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Sample records for algas marinas como

  1. Biodisponibilidad y especiación de arsénico en las algas marinas

    OpenAIRE

    García Sartal, Cristina

    2013-01-01

    Las algas, desde un punto de vista alimenticio, constituyen una fuente de proteínas, aminoácidos esenciales, vitaminas, lípidos y minerales. Sin embargo, las algas también pueden acumular elementos no esenciales procedentes del agua marina circundante, entre ellos, el arsénico, elemento ampliamente reconocido por su toxicidad. La toxicidad del arsénico depende fundamentalmente de su especiación, resultando más toxicas las especies inorgánicas de arsénico que sus correspondie...

  2. Actividad antibacteriana y antifúngica de extractos de algas marinas venezolanas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nurby Ríos

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available En este trabajo se evaluaron las propiedades bioactivas antibacterianas y antimicóticas de 33 extractos (etanol, diclorometano, hexano obtenidos de 11 especies de algas marinas recolectadas en las localidades de San Juan de Los Cayos y Chichiriviche, Estado Falcón, Venezuela. La actividad antibiótica y antimicótica de los extractos se evaluó mediante la aparición de halos de inhibición contra bacterias Gram positivas (Staphylococ- cus aureus, Gram negativas (Pseudomona aeruginosa, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Escherichia coli y el hongo Candida albicans. De los 33 extractos ensayados sólo 17 presentaron actividad antibacteriana (5 con etanol, 6 con diclorometano y 6 con hexano, resultando activos 14 frente a las especies Gram(- y 4 contra la especie Gram(+. Las especies algales que mostraron actividad antibacteriana fueron: Acanthophora sp., Bryothamnion triquetrum, Gracilaria sp., Gelidium sp., Caulerpa mexicana, Caulerpa sp., Caulerpa spp., Halimeda incras- sata, Ulva sp., Codium decorticatum, Sargassum sp. Ninguno de los extractos de algas ensayados presentó actividad antimicótica sobre Cándida albicans. Los resultados obtenidos permiten concluir que las algas de la costa occidental de Venezuela, presentan compuestos bioactivos con actividad antibacteriana.

  3. Contribución al estudio químico de tres especies de algas marinas peruanas

    OpenAIRE

    Acha de la Cruz, Otilia

    1995-01-01

    En el presente trabajo de Investigación, se hicieron estudios químicos en tres especies de algas marinas peruanas. En la especie Macrocystis piryfera se hicieron estudios de compuestos orgánicos e inorgánicos. Respecto a los compuestos inorgánicos, se determinó un gran contenido de minerales, (esta especie es un suplemento ideal para fertilizantes en la agricultura). Respecto a los compuestos orgánicos se hizo un estudio con variación estacional del contenido del ácido algínico, mani...

  4. Análisis de la biodiversidad de algas marinas situadas entre Uaymitún y Chuburná, Yucatán

    OpenAIRE

    I. Sánchez-Molina; J. González-Ceballos; C. Zetina-Moguel; R. Casanova-Cetz

    2007-01-01

    Las algas marinas participan en los equilibrios físico-químicos, el ciclo del carbono y sustentan tramas alimenticias de ambientes costeros. A pesar de su importancia los estudios realizados de este grupo de organismos en Yucatán son escasos. El objetivo de este trabajo es contribuir al conocimiento de la biodiversidad de algas marinas en la zona costera de Yucatán, comprendida entre Uaymitún y Chuburná, con la finalidad de fundamentar estudios de ingeniería ambiental. Se hicieron recorridos ...

  5. Consumo de algas marinas: su influencia en el valor nutritivo de la dieta y en diversos parámetros fisiológicos

    OpenAIRE

    Millán Lence, Rosendo

    2016-01-01

    En general, las algas marinas son una buena fuente de fibra al mismo tiempo que proporcionan vitaminas, minerales y nutracéuticos de interés para la alimentación humana. Por ello, en este estudio se analiza cómo influye la ingesta de las algas marinas Porphyra purpurea, Undaria pinnatifida, Himanthalia elongata, Ulva rigida y Codium tomentosum en la calidad nutritiva del alimento y en diversos parámetros hemáticos. Debido a que las enzimas implicadas en los procesos digestivos se adaptan a la...

  6. El alga Sargassum spp. como alternativa para reducir el contenido de colesterol en el huevo

    OpenAIRE

    Silvia Carrillo; Bahena, A.; Casas, M.; M.E. Carranco; C.C. Calvo; E. Ávila; F. Pérez-Gil

    2012-01-01

    Para determinar el efecto que tiene en el contenido de colesterol del huevo la adición del alga marina (AM) Sargassum spp. en la dieta de gallinas ponedoras, se utilizaron 225 gallinas Leghorn, de 19 semanas de edad, distribuidas al azar en cinco tratamientos (0, 2, 4, 6 y 8 % del alga marina). El experimento tuvo una duración de cinco semanas, durante las que se registraron las variables productivas. La calidad física se evaluó en 75 huevos por tratamiento. Se tomaron 35 piezas de cada trata...

  7. Long-Term Field Study Reveals Subtle Effects of the Invasive Alga Sargassum muticum upon the Epibiota of Zostera marina

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-01-01

    Invasive species can alter coastal ecosystems both directly, e.g. through competition for substratum and nutrients, and indirectly. Indirect effects may be mediated by creation of dissimilar or inimical habitats, changes in predator and/or prey assemblages, alterations in associated biota, and perturbations of water movement and thermal regimes. Previous studies have shown that invasive algae can modify native habitat architecture, disrupt intricately linked food webs and alter epibiotic assemblages. In the UK, the seagrass Zostera marina supports a diverse epibiotic assemblage, influencing key factors such as sediment dynamics, depositional regime and trophic linkages. Increasing encroachment of the invasive alga Sargassum muticum into seagrass meadows changes the physical and chemical characteristics of the local environment and creates the potential for changes in the epibionts associated with the seagrass blades, threatening the integrity of the seagrass ecosystem. We investigated the effects of S. muticum invasion upon the epibiota of Z. marina in a drowned river valley in SW England seasonally from spring to autumn over four years in an in-situ manipulative experiment, comparing permanent quadrats with and without artificially introduced S. muticum. Epibiota were weighed, identified to the most detailed operational taxonomic unit (OTU) possible, and unitary organisms were enumerated. Multivariate PERMANOVA+ analysis revealed significant differences in epibiont assemblages between Sargassum treatments. Linear mixed effects models indicated that differences in epibiota assemblage composition were not reflected as significant differences in mean biomass per sample, or number of epibiont OTUs per sample. We conclude that S. muticum invasion into Z. marina meadows may significantly alter the species composition and abundance distribution of epibiotic assemblages found on the blades of the seagrass. Thus S. muticum invasion could have more wide-reaching effects on

  8. Long-Term Field Study Reveals Subtle Effects of the Invasive Alga Sargassum muticum upon the Epibiota of Zostera marina.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stacey DeAmicis

    Full Text Available Invasive species can alter coastal ecosystems both directly, e.g. through competition for substratum and nutrients, and indirectly. Indirect effects may be mediated by creation of dissimilar or inimical habitats, changes in predator and/or prey assemblages, alterations in associated biota, and perturbations of water movement and thermal regimes. Previous studies have shown that invasive algae can modify native habitat architecture, disrupt intricately linked food webs and alter epibiotic assemblages. In the UK, the seagrass Zostera marina supports a diverse epibiotic assemblage, influencing key factors such as sediment dynamics, depositional regime and trophic linkages. Increasing encroachment of the invasive alga Sargassum muticum into seagrass meadows changes the physical and chemical characteristics of the local environment and creates the potential for changes in the epibionts associated with the seagrass blades, threatening the integrity of the seagrass ecosystem. We investigated the effects of S. muticum invasion upon the epibiota of Z. marina in a drowned river valley in SW England seasonally from spring to autumn over four years in an in-situ manipulative experiment, comparing permanent quadrats with and without artificially introduced S. muticum. Epibiota were weighed, identified to the most detailed operational taxonomic unit (OTU possible, and unitary organisms were enumerated. Multivariate PERMANOVA+ analysis revealed significant differences in epibiont assemblages between Sargassum treatments. Linear mixed effects models indicated that differences in epibiota assemblage composition were not reflected as significant differences in mean biomass per sample, or number of epibiont OTUs per sample. We conclude that S. muticum invasion into Z. marina meadows may significantly alter the species composition and abundance distribution of epibiotic assemblages found on the blades of the seagrass. Thus S. muticum invasion could have more wide

  9. Temporal and spatial dynamics of ephemeral drift-algae in eelgrass, Zostera marina, beds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Jonas; Pedersen, Morten Foldager; Olesen, Birgit

    2013-01-01

    Aggregations of unattached, filamentous macroalgae showed high temporal and spatial dynamics in two shallow and relatively sheltered eelgrass (Zostera marina) beds in Aarhus Bay and Isefjord, Denmark. The changes in algal abundance were followed in permanent plots at 1-3 days intervals during three...

  10. Algas marinas bentónicas de la costa noroccidental de Guerrero, México Benthic marine algae of the west coast of Guerrero, Mexico

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    Luz Elena Mateo-Cid

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Se presentan los resultados de un estudio sobre algas marinas bentónicas en 7 localidades de la costa noroccidental de Guerrero, México. Se determinó la presencia de 163 especies de algas marinas. Se identificaron 17 especies de Cyanobacteria, 93 Rhodophyta, 28 Chlorophyta y 25 de Heterokontophyta. Se citan 54 registros nuevos para el litoral de Guerrero, 2 también nuevos, Myrionema strangulans Greville y Acrochaete ramosa (N.L.Gardner O'Kelly para la costa del Pacífico. Cada especie se acompaña de datos sobre su distribución en el área de estudio, su estado reproductivo, nivel de marea, hábitat, observaciones, epifitismo y número de herbario o de recolección. Se comparó la riqueza específica entre la estación climática de lluvias y la de secas. La división Rhodophyta dominó en términos de diversidad en relación con las 3 divisiones restantes. La ficoflora de la costa noroccidental de Guerrero es de afinidad tropical y más diversa en la época de secas.We present results on the study on benthic marine algae in 7 localities from the west coast of Guerrero, Mexico. We report 163 species: 17 Cyanobacteria, 93 Rhodophyta, 28 Chlorophyta and 25 Heterokontophyta. Fifty four are new records for Guerrero; while Myrionema strangulans Greville and Acrochaete ramosa (N.L.Gardner O'Kelly are new to the Pacific coast of Mexico. Each species includes data on its distribution, reproductive stages, tidal level, facies, epiphytism and herbarium's number. Species diversity was compared for 2 different climatic seasons. The Rhodophyta are dominant in terms of diversity in relation to the other groups. The algal flora of the northwest coast of Guerrero is tropical and the greatest diversity was found during dry seasons.

  11. Caracterización toxicológica de las macroalgas marinas Hypnea spp y Sargasun spp para la futura utilización en la alimentación y la salud animal como humana

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    Vladimir Barrios González

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available El estudio y la investigación creciente en la industria alimenticia, farmacológica así como en la cosmeticología ha provocado que se analicen variantes novedosas como las macroalgas marinas. La moderna agricultura como ciencia, además del cultivo y explotación racional de los peces, crustáceos y moluscos, contempla una importante área de investigación y desarrollo como lo son las macroalgas marinas. Las algas constituyen el primer eslabón de la cadena trófica que más eficientemente aprovecha la energía radiante, la transforma y almacena en forma de energía molecular y la pone a disposición de los otros niveles tróficos de los ecosistemas marinos. En países desarrollados se han efectuado intentos de la utilización de macroalgas marinas para la alimentación suplementaria animal aunque en la actualidad no existen investigaciones publicadas sobre dicha práctica en países subtropicales y tropicales como Cuba, país de grandes extensiones costeras, con una flora rica, variada, exuberante y típicamente caribeña, no se ha explotado suficientemente este importante recurso natural, Barrios (2002. Los estudios Toxicológico realizados por el Centro Nacional de Sanidad Agropecuaria de Cuba CENSA y el Grupo de Investigaciones Novedosas y de Impacto (GINI de la Universidad de Matanzas Camilo Cienfuegos realizados a las macroalgas marinas dargassum spp e Hypnea Spp, demostraron la inocuidad de las mismas por lo que se considera desde el punto de vista toxicológico un candidato seguro y fiable para la Industria alimenticia, la cosmeticología y la farmacología ya sea animal como humana.

  12. Composición química y actividad antioxidante del alga marina roja Bryothamnion triquetrum (S.G.Gmelin Howe Chemical composition and antioxidant activity of the red marine algae Bryothamnion triquetrum (S.G.Gmelin Howe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexis Vidal

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available En la actualidad existe un marcado interés por la búsqueda de antioxidantes de fuentes naturales, incluidas las algas marinas. El objetivo de este trabajo fue evaluar la composición química y propiedades antioxidantes del alga Bryothamnion triquetrum. Se estudió la composición centesimal y de minerales, identificación de ácidos grasos y sustancias antioxidantes. La composición centesimal es la siguiente: Proteínas (9,5%, Lípidos (1,3%, Carbohidratos (5,9%, Fibras (10,2% y Cenizas (43%. Los resultados de la actividad antioxidante para las diferentes metodologías empleadas fueron: atrapamiento de radicales DPPH• (38%, 4 mg de liofilizado, beta-Caroteno-Linoleico (12%, 4 mg de liofilizado, actividad atrapadora de radicales O2•- (CI50 0,36 mg/mL, de radicales OH• (CI50 2,11 mg/mL y unión al Fe (CI50 0,37 mg/mL. Las propiedades antioxidantes de esta alga parecen explicarse por la capacidad atrapadora de radicales libres, particularmente relacionada con mecanismos de dismutación de radicales O2•-, inactivación de radicales OH• y quelación de Fe. En trabajos previos se identificaron ácidos cinámicos y fenólicos como moléculas que pudieran explicar la actividad antioxidante, sin embargo adicionalmente se debe considerar un efecto sumatorio y/o sinérgico de otros componentes antioxidantes del extracto, como los descritos en este trabajo, incluidos minerales, carotenoides y vitamina C.An increasing interest has been growing during the past years for the search of natural origin antioxidants, particularly those from marine algae. In this context, the main objective of current research was to evaluate the chemical composition and some antioxidant properties of the aqueous extract of the seaweed Bryothamnion triquetrum. The extracts contains: Proteins (9.5%, Lipids (1.3%, Carbohydrates (5.9%, Fibers (10.2% and Ashes (43%. In current approach, the following results were obtained for the different procedures assessed: DPPH

  13. 河北省1个赤潮藻新记录种——海洋尖尾藻%Oxyrrhis marina-a New Recorded Species of One Red Tide Algae in Hbei Province

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    安鑫龙; 李雪梅; 么强

    2011-01-01

    Oxyrrhis marina-a new recorded species of Pyrrophyta was found through indoor micro-observation and this red tide algae was cultured preliminarily.%通过室内显微观察,发现了甲藻门1个新记录种-海洋尖尾藻,并对该赤潮藻进行了初步培养.

  14. Integración florística de las algas marinas de la costa sur de Jalisco, México Floristic integration of the benthic marine algae from the southern coast of Jalisco, Mexico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Catalina Mendoza-González

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Se presentan los resultados obtenidos en un estudio sobre las algas marinas bentónicas en 7 localidades de la costa sur de Jalisco, México. Se determinó la presencia de 165 especies de algas marinas. Se identificaron 13 especies de Cyanophyta, 97 Rhodophyta, 28 Chlorophyta y 27 taxa de Heteroconthophyta. Cada especie se acompaña con datos sobre su distribución en el área de estudio, estado reproductivo, nivel de marea, hábitat, observaciones, epifitismo y número de herbario o de colecta. Se comparó la riqueza específica entre la estación climática de lluvias y la de secas, durante 1992,1993, 1997, 2000 y 2003. La división Rhodophyta dominó en términos de diversidad en relación con las 3 divisiones restantes. La ficoflora de la costa sur de Jalisco es de afinidad tropical y más diversa en la época de secas.We present results on the study on benthic marine algae in seven localities from the southern coast of Jalisco. We report 165 species: 13 Cyanophyta, 97 Rhodophyta, 28 Chlorophyta and 27 Heteroconthophyta. Each species includes data on its distribution, reproductive stages, tidal level, facies, epiphytism and herbarium's number. Species diversity was compared for 2 different climatic seasons during 1992, 1993, 1997, 2000 and 2003. The Rhodophyta are dominant in terms of diversity in relation to the other groups. The algal flora of the south coast of Jalisco is tropical and the greatest diversity was found during dry season.

  15. Effects of algae-mat thickness on survival and growth of eelgrass (Zostera marina) seedlings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Jonas; Olesen, Birgit

    A major bottle-neck for eelgrass (Zostera marina) re-colonization is seedling survival and patch establishment as mortality rates among the young seedlings are high even in areas where light conditions and physical exposure should support survival. Since little is known about the reasons for the ......A major bottle-neck for eelgrass (Zostera marina) re-colonization is seedling survival and patch establishment as mortality rates among the young seedlings are high even in areas where light conditions and physical exposure should support survival. Since little is known about the reasons....... For eelgrass even short periods of water column anoxia may have severe implications for growth and survival. In addition, excessive covering by macroalgal mats decrease the available light at leaf surface and may hamper the diffusive movement of oxygen, inorganic carbon and nutrients to and from the shoot thus...

  16. Poliquetos (Annelida: Polychaeta como indicadores biológicos de contaminación marina: casos en Colombia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vanessa Fernández Rodríguez

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available El concepto de Indicador Biológico ha sido usado sin mayor precaución al momento de emplear ciertos organismos en programas de monitoreo ambiental, lo cual genera confusión. Uno de los objetivos de este trabajo fue resaltar la importancia en la consolidación de una definición precisa de este concepto a partir de información disponible, proponiendo una definición para el mismo. Las características ecológicas de los poliquetos permiten que, al estar en contacto permanente con diferentes tipos de contaminantes, respondan bioacumulando, disminuyendo o aumentando su abundancia, según sea la especie, hecho que posiciona este tipo de organismos como potenciales indicadores de contaminación marina. En este artículo se presenta de manera concreta un análisis de la literatura disponible para poliquetos en el campo de los indicadores biológicos, resaltando cómo éstos han sido usados en diferentes metodologías, con ejemplos a internacionales, así como una selección especial para Colombia. De los resultados más sobresalientes se encontró que Capitella capitata es la especie más estudiada al estar asociada con ambientes contaminados a causa del incremento de materia orgánica y es la única especie reportada en el país como indicador biológico usando las técnicas clásicas de bioindicación. Finalmente, se reitera la importancia de iniciar investigaciones sobre los aspectos ecológicos, ecotoxicológicos y bioensayos de laboratorio con otras especies de poliquetos para validar cuáles especies y por qué pueden ser consideradas como indicadores biológicos para el país.

  17. Uso del alga marina Sargassum spp. adicionada a la harina de trigo para preparar galletas alimenticias para consumo humano

    OpenAIRE

    Oscar Velasco-González; Susana Echavarría-Almeida; Armando Sifuentes-Díaz de León; Margarita Casas-Valdez

    2013-01-01

    La disponibilidad del alga Sargassum spp. en la costa oriental de la Península de Baja California, México, es de 183.000 Mg anuales, las cuales son subutilizadas, considerándose adecuado adicionarlas a nuevos productos funcionales para consumo humano que permitan, a su vez, incrementar los ingresos económicos del sector pesquero. Se evaluaron las características reológicas de tres harinas de trigo comerciales con 0, 2, 4 y 6 % del alga, lo cual indicó que la harina de Sargassum puede emplears...

  18. Nymphicidal and Ovipositional Efficacy of Seaweed Sargassum tenerrimum (J. Agardh against Dysdercus cingulatus (Fab. (Pyrrhocoridae Eficacia Ninficida y Ovicida de una Alga Marina Sargassum tenerrimum (J. Agardh contra Dysdercus cingulatus (Fab. (Pyrrhocoridae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kitherian Sahayaraj

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available We investigated the role of a brown seaweed alga, Sargassum tenerrimum (J. Agardh, against Dysdercus cingulatus (Fab., which is an economically important cotton pest in many parts of Asia. Sargassum tenerrimum has been used as a source of fertilizers and drugs, but there is no information available in the literature about its use in ecofriendly pest management. The impact of benzene (BN, chloroform (CH, and a mixture of benzene and chloroform (BNCH extracts, as well as two chromatographic fractions of BNCH (FR1 and FR2 were investigated for their insecticidal and ovipositional properties against D. cingulatus. The BE extract showed the best insecticidal activity (LC50 = 0.009%, higher than BNCH (LC50 = 0.021% and CH extracts (LC50 = 0.2481%, and all the extracts reduced the total nymphal developmental period of the pest in a dose-dependent way. Adult longevity of both males and females was reduced by the CH and BE extracts. The CH extract reduced D. cingulatus oviposition, preoviposition, and post-oviposition periods, as well as fecundity. Females emerging from the BE category could not lay eggs. All the extracts significantly reduced both total body protein and genomic DNA content. The BECH fractions, FR1 and FR2, also exhibited nymphicidal activity against the pest. However, these fractions did not significantly alter the nymphal developmental period. Results indicate that these seaweed extracts can be used as biopesticides for pest management.Investigamos el rol de una alga marina café, Sargassum tenerrimum (J. Agardh, contra Dysdercus cingulatus (Fab., una plaga económicamente importante del algodón en muchas partes de Asia. Sargassum tenerrimum ha sido usada como fuente de fertilizantes y drogas, pero en la literatura no hay información disponible sobre su uso en manejo de plagas ecoamigable. Se investigó el impacto de extractos con benceno (BN, cloroformo (CH, y una mezcla de ambos (BNCH así como dos fracciones cromatográficas de

  19. Stress proteins and auxiliary anti-stress compounds in intertidal macroalgae Proteínas de estrés y compuestos anti-estrés auxiliares en algas marinas intermareales

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edgardo Cruces

    2012-11-01

    és (HSPs han sido consideradas como potenciales agentes protectores en respuesta a condiciones estresantes, especialmente durante la acción de elevada temperatura y alta radiación solar. Considerando que las macroalgas marinas no han sido usadas comúnmente como modelos de estudio para analizar estas moléculas, el presente trabajo compila la información existente sobre la inducción de proteínas de estrés en algas intermareales en el contexto de los principales factores hasta ahora reportados como inductores, e.g. temperatura, alta radiación solar, contaminantes, etc. Adicionalmente, mediante un estudio de caso usando dos especies del intermareal superior, Ulva sp. y Porphyra columbina colectadas en el sur de Chile, se examina si la inducción de proteínas de estrés ocurre de forma complementaria con otras respuestas anti-stress. Para ello, dos mecanismos bien conocidos, fotoinhibición de fotosíntesis y actividad antioxidante, fueron medidos en paralelo. Los resultados indicaron que, aunque hubo expresión de proteínas de estrés dentro de un periodo experimental entre 3 y 24 h, estas respuestas no fueron correlacionadas con cambios en fotosíntesis o actividad antioxidante. En general, el estudio perfila un potencial rol de estas moléculas en algunas respuestas ecofisiológicas desarrolladas para contrarrestar los efectos negativos de las altas temperaturas y la radiación solar. Por otro lado, otros ajustes metabólicos de acción rápida (e.g. fotoinhibición y actividad antioxidante, distintas biomoléculas (micosporinas, fenoles, poliaminas, etc., además de las adecuaciones morfo-funcionales a la vida intermareal (e.g. pequeno tamano, alta proporción área/volumen son importantes para explicar la fisiología de estos organismos.

  20. Valoración económica del buceo como estrategia de uso sostenible de la biodiversidad marina, Archipielago de San Andres y Providencia, Caribe Colombiano.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James Cruz. Johannie L.

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available El buceo es un uso alternativo y no consuntivo de la biodiversidad marina que, debidamente practicado, tiene bajo impacto ambiental, estimula la conservación de los arrecifes y es una opción económica para habitantes de áreas arrecifales o con potencial para el buceo. El archipiélago de San Andrés, Providencia y Santa Catalina, declarado por UNESCO Reserva Mundial de la Biosfera Seafl ower, con 65.000 km2 de Áreas Marinas Protegidas y un extenso complejo arrecifal coralino, tiene condiciones para convertirse en un sitio de buceo de nivel mundial. Sin embargo, es poco conocido. Esta investigación analiza el potencial económico del buceo en esta región y lo compara con el de sitios muy reconocidos como Bonaire y Gran Caimán. Mediante análisis de la disponibilidad a pagar de buzos visitantes, se intenta valorar el buceo y se caracteriza el tipo de buzos que vienen al archipiélago. Se encontró disposición a pagar cifras superiores a las que se paga actualmente en otras partes del Caribe. Con un potencial estimado en $241 millones de dólares de ingresos anuales, el buceo es una interesante alternativa de desarrollo económico sostenible para estas islas que, a pesar de recibir 360.000 turistas al año, aún presentan un 66.9% de pobreza y altos niveles de desempleo.

  1. Anaerobic Degradation of Marine Algae, Seagrass and Tropical Climbing Vines to Produce a Renewable Energy Source and the Analysis of Their Anaerobic Microbial Communities

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    in BIOLOGY UNIVERSITY OF PUERTO RICO MAYAGÜEZ CAMPUS 2013 Approved by...Nanette Diffoot Carlo, Ph.D. Date Chairperson of the Biology Department   ii   Abstract...biomasas como las algas marinas contienen bajas concentraciones de lignina y celulosa, lo cual las haría un material fácil de degradar. Por último

  2. Valoración económica del buceo como estrategia de uso sostenible de la biodiversidad marina, Archipielago de San Andres y Providencia, Caribe Colombiano.

    OpenAIRE

    James Cruz. Johannie L.; Márquez Calle Germán

    2011-01-01

    El buceo es un uso alternativo y no consuntivo de la biodiversidad marina que, debidamente practicado, tiene bajo impacto ambiental, estimula la conservación de los arrecifes y es una opción económica para habitantes de áreas arrecifales o con potencial para el buceo. El archipiélago de San Andrés, Providencia y Santa Catalina, declarado por UNESCO Reserva Mundial de la Biosfera Seafl ower, con 65.000 km2 de Áreas Marinas Protegidas y un extenso complejo arrecifal coralino, tiene condiciones ...

  3. Perspectivas de la biología marina

    OpenAIRE

    Bigatti, G.

    2013-01-01

    La biología marina es una rama de las ciencias del mar de reciente desarrollo en la Argentina (oceáno Atlántico sudoccidental) que está en franco crecimiento. Se muestra un panorama del desarrollo de las diversas disciplinas, como los estudios sobre la biodiversidad marina y de la biología marina y pesquera, así como amenazas a los ambientes marinos y medidas de conservación tomadas. Se incluyen las perspectivas para futuros estudios de biología marina, los beneficios de las iniciativas de di...

  4. Comparación de las propiedades antioxidantes y contenido de polifenoles de extractos acuosos de las algas marinas Bryothamnion triquetrum y Halimeda opuntia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daylín Díaz Gutierrez

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Objetivos: Evaluar y comparar las propiedades antioxidantes mediante ensayos in vitro de extractos acuosos de las algas roja Bryothamnion triquetrum y verde Halimeda opuntia y su relación con el contenido de polifenoles. Material y Métodos: Se utilizaron las técnicas in vitro: DPPH, Capacidad reductora, Inhibición de la peroxidación lipídica e inhibición de la hemólisis inducida por AAPH. Resultados: B. triquetrum: DPPH; CI50=1,15 ± 0,06, capacidad reductora a concentración; 128 mg/mL, DO=2,798, inhibición de la peroxidación lipídica; CI50=5,09± 0,25 e inhibición de la hemólisis con 12 mg/mL; 35 %. H. opuntia: DPPH; CI50=12,34 ± 0,30 mg/mL, capacidad reductora; DO=0,800, inhibición de la peroxidación lipídica; CI50=1,25± 0,31 mg/mL e inhibición de la hemólisis; 82%. Conclusiones: Los resultados evidencian que B triquetrum resulto mucho más eficiente en los ensayos de DPPH y Capacidad reductora mientras H opuntia resulta más eficiente en Inhibición de la peroxidación lipídica e inhibición de la hemólisis. Se discuten algunos aspectos acerca de sus posibles mecanismos de acción.

  5. Aves Marinas

    OpenAIRE

    Sobrado-López, A.

    2012-01-01

    De forma amena y profusamente ilustrada se hace la historia de la evolución de las aves, anatomía, diversidad, migración y amenazas a la vida de este grupo zoológico. Se identifican los tratados y las convenciones que las protegen, así como qué cada persona puede hacer para ayudar. A través de los Sabías qué... resume lo más importante, curioso y atractivo de cada tópico abordado.

  6. Antimicrobial and antifouling activities achieved by extracts of seaweeds from Gulf of California, Mexico Actividades antimicrobiana y anti-incrustante obtenidas de los extractos de algas marinas del Golfo de California, México

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruth Noemí Águila-Ramírez

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Six species of common seaweed extracts were tested in laboratory assays: Dictyota flabellata, Padina concrescens, Laurencia johnstonii, Gymnogongrus martinensis, Ulva lactuca and Codium fragile for potential industrial applications through evaluation of the antibacterial activity against pathogenic bacteria (5 strains and the antifouling potency against the growth of key species of marine colonisers (7 bacteria, 5 fungi and 11 microalgae. The organic extract of L. johnstonii, U. lactuca and D. flabellata have bacterial antibiosis. The ethereal extracts were more active in comparison with buthanol extracts against the bacterial strain Staphylococcus aureus. The best antifouling results were obtained with U. lactuca and L. johnstonii(0.1-1 μg ml-1 against all strains tested. C.fragile exhibited significant antifouling activity with minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC between 1-10 μg ml-1 against marine microalgae Rhodosorus magnei, Neorhodella cyanea and Prymnesium calathiferum.Se analizaron seis especies de macroalgas comunes del Golfo de California: Dictyota flabellata, Padina concrescens, Laurencia johnstonii, Gymnogongrus martinensis, Ulva lactuca y Codium fragile para determinar su potencial aplicación industrial, a través de la evaluación de la actividad antibacteriana frente a bacterias patógenas (5 cepas, y el potencial anti-incrustante como inhibidores de crecimiento de especies colonizadoras en ambientes marinos (7 bacterias, 5 hongos y 11 microalgas. Los extractos orgánicos de L. johnstonii, U. lactuca y D. flabellata presentaron antibiosis bacteriana. Los extractos etéreos fueron más activos en comparación con los extractos de butanol frente a la cepa bacteriana Staphylococcus aureus. Los mejores resultados de actividad anti-incrustante se obtuvieron con U. lactuca y L. johnstonii (0.1-1 μg ml-1 frente a todas las cepas probadas. C. fragile mostró una significativa actividad anti-incrustante, presentando una concentraci

  7. Effects of filamentous macroalgae mats on growth and survival of eelgrass, Zostera marina, seedlings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Jonas; Olesen, Birgit; Krause-Jensen, Dorte

    2012-01-01

    A laboratory experiment was conducted to assess the effect of filamentous algae mats on the performance of seedlings of the eelgrass, Zostera marina. The seedlings were covered by three levels (3, 6 and 9 cm) of natural (Chaetomorpha linum) and imitation algae mats and it was hypothesized...... that the effects of the natural algae on seedling growth may be more severe because of the metabolic demands of the algae. Results show that coverage by both C. linum and imitation algae significantly reduced seedling growth and increased allocation of resources to above ground tissues. No clear effects of algae...

  8. Loci microsatélites como marcadores genéticos para la mejora del rendimiento en acuicultura de especies marinas

    OpenAIRE

    Borrell Pichs, Yaisel Juan

    2014-01-01

    Esta tesis se propone como objetivo general comprobar la utilidad de la variación microsatélite en el manejo de poblaciones de tres especies con gran interés económico: el salmón atlántico salmo salar l., el rodaballo scophtalmus maximus, y el camarón blanco litopenaeus schmitti. Los resultados obtenidos obtenidos demuestran que los loci microsatélites son útiles para el manejo de reproductores en las estaciones de cultivo a través del establecimiento de pedigríes si se tienen en cuenta: un a...

  9. Uso da alga Lithothamnium calcareum como fonte alternativa de cálcio nas rações de frangos de corte Use of algae Lithothamnium calcareum as alternative source of calcium in diets for broiler chickens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    André Carreira Carlos

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Objetivou-se, com este trabalho, avaliar o uso da alga Lithothamnium calcareum (Pallas Areschoug nas rações para frangos de corte de 1 a 21 e 21 a 42 dias de idade, em substituição à fonte de cálcio tradicional (calcário calcítico. Para isso, foram utilizados 300 pintos machos, da linhagem Cobb®, que receberam rações contendo o calcário calcítico e a alga Lithothamnium calcareum (colhida de inteira e na forma de areia biodentrítica como fontes de cálcio. O delineamento experimental utilizado foi o inteiramente casualizado, com três tratamentos e cinco repetições de 20 aves cada. As variáveis analisadas foram: ganho de peso (g/ave, consumo de ração (g/ave e conversão alimentar (g/g. No final do experimento foram avaliados os parâmetros ósseos: peso da tíbia (g, comprimento da tíbia (mm, diâmetro da tíbia (mm e teor de cinzas na tíbia (%. Na fase inicial (1 a 21 dias houve efeito (PThe objective of this study was to evaluate the use of the algae Lithothamnium calcareum (Pallas Areschoug in diets for broiler chickens from 1 to 21 and 21 to 42 days, to replace the traditional source of calcium (limestone. 300 male chicks from Cobb® strain, which received diets containing limestone and Lithothamnium calcareum algae (as a whole and as sand biodentritic were used as sources of calcium. The experimental design was completely randomized, with three treatments and five replicates of 20 birds each. The variables analyzed were: weight gain (g / bird, feed intake (g / bird, feed per again (g / g. At the end of the experiment the bone parameters: weight of the tibia (g, tibia length (mm, diameter of the tibia (mm and ash content in the tibia (%. Were evaluated in the initial phase (1 to 21 days there was an effect (P <0.05 between treatments for weight gain and feed per again, and the control treatment showed better results. For the growing phase (21 to 42 days and total period (1 to 42 days there was no effect among the

  10. Patrimonio Natural y Reservas Marinas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raquel de la Cruz Modino

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Las reservas marinas intentan preservar ciertas zonas de especial interés biológico de los excesos de la pesca con el fin de asegurar la protección, la regeneración y el desarrollo de los recursos marinos. Con ellas se aspira a regular las diferentes actividades que en estas áreas se llevan a cabo y conjugar los usos turísticos y recreativos que se pueden realizar con la conservación de sus valores naturales. Sin embargo, por norma general, la regulación sobre los usos que pueden desarrollarse en áreas naturales especialmente frágiles como éstas, se restringe a establecer una serie de limitaciones sobre las actividades que son llevadas a cabo en la zona. La implantación de figuras como éstas, dentro de un contexto turístico, puede alentar y promover el desarrollo de actividades recreativas frente a los usos tradicionales, que han podido quedar limitados en el área protegida

  11. La dinámica marina

    OpenAIRE

    2003-01-01

    En este trabajo se realiza una revisión general de los aspectos generales de la dinámica marina, especialmente centrado en playas y la parte más cercana a la costa de la plataforma. Es evidente que la dinámica de erosión, transporte y depósito de sedimentos, jugará un papel fundamental en la removilización de contaminantes. Formas de acumulación más profundas, jugarán un papel fundamental como reservónos de contaminantes. También es importante, ...

  12. Temporal and spatial dynamics of ephemeral macroalgal communities in eelgrass, Zostera marina, beds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Jonas; Pedersen, Morten Foldager; Olesen, Birgit;

    in algal cover was inversely correlated with the cover of eelgrass, Zostera marina, suggesting that algae were retained by the eelgrass leaves. At the larger spatial scale algal cover was less variable and significant changes occurred just a few times during the study periods. Variability was caused either...... by algal growth, as indicated by a steady increase in cover, or by physical forces moving large aggregations of algae into or out of the study area leading to significant changes in cover within few days. Thus, in shallow coastal ecosystems aggregations of ephemeral macroalgae can be highly dynamic, algae...

  13. Eelgrass (Zostera marina) food web structure in different environmental settings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thormar, Jonas; Hasler-Sheetal, Harald; Baden, Susanne;

    2016-01-01

    his study compares the structure of eelgrass (Zostera marina L.) meadows and associated food webs in two eelgrass habitats in Denmark, differing in exposure, connection to the open sea, nutrient enrichment and water transparency. Meadow structure strongly reflected the environmental conditions...... in each habitat. The eutrophicated, protected site had higher biomass of filamentous algae, lower eelgrass biomass and shoot density, longer and nar- rower leaves, and higher above to below ground biomass ratio compared to the less nutri- ent-enriched and more exposed site. The faunal community...

  14. De Las Vegas a Marina D'or. O como llegar desde el New Jornalism norteamericano de Hunter S. Thompson hasta la nueva narrativa española de Robert Juan-Cantavella

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Angulo Egea

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The north-american trend called 'New Journalism' born in the 60's, was a revolution for the USA traditional Journalism, for its use of literary elements with other ones that belong to the journalistic research. Hunter S. Thompson, author of Fear and loathing in Las Vegas (1971, with his gonzo style, was going to shed new light on the New Journalism proposals, improving the immersión process using drugs until he gets implied personally in his reports and taking all his narrative influences from the 50's beat movement. Almost 35 years later, in El Dorado, Juan-Cantavella makes a paralellism between Las Vegas and the holiday city in the mediterranean coast, Marina D'Or and he develops in this space a novel, where his alter ego, the punk journalist Escargot, plays the lead. Novel, journalism, gonzo, fiction, story, punk, essay, report, 'aportaje', discursive fragmentation, dialogs, internal monologues, descriptions, memorandums, telegrams, emails, press releases, radio news, songs, slogans, all fits to reenact genres, to re-read journalistic and literary traditions and to build something new. This work analyses this process, that goes from the gonzo journalism of Fear and loathing in Las Vegas to the current Spanish narrative of El Dorado. It tries to distinguish the literary resources that the gonzo journalist uses to build his reports and the journalistic tools that nourish Juan-Cantavella's 'punk narrative'. A particular example of literary-journalistic symbiosisLa corriente norteamericana llamada 'Nuevo periodismo', nacida en los años sesenta, supuso para la Periodística tradicional de Estados Unidos toda una revolución por la combinación de elementos literarios con otros propios de la investigación periodística. Hunter S. Thompson, autor de Miedo y asco en las Vegas (1971, con su periodismo gonzo, le iba a dar una vuelta más a la propuesta del New Journalism, llevando al extremo el proceso de inmersión, hasta implicarse personalmente

  15. Algae Resources

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2016-06-01

    Algae are highly efficient at producing biomass, and they can be found all over the planet. Many use sunlight and nutrients to create biomass, which contain key components—including lipids, proteins, and carbohydrates— that can be converted and upgraded to a variety of biofuels and products. A functional algal biofuels production system requires resources such as suitable land and climate, sustainable management of water resources, a supplemental carbon dioxide (CO2) supply, and other nutrients (e.g., nitrogen and phosphorus). Algae can be an attractive feedstock for many locations in the United States because their diversity allows for highpotential biomass yields in a variety of climates and environments. Depending on the strain, algae can grow by using fresh, saline, or brackish water from surface water sources, groundwater, or seawater. Additionally, they can grow in water from second-use sources such as treated industrial wastewater; municipal, agricultural, or aquaculture wastewater; or produced water generated from oil and gas drilling operations.

  16. Laboratory Culture of Oxyrrhis marina Dujardin%海洋尖尾藻的室内培养

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    安鑫龙; 李雪梅; 宫春光

    2012-01-01

    [目的]研究海洋尖尾藻(Oxrhis marina Dujardin)室内培养的可行性,为其生理生态特性及其赤潮形成机理的研究奠定基础.[方法]在实验室培养海洋尖尾藻,饵料藻为蛋白核小球藻(Chlorella pyrenoidosa)、湛江等鞭金藻(Isochrysis zhangjiangensis)、亚心形扁藻(Platymonas subcordiformis)和绿色巴夫藻(Pavlova viridis).[结果]在实验室条件下,除高密度的蛋白核小球藻和湛江等鞭金藻外,以亚心形扁藻和绿色巴夫藻作为饵料时海洋尖尾藻均能良好地生长和繁殖.[结论]该研究为海洋尖尾藻的室内培养解决了饵料问题,实现了海洋尖尾藻室内的长期培养.%[ Objective ] The research aimed to study the feasibility of laboratory culture of O. Marina Dujardin, to lay foundation for study of its physiological and ecological characteristics and formation mechanism of red tide. [ Method ] Food algae were Chlorella pyrenoidosa, Isochry-sis zhangjiangensis, Platymonas subcordiformis and Pavlova viridis. [ Result] Under the laboratory culture conditions, except of highly dense C. Pyrenoidosa and I. Zhangjiangensis, when P. Subcordiformis and P. Viridis were used as food algae, O. Marina Dujardin could develop and breed well. [ Conclusion ] The study can solve the problem of shortage of food algae when O. Marina Dujardin was cultured in laboratory, realizing the long-term culture of O. Marina Dujardin indoor.

  17. Louisiana Marinas and Boat Launches, Geographic NAD83, LOSCO (2004) [marinas_LOSCO_2004

    Data.gov (United States)

    Louisiana Geographic Information Center — The dataset defines the location and supplemental information for marinas and boat launches in southern Louisiana. The boat launch database includes public and...

  18. Vsem Zhivagam Zhivago / Marina Suranova

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Suranova, Marina

    2006-01-01

    10. mail algas Venemaa telekanalil NTV Aleksander Proshkini 11-osaline seriaal Boriss Pasternaki romaani "Doktor Zhivago" ainetel, kesksetes rollides Oleg Menshikov, Tshulpan Hamatova, Oleg Jankovski. Lavastaja A. Proshkin ning Komarovski osatäitja Oleg Jankovski kõnelevad rõhuasetustest uues ekraniseeringus

  19. Cyanobacteria: algas productoras de toxinas

    OpenAIRE

    Echenique, Ricardo Omar; Giannuzzi, Leda; Andrinolo, Darío

    2007-01-01

    El de las Cyanobacteria es un grupo de algas con características particulares. Por su coloración, dada por los pigmentos que posee, comúnmente se las conoce como algas verde-azules. Según registros fósiles, son los primeros organismos fotosintéticos aparecidos en nuestro planeta (3000-3500 millones de años), por esto se los consideran los responsables de originar la atmósfera inicial que posibilitó la evolución del resto de los seres vivos habitantes de la Tierra. Estos organismos, desde micr...

  20. 33 CFR 80.1118 - Marina Del Rey, CA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Marina Del Rey, CA. 80.1118 Section 80.1118 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY INTERNATIONAL NAVIGATION RULES COLREGS DEMARCATION LINES Pacific Coast § 80.1118 Marina Del Rey, CA. (a) A line drawn from Marina Del Rey Breakwater South Light...

  1. Eelgrass (Zostera marina) tolerance to anoxia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pulido Pérez, Cristina; Borum, Jens

    2010-01-01

    The tolerance of eelgrass (Zostera marina L.) to anoxia was assessed experimentally to evaluate the potential role of short-term anoxia on eelgrass performance. Eelgrass ramets (terminal leaf bundles with rhizomes and roots) were submerged in anoxic seawater for variable periods of time (0.5 to 48...

  2. Sulfide intrusion and detoxification in Zostera marina

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hasler-Sheetal, Harald; Holmer, Marianne

    2014-01-01

    indicating a possible role of sulfide in the sulfur nutrition beside the detoxification function. Our results suggest different adaptations of Z. marina to reduced sediments and sulfide intrusion ranging from bacterial and chemical reoxidation of sulfide to sulfate to incorporation of sulfide into organic...

  3. Esteróles en esponjas marinas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carmenza Duque

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Esta revisión bibliográfica comprende la mayona del trabajo publicado hasta el momento sobre esteróles aislados de esponjas marinas. Estos esteróles comprenden compuestos desde Cig hasta C31 con estructuras convencionales y con estructuras novedosas (núcleo y/o cadena lateral no convencional.

  4. Eelgrass (Zostera marina Food Web Structure in Different Environmental Settings.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jonas Thormar

    Full Text Available This study compares the structure of eelgrass (Zostera marina L. meadows and associated food webs in two eelgrass habitats in Denmark, differing in exposure, connection to the open sea, nutrient enrichment and water transparency. Meadow structure strongly reflected the environmental conditions in each habitat. The eutrophicated, protected site had higher biomass of filamentous algae, lower eelgrass biomass and shoot density, longer and narrower leaves, and higher above to below ground biomass ratio compared to the less nutrient-enriched and more exposed site. The faunal community composition and food web structure also differed markedly between sites with the eutrophicated, enclosed site having higher biomass of consumers and less complex food web. These relationships resulted in a column shaped biomass distribution of the consumers at the eutrophicated site whereas the less nutrient-rich site showed a pyramidal biomass distribution of consumers coupled with a more diverse consumer community. The differences in meadow and food web structure of the two seagrass habitats, suggest how physical setting may shape ecosystem response and resilience to anthropogenic pressure. We encourage larger, replicated studies to further disentangle the effects of different environmental variables on seagrass food web structure.

  5. Eelgrass (Zostera marina) Food Web Structure in Different Environmental Settings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thormar, Jonas; Hasler-Sheetal, Harald; Baden, Susanne; Boström, Christoffer; Clausen, Kevin Kuhlmann; Krause-Jensen, Dorte; Olesen, Birgit; Rasmussen, Jonas Ribergaard; Svensson, Carl Johan; Holmer, Marianne

    2016-01-01

    This study compares the structure of eelgrass (Zostera marina L.) meadows and associated food webs in two eelgrass habitats in Denmark, differing in exposure, connection to the open sea, nutrient enrichment and water transparency. Meadow structure strongly reflected the environmental conditions in each habitat. The eutrophicated, protected site had higher biomass of filamentous algae, lower eelgrass biomass and shoot density, longer and narrower leaves, and higher above to below ground biomass ratio compared to the less nutrient-enriched and more exposed site. The faunal community composition and food web structure also differed markedly between sites with the eutrophicated, enclosed site having higher biomass of consumers and less complex food web. These relationships resulted in a column shaped biomass distribution of the consumers at the eutrophicated site whereas the less nutrient-rich site showed a pyramidal biomass distribution of consumers coupled with a more diverse consumer community. The differences in meadow and food web structure of the two seagrass habitats, suggest how physical setting may shape ecosystem response and resilience to anthropogenic pressure. We encourage larger, replicated studies to further disentangle the effects of different environmental variables on seagrass food web structure.

  6. Effect of Alexandrium tamarense on three bloom-forming algae

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, Juan; Xie, Jin; Yang, Weidong; Li, Hongye; Liu, Jiesheng

    2010-07-01

    We investigated the allelopathic properties of Alexandrium tamarense (Laboar) Balech on the growth of Prorocentrum donghaiense Lu, Chattonella marina (Subrahmanyan) Hara et Chihara and Heterosigma akashiwo (Hada) Hada in a laboratory experiment. We examined the growth of A. tamarense, C. marina, P. donghaiense and H. Akashiwo in co-cultures and the effect of filtrates from A. tamarense cultures in various growth phases, on the three harmful algal bloom (HAB)-forming algae. In co-cultures with A. tamarense, both C. marina and H. akashiwo were dramatically suppressed at high cell densities; in contrast, the growth of P. donghaiense varied in different inoculative ratios of A. tamarense and P. donghaiense. When the ratio was 1:1 ( P. donghaiense: A. tamarense), growth of P. donghaiense was inhibited considerably, while the growth of P. donghaiense was almost the same as that of the control when the ratio was 9:1. The growth difference of P. donghaiense, C. marina and H. akashiwo when co-cultured with A. tamarense indicated that the allelopathic effect may be one of the important factors in algal competition and phytoplankton succession involving A. tamarense. In addition, the filtrate from A. tamarense culture had negative impacts on these three HAB algae, and such inhibition varied with different growth phases of A. tamarense in parallel with reported values of PSP toxin content in Alexandrium cells. This implied that PSP toxin was possibly involved in allelopathy of A. tamarense. However, the rapid decomposition and inactivation of PSP toxin above pH 7 weakened this possibility. Further studies on the allelochemicals responsible for the allelopathy of A. tamarense need to be carried out in future.

  7. La Infantería de Marina, una fuerza para el siglo XXI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    González Muñoz, Francisco

    2002-10-01

    Full Text Available Not available

    Nuestra Infantería de Marina es la más antigua del mundo. Sus orígenes se remontan al Tercio de Ñapóles de 1537, y desde entonces sus fuerzas han mantenido su tradición naval y expedicionaria con una permanente vinculación a la Armada. Tras una referencia histórica a las diferentes campañas en que ha participado la Infantería de Marina, el que fue su Comandante General durante los últimos cuatro años nos introduce en las vicisitudes y proceso de evolución de este Cuerpo como componente esencial de la Fuerza Anfibia de la Flota, destacando su versatilidad y capacidad de respuesta a las exigencias de hoy día para actuar como vanguardia de la proyección del poder naval en los nuevos escenarios estratégicos que se nos presentan. El artículo es una excelente síntesis para quien desee conocer qué.esy cómo opera la Infantería de Marina, cuáles son sus capacidades, medios, organización y estructura, y cómo está adaptándose para afrontar los desafíos del futuro a medio plazo.

  8. Guía de las especies introducidas marinas y costeras de Colombia.

    OpenAIRE

    2011-01-01

    Este libro tiene como objetivo presentar una lista ilustrada preliminar de las especies identificadas y registradas como exóticas sobre los ambientes marino-costeros de Colombia hasta el momento, o de las cuales se tiene alguna evidencia de su presencia, con el fin de aportar información sobre el estado de la biodiversidad marina colombiana, contribuyendo con información de línea base que servirá para la elaboración de planes de contingencia ante posibles amenazas. Así mismo, ofrece una lista...

  9. El papel del voluntariado en la conservación de tortugas marinas en la península de Guanahacabibes, Cuba

    OpenAIRE

    Azanza Ricardo, Julia; Ibarra Martín, Maria Elena; Cobián Rojas, Dorka

    2014-01-01

    El presente artículo está encaminado a caracterizar las etapas de trabajo del proyecto universitario destinado a la conservación de las tortugas marinas en Cuba como una iniciativa para combinar la investigación y los esfuerzos de conservación, así como destacar el papel de los colaboradores voluntarios en estas tareas. El “Proyecto Universitario para el Estudio y Conservación de las tortugas marinas en Cuba”, que se inició en el año 1998, se ha desarrollado en tres etapas con un papel cada v...

  10. Magnetic separation of algae

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nath, Pulak; Twary, Scott N.

    2016-04-26

    Described herein are methods and systems for harvesting, collecting, separating and/or dewatering algae using iron based salts combined with a magnetic field gradient to separate algae from an aqueous solution.

  11. Effects of filamentous macroalgae on growth and survival of eelgrass, Zostera marina, seedlings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Jonas; Krause-Jensen, Dorte; Olesen, Birgit

    Seedling survival and patch establishment is a major bottle-neck for eelgrass (Zostera marina) re-colonization as mortality rates among the young seedlings are high, even in areas where conditions should support survival. We here focus on the potential negative effects of drifting macroalgal mats...... of oxygen and sulphide and their diurnal variations in the mats were measured using microelectrodes. Seedling growth rates declined 99 % from controls to the high C. linum cover treatment and 55 % to the high imitation algae treatment. But due to high water flow rates anoxic conditions failed to develop...

  12. Marina Laikjõe : palm on eestlasele puhkuse sünonüüm / Marina Laikjõe

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Laikjõe, Marina, 1967-

    2003-01-01

    Reisikorraldusfirma Domina World Traveli tegevjuht Marina Laikjõe annab ülevaate eestlaste reisimisharjumustest, populaarsematest sihtkohtadest ning prognoosib võimalikke trende Eesti turismiturul.

  13. Marina Kaljurand : Venemaad ei tohi karta! Siin pole midagi karta! / Marina Kaljurand ; interv. Jaanus Piirsalu

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Kaljurand, Marina, 1962-

    2008-01-01

    Intervjuu kolm aastat Moskvas töötanud Eesti suursaadiku Marina Kaljurannaga, kes vastab küsimustele, mis puudutavad Eesti-Vene suhteid, saadikutööd, diplomaatiat, aprillirahutusi, naiste osakaalu diplomaatide seas ja erilisi suhteid patriarh Aleksius II-ga

  14. Armastus teeb tugevaks / Marina Laikjõe ; interv. Verni Leivak

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Laikjõe, Marina, 1967-

    2008-01-01

    Turismifirma Tez Tour tegevjuht ning reisifirma Travel-In juht Marina Laikjõe vastab küsimustele, mis puudutavad tema tegevust ja karjääri turisminduses, suhteid kolleegidega ning perekonna toetust raske haigusega võitlemise ajal. Kommenteerivad Reet Kivi, Tiit Pärnik. Lisa: Marina Laikjõe

  15. 33 CFR 110.111 - Marina del Rey Harbor, Calif.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Marina del Rey Harbor, Calif. 110.111 Section 110.111 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY ANCHORAGES ANCHORAGE REGULATIONS Special Anchorage Areas § 110.111 Marina del Rey Harbor, Calif. An area in the main channel within the...

  16. Contaminación marina en el Perú.

    OpenAIRE

    Guillen., Oscar; Ashtu, Victor; Aquino, Rosa

    1980-01-01

    Este informe muestra las principales causas de contaminación marina debido a los desechos domésticos e industriales, hidrocarburos de petroleo a fin de mostrar la situación actual de la contaminación marina.

  17. 33 CFR 80.1124 - Ventura Marina, CA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Ventura Marina, CA. 80.1124 Section 80.1124 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY INTERNATIONAL NAVIGATION RULES COLREGS DEMARCATION LINES Pacific Coast § 80.1124 Ventura Marina, CA. A line drawn...

  18. Structural characterization and Biological Activity of Sulfolipids from selected Marine Algae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    El Baz, F. K.

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The sulfolipid classes (SLs in the total lipids of five species of marine algae, two species of Rhodophyta (Laurencia popillose, Galaxoura cylindriea, one species of Chlorophyta (Ulva fasciata, and two species of Phaeophyta (Dilophys fasciola, Taonia atomaria were separated and purified on DEAE-cellulose column chromatography. The SLs component was identified by IR, gas chromatography MS/MS and liquid chromatography MS/MS. The level of SLs contents va ried from 1.25% (in L. papillose to 11.82% (in D. fasciola of the total lipid contents. However, no significant differences in sulfate content (0.13 – 0.21% were observed among all these algae species. All SLs were characterized by high contents of palmitic acid (C 16:0, which ranged from 30.91% in G. cylindriea to 63.11% in T. atomatia. The main constitutes of algal sulfolipids were identified as sulfoquinovosyl-di-acylglycerol and sulfoquinovosyl acylglycerol. The sulfolipids of different algal species exhibited remarkable antiviral activity against herps simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1 with an IC50 ranging from 18.75 to 70. 2 μg mL–1. Moreover, algal sulfolipid inhibited the growth of the tumor cells of breast and liver human cancer cells with IC50 values ranging from 0.40 to 0.67 μg mL–1 for human breast adenocarcinoma cells (MCF7.Se separaron diferentes clases sulfolípidos (SL a partir de los lípidos totales de cinco especies de algas marinas: una especie de Chlorophyta (Ulva fasciata, dos especies de Phaeophyta (Dilophys fasciola, Taonia atomaria y dos especies de Rhodophyta (Laurencia popillose, Galaxoura cylindriea que se purificaron mediante cromatografía en columna de DEAE-celulosa. Los components de SLs fueron identificados por IR, cromatografía de gases MS/MS y cromatografía líquida MS/ MS. Los contenidos de SL en relación al total de lípidos varió de 1,25% (en L. papilosa al 11,82% (en D. fasciola. Sin embargo, no hay diferencias significativas en el contenido de sulfato

  19. De serpientes marinas y otros monstruos

    OpenAIRE

    1994-01-01

    A mediados de marzo del corriente año distintos medios informaron que en el paraje Arenas Verdes, cerca de la Iocalidad bonaerense de Necochea, se había avistado una especie de "serpiente marina". Más de treinta personas habrían observado un animal “con cabeza de tortuga sostenida por un larguísimo cuello parecido al de un cisne y con aletas a lo largo iguales a las de los dinosaurios". Para otros testigos, se trataría de un animal con "un lomo enorme... de mas o menos tres metros de largo. T...

  20. Análisis y diseño de una intranet para la Marina de Guerra del Perú

    OpenAIRE

    Alvarez Herrera, Cesar Manuel

    2000-01-01

    La Marina de Guerra del Perú tiene como misión garantizar la independencia, soberanía e integridad territorial, contribuyendo al desarrollo económico y social del país. Dada la naturaleza de sus funciones, esta Institución cuenta con dependencias en Lima, Callao y en provincias. Un elemento necesario en la toma de decisiones es la obtención de información en el lugar adecuado y tiempo oportuno. Para el cumplimiento de su misión la Marina cuenta con una red de comunicaciones a nivel naciona...

  1. Alkaloids in Marine Algae

    OpenAIRE

    Ekrem Sezik; Aline Percot; Kasım Cemal Güven

    2010-01-01

    This paper presents the alkaloids found in green, brown and red marine algae. Algal chemistry has interested many researchers in order to develop new drugs, as algae include compounds with functional groups which are characteristic from this particular source. Among these compounds, alkaloids present special interest because of their pharmacological activities. Alkaloid chemistry has been widely studied in terrestrial plants, but the number of studies in algae is insignificant. In this review...

  2. Blue carbon stocks in Baltic Sea eelgrass (Zostera marina) meadows

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rohr, Maria Emilia; Bostrom, Christoffer; Canal-Vergés, Paula;

    2016-01-01

    Although seagrasses cover only a minor fraction of the ocean seafloor, their carbon sink capacity accounts for nearly one-fifth of the total oceanic carbon burial and thus play a critical structural and functional role in many coastal ecosystems. We sampled 10 eelgrass (Zostera marina) meadows...... density, porosity and silt content. In addition, our analysis show that the root : shoot ratio of Z. marina explained >12% and the contribution of Z. marina detritus to the sediment surface C-org pool explained >10% of the variation in the C-org stocks. The mean monetary value for the present carbon...

  3. El Instituto Hidrográfico de la Marina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pérez Carrillo de Albornoz, Francisco J.

    2002-10-01

    Full Text Available Not available

    Se expone en este artículo la amplia labor que desarrolla el Instituto Hidrográfico de la Marina (IHM y su participación en múltiples programas y proyectos nacionales e internacionales, representando a España y manteniendo relaciones permanentes de colaboración con diversas Organizaciones, Comisiones y Comités de carácter supranacional. Tras una síntesis histórica del IHM, cuyos orígenes en el Padrón Real de 1508 le otorgan la rimacía mundial como Instituto Hidrográfico, se describen detalladamente las actividades que desarrolla el Instituto en las diferentes áreas de su competencia (Hidrografia, Geodesia y Fotogrametría, Cartografía, Navegación, Oceanografía, destacando el intenso y continuado trabajo que realizan sus buques hidrográficos y el proceso de transformación que se está llevando a cabo para implantar las modernas tecnologías en todos estos campos de actuación. Haciendo honor a la cita de que «Europa aprendió a navegar en libros españoles», se recogen también en este artículo las numerosas publicaciones que continúa editando el Instituto, como responsable que es de mantener actualizada la cartografía náutica y sus correspondientes avisos y ayudas a la navegación, para finalizar con una referencia a la labor docente que desarrolla su Escuela de Hidrografía.

