an optimal solution for navigation of this map. Results: All trajectories were normalized to minimum possible (i.e. calculated without consideration of collimator motion constraints) accrued whitespace. On an acoustic neuroma case, a random walk algorithm generated a trajectory with 151% whitespace; random walk including a mandatory anchor point improved this to 148%; gradient search produced a trajectory with 137%; and bi-directional gradient search generated a trajectory with 130% whitespace. For comparison, a fixed collimator angle of 30° and 330° accumulated 272% and 228% of whitespace, respectively. The algorithm was tested on a clinical case with two metastases (single isocentre) and identified collimator angles that allow for simultaneous irradiation of the PTVs while minimizing normal tissue irradiation. Conclusion: Dynamic collimator trajectories have the potential to improve VMAT deliveries through increased efficiency and reduced normal tissue dose, especially in treatment of multiple cranial metastases
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Kumar, Rohit [Department of Physics, Panjab University, Chandigarh-160014 (India)
2016-05-06
We discuss the stability of fragments identified by secondary algorithms used to construct fragments within quantum molecular dynamics model. For this purpose we employ three different algorithms for fragment identification. 1) The conventional minimum spanning tree (MST) method based on the spatial correlations, 2) an improved version of MST with additional binding energy constraints of cold nuclear matter, 3) and that of hot matter. We find significant role of thermal binding energies over cold matter binding energies. Significant role is observed for fragment multiplicities and stopping of fragments. Whereas insignificant effect is observed on fragment’s flow.
Ohmichi, Yuya
2017-07-01
In this letter, we propose a simple and efficient framework of dynamic mode decomposition (DMD) and mode selection for large datasets. The proposed framework explicitly introduces a preconditioning step using an incremental proper orthogonal decomposition (POD) to DMD and mode selection algorithms. By performing the preconditioning step, the DMD and mode selection can be performed with low memory consumption and therefore can be applied to large datasets. Additionally, we propose a simple mode selection algorithm based on a greedy method. The proposed framework is applied to the analysis of three-dimensional flow around a circular cylinder.
Using genetic algorithms for calibrating simplified models of nuclear reactor dynamics
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Marseguerra, Marzio; Zio, Enrico; Canetta, Raffaele
2004-01-01
In this paper the use of genetic algorithms for the estimation of the effective parameters of a model of nuclear reactor dynamics is investigated. The calibration of the effective parameters is achieved by best fitting the model responses of the quantities of interest (e.g., reactor power, average fuel and coolant temperatures) to the actual evolution profiles, here simulated by the Quandry based reactor kinetics (Quark) code available from the Nuclear Energy Agency. Alternative schemes of single- and multi-objective optimization are investigated. The efficiency of convergence of the algorithm with respect to the different effective parameters to be calibrated is studied with reference to the physical relationships involved
Using genetic algorithms for calibrating simplified models of nuclear reactor dynamics
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Marseguerra, Marzio E-mail: marzio.marseguerra@polimi.it; Zio, Enrico E-mail: enrico.zio@polimi.it; Canetta, Raffaele
2004-07-01
In this paper the use of genetic algorithms for the estimation of the effective parameters of a model of nuclear reactor dynamics is investigated. The calibration of the effective parameters is achieved by best fitting the model responses of the quantities of interest (e.g., reactor power, average fuel and coolant temperatures) to the actual evolution profiles, here simulated by the Quandry based reactor kinetics (Quark) code available from the Nuclear Energy Agency. Alternative schemes of single- and multi-objective optimization are investigated. The efficiency of convergence of the algorithm with respect to the different effective parameters to be calibrated is studied with reference to the physical relationships involved.
Extracting quantum dynamics from genetic learning algorithms through principal control analysis
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
White, J L; Pearson, B J; Bucksbaum, P H
2004-01-01
Genetic learning algorithms are widely used to control ultrafast optical pulse shapes for photo-induced quantum control of atoms and molecules. An unresolved issue is how to use the solutions found by these algorithms to learn about the system's quantum dynamics. We propose a simple method based on covariance analysis of the control space, which can reveal the degrees of freedom in the effective control Hamiltonian. We have applied this technique to stimulated Raman scattering in liquid methanol. A simple model of two-mode stimulated Raman scattering is consistent with the results. (letter to the editor)
A semi-active suspension control algorithm for vehicle comprehensive vertical dynamics performance
Nie, Shida; Zhuang, Ye; Liu, Weiping; Chen, Fan
2017-08-01
Comprehensive performance of the vehicle, including ride qualities and road-holding, is essentially of great value in practice. Many up-to-date semi-active control algorithms improve vehicle dynamics performance effectively. However, it is hard to improve comprehensive performance for the conflict between ride qualities and road-holding around the second-order resonance. Hence, a new control algorithm is proposed to achieve a good trade-off between ride qualities and road-holding. In this paper, the properties of the invariant points are analysed, which gives an insight into the performance conflicting around the second-order resonance. Based on it, a new control algorithm is proposed. The algorithm employs a novel frequency selector to balance suspension ride and handling performance by adopting a medium damping around the second-order resonance. The results of this study show that the proposed control algorithm could improve the performance of ride qualities and suspension working space up to 18.3% and 8.2%, respectively, with little loss of road-holding compared to the passive suspension. Consequently, the comprehensive performance can be improved by 6.6%. Hence, the proposed algorithm is of great potential to be implemented in practice.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Llacer, Jorge [EC Engineering Consultants, LLC, Los Gatos, CA (United States)]. E-mail: jllacer@home.com; Solberg, Timothy D. [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of California, Los Angeles, CA (United States)]. E-mail: Solberg@radonc.ucla.edu; Promberger, Claus [BrainLAB AG, Heimstetten (Germany)]. E-mail: promberg@brainlab.com
2001-10-01
This paper presents a description of tests carried out to compare the behaviour of five algorithms in inverse radiation therapy planning: (1) The Dynamically Penalized Likelihood (DPL), an algorithm based on statistical estimation theory; (2) an accelerated version of the same algorithm; (3) a new fast adaptive simulated annealing (ASA) algorithm; (4) a conjugate gradient method; and (5) a Newton gradient method. A three-dimensional mathematical phantom and two clinical cases have been studied in detail. The phantom consisted of a U-shaped tumour with a partially enclosed 'spinal cord'. The clinical examples were a cavernous sinus meningioma and a prostate case. The algorithms have been tested in carefully selected and controlled conditions so as to ensure fairness in the assessment of results. It has been found that all five methods can yield relatively similar optimizations, except when a very demanding optimization is carried out. For the easier cases, the differences are principally in robustness, ease of use and optimization speed. In the more demanding case, there are significant differences in the resulting dose distributions. The accelerated DPL emerges as possibly the algorithm of choice for clinical practice. An appendix describes the differences in behaviour between the new ASA method and the one based on a patent by the Nomos Corporation. (author)
The Normalized-Rate Iterative Algorithm: A Practical Dynamic Spectrum Management Method for DSL
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Statovci Driton
2006-01-01
Full Text Available We present a practical solution for dynamic spectrum management (DSM in digital subscriber line systems: the normalized-rate iterative algorithm (NRIA. Supported by a novel optimization problem formulation, the NRIA is the only DSM algorithm that jointly addresses spectrum balancing for frequency division duplexing systems and power allocation for the users sharing a common cable bundle. With a focus on being implementable rather than obtaining the highest possible theoretical performance, the NRIA is designed to efficiently solve the DSM optimization problem with the operators' business models in mind. This is achieved with the help of two types of parameters: the desired network asymmetry and the desired user priorities. The NRIA is a centralized DSM algorithm based on the iterative water-filling algorithm (IWFA for finding efficient power allocations, but extends the IWFA by finding the achievable bitrates and by optimizing the bandplan. It is compared with three other DSM proposals: the IWFA, the optimal spectrum balancing algorithm (OSBA, and the bidirectional IWFA (bi-IWFA. We show that the NRIA achieves better bitrate performance than the IWFA and the bi-IWFA. It can even achieve performance almost as good as the OSBA, but with dramatically lower requirements on complexity. Additionally, the NRIA can achieve bitrate combinations that cannot be supported by any other DSM algorithm.
The Normalized-Rate Iterative Algorithm: A Practical Dynamic Spectrum Management Method for DSL
Statovci, Driton; Nordström, Tomas; Nilsson, Rickard
2006-12-01
We present a practical solution for dynamic spectrum management (DSM) in digital subscriber line systems: the normalized-rate iterative algorithm (NRIA). Supported by a novel optimization problem formulation, the NRIA is the only DSM algorithm that jointly addresses spectrum balancing for frequency division duplexing systems and power allocation for the users sharing a common cable bundle. With a focus on being implementable rather than obtaining the highest possible theoretical performance, the NRIA is designed to efficiently solve the DSM optimization problem with the operators' business models in mind. This is achieved with the help of two types of parameters: the desired network asymmetry and the desired user priorities. The NRIA is a centralized DSM algorithm based on the iterative water-filling algorithm (IWFA) for finding efficient power allocations, but extends the IWFA by finding the achievable bitrates and by optimizing the bandplan. It is compared with three other DSM proposals: the IWFA, the optimal spectrum balancing algorithm (OSBA), and the bidirectional IWFA (bi-IWFA). We show that the NRIA achieves better bitrate performance than the IWFA and the bi-IWFA. It can even achieve performance almost as good as the OSBA, but with dramatically lower requirements on complexity. Additionally, the NRIA can achieve bitrate combinations that cannot be supported by any other DSM algorithm.
Penalty dynamic programming algorithm for dim targets detection in sensor systems.
Huang, Dayu; Xue, Anke; Guo, Yunfei
2012-01-01
In order to detect and track multiple maneuvering dim targets in sensor systems, an improved dynamic programming track-before-detect algorithm (DP-TBD) called penalty DP-TBD (PDP-TBD) is proposed. The performances of tracking techniques are used as a feedback to the detection part. The feedback is constructed by a penalty term in the merit function, and the penalty term is a function of the possible target state estimation, which can be obtained by the tracking methods. With this feedback, the algorithm combines traditional tracking techniques with DP-TBD and it can be applied to simultaneously detect and track maneuvering dim targets. Meanwhile, a reasonable constraint that a sensor measurement can originate from one target or clutter is proposed to minimize track separation. Thus, the algorithm can be used in the multi-target situation with unknown target numbers. The efficiency and advantages of PDP-TBD compared with two existing methods are demonstrated by several simulations.
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Diamantidis A. C.
2004-01-01
Full Text Available In this study, the buffer allocation problem (BAP in homogeneous, asymptotically reliable serial production lines is considered. A known aggregation method, given by Lim, Meerkov, and Top (1990, for the performance evaluation (i.e., estimation of throughput of this type of production lines when the buffer allocation is known, is used as an evaluative method in conjunction with a newly developed dynamic programming (DP algorithm for the BAP. The proposed algorithm is applied to production lines where the number of machines is varying from four up to a hundred machines. The proposed algorithm is fast because it reduces the volume of computations by rejecting allocations that do not lead to maximization of the line's throughput. Numerical results are also given for large production lines.
A multilevel-skin neighbor list algorithm for molecular dynamics simulation
Zhang, Chenglong; Zhao, Mingcan; Hou, Chaofeng; Ge, Wei
2018-01-01
Searching of the interaction pairs and organization of the interaction processes are important steps in molecular dynamics (MD) algorithms and are critical to the overall efficiency of the simulation. Neighbor lists are widely used for these steps, where thicker skin can reduce the frequency of list updating but is discounted by more computation in distance check for the particle pairs. In this paper, we propose a new neighbor-list-based algorithm with a precisely designed multilevel skin which can reduce unnecessary computation on inter-particle distances. The performance advantages over traditional methods are then analyzed against the main simulation parameters on Intel CPUs and MICs (many integrated cores), and are clearly demonstrated. The algorithm can be generalized for various discrete simulations using neighbor lists.
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Keller Alevtina
2017-01-01
Full Text Available The article considers the issue of allocation of depreciation costs in the dynamic inputoutput model of an industrial enterprise. Accounting the depreciation costs in such a model improves the policy of fixed assets management. It is particularly relevant to develop the algorithm for the allocation of depreciation costs in the construction of dynamic input-output model of an industrial enterprise, since such enterprises have a significant amount of fixed assets. Implementation of terms of the adequacy of such an algorithm itself allows: evaluating the appropriateness of investments in fixed assets, studying the final financial results of an industrial enterprise, depending on management decisions in the depreciation policy. It is necessary to note that the model in question for the enterprise is always degenerate. It is caused by the presence of zero rows in the matrix of capital expenditures by lines of structural elements unable to generate fixed assets (part of the service units, households, corporate consumers. The paper presents the algorithm for the allocation of depreciation costs for the model. This algorithm was developed by the authors and served as the basis for further development of the flowchart for subsequent implementation with use of software. The construction of such algorithm and its use for dynamic input-output models of industrial enterprises is actualized by international acceptance of the effectiveness of the use of input-output models for national and regional economic systems. This is what allows us to consider that the solutions discussed in the article are of interest to economists of various industrial enterprises.
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Xiaohong Duan
2018-01-01
Full Text Available The traditional method for solving the dynamic emergency vehicle dispatching problem can only get a local optimal strategy in each horizon. In order to obtain the dispatching strategy that can better respond to changes in road conditions during the whole dispatching process, the real-time and time-dependent link travel speeds are fused, and a time-dependent polygonal-shaped link travel speed function is set up to simulate the predictable changes in road conditions. Response times, accident severity, and accident time windows are taken as key factors to build an emergency vehicle dispatching model integrating dynamic emergency vehicle routing and selection. For the unpredictable changes in road conditions caused by accidents, the dispatching strategy is adjusted based on the real-time link travel speed. In order to solve the dynamic emergency vehicle dispatching model, an improved shuffled frog leaping algorithm (ISFLA is proposed. The global search of the improved algorithm uses the probability model of estimation of distribution algorithm to avoid the partial optimal solution. Based on the Beijing expressway network, the efficacy of the model and the improved algorithm were tested from three aspects. The results have shown the following: (1 Compared with SFLA, the optimization performance of ISFLA is getting better and better with the increase of the number of decision variables. When the possible emergency vehicle selection strategies are 815, the objective function value of optimal selection strategies obtained by the base algorithm is 210.10% larger than that of ISFLA. (2 The prediction error of the travel speed affects the accuracy of the initial emergency vehicle dispatching. The prediction error of ±10 can basically meet the requirements of the initial dispatching. (3 The adjustment of emergency vehicle dispatching strategy can successfully bypassed road sections affected by accidents and shorten the response time.
A Dynamic Traffic Signal Timing Model and its Algorithm for Junction of Urban Road
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Cai, Yanguang; Cai, Hao
2012-01-01
As an important part of Intelligent Transportation System, the scientific traffic signal timing of junction can improve the efficiency of urban transport. This paper presents a novel dynamic traffic signal timing model. According to the characteristics of the model, hybrid chaotic quantum...... evolutionary algorithm is employed to solve it. The proposed model has simple structure, and only requires traffic inflow speed and outflow speed are bounded functions with at most finite number of discontinuity points. The condition is very loose and better meets the requirements of the practical real......-time and dynamic signal control of junction. To obtain the optimal solution of the model by hybrid chaotic quantum evolutionary algorithm, the model is converted to an easily solvable form. To simplify calculation, we give the expression of the partial derivative and change rate of the objective function...
A multithreaded parallel implementation of a dynamic programming algorithm for sequence comparison.
Martins, W S; Del Cuvillo, J B; Useche, F J; Theobald, K B; Gao, G R
2001-01-01
This paper discusses the issues involved in implementing a dynamic programming algorithm for biological sequence comparison on a general-purpose parallel computing platform based on a fine-grain event-driven multithreaded program execution model. Fine-grain multithreading permits efficient parallelism exploitation in this application both by taking advantage of asynchronous point-to-point synchronizations and communication with low overheads and by effectively tolerating latency through the overlapping of computation and communication. We have implemented our scheme on EARTH, a fine-grain event-driven multithreaded execution and architecture model which has been ported to a number of parallel machines with off-the-shelf processors. Our experimental results show that the dynamic programming algorithm can be efficiently implemented on EARTH systems with high performance (e.g., speedup of 90 on 120 nodes), good programmability and reasonable cost.
Improved k-t PCA Algorithm Using Artificial Sparsity in Dynamic MRI.
Wang, Yiran; Chen, Zhifeng; Wang, Jing; Yuan, Lixia; Xia, Ling; Liu, Feng
2017-01-01
The k - t principal component analysis ( k - t PCA) is an effective approach for high spatiotemporal resolution dynamic magnetic resonance (MR) imaging. However, it suffers from larger residual aliasing artifacts and noise amplification when the reduction factor goes higher. To further enhance the performance of this technique, we propose a new method called sparse k - t PCA that combines the k - t PCA algorithm with an artificial sparsity constraint. It is a self-calibrated procedure that is based on the traditional k - t PCA method by further eliminating the reconstruction error derived from complex subtraction of the sampled k - t space from the original reconstructed k - t space. The proposed method is tested through both simulations and in vivo datasets with different reduction factors. Compared to the standard k - t PCA algorithm, the sparse k - t PCA can improve the normalized root-mean-square error performance and the accuracy of temporal resolution. It is thus useful for rapid dynamic MR imaging.
Thickness determination in textile material design: dynamic modeling and numerical algorithms
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Xu, Dinghua; Ge, Meibao
2012-01-01
Textile material design is of paramount importance in the study of functional clothing design. It is therefore important to determine the dynamic heat and moisture transfer characteristics in the human body–clothing–environment system, which directly determine the heat–moisture comfort level of the human body. Based on a model of dynamic heat and moisture transfer with condensation in porous fabric at low temperature, this paper presents a new inverse problem of textile thickness determination (IPTTD). Adopting the idea of the least-squares method, we formulate the IPTTD into a function minimization problem. By means of the finite-difference method, quasi-solution method and direct search method for one-dimensional minimization problems, we construct iterative algorithms of the approximated solution for the IPTTD. Numerical simulation results validate the formulation of the IPTTD and demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed numerical algorithms. (paper)
AUTOMATIC DETECTION ALGORITHM OF DYNAMIC PRESSURE PULSES IN THE SOLAR WIND
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Zuo, Pingbing; Feng, Xueshang; Wang, Yi; Xie, Yanqiong; Li, Huijun; Xu, Xiaojun
2015-01-01
Dynamic pressure pulses (DPPs) in the solar wind are a significant phenomenon closely related to the solar-terrestrial connection and physical processes of solar wind dynamics. In order to automatically identify DPPs from solar wind measurements, we develop a procedure with a three-step detection algorithm that is able to rapidly select DPPs from the plasma data stream and simultaneously define the transition region where large dynamic pressure variations occur and demarcate the upstream and downstream region by selecting the relatively quiet status before and after the abrupt change in dynamic pressure. To demonstrate the usefulness, efficiency, and accuracy of this procedure, we have applied it to the Wind observations from 1996 to 2008 by successfully obtaining the DPPs. The procedure can also be applied to other solar wind spacecraft observation data sets with different time resolutions
An improved molecular dynamics algorithm to study thermodiffusion in binary hydrocarbon mixtures
Antoun, Sylvie; Saghir, M. Ziad; Srinivasan, Seshasai
2018-03-01
In multicomponent liquid mixtures, the diffusion flow of chemical species can be induced by temperature gradients, which leads to a separation of the constituent components. This cross effect between temperature and concentration is known as thermodiffusion or the Ludwig-Soret effect. The performance of boundary driven non-equilibrium molecular dynamics along with the enhanced heat exchange (eHEX) algorithm was studied by assessing the thermodiffusion process in n-pentane/n-decane (nC5-nC10) binary mixtures. The eHEX algorithm consists of an extended version of the HEX algorithm with an improved energy conservation property. In addition to this, the transferable potentials for phase equilibria-united atom force field were employed in all molecular dynamics (MD) simulations to precisely model the molecular interactions in the fluid. The Soret coefficients of the n-pentane/n-decane (nC5-nC10) mixture for three different compositions (at 300.15 K and 0.1 MPa) were calculated and compared with the experimental data and other MD results available in the literature. Results of our newly employed MD algorithm showed great agreement with experimental data and a better accuracy compared to other MD procedures.
Cheng, Octavian; Dines, John; Magimai.-Doss, Mathew
2006-01-01
We propose a generalized dynamic composition algorithm of weighted finite state transducers (WFST), which avoids the creation of non-coaccessible paths, performs weight look-ahead and does not impose any constraints to the topology of the WFSTs. Experimental results on Wall Street Journal (WSJ1) 20k-word trigram task show that at 17\\% WER (moderately-wide beam width), the decoding time of the proposed approach is about 48\\% and 65\\% of the other two dynamic composition approaches. In comparis...
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Stanimirović Ivan
2009-01-01
Full Text Available We introduce a heuristic method for the single resource constrained project scheduling problem, based on the dynamic programming solution of the knapsack problem. This method schedules projects with one type of resources, in the non-preemptive case: once started an activity is not interrupted and runs to completion. We compare the implementation of this method with well-known heuristic scheduling method, called Minimum Slack First (known also as Gray-Kidd algorithm, as well as with Microsoft Project.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Wu, Xia; Wu, Genhua
2014-01-01
Highlights: • A high efficient method for optimization of atomic clusters is developed. • Its performance is studied by optimizing Lennard-Jones clusters and Ag clusters. • The method is proved to be quite efficient. • A new Ag 61 cluster with stacking-fault face-centered cubic motif is found. - Abstract: Geometrical optimization of atomic clusters is performed by a development of adaptive immune optimization algorithm (AIOA) with dynamic lattice searching (DLS) operation (AIOA-DLS method). By a cycle of construction and searching of the dynamic lattice (DL), DLS algorithm rapidly makes the clusters more regular and greatly reduces the potential energy. DLS can thus be used as an operation acting on the new individuals after mutation operation in AIOA to improve the performance of the AIOA. The AIOA-DLS method combines the merit of evolutionary algorithm and idea of dynamic lattice. The performance of the proposed method is investigated in the optimization of Lennard-Jones clusters within 250 atoms and silver clusters described by many-body Gupta potential within 150 atoms. Results reported in the literature are reproduced, and the motif of Ag 61 cluster is found to be stacking-fault face-centered cubic, whose energy is lower than that of previously obtained icosahedron
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Meiping Wang
2016-01-01
Full Text Available We developed an effective intelligent model to predict the dynamic heat supply of heat source. A hybrid forecasting method was proposed based on support vector regression (SVR model-optimized particle swarm optimization (PSO algorithms. Due to the interaction of meteorological conditions and the heating parameters of heating system, it is extremely difficult to forecast dynamic heat supply. Firstly, the correlations among heat supply and related influencing factors in the heating system were analyzed through the correlation analysis of statistical theory. Then, the SVR model was employed to forecast dynamic heat supply. In the model, the input variables were selected based on the correlation analysis and three crucial parameters, including the penalties factor, gamma of the kernel RBF, and insensitive loss function, were optimized by PSO algorithms. The optimized SVR model was compared with the basic SVR, optimized genetic algorithm-SVR (GA-SVR, and artificial neural network (ANN through six groups of experiment data from two heat sources. The results of the correlation coefficient analysis revealed the relationship between the influencing factors and the forecasted heat supply and determined the input variables. The performance of the PSO-SVR model is superior to those of the other three models. The PSO-SVR method is statistically robust and can be applied to practical heating system.
A new algorithm for combined dynamic economic emission dispatch with security constraints
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Arul, R.; Velusami, S.; Ravi, G.
2015-01-01
The primary objective of CDEED (combined dynamic economic emission dispatch) problem is to determine the optimal power generation schedule for the online generating units over a time horizon considered and simultaneously minimizing the emission level and satisfying the generators and system constraints. The CDEED problem is bi-objective optimization problem, where generation cost and emission are considered as two competing objective functions. This bi-objective CDEED problem is represented as a single objective optimization problem by assigning different weights for each objective functions. The weights are varied in steps and for each variation one compromise solution are generated and finally fuzzy based selection method is used to select the best compromise solution from the set of compromise solutions obtained. In order to reflect the test systems considered as real power system model, the security constraints are also taken into account. Three new versions of DHS (differential harmony search) algorithms have been proposed to solve the CDEED problems. The feasibility of the proposed algorithms is demonstrated on IEEE-26 and IEEE-39 bus systems. The result obtained by the proposed CSADHS (chaotic self-adaptive differential harmony search) algorithm is found to be better than EP (evolutionary programming), DHS, and the other proposed algorithms in terms of solution quality, convergence speed and computation time. - Highlights: • In this paper, three new algorithms CDHS, SADHS and CSADHS are proposed. • To solve DED with emission, poz's, spinning reserve and security constraints. • Results obtained by the proposed CSADHS algorithm are better than others. • The proposed CSADHS algorithm has fast convergence characteristic than others
Zhang, Ruili; Wang, Yulei; He, Yang; Xiao, Jianyuan; Liu, Jian; Qin, Hong; Tang, Yifa
2018-02-01
Relativistic dynamics of a charged particle in time-dependent electromagnetic fields has theoretical significance and a wide range of applications. The numerical simulation of relativistic dynamics is often multi-scale and requires accurate long-term numerical simulations. Therefore, explicit symplectic algorithms are much more preferable than non-symplectic methods and implicit symplectic algorithms. In this paper, we employ the proper time and express the Hamiltonian as the sum of exactly solvable terms and product-separable terms in space-time coordinates. Then, we give the explicit symplectic algorithms based on the generating functions of orders 2 and 3 for relativistic dynamics of a charged particle. The methodology is not new, which has been applied to non-relativistic dynamics of charged particles, but the algorithm for relativistic dynamics has much significance in practical simulations, such as the secular simulation of runaway electrons in tokamaks.
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Lei Wang
2017-01-01
Full Text Available In real-world manufacturing systems, production scheduling systems are often implemented under random or dynamic events like machine failure, unexpected processing times, stochastic arrival of the urgent orders, cancellation of the orders, and so on. These dynamic events will lead the initial scheduling scheme to be nonoptimal and/or infeasible. Hence, appropriate dynamic rescheduling approaches are needed to overcome the dynamic events. In this paper, we propose a dynamic rescheduling method based on variable interval rescheduling strategy (VIRS to deal with the dynamic flexible job shop scheduling problem considering machine failure, urgent job arrival, and job damage as disruptions. On the other hand, an improved genetic algorithm (GA is proposed for minimizing makespan. In our improved GA, a mix of random initialization population by combining initialization machine and initialization operation with random initialization is designed for generating high-quality initial population. In addition, the elitist strategy (ES and improved population diversity strategy (IPDS are used to avoid falling into the local optimal solution. Experimental results for static and several dynamic events in the FJSP show that our method is feasible and effective.
Geraci, Joseph; Dharsee, Moyez; Nuin, Paulo; Haslehurst, Alexandria; Koti, Madhuri; Feilotter, Harriet E; Evans, Ken
2014-03-01
We introduce a novel method for visualizing high dimensional data via a discrete dynamical system. This method provides a 2D representation of the relationship between subjects according to a set of variables without geometric projections, transformed axes or principal components. The algorithm exploits a memory-type mechanism inherent in a certain class of discrete dynamical systems collectively referred to as the chaos game that are closely related to iterative function systems. The goal of the algorithm was to create a human readable representation of high dimensional patient data that was capable of detecting unrevealed subclusters of patients from within anticipated classifications. This provides a mechanism to further pursue a more personalized exploration of pathology when used with medical data. For clustering and classification protocols, the dynamical system portion of the algorithm is designed to come after some feature selection filter and before some model evaluation (e.g. clustering accuracy) protocol. In the version given here, a univariate features selection step is performed (in practice more complex feature selection methods are used), a discrete dynamical system is driven by this reduced set of variables (which results in a set of 2D cluster models), these models are evaluated for their accuracy (according to a user-defined binary classification) and finally a visual representation of the top classification models are returned. Thus, in addition to the visualization component, this methodology can be used for both supervised and unsupervised machine learning as the top performing models are returned in the protocol we describe here. Butterfly, the algorithm we introduce and provide working code for, uses a discrete dynamical system to classify high dimensional data and provide a 2D representation of the relationship between subjects. We report results on three datasets (two in the article; one in the appendix) including a public lung cancer
A molecular dynamics algorithm for simulation of field theories in the canonical ensemble
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kogut, J.B.; Sinclair, D.K.
1986-01-01
We add a single scalar degree of freedom (''demon'') to the microcanonical ensemble which converts its molecular dynamics into a simulation method for the canonical ensemble (euclidean path integral) of the underlying field theory. This generalization of the microcanonical molecular dynamics algorithm simulates the field theory at fixed coupling with a completely deterministic procedure. We discuss the finite size effects of the method, the equipartition theorem and ergodicity. The method is applied to the planar model in two dimensions and SU(3) lattice gauge theory with four species of light, dynamical quarks in four dimensions. The method is much less sensitive to its discrete time step than conventional Langevin equation simulations of the canonical ensemble. The method is a straightforward generalization of a procedure introduced by S. Nose for molecular physics. (orig.)
Jiang, Yanhua; Xiong, Guangming; Chen, Huiyan; Lee, Dah-Jye
2014-01-01
This paper presents a monocular visual odometry algorithm that incorporates a wheeled vehicle model for ground vehicles. The main innovation of this algorithm is to use the single-track bicycle model to interpret the relationship between the yaw rate and side slip angle, which are the two most important parameters that describe the motion of a wheeled vehicle. Additionally, the pitch angle is also considered since the planar-motion hypothesis often fails due to the dynamic characteristics of wheel suspensions and tires in real-world environments. Linearization is used to calculate a closed-form solution of the motion parameters that works as a hypothesis generator in a RAndom SAmple Consensus (RANSAC) scheme to reduce the complexity in solving equations involving trigonometric. All inliers found are used to refine the winner solution through minimizing the reprojection error. Finally, the algorithm is applied to real-time on-board visual localization applications. Its performance is evaluated by comparing against the state-of-the-art monocular visual odometry methods using both synthetic data and publicly available datasets over several kilometers in dynamic outdoor environments. PMID:25256109
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Yanhua Jiang
2014-09-01
Full Text Available This paper presents a monocular visual odometry algorithm that incorporates a wheeled vehicle model for ground vehicles. The main innovation of this algorithm is to use the single-track bicycle model to interpret the relationship between the yaw rate and side slip angle, which are the two most important parameters that describe the motion of a wheeled vehicle. Additionally, the pitch angle is also considered since the planar-motion hypothesis often fails due to the dynamic characteristics of wheel suspensions and tires in real-world environments. Linearization is used to calculate a closed-form solution of the motion parameters that works as a hypothesis generator in a RAndom SAmple Consensus (RANSAC scheme to reduce the complexity in solving equations involving trigonometric. All inliers found are used to refine the winner solution through minimizing the reprojection error. Finally, the algorithm is applied to real-time on-board visual localization applications. Its performance is evaluated by comparing against the state-of-the-art monocular visual odometry methods using both synthetic data and publicly available datasets over several kilometers in dynamic outdoor environments.
The Dynamic Enterprise Network Composition Algorithm for Efficient Operation in Cloud Manufacturing
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Gilseung Ahn
2016-11-01
Full Text Available As a service oriented and networked model, cloud manufacturing (CM has been proposed recently for solving a variety of manufacturing problems, including diverse requirements from customers. In CM, on-demand manufacturing services are provided by a temporary production network composed of several enterprises participating within an enterprise network. In other words, the production network is the main agent of production and a subset of an enterprise network. Therefore, it is essential to compose the enterprise network in a way that can respond to demands properly. A properly-composed enterprise network means the network can handle demands that arrive at the CM, with minimal costs, such as network composition and operation costs, such as participation contract costs, system maintenance costs, and so forth. Due to trade-offs among costs (e.g., contract cost and opportunity cost of production, it is a non-trivial problem to find the optimal network enterprise composition. In addition, this includes probabilistic constraints, such as forecasted demand. In this paper, we propose an algorithm, named the dynamic enterprise network composition algorithm (DENCA, based on a genetic algorithm to solve the enterprise network composition problem. A numerical simulation result is provided to demonstrate the performance of the proposed algorithm.
A Hybrid Shared-Memory Parallel Max-Tree Algorithm for Extreme Dynamic-Range Images.
Moschini, Ugo; Meijster, Arnold; Wilkinson, Michael H F
2018-03-01
Max-trees, or component trees, are graph structures that represent the connected components of an image in a hierarchical way. Nowadays, many application fields rely on images with high-dynamic range or floating point values. Efficient sequential algorithms exist to build trees and compute attributes for images of any bit depth. However, we show that the current parallel algorithms perform poorly already with integers at bit depths higher than 16 bits per pixel. We propose a parallel method combining the two worlds of flooding and merging max-tree algorithms. First, a pilot max-tree of a quantized version of the image is built in parallel using a flooding method. Later, this structure is used in a parallel leaf-to-root approach to compute efficiently the final max-tree and to drive the merging of the sub-trees computed by the threads. We present an analysis of the performance both on simulated and actual 2D images and 3D volumes. Execution times are about better than the fastest sequential algorithm and speed-up goes up to on 64 threads.
Comparison between dynamic programming and genetic algorithm for hydro unit economic load dispatch
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Bin Xu
2014-10-01
Full Text Available The hydro unit economic load dispatch (ELD is of great importance in energy conservation and emission reduction. Dynamic programming (DP and genetic algorithm (GA are two representative algorithms for solving ELD problems. The goal of this study was to examine the performance of DP and GA while they were applied to ELD. We established numerical experiments to conduct performance comparisons between DP and GA with two given schemes. The schemes included comparing the CPU time of the algorithms when they had the same solution quality, and comparing the solution quality when they had the same CPU time. The numerical experiments were applied to the Three Gorges Reservoir in China, which is equipped with 26 hydro generation units. We found the relation between the performance of algorithms and the number of units through experiments. Results show that GA is adept at searching for optimal solutions in low-dimensional cases. In some cases, such as with a number of units of less than 10, GA's performance is superior to that of a coarse-grid DP. However, GA loses its superiority in high-dimensional cases. DP is powerful in obtaining stable and high-quality solutions. Its performance can be maintained even while searching over a large solution space. Nevertheless, due to its exhaustive enumerating nature, it costs excess time in low-dimensional cases.
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Jiajia Song
2017-10-01
Full Text Available Dynamic accurate heart-rate (HR estimation using a photoplethysmogram (PPG during intense physical activities is always challenging due to corruption by motion artifacts (MAs. It is difficult to reconstruct a clean signal and extract HR from contaminated PPG. This paper proposes a robust HR-estimation algorithm framework that uses one-channel PPG and tri-axis acceleration data to reconstruct the PPG and calculate the HR based on features of the PPG and spectral analysis. Firstly, the signal is judged by the presence of MAs. Then, the spectral peaks corresponding to acceleration data are filtered from the periodogram of the PPG when MAs exist. Different signal-processing methods are applied based on the amount of remaining PPG spectral peaks. The main MA-removal algorithm (NFEEMD includes the repeated single-notch filter and ensemble empirical mode decomposition. Finally, HR calibration is designed to ensure the accuracy of HR tracking. The NFEEMD algorithm was performed on the 23 datasets from the 2015 IEEE Signal Processing Cup Database. The average estimation errors were 1.12 BPM (12 training datasets, 2.63 BPM (10 testing datasets and 1.87 BPM (all 23 datasets, respectively. The Pearson correlation was 0.992. The experiment results illustrate that the proposed algorithm is not only suitable for HR estimation during continuous activities, like slow running (13 training datasets, but also for intense physical activities with acceleration, like arm exercise (10 testing datasets.
Kodali, Anuradha
In this thesis, we develop dynamic multiple fault diagnosis (DMFD) algorithms to diagnose faults that are sporadic and coupled. Firstly, we formulate a coupled factorial hidden Markov model-based (CFHMM) framework to diagnose dependent faults occurring over time (dynamic case). Here, we implement a mixed memory Markov coupling model to determine the most likely sequence of (dependent) fault states, the one that best explains the observed test outcomes over time. An iterative Gauss-Seidel coordinate ascent optimization method is proposed for solving the problem. A soft Viterbi algorithm is also implemented within the framework for decoding dependent fault states over time. We demonstrate the algorithm on simulated and real-world systems with coupled faults; the results show that this approach improves the correct isolation rate as compared to the formulation where independent fault states are assumed. Secondly, we formulate a generalization of set-covering, termed dynamic set-covering (DSC), which involves a series of coupled set-covering problems over time. The objective of the DSC problem is to infer the most probable time sequence of a parsimonious set of failure sources that explains the observed test outcomes over time. The DSC problem is NP-hard and intractable due to the fault-test dependency matrix that couples the failed tests and faults via the constraint matrix, and the temporal dependence of failure sources over time. Here, the DSC problem is motivated from the viewpoint of a dynamic multiple fault diagnosis problem, but it has wide applications in operations research, for e.g., facility location problem. Thus, we also formulated the DSC problem in the context of a dynamically evolving facility location problem. Here, a facility can be opened, closed, or can be temporarily unavailable at any time for a given requirement of demand points. These activities are associated with costs or penalties, viz., phase-in or phase-out for the opening or closing of a
Pudovkin, A. P.; Panasyuk, Yu N.; Danilov, S. N.; Moskvitin, S. P.
2018-05-01
The problem of improving automated air traffic control systems is considered through the example of the operation algorithm synthesis for a range measurement channel to track the aircraft, using its kinematic and dynamic parameters. The choice of the state and observation models has been justified, the computer simulations have been performed and the results of the investigated algorithms have been obtained.
Dynamic connectivity algorithms for Monte Carlo simulations of the random-cluster model
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Elçi, Eren Metin; Weigel, Martin
2014-01-01
We review Sweeny's algorithm for Monte Carlo simulations of the random cluster model. Straightforward implementations suffer from the problem of computational critical slowing down, where the computational effort per edge operation scales with a power of the system size. By using a tailored dynamic connectivity algorithm we are able to perform all operations with a poly-logarithmic computational effort. This approach is shown to be efficient in keeping online connectivity information and is of use for a number of applications also beyond cluster-update simulations, for instance in monitoring droplet shape transitions. As the handling of the relevant data structures is non-trivial, we provide a Python module with a full implementation for future reference.
A Wavelet Analysis-Based Dynamic Prediction Algorithm to Network Traffic
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Meng Fan-Bo
2016-01-01
Full Text Available Network traffic is a significantly important parameter for network traffic engineering, while it holds highly dynamic nature in the network. Accordingly, it is difficult and impossible to directly predict traffic amount of end-to-end flows. This paper proposes a new prediction algorithm to network traffic using the wavelet analysis. Firstly, network traffic is converted into the time-frequency domain to capture time-frequency feature of network traffic. Secondly, in different frequency components, we model network traffic in the time-frequency domain. Finally, we build the prediction model about network traffic. At the same time, the corresponding prediction algorithm is presented to attain network traffic prediction. Simulation results indicates that our approach is promising.
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Sokoler, Leo Emil; Standardi, Laura; Edlund, Kristian
2014-01-01
This paper presents a warm-started Dantzig–Wolfe decomposition algorithm tailored to economic model predictive control of dynamically decoupled subsystems. We formulate the constrained optimal control problem solved at each sampling instant as a linear program with state space constraints, input...... limits, input rate limits, and soft output limits. The objective function of the linear program is related directly to the cost of operating the subsystems, and the cost of violating the soft output constraints. Simulations for large-scale economic power dispatch problems show that the proposed algorithm...... is significantly faster than both state-of-the-art linear programming solvers, and a structure exploiting implementation of the alternating direction method of multipliers. It is also demonstrated that the control strategy presented in this paper can be tuned using a weighted ℓ1-regularization term...
Zhang, Ye; Gong, Rongfang; Cheng, Xiaoliang; Gulliksson, Mårten
2018-06-01
This study considers the inverse source problem for elliptic partial differential equations with both Dirichlet and Neumann boundary data. The unknown source term is to be determined by additional boundary conditions. Unlike the existing methods found in the literature, which usually employ the first-order in time gradient-like system (such as the steepest descent methods) for numerically solving the regularized optimization problem with a fixed regularization parameter, we propose a novel method with a second-order in time dissipative gradient-like system and a dynamical selected regularization parameter. A damped symplectic scheme is proposed for the numerical solution. Theoretical analysis is given for both the continuous model and the numerical algorithm. Several numerical examples are provided to show the robustness of the proposed algorithm.
An enhanced dynamic model of battery using genetic algorithm suitable for photovoltaic applications
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Blaifi, S.; Moulahoum, S.; Colak, I.; Merrouche, W.
2016-01-01
Highlights: • We proposed a developed dynamic battery model suitable for photovoltaic systems. • We used genetic algorithm optimization method to find parameters that gives minimized error. • The validation was carried out with real measurements from stand-alone photovoltaic string. - Abstract: Modeling of batteries in photovoltaic systems has been a major issue related to the random dynamic regime imposed by the changes of solar irradiation and ambient temperature added to the complexity of battery electrochemical and electrical behaviors. However, various approaches have been proposed to model the battery behavior by predicting from detailed electrochemical, electrical or analytical models to high-level stochastic models. In this paper, an improvement of dynamic electrical battery model is proposed by automatic parameter extraction using genetic algorithm in order to give usefulness and future implementation for practical application. It is highlighted that the enhancement of 21 values of the parameters of CEIMAT model presents a good agreement with real measurements for different modes like charge or discharge and various conditions.
Dynamic modeling of genetic networks using genetic algorithm and S-system.
Kikuchi, Shinichi; Tominaga, Daisuke; Arita, Masanori; Takahashi, Katsutoshi; Tomita, Masaru
2003-03-22
The modeling of system dynamics of genetic networks, metabolic networks or signal transduction cascades from time-course data is formulated as a reverse-problem. Previous studies focused on the estimation of only network structures, and they were ineffective in inferring a network structure with feedback loops. We previously proposed a method to predict not only the network structure but also its dynamics using a Genetic Algorithm (GA) and an S-system formalism. However, it could predict only a small number of parameters and could rarely obtain essential structures. In this work, we propose a unified extension of the basic method. Notable improvements are as follows: (1) an additional term in its evaluation function that aims at eliminating futile parameters; (2) a crossover method called Simplex Crossover (SPX) to improve its optimization ability; and (3) a gradual optimization strategy to increase the number of predictable parameters. The proposed method is implemented as a C program called PEACE1 (Predictor by Evolutionary Algorithms and Canonical Equations 1). Its performance was compared with the basic method. The comparison showed that: (1) the convergence rate increased about 5-fold; (2) the optimization speed was raised about 1.5-fold; and (3) the number of predictable parameters was increased about 5-fold. Moreover, we successfully inferred the dynamics of a small genetic network constructed with 60 parameters for 5 network variables and feedback loops using only time-course data of gene expression.
Li, Y.; Kirchengast, G.; Scherllin-Pirscher, B.; Norman, R.; Yuan, Y. B.; Fritzer, J.; Schwaerz, M.; Zhang, K.
2015-08-01
We introduce a new dynamic statistical optimization algorithm to initialize ionosphere-corrected bending angles of Global Navigation Satellite System (GNSS)-based radio occultation (RO) measurements. The new algorithm estimates background and observation error covariance matrices with geographically varying uncertainty profiles and realistic global-mean correlation matrices. The error covariance matrices estimated by the new approach are more accurate and realistic than in simplified existing approaches and can therefore be used in statistical optimization to provide optimal bending angle profiles for high-altitude initialization of the subsequent Abel transform retrieval of refractivity. The new algorithm is evaluated against the existing Wegener Center Occultation Processing System version 5.6 (OPSv5.6) algorithm, using simulated data on two test days from January and July 2008 and real observed CHAllenging Minisatellite Payload (CHAMP) and Constellation Observing System for Meteorology, Ionosphere, and Climate (COSMIC) measurements from the complete months of January and July 2008. The following is achieved for the new method's performance compared to OPSv5.6: (1) significant reduction of random errors (standard deviations) of optimized bending angles down to about half of their size or more; (2) reduction of the systematic differences in optimized bending angles for simulated MetOp data; (3) improved retrieval of refractivity and temperature profiles; and (4) realistically estimated global-mean correlation matrices and realistic uncertainty fields for the background and observations. Overall the results indicate high suitability for employing the new dynamic approach in the processing of long-term RO data into a reference climate record, leading to well-characterized and high-quality atmospheric profiles over the entire stratosphere.
A parallel algorithm for transient solid dynamics simulations with contact detection
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Attaway, S.; Hendrickson, B.; Plimpton, S.; Gardner, D.; Vaughan, C.; Heinstein, M.; Peery, J.
1996-01-01
Solid dynamics simulations with Lagrangian finite elements are used to model a wide variety of problems, such as the calculation of impact damage to shipping containers for nuclear waste and the analysis of vehicular crashes. Using parallel computers for these simulations has been hindered by the difficulty of searching efficiently for material surface contacts in parallel. A new parallel algorithm for calculation of arbitrary material contacts in finite element simulations has been developed and implemented in the PRONTO3D transient solid dynamics code. This paper will explore some of the issues involved in developing efficient, portable, parallel finite element models for nonlinear transient solid dynamics simulations. The contact-detection problem poses interesting challenges for efficient implementation of a solid dynamics simulation on a parallel computer. The finite element mesh is typically partitioned so that each processor owns a localized region of the finite element mesh. This mesh partitioning is optimal for the finite element portion of the calculation since each processor must communicate only with the few connected neighboring processors that share boundaries with the decomposed mesh. However, contacts can occur between surfaces that may be owned by any two arbitrary processors. Hence, a global search across all processors is required at every time step to search for these contacts. Load-imbalance can become a problem since the finite element decomposition divides the volumetric mesh evenly across processors but typically leaves the surface elements unevenly distributed. In practice, these complications have been limiting factors in the performance and scalability of transient solid dynamics on massively parallel computers. In this paper the authors present a new parallel algorithm for contact detection that overcomes many of these limitations
A discrete force allocation algorithm for modelling wind turbines in computational fluid dynamics
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Réthoré, Pierre-Elouan; Sørensen, Niels N.
2012-01-01
at the position of the wind turbine rotor to estimate correctly the power production and the rotor loading. The method proposed in this paper solves this issue by spreading the force on the direct neighbouring cells and applying an equivalent pressure jump at the cell faces. This can potentially open......This paper describes an algorithm for allocating discrete forces in computational fluid dynamics (CFD). Discrete forces are useful in wind energy CFD. They are used as an approximation of the wind turbine blades’ action on the wind (actuator disc/line), to model forests and to model turbulent...
A Temporal Domain Decomposition Algorithmic Scheme for Large-Scale Dynamic Traffic Assignment
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Eric J. Nava
2012-03-01
This paper presents a temporal decomposition scheme for large spatial- and temporal-scale dynamic traffic assignment, in which the entire analysis period is divided into Epochs. Vehicle assignment is performed sequentially in each Epoch, thus improving the model scalability and confining the peak run-time memory requirement regardless of the total analysis period. A proposed self-turning scheme adaptively searches for the run-time-optimal Epoch setting during iterations regardless of the characteristics of the modeled network. Extensive numerical experiments confirm the promising performance of the proposed algorithmic schemes.
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Hou, Peng; Hu, Weihao; Chen, Cong
2016-01-01
The approach in this paper hads been developed to optimize the cable connection layout of large scale offshore wind farms. The objective is to minimize the Levelised Production Cost (LPC) og an offshore wind farm by optimizing the cable connection configuration. Based on the minimum spanning tree...... (MST) algorithm, an improved algorithm, the Dynamic Minimum Spanning Tree (DMST) algorithm is proposed. The current carrying capacity of the cable is considered to be the main constraint and the cable sectional area is changed dynamically. An irregular shaped wind farm is chosen as the studie case...
Abbiati, Giuseppe; La Salandra, Vincenzo; Bursi, Oreste S.; Caracoglia, Luca
2018-02-01
Successful online hybrid (numerical/physical) dynamic substructuring simulations have shown their potential in enabling realistic dynamic analysis of almost any type of non-linear structural system (e.g., an as-built/isolated viaduct, a petrochemical piping system subjected to non-stationary seismic loading, etc.). Moreover, owing to faster and more accurate testing equipment, a number of different offline experimental substructuring methods, operating both in time (e.g. the impulse-based substructuring) and frequency domains (i.e. the Lagrange multiplier frequency-based substructuring), have been employed in mechanical engineering to examine dynamic substructure coupling. Numerous studies have dealt with the above-mentioned methods and with consequent uncertainty propagation issues, either associated with experimental errors or modelling assumptions. Nonetheless, a limited number of publications have systematically cross-examined the performance of the various Experimental Dynamic Substructuring (EDS) methods and the possibility of their exploitation in a complementary way to expedite a hybrid experiment/numerical simulation. From this perspective, this paper performs a comparative uncertainty propagation analysis of three EDS algorithms for coupling physical and numerical subdomains with a dual assembly approach based on localized Lagrange multipliers. The main results and comparisons are based on a series of Monte Carlo simulations carried out on a five-DoF linear/non-linear chain-like systems that include typical aleatoric uncertainties emerging from measurement errors and excitation loads. In addition, we propose a new Composite-EDS (C-EDS) method to fuse both online and offline algorithms into a unique simulator. Capitalizing from the results of a more complex case study composed of a coupled isolated tank-piping system, we provide a feasible way to employ the C-EDS method when nonlinearities and multi-point constraints are present in the emulated system.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Emer Bernal
2017-01-01
Full Text Available In this paper we are presenting a method using fuzzy logic for dynamic parameter adaptation in the imperialist competitive algorithm, which is usually known by its acronym ICA. The ICA algorithm was initially studied in its original form to find out how it works and what parameters have more effect upon its results. Based on this study, several designs of fuzzy systems for dynamic adjustment of the ICA parameters are proposed. The experiments were performed on the basis of solving complex optimization problems, particularly applied to benchmark mathematical functions. A comparison of the original imperialist competitive algorithm and our proposed fuzzy imperialist competitive algorithm was performed. In addition, the fuzzy ICA was compared with another metaheuristic using a statistical test to measure the advantage of the proposed fuzzy approach for dynamic parameter adaptation.
Penalty Dynamic Programming Algorithm for Dim Targets Detection in Sensor Systems
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Yunfei Guo
2012-04-01
Full Text Available In order to detect and track multiple maneuvering dim targets in sensor systems, an improved dynamic programming track-before-detect algorithm (DP-TBD called penalty DP-TBD (PDP-TBD is proposed. The performances of tracking techniques are used as a feedback to the detection part. The feedback is constructed by a penalty term in the merit function, and the penalty term is a function of the possible target state estimation, which can be obtained by the tracking methods. With this feedback, the algorithm combines traditional tracking techniques with DP-TBD and it can be applied to simultaneously detect and track maneuvering dim targets. Meanwhile, a reasonable constraint that a sensor measurement can originate from one target or clutter is proposed to minimize track separation. Thus, the algorithm can be used in the multi-target situation with unknown target numbers. The efficiency and advantages of PDP-TBD compared with two existing methods are demonstrated by several simulations.
An Analytical Measuring Rectification Algorithm of Monocular Systems in Dynamic Environment
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Deshi Li
2016-01-01
Full Text Available Range estimation is crucial for maintaining a safe distance, in particular for vision navigation and localization. Monocular autonomous vehicles are appropriate for outdoor environment due to their mobility and operability. However, accurate range estimation using vision system is challenging because of the nonholonomic dynamics and susceptibility of vehicles. In this paper, a measuring rectification algorithm for range estimation under shaking conditions is designed. The proposed method focuses on how to estimate range using monocular vision when a shake occurs and the algorithm only requires the pose variations of the camera to be acquired. Simultaneously, it solves the problem of how to assimilate results from different kinds of sensors. To eliminate measuring errors by shakes, we establish a pose-range variation model. Afterwards, the algebraic relation between distance increment and a camera’s poses variation is formulated. The pose variations are presented in the form of roll, pitch, and yaw angle changes to evaluate the pixel coordinate incensement. To demonstrate the superiority of our proposed algorithm, the approach is validated in a laboratory environment using Pioneer 3-DX robots. The experimental results demonstrate that the proposed approach improves in the range accuracy significantly.
A multispin algorithm for the Kob-Andersen stochastic dynamics on regular lattices
Boccagna, Roberto
2017-07-01
The aim of the paper is to propose an algorithm based on the Multispin Coding technique for the Kob-Andersen glassy dynamics. We first give motivations to speed up the numerical simulation in the context of spin glass models [M. Mezard, G. Parisi, M. Virasoro, Spin Glass Theory and Beyond (World Scientific, Singapore, 1987)]; after defining the Markovian dynamics as in [W. Kob, H.C. Andersen, Phys. Rev. E 48, 4364 (1993)] as well as the related interesting observables, we extend it to the more general framework of random regular graphs, listing at the same time some known analytical results [C. Toninelli, G. Biroli, D.S. Fisher, J. Stat. Phys. 120, 167 (2005)]. The purpose of this work is a dual one; firstly, we describe how bitwise operators can be used to build up the algorithm by carefully exploiting the way data are stored on a computer. Since it was first introduced [M. Creutz, L. Jacobs, C. Rebbi, Phys. Rev. D 20, 1915 (1979); C. Rebbi, R.H. Swendsen, Phys. Rev. D 21, 4094 (1980)], this technique has been widely used to perform Monte Carlo simulations for Ising and Potts spin systems; however, it can be successfully adapted to more complex systems in which microscopic parameters may assume boolean values. Secondly, we introduce a random graph in which a characteristic parameter allows to tune the possible transition point. A consistent part is devoted to listing the numerical results obtained by running numerical simulations.
New MPPT algorithm for PV applications based on hybrid dynamical approach
Elmetennani, Shahrazed
2016-10-24
This paper proposes a new Maximum Power Point Tracking (MPPT) algorithm for photovoltaic applications using the multicellular converter as a stage of power adaptation. The proposed MPPT technique has been designed using a hybrid dynamical approach to model the photovoltaic generator. The hybrid dynamical theory has been applied taking advantage of the particular topology of the multicellular converter. Then, a hybrid automata has been established to optimize the power production. The maximization of the produced solar energy is achieved by switching between the different operative modes of the hybrid automata, which is conditioned by some invariance and transition conditions. These conditions have been validated by simulation tests under different conditions of temperature and irradiance. Moreover, the performance of the proposed algorithm has been then evaluated by comparison with standard MPPT techniques numerically and by experimental tests under varying external working conditions. The results have shown the interesting features that the hybrid MPPT technique presents in terms of performance and simplicity for real time implementation.
New MPPT algorithm for PV applications based on hybrid dynamical approach
Elmetennani, Shahrazed; Laleg-Kirati, Taous-Meriem; Djemai, M.; Tadjine, M.
2016-01-01
This paper proposes a new Maximum Power Point Tracking (MPPT) algorithm for photovoltaic applications using the multicellular converter as a stage of power adaptation. The proposed MPPT technique has been designed using a hybrid dynamical approach to model the photovoltaic generator. The hybrid dynamical theory has been applied taking advantage of the particular topology of the multicellular converter. Then, a hybrid automata has been established to optimize the power production. The maximization of the produced solar energy is achieved by switching between the different operative modes of the hybrid automata, which is conditioned by some invariance and transition conditions. These conditions have been validated by simulation tests under different conditions of temperature and irradiance. Moreover, the performance of the proposed algorithm has been then evaluated by comparison with standard MPPT techniques numerically and by experimental tests under varying external working conditions. The results have shown the interesting features that the hybrid MPPT technique presents in terms of performance and simplicity for real time implementation.
Chen, Yunjie; Kale, Seyit; Weare, Jonathan; Dinner, Aaron R; Roux, Benoît
2016-04-12
A multiple time-step integrator based on a dual Hamiltonian and a hybrid method combining molecular dynamics (MD) and Monte Carlo (MC) is proposed to sample systems in the canonical ensemble. The Dual Hamiltonian Multiple Time-Step (DHMTS) algorithm is based on two similar Hamiltonians: a computationally expensive one that serves as a reference and a computationally inexpensive one to which the workload is shifted. The central assumption is that the difference between the two Hamiltonians is slowly varying. Earlier work has shown that such dual Hamiltonian multiple time-step schemes effectively precondition nonlinear differential equations for dynamics by reformulating them into a recursive root finding problem that can be solved by propagating a correction term through an internal loop, analogous to RESPA. Of special interest in the present context, a hybrid MD-MC version of the DHMTS algorithm is introduced to enforce detailed balance via a Metropolis acceptance criterion and ensure consistency with the Boltzmann distribution. The Metropolis criterion suppresses the discretization errors normally associated with the propagation according to the computationally inexpensive Hamiltonian, treating the discretization error as an external work. Illustrative tests are carried out to demonstrate the effectiveness of the method.
Algorithm of dynamic regulation of a system of duct, for a high accuracy climatic system
Arbatskiy, A. A.; Afonina, G. N.; Glazov, V. S.
2017-11-01
Currently, major part of climatic system, are stationary in projected mode only. At the same time, many modern industrial sites, require constant or periodical changes in technological process. That is 80% of the time, the industrial site is not require ventilation system in projected mode and high precision of climatic parameters must maintain. While that not constantly is in use for climatic systems, which use in parallel for different rooms, we will be have a problem for balance of duct system. For this problem, was created the algorithm for quantity regulation, with minimal changes. Dynamic duct system: Developed of parallel control system of air balance, with high precision of climatic parameters. The Algorithm provide a permanent pressure in main duct, in different a flow of air. Therefore, the ending devises air flow have only one parameter for regulation - flaps open area. Precision of regulation increase and the climatic system provide high precision for temperature and humidity (0,5C for temperature, 5% for relative humidity). Result: The research has been made in CFD-system - PHOENICS. Results for velocity of air in duct, for pressure of air in duct for different operation mode, has been obtained. Equation for air valves positions, with different parameters for climate in room’s, has been obtained. Energy saving potential for dynamic duct system, for different types of a rooms, has been calculated.
A Dynamic Health Assessment Approach for Shearer Based on Artificial Immune Algorithm
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Zhongbin Wang
2016-01-01
Full Text Available In order to accurately identify the dynamic health of shearer, reducing operating trouble and production accident of shearer and improving coal production efficiency further, a dynamic health assessment approach for shearer based on artificial immune algorithm was proposed. The key technologies such as system framework, selecting the indicators for shearer dynamic health assessment, and health assessment model were provided, and the flowchart of the proposed approach was designed. A simulation example, with an accuracy of 96%, based on the collected data from industrial production scene was provided. Furthermore, the comparison demonstrated that the proposed method exhibited higher classification accuracy than the classifiers based on back propagation-neural network (BP-NN and support vector machine (SVM methods. Finally, the proposed approach was applied in an engineering problem of shearer dynamic health assessment. The industrial application results showed that the paper research achievements could be used combining with shearer automation control system in fully mechanized coal face. The simulation and the application results indicated that the proposed method was feasible and outperforming others.
Park, Sang Cheol; Leader, Joseph Ken; Tan, Jun; Lee, Guee Sang; Kim, Soo Hyung; Na, In Seop; Zheng, Bin
2011-01-01
Objective this article presents a new computerized scheme that aims to accurately and robustly separate left and right lungs on CT examinations. Methods we developed and tested a method to separate the left and right lungs using sequential CT information and a guided dynamic programming algorithm using adaptively and automatically selected start point and end point with especially severe and multiple connections. Results the scheme successfully identified and separated all 827 connections on the total 4034 CT images in an independent testing dataset of CT examinations. The proposed scheme separated multiple connections regardless of their locations, and the guided dynamic programming algorithm reduced the computation time to approximately 4.6% in comparison with the traditional dynamic programming and avoided the permeation of the separation boundary into normal lung tissue. Conclusions The proposed method is able to robustly and accurately disconnect all connections between left and right lungs and the guided dynamic programming algorithm is able to remove redundant processing. PMID:21412104
Shimojo, Fuyuki; Hattori, Shinnosuke; Kalia, Rajiv K.; Kunaseth, Manaschai; Mou, Weiwei; Nakano, Aiichiro; Nomura, Ken-ichi; Ohmura, Satoshi; Rajak, Pankaj; Shimamura, Kohei; Vashishta, Priya
2014-05-01
We introduce an extension of the divide-and-conquer (DC) algorithmic paradigm called divide-conquer-recombine (DCR) to perform large quantum molecular dynamics (QMD) simulations on massively parallel supercomputers, in which interatomic forces are computed quantum mechanically in the framework of density functional theory (DFT). In DCR, the DC phase constructs globally informed, overlapping local-domain solutions, which in the recombine phase are synthesized into a global solution encompassing large spatiotemporal scales. For the DC phase, we design a lean divide-and-conquer (LDC) DFT algorithm, which significantly reduces the prefactor of the O(N) computational cost for N electrons by applying a density-adaptive boundary condition at the peripheries of the DC domains. Our globally scalable and locally efficient solver is based on a hybrid real-reciprocal space approach that combines: (1) a highly scalable real-space multigrid to represent the global charge density; and (2) a numerically efficient plane-wave basis for local electronic wave functions and charge density within each domain. Hybrid space-band decomposition is used to implement the LDC-DFT algorithm on parallel computers. A benchmark test on an IBM Blue Gene/Q computer exhibits an isogranular parallel efficiency of 0.984 on 786 432 cores for a 50.3 × 106-atom SiC system. As a test of production runs, LDC-DFT-based QMD simulation involving 16 661 atoms is performed on the Blue Gene/Q to study on-demand production of hydrogen gas from water using LiAl alloy particles. As an example of the recombine phase, LDC-DFT electronic structures are used as a basis set to describe global photoexcitation dynamics with nonadiabatic QMD (NAQMD) and kinetic Monte Carlo (KMC) methods. The NAQMD simulations are based on the linear response time-dependent density functional theory to describe electronic excited states and a surface-hopping approach to describe transitions between the excited states. A series of techniques
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Shimojo, Fuyuki; Hattori, Shinnosuke; Kalia, Rajiv K.; Mou, Weiwei; Nakano, Aiichiro; Nomura, Ken-ichi; Rajak, Pankaj; Vashishta, Priya; Kunaseth, Manaschai; Ohmura, Satoshi; Shimamura, Kohei
2014-01-01
We introduce an extension of the divide-and-conquer (DC) algorithmic paradigm called divide-conquer-recombine (DCR) to perform large quantum molecular dynamics (QMD) simulations on massively parallel supercomputers, in which interatomic forces are computed quantum mechanically in the framework of density functional theory (DFT). In DCR, the DC phase constructs globally informed, overlapping local-domain solutions, which in the recombine phase are synthesized into a global solution encompassing large spatiotemporal scales. For the DC phase, we design a lean divide-and-conquer (LDC) DFT algorithm, which significantly reduces the prefactor of the O(N) computational cost for N electrons by applying a density-adaptive boundary condition at the peripheries of the DC domains. Our globally scalable and locally efficient solver is based on a hybrid real-reciprocal space approach that combines: (1) a highly scalable real-space multigrid to represent the global charge density; and (2) a numerically efficient plane-wave basis for local electronic wave functions and charge density within each domain. Hybrid space-band decomposition is used to implement the LDC-DFT algorithm on parallel computers. A benchmark test on an IBM Blue Gene/Q computer exhibits an isogranular parallel efficiency of 0.984 on 786 432 cores for a 50.3 × 10 6 -atom SiC system. As a test of production runs, LDC-DFT-based QMD simulation involving 16 661 atoms is performed on the Blue Gene/Q to study on-demand production of hydrogen gas from water using LiAl alloy particles. As an example of the recombine phase, LDC-DFT electronic structures are used as a basis set to describe global photoexcitation dynamics with nonadiabatic QMD (NAQMD) and kinetic Monte Carlo (KMC) methods. The NAQMD simulations are based on the linear response time-dependent density functional theory to describe electronic excited states and a surface-hopping approach to describe transitions between the excited states. A series of
Al-Jabr, Ahmad Ali; Alsunaidi, Mohammad A.; Ooi, Boon S.
2013-01-01
This paper presents methods of simulating gain media in the finite difference time-domain (FDTD) algorithm utilizing a generalized polarization formulation. The gain can be static or dynamic. For static gain, Lorentzian and non-Lorentzian models are presented and tested. For the dynamic gain, rate equations for two-level and four-level models are incorporated in the FDTD scheme. The simulation results conform with the expected behavior of wave amplification and dynamic population inversion.
García-Calvo, Raúl; Guisado, J L; Diaz-Del-Rio, Fernando; Córdoba, Antonio; Jiménez-Morales, Francisco
2018-01-01
Understanding the regulation of gene expression is one of the key problems in current biology. A promising method for that purpose is the determination of the temporal dynamics between known initial and ending network states, by using simple acting rules. The huge amount of rule combinations and the nonlinear inherent nature of the problem make genetic algorithms an excellent candidate for finding optimal solutions. As this is a computationally intensive problem that needs long runtimes in conventional architectures for realistic network sizes, it is fundamental to accelerate this task. In this article, we study how to develop efficient parallel implementations of this method for the fine-grained parallel architecture of graphics processing units (GPUs) using the compute unified device architecture (CUDA) platform. An exhaustive and methodical study of various parallel genetic algorithm schemes-master-slave, island, cellular, and hybrid models, and various individual selection methods (roulette, elitist)-is carried out for this problem. Several procedures that optimize the use of the GPU's resources are presented. We conclude that the implementation that produces better results (both from the performance and the genetic algorithm fitness perspectives) is simulating a few thousands of individuals grouped in a few islands using elitist selection. This model comprises 2 mighty factors for discovering the best solutions: finding good individuals in a short number of generations, and introducing genetic diversity via a relatively frequent and numerous migration. As a result, we have even found the optimal solution for the analyzed gene regulatory network (GRN). In addition, a comparative study of the performance obtained by the different parallel implementations on GPU versus a sequential application on CPU is carried out. In our tests, a multifold speedup was obtained for our optimized parallel implementation of the method on medium class GPU over an equivalent
García-Calvo, Raúl; Guisado, JL; Diaz-del-Rio, Fernando; Córdoba, Antonio; Jiménez-Morales, Francisco
2018-01-01
Understanding the regulation of gene expression is one of the key problems in current biology. A promising method for that purpose is the determination of the temporal dynamics between known initial and ending network states, by using simple acting rules. The huge amount of rule combinations and the nonlinear inherent nature of the problem make genetic algorithms an excellent candidate for finding optimal solutions. As this is a computationally intensive problem that needs long runtimes in conventional architectures for realistic network sizes, it is fundamental to accelerate this task. In this article, we study how to develop efficient parallel implementations of this method for the fine-grained parallel architecture of graphics processing units (GPUs) using the compute unified device architecture (CUDA) platform. An exhaustive and methodical study of various parallel genetic algorithm schemes—master-slave, island, cellular, and hybrid models, and various individual selection methods (roulette, elitist)—is carried out for this problem. Several procedures that optimize the use of the GPU’s resources are presented. We conclude that the implementation that produces better results (both from the performance and the genetic algorithm fitness perspectives) is simulating a few thousands of individuals grouped in a few islands using elitist selection. This model comprises 2 mighty factors for discovering the best solutions: finding good individuals in a short number of generations, and introducing genetic diversity via a relatively frequent and numerous migration. As a result, we have even found the optimal solution for the analyzed gene regulatory network (GRN). In addition, a comparative study of the performance obtained by the different parallel implementations on GPU versus a sequential application on CPU is carried out. In our tests, a multifold speedup was obtained for our optimized parallel implementation of the method on medium class GPU over an equivalent
Algorithms for testing of fractional dynamics: a practical guide to ARFIMA modelling
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Burnecki, Krzysztof; Weron, Aleksander
2014-01-01
In this survey paper we present a systematic methodology which demonstrates how to identify the origins of fractional dynamics. We consider three mechanisms which lead to it, namely fractional Brownian motion, fractional Lévy stable motion and an autoregressive fractionally integrated moving average (ARFIMA) process but we concentrate on the ARFIMA modelling. The methodology is based on statistical tools for identification and validation of the fractional dynamics, in particular on an ARFIMA parameter estimator, an ergodicity test, a self-similarity index estimator based on sample p-variation and a memory parameter estimator based on sample mean-squared displacement. A complete list of algorithms needed for this is provided in appendices A–F. Finally, we illustrate the methodology on various empirical data and show that ARFIMA can be considered as a universal model for fractional dynamics. Thus, we provide a practical guide for experimentalists on how to efficiently use ARFIMA modelling for a large class of anomalous diffusion data. (paper)
Designs and Algorithms to Map Eye Tracking Data with Dynamic Multielement Moving Objects
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Ziho Kang
2016-01-01
Full Text Available Design concepts and algorithms were developed to address the eye tracking analysis issues that arise when (1 participants interrogate dynamic multielement objects that can overlap on the display and (2 visual angle error of the eye trackers is incapable of providing exact eye fixation coordinates. These issues were addressed by (1 developing dynamic areas of interests (AOIs in the form of either convex or rectangular shapes to represent the moving and shape-changing multielement objects, (2 introducing the concept of AOI gap tolerance (AGT that controls the size of the AOIs to address the overlapping and visual angle error issues, and (3 finding a near optimal AGT value. The approach was tested in the context of air traffic control (ATC operations where air traffic controller specialists (ATCSs interrogated multiple moving aircraft on a radar display to detect and control the aircraft for the purpose of maintaining safe and expeditious air transportation. In addition, we show how eye tracking analysis results can differ based on how we define dynamic AOIs to determine eye fixations on moving objects. The results serve as a framework to more accurately analyze eye tracking data and to better support the analysis of human performance.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
H.Z. Igamberdiyev
2014-07-01
Full Text Available Dynamic systems condition estimation regularization algorithms in the conditions of signals and hindrances statistical characteristics aprioristic uncertainty are offered. Regular iterative algorithms of strengthening matrix factor elements of the Kalman filter, allowing to adapt the filter to changing hindrance-alarm conditions are developed. Steady adaptive estimation algorithms of a condition vector in the aprioristic uncertainty conditions of covariance matrixes of object noise and the measurements hindrances providing a certain roughness of filtration process in relation to changing statistical characteristics of signals information parameters are offered. Offered practical realization results of the dynamic systems condition estimation algorithms are given at the adaptive management systems synthesis problems solution by technological processes of granulation drying of an ammophos pulp and receiving ammonia.