  4. Marina Tsvetaeva, Les Carnets. 1913-1939

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katia Vandenborre

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Entrevoir le quotidien de Marina Cvetaeva avant son éternité, approcher sa personne avant sa personnalité, tout en remontant aux sources impossibles de sa création, tels sont les défis de la publication de ses Carnets.Ces quinze carnets réunissent en un volume vingt-six ans de notes, esquisses poétiques, extraits de lettres, chroniques du quotidien, listes de courses, réflexions. Ils commencent en 1913, Tsvetaeva étant alors une jeune mère de 21 ans, traversent les années de dénuement et d’ex...

  5. Let them eat algae

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ciferri, O.

    1981-09-24

    The blue-green alga, Spirulina appears to be one of the candidates for the solution of the global problems of energy, food and chemical feedstock supplies. The harvesting of algae from Lake Texcoco, Mexico for the making of bread was noted in the 16th century by the Spanish and over 400 years later, dried biscuits made from algae were noted in Chad. Recent investigations have shown that the alga contains a very high proportion of protein - even higher than soya beans and is of high quality. A pilot plant covering 2 hectares for culturing Spirulina in a closed system is under construction in Italy. The polyethylene tubes will function as solar collectors and so extend the production season of the algae in more temperate regions.

  6. Algae Derived Biofuel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jahan, Kauser [Rowan Univ., Glassboro, NJ (United States)

    2015-03-31

    One of the most promising fuel alternatives is algae biodiesel. Algae reproduce quickly, produce oils more efficiently than crop plants, and require relatively few nutrients for growth. These nutrients can potentially be derived from inexpensive waste sources such as flue gas and wastewater, providing a mutual benefit of helping to mitigate carbon dioxide waste. Algae can also be grown on land unsuitable for agricultural purposes, eliminating competition with food sources. This project focused on cultivating select algae species under various environmental conditions to optimize oil yield. Membrane studies were also conducted to transfer carbon di-oxide more efficiently. An LCA study was also conducted to investigate the energy intensive steps in algae cultivation.

  7. 海洋尖尾藻培养液的基本特征%Basic Features of the Culture Medium of Oxyrrhis marina

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    安鑫龙; 李雪梅; 李亚宁

    2012-01-01

    [目的]研究海洋尖尾藻培养液的基本特征.[方法]以亚心形扁藻(Platymoras subcordiformis)和米氏凯伦藻(Karernia mikimotoi)作为海洋尖尾藻(Oxyrrhis marina)的饵料进行室内静置培养.[结果]海洋尖尾藻静王培养过程中培养液颜色发生变化,先由饵料藻培养液的颜色变为淡粉红色至粉红色,最终变为无色.海洋尖尾藻培养过程中瓶底首先出现少量沉淀物,随着培养时间延长,沉淀物上附着的饵料藻开始逐渐增多然后慢慢减少直至消失.[结论]该研究获得了海洋尖尾藻培养液的基本牲征,为海洋尖尾藻生态学研究提供了参考.%[ Objective ] To study the basic features of the culture medium of Oxyrrhis marina. [ Method ] The Oxyrrhis marina was indoor cultured with the baits of Platymonas subcordiformis and Karenia mikimotoi. [Result] During the static culture process, the color of the culture medium of Oxyrrhis marina changed firstly from light pink to pink and finally to colorless. Some precipitate appeared at the bottle bottom, with the extending culture time, the bait algae attached to the precipitate gradually increased, then decreased and finally disappeared. [ Conclusion] The study provides references for the screening of the culture medium of Oxyrrhis marina and realizes its long-term culture.

  8. Estudio de viabilidad de una infraestructura marina para monitorizar las interacciones entre las actividades industriales y el medio ambiente

    OpenAIRE

    Mánuel González, Àlvar

    2012-01-01

    El objeto de este proyecto es definir, diseñar y construir una instalación marina prototipo capaz de monitorizar las interacciones entre las actividades industriales y el medio ambiente. Con tal fin se propone instalar en el mar un equipamiento de adquisición de parámetros ambientales. El equipamiento de adquisición, como el resto de sistemas que sustentan la infraestructura, tales como el sistema de alimentación, comunicación y control, se encontrarán soportados por un sistema de flotació...

  9. Check-list of the Basque coast benthic algae (North of Spain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gorostiaga, José M.

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available An annotated check-list of the marine benthic flora of the Spanish Basque coast, based on literature records and original data, is presented. According to the present taxonomy, the known list of algae totals 372 taxa (354 species and 18 infraspecific taxa, distributed as follows: 23 Cyanophyta, 221 Rhodophyta, 74 Heterokontophyta and 54 Chlorophyta. In addition, 16 taxa are considered as taxa inquirenda and 8 as taxa excludenda. For each taxon the vertical distribution, abundance estimation, and two first published records are given. Remarks on the most noteworthy features of the flora of the study area are included. The floristic character of Spanish Basque coast flora was compared with nearby regions applying Cheney’s ratio [(Rhodophyta+ Chlorophyta/Phaeophyta, or (R+C/P]. The resulting high value (4,09 indicates its warm-water character, which was already noted at the end of the XIX century. From a physionomical point of view, Basque benthic vegetation resembles more closely that of southern regions (S Portugal, Morocco. The warming process of waters off the Basque coast during summer up to 22 ºC is responsible for the absence or very rare occurrence of cold temperate species like large fucoids and kelps, which are common in Galicia and Brittany, and explains the abundance of numerous warm-temperate species as ceramiaceous algae.Se presenta un catálogo de la flora bentónica marina de la costa vasco-española basado en citas bibliográficas y algunos datos originales. De acuerdo con la taxonomía actual, la lista de algas conocidas asciende a 372 táxones (354 especies y 18 táxones infraespecíficos, que se distribuyen como sigue: 23 Cyanophyta, 221 Rhodophyta, 74 Heterokontophyta y 54 Chlorophyta. Además, 16 táxones se consideran como taxa inquirenda y 8 como taxa excludenda. Para cada taxon se ofrece información sobre su distribución vertical, una estima de su abundancia y las dos primeras citas publicadas. Se incluyen

  10. Avaliação experimental e modelagem matemática de filtros anaeróbios como alternativa de baixo custo para remoção de algas de efluentes de lagoas de estabilização

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Germário Marcos Araújo

    Full Text Available RESUMO Nesta pesquisa, estudou-se o desempenho de três filtros biológicos anaeróbios com novos e diferentes meios de suporte em tempos de detenção hidráulica (TDH distintos (5,5 e 11,1 horas, objetivando a remoção de algas de efluentes de lagoas de estabilização. O considerável desempenho no pós-tratamento (remoções de até 77,4% pode ser atribuído à atuação dos mecanismos de sedimentação, retenção física e assimilação biológica. Foi desenvolvido um modelo de decaimento para clorofila com base na simplificação da equação de transporte de massa. O coeficiente global de decaimento foi descrito como uma função dos números de Reynolds e Weber, obtida por meio de ajuste aos dados experimentais com um coeficiente de determinação superior a 0,96. Para confirmação de que a função de Reynolds e Weber descreve bem o comportamento de k, foram realizadas simulações do impacto das seguintes variáveis na eficiência de remoção de algas: comprimento do filtro (altura do leito, diâmetro do filtro, diâmetro do meio suporte, porosidade, vazão, tensão superficial e da viscosidade do líquido. As simulações desenvolvidas demonstraram coerência nos resultados, reforçando que os números de Reynolds e Weber, assim como o modelo de fluxo em pistão, podem ser usados para descrever o processo de remoção de algas em filtros anaeróbios.

  11. Sport and Tourism: a potentially conflictual relationship. The case of Marinas in Tenerife

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manuel Eduardo González Ramallal

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available El artículo se centra en los conflictos que pueden surgir en el ámbito del deporte y el turismo partiendo del estudio de un caso centrado en dos puertos deportivos de la isla de Tenerife (España. A través de una aproximación cualitativa, se analizó el discurso de los participantes en siete actividades deportivas marinas diferentes. Frente a la tradicional visión optimista en torno a la relación entre deporte y turismo, los resultados de la investigación muestran que pueden surgir conflictos si ésta no se gestiona adecuadamente. Los conflictos pueden darse a tres niveles. En primer lugar, a nivel de práctica deportiva, donde los problemas pueden surgir entre las diferentes actividades deportivas que se dan en torno a los puertos deportivos. En segundo lugar, entre los diferentes grupos sociales que usan los puertos deportivos. En tercer lugar, a nivel turístico, los conflictos pueden surgir entre el modelo de desarrollo turístico y el uso que se le da a las marinas como espacios deportivos. El artículo concluye enfatizando las cuestiones clave a considerar para gestionar adecuadamente la relación deporte y turismo, tales como las de la imagen de marca asociada tanto a los deportes como a los destinos turísticos, así como los grupos sociales que habitualmente practican un deporte o visitan un destino.

  12. Componentes funcionales en aceites de pescado y de alga Functional components in fish and algae oils

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Conchillo

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Buena parte del desarrollo de nuevos alimentos funcionales está encaminada al descubrimiento o aplicación de componentes de los alimentos que favorezcan la instauración de un perfil lipídico saludable en el organismo. El objetivo del trabajo fue realizar la caracterización de la fracción lipídica de dos tipos de aceites, de pescado y de alga, para valorar su potencial utilización como ingredientes funcionales, tanto en relación con el contenido en ácidos grasos de alto peso molecular como con la presencia de esteroles y otros componentes de la fracción insaponificable. Ambos aceites presentaron una fracción lipídica muy rica en ácidos grasos poliinsaturados ω-3 de alto peso molecular, con un 33,75% en el caso del aceite de pescado y un 43,97% en el de alga, siendo el EPA el ácido graso mayoritario en el pescado y el DHA en el alga. La relación ω-6/ω-3 fue en ambos aceites inferior a 0,4. En cuanto a la fracciσn insaponificable, el aceite de alga presentσ un contenido 3 veces menor de colesterol y una mayor proporciσn de escualeno. El contenido en fitosteroles fue significativamente superior en el aceite de alga.An important area of the development of new functional foods is facussed on finding or applying food components which favour achieving a healthier lipid profile in the organism. The objective of this work was to carry out the characterisation of the lipid fraction of two oils, fish oil and algae oil, to evaluate their potential use as functional ingredients, in relation to the high molecular weight fatty acid content and the presence of sterols and other components of the unsaponificable fraction. Both oils showed a lipid fraction rich in high molecular weight polyunsaturated ω-3 fatty acids, containing a 33.75% in the fish oil and a 43.97% in the algae oil. Eicosapentaenoic acid was the major fatty acid in fish oil, whereas docosahexaenoic was the most abundant fatty acid in algae oil. The ω-6/ω-3 ratio was lower

  13. Wastewater treatment with algae

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wong Yukshan [Hong Kong Univ. of Science and Technology, Kowloon (China). Research Centre; Tam, N.F.Y. [eds.] [City Univ. of Hong Kong, Kowloon (China). Dept. of Biology and Chemistry

    1998-05-01

    Immobilized algal technology for wastewater treatment purposes. Removal of copper by free and immobilized microalga, Chlorella vulgaris. Biosorption of heavy metals by microalgae in batch and continuous systems. Microalgal removal of organic and inorganic metal species from aqueous solution. Bioaccumulation and biotransformation of arsenic, antimony and bismuth compounds by freshwater algae. Metal ion binding by biomass derived from nonliving algae, lichens, water hyacinth root and spagnum moss. Metal resistance and accumulation in cyanobacteria. (orig.)

  14. Aspectos ecologicos de las algas marinas de la provincia de Concepcion, Chile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krisler Alveal

    1980-12-01

    Full Text Available Studies carried out in various localities of the Province of Concepción, Chile (36º40'S; 70º06'W estabilished the existence of two principal patterns of zonation defined by the populations of Mastocarpus sp. (¿ ?, Tridaea laminarioides, Gelidium pussilum, Ulva lactuca and Perumytilus purpuratus which occupy the lower hydrolittoral. In submerged levels the populations of Gracilaria and Macrocystis. form growths of moderate dimensions and in shallow waters, Iridaea ciliata, Gymnogongrus furcellatus and Gigartina chamissoii in scatterd patches.

  15. Bioaccumulation of trace elements by Avicennia marina

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Kandasamy Kathiresan; Kandasamy Saravanakumar; Pandiyan Mullai

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To analyze the concentrations of 12 micro-nutrients (Al, B, Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Fe, Mg, Mn, Ni, Pb, and Zn) in different plant parts of Avicennia marina and its rhizosphere soil of the south east coast of India. Methods: The samples were acid digested, then analyzed by using inductively coupled plasma system (ICP-Optical Emission Spectrophotometer). Results: Levels of metals were found in the decreasing order: Cd>Co>Ni>Pb>B>Cr>Zn>Mg>Mn>Cu>Fe>Al. The soil held more levels of metals than plant parts, but within the permissible limits of concentration. Bark and root accumulated higher levels of trace elements in a magnitude of 10-80 folds than other plant parts. The overall bioaccumulation factor in the sampling sites of Vellar, Pichavaram and Cuddalore was 2.88, 1.42 0.47 respectively. Essential elements accumulate high in mature mangroves forest while non-essential elements accumulate high in the industrially polluted mangroves. Conclusions:The ratio between essential and non-essential elements was found higher in young mangrove forest than that in mature mangrove forest and polluted mangrove areas. Thus, the ratio of accumulation can be used as an index of the growth and pollution status of mangroves.

  16. Bioaccumulation of trace elements by Avicennia marina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kandasamy Kathiresan

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To analyze the concentrations of 12 micro-nutrients (Al, B, Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Fe, Mg, Mn, Ni, Pb, and Zn in different plant parts of Avicennia marina and its rhizosphere soil of the south east coast of India. Methods: The samples were acid digested, then analyzed by using inductively coupled plasma system (ICP-Optical Emission Spectrophotometer. Results: Levels of metals were found in the decreasing order: Cd>Co>Ni>Pb>B >Cr>Zn>Mg>Mn>Cu>Fe>Al. The soil held more levels of metals than plant parts, but within the permissible limits of concentration. Bark and root accumulated higher levels of trace elements in a magnitude of 10-80 folds than other plant parts. The overall bioaccumulation factor in the sampling sites of Vellar, Pichavaram and Cuddalore was 2.88, 1.42 0.47 respectively. Essential elements accumulate high in mature mangroves forest while non-essential elements accumulate high in the industrially polluted mangroves. Conclusions: The ratio between essential and non-essential elements was found higher in young mangrove forest than that in mature mangrove forest and polluted mangrove areas. Thus, the ratio of accumulation can be used as an index of the growth and pollution status of mangroves.

  17. Algae fuels : a tantalizing alternative

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Granson, E.

    2010-11-15

    This article surveyed the current state of research and development in the area of algae use as a basis for fuel and as a feedstock for the chemical industry. The constraints inhibiting the commercialization of algae-related processes were discussed and a brief overview of the history of algae research was presented. Interest in algae research has ebbed and flowed in conjunction with economic and social concerns. It is unknown whether algae can be grown on a scale and cost that is commercially viable. A bench-scale algae cultivation system involving photobioreactors was described. Algae are increasingly being used in treating wastewater from industrial processes, as algae can reduce ammonia and phosphate loads in effluent. Exhaust carbon dioxide is being used to feed algae crops. Advances are needed to make turning algae oil into fuel cost effective. A bench-stage process for extracting algae oil from water for biofuel conversion was described. The process results in easier-to-dry biomass without using chemical solvents or centrifuges. Algae biomass is also being explored for used as a polymer feedstock. Algae can be grown anywhere there is sun, but the challenge is in developing a large enough supply of algae biomass. Second generation algae plastic products will be more complex and may involve the creation of a monomer out of algae itself, which could make algae competitive with oil in the plastics industry. Skeptics doubt that algae processes can be commercialized, but some within the industry believe that algae biomass will eventually work within the norms of industrial processes. 5 figs.

  18. Aureispira marina gen. nov., sp. nov., a gliding, arachidonic acid-containing bacterium isolated from the southern coastline of Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hosoya, Shoichi; Arunpairojana, Vullapa; Suwannachart, Chatrudee; Kanjana-Opas, Akkharawit; Yokota, Akira

    2006-12-01

    Three strains of gliding bacteria, 24(T), 62 and 71, isolated from a marine sponge and algae from the southern coastline of Thailand, were studied using a polyphasic approach to clarify their taxonomic positions. A phylogenetic analysis based on 16S rRNA gene sequences showed that the three isolates formed a distinct lineage within the family 'Saprospiraceae' of the phylum Bacteroidetes and were related to members of the genus Saprospira. The G+C contents of the isolates were in the range 38-39 mol%. The major respiratory quinone was MK-7. The predominant cellular fatty acids were 20 : 4omega6c (arachidonic acid), 16 : 0 and iso-17 : 0. On the basis of morphological, physiological and chemotaxonomic characteristics, together with DNA-DNA hybridization data and 16S rRNA gene sequences, the isolates represent a novel species of a novel genus, for which the name Aureispira marina gen. nov., sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain of Aureispira marina is 24(T) (=IAM 15389(T)=TISTR 1719(T)).

  19. Sulfide Intrusion and Detoxification in the Seagrass Zostera marina

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hasler-Sheetal, Harald; Holmer, Marianne

    2015-01-01

    Gaseous sulfide intrusion into seagrasses growing in sulfidic sediments causes little or no harm to the plant, indicating the presence of an unknown sulfide tolerance or detoxification mechanism. We assessed such mechanism in the seagrass Zostera marina in the laboratory and in the field with sca......Gaseous sulfide intrusion into seagrasses growing in sulfidic sediments causes little or no harm to the plant, indicating the presence of an unknown sulfide tolerance or detoxification mechanism. We assessed such mechanism in the seagrass Zostera marina in the laboratory and in the field...... with scanning electron microscopy coupled to energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy, chromatographic and spectrophotometric methods, and stable isotope tracing coupled with a mass balance of sulfur compounds. We found that Z. marina detoxified gaseous sediment-derived sulfide through incorporation and that most...

  20. Análisis preliminar de la estructura primaria y secundaria del ARNtTrp en tortugas marinas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Harvey Infante-Rojas

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Actualmente existen siete especies de tortugas marinas, todas amenazadas o en riesgo inminente de extinción. Los estudios con ADN mitocondrial han permitido hacer acercamientos sobre filogenia, evolución, rutas migratorias y centros de dispersión, además para la identificación de polimorfismos y haplotipos, siendo base para planes de manejo y conservación. El presente estudio representa la primera descripción comparada de la estructura primaria y secundaria del ARNtTrp mitocondrial en tortugas marinas. Se realizó un alineamiento múltiple de 26 secuencias del gen que codifica para el ARNtTrp y se propuso la estructura secundaria utilizando el programa ARWEN. Se identificaron potenciales interacciones terciarias por homología comparada con el ARNtTrp de mamíferos. Los resultados mostraron una secuencia consenso de 76 bases con siete regiones conservadas que representan el 76 % de la molécula. Se identificaron polimorfismos que representan tres haplotipos para C. caretta, dos para C. mydas y uno para cada una de las demás especies. Las estructuras secundarias mostraron cambios nucleotídicos puntuales para cada especie y también mostraron que el tallo aceptor, el brazo TψC y el bucle anticodón son motivos conservados en el ARNtTrp de las tortugas marinas. Se encontró un enlace no canónico tipo A-A en el tallo DHU que podría considerarse característico de tortugas marinas. Además, se obtuvo una estructura secundaria consenso en donde se identificaron las siete regiones conservadas, seis posibles interacciones terciarias y el bucle DHU como región variable.

  1. High mortality of Zostera marina under high temperature regimes but minor effects of the invasive macroalgae Gracilaria vermiculophylla

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Höffle, Hannes; Thomsen, M.S.; Holmer, M.

    2011-01-01

    The present study tested for density-dependent effects of the invasive drift macroalgae Gracilaria vermiculophylla (Ohmi) Papenfuss on growth and survival of the native eelgrass, Zostera marina L., under different temperature levels. Three weeks laboratory experiments were conducted in Odense......, Denmark, combining three algae densities (control, low 1.9 kg WW m2, high 4.5 kg WW m2) with typical Danish summer temperatures (18 C) and elevated temperatures (21 C and 27 C). There was a significant effect of temperature on shoot survival with on average 68% mortality in the high temperature treatment...... but almost no mortality at the two lower temperatures. The higher mortality was probably caused by high sulphide levels in the sediment pore water (0.6 mmol l1 at 18 C compared to 3.7 mmol l1 at 27 C). Above-ground growth of the surviving shoots was also significantly affected by temperature, with leaf...

  2. Tres grandes plataformas marinas Mar del Norte

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soulas, R.

    1978-03-01

    Full Text Available This article analyzes the different building stages of three large sea platforms. After studying the structure's main characteristics, preparing scale models and calculating ail the elements, platform construction was carried out in three stages: — Dry-dock construction of the hull base. — Installation in the water and finishing the structure. — Immersion and bridge installation. Finally, the necessary operations to move the platform to its definite location were carried out. The structures are formed by a parallelepiped hull of reinforced concrete, divided into compartments by means of vertical orthogonals panels on top of which 2 or 4 piles are placed to support the bridge.

    En este artículo se analizan las diversas etapas en la realización de tres grandes plataformas marinas. Después de un estudio de las características principales de la estructura, ensayos en modelo reducido y cálculo de todos los elementos, se procede a la construcción de las plataformas en tres fases: — Construcción en seco de la base del casco. — Colocación en el agua y acabado de la estructura. — Inmersión y colocación del puente. Por último, se realizan las operaciones necesarias para llevar la plataforma a su ubicación definitiva. Las estructuras están formadas por un casco paralelepipédico de hormigón armado, dividido en compartimientos mediante tabiques verticales ortogonales y sobre el que se han colocado 2 ó 4 pilas que soportan el puente.

  3. Marina Abramović on kohal / Bianka Marran

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Marran, Bianka

    2010-01-01

    Jugoslaavia kunstniku Marina Abramovići performance'itest. Pikemalt tema teosest "The Artist is Present" New Yorgi Moodsa Kunsti Muuseumis 14. märtsist 31. maini 2010. Koostööst saksa fotograafi ja performance'ikunstniku Ulay'ga (kodanikunimi Frank Uwe Laysiepen)

  4. Efecto de la radiación ultravioleta B en la producción de polifenoles en la microalga marina Chlorella sp. Effect of ultraviolet B radiation on the production of polyphenols in the marine microalga Chlorella sp.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaime Copia

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Las algas marinas son una fuente importante de compuestos antioxidantes (fenoles y polifenoles, generados como mecanismos de defensa frente a factores de estrés (radiación UV, temperatura, herbívora. El objetivo de este trabajo es evaluar la estrategia de adaptación al efecto de la radiación ultravioleta B (RUV-B, 280-315 nm en la microalga marina Chlorella sp. mediante la producción de polifenoles y capacidad antioxidante total. Se expusieron cultivos de Chlorella sp. fueron expuestos a radiación UV-B (470 μW cm-2 por periodo de tiempos ascendentes. Se evaluó la capacidad antioxidante total DPPH, polifenoles totales, clorofila-a y b así como la densidad celular en cultivos expuestos y no expuestos. Los resultados indicaron que la RUV-B genera una disminución de la densidad celular en los cultivos irradiados por primera vez (1ª etapa, existiendo un aumento significativo (P Marine algae are an important source of antioxidant compounds (phenols and polyphenols, generated as defense mechanisms against stress factors (UV radiation, temperature, herbivory. The aim of this study was to evaluate the strategy of adaptation to the effect of ultraviolet B radiation (UV-B, 280-315 nm in the marine microalga Chlorella sp. through, the production of polyphenols and total antioxidant capacity. Chlorella sp. cultures were exposed to UV-B radiation (470 μW cm-2 over increasing time periods. We evaluated the total antioxidant capacity DPPH, total polyphenols, chlorophyll-a and b, and cell densities in exposed and unexposed cultures. The results indicated that UV-B caused a decrease in cell density in cultures irradiated for the first time (1st stage, with a significant increment (P < 0.05, lower than the control in the 2nd and 3rd stages only through the 4th stage (day 7, corresponding to a dose of 16,920 J m-2. The production of total phenols increased significantly (P < 0.05 for the IVth extract with respect to the control, confirming that the

  5. Catálogo de tipos de algas depositados en el Herbario Nacional de Plantas Celulares (BA del Museo Argentino de Ciencias Naturales “Bernardino Rivadavia”, Argentina Catalogue of algae types deposited in the National Cryptogamic Herbarium (BA of the Museo Argentino de Ciencias Naturales “Bernardino Rivadavia”, Argentina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea Coradeghini

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available El Herbario Nacional de Plantas Celulares (BA alberga 50.000 especímenes, de los cuales 9.000 son ejemplares de algas marinas y continentales. El catálogo consta de 11 tipos argentinos y 20 tipos del exterior: Australia y Brasil. Cinco de los tipos argentinos fueron depositados por la Lic. Carmen Pujals quién se desempeñó como investigadora de este Museo. El trabajo incluye la lista de nombres ordenados alfabéticamente, sus autores, fecha y cita original seguido por la categoría del tipo, país, provincia, localidad, fecha y datos del colector. De existir una Exsiccata se señalan nombre y número de la misma, número de BA y las observaciones y notas consideradas relevantes. En el caso que corresponde se anota sinonimia y autores.The National Cryptogamic Herbarium (BA contains 50.000 specimens, of which 9.000 are continental and marine algae. The catalogue consists of 11 argentine types and 20 foreign types from Australia and Brazil. Five of the argentine types were deposited by Lic. Carmen Pujals, a former researcher at the Museum. The paper includes the alphabetically ordered list of names, their authors, date and original citation, followed by the type category, country, province, city, date and collector number and original citation. If there is an Exsiccata the name, number, number of BA, observations and relevant notes are reported. When necessary, synonymy and authors are given.

  6. Turismo versus pesca artesanal. A propósito de la reserva marina de la isla de La Graciosa y los islotes del norte de Lanzarote

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gloria Cabrera Socorro

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available La Reserva Marina de La Graciosa y los Islotes del Norte de Lanzarote (RMLGINL se creó en 1995 y, desde entonces, las actividades pesqueras de la población local y su cultura del mar han ido decreciendo progresivamente mientras que las actividades turísticas siguen emergiendo como la panacea en una pequeña isla, como La Graciosa, con no más de 600 habitantes. En este artículo tratamos de analizar cómo estos dos procesos están relacionados y qué papel está jugando la reserva marina en este caso. Usamos no sólo información cualitativa de los pescadores locales y de sus grupos domésticos, sino también cuantitativa contrastando algunos parámetros concretos como el número de pescadores y los barcos de pesca activos, los negocios relacionados con el sector servicios (restaurantes, apartamentos, etc., antes y después de implementación de la reserva marina. En este sentido, un importante elemento es la percepción de esta institución desde la población local, y la evolución de su actitud a favor o en contra. Estos procesos están relacionados con el diseño institucional de las reservas marinas en las Islas Canarias, en donde la participación de las poblaciones pesqueras locales está severamente limitada.

  7. Spiruline, a virtuous algae

    OpenAIRE

    Various, Authors

    2015-01-01

    A short video about a local development practice focusing on the production and commercialization of spiruline, an algae used as an nutritional integrator. The practice was one of six prize winners resulting from a national competition for innovative practices of local development, launched by the Senegalese Ministry of local governance, development and territorial planning, with funding from the Italian Cooperation and technical support from the KIP International School.

  8. Who amends the International Code of Nomenclature for algae, fungi, and plants, the participation that the Latin American Herbaria have and how it can be increased? ¿Quién modifica el Código Internacional de Nomenclatura para algas, hongos y plantas, que participación tienen los herbarios latinoamericanos y como puede ésta incrementarse?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lourdes Rico-Arce

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Changes to the International Code of Botanical Nomenclature are decided upon every 6 years at Nomenclature Sections that are part of International Botanical Congresses (IBC. How the Code is amended? The "decision" to conserve the name Acacia with a new type from Australia, one of the most heated and polarized debates over botanical nomenclature, casting doubt over the legitimacy of the procedure and botanical decision-making is taken as example. Despite a website www.acaciavote.com, for which by July 2011, the votes were: 7 659 opposing the re-typification of Acacia, including 101 votes from people in Australia, and only 110 accepting the re-typification, did not make any affect to influence to amend the Code? Only delegates present at the Nomenclature Section and the number of active institutional votes that they carry can decide the changes to the Code; from 878 distributed to registered herbaria only 396 of these were taken to Melbourne. Australia and the United States were the countries with the largest number of votes. There is little participation of Latin American Countries, in general of developing countries, how this can be increased and effective throughout herbaria institutional votes? In this note the steps to follow up are given.Cada 6 años se debate sobre las modificaciones que se efectuarán en el Código Internacional de Nomenclatura en el marco del Congreso Internacional de Botánica. ¿Quién decide modificar el código? Se toma como ejemplo la "decisión" de conservar el nombre del género Acacia con un nuevo tipo de una especie australiana, que es uno de los debates más controversiales y polarizados en la historia de la nomenclatura botánica, a la vez que puso en duda lo legitimidad del procedimiento efectuado. A pesar de los resultados que tuvo el sitio web www.acaciavote.com a fines de Julio del 2011, 7 659 se opusieron a la retipificación, que incluyeron 101 de personas Australiana, en contra de solo 110 aceptando esta

  9. A New Acylated Iridoid Glucoside from Avicennia marina

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yan FENG; Xiao Ming LI; Xiao Juan DUAN; Bin Gui WANG

    2006-01-01

    A new acylated iridoid glucoside, namely, 2'-O-(5-phenyl-2E, 4E-pentadienoyl)-mussaenosidic acid, was isolated from the aerial parts of the mangrove plant Avicennia marina.The structure of the new compound was established on the basis of various NMR spectroscopic analyses, including 2D NMR techniques (1H-1H COSY, HMQC, and HMBC) and HR-FAB-MS.This compound displayed moderate antioxidant activity.

  10. Preservar, demolir, construir ou ocupar a creche Ninho Jardim Condessa Marina R. Crespi: de todos os riscos, o risco

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Verônica Sales Pereira

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Resumo Este artigo aborda a interrelação entre o patrimônio cultural industrial e o território urbano através dos processos de patrimonialização e de ocupação pela população sem-teto da creche Ninho Jardim Condessa Marina R. Crespi, no bairro da Mooca, em São Paulo. Analisaremos esses processos à luz da problematização das noções de risco, perda, demolição e mercado desenvolvidas por J. R. Gonçalves, entendendo-as como o avesso do patrimônio cultural, bem como de sua vinculação aos processos de gentrificação urbana. Para este fim, baseamo-nos na análise de documentos e na realização de entrevistas qualitativas.

  11. Miocene Coralline algae

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bosence, D.W.J.

    1988-01-01

    The coralline algae (Order Corallinales) were sedimentologically and ecologically important during the Miocene, a period when they were particularly abundant. The many poorly described and illustrated species and the lack of quantitative data in coralline thalli make specific determinations particularly difficult, but some species are well known and widespread in the Tethyan area. The sedimentologic importance of the Miocene coralline algae is reflected in the abundance of in-situ coralline buildups, rhodoliths, and coralline debris facies at Malta and Spain; similar sequences are known throughout the Tethyan Miocene. In-situ buildups vary from leafy crustose biostromes to walled reefs with dense coralline crusts and branches. Growth forms are apparently related to hydraulic energy. Rhodoliths vary from leafy, crustose, and open-branched forms in muddy sediments to dense, crustose, and radial-branching forms in coarse grainstones. Rhodolith form and internal structure correlate closely with hydraulic energy. Coralline genera are conservative and, as such, are useful in paleoenvironmental analysis. Of particular interest are the restricted depth ranges of recent coralline genera. More research is needed on the sedimentology, paleoecology, and systematics of the Cenozoic corallines, as they have particular value in paleoenvironmental analysis.

  12. Ecophysiology of Antarctic macroalgae: effects of environmental light conditions on photosynthetic metabolism Ecofisiología de macroalgas marinas antárticas: efectos de las condiciones de luz sobre el metabolismo fotosintético

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. GÓMEZ

    2001-06-01

    from temperate and cold-temperate regions. This clearly indicates a major physiological adaptation to the polar environmentLas variación estacional en la duración del día en los ambientes polares es el principal factor ambiental que regula la actividad fotosintética de las algas marinas. El aparato fotosintético de especies de algas pardas tales como Ascoseira mirabilis o Desmarestia menziesii, pertenecientes al grupo denominado "season anticipators", posee la habilidad de usar la radiación solar incidente durante el período de aumento de horas diarias de luz en el invierno tardío y primavera. El desarrollo estacional y la distribución de biomasa en el talo afectan también la actividad fisiológica de estas algas. De este modo, la diferenciación de la capacidad para fotosintetizar (medida como evolución de oxígeno y fijación de carbono a través de la planta representa una adaptación morfo-funcional que optimiza la conversión de energía lumínica en producción primaria. En Desmarestia menziesii, las fases reproductivas tienen diferentes características fotosintéticas. Las micro-fases, gametofitos y estadíos tempranos de los esporofitos están mejor adaptados para usar niveles más bajos de luz que las plantas adultas (esporofitos, básicamente debido a un mayor contenido de pigmentos por unidad de biomasa, mayor eficiencia fotosintética y muy bajos requerimientos de luz para fotosíntesis. Esta estrategia asegura la consumación del ciclo de vida bajo condiciones variables de luminosidad. Las bajas demandas de luz para crecimiento y fotosíntesis no sólo posibilitan la supervivencia de macroalgas en escenarios lumínicos estacionalmente cambiantes, sino que paralelamente les permite expandir sus límites de distribución en profundidad. La inexistencia de diferencias en capacidad fotosintética máxima (Pmax y eficiencia fotosintética (a de poblaciones de una misma especie habitando diferentes profundidades (entre 10 y 30 m sugiere una baja

  13. O tecer e o trajar: metáforas do empoderamento feminino em dois contos de Marina Colasanti

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Enedir Silva Santos

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Os contos de Marina Colasanti transitam entre o real e o fantástico alinhavando ações que conduzem as relações humanas e seus dilemas. Suas narrativas curtas são retiradas das experiências diárias para suscitar reflexões muito mais abrangentes, pois são entrelaçados de palavras e situações que desvelam o cotidiano e o comportamento exigido da mulher. A partir da análise dos contos “A moça tecelã”, do livro Doze reis e a moça no labirinto do vento (1982, e “Plano matrimonial”, de Contos do amor rasgado (1982, evidenciamos de que forma a autora constrói, metaforicamente, na tessitura narrativa a roupa masculina e o trabalho da tecelã para refletir acerca do empoderamento da mulher. Os contos têm em comum a relação heterossexual das protagonistas intermediada pelos trajes masculinos, que se revestem de simbologia e revelam, no contexto literário, a explanação do lugar social da mulher e do homem, visto como uma das linhas que alinhavam a vivência humana. Desse modo, Marina Colasanti tece na trama discursiva as redes de significações reveladoras do fazer e do ser feminino.

  14. Effects of salinity and nutrient load and their interaction on Zostera marina

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Katwijk, M.; Schmitz, G.; Gasseling, A.P.; Van Avesaath, P.H.

    1999-01-01

    Generally, seagrass Zostera marina L. distribution in the Wadden Sea and south-west Netherlands is Limited to waters with low to moderate nutrient concentrations. However, it is known that Z. marina also occurs at high nutrient concentrations when growing in low salinity environments. In this study,

  15. 76 FR 37650 - Safety Zone; 4th of July Festival Berkeley Marina Fireworks Display Berkeley, CA

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-28

    ... SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Part 165 RIN 1625-AA00 Safety Zone; 4th of July Festival Berkeley Marina Fireworks Display Berkeley, CA AGENCY: Coast Guard, DHS. ACTION: Temporary final rule. SUMMARY: The Coast... Berkeley Pier, Berkeley, CA in support of the 4th of July Festival Berkeley Marina Fireworks...

  16. 78 FR 29022 - Safety Zone; Fourth of July Fireworks, Berkeley Marina, Berkeley, CA

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-17

    ... SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Part 165 Safety Zone; Fourth of July Fireworks, Berkeley Marina, Berkeley, CA... enforce the safety zone for the Berkeley Marina Fourth of July Fireworks display in the Captain of the... Berkeley Pier in approximate position 37 51'40'' N, 122 19'19'' W (NAD 83) from 9:30 p.m. until 10:15...

  17. Gulf ring algae

    Science.gov (United States)

    Although they rank among the tiniest of the microspcopic phytoplankton, coccolithophore algae aid oceanographers studying the Gulf Stream rings and the ring boundaries. The algal group could help to identify more precisely the boundary of the warm rings of water that spin off from the Gulf Stream and become independent pools of warm water in the colder waters along the northeastern U.S. coast.Coccolithophore populations in the Gulf Stream rings intrigue oceanographers for two reasons: The phytoplankton are subjected to an environment that changes every few days, and population explosions within one coccolithophore species seem to be associated with changes in the characteristics of ocean water, said Pat Blackwelder, an associate professor at the Nova Oceanographic Center in Dania, Fla. She is one of many studying the physics, chemistry, and biology of warm core rings. A special oceanography session on these rings was held at the recent AGU Fall Meeting/ASLO Winter Meeting.

  18. Temporal shifts in top-down vs. bottom-up control of epiphytic algae in a seagrass ecosystem

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whalen, Matthew A.; Duffy, J. Emmett; Grace, James B.

    2013-01-01

    In coastal marine food webs, small invertebrate herbivores (mesograzers) have long been hypothesized to occupy an important position facilitating dominance of habitat-forming macrophytes by grazing competitively superior epiphytic algae. Because of the difficulty of manipulating mesograzers in the field, however, their impacts on community organization have rarely been rigorously documented. Understanding mesograzer impacts has taken on increased urgency in seagrass systems due to declines in seagrasses globally, caused in part by widespread eutrophication favoring seagrass overgrowth by faster-growing algae. Using cage-free field experiments in two seasons (fall and summer), we present experimental confirmation that mesograzer reduction and nutrients can promote blooms of epiphytic algae growing on eelgrass (Zostera marina). In this study, nutrient additions increased epiphytes only in the fall following natural decline of mesograzers. In the summer, experimental mesograzer reduction stimulated a 447% increase in epiphytes, appearing to exacerbate seasonal dieback of eelgrass. Using structural equation modeling, we illuminate the temporal dynamics of complex interactions between macrophytes, mesograzers, and epiphytes in the summer experiment. An unexpected result emerged from investigating the interaction network: drift macroalgae indirectly reduced epiphytes by providing structure for mesograzers, suggesting that the net effect of macroalgae on seagrass depends on macroalgal density. Our results show that mesograzers can control proliferation of epiphytic algae, that top-down and bottom-up forcing are temporally variable, and that the presence of macroalgae can strengthen top-down control of epiphytic algae, potentially contributing to eelgrass persistence.

  19. Temporal shifts in top-down vs. bottom-up control of epiphytic algae in a seagrass ecosystem.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whalen, Matthew A; Duffy, J Emmett; Grace, James B

    2013-02-01

    In coastal marine food webs, small invertebrate herbivores (mesograzers) have long been hypothesized to occupy an important position facilitating dominance of habitat-forming macrophytes by grazing competitively superior epiphytic algae. Because of the difficulty of manipulating mesograzers in the field, however, their impacts on community organization have rarely been rigorously documented. Understanding mesograzer impacts has taken on increased urgency in seagrass systems due to declines in seagrasses globally, caused in part by widespread eutrophication favoring seagrass overgrowth by faster-growing algae. Using cage-free field experiments in two seasons (fall and summer), we present experimental confirmation that mesograzer reduction and nutrients can promote blooms of epiphytic algae growing on eelgrass (Zostera marina). In this study, nutrient additions increased epiphytes only in the fall following natural decline of mesograzers. In the summer, experimental mesograzer reduction stimulated a 447% increase in epiphytes, appearing to exacerbate seasonal dieback of eelgrass. Using structural equation modeling, we illuminate the temporal dynamics of complex interactions between macrophytes, mesograzers, and epiphytes in the summer experiment. An unexpected result emerged from investigating the interaction network: drift macroalgae indirectly reduced epiphytes by providing structure for mesograzers, suggesting that the net effect of macroalgae on seagrass depends on macroalgal density. Our results show that mesograzers can control proliferation of epiphytic algae, that top-down and bottom-up forcing are temporally variable, and that the presence of macroalgae can strengthen top-down control of epiphytic algae, potentially contributing to eelgrass persistence.

  20. The Phenomenon of the Marina Development to Support the European Model of Economic Development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joanna Kizielewicz

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The development of marinas on the seas, rivers, lakes and canals of Europe occurs in two different forms: (1 as a private investment project, and (2 as an urban municipal investment. Both forms of investment and development of marinas satisfy the criteria of entrepreneurship, which is important for each global and European economy. The purpose of this research is explanation of the possibilities for development of marinas and their immediate and distant destination which supports the development of the local economy. The scientific and research achievements were applied and, for the purpose of transparency, a case study showing several marinas and the examples of two basic models of development are presented. Structurally, this research consists of two parts, namely (1 a theoretical part, where a definition of nautical tourism and its classification are presented and (2 the development of specific indicators of marinas in Europe are explored.

  1. Blue carbon stocks in Baltic Sea eelgrass (Zostera marina) meadows

    Science.gov (United States)

    Röhr, Maria Emilia; Boström, Christoffer; Canal-Vergés, Paula; Holmer, Marianne

    2016-11-01

    Although seagrasses cover only a minor fraction of the ocean seafloor, their carbon sink capacity accounts for nearly one-fifth of the total oceanic carbon burial and thus play a critical structural and functional role in many coastal ecosystems. We sampled 10 eelgrass (Zostera marina) meadows in Finland and 10 in Denmark to explore seagrass carbon stocks (Corg stock) and carbon accumulation rates (Corg accumulation) in the Baltic Sea area. The study sites represent a gradient from sheltered to exposed locations in both regions to reflect expected minimum and maximum stocks and accumulation. The Corg stock integrated over the top 25 cm of the sediment averaged 627 g C m-2 in Finland, while in Denmark the average Corg stock was over 6 times higher (4324 g C m-2). A conservative estimate of the total organic carbon pool in the regions ranged between 6.98 and 44.9 t C ha-1. Our results suggest that the Finnish eelgrass meadows are minor carbon sinks compared to the Danish meadows, and that majority of the Corg produced in the Finnish meadows is exported. Our analysis further showed that > 40 % of the variation in the Corg stocks was explained by sediment characteristics, i.e. dry density, porosity and silt content. In addition, our analysis show that the root : shoot ratio of Z. marina explained > 12 % and the contribution of Z. marina detritus to the sediment surface Corg pool explained > 10 % of the variation in the Corg stocks. The mean monetary value for the present carbon storage and carbon sink capacity of eelgrass meadows in Finland and Denmark, were 281 and 1809 EUR ha-1, respectively. For a more comprehensive picture of seagrass carbon storage capacity, we conclude that future blue carbon studies should, in a more integrative way, investigate the interactions between sediment biogeochemistry, seascape structure, plant species architecture and the hydrodynamic regime.

  2. Exposiciones. Esculturas de Marina Núñez del Prado

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduardo Mendoza Varela

    1961-05-01

    Full Text Available Hace varios años Gabriela Mistral en unas cuantas palabras que han quedado también entre las mejores páginas, expresó lo que significaba la aparición de Marina Núñez del Prado en el arte de Latinoamérica. En efecto, no era solamente profética la voz de la gran poetisa chilena al señalar en la artista boliviana a una de las figuras más nítidas y altas de la plástica continental.

  3. Transgenic algae engineered for higher performance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Unkefer, Pat J; Anderson, Penelope S; Knight, Thomas J

    2014-10-21

    The present disclosure relates to transgenic algae having increased growth characteristics, and methods of increasing growth characteristics of algae. In particular, the disclosure relates to transgenic algae comprising a glutamine phenylpyruvate transaminase transgene and to transgenic algae comprising a glutamine phenylpyruvate transaminase transgene and a glutamine synthetase.

  4. Fichas de especies representativas de las Áreas Marinas Costeras Protegidas de Múltiples Usos de Chile. Documento de apoyo a guía docente AMCP-MU. Proyecto GEF MARINO.

    OpenAIRE

    Urra Parra, Helen; Vliegenthart, Ana María; Basterrechea, Valentina; Donoso, Magdalena; Quezada, Monserrat

    2007-01-01

    Este documento contiene una descripción de las especies más representativas de las Áreas Marinas Costeras Protegidas de Múltiples Usos de Chile.En el marco de este trabajo,se construyó una ficha donde se incluyen campos como : Nombre común de la especie,nombre científico,distribución,descripción física,biología,estado de conservación,entre otras.

  5. La línea de biología marina, del posgrado en ciencias, biología de la universidad nacional de colombia: 1979-2009, 30 años de actividad

    OpenAIRE

    Campos C., Néstor Hernando; Acero P, Arturo; Zea, Sven

    2012-01-01

    La Universidad Nacional de Colombia tiene como uno de sus objetivos el formar y preparar investigadores altamente calificados en las diferentes ramas de las ciencias incluyendo aquellas que se relacionan con el conocimiento y el aprovechamiento de los recursos naturales. Teniendo en cuenta las facilidades en infraestructura y demás que brinda el Instituto de Investigaciones Marinas y Costeras – INVEMAR, la Universidad Nacional desarrolla en Santa Marta desde 1979 un programa de formación a ni...

  6. Caracterización ambiental de la zona de alimentación de tortugas marinas en el litoral del municipio de Guasave, Sinaloa.

    OpenAIRE

    2014-01-01

    Las áreas marinas protegidas (AMPs) son herramientas de conservación muy relevantes para la protección de ecosistemas y para contribuir a generar un uso adecuado de los recursos naturales. La zona marino costera del municipio de Guasave se encuentra ubicada en la región sur del Golfo de California en un área de surgencias costeras estacionales y en la que ocurren una gran cantidad de especies de importancia comercial así como de interés para la conservación. Estudios previos han caracterizado...

  7. El régimen internacional de la bioinvasión marina causada por agua de lastre: especial referencia a la República de Colombia

    OpenAIRE

    Ramírez Cabrales, Fabián

    2015-01-01

    El agua de lastre de los buques es considerada como el más importante vector para el desplazamiento transoceánico de especies marinas propias de aguas superficiales a nuevos ambientes marinos. Se ha estimado que anualmente se transfieren de 3 a 5 billones de toneladas de agua de lastre a nivel global. Ello plantea un serio riesgo ambiental internacional. Las especies invasivas están extendiendo sus ámbitos naturales a nivel global y cada nueve semanas se notifica una nueva invasión biológica ...

  8. Propriedades bioativas dos polissacarídeos sulfatados da alga comestível Gracilaria birdiae

    OpenAIRE

    Oliveira, Letícia Castelo Branco Peroba de

    2014-01-01

    As algas marinhas vermelhas do gênero gracilaria sintetizam polissacarídeos sulfatados (PS) bioativos. Porém muitos destes PS ainda não foram devidamente avaliados, como é caso dos PS sintetizados pela alga comestível Gracilaria birdiae. Estudos anteriores mostraram que galactanas sulfatadas dessa alga tem efeito antiinflamatorio. Neste trabalho uma galactana (GB) de G. birdiae foi obtida e avaliada por diferentes testes. GB apresentou atividade anticoagulante no teste de APTT. Gb não apresen...

  9. Caracterización parcial y espectro antimicrobiano de substancias inhibitorias producidas por Alteromonas marinas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge León

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Se caracterizan parcialmente substancias inhibitorias producidas por cepas marinas del género Alteromonas spp. Pruebas de precipitación de extractos crudos de sobrenadantes de las cepas N22.C y N11.6 con concentraciones saturantes de sulfato de amonio y filtrados en columnas de Sephadex G-25 muestran la producción de substancias inhibitorias (SI de naturaleza proteinácea. Otros ensayos de caracterización revelan que dichas substancias tienen un amplio espectro de actividad antibiótica frente a cepas de colección patógenas de peces, moluscos y crustáceos. Asimismo, muestran a las SI como termosensibles a 90oC en 45 min y con capacidad de mantener estabilidad inhibitoria dentro, del rango de pH de 3,0 a 9,0 hasta por 15 min. La actividad antibiótica de las substancias frente a Vibrio anguillarum NCMB 2133, V. anguillarum ATCC 19264 y Aeromonas salmonicida 67,79 fueron comparativamente equivalentes a 30 ppm del antibiótico oxitetraciclina (OTC.

  10. Proteasas extracelulares producidas por bacterias marinas aisladas de aguas contaminadas con efluentes pesqueros

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tito Sánchez

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Un total de 26 cepas de bacterias marinas con actividad proteolítica fueron aisladas de agua de mar contaminadas con efluentes pesqueros; las mismas que se evaluaron en base al crecimiento y formación de halos de actividad en Agar Marino suplementados con caseína al 1%, pH 8,0 e incubados a 25 ºC por 72 h. Cinco cepas, seleccionadas por presentar los mejores halos de actividad fueron evaluadas a su vez por su crecimiento y producción de proteasas a diferentes concentraciones de NaCl, rangos de temperatura y pH; siendo consideradas finalmente como bacterias halotolerantes, psicrotróficas y alcalófilas moderadas. Estas cepas también fueron evaluadas por su actividad proteolítica específica sobre la caseína, siendo la cepa CM48 (Pseudomonas sp. la que presentó la mejor actividad específica (17,38 U/mg a las 72 horas, y seguidas por las cepas CM45 (Alcaligenes sp. (12,09 U/mg y tres cepas de Aeromonas sp. (CM43, CM44 y CM46 con valores de 12,02; 10,07 y 10,10 U/mg respectivamente.

  11. Petróleo, seguridad ambiental y exploración petrolera marina en Colombia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Avellaneda Cusaría, Alfonso

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Este artículo reseña un siglo de las actividades petroleras en Colombia, sus consecuencias en los territorios indígenas, así como los riesgos ambientales y para la salud, destacando por -otra parte- el papel que han asumido algunas compañías para controlar esos riesgos. Se discute las implicaciones sociales y ambientales, directas e indirectas, de las distintas fases de las actividades petroleras en la parte continental del país, y sus relaciones históricas con los procesos de violencia donde ha habido explotación petrolera desde el siglo XX. Finalmente, se abre una discusión sobre la nueva política petrolera del Estado colombiano, con la exploración costa fuera y la ausencia de control ambiental para proteger los ecosistemas que subyacen la licitación de áreas para los próximos años, sin asumir el derecho internacional en la protección marina.

  12. Actividad antibacteriana de extractos etanólicos de macroalgas marinas de la costa central del Perú

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudio Magallanes

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Se evaluó la actividad antibacteriana de extractos etanólicos de 12 especies de macroalgas marinas. Los extractos fueron obtenidos de acuerdo al protocolo modificado de Vlachos et al. (1996. Cada extracto se enfrentó contra 5 cepas bacterianas de origen clínico y 6 no clínico perteneciente a los géneros Staphylococcus, Enterococcus, Pseudomonas, Escherichia, Salmonella, Aeromonas y Vibrio. De 12 especies de algas ensayadas solamente 5 (Grateloupia doryphora, Ahnfeltiopsis durvillaei, Prionitis decipiens, Petalonia fascia y Bryopsis plumosa presentaron algún efecto antibacteriano. Asimismo, de 11 cepas bacterianas probadas solamente las cepas clínicas Staphylococcus aureus ATCC 25923 y Enterococcus faecalis ATCC 29212 y la cepa no clínica Staphylococcus aureus ATCC 6633 fueron sensibles a los extractos algales. El extracto etanólico de B. plumosa presentó el mayor efecto antibacteriano contra las dos cepas de S. aureus, manifestándose en el mayor tamaño de sus halos de inhibición, mientras que el extracto de P. fascia mostró mayor espectro antibacteriano, inhibiendo a las 3 cepas mencionadas.

  13. Diurnal effects of anoxia on the metabolome of the seagrass Zostera marina

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hasler-Sheetal, Harald; Holmer, Marianne; Weckwerth, Wolfram

    2014-01-01

    Environmental metabolomics has become interesting in marine ecological studies. One example is the revealing of new insights in stress response of Zostera marina. This is essential to understand how, at which level and to what extend aquatic plants adapt, tolerate and react to environmental...... stressors. We exposed Z. marina to water column anoxia and assessed the diurnal metabolomic response by GC-TOF-MS based metabolomics identifying 109 known and 217 unknown metabolites. During day time photosynthetic oxygen production prevents severe effects of anoxia on the metabolome (complete set of small...... the applicability of metabolomics to assess environmental stress responses of Zostera marina....

  14. Diurnal effects of anoxia on the metabolome of the seagrass Zostera marina

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hasler-Sheetal, Harald; Fragner, Lena; Holmer, Marianne

    2015-01-01

    We investigated the response, adaptation and tolerance mechanisms of the temperate seagrass Zostera marina to water column anoxia. We exposed Z. marina to a diurnal light/dark cycle under anoxia and assessed the metabolic response by measuring the metabolome with gas chromatography coupled to mass...... shunt as such mitigation mechanisms that alleviate pyruvate levels and lead to carbon and nitrogen storage during anoxia. This work demonstrates the applicability of metabolomics to assess low oxygen stress responses of Z. marina and allows us to propose an anoxia recovery model....

  15. Acute toxicity of Chattonella Marina on Artemia Sinica%海洋卡盾藻对卤虫的急性毒性效应

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐艳红; 江涛; 沈萍萍; 王锐; 吴霓; 江天久

    2012-01-01

    研究了海洋卡盾藻在不同生长阶段和不同密度下对卤虫的急性毒性效应.结果表明,海洋卡盾藻的含藻培养液和除藻过滤液均对卤虫有致死作用,且前者毒性大于后者.对数生长初期的海洋卡盾藻含藻培养液的毒性作用最强,卤虫暴露在3.0×104 cells/mL藻液48h后,死亡率达到83%;对数生长后期海洋卡盾藻含藻培养液也具有较强的毒性,48 h卤虫死亡率为73%;衰亡期含藻培养液毒性最弱,48 h卤虫死亡率为33%.海洋卡盾藻含藻培养液和除藻过滤液(对数生长期,10 d)的浓度对数与卤虫的死亡机率单位呈线性关系,含藻培养液对卤虫24h半致死浓度(LD50)为1.92×104cells/mL,而除藻过滤液对卤虫的24 h LD50为3.34×104cells/mL.卤虫在海洋卡盾藻含藻培养液中的暴露时间(48 h内)与死亡率呈线性相关关系,在藻密度为3.75×104cells/mL时,海洋卡盾藻含藻培养液对卤虫的半致死时间(LT50)为17.3 h.%The acute toxicity of Chattonella marina at different growth phases and concentrations on Artemia Sinica was investigated in the present study. The results showed that the maximum toxicity of C. marina on A. salina appeared at the early stage of logarithmic phase, and the death rate of A. sinica reached 83% after 48 h when it was exposed to the algae cell suspension at density of 3. 0 x 104 cells/ mL. The lowest toxicity of C. marina on A. sinica appeared in the decline phase with death rate of 33% . Interestingly, the filtered cell-free cultures of Chattonella marina were also toxic to A. sinica, but less toxic than the cell-suspended cultures. The probit mortality of A. salina was closely correlated to the log dose of cell-suspended and cell-free culture of C. marina (10 d). The 24 - h LD50 of the cell suspension and cell-free culture of C. marina was 1. 92 x 10 and 3. 34 x 10 cells/mL, respectively. The probit mortality of A. salina was also correlated with time and the LT50 of A. salina

  16. Population specific salinity tolerance in eelgrass (Zostera marina)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Salo, Tiina Elina; Pedersen, Morten Foldager; Boström, Christoffer

    2014-01-01

    Salinity is one of the main factors impacting distribution of marine plants and sub-optimal salinities may result in increased resource use and decreased production.We studied the performance and salinity tolerance of eelgrass (Zostera marina L.) originating from two regions with different ambient...... salinities: a low saline (salinity 6) and a high saline (salinity 20) population. Plants fromboth populationswere exposed to a series of fixed salinities (2, 4, 6, 9, 12.5, 15, 20 and 25) for 5 weeks. Both plant origin and salinity affected plant performance significantly. Plant production decreasedwith...... decreasing salinity in both populations,while mortality increased in lowsalinity only in plants originating from the high saline population. The better performance of the low saline population in the lowest salinities indicates a horizontal shift in salinity tolerance among populationswith different origin...

  17. Marina Caffiero (Hg.: Rubare le anime. Roma: Viella 2008

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rita Unfer Lukoschik

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available In den Akten des päpstlichen Staatsarchivs und der römischen jüdischen Gemeinde finden sich zeitgenössische Zeugnisse für die im päpstlichen Rom vom 16. bis zum 19. Jahrhundert nicht seltene Zwangskonvertierung jüdischer Mädchen und Frauen zum Katholizismus. Eines der wertvollsten Dokumente dieser Konversionspraxis liegt nunmehr in einer kommentierten Neuedition vor: das Tagebuch der 1749 sich erfolgreich der versuchten Zwangskonvertierung widersetzenden 18-jährigen Anna del Monte. In ihrer Einleitung ordnet die Herausgeberin Marina Caffiero dieses außergewöhliche Einzelschicksal in die zeitgleich und parallel laufenden Assimilations- und Emanzipationsprozesse ein, die sich in der mit aufklärerischem Gedankengut ‚infizierten‘ jüdischen Oberschicht Roms im 18. Jahrhundert abzeichneten.Contemporary reports on the forced conversion of Jewish girls and woman to Catholicism, not a rare occurrence in papal Rome from the 16th to the 19th centuries, can be found in the files of the official papal archive and the Roman Jewish community. One of the most valuable documents of this conversion practice has now been published in a new annotation edition: The diary of 18-year-old Anna del Monte, who was able to successfully resist the attempted forced conversion in 1749. In her introduction the editor Marina Caffiero places this extraordinary individual fate within the concurrent and parallel processes of assimilation and emancipation. These emerge in 18th century Rome’s Jewish upper class, which was “infected” with Enlightenment ideas.

  18. Baltoscandali avavad vigurmarss ja Schubert / Marina Steinmo ; interv. Eva Kübar

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Steinmo, Marina

    2008-01-01

    Baltoscandali teatrifestivalil esineva Eesti päritolu Rootsi tantsija ja koreograafi Charlotte Engelkesi klassikalisel muusikal põhinevatest lavastustest "Forellen and Me" ja "Miss Very Wagner" (dramaturg, teksti ja etenduse kontseptsiooni autor on Marina Steinmo)

  19. Eelgrass (Zostera marina) Microsatellite DNA Data; Pacific Coast of North America, 2000-2009

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This data set contains genetic information collected from eelgrass (Zostera marina) populations along the Pacific coast of North America from Alaska to Baha...

  20. Iseseisvuse lubatavusest : Okasana Titova "Hamletis" ja Marina Kesleri "Libahundis" RO Estonias / Nele Suisalu

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Suisalu, Nele

    2008-01-01

    Tantsuetendused "Hamlet" - lavastaja ja koreograaf Oksana Titova, muusika autor ja esitaja Taavi Kerkmäe ning "Libahunt" - lavastaja Marina Kesler, Lepo Sumera, Raimo Kangro, Arvo Pärdi ja Lydia Austeri muusikale. (2007. aasta 2. novembri etendusest)

  1. Assessment of Marinas in the Mediterranean and the Position of Turkey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Evrim Pinar Genc

    2006-05-01

    Full Text Available The most important organizations for developing and advertisingthe yacht tourism in a country are the marinas.Yachting tourism, being a part of maritime sector tends to playa part in the tourist activities and provides important resourcesfor the general economy.In this study, the developments in yachting tourism are aplainedby considering the cu"ent status of the marinas in theMedite"anean countries. Basic characteristics of different marinasof the Medite"anean countries will be discussed and alsostatistical figures will be given. The yachting routes and the potentialof Turkey will be analyzed by emphasizing operational,infrastructural and service characteristics. The factors thatshould be taken into consideration and the methods used formarina marketing will be explained. By considering strengths,weaknesses, opportunities and threats, a SWOT analysis will bemade for Turkey marinas. Suggestions will be given fur furtherdevelopment of marina management in Turkey.