Kizilkaya, Elif A.; Gupta, Surendra M.
2005-11-01
In this paper, we compare the impact of different disassembly line balancing (DLB) algorithms on the performance of our recently introduced Dynamic Kanban System for Disassembly Line (DKSDL) to accommodate the vagaries of uncertainties associated with disassembly and remanufacturing processing. We consider a case study to illustrate the impact of various DLB algorithms on the DKSDL. The approach to the solution, scenario settings, results and the discussions of the results are included.
基于ISM的动态优先级调度算法%Dynamic Priority Schedule Algorithm Based on ISM
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
余祖峰; 蔡启先; 刘明
2011-01-01
The EDF schedule algorithm, one of main real-time schedule algorithms of the embedded Linux operating system, can not solve the overload schedule.For this, the paper introduces SLAD algorithm and BACKSLASH algorithm, which have good performance of system load.According to thinking of ISM algorithm, it puts forward a kind of dynamic priority schedule algorithm.According to case of overloads within some time, the algorithm can adjust EDF algorithm and SLAD algorithm neatly, thus improves schedule efficiency of system in usual load and overload cases.Test results for real-time tasks Deadline Miss Ratio(DMR) show its improvement effect.%在嵌入式Linux操作系统的实时调度算法中,EDF调度算法不能解决负载过载问题.为此,引进对系统负载有着良好表现的SLAD算法和BACKSLASH算法.基于ISM算法思路,提出一种动态优先级调度算法.该算法能根据一段时间内负载过载的情况,灵活地调度EDF算法和SLAD算法,从面提高系统在正常负载和过载情况下的调度效率.对实时任务截止期错失率DMR指标的测试结果证明了其改进效果.
Siberia snow depth climatology derived from SSM/I data using a combined dynamic and static algorithm
Grippa, M.; Mognard, N.; Le, Toan T.; Josberger, E.G.
2004-01-01
One of the major challenges in determining snow depth (SD) from passive microwave measurements is to take into account the spatiotemporal variations of the snow grain size. Static algorithms based on a constant snow grain size cannot provide accurate estimates of snow pack thickness, particularly over large regions where the snow pack is subjected to big spatial temperature variations. A recent dynamic algorithm that accounts for the dependence of the microwave scattering on the snow grain size has been developed to estimate snow depth from the Special Sensor Microwave/Imager (SSM/I) over the Northern Great Plains (NGP) in the US. In this paper, we develop a combined dynamic and static algorithm to estimate snow depth from 13 years of SSM/I observations over Central Siberia. This region is characterised by extremely cold surface air temperatures and by the presence of permafrost that significantly affects the ground temperature. The dynamic algorithm is implemented to take into account these effects and it yields accurate snow depths early in the winter, when thin snowpacks combine with cold air temperatures to generate rapid crystal growth. However, it is not applicable later in the winter when the grain size growth slows. Combining the dynamic algorithm to a static algorithm, with a temporally constant but spatially varying coefficient, we obtain reasonable snow depth estimates throughout the entire snow season. Validation is carried out by comparing the satellite snow depth monthly averages to monthly climatological data. We show that the location of the snow depth maxima and minima is improved when applying the combined algorithm, since its dynamic portion explicitly incorporate the thermal gradient through the snowpack. The results obtained are presented and evaluated for five different vegetation zones of Central Siberia. Comparison with in situ measurements is also shown and discussed. ?? 2004 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
FORMATION ALGORITHM OF DYNAMIC TURN FOR UNMANNED AERIAL VEHICLES ON APPROACH
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Igor A. Chekhov
2017-01-01
Full Text Available Great interest in using unmanned aerial vehicles has recently been shown, both from economic entities, and from national security, defense and law enforcement agencies. However, for using UAV for the civil purposes there is now a number of problems which are connected with the use of airspace and without solving them it is impossible to use the UAV fully. It should be noted that the level of flight safety, both for regular aircraft, and for the UAV, has the primary value. It is necessary to use modern methods of data processing and to have an opportunity to quickly and effectively control the current flight safety level. For this purpose the fullest information on the current movement of aircraft and unmanned aerial vehicles, and also on the structure of the used airspace has to be used. The problem of procedures and maneuvers development that resolve potential traffic conflict including the UAV, is extremely important for air traffic safety especially in the vicinity of the destination or landing aerodrome. The possibility of creation of an algorithm of dynamic turn formation and the choice of a trajectory on approach of unmanned aerial vehicles is considered in this article. The technology of automatic dependent surveillance broadcast was used when collecting statistical data. Implementation of the landing algorithm is executed based on the criteria of ensuring efficiency and flight safety. The developed software provides the use only of open data on the aircraft movement in terminal airspace. The suggested algorithm can be adapted for air traffic management of the UAV in any selected airspace.
SMACK: A New Algorithm for Modeling Collisions and Dynamics of Planetesimals in Debris Disks
Nesvold, Erika Rose; Kuchner, Marc J.; Rein, Hanno; Pan, Margaret
2013-01-01
We present the Superparticle Model/Algorithm for Collisions in Kuiper belts and debris disks (SMACK), a new method for simultaneously modeling, in 3-D, the collisional and dynamical evolution of planetesimals in a debris disk with planets. SMACK can simulate azimuthal asymmetries and how these asymmetries evolve over time. We show that SMACK is stable to numerical viscosity and numerical heating over 10(exp 7) yr, and that it can reproduce analytic models of disk evolution. We use SMACK to model the evolution of a debris ring containing a planet on an eccentric orbit. Differential precession creates a spiral structure as the ring evolves, but collisions subsequently break up the spiral, leaving a narrower eccentric ring.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Javid Jouzdani
2016-01-01
Full Text Available With the constantly increasing pressure of the competitive environment, supply chain (SC decision makers are forced to consider several aspects of business climate. More specifically, they should take into account the endogenous features (e.g., available means of transportation, and the variety of products and exogenous criteria (e.g., the environmental uncertainty, and transportation system conditions. In this paper, a mixed integer nonlinear programming (MINLP model for dynamic design of a supply chain network is proposed. In this model, multiple products and multiple transportation modes, the time value of money, traffic congestion, and both supply-side and demand-side uncertainties are considered. Due to the complexity of such models, conventional solution methods are not applicable; therefore, two hybrid Electromagnetism-Like Algorithms (EMA are designed and discussed for tackling the problem. The numerical results show the applicability of the proposed model and the capabilities of the solution approaches to the MINLP problem.
A new multiple robot path planning algorithm: dynamic distributed particle swarm optimization.
Ayari, Asma; Bouamama, Sadok
2017-01-01
Multiple robot systems have become a major study concern in the field of robotic research. Their control becomes unreliable and even infeasible if the number of robots increases. In this paper, a new dynamic distributed particle swarm optimization (D 2 PSO) algorithm is proposed for trajectory path planning of multiple robots in order to find collision-free optimal path for each robot in the environment. The proposed approach consists in calculating two local optima detectors, LOD pBest and LOD gBest . Particles which are unable to improve their personal best and global best for predefined number of successive iterations would be replaced with restructured ones. Stagnation and local optima problems would be avoided by adding diversity to the population, without losing the fast convergence characteristic of PSO. Experiments with multiple robots are provided and proved effectiveness of such approach compared with the distributed PSO.
OpenMM 7: Rapid development of high performance algorithms for molecular dynamics.
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Peter Eastman
2017-07-01
Full Text Available OpenMM is a molecular dynamics simulation toolkit with a unique focus on extensibility. It allows users to easily add new features, including forces with novel functional forms, new integration algorithms, and new simulation protocols. Those features automatically work on all supported hardware types (including both CPUs and GPUs and perform well on all of them. In many cases they require minimal coding, just a mathematical description of the desired function. They also require no modification to OpenMM itself and can be distributed independently of OpenMM. This makes it an ideal tool for researchers developing new simulation methods, and also allows those new methods to be immediately available to the larger community.
AbouEisha, Hassan M.
2014-06-06
In this paper we present a dynamic programming algorithm for finding optimal elimination trees for computational grids refined towards point or edge singularities. The elimination tree is utilized to guide the multi-frontal direct solver algorithm. Thus, the criterion for the optimization of the elimination tree is the computational cost associated with the multi-frontal solver algorithm executed over such tree. We illustrate the paper with several examples of optimal trees found for grids with point, isotropic edge and anisotropic edge mixed with point singularity. We show the comparison of the execution time of the multi-frontal solver algorithm with results of MUMPS solver with METIS library, implementing the nested dissection algorithm.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
He Dakuo; Dong Gang; Wang Fuli; Mao Zhizhong
2011-01-01
A chaotic sequence based differential evolution (DE) approach for solving the dynamic economic dispatch problem (DEDP) with valve-point effect is presented in this paper. The proposed method combines the DE algorithm with the local search technique to improve the performance of the algorithm. DE is the main optimizer, while an approximated model for local search is applied to fine tune in the solution of the DE run. To accelerate convergence of DE, a series of constraints handling rules are adopted. An initial population obtained by using chaotic sequence exerts optimal performance of the proposed algorithm. The combined algorithm is validated for two test systems consisting of 10 and 13 thermal units whose incremental fuel cost function takes into account the valve-point loading effects. The proposed combined method outperforms other algorithms reported in literatures for DEDP considering valve-point effects.
Hybrid SOA-SQP algorithm for dynamic economic dispatch with valve-point effects
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Sivasubramani, S.; Swarup, K.S. [Department of Electrical Engineering, Indian Institute of Technology Madras, Chennai 600036 (India)
2010-12-15
This paper proposes a hybrid technique combining a new heuristic algorithm named seeker optimization algorithm (SOA) and sequential quadratic programming (SQP) method for solving dynamic economic dispatch problem with valve-point effects. The SOA is based on the concept of simulating the act of human searching, where the search direction is based on the empirical gradient (EG) by evaluating the response to the position changes and the step length is based on uncertainty reasoning by using a simple fuzzy rule. In this paper, SOA is used as a base level search, which can give a good direction to the optimal global region and SQP as a local search to fine tune the solution obtained from SOA. Thus SQP guides SOA to find optimal or near optimal solution in the complex search space. Two test systems i.e., 5 unit with losses and 10 unit without losses, have been taken to validate the efficiency of the proposed hybrid method. Simulation results clearly show that the proposed method outperforms the existing method in terms of solution quality. (author)
Kim, Hyo-Su; Kim, Dong-Hoi
The dynamic channel allocation (DCA) scheme in multi-cell systems causes serious inter-cell interference (ICI) problem to some existing calls when channels for new calls are allocated. Such a problem can be addressed by advanced centralized DCA design that is able to minimize ICI. Thus, in this paper, a centralized DCA is developed for the downlink of multi-cell orthogonal frequency division multiple access (OFDMA) systems with full spectral reuse. However, in practice, as the search space of channel assignment for centralized DCA scheme in multi-cell systems grows exponentially with the increase of the number of required calls, channels, and cells, it becomes an NP-hard problem and is currently too complicated to find an optimum channel allocation. In this paper, we propose an ant colony optimization (ACO) based DCA scheme using a low-complexity ACO algorithm which is a kind of heuristic algorithm in order to solve the aforementioned problem. Simulation results demonstrate significant performance improvements compared to the existing schemes in terms of the grade of service (GoS) performance and the forced termination probability of existing calls without degrading the system performance of the average throughput.
A Novel Dynamic Algorithm for IT Outsourcing Risk Assessment Based on Transaction Cost Theory
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Guodong Cong
2015-01-01
Full Text Available With the great risk exposed in IT outsourcing, how to assess IT outsourcing risk becomes a critical issue. However, most of approaches to date need to further adapt to the particular complexity of IT outsourcing risk for either falling short in subjective bias, inaccuracy, or efficiency. This paper proposes a dynamic algorithm of risk assessment. It initially forwards extended three layers (risk factors, risks, and risk consequences of transferring mechanism based on transaction cost theory (TCT as the framework of risk analysis, which bridges the interconnection of components in three layers with preset transferring probability and impact. Then, it establishes an equation group between risk factors and risk consequences, which assures the “attribution” more precisely to track the specific sources that lead to certain loss. Namely, in each phase of the outsourcing lifecycle, both the likelihood and the loss of each risk factor and those of each risk are acquired through solving equation group with real data of risk consequences collected. In this “reverse” way, risk assessment becomes a responsive and interactive process with real data instead of subjective estimation, which improves the accuracy and alleviates bias in risk assessment. The numerical case proves the effectiveness of the algorithm compared with the approach forwarded by other references.
A new neuro-fuzzy training algorithm for identifying dynamic characteristics of smart dampers
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Nguyen, Sy Dzung; Choi, Seung-Bok
2012-01-01
This paper proposes a new algorithm, named establishing neuro-fuzzy system (ENFS), to identify dynamic characteristics of smart dampers such as magnetorheological (MR) and electrorheological (ER) dampers. In the ENFS, data clustering is performed based on the proposed algorithm named partitioning data space (PDS). Firstly, the PDS builds data clusters in joint input–output data space with appropriate constraints. The role of these constraints is to create reasonable data distribution in clusters. The ENFS then uses these clusters to perform the following tasks. Firstly, the fuzzy sets expressing characteristics of data clusters are established. The structure of the fuzzy sets is adjusted to be suitable for features of the data set. Secondly, an appropriate structure of neuro-fuzzy (NF) expressed by an optimal number of labeled data clusters and the fuzzy-set groups is determined. After the ENFS is introduced, its effectiveness is evaluated by a prediction-error-comparative work between the proposed method and some other methods in identifying numerical data sets such as ‘daily data of stock A’, or in identifying a function. The ENFS is then applied to identify damping force characteristics of the smart dampers. In order to evaluate the effectiveness of the ENFS in identifying the damping forces of the smart dampers, the prediction errors are presented by comparing with experimental results. (paper)
A new neuro-fuzzy training algorithm for identifying dynamic characteristics of smart dampers
Dzung Nguyen, Sy; Choi, Seung-Bok
2012-08-01
This paper proposes a new algorithm, named establishing neuro-fuzzy system (ENFS), to identify dynamic characteristics of smart dampers such as magnetorheological (MR) and electrorheological (ER) dampers. In the ENFS, data clustering is performed based on the proposed algorithm named partitioning data space (PDS). Firstly, the PDS builds data clusters in joint input-output data space with appropriate constraints. The role of these constraints is to create reasonable data distribution in clusters. The ENFS then uses these clusters to perform the following tasks. Firstly, the fuzzy sets expressing characteristics of data clusters are established. The structure of the fuzzy sets is adjusted to be suitable for features of the data set. Secondly, an appropriate structure of neuro-fuzzy (NF) expressed by an optimal number of labeled data clusters and the fuzzy-set groups is determined. After the ENFS is introduced, its effectiveness is evaluated by a prediction-error-comparative work between the proposed method and some other methods in identifying numerical data sets such as ‘daily data of stock A’, or in identifying a function. The ENFS is then applied to identify damping force characteristics of the smart dampers. In order to evaluate the effectiveness of the ENFS in identifying the damping forces of the smart dampers, the prediction errors are presented by comparing with experimental results.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Chandrasekhar Potluri,; Madhavi Anugolu; Marco P. Schoen; D. Subbaram Naidu
2013-08-01
In this work, an array of three surface Electrography (sEMG) sensors are used to acquired muscle extension and contraction signals for 18 healthy test subjects. The skeletal muscle force is estimated using the acquired sEMG signals and a Non-linear Wiener Hammerstein model, relating the two signals in a dynamic fashion. The model is obtained from using System Identification (SI) algorithm. The obtained force models for each sensor are fused using a proposed fuzzy logic concept with the intent to improve the force estimation accuracy and resilience to sensor failure or misalignment. For the fuzzy logic inference system, the sEMG entropy, the relative error, and the correlation of the force signals are considered for defining the membership functions. The proposed fusion algorithm yields an average of 92.49% correlation between the actual force and the overall estimated force output. In addition, the proposed fusionbased approach is implemented on a test platform. Experiments indicate an improvement in finger/hand force estimation.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Setiawan, A; Wangsaputra, R; Halim, A H; Martawirya, Y Y
2016-01-01
This paper deals with Flexible Manufacturing System (FMS) production rescheduling due to unavailability of cutting tools caused either of cutting tool failure or life time limit. The FMS consists of parallel identical machines integrated with an automatic material handling system and it runs fully automatically. Each machine has a same cutting tool configuration that consists of different geometrical cutting tool types on each tool magazine. The job usually takes two stages. Each stage has sequential operations allocated to machines considering the cutting tool life. In the real situation, the cutting tool can fail before the cutting tool life is reached. The objective in this paper is to develop a dynamic scheduling algorithm when a cutting tool is broken during unmanned and a rescheduling needed. The algorithm consists of four steps. The first step is generating initial schedule, the second step is determination the cutting tool failure time, the third step is determination of system status at cutting tool failure time and the fourth step is the rescheduling for unfinished jobs. The approaches to solve the problem are complete-reactive scheduling and robust-proactive scheduling. The new schedules result differences starting time and completion time of each operations from the initial schedule. (paper)
Roy, Michael J
2017-08-08
The 'assets-based approach' to health and well-being has, on the one hand, been presented as a potentially empowering means to address the social determinants of health while, on the other, been criticised for obscuring structural drivers of inequality and encouraging individualisation and marketisation; in essence, for being a tool of neoliberalism. This study looks at how this apparent contestation plays out in practice through a critical realist-inspired examination of practitioner discourses, specifically of those working within communities to address social vulnerabilities that we know impact upon health. The study finds that practitioners interact with the assets-based policy discourse in interesting ways. Rather than unwitting tools of neoliberalism, they considered their work to be about mitigating the worst effects of poverty and social vulnerability in ways that enhance collectivism and solidarity, concepts that neoliberalism arguably seeks to disrupt. Furthermore, rather than a different, innovative, way of working, they consider the assets-based approach to simply be a re-labelling of what they have been doing anyway, for as long as they can remember. So, for practitioners, rather than a 'new' approach to public health, the assets-based public health movement seems to be a return to recognising and appreciating the role of community within public health policy and practice; ideals that predate neoliberalism by quite some considerable time.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
R. Bartolini
2012-03-01
Full Text Available Linac driven free electron lasers (FELs operating in the x-ray region require a high brightness electron beam in order to reach saturation within a reasonable distance in the undulator train or to enable sophisticated seeding schemes using external lasers. The beam dynamics optimization is usually a time consuming process in which many parameters of the accelerator and the compression system have to be controlled simultaneously. The requirements on the electron beam quality may also vary significantly with the particular application. For example, the beam dynamics optimization strategy for self-amplified spontaneous emission operation and seeded operation are rather different: seeded operation requires a more careful control of the beam uniformity over a relatively large portion of the longitudinal current distribution of the electron bunch and is therefore more challenging from an accelerator physics point of view. Multiobjective genetic algorithms are particularly well suited when the optimization of many parameters is targeting several objectives simultaneously, often with conflicting requirements. In this paper we propose a novel optimization strategy based on a combination of multiobjective optimization with a fast computation of the FEL performance. The application to the proposed UK’s New Light Source is reported and the benefits of this method are highlighted.
A heuristic algorithm to approximate dynamic program of a novel new product development process
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Hamed Fazlollahtabar
2016-01-01
Full Text Available We are concerned with a new product development (NPD network in digital environment in which the aim is to find integrated attributes for value added purposes. Different views exist for new product development. Here, the effective factors are categorized into customers, competitors and the company’s own past experience. Also, various attributes are considered for the development of a product. Thus, using digital data of attributes, the optimal set of attributes is chosen for user in the new product development. Regarding the multi stage decision making process of the customer, competitor and company’s own past experience, we develop a multi-dimensional dynamic program as a useful tool for multi stage decision making. To counteract the dynamism of the digital data in different time periods, two concepts of state and policy direction are introduced to determine the cost of moving through the stages of the proposed NPD digital network. Since the space requirements and value function computations become impractical for even moderate size, we approximate the optimal value function developing a heuristic algorithm.
A QoS-Based Dynamic Queue Length Scheduling Algorithm in Multiantenna Heterogeneous Systems
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Verikoukis Christos
2010-01-01
Full Text Available The use of real-time delay-sensitive applications in wireless systems has significantly grown during the last years. Therefore the designers of wireless systems have faced a challenging issue to guarantee the required Quality of Service (QoS. On the other hand, the recent advances and the extensive use of multiple antennas have already been included in several commercial standards, where the multibeam opportunistic transmission beamforming strategies have been proposed to improve the performance of the wireless systems. A cross-layer-based dynamically tuned queue length scheduler is presented in this paper, for the Downlink of multiuser and multiantenna WLAN systems with heterogeneous traffic requirements. To align with modern wireless systems transmission strategies, an opportunistic scheduling algorithm is employed, while a priority to the different traffic classes is applied. A tradeoff between the maximization of the throughput of the system and the guarantee of the maximum allowed delay is obtained. Therefore, the length of the queue is dynamically adjusted to select the appropriate conditions based on the operator requirements.
Massively Parallel and Scalable Implicit Time Integration Algorithms for Structural Dynamics
Farhat, Charbel
1997-01-01
Explicit codes are often used to simulate the nonlinear dynamics of large-scale structural systems, even for low frequency response, because the storage and CPU requirements entailed by the repeated factorizations traditionally found in implicit codes rapidly overwhelm the available computing resources. With the advent of parallel processing, this trend is accelerating because of the following additional facts: (a) explicit schemes are easier to parallelize than implicit ones, and (b) explicit schemes induce short range interprocessor communications that are relatively inexpensive, while the factorization methods used in most implicit schemes induce long range interprocessor communications that often ruin the sought-after speed-up. However, the time step restriction imposed by the Courant stability condition on all explicit schemes cannot yet be offset by the speed of the currently available parallel hardware. Therefore, it is essential to develop efficient alternatives to direct methods that are also amenable to massively parallel processing because implicit codes using unconditionally stable time-integration algorithms are computationally more efficient when simulating the low-frequency dynamics of aerospace structures.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Banerjee, Amit; Abu-Mahfouz, Issam
2014-01-01
The use of evolutionary algorithms has been popular in recent years for solving the inverse problem of identifying system parameters given the chaotic response of a dynamical system. The inverse problem is reformulated as a minimization problem and population-based optimizers such as evolutionary algorithms have been shown to be efficient solvers of the minimization problem. However, to the best of our knowledge, there has been no published work that evaluates the efficacy of using the two most popular evolutionary techniques – particle swarm optimization and differential evolution algorithm, on a wide range of parameter estimation problems. In this paper, the two methods along with their variants (for a total of seven algorithms) are applied to fifteen different parameter estimation problems of varying degrees of complexity. Estimation results are analyzed using nonparametric statistical methods to identify if an algorithm is statistically superior to others over the class of problems analyzed. Results based on parameter estimation quality suggest that there are significant differences between the algorithms with the newer, more sophisticated algorithms performing better than their canonical versions. More importantly, significant differences were also found among variants of the particle swarm optimizer and the best performing differential evolution algorithm
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Faucher, V.
2014-01-01
This HDR is dedicated to the research in the framework of fast transient dynamics for industrial fluid-structure systems carried in the Laboratory of Dynamic Studies from CEA, implementing new numerical methods for the modelling of complex systems and the parallel solution of large coupled problems on supercomputers. One key issue for the proposed approaches is the limitation to its minimum of the number of non-physical parameters, to cope with constraints arising from the area of usage of the concepts: safety for both nuclear applications (CEA, EDF) and aeronautics (ONERA), protection of the citizen (EC/JRC) in particular. Kinematic constraints strongly coupling structures (namely through unilateral contact) or fluid and structures (with both conformant or non-conformant meshes depending on the geometrical situation) are handled through exact methods including Lagrange Multipliers, with consequences on the solution strategy to be dealt with. This latter aspect makes EPX, the simulation code where the methods are integrated, a singular tool in the community of fast transient dynamics software. The document mainly relies on a description of the modelling needs for industrial fast transient scenarios, for nuclear applications in particular, and the proposed solutions built in the framework of the collaboration between CEA, EDF (via the LaMSID laboratory) and the LaMCoS laboratory from INSA Lyon. The main considered examples are the tearing of the fluid-filled tank after impact, the Code Disruptive Accident for a Generation IV reactor or the ruin of reinforced concrete structures under impact. Innovative models and parallel algorithms are thus proposed, allowing to carry out with robustness and performance the corresponding simulations on supercomputers made of interconnected multi-core nodes, with a strict preservation of the quality of the physical solution. This was particularly the main point of the ANR RePDyn project (2010-2013), with CEA as the pilot. (author
Lara-Cabrera, Raúl; Cotta, Carlos; Fernández Leiva, Antonio J.
2013-01-01
This work presents a procedural content generation system that uses an evolutionary algorithm in order to generate interesting maps for a real-time strategy game, called Planet Wars. Interestingness is here captured by the dynamism of games (i.e., the extent to which they are action-packed). We consider two different approaches to measure the dynamism of the games resulting from these generated maps, one based on fluctuations in the resources controlled by either player and another one based ...
French, Robert M; Glady, Yannick; Thibaut, Jean-Pierre
2017-08-01
In recent years, eyetracking has begun to be used to study the dynamics of analogy making. Numerous scanpath-comparison algorithms and machine-learning techniques are available that can be applied to the raw eyetracking data. We show how scanpath-comparison algorithms, combined with multidimensional scaling and a classification algorithm, can be used to resolve an outstanding question in analogy making-namely, whether or not children's and adults' strategies in solving analogy problems are different. (They are.) We show which of these scanpath-comparison algorithms is best suited to the kinds of analogy problems that have formed the basis of much analogy-making research over the years. Furthermore, we use machine-learning classification algorithms to examine the item-to-item saccade vectors making up these scanpaths. We show which of these algorithms best predicts, from very early on in a trial, on the basis of the frequency of various item-to-item saccades, whether a child or an adult is doing the problem. This type of analysis can also be used to predict, on the basis of the item-to-item saccade dynamics in the first third of a trial, whether or not a problem will be solved correctly.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Alsumait, J.S.; Qasem, M.; Sykulski, J.K.; Al-Othman, A.K.
2010-01-01
In this paper, an improved algorithm based on Pattern Search method (PS) to solve the Dynamic Economic Dispatch is proposed. The algorithm maintains the essential unit ramp rate constraint, along with all other necessary constraints, not only for the time horizon of operation (24 h), but it preserves these constraints through the transaction period to the next time horizon (next day) in order to avoid the discontinuity of the power system operation. The Dynamic Economic and Emission Dispatch problem (DEED) is also considered. The load balance constraints, operating limits, valve-point loading and network losses are included in the models of both DED and DEED. The numerical results clarify the significance of the improved algorithm and verify its performance.
Algorithm of dynamic stabilization system for a car 4x4 with a link rear axle
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
M. M. Jileikin
2014-01-01
Full Text Available The slow development of active safety systems of the automobile all-wheel drive vehicles is the cause of lack of researches in the field of power distribution under the specific conditions of movement. The purpose of work is to develop methods to control a curvilinear motion of 4x4 cars with a link to the rear axle that provides the increase in directional and trajectory stability of the car. The paper analyses the known methods to increase wheeled vehicles movement stability. It also offers a method for power flow redistribution in the transmission of the car 4x4 with a link to the rear axle, providing the increase in directional and trajectory stability of the car.To study the performance and effectiveness of the proposed method a mathematical model of the moving car 4x4 with a link to the rear axle is developed. Simulation methods allowed us to establish the following:1. for car 4x4 with redistribution of torque between the driving axles in the range of 100:0 - 50:50 and with redistribution of torque between the wheels of the rear axle in the range of 0:100 the most effective are the stabilization algorithms used in combination “Lowing power consumption of the engine +Creation of stabilizing the moment due to the redistribution of torque on different wheels", providing the increase in directional and trajectory stability by 12...93%;2. for car 4x4 with redistribution of torque between the driving axles in the range 100:0 - 0:100 and with redistribution of torque between the wheels of the rear axle in the range of 0:100 the best option is a combination of algorithms "Lowing power consumption of the engine + Creation of stabilizing moment due to redistribution of torques on different wheels", providing the increase in directional and trajectory stability by 27...93%.A comparative analysis of algorithms efficiency of dynamic stabilization system operation for two-axle wheeled vehicles depending on the torque redistribution between the driving
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Luman Zhao
2015-01-01
Full Text Available A thrust allocation method was proposed based on a hybrid optimization algorithm to efficiently and dynamically position a semisubmersible drilling rig. That is, the thrust allocation was optimized to produce the generalized forces and moment required while at the same time minimizing the total power consumption under the premise that forbidden zones should be taken into account. An optimization problem was mathematically formulated to provide the optimal thrust allocation by introducing the corresponding design variables, objective function, and constraints. A hybrid optimization algorithm consisting of a genetic algorithm and a sequential quadratic programming (SQP algorithm was selected and used to solve this problem. The proposed method was evaluated by applying it to a thrust allocation problem for a semisubmersible drilling rig. The results indicate that the proposed method can be used as part of a cost-effective strategy for thrust allocation of the rig.
Two-dimensional priority-based dynamic resource allocation algorithm for QoS in WDM/TDM PON networks
Sun, Yixin; Liu, Bo; Zhang, Lijia; Xin, Xiangjun; Zhang, Qi; Rao, Lan
2018-01-01
Wavelength division multiplexing/time division multiplexing (WDM/TDM) passive optical networks (PON) is being viewed as a promising solution for delivering multiple services and applications. The hybrid WDM / TDM PON uses the wavelength and bandwidth allocation strategy to control the distribution of the wavelength channels in the uplink direction, so that it can ensure the high bandwidth requirements of multiple Optical Network Units (ONUs) while improving the wavelength resource utilization. Through the investigation of the presented dynamic bandwidth allocation algorithms, these algorithms can't satisfy the requirements of different levels of service very well while adapting to the structural characteristics of mixed WDM / TDM PON system. This paper introduces a novel wavelength and bandwidth allocation algorithm to efficiently utilize the bandwidth and support QoS (Quality of Service) guarantees in WDM/TDM PON. Two priority based polling subcycles are introduced in order to increase system efficiency and improve system performance. The fixed priority polling subcycle and dynamic priority polling subcycle follow different principles to implement wavelength and bandwidth allocation according to the priority of different levels of service. A simulation was conducted to study the performance of the priority based polling in dynamic resource allocation algorithm in WDM/TDM PON. The results show that the performance of delay-sensitive services is greatly improved without degrading QoS guarantees for other services. Compared with the traditional dynamic bandwidth allocation algorithms, this algorithm can meet bandwidth needs of different priority traffic class, achieve low loss rate performance, and ensure real-time of high priority traffic class in terms of overall traffic on the network.
Xu, Z N; Wang, S Y
2015-02-01
To improve the accuracy in the calculation of dynamic contact angle for drops on the inclined surface, a significant number of numerical drop profiles on the inclined surface with different inclination angles, drop volumes, and contact angles are generated based on the finite difference method, a least-squares ellipse-fitting algorithm is used to calculate the dynamic contact angle. The influences of the above three factors are systematically investigated. The results reveal that the dynamic contact angle errors, including the errors of the left and right contact angles, evaluated by the ellipse-fitting algorithm tend to increase with inclination angle/drop volume/contact angle. If the drop volume and the solid substrate are fixed, the errors of the left and right contact angles increase with inclination angle. After performing a tremendous amount of computation, the critical dimensionless drop volumes corresponding to the critical contact angle error are obtained. Based on the values of the critical volumes, a highly accurate dynamic contact angle algorithm is proposed and fully validated. Within nearly the whole hydrophobicity range, it can decrease the dynamic contact angle error in the inclined plane method to less than a certain value even for different types of liquids.
Algorithms of GPU-enabled reactive force field (ReaxFF) molecular dynamics.
Zheng, Mo; Li, Xiaoxia; Guo, Li
2013-04-01
Reactive force field (ReaxFF), a recent and novel bond order potential, allows for reactive molecular dynamics (ReaxFF MD) simulations for modeling larger and more complex molecular systems involving chemical reactions when compared with computation intensive quantum mechanical methods. However, ReaxFF MD can be approximately 10-50 times slower than classical MD due to its explicit modeling of bond forming and breaking, the dynamic charge equilibration at each time-step, and its one order smaller time-step than the classical MD, all of which pose significant computational challenges in simulation capability to reach spatio-temporal scales of nanometers and nanoseconds. The very recent advances of graphics processing unit (GPU) provide not only highly favorable performance for GPU enabled MD programs compared with CPU implementations but also an opportunity to manage with the computing power and memory demanding nature imposed on computer hardware by ReaxFF MD. In this paper, we present the algorithms of GMD-Reax, the first GPU enabled ReaxFF MD program with significantly improved performance surpassing CPU implementations on desktop workstations. The performance of GMD-Reax has been benchmarked on a PC equipped with a NVIDIA C2050 GPU for coal pyrolysis simulation systems with atoms ranging from 1378 to 27,283. GMD-Reax achieved speedups as high as 12 times faster than Duin et al.'s FORTRAN codes in Lammps on 8 CPU cores and 6 times faster than the Lammps' C codes based on PuReMD in terms of the simulation time per time-step averaged over 100 steps. GMD-Reax could be used as a new and efficient computational tool for exploiting very complex molecular reactions via ReaxFF MD simulation on desktop workstations. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Xiaochao Tang
2013-03-01
Full Text Available With the movement towards the implementation of mechanistic-empirical pavement design guide (MEPDG, an accurate determination of pavement layer moduli is vital for predicting pavement critical mechanistic responses. A backcalculation procedure is commonly used to estimate the pavement layer moduli based on the non-destructive falling weight deflectometer (FWD tests. Backcalculation of flexible pavement layer properties is an inverse problem with known input and output signals based upon which unknown parameters of the pavement system are evaluated. In this study, an inverse analysis procedure that combines the finite element analysis and a population-based optimization technique, Genetic Algorithm (GA has been developed to determine the pavement layer structural properties. A lightweight deflectometer (LWD was used to infer the moduli of instrumented three-layer scaled flexible pavement models. While the common practice in backcalculating pavement layer properties still assumes a static FWD load and uses only peak values of the load and deflections, dynamic analysis was conducted to simulate the impulse LWD load. The recorded time histories of the LWD load were used as the known inputs into the pavement system while the measured time-histories of surface central deflections and subgrade deflections measured with a linear variable differential transformers (LVDT were considered as the outputs. As a result, consistent pavement layer moduli can be obtained through this inverse analysis procedure.
A genetic algorithm for a bi-objective mathematical model for dynamic virtual cell formation problem
Moradgholi, Mostafa; Paydar, Mohammad Mahdi; Mahdavi, Iraj; Jouzdani, Javid
2016-09-01
Nowadays, with the increasing pressure of the competitive business environment and demand for diverse products, manufacturers are force to seek for solutions that reduce production costs and rise product quality. Cellular manufacturing system (CMS), as a means to this end, has been a point of attraction to both researchers and practitioners. Limitations of cell formation problem (CFP), as one of important topics in CMS, have led to the introduction of virtual CMS (VCMS). This research addresses a bi-objective dynamic virtual cell formation problem (DVCFP) with the objective of finding the optimal formation of cells, considering the material handling costs, fixed machine installation costs and variable production costs of machines and workforce. Furthermore, we consider different skills on different machines in workforce assignment in a multi-period planning horizon. The bi-objective model is transformed to a single-objective fuzzy goal programming model and to show its performance; numerical examples are solved using the LINGO software. In addition, genetic algorithm (GA) is customized to tackle large-scale instances of the problems to show the performance of the solution method.
Variational symplectic algorithm for guiding center dynamics and its application in tokamak geometry
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Qin Hong; Guan Xiaoyin; Tang, William M.
2009-01-01
A variational symplectic integrator for the guiding center motion of charged particles in general magnetic fields is developed to enable accurate long-time simulation studies of magnetized plasmas. Instead of discretizing the differential equations of the guiding center motion, the action of the guiding center motion is discretized and minimized to obtain the iteration rules for advancing the dynamics. The variational symplectic integrator conserves exactly a discrete Lagrangian symplectic structure and globally bounds the numerical error in energy by a small number for all simulation time steps. Compared with standard integrators, such as the fourth order Runge-Kutta method, the variational symplectic integrator has superior numerical properties over long integration time. For example, in a two-dimensional tokamak geometry, the variational symplectic integrator is able to guarantee the accuracy for both the trapped and transit particle orbits for arbitrarily long simulation time. This is important for modern large-scale simulation studies of fusion plasmas where it is critical to use algorithms with long-term accuracy and fidelity. The variational symplectic integrator is expected to have a wide range of applications.
[A quick algorithm of dynamic spectrum photoelectric pulse wave detection based on LabVIEW].
Lin, Ling; Li, Na; Li, Gang
2010-02-01
Dynamic spectrum (DS) detection is attractive among the numerous noninvasive blood component detection methods because of the elimination of the main interference of the individual discrepancy and measure conditions. DS is a kind of spectrum extracted from the photoelectric pulse wave and closely relative to the artery blood. It can be used in a noninvasive blood component concentration examination. The key issues in DS detection are high detection precision and high operation speed. The precision of measure can be advanced by making use of over-sampling and lock-in amplifying on the pick-up of photoelectric pulse wave in DS detection. In the present paper, the theory expression formula of the over-sampling and lock-in amplifying method was deduced firstly. Then in order to overcome the problems of great data and excessive operation brought on by this technology, a quick algorithm based on LabVIEW and a method of using external C code applied in the pick-up of photoelectric pulse wave were presented. Experimental verification was conducted in the environment of LabVIEW. The results show that by the method pres ented, the speed of operation was promoted rapidly and the data memory was reduced largely.
Due Date Assignment in a Dynamic Job Shop with the Orthogonal Kernel Least Squares Algorithm
Yang, D. H.; Hu, L.; Qian, Y.
2017-06-01
Meeting due dates is a key goal in the manufacturing industries. This paper proposes a method for due date assignment (DDA) by using the Orthogonal Kernel Least Squares Algorithm (OKLSA). A simulation model is built to imitate the production process of a highly dynamic job shop. Several factors describing job characteristics and system state are extracted as attributes to predict job flow-times. A number of experiments under conditions of varying dispatching rules and 90% shop utilization level have been carried out to evaluate the effectiveness of OKLSA applied for DDA. The prediction performance of OKLSA is compared with those of five conventional DDA models and back-propagation neural network (BPNN). The experimental results indicate that OKLSA is statistically superior to other DDA models in terms of mean absolute lateness and root mean squares lateness in most cases. The only exception occurs when the shortest processing time rule is used for dispatching jobs, the difference between OKLSA and BPNN is not statistically significant.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Dashan Zhang
2016-04-01
Full Text Available The development of image sensor and optics enables the application of vision-based techniques to the non-contact dynamic vibration analysis of large-scale structures. As an emerging technology, a vision-based approach allows for remote measuring and does not bring any additional mass to the measuring object compared with traditional contact measurements. In this study, a high-speed vision-based sensor system is developed to extract structure vibration signals in real time. A fast motion extraction algorithm is required for this system because the maximum sampling frequency of the charge-coupled device (CCD sensor can reach up to 1000 Hz. Two efficient subpixel level motion extraction algorithms, namely the modified Taylor approximation refinement algorithm and the localization refinement algorithm, are integrated into the proposed vision sensor. Quantitative analysis shows that both of the two modified algorithms are at least five times faster than conventional upsampled cross-correlation approaches and achieve satisfactory error performance. The practicability of the developed sensor is evaluated by an experiment in a laboratory environment and a field test. Experimental results indicate that the developed high-speed vision-based sensor system can extract accurate dynamic structure vibration signals by tracking either artificial targets or natural features.
Mateos-Pérez, José María; Soto-Montenegro, María Luisa; Peña-Zalbidea, Santiago; Desco, Manuel; Vaquero, Juan José
2016-02-01
We present a novel segmentation algorithm for dynamic PET studies that groups pixels according to the similarity of their time-activity curves. Sixteen mice bearing a human tumor cell line xenograft (CH-157MN) were imaged with three different (68)Ga-DOTA-peptides (DOTANOC, DOTATATE, DOTATOC) using a small animal PET-CT scanner. Regional activities (input function and tumor) were obtained after manual delineation of regions of interest over the image. The algorithm was implemented under the jClustering framework and used to extract the same regional activities as in the manual approach. The volume of distribution in the tumor was computed using the Logan linear method. A Kruskal-Wallis test was used to investigate significant differences between the manually and automatically obtained volumes of distribution. The algorithm successfully segmented all the studies. No significant differences were found for the same tracer across different segmentation methods. Manual delineation revealed significant differences between DOTANOC and the other two tracers (DOTANOC - DOTATATE, p=0.020; DOTANOC - DOTATOC, p=0.033). Similar differences were found using the leader-follower algorithm. An open implementation of a novel segmentation method for dynamic PET studies is presented and validated in rodent studies. It successfully replicated the manual results obtained in small-animal studies, thus making it a reliable substitute for this task and, potentially, for other dynamic segmentation procedures. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Mansouri, S.
1985-06-01
This work has been consecrated to the modular simulation of a PWR 925 MWe power plant's dynamic and to the design of a multivariable algorithm control: a mathematical model of a plant type was developed. The programs were written on a structured manner in order to maximize flexibility. A multivariable control algorithm based on pole placement with output feedback was elaborated together with its correspondent program. The simulation results for different normal transients were shown and the capabilities of the new method of multivariable control are illustrated through many examples
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Yang, H.T.; Chen, S.L.
1989-01-01
A multi-objective optimization approach to generation expansion planning is presented. The approach is designed by adding a new multi-criteria decision (MCD) procedure to the conventional algorithm which combines dynamic programming with production simulation method. The MCD procedure can help decision makers weight the relative importance of multiple attributes associated with the decision alternatives, and find the near-best compromise solution efficiently at each optimization step of the conventional algorithm. Practical application of proposed approach to feasibility evaluation of the fourth nuclear power plant of Tawian is also presented, demonstrating the effectiveness and limitations of the approach
Okumura, Hisashi; Itoh, Satoru G; Okamoto, Yuko
2007-02-28
The authors propose explicit symplectic integrators of molecular dynamics (MD) algorithms for rigid-body molecules in the canonical and isobaric-isothermal ensembles. They also present a symplectic algorithm in the constant normal pressure and lateral surface area ensemble and that combined with the Parrinello-Rahman algorithm. Employing the symplectic integrators for MD algorithms, there is a conserved quantity which is close to Hamiltonian. Therefore, they can perform a MD simulation more stably than by conventional nonsymplectic algorithms. They applied this algorithm to a TIP3P pure water system at 300 K and compared the time evolution of the Hamiltonian with those by the nonsymplectic algorithms. They found that the Hamiltonian was conserved well by the symplectic algorithm even for a time step of 4 fs. This time step is longer than typical values of 0.5-2 fs which are used by the conventional nonsymplectic algorithms.
When Algorithms Shape Collective Action: Social Media and the Dynamics of Cloud Protesting
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Stefania Milan
2015-12-01
Full Text Available How does the algorithmically mediated environment of social media restructure social action? This article combines social movement studies and science and technology studies to explore the role of social media in the organization, unfolding, and diffusion of contemporary protests. In particular, it examines how activists leverage the technical properties of social media to develop a joint narrative and a collective identity. To this end, it offers the notion of cloud protesting as a theoretical approach and framework for empirical analysis. Cloud protesting indicates a specific type of mobilization that is grounded on, modeled around, and enabled by social media platforms and mobile devices and the virtual universes they identify. The notion emphasizes both the productive mediation of social and mobile media and the importance of activists’ sense-making activities. It also acknowledges that social media set in motion a process that is sociotechnical in nature rather than merely sociological or communicative, and thus can be understood only by intersecting the material and the symbolic dimensions of contemporary digitally mediated collective action. The article shows how the specific materiality of social media intervenes in the actors’ meaning work by fostering four mechanisms—namely performance, interpellation, temporality, and reproducibility—which concur to create a “politics of visibility” that alters traditional identity dynamics. In addition, it exposes the connection between organizational patterns and the role of individuals, explaining how the politics of visibility is the result of a process that originates and ends within the individual—which ultimately creates individuals-in-the-group rather than groups.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Anish Pandey
2017-02-01
Full Text Available This article introduces a singleton type-1 fuzzy logic system (T1-SFLS controller and Fuzzy-WDO hybrid for the autonomous mobile robot navigation and collision avoidance in an unknown static and dynamic environment. The WDO (Wind Driven Optimization algorithm is used to optimize and tune the input/output membership function parameters of the fuzzy controller. The WDO algorithm is working based on the atmospheric motion of infinitesimal small air parcels navigates over an N-dimensional search domain. The performance of this proposed technique has compared through many computer simulations and real-time experiments by using Khepera-III mobile robot. As compared to the T1-SFLS controller the Fuzzy-WDO algorithm is found good agreement for mobile robot navigation.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Koh Kim Jie
2017-01-01
Full Text Available Quadratic damping nonlinearity is challenging for displacement based structural dynamics problem as the problem is nonlinear in time derivative of the primitive variable. For such nonlinearity, the formulation of tangent stiffness matrix is not lucid in the literature. Consequently, ambiguity related to kinematics update arises when implementing the time integration-iterative algorithm. In present work, an Euler-Bernoulli beam vibration problem with quadratic damping nonlinearity is addressed as the main source of quadratic damping nonlinearity arises from drag force estimation, which is generally valid only for slender structures. Employing Newton-Raphson formulation, tangent stiffness components associated with quadratic damping nonlinearity requires velocity input for evaluation purpose. For this reason, two mathematically equivalent algorithm structures with different kinematics arrangement are tested. Both algorithm structures result in the same accuracy and convergence characteristic of solution.
Zhang, Huaguang; Jiang, He; Luo, Chaomin; Xiao, Geyang
2017-10-01
In this paper, we investigate the nonzero-sum games for a class of discrete-time (DT) nonlinear systems by using a novel policy iteration (PI) adaptive dynamic programming (ADP) method. The main idea of our proposed PI scheme is to utilize the iterative ADP algorithm to obtain the iterative control policies, which not only ensure the system to achieve stability but also minimize the performance index function for each player. This paper integrates game theory, optimal control theory, and reinforcement learning technique to formulate and handle the DT nonzero-sum games for multiplayer. First, we design three actor-critic algorithms, an offline one and two online ones, for the PI scheme. Subsequently, neural networks are employed to implement these algorithms and the corresponding stability analysis is also provided via the Lyapunov theory. Finally, a numerical simulation example is presented to demonstrate the effectiveness of our proposed approach.
Wei, Kun; Ren, Bingyin
2018-02-13
In a future intelligent factory, a robotic manipulator must work efficiently and safely in a Human-Robot collaborative and dynamic unstructured environment. Autonomous path planning is the most important issue which must be resolved first in the process of improving robotic manipulator intelligence. Among the path-planning methods, the Rapidly Exploring Random Tree (RRT) algorithm based on random sampling has been widely applied in dynamic path planning for a high-dimensional robotic manipulator, especially in a complex environment because of its probability completeness, perfect expansion, and fast exploring speed over other planning methods. However, the existing RRT algorithm has a limitation in path planning for a robotic manipulator in a dynamic unstructured environment. Therefore, an autonomous obstacle avoidance dynamic path-planning method for a robotic manipulator based on an improved RRT algorithm, called Smoothly RRT (S-RRT), is proposed. This method that targets a directional node extends and can increase the sampling speed and efficiency of RRT dramatically. A path optimization strategy based on the maximum curvature constraint is presented to generate a smooth and curved continuous executable path for a robotic manipulator. Finally, the correctness, effectiveness, and practicability of the proposed method are demonstrated and validated via a MATLAB static simulation and a Robot Operating System (ROS) dynamic simulation environment as well as a real autonomous obstacle avoidance experiment in a dynamic unstructured environment for a robotic manipulator. The proposed method not only provides great practical engineering significance for a robotic manipulator's obstacle avoidance in an intelligent factory, but also theoretical reference value for other type of robots' path planning.
Graham, James; Ternovskiy, Igor V.
2013-06-01
We applied a two stage unsupervised hierarchical learning system to model complex dynamic surveillance and cyber space monitoring systems using a non-commercial version of the NeoAxis visualization software. The hierarchical scene learning and recognition approach is based on hierarchical expectation maximization, and was linked to a 3D graphics engine for validation of learning and classification results and understanding the human - autonomous system relationship. Scene recognition is performed by taking synthetically generated data and feeding it to a dynamic logic algorithm. The algorithm performs hierarchical recognition of the scene by first examining the features of the objects to determine which objects are present, and then determines the scene based on the objects present. This paper presents a framework within which low level data linked to higher-level visualization can provide support to a human operator and be evaluated in a detailed and systematic way.
de Souza, Isaac D T; Silva, Sergio N; Teles, Rafael M; Fernandes, Marcelo A C
2014-10-15
The development of new embedded algorithms for automation and control of industrial equipment usually requires the use of real-time testing. However, the equipment required is often expensive, which means that such tests are often not viable. The objective of this work was therefore to develop an embedded platform for the distributed real-time simulation of dynamic systems. This platform, called the Real-Time Simulator for Dynamic Systems (RTSDS), could be applied in both industrial and academic environments. In industrial applications, the RTSDS could be used to optimize embedded control algorithms. In the academic sphere, it could be used to support research into new embedded solutions for automation and control and could also be used as a tool to assist in undergraduate and postgraduate teaching related to the development of projects concerning on-board control systems.
Dynamics Assessment of Grid-Synchronization Algorithms for Single-Phase Grid-Connected Converters
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Han, Yang; Luo, Mingyu; Guerrero, Josep M.
2015-01-01
Several advanced phase-lock-loop (PLL) algorithms have been proposed for single-phase power electronic systems. Among these algorithms, the orthogonal signal generators (OSGs) are widely utilized to generate a set of in-quadrature signals, owing to its benefit of simple digital implementation and...
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Ning Dong
2014-01-01
functions are executed, and comparisons with five state-of-the-art algorithms are made. The results illustrate that the proposed algorithm is competitive with and in some cases superior to the compared ones in terms of the quality, efficiency, and the robustness of the obtained results.
The PHMC algorithm for simulations of dynamical fermions; 1, description and properties
Frezzotti, R
1999-01-01
We give a detailed description of the so-called Polynomial Hybrid Monte Carlo (PHMC) algorithm. The effects of the correction factor, which is introduced to render the algorithm exact, are discussed, stressing their relevance for the statistical fluctuations and (almost) zero mode contributions to physical observables. We also investigate rounding-error effects and propose several ways to reduce memory requirements.
SU-F-T-527: A Novel Dynamic Multileaf Collimator Leaf-Sequencing Algorithm in Radiation Therapy
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Jing, J; Lin, H [Hefei University of Technology, Hefei, Anhui (China); Chow, J [Princess Margaret Cancer Centre, Toronto, ON (Canada)
2016-06-15
Purpose: A novel leaf-sequencing algorithm is developed for generating arbitrary beam intensity profiles in discrete levels using dynamic multileaf collimator (MLC). The efficiency of this dynamic MLC leaf-sequencing method was evaluated using external beam treatment plans delivered by intensity modulated radiation therapy technique. Methods: To qualify and validate this algorithm, integral test for the beam segment of MLC generated by the CORVUS treatment planning system was performed with clinical intensity map experiments. The treatment plans were optimized and the fluence maps for all photon beams were determined. This algorithm started with the algebraic expression for the area under the beam profile. The coefficients in the expression can be transformed into the specifications for the leaf-setting sequence. The leaf optimization procedure was then applied and analyzed for clinical relevant intensity profiles in cancer treatment. Results: The macrophysical effect of this method can be described by volumetric plan evaluation tools such as dose-volume histograms (DVHs). The DVH results are in good agreement compared to those from the CORVUS treatment planning system. Conclusion: We developed a dynamic MLC method to examine the stability of leaf speed including effects of acceleration and deceleration of leaf motion in order to make sure the stability of leaf speed did not affect the intensity profile generated. It was found that the mechanical requirements were better satisfied using this method. The Project is sponsored by the Scientific Research Foundation for the Returned Overseas Chinese Scholars, State Education Ministry.
SU-F-T-527: A Novel Dynamic Multileaf Collimator Leaf-Sequencing Algorithm in Radiation Therapy
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Jing, J; Lin, H; Chow, J
2016-01-01
Purpose: A novel leaf-sequencing algorithm is developed for generating arbitrary beam intensity profiles in discrete levels using dynamic multileaf collimator (MLC). The efficiency of this dynamic MLC leaf-sequencing method was evaluated using external beam treatment plans delivered by intensity modulated radiation therapy technique. Methods: To qualify and validate this algorithm, integral test for the beam segment of MLC generated by the CORVUS treatment planning system was performed with clinical intensity map experiments. The treatment plans were optimized and the fluence maps for all photon beams were determined. This algorithm started with the algebraic expression for the area under the beam profile. The coefficients in the expression can be transformed into the specifications for the leaf-setting sequence. The leaf optimization procedure was then applied and analyzed for clinical relevant intensity profiles in cancer treatment. Results: The macrophysical effect of this method can be described by volumetric plan evaluation tools such as dose-volume histograms (DVHs). The DVH results are in good agreement compared to those from the CORVUS treatment planning system. Conclusion: We developed a dynamic MLC method to examine the stability of leaf speed including effects of acceleration and deceleration of leaf motion in order to make sure the stability of leaf speed did not affect the intensity profile generated. It was found that the mechanical requirements were better satisfied using this method. The Project is sponsored by the Scientific Research Foundation for the Returned Overseas Chinese Scholars, State Education Ministry.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Boyang Qu
2017-12-01
Full Text Available The intermittency of wind power and the large-scale integration of electric vehicles (EVs bring new challenges to the reliability and economy of power system dispatching. In this paper, a novel multi-objective dynamic economic emission dispatch (DEED model is proposed considering the EVs and uncertainties of wind power. The total fuel cost and pollutant emission are considered as the optimization objectives, and the vehicle to grid (V2G power and the conventional generator output power are set as the decision variables. The stochastic wind power is derived by Weibull probability distribution function. Under the premise of meeting the system energy and user’s travel demand, the charging and discharging behavior of the EVs are dynamically managed. Moreover, we propose a two-step dynamic constraint processing strategy for decision variables based on penalty function, and, on this basis, the Multi-Objective Evolutionary Algorithm Based on Decomposition (MOEA/D algorithm is improved. The proposed model and approach are verified by the 10-generator system. The results demonstrate that the proposed DEED model and the improved MOEA/D algorithm are effective and reasonable.
Accelerating staggered-fermion dynamics with the rational hybrid Monte Carlo algorithm
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Clark, M. A.; Kennedy, A. D.
2007-01-01
Improved staggered-fermion formulations are a popular choice for lattice QCD calculations. Historically, the algorithm used for such calculations has been the inexact R algorithm, which has systematic errors that only vanish as the square of the integration step size. We describe how the exact rational hybrid Monte Carlo (RHMC) algorithm may be used in this context, and show that for parameters corresponding to current state-of-the-art computations it leads to a factor of approximately seven decrease in cost as well as having no step-size errors
A Dynamic Construction Algorithm for the Compact Patricia Trie Using the Hierarchical Structure.
Jung, Minsoo; Shishibori, Masami; Tanaka, Yasuhiro; Aoe, Jun-ichi
2002-01-01
Discussion of information retrieval focuses on the use of binary trees and how to compact it to use less memory and take less time. Explains retrieval algorithms and describes data structure and hierarchical structure. (LRW)
Dynamic Consensus Algorithm based Distributed Voltage Harmonic Compensation in Islanded Microgrids
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Meng, Lexuan; Tang, Fen; Firoozabadi, Mehdi Savaghebi
2015-01-01
generators can be employed as compensators to enhance the power quality on consumer side. However, conventional centralized control is facing obstacles because of the distributed fashion of generation and consumption. Accordingly, this paper proposes a consensus algorithm based distributed hierarchical...
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Yoon, Jai-Woong; Sawant, Amit; Suh, Yelin; Cho, Byung-Chul; Suh, Tae-Suk; Keall, Paul [Department of Biomedical Engineering, College of Medicine, Catholic University of Korea, Seoul, Korea 131-700 and Research Institute of Biomedical Engineering, Catholic University of Korea, Seoul, 131-700 (Korea, Republic of); Department of Radiation Oncology, Stanford University, Stanford, California 94305 (United States); Department of Radiation Oncology, Stanford University, Stanford, California 94305 (United States) and Department of Radiation Oncology, Asan Medical Center, Seoul, 138-736 (Korea, Republic of); Department of Biomedical Engineering, College of Medicine, Catholic University of Korea, Seoul, 131-700 and Research Institute of Biomedical Engineering, Catholic University of Korea, Seoul, 131-700 (Korea, Republic of); Department of Radiation Oncology, Stanford University, Stanford, California 94305 (United States) and Radiation Physics Laboratory, Sydney Medical School, University of Sydney, 2006 (Australia)
2011-07-15
Purpose: In dynamic multileaf collimator (MLC) motion tracking with complex intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) fields, target motion perpendicular to the MLC leaf travel direction can cause beam holds, which increase beam delivery time by up to a factor of 4. As a means to balance delivery efficiency and accuracy, a moving average algorithm was incorporated into a dynamic MLC motion tracking system (i.e., moving average tracking) to account for target motion perpendicular to the MLC leaf travel direction. The experimental investigation of the moving average algorithm compared with real-time tracking and no compensation beam delivery is described. Methods: The properties of the moving average algorithm were measured and compared with those of real-time tracking (dynamic MLC motion tracking accounting for both target motion parallel and perpendicular to the leaf travel direction) and no compensation beam delivery. The algorithm was investigated using a synthetic motion trace with a baseline drift and four patient-measured 3D tumor motion traces representing regular and irregular motions with varying baseline drifts. Each motion trace was reproduced by a moving platform. The delivery efficiency, geometric accuracy, and dosimetric accuracy were evaluated for conformal, step-and-shoot IMRT, and dynamic sliding window IMRT treatment plans using the synthetic and patient motion traces. The dosimetric accuracy was quantified via a {gamma}-test with a 3%/3 mm criterion. Results: The delivery efficiency ranged from 89 to 100% for moving average tracking, 26%-100% for real-time tracking, and 100% (by definition) for no compensation. The root-mean-square geometric error ranged from 3.2 to 4.0 mm for moving average tracking, 0.7-1.1 mm for real-time tracking, and 3.7-7.2 mm for no compensation. The percentage of dosimetric points failing the {gamma}-test ranged from 4 to 30% for moving average tracking, 0%-23% for real-time tracking, and 10%-47% for no compensation
Yoon, Jai-Woong; Sawant, Amit; Suh, Yelin; Cho, Byung-Chul; Suh, Tae-Suk; Keall, Paul
2011-07-01
In dynamic multileaf collimator (MLC) motion tracking with complex intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) fields, target motion perpendicular to the MLC leaf travel direction can cause beam holds, which increase beam delivery time by up to a factor of 4. As a means to balance delivery efficiency and accuracy, a moving average algorithm was incorporated into a dynamic MLC motion tracking system (i.e., moving average tracking) to account for target motion perpendicular to the MLC leaf travel direction. The experimental investigation of the moving average algorithm compared with real-time tracking and no compensation beam delivery is described. The properties of the moving average algorithm were measured and compared with those of real-time tracking (dynamic MLC motion tracking accounting for both target motion parallel and perpendicular to the leaf travel direction) and no compensation beam delivery. The algorithm was investigated using a synthetic motion trace with a baseline drift and four patient-measured 3D tumor motion traces representing regular and irregular motions with varying baseline drifts. Each motion trace was reproduced by a moving platform. The delivery efficiency, geometric accuracy, and dosimetric accuracy were evaluated for conformal, step-and-shoot IMRT, and dynamic sliding window IMRT treatment plans using the synthetic and patient motion traces. The dosimetric accuracy was quantified via a tgamma-test with a 3%/3 mm criterion. The delivery efficiency ranged from 89 to 100% for moving average tracking, 26%-100% for real-time tracking, and 100% (by definition) for no compensation. The root-mean-square geometric error ranged from 3.2 to 4.0 mm for moving average tracking, 0.7-1.1 mm for real-time tracking, and 3.7-7.2 mm for no compensation. The percentage of dosimetric points failing the gamma-test ranged from 4 to 30% for moving average tracking, 0%-23% for real-time tracking, and 10%-47% for no compensation. The delivery efficiency of
Li, Shuo; Peng, Jun; Liu, Weirong; Zhu, Zhengfa; Lin, Kuo-Chi
2014-01-01
Recent research has indicated that using the mobility of the actuator in wireless sensor and actuator networks (WSANs) to achieve mobile data collection can greatly increase the sensor network lifetime. However, mobile data collection may result in unacceptable collection delays in the network if the path of the actuator is too long. Because real-time network applications require meeting data collection delay constraints, planning the path of the actuator is a very important issue to balance the prolongation of the network lifetime and the reduction of the data collection delay. In this paper, a multi-hop routing mobile data collection algorithm is proposed based on dynamic polling point selection with delay constraints to address this issue. The algorithm can actively update the selection of the actuator's polling points according to the sensor nodes' residual energies and their locations while also considering the collection delay constraint. It also dynamically constructs the multi-hop routing trees rooted by these polling points to balance the sensor node energy consumption and the extension of the network lifetime. The effectiveness of the algorithm is validated by simulation. PMID:24451455
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Mohammad Mohammadi
2015-04-01
Full Text Available Cell formation process is one of the first and the most important steps in designing cellular manufacturing systems. It consists of identifying part families according to the similarities in the design, shape, and presses of parts and dedicating machines to each part family based on the operations required by the parts. In this study, a hybrid method based on a combination of simulated annealing algorithm and dynamic programming was developed to solve a bi-objective cell formation problem with duplicate machines. In the proposed hybrid method, each solution was represented as a permutation of parts, which is created by simulated annealing algorithm, and dynamic programming was used to partition this permutation into part families and determine the number of machines in each cell such that the total dissimilarity between the parts and the total machine investment cost are minimized. The performance of the algorithm was evaluated by performing numerical experiments in different sizes. Our computational experiments indicated that the results were very encouraging in terms of computational time and solution quality.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Jiashen Teh
2018-04-01
Full Text Available The integration of renewable energy sources, especially wind energy, has been on the rise throughout power systems worldwide. Due to this relatively new introduction, the integration of wind energy is often not optimized. Moreover, owing to the technical constraints and transmission congestions of the power network, most of the wind energy has to be curtailed. Due to various factors that influence the connectivity of wind energy, this paper proposes a well-organized posterior multi-objective (MO optimization algorithm for maximizing the connections of wind energy. In this regard, the dynamic thermal rating (DTR system and the static VAR compensator (SVC have been identified as effective tools for improving the loadability of the network. The propose MO algorithm in this paper aims to minimize: (1 wind energy curtailment, (2 operation cost of the network considering all investments and operations, also known as the total social cost, and (3 SVC operation cost. The proposed MO problem was solved using the non-dominated sorting genetic algorithm (NSGA II and it was tested on the modified IEEE reliability test system (IEEE-RTS. The results demonstrate the applicability of the proposed algorithm in aiding power system enhancement planning for integrating wind energy.
Kachalo, Së ma; Naveed, Hammad; Cao, Youfang; Zhao, Jieling; Liang, Jie
2015-01-01
development, and other emerging behavior. Here we describe a cell model and an efficient geometric algorithm for studying the dynamic process of tissue formation in 2D (e.g. epithelial tissues). Our approach improves upon previous methods by incorporating
An Improved Fast Flocking Algorithm with Obstacle Avoidance for Multiagent Dynamic Systems
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Jialiang Wang
2014-01-01
Full Text Available Flocking behavior is a common phenomenon in nature, such as flocks of birds and groups of fish. In order to make the agents effectively avoid obstacles and fast form flocking towards the direction of destination point, this paper proposes a fast multiagent obstacle avoidance (FMOA algorithm. FMOA is illustrated based on the status of whether the flocking has formed. If flocking has not formed, agents should avoid the obstacles toward the direction of target. If otherwise, these agents have reached the state of lattice and then these agents only need to avoid the obstacles and ignore the direction of target. The experimental results show that the proposed FMOA algorithm has better performance in terms of flocking path length. Furthermore, the proposed FMOA algorithm is applied to the formation flying of quad-rotor helicopters. Compared with other technologies to perform the localization of quad-rotor helicopter, this paper innovatively constructs a smart environment by deploying some wireless sensor network (WSN nodes using the proposed localization algorithm. Finally, the proposed FMOA algorithm is used to conduct the formation flying of these quad-rotor helicopters in the smart environment.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Daniali, H. M.; Dardel, M.; Fathi, A. [Babol University of Technology, Babol (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Varedi, S. M. [University of Shahrood, Shahrood (Iran, Islamic Republic of)
2015-05-15
In practice, clearances in the joints are inevitable due to tolerances and defects arising from design and manufacturing. Moreover, the joints undergo wear and backlash, resulting in poor accuracy and repeatability. This paper presents a novel optimization method for simultaneously kinematic and dynamic synthesis of a planar four-bar linkage with clearance at the joints. It is well-known that in the presence of clearance at a joint, the linkage gains an additional, uncontrollable degree of freedom which is the source of error. Here, we synthesis the path generation problem while controlling the unwanted degrees of freedom by revising the mass distributions of the moving links. An algorithm based on particle swarm optimization method solves this highly nonlinear optimization problem with some constraints. Finally, an example is included to demonstrate the efficiency of the algorithm. The results clearly show that the linear and angular accelerations of the links for the optimal design are very smooth and bounded.
Chen, C P; Wan, J Z
1999-01-01
A fast learning algorithm is proposed to find an optimal weights of the flat neural networks (especially, the functional-link network). Although the flat networks are used for nonlinear function approximation, they can be formulated as linear systems. Thus, the weights of the networks can be solved easily using a linear least-square method. This formulation makes it easier to update the weights instantly for both a new added pattern and a new added enhancement node. A dynamic stepwise updating algorithm is proposed to update the weights of the system on-the-fly. The model is tested on several time-series data including an infrared laser data set, a chaotic time-series, a monthly flour price data set, and a nonlinear system identification problem. The simulation results are compared to existing models in which more complex architectures and more costly training are needed. The results indicate that the proposed model is very attractive to real-time processes.
Dynamic phasing of multichannel cw laser radiation by means of a stochastic gradient algorithm
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Volkov, V A; Volkov, M V; Garanin, S G; Dolgopolov, Yu V; Kopalkin, A V; Kulikov, S M; Starikov, F A; Sukharev, S A; Tyutin, S V; Khokhlov, S V; Chaparin, D A [Russian Federal Nuclear Center ' All-Russian Research Institute of Experimental Physics' , Sarov, Nizhnii Novgorod region (Russian Federation)
2013-09-30
The phasing of a multichannel laser beam by means of an iterative stochastic parallel gradient (SPG) algorithm has been numerically and experimentally investigated. The operation of the SPG algorithm is simulated, the acceptable range of amplitudes of probe phase shifts is found, and the algorithm parameters at which the desired Strehl number can be obtained with a minimum number of iterations are determined. An experimental bench with phase modulators based on lithium niobate, which are controlled by a multichannel electronic unit with a real-time microcontroller, has been designed. Phasing of 16 cw laser beams at a system response bandwidth of 3.7 kHz and phase thermal distortions in a frequency band of about 10 Hz is experimentally demonstrated. The experimental data are in complete agreement with the calculation results. (control of laser radiation parameters)
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Silveira, L.M.; Kamon, M.; Elfadel, I.; White, J. [Massachusetts Inst. of Technology, Cambridge, MA (United States)
1996-12-31
Model order reduction based on Krylov subspace iterative methods has recently emerged as a major tool for compressing the number of states in linear models used for simulating very large physical systems (VLSI circuits, electromagnetic interactions). There are currently two main methods for accomplishing such a compression: one is based on the nonsymmetric look-ahead Lanczos algorithm that gives a numerically stable procedure for finding Pade approximations, while the other is based on a less well characterized Arnoldi algorithm. In this paper, we show that for certain classes of generalized state-space systems, the reduced-order models produced by a coordinate-transformed Arnoldi algorithm inherit the stability of the original system. Complete Proofs of our results will be given in the final paper.
Fields, Chris
1989-01-01
Continuous dynamical systems intuitively seem capable of more complex behavior than discrete systems. If analyzed in the framework of the traditional theory of computation, a continuous dynamical system with countablely many quasistable states has at least the computational power of a universal Turing machine. Such an analyses assumes, however, the classical notion of measurement. If measurement is viewed nonclassically, a continuous dynamical system cannot, even in principle, exhibit behavior that cannot be simulated by a universal Turing machine.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Yuan, Xiaohui; Ji, Bin; Zhang, Shuangquan; Tian, Hao; Chen, Zhihuan
2014-01-01
Highlights: • Dynamic load economic dispatch with wind power (DLEDW) model is established. • Markov chains combined with scenario analysis method are used to predict wind power. • Chance constrained technique is used to simulate the impacts of wind forecast error. • Improved artificial physical optimization algorithm is proposed to solve DLEDW. • Heuristic search strategies are applied to handle the constraints of DLEDW. - Abstract: Wind power, a kind of promising renewable energy resource, has recently been getting more attractive because of various environmental and economic considerations. But the penetration of wind power with its fluctuation nature has made the operation of power system more intractable. To coordinate the reliability and operation cost, this paper established a stochastic model of dynamic load economic dispatch with wind integration (DLEDW). In this model, constraints such as ramping up/down capacity, prohibited operating zone are considered and effects of valve-point are taken into account. Markov chains combined with scenario analysis method is used to generate predictive values of wind power and chance constrained programming (CCP) is applied to simulate the impacts of wind power fluctuation on system operation. An improved artificial physical optimization algorithm is presented to solve the DLEDW problem. Heuristic strategies based on the priority list and stochastic simulation techniques are proposed to handle the constraints. In addition, a local chaotic mutation strategy is applied to overcome the disadvantage of premature convergence of artificial physical optimization algorithm. Two test systems with and without wind power integration are used to verify the feasibility and effectiveness of the proposed method and the results are compared with those of gravitational search algorithm, particle swarm optimization and standard artificial physical optimization. The simulation results demonstrate that the proposed method has a
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Tonelli, Oscar; Berardinelli, Gilberto; Tavares, Fernando Menezes Leitão
2013-01-01
Next generation wireless networks aim at a significant improvement of the spectral efficiency in order to meet the dramatic increase in data service demand. In local area scenarios user-deployed base stations are expected to take place, thus making the centralized planning of frequency resources...... activities with the Autonomous Component Carrier Selection (ACCS) algorithm, a distributed solution for interference management among small neighboring cells. A preliminary evaluation of the algorithm performance is provided considering its live execution on a software defined radio network testbed...