  2. Escenarios relacionados con la intrusión marina. Caso de estudio Cuenca Artemisa – Quivicán, Provincia Habana. La Habana – Cuba Escenarios relacionados con la intrusión marina. Caso de estudio Cuenca Artemisa – Quivicán, Provincia Habana. La Habana – Cuba

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manuel Núñez Lafitte

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Sea water intrusion is the process by which the sea water in an aquifer displaces the sweet water as consequence of a sensitive reduction of the hydraulic head, either for natural actions or for anthropic activity Sea water intrusion takes place in the coastal aquifers mainly independently to the predominant lithology. In this work the scenario analysis is approached by studying the effects that sea water intrusion in dry years would produce to the supply of underground water to the City of Havana and Havana Province, when there would be high exploitation of the aquifers without maintenance of recharge works such as in South Dike.There would be a cartography of the scenario in danger to show the presage of the penetration expressed in the longitude of the marine intrusion wedge, taking as contour conditions the variable that may be unfavorable for their temporal variation, such as precipitation and depression. The thickness of the sheet of sweet water is considered constant.La intrusión marina es el proceso por el cual el agua de mar desplaza en un acuífero el agua dulce como consecuencia de una reducción sensible de la carga hidráulica, ya sea por acciones naturales o por actividad antrópica.La intrusión marina tiene lugar principalmente en los acuíferos costeros independientemente a la litología predominante.En este trabajo se aborda el análisis del escenario que en el abasto de agua subterránea a la Ciudad de La Habana y Provincia Habana produciría la intrusión marina durante la ocurrencias de años secos, simultaneados, con altas explotaciones del acuífero y el no mantenimiento de obras de recarga como es el caso del Dique Sur.Se cartografía el escenario de peligro que muestra el pronóstico de la penetración expresada en longitud de la cuña de intrusión marina tomando como condiciones de contorno las variables que pueden ser desfavorables por su variación temporal, tales como la precipitación, explotación y abatimiento

  3. 77 FR 37604 - Safety Zone; Fourth of July Fireworks, Berkeley Marina, Berkeley, CA

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-22

    ... SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Part 165 Safety Zone; Fourth of July Fireworks, Berkeley Marina, Berkeley, CA... enforce the safety zone for the Berkeley Marina Fourth of July Fireworks display in the Captain of the... Berkeley Pier in position 37 51'40'' N, 122 19'19'' W (NAD 83) from 9:30 p.m. until 10:15 p.m. on July...

  4. Algae Bloom in a Lake

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Sanabria

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this paper is to determine the likelihood of an algae bloom in a particular lake located in upstate New York. The growth of algae in this lake is caused by a high concentration of phosphorous that diffuses to the surface of the lake. Our calculations, based on Fick's Law, are used to create a mathematical model of the driving force of diffusion for phosphorous. Empirical observations are also used to predict whether the concentration of phosphorous will diffuse to the surface of this lake within a specified time and under specified conditions.

  5. Presencia de bacterias asociadas a nieve marina en arrecifes influenciados por escorrentía continental del Caribe colombiano: primer acercamiento

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hernán Alejandro Henao-Castro

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Parte del deterioro de los arrecifes de coral se atribuye al efecto del aporte de agua dulce cargada de nutrientes y sedimentos finos. Estas condiciones favorecen la formación de nieve marina lodosa que transporta gran carga de bacterias que pueden ser patógenos de corales. Por lo anterior, se estudió la presencia de bacterias asociadas a nieve marina lodosa en una zona arrecifal del Caribe colombiano en un gradiente de distancia a la desembocadura del canal del Dique (Cartagena. Por medio de técnicas moleculares PCR-DGGE, se registró baja riqueza, con bandas representativas de siete bacterias diferentes. El número de especies varió según el sitio, pero no hubo relación con la cercanía a la fuente de escorrentía. Como estudio pionero, sirve como punto de partida para estudios en arrecifes del Caribe colombiano impactados por escorrentía.

  6. Evaluación de la bioactividad y papel ecológico de los extractos orgánicos crudos de las esponjas marinas Cribrochalina vasculum y Biemna cribaria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arias Hernández Jazmín

    2005-07-01

    Full Text Available La necesidad por obtener una utilidad tangible de los organismos marinos, ha generado un creciente interés por realizar estudios que permitan entender y por lo tanto aprovechar, sus características físicas, biológicas, químicas y ecológicas. La ecología química permite aproximarse a esto,
    por lo tanto, los estudios desarrollados en esta área encierran gran importancia. En el presente estudio se evaluó la actividad de los extractos orgánicos crudos de las esponjas marinas Cribrochalina vasculum y Biemna cribaria, en ensayos de antiepibiosis y disuasión de la alimentación de peces arrecifales generalistas. Estas dos especies mostraron inhibición positiva de la abundancia total, de organismos solitarios, de poliquetos e hidroides; B. cribaria inhibió adicionalmente la abundancia de cianofíceas, cobertura total y cobertura del alga parda. Así mismo, las píldoras preparadas con extracto de C. vasculum no disuadieron a los peces generalistas Stegastes partitus de alimentarse (97,5% de consumo, pero si mostraron rechazo por las píldoras con extracto de B. cribaria (37,5% de consumo. Lo que parece indicar que la esponja B. cribaria está mejor defendida químicamente contra la epibiosis y la depredación, mientras que C. vasculum parece tener un efecto atrayente sobre los peces, por lo que no mostró efectividad en este ensayo. Se propone a B. cribaria como una esponja con posibilidades en la industria de pinturas antiepibióticas, dada su mayor efectividad
    inhibitoria de epibiontes y su baja tasa de lixiviación. Ya que este es un primer acercamiento a la bioactividad de estas dos esponjas, surge la necesidad por continuar estudiando los aspectos ecológicos y químicos de los metabolitos que ellas producen.

  7. Formation of algae growth constitutive relations for improved algae modeling.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gharagozloo, Patricia E.; Drewry, Jessica Louise.

    2013-01-01

    This SAND report summarizes research conducted as a part of a two year Laboratory Directed Research and Development (LDRD) project to improve our abilities to model algal cultivation. Algae-based biofuels have generated much excitement due to their potentially large oil yield from relatively small land use and without interfering with the food or water supply. Algae mitigate atmospheric CO2 through metabolism. Efficient production of algal biofuels could reduce dependence on foreign oil by providing a domestic renewable energy source. Important factors controlling algal productivity include temperature, nutrient concentrations, salinity, pH, and the light-to-biomass conversion rate. Computational models allow for inexpensive predictions of algae growth kinetics in these non-ideal conditions for various bioreactor sizes and geometries without the need for multiple expensive measurement setups. However, these models need to be calibrated for each algal strain. In this work, we conduct a parametric study of key marine algae strains and apply the findings to a computational model.

  8. Effects of used lubricating oil on two mangroves Aegiceras corniculatum and Avicennia marina

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    An outdoor experiment was set up to investigate the effects of used lubricating oil (5 L/m2) on Aegiceras corniculatum Blanco. and Avicennia marina (Forsk) Vierh., two salt-excreting mangroves. A. marina was more sensitive to used lubricating oil than A. corniculatum and canopy-oiling resulted in more direct physical damage and stronger lethal effects than base-oiling. When treated with canopy-oiling, half of A. corniculatum plants survived for the whole treatment time (90 d); but, for A. marina, high mortality (83%) resulted from canopy-oiling within 3 weeks and no plants survived for 80 d. Base-oiling had no lethal effects on A. corniculatum plants even at the termination of this experiment, but 83% of A. marina plants died 80 d after treatment. Forty days after canopy-oiling, 93% of A. corniculatum leaves fell and no live leaves remained on A. marina plants. By the end of the experiment, base-oiling treatment resulted in about 45% of A. corniculatum leaves falling, while all A. marina leaves and buds were burned to die. Lubricating oil resulted in physiological damage to A. corniculatum leaves, including decreases in chlorophyll and carotenoid contents, nitrate reductase, peroxidase and superoxide dismutase activities, and increases in malonaldehyde contents. For both species, oil pollution significantly reduced leaf, root, and total biomass, but did not significantly affect stem biomass. Oil pollution resulted in damage to the xylem vessels of fine roots but not to those of mediate roots.

  9. Complete genome of Cobetia marina JCM 21022T and phylogenomic analysis of the family Halomonadaceae

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Xianghai; Xu, Kuipeng; Han, Xiaojuan; Mo, Zhaolan; Mao, Yunxiang

    2016-09-01

    Cobetia marina is a model proteobacteria in researches on marine biofouling. Its taxonomic nomenclature has been revised many times over the past few decades. To better understand the role of the surface-associated lifestyle of C. marina and the phylogeny of the family Halomonadaceae, we sequenced the entire genome of C. marina JCM 21022T using single molecule real-time sequencing technology (SMRT) and performed comparative genomics and phylogenomics analyses. The circular chromosome was 4 176 300 bp with an average GC content of 62.44% and contained 3 611 predicted coding sequences, 72 tRNA genes, and 21 rRNA genes. The C. marina JCM 21022T genome contained a set of crucial genes involved in surface colonization processes. The comparative genome analysis indicated the significant diff erences between C. marina JCM 21022T and Cobetia amphilecti KMM 296 (formerly named C. marina KMM 296) resulted from sequence insertions or deletions and chromosomal recombination. Despite these diff erences, pan and core genome analysis showed similar gene functions between the two strains. The phylogenomic study of the family Halomonadaceae is reported here for the first time. We found that the relationships were well resolved among every genera tested, including Chromohalobacter, Halomonas, Cobetia, Kushneria, Zymobacter, and Halotalea.

  10. 21 CFR 184.1120 - Brown algae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Brown algae. 184.1120 Section 184.1120 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN... Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1120 Brown algae. (a) Brown algae are seaweeds of the species...

  11. Algae -- a poor man's HAART?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teas, Jane; Hebert, James R; Fitton, J Helen; Zimba, Paul V

    2004-01-01

    Drawing inferences from epidemiologic studies of HIV/AIDS and in vivo and in vitro HIV inhibition by algae, we propose algal consumption as one unifying characteristic of countries with anomalously low rates. HIV/AIDS incidence and prevalence in Eastern Asia ( approximately 1/10000 adults in Japan and Korea), compared to Africa ( approximately 1/10 adults), strongly suggest that differences in IV drug use and sexual behavior are insufficient to explain the 1000-fold variation. Even in Africa, AIDS/HIV rates vary. Chad has consistently reported low rates of HIV/AIDS (2-4/100). Possibly not coincidentally, most people in Japan and Korea eat seaweed daily and the Kanemba, one of the major tribal groups in Chad, eat a blue green alga (Spirulina) daily. Average daily algae consumption in Asia and Africa ranges between 1 and 2 tablespoons (3-13 g). Regular consumption of dietary algae might help prevent HIV infection and suppress viral load among those infected.

  12. Scenario studies for algae production

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Slegers, P.M.

    2014-01-01

    Microalgae are a promising biomass for the biobased economy to produce food, feed, fuel, chemicals and materials. So far, large-scale production of algae is limited and as a result estimates on the performance of such large systems are scarce. There is a need to estimate large-scale biomass producti

  13. Macro algae as substrate for biogas production

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møller, Henrik; Sarker, Shiplu; Gautam, Dhan Prasad

    Algae as a substrate for biogas is superior to other crops since it has a much higher yield of biomass per unit area and since algae grows in the seawater there will be no competition with food production on agricultural lands. So far, the progress in treating different groups of algae as a source...... of energy is promising. In this study 5 different algae types were tested for biogas potential and two algae were subsequent used for co-digestion with manure. Green seaweed, Ulva lactuca and brown seaweed Laminaria digitata was co-digested with cattle manure at mesophilic and thermophilic condition...

  14. Ecosystem Services of Avicennia marina in the Red Sea

    KAUST Repository

    Almahasheer, Hanan

    2016-12-01

    The Red Sea is an arid environment, without riverine inputs, oligotrophic waters and extreme temperature and salinity. Avicennia marina is the dominant vegetation in the shores of the Red Sea. However, little is known about their distribution, dynamics, and services. Therefore, the aim of this Ph.D. was to obtain the basic information needed to evaluate their role in the coastal ecosystems and quantify their services. With that objective we 1) estimated the past and present distribution of mangroves in the Red Sea, 2) investigated the growth, leave production and floration 3) examined the growth limiting factors 4) measured the nutrients and heavy metal dynamics in the leaves and 5) estimated carbon sequestration. We found an increase of about 12% in the last 41 years, which contrasts with global trends of decrease. The extreme conditions in the Red Sea contributed to limit their growth resulting in stunted trees. Hence, we surveyed Central Red Sea mangroves to estimate their node production with an average of 9.59 node y-1 then converted that number into time to have a plastochrone interval of 38 days. As mangroves are taller in the southern Red Sea where both temperature and nutrients are higher than the Central Red Sea, we assessed nutrient status Avicennia marina propagules and naturally growing leaves to find the leaves low in nutrient concentrations (N < 1.5 %, P < 0.09 %, Fe < 0.06) and that nutrients are reabsorbed before shedding the leaves (69%, 72% and 35% for N, P, and Fe respectively). As a result, we conducted a fertilization experiment (N, P, Fe and combinations) to find that iron additions alone led to significant growth responses. Moreover, we estimated their leaf production and used our previous estimates of both the total cover mangrove in the Red Sea along with plastochrone interval to assess their total nutrients flux per year to be 2414 t N, 139 t P and 98 t Fe. We found them to sequester 34 g m-2 y-1, which imply 4590 tons of carbon

  15. Allelopatrhic effect of Acorus tatarinowii upon algae

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    Besides competing with algae for light and mineralnutrients (i.e. N, P, etc.), the root system of Acorus tatarinowii excretes some chemical substances, which injure and eliminate alga cells, to inhibit the growth of the algae. When the algae cells were treated in "A. tatarinowii water", some of the chlorophyll a were destroyed and the photosynthetic rate of algae decreased markedly and the ability of alga cells to deoxidize triphenyltetrazolium chloride (TTC) reduced greatly. Then alga cells turned from bright red to bluish green under fluorescence microscope. These showed that the allelopathic effects of A.tatarinowii on algae were obvious and planting A. tatarinowii can control some green algae. The experiment on the extractions of the secretions of the root system showed that the inhibitory effect had a concentration effect. If the concentration of the root secretion was below 30 /disc, the inhibitory rate was negative; if it was over 45 /disc, the inhibitory rate was positive. This proved that the influence of the root secretion on the same acceptor was a kind of concentration effect. When the concentration of the root secretion was low, it promoted the growth of algae; when the concentration reached a definite threshold value, it restrained the growth of algae. In present case, the threshold value was between 30 /disc and 45 u?disc.

  16. Current European Labyrinthula zosterae are not virulent and modulate seagrass (Zostera marina defense gene expression.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janina Brakel

    Full Text Available Pro- and eukaryotic microbes associated with multi-cellular organisms are receiving increasing attention as a driving factor in ecosystems. Endophytes in plants can change host performance by altering nutrient uptake, secondary metabolite production or defense mechanisms. Recent studies detected widespread prevalence of Labyrinthula zosterae in European Zostera marina meadows, a protist that allegedly caused a massive amphi-Atlantic seagrass die-off event in the 1930's, while showing only limited virulence today. As a limiting factor for pathogenicity, we investigated genotype × genotype interactions of host and pathogen from different regions (10-100 km-scale through reciprocal infection. Although the endophyte rapidly infected Z. marina, we found little evidence that Z. marina was negatively impacted by L. zosterae. Instead Z. marina showed enhanced leaf growth and kept endophyte abundance low. Moreover, we found almost no interaction of protist × eelgrass-origin on different parameters of L. zosterae virulence/Z. marina performance, and also no increase in mortality after experimental infection. In a target gene approach, we identified a significant down-regulation in the expression of 6/11 genes from the defense cascade of Z. marina after real-time quantitative PCR, revealing strong immune modulation of the host's defense by a potential parasite for the first time in a marine plant. Nevertheless, one gene involved in phenol synthesis was strongly up-regulated, indicating that Z. marina plants were probably able to control the level of infection. There was no change in expression in a general stress indicator gene (HSP70. Mean L. zosterae abundances decreased below 10% after 16 days of experimental runtime. We conclude that under non-stress conditions L. zosterae infection in the study region is not associated with substantial virulence.

  17. Thiohalocapsa marina sp. nov., from an Indian marine aquaculture pond.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anil Kumar, P; Srinivas, T N R; Thiel, V; Tank, M; Sasikala, Ch; Ramana, Ch V; Imhoff, J F

    2009-09-01

    A spherical-shaped, phototrophic, purple sulfur bacterium was isolated in pure culture from anoxic sediment in a marine aquaculture pond near Bheemli (India). Strain JA142T is Gram-negative and non-motile. It has a requirement for NaCl (optimum of 2% and maximum of 6% w/v NaCl). Intracellular photosynthetic membranes are of the vesicular type. In vivo absorption spectra indicate the presence of bacteriochlorophyll a and carotenoids of the okenone series as photosynthetic pigments. Phylogenetic analysis on the basis of 16S rRNA gene sequences showed that strain JA142T is related to halophilic purple sulfur bacteria of the genera Thiohalocapsa and Halochromatium, with the highest sequence similarity to Thiohalocapsa halophila DSM 6210T (97.5%). Morphological and physiological characteristics differentiate strain JA142T from other species of the genera Halochromatium and Thiohalocapsa. Strain JA142T is sufficiently different from Thiohalocapsa halophila based on 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis and morphological and physiological characteristics to allow the proposal of a novel species, Thiohalocapsa marina sp. nov., with the type strain JA142T (=JCM 14780T=DSM 19078T).

  18. Auditing a flooded quarry prior to marina development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baillie, Priscilla W.

    1992-07-01

    Development of a marina in a flooded brownstone quarry will require construction of a canal to the Connecticut River through an isthmus separating the two systems. An environmental audit over a 16-month period developed quantitative limnological data required by regulatory agencies. The deep quarry basin, protected by high sandstone walls, became strongly stratified in summer. Development of littoral vegetation in the quarry was prevented by the steep sides of the basin. Unusual characteristics of the manmade quarry basin, compared to most natural lakes in Connecticut, included a mean depth of 14 m, an intense thermocline, and negative heterograde oxygen profiles with metalimnetic minima. Alkalinity, conductivity, and nutrient levels differed significantly between the quarry and the river. Mean chlorophyll a concentrations in the two systems were similar, but the distribution of phytoplankton classes were quite different. The environmental audit, by comparing physical, chemical, and biological characteristics of the quarry to those of the river, allowed prediction of changes in trophic status when the two systems are joined.

  19. Artificial seed germination and seedling production ofZostera marina L. by salinity manipulation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Yunlong; ZHANG Xuelei; SONG Wei; WANG Zongling

    2016-01-01

    Vast declines inZostera marina seagrass beds demand effective methods of rehabilitation. In this study, we developed a practical method by reducing salinity to induce seed germination followed with recovering salinity to facilitate seedling production ofZ. marina. The results showed thatZ. marina seeds collected from natural seawater (salinity 30) were induced to germinate at reduced salinities. Percent germination (GR) was higher and mean-time-to-germinate (MTG) was shorter at lower salinities. The highestGR and shortestMTG occurred at salinity 0 (deionized freshwater). After germination in freshwater, seeds could develop into seedlings at salinities 5–30 and continue the growth. Viability or development of germinated seeds was not significantly different during the 40 d of post-germination incubation at salinities 5–15 after 1–20 d of germination in freshwater. However, during the process of translating germinated seeds from salinity 0 and 5 to salinity 30, reducing the gradients of post-germination acclimation facilitated more seeds forming seedlings in less time. On average, after 60 d of static incubation, including 20 d in freshwater for germination followed with immediate shift to salinity 5 and increasing to salinity 30 at increment of 5 every two days until cultivation at constant salinity 30, 33% ofZ. marina seeds produced healthy seedlings. The results indicate that the salinity-manipulation based method of artificial germination and seedling production is practical and effective in supporting rehabilitation ofZ. marina bed.

  20. Extração de ágar de algas vermelhas do género Gracilaria

    OpenAIRE

    Ferreira, Diana Mafalda Oliveira

    2015-01-01

    Com este trabalho pretendeu-se avaliar o potencial das algas da espécie Gracilaria vermiculophylla recolhidas, nos anos 2013-14, numa piscicultura instalada na Ria de Aveiro (40° 38' 00" N; 84° 44' 00" W) como matéria-prima para a produção de agar. De acordo com a literatura, as algas do género Gracilaria requerem um tratamento prévio à etapa de extração. Embora haja referência a diferentes tipos de pré-tratamento, neste trabalho apenas foi avaliado o pré-tratamento das algas à...

  1. Synthetic polyester from algae oil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roesle, Philipp; Stempfle, Florian; Hess, Sandra K; Zimmerer, Julia; Río Bártulos, Carolina; Lepetit, Bernard; Eckert, Angelika; Kroth, Peter G; Mecking, Stefan

    2014-06-23

    Current efforts to technically use microalgae focus on the generation of fuels with a molecular structure identical to crude oil based products. Here we suggest a different approach for the utilization of algae by translating the unique molecular structures of algae oil fatty acids into higher value chemical intermediates and materials. A crude extract from a microalga, the diatom Phaeodactylum tricornutum, was obtained as a multicomponent mixture containing amongst others unsaturated fatty acid (16:1, 18:1, and 20:5) phosphocholine triglycerides. Exposure of this crude algae oil to CO and methanol with the known catalyst precursor [{1,2-(tBu2 PCH2)2C6H4}Pd(OTf)](OTf) resulted in isomerization/methoxycarbonylation of the unsaturated fatty acids into a mixture of linear 1,17- and 1,19-diesters in high purity (>99 %). Polycondensation with a mixture of the corresponding diols yielded a novel mixed polyester-17/19.17/19 with an advantageously high melting and crystallization temperature.

  2. Parasites in algae mass culture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Todd William Lane

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Parasites are now known to be ubiquitous across biological systems and can play an important role in modulating algal populations. However, there is a lack of extensive information on their role in artificial ecosystems such as algal production ponds and photobioreactors. Parasites have been implicated in the demise of algal blooms. Because individual mass culture systems often tend to be unialgal and a select few algal species are in wide scale application, there is an increased potential for parasites to have a devastating effect on commercial scale monoculture. As commercial algal production continues to expand with a widening variety of applications, including biofuel, food and pharmaceuticals, the parasites associated with algae will become of greater interest and potential economic impact. A number of important algal parasites have been identified in algal mass culture systems in the last few years and this number is sure to grow as the number of commercial algae ventures increases. Here, we review the research that has identified and characterized parasites infecting mass cultivated algae, the techniques being proposed and or developed to control them, and the potential impact of parasites on the future of the algal biomass industry.

  3. A Summary of Eelgrass (Zostera marina) Reproductive Biology with an Emphasis on Seed Biology and Ecology from the Chesapeake Bay Region

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-12-01

    features on the bottom such as animal burrows, pits, and mounds, act to shield seeds from flow and prevent their being washed out (Luckenbach and Orth...marina L. seeds. Biologia Marina Mediterranea 7:55-58. Harwell, M. C., and R. J. Orth. 1999. Eelgrass (Zostera marina L.) seed protection for field

  4. Inhibitory effects of ten flavonoids against two harmful algae%十种黄酮类化合物对两种赤潮藻的抑制作用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李赟辉; 吴婷; 杨维东; 李宏业; 刘洁生

    2012-01-01

    In order to screen new efficient algicide with low toxicity and provide information on the control of HABs, the inhibitory effects of ten flavonoids substances on two typical harmful algae, Chat-tonella marina and Karenia mikimotoi, were studied in the present study. The results showed that baica-lin and baicalein could effectively inhibit the growth of C. Marina with inhibition rate as baicalein > ba-icalin. Baicalin, baicalein and luteolin exhibited high inhibitory effects against K. Mikimoto with inhibition rate as luteolin > baicalein > baicalin. These results suggest that C. Marina and K. Mikimoto expressed different sensitivity to flavonoids, and some flavonoids had selective toxicity to the harmful algae. It is likely to explore a selective algicide for controlling algal bloom.%研究了10种黄酮类物质对海洋卡盾藻(Chattonella marina)、米氏凯伦藻(Karenia mikimotoi)生长的抑制作用.结果表明,黄芩素、黄芩苷对海洋卡盾藻的生长具有显著的抑制作用,抑藻活性大小为黄芩素>黄芩苷;黄芩素、黄芩苷和木犀草素对米氏凯伦藻抑制作用显著,抑藻活性大小为木犀草素>黄芩素>黄芩苷.黄酮类化合物对赤潮藻生长的抑制作用表现出一定的选择性.

  5. Estudio de macronutrientes para la producción de PUFAs a partir de la microalga marina Isochrysis galbana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    García Sánchez, J. L.

    1994-10-01

    Full Text Available Marine microalgae are presented as alternative sources for polyunsaturated fatty acids production.
    A macronutrient optimization method for culture media commonly used for Isochrysis galbana growth is discussed. This microalga has been reported as a good RUFA producer.
    The optimization was conducted applying the response surface technique, parameters tested being nitrate, phosphate, ferric citrate and manganese chloride concentrations and the suplementary CO2 in the bubbling air.
    The results show the evidence of growth limitation with the initial culture media and it is proposed a second optimization step considering as design variables the different ratios between media components.

    Las microalgas marinas se presentan como una fuente altemativa en la producción de ácidos grasos poliinsaturados (PUFAs, frente a las fuentes convencionales, como son los aceites de pescado.
    En este trabajo se presenta un estudio de macronutrientes para el medio de cultivo utilizado en el crecimiento de la microalga marina Isochrysis galbana, empleada con este objetivo.
    La metodología de optimización aplicada ha sido la técnica de superficie de respuesta, siendo los factores estudiados el porcentaje de CO2 suplementario en la corriente de burbujeo, y las concentraciones de nitratos, fosfatos, citrato férrico y cloruro de manganeso en el medio de cultivo. Los resultados de este trabajo ponen de manifiesto la existencia de limitaciones al crecimiento con el medio de partida y orientan a una segunda etapa de optimización, tomando como variables de diseño las relaciones entre los distintos componentes del medio de cultivo.

  6. Effect of glycerol on the lipids in the red alga Gratelupia doryphora.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivanova, A. P.

    1999-12-01

    Full Text Available The red alga Gratelupia doryphora was cultivated in Provasoli enricher (plain seawater and in a glycerol media. The incubation in seawater leads to an increase in the percentage of polyunsaturated acids, while the glycerol increase the total lipid content. If the alga is being grown as a heterotrophic culture, it is possible to increase the alga biomass as well as the content of biologically-active fatty acids.

    Se cultivó alga roja Gratelupia doryphora en agua de mar enriquecida con Provasoli y en glicerol. La incubación en agua de mar condujo a un aumento en el porcentaje de los ácidos grasos poliinsaturados, mientras que el glicerol incrementó el contenido de lípidos totales. Por tanto, si la alga está siendo producida como un cultivo heterotrófico, es posible aumentar la biomasa de la misma así como el contenido de ácidos grasos biológicamente activos.

  7. Burial of Zostera marina seeds in sediment inhabited by three polychaetes: laboratory and field studies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Delefosse, Matthieu; Kristensen, Erik

    2012-01-01

    The large number of seeds produced by eelgrass, Zostera marina, provides this plant with a potential to disperse widely and colonise newareas. After dispersal, seedsmust be buried into sediment for assuring long-term survival, successful germination and safe seedling development. Seedsmay be buried......–3200 ind m −2), Arenicola marina (20–80 ind m−2), and the invasive Marenzelleria viridis (400–1600 ind m −2). The obtained results were subsequently compared with burial rates of seed mimics in experimental field plots (1m2) dominated by the respective polychaetes. High recovery of seeds in the laboratory...... (97–100%) suggested that none of these polychaetes species feed on eelgrass seeds. N. diversicolor transported seeds rapidly (marina and M. viridis buried seeds by depositing their faeces on top of the sediment...

  8. Sexual Recruitment in Zostera marina: Progress toward a Predictive Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Furman, Bradley T; Peterson, Bradley J

    2015-01-01

    Ecophysiological stress and physical disturbance are capable of structuring meadows through a combination of direct biomass removal and recruitment limitation; however, predicting these effects at landscape scales has rarely been successful. To model environmental influence on sexual recruitment in perennial Zostera marina, we selected a sub-tidal, light-replete study site with seasonal extremes in temperature and wave energy. During an 8-year observation period, areal coverage increased from 4.8 to 42.7%. Gains were stepwise in pattern, attributable to annual recruitment of patches followed by centrifugal growth and coalescence. Recruitment varied from 13 to 4,894 patches per year. Using a multiple linear regression approach, we examined the association between patch appearance and relative wave energy, atmospheric condition and water temperature. Two models were developed, one appropriate for the dispersal of naked seeds, and another for rafted flowers. Results indicated that both modes of sexual recruitment varied as functions of wind, temperature, rainfall and wave energy, with a regime shift in wind-wave energy corresponding to periods of rapid colonization within our site. Temporal correlations between sexual recruitment and time-lagged climatic summaries highlighted floral induction, seed bank and small patch development as periods of vulnerability. Given global losses in seagrass coverage, regions of recovery and re-colonization will become increasingly important. Lacking landscape-scale process models for seagrass recruitment, temporally explicit statistical approaches presented here could be used to forecast colonization trajectories and to provide managers with real-time estimates of future meadow performance; i.e., when to expect a good year in terms of seagrass expansion. To facilitate use as forecasting tools, we did not use statistical composites or normalized variables as our predictors. This study, therefore, represents a first step toward linking

  9. Sexual Recruitment in Zostera marina: Progress toward a Predictive Model.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bradley T Furman

    Full Text Available Ecophysiological stress and physical disturbance are capable of structuring meadows through a combination of direct biomass removal and recruitment limitation; however, predicting these effects at landscape scales has rarely been successful. To model environmental influence on sexual recruitment in perennial Zostera marina, we selected a sub-tidal, light-replete study site with seasonal extremes in temperature and wave energy. During an 8-year observation period, areal coverage increased from 4.8 to 42.7%. Gains were stepwise in pattern, attributable to annual recruitment of patches followed by centrifugal growth and coalescence. Recruitment varied from 13 to 4,894 patches per year. Using a multiple linear regression approach, we examined the association between patch appearance and relative wave energy, atmospheric condition and water temperature. Two models were developed, one appropriate for the dispersal of naked seeds, and another for rafted flowers. Results indicated that both modes of sexual recruitment varied as functions of wind, temperature, rainfall and wave energy, with a regime shift in wind-wave energy corresponding to periods of rapid colonization within our site. Temporal correlations between sexual recruitment and time-lagged climatic summaries highlighted floral induction, seed bank and small patch development as periods of vulnerability. Given global losses in seagrass coverage, regions of recovery and re-colonization will become increasingly important. Lacking landscape-scale process models for seagrass recruitment, temporally explicit statistical approaches presented here could be used to forecast colonization trajectories and to provide managers with real-time estimates of future meadow performance; i.e., when to expect a good year in terms of seagrass expansion. To facilitate use as forecasting tools, we did not use statistical composites or normalized variables as our predictors. This study, therefore, represents a first

  10. Toxic Effects of Phthalates on Ocean Algae

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2005-01-01

    This article discusses the interaction of phthalates and ocean algae based on the standard appraisal method of chemical medicine for algae toxicity. Through the experiments on the toxic effects of dimethyl (o-) phthalate (DMP), diethyl (o-) phthalate (DEP), dibutyl (o-)phthalate (DBP) on ocean algae, the 50 % lethal concentration of the three substances in 48 h and 96 h for plaeodectylum tricornutum, platymonas sp, isochrysis galbana, and skeletonema costatum is obtained. Tolerance limits of the above ocean algae of DMP, DEP, and DBP are discussed.

  11. Photobioreactors for mass cultivation of algae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ugwu, C U; Aoyagi, H; Uchiyama, H

    2008-07-01

    Algae have attracted much interest for production of foods, bioactive compounds and also for their usefulness in cleaning the environment. In order to grow and tap the potentials of algae, efficient photobioreactors are required. Although a good number of photobioreactors have been proposed, only a few of them can be practically used for mass production of algae. One of the major factors that limits their practical application in algal mass cultures is mass transfer. Thus, a thorough understanding of mass transfer rates in photobioreactors is necessary for efficient operation of mass algal cultures. In this review article, various photobioreactors that are very promising for mass production of algae are discussed.

  12. Different bacterial communities associated with the roots and bulk sediment of the seagrass Zostera marina

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Sheila Ingemann; Kühl, Michael; Priemé, Anders

    2007-01-01

    The bacterial community of Zostera marina-inhabited bulk sediment vs. root-associated bacteria was investigated by terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism and sequencing, and the spatial extension of the oxygen loss from roots was determined by oxygen microsensors. Extensive oxygen loss...... was found in the tip region of the youngest roots, and most of the rhizoplane of Z. marina roots was thus anoxic. A significant difference between the bacterial communities associated with the roots and bulk sediment was found. No significant differences were found between differently aged root...

  13. Chasing the Intangible: a Conversation on Theatre, Language, and Artistic Migrations with Irish Playwright Marina Carr

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valentina Rapetti

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Offally born Marina Carr is amongst the most prolific, influential and internationally renowned Irish playwrights of our times. Since her debut on the avant-garde side of the Dublin theatre scene in the late Eighties, she has had  seventeen plays professionally produced, both in and outside Ireland. Her earlier work is influenced by Samuel Beckett’s Absurdist drama, while in her most mature and recent plays she draws on both classical and Irish mythology, Greek tragedies and Shakespeare’s poetics. In this interview, Marina Carr recalls and discusses some pivotal moments of her upbringing and career; she also speaks about language, landscape, dream

  14. New species of Parapharyngodon (Nematoda: Pharyngodonidae) in Rhinella marina (Anura: Bufonidae) from Grenada, West Indies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bursey, Charles; Drake, Michael; Cole, Rebecca; Sterner, Mauritz; Pinckney, Rhonda; Zieger, Ulrike

    2013-01-01

    Parapharyngodon grenadaensis n. sp. (Nematoda: Pharyngodonidae) from the large intestine of the cane toad, Rhinella marina, is described and illustrated. Parapharyngodon grenadaensis n. sp. is the 48th species assigned to the genus and the 16th species from the Neotropical region. It differs from other species in the genus by possessing 4 pairs of caudal papillae, an echinate anterior cloacal lip, and a blunt spicule of 67–104 μm. This is only the second report of R. marina harboring a species of Parapharyngodon.

  15. Reserva marina de interés pesquero Ría de Cedeira (Galicia, NO España): caracterización ecológica y pesquera

    OpenAIRE

    Tubío Gómez, Ana

    2016-01-01

    [Resumen] Esta tesis doctoral pretende proporcionar una línea base de conocimiento biológico y pesquero de la Ría de Cedeira que sirva como punto de partida para poder evaluar el efecto de la protección de la Reserva Marina de Interés Pesquero (RMIP) Ría de Cedeira, y que pueda ser utilizada para su futura monitorización. En primer lugar se realiza una caracterización ecológica, centrada en el estudio de la dinámica espacio temporal de las comunidades biológicas de los fondos s...

  16. La reserva marina de interés pesquero "Os Miñarzos": línea base de las comunidades biológicas y análisis del efecto reserva temprano

    OpenAIRE

    Fernández Márquez, Diana

    2016-01-01

    [Resumen] Os Miñarzos es una Reserva Marina de Interés Pesquero (RMIP) que fue creada en 2007 como herramienta de gestión de los recursos costeros. Ocupa una extensión de 2074.2 ha y está formada por dos reservas integrales y una zona parcialmente protegida. El principal objetivo de este trabajo, el cual se desarrolló a lo largo de los tres primeros años tras la creación de la RMIP, consistió en establecer la línea base del estado de sus comunidades biológicas (macroalgas...

  17. Marina Kaljurand: hoolimata kõigest oli möödunud aasta ikkagi hea aasta / Marina Kaljurand ; interv. Igor Taro

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Kaljurand, Marina, 1962-

    2008-01-01

    Ilmunud ka: Postimees : na russkom jazõke 3. jaan., lk. 5. Postimehe poolt aasta inimeseks valitud Eesti suursaadik Venemaal vastab küsimustele, mis puudutavad hinnangut 2007. aastale, pronkssõduriga seotud sündmuste üleelamist Moskvas, Venemaa poliitikute suhtumist Eestisse, Eesti-Vene suhteid. Kommenteerivad: Urmas Paet, Tiit Matsulevitš, Toomas Hendrik Ilves. Lisa: Marina Kaljurand; Pronkssõduri-sõda

  18. Analysis of transcriptional regulation and tissue-specific expression of Avicennia marina Plasma Membrane Protein 3 suggests it contributes to Na(+) transport and homoeostasis in A. marina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chidambaram, Rajalakshmi; Venkataraman, Gayatri; Parida, Ajay

    2015-07-01

    Plasma membrane proteins (PMP3) play a role in cation homoeostasis. The 5' flanking sequence of stress inducible, Avicennia marina PMP3 (AmPMP3prom) was transcriptionally fused to (a) GUS or (b) GFP-AmPMP3 and analyzed in transgenic tobacco. Tissue-histochemical GUS and GFP:AmPMP3 localization are co-incident under basal and stress conditions. AmPMP3prom directed GUS activity is highest in roots. Basal transcription is conferred by a 388bp segment upstream of the translation start site. A 463bp distal enhancer in the AmPMP3prom confers enhanced expression under salinity in all tissues and also responds to increases in salinity. The effect of a central, stem-specific negative regulatory region is suppressed by the distal enhancer. The A. marina rhizosphere encounters dynamic changes in salinity at the inter-tidal interface. The complex, tissue-specific transcriptional responsiveness of AmPMP3 to salinity appears to have evolved in response to these changes. Under salinity, guard cell and phloem-specific expression of GFP:AmPMP3 is highly enhanced. Mesophyll, trichomes, bundle sheath, parenchymatous cortex and xylem parenchyma also show GFP:AmPMP3 expression. Cis-elements conferring stress, root and vascular-specific expression are enriched in the AmPMP3 promoter. Pronounced vascular-specific AmPMP3 expression suggests a role in salinity induced Na(+) transport, storage, and secretion in A. marina.

  19. Cultivation of macroscopic marine algae

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ryther, J.H.

    1982-11-01

    The red alga Gracilaria tikvahiae may be grown outdoors year-round in central Florida with yields averaging 35.5 g dry wt/m/sup 2/.day, greater than the most productive terrestrial plants. This occurs only when the plants are in a suspended culture, with vigorous aeration and an exchange of 25 or more culture volumes of enriched seawater per day, which is not cost-effective. A culture system was designed in which Gracilaria, stocked at a density of 2 kg wet wt/m/sup 2/, grows to double its biomass in one to two weeks; it is then harvested to its starting density, and anaerobically digested to methane. The biomass is soaked for 6 hours in the digester residue, storing enough nutrients for two weeks' growth in unenriched seawater. The methane is combusted for energy and the waste gas is fed to the culture to provide mixing and CO/sub 2/, eliminating the need for aeration and seawater exchange. The green alga Ulva lactuca, unlike Gracilaria, uses bicarbonate as a photosynthesis carbon source, and can grow at high pH, with little or no free CO/sub 2/. It can therefore produce higher yields than Gracilaria in low water exchange conditions. It is also more efficiently converted to methane than is Gracilaria, but cannot tolerate Florida's summer temperatures so cannot be grown year-round. Attempts are being made to locate or produce a high-temperature tolerant strain.

  20. Modeling and optimization of algae growth

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Thornton, Anthony; Weinhart, Thomas; Bokhove, Onno; Zhang, Bowen; Sar, van der Dick M.; Kumar, Kundan; Pisarenco, Maxim; Rudnaya, Maria; Savceno, Valeriu; Rademacher, Jens; Zijlstra, Julia; Szabelska, Alicja; Zyprych, Joanna; Schans, van der Martin; Timperio, Vincent; Veerman, Frits; Frank, J.; van der Mei, R.; den Boer, A.; Bosman, J.; Bouman, N.; van Dam, S.; Verhoef, C.

    2010-01-01

    The wastewater from greenhouses has a high amount of mineral contamination and an environmentally-friendly method of removal is to use algae to clean this runo water. The algae consume the minerals as part of their growth process. In addition to cleaning the water, the created algal bio-mass has a v

  1. Vanadium in marine mussels and algae

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sperling, K.R.; Bahr, B. [Alfred-Wegener-Institut fuer Polar- und Meeresforschung, Bremerhaven (Germany); Ott, J. [Fachhochschule Hamburg (Germany). Fachbereich Naturwissenschaftliche Technik, Studiengang Biotechnologie

    2000-01-01

    A method is presented which is sensitive enough for the determination of vanadium (V) in marine organisms such as mussels and algae. It was sufficiently checked by a reference material and it was applied to V determination in blue mussels and brown algae from the German Bight. (orig.)

  2. Take a Dip! Culturing Algae Is Easy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    James, Daniel E.

    1983-01-01

    Describes laboratory activities using algae as the organisms of choice. These include examination of typical algal cells, demonstration of alternation of generations, sexual reproduction in Oedogonium, demonstration of phototaxis, effect of nitrate concentration on Ankistrodesmus, and study of competition between two algae in the same environment.…

  3. Comparación ontogénica de la frecuencia de muda en Rhinella marina (Anura, Bufonidae Ontogenetic comparison of the molting frequency in Rhinella marina (Anura: Bufonidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Teófila M. Triana

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available La muda es un proceso de renovación de la capa externa de la epidermis (estrato corneo de los anfibios, la cual suministra protección contra daños, patógenos y pérdida de agua. Este trabajo evalúa la frecuencia de muda entre juveniles y adultos de Rhinella marina (Linnaeus, 1758 y la tasa de ocurrencia entre el día y la noche. Para esto, se realizaron dos observaciones diarias (7 am y 7 pm, entre Octubre de 2011 y Marzo de 2012, a tres grupos de individuos clasificados según su tamaño longitud rostro-cloaca, como adultos (promedio=80 mm, juveniles medianos (promedio=19 mm y juveniles pequeños (promedio=13 mm. Estos animales fueron colocados en terrarios en el laboratorio y marcados en el dorso a través de un punto hecho con un corrector de tinta. La muda se determinó por la pérdida total de la marca y una coloración brillante en el dorso. Se encontró una diferencia significativa (Kruskal-Wallis, H=19.84, pMolting is a process of constant renewal of the outer layer of epidermis (stratum corneum in amphibians, which provides a barrier against injury, pathogens and evaporative water loss. This paper evaluates the molting frequency between juveniles and adults of Rhinella marina (Linnaeus, 1758 and between the night and day time. Two daily observations, at 7 am and 7 pm, were made between October 2011 and March 2012 to three groups of individuals, classified by their size, snout vent length, as adults (mean=80 mm, medium juveniles (mean=19 mm and small juveniles (mean=13 mm. The animals were placed in terrariums in the laboratory and marked on their back with a spot of correction fluid. The molting was determined by the total loss of the mark and a bright color on the dorsal skin. We found a significant difference (Kruskal-Wallis, H=19.84, p<0.0001 in the molting frequency among the three groups: adults=7.5 days, medium juveniles=5.4 days, and small juveniles=5.3 days. Also, between the number of molting frogs during the night and day

  4. Hydroxyl radical generation by red tide algae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oda, T; Akaike, T; Sato, K; Ishimatsu, A; Takeshita, S; Muramatsu, T; Maeda, H

    1992-04-01

    The unicellular marine phytoplankton Chattonella marina is known to have toxic effects against various living marine organisms, especially fishes. However, details of the mechanism of the toxicity of this plankton remain obscure. Here we demonstrate the generation of superoxide and hydroxyl radicals from a red tide unicellular organism, C. marina, by using ESR spectroscopy with the spin traps 5,5-dimethyl-1-pyrroline-N-oxide (DMPO) and N-t-butyl-alpha-phenylnitrone (PBN), and by using the luminol-enhanced chemiluminescence response. The spin-trapping assay revealed productions of spin adduct of superoxide anion (O2-) (DMPO-OOH) and that of hydroxyl radical (.OH) (DMPO-OH) in the algal suspension, which was not observed in the ultrasonic-ruptured suspension. The addition of superoxide dismutase (500 U/ml) almost completely inhibited the formation of both DMPO-OOH and DMPO-OH, and carbon-centered radicals were generated with the disappearance of DMPO-OH after addition of 5% dimethyl sulfoxide (Me2SO) and 5% ethanol. Furthermore, the generation of methyl and methoxyl radicals, which are thought to be produced by the reaction of hydroxyl radical and Me2SO under aerobic condition, was identified using spin trapping with a combination of PBN and Me2SO. Luminol-enhanced chemiluminescence assay also supported the above observations. These results clearly indicate that C. marina generates and releases the superoxide radical followed by the production of hydroxyl radical to the surrounding environment. The velocity of superoxide generation by C. marina was about 100 times faster than that by mammalian phagocytes per cell basis. The generation of oxygen radical is suggested to be a pathogenic principle in the toxication of red tide to susceptible aquaculture fishes and may be directly correlated with the coastal pollution by red tide.

  5. Negative effects of blue mussel ( Mytilus edulis) presence in eelgrass ( Zostera marina) beds in Flensborg fjord, Denmark

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vinther, Hanne Fogh; Laursen, Jens Sund; Holmer, Marianne

    2008-03-01

    The effect of blue mussel ( Mytilus edulis) presence in eelgrass ( Zostera marina) beds was studied from June 2004 to July 2005 in Flensborg fjord, Denmark. The field experiments were conducted at two stations, one with only Z. marina (Eelgrass station) present and one where M. edulis were present in the Z. marina beds (Mixed station). Zostera marina parameters were measured (growth of leaves, shoot density, leaf length, and nutrient content) in combination with epiphyte cover and sediment parameters (sulphate reduction rates, sediment nutrient fluxes, organic content, C, N and P content) to examine possible positive and negative effects of the mussels on eelgrass performance. The fluxes of ammonium from the sediments were stimulated at all sampling dates at the Mixed station, and possibly stimulated epiphyte growth at this station. Further 15N signals in epiphytes from the Mixed station suggested that excretion products from the mussels were important nitrogen sources at this station. Sulphate reduction rates were enhanced at the Mixed station and also sediment sulphide concentrations increased under mussel influence, which may have resulted in sulphide toxicity and decreased growth of Z. marina at this station. The study indicates that for Z. marina beds in Flensborg Fjord the effects of M. edulis in seagrass beds are primarily negative, and raises the question whether this leads to negative effects on the stability and expansion of Z. marina beds.

  6. Mechanisms of seed dormancy in an annual population of Zostera marina (eelgrass) from the Netherlands)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Harrison, P.G.

    1991-01-01

    Mechanisms of dormancy of seeds from an annual population of the seagrass Zostera marina L. (eelgrass) in the SW Netherlands were investigated in the laboratory. Both physiological dormancy (a requirement for reduced salinity for germination) and physical dormancy (imposed by the seed coat) existed

  7. Monitoring of the booster biocide dichlofluanid in water and marine sediment of Greek marinas

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hamwijk, C.; Schouten, A.; Foekema, E.M.; Ravensberg, J.C.; Collombon, M.T.; Schmidt, K.; Kugler, M.

    2005-01-01

    Dichlofluanid (N-dichlorofluoromethylthio-N′-dimethyl-N- phenylsulphamide) is used as booster biocide in antifouling paints. The occurrence of dichlofluanid and its metabolite DMSA (N′-dimethyl-N-phenyl- sulphamide) was monitored in seawater and marine sediment from three Greek marinas. Seawater and

  8. A Low-Cost Planting Technique for Eelgrass (Zostera marina L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    1982-12-01

    marina and Halodule wrightii for the Stabilization of Sub- tidal Dredged Material," Annual Report, Beaufort Laboratory, Beaufort, N.C., Oct. 1981. FONSECA... Halodule wrightii and the Physical and Chemical Properties of Sediments in a Coastal Plain Estuary Near Beaufort, North Carolina," M.S. Thesis

  9. Size and estimated age of genets in eelgrass, Zostera marina, assessed with microsatellite markers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Reusch, TBH; Stam, WT; Olsen, JL

    1999-01-01

    We examined the spatial distribution of genotypes in a perennial population of eelgrass, Zostera marina L., at two spatial scales. We mapped and sampled 80 ramets in a subtidal area of 20 x 80 m, and an additional 15 ramets in two 1-m(2) sub-quadrats. Ramets were genotyped for seven polymorphic micr

  10. Linking Arenicola marina irrigation behavior to oxygen transport and dynamics in sandy sediments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Timmermann, Karen; Banta, Gary T.; Glud, Ronnie Nøhr

    2007-01-01

    In this study we examine how the irrigation behavior of the common lugworm Arenicola marina affects the distribution, transport and dynamics of oxygen in sediments using microelectrodes, planar optodes and diagenetic modeling. The irrigation pattern was characterized by a regular recurring periods...

  11. Comparative-Study on Populations of Zostera-Marina L (Eelgrass) - Experimental Germination and Growth

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Lent, F.; Verschuure, J.M.

    1995-01-01

    Seeds of both perennial and (semi-)annual populations of Zostera marina L. originating from different habitats in the southwestern Netherlands and Roscoff (Brittany, France) were germinated and grown under identical circumstances to identify possible genotypically based differences in their populati

  12. Biodynamic modelling and the prediction of accumulated trace metal concentrations in the polychaete Arenicola marina

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Casado-Martinez, M. Carmen, E-mail: c.casado-martinez@nhm.ac.u [Department of Zoology, The Natural History Museum, Cromwell Rd, London SW7 5BD (United Kingdom); Smith, Brian D. [Department of Zoology, The Natural History Museum, Cromwell Rd, London SW7 5BD (United Kingdom); DelValls, T. Angel [Unesco UNITWIN Wicop Chair, Department of Physical-Chemistry, University of Cadiz, Poligono Industrial Rio San Pedro s/n, C.P. 11510 Puerto Real (Cadiz) (Spain); Luoma, Samuel N. [John Muir Institute of the Environment, University of California at Davis, Davis, CA 95616 (United States); Rainbow, Philip S. [Department of Zoology, The Natural History Museum, Cromwell Rd, London SW7 5BD (United Kingdom)

    2009-10-15

    The use of biodynamic models to understand metal uptake directly from sediments by deposit-feeding organisms still represents a special challenge. In this study, accumulated concentrations of Cd, Zn and Ag predicted by biodynamic modelling in the lugworm Arenicola marina have been compared to measured concentrations in field populations in several UK estuaries. The biodynamic model predicted accumulated field Cd concentrations remarkably accurately, and predicted bioaccumulated Ag concentrations were in the range of those measured in lugworms collected from the field. For Zn the model showed less but still good comparability, accurately predicting Zn bioaccumulation in A. marina at high sediment concentrations but underestimating accumulated Zn in the worms from sites with low and intermediate levels of Zn sediment contamination. Therefore, it appears that the physiological parameters experimentally derived for A. marina are applicable to the conditions encountered in these environments and that the assumptions made in the model are plausible. - Biodynamic modelling predicts accumulated field concentrations of Ag, Cd and Zn in the deposit-feeding polychaete Arenicola marina.

  13. 78 FR 45061 - Safety Zone; Sister Bay Marina Fest Fireworks and Ski Show, Sister Bay, WI

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-26

    ... SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Part 165 RIN 1625-AA00 Safety Zone; Sister Bay Marina Fest Fireworks and Ski... intended to restrict vessels from a portion of Sister Bay due to a fireworks display and ski show. This... with the fireworks display and ski show in Sister Bay on August 31, 2013. DATES: This rule is...

  14. Variation in genetic traits of the lugworm Arenicola marina: temperature related expression of mitochondrial allozymes?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hummel, H.; Sommer, A.; Bogaards, R.H.; Portner, H.O.

    1997-01-01

    Genetic traits of the lugworm Arenicola marina were determined for 4 Atlantic populations from France to Norway and compared with a population from the sub-arctic White Sea in Russia. Seven loci were analysed using horizontal starch gel electrophoresis. A low heterozygosity (0.09 to 0.17) and a non-

  15. Een studie van de variabiliteit van Spergularia media en Spergularia marina van Nederland

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sterk, Adrianus Anne

    1968-01-01

    In the Netherlands the distinction of the species Spergularia media (L.) C. Presl (Syn.: S.marginata (DC.) Kittel) and Spergularia marina (L.) Grisebach (Syn.: S.salina J. et C. Presl) is not always easy. These taxonomical difficulties gave cause to investigate the variability of these two halophilo

  16. The genome of the seagrass Zostera marina reveals angiosperm adaptation to the sea

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Olsen, Jeanine; Rouzé, Pierre; Verhelst, Bram; Lin, Yao-Cheng; Bayer, Till; Collen, Jonas; Dattolo, Emanuela; De Paoli, Emanuele; Dittami, Simon; Maumus, Florian; Michel, Gurvan; Kersting, Anna; Lauritano, Chiara; Lohaus, Rolf; Töpel, Mats; Tonon, Thierry; Vanneste, Kevin; Amirebrahimi, Mojgan; Brakel, Janina; Boström, Christoffer; Chovatia, Mansi; Grimwood, Jane; Jenkins, Jerry W; Jueterbock, Alexander; Mraz, Amy; Stam, Wytze T; Tice, Hope; Bornberg-Bauer, Erich; Green, Pamela J; Pearson, Gareth A; Procaccini, Gabriele; Duarte, Carlos M; Schmutz, Jeremy; Reusch, Thorsten B H; Van de Peer, Yves

    2016-01-01

    Seagrasses colonized the sea on at least three independent occasions to form the basis of one of the most productive and widespread coastal ecosystems on the planet. Here we report the genome of Zostera marina (L.), the first, to our knowledge, marine angiosperm to be fully sequenced. This reveals u

  17. Physiological Responses of Zostera marina and Cymodocea nodosa to Light-Limitation Stress

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, João; Barrote, Isabel; Costa, Monya M.; Albano, Sílvia; Santos, Rui

    2013-01-01

    The effects of light-limitation stress were investigated in natural stands of the seagrasses Zostera marina and Cymodocea nodosa in Ria Formosa coastal lagoon, southern Portugal. Three levels of light attenuation were imposed for 3 weeks in two adjacent meadows (2–3 m depth), each dominated by one species. The response of photosynthesis to light was determined with oxygen electrodes. Chlorophylls and carotenoids were determined by high-pressure liquid chromatography (HPLC). Soluble protein, carbohydrates, malondialdehyde and phenol contents were also analysed. Both species showed evident signs of photoacclimation. Their maximum photosynthetic rates were significantly reduced with shading. Ratios between specific light harvesting carotenoids and the epoxidation state of xanthophyll cycle carotenoids revealed significantly higher light harvesting efficiency of C. nodosa, a competitive advantage in a low light environment. The contents of both soluble sugars and starch were considerably lower in Z. marina plants, particularly in the rhizomes, decreasing even further with shading. The different carbohydrate energy storage strategies found between the two species clearly favour C. nodosa's resilience to light deprivation, a condition enhanced by its intrinsic arrangement of the pigment pool. On the other hand, Z. marina revealed a lower tolerance to light reduction, mostly due to a less plastic arrangement of the pigment pool and lower carbohydrate storage. Our findings indicate that Z. marina is close to a light-mediated ecophysiological threshold in Ria Formosa. PMID:24312260

  18. The cane or marine toad, Rhinella marina (Anura, Bufonidae): two genetically and morphologically distinct species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Acevedo, Aldemar A; Lampo, Margarita; Cipriani, Roberto

    2016-04-18

    Rhinella marina is a Neotropical toad that has been introduced widely worldwide. Its toxic effects to frog-eating predators threaten the native and domestic fauna of some regions where it has been introduced. Despite previous studies suggesting two genetically distinct cryptic species within R. marina, one east and one west of the Andes, its taxonomic status remained unresolved due to the absence of morphological complementary evidence. For the first time, data from two mitochondrial genes (ND3 and CR) and 23 morphometric landmarks are combined to evaluate the taxonomic status of this species. Our results support the hypothesis of two separate evolutionary lineages within R. marina and demonstrate that these lineages have significantly diverged in skull shape. We identified two distinct morphotypes, one eastern and one Andean western, with no overlapping morphospaces. The geographic pattern of genetic variation was consistent with a stable structured population with no evidence of recent demographic or geographic expansions. The concordance between the observed geographic patterns in morphometric and genic traits calls for the recognition of two species under R. marina name.

  19. Atlantic Cod (Gadus morhua benefits from the availability of seagrass (Zostera marina nursery habitat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard J. Lilley

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The Atlantic cod (Gadus morhua is a species of significant economic and historic importance but infamous for its decline. Apart from overfishing, the causes of this decline and its subsequent lack of recovery remain largely unresolved. Indeed, the degree to which specific habitats are important for this species remains unquantified at the scale of North Atlantic. Here, the literature on the role of eelgrass meadows (Zostera marina as valuable nursery habitat for the Atlantic cod is reviewed and synthesized. Evidence is presented on relative densities of Atlantic cod in shallow water environments and in eelgrass meadows in comparison to alternative habitats. In addition, evidence pertaining to the ’viability gains’ attributed to the use of eelgrass meadows as nursery habitat (growth and survival by juvenile Atlantic cod is analyzed. Although juvenile Atlantic cod use of Z. marina is found to be facultative, when possible, available literatures indicates that they may select Z. marina as a nursery habitat where they are found in high density (average of at least 246 ha−1. From their use of Z. marina habitat the juvenile Atlantic cod receives viability benefits from it, improving their chances of reaching maturation. This paper provides strong evidence that eelgrass meadows are of significant importance to contributing to Atlantic cod stocks.

  20. Phylogeographic differentiation versus transcriptomic adaptation to warm temperatures in Zostera marina, a globally important seagrass

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jueterbock, Alexander; Franssen, S. U.; Bergmann, N.; Gu, J.; Coyer, J. A.; Reusch, T. B. H.; Bornberg-Bauer, E.; Olsen, J. L.

    2016-01-01

    Populations distributed across a broad thermal cline are instrumental in addressing adaptation to increasing temperatures under global warming. Using a space-for-time substitution design, we tested for parallel adaptation to warm temperatures along two independent thermal clines in Zostera marina, t

  1. Composting of waste algae: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Wei; Clarke, William; Pratt, Steven

    2014-07-01

    Although composting has been successfully used at pilot scale to manage waste algae removed from eutrophied water environments and the compost product applied as a fertiliser, clear guidelines are not available for full scale algae composting. The review reports on the application of composting to stabilize waste algae, which to date has mainly been macro-algae, and identifies the peculiarities of algae as a composting feedstock, these being: relatively low carbon to nitrogen (C/N) ratio, which can result in nitrogen loss as NH3 and even N2O; high moisture content and low porosity, which together make aeration challenging; potentially high salinity, which can have adverse consequence for composting; and potentially have high metals and toxin content, which can affect application of the product as a fertiliser. To overcome the challenges that these peculiarities impose co-compost materials can be employed.

  2. Algae inhibition experiment and load characteristics of the algae solution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiong, L.; Gao, J. X.; Zhang, Y. X.; Yang, Z. K.; Zhang, D. Q.; He, W.