Bourkland, Kristin L.; Liu, Kuo-Chia
2011-01-01
The Solar Dynamics Observatory (SDO) is a NASA spacecraft designed to study the Sun. It was launched on February 11, 2010 into a geosynchronous orbit, and uses a suite of attitude sensors and actuators to finely point the spacecraft at the Sun. SDO has three science instruments: the Atmospheric Imaging Assembly (AIA), the Helioseismic and Magnetic Imager (HMI), and the Extreme Ultraviolet Variability Experiment (EVE). SDO uses two High Gain Antennas (HGAs) to send science data to a dedicated ground station in White Sands, New Mexico. In order to meet the science data capture budget, the HGAs must be able to transmit data to the ground for a very large percentage of the time. Each HGA is a dual-axis antenna driven by stepper motors. Both antennas transmit data at all times, but only a single antenna is required in order to meet the transmission rate requirement. For portions of the year, one antenna or the other has an unobstructed view of the White Sands ground station. During other periods, however, the view from both antennas to the Earth is blocked for different portions of the day. During these times of blockage, the two HGAs take turns pointing to White Sands, with the other antenna pointing out to space. The HGAs handover White Sands transmission responsibilities to the unblocked antenna. There are two handover seasons per year, each lasting about 72 days, where the antennas hand off control every twelve hours. The non-tracking antenna slews back to the ground station by following a ground commanded trajectory and arrives approximately 5 minutes before the formerly tracking antenna slews away to point out into space. The SDO Attitude Control System (ACS) runs at 5 Hz, and the HGA Gimbal Control Electronics (GCE) run at 200 Hz. There are 40 opportunities for the gimbals to step each ACS cycle, with a hardware limitation of no more than one step every three GCE cycles. The ACS calculates the desired gimbal motion for tracking the ground station or for slewing
Cvetkovic, Sascha D.; Schirris, Johan; de With, Peter H. N.
2009-01-01
For real-time imaging in surveillance applications, visibility of details is of primary importance to ensure customer confidence. If we display High Dynamic-Range (HDR) scenes whose contrast spans four or more orders of magnitude on a conventional monitor without additional processing, results are unacceptable. Compression of the dynamic range is therefore a compulsory part of any high-end video processing chain because standard monitors are inherently Low- Dynamic Range (LDR) devices with maximally two orders of display dynamic range. In real-time camera processing, many complex scenes are improved with local contrast enhancements, bringing details to the best possible visibility. In this paper, we show how a multi-scale high-frequency enhancement scheme, in which gain is a non-linear function of the detail energy, can be used for the dynamic range compression of HDR real-time video camera signals. We also show the connection of our enhancement scheme to the processing way of the Human Visual System (HVS). Our algorithm simultaneously controls perceived sharpness, ringing ("halo") artifacts (contrast) and noise, resulting in a good balance between visibility of details and non-disturbance of artifacts. The overall quality enhancement, suitable for both HDR and LDR scenes, is based on a careful selection of the filter types for the multi-band decomposition and a detailed analysis of the signal per frequency band.
When algorithms shape collective action: Social media and the dynamics of cloud protesting
Milan, S.
2015-01-01
How does the algorithmically mediated environment of social media restructure social action? This article combines social movement studies and science and technology studies to explore the role of social media in the organization, unfolding, and diffusion of contemporary protests. In particular, it
Algorithmic Information Dynamics of Persistent Patterns and Colliding Particles in the Game of Life
Zenil, Hector; Kiani, Narsis A.; Tegner, Jesper
2018-01-01
, Conway's Game of Life (GoL) cellular automaton as a case study. We analyze the distribution of prevailing motifs that occur in GoL from the perspective of algorithmic probability. We demonstrate how the tools introduced are an alternative to computable
An algorithm for gradient-based dynamic optimization of UV ﬂash processes
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Ritschel, Tobias Kasper Skovborg; Capolei, Andrea; Gaspar, Jozsef
2017-01-01
This paper presents a novel single-shooting algorithm for gradient-based solution of optimal control problems with vapor-liquid equilibrium constraints. Such optimal control problems are important in several engineering applications, for instance in control of distillation columns, in certain two...... softwareaswellastheperformanceofdiﬀerentcompilersinaLinuxoperatingsystem. Thesetestsindicatethatreal-timenonlinear model predictive control of UV ﬂash processes is computationally feasible....
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Neumann, Frank; Witt, Carsten
2015-01-01
combinatorial optimization problem, namely makespan scheduling. We study the model of a strong adversary which is allowed to change one job at regular intervals. Furthermore, we investigate the setting of random changes. Our results show that randomized local search and a simple evolutionary algorithm are very...
A phi-competitive algorithm for collecting items with increasing weights from a dynamic queue
Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database
Bienkowski, M.; Chrobak, M.; Dürr, Ch.; Hurand, M.; Jeż, A.; Jeż, Łukasz; Stachowiak, G.
2013-01-01
Roč. 475, 4 March (2013), s. 92-102 ISSN 0304-3975 Institutional support: RVO:67985840 Keywords : online algorithms * competitive analysis * buffer management Subject RIV: BA - General Mathematics Impact factor: 0.516, year: 2013 http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0304397513000121
Kumar, Vivek; Horio, Brant M.; DeCicco, Anthony H.; Hasan, Shahab; Stouffer, Virginia L.; Smith, Jeremy C.; Guerreiro, Nelson M.
2015-01-01
This paper presents a search algorithm based framework to calibrate origin-destination (O-D) market specific airline ticket demands and prices for the Air Transportation System (ATS). This framework is used for calibrating an agent based model of the air ticket buy-sell process - Airline Evolutionary Simulation (Airline EVOS) -that has fidelity of detail that accounts for airline and consumer behaviors and the interdependencies they share between themselves and the NAS. More specificially, this algorithm simultaneous calibrates demand and airfares for each O-D market, to within specified threshold of a pre-specified target value. The proposed algorithm is illustrated with market data targets provided by the Transportation System Analysis Model (TSAM) and Airline Origin and Destination Survey (DB1B). Although we specify these models and datasources for this calibration exercise, the methods described in this paper are applicable to calibrating any low-level model of the ATS to some other demand forecast model-based data. We argue that using a calibration algorithm such as the one we present here to synchronize ATS models with specialized forecast demand models, is a powerful tool for establishing credible baseline conditions in experiments analyzing the effects of proposed policy changes to the ATS.
AN EFFICIENT, BOX SHAPE INDEPENDENT NONBONDED FORCE AND VIRIAL ALGORITHM FOR MOLECULAR-DYNAMICS
Bekker, H.; Dijkstra, E.J; Renardus, M.K.R.; Berendsen, H.J.C.
1995-01-01
A notation is introduced and used to transform a conventional specification of the non-bonded force and virial algorithm in the case of periodic boundary conditions into an alternative specification. The implementation of the transformed specification is simpler and typically a factor of 1.5 faster
Qiu, J. P.; Niu, D. X.
Micro-grid is one of the key technologies of the future energy supplies. Take economic planning. reliability, and environmental protection of micro grid as a basis for the analysis of multi-strategy objective programming problems for micro grid which contains wind power, solar power, and battery and micro gas turbine. Establish the mathematical model of each power generation characteristics and energy dissipation. and change micro grid planning multi-objective function under different operating strategies to a single objective model based on AHP method. Example analysis shows that in combination with dynamic ant mixed genetic algorithm can get the optimal power output of this model.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Aidin Delgoshaei
2016-09-01
Full Text Available Purpose: The issue resource over-allocating is a big concern for project engineers in the process of scheduling project activities. Resource over-allocating drawback is frequently seen after scheduling of a project in practice which causes a schedule to be useless. Modifying an over-allocated schedule is very complicated and needs a lot of efforts and time. In this paper, a new and fast tracking method is proposed to schedule large scale projects which can help project engineers to schedule the project rapidly and with more confidence. Design/methodology/approach: In this article, a forward approach for maximizing net present value (NPV in multi-mode resource constrained project scheduling problem while assuming discounted positive cash flows (MRCPSP-DCF is proposed. The progress payment method is used and all resources are considered as pre-emptible. The proposed approach maximizes NPV using unscheduled resources through resource calendar in forward mode. For this purpose, a Genetic Algorithm is applied to solve. Findings: The findings show that the proposed method is an effective way to maximize NPV in MRCPSP-DCF problems while activity splitting is allowed. The proposed algorithm is very fast and can schedule experimental cases with 1000 variables and 100 resources in few seconds. The results are then compared with branch and bound method and simulated annealing algorithm and it is found the proposed genetic algorithm can provide results with better quality. Then algorithm is then applied for scheduling a hospital in practice. Originality/value: The method can be used alone or as a macro in Microsoft Office Project® Software to schedule MRCPSP-DCF problems or to modify resource over-allocated activities after scheduling a project. This can help project engineers to schedule project activities rapidly with more accuracy in practice.
Evaluation of odometry algorithm performances using a railway vehicle dynamic model
Allotta, B.; Pugi, L.; Ridolfi, A.; Malvezzi, M.; Vettori, G.; Rindi, A.
2012-05-01
In modern railway Automatic Train Protection and Automatic Train Control systems, odometry is a safety relevant on-board subsystem which estimates the instantaneous speed and the travelled distance of the train; a high reliability of the odometry estimate is fundamental, since an error on the train position may lead to a potentially dangerous overestimation of the distance available for braking. To improve the odometry estimate accuracy, data fusion of different inputs coming from a redundant sensor layout may be used. Simplified two-dimensional models of railway vehicles have been usually used for Hardware in the Loop test rig testing of conventional odometry algorithms and of on-board safety relevant subsystems (like the Wheel Slide Protection braking system) in which the train speed is estimated from the measures of the wheel angular speed. Two-dimensional models are not suitable to develop solutions like the inertial type localisation algorithms (using 3D accelerometers and 3D gyroscopes) and the introduction of Global Positioning System (or similar) or the magnetometer. In order to test these algorithms correctly and increase odometry performances, a three-dimensional multibody model of a railway vehicle has been developed, using Matlab-Simulink™, including an efficient contact model which can simulate degraded adhesion conditions (the development and prototyping of odometry algorithms involve the simulation of realistic environmental conditions). In this paper, the authors show how a 3D railway vehicle model, able to simulate the complex interactions arising between different on-board subsystems, can be useful to evaluate the odometry algorithm and safety relevant to on-board subsystem performances.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Smith, Kyle K. G.; Poulsen, Jens Aage; Nyman, Gunnar; Rossky, Peter J.
2015-01-01
We develop two classes of quasi-classical dynamics that are shown to conserve the initial quantum ensemble when used in combination with the Feynman-Kleinert approximation of the density operator. These dynamics are used to improve the Feynman-Kleinert implementation of the classical Wigner approximation for the evaluation of quantum time correlation functions known as Feynman-Kleinert linearized path-integral. As shown, both classes of dynamics are able to recover the exact classical and high temperature limits of the quantum time correlation function, while a subset is able to recover the exact harmonic limit. A comparison of the approximate quantum time correlation functions obtained from both classes of dynamics is made with the exact results for the challenging model problems of the quartic and double-well potentials. It is found that these dynamics provide a great improvement over the classical Wigner approximation, in which purely classical dynamics are used. In a special case, our first method becomes identical to centroid molecular dynamics
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Fijany, A. [Jet Propulsion Lab., Pasadena, CA (United States); Coley, T.R. [Virtual Chemistry, Inc., San Diego, CA (United States); Cagin, T.; Goddard, W.A. III [California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA (United States)
1997-12-31
Successful molecular dynamics (MD) simulation of large systems (> million atoms) for long times (> nanoseconds) requires the integration of constrained equations of motion (CEOM). Constraints are used to eliminate high frequency degrees of freedom (DOF) and to allow the use of rigid bodies. Solving the CEOM allows for larger integration time-steps and helps focus the simulation on the important collective dynamics of chemical, biological, and materials systems. We explore advances in multibody dynamics which have resulted in O(N) algorithms for propagating the CEOM. However, because of their strictly sequential nature, the computational time required by these algorithms does not scale down with increased numbers of processors. We then present the new constraint force algorithm for solving the CEOM and show that this algorithm is fully parallelizable, leading to a computational cost of O(N/P+IogP) for N DOF on P processors.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Kwang Cheol Shin
2009-02-01
Full Text Available In the fields of production, manufacturing and supply chain management, Radio Frequency Identification (RFID is regarded as one of the most important technologies. Nowadays, Mobile RFID, which is often installed in carts or forklift trucks, is increasingly being applied to the search for and checkout of items in warehouses, supermarkets, libraries and other industrial fields. In using Mobile RFID, since the readers are continuously moving, they can interfere with each other when they attempt to read the tags. In this study, we suggest a Time Division Multiple Access (TDMA based anti-collision algorithm for Mobile RFID readers. Our algorithm automatically adjusts the frame size of each reader without using manual parameters by adopting the dynamic frame size adjustment strategy when collisions occur at a reader. Through experiments on a simulated environment for Mobile RFID readers, we show that the proposed method improves the number of successful transmissions by about 228% on average, compared with Colorwave, a representative TDMA based anti-collision algorithm.
Meng, Luming; Sheong, Fu Kit; Zeng, Xiangze; Zhu, Lizhe; Huang, Xuhui
2017-07-01
Constructing Markov state models from large-scale molecular dynamics simulation trajectories is a promising approach to dissect the kinetic mechanisms of complex chemical and biological processes. Combined with transition path theory, Markov state models can be applied to identify all pathways connecting any conformational states of interest. However, the identified pathways can be too complex to comprehend, especially for multi-body processes where numerous parallel pathways with comparable flux probability often coexist. Here, we have developed a path lumping method to group these parallel pathways into metastable path channels for analysis. We define the similarity between two pathways as the intercrossing flux between them and then apply the spectral clustering algorithm to lump these pathways into groups. We demonstrate the power of our method by applying it to two systems: a 2D-potential consisting of four metastable energy channels and the hydrophobic collapse process of two hydrophobic molecules. In both cases, our algorithm successfully reveals the metastable path channels. We expect this path lumping algorithm to be a promising tool for revealing unprecedented insights into the kinetic mechanisms of complex multi-body processes.
Shin, Kwang Cheol; Park, Seung Bo; Jo, Geun Sik
2009-01-01
In the fields of production, manufacturing and supply chain management, Radio Frequency Identification (RFID) is regarded as one of the most important technologies. Nowadays, Mobile RFID, which is often installed in carts or forklift trucks, is increasingly being applied to the search for and checkout of items in warehouses, supermarkets, libraries and other industrial fields. In using Mobile RFID, since the readers are continuously moving, they can interfere with each other when they attempt to read the tags. In this study, we suggest a Time Division Multiple Access (TDMA) based anti-collision algorithm for Mobile RFID readers. Our algorithm automatically adjusts the frame size of each reader without using manual parameters by adopting the dynamic frame size adjustment strategy when collisions occur at a reader. Through experiments on a simulated environment for Mobile RFID readers, we show that the proposed method improves the number of successful transmissions by about 228% on average, compared with Colorwave, a representative TDMA based anti-collision algorithm.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Jingbo Zhang
2017-09-01
Full Text Available With the rapid development of maritime digital communication, the demand for spectrum resources is increasing, and building a maritime cognitive radio communication system is an effective solution. In this paper, the problem of how to effectively allocate the spectrum for secondary users (SUs with different priorities in a maritime cognitive radio communication system is studied. According to the characteristics of a maritime cognitive radio and existing research about cognitive radio systems, this paper establishes a centralized maritime cognitive radio communication model and creates a simplified queuing model with two queues for the communication model. In the view of the behaviors of SUs and primary users (PUs, we propose a dynamic spectrum allocation (DSA algorithm based on the system status, and analyze it with a two-dimensional Markov chain. Simulation results show that, when different types of SUs have similar arrival rates, the algorithm can vary the priority factor according to the change of users’ status in the system, so as to adjust the channel allocation, decreasing system congestion. The improvement of the algorithm is about 7–26%, and the specific improvement is negatively correlated with the SU arrival rate.
Review of Methods and Algorithms for Dynamic Management of CBRNE Collection Assets
2013-07-01
Li (2000). Note that SAA for UAVs is not a mature technology in the DoD. AFRL’s SAA architecture contains an algorithm called MuSICA (Multi-Sensor...SWOrRD.html. Graham, S., and J. Kay. 2012. Multi-Sensor Integrated Conflict Avoidance ( MuSICA ): 2012 International Test and Evaluation Association...moving target indicator MuSICA Multi-Sensor Integrated Conflict Avoidance MVOI multivariate optimal interpolation MVU maximum variance unfolding
Quantum Algorithms for Computational Physics: Volume 3 of Lattice Gas Dynamics
2007-01-03
by the “divine” Greek mathematician Pythagoras . Today, most people normally think of the square root operation as it applies to a positive number...attempted to prove the age old isoperimetric theorem of geometry. It may be loosely stated as, a circle is the optimal closed curve, because of the...Ĥn, Ĥm] 6= 0), as shown by the Campbell-Baker-Hausdorff theorem . Nevertheless, in certain special cases (type-I quantum algorithms) we are able
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Assaf Zaritsky
Full Text Available Confocal microscopy analysis of fluorescence and morphology is becoming the standard tool in cell biology and molecular imaging. Accurate quantification algorithms are required to enhance the understanding of different biological phenomena. We present a novel approach based on image-segmentation of multi-cellular regions in bright field images demonstrating enhanced quantitative analyses and better understanding of cell motility. We present MultiCellSeg, a segmentation algorithm to separate between multi-cellular and background regions for bright field images, which is based on classification of local patches within an image: a cascade of Support Vector Machines (SVMs is applied using basic image features. Post processing includes additional classification and graph-cut segmentation to reclassify erroneous regions and refine the segmentation. This approach leads to a parameter-free and robust algorithm. Comparison to an alternative algorithm on wound healing assay images demonstrates its superiority. The proposed approach was used to evaluate common cell migration models such as wound healing and scatter assay. It was applied to quantify the acceleration effect of Hepatocyte growth factor/scatter factor (HGF/SF on healing rate in a time lapse confocal microscopy wound healing assay and demonstrated that the healing rate is linear in both treated and untreated cells, and that HGF/SF accelerates the healing rate by approximately two-fold. A novel fully automated, accurate, zero-parameters method to classify and score scatter-assay images was developed and demonstrated that multi-cellular texture is an excellent descriptor to measure HGF/SF-induced cell scattering. We show that exploitation of textural information from differential interference contrast (DIC images on the multi-cellular level can prove beneficial for the analyses of wound healing and scatter assays. The proposed approach is generic and can be used alone or alongside traditional
Zaritsky, Assaf; Natan, Sari; Horev, Judith; Hecht, Inbal; Wolf, Lior; Ben-Jacob, Eshel; Tsarfaty, Ilan
2011-01-01
Confocal microscopy analysis of fluorescence and morphology is becoming the standard tool in cell biology and molecular imaging. Accurate quantification algorithms are required to enhance the understanding of different biological phenomena. We present a novel approach based on image-segmentation of multi-cellular regions in bright field images demonstrating enhanced quantitative analyses and better understanding of cell motility. We present MultiCellSeg, a segmentation algorithm to separate between multi-cellular and background regions for bright field images, which is based on classification of local patches within an image: a cascade of Support Vector Machines (SVMs) is applied using basic image features. Post processing includes additional classification and graph-cut segmentation to reclassify erroneous regions and refine the segmentation. This approach leads to a parameter-free and robust algorithm. Comparison to an alternative algorithm on wound healing assay images demonstrates its superiority. The proposed approach was used to evaluate common cell migration models such as wound healing and scatter assay. It was applied to quantify the acceleration effect of Hepatocyte growth factor/scatter factor (HGF/SF) on healing rate in a time lapse confocal microscopy wound healing assay and demonstrated that the healing rate is linear in both treated and untreated cells, and that HGF/SF accelerates the healing rate by approximately two-fold. A novel fully automated, accurate, zero-parameters method to classify and score scatter-assay images was developed and demonstrated that multi-cellular texture is an excellent descriptor to measure HGF/SF-induced cell scattering. We show that exploitation of textural information from differential interference contrast (DIC) images on the multi-cellular level can prove beneficial for the analyses of wound healing and scatter assays. The proposed approach is generic and can be used alone or alongside traditional fluorescence single
Synthesizing multi-objective H2/H-infinity dynamic controller using evolutionary algorithms
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Pedersen, Gerulf; Langballe, A.S.; Wisniewski, Rafal
This paper covers the design of an Evolutionary Algorithm (EA), which should be able to synthesize a mixed H2/H-infinity. It will be shown how a system can be expressed as Matrix Inequalities (MI) and these will then be used in the design of the EA. The main objective is to examine whether a mixed...... H2/H-infinity controller is feasible, and if so, how the optimal mixed controller might befound....
Synthesizing mixed H2/H-infinity dynamic controller using evolutionary algorithms
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Pedersen, Gerulf; Langballe, A.S.; Wisniewski, Rafal
2001-01-01
This paper covers the design of an Evolutionary Algorithm (EA), which should be able to synthesize a mixed H2/H-infinity. It will be shown how a system can be expressed as Matrix Inequalities (MI) and these will then be used in the design of the EA. The main objective is to examine whether a mixed...... H2/H-infinity controller is feasible, and if so, how the optimal mixed controller might befound....
Kou, Jisheng
2017-09-30
Capillary pressure can significantly affect the phase properties and flow of liquid-gas fluids in porous media, and thus, the phase equilibrium calculation incorporating capillary pressure is crucial to simulate such problems accurately. Recently, the phase equilibrium calculation at specified moles, volume and temperature (NVT-flash) becomes an attractive issue. In this paper, capillarity is incorporated into the phase equilibrium calculation at specified moles, volume and temperature. A dynamical model for such problem is developed for the first time by using the laws of thermodynamics and Onsager\\'s reciprocal principle. This model consists of the evolutionary equations for moles and volume, and it can characterize the evolutionary process from a non-equilibrium state to an equilibrium state in the presence of capillarity effect at specified moles, volume and temperature. The phase equilibrium equations are naturally derived. To simulate the proposed dynamical model efficiently, we adopt the convex-concave splitting of the total Helmholtz energy, and propose a thermodynamically stable numerical algorithm, which is proved to preserve the second law of thermodynamics at the discrete level. Using the thermodynamical relations, we derive a phase stability condition with capillarity effect at specified moles, volume and temperature. Moreover, we propose a stable numerical algorithm for the phase stability testing, which can provide the feasible initial conditions. The performance of the proposed methods in predicting phase properties under capillarity effect is demonstrated on various cases of pure substance and mixture systems.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Yu Shiwei; Wei Yiming
2012-01-01
This paper proposes a hybrid model based on genetic algorithm (GA) and system dynamics (SD) for coal production–environmental pollution load in China. GA has been utilized in the optimization of the parameters of the SD model to reduce implementation subjectivity. The chain of “Economic development–coal demand–coal production–environmental pollution load” of China in 2030 was predicted, and scenarios were analyzed. Results show that: (1) GA performs well in optimizing the parameters of the SD model objectively and in simulating the historical data; (2) The demand for coal energy continuously increases, although the coal intensity has actually decreased because of China's persistent economic development. Furthermore, instead of reaching a turning point by 2030, the environmental pollution load continuously increases each year even under the scenario where coal intensity decreased by 20% and investment in pollution abatement increased by 20%; (3) For abating the amount of “three types of wastes”, reducing the coal intensity is more effective than reducing the polluted production per tonne of coal and increasing investment in pollution control. - Highlights: ► We propos a GA-SD model for China's coal production-pollution prediction. ► Genetic algorithm (GA) can objectively and accurately optimize parameters of system dynamics (SD) model. ► Environmental pollution in China is projected to grow in our scenarios by 2030. ► The mechanism of reducing waste production per tonne of coal mining is more effective than others.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Balaji Nagarajan
Full Text Available Glycosaminoglycans (GAGs are key natural biopolymers that exhibit a range of biological functions including growth and differentiation. Despite this multiplicity of function, natural GAG sequences have not yielded drugs because of problems of heterogeneity and synthesis. Recently, several homogenous non-saccharide glycosaminoglycan mimetics (NSGMs have been reported as agents displaying major therapeutic promise. Yet, it remains unclear whether sulfated NSGMs structurally mimic sulfated GAGs. To address this, we developed a three-step molecular dynamics (MD-based algorithm to compare sulfated NSGMs with GAGs. In the first step of this algorithm, parameters related to the range of conformations sampled by the two highly sulfated molecules as free entities in water were compared. The second step compared identity of binding site geometries and the final step evaluated comparable dynamics and interactions in the protein-bound state. Using a test case of interactions with fibroblast growth factor-related proteins, we show that this three-step algorithm effectively predicts the GAG structure mimicking property of NSGMs. Specifically, we show that two unique dimeric NSGMs mimic hexameric GAG sequences in the protein-bound state. In contrast, closely related monomeric and trimeric NSGMs do not mimic GAG in either the free or bound states. These results correspond well with the functional properties of NSGMs. The results show for the first time that appropriately designed sulfated NSGMs can be good structural mimetics of GAGs and the incorporation of a MD-based strategy at the NSGM library screening stage can identify promising mimetics of targeted GAG sequences.
Xu, Yunjun; Remeikas, Charles; Pham, Khanh
2014-03-01
Cooperative trajectory planning is crucial for networked vehicles to respond rapidly in cluttered environments and has a significant impact on many applications such as air traffic or border security monitoring and assessment. One of the challenges in cooperative planning is to find a computationally efficient algorithm that can accommodate both the complexity of the environment and real hardware and configuration constraints of vehicles in the formation. Inspired by a local pursuit strategy observed in foraging ants, feasible and optimal trajectory planning algorithms are proposed in this paper for a class of nonlinear constrained cooperative vehicles in environments with densely populated obstacles. In an iterative hierarchical approach, the local behaviours, such as the formation stability, obstacle avoidance, and individual vehicle's constraints, are considered in each vehicle's (i.e. follower's) decentralised optimisation. The cooperative-level behaviours, such as the inter-vehicle collision avoidance, are considered in the virtual leader's centralised optimisation. Early termination conditions are derived to reduce the computational cost by not wasting time in the local-level optimisation if the virtual leader trajectory does not satisfy those conditions. The expected advantages of the proposed algorithms are (1) the formation can be globally asymptotically maintained in a decentralised manner; (2) each vehicle decides its local trajectory using only the virtual leader and its own information; (3) the formation convergence speed is controlled by one single parameter, which makes it attractive for many practical applications; (4) nonlinear dynamics and many realistic constraints, such as the speed limitation and obstacle avoidance, can be easily considered; (5) inter-vehicle collision avoidance can be guaranteed in both the formation transient stage and the formation steady stage; and (6) the computational cost in finding both the feasible and optimal
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Williams, P. T. [Univ. of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN (United States)
1993-09-01
As the field of computational fluid dynamics (CFD) continues to mature, algorithms are required to exploit the most recent advances in approximation theory, numerical mathematics, computing architectures, and hardware. Meeting this requirement is particularly challenging in incompressible fluid mechanics, where primitive-variable CFD formulations that are robust, while also accurate and efficient in three dimensions, remain an elusive goal. This dissertation asserts that one key to accomplishing this goal is recognition of the dual role assumed by the pressure, i.e., a mechanism for instantaneously enforcing conservation of mass and a force in the mechanical balance law for conservation of momentum. Proving this assertion has motivated the development of a new, primitive-variable, incompressible, CFD algorithm called the Continuity Constraint Method (CCM). The theoretical basis for the CCM consists of a finite-element spatial semi-discretization of a Galerkin weak statement, equal-order interpolation for all state-variables, a 0-implicit time-integration scheme, and a quasi-Newton iterative procedure extended by a Taylor Weak Statement (TWS) formulation for dispersion error control. Original contributions to algorithmic theory include: (a) formulation of the unsteady evolution of the divergence error, (b) investigation of the role of non-smoothness in the discretized continuity-constraint function, (c) development of a uniformly H^{1} Galerkin weak statement for the Reynolds-averaged Navier-Stokes pressure Poisson equation, (d) derivation of physically and numerically well-posed boundary conditions, and (e) investigation of sparse data structures and iterative methods for solving the matrix algebra statements generated by the algorithm.
Han, Renmin
2017-12-24
Long-reads, point-of-care, and PCR-free are the promises brought by nanopore sequencing. Among various steps in nanopore data analysis, the global mapping between the raw electrical current signal sequence and the expected signal sequence from the pore model serves as the key building block to base calling, reads mapping, variant identification, and methylation detection. However, the ultra-long reads of nanopore sequencing and an order of magnitude difference in the sampling speeds of the two sequences make the classical dynamic time warping (DTW) and its variants infeasible to solve the problem. Here, we propose a novel multi-level DTW algorithm, cwDTW, based on continuous wavelet transforms with different scales of the two signal sequences. Our algorithm starts from low-resolution wavelet transforms of the two sequences, such that the transformed sequences are short and have similar sampling rates. Then the peaks and nadirs of the transformed sequences are extracted to form feature sequences with similar lengths, which can be easily mapped by the original DTW. Our algorithm then recursively projects the warping path from a lower-resolution level to a higher-resolution one by building a context-dependent boundary and enabling a constrained search for the warping path in the latter. Comprehensive experiments on two real nanopore datasets on human and on Pandoraea pnomenusa, as well as two benchmark datasets from previous studies, demonstrate the efficiency and effectiveness of the proposed algorithm. In particular, cwDTW can almost always generate warping paths that are very close to the original DTW, which are remarkably more accurate than the state-of-the-art methods including FastDTW and PrunedDTW. Meanwhile, on the real nanopore datasets, cwDTW is about 440 times faster than FastDTW and 3000 times faster than the original DTW. Our program is available at https://github.com/realbigws/cwDTW.
Solano, Carlos J F; Pothula, Karunakar R; Prajapati, Jigneshkumar D; De Biase, Pablo M; Noskov, Sergei Yu; Kleinekathöfer, Ulrich
2016-05-10
All-atom molecular dynamics simulations have a long history of applications studying ion and substrate permeation across biological and artificial pores. While offering unprecedented insights into the underpinning transport processes, MD simulations are limited in time-scales and ability to simulate physiological membrane potentials or asymmetric salt solutions and require substantial computational power. While several approaches to circumvent all of these limitations were developed, Brownian dynamics simulations remain an attractive option to the field. The main limitation, however, is an apparent lack of protein flexibility important for the accurate description of permeation events. In the present contribution, we report an extension of the Brownian dynamics scheme which includes conformational dynamics. To achieve this goal, the dynamics of amino-acid residues was incorporated into the many-body potential of mean force and into the Langevin equations of motion. The developed software solution, called BROMOCEA, was applied to ion transport through OmpC as a test case. Compared to fully atomistic simulations, the results show a clear improvement in the ratio of permeating anions and cations. The present tests strongly indicate that pore flexibility can enhance permeation properties which will become even more important in future applications to substrate translocation.
2008-09-22
function essentially binary • Value function measures cost to go – Solution of Eikonal equation – Gradient determines optimal control typical laser...of nodes – Dijkstra’s algorithm is essentially unchanged • Continuous space – Static HJ PDE no longer reduces to the Eikonal equation – Gradient of ϑ...bounded: ||·||1 • If action is bounded in ||·||p, then value function is solution of “ Eikonal ” equation ||ϑ(x)||p* = c(x) in the dual norm p* – p = 1
Gu, Tingwei; Kong, Deren; Shang, Fei; Chen, Jing
2017-12-01
We present an optimization algorithm to obtain low-uncertainty dynamic pressure measurements from a force-transducer-based device. In this paper, the advantages and disadvantages of the methods that are commonly used to measure the propellant powder gas pressure, the applicable scope of dynamic pressure calibration devices, and the shortcomings of the traditional comparison calibration method based on the drop-weight device are firstly analysed in detail. Then, a dynamic calibration method for measuring pressure using a force sensor based on a drop-weight device is introduced. This method can effectively save time when many pressure sensors are calibrated simultaneously and extend the life of expensive reference sensors. However, the force sensor is installed between the drop-weight and the hammerhead by transition pieces through the connection mode of bolt fastening, which causes adverse effects such as additional pretightening and inertia forces. To solve these effects, the influence mechanisms of the pretightening force, the inertia force and other influence factors on the force measurement are theoretically analysed. Then a measurement correction method for the force measurement is proposed based on an artificial neural network optimized by a genetic algorithm. The training and testing data sets are obtained from calibration tests, and the selection criteria for the key parameters of the correction model is discussed. The evaluation results for the test data show that the correction model can effectively improve the force measurement accuracy of the force sensor. Compared with the traditional high-accuracy comparison calibration method, the percentage difference of the impact-force-based measurement is less than 0.6% and the relative uncertainty of the corrected force value is 1.95%, which can meet the requirements of engineering applications.
Peralta, Richard C.; Forghani, Ali; Fayad, Hala
2014-04-01
Many real water resources optimization problems involve conflicting objectives for which the main goal is to find a set of optimal solutions on, or near to the Pareto front. E-constraint and weighting multiobjective optimization techniques have shortcomings, especially as the number of objectives increases. Multiobjective Genetic Algorithms (MGA) have been previously proposed to overcome these difficulties. Here, an MGA derives a set of optimal solutions for multiobjective multiuser conjunctive use of reservoir, stream, and (un)confined groundwater resources. The proposed methodology is applied to a hydraulically and economically nonlinear system in which all significant flows, including stream-aquifer-reservoir-diversion-return flow interactions, are simulated and optimized simultaneously for multiple periods. Neural networks represent constrained state variables. The addressed objectives that can be optimized simultaneously in the coupled simulation-optimization model are: (1) maximizing water provided from sources, (2) maximizing hydropower production, and (3) minimizing operation costs of transporting water from sources to destinations. Results show the efficiency of multiobjective genetic algorithms for generating Pareto optimal sets for complex nonlinear multiobjective optimization problems.