    2016-08-01

    It is necessary to inhibit microbial growth in an industrial cooling water system. This paper has developed a Monopolar/Bipolar polarity high voltage pulser with load adaptability for an algal experimental study. The load characteristics of the Chlorella pyrenoidosa solution were examined, and it was found that the solution load is resistive. The resistance is related to the plate area, concentration, and temperature of the solution. Furthermore, the pulser's treatment actually inhibits the algae cell growth. This article also explores the influence of various parameters of electric pulses on the algal effect. After the experiment, the optimum pulse parameters were determined to be an electric field intensity of 750 V/cm, a pulse width per second of 120μs, and monopolar polarity.

  3. La corrosión en atmósferas marinas. Efecto de la distancia a la costa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chico, B.

    1998-05-01

    Full Text Available In marine atmospheres the deposition of saline particles on the surface of metals intensifies the metallic corrosion process. However, quantitative information about the effect of atmospheric salinity on metallic corrosion is very scarce. This paper reports the relationship between salinity and metallic corrosion, where a clear linear relation (r = 0.97 has been found for a broad interval of salinities (4-500 mg Cl-/m2d, as well as the relationship between salinity (or metallic corrosion and distance from the coast. A hyperbolic function seems to be established between both variables; there is an exponential drop in salinity (or corrosion as shoreline distance increases tending towards an asymptotic value. The study has been based on information obtained from field research conducted at a marine atmosphere in Tarragona (Spain and data compiled from the literature.

    En las atmósferas marinas, el depósito de partículas salinas sobre la superficie de los metales, acelera el proceso de corrosión metálica. Sin embargo, es muy escasa la información cuantitativa acerca del efecto de la salinidad atmosférica sobre la corrosión metálica. Este trabajo presenta la relación existente entre salinidad y corrosión metálica, encontrándose una clara relación lineal (r = 0,97 para un amplio intervalo de salinidades (4-500 mg Cl-/m2d, así como la relación existente entre salinidad (o corrosión metálica y distancia a la costa. Aquí, parece establecerse una función hiperbólica entre ambas variables, existiendo un decrecimiento exponencial de la salinidad (o corrosión a medida que aumenta la distancia a la costa, tendiendo hacia un valor asintótico. Este estudio analiza la información obtenida en una zona de experimentación ubicada en una atmósfera marina en Tarragona (España junto con datos recopilados de la literatura.

  4. Influence of model selection on the predicted distribution of the seagrass Zostera marina

    Science.gov (United States)

    Downie, Anna-Leena; von Numers, Mikael; Boström, Christoffer

    2013-04-01

    There is an increasing need to model the distribution of species and habitats for effective conservation planning, but there is a paucity of models for the marine environment. We used presence (131) and absence (219) records of the marine angiosperm Zostera marina L. from the archipelago of SW Finland, northern Baltic Sea, to model its distribution in a 5400 km2 area. We used depth, slope, turbidity, wave exposure and distance to sandy shores as environmental predictors, and compared a presence-absence method: generalised additive model (GAM), with a presence only method: maximum entropy (Maxent). Models were validated using semi-independent data sets. Both models performed well and described the niche of Z. marina fairly consistently, although there were differences in the way the models weighted the environmental variables, and consequently the spatial predictions differed somewhat. A notable outcome from the process was that with relatively equal model performance, the area actually predicted in geographical space can vary by twofold. The area predicted as suitable for Z. marina by the ensemble was almost half of that predicted by the GAM model by itself. The ensemble of model predictions increased the model predictive capability marginally and clearly shifted the model towards a more conservative prediction, increasing specificity, but at the same time sacrificing sensitivity. The environmental predictors selected into the final models described the potential distribution of Z. marina well and showed that in the northern Baltic the species occupies a narrow niche, typically thriving in shallow and moderately exposed to exposed locations near sandy shores. We conclude that a prediction based on a combination of model results provides a more realistic estimate of the core area suitable for Z. marina and should be the modelling approach implemented in conservation planning and management.

  5. Chapter F. The Loma Prieta, California, Earthquake of October 17, 1989 - Marina District

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Rourke, Thomas D.

    1992-01-01

    During the earthquake, a total land area of about 4,300 km2 was shaken with seismic intensities that can cause significant damage to structures. The area of the Marina District of San Francisco is only 4.0 km2--less than 0.1 percent of the area most strongly affected by the earthquake--but its significance with respect to engineering, seismology, and planning far outstrips its proportion of shaken terrain and makes it a centerpiece for lessons learned from the earthquake. The Marina District provides perhaps the most comprehensive case history of seismic effects at a specific site developed for any earthquake. The reports assembled in this chapter, which provide an account of these seismic effects, constitute a unique collection of studies on site, as well as infrastructure and societal, response that cover virtually all aspects of the earthquake, ranging from incoming ground waves to the outgoing airwaves used for emergency communication. The Marina District encompasses the area bounded by San Francisco Bay on the north, the Presidio on the west, and Lombard Street and Van Ness Avenue on the south and east, respectively. Nearly all of the earthquake damage in the Marina District, however, occurred within a considerably smaller area of about 0.75 km2, bounded by San Francisco Bay and Baker, Chestnut, and Buchanan Streets. At least five major aspects of earthquake response in the Marina District are covered by the reports in this chapter: (1) dynamic site response, (2) soil liquefaction, (3) lifeline performance, (4) building performance, and (5) emergency services.

  6. Transcriptome sequencing and analysis of leaf tissue of Avicennia marina using the Illumina platform.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jianzi Huang

    Full Text Available Avicennia marina is a widely distributed mangrove species that thrives in high-salinity habitats. It plays a significant role in supporting coastal ecosystem and holds unique potential for studying molecular mechanisms underlying ecological adaptation. Despite and sometimes because of its numerous merits, this species is facing increasing pressure of exploitation and deforestation. Both study on adaptation mechanisms and conservation efforts necessitate more genomic resources for A. marina. In this study, we used Illumina sequencing of an A. marina foliar cDNA library to generate a transcriptome dataset for gene and marker discovery. We obtained 40 million high-quality reads and assembled them into 91,125 unigenes with a mean length of 463 bp. These unigenes covered most of the publicly available A. marina Sanger ESTs and greatly extended the repertoire of transcripts for this species. A total of 54,497 and 32,637 unigenes were annotated based on homology to sequences in the NCBI non-redundant and the Swiss-prot protein databases, respectively. Both Gene Ontology (GO analysis and Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG pathway analysis revealed some transcriptomic signatures of stress adaptation for this halophytic species. We also detected an extraordinary amount of transcripts derived from fungal endophytes and demonstrated the utility of transcriptome sequencing in surveying endophyte diversity without isolating them out of plant tissues. Additionally, we identified 3,423 candidate simple sequence repeats (SSRs from 3,141 unigenes with a density of one SSR locus every 8.25 kb sequence. Our transcriptomic data will provide valuable resources for ecological, genetic and evolutionary studies in A. marina.

  7. Biosorción de iones cobre con biomasa de algas y orujos deshidratados

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Romero, L.

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available They were carried out experiments of biosorption batch and in continuous to remove copper from aqueous solutions using as adsorbent green algae and olive residues under virgins conditions and chemically activated. The results of batch biosorption indicate that the algae present mayor elimination capacities than the waste of olives, with uptakes of copper of the order of 96 % using activated algae with dissolution of Na2SO4 under the optimum conditions. The results of the columns tests show that the virgin algae permits the removal of more copper ions than the activate algae, with removal efficiency of 98 % during the firth 20 min, a breakthrough time of 240 min and a saturation at time of 600 min. In the second cycle the regenerated biomass showed a best performance indicating that they can be used for another biosorption cycle.

    Se realizaron experimentos de biosorción batch y en continuo para remover cobre desde soluciones acuosas usando como adsorbentes algas verdes y residuos de aceituna en condiciones vírgenes y activadas químicamente. Los resultados de la biosorción a escala batch indican que las algas presentan mayor capacidad de eliminación que los orujos, alcanzándose captaciones de cobre del orden de 96 % con algas activadas con disoluciones de Na2SO4 bajo condiciones óptimas de las variables estudiadas. Los resultados de los ensayos en columna muestran que las algas vírgenes captan más iones cobre que las activadas con Na2SO4, con eficacias de eliminación del 98 % durante los primeros 20 min, con un tiempo de ruptura de 240 min y una saturación a los 600 min. Al ser sometidas a un segundo ciclo de biosorción, las algas regeneradas muestran un mejor rendimiento lo que indica que pueden ser usadas en otro ciclo de eliminación.

  8. Algae Biofuel in the Nigerian Energy Context

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elegbede, Isa; Guerrero, Cinthya

    2016-05-01

    The issue of energy consumption is one of the issues that have significantly become recognized as an important topic of global discourse. Fossil fuels production reportedly experiencing a gradual depletion in the oil-producing nations of the world. Most studies have relatively focused on biofuel development and adoption, however, the awareness of a prospect in the commercial cultivation of algae having potential to create economic boost in Nigeria, inspired this research. This study aims at exploring the potential of the commercialization of a different but commonly found organism, algae, in Nigeria. Here, parameters such as; water quality, light, carbon, average temperature required for the growth of algae, and additional beneficial nutrients found in algae were analysed. A comparative cum qualitative review of analysis was used as the study made use of empirical findings on the work as well as the author's deductions. The research explored the cultivation of algae with the two major seasonal differences (i.e. rainy and dry) in Nigeria as a backdrop. The results indicated that there was no significant difference in the contribution of algae and other sources of biofuels as a necessity for bioenergy in Nigeria. However, for an effective sustainability of this prospect, adequate measures need to be put in place in form of funding, provision of an economically-enabling environment for the cultivation process as well as proper healthcare service in the face of possible health hazard from technological processes. Further studies can seek to expand on the potential of cultivating algae in the Harmattan season.

  9. DGDG and Glycolipids in Plants and Algae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalisch, Barbara; Dörmann, Peter; Hölzl, Georg

    2016-01-01

    Photosynthetic organelles in plants and algae are characterized by the high abundance of glycolipids, including the galactolipids mono- and digalactosyldiacylglycerol (MGDG, DGDG) and the sulfolipid sulfoquinovosyldiacylglycerol (SQDG). Glycolipids are crucial to maintain an optimal efficiency of photosynthesis. During phosphate limitation, the amounts of DGDG and SQDG increase in the plastids of plants, and DGDG is exported to extraplastidial membranes to replace phospholipids. Algae often use betaine lipids as surrogate for phospholipids. Glucuronosyldiacylglycerol (GlcADG) is a further glycolipid that accumulates under phosphate deprived conditions. In contrast to plants, a number of eukaryotic algae contain very long chain polyunsaturated fatty acids of 20 or more carbon atoms in their glycolipids. The pathways and genes for galactolipid and sulfolipid synthesis are largely conserved between plants, Chlorophyta, Rhodophyta and algae with complex plastids derived from secondary or tertiary endosymbiosis. However, the relative contribution of the endoplasmic reticulum- and plastid-derived lipid pathways for glycolipid synthesis varies between plants and algae. The genes for glycolipid synthesis encode precursor proteins imported into the photosynthetic organelles. While most eukaryotic algae contain the plant-like galactolipid (MGD1, DGD1) and sulfolipid (SQD1, SQD2) synthases, the red alga Cyanidioschyzon harbors a cyanobacterium-type DGDG synthase (DgdA), and the amoeba Paulinella, derived from a more recent endosymbiosis event, contains cyanobacterium-type enzymes for MGDG and DGDG synthesis (MgdA, MgdE, DgdA).

  10. Pathways of trace metal uptake in the lugworm Arenicola marina

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Casado-Martinez, M.C. [Department of Zoology, Natural History Museum, Cromwell Road, London SW7 5BD (United Kingdom)], E-mail: c.casado-martinez@nhm.ac.uk; Smith, B.D. [Department of Zoology, Natural History Museum, Cromwell Road, London SW7 5BD (United Kingdom); Valls, T.A. del [Unesco UNITWIN Wicop Chair, Department of Physical-Chemistry, University of Cadiz, Poligono Industrial Rio San Pedro s/n, C.P. 11510 Puerto Real, Cadiz (Spain); Rainbow, P.S. [Department of Zoology, Natural History Museum, Cromwell Road, London SW7 5BD (United Kingdom)

    2009-04-02

    Radiotracer techniques were used to determine the rates of trace metal (Ag, Cd and Zn) uptake and elimination (33 psu, 10 deg. C) from water and sediment by the deposit-feeding polychaete Arenicola marina, proposed as a test species for estuarine-marine sediments in whole-sediment toxicity tests. Metal uptake rates from solution increase with increasing dissolved metal concentrations, with uptake rate constants ({+-} SE) (l g{sup -1} d{sup -1}) of 1.21 {+-} 0.11 (Ag), 0.026 {+-} 0.002 (Zn) and 0.012 {+-} 0.001 (Cd). Assimilation efficiencies from ingested sediments were measured using a pulse-chase radiotracer feeding technique in two different lugworm populations, one from a commercial supplier (Blyth, Northumberland, UK) and the other a field-collected population from the outer Thames estuary (UK). Assimilation efficiencies ranged from 2 to 20% for Zn, 1 to 6% for Cd and 1 to 9% for Ag for the Northumberland worms, and from 3 to 22% for Zn, 6 to 70% for Cd and 2 to 15% for Ag in the case of the Thames population. Elimination of accumulated metals followed a two-compartment model, with similar efflux rate constants for Zn and Ag and lower rates of elimination of Cd from the slow pool. Efflux rate constants ({+-} SE) of Zn and Ag accumulated from the dissolved phase were 0.037 {+-} 0.002 and 0.033 {+-} 0.006 d{sup -1} whereas Cd was eliminated with an efflux rate constant one order of magnitude lower (0.003 {+-} 0.002 d{sup -1}). When metals were accumulated from ingested sediments, the efflux rate constants for the slow-exchanging compartment were of the same order of magnitude for the three metals, and of the same order of magnitude as those derived after the dissolved exposure for Zn and Ag (0.042 {+-} 0.004 and 0.056 {+-} 0.012 d{sup -1} for Zn and 0.044 {+-} 0.012 and 0.069 {+-} 0.016 d{sup -1} for Ag for the Northumberland and Thames populations, respectively). Cd accumulated from ingested sediments was eliminated with a rate constant not different from the

  11. A comparative evaluation of biological activities and bioactive compounds of the seagrasses Zostera marina and Zostera noltei from southern Portugal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Custódio, Luísa; Laukaityte, Simona; Engelen, Aschwin H; Rodrigues, Maria João; Pereira, Hugo; Vizetto-Duarte, Catarina; Barreira, Luísa; Rodríguez, Hortensia; Alberício, Fernando; Varela, João

    2016-01-01

    This work assessed the antioxidant potential, acetylcholinesterase (AChE) inhibition and the in vitro cytotoxic activity of extracts of the seagrasses Zostera marina and Zostera noltei collected from southern Portugal. The total phenolic contents (TPCs), the rosmarinic acid (RA) concentration (HPLC/DAD) and the fatty acid (FA) profile (GC/MS) are also described. Z. marina had the highest TPC, radical scavenging activity against DPPH radicals and copper chelating activity. Z. noltei had metal chelation capacity to copper and iron ions. None of the species was able to inhibit AChE. Both seagrasses had high levels of polyunsaturated FAs. Z. marina significantly and selectively reduced the viability of tumorous neuronal cells. Z. noltei was highly toxic for the three cell lines tested and was selective against hepatocarcinoma cells at the concentration of 100 μg/mL. RA was the main compound identified in Z. marina, but not in Z. noltei.

  12. Determining bathymetric distributions of the eelgrass Zostera marina L. in three turbid estuaries of the eastern North Pacific coast

    Science.gov (United States)

    Improved methods for determining bathymetric distributions of dominant intertidal plants throughout their estuarine range are needed. Zostera marina is a seagrass native to estuaries of the northeastern Pacific and many other sectors of the world ocean. The technique described ...

  13. 21 CFR 73.275 - Dried algae meal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Dried algae meal. 73.275 Section 73.275 Food and... ADDITIVES EXEMPT FROM CERTIFICATION Foods § 73.275 Dried algae meal. (a) Identity. The color additive dried algae meal is a dried mixture of algae cells (genus Spongiococcum, separated from its culture...

  14. Mortandad de aves marinas durante "El Niño 1997-98" en el litoral sur de San Juan de Marcona, Ica -Perú

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manuel Apaza

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Entre agosto de 1997 y abril de 1998, se evaluó, al sur de la punta guanera de San Juan de Marcona, la mortandad de las poblaciones de aves marinas. Especies de alimentación exclusivamente pelágica y de distribución restringida al ámbito de la Corriente Peruana, como las aves guaneras Pelecanus thagus, Sula variegata y Phalacrocorax bougainvillii, el pingüino Spheniscus humboldti y el zarcillo Larosterna inca, mostraron una correlación significativa en el comportamiento mensual, relacionados con la temperatura superficial del mar y con la ausencia del recurso anchoveta Engraulis ringens durante el evento "El Niño". Otras especies consideradas en el análisis presentaron una mortandad diferente, como la gaviota de Franklin Larus pipixcan y la gaviota gris Larus modestus, en ambos casos, las especies se alimentaron de recursos alternativos, como Calosoma sp. y Emeríta analoga, respectivamente.

  15. Alternativas tecnológicas que permitan la elaboración de productos conformados ricos en ácidos grasos poli-insaturados, a partir de una especie marina grasa sub-explotada (SARACA, Brevoortia aurea)

    OpenAIRE

    Pennisi Forell, Susana Carolina

    2013-01-01

    El presente trabajo de Tesis pretende realizar un aporte a la industria pesquera, en el desarrollo y utilización de especies marinas sin valor comercial. En este caso se busca darle utilidad a la especie conocida como saraca (Brevoortia aurea), la cual se pesca a lo largo del año y principalmente como fauna acompañante durante la zafra de la corvina rubia (Micropogonias furnieri); al no tener valor en el mercado se la descarta. Los volúmenes capturados son considerables por lo que se decidió ...

  16. ANALISIS AKTIVITAS ANTIBAKTERI EKSTRAK DAUN MANGROVE Avicennia marina DARI KABUPATEN TRENGGALEK DAN KABUPATEN PASURUAN TERHADAP PERTUMBUHAN Staphylococcus aureus DAN Vibrio alginolyticus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ridha Handriany Danada

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Avicennia marina mampu beradaptasi pada habitat pasang-surut dan memiliki toleransi salinitas bervariasi. Bentuk adaptasi tersebut berpotensi mempengaruhi komposisi senyawa metabolit sekunder A. marina. Penelitian ini bertujuan mengetahui komposisi senyawa bioaktif yang terdapat pada ekstrak daun A. marina dari Kabupaten Trenggalek dan Kabupaten Pasuruan dan mengetahui aktivitas antibakteri ekstrak A. marina dalam menghambat pertumbuhan bakteri Staphylococcus aureus dan Vibrio alginolyticus. Hasil uji fitokimia menunjukkan kandungan alkaloid, flavonoid, dan saponin pada ekstrak A. marina dari kedua lokasi. Namun, kandungan senyawa Terpenoid dan Tanin hanya ditemukan pada stasiun dengan kondisi tertentu. Hasil uji aktivitas antibakteri ekstrak daun A. marina dari Kabupaten Trenggalek dan Kabupaten Pasuruan terhadap S. aureus menunjukkan hasil rata-rata diameter zona bening sebesar 4,43 – 5,79 mm dan terhadap V. alginolyticus sebesar 4,25 – 5,48 mm. Hal ini menunjukkan bahwa ekstrak daun mangrove A. marina mampu menghambat pertumbuhan bakteri S. aureus dan V. alginolyticus. Perbedaan habitat tidak memberikan pengaruh yang signifikan terhadap kemampuan daya hambat, tetapi pada komposisi senyawa bioaktif.Kata Kunci: aktivitas antibakteri, senyawa metabolit sekunder, Kabupaten Trenggalek, Kabupaten  Pasuruan, Avicennia marinaANTIBACTERIAL ACTIVITY ANALYSIS OF LEAF EXTRACT FROM DISTRICT MANGROVE Avicennia marina PASURUAN TRENGGALEK AND ON THE GROWTH AND Staphylococcus aureus, Vibrio alginolyticusABSTRACTAvicennia marina capable of adapting to the habitat in tidal and have varying salinity tolerance. Adaptation has the potential to affect the composition of secondary metabolites, A. marina. This study aims to determine the composition of bioactive compounds contained in extracts of leaves of A. marina of Trenggalek and Pasuruan and determine the antibacterial activity of the extracts of A. marina in inhibiting the growth of Staphylococcus aureus

  17. ANÁLISIS ESPECTRAL DE OLAS MARINAS: MODELOS UNIVARIADOS // SPECTRAL ANALYSIS OF WAVE SEA: UNIVARIATE MODELS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nestor Escudero Mora

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available El análisis espectral, es el proceso técnico de la descomposición de una señal compleja en partes más simples. Muchos procesos físicos se describen mejor como una suma de muchas componentes de frecuencias individuales, alternativamente una señal puede dividirse en segmentos cortos y el análisis del espectro puede aplicarse a estos segmentos individuales. Desde el punto de vista del estudio de olas marinas, el espectro juega un rol fundamental y es interpretado como la energía presente en la serie de tiempo durante el periodo. Este estudio se basa en el análisis del espectro asociado a datos del mar del Norte en el ano de 1999 en la plataforma North Alwyn almacenados en la Universidad Heriot-Watt de Edimburgo, separados en periodos de 20 minutos, el total a estudiar son 244 periodos. Para ello, se determinó que existe información que no aporta al problema, representa ruido y es el 3% de la energía, la cual no fue tomada para el estudio. Se dividió el espectro en 12 subintervalos y se ajustaron modelos autorregresivos bajo el esquema de Box-Jenskin and Reinsel, estudiados estos hasta encontrar la mejor aproximación posible para cada subintervalo mediante las propiedades estadísticas obtenidas por cada modelo, junto con los pronósticos respectivos. // ABSTRACT: Spectral analysis is the technical process of a complex signal decomposition into simpler parts. Many physical processes are better described as a sum of many individual frequency components; alternatively a signal can be divided into short segments and the spectrum analysis can be applied to these individual segments. From the point of view of the study of Waves Sea, the spectrum plays a vital role and it is interpreted as the energy in the time series during the period. This study is based on analysis of the spectrum associated to data from the North Sea in the year of 1999, taken in North Alwyn platform, stored in the Heriot-Watt University in Edinburgh, separated in

  18. Dipeptides from the red alga Acanthopora spicifera

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Wahidullah, S.; DeSouza, L.; Kamat, S.Y.

    An investigation of red alga Acanthophora spicifera afforded the known peptide, aurantiamide acetate and a new diastereoisomer of this dipeptide (dia-aurantiamide acetate). This is a first report of aurantiamide acetate from a marine source...

  19. 2011 Biomass Program Platform Peer Review: Algae

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang, Joyce [Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE), Washington, DC (United States)

    2012-02-01

    This document summarizes the recommendations and evaluations provided by an independent external panel of experts at the 2011 U.S. Department of Energy Biomass Program’s Algae Platform Review meeting.

  20. THE SOIL ALGAE OF CIBODAS FOREST RESERVE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anne Johnson

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Three species of green algae and one blue-green alga were recorded from eight samples of soil found associated with bryophytes in the Cibodas Forest Reserve. Chemical analysis of the soil showed severe leaching of soluable mineral substances associated with a low pH. The low light intensity under forest conditions and the low pH may account for the limited algal flora.

  1. Antioxidant Activity of Hawaiian Marine Algae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anthony D. Wright

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Marine algae are known to contain a wide variety of bioactive compounds, many of which have commercial applications in pharmaceutical, medical, cosmetic, nutraceutical, food and agricultural industries. Natural antioxidants, found in many algae, are important bioactive compounds that play an important role against various diseases and ageing processes through protection of cells from oxidative damage. In this respect, relatively little is known about the bioactivity of Hawaiian algae that could be a potential natural source of such antioxidants. The total antioxidant activity of organic extracts of 37 algal samples, comprising of 30 species of Hawaiian algae from 27 different genera was determined. The activity was determined by employing the FRAP (Ferric Reducing Antioxidant Power assays. Of the algae tested, the extract of Turbinaria ornata was found to be the most active. Bioassay-guided fractionation of this extract led to the isolation of a variety of different carotenoids as the active principles. The major bioactive antioxidant compound was identified as the carotenoid fucoxanthin. These results show, for the first time, that numerous Hawaiian algae exhibit significant antioxidant activity, a property that could lead to their application in one of many useful healthcare or related products as well as in chemoprevention of a variety of diseases including cancer.

  2. The effect of wind direction and building surroundings on a marina bay in the Black Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katona, Cosmin; Safta, Carmen Anca

    2017-01-01

    The wind effect has usually a major importance in the marina bay. These environmental sites are an interplay between tourist and commercial activities, requiring a high-detailed and definition studies of the dynamic fluid in the harbor. Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) has been used elaborately in urban surroundings research. However, most CFD studies were performed for harbors for only a confined number of wind directions and/or without considering the building surroundings effects. This paper presents the results of different simulations based on various wind flows and the CFD simulation of coupled urban wind flow and general wind directions upon a semi-closed area. Thus the importance of wind effects on the evaluation of the marina bay will be pointed out to achieve a safe and secure mooring at the berth and eventually a good potential of renewable energy for an impending green harbor.

  3. Nematode response to metal, PAHs and organic enrichment in tourist marinas of the Mediterranean Sea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreno, M; Albertelli, G; Fabiano, M

    2009-08-01

    The structure of nematode assemblages was investigated in the sediments of two different tourist marinas in the Mediterranean Sea and related to pollution variables. Nematode densities and generic compositions were determined, as were concentrations of heavy metals, PAHs and organic matter. Results showed different assemblages at the two marinas, with a dominance of the genera Paralongicyatholaimus and Daptonema. Significant correlations between nematodes and concentrations of environmental contaminants were found. In particular, Paralongicyatholaimus showed a significant negative correlation with Cu concentrations and was almost absent at the stations where higher Cu concentrations were found. The presence of sensitive/tolerant nematode genera represents a promising tool to identify areas subjected to a higher level of disturbance and to define the correct environmental management strategy for harbors.

  4. Innovación docente en biología marina

    OpenAIRE

    Guerra-García, José Manuel; Espinosa, Free; García-Gómez, J. Carlos

    2011-01-01

    El inicio del grado de Biología en la Universidad de Sevilla restringe a 4 años la duración de la licenciatura y supone la desaparición de la asignatura optativa “Biología Marina”. Por tanto, el futuro del mantenimiento de la línea docente en Biología Marina en la Universidad de Sevilla, dependerá exclusivamente del futuro desarrollo de un máster. Por ello, en la asignatura de Biología Marina (aún vigente los próximos dos cursos) se están implementando, a modo de ensayo previo ...

  5. Molluscs as bioindicators of the regression of a Zostera marina bed in southern Spain

    OpenAIRE

    J. Urra; Narros, J. (Jessica); Mateo-Ramírez, A. (Angel); Marina-Ureña, P. (Pablo); M. ANTIT; J.L. RUEDA; Salas, C.

    2016-01-01

    Seagrass beds are experiencing a sharp decline worldwide and, unfortunately, a continued decrease is expected, mainly due to anthropogenic influence, with negative repercussions for coastal biodiversity. One of these declining seagrasses is Zostera marina L. which is the most widespread in the northern hemisphere (North America, Europe and Asia). One of the most recent observed cases of eelgrass decline occurred in the Special Area of Conservation “Acantilados de Maro - Cerro Gordo” (southern...

  6. Biogeografía marina de Chile continental Marine biogeography of continental Chile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    PATRICIO A. CAMUS

    2001-09-01

    Full Text Available Por casi un siglo, varios autores han analizado los patrones de distribución de la fauna y flora marina del Pacífico de Sudamérica y de la costa de Chile en particular, con el propósito de establecer el número de las unidades biogeográficas presentes. Si bien los patrones generales actuales son relativamente bien conocidos, la mayoría de los estudios se ha enfocado en las discontinuidades distribucionales y en propuestas de clasificación más que en los factores y procesos dinámicos que han formado las unidades espaciales identificadas. Aun en el caso de las clasificaciones, las conclusiones publicadas se basan principalmente en el análisis de uno o pocos grupos seleccionados, y presentan diferencias importantes en los criterios de selección de los grupos, el número de especies involucrado y la metodología usada. Por otra parte, las discrepancias entre estudios específicos tienden a obscurecer un fenómeno relevante y de mayor escala como es la dinámica de las biotas, uno de los aspectos biogeográficos menos conocidos en Chile. En tal contexto, este trabajo presenta una revisión de literatura sobre la biogeografía marina de Chile y sus aspectos asociados, con los siguientes objetivos: (a resumir las características oceanográficas, climáticas y geomorfológicas de la costa continental de Chile; (b discutir 27 clasificaciones biogeográficas publicadas para la costa chilena, analizando los criterios y procedimientos usados por los autores, sus conclusiones principales, y la concordancia entre los estudios; (c evaluar los procesos dispersivos y vicariantes asociados a los desplazamientos y modificaciones de las biotas de la región, en función de los antecedentes disponibles sobre las condiciones existentes y los principales eventos ocurridos durante los períodos Terciario y Cuaternario; y (d proponer un escenario de cambio biogeográfico basado en determinantes históricas y su influencia en la formación, carácter y din

  7. Contrasting oxygen dynamics in the freshwater isoetid Lobelia dortmanna and the marine seagrass Zostera marina

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sand-Jensen, Kaj; Pedersen, Ole; Binzer, Thomas

    2005-01-01

    of the sediment, and aquatic plants differ in aerenchymal volume and resistance to O2 diffusion through the plant and across leaf and root surfaces. The hypothesis that the freshwater isoetid Lobelia dortmanna and the marine seagrass Zostera marina should display pronounced contrasts in intra-plant O2 dynamics......-water, and the water column in the field. Manipulation of water column O2 in the laboratory was also carried out. KEY RESULTS: It was found that intra-plant transport of O2 between leaf and root tips takes place more readily in L. dortmanna than in Z. marina due to shorter distances and greater cross......-sections of the aerenchyma. The major exchange of O2 across roots of L. dortmanna can be accounted for by small intra-plant resistances to diffusion, larger root than leaf surfaces, and greater radial diffusive resistance of leaves than roots. In contrast, the major O2 exchange across leaves than roots of Z. marina can...

  8. Habitat suitability analysis of eelgrass Zostera marina L. in the subtidal zone of Xiaoheishan Island

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Jian; Wang, Qixiang; Zhao, Wenxi; Yu, Daode; Guan, Shuguang

    2016-01-01

    We present a GIS-based habitat suitability index (HSI) model to identify suitable areas for Zostera marina L. restoration in the subtidal zone of Xiaoheishan Island. The controlling factors in the model, in order of importance, are Secchi depth, sediment composition, water temperature, salinity, current velocity, water depth and nutrient quality. Specific factor piecewise functions have been used to transform parameter values into normalized quality indexes. The weight of each factor was defined using expert knowledge and the analytic hierarchy process (AHP) method. All of the data thus obtained were interpolated using the inverse distance weighted (IDW) interpolation method to create maps for the entire region. In this study, the analysis of habitat suitability in the subtidal zone of Xiaoheishan Island was conducted for four seasons. According to the GIS-based HSI model, the optimal habitat of Zostera marina L. appears in spring, although habitat remains suitable all year round. On the whole, the optimum site for eelgrass restoration is located in the eastern region, followed by the western and southern regions. We believe that the GIS-based HSI model could be a promising tool to select sites for Zostera marina L. restoration and could also be applicable in other types of habitat evaluation.

  9. Rhizosphere microbiome metagenomics of gray mangroves (Avicennia marina) in the Red Sea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alzubaidy, Hanin; Essack, Magbubah; Malas, Tareq B; Bokhari, Ameerah; Motwalli, Olaa; Kamanu, Frederick Kinyua; Jamhor, Suhaiza Ahmad; Mokhtar, Noor Azlin; Antunes, André; Simões, Marta Filipa; Alam, Intikhab; Bougouffa, Salim; Lafi, Feras F; Bajic, Vladimir B; Archer, John A C

    2016-02-01

    Mangroves are unique, and endangered, coastal ecosystems that play a vital role in the tropical and subtropical environments. A comprehensive description of the microbial communities in these ecosystems is currently lacking, and additional studies are required to have a complete understanding of the functioning and resilience of mangroves worldwide. In this work, we carried out a metagenomic study by comparing the microbial community of mangrove sediment with the rhizosphere microbiome of Avicennia marina, in northern Red Sea mangroves, along the coast of Saudi Arabia. Our results revealed that rhizosphere samples presented similar profiles at the taxonomic and functional levels and differentiated from the microbiome of bulk soil controls. Overall, samples showed predominance by Proteobacteria, Bacteroidetes and Firmicutes, with high abundance of sulfate reducers and methanogens, although specific groups were selectively enriched in the rhizosphere. Functional analysis showed significant enrichment in 'metabolism of aromatic compounds', 'mobile genetic elements', 'potassium metabolism' and 'pathways that utilize osmolytes' in the rhizosphere microbiomes. To our knowledge, this is the first metagenomic study on the microbiome of mangroves in the Red Sea, and the first application of unbiased 454-pyrosequencing to study the rhizosphere microbiome associated with A. marina. Our results provide the first insights into the range of functions and microbial diversity in the rhizosphere and soil sediments of gray mangrove (A. marina) in the Red Sea.

  10. Characterisation of esterases as potential biomarkers of pesticide exposure in the lugworm Arenicola marina (Annelida: Polychaeta)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hannam, Marie L. [Ecotoxicology and Stress Biology Research Centre, School of Biological Sciences, University of Plymouth, Drake Circus, Plymouth, Devon, PL4 8AA (United Kingdom)], E-mail: marie.hannam@plymouth.ac.uk; Hagger, Josephine A.; Jones, Malcolm B.; Galloway, Tamara S. [Ecotoxicology and Stress Biology Research Centre, School of Biological Sciences, University of Plymouth, Drake Circus, Plymouth, Devon, PL4 8AA (United Kingdom)

    2008-03-15

    Here, we identify and characterise cholinesterase (ChE) and carboxylesterase (CbE) activities in the body tissues of the sediment dwelling worm Arenicola marina. Exposure to the organophosphorus pesticide azamethiphos yielded an in vitro IC{sub 50} of 5 {mu}g l{sup -1} for propionylcholinesterase (PChE). PChE was significantly inhibited in vivo after a 10 day exposure to 100 {mu}g l{sup -1} azamethiphos, equivalent to the recommended aquatic application rate (ANOVA; F = 2.75, P = 0.033). To determine sensitivity to environmental conditions, A. marina were exposed for 10 days to field collected sediments. PChE activity was significantly lower in worms exposed to sediments from an estuary classified to be at high risk from point source pollution by the UK Environment Agency (ANOVA; F = 15.33, P < 0.001). Whilst causality cannot be directly attributed from these latter exposures, they provide an important illustration of the potential utility of esterase activity as a biomarker of environmental quality in this ecologically relevant sentinel species. - This paper provides a preliminary characterisation of esterase enzyme activities in the tissues and body fluids of the sediment dwelling worm Arenicola marina and explores their potential use as biomarkers of organophosphorus pesticide exposure in the marine environment.

  11. Rhizosphere microbiome metagenomics of gray mangroves (Avicennia marina) in the Red Sea

    KAUST Repository

    Alzubaidy, Hanin S.

    2015-11-10

    Mangroves are unique, and endangered, coastal ecosystems that play a vital role in the tropical and subtropical environments. A comprehensive description of the microbial communities in these ecosystems is currently lacking, and additional studies are required to have a complete understanding of the functioning and resilience of mangroves worldwide. In this work, we carried out a metagenomic study by comparing the microbial community of mangrove sediment with the rhizosphere microbiome of Avicennia marina, in northern Red Sea mangroves, along the coast of Saudi Arabia. Our results revealed that rhizosphere samples presented similar profiles at the taxonomic and functional levels and differentiated from the microbiome of bulk soil controls. Overall, samples showed predominance by Proteobacteria, Bacteroidetes and Firmicutes, with high abundance of sulfate reducers and methanogens, although specific groups were selectively enriched in the rhizosphere. Functional analysis showed significant enrichment in ‘metabolism of aromatic compounds’, ‘mobile genetic elements’, ‘potassium metabolism’ and ‘pathways that utilize osmolytes’ in the rhizosphere microbiomes. To our knowledge, this is the first metagenomic study on the microbiome of mangroves in the Red Sea, and the first application of unbiased 454-pyrosequencing to study the rhizosphere microbiome associated with A. marina. Our results provide the first insights into the range of functions and microbial diversity in the rhizosphere and soil sediments of gray mangrove (A. marina) in the Red Sea.

  12. Algae production for energy and foddering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bai, Attila; Jobbagy, Peter; Durko, Emilia [University of Debrecen, Faculty of Applied Economics and Rural Development (UD-FAERD), Centre for Agricultural and Applied Economic Sciences, Debrecen (Hungary)

    2011-09-15

    This study not only presents the results of our own experiments in alga production, but also shows the expected economic results of the various uses of algae (animal feed, direct burning, pelleting, bio-diesel production), the technical characteristics of a new pelleting method based on literature, and also our own recommended alga production technology. In our opinion, the most promising alternative could be the production of alga species with high levels of oil content, which are suitable for utilization as by-products for animal feed and in the production of bio-diesel, as well as for use in waste water management and as a flue gas additive. Based on the data from our laboratory experiments, of the four species we analyzed, Chlorella vulgaris should be considered the most promising species for use in large-scale experiments. Taking expenses into account, our results demonstrate that the use of algae for burning technology purposes results in a significant loss under the current economic conditions; however, the utilization of algae for feeding and bio-diesel purposes - in spite of their innovative nature - is nearing the level needed for competitiveness. By using the alga production technology recommended by us and described in the present study in detail, with an investment of 545 to 727 thousand EUR/ha, this technology should be able to achieve approximately 0-29 thousand EUR/ha net income, depending on size. More favorable values emerge in the case of the 1-ha (larger) size, thanks to the significant savings on fixed costs (depreciation and personnel costs). (orig.)

  13. Algae Biofuel in the Nigerian Energy Context

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elegbede Isa

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available The issue of energy consumption is one of the issues that have significantly become recognized as an important topic of global discourse. Fossil fuels production reportedly experiencing a gradual depletion in the oil-producing nations of the world. Most studies have relatively focused on biofuel development and adoption, however, the awareness of a prospect in the commercial cultivation of algae having potential to create economic boost in Nigeria, inspired this research. This study aims at exploring the potential of the commercialization of a different but commonly found organism, algae, in Nigeria. Here, parameters such as; water quality, light, carbon, average temperature required for the growth of algae, and additional beneficial nutrients found in algae were analysed. A comparative cum qualitative review of analysis was used as the study made use of empirical findings on the work as well as the author’s deductions. The research explored the cultivation of algae with the two major seasonal differences (i.e. rainy and dry in Nigeria as a backdrop. The results indicated that there was no significant difference in the contribution of algae and other sources of biofuels as a necessity for bioenergy in Nigeria. However, for an effective sustainability of this prospect, adequate measures need to be put in place in form of funding, provision of an economically-enabling environment for the cultivation process as well as proper healthcare service in the face of possible health hazard from technological processes. Further studies can seek to expand on the potential of cultivating algae in the Harmattan season.

  14. Biological toxicity of lanthanide elements on algae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tai, Peidong; Zhao, Qing; Su, Dan; Li, Peijun; Stagnitti, Frank

    2010-08-01

    The biological toxicity of lanthanides on marine monocellular algae was investigated. The specific objective of this research was to establish the relationship between the abundance in the seawater of lanthanides and their biological toxicities on marine monocellular algae. The results showed that all single lanthanides had similar toxic effects on Skeletonema costatum. High concentrations of lanthanides (29.04+/-0.61 micromol L(-1)) resulted in 50% reduction in growth of algae compared to the controls (0 micromol L(-1)) after 96 h (96 h-EC50). The biological toxicity of 13 lanthanides on marine monocellular algae was unrelated with the abundance of different lanthanide elements in nature, and the "Harkins rule" was not appropriate for the lanthanides. A mixed solution that contained equivalent concentrations of each lanthanide element had the same inhibition effect on algae cells as each individual lanthanide element at the same total concentration. This phenomenon is unique compared to the groups of other elements in the periodic table. Hence, we speculate that the monocellular organisms might not be able to sufficiently differentiate between the almost chemically identical lanthanide elements.

  15. Oil from algae; salvation from peak oil?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rhodes, Christopher J

    2009-01-01

    A review is presented of the use of algae principally to produce biodiesel fuel, as a replacement for conventional fuel derived from petroleum. The imperative for such a strategy is that cheap supplies of crude oil will begin to wane within a decade and land-based crops cannot provide more than a small amount of the fuel the world currently uses, even if food production were allowed to be severely compromised. For comparison, if one tonne of biodiesel might be produced say, from rape-seed per hectare, that same area of land might ideally yield 100 tonnes of biodiesel grown from algae. Placed into perspective, the entire world annual petroleum demand which is now provided for by 31 billion barrels of crude oil might instead be met from algae grown on an area equivalent to 4% of that of the United States. As an additional benefit, in contrast to growing crops it is not necessary to use arable land, since pond-systems might be placed anywhere, even in deserts, and since algae grow well on saline water or wastewaters, no additional burden is imposed on freshwater-a significant advantage, as water shortages threaten. Algae offer the further promise that they might provide future food supplies, beyond what can be offered by land-based agriculture to a rising global population.

  16. TUBERCULOSIS COMO ENFERMEDAD OCUPACIONAL

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mendoza-Ticona, Alberto

    2014-01-01

    Existe evidencia suficiente para declarar a la tuberculosis como enfermedad ocupacional en diversos profesionales especialmente entre los trabajadores de salud. En el Perú están normados y reglamentados los derechos laborales inherentes a la tuberculosis como enfermedad ocupacional, como la cobertura por discapacidad temporal o permanente. Sin embargo, estos derechos aún no han sido suficientemente socializados. En este trabajo se presenta información sobre el riesgo de adquirir tuberculosis en el lugar de trabajo, se revisan las evidencias para declarar a la tuberculosis como enfermedad ocupacional en trabajadores de salud y se presenta la legislación peruana vigente al respecto. PMID:22858771

  17. Avaliação do ensaio de toxicidade com alga Scenedesmus subspicatus para o estudo de efluentes industriais

    OpenAIRE

    Valeria Reginatto

    1998-01-01

    Resumo: Os estudos preliminares com a alga Scenedesmus subspicatus visaram avaliar os diferentes métodos padronizados do ensaio de toxicidade recomendados por órgãos internacionais, como a Internacional Standard Organization (ISO 8692). Nesse sentido foram comparados distintos métodos para a determinação da concentração da alga, as melhores condições de inóculo para o ensaio e as alterações do pH durante a realização do mesmo. Tendo em vista os resultados obtidos por esses estudos, foi feita ...

  18. An approach to 3D modeling of marine platforms in operation; Un enfoque al modelado 3D de plataformas marinas en operacion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gomez Camargo, Octavio [Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas, Cuernavaca, Morelos (Mexico)

    2007-07-01

    During the useful life of the marine platforms it is of great importance to have an intelligent three-dimensional model, that faithfully represents the facilities, in order to optimize the operative and maintenance procedures as well as to have a real information of the condition of the equipment and of each one of the components to facilitate the decision making, to make a risk analysis and dangerous operation analyses (HAZOP) and to make designs of improvements, modernization, substitutions and extensions. At the moment, the marine platforms are being designed with CAD tools, reason why before its installation they have a 3D model, which is updated as the design advances, until arriving at the approved version for construction. Later, the digital model of the marine platform serves to guide in the construction and follow up the advance of the same. Similarly, the model 3D is due to update with respect to the changes that arise during the construction and installation, until the commissioning of the platform, nevertheless, many of these were constructed when these tools were not yet available, reason why it becomes necessary to construct the digital model according to the present condition they exhibit. In order to develop the digital model of the marine platforms in operation, the activities are grouped in three large stages: specification of scope, retrieval of the information and modeling. [Spanish] Durante la vida util de las plataformas marinas es de gran importancia contar con un modelo tridimensional inteligente, que represente fielmente las instalaciones, con la finalidad de optimizar los procedimientos operativos y de mantenimiento asi como de disponer de informacion real del estado de los equipos y de cada uno de los componentes para facilitar la toma de decisiones, para hacer analisis de riesgos y analisis de operaciones peligrosas (HAZOP) y para hacer disenos de mejoras, modernizaciones, sustituciones y ampliaciones. Actualmente, las plataformas

  19. Freshwater algae of the Nevada Test Site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Taylor, W.D.; Giles, K.R.

    1979-06-01

    Fifty-two species of freshwater algae were identified in samples collected from the eight known natural springs of the Nevada Test Site. Although several species were widespread, 29 species were site specific. Diatoms provided the greatest variety of species at each spring. Three-fifths of all algal species encountered were diatoms. Well-developed mats of filamentous green algae (Chlorophyta) were common in many of the water tanks associated with the springs and accounted for most of the algal biomass. Major nutrients were adequate, if not abundant, in most spring waters - growth being limited primarily by light and physical habitat. There was some evidence of cesium-137 bioconcentration by algae at several of the springs.

  20. Algae a promising alternative for biofuel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.H. Sayadi

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Research on renewable and environmentally friendly fuel is growing rapidly and many scientists and governments are interested to grow it fast due to limitation of conventional fuel sources and their harmful effects on the environment. Biofuels are not only the best and reliably available fuels attained from renewable sources which are environment friendly. Besdies biofuels are abundantly available in all the locations easily accessible and highly sustainable. In the present review, the authors present a brief highlight of challenges that necessitates to be covered in order to make both, micro as well as macro algae a viable option to produce renewable biofuels. It is interesting to note that algae are varied, pervasive, and productive and also having less impact with plants as a food for human and animals. Further research is required to a high quantity of product innovation because most dedicated algae are faced uneconomically high costs.

  1. Study of metal bioaccumulation by nuclear microprobe analysis of algae fossils and living algae cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guo, P.; Wang, J.; Li, X.; Zhu, J. E-mail: iamzhu@hotmail.com; Reinert, T.; Heitmann, J.; Spemann, D.; Vogt, J.; Flagmeyer, R.-H.; Butz, T

    2000-03-01

    Microscopic ion-beam analysis of palaeo-algae fossils and living green algae cells have been performed to study the metal bioaccumulation processes. The algae fossils, both single cellular and multicellular, are from the late Neoproterozonic (570 million years ago) ocean and perfectly preserved within a phosphorite formation. The biosorption of the rare earth element ions Nd{sup 3+} by the green algae species euglena gracilis was investigated with a comparison between the normal cells and immobilized ones. The new Leipzig Nanoprobe, LIPSION, was used to produce a proton beam with 2 {mu}m size and 0.5 nA beam current for this study. PIXE and RBS techniques were used for analysis and imaging. The observation of small metal rich spores (<10 {mu}m) surrounding both of the fossils and the living cells proved the existence of some specific receptor sites which bind metal carrier ligands at the microbic surface. The bioaccumulation efficiency of neodymium by the algae cells was 10 times higher for immobilized algae cells. It confirms the fact that the algae immobilization is an useful technique to improve its metal bioaccumulation.

  2. Factors affecting the occurrence of algae on the Sopot beach (Baltic Sea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Filipkowska

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available This study was financed by the EU CosCo project ("Regional cycle development through coastal co-operation - sea grass and algae focus" - INTERREG IIIC 2N00251 and the statutory IO PAS programme.AbstractThe occurrence of algae on the Sopot beach was investigated from 2004 to 2006 from the beach management point of view. Various methods were applied in an attempt to understand the mechanisms underlying the accumulation of algae on the shoreline. They included daily observations of the occurrence of macrophyta on the beach, absorption measurements of acetone extracts of the particulate matter in the seawater, the collection of macrophyta and phytoplankton samples for biomass and taxonomic identification, and determination of the degree of decomposition on the basis of chloropigment analyses. The results were related to the environmental conditions: meteorological data and the physico-chemical parameters of the seawater. The biomass recorded on the beach consisted mainly of macroalgae and a small proportion of sea grass (Zostera marina. The phytoplankton biomass consisted mainly of dinoflagellates, diatoms, cyanobacteria, euglenoids and cryptophytes. The conclusions to be drawn from this work are that the occurrence of huge amounts of macrophyta amassing on the Sopot beach depends on the combined effect of high solar radiation in spring and summer, high-strength (velocity × frequency south-westerly winds in May-September, followed by northerly winds, bringing the macrophyta from Puck Bay on to the Sopot beach. At the same time, their abundance along the beach varies according to the shape and height of the shore, the wind strength and the local wind-driven seawater currents. According to estimates, from 2.2-4.4 × 102 tons (dry weight of macrophyta can be moved on to the Sopot beach in one hour. In October, strong south-easterly winds can also transport huge amounts of decomposing biomass onshore. The phytoplankton content in the total biomass is

  3. Microspectroscopy of the photosynthetic compartment of algae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evangelista, Valtere; Frassanito, Anna Maria; Passarelli, Vincenzo; Barsanti, Laura; Gualtieri, Paolo

    2006-01-01

    We performed microspectroscopic evaluation of the pigment composition of the photosynthetic compartments of algae belonging to different taxonomic divisions and higher plants. The feasibility of microspectroscopy for discriminating among species and/or phylogenetic groups was tested on laboratory cultures. Gaussian bands decompositions and a fitting algorithm, together with fourth-derivative transformation of absorbance spectra, provided a reliable discrimination among chlorophylls a, b and c, phycobiliproteins and carotenoids. Comparative analysis of absorption spectra highlighted the evolutionary grouping of the algae into three main lineages in accordance with the most recent endosymbiotic theories.

  4. Serpins in plants and green algae

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Roberts, Thomas Hugh; Hejgaard, Jørn

    2008-01-01

    . Serpins have been found in diverse species of the plant kingdom and represent a distinct clade among serpins in multicellular organisms. Serpins are also found in green algae, but the evolutionary relationship between these serpins and those of plants remains unknown. Plant serpins are potent inhibitors...... of mammalian serine proteinases of the chymotrypsin family in vitro but, intriguingly, plants and green algae lack endogenous members of this proteinase family, the most common targets for animal serpins. An Arabidopsis serpin with a conserved reactive centre is now known to be capable of inhibiting...

  5. Foresight Brief: Seaweed & Algae as Biofuels Feedstocks

    OpenAIRE

    Institute, Marine

    2008-01-01

    Seaweed is a known potential carbon-dioxide (CO2) neutral source of second generation biofuels. When seaweed grows it absorbs CO2 from the atmosphere and this CO2 is released back to the atmosphere during combustion. What makes seaweed, and in particular micro algae, so promising as a fuel source is their growth rates and high lipid (oil) content. Algae are among the fastest-growing plants in the world. Energy is stored inside the cell as lipids and carbohydrates, and can be converted into fu...

  6. Association of thraustochytrids and fungi with living marine algae

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Raghukumar, C.; Nagarkar, S.; Raghukumar, S.

    only in C. clavulatum, Sargassum cinereum and Padina tetrastromatica whilst mycelial fungi occurred in all. Growth experiments in the laboratory indicated that the growth of thraustochytrids was inhibited on live algae, whereas killed algae supported...

  7. An Overview of Algae Biofuel Production and Potential Environmental Impact

    Science.gov (United States)

    Algae are among the most potentially significant sources of sustainable biofuels in the future of renewable energy. A feedstock with virtually unlimited applicability, algae can metabolize various waste streams (e.g., municipal wastewater, carbon dioxide from industrial flue gas)...

  8. Rhizosphere O2 dynamics in young Zostera marina and Ruppia maritima

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jovanovic, Zeljko; Pedersen, Mia Østergaard; Larsen, Morten

    2015-01-01

    Zostera marina and Ruppia maritima often share the same habitat, but R. maritima appears more resistant to environmental stress. We investigated the impact of light intensity and water column O2 concentrations on radial oxygen loss (ROL), in young specimens of Z. marina and R. maritima. Planar...

  9. A tale of two seagrasses: Comparing the science and management of Zostera marina and Zostera japonica in the Pacific Northwest - CERF

    Science.gov (United States)

    On the Pacific coast of North America, at least two congeners of Zostera occur: native Z. marina, and introduced, Z. japonica. Z. marina is protected by State and Federal laws as essential fish habitat. Z. japonica is considered “invasive” and therefore, ecologicall...

  10. Marina Núñez o la construcción de un cíborg. Un discurso multimedia entre la utopía y la distopía

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isabel Tejeda Martín

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available El presente artículo se propone revisar, a partir de un número importante de entre los proyectos multimedia más importantes realizados en las dos últimas décadas por la artista española Marina Núñez Jiménez (Palencia, 1966, la construcción que ha llevado a cabo de alegorías sobre el concepto de cíborg, tanto en su sentido utópico como distópico. Se analiza, en este sentido, el reciclaje que esta artista hace en su trabajo con los referentes religiosos católicos de la historia del arte, estudiando en concreto su intervención Carne para la sala de exposiciones de Verónicas, un espacio connotado de arquitectura barroca que en su tiempo fue una iglesia conventual.Nos basaremos en sus exposiciones entendidas como site-specific, en sus instalaciones, cajas de luz, vídeos y fotografías, imágenes que serán analizadas desde una perspectiva iconográfica, técnica y lingüística casi en su totalidad. Asimismo, estos trabajos se ponen en relación con los referentes críticos más importantes de la autora, Michel Foucault, Donna Haraway, Rosi Braidotti, etc.El artículo traza un recorrido por la literatura crítica existente sobre esta Marina Núñez aparecida tanto en revistas especializadas como en forma de textos de catálogos individuales, al tiempo que refiere sus profundas relaciones formales e iconográficas con la literatura Cíberpunk y con el cine de ciencia ficción.

  11. Constitution and energetics of photosystem I and photosystem II in the chlorophyll d-dominated cyanobacterium Acaryochloris marina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomo, Tatsuya; Allakhverdiev, Suleyman I; Mimuro, Mamoru

    2011-01-01

    This mini review presents current topics of discussion about photosystem (PS) I and PS II of photosynthesis in the Acaryochloris marina. A. marina is a photosynthetic cyanobacterium in which chlorophyll (Chl) d is the major antenna pigment (>95%). However, Chl a is always present in a few percent. Chl d absorbs light with a wavelength up to 30 nm red-shifted from Chl a. Therefore, the chlorophyll species of the special pair in PS II has been a matter of debate because if Chl d was the special pair component, the overall energetics must be different in A. marina. The history of this field indicates that a purified sample is necessary for the reliable identification and characterization of the special pair. In view of the spectroscopic data and the redox potential of pheophytin, we discuss the nature of special pair constituents and the localization of the enigmatic Chl a.

  12. Novel Fiber Optic Fluorometer for the Measurement of Alga Concentration

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    A novel fluorometer based on fiber optics is briefly introduced for the measurement of alga concentration. Both the exciting light and the fluorescence from alga chlorophyll are transmitted along a fiber cable. By this way, we can get alga concentration by measuring its chlorophyll-a fluorescence intensity. The experiment results show that this instrument is characterized by good sensitivity, linearity and accuracy.

  13. Inventory of North-West European algae initiatives

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Spruijt, J.

    2015-01-01

    In 2012 an inventory of North-West European (NWE) algae initiatives was carried out to get an impression of the market and research activities on algae production and refinery, especially for bioenergy purposes. A questionnaire was developed that would provide the EnAlgae project with information on

  14. New methodologies for integrating algae with CO2 capture

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hernandez Mireles, I.; Stel, R.W. van der; Goetheer, E.L.V.

    2014-01-01

    It is generally recognized, that algae could be an interesting option for reducing CO2 emissions. Based on light and CO2, algae can be used for the production various economically interesting products. Current algae cultivation techniques, however, still present a number of limitations. Efficient fe

  15. How to Identify and Control Water Weeds and Algae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Applied Biochemists, Inc., Mequon, WI.

    Included in this guide to water management are general descriptions of algae, toxic algae, weed problems in lakes, ponds, and canals, and general discussions of mechanical, biological and chemical control methods. In addition, pictures, descriptions, and recommended control methods are given for algae, 6 types of floating weeds, 18 types of…

  16. 21 CFR 73.185 - Haematococcus algae meal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Haematococcus algae meal. 73.185 Section 73.185... COLOR ADDITIVES EXEMPT FROM CERTIFICATION Foods § 73.185 Haematococcus algae meal. (a) Identity. (1) The color additive haematococcus algae meal consists of the comminuted and dried cells of the...

  17. El donjuanismo como conocimiento

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ernesto Cortés Ahumada

    1965-07-01

    Full Text Available ¡Don Juan! ¡Como un estudiante! ¡Como un infante! ¡Como un pirata! Se trata, por tanto, de pensar sobre el donjuanismo. Pero no bien acabo de escribir esta palabra, o mejor todavía, de balbucir una meditación acerca de esta perspectiva dinámica y en extremo viviente, porque aún sin saber nada de él algo de nosotros se dispara en emotivas tensiones y sensuales distensiones, cuando caigo en la cuenta de que el tema es sumamente complejo.

  18. The Existing Condition of Mangrove Region of Avicenia marina, Its: Distribution and Functional Transformation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmad Herison

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Mangrove ecosystem existence is important for environment and other organisms because of its ecological and economical values, so that management and preservation of mangrove ecosystem are needed. The purpose of this research was to determine the existing condition of mangrove, both its distribution and its functional transformation in Indah Kapuk Coastal Area. Avicennia marina  becomes important as wave attenuation,  a form of abrasion antidote. Transect-Square and Spot-Check methods were used to determine the existing condition of A.marina mangrove forests. Autocad program, coordinate converter, Google Earth, Google Map, and Arc View were applied in process of making mangrove distribution map. In western of research location exactly at Station 1 and Station 2, the density value of mangrove was 450 and 825 tree ha-1, respectively with  sparse category because they were contaminated by waste and litter. In eastern of research location namely Station 3, Station 4, and Station 5 the mangroves grow well with density value of 650 (sparse, 1,500 (very dense, and 1,200 tree ha-1 (fair, respectively, eventhough the contamination still happened. The mangrove forests around the stations do not function as wave attenuation because there were many waterfront constructions which have replaced the function of mangrove forests to damp the wave. In short, it can be stated that the mangrove's function has changed in a case of wave attenuation. The function of mangrove forests is not determined by mangrove forest density but it is determined by mangrove's free position.Keywords: Avicennia marina, mangrove, wave attenuation, waterfront constructions

  19. Biology of the Marine Heterotrophic Dinoflagellate Oxyrrhis marina: Current Status and Future Directions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Zhiling; Zhang, Huan; Liu, Sheng; Lin, Senjie

    2013-10-21

    Heterotrophic dinoflagellates are prevalent protists in marine environments, which play an important role in the carbon cycling and energy flow in the marine planktonic community. Oxyrrhismarina (Dinophyceae), a widespread heterotrophic dinoflagellate, is a model species used for a broad range of ecological, biogeographic, and evolutionary studies. Despite the increasing research effort on this species, there lacks a synthesis of the existing data and a coherent picture of this organism. Here we reviewed the literature to provide an overview of what is known regarding the biology of O. marina, and identify areas where further studies are needed. As an early branch of the dinoflagellate lineage, O. marina shares similarity with typical dinoflagellates in permanent condensed chromosomes, less abundant nucleosome proteins compared to other eukaryotes, multiple gene copies, the occurrence of trans-splicing in nucleus-encoded mRNAs, highly fragmented mitochondrial genome, and disuse of ATG as a start codon for mitochondrial genes. On the other hand, O. marina also exhibits some distinct cytological features (e.g., different flagellar structure, absence of girdle and sulcus or pustules, use of intranuclear spindle in mitosis, presence of nuclear plaque, and absence of birefringent periodic banded chromosomal structure) and genetic features (e.g., a single histone-like DNA-associated protein, cob-cox3 gene fusion, 5' oligo-U cap in the mitochondrial transcripts of protein-coding genes, the absence of mRNA editing, the presence of stop codon in the fused cob-cox3 mRNA produced by post-transcriptional oligoadenylation, and vestigial plastid genes). The best-studied biology of this dinoflagellate is probably the prey and predators types, which include a wide range of organisms. On the other hand, the abundance of this species in the natural waters and its controlling factors, genome organization and gene expression regulation that underlie the unusual cytological and

  20. Antifungal Effect of the Aqueous and Ethanolic Avicennia marina Extracts on Alternaria citri and Penicillium digitatum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Behrooz Alizadeh Behbahani

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Background Plants have a great potential for producing new drugs of great benefit to mankind. There are many approaches to the search for new biologically active principles in higher plants. Objectives The aim of this study was to determine antifungal effect of the aqueous and ethanolic extracts of Avicennia marina on Penicillium digitatum and Alternaria citri in vitro. Materials and Methods In this experimental study, antimicrobial effects of extract were determined by screening antimicrobial activity and disk agar diffusion test in 20, 40, 60 and 80 mg/mL concentration of the extract against P. digitatum and A. citri. Minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC and minimum fungicidal concentration (MFC were determined by incorporating various concentrations of extracts in Sabouraud dextrose agar (SDA in tubes against P. digitatum and A. citri. The data were analyzed using one way analysis of variance (ANOVA using SPSS-17. Results The results indicate that extracts of A. marina mostly had been effective on P. digitatum and have the least impact on A. citri. The results show that the ethanol extract of mangrove leaf with antimicrobial activity method in 2 mg/mL, were inhibited the growth of P. digitatum and A. citri. In disk agar diffusion test the mentioned extract were shown inhibition effect on pathogen molds growth (P < 0.05. Conclusions Ethanolic extract compared to the aqueous extract was more effective and has a greater inhibition effect. The results of this study showed that the extract of A. marina has antifungal properties that justify their traditional use as medicinal plants.

  1. Research and development for algae-based technologies in Korea: a review of algae biofuel production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, Ji Won; Jo, Seung-Woo; Yoon, Ho-Sung

    2015-03-01

    This review covers recent research and development (R&D) activities in the field of algae-based biofuels in Korea. As South Korea's energy policy paradigm has focused on the development of green energies, the government has funded several algae biofuel R&D consortia and pilot projects. Three major programs have been launched since 2009, and significant efforts are now being made to ensure a sustainable supply of algae-based biofuels. If these R&D projects are executed as planned for the next 10 years, they will enable us to overcome many technical barriers in algae biofuel technologies and help Korea to become one of the leading countries in green energy by 2020.

  2. Photosystem Trap Energies and Spectrally-Dependent Energy-Storage Efficiencies in the Chl d-Utilizing Cyanobacterium, Acaryochloris Marina

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mielke, Steven P.; Kiang, Nancy Y.; Blankenship, Robert E.; Mauzerall, David

    2012-01-01

    Acaryochloris marina is the only species known to utilize chlorophyll (Chl) d as a principal photopigment. The peak absorption wavelength of Chl d is redshifted approx. 40 nm in vivo relative to Chl a, enabling this cyanobacterium to perform oxygenic phototrophy in niche environments enhanced in far-red light. We present measurements of the in vivo energy-storage (E-S) efficiency of photosynthesis in A. marina, obtained using pulsed photoacoustics (PA) over a 90-nm range of excitation wavelengths in the red and far-red. Together with modeling results, these measurements provide the first direct observation of the trap energies of PSI and PSII, and also the photosystem-specific contributions to the total E-S efficiency. We find the maximum observed efficiency in A. marina (40+/-1% at 735 nm) is higher than in the Chl a cyanobacterium Synechococcus leopoliensis (35+/-1% at 690 nm). The efficiency at peak absorption wavelength is also higher in A. marina (36+/-1% at 710 nm vs. 31+/-1% at 670 nm). In both species, the trap efficiencies are approx. 40% (PSI) and approx. 30% (PSII). The PSI trap in A. marina is found to lie at 740+/-5 nm, in agreement with the value inferred from spectroscopic methods. The best fit of the model to the PA data identifies the PSII trap at 723+/-3 nm, supporting the view that the primary electron-donor is Chl d, probably at the accessory (ChlD1) site. A decrease in efficiency beyond the trap wavelength, consistent with uphill energy transfer, is clearly observed and fit by the model. These results demonstrate that the E-S efficiency in A. marina is not thermodynamically limited, suggesting that oxygenic photosynthesis is viable in even redder light environments.

  3. Fucoidans - sulfated polysaccharides of brown algae

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Usov, Anatolii I; Bilan, M I [N.D.Zelinsky Institute of Organic Chemistry, Russian Academy of Sciences, Moscow (Russian Federation)

    2009-08-31

    The methods of isolation of fucoidans and determination of their chemical structures are reviewed. The fucoidans represent sulfated polysaccharides of brown algae, the composition of which varies from simple fucan sulfates to complex heteropolysaccharides. The currently known structures of such biopolymers are presented. A variety of the biological activities of fucoidans is briefly summarised.

  4. Fucoidans — sulfated polysaccharides of brown algae

    Science.gov (United States)

    Usov, Anatolii I.; Bilan, M. I.

    2009-08-01

    The methods of isolation of fucoidans and determination of their chemical structures are reviewed. The fucoidans represent sulfated polysaccharides of brown algae, the composition of which varies from simple fucan sulfates to complex heteropolysaccharides. The currently known structures of such biopolymers are presented. A variety of the biological activities of fucoidans is briefly summarised.

  5. Pheromone signaling during sexual reproduction in algae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frenkel, Johannes; Vyverman, Wim; Pohnert, Georg

    2014-08-01

    Algae are found in all aquatic and many terrestrial habitats. They are dominant in phytoplankton and biofilms thereby contributing massively to global primary production. Since algae comprise photosynthetic representatives of the various protoctist groups their physiology and appearance is highly diverse. This diversity is also mirrored in their characteristic life cycles that exhibit various facets of ploidy and duration of the asexual phase as well as gamete morphology. Nevertheless, sexual reproduction in unicellular and colonial algae usually has as common motive that two specialized, sexually compatible haploid gametes establish physical contact and fuse. To guarantee mating success, processes during sexual reproduction are highly synchronized and regulated. This review focuses on sex pheromones of algae that play a key role in these processes. Especially, the diversity of sexual strategies as well as of the compounds involved are the focus of this contribution. Discoveries connected to algal pheromone chemistry shed light on the role of key evolutionary processes, including endosymbiotic events and lateral gene transfer, speciation and adaptation at all phylogenetic levels. But progress in this field might also in the future provide valid tools for the manipulation of aquaculture and environmental processes.

  6. Spirulina: The Alga That Can End Malnutrition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fox, Ripley D.

    1985-01-01

    One approach to eliminating malnutrition worldwide is to grow spirulina in recycled village wastes. Spirulina is a blue-green alga and a natural concentrated food. Spirulina can give poor villages a nutritional food supplement they can grow themselves and can reduce infectious disease at the same time. (Author/RM)

  7. Research for Developing Renewable Biofuels from Algae

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Black, Paul N. [Univ. of Nebraska, Lincoln, NE (United States)

    2012-12-15

    Task A. Expansion of knowledge related to lipid production and secretion in algae A.1 Lipid biosynthesis in target algal species; Systems biology approaches are being used in combination with recent advances in Chlorella and Chlamydomonas genomics to address lipid accumulation in response to defined nutrient regimes. The UNL Algal Group continues screening additional species of Chlorella and other naturally occurring algae for those with optimal triglyceride production; Of the strains examined by the DOE's Aquatic Species Program, green algae, several species of Chlorella represent the largest group from which oleaginous candidates have been identified; A.1.1. Lipid profiling; Neutral lipid accumulation is routinely monitored by Nile red and BODIPY staining using high throughput strategies to screen for naturally occurring algae that accumulate triglyceride. These strategies complement those using spectrofluorometry to quantify lipid accumulation; Neutral lipid accumulation is routinely monitored by high performance thin-layer chromatography (HPTLC) and high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) of lipid extracts in conjunction with; Carbon portioning experiments have been completed and the data currently are being analyzed and prepared for publication; Methods in the Black lab were developed to identify and quantify triacylglycerol (TAG), major membrane lipids [diacylglycerol trimethylhomoserine, phosphatidylethanolamine and chloroplast glycolipids], biosynthetic intermediates such as diacylglycerol, phosphatidic acid and lysophospholipids and different species of acyl-coenzyme A (acyl CoA).

  8. Bromophenols in Marine Algae and Their Bioactivities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ming, Liu; Hansen, Poul Erik; Lin, Xiukun

    2011-01-01

    Marine algae contain various bromophenols that have been shown to possess a variety of biological activities, including antioxidant, antimicrobial, anticancer, anti-diabetic, and anti-thrombotic effects. Here, we briefly review the recent progress of these marine algal biomaterials, with respect...

  9. Isolation of glycoproteins from brown algae

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2015-01-01

    The present invention relates to a novel process for the isolation of unique anti-oxidative glycoproteins from the pH precipitated fractions of enzymatic extracts of brown algae. Two brown seaweeds viz, Fucus serratus and Fucus vesiculosus were hydrolysed by using 3 enzymes viz, Alcalase, Viscozyme...

  10. Design your own Algae Photobioreactor Facade

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Juarez Ortiz, T.V.; Choi, Z.F.

    2014-01-01

    This "designers' manual" is made during the TIDO-course AR0533 Innovation & Sustainability. There are several reasons why to implement algae in the building facade. Imagine our future buildings covered with photosynthetic skins and vertical gardens, collecting the sun’s energy and making buildings

  11. Seasonal acclimation in metabolism reduces light requirements of eelgrass (Zostera marina)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stæhr, Peter A.; Borum, Jens

    2011-01-01

    We investigated the ability of eelgrass (Zostera marina) to adjust light requirements to seasonal changes in temperature, light and nutrient conditions through changes in metabolism, pigment and nutrient content. In agreement with expectations we found that rates of respiration and light saturated...... photosynthesis of summer acclimated plants peaked at higher temperatures (5 °C and 2 °C higher, respectively), and were lower than of winter acclimated plants, both at sub- and supra-optimal temperatures. Moreover respiration rates were generally more sensitive to increasing temperatures than photosynthetic...

  12. Mecanismos de toxicidad y permeabilidad transepitelial de toxinas marinas y de agua dulce

    OpenAIRE

    Fernández Martínez, Diego Alberto

    2015-01-01

    La presente tesis doctoral aporta datos experimentales que permiten comprender mejor los efectos que las toxinas marinas Palitoxina (PLTX), Ácido Okadaico (OA), Dinofisistoxina 1 y 2 (DTX-1 y DTX-2) y la toxina de agua dulce Cilindrospermopsina (CYN), pueden ejercer sobre la salud humana y animal. Con esta finalidad se investiga la citotoxicidad y las alteraciones citomorfológicas que estos compuestos desencadenan en células intestinales, hepáticas y nerviosas. También se evalú...

  13. Foleyellides rhinellae sp. nov. (Nematoda, Onchocercidae) a new filaria parasitizing Rhinella marina (Anura, Bufonidae) in Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Prieto, Luis; Ruiz-Torres, Nallely; Osorio-Sarabia, David; Merlo-Serna, Aldo

    2014-09-01

    A new nematode species, Foleyellides rhinellae sp. nov. (Onchocercidae), is described from specimens found in the body cavity of the cane toad, Rhinella marina (Linnaeus) (Anura, Bufonidae), in the Laguna de Coyuca, Guerrero, in the Pacific slope of Mexico. The new species differs from the other nine species of Foleyellides by infecting bufonid anurans and by the number and arrangement of caudal papillae. Other distinguishing feature of the new species is the size of the left spicule (0.16-0.23 long), the smallest recorded among the species included in the genus. Foleyellides rhinellae sp. nov. is the second known species of the genus recorded from amphibians of Mexico.

  14. Ritos de passagem contemporâneos em Marina Colasanti: passagens e ressurgências

    OpenAIRE

    Faccin, Fernanda Pina dos Reis

    2013-01-01

    Para a presente dissertação selecionaram-se quatro contos do livro O leopardo é um animal delicado, de Marina Colasanti: Menina de vermelho a caminho da Lua ; O leopardo é um animal delicado ; As regras do jogo e Sem que seja de joelhos . Os contos elencados apresentam, em suas narrativas, ritos de passagem que se encontram em contextos distintos, embora compartilhem da mesma dinâmica metamórfica, caracterizada pelas passagens, pois há uma correspondência entre as diversas modalidades de...

  15. Chasing the Intangible: a Conversation on Theatre, Language, and Artistic Migrations with Irish Playwright Marina Carr

    OpenAIRE

    Valentina Rapetti

    2014-01-01

    Offally born Marina Carr is amongst the most prolific, influential and internationally renowned Irish playwrights of our times. Since her debut on the avant-garde side of the Dublin theatre scene in the late Eighties, she has had  seventeen plays professionally produced, both in and outside Ireland. Her earlier work is influenced by Samuel Beckett’s Absurdist drama, while in her most mature and recent plays she draws on both classical and Irish mythology, Greek tragedies and Shakespeare’s poe...

  16. Morphological characterization of Eustrongylides sp. larvae (Nematoda, Dioctophymatoidea) parasite of Rhinella marina (Amphibia: Bufonidae) from Eastern Amazonia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melo, Francisco Tiago de Vasconcelos; Melo, Caroline do Socorro Barros; Nascimento, Luciana de Cássia Silva do; Giese, Elane Guerreiro; Furtado, Adriano Penha; Santos, Jeannie Nascimento Dos

    2016-06-07

    Absctract Eustrongylides spp. nematodes have birds as final hosts and uses other vertebrates as intermediate/paratenic host (fish, amphibians and reptiles) and have zoonotic potential. In amphibians, the larvae may be located in the subcutaneous tissues, liver and mesentery, between the muscle fibres, especially in the lower limbs. Rhinella marina, which is widely observed in Brazil, has exhibited complex diversity in its helminth fauna, reflecting the unique habitat of the Amazon biome. For the first time, this study describes the morphological aspects of third-stage larvae of Eustrongylides sp. in Rhinella marina from Santa Cruz do Ararí, Marajó Archipelago, Eastern Amazonia, using light and scanning electron microscopy.

  17. THE USE OF ALGAE CONCENTRATES, DRIED ALGAE AND ALGAL SUBSTITUTES TO FEED BIVALVES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ludi Parwadani Aji

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Microalgae have high nutritional value and are used to feed adult and larval stages of bivalves, the larvae of some fish and crustaceans and zooplankton. However, microalgae production for aquaculture animal is very expensive. To overcome this, the use of preserved microalgae such as algae concentrate and dried algae, or algal substitutes has been developed. There are both advantages and disadvantages to this alternative food. For example, even though the cost production for algal substitute yeast-based diet is cheaper, their nutritional value is much lower compared to fresh microalgae. Moreover, there is no significant difference in nutritional value between preserved (concentrated or dried and fresh microalgae; however, preserving microalgae for long periods will affect their nutritional value. In spite of this problem, preserved microalgae such as algal concentrate and dried algae seem to be more effective to feed bivalves than algal substitutes yeast based diet due to their availability and relatively high nutritional value. Furthermore, algae concentrates are more suitable to replace fresh algae than dried algae.

  18. Aplicación de la Tecnología SIG para la representación de información climática marina en el Atlántico Sur Application Of Gis Technology For The Representation Of Climate Marine Information In The South Atlantic Region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elisa C. Nuré

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Este trabajo presenta una aplicación de la tecnología de Sistemas de Información Geográfica (SIG a las bases de datos de información meteorológica marina generadas en función de procedimientos estadísticos recomendados por la Organización Meteorológica Mundial para la elaboración de Resúmenes Climáticos Marinos. Este SIG permite una visualización dinámica de valores extremos y frecuencias en forma de mapas, tablas y gráficos, tanto temporales como espaciales, así como de la distribución de las observaciones meteorológicas marinas en el Océano Atlántico Sudoccidental. La información climática regional marina elaborada utilizando esta tecnología, es de interés para toda ciencia o disciplina relacionada con el medio ambiente y constituye un valioso soporte para la planificación de tareas en el ámbito de la seguridad náutica, tanto para el Servicio de Hidrografía Naval como para otras instituciones que desarrollen actividades afines.This article shows a Geographic Information Systems (GIS application to marine climatic information data bases. These data bases are created following the World Meteorological Organization recommendations for applying statistical procedures to marine observations in order to elaborate Marine Climatic Summaries. This GIS allows a dynamic visualization of maps, tables and graphics showing extreme values and frequencies of meteorological variables in time and space as well as the marine meteorological observations distribution over the South Atlantic Ocean. The regional climatic marine information obtained using this technology, will be a useful tool for environmental related disciplines and, it will be also of valuable support for the safety of naval operations.

  19. El derecho como hecho o como norma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberto José Vernengo

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Para el historiador, antiguamente, y para el sociólogo, en nuestros días, el derecho es un fenómeno empírico. El derecho de una sociedad es un dato de su realidad: historiador o sociólogo tienen que buscar el derecho en alguna experiencia empírica accesible. Sin embargo, no es fácil toparse con el derecho de una sociedad, como, por caso, con el derecho argentino actual, pues no sabemos muy bien a qué datos de la realidad apuntar. Aquéllos que discernimos aparecen teñidos por alguna concepción previa que tengamos sobre qué haya de entenderse por derecho. (...

  20. Photodegradation of Norfloxacin in aqueous solution containing algae

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Junwei Zhang; Dafang Fu; Jilong Wu

    2012-01-01

    Photodegradation of Norfloxacin in aqueous solution containing algae under a medium pressure mercury lamp (15 W,λmax =365 nm) was investigated.Results indicated that the photodegradation of Norfloxacin could be induced by the algae in the heterogeneous algaewater systems.The photodegradation rate of Norfloxacin increased with increasing algae concentration,and was greatly influenced by the temperature and pH of solution.Meanwhile,the cooperation action of algae and Fe(Ⅲ),and the ultrasound were beneficial to photodegradation of Norfloxaciu.The degradation kinetics of Norfloxacin was found to follow the pseudo zero-order reaction in the suspension of algae.In addition,we discussed the photodegradation mechanism of Norfloxacin in the suspension of algae.This work will be helpful for understanding the photochemical degradation of antibiotics in aqueous environment in the presence of algae,for providing a new method to deal with antibiotics pollution.

  1. Sintesis icnológica de unidades mesozoicas marinas de la Cuenca Neuquina, nuevos datos y perspectivas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pablo J. Pazos

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available En este trabajo se realiza unasíntesis icnológica de las unidades marinas de la cuenca Neuquina teniendo encuenta el marco estratigráfico de los hallazgos, se presentan nuevos datos y semencionan aquellos aspectos aún no abordados. Los registros más antiguos hansido documentados en el Jurásico y contienen icnotaxones (Lapispira quehan sido descriptos por primera vez para Sudamérica en facies de plataforma.Otros constituyen un muy buen ejemplo de trazas bien preservadas en depósitosdeltaicos jurásicos de la Formación Lajas, con influencia mareal. Allí, elregistro incluye Asterosoma, Asteriacites, Dactyloidites, Diplocraterion,Gyrochorte, Palaeophycus, Polykladichnus, Schaubcilindrichnus, Siphonichnus,Thalassinoides, Teichichnus y trazas poco frecuentes en ambientes marinos someroscomo Helminthorhaphe y rizolitos, entre otras, indicativas de uncomplejo engranaje de facies. Los carbonatos jurásicos de la Formación La Manga contienen tempestitas con Dactyloidites, Gyrochorte, Jamerosonichnitesy Thalassinoides, en Bardas Blancas. El registro icnológico delCretácico Inferior se halla documentado en las Formaciones Mulichinco y Agrio.En la primera los icnofósiles aparecen en la zona de Vega de Escalone ycomprenden Asteriacites, Lockeia, Ophiomorpha, Gyrochorte y posiblementeBergaueria. En la Formación Agrio, tanto en Bajada del Agrio (localidadtipo como en otras localidades dispersas en la cuenca aparecen icnofósilestales como Gyrochorte, Ophiomorpha, Thalassinoides y Teichichnus.Nuevo material proveniente de ambas unidades incluye scratchs subácueos o dearrastre de vertebrados (Characichnos? provenientes de las localidadesde Vega de Escalone y Puerta Curaco. Las trazas de locomoción de artrópodosincluyen formas con apéndices diferenciados (Diplichnites? eindiferenciados. En la Formación Agrio se reconocieron huellas tridáctilas deterópodos en el anticlinal cerro Rayoso, que confirman exposición subaérea enuna zona hasta el

  2. Phenology and Growth dynamics of Avicennia marina in the Central Red Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almahasheer, Hanan; Duarte, Carlos M.; Irigoien, Xabier

    2016-11-01

    The formation of nodes, stem elongation and the phenology of stunted Avicennia marina was examined in the Central Red Sea, where Avicennia marina is at the limit of its distribution range and submitted to extremely arid conditions with salinity above 38 psu and water temperature as high as 35° C. The annual node production was rather uniform among locations averaging 9.59 node y‑1, which resulted in a plastocron interval, the interval in between production of two consecutive nodes along a stem, of 38 days. However, the internodal length varied significantly between locations, resulting in growth differences possibly reflecting the environmental conditions of locations. The reproductive cycle lasted for approximately 12 months, and was characterized by peak flowering and propagule development in November and January. These phenological observations provide a starting point for research and restoration programs on the ecology of mangroves in the Central Red Sea, while the plastochrone index reported here would allow calculations of the growth and production of the species from simple morphological measurements.

  3. Effects of microplastic on fitness and PCB bioaccumulation by the lugworm Arenicola marina (L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Besseling, Ellen; Wegner, Anna; Foekema, Edwin M; van den Heuvel-Greve, Martine J; Koelmans, Albert A

    2013-01-02

    It has been speculated that marine microplastics may cause negative effects on benthic marine organisms and increase bioaccumulation of persistent organic pollutants (POPs). Here, we provide the first controlled study of plastic effects on benthic organisms including transfer of POPs. The effects of polystyrene (PS) microplastic on survival, activity, and bodyweight, as well as the transfer of 19 polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), were assessed in bioassays with Arenicola marina (L.). PS was pre-equilibrated in natively contaminated sediment. A positive relation was observed between microplastic concentration in the sediment and both uptake of plastic particles and weight loss by A. marina. Furthermore, a reduction in feeding activity was observed at a PS dose of 7.4% dry weight. A low PS dose of 0.074% increased bioaccumulation of PCBs by a factor of 1.1-3.6, an effect that was significant for ΣPCBs and several individual congeners. At higher doses, bioaccumulation decreased compared to the low dose, which however, was only significant for PCB105. PS had statistically significant effects on the organisms' fitness and bioaccumulation, but the magnitude of the effects was not high. This may be different for sites with different plastic concentrations, or plastics with a higher affinity for POPs.

  4. Microplastics are taken up by mussels (Mytilus edulis) and lugworms (Arenicola marina) living in natural habitats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Cauwenberghe, Lisbeth; Claessens, Michiel; Vandegehuchte, Michiel B; Janssen, Colin R

    2015-04-01

    We studied the uptake of microplastics under field conditions. At six locations along the French-Belgian-Dutch coastline we collected two species of marine invertebrates representing different feeding strategies: the blue mussel Mytilus edulis (filter feeder) and the lugworm Arenicola marina (deposit feeder). Additional laboratory experiments were performed to assess possible (adverse) effects of ingestion and translocation of microplastics on the energy metabolism (cellular energy allocation) of these species. Microplastics were present in all organisms collected in the field: on average 0.2 ± 0.3 microplastics g(-1) (M. edulis) and 1.2 ± 2.8 particles g(-1) (A. marina). In a proof of principle laboratory experiment, mussels and lugworms exposed to high concentrations of polystyrene microspheres (110 particles mL(-1) seawater and 110 particles g(-1) sediment, respectively) showed no significant adverse effect on the organisms' overall energy budget. The results are discussed in the context of possible risks as a result of the possible transfer of adsorbed contaminants.

  5. Bohemia as the Homeland of the Soul in the Letters of Marina Tsvetaeva to Anna Teskova

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Massimo Tria

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The article examines the letters sent by Marina Tsvetaeva to the translator and public figure Anna Teskova, who was one of the few poet’s Czech intimate friends, whom she met during her stay in Czechoslovakia (1922-1925. In the first part of the paper the Author focuses on the echoes of Prague and its culture in this specific correspondence, trying to ascertain to which extent Marina Tsvetaeva was acquainted with the cultural world she lived in: the lack of knowledge of the Czech language and the limited relationships with Prague intellectuals didn’t allow her to get a deep insight of the Czech cultural milieu. The textual analysis of the letters, though, on the basis of key concepts as “родной”, “родина”, “честь”, confirms the presence of a persistent feeling of Prague-homesickness in Tsvetaeva’s psycho- logical world, which brought her to develop an alternative model of Homeland, substitute to her native Russia and to Germany, which disappointed her after the rise of the Nazi Regime. Through this unique correspondence (including the first part of her Verses dedicated to Bohemia we gain the certainty that Tsvetaeva discovered in Prague and in the Czech lands an idealized model of a pacific, beautiful and faithful Homeland.

  6. The genome of the seagrass Zostera marina reveals angiosperm adaptation to the sea

    KAUST Repository

    Olsen, Jeanine L.

    2016-01-27

    Seagrasses colonized the sea1 on at least three independent occasions to form the basis of one of the most productive and widespread coastal ecosystems on the planet2. Here we report the genome of Zostera marina (L.), the first, to our knowledge, marine angiosperm to be fully sequenced. This reveals unique insights into the genomic losses and gains involved in achieving the structural and physiological adaptations required for its marine lifestyle, arguably the most severe habitat shift ever accomplished by flowering plants. Key angiosperm innovations that were lost include the entire repertoire of stomatal genes3, genes involved in the synthesis of terpenoids and ethylene signalling, and genes for ultraviolet protection and phytochromes for far-red sensing. Seagrasses have also regained functions enabling them to adjust to full salinity. Their cell walls contain all of the polysaccharides typical of land plants, but also contain polyanionic, low-methylated pectins and sulfated galactans, a feature shared with the cell walls of all macroalgae4 and that is important for ion homoeostasis, nutrient uptake and O2/CO2 exchange through leaf epidermal cells. The Z. marina genome resource will markedly advance a wide range of functional ecological studies from adaptation of marine ecosystems under climate warming5, 6, to unravelling the mechanisms of osmoregulation under high salinities that may further inform our understanding of the evolution of salt tolerance in crop plants7.

  7. Nutrient Dynamics in an Avicennia marina (Forsk. Vierh., Mangrove Forest in Vamleshwar, Gujarat, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isaiah Nirmal KUMAR

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available The study was carried out to determine the nutrient budget of plants, sediments and nutrient dynamics in an Avicennia marina (Forsk. Vierh., dominated forest in Vamleshwar near Narmada estuary, West Coast of Gujarat for a period of one year from November 2008 to October 2009. The average tree height of the mangrove is 1.5 to 2 m without much vertical stratification. Allometric methodology was used to measure the biomass, and yield a figure of 86.47 t ha-1 and the litter fall rate amounted to 2.9 t ha-1. Nutrient stocks of N, P and K in this mangrove were 137.05, 14.38 and 241.29 kg ha-1, with an annual accumulation of 55.74, 12.38 and 83.94 kg ha-1, and an annual return of 51.30, 10.83 and 13.52 kg ha-1, respectively, in the form of litter. The annual uptake for N, P and K were 61.04, 14.28 and 97.46 kg ha-1, and turnover rates of N, P and K were estimated at 3, 6 and 14 years, respectively, for the study period. Flow coefficients, which reveal the dynamic processes of nutrients between mangrove plants and sediments, are also explained. The present study concluded that the A. marina dominated mangrove plantation is more efficient in nutrient use and conservation.

  8. Phenology and Growth dynamics of Avicennia marina in the Central Red Sea

    KAUST Repository

    Almahasheer, Hanan

    2016-11-28

    The formation of nodes, stem elongation and the phenology of stunted Avicennia marina was examined in the Central Red Sea, where Avicennia marina is at the limit of its distribution range and submitted to extremely arid conditions with salinity above 38 psu and water temperature as high as 35° C. The annual node production was rather uniform among locations averaging 9.59 node y−1, which resulted in a plastocron interval, the interval in between production of two consecutive nodes along a stem, of 38 days. However, the internodal length varied significantly between locations, resulting in growth differences possibly reflecting the environmental conditions of locations. The reproductive cycle lasted for approximately 12 months, and was characterized by peak flowering and propagule development in November and January. These phenological observations provide a starting point for research and restoration programs on the ecology of mangroves in the Central Red Sea, while the plastochrone index reported here would allow calculations of the growth and production of the species from simple morphological measurements.

  9. EVALUACIÓN DE ACTITUDES FRENTE AL USO DE LAS TORTUGAS MARINAS EN PLAYA GANDOCA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Malaver

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available en el refugio nacional de vida silvestre Gandoca-Manzanillo, Costa rica, se creó en 1986 un programa para la protección y conservación de la población anidadora de tortugas marinas. Esta evaluación buscaba identificar los aspectos que predisponen a la población a actuar de una forma determinada utilizando el modelo metodológico denominado teoría de facetas; este modelo parte de una frase mapa que enmarca la hipótesis, y con la cual se elaboró el cuestionario de evaluación que se aplicó a 106 habitantes de la comunidad de Gandoca, lo que corresponde al 40% del total de pobladores según el instituto nacional de estadística y Censos (2000. en general, los resultados mostraron que la actitud de la población de Gandoca hacia el uso que se le debe dar a las tortugas marinas se basa en el elemento emocional, donde el turismo tiene gran aceptación, y donde existe en limitada medida la responsabilidad de las acciones hacia el objeto de la actitud.

  10. Understanding the Ecoydrology of Mangroves: A Simple SPAC Model for Avicennia Marina

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perri, Saverio; Viola, Francesco; Valerio Noto, Leonardo; Molini, Annalisa

    2015-04-01

    Mangroves represent one of the most carbon-rich ecosystems in the Tropics, noticeably impacting ecosystem services and the economy of these regions. Whether the ability of mangroves to exclude and tolerate salt has been extensively investigated in the literature - both from the structural and functional point of view - their eco-hydrological characteristics remains largely understudied, despite the crucial link with productivity, efficient carbon storage and fluxes. In this contribution we develop a "first-order" Soil Plant Atmosphere Continuum model for Avicennia Marina, a mangrove able to adapt to hyper-arid intertidal zones and characterized by complex morphological and eco-physiological traits. Among mangroves, Avicennia marina is one of the most tolerant to salinity and arid climatic conditions. Our model, based on a simple macroscopic approach, takes into account the specific characteristics of the mangrove ecosystem and in particular, the salinity of the water in the soil and the levels of salt stress to which the plant may be subjected. Mangrove transpiration is hence obtained by solving the plant and leaf water balance and the leaf energy balance, taking explicitly into account the role of osmotic water potential and salinity in governing plant resistance to water fluxes. The SPAC model of Avicennia is hence tested against experimental data obtained from the literature, showing the reliability and effectiveness of this minimalist model in reproducing observed transpiration fluxes. Finally, sensitivity analysis is used to assess whether uncertainty on the adopted parameters could lead to significant errors in the transpiration assessment.

  11. Antioxidant and antimicrobial activity of a mangrove plant Avicennia marina (Forsk.)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Pooja Moteriya; Ashish Dalsaniya; Sumitra Chanda

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the antioxidant and antimicrobial potential of different parts (leaf, stem and pneumatophore) of a mangrove plant Avicennia marina (Forsk.) Vierh (Avicenniaceae). Methods: The extraction was done by cold percolation method using solvents of hexane, ethyl acetate, acetone, methanol and water. Total phenol and flavonoid content were measured by Folin-Ciocalteu’s reagent and aluminium chloride colorimetric method respectively. The antioxidant activity was evaluated using antioxidant assays of 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl free radical scavenging activity, superoxide radical scavenging assay, 2,2’-azino-bis-(3-ethyl) benzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid, ferric reducing antioxidant power and reducing capacity assessment. The antibacterial activity was done by agar well diffusion method against four Gram-positive, four Gram-negative bacteria and four fungi. Results: Different antioxidant assays showed different levels of activity in different parts and different solvent extracts. Overall, acetone extract of stem showed the best antioxidant activity. The Gram-positive bacteria were more susceptible than Gram-negative bacteria and fungi. Conclusions: The results indicated extract of Avicennia marina can be used as a promising source of natural antioxidant.

  12. Biosynthesis of silver nanoparticles from mangrove plant (Avicennia marina) extract and their potential mosquito larvicidal property.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balakrishnan, Srinivasan; Srinivasan, Muthukumarasamy; Mohanraj, Jeyaraj

    2016-09-01

    To identify the larvicidal activities of silver nanoparticles synthesised with Avicennia marina leaf extract against the larvae of Aedes aegypti and Anopheleus stephensi, in vitro larvicidal activities such as LC50 and LC90 were assessed. Further, characterisation such as UV and FTIR analysis were carried out for the synthesised silver nanoparticles. The LC50 value of the synthesised silver nanoparticles was identified as 4.374 and 7.406 mg/L for An. stephensi and Ae. aegypti larvae respectively. Further, the LC90 values are also identified as 4.928 and 9.865 mg/L for An. stephensi and Ae. aegypti species respectively. The synthesised silver nanoparticles have maximum absorption at 420 nm with the average size of 60-95 nm. The FTIR data showed prominent peaks in (3940.57, 3929.00, 3803.63, 3712.97, 2918.30, 2231.64, 1610.50, 1377.17, 1257.59, 1041.59, 1041.56, 775.38, 667.37 and 503.21) different ranges. The biosynthesis of silver nanoparticles with leaf aqueous extract of A. marina provides potential source for the larvicidal activity against mosquito borne diseases. The present study proved the mosquitocidal properties of silver nanoparticles synthesised from mangroves of Vellar estuary. This is an ideal eco-friendly approach for the vector control programs.

  13. The genome of the seagrass Zostera marina reveals angiosperm adaptation to the sea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olsen, Jeanine L; Rouzé, Pierre; Verhelst, Bram; Lin, Yao-Cheng; Bayer, Till; Collen, Jonas; Dattolo, Emanuela; De Paoli, Emanuele; Dittami, Simon; Maumus, Florian; Michel, Gurvan; Kersting, Anna; Lauritano, Chiara; Lohaus, Rolf; Töpel, Mats; Tonon, Thierry; Vanneste, Kevin; Amirebrahimi, Mojgan; Brakel, Janina; Boström, Christoffer; Chovatia, Mansi; Grimwood, Jane; Jenkins, Jerry W; Jueterbock, Alexander; Mraz, Amy; Stam, Wytze T; Tice, Hope; Bornberg-Bauer, Erich; Green, Pamela J; Pearson, Gareth A; Procaccini, Gabriele; Duarte, Carlos M; Schmutz, Jeremy; Reusch, Thorsten B H; Van de Peer, Yves

    2016-02-18

    Seagrasses colonized the sea on at least three independent occasions to form the basis of one of the most productive and widespread coastal ecosystems on the planet. Here we report the genome of Zostera marina (L.), the first, to our knowledge, marine angiosperm to be fully sequenced. This reveals unique insights into the genomic losses and gains involved in achieving the structural and physiological adaptations required for its marine lifestyle, arguably the most severe habitat shift ever accomplished by flowering plants. Key angiosperm innovations that were lost include the entire repertoire of stomatal genes, genes involved in the synthesis of terpenoids and ethylene signalling, and genes for ultraviolet protection and phytochromes for far-red sensing. Seagrasses have also regained functions enabling them to adjust to full salinity. Their cell walls contain all of the polysaccharides typical of land plants, but also contain polyanionic, low-methylated pectins and sulfated galactans, a feature shared with the cell walls of all macroalgae and that is important for ion homoeostasis, nutrient uptake and O2/CO2 exchange through leaf epidermal cells. The Z. marina genome resource will markedly advance a wide range of functional ecological studies from adaptation of marine ecosystems under climate warming, to unravelling the mechanisms of osmoregulation under high salinities that may further inform our understanding of the evolution of salt tolerance in crop plants.

  14. The Existing Condition of Mangrove Region of Avicenia marina, Its: Distribution and Functional Transformation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmad Herison

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Mangrove ecosystem existence is important for environment and other organisms because of its ecological and economical values, so that management and preservation of mangrove ecosystem are needed. The purpose of this research was to determine the existing condition of mangrove, both its distribution and its functional transformation in Indah Kapuk Coastal Area. Avicennia marina becomes important as wave attenuation, a form of abrasion antidote. Transect-Square and Spot-Check methods were used to determine the existing condition of A.marina mangrove forests. Autocad program, coordinate converter, Google Earth, Google Map, and Arc View were applied in process of making mangrove distribution map. In western of research location exactly at Station 1 and Station 2, the density value of mangrove was 450 and 825 tree ha-1, respectively with sparse category because they were contaminated by waste and litter. In eastern of research location namely Station 3, Station 4, and Station 5 the mangroves grow well with density value of 650 (sparse, 1,500 (very dense, and 1,200 tree ha-1 (fair, respectively, eventhough the contamination still happened. The mangrove forests around the stations do not function as wave attenuation because there were many waterfront constructions which have replaced the function of mangrove forests to damp the wave. In short, it can be stated that the mangrove's function has changed in a case of wave attenuation. The function of mangrove forests is not determined by mangrove forest density but it is determined by mangrove's free position.

  15. Endotoxin Structures in the Psychrophiles Psychromonas marina and Psychrobacter cryohalolentis Contain Distinctive Acyl Features

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Charles R. Sweet

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Lipid A is the essential component of endotoxin (Gram-negative lipopolysaccharide, a potent immunostimulatory compound. As the outer surface of the outer membrane, the details of lipid A structure are crucial not only to bacterial pathogenesis but also to membrane integrity. This work characterizes the structure of lipid A in two psychrophiles, Psychromonas marina and Psychrobacter cryohalolentis, and also two mesophiles to which they are related using MALDI-TOF MS and fatty acid methyl ester (FAME GC-MS. P. marina lipid A is strikingly similar to that of Escherichia coli in organization and total acyl size, but incorporates an unusual doubly unsaturated tetradecadienoyl acyl residue. P. cryohalolentis also shows structural organization similar to a closely related mesophile, Acinetobacter baumannii, however it has generally shorter acyl constituents and shows many acyl variants differing by single methylene (-CH2- units, a characteristic it shares with the one previously reported psychrotolerant lipid A structure. This work is the first detailed structural characterization of lipid A from an obligate psychrophile and the second from a psychrotolerant species. It reveals distinctive structural features of psychrophilic lipid A in comparison to that of related mesophiles which suggest constitutive adaptations to maintain outer membrane fluidity in cold environments.

  16. Genome sequence of the ocean sediment bacterium Saccharomonospora marina type strain (XMU15T)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Klenk, Hans-Peter [DSMZ - German Collection of Microorganisms and Cell Cultures GmbH, Braunschweig, Germany; Lu, Megan [Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL); Lucas, Susan [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Copeland, A [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Pitluck, Sam [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Goodwin, Lynne A. [Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL); Han, Cliff [Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL); Tapia, Roxanne [Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL); Brambilla, Evelyne-Marie [DSMZ - German Collection of Microorganisms and Cell Cultures GmbH, Braunschweig, Germany; Potter, Gabriele [DSMZ - German Collection of Microorganisms and Cell Cultures GmbH, Braunschweig, Germany; Land, Miriam L [ORNL; Ivanova, N [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Rohde, Manfred [HZI - Helmholtz Centre for Infection Research, Braunschweig, Germany; Goker, Markus [DSMZ - German Collection of Microorganisms and Cell Cultures GmbH, Braunschweig, Germany; Detter, J. Chris [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Li, Wen-Jun [Yunnan University, Kunming, China; Kyrpides, Nikos C [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Woyke, Tanja [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute

    2012-01-01

    Saccharomonospora marina Liu et al. 2010 is a member to the genomically so far poorly characterized genus Saccharomonospora in the family Pseudonocardiaceae. Members of the genus Sacharomonospora are of interest because they originate from diverse habitats, such as leaf litter, manure, compost, surface of peat, moist, over-heated grain, and ocean sediment, where they might play a role in the primary degradation of plant material by attacking hemicellulose. Organisms belonging to the genus are usually Gram-positive staining, non-acid fast, and classify among the actinomycetes. Next to S. viridis and S. azurea, S. marina is the third member in the genus Saccharomonospora for with a completely sequenced (permanent draft status) type strain genome will be published. Here we describe the features of this organism, together with the complete genome sequence, and annotation. The 5,965,593 bp long chromosome with its 5,727 protein-coding and 57 RNA genes was sequenced as part of the DOE funded Community Sequencing Program (CSP) 2010 at the Joint Genome Institute (JGI).

  17. Colonization and growth of crustose coralline algae (Corallinales, Rhodophyta on the Rocas Atoll

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandre Bigio Villas Bôas

    2005-12-01

    margens. Os experimentos de produtividade seguiram o método de frascos claros e escuros para leitura de oxigênio dissolvido. Porolithon pachydermum foi confirmado como a espécie de alga calcária incrustante dominante no recife do Atol das Rocas. O local abrigado apresentou maior crescimento da forma plana e típica de crista de P. pachydermum em relação ao exposto. Esta forma também teve um crescimento maior na crista recifal (0,05 mm.dia-1 do que no platô (0,01 mm.dia-1. A forma protuberante e típica de fendas de P. pachydermum apresentou tendência, não significativa, para maior crescimento na crista e poça em relação ao platô. A colonização apresentou baixas coberturas quando comparada a outros estudos recifais. P. pachydermum é uma planta produtiva tanto em ambientes ensolarados como sombreados.

  18. Lista de esponjas marinas asociadas al arrecife Tuxpan, Veracruz, México Checklist of marine sponges from Tuxpan Reef, Veracruz, Mexico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos González-Gándara

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Se presenta la lista de esponjas marinas (Porifera: Demospongiae del arrecife Tuxpan, Veracruz, México, colectadas en 2004, 2005 y 2006 mediante buceo libre y con equipo autónomo SCUBA. Los resultados muestran la presencia de 18 especies pertenecientes a 13 géneros y 13 familias, 17 de estas especies son nuevos registros para los arrecifes coralinos del norte de Veracruz y una (Aplysina cauliformis Carter, 1882 para el estado. La información puede auxiliar para definir las estrategias de manejo, monitoreo y protección de estas formaciones arrecifales que recientemente han sido propuestas como área de protección de flora y fauna.A checklist of marine sponge species (Porifera: Demospongiae from Tuxpan reef, Veracruz, Mexico, collected during 2004, 2005 and 2006 by free and SCUBA diving equipment, is presented. The results show the presence of 18 species belonging to 13 genera and 13 families. 17 speices represent new records for the northern coral reefs of Veracruz, and the 18th species (Aplysina cauliformis Carter, 1882 is a new record for the state. This information may help to define appropriate management, monitoring and protection strategies for the coral reefs of the north of Veracruz, which have been proposed as a natural preserve area recently.

  19. Sæsontilpasninger i stofsikftet reducerer lyskravet hos ålegræs (Zostera marina)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stæhr, Peter A.; Borum, Jens

    for kuldetilpassede vinterplanter i februar (36% højere Q10-værdier). Disse ændringer blev fulgt af en nedsættelse i bladenes klorofyl (35%) og kvælstof (60%) indhold fra februar til august. Lyskompensationspunktet (EC) hvor Z. marina lige akkurat kan opretholde en positive kulstof balance, steg eksponentielt med...

  20. Comparative-Study on Populations of Zostera-Marina L (Eelgrass) - in-Situ Nitrogen Enrichment and Light Manipulation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Lent, F.; Verschuure, J.M.; Van Veghel, M.L.J.

    1995-01-01

    The combined effects of light and nitrogen availability on population dynamical characteristics (e.g. growth rate, biomass, density, flowering) of a perennial and semi-annual population of Zostera marina L. were experimentally studied in two non-tidal lagoons (Grevelingen and Veerse Meer). Light red

  1. Fine-scale spatial distribution of the common lugworm Arenicola marina, and effects of intertidal clam fishing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boldina, Inna; Beninger, Peter G.

    2014-04-01

    Despite its ubiquity and its role as an ecosystem engineer on temperate intertidal mudflats, little is known of the spatial ecology of the lugworm Arenicola marina. We estimated lugworm densities and analyzed the spatial distribution of A. marina on a French Atlantic mudflat subjected to long-term clam digging activities, and compared these to a nearby pristine reference mudflat, using a combination of geostatistical techniques: point-pattern analysis, autocorrelation, and wavelet analysis. Lugworm densities were an order of magnitude greater at the reference site. Although A. marina showed an aggregative spatial distribution at both sites, the characteristics and intensity of aggregation differed markedly between sites. The reference site showed an inhibition process (regular distribution) at distances marina was clearly aggregated at both sites; however, the autocorrelation strength was much weaker at the impacted site. In addition, the non-impacted site presented multi-scale spatial distribution, which was not evident at the impacted site. The differences observed between the spatial distributions of the fishing-impacted vs. the non-impacted site reflect similar findings for other components of these two mudflat ecosystems, suggesting common community-level responses to prolonged mechanical perturbation: a decrease in naturally-occurring aggregation. This change may have consequences for basic biological characteristics such as reproduction, recruitment, growth, and feeding.

  2. Significance of salinity and silicon levels for growth of a formerly estuarine eelgrass (Zostera marina) population (Lake Grevelingen, the Netherlands)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kamermans, P.; Hemminga, M.A.; De Jong, D.J.

    1999-01-01

    Since the early 1980s, the eelgrass, Zostera marina L., population in the saline Lake Gevelingen, The Netherlands, is rapidly declining. An earlier study, in which long-term data on eelgrass coverage in this former estuary were correlated with several environmental variables, showed only one signifi

  3. APPARENT LACK OF VESICULAR-ARBUSCULAR MYCORRHIZA (VAM) IN SEAGRASSES ZOSTERA MARINA L. AND THALASSIA TESTUDIUM BANKS EX KONIG

    Science.gov (United States)

    We examined two populations of Zostera marina L. and one of Thalassia testudinum Banks ex Konig for presence of vesicular-arbuscular mycorrhiza (VAM). None of these plants showed any VAM colonization. In addition, we were unable to find any literature references on the presence o...

  4. A tale of two seagrasses: Comparing the science and management of Zostera marina and Zostera japonica in the Pacific Northwest

    Science.gov (United States)

    On the Pacific coast of North America, at least two congeners of Zostera occur: native Zostera marina, and introduced, Z. japonica. Z. japonica is considered “invasive” and therefore, ecologically and economically harmful by some, while others consider it benign or perhaps benef...

  5. Feeding by the heterotrophic dinoflagellate Oxyrrhis marina on the red-tide raphidophyte Heterosigma akashiwo: a potential biological method to control red tides using mass-cultured grazers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeong, Hae Jin; Kim, Jae Seong; Yoo, Yeong Du; Kim, Seong Taek; Kim, Tae Hoon; Park, Myung Gil; Lee, Chang Hoon; Seong, Kyeong Ah; Kang, Nam Seon; Shim, Jae Hyung

    2003-01-01

    As part of the development of a method to control the outbreak and persistence of red tides using mass-cultured heterotrophic protist grazers, we measured the growth and ingestion rates of cultured Oxyrrhis marina (a heterotrophic dinoflagellate) on cultured Heterosigma akashiwo (a raphidophyte) in bottles in the laboratory and in mesocosms (ca. 60 liter) in nature, and those of the cultured grazer on natural populations of the red-tide organism in mesocosms set up in nature. In the bottle incubation, specific growth rates of O. marina increased rapidly with increasing concentration of cultured prey up to ca. 950 ng C ml(-1) (equivalent to 9,500 cells ml(-1)), but were saturated at higher concentrations. Maximum specific growth rate (mumax), KGR (prey concentration sustaining 0.5 mumax) and threshold prey concentration of O. marina on H. akashiwo were 1.43 d(-1), 104 ng C ml(-1), and 8.0 ng C ml(-1), respectively. Maximum ingestion and clearance rates of O. marina were 1.27 ng C grazer(-1) d(-1) and 0.3 microl grazer(-1) h(-1), respectively. Cultured O. marina grew well effectively reducing cultured and natural populations of H. akashiwo down to a very low concentration within 3 d in the mesocosms. The growth and ingestion rates of cultured O. marina on natural populations of H. akashiwo in the mesocosms were 39% and 40%, respectively, of those calculated based on the results from the bottle incubation in the laboratory, while growth and ingestion rates of cultured O. marina on cultured H. akashiwo in the mesocosms were 55% and 36%, respectively. Calculated grazing impact by O. marina on natural populations of H. akashiwo suggests that O. marina cultured on a large scale could be used for controlling red tides by H. akashiwo near aquaculture farms that are located in small ponds, lagoons, semi-enclosed bays, and large land-aqua tanks to which fresh seawater should be frequently supplied.

  6. The transcriptome of the novel dinoflagellate Oxyrrhis marina (Alveolata: Dinophyceae: response to salinity examined by 454 sequencing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Montagnes David JS

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The heterotrophic dinoflagellate Oxyrrhis marina is increasingly studied in experimental, ecological and evolutionary contexts. Its basal phylogenetic position within the dinoflagellates make O. marina useful for understanding the origin of numerous unusual features of the dinoflagellate lineage; its broad distribution has lent O. marina to the study of protist biogeography; and nutritive flexibility and eurytopy have made it a common lab rat for the investigation of physiological responses of marine heterotrophic flagellates. Nevertheless, genome-scale resources for O. marina are scarce. Here we present a 454-based transcriptome survey for this organism. In addition, we assess sequence read abundance, as a proxy for gene expression, in response to salinity, an environmental factor potentially important in determining O. marina spatial distributions. Results Sequencing generated ~57 Mbp of data which assembled into 7, 398 contigs. Approximately 24% of contigs were nominally identified by BLAST. A further clustering of contigs (at ≥ 90% identity revealed 164 transcript variant clusters, the largest of which (Phosphoribosylaminoimidazole-succinocarboxamide synthase was composed of 28 variants displaying predominately synonymous variation. In a genomic context, a sample of 5 different genes were demonstrated to occur as tandem repeats, separated by short (~200-340 bp inter-genic regions. For HSP90 several intergenic variants were detected suggesting a potentially complex genomic arrangement. In response to salinity, analysis of 454 read abundance highlighted 9 and 20 genes over or under expressed at 50 PSU, respectively. However, 454 read abundance and subsequent qPCR validation did not correlate well - suggesting that measures of gene expression via ad hoc analysis of sequence read abundance require careful interpretation. Conclusion Here we indicate that tandem gene arrangements and the occurrence of multiple transcribed

  7. Algae-Derived Dietary Ingredients Nourish Animals

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-01-01

    In the 1980s, Columbia, Maryland-based Martek Biosciences Corporation worked with Ames Research Center to pioneer the use of microalgae as a source of essential omega-3 fatty acids, work that led the company to develop its highly successful Formulaid product. Now the Nutritional Products Division of Royal DSM, the company also manufactures DHAgold, a nutritional supplement for pets, livestock and farm-raised fish that uses algae to deliver docosahexaenoic acid (DHA).

  8. Cytoskeleton and Early Development in Fucoid Algae

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    Cell polarization and asymmetric cell divisions play important roles during development in many multicellular eukaryotes.Fucoid algae have a long history as models for studying early developmental processes, probably because of the ease with which zygotes can be observed and manipulated in the laboratory. This review discusses cell polarization and asymmetric cell divisions in fucoid algal zygotes with an emphasis on the roles played by the cytoskeleton.

  9. Flavonoids from the Red Alga Acanthophora spicifera

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZENG Long-Mei(曾陇梅); 曾陇梅; WANG Chao-Jie(王超杰); 王超杰; SU Jing-Yu(苏镜娱); 苏镜娱; LI Du(李笃); 李笃; OWEN Noel L.; OWEN Noel L; LU Yang(吕扬); 吕扬; LU Nan(鲁南); 鲁南; ZHENG Qi-Tai(郑启泰); 郑启泰

    2001-01-01

    Two new flavonoids, acanthophorin A (1) and acanthophorin B (2), along with three known compounds tiliroside (3),( - )-catechin (4) and quercetin (5) were isolated from the red alga Acanthophora spicifera. The structures of 1 and 2were determined to be kaempferol 3-O-α-L-fucopyranoside (1) and quercetin 3-O-α-L-fucopyranoside (2) by spectroscopic methods. Both 1 and 2 showed significant anfioxidant activity.

  10. Selenium Uptake and Volatilization by Marine Algae

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luxem, Katja E.; Vriens, Bas; Wagner, Bettina; Behra, Renata; Winkel, Lenny H. E.

    2015-04-01

    Selenium (Se) is an essential trace nutrient for humans. An estimated one half to one billion people worldwide suffer from Se deficiency, which is due to low concentrations and bioavailability of Se in soils where crops are grown. It has been hypothesized that more than half of the atmospheric Se deposition to soils is derived from the marine system, where microorganisms methylate and volatilize Se. Based on model results from the late 1980s, the atmospheric flux of these biogenic volatile Se compounds is around 9 Gt/year, with two thirds coming from the marine biosphere. Algae, fungi, and bacteria are known to methylate Se. Although algal Se uptake, metabolism, and methylation influence the speciation and bioavailability of Se in the oceans, these processes have not been quantified under environmentally relevant conditions and are likely to differ among organisms. Therefore, we are investigating the uptake and methylation of the two main inorganic Se species (selenate and selenite) by three globally relevant microalgae: Phaeocystis globosa, the coccolithophorid Emiliania huxleyi, and the diatom Thalassiosira oceanica. Selenium uptake and methylation were quantified in a batch experiment, where parallel gas-tight microcosms in a climate chamber were coupled to a gas-trapping system. For E. huxleyi, selenite uptake was strongly dependent on aqueous phosphate concentrations, which agrees with prior evidence that selenite uptake by phosphate transporters is a significant Se source for marine algae. Selenate uptake was much lower than selenite uptake. The most important volatile Se compounds produced were dimethyl selenide, dimethyl diselenide, and dimethyl selenyl sulfide. Production rates of volatile Se species were larger with increasing intracellular Se concentration and in the decline phase of the alga. Similar experiments are being carried out with P. globosa and T. oceanica. Our results indicate that marine algae are important for the global cycling of Se

  11. Comparación ontogénica de la frecuencia de muda en Rhinella marina (Anura, Bufonidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Teófila M. Triana

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available La muda es un proceso de renovación de la capa externa de la epidermis (estrato corneo de los anfibios, la cual suministra protección contra daños, patógenos y pérdida de agua. Este trabajo evalúa la frecuencia de muda entre juveniles y adultos de Rhinella marina (Linnaeus, 1758 y la tasa de ocurrencia entre el día y la noche. Para esto, se realizaron dos observaciones diarias (7 am y 7 pm, entre Octubre de 2011 y Marzo de 2012, a tres grupos de individuos clasificados según su tamaño longitud rostro-cloaca, como adultos (promedio=80 mm, juveniles medianos (promedio=19 mm y juveniles pequeños (promedio=13 mm. Estos animales fueron colocados en terrarios en el laboratorio y marcados en el dorso a través de un punto hecho con un corrector de tinta. La muda se determinó por la pérdida total de la marca y una coloración brillante en el dorso. Se encontró una diferencia significativa (Kruskal-Wallis, H=19.84, p<0.0001 en el periodo de muda entre los tres grupos de estudio: adultos=7.5 días, juveniles medianos=5.4 días, juveniles pequeños=5.3 días. También, en la frecuencia de animales que mudaron en el día y la noche (Ji-cuadrado, χ2=7.891, p=0.019, particularmente en los dos grupos de juveniles, quienes lo hicieron en la noche, ya que en los adultos no hubo una diferencia clara. Posiblemente, la mayor frecuencia de la muda en los juveniles puede relacionarse con su condición ontogénica, de un menor tamaño corporal, alta tasa metabólica y mayor tasa de desarrollo.

  12. [Pharmacology and toxicology of Spirulina alga].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chamorro, G; Salazar, M; Favila, L; Bourges, H

    1996-01-01

    Spirulina, a unicellular filamentous blue-green alga has been consumed by man since ancient times in Mexico and central Africa. It is currently grown in many countries by synthetic methods. Initially the interest in Spirulina was on its nutritive value: it was found almost equal to other plant proteins. More recently, some preclinical testing suggests it has several therapeutic properties such as hypocholesterolemic, immunological, antiviral and antimutagenic. This has led to more detailed evaluations such as nucleic acid content and presence of toxic metals, biogenic toxins and organic chemicals: they have shown absence or presence at tolerable levels according to the recommendations of international regulatory agencies. In animal experiments for acute, subchronic and chronic toxicity, reproduction, mutagenicity, and teratogenicity the algae did not cause body or organ toxicity. In all instances, the Spirulina administered to the animals were at much higher amounts than those expected for human consumption. On the other hand there is scant information of the effects of the algae in humans. This area needs more research.

  13. Screening for bioactive compounds from algae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plaza, M; Santoyo, S; Jaime, L; García-Blairsy Reina, G; Herrero, M; Señoráns, F J; Ibáñez, E

    2010-01-20

    In the present work, a comprehensive methodology to carry out the screening for novel natural functional compounds is presented. To do that, a new strategy has been developed including the use of unexplored natural sources (i.e., algae and microalgae) together with environmentally clean extraction techniques and advanced analytical tools. The developed procedure allows also estimating the functional activities of the different extracts obtained and even more important, to correlate these activities with their particular chemical composition. By applying this methodology it has been possible to carry out the screening for bioactive compounds in the algae Himanthalia elongata and the microalgae Synechocystis sp. Both algae produced active extracts in terms of both antioxidant and antimicrobial activity. The obtained pressurized liquid extracts were chemically characterized by GC-MS and HPLC-DAD. Different fatty acids and volatile compounds with antimicrobial activity were identified, such as phytol, fucosterol, neophytadiene or palmitic, palmitoleic and oleic acids. Based on the results obtained, ethanol was selected as the most appropriate solvent to extract this kind of compounds from the natural sources studied.

  14. Environmental life cycle comparison of algae to other bioenergy feedstocks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clarens, Andres F; Resurreccion, Eleazer P; White, Mark A; Colosi, Lisa M

    2010-03-01

    Algae are an attractive source of biomass energy since they do not compete with food crops and have higher energy yields per area than terrestrial crops. In spite of these advantages, algae cultivation has not yet been compared with conventional crops from a life cycle perspective. In this work, the impacts associated with algae production were determined using a stochastic life cycle model and compared with switchgrass, canola, and corn farming. The results indicate that these conventional crops have lower environmental impacts than algae in energy use, greenhouse gas emissions, and water regardless of cultivation location. Only in total land use and eutrophication potential do algae perform favorably. The large environmental footprint of algae cultivation is driven predominantly by upstream impacts, such as the demand for CO(2) and fertilizer. To reduce these impacts, flue gas and, to a greater extent, wastewater could be used to offset most of the environmental burdens associated with algae. To demonstrate the benefits of algae production coupled with wastewater treatment, the model was expanded to include three different municipal wastewater effluents as sources of nitrogen and phosphorus. Each provided a significant reduction in the burdens of algae cultivation, and the use of source-separated urine was found to make algae more environmentally beneficial than the terrestrial crops.