Variational symplectic algorithm for guiding center dynamics in the inner magnetosphere
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Li Jinxing; Pu Zuyin; Xie Lun; Fu Suiyan; Qin Hong
2011-01-01
Charged particle dynamics in magnetosphere has temporal and spatial multiscale; therefore, numerical accuracy over a long integration time is required. A variational symplectic integrator (VSI) [H. Qin and X. Guan, Phys. Rev. Lett. 100, 035006 (2008) and H. Qin, X. Guan, and W. M. Tang, Phys. Plasmas 16, 042510 (2009)] for the guiding-center motion of charged particles in general magnetic field is applied to study the dynamics of charged particles in magnetosphere. Instead of discretizing the differential equations of the guiding-center motion, the action of the guiding-center motion is discretized and minimized to obtain the iteration rules for advancing the dynamics. The VSI conserves exactly a discrete Lagrangian symplectic structure and has better numerical properties over a long integration time, compared with standard integrators, such as the standard and adaptive fourth order Runge-Kutta (RK4) methods. Applying the VSI method to guiding-center dynamics in the inner magnetosphere, we can accurately calculate the particles'orbits for an arbitrary long simulating time with good conservation property. When a time-independent convection and corotation electric field is considered, the VSI method can give the accurate single particle orbit, while the RK4 method gives an incorrect orbit due to its intrinsic error accumulation over a long integrating time.
Analysis of Serial and Parallel Algorithms for Use in Molecular Dynamics.. Review and Proposals
Mazzone, A. M.
This work analyzes the stability and accuracy of multistep methods, either for serial or parallel calculations, applied to molecular dynamics simulations. Numerical testing is made by evaluating the equilibrium configurations of mono-elemental crystalline lattices of metallic and semiconducting type (Ag and Si, respectively) and of a cubic CuY compound.
A parallel neural network training algorithm for control of discrete dynamical systems.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Gordillo, J. L.; Hanebutte, U. R.; Vitela, J. E.
1998-01-20
In this work we present a parallel neural network controller training code, that uses MPI, a portable message passing environment. A comprehensive performance analysis is reported which compares results of a performance model with actual measurements. The analysis is made for three different load assignment schemes: block distribution, strip mining and a sliding average bin packing (best-fit) algorithm. Such analysis is crucial since optimal load balance can not be achieved because the work load information is not available a priori. The speedup results obtained with the above schemes are compared with those corresponding to the bin packing load balance scheme with perfect load prediction based on a priori knowledge of the computing effort. Two multiprocessor platforms: a SGI/Cray Origin 2000 and a IBM SP have been utilized for this study. It is shown that for the best load balance scheme a parallel efficiency of over 50% for the entire computation is achieved by 17 processors of either parallel computers.
Parallelising a molecular dynamics algorithm on a multi-processor workstation
Müller-Plathe, Florian
1990-12-01
The Verlet neighbour-list algorithm is parallelised for a multi-processor Hewlett-Packard/Apollo DN10000 workstation. The implementation makes use of memory shared between the processors. It is a genuine master-slave approach by which most of the computational tasks are kept in the master process and the slaves are only called to do part of the nonbonded forces calculation. The implementation features elements of both fine-grain and coarse-grain parallelism. Apart from three calls to library routines, two of which are standard UNIX calls, and two machine-specific language extensions, the whole code is written in standard Fortran 77. Hence, it may be expected that this parallelisation concept can be transfered in parts or as a whole to other multi-processor shared-memory computers. The parallel code is routinely used in production work.
The Splashback Radius of Halos from Particle Dynamics. I. The SPARTA Algorithm
Diemer, Benedikt
2017-07-01
Motivated by the recent proposal of the splashback radius as a physical boundary of dark-matter halos, we present a parallel computer code for Subhalo and PARticle Trajectory Analysis (SPARTA). The code analyzes the orbits of all simulation particles in all host halos, billions of orbits in the case of typical cosmological N-body simulations. Within this general framework, we develop an algorithm that accurately extracts the location of the first apocenter of particles after infall into a halo, or splashback. We define the splashback radius of a halo as the smoothed average of the apocenter radii of individual particles. This definition allows us to reliably measure the splashback radii of 95% of host halos above a resolution limit of 1000 particles. We show that, on average, the splashback radius and mass are converged to better than 5% accuracy with respect to mass resolution, snapshot spacing, and all free parameters of the method.
Dynamic video encryption algorithm for H.264/AVC based on a spatiotemporal chaos system.
Xu, Hui; Tong, Xiao-Jun; Zhang, Miao; Wang, Zhu; Li, Ling-Hao
2016-06-01
Video encryption schemes mostly employ the selective encryption method to encrypt parts of important and sensitive video information, aiming to ensure the real-time performance and encryption efficiency. The classic block cipher is not applicable to video encryption due to the high computational overhead. In this paper, we propose the encryption selection control module to encrypt video syntax elements dynamically which is controlled by the chaotic pseudorandom sequence. A novel spatiotemporal chaos system and binarization method is used to generate a key stream for encrypting the chosen syntax elements. The proposed scheme enhances the resistance against attacks through the dynamic encryption process and high-security stream cipher. Experimental results show that the proposed method exhibits high security and high efficiency with little effect on the compression ratio and time cost.
Ant Colony Optimization Algorithm to Dynamic Energy Management in Cloud Data Center
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Shanchen Pang
2017-01-01
Full Text Available With the wide deployment of cloud computing data centers, the problems of power consumption have become increasingly prominent. The dynamic energy management problem in pursuit of energy-efficiency in cloud data centers is investigated. Specifically, a dynamic energy management system model for cloud data centers is built, and this system is composed of DVS Management Module, Load Balancing Module, and Task Scheduling Module. According to Task Scheduling Module, the scheduling process is analyzed by Stochastic Petri Net, and a task-oriented resource allocation method (LET-ACO is proposed, which optimizes the running time of the system and the energy consumption by scheduling tasks. Simulation studies confirm the effectiveness of the proposed system model. And the simulation results also show that, compared to ACO, Min-Min, and RR scheduling strategy, the proposed LET-ACO method can save up to 28%, 31%, and 40% energy consumption while meeting performance constraints.
A Component Mode Synthesis Algorithm for Multibody Dynamics of Wind Turbines
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Holm-Jørgensen, Kristian; Nielsen, Søren R.K.
2009-01-01
A system reduction scheme related to a multibody formulation of wind turbine dynamics is devised. Each substructure is described in its own frame of reference, which is moving freely in the vicinity of the moving substructure, in principle without any constraints to the rigid body part of the mot......A system reduction scheme related to a multibody formulation of wind turbine dynamics is devised. Each substructure is described in its own frame of reference, which is moving freely in the vicinity of the moving substructure, in principle without any constraints to the rigid body part...... of the motion of the substructure. The system reduction is based on a component mode synthesis method, where the response of the internal degrees of freedom of the substructure is described as the quasi-static response induced by the boundary degrees of freedom via the constraint modes superimposed...
A Data Transmission Algorithm Based on Dynamic Grid Division for Coal Goaf Temperature Monitoring
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Qingsong Hu
2014-01-01
Full Text Available WSN (wireless sensor network is a perfect tool of temperature monitoring in coal goaf. Based on the three-zone theory of goaf, the GtmWSN model is proposed, and its dynamic features are analyzed. Accordingly, a data transmission scheme, named DTDGD, is worked out. Firstly, sink nodes conduct dynamic grid division on the GtmWSN according to virtual semicircle. Secondly, each node will confirm to which grid it belongs based on grid number. Finally, data will be delivered to sink nodes with greedy forward and hole avoidance. Simulation results and field data showed that the GtmWSN and DTDGD satisfied the lifetime need of goaf temperature monitoring.
A hybrid algorithm for coupling partial differential equation and compartment-based dynamics.
Harrison, Jonathan U; Yates, Christian A
2016-09-01
Stochastic simulation methods can be applied successfully to model exact spatio-temporally resolved reaction-diffusion systems. However, in many cases, these methods can quickly become extremely computationally intensive with increasing particle numbers. An alternative description of many of these systems can be derived in the diffusive limit as a deterministic, continuum system of partial differential equations (PDEs). Although the numerical solution of such PDEs is, in general, much more efficient than the full stochastic simulation, the deterministic continuum description is generally not valid when copy numbers are low and stochastic effects dominate. Therefore, to take advantage of the benefits of both of these types of models, each of which may be appropriate in different parts of a spatial domain, we have developed an algorithm that can be used to couple these two types of model together. This hybrid coupling algorithm uses an overlap region between the two modelling regimes. By coupling fluxes at one end of the interface and using a concentration-matching condition at the other end, we ensure that mass is appropriately transferred between PDE- and compartment-based regimes. Our methodology gives notable reductions in simulation time in comparison with using a fully stochastic model, while maintaining the important stochastic features of the system and providing detail in appropriate areas of the domain. We test our hybrid methodology robustly by applying it to several biologically motivated problems including diffusion and morphogen gradient formation. Our analysis shows that the resulting error is small, unbiased and does not grow over time. © 2016 The Authors.
2015-11-01
Gholamreza, and Ester, Martin. “Modeling the Temporal Dynamics of Social Rating Networks Using Bidirectional Effects of Social Relations and Rating...1.1.2 β-disruptor Problems Besides the homogeneous network model consisting of uniform nodes and bidirectional links, the heterogeneous network model... neural and metabolic networks .” Biological Cybernetics 90 (2004): 311–317. 10.1007/s00422-004-0479-1. URL http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00422-004-0479-1 [51
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Tjin, T.; Buitelaar, T.
2000-02-01
July 1999 The Netherlands Electricity Regulatory Service (DtE) published an Information and Consultation Document on the subject of 'Price Cap Regulation in the Dutch Electricity Sector'. By means of price cap regulation tariffs are determined such that businesses are stimulated continuously to organize their total processes and operation as efficient as possible. In the consultation document a large number of questions with respect to the future organization and planning of the system of economic regulation of the electricity sector in the Netherlands can be found. Many reactions and answers were received, compiled and analyzed. The results are presented in the main report, which forms the framework for the DtE to shape the economic regulation of the Dutch electricity sector. In this background document attention is paid to a method to determine the Regulatory Asset Base (RAB)
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Balen Julie
2010-09-01
Full Text Available Abstract Background There are growing concerns regarding inequities in health, with poverty being an important determinant of health as well as a product of health status. Within the People's Republic of China (P.R. China, disparities in socio-economic position are apparent, with the rural-urban gap of particular concern. Our aim was to compare direct and proxy methods of estimating household wealth in a rural and a peri-urban setting of Hunan province, P.R. China. Methods We collected data on ownership of household durable assets, housing characteristics, and utility and sanitation variables in two village-wide surveys in Hunan province. We employed principal components analysis (PCA and principal axis factoring (PAF to generate household asset-based proxy wealth indices. Households were grouped into quartiles, from 'most wealthy' to 'most poor'. We compared the estimated household wealth for each approach. Asset-based proxy wealth indices were compared to those based on self-reported average annual income and savings at the household level. Results Spearman's rank correlation analysis revealed that PCA and PAF yielded similar results, indicating that either approach may be used for estimating household wealth. In both settings investigated, the two indices were significantly associated with self-reported average annual income and combined income and savings, but not with savings alone. However, low correlation coefficients between the proxy and direct measures of wealth indicated that they are not complementary. We found wide disparities in ownership of household durable assets, and utility and sanitation variables, within and between settings. Conclusion PCA and PAF yielded almost identical results and generated robust proxy wealth indices and categories. Pooled data from the rural and peri-urban settings highlighted structural differences in wealth, most likely a result of localized urbanization and modernization. Further research is needed
Miró, Anton; Pozo, Carlos; Guillén-Gosálbez, Gonzalo; Egea, Jose A; Jiménez, Laureano
2012-05-10
The estimation of parameter values for mathematical models of biological systems is an optimization problem that is particularly challenging due to the nonlinearities involved. One major difficulty is the existence of multiple minima in which standard optimization methods may fall during the search. Deterministic global optimization methods overcome this limitation, ensuring convergence to the global optimum within a desired tolerance. Global optimization techniques are usually classified into stochastic and deterministic. The former typically lead to lower CPU times but offer no guarantee of convergence to the global minimum in a finite number of iterations. In contrast, deterministic methods provide solutions of a given quality (i.e., optimality gap), but tend to lead to large computational burdens. This work presents a deterministic outer approximation-based algorithm for the global optimization of dynamic problems arising in the parameter estimation of models of biological systems. Our approach, which offers a theoretical guarantee of convergence to global minimum, is based on reformulating the set of ordinary differential equations into an equivalent set of algebraic equations through the use of orthogonal collocation methods, giving rise to a nonconvex nonlinear programming (NLP) problem. This nonconvex NLP is decomposed into two hierarchical levels: a master mixed-integer linear programming problem (MILP) that provides a rigorous lower bound on the optimal solution, and a reduced-space slave NLP that yields an upper bound. The algorithm iterates between these two levels until a termination criterion is satisfied. The capabilities of our approach were tested in two benchmark problems, in which the performance of our algorithm was compared with that of the commercial global optimization package BARON. The proposed strategy produced near optimal solutions (i.e., within a desired tolerance) in a fraction of the CPU time required by BARON.
Lim, Néhémy; Senbabaoglu, Yasin; Michailidis, George; d'Alché-Buc, Florence
2013-06-01
Reverse engineering of gene regulatory networks remains a central challenge in computational systems biology, despite recent advances facilitated by benchmark in silico challenges that have aided in calibrating their performance. A number of approaches using either perturbation (knock-out) or wild-type time-series data have appeared in the literature addressing this problem, with the latter using linear temporal models. Nonlinear dynamical models are particularly appropriate for this inference task, given the generation mechanism of the time-series data. In this study, we introduce a novel nonlinear autoregressive model based on operator-valued kernels that simultaneously learns the model parameters, as well as the network structure. A flexible boosting algorithm (OKVAR-Boost) that shares features from L2-boosting and randomization-based algorithms is developed to perform the tasks of parameter learning and network inference for the proposed model. Specifically, at each boosting iteration, a regularized Operator-valued Kernel-based Vector AutoRegressive model (OKVAR) is trained on a random subnetwork. The final model consists of an ensemble of such models. The empirical estimation of the ensemble model's Jacobian matrix provides an estimation of the network structure. The performance of the proposed algorithm is first evaluated on a number of benchmark datasets from the DREAM3 challenge and then on real datasets related to the In vivo Reverse-Engineering and Modeling Assessment (IRMA) and T-cell networks. The high-quality results obtained strongly indicate that it outperforms existing approaches. The OKVAR-Boost Matlab code is available as the archive: http://amis-group.fr/sourcecode-okvar-boost/OKVARBoost-v1.0.zip. Supplementary data are available at Bioinformatics online.
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Guan, Yajuan; Meng, Lexuan; Li, Chendan
2018-01-01
A dynamic consensus algorithm (DCA)-based coordinated secondary control with an autonomous current-sharing control strategy is proposed in this paper for balancing the discharge rate of energy storage systems (ESSs) in an islanded AC microgrid. The DCA is applied for information sharing between......, the proposed approach can provide higher system reliability, expandability, and flexibility due to its distributed control architecture. The proposed controller can effectively prevent operation failure caused by over-current and unintentional outage of DGs by means of balanced discharge rate control. It can...... also provide fast response and accurate current sharing performance. A generalizable linearized state-space model for n-DG network in the z-domain is also derived and proposed in this paper; the model includes electrical, controller, and communication parts. The system stability and parameter...
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Milligan, M. R.; Factor, T.
2001-01-01
This paper illustrates a method for choosing the optimal mix of wind capacity at several geographically dispersed locations. The method is based on a dynamic fuzzy search algorithm that can be applied to different optimization targets. We illustrate the method using two objective functions for the optimization: maximum economic benefit and maximum reliability. We also illustrate the sensitivity of the fuzzy economic benefit solutions to small perturbations of the capacity selections at each wind site. We find that small changes in site capacity and/or location have small effects on the economic benefit provided by wind power plants. We use electric load and generator data from Iowa, along with high-quality wind-speed data collected by the Iowa Wind Energy Institute
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
无
2010-01-01
We give an equivalent construction of the infinitesimal time translation operator for partial differential evolution equation in the algebraic dynamics algorithm proposed by Shun-Jin Wang and his students. Our construction involves only simple partial differentials and avoids the derivative terms of δ function which appear in the course of computation by means of Wang-Zhang operator. We prove Wang’s equivalent theorem which says that our construction and Wang-Zhang’s are equivalent. We use our construction to deal with several typical equations such as nonlinear advection equation, Burgers equation, nonlinear Schrodinger equation, KdV equation and sine-Gordon equation, and obtain at least second order approximate solutions to them. These equations include the cases of real and complex field variables and the cases of the first and the second order time derivatives.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Milligan, M. R., National Renewable Energy Laboratory; Factor, T., Iowa Wind Energy Institute
2001-09-21
This paper illustrates a method for choosing the optimal mix of wind capacity at several geographically dispersed locations. The method is based on a dynamic fuzzy search algorithm that can be applied to different optimization targets. We illustrate the method using two objective functions for the optimization: maximum economic benefit and maximum reliability. We also illustrate the sensitivity of the fuzzy economic benefit solutions to small perturbations of the capacity selections at each wind site. We find that small changes in site capacity and/or location have small effects on the economic benefit provided by wind power plants. We use electric load and generator data from Iowa, along with high-quality wind-speed data collected by the Iowa Wind Energy Institute.
Miller, Steven D.; Bankert, Richard L.; Solbrig, Jeremy E.; Forsythe, John M.; Noh, Yoo-Jeong; Grasso, Lewis D.
2017-12-01
This paper describes a Dynamic Enhancement Background Reduction Algorithm (DEBRA) applicable to multispectral satellite imaging radiometers. DEBRA uses ancillary information about the clear-sky background to reduce false detections of atmospheric parameters in complex scenes. Applied here to the detection of lofted dust, DEBRA enlists a surface emissivity database coupled with a climatological database of surface temperature to approximate the clear-sky equivalent signal for selected infrared-based multispectral dust detection tests. This background allows for suppression of false alarms caused by land surface features while retaining some ability to detect dust above those problematic surfaces. The algorithm is applicable to both day and nighttime observations and enables weighted combinations of dust detection tests. The results are provided quantitatively, as a detection confidence factor [0, 1], but are also readily visualized as enhanced imagery. Utilizing the DEBRA confidence factor as a scaling factor in false color red/green/blue imagery enables depiction of the targeted parameter in the context of the local meteorology and topography. In this way, the method holds utility to both automated clients and human analysts alike. Examples of DEBRA performance from notable dust storms and comparisons against other detection methods and independent observations are presented.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Meihong Wu
2016-01-01
Full Text Available Measuring stride variability and dynamics in children is useful for the quantitative study of gait maturation and neuromotor development in childhood and adolescence. In this paper, we computed the sample entropy (SampEn and average stride interval (ASI parameters to quantify the stride series of 50 gender-matched children participants in three age groups. We also normalized the SampEn and ASI values by leg length and body mass for each participant, respectively. Results show that the original and normalized SampEn values consistently decrease over the significance level of the Mann-Whitney U test (p<0.01 in children of 3–14 years old, which indicates the stride irregularity has been significantly ameliorated with the body growth. The original and normalized ASI values are also significantly changing when comparing between any two groups of young (aged 3–5 years, middle (aged 6–8 years, and elder (aged 10–14 years children. Such results suggest that healthy children may better modulate their gait cadence rhythm with the development of their musculoskeletal and neurological systems. In addition, the AdaBoost.M2 and Bagging algorithms were used to effectively distinguish the children’s gait patterns. These ensemble learning algorithms both provided excellent gait classification results in terms of overall accuracy (≥90%, recall (≥0.8, and precision (≥0.8077.
Li, Liang; Jia, Gang; Chen, Jie; Zhu, Hongjun; Cao, Dongpu; Song, Jian
2015-08-01
Direct yaw moment control (DYC), which differentially brakes the wheels to produce a yaw moment for the vehicle stability in a steering process, is an important part of electric stability control system. In this field, most control methods utilise the active brake pressure with a feedback controller to adjust the braked wheel. However, the method might lead to a control delay or overshoot because of the lack of a quantitative project relationship between target values from the upper stability controller to the lower pressure controller. Meanwhile, the stability controller usually ignores the implementing ability of the tyre forces, which might be restrained by the combined-slip dynamics of the tyre. Therefore, a novel control algorithm of DYC based on the hierarchical control strategy is brought forward in this paper. As for the upper controller, a correctional linear quadratic regulator, which not only contains feedback control but also contains feed forward control, is introduced to deduce the object of the stability yaw moment in order to guarantee the yaw rate and side-slip angle stability. As for the medium and lower controller, the quantitative relationship between the vehicle stability object and the target tyre forces of controlled wheels is proposed to achieve smooth control performance based on a combined-slip tyre model. The simulations with the hardware-in-the-loop platform validate that the proposed algorithm can improve the stability of the vehicle effectively.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Zhuravleva, A.M.; Litvinov, V.B.
1982-01-01
The problem of dynamic analysis of stressed-strained state of vacuum chambers is vital for large thermonuclear devices during the stall of the plasma-filament apd other tpansitional operation regimes when loading for a chamber are nonstationary. To plot a mathematical model the design of the vacuum chamber is discreted on the basis of the method of final elements. To approximate vacuum shell, a plate triangular element with 3 joint points and 5 parameters in the joint is used. It is obtained due to the unity of the bemded element and the element for the flat problem. To investigate nonstationary oscillations of vacuum chambers discreted on the basis of the method of final elements, it is suggested to use the numeric conversion of the Japlace transformation. On the basis of the algorithm suggested a program of numerical function conversion is developed. Test calculations have shown a good stability of the algorithm when selecting the values of transformation parameter in the range of lower intrinsic system frequencies. The advantage of the above method is in the fact that the time-structure shift function is found instantly in the form of the series for the whole time interval and does not require temporary steps, which bring about large expenses of counting time and error accumulation
Kobayashi, Chigusa; Jung, Jaewoon; Matsunaga, Yasuhiro; Mori, Takaharu; Ando, Tadashi; Tamura, Koichi; Kamiya, Motoshi; Sugita, Yuji
2017-09-30
GENeralized-Ensemble SImulation System (GENESIS) is a software package for molecular dynamics (MD) simulation of biological systems. It is designed to extend limitations in system size and accessible time scale by adopting highly parallelized schemes and enhanced conformational sampling algorithms. In this new version, GENESIS 1.1, new functions and advanced algorithms have been added. The all-atom and coarse-grained potential energy functions used in AMBER and GROMACS packages now become available in addition to CHARMM energy functions. The performance of MD simulations has been greatly improved by further optimization, multiple time-step integration, and hybrid (CPU + GPU) computing. The string method and replica-exchange umbrella sampling with flexible collective variable choice are used for finding the minimum free-energy pathway and obtaining free-energy profiles for conformational changes of a macromolecule. These new features increase the usefulness and power of GENESIS for modeling and simulation in biological research. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Matthews, A P; Garenne, M L
2013-09-01
The matching algorithm in a dynamic marriage market model is described in this first of two companion papers. Iterative Proportional Fitting is used to find a marriage function (an age distribution of new marriages for both sexes), in a stable reference population, that is consistent with the one-sex age distributions of new marriages, and includes age preference. The one-sex age distributions (which are the marginals of the two-sex distribution) are based on the Picrate model, and age preference on a normal distribution, both of which may be adjusted by choice of parameter values. For a population that is perturbed from the reference state, the total number of new marriages is found as the harmonic mean of target totals for men and women obtained by applying reference population marriage rates to the perturbed population. The marriage function uses the age preference function, assumed to be the same for the reference and the perturbed populations, to distribute the total number of new marriages. The marriage function also has an availability factor that varies as the population changes with time, where availability depends on the supply of unmarried men and women. To simplify exposition, only first marriage is treated, and the algorithm is illustrated by application to Zambia. In the second paper, remarriage and dissolution are included. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Hu, T C
2002-01-01
Newly enlarged, updated second edition of a valuable text presents algorithms for shortest paths, maximum flows, dynamic programming and backtracking. Also discusses binary trees, heuristic and near optimums, matrix multiplication, and NP-complete problems. 153 black-and-white illus. 23 tables.Newly enlarged, updated second edition of a valuable, widely used text presents algorithms for shortest paths, maximum flows, dynamic programming and backtracking. Also discussed are binary trees, heuristic and near optimums, matrix multiplication, and NP-complete problems. New to this edition: Chapter 9
Xiao, Li; Cai, Qin; Li, Zhilin; Zhao, Hongkai; Luo, Ray
2014-11-25
A multi-scale framework is proposed for more realistic molecular dynamics simulations in continuum solvent models by coupling a molecular mechanics treatment of solute with a fluid mechanics treatment of solvent. This article reports our initial efforts to formulate the physical concepts necessary for coupling the two mechanics and develop a 3D numerical algorithm to simulate the solvent fluid via the Navier-Stokes equation. The numerical algorithm was validated with multiple test cases. The validation shows that the algorithm is effective and stable, with observed accuracy consistent with our design.
AN IMPROVED CONTROL ALGORITHM FOR «DYNAMIC CAPACITOR» VAR COMPENSATOR
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
S.K. Podnebennaya
2015-11-01
Full Text Available Purpose. Modern approaches of VAR compensation are: using compensators with stepped regulation, STATCOMs, active power filters. Recently, more attention is paid to VAR compensator’s design based on the direct AC / AC converters, which are called dynamic capacitors. Methodology. The dynamic capacitor (D-CAP is the capacitor bank, which is connected to the mains through direct AC / AC buck converter. By varying the duty cycle of bidirectional switches, smooth control of reactive power can be achieved. However, in case of distorted mains voltage, D-CAP mains current will have a high THD. This is due to the fact that the D-CAP affects the frequency response of electric grid thus leading to the appearance of resonances. With non-sinusoidal mains voltage, capacitors are affected by harmonics. This reduces the reliability of the D-CAP, increasing the probability of their failure. To eliminate these drawbacks it is suggested to improve the D-CAP control system so that the input current of the dynamic capacitor is forced to be close to sinusoidal. This can be achieved if the duty cycle of the switching bi-directional switches is changed according to the proposed expression. Results. The research is done on a single-phase D-CAP with the proposed control system, its input current diagrams are shown. In contrast to the D-CAP with a constant duty cycle control, the resulting THD of its input current is much lower. Thus, the control system provides a form of the input current that is close to a sine wave. This reduces the influence of mains voltage harmonics on the D-CAP operation, increases its reliability and improves power quality. Originality. The proposed D-CAP control system ensures reliable operation with non-sinusoidal mains voltage. Practical value. Application of D-CAPs with the proposed control system allows for improved energy efficiency of electrical mains by providing VAR compensation and improving power quality.
Mundhenk, Terrell N.; Dhavale, Nitin; Marmol, Salvador; Calleja, Elizabeth; Navalpakkam, Vidhya; Bellman, Kirstie; Landauer, Chris; Arbib, Michael A.; Itti, Laurent
2003-10-01
In view of the growing complexity of computational tasks and their design, we propose that certain interactive systems may be better designed by utilizing computational strategies based on the study of the human brain. Compared with current engineering paradigms, brain theory offers the promise of improved self-organization and adaptation to the current environment, freeing the programmer from having to address those issues in a procedural manner when designing and implementing large-scale complex systems. To advance this hypothesis, we discus a multi-agent surveillance system where 12 agent CPUs each with its own camera, compete and cooperate to monitor a large room. To cope with the overload of image data streaming from 12 cameras, we take inspiration from the primate"s visual system, which allows the animal to operate a real-time selection of the few most conspicuous locations in visual input. This is accomplished by having each camera agent utilize the bottom-up, saliency-based visual attention algorithm of Itti and Koch (Vision Research 2000;40(10-12):1489-1506) to scan the scene for objects of interest. Real time operation is achieved using a distributed version that runs on a 16-CPU Beowulf cluster composed of the agent computers. The algorithm guides cameras to track and monitor salient objects based on maps of color, orientation, intensity, and motion. To spread camera view points or create cooperation in monitoring highly salient targets, camera agents bias each other by increasing or decreasing the weight of different feature vectors in other cameras, using mechanisms similar to excitation and suppression that have been documented in electrophysiology, psychophysics and imaging studies of low-level visual processing. In addition, if cameras need to compete for computing resources, allocation of computational time is weighed based upon the history of each camera. A camera agent that has a history of seeing more salient targets is more likely to obtain
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ji Zhilong; Ma Yuanwei; Wang Dezhong
2014-01-01
Background: In radioactive nuclides atmospheric diffusion models, the empirical dispersion coefficients were deduced under certain experiment conditions, whose difference with nuclear accident conditions is a source of deviation. A better estimation of the radioactive nuclide's actual dispersion process could be done by correcting dispersion coefficients with observation data, and Genetic Algorithm (GA) is an appropriate method for this correction procedure. Purpose: This study is to analyze the fitness functions' influence on the correction procedure and the forecast ability of diffusion model. Methods: GA, coupled with Lagrange dispersion model, was used in a numerical simulation to compare 4 fitness functions' impact on the correction result. Results: In the numerical simulation, the fitness function with observation deviation taken into consideration stands out when significant deviation exists in the observed data. After performing the correction procedure on the Kincaid experiment data, a significant boost was observed in the diffusion model's forecast ability. Conclusion: As the result shows, in order to improve dispersion models' forecast ability using GA, observation data should be given different weight in the fitness function corresponding to their error. (authors)
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Yeh, M.; Kim, J.; Khan, F.S.
1995-01-01
We present a parallel decomposition of the tight-binding fictitious Lagrangian algorithm for the Intel iPSC/860 and the Intel Paragon parallel computers. We show that it is possible to perform long simulations, of the order of 10 000 time steps, on semiconducting clusters consisting of as many as 512 atoms, on a time scale of the order of 20 h or less. We have made a very careful timing analysis of all parts of our code, and have identified the bottlenecks. We have also derived formulas which can predict the timing of our code, based on the number of processors, message passing bandwidth, floating point performance of each node, and the set up time for message passing, appropriate to the machine being used. The time of the simulation scales as the square of the number of particles, if the number of processors is made to scale linearly with the number of particles. We show that for a system as large as 512 atoms, the main bottleneck of the computation is the orthogonalization of the wave functions, which consumes about 90% of the total time of the simulation
A new logistic dynamic particle swarm optimization algorithm based on random topology.
Ni, Qingjian; Deng, Jianming
2013-01-01
Population topology of particle swarm optimization (PSO) will directly affect the dissemination of optimal information during the evolutionary process and will have a significant impact on the performance of PSO. Classic static population topologies are usually used in PSO, such as fully connected topology, ring topology, star topology, and square topology. In this paper, the performance of PSO with the proposed random topologies is analyzed, and the relationship between population topology and the performance of PSO is also explored from the perspective of graph theory characteristics in population topologies. Further, in a relatively new PSO variant which named logistic dynamic particle optimization, an extensive simulation study is presented to discuss the effectiveness of the random topology and the design strategies of population topology. Finally, the experimental data are analyzed and discussed. And about the design and use of population topology on PSO, some useful conclusions are proposed which can provide a basis for further discussion and research.
Ernawati; Carnia, E.; Supriatna, A. K.
2018-03-01
Eigenvalues and eigenvectors in max-plus algebra have the same important role as eigenvalues and eigenvectors in conventional algebra. In max-plus algebra, eigenvalues and eigenvectors are useful for knowing dynamics of the system such as in train system scheduling, scheduling production systems and scheduling learning activities in moving classes. In the translation of proteins in which the ribosome move uni-directionally along the mRNA strand to recruit the amino acids that make up the protein, eigenvalues and eigenvectors are used to calculate protein production rates and density of ribosomes on the mRNA. Based on this, it is important to examine the eigenvalues and eigenvectors in the process of protein translation. In this paper an eigenvector formula is given for a ribosome dynamics during mRNA translation by using the Kleene star algorithm in which the resulting eigenvector formula is simpler and easier to apply to the system than that introduced elsewhere. This paper also discusses the properties of the matrix {B}λ \\otimes n of model. Among the important properties, it always has the same elements in the first column for n = 1, 2,… if the eigenvalue is the time of initiation, λ = τin , and the column is the eigenvector of the model corresponding to λ.
Dynamic Water Surface Detection Algorithm Applied on PROBA-V Multispectral Data
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Luc Bertels
2016-12-01
Full Text Available Water body detection worldwide using spaceborne remote sensing is a challenging task. A global scale multi-temporal and multi-spectral image analysis method for water body detection was developed. The PROBA-V microsatellite has been fully operational since December 2013 and delivers daily near-global synthesis with a spatial resolution of 1 km and 333 m. The Red, Near-InfRared (NIR and Short Wave InfRared (SWIR bands of the atmospherically corrected 10-day synthesis images are first Hue, Saturation and Value (HSV color transformed and subsequently used in a decision tree classification for water body detection. To minimize commission errors four additional data layers are used: the Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI, Water Body Potential Mask (WBPM, Permanent Glacier Mask (PGM and Volcanic Soil Mask (VSM. Threshold values on the hue and value bands, expressed by a parabolic function, are used to detect the water bodies. Beside the water bodies layer, a quality layer, based on the water bodies occurrences, is available in the output product. The performance of the Water Bodies Detection Algorithm (WBDA was assessed using Landsat 8 scenes over 15 regions selected worldwide. A mean Commission Error (CE of 1.5% was obtained while a mean Omission Error (OE of 15.4% was obtained for minimum Water Surface Ratio (WSR = 0.5 and drops to 9.8% for minimum WSR = 0.6. Here, WSR is defined as the fraction of the PROBA-V pixel covered by water as derived from high spatial resolution images, e.g., Landsat 8. Both the CE = 1.5% and OE = 9.8% (WSR = 0.6 fall within the user requirements of 15%. The WBDA is fully operational in the Copernicus Global Land Service and products are freely available.
Díaz-Mojica, J. J.; Cruz-Atienza, V. M.; Madariaga, R.; Singh, S. K.; Iglesias, A.