  15. Electro-coagulation-flotation process for algae removal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Shanshan; Yang, Jixian; Tian, Jiayu; Ma, Fang; Tu, Gang; Du, Maoan

    2010-05-15

    Algae in surface water have been a long-term issue all over the world, due to their adverse influence on drinking water treatment process as well as drinking water quality. The algae removal by electro-coagulation-flotation (ECF) technology was investigated in this paper. The results indicated that aluminum was an excellent electrode material for algae removal as compared with iron. The optimal parameters determined were: current density=1 mA/cm(2), pH=4-7, water temperature=18-36 degrees C, algae density=0.55 x 10(9)-1.55 x 10(9) cells/L. Under the optimal conditions, 100% of algae removal was achieved with the energy consumption as low as 0.4 kWh/m(3). The ECF performed well in acid and neutral conditions. At low initial pH of 4-7, the cell density of algae was effectively removed in the ECF, mainly through the charge neutralization mechanism; while the algae removal worsened when the pH increased (7-10), and the main mechanism shifted to sweeping flocculation and enmeshment. The mechanisms for algae removal at different pH were also confirmed by atomic force microscopy (AFM) analysis. Furthermore, initial cell density and water temperature could also influence the algae removal. Overall, the results indicated that the ECF technology was effective for algae removal, from both the technical and economical points of view.

  16. Análisis multicriterio del impacto potencial del turismo en la anidación de las tortugas marinas en Chalacatepec, Jalisco

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. Flores-Monter

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Introducción: El litoral mexicano presenta hábitats aptos para la reproducción, refugio y crianza de tortugas marinas. Sin embargo, en la costa Chalacatepec, Jalisco, esta aptitud puede estar amenazada por el Proyecto Desarrollo Vistas (PDV, un complejo turístico mixto: hotelero, residencial, comercial y deportivo. El objetivo de la presente investigación, es evaluar el impacto potencial del turismo sobre la anidación de tortugas en dos etapas: a Preparación y construcción y b Operación y mantenimiento, como una herramienta de ayuda a la toma de decisiones en la conservación de las especies Lepidochelys olivácea (tortuga golfina, Chelonia agassizii (tortuga prieta y Dermochelys coriácea (tortuga laúd. Método: Se calculó la densidad de anidación (nidos por kilómetro y se utilizó el método de evaluación multicriterio (EMC discreto Proceso Analítico Jerárquico (PAJ, para estimar el impacto de 8 amenazas turísticas: desmonte y despalme, excavaciones, rellenos, contaminación sonora, residuos sólidos, presencia de personal de obra y construcciones provisionales, iluminación artificial del frente de playa y concentración de visitantes. Se construyó una matriz de comparación, se asignó un peso a cada amenaza, y mediante el uso de un SIG se generaron los mapas de impacto potencial del turismo. Resultados: Las amenazas con mayor peso o ponderación (eigenvector total fueron los rellenos (0.36482 y la concentración de visitantes (0.38194. La construcción y operación turística puede afectar el 59.8% de las anidaciones e impactar principalmente en la costa sur el km 1 (1 142 registros de nidos colectados y, en la costa norte el km 1 (329 nidos, km 3 (311 nidos, km 4 (268 nidos y km 5 (151 nidos. Discusión o Conclusión: La playa de anidación en Chalacatepec es de gran importancia para la protección y conservación de las tortugas marinas. La presente EMC fue una herramienta adecuada para estimar las consecuencias del

  17. La marina de guerra de la Corona de Castilla en la Baja Edad Media. Desde sus orígenes hasta el reinado de Enrique IV

    OpenAIRE

    García de Castro, Francisco Javier

    2012-01-01

    Nuestro estudio trazar las líneas históricas esenciales de la Marina de Guerra de Castilla desde sus inicios en el siglo XIII hasta finales del reinado de Enrique IV, cuando la llegada al trono de los Reyes Católicos abre una nueva etapa en el devenir de los reinos hispánicos. La tesis se estructura en siete apartados fundamentales: 1. Remotos orígenes previos a la creación de la Marina de Guerra. 2. El Almirantazgo, institución de referencia jurídica y económica de la Marina de Ca...

  18. Checklist of the benthic marine and brackish Galician algae (NW Spain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bárbara, Ignacio

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available We present an annotated checklist of the benthic marine and brackish algae of the Galician coasts (Spain based on literature records and new collections. This checklist includes 618 species: 118 Cyanophyta, 296 Rhodophyta, 127 Ochrophyta, and 77 Chlorophyta. The number of specific, infraspecific taxa, and stages is 643: 121 Cyanophyta, 309 Rhodophyta, 135 Ochrophyta, and 79 Chlorophyta. Hyella caespitosa var. nitida, Calothrix fasciculata, Gracilariopsis longissima, Compsonema minutum, and Sphacelaria tribuloides are new records for Galicia, and there are also some new provincial records. We state the presence of each species for Lugo (Lu, A Coruña (Co, and Pontevedra (Po provinces. The number of species found in Galicia is high, since 85% of the species recorded for the warm-temperate NE Atlantic Ocean grow in Galicia. Biogeographical comments comparing the Galician data with the neighboring areas of Britain and Ireland, Basque coast, Portugal, southern Iberian Peninsula, Canary Islands and Atlantic coast of Morocco are given. Finally, we present lists of cold-temperate, warm-temperate, Lusitanic Province endemics, and alien species growing in Galicia.Se presenta una lista comentada de las especies de algas bentónicas marinas y salobres de la costa de Galicia (España basada en citas bibliográficas y nuevos datos de los autores. La lista contiene 618 especies: 118 Cyanophyta, 296 Rhodophyta, 127 Ochrophyta y 77 Chlorophyta. El número de taxa específicos e infraespecíficos asciende a 643: 121 Cyanophyta, 309 Rhodophyta, 135 Ochrophyta y 79 Chlorophyta. Hyella caespitosa var. nitida, Calothrix fasciculata, Gracilariopsis longissima, Compsonema minutum y Sphacelaria tribuloides son nuevas citas para Galicia, y algunas nuevas citas provinciales. Para cada especie se especifica su presencia en las provincias de Lugo (Lu, A Coruña (Co y Pontevedra (Po. El número de especies encontradas en Galicia es elevado, ya que se conocen el 85% de las

  19. Eradication of algae in ships' ballast water by electrolyzing

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    DANG Kun; SUN Pei-ting; XIAO Jing-kun; SONG Yong-xin

    2006-01-01

    In order to verify the effectiveness of electrolytic treatment on ships' ballast water,experiments are carried out by a pilot system in laboratory. The raw seawater and seawater with different concentrations of different algae are simulated as ships' ballast water. The algae in the raw seawater can be killed if it is treated by electrolysis with an initial residual chlorine concentration of 5 mg/L. If the seawater with one kind of algae (Nitzschia closterum, Dicrateria spp., or Pyramidomonnas sp.105cells/mL) is treated by electrolysis with an initial residual chlorine concentration of 5 mg/L, the alga can be sterilized. If the seawater with one kind of algae (Dunaliella sp., Platymonas or Chlorella spp.)is directly treated by electrolyzing with an initial residual chlorine concentration of 4 mg/L, the instant mortality changes with the concentration of different algae. However, after 72 hours, in all treated samples, there are no live algal cells found.

  20. Bromophenols from Marine Algae with Potential Anti-Diabetic Activities

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIN Xiukun; LIU Ming

    2012-01-01

    Marine algae contain various bromophenols with a variety of biological activities,including antimicrobial,anticancer,and anti-diabetic effects.Here,we briefly review the recent progress in researches on the biomaterials from marine algae,emphasizing the relationship between the structure and the potential anti-diabetic applications.Bromophenols from marine algae display their hyperglycemic effects by inhibiting the activities of protein tyrosine phosphatase 1B,α-glucosidase,as well as other mechanisms.

  1. Freshwater Cyanobacteria (Blue-Green Algae) Toxins: Isolation and Characterization

    Science.gov (United States)

    1989-01-15

    exclusively caused by strains of species that are members of the L division Cyanophyta , commonly called blue -green algae or cyanobacteria . Although...0 0 Lfl (NAD FRESHWATER CYANOBACTERIA ( BLUE -GREEN ALGAE ) TOXINS: ISOLATION AND CHARACTERIZATION ANNCUAL REPORT Wayne W. Carmichael Sarojini Bose...Frederick, Maryland 21701-5012 62770A 6277GA871 AA 378 11 TITLE &who* Secwn~y C11mrfaon) Freshwater Cyanobacteria ( blue -green algae ) Toxins: Isolation

  2. Effects of triphenyltin exposure on the red alga Eucheuma denticulatum

    OpenAIRE

    Rumampuk, Natalie D. C.; Grevo, Gerung S.; Rumengan, Inneke F. M.; Ohji, Madoka; Arai, Takaomi; Miyazaki, Nobuyuki

    2004-01-01

    Toxic effects of triphenyltin (TPT) on the marine alga Eucheuma denticulatum obtained from Nain Island, North Sulawesi, Indonesia have been examined in laboratory condition. The algal samples were first acclimated in laboratory prepared seawater for three days. The algae were then divided into 12 culture chambers for treatments with different concentrations of TPT between 5-30 μgl^ with 5μgl^ interval, and in another container for control. After two-week experimentation, some samples of algae...

  3. Method and apparatus for iterative lysis and extraction of algae

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chew, Geoffrey; Boggs, Tabitha; Dykes, Jr., H. Waite H.; Doherty, Stephen J.

    2015-12-01

    A method and system for processing algae involves the use of an ionic liquid-containing clarified cell lysate to lyse algae cells. The resulting crude cell lysate may be clarified and subsequently used to lyse algae cells. The process may be repeated a number of times before a clarified lysate is separated into lipid and aqueous phases for further processing and/or purification of desired products.

  4. El libro como performance

    OpenAIRE

    2015-01-01

    La comunidad poética Estación Pringles entabla un diálogo intrigante con el formato libro. Por una parte, su acercamiento teatral a la poesía parecería excluir la posibilidad de ver este medio como un modelo para el proyecto. Sin embargo, en su diálogo con la línea poética iniciada por Stéphane Mallarmé, esta iniciativa artística propone un concepto del libro como performance. Esta orientación es evidente, además, en la producción impresa de Estación Pringles. The poetry community Estación...

  5. Photosynthetic carbon fixation pathways in Zostera marina and three Florida seagrasses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beer, S.; Wetzel, R.G.

    1982-06-01

    The photosynthetic carbon fixation pathways of four seagrass species, Zostera marina L. from Alaska and Thalassia testudinum Banks ex Konig, Syringodium filiforme Kutz. and Halodule wrightii Aschers. from the Gulf of Mexico, were investigated with a /sup 14/C pulse-chase technique. All species were found to be principally of the C/sub 3/ type. However, Thalassia and Halodule had higher initial incorporation rates into organic acids than is typical for terrestrial C/sub 3/ plants. Of 11 seagrass species investigated thus far for C/sub 3/ or C/sub 4/ metabolism using this technique, 10 were found to be principally of the C/sub 3/ type while only one exhibited C/sub 4/ metabolism.

  6. Sediment accumulation and mercury (Hg) flux in Avicennia marina forest of Deep Bay, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Ruili; Chai, Minwei; Guo, Meixian; Qiu, Guo Yu

    2016-08-01

    To investigate the rate of sediment accumulation and mercury (Hg) flux in Avicennia marina forest of Deep Bay, China, sediment cores were analyzed. The results showed that Hg concentrations were much higher at all depths compared to the background level. A high correlation between Hg and total organic carbon (TOC) indicated their similar anthropogenic origin. Sedimentation rate was estimated to be 1.38 cm a-1 by 210Pb geochronology. The increase in the mass sediment accumulation rates was rapid (range: 0.5-0.94 g cm-2 a-1), and the Hg fluxes ranged between 76 and 116 ng cm-2 a-1 during the last three decades. The reduction in both Hg concentrations and flux during the last decade may be due to the adoption of contamination control policies. Our results support the notion that the Hg fluxes determined from the sediment cores reveal the effects of anthropogenic influences from the areas around Deep Bay.

  7. Rezension zu: Marina Caffiero (Hg.: Rubare le anime. Roma: Viella 2008

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rita Unfer Lukoschik

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available In den Akten des päpstlichen Staatsarchivs und der römischen jüdischen Gemeinde finden sich zeitgenössische Zeugnisse für die im päpstlichen Rom vom 16. bis zum 19. Jahrhundert nicht seltene Zwangskonvertierung jüdischer Mädchen und Frauen zum Katholizismus. Eines der wertvollsten Dokumente dieser Konversionspraxis liegt nunmehr in einer kommentierten Neuedition vor: das Tagebuch der 1749 sich erfolgreich der versuchten Zwangskonvertierung widersetzenden 18-jährigen Anna del Monte. In ihrer Einleitung ordnet die Herausgeberin Marina Caffiero dieses außergewöhliche Einzelschicksal in die zeitgleich und parallel laufenden Assimilations- und Emanzipationsprozesse ein, die sich in der mit aufklärerischem Gedankengut ‚infizierten‘ jüdischen Oberschicht Roms im 18. Jahrhundert abzeichneten.

  8. Synergistic effects of altered salinity and temperature on estuarine eelgrass (Zostera marina) seedlings and clonal shoots

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Salo, Tiina Elina; Pedersen, Morten Foldager

    2014-01-01

    Salinity and temperature are among the most important factors determining eelgrass distribution and performance. Plants in estuarine environments experience large variations in both on a seasonal basis and exceptionally warm summers have caused massive die-backs of eelgrass in many areas. We...... investigated experimentally how different combinations of salinity and temperature affect the physiological performance of adult eelgrass (Zostera marina) shoots and seedlings. Plants were exposed to different combinations of salinity (salinity 5, 12.5 and 20) and temperature (15, 20 and 25 °C) in a 5-week...... aquarium experiment. Plants responded in general negatively to decreasing salinity and increasing temperature and the combination of high temperature and low salinity resulted in markedly higher mortality rates and lower leaf production when compared to plants held at more optimal combinations of salinity...

  9. Photovoltaic DER System Could Save USPS $25,000 per Year in Marina del Rey, California

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2002-11-01

    In numerous projects, government agencies are demonstrating the economic and environmental value of using distributed energy resources (DER) to provide reliable electricity for Federal facilities. These projects also show how renewable DER systems such as photovoltaics (PV) can be effectively integrated into utility power grids to provide added power during peak demand periods in populous regions and states. This four-page case study describes a recent project in which the United States Postal Service (USPS) worked with the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Federal Energy Management Program (FEMP), a national laboratory, the local utility, and a private company to install a PV DER system at the USPS Marina Processing and Distribution Center in Inglewood, California. This system is expected to shave 10% off the facility's 1.2-megawatt peak power demand and save more $25,000 per year in utility costs.

  10. Effects of solar UV radiation on photosynthesis and enzyme activities (carbonic anhydrase and nitrate reductase in marine macroalgae from southern Spain Efectos de la radiación solar UV sobre la fotosíntesis y actividades enzimáticas (anhidrasa carbónica y nitrato reductasa en macralgas marinas del sur de España

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    FÉLIX L. FIGUEROA

    2001-06-01

    nitrogen metabolism under solar radiation. Considering the absence of a significant correlation in U. rigida and the delay observed in maximal activities of P. cartilagineum in the absence of UV, it is suggested that UV radiation acts as an environmental signal involved in the control of cycles. The presence of feedback processes that control nitrogen assimilation as a function of carbon content is proposedEn este trabajo se presenta el efecto de la radiación solar ultravioleta (UV durante el ciclo diario de luz sobre la actividad fotosintética y la de dos enzimas claves en la incorporación de carbono, la anhidrasa carbónica, y en la reducción de nitrógeno inorgánico, la nitrato reductasa, en macroalgas del sur de España. Durante el ciclo diario de luz, la fotoinhibición, expresada como porcentaje de disminución del rendimiento cuántico efectivo desde la mañana al mediodía, estuvo linear y negativamente correlacionada con la irradiancia integrada diaria. Sin embargo, la recuperación, expresada como porcentaje de incremento del rendimiento cuántico efectivo desde el mediodía hasta el atardecer siguió un patrón diferente. Se observó recuperación completa a irradiancias integradas diarias menores a 1.0 x 10(4 kJ m-2. Sin embargo, a irradiancias diarias mayores, la recuperación fue sólo del 50 %. La existencia de fotoinhibición y de una recuperación diaria completa en macroalgas hace pensar que la fotoinhibición está funcionado como un mecanismo de fotoprotección contra radiaciones solares altas como ocurre en plantas terrestres. Además, los patrones de fotoinhición y recuperación tienen relación con la dosis acumulada diaria. Las actividades enzimáticas (anhidrasa carbónica y nitrato reductasa fueron determinadas en tres macroalgas marinas (Plocamium cartilagineum, Ulva rigida y Fucus spiralis bajo radiación solar completa (PAR + UV-A + UV-B y excluyendo la radiación UV (PAR. Bajo PAR + UV-A + UV-B se observó un máximo en la actividad de

  11. Overall Energy Considerations for Algae Species Comparison and Selection in Algae-to-Fuels Processes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Link, D.; Kail, B.; Curtis, W.; Tuerk,A.

    2011-01-01

    The controlled growth of microalgae as a feedstock for alternative transportation fuel continues to receive much attention. Microalgae have the characteristics of rapid growth rate, high oil (lipid) content, and ability to be grown in unconventional scenarios. Algae have also been touted as beneficial for CO{sub 2} reuse, as algae can be grown using CO{sub 2} emissions from fossil-based energy generation. Moreover, algae does not compete in the food chain, lessening the 'food versus fuel' debate. Most often, it is assumed that either rapid production rate or high oii content should be the primary factor in algae selection for algae-to-fuels production systems. However, many important characteristics of algae growth and lipid production must be considered for species selection, growth condition, and scale-up. Under light limited, high density, photoautotrophic conditions, the inherent growth rate of an organism does not affect biomass productivity, carbon fixation rate, and energy fixation rate. However, the oil productivity is organism dependent, due to physiological differences in how the organisms allocate captured photons for growth and oil production and due to the differing conditions under which organisms accumulate oils. Therefore, many different factors must be considered when assessing the overall energy efficiency of fuel production for a given algae species. Two species, Chlorella vulgaris and Botryococcus braunii, are popular choices when discussing algae-to-fuels systems. Chlorella is a very robust species, often outcompeting other species in mixed-culture systems, and produces a lipid that is composed primarily of free fatty acids and glycerides. Botryococcus is regarded as a slower growing species, and the lipid that it produces is characterized by high hydrocarbon content, primarily C28-C34 botryococcenes. The difference in growth rates is often considered to be an advantage oiChlorella. However, the total energy captured by each algal

  12. O corpo como pulso

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Flavia Liberman

    Full Text Available O corpo é foco de muitos estudos e intervenções. Alguns paradigmas o concebem apenas em seu aspecto sensório-motor, enquanto outros transitam prioritariamente por uma dimensão psicológica. Procurando contribuir para a formulação de outras perspectivas no campo, apresentam-se aspectos da concepção de corpo de Stanley Keleman em ressonância com os estudos de Regina Favre. A partir de cenas clínicas em grupos de seminários, podemos pensar o corpo como pulso, multimídia, multifacetado, que se (des constrói permanentemente nos encontros. Articulando experiências clínicas da autora como terapeuta ocupacional e docente da graduação e em grupos de estudos, essas concepções servem como guia para uma clínica pensada, construída e balizada pelo corpo mediante utilização de abordagens corporais para a promoção de encontros plasmados por afetos e acontecimentos, na tentativa de criar corpos que possam sustentar as intensidades vividas e permitam a observação de si, a aproximação com o outro e a produção de singularidades.

  13. O corpo como pulso

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Flavia Liberman

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available O corpo é foco de muitos estudos e intervenções. Alguns paradigmas o concebem apenas em seu aspecto sensório-motor, enquanto outros transitam prioritariamente por uma dimensão psicológica. Procurando contribuir para a formulação de outras perspectivas no campo, apresentam-se aspectos da concepção de corpo de Stanley Keleman em ressonância com os estudos de Regina Favre. A partir de cenas clínicas em grupos de seminários, podemos pensar o corpo como pulso, multimídia, multifacetado, que se (des constrói permanentemente nos encontros. Articulando experiências clínicas da autora como terapeuta ocupacional e docente da graduação e em grupos de estudos, essas concepções servem como guia para uma clínica pensada, construída e balizada pelo corpo mediante utilização de abordagens corporais para a promoção de encontros plasmados por afetos e acontecimentos, na tentativa de criar corpos que possam sustentar as intensidades vividas e permitam a observação de si, a aproximação com o outro e a produção de singularidades.

  14. Photoacclimatory Responses of Zostera marina in the Intertidal and Subtidal Zones

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Sang Rul; Kim, Sangil; Kim, Young Kyun; Kang, Chang-Keun; Lee, Kun-Seop

    2016-01-01

    Photoacclimatory responses of the seagrass Zostera marina in the intertidal and subtidal zones were investigated by measuring chlorophyll a fluorescence parameters, photosynthetic pigments, leaf δ13C values, and shoot morphology in two bay systems. Intertidal plants had higher carotenoid concentrations than subtidal plants to avoid photodamage under excess light conditions during the day. The maximum relative electron transport rate (rETRmax) and minimum saturation irradiance (Ek) of the intertidal plants were higher than those of the subtidal plants, whereas photosynthetic efficiency (α) and maximum quantum yield (Fv/Fm) were higher in subtidal plants. The intertidal plants also had significantly greater Stern–Volmer non-photochemical quenching (NPQ) than that of the subtidal plants. These results suggest that the subtidal plants photoacclimated to use limited light more efficiently, and the intertidal plants exhibited photosynthetic responses to minimize photodamage at excess irradiance. The δ13C values of leaf tissues were more negative in the intertidal plants than those in the subtidal plants, suggesting that the intertidal plants used atmospheric or dissolved CO2 for photosynthesis during emersion. Effective quantum yield (ΔF/Fm´) in the intertidal plants decreased more slowly after emersion than that in the subtidal plants, indicating higher desiccation tolerance of the intertidal plants. The intertidal plants also recovered more rapidly from desiccation damage than the subtidal plants, suggesting photosynthetic adaptation to desiccation stress. The photosynthetic plasticity of Z. marina in response to variable environmental conditions most likely allows this species to occur in the intertidal and subtidal zones. PMID:27227327

  15. Antibacterial potential of biosynthesised silver nanoparticles using Avicennia marina mangrove plant

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gnanadesigan, M.; Anand, M.; Ravikumar, S.; Maruthupandy, M.; Syed Ali, M.; Vijayakumar, V.; Kumaraguru, A. K.

    2012-06-01

    The present study was aimed to identify the antibacterial potential of biosynthesised silver nanoparticles using different plant parts (leaves, bark and root) of Avicenna marina mangrove plant. Of the selected three different parts, the leaf extract showed the maximum synthesis of silver nanoparticles. The in vitro antibacterial assay (100 μg disk-1 concentration) showed the results of maximum zone of inhibition with the E. coli (18.40 ± 0.97 mm), and minimum (10.87 ± 1.33 mm) zone of inhibition with S. aureus but the concentrations of MIC and MBC values ranged between 6.25 and 50.0 μg ml-1 between the selected bacterial strains. The FTIR results of most potent leaf extract-synthesized silver nanoparticles showed the prominent peaks (620.967; 1,061.02; 1,116.58; 1,187.94; 1,280.50; 1,353.79; 1,384.64; 1,598.50; 1,629.56; 2,854.14 and 2,927.42) in different ranges. Further, the results of XRD analysis showed the 2 θ intense values (38.11 and 70.57) within the ranges of Bragg's reflection. In addition, the AFM analysis showed the results of particle sizes (71-110 nm), particle roughness (11.8 nm), maximum height of the particle roughness (111.8 nm), and average maximum height of the particle roughness (57.5 nm). It can be concluded from the present findings that, the biosynthesis of silver nanoparticles from the leaf extract of A. marina can be used as potential antibacterial agents.

  16. Exploring the potential of using algae in cosmetics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Hui-Min David; Chen, Ching-Chun; Huynh, Pauline; Chang, Jo-Shu

    2015-05-01

    The applications of microalgae in cosmetic products have recently received more attention in the treatment of skin problems, such as aging, tanning and pigment disorders. There are also potential uses in the areas of anti-aging, skin-whitening, and pigmentation reduction products. While algae species have already been used in some cosmetic formulations, such as moisturizing and thickening agents, algae remain largely untapped as an asset in this industry due to an apparent lack of utility as a primary active ingredient. This review article focuses on integrating studies on algae pertinent to skin health and beauty, with the purpose of identifying serviceable algae functions in practical cosmetic uses.

  17. Acetone, butanol, and ethanol production from wastewater algae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellis, Joshua T; Hengge, Neal N; Sims, Ronald C; Miller, Charles D

    2012-05-01

    Acetone, butanol, and ethanol (ABE) fermentation by Clostridium saccharoperbutylacetonicum N1-4 using wastewater algae biomass as a carbon source was demonstrated. Algae from the Logan City Wastewater Lagoon system grow naturally at high rates providing an abundant source of renewable algal biomass. Batch fermentations were performed with 10% algae as feedstock. Fermentation of acid/base pretreated algae produced 2.74 g/L of total ABE, as compared with 7.27 g/L from pretreated algae supplemented with 1% glucose. Additionally, 9.74 g/L of total ABE was produced when xylanase and cellulase enzymes were supplemented to the pretreated algae media. The 1% glucose supplement increased total ABE production approximately 160%, while supplementing with enzymes resulted in a 250% increase in total ABE production when compared to production from pretreated algae with no supplementation of extraneous sugar and enzymes. Additionally, supplementation of enzymes produced the highest total ABE production yield of 0.311 g/g and volumetric productivity of 0.102 g/Lh. The use of non-pretreated algae produced 0.73 g/L of total ABE. The ability to engineer novel methods to produce these high value products from an abundant and renewable feedstock such as algae could have significant implications in stimulating domestic energy economies.

  18. Algae Bioreactor Using Submerged Enclosures with Semi-Permeable Membranes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trent, Jonathan D (Inventor); Gormly, Sherwin J (Inventor); Embaye, Tsegereda N (Inventor); Delzeit, Lance D (Inventor); Flynn, Michael T (Inventor); Liggett, Travis A (Inventor); Buckwalter, Patrick W (Inventor); Baertsch, Robert (Inventor)

    2013-01-01

    Methods for producing hydrocarbons, including oil, by processing algae and/or other micro-organisms in an aquatic environment. Flexible bags (e.g., plastic) with CO.sub.2/O.sub.2 exchange membranes, suspended at a controllable depth in a first liquid (e.g., seawater), receive a second liquid (e.g., liquid effluent from a "dead zone") containing seeds for algae growth. The algae are cultivated and harvested in the bags, after most of the second liquid is removed by forward osmosis through liquid exchange membranes. The algae are removed and processed, and the bags are cleaned and reused.

  19. Importance of algae oil as a source of biodiesel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Demirbas, Ayhan [Sirnak University, Dean of Engineering Faculty, Sirnak (Turkey); Fatih Demirbas, M. [Sila Science, University Mah., Mekan Sok No. 24, Trabzon (Turkey)

    2011-01-15

    Algae are the fastest-growing plants in the world. Industrial reactors for algal culture are open ponds, photobioreactors and closed systems. Algae are very important as a biomass source. Algae will some day be competitive as a source for biofuel. Different species of algae may be better suited for different types of fuel. Algae can be grown almost anywhere, even on sewage or salt water, and does not require fertile land or food crops, and processing requires less energy than the algae provides. Algae can be a replacement for oil based fuels, one that is more effective and has no disadvantages. Algae are among the fastest-growing plants in the world, and about 50% of their weight is oil. This lipid oil can be used to make biodiesel for cars, trucks, and airplanes. Microalgae have much faster growth-rates than terrestrial crops. the per unit area yield of oil from algae is estimated to be from 20,000 to 80,000 l per acre, per year; this is 7-31 times greater than the next best crop, palm oil. The lipid and fatty acid contents of microalgae vary in accordance with culture conditions. Most current research on oil extraction is focused on microalgae to produce biodiesel from algal oil. Algal-oil processes into biodiesel as easily as oil derived from land-based crops. (author)

  20. Interactions between arsenic species and marine algae

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sanders, J.G.

    1978-01-01

    The arsenic concentration and speciation of marine algae varies widely, from 0.4 to 23 ng.mg/sup -1/, with significant differences in both total arsenic content and arsenic speciation occurring between algal classes. The Phaeophyceae contain more arsenic than other algal classes, and a greater proportion of the arsenic is organic. The concentration of inorganic arsenic is fairly constant in macro-algae, and may indicate a maximum level, with the excess being reduced and methylated. Phytoplankton take up As(V) readily, and incorporate a small percentage of it into the cell. The majority of the As(V) is reduced, methylated, and released to the surrounding media. The arsenic speciation in phytoplankton and Valonia also changes when As(V) is added to cultures. Arsenate and phosphate compete for uptake by algal cells. Arsenate inhibits primary production at concentrations as low as 5 ..mu..g.1/sup -1/ when the phosphate concentration is low. The inhibition is competitive. A phosphate enrichment of > 0.3 ..mu..M alleviates this inhibition; however, the As(V) stress causes an increase in the cell's phosphorus requirement. Arsenite is also toxic to phytoplankton at similar concentrations. Methylated arsenic species did not affect cell productivity, even at concentrations of 25 ..mu..g.1/sup -1/. Thus, the methylation of As(V) by the cell produces a stable, non-reactive compound which is nontoxic. The uptake and subsequent reduction and methylation of As(V) is a significant factor in determining the arsenic biogeochemistry of productive systems, and also the effect that the arsenic may have on algal productivity. Therefore, the role of marine algae in determining the arsenic speciation of marine systems cannot be ignored. (ERB)

  1. Pheromones in marine algae: A technical approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gassmann, G.; Müller, D. G.; Fritz, P.

    1995-03-01

    It is now well known that many marine organisms use low-molecular volatile substances as signals, in order to coordinate activities between different individuals. The study of such pheromones requires the isolation and enrichment of the secretions from undisturbed living cells or organisms over extended periods of time. The Grob-Hersch extraction device, which we describe here, avoids adverse factors for the biological materials such as strong water currents, rising gas bubbles or chemical solvents. Furthermore, the formation of sea-water spray is greatly reduced. The application of this technique for the isolation of pheromones of marine algae and animals is described.

  2. Revisión zoogeográfica marina del sur del Brasil A marine zoogeographical revision of southern Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco J Palacio

    1982-01-01

    Full Text Available El estúdio inicial de la fauna y distribución de cefalópodos de Brasil se convirtio en una revisión de la zoogeografía de la región Tropical-Subtropical del sur del Brasil. Observaciones iniciales sobre zoogeografía marina brasileña tuvieron lugar en la primera parte del siglo XIX por naturalistas franceses, principalmente d'Orbigny, trabajando en cefalópodos. Posteriormente, el primer patrón global de provincias zoologicas, definidas por James Dana en 1853 y basadas en zonas de temperaturas oceanicas, colocan el extremo meridional de la fauna tropical del Atlántico Occidental en una latitud de 30ºS, incluyendo una zona de transición (São Paulo entre Rio de Janeiro y Porto Alegre. El análisis detallado de numerosos estúdios subsecuentes en esta región lleva a la confirmación de la validez conceptual de los puntos de vista de d'Orbigny, Dana, Forbes, Woodward y algunos mas durante el siglo pasado. En su tratado zoogeográfico de 1953, Ekman no tuvo a su disposición información adecuada sobre Brasil y señaló vagamente a Rio de Janeiro como el extremo sur de la fauna tropical, basado en la aparente ausencia de manglares y de arrecifes de coral. Este punto de vista ha sido fuente de confusión y debate, especialmente en el siglo XX. Toda la información oceanógrafica, geológica, sedimentaria y faunística acumulada y estudiada hasta el presente señala a la región entre Rio Grande do Sul y Rio de la Plata, como la barrera ecológica fundamental (principalmente debido a cambios de temperatura, en la distribución sur de organismos tropicales. Entre Espirito Santo y Rio Grande do Sul existe una zona de transición faunística caracterizada por complejas variaciones medioambientales estacionales, bajo la influencia alterna y combina de las Corrientes del Brasil y Falkland, en la margen occindetal de la Convergencia Subtropical/Subantartica. Esta zona de transición constituye una provincia biogeografica, designada "Paulista

  3. 瑞典沿岸水域濒临消失的大叶藻(Zostera Marina,L.)%Vanishing Seagrass (Zostera marina, L.) in Swedish Coastal Waters

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Susanne Baden; Martin Gullstr(o)m; Bengt Lundén; Leif Pihl; Rutger Rosenberg

    2003-01-01

    在瑞典斯卡格拉克海峡沿岸,大叶藻(Zostera marina)是一种生长在浅水软海底上的优势显花植物.大叶藻场是许多甲壳动物和鱼类,不管是洄游种或是稳定种的重要群落生境.在20世纪80年代期间,作为海岸带管理的基础,对瑞典西海岸有大叶藻生长的沿岸浅水区的资源进行了调查.在这次研究中我们再次考察了斯卡格拉克海峡200km沿岸的5个沿海地区中的2000hm2大叶藻场.资源调查的方法(水下测量镜)与80年代的一样,但通过使用全球定位系统(GPS)增加了绘图的精确度.这次研究的结果表明,在10~15年的时间里,大叶藻的区域延伸面积减少了58%,且地区变化很大.大叶藻的减少主要限于大叶藻场的浅水部分.本文探讨了原因和生态后果.

  4. Marine Isolates of Trimastix marina Form a Plesiomorphic Deep-branching Lineage within Preaxostyla, Separate from Other Known Trimastigids (Paratrimastix n. gen.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Qianqian; Táborský, Petr; Silberman, Jeffrey D; Pánek, Tomáš; Čepička, Ivan; Simpson, Alastair G B

    2015-09-01

    Trimastigids are free-living, anaerobic protists that are closely related to the symbiotic oxymonads, forming together the taxon Preaxostyla (Excavata: Metamonada). We isolated fourteen new strains morphologically corresponding to two species assigned to Trimastix (until now the only genus of trimastigids), Trimastix marina and Trimastix pyriformis. Unexpectedly, marine strains of Trimastix marina branch separately from freshwater strains of this morphospecies in SSU rRNA gene trees, and instead form the sister group of all other Preaxostyla. This position is confirmed by three-gene phylogenies. Ultrastructural examination of a marine isolate of Trimastix marina demonstrates a combination of trimastigid-like features (e.g. preaxostyle-like I fibre) and ancestral characters (e.g. absence of thickened flagellar vane margins), consistent with inclusion of marine T. marina within Preaxostyla, but also supporting its distinctiveness from 'freshwater T. marina' and its deep-branching position within Preaxostyla. Since these results indicate paraphyly of Trimastix as currently understood, we transfer the other better-studied trimastigids to Paratrimastix n. gen. and Paratrimastigidae n. fam. The freshwater form previously identified as T. marina is described as Paratrimastix eleionoma n. sp., and Trimastix pyriformis becomes Paratrimastix pyriformis n. comb. Because of its phylogenetic position, 'true' Trimastix is potentially important for understanding the evolution of mitochondrion-related organelles in metamonads.

  5. Changes of plasma membrane ATPase activity,membrane potential and transmembrane proton gradient in Kandelia candel and Avicennia marina seedlings with various salinities

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHAO Zhong-qiu; ZHENG Hai-lei; ZHU Yong-guan

    2004-01-01

    The salt-secreting mangrove, Avicennia marina, and non-salt-secreting mangrove, Kandelia candel were cultivated in sand with various salinities(0 ‰, 10 ‰, 20 ‰, 30 ‰, 40 ‰) for 60 d. Plasma membrane vesicles of high-purity in leaves and roots of A.marina and K. candel seedlings were obtained by two-phase partitioning. The function of the plasma membranes, the activity of ATPase, membrane potential and transmembrane proton gradient, at various salinities were investigated. The results showed that within a certain range of salinity(A. marina and roots of K. candel: 0-30‰;leaves of K.candel: 0-20‰), the activity of ATPase increased with increasing salinity, while high salinity(above 30‰ or 20‰) inhibited ATPase activity. In comparison with A. marina, K. candel appeared to be more sensitive to salinity. The dynamics of membrane potential and transmembrane proton gradient in leaves and roots of A. marina and K. candel seedlings were similar to that of ATPase. When treated directly by NaCl all the indexes were inhibited markedly: there was a little increase within 0-10‰(K. candel) or 0-20‰(A. marina) followed by sharp declining. It indicated that the structure and function of plasma membrane was damaged severely.

  6. COMO? PALETAS MEXICANAS BRASILEIRAS?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniela Maria Alves Chaud

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available As informações sobre alimentação estão mais acessíveis e democráticas. As tendências alimentares são inspiradas por diversos fatores, mas sempre estão associados à moda, mídia e como forma de conjectura de um estilo de vida. Há pouco tempo, as grandes cidades brasileiras foram invadidas por uma nova mania: as paletas mexicanas, que, na verdade, não são “tão mexicanas”. Esses sorvetes apresentam qualidades organolépticas marcantes, em virtude, entre outros fatores, ao alto teor de açúcar e, em alguns casos, de gorduras. A concepção gourmetizada e natural dessa iguaria, seu custo e as propriedades nutricionais são peculiares e, aparentemente, um modismo. Esse trabalho teve como objetivo conhecer a composição desses produtos, a partir das informações nutricionais contidas nos sites das empresas produtoras, bem como as suas peculiaridades e concepções. Apesar da conotação natural e gastronômica, alto valor calórico, gorduras (especialmente na versão recheada sabor brigadeiro e elevadas quantidades de açúcares, foram encontrados, em média, por unidade: 207,2 Kcal; 38,4g de carboidratos; 3,9g de proteínas e 5,3g de gorduras. Uma rica ênfase na cultura mexicana, religiosidade e identidade visual marcante foram identificadas nos sites dos produtos pesquisados.

  7. El docente como investigador

    OpenAIRE

    Corrales Sánchez, Olga; Jiménez Carrillo, María de los Ángeles

    2009-01-01

    En el campo de la docencia se presenta a menudo un gran abismo entre teoría y práctica. Los docente en su mayoría consideran que la teoría y la investigación tienen muy poca la relación con su quehacer diario.El propósito de este trabajo es el de presentar algunas ideas acerca del rol del docente como investigador. Es del conocimiento de las autoras el temor y la preocupación que expresan lo maestros y profesores ante al posibilidad de realizar investigaciones sobre su trabajo en el aula.Segú...

  8. Energy from algae using microbial fuel cells

    KAUST Repository

    Velasquez-Orta, Sharon B.

    2009-08-15

    Bioelectricity production froma phytoplankton, Chlorella vulgaris, and a macrophyte, Ulva lactuca was examined in single chamber microbial fuel cells (MFCs). MFCs were fed with the two algae (as powders), obtaining differences in energy recovery, degradation efficiency, and power densities. C. vulgaris produced more energy generation per substrate mass (2.5 kWh/kg), but U. lactuca was degraded more completely over a batch cycle (73±1% COD). Maximum power densities obtained using either single cycle or multiple cycle methods were 0.98 W/m2 (277 W/m3) using C. vulgaris, and 0.76 W/m2 (215 W/m3) using U. lactuca. Polarization curves obtained using a common method of linear sweep voltammetry (LSV) overestimated maximum power densities at a scan rate of 1 mV/s. At 0.1 mV/s, however, the LSV polarization data was in better agreement with single- and multiple-cycle polarization curves. The fingerprints of microbial communities developed in reactors had only 11% similarity to inocula and clustered according to the type of bioprocess used. These results demonstrate that algae can in principle, be used as a renewable source of electricity production in MFCs. © 2009 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  9. Algae-based oral recombinant vaccines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Specht, Elizabeth A; Mayfield, Stephen P

    2014-01-01

    Recombinant subunit vaccines are some of the safest and most effective vaccines available, but their high cost and the requirement of advanced medical infrastructure for administration make them impractical for many developing world diseases. Plant-based vaccines have shifted that paradigm by paving the way for recombinant vaccine production at agricultural scale using an edible host. However, enthusiasm for "molecular pharming" in food crops has waned in the last decade due to difficulty in developing transgenic crop plants and concerns of contaminating the food supply. Microalgae could be poised to become the next candidate in recombinant subunit vaccine production, as they present several advantages over terrestrial crop plant-based platforms including scalable and contained growth, rapid transformation, easily obtained stable cell lines, and consistent transgene expression levels. Algae have been shown to accumulate and properly fold several vaccine antigens, and efforts are underway to create recombinant algal fusion proteins that can enhance antigenicity for effective orally delivered vaccines. These approaches have the potential to revolutionize the way subunit vaccines are made and delivered - from costly parenteral administration of purified protein, to an inexpensive oral algae tablet with effective mucosal and systemic immune reactivity.

  10. Algae-based oral recombinant vaccines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elizabeth A Specht

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Recombinant subunit vaccines are some of the safest and most effective vaccines available, but their high cost and the requirement of advanced medical infrastructure for administration make them impractical for many developing world diseases. Plant-based vaccines have shifted that paradigm by paving the way for recombinant vaccine production at agricultural scale using an edible host. However, enthusiasm for molecular pharming in food crops has waned in the last decade due to difficulty in developing transgenic crop plants and concerns of contaminating the food supply. Microalgae are poised to become the next candidate in recombinant subunit vaccine production, and they present several advantages over terrestrial crop plant-based platforms including scalable and contained growth, rapid transformation, easily obtained stable cell lines, and consistent transgene expression levels. Algae have been shown to accumulate and properly fold several vaccine antigens, and efforts are underway to create recombinant algal fusion proteins that can enhance antigenicity for effective orally-delivered vaccines. These approaches have the potential to revolutionize the way subunit vaccines are made and delivered – from costly parenteral administration of purified protein, to an inexpensive oral algae tablet with effective mucosal and system immune reactivity.

  11. [Marina de Vasconcellos and the social sciences in Rio de Janeiro: a study of the social circles].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ribeiro, Adelia Maria Miglievich

    2008-06-01

    An investigation of the career of one of the "founding mothers" of the social sciences in Rio de Janeiro, Marina de Vasconcellos, successor of Arthur Ramos, is one way of understanding how anthropology was established in Rio de Janeiro. Conflicts and alliances, continuities and discontinuities, lie behind the pioneering Brazilian Society of Anthropology and Ethnology and the Institute of Social Sciences, both at Faculdade Nacional de Filosofia. Marina de Vasconcellos' professional life bore the marks of the clash between different schools of thought regarding anthropology at a time when university courses were being introduced. As a professor, she was committed to educating new professionals, and in 1968, she was steadfast in the struggle for university autonomy. The study leads to a reflection upon the criteria for success in academia, countering the view that this depends entirely on the publication of books and articles.

  12. Phytophthora gemini sp. nov., a new species isolated from the halophilic plant Zostera marina in the Netherlands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Man in 't Veld, Willem A; Rosendahl, Karin C H M; Brouwer, Henk; de Cock, Arthur W A M

    2011-08-01

    Eight strains belonging to the Oomycete genus Phytophthora were isolated from Zostera marina (seagrass) in The Netherlands over the past 25 y. Based on morphology, isozymes, temperature-growth relationships and ITS sequences, these strains were found to belong to two different Phytophthora species. Five strains, four of them isolated from rotting seeds and one isolated from decaying plants, could not be assigned to a known species and hence belong to a new species for which we propose the name Phytophthora gemini sp. nov. Three strains were isolated from decaying plants and were identified as Phytophthora inundata, thereby expanding the known habitat range of this species from fresh to brackish-saline areas. The possible role of both Phytophthora species in the decline of Z. marina in The Netherlands and the evolutionary significance of the presence of Phytophthora species in marine environments are discussed.

  13. Isolation of antibacterials from the mangrove, Avicennia marina and their activity against multi drug resistant Staphylococcus aureus

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    N.B.Dhayanithi; T. T. Ajith Kumar; R. Ganesha Murthy; K. Kathiresan

    2012-01-01

    Objective: leaf extract of A. marina was tested on the growth of clinically isolated multi-drug resistant Staphylococcus aureus and its bioactive compounds were attempted. Method: Clinical strain of Staphylococcus aureus, were isolated from sputum, pus and blood of different patients and 22 strains were screened for antibiotic susceptibility. Avicennia marina was extracted in different solvents and antibacterial assay was carried out using Kirby-Bauer’s disk diffusion method. Crude methanol extract of the mangrove was loaded on a silica gel column and eluted with chloroform and methanol (9:1 to 1:9) followed by ethyl acetate and methanol (9:1 to 1:9). Based on in vitro assay, the 12th fraction was subjected for minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC). The active fraction was analysed by using a Clarus 500 Perkin Elmer gas chromatography. Result: Based on the antibiotic susceptibility test, six strains (RMSA 6, RMSA12, RMSA16, RMSA18, RMSA19 and RMSA21) were resistance against methicillin, vancomycin and ciprofloxacin. The results indicated that the methanolic leaf extract showed the highest antibacterial activity against all the tested strains RMSA 6 (16mm), RMSA12 (15 mm), RMSA16 (13 mm), RMSA18 (10 mm), RMSA19 (17 mm) and RMSA21 (16 mm). The MIC of the partially purified extract showed potential results against all the multidrug resistant strains however, the lowest concentration was recorded against RMSA 6, RMSA19 and RMSA21 strain. In the GC-MS results, 5 bioactive compounds were identified from the partially purified extract of A.marina. Conclusion:The methanolic extract of A. marina has the more potential candidate to inhibit against multidrug resistant S. aureus.

  14. High-quality draft genome sequence of Kocuria marina SO9-6, an actinobacterium isolated from a copper mine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castro, Daniel B.A.; Pereira, Letícia Bianca; Silva, Marcus Vinícius M. e; Silva, Bárbara P. da; Palermo, Bruna Rafaella Z.; Carlos, Camila; Belgini, Daiane R.B.; Limache, Elmer Erasmo G.; Lacerda, Gileno V. Jr; Nery, Mariana B.P.; Gomes, Milene B.; Souza, Salatiel S. de; Silva, Thiago M. da; Rodrigues, Viviane D.; Paulino, Luciana C.; Vicentini, Renato; Ferraz, Lúcio F.C.; Ottoboni, Laura M.M.

    2015-01-01

    An actinobacterial strain, designated SO9-6, was isolated from a copper iron sulfide mineral. The organism is Gram-positive, facultatively anaerobic, and coccoid. Chemotaxonomic and phylogenetic properties were consistent with its classification in the genus Kocuria. Here, we report the first draft genome sequence of Kocuria marina SO9-6 under accession JROM00000000 (http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/nuccore/725823918), which provides insights for heavy metal bioremediation and production of compounds of biotechnological interest. PMID:26484219

  15. Friday Harbor Marina Expansion Study--San Juan Island, Washington: Final Detailed Project Report and Environmental Assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1981-04-01

    Commnercial Charter Boat Benefits 4-8 f. Average Annual Benefits 4-8 g. Average Annual Costs 4-9 h. Economic Justification 4-9 4.23 Enviromental Effects...Appendixes Appendix A - Study Coordination and Public Involvement Appendix B - Economic and Social Evaluation Appendix C - Engineering Design and Cost...additional moorages and protection for an expanded marina. In analyzing and evaluating these alternatives, legal, financial, policy, social, economic

  16. Structure, Aboveground Biomass, and Soil Characterization of Avicennia marina in Eastern Mangrove Lagoon National Park, Abu Dhabi

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alsumaiti, Tareefa Saad Sultan

    Mangrove forests are national treasures of the United Arab Emirates (UAE) and other arid countries with limited forested areas. Mangroves form a crucial part of the coastal ecosystem and provide numerous benefits to society, economy, and especially the environment. Mangrove trees, specifically Avicennia marina, are studied in their native habitat in order to characterize their population structure, aboveground biomass, and soil properties. This study focused on Eastern Mangrove Lagoon National Park in Abu Dhabi, which was the first mangrove protected area to be designated in UAE. In situ measurements were collected to estimate Avicennia marina status, mortality rate (%), height (m), crown spread (m), stem number, diameter at breast height (cm), basal area (m), and aboveground biomass (t ha-1 ). Small-footprint aerial light detection and ranging (LIDAR) data acquired by UAE were processed to characterize mangrove canopy height and aboveground biomass density. This included extraction of LIDAR-derived height percentile statistics, segmentation of the forest into structurally homogenous units, and development of regression relationships between in situ reference and remote sensing data using a machine learning approach. An in situ soil survey was conducted to examine the soils' physical and chemical properties, fertility status, and organic matter. The data of soil survey were used to create soil maps to evaluate key characteristics of soils, and their influence on Avicennia marina in Eastern Mangrove Lagoon National Park. The results of this study provide new insights into Avicennia marina canopy population, structure, aboveground biomass, and soil properties in Abu Dhabi, as data in such arid environments is lacking. This valuable information can help in managing and preserving this unique ecosystem.

  17. Sustainability of algae derived biodiesel: a mass balance approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pfromm, Peter H; Amanor-Boadu, Vincent; Nelson, Richard

    2011-01-01

    A rigorous chemical engineering mass balance/unit operations approach is applied here to bio-diesel from algae mass culture. An equivalent of 50,000,000 gallons per year (0.006002 m3/s) of petroleum-based Number 2 fuel oil (US, diesel for compression-ignition engines, about 0.1% of annual US consumption) from oleaginous algae is the target. Methyl algaeate and ethyl algaeate diesel can according to this analysis conceptually be produced largely in a technologically sustainable way albeit at a lower available diesel yield. About 11 square miles of algae ponds would be needed with optimistic assumptions of 50 g biomass yield per day and m2 pond area. CO2 to foster algae growth should be supplied from a sustainable source such as a biomass-based ethanol production. Reliance on fossil-based CO2 from power plants or fertilizer production renders algae diesel non-sustainable in the long term.

  18. Effects of conventional and biodegradable microplastics on a marine ecosystem engineer (Arenicola marina) and sediment nutrient cycling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green, Dannielle Senga; Boots, Bas; Sigwart, Julia; Jiang, Shan; Rocha, Carlos

    2016-01-01

    Effects of microplastic pollution on benthic organisms and ecosystem services provided by sedimentary habitats are largely unknown. An outdoor mesocosm experiment was done to realistically assess the effects of three different types of microplastic pollution (one biodegradable type; polylactic acid and two conventional types; polyethylene and polyvinylchloride) at increasing concentrations (0.02, 0.2 and 2% of wet sediment weight) on the health and biological activity of lugworms, Arenicola marina (Linnaeus, 1758), and on nitrogen cycling and primary productivity of the sediment they inhabit. After 31 days, A. marina produced less casts in sediments containing microplastics. Metabolic rates of A. marina increased, while microalgal biomass decreased at high concentrations, compared to sediments with low concentrations or without microplastics. Responses were strongest to polyvinylchloride, emphasising that different materials may have differential effects. Each material needs to be carefully evaluated in order to assess their risks as microplastic pollution. Overall, both conventional and biodegradable microplastics in sandy sediments can affect the health and behaviour of lugworms and directly or indirectly reduce primary productivity of these habitats.

  19. Texture and composition of the Rosa Marina beach sands (Adriatic coast, southern Italy: a sedimentological/ecological approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moretti Massimo

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Beach sands from the Rosa Marina locality (Adriatic coast, southern Italy were analysed mainly microscopically in order to trace the source areas of their lithoclastic and bioclastic components. The main cropping out sedimentary units were also studied with the objective to identify the potential source areas of lithoclasts. This allowed to establish how the various rock units contribute to the formation of beach sands. The analysis of the bioclastic components allows to estimate the actual role of organisms regarding the supply of this material to the beach. Identification of taxa that are present in the beach sands as shell fragments or other remains was carried out at the genus or family level. Ecological investigation of the same beach and the recognition of sub-environments (mainly distinguished on the basis of the nature of the substrate and of the water depth was the key topic that allowed to establish the actual source areas of bioclasts in the Rosa Marina beach sands. The sedimentological analysis (including a physical study of the beach and the calculation of some statistical parameters concerning the grain-size curves shows that the Rosa Marina beach is nowadays subject to erosion.

  20. Bioaccumulation and distribution of metals in sediments and Avicenna marina tissues in the Hara Biosphere Reserve, Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nowrouzi, Mohsen; Pourkhabbaz, Alireza; Rezaei, Mohammadreza

    2012-10-01

    The metal pollution in Sediments and Avicenna marina tissues in the Hara Biosphere Reserve was monitored for Lead (Pb), Cadmium (Cd), and Nickel (Ni) with atomic absorption spectrometer. The results showed that the mean concentration of Pb, Cd, and Ni in the water and sediments were much higher than the recommended threshold limits in the most stations, also the highest means of Pb, Cd, and Ni were observed in Avicenna roots and it were 25.26 ± 4.86, 2.17 ± 0.74, and 26.72 ± 6.17 (μg g(-1)) respectively. Calculating BCF (bioconcentration factor) index illustrates that A. marina accumulates Pb, Cd, and Ni 1.62, 1.52 and 0.73 times greater than sediment levels respectively, So it can show that A. marina may be employed as a biological indicator exposure of Cd, Pb, and Ni with temporal monitoring, also the factories were main sources of metals contamination in the Hara Biosphere Reserve.

  1. In vitro antibacterial activity and stability of Avicennia marina against urinary tract infection pathogens at different parameters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Devi, A Sheela; Rajkumar, Johanna

    2013-10-01

    In this study midstream urine samples were collected from urinary tract infected patients to isolate and identify UTI causing bacterial pathogens by biochemical methods. The identified strains were two gram-positive and five gram-negative bacterium. Out of these we have selected one gram-negative (Staphylococcus aureus) and three gram-positive (Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Klebsiella pneumoniae) bacteria for current study. The antibacterial effect of aqueous, hexane, chloroform, ethyl acetate and methanol extracts of Avicennia marina against UTI pathogens were studied. Most effective three extracts of A. marina were treated with charcoal. Out of three extracts methanol was confirmed as tremendous to act against bacterial isolates and it was characterized at two different concentrations and compared with chemical based antibiotics. The stability and antimicrobial efficacy of the extract of A. marina in different parameters such as temperature, pH, enzyme, surfactant, organic solvent was determined. In summary, the extract showed an excellent stability and effectiveness to temperature 50 degrees C, pH 4, enzyme treatment using protease, surfactant (EDTA) and organic solvent (formaldehyde).

  2. El inquisidor como profesor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriano PROSPERI

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Giovanni Botero, en una célebre página de su Ragion di stato, se detuvo sobre el tema de la fuerza de la religión en los gobiernos. Esta función de la religión cristiana —para Botero, católica— es garante del orden público y se presenta también como opuesta a la generadora de desorden de Lutero y Calvino, quienes siembran por todo cizañas y revoluciones de estados y ruinas de los reinos. Estamos en los orígenes del esquema historiografía de la periodización de la Edad Moderna que confió precisamente a la Reforma el papel de nodriza de las revoluciones que nacieron en Europa.

  3. Racismo como metaenquadre

    OpenAIRE

    2015-01-01

    RESUMO Este artigo pretende discutir questões relativas ao racismo tendo como lastro principalmente contribuições da psicologia social. Para tanto, faz menção a dois conceitos. São eles: enquadre e metaenquadre. O primeiro foi teorizado pelo psicólogo social José Bleger e o segundo é uma ampliação desse e foi conceituado por René Kaës, teórico da psicanálise dos laços sociais. O artigo finaliza-se com situações que envolvem processos socioculturais, histórico-educacionais que trazem à baila p...

  4. O ensaio como narrativa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pedro Duarte

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available O artigo tenta demonstrar que todos os textos, mesmo aqueles cuja natureza é teórica, têm alguma forma de narrativa. Nem sempre são personagens que os ocupam, podem ser ideias, mas mesmo assim há um enredo conceitual que se passa. Modernamente, a forma dessa narrativa foi sobretudo o sistema, com a pretensão totalizadora presente, por exemplo, na filosofia de Hegel. Contemporaneamente, porém, a forma do ensaio – surgida ainda na era moderna – ganha destaque por sua forma descontínua de narrar. O objetivo do artigo é apontar que, se o ensaio é uma forma, como explicitaram Lukács, Benjamin e Adorno, ele é também uma forma de narrar – ainda que de narrar conceitualmente objetos da cultura.

  5. La persona como creatura

    OpenAIRE

    Emmanuel Housset

    2010-01-01

    El artículo de Emmanuel Housset implica un esfuerzo de rehabilitación del concepto «persona» para la filosofía contemporánea y la fenomenología. Para ello el autor busca mostrar cómo poco a poco «persona» tomó otra significación que la de «personaje» o sujeto de derecho. Es en autores como san Agustín y santo Tomás de Aquino que se halla un acceso diferente que pone el énfasis más bien en su carácter relacional y responsivo de la persona, antes que en su dimensión autónoma y autotélica. Tal d...

  6. Gallinaza: Un residual avícola como fuente alternativa de nutrientes para producción de biomasa microalgal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosales Loaiza Nestor Luis

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available La gallinaza puede ser usada como una fuente alternativa de nutrientes para el cultivo de microalgas, proveyendo de biomasa microalgal utilizable como producto final. El objetivo de este trabajo fue evaluar el efecto de la fracción soluble de gallinaza (FSG a tres diferentes concentraciones (6, 18 y 36% sobre el crecimiento, la producción de pigmentos y proteínas de la microalga marina Chroomonas sp. y de la microalga de agua dulce Chlorella sorokiniana. La FSG no biodegradada mostró un efecto letal sobre el crecimiento de ambas microalgas. La FSG tratada aeróbicamente mejoró el crecimiento de Chroomonas sp. a 18% con 131,37 ±13,66 x106 cel mL-1, y a 36% para C. sorokiniana de 228,64 ±4,90 x106 cel mL-1 (p

  7. A representação da menina e da mulher no conto de fadas moderno: novos destinos em “Além do bastidor” e “A moça tecelã” de Marina Colasanti

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Livia Maria Rosa Soares

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho pretende investigar a representação da menina e da mulher na obra infantojuvenil de Marina Colasanti. Para tanto, analisaremos dois contos de fadas da escritora: “Além do bastidor” e “A moça tecelã”, ambos publicados no livro “Antes de virar gigante” (2003. A fundamentação teórica desse capítulo está dimensionada a partir dos estudos realizados, entre outros, por Regina Zilberman, Nelly Novaes Coelho, Leonardo Arroyo, Peter Hunt, Marisa Lajolo, Bruno Bettellheim, Propp, pelas importantes análises em torno do caráter formal, estrutural, histórico, e temático que contribuem para uma visão mais consciente e sistemática das narrativas infantis e juvenis de várias épocas. Além dessas análises, apresentaremos a perspectiva de gênero: como a autora permite reflexões acerca das representações da criança e da mulher. A partir disso, intentamos analisar como as obras selecionadas neste corpus oferecem indícios para se avaliar questões de identidade e representação de gênero (menina e mulher na literatura infantojuvenil atual. Como aporte teórico para essas análises apresentaremos os estudos de Lúcia Zolin, Constância Lima Duarte, Cecil Zinani, Lúcia Castello Branco e Judith Butler, entre outros. Sobretudo, a maneira como Marina Colasanti contribui para uma atualização dos contos de fadas ao mesmo tempo em que dialoga com questões pós-modernas.

  8. Reduction of water and energy requirement of algae cultivation using an algae biofilm photobioreactor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozkan, Altan; Kinney, Kerry; Katz, Lynn; Berberoglu, Halil

    2012-06-01

    This paper reports the construction and performance of an algae biofilm photobioreactor that offers a significant reduction of the energy and water requirements of cultivation. The green alga Botryococcus braunii was cultivated as a biofilm. The system achieved a direct biomass harvest concentration of 96.4 kg/m(3) with a total lipid content 26.8% by dry weight and a productivity of 0.71 g/m(2) day, representing a light to biomass energy conversion efficiency of 2.02%. Moreover, it reduced the volume of water required to cultivate a kilogram of algal biomass by 45% and reduced the dewatering energy requirement by 99.7% compared to open ponds. Finally, the net energy ratio of the cultivation was 6.00 including dewatering. The current issues of this novel photobioreactor are also identified to further improve the system productivity and scaleup.