2013-05-01
We introduce a novel approach for imaging the earthquakes dynamics from ground motion records based on a parallel genetic algorithm (GA). The method follows the elliptical dynamic-rupture-patch approach introduced by Di Carli et al. (2010) and has been carefully verified through different numerical tests (Díaz-Mojica et al., 2012). Apart from the five model parameters defining the patch geometry, our dynamic source description has four more parameters: the stress drop inside the nucleation and the elliptical patches; and two friction parameters, the slip weakening distance and the change of the friction coefficient. These parameters are constant within the rupture surface. The forward dynamic source problem, involved in the GA inverse method, uses a highly accurate computational solver for the problem, namely the staggered-grid split-node. The synthetic inversion presented here shows that the source model parameterization is suitable for the GA, and that short-scale source dynamic features are well resolved in spite of low-pass filtering of the data for periods comparable to the source duration. Since there is always uncertainty in the propagation medium as well as in the source location and the focal mechanisms, we have introduced a statistical approach to generate a set of solution models so that the envelope of the corresponding synthetic waveforms explains as much as possible the observed data. We applied the method to the 2012 Mw6.5 intraslab Zumpango, Mexico earthquake and determined several fundamental source parameters that are in accordance with different and completely independent estimates for Mexican and worldwide earthquakes. Our weighted-average final model satisfactorily explains eastward rupture directivity observed in the recorded data. Some parameters found for the Zumpango earthquake are: Δτ = 30.2+/-6.2 MPa, Er = 0.68+/-0.36x10^15 J, G = 1.74+/-0.44x10^15 J, η = 0.27+/-0.11, Vr/Vs = 0.52+/-0.09 and Mw = 6.64+/-0.07; for the stress drop
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Anna Bourmistrova
2011-02-01
Full Text Available The autodriver algorithm is an intelligent method to eliminate the need of steering by a driver on a well-defined road. The proposed method performs best on a four-wheel steering (4WS vehicle, though it is also applicable to two-wheel-steering (TWS vehicles. The algorithm is based on coinciding the actual vehicle center of rotation and road center of curvature, by adjusting the kinematic center of rotation. The road center of curvature is assumed prior information for a given road, while the dynamic center of rotation is the output of dynamic equations of motion of the vehicle using steering angle and velocity measurements as inputs. We use kinematic condition of steering to set the steering angles in such a way that the kinematic center of rotation of the vehicle sits at a desired point. At low speeds the ideal and actual paths of the vehicle are very close. With increase of forward speed the road and tire characteristics, along with the motion dynamics of the vehicle cause the vehicle to turn about time-varying points. By adjusting the steering angles, our algorithm controls the dynamic turning center of the vehicle so that it coincides with the road curvature center, hence keeping the vehicle on a given road autonomously. The position and orientation errors are used as feedback signals in a closed loop control to adjust the steering angles. The application of the presented autodriver algorithm demonstrates reliable performance under different driving conditions.
Akhtulov, A. L.
2018-01-01
The questions of construction and practical application of the automation system for the design of components and aggregates for the construction of transport vehicles are considered, taking into account their dynamic characteristics. Based on the results of the studies, a unified method for determining the reactions of bonds of a complex spatial structure is proposed. The technique, based on the method of substructures, allows us to determine the values of the transfer functions taking into account the reactions of the bonds. After the carried out researches it is necessary to note, that such approach gives the most satisfactory results and can be used for calculations of complex mechanical systems of machines and units of different purposes. The directions of increasing the degree of validity of technical decisions are shown, especially in the early stages of design, when the cost of errors is high, with careful thorough working out of all the elements of the design, which is really feasible only on the basis of automation of design and technological work.
Dejean, Alain; Azémar, Frédéric; Céréghino, Régis; Leponce, Maurice; Corbara, Bruno; Orivel, Jérôme; Compin, Arthur
2016-08-01
Ants, the most abundant taxa among canopy-dwelling animals in tropical rainforests, are mostly represented by territorially dominant arboreal ants (TDAs) whose territories are distributed in a mosaic pattern (arboreal ant mosaics). Large TDA colonies regulate insect herbivores, with implications for forestry and agronomy. What generates these mosaics in vegetal formations, which are dynamic, still needs to be better understood. So, from empirical research based on 3 Cameroonian tree species (Lophira alata, Ochnaceae; Anthocleista vogelii, Gentianaceae; and Barteria fistulosa, Passifloraceae), we used the Self-Organizing Map (SOM, neural network) to illustrate the succession of TDAs as their host trees grow and age. The SOM separated the trees by species and by size for L. alata, which can reach 60 m in height and live several centuries. An ontogenic succession of TDAs from sapling to mature trees is shown, and some ecological traits are highlighted for certain TDAs. Also, because the SOM permits the analysis of data with many zeroes with no effect of outliers on the overall scatterplot distributions, we obtained ecological information on rare species. Finally, the SOM permitted us to show that functional groups cannot be selected at the genus level as congeneric species can have very different ecological niches, something particularly true for Crematogaster spp., which include a species specifically associated with B. fistulosa, nondominant species and TDAs. Therefore, the SOM permitted the complex relationships between TDAs and their growing host trees to be analyzed, while also providing new information on the ecological traits of the ant species involved. © 2015 Institute of Zoology, Chinese Academy of Sciences.
Consensus Algorithms for Networks of Systems with Second- and Higher-Order Dynamics
Fruhnert, Michael
This thesis considers homogeneous networks of linear systems. We consider linear feedback controllers and require that the directed graph associated with the network contains a spanning tree and systems are stabilizable. We show that, in continuous-time, consensus with a guaranteed rate of convergence can always be achieved using linear state feedback. For networks of continuous-time second-order systems, we provide a new and simple derivation of the conditions for a second-order polynomials with complex coefficients to be Hurwitz. We apply this result to obtain necessary and sufficient conditions to achieve consensus with networks whose graph Laplacian matrix may have complex eigenvalues. Based on the conditions found, methods to compute feedback gains are proposed. We show that gains can be chosen such that consensus is achieved robustly over a variety of communication structures and system dynamics. We also consider the use of static output feedback. For networks of discrete-time second-order systems, we provide a new and simple derivation of the conditions for a second-order polynomials with complex coefficients to be Schur. We apply this result to obtain necessary and sufficient conditions to achieve consensus with networks whose graph Laplacian matrix may have complex eigenvalues. We show that consensus can always be achieved for marginally stable systems and discretized systems. Simple conditions for consensus achieving controllers are obtained when the Laplacian eigenvalues are all real. For networks of continuous-time time-variant higher-order systems, we show that uniform consensus can always be achieved if systems are quadratically stabilizable. In this case, we provide a simple condition to obtain a linear feedback control. For networks of discrete-time higher-order systems, we show that constant gains can be chosen such that consensus is achieved for a variety of network topologies. First, we develop simple results for networks of time
Jolly, Kate; Ingram, Jenny; Clarke, Joanne; Johnson, Debbie; Trickey, Heather; Thomson, Gill; Dombrowski, Stephan U; Sitch, Alice; Dykes, Fiona; Feltham, Max G; Darwent, Kirsty; MacArthur, Christine; Roberts, Tracy
2018-01-01
Introduction Breast feeding improves the health of mothers and infants; the UK has low rates, with marked socioeconomic inequalities. While trials of peer support services have been effective in some settings, UK trials have not improved breast feeding rates. Qualitative research suggests that many women are alienated by the focus on breast feeding. We propose a change from breast feeding-focused interactions to respecting a woman’s feeding choices, inclusion of behaviour change theory and an increased intensity of contacts in the 2 weeks after birth when many women cease to breast feed. This will take place alongside an assets-based approach that focuses on the positive capability of individuals, their social networks and communities. We propose a feasibility study for a multicentre randomised controlled trial of the Assets feeding help Before and After birth (ABA) infant feeding service versus usual care. Methods and analysis A two-arm, non-blinded randomised feasibility study will be conducted in two UK localities. Women expecting their first baby will be eligible, regardless of feeding intention. The ABA infant feeding intervention will apply a proactive, assets-based, woman-centred, non-judgemental approach, delivered antenatally and postnatally tailored through face-to-face contacts, telephone and SMS texts. Outcomes will test the feasibility of delivering the intervention with recommended intensity and duration to disadvantaged women; acceptability to women, feeding helpers and professionals; and feasibility of a future randomised controlled trial (RCT), detailing recruitment rates, willingness to be randomised, follow-up rates at 3 days, 8 weeks and 6 months, and level of outcome completion. Outcomes of the proposed full trial will also be collected. Mixed methods will include qualitative interviews with women/partners, feeding helpers and health service staff; feeding helper logs; and review of audio-recorded helper–women interactions to assess
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Nan YU
2014-09-01
Full Text Available The interference signal in magneto-hydro-dynamics (MHD may be the disturbance from the power supply, the equipment itself, or the electromagnetic radiation. Interference signal mixed in normal signal, brings difficulties for signal analysis and processing. Recently proposed S-Transform algorithm combines advantages of short time Fourier transform and wavelet transform. It uses Fourier kernel and wavelet like Gauss window whose width is inversely proportional to the frequency. Therefore, S-Transform algorithm not only preserves the phase information of the signals but also has variable resolution like wavelet transform. This paper proposes a new method to establish a MHD signal classifier using S-transform algorithm and radial basis function neural network (RBFNN. Because RBFNN centers ascertained by k-means clustering algorithm probably are the local optimum, this paper analyzes the characteristics of k-means clustering algorithm and proposes an improved k-means clustering algorithm called GCW (Group-cluster-weight k-means clustering algorithm to improve the centers distribution. The experiment results show that the improvement greatly enhances the RBFNN performance.
Kazachenko, Sergey; Giovinazzo, Mark; Hall, Kyle Wm; Cann, Natalie M
2015-09-15
A custom code for molecular dynamics simulations has been designed to run on CUDA-enabled NVIDIA graphics processing units (GPUs). The double-precision code simulates multicomponent fluids, with intramolecular and intermolecular forces, coarse-grained and atomistic models, holonomic constraints, Nosé-Hoover thermostats, and the generation of distribution functions. Algorithms to compute Lennard-Jones and Gay-Berne interactions, and the electrostatic force using Ewald summations, are discussed. A neighbor list is introduced to improve scaling with respect to system size. Three test systems are examined: SPC/E water; an n-hexane/2-propanol mixture; and a liquid crystal mesogen, 2-(4-butyloxyphenyl)-5-octyloxypyrimidine. Code performance is analyzed for each system. With one GPU, a 33-119 fold increase in performance is achieved compared with the serial code while the use of two GPUs leads to a 69-287 fold improvement and three GPUs yield a 101-377 fold speedup. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
Huang; Ling; Liu; Yang; Xu; Jianfeng
2015-01-01
With the transformation of the Chinese economy from an extensive growth to intensive development, city development is also gradually turning from incremental construction to stock management. Community, as a basic unit of human settlements, is an important platform to build and improve the social governance capability. In 2013, Shiyoulu Jiedao Offi ce of Yuzhong District led the 1st urban community development planning, which was a milestone of Chongqing’s city regeneration and governance innovation. This paper focuses on two key issues: how to understand the community values and make the community development planning based on the above, and how to integrate with the local forces so that the community development planning can be integrated into the action plan. Combined with the practice of Minlecun Community Development Planning, using the concept of asset-based community development, a comprehensive survey is conducted on community assets(including three aspects of physical, human, and social capital), and a community comprehensive planning strategy is formulated which covers two parts: the optimization of community spaces and the upgrading of community governance. The paper explores the local-based community planning theories and methods from such aspects as value attitude, public participation, role transformation of urban planners, and others.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Yang, Fangfang; Xing, Yinjiao; Wang, Dong; Tsui, Kwok-Leung
2016-01-01
Highlights: • Three different model-based filtering algorithms for SOC estimation are compared. • A combined dynamic loading profile is proposed to evaluate the three algorithms. • Robustness against uncertainty of initial states of SOC estimators are investigated. • Battery capacity degradation is considered in SOC estimation. - Abstract: Accurate state-of-charge (SOC) estimation is critical for the safety and reliability of battery management systems in electric vehicles. Because SOC cannot be directly measured and SOC estimation is affected by many factors, such as ambient temperature, battery aging, and current rate, a robust SOC estimation approach is necessary to be developed so as to deal with time-varying and nonlinear battery systems. In this paper, three popular model-based filtering algorithms, including extended Kalman filter, unscented Kalman filter, and particle filter, are respectively used to estimate SOC and their performances regarding to tracking accuracy, computation time, robustness against uncertainty of initial values of SOC, and battery degradation, are compared. To evaluate the performances of these algorithms, a new combined dynamic loading profile composed of the dynamic stress test, the federal urban driving schedule and the US06 is proposed. The comparison results showed that the unscented Kalman filter is the most robust to different initial values of SOC, while the particle filter owns the fastest convergence ability when an initial guess of SOC is far from a true initial SOC.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Liao, Gwo-Ching
2011-01-01
An optimization algorithm is proposed in this paper to solve the economic dispatch problem that includes wind farm using the Chaotic Quantum Genetic Algorithm (CQGA). In addition to the detailed models of economic dispatch introduction and their associated constraints, the wind power effect is also included in this paper. The chaotic quantum genetic algorithm used to solve the economic dispatch process and discussed with real scenarios used for the simulation tests. After comparing the proposed algorithm with several other algorithms commonly used to solve optimization problems, the results show that the proposed algorithm is able to find the optimal solution quickly and accurately (i.e. to obtain the minimum cost for power generation in the shortest time). At the end, the impact to the total cost savings for power generation after adding (or not adding) wind power generation is also discussed. The actual implementation results prove that the proposed algorithm is economical, fast and practical. They are quite valuable for further research. -- Research highlights: → Quantum Genetic Algorithm can effectively improve the global search ability. → It can achieve the real objective of the global optimal solutions. → The CPU computation time is less than that other algorithms adopted in this paper.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Jahedi, G.; Ardehali, M.M.
2011-01-01
The simplicity in coding the heuristic judgment of experienced operator by means of fuzzy logic can be exploited for enhancement of energy efficiency. Fuzzy logic has been used as an effective tool for scheduling conventional PID controllers gain coefficients (F-PID). However, to search for the most desirable fuzzy system characteristics that allow for best performance of the energy system with minimum energy input, optimization techniques such as genetic algorithm (GA) could be utilized and the control methodology is identified as GA-based F-PID (GA-F-PID). The objective of this study is to examine the performance of PID, F-PID, and GA-F-PID controllers for enhancement of energy efficiency of a dynamic energy system. The performance evaluation of the controllers is accomplished by means of two cost functions that are based on the quadratic forms of the energy input and deviation from a setpoint temperature, referred to as energy and comfort costs, respectively. The GA-F-PID controller is examined in two different forms, namely, global form and local form. For the global form, all possible combinations of fuzzy system characteristics in the search domain are explored by GA for finding the fittest chromosome for all discrete time intervals during the entire operation period. For the local form, however, GA is used in each discrete time interval to find the fittest chromosome for implementation. The results show that the global form GA-F-PID and local form GA-F-PID control methodologies, in comparison with PID controller, achieve higher energy efficiency by lowering energy costs by 51.2%, and 67.8%, respectively. Similarly, the comfort costs for deviation from setpoint are enhanced by 54.4%, and 62.4%, respectively. It is determined that GA-F-PID performs better in local from than global form.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Choi, Myung Soo; Yang, Kyong Uk [Chonnam National University, Yeosu (Korea, Republic of); Kondou, Takahiro [Kyushu University, Fukuoka (Japan); Bonkobara, Yasuhiro [University of Miyazaki, Miyazaki (Japan)
2016-03-15
We developed a method for analyzing the free vibration of a structure regarded as a distributed system, by combining the Wittrick-Williams algorithm and the transfer dynamic stiffness coefficient method. A computational algorithm was formulated for analyzing the free vibration of a straight-line beam regarded as a distributed system, to explain the concept of the developed method. To verify the effectiveness of the developed method, the natural frequencies of straight-line beams were computed using the finite element method, transfer matrix method, transfer dynamic stiffness coefficient method, the exact solution, and the developed method. By comparing the computational results of the developed method with those of the other methods, we confirmed that the developed method exhibited superior performance over the other methods in terms of computational accuracy, cost and user convenience.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Eryilmaz, Serkan; Rıza Bozbulut, Ali
2014-01-01
In this paper, we study a multi-state weighted k-out-of-n:G system model in a dynamic setup. In particular, we study the random time spent by the system with a minimum performance level of k. Our method is based on ordering the lifetimes of the system's components in different state subsets. Using this ordering along with the Monte-Carlo simulation algorithm, we obtain estimates of the mean and survival function of the time spent by the system in state k or above. We present illustrative computational results when the degradation in the components follows a Markov process. - Highlights: • A multi-state weighted k-out-of-n:G system is studied. • A Monte-Carlo simulation algorithm is provided for the dynamic analysis. • Numerics are presented when the components' degradation follow the Markov process
Xu, Zhanqi; Huang, Jiangjiang; Zhou, Zhiqiang; Ding, Zhe; Ma, Tao; Wang, Junping
2013-10-01
To maximize the resource utilization of optical networks, the dynamic traffic grooming, which could efficiently multiplex many low-speed services arriving dynamically onto high-capacity optical channels, has been studied extensively and used widely. However, the link weights in the existing research works can be improved since they do not adapt to the network status and load well. By exploiting the information on the holding times of the preexisting and new lightpaths, and the requested bandwidth of a user service, this paper proposes a grooming algorithm using Adaptively Weighted Links for Holding-Time-Aware (HTA) (abbreviated as AWL-HTA) traffic, especially in the setup process of new lightpath(s). Therefore, the proposed algorithm can not only establish a lightpath that uses network resource efficiently, but also achieve load balancing. In this paper, the key issues on the link weight assignment and procedure within the AWL-HTA are addressed in detail. Comprehensive simulation and experimental results show that the proposed algorithm has a much lower blocking ratio and latency than other existing algorithms.
Rafols, I.; Leydesdorff, L.; Larsen, B.; Leta, J.
2009-01-01
The aggregated journal-journal citation matrix—based on the Journal Citation Reports (JCR) of the Science Citation Index—can be decomposed by indexers and/or algorithmically. In this study, we test the results of two recently available algorithms for the decomposition of large matrices against two
Rafols, I; Leydesdorff, L.
2009-01-01
The aggregated journal-journal citation matrix—based on the Journal Citation Reports (JCR) of the Science Citation Index—can be decomposed by indexers or algorithmically. In this study, we test the results of two recently available algorithms for the decomposition of large matrices against two
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Schmidt, Lasse; Andersen, Torben O.
2016-01-01
The application of second order sliding mode algorithms for output feedback control in hydraulic valve-cylinder drives appear attractive due to their simple realization and parametrization, and strong robustness toward bounded parameter variations and uncertainties. However, intrinsic nonlinear...
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kiluk, Sebastian
2017-01-01
Highlights: • Energy efficiency classification sustainability benefits from knowledge prediction. • Diagnostic classification can be validated with its dynamics and current data. • Diagnostic classification dynamics provides novelty extraction for knowledge update. • Data mining comparison can be performed with knowledge dynamics and uncertainty. • Diagnostic information refinement benefits form comparing classifiers dynamics. - Abstract: Modern ways of exploring the diagnostic knowledge provided by data mining and machine learning raise some concern about the ways of evaluating the quality of output knowledge, usually represented by information systems. Especially in district heating, the stationarity of efficiency models, and thus the relevance of diagnostic classification system, cannot be ensured due to the impact of social, economic or technological changes, which are hard to identify or predict. Therefore, data mining and machine learning have become an attractive strategy for automatically and continuously absorbing such dynamics. This paper presents a new method of evaluation and comparison of diagnostic information systems gathered algorithmically in district heating efficiency supervision based on exploring the evolution of information system and analyzing its dynamic features. The process of data mining and knowledge discovery was applied to the data acquired from district heating substations’ energy meters to provide the automated discovery of diagnostic knowledge base necessary for the efficiency supervision of district heating-supplied buildings. The implemented algorithm consists of several steps of processing the billing data, including preparation, segmentation, aggregation and knowledge discovery stage, where classes of abstract models representing energy efficiency constitute an information system representing diagnostic knowledge about the energy efficiency of buildings favorably operating under similar climate conditions and
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Fabián Santos
2017-01-01
Full Text Available The Andean Amazon is an endangered biodiversity hot spot but its forest dynamics are less studied than those of the Amazon lowland and forests from middle or high latitudes. This is because its landscape variability, complex topography and cloudy conditions constitute a challenging environment for any remote-sensing assessment. Breakpoint detection with Landsat time-series data is an established robust approach for monitoring forest dynamics around the globe but has not been properly evaluated for implementation in the Andean Amazon. We analyzed breakpoint detection-generated forest dynamics in order to determine its limitations when applied to three different study areas located along an altitude gradient in the Andean Amazon in Ecuador. Using all available Landsat imagery for the period 1997–2016, we evaluated different pre-processing approaches, noise reduction techniques, and breakpoint detection algorithms. These procedures were integrated into a complex function called the processing chain generator. Calibration was not straightforward since it required us to define values for 24 parameters. To solve this problem, we implemented a novel approach using genetic algorithms. We calibrated the processing chain generator by applying a stratified training sampling and a reference dataset based on high resolution imagery. After the best calibration solution was found and the processing chain generator executed, we assessed accuracy and found that data gaps, inaccurate co-registration, radiometric variability in sensor calibration, unmasked cloud, and shadows can drastically affect the results, compromising the application of breakpoint detection in mountainous areas of the Andean Amazon. Moreover, since breakpoint detection analysis of landscape variability in the Andean Amazon requires a unique calibration of algorithms, the time required to optimize analysis could complicate its proper implementation and undermine its application for large
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
S.H. Tang
2012-01-01
Full Text Available
ENGLISH ABSTRACT: The bacteria foraging algorithm (BFA is a new computation technique inspired by the social foraging behaviour of Escherichia coli (E. coli bacteria. Since the introduction of the BFA by Kevin M. Passino, there have been many challenges in employing this algorithm to problems other than those for which the algorithm was proposed. This research aims to apply this emerging optimisation algorithm to develop a mixed-integer programming model for designing cellular manufacturing systems (CMSs, and production planning in dynamic environments. In dynamic environments, product mix and part demand vary under multi-period planning horizons. Thus the best-designed cells for one period may not be adequate for subsequent periods, requiring their reconstruction. The advantages of the proposed model are as follows: consideration of batch inter-cell and intra-cell material handling by assuming the sequence of operations, allowing for alternative process plans for part types, and consideration of machine copying, with an emphasis on the effect of trade-offs between production and outsourcing costs. The goal is to minimise the sum of the machines’ constant and variable costs, inter-cell and intra-cell material handling costs, reconstruction costs, partial subcontracting costs, and inventory carrying costs. In addition, a newly-developed BFA-based optimisation algorithm has been compared with the branch and bound algorithm. The results suggest that the proposed algorithm performs better than related works.
AFRIKAANSE OPSOMMING: Die ‘bacteria foraging algorithm’ (BFA is ‘n berekeningstegniek gebaseeer op die sosiale soekgedrag van Escherichia coli (E. coli bakterieë. Sedert die bekendstelling van BFA was daar talle uitdagings oor toepassings van die algoritme op ander probleme as dié waarvoor dit ontwikkel is. Dié navorsing poog om deur toepassing van die algoritme ‘n gemengde heelgetalprogrammeringmodel te ontwikkel vir die
Li, Jinyan; Fong, Simon; Sung, Yunsick; Cho, Kyungeun; Wong, Raymond; Wong, Kelvin K L
2016-01-01
An imbalanced dataset is defined as a training dataset that has imbalanced proportions of data in both interesting and uninteresting classes. Often in biomedical applications, samples from the stimulating class are rare in a population, such as medical anomalies, positive clinical tests, and particular diseases. Although the target samples in the primitive dataset are small in number, the induction of a classification model over such training data leads to poor prediction performance due to insufficient training from the minority class. In this paper, we use a novel class-balancing method named adaptive swarm cluster-based dynamic multi-objective synthetic minority oversampling technique (ASCB_DmSMOTE) to solve this imbalanced dataset problem, which is common in biomedical applications. The proposed method combines under-sampling and over-sampling into a swarm optimisation algorithm. It adaptively selects suitable parameters for the rebalancing algorithm to find the best solution. Compared with the other versions of the SMOTE algorithm, significant improvements, which include higher accuracy and credibility, are observed with ASCB_DmSMOTE. Our proposed method tactfully combines two rebalancing techniques together. It reasonably re-allocates the majority class in the details and dynamically optimises the two parameters of SMOTE to synthesise a reasonable scale of minority class for each clustered sub-imbalanced dataset. The proposed methods ultimately overcome other conventional methods and attains higher credibility with even greater accuracy of the classification model.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Dawid Połap
2017-09-01
Full Text Available In the proposed article, we present a nature-inspired optimization algorithm, which we called Polar Bear Optimization Algorithm (PBO. The inspiration to develop the algorithm comes from the way polar bears hunt to survive in harsh arctic conditions. These carnivorous mammals are active all year round. Frosty climate, unfavorable to other animals, has made polar bears adapt to the specific mode of exploration and hunting in large areas, not only over ice but also water. The proposed novel mathematical model of the way polar bears move in the search for food and hunt can be a valuable method of optimization for various theoretical and practical problems. Optimization is very similar to nature, similarly to search for optimal solutions for mathematical models animals search for optimal conditions to develop in their natural environments. In this method. we have used a model of polar bear behaviors as a search engine for optimal solutions. Proposed simulated adaptation to harsh winter conditions is an advantage for local and global search, while birth and death mechanism controls the population. Proposed PBO was evaluated and compared to other meta-heuristic algorithms using sample test functions and some classical engineering problems. Experimental research results were compared to other algorithms and analyzed using various parameters. The analysis allowed us to identify the leading advantages which are rapid recognition of the area by the relevant population and efficient birth and death mechanism to improve global and local search within the solution space.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Ray Debraj
2015-01-01
Full Text Available Speeded Up Robust Feature (SURF is used to position a robot with respect to an environment and aid in vision-based robotic navigation. During the course of navigation irregularities in the terrain, especially in an outdoor environment may deviate a robot from the track. Another reason for deviation can be unequal speed of the left and right robot wheels. Hence it is essential to detect such deviations and perform corrective operations to bring the robot back to the track. In this paper we propose a novel algorithm that uses image matching using SURF to detect deviation of a robot from the trajectory and subsequent restoration by corrective operations. This algorithm is executed in parallel to positioning and navigation algorithms by distributing tasks among different CPU cores using Open Multi-Processing (OpenMP API.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Hongzhe Jin
2017-01-01
Full Text Available This paper presents a synthetic algorithm for tracking a moving object in a multiple-dynamic obstacles environment based on kinematically planar manipulators. By observing the motions of the object and obstacles, Spline filter associated with polynomial fitting is utilized to predict their moving paths for a period of time in the future. Several feasible paths for the manipulator in Cartesian space can be planned according to the predicted moving paths and the defined feasibility criterion. The shortest one among these feasible paths is selected as the optimized path. Then the real-time path along the optimized path is planned for the manipulator to track the moving object in real-time. To improve the convergence rate of tracking, a virtual controller based on PD controller is designed to adaptively adjust the real-time path. In the process of tracking, the null space of inverse kinematic and the local rotation coordinate method (LRCM are utilized for the arms and the end-effector to avoid obstacles, respectively. Finally, the moving object in a multiple-dynamic obstacles environment is thus tracked via real-time updating the joint angles of manipulator according to the iterative method. Simulation results show that the proposed algorithm is feasible to track a moving object in a multiple-dynamic obstacles environment.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
McMahon, Ryan; Berbeco, Ross; Nishioka, Seiko; Ishikawa, Masayori; Papiez, Lech
2008-01-01
An MLC control algorithm for delivering intensity modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) to targets that are undergoing two-dimensional (2D) rigid motion in the beam's eye view (BEV) is presented. The goal of this method is to deliver 3D-derived fluence maps over a moving patient anatomy. Target motion measured prior to delivery is first used to design a set of planned dynamic-MLC (DMLC) sliding-window leaf trajectories. During actual delivery, the algorithm relies on real-time feedback to compensate for target motion that does not agree with the motion measured during planning. The methodology is based on an existing one-dimensional (1D) algorithm that uses on-the-fly intensity calculations to appropriately adjust the DMLC leaf trajectories in real-time during exposure delivery [McMahon et al., Med. Phys. 34, 3211-3223 (2007)]. To extend the 1D algorithm's application to 2D target motion, a real-time leaf-pair shifting mechanism has been developed. Target motion that is orthogonal to leaf travel is tracked by appropriately shifting the positions of all MLC leaves. The performance of the tracking algorithm was tested for a single beam of a fractionated IMRT treatment, using a clinically derived intensity profile and a 2D target trajectory based on measured patient data. Comparisons were made between 2D tracking, 1D tracking, and no tracking. The impact of the tracking lag time and the frequency of real-time imaging were investigated. A study of the dependence of the algorithm's performance on the level of agreement between the motion measured during planning and delivery was also included. Results demonstrated that tracking both components of the 2D motion (i.e., parallel and orthogonal to leaf travel) results in delivered fluence profiles that are superior to those that track the component of motion that is parallel to leaf travel alone. Tracking lag time effects may lead to relatively large intensity delivery errors compared to the other sources of error investigated
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Dall' Anese, Emiliano; Dhople, Sairaj V.; Giannakis, Georgios B.
2015-07-01
This paper considers a collection of networked nonlinear dynamical systems, and addresses the synthesis of feedback controllers that seek optimal operating points corresponding to the solution of pertinent network-wide optimization problems. Particular emphasis is placed on the solution of semidefinite programs (SDPs). The design of the feedback controller is grounded on a dual e-subgradient approach, with the dual iterates utilized to dynamically update the dynamical-system reference signals. Global convergence is guaranteed for diminishing stepsize rules, even when the reference inputs are updated at a faster rate than the dynamical-system settling time. The application of the proposed framework to the control of power-electronic inverters in AC distribution systems is discussed. The objective is to bridge the time-scale separation between real-time inverter control and network-wide optimization. Optimization objectives assume the form of SDP relaxations of prototypical AC optimal power flow problems.
Mallik, Saurav; Bhadra, Tapas; Mukherji, Ayan; Mallik, Saurav; Bhadra, Tapas; Mukherji, Ayan; Mallik, Saurav; Bhadra, Tapas; Mukherji, Ayan
2018-04-01
Association rule mining is an important technique for identifying interesting relationships between gene pairs in a biological data set. Earlier methods basically work for a single biological data set, and, in maximum cases, a single minimum support cutoff can be applied globally, i.e., across all genesets/itemsets. To overcome this limitation, in this paper, we propose dynamic threshold-based FP-growth rule mining algorithm that integrates gene expression, methylation and protein-protein interaction profiles based on weighted shortest distance to find the novel associations among different pairs of genes in multi-view data sets. For this purpose, we introduce three new thresholds, namely, Distance-based Variable/Dynamic Supports (DVS), Distance-based Variable Confidences (DVC), and Distance-based Variable Lifts (DVL) for each rule by integrating co-expression, co-methylation, and protein-protein interactions existed in the multi-omics data set. We develop the proposed algorithm utilizing these three novel multiple threshold measures. In the proposed algorithm, the values of , , and are computed for each rule separately, and subsequently it is verified whether the support, confidence, and lift of each evolved rule are greater than or equal to the corresponding individual , , and values, respectively, or not. If all these three conditions for a rule are found to be true, the rule is treated as a resultant rule. One of the major advantages of the proposed method compared with other related state-of-the-art methods is that it considers both the quantitative and interactive significance among all pairwise genes belonging to each rule. Moreover, the proposed method generates fewer rules, takes less running time, and provides greater biological significance for the resultant top-ranking rules compared to previous methods.
Jung, Jaewoon; Mori, Takaharu; Kobayashi, Chigusa; Matsunaga, Yasuhiro; Yoda, Takao; Feig, Michael; Sugita, Yuji
2015-07-01
GENESIS (Generalized-Ensemble Simulation System) is a new software package for molecular dynamics (MD) simulations of macromolecules. It has two MD simulators, called ATDYN and SPDYN. ATDYN is parallelized based on an atomic decomposition algorithm for the simulations of all-atom force-field models as well as coarse-grained Go-like models. SPDYN is highly parallelized based on a domain decomposition scheme, allowing large-scale MD simulations on supercomputers. Hybrid schemes combining OpenMP and MPI are used in both simulators to target modern multicore computer architectures. Key advantages of GENESIS are (1) the highly parallel performance of SPDYN for very large biological systems consisting of more than one million atoms and (2) the availability of various REMD algorithms (T-REMD, REUS, multi-dimensional REMD for both all-atom and Go-like models under the NVT, NPT, NPAT, and NPγT ensembles). The former is achieved by a combination of the midpoint cell method and the efficient three-dimensional Fast Fourier Transform algorithm, where the domain decomposition space is shared in real-space and reciprocal-space calculations. Other features in SPDYN, such as avoiding concurrent memory access, reducing communication times, and usage of parallel input/output files, also contribute to the performance. We show the REMD simulation results of a mixed (POPC/DMPC) lipid bilayer as a real application using GENESIS. GENESIS is released as free software under the GPLv2 licence and can be easily modified for the development of new algorithms and molecular models. WIREs Comput Mol Sci 2015, 5:310-323. doi: 10.1002/wcms.1220.
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Mahnke, Martina; Uprichard, Emma
2014-01-01
Imagine sailing across the ocean. The sun is shining, vastness all around you. And suddenly [BOOM] you’ve hit an invisible wall. Welcome to the Truman Show! Ever since Eli Pariser published his thoughts on a potential filter bubble, this movie scenario seems to have become reality, just with slight...... changes: it’s not the ocean, it’s the internet we’re talking about, and it’s not a TV show producer, but algorithms that constitute a sort of invisible wall. Building on this assumption, most research is trying to ‘tame the algorithmic tiger’. While this is a valuable and often inspiring approach, we...
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Tiansong Cui
2016-01-01
Full Text Available Dynamic energy pricing provides a promising solution for the utility companies to incentivize energy users to perform demand side management in order to minimize their electric bills. Moreover, the emerging decentralized smart grid, which is a likely infrastructure scenario for future electrical power networks, allows energy consumers to select their energy provider from among multiple utility companies in any billing period. This paper thus starts by considering an oligopolistic energy market with multiple non-cooperative (competitive utility companies, and addresses the problem of determining dynamic energy prices for every utility company in this market based on a modified Bertrand Competition Model of user behaviors. Two methods of dynamic energy pricing are proposed for a utility company to maximize its total profit. The first method finds the greatest lower bound on the total profit that can be achieved by the utility company, whereas the second method finds the best response of a utility company to dynamic pricing policies that the other companies have adopted in previous billing periods. To exploit the advantages of each method while compensating their shortcomings, an adaptive dynamic pricing policy is proposed based on a machine learning technique, which finds a good balance between invocations of the two aforesaid methods. Experimental results show that the adaptive policy results in consistently high profit for the utility company no matter what policies are employed by the other companies.
Djurabekova, Flyura; Pohjonen, Aarne; Nordlund, Kai
2011-01-01
The effect of electric fields on metal surfaces is fairly well studied, resulting in numerous analytical models developed to understand the mechanisms of ionization of surface atoms observed at very high electric fields, as well as the general behavior of a metal surface in this condition. However, the derivation of analytical models does not include explicitly the structural properties of metals, missing the link between the instantaneous effects owing to the applied field and the consequent response observed in the metal surface as a result of an extended application of an electric field. In the present work, we have developed a concurrent electrodynamic–molecular dynamic model for the dynamical simulation of an electric-field effect and subsequent modification of a metal surface in the framework of an atomistic molecular dynamics (MD) approach. The partial charge induced on the surface atoms by the electric field is assessed by applying the classical Gauss law. The electric forces acting on the partially...
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Saint-Louis, L.A.; Henschke, C.I.; Balter, S.; Whalen, J.P.; Balter, P.
1987-01-01
In certain diagnosis-related group (DRG) categories, the availability of sufficient CT scanners or of new equipment, such as MR equipment, can expedite the definitive workup. This will reduce the average length of stay and hospital cost. We analyzed the total hospital and radiologic charges by DRG category for all patients admitted to our hospital in 1985 and 1986. Although the cost per procedure is relatively high, the radiologic component is a small percentage of total hospital costs (median, 3%; maximum, <10%). The authors developed alternative diagnostic algorithms for radiologic-intensive DRG categories. Different diagnostic algorithms proposed for the same clinical problems were compared analytically in terms of impact on the hospital (cost, equipment availability, and length of stay). An example is the workup for FUO. Traditional approach uses plain x-rays and gallium scans and only uses CT when localizing symptoms are present. An alternative approach is to perform CT only. Although more CT examinations would be required, there is considerable reduction in the length of hospital stay and in overall charges. Neurologic and thoracic workups will be given as examples of classes or problems that can be addressed analytically: sequencing of the workup; prevalence; patient population; resource of allocation; and introduction of new imaging modality
Cvetkovic, S.D.; Schirris, J.; With, de P.H.N.
2009-01-01
For real-time imaging in surveillance applications, visibility of details is of primary importance to ensure customer confidence. If we display High Dynamic-Range (HDR) scenes whose contrast spans four or more orders of magnitude on a conventional monitor without additional processing, results are
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kuznetsov, D.V.; Kormilitsyn, V.M.; Proskuryakov, K.N.
2010-01-01
Calculation results of acoustic parameters fluctuations in low-pressure regenerative heating system of NPP with WWER-1000 type reactor were presented. The spectral structure of acoustic fluctuations was shown to depend on configuration of secondary circuit equipment, its geometrical sizes and operation mode. Estimations of natural oscillations frequencies of working medium pressure in the secondary circuit equipment were resulted. The developed calculation methods and algorithms are intended for revealing and prevention of initiation conditions of vibrations resonances in elements of the secondary circuit equipment with acoustic oscillations in working medium, both under operating conditions and in the design stage of the second circuit of NPP with WWER-1000 type reactor. Analysis of pass-band dependence on operation mode was carried out to solve the given problem [ru
Lo, Mei-Chun; Hsieh, Tsung-Hsien; Perng, Ruey-Kuen; Chen, Jiong-Qiao
2010-01-01
The aim of this research is to derive illuminant-independent type of HDR imaging modules which can optimally multispectrally reconstruct of every color concerned in high-dynamic-range of original images for preferable cross-media color reproduction applications. Each module, based on either of broadband and multispectral approach, would be incorporated models of perceptual HDR tone-mapping, device characterization. In this study, an xvYCC format of HDR digital camera was used to capture HDR scene images for test. A tone-mapping module was derived based on a multiscale representation of the human visual system and used equations similar to a photoreceptor adaptation equation, proposed by Michaelis-Menten. Additionally, an adaptive bilateral type of gamut mapping algorithm, using approach of a multiple conversing-points (previously derived), was incorporated with or without adaptive Un-sharp Masking (USM) to carry out the optimization of HDR image rendering. An LCD with standard color space of Adobe RGB (D65) was used as a soft-proofing platform to display/represent HDR original RGB images, and also evaluate both renditionquality and prediction-performance of modules derived. Also, another LCD with standard color space of sRGB was used to test gamut-mapping algorithms, used to be integrated with tone-mapping module derived.
De Götzen , Amalia; Mion , Luca; Tache , Olivier
2007-01-01
International audience; We call sound algorithms the categories of algorithms that deal with digital sound signal. Sound algorithms appeared in the very infancy of computer. Sound algorithms present strong specificities that are the consequence of two dual considerations: the properties of the digital sound signal itself and its uses, and the properties of auditory perception.
Wang, Lui; Bayer, Steven E.
1991-01-01
Genetic algorithms are mathematical, highly parallel, adaptive search procedures (i.e., problem solving methods) based loosely on the processes of natural genetics and Darwinian survival of the fittest. Basic genetic algorithms concepts are introduced, genetic algorithm applications are introduced, and results are presented from a project to develop a software tool that will enable the widespread use of genetic algorithm technology.
Cinzia Marra, Anna; Casella, Daniele; Martins Costa do Amaral, Lia; Sanò, Paolo; Dietrich, Stefano; Panegrossi, Giulia
2017-04-01
Two new precipitation retrieval algorithms for the Advanced Microwave Scanning Radiometer 2 (AMSR2) and for the GPM Microwave Imager (GMI) are presented. The algorithms are based on the Cloud Dynamics and Radiation Database (CDRD) Bayesian approach and represent an evolution of the previous version applied to Special Sensor Microwave Imager/Sounder (SSMIS) observations, and used operationally within the EUMETSAT Satellite Application Facility on support to Operational Hydrology and Water Management (H-SAF). These new products present as main innovation the use of an extended database entirely empirical, derived from coincident radar and radiometer observations from the NASA/JAXA Global Precipitation Measurement Core Observatory (GPM-CO) (Dual-frequency Precipitation Radar-DPR and GMI). The other new aspects are: 1) a new rain-no-rain screening approach; 2) the use of Empirical Orthogonal Functions (EOF) and Canonical Correlation Analysis (CCA) both in the screening approach, and in the Bayesian algorithm; 2) the use of new meteorological and environmental ancillary variables to categorize the database and mitigate the problem of non-uniqueness of the retrieval solution; 3) the development and implementations of specific modules for computational time minimization. The CDRD algorithms for AMSR2 and GMI are able to handle an extremely large observational database available from GPM-CO and provide the rainfall estimate with minimum latency, making them suitable for near-real time hydrological and operational applications. As far as CDRD for AMSR2, a verification study over Italy using ground-based radar data and over the MSG full disk area using coincident GPM-CO/AMSR2 observations has been carried out. Results show remarkable AMSR2 capabilities for rainfall rate (RR) retrieval over ocean (for RR > 0.25 mm/h), good capabilities over vegetated land (for RR > 1 mm/h), while for coastal areas the results are less certain. Comparisons with NASA GPM products, and with
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Shimizu, Yoshiaki
1991-01-01
In recent complicated nuclear systems, there are increasing demands for developing highly advanced procedures for various problems-solvings. Among them keen interests have been paid on man-machine communications to improve both safety and economy factors. Many optimization methods have been good enough to elaborate on these points. In this preliminary note, we will concern with application of linear programming (LP) for this purpose. First we will present a new superior version of the generalized PAPA method (GEPAPA) to solve LP problems. We will then examine its effectiveness when applied to derive dynamic matrix control (DMC) as the LP solution. The approach is to aim at the above goal through a quality control of process that will appear in the system. (author)
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Aidin Delgoshaei
2016-06-01
Full Text Available In this paper, a new method is proposed for scheduling dynamic cellular manufacturing systems (D-CMS in the presence of uncertain product demands. The aim of this method is to control the process of trading off between in-house manufacturing and outsourcing while product demands are uncertain and can be varied from period to period. To solve the proposed problem, a hybrid Tabu Search and Simulated Annealing are developed to overcome hardness of the proposed model and then results are compared with a Branch and Bound and Simulated Annealing algorithms. A Taguchi method (L_27 orthogonal optimization is used to estimate parameters of the proposed method in order to solve experiments derived from literature. An in-depth analysis is conducted on the results in consideration of various factors. For evaluating the system imbalance in dynamic market demands, a new measuring index is developed. Our findings indicate that the uncertain condition of market demands affects the routing of product parts and may induce machine-load variations that yield to cell-load diversity. The results showed that the proposed hybrid method can provide solutions with better quality.
Gao, Qing; Liu, Jinguo; Tian, Tongtong; Li, Yangmin
2017-09-01
Space robots can perform some tasks in harsh environment as assistants of astronauts or substitutions of astronauts. Taking the limited working time and the arduous task of the astronauts in the space station into account, an astronaut assistant robot (AAR-2) applied in the space station is proposed and designed in this paper. The AAR-2 is achieved with some improvements on the basis of AAR-1 which was designed before. It can exploit its position and attitude sensors and control system to free flight or hover in the space cabin. And it also has a definite environmental awareness and artificial intelligence to complete some specified tasks under the control of astronauts or autonomously. In this paper, it mainly analyzes and controls the 6-DOF motion of the AAR-2. Firstly, the system configuration of AAR-2 is specifically described, and the movement principles are analyzed. Secondly, according to the physical model of the AAR-2, the Newton - Euler equation is applied in the preparation of space dynamics model of 6-DOF motion. Then, according to the mathematical model's characteristics which are nonlinear and strong coupling, a dual closed loop position and attitude controller based on fuzzy sliding mode control is proposed and designed. Finally, simulation experiments are appropriate to provide for AAR-2 control system by using Matlab/Simulink. From the simulation results it can be observed that the designed fuzzy sliding mode controller can control the 6-DOF motion of AAR-2 quickly and precisely.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Nitej, N.V.; Sharovarov, G.A.
1982-01-01
The method of estimation of counterflow heat exchanger characteristics is presented. Mathematical description of the processes is presented by the mass, energy and pulse conservation equations for both coolants and energy conservation equation for the wall which devides them. In the presence of chemical reactions the system is supplemented by equations, characterizing the kinetics of their progress. The methods of numerical solution of static and dynamic problems have been chosen, and the computer programs on the Fortran language have been developed. The schemes of solution of both problems are so constructed, that the conservation equations are placed in the main program, and such characteristics of the coolants as properties, heat transfer and friction coefficients, the mechanism of chemical reaction are concentrated in the subprogram unit. This allows to create the single method of solution with the flow of single-phase and two-phase coolants of abovecritical and supercritical paramters. The evaluation results of three heat exchangers are given: with heating of N 2 O 4 gas phase by heat of flue gas; with cooling of N 2 O 4 supercritical parameters by water; regenerator on N 2 O 4
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Umamaheswari Krishnasamy
2014-01-01
Full Text Available Dynamic economic dispatch problem (DEDP for a multiple fuel power plant is a nonlinear and nonsmooth optimization problem when valve-point effects, multifuel effects, and ramp-rate limits are considered. Additionally wind energy is also integrated with the DEDP to supply the load for effective utilization of the renewable energy. Since the wind power may not be predicted, a radial basis function network (RBFN is presented to forecast a one-hour-ahead wind power to plan and ensure a reliable power supply. In this paper, a refined teaching-learning based optimization (TLBO is applied to minimize the overall cost of operation of wind-thermal power system. The TLBO is refined by integrating the sequential quadratic programming (SQP method to fine-tune the better solutions whenever discovered by the former method. To demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed hybrid TLBO-SQP method, a standard DEDP and one practical DEDP with wind power forecasted are tested based on the practical information of wind speed. Simulation results validate the proposed methodology which is reasonable by ensuring quality solution throughout the scheduling horizon for secure operation of the system.
Joux, Antoine
2009-01-01
Illustrating the power of algorithms, Algorithmic Cryptanalysis describes algorithmic methods with cryptographically relevant examples. Focusing on both private- and public-key cryptographic algorithms, it presents each algorithm either as a textual description, in pseudo-code, or in a C code program.Divided into three parts, the book begins with a short introduction to cryptography and a background chapter on elementary number theory and algebra. It then moves on to algorithms, with each chapter in this section dedicated to a single topic and often illustrated with simple cryptographic applic
Li, Yinlin; Kundu, Bijoy K.
2018-03-01
The three-compartment model with spillover (SP) and partial volume (PV) corrections has been widely used for noninvasive kinetic parameter studies of dynamic 2-[18F] fluoro-2deoxy-D-glucose (FDG) positron emission tomography images of small animal hearts in vivo. However, the approach still suffers from estimation uncertainty or slow convergence caused by the commonly used optimization algorithms. The aim of this study was to develop an improved optimization algorithm with better estimation performance. Femoral artery blood samples, image-derived input functions from heart ventricles and myocardial time-activity curves (TACs) were derived from data on 16 C57BL/6 mice obtained from the UCLA Mouse Quantitation Program. Parametric equations of the average myocardium and the blood pool TACs with SP and PV corrections in a three-compartment tracer kinetic model were formulated. A hybrid method integrating artificial immune-system and interior-reflective Newton methods were developed to solve the equations. Two penalty functions and one late time-point tail vein blood sample were used to constrain the objective function. The estimation accuracy of the method was validated by comparing results with experimental values using the errors in the areas under curves (AUCs) of the model corrected input function (MCIF) and the 18F-FDG influx constant K i . Moreover, the elapsed time was used to measure the convergence speed. The overall AUC error of MCIF for the 16 mice averaged -1.4 ± 8.2%, with correlation coefficients of 0.9706. Similar results can be seen in the overall K i error percentage, which was 0.4 ± 5.8% with a correlation coefficient of 0.9912. The t-test P value for both showed no significant difference. The mean and standard deviation of the MCIF AUC and K i percentage errors have lower values compared to the previously published methods. The computation time of the hybrid method is also several times lower than using just a stochastic
Hougardy, Stefan
2016-01-01
Algorithms play an increasingly important role in nearly all fields of mathematics. This book allows readers to develop basic mathematical abilities, in particular those concerning the design and analysis of algorithms as well as their implementation. It presents not only fundamental algorithms like the sieve of Eratosthenes, the Euclidean algorithm, sorting algorithms, algorithms on graphs, and Gaussian elimination, but also discusses elementary data structures, basic graph theory, and numerical questions. In addition, it provides an introduction to programming and demonstrates in detail how to implement algorithms in C++. This textbook is suitable for students who are new to the subject and covers a basic mathematical lecture course, complementing traditional courses on analysis and linear algebra. Both authors have given this "Algorithmic Mathematics" course at the University of Bonn several times in recent years.
Tel, G.
We define the notion of total algorithms for networks of processes. A total algorithm enforces that a "decision" is taken by a subset of the processes, and that participation of all processes is required to reach this decision. Total algorithms are an important building block in the design of
Kachalo, Sëma
2015-05-14
Geometric and mechanical properties of individual cells and interactions among neighboring cells are the basis of formation of tissue patterns. Understanding the complex interplay of cells is essential for gaining insight into embryogenesis, tissue development, and other emerging behavior. Here we describe a cell model and an efficient geometric algorithm for studying the dynamic process of tissue formation in 2D (e.g. epithelial tissues). Our approach improves upon previous methods by incorporating properties of individual cells as well as detailed description of the dynamic growth process, with all topological changes accounted for. Cell size, shape, and division plane orientation are modeled realistically. In addition, cell birth, cell growth, cell shrinkage, cell death, cell division, cell collision, and cell rearrangements are now fully accounted for. Different models of cell-cell interactions, such as lateral inhibition during the process of growth, can be studied in detail. Cellular pattern formation for monolayered tissues from arbitrary initial conditions, including that of a single cell, can also be studied in detail. Computational efficiency is achieved through the employment of a special data structure that ensures access to neighboring cells in constant time, without additional space requirement. We have successfully generated tissues consisting of more than 20,000 cells starting from 2 cells within 1 hour. We show that our model can be used to study embryogenesis, tissue fusion, and cell apoptosis. We give detailed study of the classical developmental process of bristle formation on the epidermis of D. melanogaster and the fundamental problem of homeostatic size control in epithelial tissues. Simulation results reveal significant roles of solubility of secreted factors in both the bristle formation and the homeostatic control of tissue size. Our method can be used to study broad problems in monolayered tissue formation. Our software is publicly
Wang, Dengfeng; Cai, Kefang
2018-04-01
This article presents a hybrid method combining a modified non-dominated sorting genetic algorithm (MNSGA-II) with grey relational analysis (GRA) to improve the static-dynamic performance of a body-in-white (BIW). First, an implicit parametric model of the BIW was built using SFE-CONCEPT software, and then the validity of the implicit parametric model was verified by physical testing. Eight shape design variables were defined for BIW beam structures based on the implicit parametric technology. Subsequently, MNSGA-II was used to determine the optimal combination of the design parameters that can improve the bending stiffness, torsion stiffness and low-order natural frequencies of the BIW without considerable increase in the mass. A set of non-dominated solutions was then obtained in the multi-objective optimization design. Finally, the grey entropy theory and GRA were applied to rank all non-dominated solutions from best to worst to determine the best trade-off solution. The comparison between the GRA and the technique for order of preference by similarity to ideal solution (TOPSIS) illustrated the reliability and rationality of GRA. Moreover, the effectiveness of the hybrid method was verified by the optimal results such that the bending stiffness, torsion stiffness, first order bending and first order torsion natural frequency were improved by 5.46%, 9.30%, 7.32% and 5.73%, respectively, with the mass of the BIW increasing by 1.30%.
Hybrid Bee Ant Colony Algorithm for Effective Load Balancing And ...
African Journals Online (AJOL)
PROF. OLIVER OSUAGWA
Ant Colony algorithm is used in this hybrid Bee Ant Colony algorithm to solve load balancing issues ... Genetic Algorithm (MO-GA) for dynamic job scheduling that .... Information Networking and Applications Workshops. [7]. M. Dorigo & T.
Hussaini, M. Y. (Editor); Kumar, A. (Editor); Salas, M. D. (Editor)
1993-01-01
The purpose here is to assess the state of the art in the areas of numerical analysis that are particularly relevant to computational fluid dynamics (CFD), to identify promising new developments in various areas of numerical analysis that will impact CFD, and to establish a long-term perspective focusing on opportunities and needs. Overviews are given of discretization schemes, computational fluid dynamics, algorithmic trends in CFD for aerospace flow field calculations, simulation of compressible viscous flow, and massively parallel computation. Also discussed are accerelation methods, spectral and high-order methods, multi-resolution and subcell resolution schemes, and inherently multidimensional schemes.
Goodman, Lawrence E
2001-01-01
Beginning text presents complete theoretical treatment of mechanical model systems and deals with technological applications. Topics include introduction to calculus of vectors, particle motion, dynamics of particle systems and plane rigid bodies, technical applications in plane motions, theory of mechanical vibrations, and more. Exercises and answers appear in each chapter.
An algorithm for reduct cardinality minimization
AbouEisha, Hassan M.
2013-12-01
This is devoted to the consideration of a new algorithm for reduct cardinality minimization. This algorithm transforms the initial table to a decision table of a special kind, simplify this table, and use a dynamic programming algorithm to finish the construction of an optimal reduct. Results of computer experiments with decision tables from UCI ML Repository are discussed. © 2013 IEEE.
An algorithm for reduct cardinality minimization
AbouEisha, Hassan M.; Al Farhan, Mohammed; Chikalov, Igor; Moshkov, Mikhail
2013-01-01
This is devoted to the consideration of a new algorithm for reduct cardinality minimization. This algorithm transforms the initial table to a decision table of a special kind, simplify this table, and use a dynamic programming algorithm to finish the construction of an optimal reduct. Results of computer experiments with decision tables from UCI ML Repository are discussed. © 2013 IEEE.
Stochastic split determinant algorithms
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Horvatha, Ivan
2000-01-01
I propose a large class of stochastic Markov processes associated with probability distributions analogous to that of lattice gauge theory with dynamical fermions. The construction incorporates the idea of approximate spectral split of the determinant through local loop action, and the idea of treating the infrared part of the split through explicit diagonalizations. I suggest that exact algorithms of practical relevance might be based on Markov processes so constructed
Conjugate Gradient Algorithms For Manipulator Simulation
Fijany, Amir; Scheid, Robert E.
1991-01-01
Report discusses applicability of conjugate-gradient algorithms to computation of forward dynamics of robotic manipulators. Rapid computation of forward dynamics essential to teleoperation and other advanced robotic applications. Part of continuing effort to find algorithms meeting requirements for increased computational efficiency and speed. Method used for iterative solution of systems of linear equations.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Hanns Holger Rutz
2016-11-01
Full Text Available Although the concept of algorithms has been established a long time ago, their current topicality indicates a shift in the discourse. Classical definitions based on logic seem to be inadequate to describe their aesthetic capabilities. New approaches stress their involvement in material practices as well as their incompleteness. Algorithmic aesthetics can no longer be tied to the static analysis of programs, but must take into account the dynamic and experimental nature of coding practices. It is suggested that the aesthetic objects thus produced articulate something that could be called algorithmicity or the space of algorithmic agency. This is the space or the medium – following Luhmann’s form/medium distinction – where human and machine undergo mutual incursions. In the resulting coupled “extimate” writing process, human initiative and algorithmic speculation cannot be clearly divided out any longer. An observation is attempted of defining aspects of such a medium by drawing a trajectory across a number of sound pieces. The operation of exchange between form and medium I call reconfiguration and it is indicated by this trajectory.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Creutz, M.
1987-11-01
A large variety of Monte Carlo algorithms are being used for lattice gauge simulations. For purely bosonic theories, present approaches are generally adequate; nevertheless, overrelaxation techniques promise savings by a factor of about three in computer time. For fermionic fields the situation is more difficult and less clear. Algorithms which involve an extrapolation to a vanishing step size are all quite closely related. Methods which do not require such an approximation tend to require computer time which grows as the square of the volume of the system. Recent developments combining global accept/reject stages with Langevin or microcanonical updatings promise to reduce this growth to V/sup 4/3/
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Endou, Akira; Onuma, Hiroaki; Jung, Sun-ho
2007-01-01
Our original tight-binding quantum chemical molecular dynamics code, Colors', has been successfully applied to the theoretical investigation of complex materials including rare-earth elements, e.g., metal catalysts supported on a CeO 2 surface. To expand our code so as to obtain a good convergence for the electronic structure of a calculation system including a rare-earth element, we developed a novel algorithm to provide a constraint condition for the number of electrons occupying the selected molecular orbitals that mainly consist of 4f atomic orbitals of the rare-earth element. This novel algorithm was introduced in Colors. Using Colors, we succeeded in obtaining the classified electronic configurations of the 4f atomic orbitals of Ce 4+ and reduced Ce ions in a CeO 2 bulk model with one oxygen defect, which makes it difficult to obtain a good convergence using a conventional first-principles quantum chemical calculation code. (author)
Optimally stopped variational quantum algorithms
Vinci, Walter; Shabani, Alireza
2018-04-01
Quantum processors promise a paradigm shift in high-performance computing which needs to be assessed by accurate benchmarking measures. In this article, we introduce a benchmark for the variational quantum algorithm (VQA), recently proposed as a heuristic algorithm for small-scale quantum processors. In VQA, a classical optimization algorithm guides the processor's quantum dynamics to yield the best solution for a given problem. A complete assessment of the scalability and competitiveness of VQA should take into account both the quality and the time of dynamics optimization. The method of optimal stopping, employed here, provides such an assessment by explicitly including time as a cost factor. Here, we showcase this measure for benchmarking VQA as a solver for some quadratic unconstrained binary optimization. Moreover, we show that a better choice for the cost function of the classical routine can significantly improve the performance of the VQA algorithm and even improve its scaling properties.
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Markham, Annette
This paper takes an actor network theory approach to explore some of the ways that algorithms co-construct identity and relational meaning in contemporary use of social media. Based on intensive interviews with participants as well as activity logging and data tracking, the author presents a richly...... layered set of accounts to help build our understanding of how individuals relate to their devices, search systems, and social network sites. This work extends critical analyses of the power of algorithms in implicating the social self by offering narrative accounts from multiple perspectives. It also...... contributes an innovative method for blending actor network theory with symbolic interaction to grapple with the complexity of everyday sensemaking practices within networked global information flows....
Mitsutake, Ayori; Mori, Yoshiharu; Okamoto, Yuko
2013-01-01
In biomolecular systems (especially all-atom models) with many degrees of freedom such as proteins and nucleic acids, there exist an astronomically large number of local-minimum-energy states. Conventional simulations in the canonical ensemble are of little use, because they tend to get trapped in states of these energy local minima. Enhanced conformational sampling techniques are thus in great demand. A simulation in generalized ensemble performs a random walk in potential energy space and can overcome this difficulty. From only one simulation run, one can obtain canonical-ensemble averages of physical quantities as functions of temperature by the single-histogram and/or multiple-histogram reweighting techniques. In this article we review uses of the generalized-ensemble algorithms in biomolecular systems. Three well-known methods, namely, multicanonical algorithm, simulated tempering, and replica-exchange method, are described first. Both Monte Carlo and molecular dynamics versions of the algorithms are given. We then present various extensions of these three generalized-ensemble algorithms. The effectiveness of the methods is tested with short peptide and protein systems.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Vingron Martin
2011-08-01
Full Text Available Abstract Background Comparing biological time series data across different conditions, or different specimens, is a common but still challenging task. Algorithms aligning two time series represent a valuable tool for such comparisons. While many powerful computation tools for time series alignment have been developed, they do not provide significance estimates for time shift measurements. Results Here, we present an extended version of the original DTW algorithm that allows us to determine the significance of time shift estimates in time series alignments, the DTW-Significance (DTW-S algorithm. The DTW-S combines important properties of the original algorithm and other published time series alignment tools: DTW-S calculates the optimal alignment for each time point of each gene, it uses interpolated time points for time shift estimation, and it does not require alignment of the time-series end points. As a new feature, we implement a simulation procedure based on parameters estimated from real time series data, on a series-by-series basis, allowing us to determine the false positive rate (FPR and the significance of the estimated time shift values. We assess the performance of our method using simulation data and real expression time series from two published primate brain expression datasets. Our results show that this method can provide accurate and robust time shift estimates for each time point on a gene-by-gene basis. Using these estimates, we are able to uncover novel features of the biological processes underlying human brain development and maturation. Conclusions The DTW-S provides a convenient tool for calculating accurate and robust time shift estimates at each time point for each gene, based on time series data. The estimates can be used to uncover novel biological features of the system being studied. The DTW-S is freely available as an R package TimeShift at http://www.picb.ac.cn/Comparative/data.html.
Trescak, Tomas; Bogdanovych, Anton; Simoff, Simeon
2014-01-01
Virtual reality reconstructions of ancient historical sites have become a valuable technique for popularising science and visualising expert knowledge to general audiences. Most such reconstructions only re-create buildings and artefacts and place them in the context of the virtual environment, but what is often missing in such simulations is the ability to see how ancient people lived their daily life in these environments. Our presented case study shows how the use of genetic algorithms and...
Yuan, Yuan; Chen, Yi-Ping Phoebe; Ni, Shengyu; Xu, Augix Guohua; Tang, Lin; Vingron, Martin; Somel, Mehmet; Khaitovich, Philipp
2011-08-18
Comparing biological time series data across different conditions, or different specimens, is a common but still challenging task. Algorithms aligning two time series represent a valuable tool for such comparisons. While many powerful computation tools for time series alignment have been developed, they do not provide significance estimates for time shift measurements. Here, we present an extended version of the original DTW algorithm that allows us to determine the significance of time shift estimates in time series alignments, the DTW-Significance (DTW-S) algorithm. The DTW-S combines important properties of the original algorithm and other published time series alignment tools: DTW-S calculates the optimal alignment for each time point of each gene, it uses interpolated time points for time shift estimation, and it does not require alignment of the time-series end points. As a new feature, we implement a simulation procedure based on parameters estimated from real time series data, on a series-by-series basis, allowing us to determine the false positive rate (FPR) and the significance of the estimated time shift values. We assess the performance of our method using simulation data and real expression time series from two published primate brain expression datasets. Our results show that this method can provide accurate and robust time shift estimates for each time point on a gene-by-gene basis. Using these estimates, we are able to uncover novel features of the biological processes underlying human brain development and maturation. The DTW-S provides a convenient tool for calculating accurate and robust time shift estimates at each time point for each gene, based on time series data. The estimates can be used to uncover novel biological features of the system being studied. The DTW-S is freely available as an R package TimeShift at http://www.picb.ac.cn/Comparative/data.html.
Cognitive radio resource allocation based on coupled chaotic genetic algorithm
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Zu Yun-Xiao; Zhou Jie; Zeng Chang-Chang
2010-01-01
A coupled chaotic genetic algorithm for cognitive radio resource allocation which is based on genetic algorithm and coupled Logistic map is proposed. A fitness function for cognitive radio resource allocation is provided. Simulations are conducted for cognitive radio resource allocation by using the coupled chaotic genetic algorithm, simple genetic algorithm and dynamic allocation algorithm respectively. The simulation results show that, compared with simple genetic and dynamic allocation algorithm, coupled chaotic genetic algorithm reduces the total transmission power and bit error rate in cognitive radio system, and has faster convergence speed
Casanova, Henri; Robert, Yves
2008-01-01
""…The authors of the present book, who have extensive credentials in both research and instruction in the area of parallelism, present a sound, principled treatment of parallel algorithms. … This book is very well written and extremely well designed from an instructional point of view. … The authors have created an instructive and fascinating text. The book will serve researchers as well as instructors who need a solid, readable text for a course on parallelism in computing. Indeed, for anyone who wants an understandable text from which to acquire a current, rigorous, and broad vi
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Gustavson, Fred G.; Reid, John K.; Wasniewski, Jerzy
2007-01-01
We present subroutines for the Cholesky factorization of a positive-definite symmetric matrix and for solving corresponding sets of linear equations. They exploit cache memory by using the block hybrid format proposed by the authors in a companion article. The matrix is packed into n(n + 1)/2 real...... variables, and the speed is usually better than that of the LAPACK algorithm that uses full storage (n2 variables). Included are subroutines for rearranging a matrix whose upper or lower-triangular part is packed by columns to this format and for the inverse rearrangement. Also included is a kernel...
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Y.N. Vijay Kumar
2016-05-01
Full Text Available Now a day, non-uniform increase of demand on a power system turns the research toward the dynamic analysis. In this paper, to perform dynamic analysis and to solve economic load dispatch problem using optimal power flow (OPF, four realistic load levels are considered. Further, the effectiveness of the objective has been enhanced in the presence of interline power flow controller (IPFC. An optimal location identification methodology for IPFC based on line stability index (LSI is also presented. The effect of ramp-rate limits on generations and the effect of dynamic loads on generation fuel cost and transmission losses are also analyzed on standard IEEE-30 bus and real time 23 bus test systems with supporting validations, numerical and graphical results.
Chinese handwriting recognition an algorithmic perspective
Su, Tonghua
2013-01-01
This book provides an algorithmic perspective on the recent development of Chinese handwriting recognition. Two technically sound strategies, the segmentation-free and integrated segmentation-recognition strategy, are investigated and algorithms that have worked well in practice are primarily focused on. Baseline systems are initially presented for these strategies and are subsequently expanded on and incrementally improved. The sophisticated algorithms covered include: 1) string sample expansion algorithms which synthesize string samples from isolated characters or distort realistic string samples; 2) enhanced feature representation algorithms, e.g. enhanced four-plane features and Delta features; 3) novel learning algorithms, such as Perceptron learning with dynamic margin, MPE training and distributed training; and lastly 4) ensemble algorithms, that is, combining the two strategies using both parallel structure and serial structure. All the while, the book moves from basic to advanced algorithms, helping ...
Dakua, Sarada Prasad; Abinahed, Julien; Al-Ansari, Abdulla
2015-04-01
Liver segmentation continues to remain a major challenge, largely due to its intense complexity with surrounding anatomical structures (stomach, kidney, and heart), high noise level and lack of contrast in pathological computed tomography (CT) data. We present an approach to reconstructing the liver surface in low contrast CT. The main contributions are: (1) a stochastic resonance-based methodology in discrete cosine transform domain is developed to enhance the contrast of pathological liver images, (2) a new formulation is proposed to prevent the object boundary, resulting from the cellular automata method, from leaking into the surrounding areas of similar intensity, and (3) a level-set method is suggested to generate intermediate segmentation contours from two segmented slices distantly located in a subject sequence. We have tested the algorithm on real datasets obtained from two sources, Hamad General Hospital and medical image computing and computer-assisted interventions grand challenge workshop. Various parameters in the algorithm, such as [Formula: see text], [Formula: see text], [Formula: see text], [Formula: see text], [Formula: see text], [Formula: see text], and [Formula: see text], play imperative roles, thus their values are precisely selected. Both qualitative and quantitative evaluation performed on liver data show promising segmentation accuracy when compared with ground truth data reflecting the potential of the proposed method.
Multimodal Estimation of Distribution Algorithms.
Yang, Qiang; Chen, Wei-Neng; Li, Yun; Chen, C L Philip; Xu, Xiang-Min; Zhang, Jun
2016-02-15
Taking the advantage of estimation of distribution algorithms (EDAs) in preserving high diversity, this paper proposes a multimodal EDA. Integrated with clustering strategies for crowding and speciation, two versions of this algorithm are developed, which operate at the niche level. Then these two algorithms are equipped with three distinctive techniques: 1) a dynamic cluster sizing strategy; 2) an alternative utilization of Gaussian and Cauchy distributions to generate offspring; and 3) an adaptive local search. The dynamic cluster sizing affords a potential balance between exploration and exploitation and reduces the sensitivity to the cluster size in the niching methods. Taking advantages of Gaussian and Cauchy distributions, we generate the offspring at the niche level through alternatively using these two distributions. Such utilization can also potentially offer a balance between exploration and exploitation. Further, solution accuracy is enhanced through a new local search scheme probabilistically conducted around seeds of niches with probabilities determined self-adaptively according to fitness values of these seeds. Extensive experiments conducted on 20 benchmark multimodal problems confirm that both algorithms can achieve competitive performance compared with several state-of-the-art multimodal algorithms, which is supported by nonparametric tests. Especially, the proposed algorithms are very promising for complex problems with many local optima.
On algorithm for building of optimal α-decision trees
Alkhalid, Abdulaziz; Chikalov, Igor; Moshkov, Mikhail
2010-01-01
The paper describes an algorithm that constructs approximate decision trees (α-decision trees), which are optimal relatively to one of the following complexity measures: depth, total path length or number of nodes. The algorithm uses dynamic
Online learning algorithm for ensemble of decision rules
Chikalov, Igor; Moshkov, Mikhail; Zielosko, Beata
2011-01-01
We describe an online learning algorithm that builds a system of decision rules for a classification problem. Rules are constructed according to the minimum description length principle by a greedy algorithm or using the dynamic programming approach
Cascade Error Projection: An Efficient Hardware Learning Algorithm
Duong, T. A.
1995-01-01
A new learning algorithm termed cascade error projection (CEP) is presented. CEP is an adaption of a constructive architecture from cascade correlation and the dynamical stepsize of A/D conversion from the cascade back propagation algorithm.
Kwiatkowski, M; Alsdorf, M; Dehning, B; Vigano, W
2012-01-01
The aim of the Beam Loss Monitoring Dual Polarity (BLEDP) module under development at the European Organisation for Nuclear Research (CERN) is to measure and digitise with high precision the current produced by several types of beam loss detectors. The BLEDP module consists of eight analogue channels each with a fully differential integrator and an accompanying 16 bit ADC at the output of each analogue integrator. The on-board FPGA device controls the integral periods, instructs the ADC devices to perform measurements at the end of each period and collects the measurements. In the next stage it combines the number of charge and discharge cycles accounted in the last interval together with the cycle fractions observed using the ADC samples to produce a digitised high precision value of the charges collected. This paper describes briefly the principle of the fully differential integrator and focuses on the algorithm employed to process the digital data.