  9. Transporte de sedimentos como carga de fondo en la cuenca del río Narcea (vertiente norte de la Cordillera Cantábrica)

    OpenAIRE

    2014-01-01

    Una red de drenaje puede ser percibida como una cinta transportadora que acarrea agua y sedimento desde las zonas de cabecera hasta las áreas de sedimentación marinas. Así entendido, el sistema fluvial representa el enlace necesario entre los procesos erosivos y los procesos sedimentarios. Una adecuada comprensión del medio fluvial pasa, por tanto, por un correcto entendimiento de los procesos de transporte de sedimento. De todo el sedimento que transita por la red fluvial, el sedimento trans...

  10. Uso de colifagos somáticos como indicadores de contaminación fecal en playas de “la Costa Verde”, Lima–Perú

    OpenAIRE

    Hinsby Cadillo Quiroz; Jorge León Quispe

    2014-01-01

    El presente estudio fue realizado con el objetivo de evaluar el uso de los colifagos somáticos como indicadores de contaminación fecal en aguas recreacionales marinas. Los colifagos somáticos fueron cuantificados en 140 muestras provenientes de 5 playas del circuito de la “Costa Verde”, Lima, y correlacionados con los indicadores de contaminación fecal convencionales (Coliformes fecales, E. coli y Enterococos). Los colifagos fueron determinados por el método de “capa simple” previa aplicaci...

  11. Phycobiliproteins: A Novel Green Tool from Marine Origin Blue-Green Algae and Red Algae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chandra, Rashmi; Parra, Roberto; Iqbal, Hafiz M N

    2017-01-01

    Marine species are comprising about a half of the whole global biodiversity; the sea offers an enormous resource for novel bioactive compounds. Several of the marine origin species show multifunctional bioactivities and characteristics that are useful for a discovery and/or reinvention of biologically active compounds. For millennia, marine species that includes cyanobacteria (blue-green algae) and red algae have been targeted to explore their enormous potential candidature status along with a wider spectrum of novel applications in bio- and non-bio sectors of the modern world. Among them, cyanobacteria are photosynthetic prokaryotes, phylogenetically a primitive group of Gramnegative prokaryotes, ranging from Arctic to Antarctic regions, capable of carrying out photosynthesis and nitrogen fixation. In the recent decade, a great deal of research attention has been paid on the pronouncement of bio-functional proteins along with novel peptides, vitamins, fine chemicals, renewable fuel and bioactive compounds, e.g., phycobiliproteins from marine species, cyanobacteria and red algae. Interestingly, they are extensively commercialized for natural colorants in food and cosmetics, antimicrobial, antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, neuroprotective, hepatoprotective agents and fluorescent neo-glycoproteins as probes for single particle fluorescence imaging fluorescent applications in clinical and immunological analysis. However, a comprehensive knowledge and technological base for augmenting their commercial utilities are lacking. Therefore, this paper will provide an overview of the phycobiliproteins-based research literature from marine cyanobacteria and red algae. This review is also focused towards analyzing global and commercial activities with application oriented-based research. Towards the end, the information is also given on the potential biotechnological and biomedical applications of phycobiliproteins.

  12. Efectividad del monitoreo de la anidación de tortugas marinas para determinar el éxito reproductivo en playas del sur de Cuba

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julia Azanza-Ricardo

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available El monitoreo de las anidaciones es muy útil como herramienta para la conservación pero el esfuerzo de trabajo en diferentes áreas puede variar grandemente. En Cuba, se aplican cuatro enfoques diferentes: monitoreo sistemático nocturno y diurno (MSN, y monitoreo esporádico con o sin comprobación de nidos (MECC. La cantidad y exactitud de los datos tomados y la calidad de la información derivada de ellos difieren. Por esta razón, en el presente trabajo se evalúa la efectividad de cada enfoque para determinar el éxito reproductivo de tortugas marinas en Cuba. El MSN sólo se realiza en las playas de anidación de la Península de Guanahacabibes, mientras que el MECC es el más extendido en el país. La porción de la temporada de anidación de cada una de las tres especies que anidan en Cuba (Chelonia mydas, Caretta caretta y Eretmochelys imbricata que se cubre con personal de monitoreo es baja para la mayoría de las playas, y sobre todo en el caso de E. imbricata. Se detectaron diferencias entre el monitoreo sistemático y esporádico, por tanto, la capacidad de detectar rastros falsos y verdaderos depende esencialmente de la frecuencia de monitoreo. Esto afecta la capacidad para evaluar el éxito de la anidación por playas. A pesar del incremento en los esfuerzos realizados en Cuba para el seguimiento de las principales colonias de anidación, se deben identificar nuevas estrategias para garantizar la correcta toma de información, y una mayor eficiencia del programa de monitoreo para obtener la mayor información posible de cada una de las especies con un adecuado balance de costo-beneficio.

  13. Del “mar es de todos” al mar reservado: turistas, poblaciones de pescadores y reservas marinas en Canarias

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José J. Pascual

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Los patrones de desarrollo de las últimas décadas en Canarias y en otras zonas del Estado han originado nuevos usos del espacio marítimo y litoral. Frente a los tradicionales vinculados a la pesca, ahora dominan frecuentemente los turísticos y recreativos. La naturaleza, construida o recreada, se convierte especialmente en los últimos años en un atractivo clave para muchos destinos. En este contexto, las reservas marinas intentan preservar ciertas zonas de especial valor biológico de los excesos de la pesca, a la vez que deberían conjugar los usos turísticos y recreativos a realizar en tales espacios con la conservación de sus valores naturales. En Canarias han constituido uno de los instrumentos claves de la política de conservación y gestión de pesquerías en las áreas costeras de las Islas. Actualmente hay tres en funcionamiento, siguiendo una tendencia cada vez más general en todo el mundo. Pero a la vez que con ellas se controla la extracción de recursos por los profesionales, se impulsan una serie de usos vinculados a determinadas formas de turismo que han generado importantes transformaciones en las poblaciones vinculadas a estas zonas protegidas. Otros impactos inducidos por el turismo o la acuicultura han alterado también sus estrategias económicas o el uso de los espacios tanto en tierra como en el mar

  14. The MARINA model (Model to Assess River Inputs of Nutrients to seAs): Model description and results for China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strokal, Maryna; Kroeze, Carolien; Wang, Mengru; Bai, Zhaohai; Ma, Lin

    2016-08-15

    Chinese agriculture has been developing fast towards industrial food production systems that discharge nutrient-rich wastewater into rivers. As a result, nutrient export by rivers has been increasing, resulting in coastal water pollution. We developed a Model to Assess River Inputs of Nutrients to seAs (MARINA) for China. The MARINA Nutrient Model quantifies river export of nutrients by source at the sub-basin scale as a function of human activities on land. MARINA is a downscaled version for China of the Global NEWS-2 (Nutrient Export from WaterSheds) model with an improved approach for nutrient losses from animal production and population. We use the model to quantify dissolved inorganic and organic nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P) export by six large rivers draining into the Bohai Gulf (Yellow, Hai, Liao), Yellow Sea (Yangtze, Huai) and South China Sea (Pearl) in 1970, 2000 and 2050. We addressed uncertainties in the MARINA Nutrient model. Between 1970 and 2000 river export of dissolved N and P increased by a factor of 2-8 depending on sea and nutrient form. Thus, the risk for coastal eutrophication increased. Direct losses of manure to rivers contribute to 60-78% of nutrient inputs to the Bohai Gulf and 20-74% of nutrient inputs to the other seas in 2000. Sewage is an important source of dissolved inorganic P, and synthetic fertilizers of dissolved inorganic N. Over half of the nutrients exported by the Yangtze and Pearl rivers originated from human activities in downstream and middlestream sub-basins. The Yellow River exported up to 70% of dissolved inorganic N and P from downstream sub-basins and of dissolved organic N and P from middlestream sub-basins. Rivers draining into the Bohai Gulf are drier, and thus transport fewer nutrients. For the future we calculate further increases in river export of nutrients. The MARINA Nutrient model quantifies the main sources of coastal water pollution for sub-basins. This information can contribute to formulation of

  15. 高效液相色谱分析鱼毒性藻类海洋卡盾藻溶血毒素%Analyses of Hemolytic Toxin from Ichthyotoxic Phytoplankton Chattonella marina (Hong Kong Strain) by High Performance Liquid Chromatography

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴霓; 江天久; 江涛

    2012-01-01

    采用高效液相色谱技术(HPLC)分离和分析了海洋卡盾藻(香港株)溶血毒素的甲醇粗提物,通过对比不同流动相、检测波长、等度和梯度洗脱方式,初步建立了分析其溶血毒素的HPLC方法.结果表明,采用梯度洗脱的方法,海洋卡盾藻溶血毒素的粗提物在50 min内取得了较好地分离.色谱条件为C8硅胶柱(4.6 mm× 150 mm,5 μm),流动相为乙腈和水,梯度洗脱(0~10 min,60%→80%乙腈;10~40 min,80% →90%乙腈;40~50 min,90%乙腈);紫外检测器检测波长为205和448nm;流速为0.8 mL/min;柱温为25℃.用兔血红细胞法对各个主要色谱峰进行溶血活性检测显示,海洋卡盾藻(香港株)的溶血毒素至少含有5种成分.光谱分析显示一种成分的紫外吸收高峰在448 nm,一种未完全分离的混合组分的紫外吸收高峰为440和446nm,另外3种成分的紫外吸收高峰为205 nm.%Chattonella marina is a typical fish-killing HAB (Harmful Algae Bloom) species, which could produce hemolytic toxin and result in mass mortality of fishes. In order to understand the transmission and transformation of hemolytic toxin in food chain, high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) with gradient elution has been used to separate hemolytic toxin extracted from C. marina. Different solvent systems, detection wavelength, isocratic elution and gradient elution for HPLC were compared. The separation is carried out on a C8 column (4. 6 mm×150 mm, 5μm) with acetonitrile/ water as mobile phase, gradient elution (0 -10 min 60%-80% acetonitrile, 10 -40 min 80%-90% acetonitrile, 40- 50 min 90% acetonitrile) with a flow rate of 0. 8 mL/min. The detection wavelength is 205 nm and 448 nm, and the column temperature is 25 °C. Hemolysis bioassay shows that there are at least five components in C. marina (Hong Kong stain). One component had the maximum ultraviolet (UV) absorption at 448 nm, another that was not separated completely had the maxima at 440

  16. The globins of cyanobacteria and algae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Eric A; Lecomte, Juliette T J

    2013-01-01

    Approximately, 20 years ago, a haemoglobin gene was identified within the genome of the cyanobacterium Nostoc commune. Haemoglobins have now been confirmed in multiple species of photosynthetic microbes beyond N. commune, and the diversity of these proteins has recently come under increased scrutiny. This chapter summarizes the state of knowledge concerning the phylogeny, physiology and chemistry of globins in cyanobacteria and green algae. Sequence information is by far the best developed and the most rapidly expanding aspect of the field. Structural and ligand-binding properties have been described for just a few proteins. Physiological data are available for even fewer. Although activities such as nitric oxide dioxygenation and oxygen scavenging are strong candidates for cellular function, dedicated studies will be required to complete the story on this intriguing and ancient group of proteins.

  17. La persona como creatura

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emmanuel Housset

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available El artículo de Emmanuel Housset implica un esfuerzo de rehabilitación del concepto «persona» para la filosofía contemporánea y la fenomenología. Para ello el autor busca mostrar cómo poco a poco «persona» tomó otra significación que la de «personaje» o sujeto de derecho. Es en autores como san Agustín y santo Tomás de Aquino que se halla un acceso diferente que pone el énfasis más bien en su carácter relacional y responsivo de la persona, antes que en su dimensión autónoma y autotélica. Tal dimensión aparece, según Housset, junto con la idea de persona como creatura y en oposición a la de individuo racional dueño de sí. La dimensión afectiva, la personalidad despertada por las diversas figuras de la alteridad son algunas de las dimensiones de la persona que examina el autor a partir del examen de la carne, las pasiones, la memoria, la historicidad y el amor alteridad.Emmanuel Housset's paper is an effort to revitalize the concept of 'person' for contemporary philosophy and phenomenology To this end the author looks to show how little by little the understanding of 'person' took on a different meaning to that of 'character' or "right bearing individual". It is in authors such as St. Augustine and St. Thomas Aquinas that a different approach is found, one that puts emphasis on the relational and responsive character of a person, rather than on the autonomous and auto telic dimension. According to Housset, such a dimension appears together with the idea of the person as a creation, and in opposition to the idea of the rational individual, that is his own master. The emotional dimension and the personality that is awoken by the many figures of alterity are some of the dimensions of the person that the author analyzes, based on examining the flesh, passions, memory historicity and love.

  18. La familia Hemiaulaceae (Bacillariophyceae de las aguas marinas chilenas The family Hemiaulaceae (Bacillariophyceae from marine Chilean waters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    PATRICIO RIVERA

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available La familia Hemiaulaceae comprende cuatro géneros, señalados previamente para las aguas chilenas con las siguientes especies: Cerataulina pelagica (Cleve Hendey, Hemiaulus sinensis Greville, H. membranaceus Cleve, Climacodium biconcavum Cleve, Eucampia antarctica (Castracane Mangin, E. cornuta (Cleve Grunow y E. zodiacus Ehrenberg. Sin embargo, el análisis con microscopía fotónica y electrónica de muestras recolectadas en aguas marinas chilenas que contenían representantes de esta familia (incluyendo la mayoría de aquellas estudiadas anteriormente por otros investigadores nacionales reveló que (1 el género Cerataulina está representado por C. pelagica, distribuida a lo largo de la costa chilena entre Arica por el norte y el Estrecho de Magallanes por el sur, (2 el género Eucampia está representado por cuatro taxa: E. zodiacus f. cylindrocornis Syvertsen (señalada en trabajos anteriores como E. zodiacus f. zodiacus, E. zodiacus f. recta Rivera. Avaria & Cruces f. nov. (descrita aquí, E. cornuta y E. antarctica. Los primeros tres taxa se distribuyen en la zona central y norte de Chile, mientras que E. antarctica es propia de las aguas antárticas desde el Estrecho de Magallanes al sur, (3 las citas anteriores de Hemiaulus sinensis, H. membranaceus y Climacodium biconcavum para las aguas chilenas corresponden a determinaciones erróneas de Eucampia zodiacus f. recta, f. nov. Se entregan descripciones de los taxa encontrados y fotografías obtenidas con los microscopios fotónico y electrónicos que ilustran sus principales características morfológicasThe Family Hemiaulaceae comprises four genera, all of which have been previously reported for coastal waters off Chile, and represented by the following taxa: Cerataulina pelagica (Cleve Hendey, Hemiaulus sinensis Greville, H. membranaceus Cleve, Climacodium biconcavum Cleve, Eucampia antarctica (Castracane Mangin, E. cornuta (Cleve Grunow and E. zodiacus Ehrenberg. However, examination

  19. Arte como espelho

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pedro Süssekind

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Este artigo tem como ponto de partida o exemplo da relação espelhada entre um livro e uma pintura de mesmo nome: o retrato que Lucian Freud fez do crítico de arte Martin Gayford e o diário que esse crítico escreveu sobre seu retratista, ambas as obras chamadas Homem com cachecol azul. A partir do exemplo, discuto a metáfora do espelho para caracterizar a arte, recorrendo para isso à teoria da representação artísticas elaborada pelo filósofo norte-americano Arthur Danto no artigo “O mundo da arte”, de 1964, e no primeiro capítulo do livro A transfiguração do lugar-comum, de 1981. Recorro, por fim, a dois exemplos artísticos de espelhamento na representação analisados por Danto em O abuso da beleza, de 2003, um quadro holandês do século dezessete e um poema de Rainer Maria Rilke.

  20. como fuentes mutuas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriel Morales Hernández

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available En este artículo, el autor analiza, a partir de la antropología filosófica de Martín Heidegger y de la filosofía ilustrada de Immanuel Kant, la postura del filósofo francés Étienne Balibar en torno a la categoría de ciudadanía como base para esbozar una antropología filosófica renovada. A partir de la concepción kantiana de ciudadanía, Balibar construye una propuesta de antropología filosófica estructurada alrededor de tres pares de polos: el par hombresujeto, el par subjectus-subjectum y el par cosmos-polis. El autor va mostrando, a lo largo del trabajo, la manera en que la categoría «ciudadanía» articula cada uno de estos pares de términos y concluye con algunas consideraciones sobre las ventajas de la propuesta balibariana.

  1. Endomarketing: como diferencial competitivo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karin Birck

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Atualmente, com a profissionalização das empresas e com a grande concorrência no mercado, observa-se uma demanda cada vez maior de gestores comprometidos com o bem-estar pessoal e profissional de seus colaboradores. E, com esse intuito, de apresentar algumas idéias básicas de gestão voltadas à aplicação nas mais diversas técnicas de Endomarketing. Demonstra assim, a importância da utilização de feedback, tanto por parte dos colaboradores quanto dos gestores, destacando a importância de trabalhos de motivação, do clima organizacional favorável e de uma comunicação interna eficaz e a necessidade ímpar de tratar o colaborador como o diferencial dentro de uma empresa. Desta forma, foi realizada uma pesquisa bibliográfica que auxiliará e dará subsídios que lhe permitam retribuir em ações e atitudes de sucesso e, também, fazer um confronto de idéias, onde os autores apresentam suas mais diversas opiniões. Contudo, valendo-se, muitas vezes, de narrativas de experiências de outros gestores e até mesmo de suas próprias, tirando cada um suas próprias conclusões.

  2. El riesgo como oportunidad

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniela Gargantini

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Durante los últimos años el crecimiento mundial de catástrofes naturales ha ido en franco aumento. Sin embargo, desde un enfoque sistémico puede verificarse que la gran mayoría de los desastres se origina en los países en desarrollo (entre ellos los latinoamericanos, siendo las pérdidas en ellos significativamente más altas que en los países industrializados. Bajo esta postura los desastres no son sólo naturales sino socio- naturales, enfatizando la estrecha relación de causalidad entre modelos de desarrollo y urbanización y procesos de generación de riesgos, al incrementar la vulnerabilidad de los sectores más desprotegidos. El desastre pone en evidencia así una situación (la pobreza y segregación urbana ya existente, pero no considerada hasta el momento de la catástrofe. Frente a este panorama el desastre aparece como oportunidad que precipita tres catalizadores de políticas habitacionales: tierra, asistencia técnica y financiamiento, incrementando la celeridad y la creatividad de las respuestas. El interrogante que surge es por qué esperar el desastre para ponerlos en marcha, cuando ninguno de ellos es estrictamente dependiente de la situación de riesgo, sino sujeto de luchas de poder.

  3. El signo como emblema

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sáez, Carlos

    2003-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this article is to study the signs and symbols that appear in the hispanic medieval documents and manuscripts. These signs and symbols have usually been considered simply as mere elements to validate the charters. However, these alements were useful as a mean of visual communication between the high classes, able to generate charters, and the rest of medieval society—the majority illiterate— who received those charters. Because of their inability of understand an alphabetical code, they needed the graphic help to comprehend the message. Besides this, the article deals with non diplomatic signs and their function.

    Este artículo se centra en los signos o símbolos presentes en los documentos y manuscritos medievales hispanos, que habitualmente han sido tratados como meros elementos de validación de los diplomas. Pero estos elementos servían también de nexos de comunicación visual entre las clases poderosas, capaces de producir escritos, y los demás miembros de la sociedad medieval, receptores y destinatarios de tales escritos, en su mayoría analfabetos. Precisamente por esta razón, su incapacidad de descifrar un código alfabético, necesitan de auxilio gráfico para acercarse a la comprensión del mensaje. Asimismo, tratamos de los signos no diplomáticos y de su función.

  4. Cianobactérias e algas reduzem os sintomas causados por Tobacco vosaic virus (tmv em plantas de fumo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    André B. Beltrame

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available As algas e as cianobactérias produzem uma grande diversidade de compostos com atividade biológica direta sobre microrganismos ou agem como ativadores de mecanismos de resistência em plantas. Em vista disso, foi investigada a manifestação dos sintomas causados pelo Tobacco mosaic virus (TMV em plantas de fumo previamente tratadas com cianobactérias ou algas. Quando as folhas plantas de fumo foram tratadas dois dias antes da inoculação, foi verificado que suspensões de células dos isolados de cianobactérias 004/02, 008/02, Anabaena sp. e Nostoc sp. 61; e do isolado de alga 061/02, bem como as preparações do conteúdo intracelular do isolado 004/02 (4 C e do filtrado do meio de cultivo do isolado 061/02 (61 M apresentaram efeito na redução do número de lesões locais provocadas por TMV em folhas de plantas fumo, cultivar TNN. Além disso, foi observado que os isolados Anabaena sp., Nostoc sp. 21 (cianobactéria, Nostoc sp. 61 e 090/02 (alga mostraram efeito direto sobre o vírus semi-purificado. Em vista disso, pode-se sugerir que os isolados estudados sintetizam compostos que agem diretamente sobre o TMV e/ou ativam o mecanismo de defesa de plantas contra fitopatógenos.

  5. Composición Esterólica de la Esponja Marina Xestospongia Muta

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carmenza Duque

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available De la esponja marina Xestospongia muta recolectada en la bahía de Santa Marta, Caribe Colombiano, se aislaron por Cromatografía en Columna (CC sobre Silica gel, eluyendo con Benceno: Acetato de Etilo 10:2, dos fracciones esteróiicas; XMl (Rf = 0,28,Si02/Benceno; AcOEt 10:2 y XM2 (Rf = 0,24,SiO2/Benceno : AcOEt 10:2, Los esteróles presentes en estas dos fracciones fueron sometidos a Cromatografía Liquida de Alta Eficiencia (CLAE preparativa y analizados por Cromatografía de Gases (CG y Cromatografía de Gases acoplada en Espectometrla de Masas (CG-EM, Catorce esteróles fueron separados y 13 idenficados. La mayoría de ellos fueron 3n-0H-A^-Esteróles (Aproximadamente el 87% de los esteróles totales incluyendo al (24R + 24S-5,28-Estigmastadien-3i3-24-diol, mezclaepimérica por primera vez asi reportada en la naturaleza. El porcentaje restante correspondió a Estañóles y a un 6,2% de compuestos sin identificar.

  6. Policy plans and management measures to restore eelgrass (Zostera marina L.) in the Dutch Wadden Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Jonge, V. N.; de Jong, D. J.; van Katwijk, M. M.

    2000-07-01

    The Dutch Wadden Sea has been changed dramatically over the last centuries by human activities like land reclamation and different forms of fishery. This has, amongst other things, led to changes in the number of biological communities. One of the changes was the near extinction of eelgrass (Zostera marina L.) in the Dutch Wadden Sea. The deterioration of the area led to policy plans in the late 1980s that aimed at restoring the original natural communities of which the eelgrass community was one. This paper presents a restoration strategy which contains a selection procedure for suitable transplantation sites. The selection procedure is based on factors such as sediment composition, exposure time, current velocity and wave action. These were combined in a GIS-based map integrating these factors. One important action in the restoration process is to increase the number of freshwater discharge points to meet the requirements of the brackish water community in general and the growing conditions for eelgrass in particular.

  7. An ultrastructural study of spermatogenesis and sperm morula breakdown in Arenicola marina (L.) (Annelida: Polychaeta)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pacey, A. A.; Bentley, M. G.

    1992-06-01

    Spermatogenesis in the lugworm Arenicola marina, in common with other members of Arenicolidae, occurs in the coelomic fluid and results in the formation of discs of mature spermatozoa known as a morulae. Within a morula, individual spermatozoa are connected by a common mass of cytoplasm called the cytophore and therefore make up a syncitium. Immediately prior to spawning, and in response to an endocrine substance known as “Sperm Maturation Factor” (SMF), the structure of the sperm morulae breaks down and free spermatozoa are liberated. These are subsequently spawned from the body cavity. The investigation described here uses transmission electron microscopy to investigate the ultrastructural changes, which accompany spermatogenesis and the breakdown of sperm morulae in response to SMF in vitro. The study demonstrates that the cytophore appears to have a key role both during spermatogenesis and during sperm morula breakdown. The ultrastructure of sperm morulae and of mature spermatozoa is described. The structure of spermatozoa is shown to be primitive with a single flagellum which appears to be coiled at its distal end. The phagocytosis of free spermatozoa by coelomocytes is also described and it is suggested that these may play a role in the resorption of unspawned gametes in vivo.

  8. Conservation of eelgrass (Zostera marina genetic diversity in a mesocosm-based restoration experiment.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brian S Ort

    Full Text Available Eelgrass (Zostera marina forms the foundation of an important shallow coastal community in protected estuaries and bays. Widespread population declines have stimulated restoration efforts, but these have often overlooked the importance of maintaining the evolutionary potential of restored populations by minimizing the reduction in genetic diversity that typically accompanies restoration. In an experiment simulating a small-scale restoration, we tested the effectiveness of a buoy-deployed seeding technique to maintain genetic diversity comparable to the seed source populations. Seeds from three extant source populations in San Francisco Bay were introduced into eighteen flow-through baywater mesocosms. Following seedling establishment, we used seven polymorphic microsatellite loci to compare genetic diversity indices from 128 shoots to those found in the source populations. Importantly, allelic richness and expected heterozygosity were not significantly reduced in the mesocosms, which also preserved the strong population differentiation present among source populations. However, the inbreeding coefficient F IS was elevated in two of the three sets of mesocosms when they were grouped according to their source population. This is probably a Wahlund effect from confining all half-siblings within each spathe to a single mesocosm, elevating F IS when the mesocosms were considered together. The conservation of most alleles and preservation of expected heterozygosity suggests that this seeding technique is an improvement over whole-shoot transplantation in the conservation of genetic diversity in eelgrass restoration efforts.

  9. Com'è profondo il mare Gli uominiche lo misurano, l'Istituto Idrografico della Marina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alessandro Nobili

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Measuring sea depths: the Italian hydrographic InstituteSince 1873 the Italian Hydrographic Institute (Istituto Idrografico della Marina - IIM has been involved in sea depth measuring in order to improve safety of navigation. The main mission of the institute is to provide hydrographic services for waters of Italian national responsibility required by the International Convention for the Safety of Life at Sea (SOLAS. This role requires the coordination and determination of policy and standards which covers both hydrographic surveying and charting, as well as contributing tothe coordination, exchange and standards related to geospatial data in general. IIM’s traditions and methods take their origins from the pioneers of hydrography; in this paper the author briefl y describes the main stages in IIM’s history, passing throught scientifi c and international activities and concludine with challenges and prospects of digital era.

  10. Immune response varies with rate of dispersal in invasive cane toads (Rhinella marina.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gregory P Brown

    Full Text Available What level of immunocompetence should an animal maintain while undertaking long-distance dispersal? Immune function (surveillance and response might be down-regulated during prolonged physical exertion due to energy depletion, and/or to avoid autoimmune reactions arising from damaged tissue. On the other hand, heightened immune vigilance might be favored if the organism encounters novel pathogens as it enters novel environments. We assessed the links between immune defense and long-distance movement in a population of invasive cane toads (Rhinella marina in Australia. Toads were radio-tracked for seven days to measure their activity levels and were then captured and subjected to a suite of immune assays. Toads that moved further showed decreased bacteria-killing ability in their plasma and decreased phagocytic activity in their whole blood, but a heightened skin-swelling response to phytohemagglutinin. Baseline and post-stress corticosterone levels were unrelated to distance moved. Thus, long-distance movement in cane toads is associated with a dampened response in some systems and enhanced response in another. This pattern suggests that sustained activity is accompanied by trade-offs among immune components rather than an overall down or up-regulation. The finding that high mobility is accompanied by modification of the immune system has important implications for animal invasions.

  11. Copper treatment during storage reduces Phytophthora and Halophytophthora infection of Zostera marina seeds used for restoration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Govers, Laura L.; van der Zee, Els M.; Meffert, Johan P.; van Rijswick, Patricia C. J.; Man in ‘t Veld, Willem A.; Heusinkveld, Jannes H. T.; van der Heide, Tjisse

    2017-01-01

    Restoration is increasingly considered an essential tool to halt and reverse the rapid decline of vital coastal ecosystems dominated by habitat-forming foundation species such as seagrasses. However, two recently discovered pathogens of marine plants, Phytophthora gemini and Halophytophthora sp. Zostera, can seriously hamper restoration efforts by dramatically reducing seed germination. Here, we report on a novel method that strongly reduces Phytophthora and Halophytophthora infection of eelgrass (Zostera marina) seeds. Seeds were stored in seawater with three different copper sulphate concentrations (0.0, 0.2, 2.0 ppm) crossed with three salinities (0.5, 10.0, 25.0 ppt). Next to reducing seed germination, infection significantly affected cotyledon colour: 90% of the germinated infected seeds displayed a brown cotyledon upon germination that did not continue development into the seedling stage, in contrast to only 13% of the germinated non-infected seeds. Copper successfully reduced infection up to 86% and the 0.2 ppm copper sulphate treatment was just as successful as the 2.0 ppm treatment. Infection was completely eliminated at low salinities, but green seed germination was also dramatically lowered by 10 times. We conclude that copper sulphate treatment is a suitable treatment for disinfecting Phytophthora or Halophytophthora infected eelgrass seeds, thereby potentially enhancing seed-based restoration success. PMID:28225072

  12. Antimicrobial activity of Avicennia marina extracts ethanol, methanol & glycerin against Penicillium digitatum (citrus green mold

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Behrooz Alizadeh Behbahani

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Finding natural antimicrobial compound with minimum side effects on health the is important because of microorganisms are more antibiotics resistance. Avicenniaceae family is a member of true mangrove plants which has one genus, 11 species and several sub species. Avicennia marina (Forssk. Vierh is the most current species among these plants in Iranian mangrove forest. In this study, mangrove leaves were dried in shadow and appropriate condition. After extraction with ethanol 96 degree, methanol 96 degree and 20% glycerin antimicrobial effect of extract were determined by "screening antimicrobial activity" and "disk agar diffusion test" in 20, 40, 60 and 80 Percent concentration of the extract against Penicillium digitatum. The results showed that mangrove leaf extract in screening antimicrobial activity method in 2000 μg/ml, were inhibited Penicillium digitatum of growth. In "disk agar diffusion test, mangrove extract, in 20, 40, 60 and 80 Percent concentration, the mentioned extract were shown inhibition effect on mold pathogen growth. Ethanol 96 degree extract was more effective than methanol 96 degree and 20% glycerin extract as antimicrobial against on Penicillium digitatum (p Results showed extract of mangrove can be used as natural antimicrobial in food products.

  13. Assessing establishment success of Zostera marina transplants through measurements of shoot morphology and growth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Wen-Tao; Kim, Jong-Hyeob; Park, Jung-Im; Lee, Kun-Seop

    2010-07-01

    Since significant seagrass declines have been reported worldwide, numerous seagrass restoration projects through transplantation have been attempted in recent decades. In this study, Zostera marina shoots were transplanted into Jindong Bay on the southern coast of Korea in November 2006 to assess establishment success of the transplants to a new transplant environment. Shoot density, individual shoot weight, productivity, and morphological characteristics of transplants and reference plants in the vicinity of the planting site were monitored monthly for 13 months. Although shoot size of transplants was smaller than that of reference plants at the start of transplantation, individual shoot weight, leaf width, shoot height, and rhizome diameter of transplants increased rapidly, reaching even higher values than those of reference plants 5 months after transplantation. These results suggest that eelgrass transplants established morphologically 5 months after transplantation. Shoot productivity of transplants was lower than that of reference population during the first 5-6 months following transplantation, but became higher than that of reference population 6 months after transplantation. The higher transplant productivity was likely due to the lower shoot density at the transplant site than that at the reference population. Rapid changes in shoot morphology and growth of transplants indicated that eelgrass transplants had great morphological plasticity and established successfully in the new environment within 5-6 months. In addition to survival rates of transplants, monitoring of shoot morphology and growth appeared to be an effective approach for accurate assessment of the establishment success of eelgrass transplant.

  14. Influence of Temperature and Salinity on Germination of Eelgrass (Zostera marina L.) Seeds

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    PAN Jinhua; YANG Guanpin; JIANG Xin; LI Xiaojie; CONG Yizhou; ZHANG Zhuangzhi; LI Zhiling; ZHOU Weili; HAN Houwei; LUO Shiju

    2011-01-01

    Seagrass restoration as part of ocean ecosystem protection has been launched for many years all over the world, but intensive research on this subject in China has just begun in recent years. Seed broadcasting has been widely accepted as the most potentially useful method for seagrass restoration over large areas. We examined the influence of key environmental factors on seed germination to help promote eelgrass bed restoration. Under anoxic conditions, the influence of temperature and salinity on the germination rate of eelgrass (Zostera marina L.) seeds was examined at different combinations of four temperatures (4, 9, 14, and 24℃) and nine salinities (5 to 45, increment of 5). The effect of significant interaction of temperature and salinity on germination rate was observed (ANOVA)(P<0.001). The highest germination rate (83.3 ±3.5)% was reached in 8 weeks at 14℃ and salinity 5. Higher temperature significantly increased the germination rate at salinity 5 (P<0.001) during the whole observation period except for 24℃,while lower salinity significantly increased the germination rate at 14℃ (P<0.001). Although significant interaction was found between temperature and salinity (P<0.001), the influence of salinity was stronger than that of temperature for the germination of eelgrass seeds. These results provide useful information for the propagation of artificial seedlings for seagrass restoration in China.

  15. Coating of Sulfonic Silica onto Magnetite from Marina Beach Iron sand, Semarang, Indonesia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azmiyawati, C.; Suyati, L.; Taslimah; Anggraeni, R. D.

    2017-02-01

    The mineral iron oxide is the main component of sand iron that are abundant in nature. Mineral iron oxide not yet widely applied into more useful products. The main component of iron ore is magnetite. Magnetite can be used as a basic ingredient in the manufacture of magnetite-modified silica adsorbent sulfonate. In this research, the adsorbent made from sulfonic functionalized silica-coated magnetic particle has been successfully produced, with the magnetite was obtained from iron sand at Marina Beach, Semarang Indonesia. This adsorbent was then used as a metal ion preconcentration media. From the research that it was found that the sulfonic has been bound to the silica marked by the emergence of element S on EDX. Whilst, the evidence that silica has coated on the magnetite could be seen from the SEM images which showed the morphology of sulfonic functionalized silica-coated magnetic particles were larger than the sulfonic functionalized silica without magnetite. From the DSC results showed that the addition of magnetite on sulfonic functionalized silica did not change the heat resistance of the sulfonic functionalized silica. Based on the XRD patterns show that magnetite sulfonate silica was formed.

  16. Larger body size at metamorphosis enhances survival, growth and performance of young cane toads (Rhinella marina.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elisa Cabrera-Guzmán

    Full Text Available Body size at metamorphosis is a key trait in species (such as many anurans with biphasic life-histories. Experimental studies have shown that metamorph size is highly plastic, depending upon larval density and environmental conditions (e.g. temperature, food supply, water quality, chemical cues from conspecifics, predators and competitors. To test the hypothesis that this developmental plasticity is adaptive, or to determine if inducing plasticity can be used to control an invasive species, we need to know whether or not a metamorphosing anuran's body size influences its subsequent viability. For logistical reasons, there are few data on this topic under field conditions. We studied cane toads (Rhinella marina within their invasive Australian range. Metamorph body size is highly plastic in this species, and our laboratory studies showed that larger metamorphs had better locomotor performance (both on land and in the water, and were more adept at catching and consuming prey. In mark-recapture trials in outdoor enclosures, larger body size enhanced metamorph survival and growth rate under some seasonal conditions. Larger metamorphs maintained their size advantage over smaller siblings for at least a month. Our data support the critical but rarely-tested assumption that all else being equal, larger body size at metamorphosis is likely to enhance an individual's long term viability. Thus, manipulations to reduce body size at metamorphosis in cane toads may help to reduce the ecological impact of this invasive species.

  17. Response of antioxidant enzyme activities in Heterosigma akashiwo and Chattonella marina to lose-balance of N/P ratio%赤潮异弯藻和海洋卡盾藻抗氧化酶活性对氮磷比失衡的响应

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王小冬; 王艳

    2012-01-01

    The antioxidanl enzymes of phytoplankton include CAT and SOD, which can alleviate the cellular oxidative damage by acmr-enging ROS species. The responses of activities of CAT, SOD in Heterosigma akashiwo and Chattonella marina to the nutrient limitation were investigated. The results showed that N-depletion depressed the growth and stimulated the activities of CAT and SOD in H. akashiwo and C. marina. The variation in the response of activities of SOD and CAT to the nutrition limitation was species-specific. The activities of SOD and CAT in H. akashiwo when exposed to the P-depletion were higher than N-depletion, however, both N-limi-tation and P-limitation insignificant impacted the activities of SOD and CAT in C. marina. The antioxidant enzymes apparently alleviate the potential damage caused by the nutrition limitation, thus the development and maintenance of harmful algae bloom need the help.%超氧化物歧化酶(SOD)和过氧化氢酶(CAT)是浮游植物抗氧化酶系统的重要组成部分,可有效消除因环境胁迫产生的活性氧自由基对细胞的损伤.本文通过研究氮磷比失衡状态下赤潮异弯藻和海洋卡盾藻的生长及其SOD与CAT酶活性的变化,探索了赤潮物种抗氧化酶对氮磷比失衡的响应.研究表明:N和P限制不仅抑制了赤潮异弯藻和海洋卡盾藻的生长,而且显著提高了SOD与CAT酶活性.酶活性对营养盐失衡的响应随营养盐类型和藻类种类不同而有所差异:赤潮异弯藻对P限制最为敏感,其SOD和CAT酶活性在P限制下显著高于N限制;而N限制和P限制对海洋卡盾藻抗氧化酶活性的影响并无差异.抗氧化酶活性的调控能够有效降低氮磷比失衡对藻类细胞的生理损伤,有利于藻华的发生和规模的维持.

  18. Desarrollo del ensilado del alga Gracilaria chilensis para la alimentación del abalón rojo Haliotis rufescens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alfonso Mardones

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available En Chile, el principal insumo usado como alimento para abalones son las algas Gracilaria chilensis y Macrocystis pyrifera. Estas algas experimentan una notable baja de disponibilidad en otoño e invierno, lo cual trae consigo un aumento considerable de los precios, al tener que depender del abastecimiento desde áreas cada vez más alejadas de los centros de cultivo de abalones y, eventualmente, generando impactos ecológicos indirectos en sus poblaciones. El objetivo fue elaborar y evaluar un ensilado del alga G. chilensis para la alimentación de abalón rojo (Haliotis rufescens, determinando la cantidad de lixiviados generados durante el proceso, el cambio en la composición proximal del alga, la preferencia y consumo del abalón rojo de ensilado de G. chilensis. Se logró un producto ensilado de buenas características físicas, químicas y de conservación, así como una buena aceptación por parte del abalón.

  19. Shewanella alga bacteremia in two patients with lower leg ulcers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Domínguez, H.; Vogel, Birte Fonnesbech; Gram, Lone;

    1996-01-01

    The first Danish cases of Shewanella alga bacteremia in two patients with chronic lower leg ulcers are reported. Both patients were admitted to the hospital during the same month of a very warm summer and had been exposed to the same marine environment, thereby suggesting the same source of infec......The first Danish cases of Shewanella alga bacteremia in two patients with chronic lower leg ulcers are reported. Both patients were admitted to the hospital during the same month of a very warm summer and had been exposed to the same marine environment, thereby suggesting the same source......'Etoile, France), but further genetic and physiological analyses identified them as Shewanella alga....

  20. O direito como imperativo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cloter Miglioriani

    1988-08-01

    Full Text Available We have examined one of the facets which Law presents to society, looking at the theme through a brief history of Law, in which Roman Law stands out, up to modem times, comparing current juridical systems such as the Continental System, Common Law, and Soviet Law. We have looked at Law from the viewpoint of society 's need to have basic mies for living together, with the juridical ruZe being one of the most important. We have highlighted the views of Hart and Kelsen on the foundations of the validity of Law. We have also considered the obligatoriness of Law; giving the point of view of tadbruch who, explaining his ''Theory of the Obligatoriness of Law ", concluded that the obligatoriness of Law can only be withdraw when there is a Clash between morals, law, use and social conventions. We have looked at the notion of the imperativeness of Law the central theme of the work -drawing on the views of Miguel Reale, for whom the juridical nonn cannot be reduced to a "command of a volitional nature", but rather the obligatory character of the juridical nonn arises from the pressure of social values. Del Vecchio, who is also quoted, recognized that imperativeness exists in the juridical norm, whether it is preceptive (a positive command or permissive. Also mentioned is the opinion of Tercio Sampaio Ferraz, for whom the juridical norm has imperativeness to the extent that the imposition of behaviour is unconditionally guaranteed. Foi feita a abordagem de uma das facetas com que o Direito se apresenta à sociedade, enfocando o tema a partir de um brevíssimo histórico do Direito, onde revela a fase romana, até os períodos modernos, com comparações dos sistemas jurídicos hodiernos, como o sistema continental, o da Commum Law e o soviético. Foi enfocado o Direito em face da necessidade sociedade em ter básicas de convivência, despontando a regra jurídica como das mais importantes. Foi dado destaque às posições de Hart e Kelsen, sobre os

  1. Macro-economics of algae products : Output WP2A7.02

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Voort, van der M.P.J.; Vulsteke, E.; Visser, de C.L.M.

    2015-01-01

    This report is part of the EnAlgae Workpackage 2, Action 7, directed at the economics of algae production. The goal of this report is to highlight potential markets for algae. Per type of algae market the market size, product alternatives, constraints and prices are highlighted. Based on these marke

  2. Effects of elevated CO2 on sensitivity of six species of algae and interspecific competition of three species of algae

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    Effects of elevated CO2 (5000 μl/L) on sensitivity comparison of six species of algae and interspecific competition of three species of algae were investigated. The results showed that, the cell densities of six species of algae grown in elevated CO2significantly increased compared to those in ambient CO2 (360 μl/L), and with the time prolonged, the increasing extent increased.Therefore, elevated CO2 can promote the growth of six species of algae. However, there were differences in sensitivity between six species of algae. Based on the effects of elevated CO2 on biomass, the sensitive order (from high to low) was Platymanas sp.,Platymanas subcordiformis, Nitzschia closterium, Isochrysis galbana Parke 8701, Dunaliella salina, Chlorella sp., on the condition of solitary cultivation. Compared to ambient CO2, elevated CO2 promoted the growth of three species of algae, Platymanas subcordiformis, Nitzschia closterium and Isochrysis galbana Parke 8701 under the condition of mixed cultivation. The sensitivity of the three species to elevated CO2 in mixed cultivation changed a lot compared to the condition of solitary cultivation. When grown in elevated CO2 under the condition of mixed cultivation, the sensitive order from high to low were Nitzschia clostertium, Platymonas subcordiformis and Isochrysis galbana Parke 8701. However, under the condition of solitary cultivation, the sensitive order in elevated CO2 was Isochrysis galbana Parke 8701, Nitzschia clostertium, Platymonas subcordiformis, from sensitive to less sensitive. On the day 21, the dominant algae, the sub-dominant algae and inferior algae grown in elevated CO2 did not change. However, the population increasing dynamic and composition proportion of three algal species have significantly changed.

  3. Sterol composition of the Adriatic Sea algae Ulva lactuca, Codium dichotomum, Cystoseira adriatica and Fucus virsoides

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    RADOMIR KAPETANOVIC

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available The sterol composition of two green algae and two brown algae from the South Adriatic was determined. In the green alga Ulva lactuca, the principal sterols were cholesterol and isofucosterol. In the brown alga Cystoseira adriatica, the main sterols were cholesterol and stigmast-5-en-3ß-ol, while the characteristic sterol of the brown algae, fucosterol, was found only in low concentration. The sterol fractions of the green alga Codium dichotomum and the brown alga Fucus virsoides contained practically only one sterol each, comprising more than 90 % of the total sterols (clerosterol in the former and fucosterol in the latter.

  4. Cobetia marina CICC10367渗透压冲击下羟基四氢嘧啶的合成及释放%Hydroxyectoine synthesis and release under osmotic shock in Cobetia marina CICC10367

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郎亚军; 任亚男; 柏林; 张苓花

    2009-01-01

    [目的]筛选获得耐受渗透压冲击的羟基四氢嘧啶合成菌株,利用"细菌挤奶"工艺提高羟基四氢嘧啶的产率.[方法]从盐池中分离羟基四氢嘧啶合成菌株,并对其进行形态、生理生化及16s rDNA鉴定.考察了培养基及其Nacl浓度对羟基四氢嘧啶合成的影响,在优化的条件下利用"细菌挤奶"工艺制备羟基四氢嘧啶.[结果]筛选获得的一株羟基四氢嘧啶合成菌株,鉴定为Cobetia marina CICC10367(C.marina CICC10367).NaCl浓度为90 g/L的、谷氨酸单钠为唯一碳氮源的培养基有利于羟基四氢嘧啶合成,最高合成量为694.5 mg/L 6次渗透压冲击的细菌挤奶,羟基四氢嘧啶的总合成量4179.O mg/L,产率597.0 mg/L/d,羟基四氢嘧啶对底物的转化率为80.2 mg/g.[结论]筛选获得的菌株C.marina CICC10367在NaCl诱导下合成羟基四氢嘧啶,该菌株耐受渗透压冲击,利用细菌挤奶工艺显著地提高了该菌株羟基四氢嘧啶的产率和转化率.%[Objective]To obtain hydroxyectoine-producing strain with tolerance to osmotic shock and improve hydroxyectoine productivity by adopting "bacteria milking" process.[Methods]We isolated a strain from salt lake, and then carried out the identifications of morphology, physiological and biochemical characteristics of the strain. We also investigated the effects of the medium and its NaCl concentration on the hydroxyectoine synthesis of this strain. Under optimal condition, hydroxyectoine was produced by adopting "bacteria milking" process.[Results]A hydroxyectoine-producing strain was obtained and identified as Cobetia marina CICC10367 ( C. marina CICC10367) . It could enhance hydroxyeceoine synthesis when the medium adopting monosodium glutamate as the sole source of carbon and nitrogen at 90 g/L NaCl. The highest synthesized hydroxyectoine concentration was 694.5 mg/L in the above described medium. After the "bacteria milking" process of six osmotic shock, the total concentration of

  5. Casamento como contrato. Brasil - Portugal

    OpenAIRE

    Souza, Carla Giselle Neves

    2014-01-01

    O casamento como contrato, trata-se de um dos negócios jurídicos mais celebrados, assim como, também é dos negócios jurídicos mais minuciosos, e que, por algumas vezes, ou mais que isso, é, de certa forma, ignorado os efeitos que advém do mesmo contrato. O casamento como contrato, assim como os demais negócios jurídicos, também domina o princípio da autonomia privada. Contudo, existe uma certa imperatividade na lei, uma vez que, no contrato de casamento pode-se escolher o regim...

  6. Atividade biológica de metabólitos secundários de algas marinhas do gênero Laurencia Biological activity of the secondary metabolite from marine algae of the genus Laurencia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernanda L. da S. Machado

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available As algas vermelhas do gênero Laurencia são conhecidas como uma riquíssima fonte de metabólitos secundários. As principais classes químicas já isoladas são terpenos - sesquiterpenos, diterpenos, triterpenos - e acetogeninas. Estudos apontam que estas substâncias apresentam importantes atividades biológicas, principalmente citotóxica e antibacteriana. Existem ainda alguns poucos trabalhos com informações sobre atividade antiparasitária, antiviral e antifúngica dos metabólitos de Laurencia. O forte perfil bioativo observado em alguns estudos sugere que alguns destes metabólitos podem ser futuramente utilizados como fármacos ou como protótipos de novos agentes antitumorais e antibacterianos. Muitos dos metabólitos de Laurencia ainda não foram avaliados sob o ponto de vista farmacológico, o que representa um grande potencial a ser explorado por diversos campos da farmacologia.The red alga of the genus Laurencia is known as an endless source of metabolites. The main substances produced are sesquiterpenes, diterpenes, triterpenes and acetogenins. Many studies reveal that these metabolites are active, especially cytotoxic and antibacterial. There are few other studies that describe the antiparasital, antifungal and antiviral actions of the metabolites produced by the alga of the genus Laurencia. The results observed in some studies suggest that these metabolites may be used in the future as drugs or lead compounds as antitumoral and/or antibacterial agents. Many metabolites have not been submitted to pharmacological studies which still represents an area to be explored.

  7. The status of the name Alysium holtingii C. Agardh, a red alga described from Brazil, and a depiction of the type specimen

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael J. Wynne

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available The type specimen of the red alga Alysium holtingii C. Agardh, described from Brazil, is located in the Lund Herbarium, and it is depicted for the first time in a publication. It is taxonomically identical to Dichotomaria obtusata (J. Ellis and Solander Lamarck and thus can be treated as a later taxonomic synonym. Alysium is regarded as congeneric with Dichotomaria.O espécime tipo da alga vermelha Alysium holtingii C. Agardh, descrito para o Brasil, está localizado no Herbário Lund, e é aqui apresentado. Ele é taxonomicamente idêntico a Dichotomaria obtusata (J. Ellis e Solander Lamarck e portanto deve ser tratado como um sinônimo taxonômico posterior. Alysium é considerado como congenérico com Dichotomaria.

  8. Exploration of the gasification of Spirulina algae in supercritical water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Andrew; Hendry, Doug; Wilkinson, Nikolas; Venkitasamy, Chandrasekar; Jacoby, William

    2012-09-01

    This study presents non-catalytic gasification of Spirulina algae in supercritical water using a plug flow reactor and a mechanism for feeding solid carbon streams into high pressure (>25 MPa) environments. A 2(III)(3-1) factorial experimental design explored the effect of concentration, temperature, and residence time on gasification reactions. A positive displacement pump fed algae slurries into the reactor at a temperature range of 550-600°C, and residence times between 4 and 9s. The results indicate that algae gasify efficiently in supercritical water, highlighting the potential for a high throughput process. Additional experiments determined Arrhenius parameters of Spirulina algae. This study also presents a model of the gasification reaction using the estimated activation energy (108 kJ/mol) and other Arrhenius parameters at plug flow conditions. The maximum rate of gasification under the conditions studied of 53 g/Ls is much higher than previously reported.

  9. Application of synthetic biology in cyanobacteria and algae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bo eWang

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Cyanobacteria and algae are becoming increasingly attractive cell factories for producing renewable biofuels and chemicals due to their ability to capture solar energy and CO2 and their relatively simple genetic background for genetic manipulation. Increasing research efforts from the synthetic biology approach have been made in recent years to modify cyanobacteria and algae for various biotechnological applications. In the article, we critically review recent progresses in developing genetic tools for characterizing or manipulating cyanobacteria and algae, the applications of genetically modified strains for synthesizing renewable products such as biofuels and chemicals. In addition, the emergent challenges in the development and application of synthetic biology for cyanobacteria and algae are also discussed.

  10. Lab on a chip technologies for algae detection: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schaap, Allison; Rohrlack, Thomas; Bellouard, Yves

    2012-08-01

    Over the last few decades, lab on a chip technologies have emerged as powerful tools for high-accuracy diagnosis with minute quantities of liquid and as tools for exploring cell properties in general. In this paper, we present a review of the current status of this technology in the context of algae detection and monitoring. We start with an overview of the detection methods currently used for algae monitoring, followed by a review of lab on a chip devices for algae detection and classification, and then discuss a case study based on our own research activities. We conclude with a discussion on future challenges and motivations for algae-oriented lab on a chip technologies.

  11. Bicarbonate produced from carbon capture for algae culture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chi, Zhanyou; O'Fallon, James V; Chen, Shulin

    2011-11-01

    Using captured CO(2) to grow microalgae is limited by the high cost of CO(2) capture and transportation, as well as significant CO(2) loss during algae culture. Moreover, algae grow poorly at night, but CO(2) cannot be temporarily stored until sunrise. To address these challenges, we discuss a process where CO(2) is captured as bicarbonate and used as feedstock for algae culture, and the carbonate regenerated by the culture process is used as an absorbent to capture more CO(2). This process would significantly reduce carbon capture costs because it does not require additional energy for carbonate regeneration. Furthermore, not only would transport of the aqueous bicarbonate solution cost less than for that of compressed CO(2), but using bicarbonate would also provide a superior alternative for CO(2) delivery to an algae culture system.

  12. Kalaärimeeste kohus algas venitamisega / Hindrek Riikoja

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Riikoja, Hindrek

    2007-01-01

    Harju maakohtus algas kohtuprotsess veterinaar- ja toiduameti endise asejuhi Vladimir Razumovski väidetava altkäemaksuvõtmise üle, kus on süüdistavaid eraisikuid ja ettevõtjaid. Lisa: Kes on kohtu all?

  13. Evaluation of filamentous green algae as feedstocks for biofuel production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Wei; Zhao, Yonggang; Cui, Binjie; Wang, Hui; Liu, Tianzhong

    2016-11-01

    Compared with unicellular microalgae, filamentous algae have high resistance to grazer-predation and low-cost recovery in large-scale production. Green algae, as the most diverse group of algae, included numerous filamentous genera and species. In this study, records of filamentous genera and species in green algae were firstly censused and classified. Then, seven filamentous strains subordinated in different genera were cultivated in bubbled-column to investigate their growth rate and energy molecular (lipid and starch) capacity. Four strains including Stigeoclonium sp., Oedogonium nodulosum, Hormidium sp. and Zygnema extenue were screened out due to their robust growth. And they all could accumulate triacylglycerols and starch in their biomass, but with different capacity. After nitrogen starvation, Hormidium sp. and Oedogonium nodulosum respectively exhibited high capacity of lipid (45.38% in dry weight) and starch (46.19% in dry weight) accumulation, which could be of high potential as feedstocks for biodiesel and bioethanol production.

  14. Colourful Cultures: Classroom Experiments with the Unicellular Alga Haematococcus pluvialis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delpech, Roger

    2001-01-01

    Describes an investigation into the photosynthetic potential of the different developmental stages of the green unicellular alga Haematococcus pluvialis. Reviews the biotechnological applications of astaxanthin, the red pigment which can be extracted from Haematococcus pluvialis. (Author/MM)

  15. Scenario analysis of large scale algae production in tubular photobioreactors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Slegers, P.M.; Beveren, van P.J.M.; Wijffels, R.H.; Straten, van G.; Boxtel, van A.J.B.

    2013-01-01

    Microalgae productivity in tubular photobioreactors depends on algae species, location, tube diameter, biomass concentration, distance between tubes and for vertically stacked systems, the number of horizontal tubes per stack. A simulation model for horizontal and vertically stacked horizontal tubul

  16. Chemical examination of the Red alga Acanthophora spicifera

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Wahidullah, S.; Kamat, S.Y.

    Analyses of petroleum ether and chloroform extracts of the marine alga Acanthophora spicifera exhibiting antifertility activity led to the isolation of sterols and fatty acids as well as the rare dipeptides aurantiamides. All the compounds were...

  17. Calculating the global contribution of coralline algae to carbon burial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. H. van der Heijden

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The ongoing increase in anthropogenic carbon dioxide (CO2 emissions is changing the global marine environment and is causing warming and acidification of the oceans. Reduction of CO2 to a sustainable level is required to avoid further marine change. Many studies investigate the potential of marine carbon sinks (e.g. seagrass to mitigate anthropogenic emissions, however, information on storage by coralline algae and the beds they create is scant. Calcifying photosynthetic organisms, including coralline algae, can act as a CO2 sink via photosynthesis and CaCO3 dissolution and act as a CO2 source during respiration and CaCO3 production on short-term time scales. Long-term carbon storage potential might come from the accumulation of coralline algae deposits over geological time scales. Here, the carbon storage potential of coralline algae is assessed using meta-analysis of their global organic and inorganic carbon production and the processes involved in this metabolism. Organic and inorganic production were estimated at 330 g C m−2 yr−1 and 880 g CaCO3 m−2 yr−1 respectively giving global organic/inorganic C production of 0.7/1.8 × 109 t C yr−1. Calcium carbonate production by free-living/crustose coralline algae (CCA corresponded to a sediment accretion of 70/450 mm kyr−1. Using this potential carbon storage by coralline algae, the global production of free-living algae/CCA was 0.4/1.2 × 109 t C yr−1 suggesting a total potential carbon sink of 1.6 × 109 t C yr−1. Coralline algae therefore have production rates similar to mangroves, saltmarshes and seagrasses representing an as yet unquantified but significant carbon store, however, further empirical investigations are needed to determine the dynamics and stability of that store.

  18. Biomethanation of Red Algae from the Eutrophied Baltic Sea

    OpenAIRE

    Biswas, Rajib

    2009-01-01

    In the semi-enclosed Baltic Sea, excessive filamentous macro-algal biomass growth as a result of eutrophication is an increasing environmental problem. Drifting huge masses of red algae of the genera Polysiphonia, Rhodomela, and Ceramium accumulate on the open shore, up to five tones of algae per meter beach. During the aerobic decomposition of these algal bodies, large quantities of red colored effluents leak into the water what are toxic for the marine environment. In this study, feasibilit...

  19. Lipid constituents of the red alga Acantophora spicifera

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Wahidullah, S.; De; Govenkar, M.B.

    solitary reference on the pollution of marine alga Stoechospermum marginatum \\[13\\] by the esters. Ortho-phthalic esters are being reported here for the first time as pollutants of marine red alga Acantophora spic(\\['era. The presence of para... compounds in the order designated as 1 2, 3 and 4. All these compounds were purified by repeated chromatography over silica gel. Acknowledgements--The authors wish to thank Dr. E. DeSa, Director, National Institute of Ocean- ography, for his keen...

  20. Biodiesel Fuel Production from Algae as Renewable Energy

    OpenAIRE

    Sharif Hossain, A.B.M.; Aishah Salleh; Amru Nasrulhaq Boyce; Partha chowdhury; Mohd Naqiuddin

    2008-01-01

    Biodiesel is biodegradable, less CO2 and NOx emissions. Continuous use of petroleum sourced fuels is now widely recognized as unsustainable because of depleting supplies and the contribution of these fuels to the accumulation of carbon dioxide in the environment. Renewable, carbon neutral, transport fuels are necessary for environmental and economic sustainability. Algae have emerged as one of the most promising sources for biodiesel production. It can be inferred that algae grown in CO...

  1. Vegetación marina en la elaboración de bloques multinutritivos para la alimentación de rumiantes

    OpenAIRE

    Arturo F. Castellanos Ruelas; Félix Cauich Huchim; Luis A. Chel Guerrero; J. Gabriel Rosado Rubio

    2010-01-01

    El objetivo del presente trabajo fue evaluar el efecto de la incorporación de vegetación marina, melaza, urea e hidróxido de calcio (CaOH) en un bloque multinutritivo (BM) sobre su valor nutricio y su dureza. Se colectó vegetación marina que llegó en arribazón a las costas de Yucatán. Este material se lavó con agua dulce y se deshidrató al sol. Se elaboraron BM incorporando un 9.5 % de vegetación marina, además de cascarilla de soya, maíz molido, melaza, ortofosfato de calcio, sal común, ácid...

  2. Changes in Organic, Inorganic contents, Carbon Nitrogen ratio in decomposing Avicennia marina and Rhizophora mucronata leaves on tidal mudf lats in Hajambro creek, Indus delta, Pakistan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zafar Farooqui

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Leaf decomposition of Avicennia marina (Forskal Vierh in Denkschr and Rhizophora mucronata (Poiret was studied in situ using litterbag s in Hajambro creek, Indus delta. A single exponential model was presented, which best described the rate of decomposition for both the species. The rate of decomposition was species specific, A. marina leaves decomposed slower than the R. mucronata (p<0.001. The time in days required for 50% loss of the initial dry mass (t1/2 was 49.55 days for the A. marina and 44.43 days in case of R. mucronata. The organic content in the leaves was high initially but decresed gradually during decomposition, which is negatively correlated with inorganic contents. This study will help in the management and conservation of mangrove ecosystem of Hajambro creek, Indus delta, Pakistan.

  3. Feeding preferences of mesograzers on aquacultured Gracilaria and sympatric algae

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cruz-Rivera, Edwin; Friedlander, Michael

    2011-01-01

    While large grazers can often be excluded effectively from algal aquaculture operations, smaller herbivores such as small crustaceans and gastropods may be more difficult to control. The susceptibility of three Gracilaria species to herbivores was evaluated in multiple-choice experiments with the amphipod Ampithoe ramondi and the crab Acanthonyx lunulatus. Both mesograzers are common along the Mediterranean coast of Israel. When given a choice, the amphipod preferred to consume Gracilaria lemaneiformis significantly more than either G. conferta or G. cornea. The crab, however, consumed equivalent amounts of G. lemaneiformis and G. conferta, but did not consume G. cornea. Organic content of these algae, an important feeding cue for some mesograzers, could not account for these differences. We further assessed the susceptibility of a candidate species for aquaculture, G. lemaneiformis, against local algae, including common epiphytes. When given a choice of four algae, amphipods preferred the green alga Ulva lactuca over Jania rubens. However, consumption of U. lactuca was equivalent to those of G. lemaneiformis and Padina pavonica. In contrast, the crab showed a marked and significant preference for G. lemaneiformis above any of the other three algae offered. Our results suggest that G. cornea is more resistant to herbivory from common mesograzers and that, contrary to expectations, mixed cultures or epiphyte growth on G. lemaneiformis cannot reduce damage to this commercially appealing alga if small herbivores are capable of recruiting into culture ponds. Mixed cultures may be beneficial when culturing other Gracilaria species. PMID:22711945

  4. Development of Green Fuels From Algae - The University of Tulsa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Crunkleton, Daniel; Price, Geoffrey; Johannes, Tyler; Cremaschi, Selen

    2012-12-03

    The general public has become increasingly aware of the pitfalls encountered with the continued reliance on fossil fuels in the industrialized world. In response, the scientific community is in the process of developing non-fossil fuel technologies that can supply adequate energy while also being environmentally friendly. In this project, we concentrate on green fuels which we define as those capable of being produced from renewable and sustainable resources in a way that is compatible with the current transportation fuel infrastructure. One route to green fuels that has received relatively little attention begins with algae as a feedstock. Algae are a diverse group of aquatic, photosynthetic organisms, generally categorized as either macroalgae (i.e. seaweed) or microalgae. Microalgae constitute a spectacularly diverse group of prokaryotic and eukaryotic unicellular organisms and account for approximately 50% of global organic carbon fixation. The PI's have subdivided the proposed research program into three main research areas, all of which are essential to the development of commercially viable algae fuels compatible with current energy infrastructure. In the fuel development focus, catalytic cracking reactions of algae oils is optimized. In the species development project, genetic engineering is used to create microalgae strains that are capable of high-level hydrocarbon production. For the modeling effort, the construction of multi-scaled models of algae production was prioritized, including integrating small-scale hydrodynamic models of algae production and reactor design and large-scale design optimization models.

  5. Study on Algae Removal by Immobilized Biosystem on Sponge

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    PEI Haiyan; HU Wenrong

    2006-01-01

    In this study, sponges were used to immobilize domesticated sludge microbes in a limited space, forming an immobilized biosystem capable of algae and microcystins removal. The removal effects on algae, microcystins and UV260 of this biosystem and the mechanism of algae removal were studied. The results showed that active sludge from sewage treatment plants was able to remove algae from a eutrophic lake's water after 7 d of domestication. The removal efficiency for algae,organic matter and microcystins increased when the domesticated sludge was immobilized on sponges. When the hydraulic retention time (HRT) was 5h, the removal rates of algae, microcystins and UV260 were 90%, 94.17% and 84%, respectively.The immobilized biosystem consisted mostly of bacteria, the Ciliata and Sarcodina protozoans and the Rotifer metazoans.Algal decomposition by zoogloea bacteria and preying by microcreatures were the two main modes of algal removal, which occurred in two steps: first, absorption by the zoogloea; second, decomposition by the zoogloea bacteria and the predacity of the microcreatures.

  6. Exploitation of marine renewable energies as technology option of future; El aprovechamiento de las energias renovables marinas como opcion tecnologica de futuro

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nunez Rivas, L. R.

    2012-07-01

    In this paper is shown one description of the marine renewable energetic resources mean in our days. It begins with the definition of all these energetic resources and also with their analysis, showing their characteristics and the technological capacity that now exist for their exploitation. And in the second part of the article it shows the next evolution of the technology that will be demand for the development of the new generation park that will see the light in a very short future and over structures, ships and ports. At the end, there is one paragraph with the Conclusions that was necessary to do. (Author)

  7. IDENTIFICACION DE PRODUCTOS EXTRACELULARES DE DOS BACTERIAS MARINAS INHIBIDORAS DE VIBRIO PARAHAEMOLYTICUS Y EVALUACION DEL POTENCIAL USO DE ESTOS PRODUCTOS COMO CONTROL DE ESTE PATOGENO

    OpenAIRE

    LEYTON LOBOS, YANETT

    2012-01-01

    La bacteria patógena Vibrio parahaemolyticus es responsable de enfermedades gastroentéricas causadas por la ingesta de organismos marinos, principalmente moluscos contaminados. Debido a esto, en las industrias acuícolas existe un gran interés por aplicar productos bioactivos medioambientalmente inocuos que eliminen bacterias patógenas desde sus cultivos y así, reemplazar a los antibióticos usados por años, los que han generado grandes problemas de contaminación en los ecosistemas marinos. El ...

  8. Detection of Cyanotoxins in Algae Dietary Supplements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Audrey Roy-Lachapelle

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Algae dietary supplements are marketed worldwide as natural health products. Although their proprieties have been claimed as beneficial to improve overall health, there have been several previous reports of contamination by cyanotoxins. These products generally contain non-toxic cyanobacteria, but the methods of cultivation in natural waters without appropriate quality controls allow contamination by toxin producer species present in the natural environment. In this study, we investigated the presence of total microcystins, seven individual microcystins (RR, YR, LR, LA, LY, LW, LF, anatoxin-a, dihydroanatoxin-a, epoxyanatoxin-a, cylindrospermopsin, saxitoxin, and β-methylamino-l-alanine in 18 different commercially available products containing Spirulina or Aphanizomenon flos-aquae. Total microcystins analysis was accomplished using a Lemieux oxidation and a chemical derivatization using dansyl chloride was needed for the simultaneous analysis of cylindrospermopsin, saxitoxin, and β-methylamino-l-alanine. Moreover, the use of laser diode thermal desorption (LDTD and ultra-high performance liquid chromatography (UHPLC both coupled to high resolution mass spectrometry (HRMS enabled high performance detection and quantitation. Out of the 18 products analyzed, 8 contained some cyanotoxins at levels exceeding the tolerable daily intake values. The presence of cyanotoxins in these algal dietary supplements reinforces the need for a better quality control as well as consumer’s awareness on the potential risks associated with the consumption of these supplements.

  9. Coccolithophorid algae culture in closed photobioreactors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moheimani, Navid R; Isdepsky, Andreas; Lisec, Jan; Raes, Eric; Borowitzka, Michael A

    2011-09-01

    The feasibility of growth, calcium carbonate and lipid production of the coccolithophorid algae (Prymnesiophyceae), Pleurochrysis carterae, Emiliania huxleyi, and Gephyrocapsa oceanica, was investigated in plate, carboy, airlift, and tubular photobioreactors. The plate photobioreactor was the most promising closed cultivation system. All species could be grown in the carboy photobioreactor. However, P. carterae was the only species which grew in an airlift photobioreactor. Despite several attempts to grow these coccolithophorid species in the tubular photobioreactor (Biocoil), including modification of the airlift and sparger design, no net growth could be achieved. The shear produced by turbulence and bubble effects are the most likely reasons for this failure to grow in the Biocoil. The highest total dry weight, lipid and calcium carbonate productivities achieved by P. carterae in the plate photobioreactors were 0.54, 0.12, and 0.06 g L(-1) day(-1) respectively. Irrespective of the type of photobioreactor, the productivities were P. carterae > E. huxleyi > G. oceanica. Pleurochrysis carterae lipid (20-25% of dry weight) and calcium carbonate (11-12% of dry weight) contents were also the highest of all species tested.

  10. Expression and characterization analysis of type 2 metallothionein from grey mangrove species (Avicennia marina) in response to metal stress

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huang Guoyong, E-mail: huang_gyh@sina.com [Key Laboratory of Tropical Marine Environmental Dynamics, South China Sea Institute of Oceanology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Guangzhou 510301 (China); State Key Laboratory of Organic Geochemistry, Guangzhou Institute of Geochemistry, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Guangzhou 510640 (China); Wang Youshao [Key Laboratory of Tropical Marine Environmental Dynamics, South China Sea Institute of Oceanology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Guangzhou 510301 (China)

    2010-08-01

    Metallothioneins (MTs) are a family of low-molecular-weight cysteine-rich proteins and are thought to play possible roles in metal metabolism or detoxification. To evaluate the roles of metallothioneins in metal homeostasis or tolerance in Avicennia marina, a real-time quantitative PCR protocol was developed to directly evaluate the expression of AmMT2 mRNA, when A. marina seedlings were exposed to different concentrations of zinc (Zn), copper (Cu) or lead (Pb) for 3 and 7 d. Real-time quantitative PCR results indicated that the regulation of AmMT2 mRNA expression by Zn, Cu and Pb was strongly dependent on concentration and time of exposure. A significant increase in the transcripts of AmMT2 gene was also found in response to Zn, Cu and Pb, at least under some experimental conditions. When AmMT2 was overexpressed in Escherichia coli BL21 as a carboxy-terminal extension of glutathione-S-transferase (GST), the transgenic bacteria showed an increased tolerance to Zn, Cu, Pb and Cd exposure as compared to control strains. Moreover, GST-AmMT2 was purified from E. coli cells grown in the presence of 400 {mu}M Zn, Cu, Pb or Cd. The purified GST-AmMT2 fusion protein could bind higher levels of all four metals than GST alone. Taken together, these data support the hypothesis that AmMT2 may be involved in processes of metal homeostasis or tolerance in A. marina.

  11. Rubrivirga marina gen. nov., sp. nov., a member of the family Rhodothermaceae isolated from deep seawater.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Sanghwa; Song, Jaeho; Yoshizawa, Susumu; Choi, Ahyoung; Cho, Jang-Cheon; Kogure, Kazuhiro

    2013-06-01

    Two aerobic, Gram-stain-negative, pale-red-pigmented and rod-shaped bacterial strains, designated SAORIC-26 and SAORIC-28(T), were isolated from seawater (3000 m depth) from the Pacific Ocean. Phylogenetic analysis based on their 16S rRNA gene sequences revealed that the novel isolates could be affiliated with the family Rhodothermaceae of the class Cytophagia. Strains SAORIC-26 and SAORIC-28(T) shared 99.7% pairwise sequence similarity with each other and showed less than 92.6% similarity with other cultivated members of the class Cytophagia. The strains were found to be non-motile, oxidase-positive, catalase-negative and able to hydrolyse gelatin and aesculin. The DNA G+C contents were determined to be 64.8-65.8 mol% and MK-7 was the predominant menaquinone. Summed feature 9 (iso-C17:1ω9c and/or C16:0 10-methyl), summed feature 3 (C16:1ω6c and/or C16:1ω7c) and iso-C15:0 were found to be the major cellular fatty acids. On the basis of this taxonomic study using a polyphasic approach, it was concluded that strains SAORIC-26 and SAORIC-28(T) represent a novel species of a new genus in the family Rhodothermaceae, for which the name Rubrivirga marina gen. nov., sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain of the type species of is SAORIC-28(T) (=KCTC 23867(T)=NBRC 108816(T)). An additional strain of the species is SAORIC-26.

  12. Análisis preliminar de la estructura primaria y secundaria del ARNtTrp en tortugas marinas

    OpenAIRE

    Harvey Infante-Rojas; Javier Hernández-Fernández

    2015-01-01

    Actualmente existen siete especies de tortugas marinas, todas amenazadas o en riesgo inminente de extinción. Los estudios con ADN mitocondrial han permitido hacer acercamientos sobre filogenia, evolución, rutas migratorias y centros de dispersión, además para la identificación de polimorfismos y haplotipos, siendo base para planes de manejo y conservación. El presente estudio representa la primera descripción comparada de la estructura primaria y secundaria del ARNtTrp mitocondrial en tortuga...

  13. COMPORTAMIENTO ESTACIONAL DE LA CAPA DE MEZCLA MARINA EN LA REGIÓN NORTE DEL GOLFO DE CALIFORNIA

    OpenAIRE

    Emilio Palacios Hernández; Laura Carrillo B.

    2016-01-01

    Se realiza l a descripción de la profundidad de la capa de mezcla marina superficial (PCM) en la Región Norte del Golfo de California (RNGC), utilizando datos hidrográficos obtenidos en 17 cruceros oceanográficos desde 1971 hasta 1996. La profundidad de la capa se estima directament e de los perfiles de densidad . El promedio de distribución espacial muestra un máximo bien definido en la salida del canal de Ballenas y un mínimo en las costas de Sonora y de Baja ...

  14. Desarrollo de estrategias moleculares para el estudio de la asimilación de nitrato en algas

    OpenAIRE

    Navarro Gochicoa, María Teresa

    2011-01-01

    En este trabajo se han desarrollado diferentes estrategias moleculares para el estudio de la ruta de asimilación de nitrato utilizando como organismo modelo el alga verde Chlamydomonas reinhardtii. Conocer los elementos estructurales y reguladores de la ruta de asimilación de nitrato es el primer paso para una correcta manipulación de plantas transgénicas, aumentar el rendimiento agrícola, y evitar el impacto ecológico/salud pública que esta ocasionando el abuso de fertilizantes nitrogenados....

  15. Hybridization and massive mtDNA unidirectional introgression between the closely related Neotropical toads Rhinella marina and R. schneideri inferred from mtDNA and nuclear markers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Schneider Horacio

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The classical perspective that interspecific hybridization in animals is rare has been changing due to a growing list of empirical examples showing the occurrence of gene flow between closely related species. Using sequence data from cyt b mitochondrial gene and three intron nuclear genes (RPL9, c-myc, and RPL3 we investigated patterns of nucleotide polymorphism and divergence between two closely related toad species R. marina and R. schneideri. By comparing levels of differentiation at nuclear and mtDNA levels we were able to describe patterns of introgression and infer the history of hybridization between these species. Results All nuclear loci are essentially concordant in revealing two well differentiated groups of haplotypes, corresponding to the morphologically-defined species R. marina and R. schneideri. Mitochondrial DNA analysis also revealed two well-differentiated groups of haplotypes but, in stark contrast with the nuclear genealogies, all R. schneideri sequences are clustered with sequences of R. marina from the right Amazon bank (RAB, while R. marina sequences from the left Amazon bank (LAB are monophyletic. An Isolation-with-Migration (IM analysis using nuclear data showed that R. marina and R. schneideri diverged at ≈ 1.69 Myr (early Pleistocene, while R. marina populations from LAB and RAB diverged at ≈ 0.33 Myr (middle Pleistocene. This time of divergence is not consistent with the split between LAB and RAB populations obtained with mtDNA data (≈ 1.59 Myr, which is notably similar to the estimate obtained with nuclear genes between R. marina and R. schneideri. Coalescent simulations of mtDNA phylogeny under the speciation history inferred from nuclear genes rejected the hypothesis of incomplete lineage sorting to explain the conflicting signal between mtDNA and nuclear-based phylogenies. Conclusions The cytonuclear discordance seems to reflect the occurrence of interspecific hybridization between these

  16. El CO2 como disolvente y como reactivo

    OpenAIRE

    La Franca Pitarresi, Vincenzo Rosario

    2016-01-01

    Existen numerosas ventajas asociada con el uso de CO2 , tanto como disolvente que como reactivo, y todas se pueden resumir en cuatro categorías generales: beneficios ambiental, beneficios de salud y seguridad, beneficios en el procedimiento y beneficios químicos. Los procesos que implican el CO2 como disolvente no aumentaría las emisiones de CO2, más bien proporcionaría una oportunidad para el reciclaje de CO2 residual. Además, los esfuerzos para secuestrar el CO2 producido de los gases de co...

  17. SOIL ALGAE OF BLADE OF COIL IN DONETSK REGION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maltseva I.A.

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available On territory of Donbass for more than 200 years the underground coal mining has produced, accompanied by the formation of the mine dumps. Finding ways to reduce their negative impact on the environment should be based on their comprehensive study. The soil algae are active participants in the syngenetic processes in industrial dumps of different origin. The purpose of this paper is to identify the species composition and dominant algae groups in dump mine SH/U5 “Western” in the western part of Donetsk.The test blade is covered with vegetation to the middle from all sides, and on the north side of 20-25 m to the top. The vegetation cover of the lower and middle tiers of all the exposures range in 70-80%. Projective vegetation cover of upper tiers of the northern, north-eastern and north-western exposures are in the range of 20-40%, other – 5-10%. We revealed some 38 algae species as a result of our research in southern, northern, western, and eastern slopes of the blade “Western”. The highest species diversity has Chlorophyta - 14 species (36.8% of the total number of species, then Cyanophyta - 9 (23,7%, Bacillariophyta - 7 (18,4%, Xantophyta - 5 (13.2%, and Eustigmatophyta - 3 (7.9%. The dominants are represented by Hantzschia amphyoxys (Ehrenberg Grunow in Cleve et Grunow, Bracteacoccus aerius, Klebsormidium flaccidum (Kützing Silva et al., Phormidium autumnale, Pinnularia borealis Ehrenberg, Planothidium lanceolatum (Brebisson in Kützing Bukhtiyarova, Xanthonema exile (Klebs Silva.It should be noted that the species composition of algae groups in different slopes of the blade was significantly different. Jacquard coefficient was calculated for algae communities varied in the range of 15,4-39,1%. The smallest number of algae species was observed on the southern slope of the blade (14 species, maximum was registered in the areas of north and west slopes. Differences in the species composition of algae were also observed in three

  18. Two-Step Evolution of Endosymbiosis between Hydra and Algae

    KAUST Repository

    Ishikawa, Masakazu

    2016-07-09

    In the Hydra vulgaris group, only 2 of the 25 strains in the collection of the National Institute of Genetics in Japan currently show endosymbiosis with green algae. However, whether the other non-symbiotic strains also have the potential to harbor algae remains unknown. The endosymbiotic potential of non-symbiotic strains that can harbor algae may have been acquired before or during divergence of the strains. With the aim of understanding the evolutionary process of endosymbiosis in the H. vulgaris group, we examined the endosymbiotic potential of non-symbiotic strains of the H. vulgaris group by artificially introducing endosymbiotic algae. We found that 12 of the 23 non-symbiotic strains were able to harbor the algae until reaching the grand-offspring through the asexual reproduction by budding. Moreover, a phylogenetic analysis of mitochondrial genome sequences showed that all the strains with endosymbiotic potential grouped into a single cluster (cluster γ). This cluster contained two strains (J7 and J10) that currently harbor algae; however, these strains were not the closest relatives. These results suggest that evolution of endosymbiosis occurred in two steps; first, endosymbiotic potential was gained once in the ancestor of the cluster γ lineage; second, strains J7 and J10 obtained algae independently after the divergence of the strains. By demonstrating the evolution of the endosymbiotic potential in non-symbiotic H. vulgaris group strains, we have clearly distinguished two evolutionary steps. The step-by-step evolutionary process provides significant insight into the evolution of endosymbiosis in cnidarians.

  19. Plasticity predicts evolution in a marine alga.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schaum, C Elisa; Collins, Sinéad

    2014-10-22

    Under global change, populations have four possible responses: 'migrate, acclimate, adapt or die' (Gienapp et al. 2008 Climate change and evolution: disentangling environmental and genetic response. Mol. Ecol. 17, 167-178. (doi:10.1111/j.1365-294X.2007.03413.x)). The challenge is to predict how much migration, acclimatization or adaptation populations are capable of. We have previously shown that populations from more variable environments are more plastic (Schaum et al. 2013 Variation in plastic responses of a globally distributed picoplankton species to ocean acidification. Nature 3, 298-230. (doi:10.1038/nclimate1774)), and here we use experimental evolution with a marine microbe to learn that plastic responses predict the extent of adaptation in the face of elevated partial pressure of CO2 (pCO2). Specifically, plastic populations evolve more, and plastic responses in traits other than growth can predict changes in growth in a marine microbe. The relationship between plasticity and evolution is strongest when populations evolve in fluctuating environments, which favour the evolution and maintenance of plasticity. Strikingly, plasticity predicts the extent, but not direction of phenotypic evolution. The plastic response to elevated pCO2 in green algae is to increase cell division rates, but the evolutionary response here is to decrease cell division rates over 400 generations until cells are dividing at the same rate their ancestors did in ambient CO2. Slow-growing cells have higher mitochondrial potential and withstand further environmental change better than faster growing cells. Based on this, we hypothesize that slow growth is adaptive under CO2 enrichment when associated with the production of higher quality daughter cells.

  20. Algae and cyanobacteria on painted surfaces in Southern Brazil Algas e cianobactérias em superfícies pintadas no Sul do Brasil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter M. Gaylarde

    1999-07-01

    Full Text Available Algae and cyanobacteria disfigure the external surfaces of buildings and may cause their physico-chemical deterioration. Even though the climate in Brazil is humid, there is no published literature on this problem. The objective of this work was to identify the major phototrophs present on Brazilian constructions in residential, urban and rural sites. The algal and cyanobacterial types present on discolored surfaces of painted buildings in nine different municipalities in Brazil, all lying between latitudes 19° South and 30° South, were examined. A total of 816 different organisms was detected in 58 sites. Approximately 63% were single-celled or colonial organisms. The cyanobacterial genus, Synechocystis, was the most biodiverse and frequently comprised the major biomass. It was present in 63.4% of sites. Second and third most frequently detected were Oscillatoria and the algal genus, Chlorella, respectively. The latter organism showed the most widespread occurrence (72.4%. Cyanobacteria were the most important colonizers, especially at urban sites, where over 62% of the organisms detected belonged to this class. Filamentous phototrophs were found in smaller numbers than non-filamentous at all locations.Algas e cianobactérias produzem coloração nas superfícies externas de construções e podem causar a sua deterioração físico-química. Apesar a clima úmida do Brasil, não existe no pais uma literatura sobre este problema. O objetivo deste trabalho foi identificar os microrganismos fototróficos mais importantes nas superfícies de construções, em áreas residenciais, urbanas e rurais do Brasil. Foram avaliados os tipos de algas e cianobactérias presentes em superfícies pintadas coloradas, em nove municípios do Brasil localizados entre 19° Sul e 30° Sul. Aproximadamente 63% destes foram células simples, ou organismos coloniais. O gênero, Synechocystis, foi o organismo que mostrou-se o mais diverso e, frequentemente, compõe a

  1. Phylogeny of Heterokonta: Incisomonas marina, a uniciliate gliding opalozoan related to Solenicola (Nanomonadea), and evidence that Actinophryida evolved from raphidophytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cavalier-Smith, Thomas; Scoble, Josephine Margaret

    2013-08-01

    Environmental rDNA sequencing has revealed many novel heterokont clades of unknown morphology. We describe a new marine heterotrophic heterokont flagellate, Incisomonas marina, which most unusually lacks an anterior cilium. It glides and swims with its cilium trailing behind, but is predominantly sedentary on the substratum, with or without a cilium. 18S rDNA sequence phylogeny groups Incisomonas strongly within clade MAST-3; with others it forms a robust sister clade to Solenicola, here grouped with it as new order Uniciliatida, placed within new class Nanomonadea encompassing MAST-3. Our comprehensive maximum likelihood heterokont phylogeny shows Nanomonadea as sister to MAST-12 plus Opalinata within Opalozoa, and that Actinophryida are not Opalozoa (previously suggested by distance trees), but highly modified raphidomonads, arguably related to Heliorapha (formerly Ciliophrys) azurina gen., comb. n. We discuss evolution of Actinophryida from photosynthetic raphidophytes. Clades MAST-4,6-11 form one early-branching bigyran clade. Olisthodiscus weakly groups with Hypogyristea not Raphidomonadea. Phylogenetic analysis shows that MAST-13 is all Bicosoeca. Some gliding uniciliates similar to Incisomonas marina seem to have been misclassified: therefore we establish Incisomonas devorata comb. n. for Rigidomastix devoratum, revise the genus Rigidomastix, transfer Clautriavia parva to Kiitoksia. We make 17 new familes (13 heterokont (three algal), two cercozoan, two amoebozoan).

  2. The Structure of Genetic Diversity in Eelgrass (Zostera marina L.) along the North Pacific and Bering Sea Coasts of Alaska

    Science.gov (United States)

    Talbot, Sandra; Sage, Kevin; Rearick, Jolene; Fowler, Megan C.; Muñiz-Salazar, Raquel; Baibak, Bethany; Wyllie-Echeverria, Sandy; Cabello-Pasini, Alehandro; Ward, David H.

    2016-01-01

    Eelgrass (Zostera marina) populations occupying coastal waters of Alaska are separated by a peninsula and island archipelago into two Large Marine Ecosystems (LMEs). From populations in both LMEs, we characterize genetic diversity, population structure, and polarity in gene flow using nuclear microsatellite fragment and chloroplast and nuclear sequence data. An inverse relationship between genetic diversity and latitude was observed (heterozygosity: R2 = 0.738, P < 0.001; allelic richness: R2 = 0.327, P = 0.047), as was significant genetic partitioning across most sampling sites (θ = 0.302, P < 0.0001). Variance in allele frequency was significantly partitioned by region only in cases when a population geographically in the Gulf of Alaska LME (Kinzarof Lagoon) was instead included with populations in the Eastern Bering Sea LME (θp = 0.128–0.172; P < 0.003), suggesting gene flow between the two LMEs in this region. Gene flow among locales was rarely symmetrical, with notable exceptions generally following net coastal ocean current direction. Genetic data failed to support recent proposals that multiple Zostera species (i.e. Z. japonica and Z. angustifolia) are codistributed with Z. marina in Alaska. Comparative analyses also failed to support the hypothesis that eelgrass populations in the North Atlantic derived from eelgrass retained in northeastern Pacific Last Glacial Maximum refugia. These data suggest northeastern Pacific populations are derived from populations expanding northward from temperate populations following climate amelioration at the terminus of the last Pleistocene glaciation.

  3. Survey of helminths, ectoparasites, and chytrid fungus of an introduced population of cane toads, Rhinella marina (Anura: Bufonidae), from Grenada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drake, Michael C.; Zieger, Ulrike; Groszkowski, Andrew; Gallardo, Bruce; Sages, Patti; Reavis, Roslyn; Faircloth, Leslie; Jacobson, Krystin; Lonce, Nicholas; Pinckney, Rhonda D.; Cole, Rebecca Ann

    2014-01-01

    One hundred specimens of Rhinella marina, (Anura: Bufonidae) collected in St. George's parish, Grenada, from September 2010 to August 2011, were examined for the presence of ectoparasites and helminths. Ninety-five (95%) were parasitized by 1 or more parasite species. Nine species of parasites were found: 1 digenean, 2 acanthocephalans, 4 nematodes, 1 arthropod and 1 pentastome. The endoparasites represented 98.9% of the total number of parasite specimens collected. Grenada represents a new locality record for Mesocoelium monas, Raillietiella frenatus, Pseudoacanthacephalus sp., Aplectana sp., Physocephalus sp., Acanthacephala cystacanth, and Physalopteridae larvae. The digenean M. monas occurred with the highest prevalence of 82%, contrasting many studies of R. marina where nematodes dominate the parasite infracommunity. Female toads were found to have a significantly higher prevalence of Amblyomma dissimile than male toads. Only 2 parasites exhibited a significant difference between wet and dry season with Parapharyngodon grenadensis prevalence highest in the wet season and A. dissimile prevalence highest during the dry season. Additionally, A. dissimilewas significantly more abundant during the dry season.

  4. Characterization of a New Trioxilin and a Sulfoquinovosyl Diacylglycerol with Anti-Inflammatory Properties from the Dinoflagellate Oxyrrhis marina

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoon, Eun Young; Yang, A. Reum; Park, Jaeyeon; Moon, Seung Joo; Jeong, Eun Ju; Rho, Jung-Rae

    2017-01-01

    Two new compounds—a trioxilin and a sulfoquinovosyl diacylglycerol (SQDG)—were isolated from the methanolic extract of the heterotrophic dinoflagellate Oxyrrhis marina cultivated by feeding on dried yeasts. The trioxilin was identified as (4Z,8E,13Z,16Z,19Z) -7(S),10(S),11(S)-trihydroxydocosapentaenoic acid (1), and the SQDG was identified as (2S)-1-O-hexadecanosy-2-O-docosahexaenoyl-3-O-(6-sulfo-α-d-quinovopyranosyl)-glycerol (2) by a combination of nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectra, mass analyses, and chemical reactions. The two compounds were associated with docosahexaenoic acid, which is a major component of O. marina. The two isolated compounds showed significant nitric oxide inhibitory activity on lipopolysaccharide-induced RAW264.7 cells. Compound 2 showed no cytotoxicity against hepatocarcinoma (HepG2), neuroblastoma (Neuro-2a), and colon cancer (HCT-116) cells, while weak cytotoxicity was observed for compound 1 against Neuro-2a cells. PMID:28264430

  5. Characterization of a New Trioxilin and a Sulfoquinovosyl Diacylglycerol with Anti-Inflammatory Properties from the Dinoflagellate Oxyrrhis marina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eun Young Yoon

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Two new compounds—a trioxilin and a sulfoquinovosyl diacylglycerol (SQDG—were isolated from the methanolic extract of the heterotrophic dinoflagellate Oxyrrhis marina cultivated by feeding on dried yeasts. The trioxilin was identified as (4Z,8E,13Z,16Z,19Z -7(S,10(S,11(S-trihydroxydocosapentaenoic acid (1, and the SQDG was identified as (2S-1-O-hexadecanosy-2-O-docosahexaenoyl-3-O-(6-sulfo-α-d-quinovopyranosyl-glycerol (2 by a combination of nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR spectra, mass analyses, and chemical reactions. The two compounds were associated with docosahexaenoic acid, which is a major component of O. marina. The two isolated compounds showed significant nitric oxide inhibitory activity on lipopolysaccharide-induced RAW264.7 cells. Compound 2 showed no cytotoxicity against hepatocarcinoma (HepG2, neuroblastoma (Neuro-2a, and colon cancer (HCT-116 cells, while weak cytotoxicity was observed for compound 1 against Neuro-2a cells.

  6. Antioxidant and antimicrobial activity of a mangrove plant Avicennia marina (Forsk. Pooja Moteriya, Ashish Dalsaniya, Sumitra Chanda*

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pooja Moteriya

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To evaluate the antioxidant and antimicrobial potential of different parts (leaf, stem and pneumatophore of a mangrove plant Avicennia marina (Forsk. Vierh (Avicenniaceae. Methods: The extraction was done by cold percolation method using solvents of hexane, ethyl acetate, acetone, methanol and water. Total phenol and flavonoid content were measured by Folin-Ciocalteu’s reagent and aluminium chloride colorimetric method respectively. The antioxidant activity was evaluated using antioxidant assays of 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl free radical scavenging activity, superoxide radical scavenging assay, 2,2’-azino-bis-(3-ethyl benzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid, ferric reducing antioxidant power and reducing capacity assessment. The antibacterial activity was done by agar well diffusion method against four Gram-positive, four Gram-negative bacteria and four fungi. Results: Different antioxidant assays showed different levels of activity in different parts and different solvent extracts. Overall, acetone extract of stem showed the best antioxidant activity. The Gram-positive bacteria were more susceptible than Gram-negative bacteria and fungi. Conclusions: The results indicated extract of Avicennia marina can be used as a promising source of natural antioxidant.

  7. Method and apparatus using an active ionic liquid for algae biofuel harvest and extraction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salvo, Roberto Di; Reich, Alton; Dykes, Jr., H. Waite H.; Teixeira, Rodrigo

    2012-11-06

    The invention relates to use of an active ionic liquid to dissolve algae cell walls. The ionic liquid is used to, in an energy efficient manner, dissolve and/or lyse an algae cell walls, which releases algae constituents used in the creation of energy, fuel, and/or cosmetic components. The ionic liquids include ionic salts having multiple charge centers, low, very low, and ultra low melting point ionic liquids, and combinations of ionic liquids. An algae treatment system is described, which processes wet algae in a lysing reactor, separates out algae constituent products, and optionally recovers the ionic liquid in an energy efficient manner.

  8. Las organizaciones educativas como instituciones

    OpenAIRE

    1999-01-01

    Caracterizar los centros educativos como instituciones o como organizaciones institucionalizadas tiene connotaciones precisas y de gran relevancia en cuanto a su comprensión, diseño. funcionamiento y cambio. Se abordan los conceptos de cultura, institución y organización institucionalizada, prestando especial atención al papel desempeñado por las estructuras organizativas, en conexión con el ambiente. Abstract: The portrait of schools as institutions and institutionalized organizatio...

  9. Application of algae-biosensor for environmental monitoring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Umar, Lazuardi; Alexander, Frank A; Wiest, Joachim

    2015-01-01

    Environmental problems including water and air pollution, over fertilization, insufficient wastewater treatment and even ecological disaster are receiving greater attention in the technical and scientific area. In this paper, a method for water quality monitoring using living green algae (Chlorella Kessleri) with the help of the intelligent mobile lab (IMOLA) is presented. This measurement used two IMOLA systems for measurement and reference simultaneously to verify changes due to pollution inside the measurement system. The IMOLA includes light emitting diodes to stimulate photosynthesis of the living algae immobilized on a biochip containing a dissolved oxygen microsensor. A fluid system is used to transport algae culture medium in a stop and go mode; 600s ON, 300s OFF, while the oxygen concentration of the water probe is measured. When the pump stops, the increase in dissolved oxygen concentration due to photosynthesis is detected. In case of a pollutant being transported toward the algae, this can be detected by monitoring the photosynthetic activity. Monitoring pollution is shown by adding emulsion of 0,5mL of Indonesian crude palm oil and 10mL algae medium to the water probe in the biosensor.

  10. THE FAMILY CALCIFOLIACEAE EMEND.,MISSISSIPPIAN-EARLY PENNSYLVANIAN ALGAE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    DANIEL VACHARD

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available The family Fasciellaceae was created as a group of red algae. It was emended as a tribe Fascielleae of incertae sedis algae, and related to the tribe Calcifolieae Shuysky emend. Vachard & Cózar. The tribes Fascielleae and Calcifolieae both constitute the family Calcifoliaceae emend. This family is actually a homogeneous group, and could be more or less closely related with some questionable Moravamminales and Aoujgaliales: Claracrustaceae, Labyrinthoconaceae and Donezellaceae. All these microfossils were successively considered as green algae, red algae, "phylloid" algae, or fibres of calcispongia. The genera included in Fascielleae are: Fasciella, Praedonezella, and ?Kulikaella. The genera Calcifolium, Falsocalcifolium and Frustulata are included in the Calcifolieae. The phylogeny of the Calcifoliaceae is reconstructed. Thus, the family appears to be ancestrally linked, in the early Mississippian and even earlier in the Devonian, to Kulikaella, Stacheoidella, Pseudostacheoides, Pokorninella and Precorninella. The Calcifoliaceae are important for the zonation of the Late Mississippian-earliest Pennsylvanian (early Bashkirian interval (Asbian to Siuransky in the carbonate platform facies from western Palaeotethys and Ural Oceans.

  11. Method to transform algae, materials therefor, and products produced thereby

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunahay, Terri Goodman; Roessler, Paul G.; Jarvis, Eric E.

    1997-01-01

    Disclosed is a method to transform chlorophyll C-containing algae which includes introducing a recombinant molecule comprising a nucleic acid molecule encoding a dominant selectable marker operatively linked to an algal regulatory control sequence into a chlorophyll C-containing alga in such a manner that the marker is produced by the alga. In a preferred embodiment the algal regulatory control sequence is derived from a diatom and preferably Cyclotella cryptica. Also disclosed is a chimeric molecule having one or more regulatory control sequences derived from one or more chlorophyll C-containing algae operatively linked to a nucleic acid molecule encoding a selectable marker, an RNA molecule and/or a protein, wherein the nucleic acid molecule does not normally occur with one or more of the regulatory control sequences. Further specifically disclosed are molecules pACCNPT10, pACCNPT4.8 and pACCNPT5.1. The methods and materials of the present invention provide the ability to accomplish stable genetic transformation of chlorophyll C-containing algae.

  12. Boron uptake, localization, and speciation in marine brown algae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Eric P; Wu, Youxian; Carrano, Carl J

    2016-02-01

    In contrast to the generally boron-poor terrestrial environment, the concentration of boron in the marine environment is relatively high (0.4 mM) and while there has been extensive interest in its use as a surrogate of pH in paleoclimate studies in the context of climate change-related questions, the relatively depth independent, and the generally non-nutrient-like concentration profile of this element have led to boron being neglected as a potentially biologically relevant element in the ocean. Among the marine plant-like organisms the brown algae (Phaeophyta) are one of only five lineages of photosynthetic eukaryotes to have evolved complex multicellularity. Many of unusual and often unique features of brown algae are attributable to this singular evolutionary history. These adaptations are a reflection of the marine coastal environment which brown algae dominate in terms of biomass. Consequently, brown algae are of fundamental importance to oceanic ecology, geochemistry, and coastal industry. Our results indicate that boron is taken up by a facilitated diffusion mechanism against a considerable concentration gradient. Furthermore, in both Ectocarpus and Macrocystis some boron is most likely bound to cell wall constituent alginate and the photoassimilate mannitol located in sieve cells. Herein, we describe boron uptake, speciation, localization and possible biological function in two species of brown algae, Macrocystis pyrifera and Ectocarpus siliculosus.

  13. Ocean acidification weakens the structural integrity of coralline algae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ragazzola, Federica; Foster, Laura C; Form, Armin; Anderson, Philip S L; Hansteen, Thor H; Fietzke, Jan

    2012-09-01

    The uptake of anthropogenic emission of carbon dioxide is resulting in a lowering of the carbonate saturation state and a drop in ocean pH. Understanding how marine calcifying organisms such as coralline algae may acclimatize to ocean acidification is important to understand their survival over the coming century. We present the first long-term perturbation experiment on the cold-water coralline algae, which are important marine calcifiers in the benthic ecosystems particularly at the higher latitudes. Lithothamnion glaciale, after three months incubation, continued to calcify even in undersaturated conditions with a significant trend towards lower growth rates with increasing pCO2 . However, the major changes in the ultra-structure occur by 589 μatm (i.e. in saturated waters). Finite element models of the algae grown at these heightened levels show an increase in the total strain energy of nearly an order of magnitude and an uneven distribution of the stress inside the skeleton when subjected to similar loads as algae grown at ambient levels. This weakening of the structure is likely to reduce the ability of the alga to resist boring by predators and wave energy with severe consequences to the benthic community structure in the immediate future (50 years).

  14. In-situ Phytoremediation of PAH and PCB Contaminated Marine Sediments with Eelgrass (Zostera marina)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huesemann, Michael H.; Hausmann, Tom S.; Fortman, Timothy J.; Thom, Ronald M.; Cullinan, Valerie I.

    2009-10-01

    In view of the fact that there are presently no cost-effective in-situ treatment technologies for contaminated sediments, a 60 week long phytoremediation feasibility study was conducted in seawater-supplied outdoor ponds to determine whether eelgrass (Zostera marina) is capable of removing polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) from submerged marine sediments. It was determined that all PAHs and PCBs, independent of the number of aromatic rings and degree of chlorination, respectively, were removed to a much larger extent in planted sediments compared to unplanted controls. After 60 weeks of treatment, the concentration of total PAHs decreased by 73% in planted sediments but only 25% in unplanted controls. Similarly, total PCBs declined by 60% in the presence of plants while none were removed in the unplanted sediment. Overall, PAH and PCB biodegradation was greatest in the sediment layer that contained most of the eelgrass roots. Abiotic desorption tests conducted at week 32 confirmed that the phytoremediation process was not controlled by mass-transfer or bioavailability limitations since all PAHs and PCBs desorbed rapidly and to a large extent from the sediment. PAHs were detected in both roots and shoots, with root and shoot bioaccumulation factors for total PAHs amounting to approximately 3 and 1, respectively, after 60 weeks of phytoremediation treatment. Similarly, the root bioccumulation factor for total PCBs was around 4, while no PCBs were detected in the eelgrass leaves at the end of the experiment. The total mass fraction of PAHs and PCBs absorbed and translocated by plant biomass during the 60 week period was insignificant, amounting to less than 0.5% of the total mass of PAHs and PCBs which was initially present in the sediment. Finally, the number of total heterotrophic bacteria and hydrocarbon degraders was slightly but not statistically significantly greater in planted sediments than in unplanted controls

  15. EL JUEGO: UNA ESTRATEGIA PARA LA ENSEÑANZA-APRENDIZAJE EN AMBIENTES VIRTUALES DE LOS SUBOFICIALES DE LA ESCUELA DE FORMACIÓN DE INFANTERÍA DE MARINA DE COVEÑAS SUCRE, COLOMBIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Freddy Anderson Cortés otalora

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available El juego adquiere especial relevancia en la vida de los seres humanos en la medida que ayuda a formar nuestra identidad, personalidad y a fortalecer los lazos sociales aceptados y convencionalizados por la cultura. En este sentido, el propósito de este artículo es analizar como el juego trasciende su significación meramente lúdica y de ocio para convertirse en una herramienta que resulta útil en la enseñanza-aprendizaje tradicional, pero también en los ambientes o entornos virtuales de aprendizaje. De ahí que en la primera parte, el planteamiento del problema del juego en relación con la educación se haga explícito. El artículo también se centra en presentar algunos antecedentes del juego y su valor pragmático en la educación, conectado con la didáctica, la pedagogía y las teorías del juego. Finalmente, el artículo señala la utilidad que adquieren los videojuegos en el proceso de enseñanza-aprendizaje en ambientes virtuales para la formación de los suboficiales de la Escuela de Formación de Infantería de Marina de Coveñas, en el departamento de Sucre (Colombia.

  16. MAPPING INTERTIDAL EELGRASS (ZOSTERA MARINA L.) IN THREE COASTAL ESTUARIES OF THE PACIFIC NORTHWEST USA USING FALSE-COLOUR NEAR-INFRARED AERIAL PHOTOGRAPHY

    Science.gov (United States)

    This study describes a hybrid technique of digitally classifying aerial photography used for mapping the intertidal habitat of eelgrass (Zostera marina L.) in Pacific Northwest USA estuaries. The large tidal range (2-3 m) in this region exposes most of this seagrass community at ...

  17. New evidence for habitat-specific selection in Wadden Sea Zostera marina populations revealed by genome scanning using SNP and microsatellite markers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oetjen, Katharina; Ferber, Steven; Dankert, Ilka; Reusch, Thorsten B. H.

    2010-01-01

    Eelgrass Zostera marina is an ecosystem-engineering species of outstanding importance for coastal soft sediment habitats that lives in widely diverging habitats. Our first goal was to detect divergent selection and habitat adaptation at the molecular genetic level; hence, we compared three pairs of

  18. Quest for minor but key chlorophyll molecules in photosynthetic reaction centers - unusual pigment composition in the reaction centers of the chlorophyll d-dominated cyanobacterium Acaryochloris marina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akiyama, Machiko; Miyashita, Hideaki; Kise, Hideo; Watanabe, Tadashi; Mimuro, Mamoru; Miyachi, Shigetoh; Kobayashi, Masami

    2002-01-01

    A short overview, based on our own findings, is given of the minor pigments that function as key components in photosynthesis. Recently, we found the presence of chlorophyll a, chlorophyll d' and pheophytin a as minor pigments in the chlorophyll d-dominated cyanobacterium Acaryochloris marina.

  19. Free and Bound Fatty-Acids and Hydroxy Fatty-Acids in the Living and Decomposing Eelgrass Zostera-Marina L

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    De Leeuw, J.; Rijpstra, W.I.C.; Nienhuis, P.H.

    1995-01-01

    Very early diagenetic processes of free, esterified and amide or glycosidically bound fatty acids and hydroxy fatty acids present in well documented samples of living and decomposing eelgrass (Zostera marina L.) were investigated. Free and esterified fatty acids decreased significantly over a period

  20. Comparison of non-indigenous dwarf eelgrass (Zostera japonica) and native eelgrass (Z. marina) distributions in a northeast Pacific estuary: 1997-2014

    Science.gov (United States)

    This study addressed the following question: In a coastal estuary of the northeastern Pacific Ocean with a relatively large areal extent of the native eelgrass Zostera marina, is an expanding distribution of the non-indigenous dwarf eelgrass Z. japonica accompanied by a measurab...

  1. DESICCATION IS A LIMITING FACTOR FOR EELGRASS (ZOSTERA MARINA L.) DISTRIBUTION IN THE INTERTIDAL ZONE OF A NORTHEASTERN P{ACIFIC (USA) ESTUARY

    Science.gov (United States)

    Intertidal irradiance, temperature, and aerial exposure were measured for two years in intertidal Zostera marina beds located in Yaquina Bay (Newport, OR, USA). These physical data were correlated with plant growth and other metrics measured at intervals during the study. Pho...

  2. Climate-linked mechanisms driving spatial and temporal variation in eelgrass (Zostera marina L.) growth and assemblage structure in Pacific Northwest estuaries, USA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thom, Ronald M.; Southard, Susan L.; Borde, Amy B.

    2014-11-01

    Using laboratory experiments on temperature and leaf metabolism, and field data sets from Washington, between 1991 and 2013, we developed lines of evidence showing that variations in water temperature, mean sea level, and desiccation stress appear to drive spatial and temporal variations in eelgrass (Zostera marina).

  3. Are anti-fouling effects in coralline algae species specific?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandre Bigio Villas Bôas

    2004-03-01

    Full Text Available The crustose coralline algae are susceptible to be covered by other algae, which in turn can be affected by anti-fouling effects. In this study the hypothesis tested was that these algae can inhibit the growth of epiphytes in a species specific way. In the laboratory, propagules of Sargassum furcatum and Ulva fasciata were liberated and cultivated on pieces of coralline algae and slide covers (controls and their survival and growth were compared. Spongites and Hydrolithon significantly inhibited the growth of U. fasciata but not Sargassum. In the field, pieces of three species of live and dead coralline algae and their copies in epoxy putty discs were fixed on the rock. After one month epiphytic algae were identified and their dry mass quantified. Lithophyllum did not affect the epiphyte growth. In contrast Spongites and an unidentified coralline significantly inhibited the growth of Enteromorpha spp., Ulva fasciata and Hincksia mitchelliae. Colpomenia sinuosa was absent on all living crusts, but present on controls. Results show that the epiphyte-host relation depends on the species that are interacting. The sloughing of superficial cells of coralline crusts points to the possible action of physical anti-fouling effect, though a chemical one is not rejected.As algas calcárias crostosas são susceptíveis ao recobrimento por outras algas, entretanto, estas podem ser afetadas por efeitos anti-incrustantes. Neste estudo foi testada a hipótese de que estas algas possam inibir o crescimento somente de algumas espécies de epífitas. No laboratório, propágulos de Sargassum furcatum e Ulva fasciata foram liberados e cultivados sobre pedaços de algas calcárias e lamínulas de microscopia (controle e as suas sobrevivência e crescimento comparadas. Spongites e Hydrolithon inibiram significativamente o crescimento de U. fasciata, mas não de Sargassum. No campo, pedaços de três espécies de algas calcárias vivas, mortas e cópias destas em

  4. An updated comprehensive techno-economic analysis of algae biodiesel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagarajan, Sanjay; Chou, Siaw Kiang; Cao, Shenyan; Wu, Chen; Zhou, Zhi

    2013-10-01

    Algae biodiesel is a promising but expensive alternative fuel to petro-diesel. To overcome cost barriers, detailed cost analyses are needed. A decade-old cost analysis by the U.S. National Renewable Energy Laboratory indicated that the costs of algae biodiesel were in the range of $0.53-0.85/L (2012 USD values). However, the cost of land and transesterification were just roughly estimated. In this study, an updated comprehensive techno-economic analysis was conducted with optimized processes and improved cost estimations. Latest process improvement, quotes from vendors, government databases, and other relevant data sources were used to calculate the updated algal biodiesel costs, and the final costs of biodiesel are in the range of $0.42-0.97/L. Additional improvements on cost-effective biodiesel production around the globe to cultivate algae was also recommended. Overall, the calculated costs seem promising, suggesting that a single step biodiesel production process is close to commercial reality.

  5. Cycloartane triterpenes from marine green alga Cladophora fascicularis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HUANG Xinping; ZHU Xiaobin; DENG Liping; DENG Zhiwei; LIN Wenhan

    2006-01-01

    Six cycloartanes were isolated from ethanol extract of marine green alga Cladophora fascicularis by column chromatography. Procedure of isolation and description of these compounds are given in this paper. The structures were elucidated as (1). 24-hydroperoxycycloart-25- en-3β-ol; (2).cycloart-25-en-3β 24-diol; (3). 25-hydroperoxycycloart-23-en-3β-ol; (4). cycloart-23-en-3β, 25-diol; (5).cycloart-23, 25-dien-3β-ol; and (6). cycloart-24-en-3β-ol by spectroscopic (MS, 1D and 2D NMR) data analysis. Cycloartane derivatives are widely distributed in terrestrial plants, but only few were obtained in the alga. All these compounds that have been isolated from terrestrial plants, were found in the marine alga for the first time.

  6. Benefits of using algae as natural sources of functional ingredients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ibañez, Elena; Cifuentes, Alejandro

    2013-03-15

    Algae have been suggested as a potential source of bioactive compounds to be used in the food and pharmaceutical industries. With the strong development of functional foods as a method to improve or maintain health, the exploration of new compounds with real health effects is now an intense field of research. The potential use of algae as source of functional food ingredients, such as lipids, proteins, polysaccharides, phenolics, carotenoids, etc., is presented, together with the different possibilities of improving valuable metabolites production either using the tools and the knowledge provided by marine biotechnology or improving the different factors involved in the production on a large scale of such metabolites. The bio-refinery concept is also presented as a way to improve the efficient use of algae biomass while favouring process sustainability.

  7. [Nutritive value of the spirulina algae (Spirulina maxima)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tejada de Hernández, I; Shimada, A S

    1978-06-01

    Nine experiments were conducted, five of them in vivo to determine the limiting amino acids and digestibility of spiruline algae for the rat, and four in vitro to determine the digestibility of the product in pepsin and ruminal liquid. None of the amino acids studied (lysine, methionine, histidine) added alone or in combination to 10% protein (either crude or true) diets provided exclusively by spiruline, seems to be limiting although the results could be masked by the low palatability and acceptability of the product by the rats. The apparent digestibility of the algae was 67.4%. For the in vitro tests, the algae were subjected to several physical or chemical treatments, and the digestibility of the resulting product determined by four different techniques. In no case did the tested treatments have any effect on its digestibility.

  8. GROWTH-REGULATORY ACTIVITY OF THE ALGAE EXTRACT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    О. V. Кyrychenkо

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available The growth-regulatory activity of the complex algae extract from Spirogira sp. at pre-so wing treatment of soybean seeds was studied in green-house and field experiments. It was shown that phytoextract has stimulated seeds germination on 12%, plants growth on 11–37%, soybean productivity increased on 6–27% as well as activated the development and functional ability of rhizospheric nitrogen-fixing microorganisms. The quantity of oligoazotrophes increased in 1,5–6,3 times, nitrogenase activity in 1,5–1,7 times. The possibility aspects of growth-regulatory activity of the algae extract in both plants and rhizospheric microorganisms is under discussion. Our results have confirmed the perspectives of practical use of the biological activity substances from the algae at soybean growing in order to increase plants productivity and improve microbiological indexes of soil.

  9. A look at diacylglycerol acyltransferases (DGATs) in algae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Jit Ern; Smith, Alison G

    2012-11-30

    Triacylglycerols (TAGs) from algae are considered to be a potentially viable source of biodiesel and thereby renewable energy, but at the moment very little is known about the biosynthetic pathway in these organisms. Here we compare what is currently known in eukaryotic algal species, in particular the characteristics of algal diacylglycerol acyltransferase (DGAT), the last enzyme of de novo TAG biosynthesis. Several studies in plants and mammals have shown that there are two DGAT isoforms, DGAT1 and DGAT2, which catalyse the same reaction but have no clear sequence similarities. Instead, they have differences in functionality and spatial and temporal expression patterns. Bioinformatic searches of sequenced algal genomes reveal that most algae have multiple copies of putative DGAT2s, whereas other eukaryotes have single genes. Investigating whether these putative isoforms are indeed functional and whether they confer significantly different phenotypes to algal cells will be vital for future efforts to genetically modify algae for biofuel production.

  10. Extremophilic micro-algae and their potential contribution in biotechnology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varshney, Prachi; Mikulic, Paulina; Vonshak, Avigad; Beardall, John; Wangikar, Pramod P

    2015-05-01

    Micro-algae have potential as sustainable sources of energy and products and alternative mode of agriculture. However, their mass cultivation is challenging due to low survival under harsh outdoor conditions and competition from other, undesired, species. Extremophilic micro-algae have a role to play by virtue of their ability to grow under acidic or alkaline pH, high temperature, light, CO2 level and metal concentration. In this review, we provide several examples of potential biotechnological applications of extremophilic micro-algae and the ranges of tolerated extremes. We also discuss the adaptive mechanisms of tolerance to these extremes. Analysis of phylogenetic relationship of the reported extremophiles suggests certain groups of the Kingdom Protista to be more tolerant to extremophilic conditions than other taxa. While extremophilic microalgae are beginning to be explored, much needs to be done in terms of the physiology, molecular biology, metabolic engineering and outdoor cultivation trials before their true potential is realized.

  11. Designer proton-channel transgenic algae for photobiological hydrogen production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, James Weifu

    2011-04-26

    A designer proton-channel transgenic alga for photobiological hydrogen production that is specifically designed for production of molecular hydrogen (H.sub.2) through photosynthetic water splitting. The designer transgenic alga includes proton-conductive channels that are expressed to produce such uncoupler proteins in an amount sufficient to increase the algal H.sub.2 productivity. In one embodiment the designer proton-channel transgene is a nucleic acid construct (300) including a PCR forward primer (302), an externally inducible promoter (304), a transit targeting sequence (306), a designer proton-channel encoding sequence (308), a transcription and translation terminator (310), and a PCR reverse primer (312). In various embodiments, the designer proton-channel transgenic algae are used with a gas-separation system (500) and a gas-products-separation and utilization system (600) for photobiological H.sub.2 production.

  12. Algae from the arid southwestern United States: an annotated bibliography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thomas, W.H.; Gaines, S.R.

    1983-06-01

    Desert algae are attractive biomass producers for capturing solar energy through photosynthesis of organic matter. They are probably capable of higher yields and efficiencies of light utilization than higher plants, and are already adapted to extremes of sunlight intensity, salinity and temperature such as are found in the desert. This report consists of an annotated bibliography of the literature on algae from the arid southwestern United States. It was prepared in anticipation of efforts to isolate desert algae and study their yields in the laboratory. These steps are necessary prior to setting up outdoor algal culture ponds. Desert areas are attractive for such applications because land, sunlight, and, to some extent, water resources are abundant there. References are sorted by state.

  13. Importance of algae as a potential source of biofuel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, A K; Singh, M P

    2014-12-24

    Algae have a great potential source of biofuels and also have unique importance to reduce gaseous emissions, greenhouse gases, climatic changes, global warming receding of glaciers, rising sea levels and loss of biodiversity. The microalgae, like Scenedesmus obliquus, Neochloris oleabundans, Nannochloropsis sp., Chlorella emersonii, and Dunaliella tertiolecta have high oil content. Among the known algae, Scenedesmus obliquus is one of the most potential sources for biodiesel as it has adequate fatty acid (linolenic acid) and other polyunsaturated fatty acids. Bio—ethanol is already in the market of United States of America and Europe as an additive in gasoline. Bio—hydrogen is the cleanest biofuel and extensive efforts are going on to bring it to market at economical price. This review highlights recent development and progress in the field of algae as a potential source of biofuel.

  14. Strain variability in fatty acid composition of Chattonella marina (Raphidophyceae) and its relation to differing ichthyotoxicity toward rainbow trout gill cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dorantes-Aranda, Juan José; Nichols, Peter D; David Waite, Trevor; Hallegraeff, Gustaaf M

    2013-04-01

    Lipid profiles of three strains (Mexico, Australia, Japan) of Chattonella marina (Subrahmanyan) Hara et Chihara were studied under defined growth (phosphate, light, and growth phase) and harvest (intact and ruptured cells) conditions. Triacylglycerol levels were always 51% of total lipids). The major fatty acids in C. marina were palmitic (16:0), eicosapentaenoic (EPA, 20:5ω3), octadecatetraenoic (18:4ω3), myristic (14:0), and palmitoleic (16:1ω7c) acids. Higher levels of EPA were found in ruptured cells (21.4-29.4%) compared to intact cells (8.5-25.3%). In general, Japanese N-118 C. marina was the highest producer of EPA (14.3-29.4%), and Mexican CMCV-1 the lowest producer (7.9-27.1%). Algal cultures, free fatty acids from C. marina, and the two aldehydes 2E,4E-decadienal and 2E,4E-heptadienal (suspected fatty acid-derived products) were tested against the rainbow trout fish gill cell line RTgill-W1. The configuration of fatty acids plays an important role in ichthyotoxicity. Free fatty acid fractions, obtained by base saponification of total lipids from C. marina showed a potent toxicity toward gill cells (median lethal concentration, LC50 (at 1 h) of 0.44 μg · mL(-1) in light conditions, with a complete loss of viability at >3.2 μg · mL(-1) ). Live cultures of Mexican C. marina were less toxic than Japanese and Australian strains. This difference could be related to differing EPA content, superoxide anion production, and cell fragility. The aldehydes 2E,4E-decadienal and 2E,4E-heptadienal also showed high impact on gill cell viability, with LC50 (at 1 h) of 0.34 and 0.36 μg · mL(-1) , respectively. Superoxide anion production was highest in Australian strain CMPL01, followed by Japanese N-118 and Mexican CMCV-1 strains. Ruptured cells showed higher production of superoxide anion compared to intact cells (e.g., 19 vs. 9.5 pmol · cell(-1)  · hr(-1) for CMPL01, respectively). Our results indicate that C. marina is more ichthyotoxic

  15. Characteristics of Red Algae Bioplastics/Latex Blends under Tension

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Nizar Machmud

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Cassava, corn, sago and the other food crops have been commonly used as raw materials to produce green plastics. However, plastics produced from such crops cannot be tailored to fit a particular requirement due to their poor water resistance and mechanical properties. Nowadays, researchers are hence looking to get alternative raw materials from the other sustainable resources to produce plastics. Their recent published studies have reported that marine red algae, that has been already widely used as a raw material for producing biofuels, is one of the potential algae crops that can be turned into plastics. In this work, Eucheuma Cottonii, that is one of the red alga crops, was used as raw material to produce plastics by using a filtration technique. Selected latex of Artocarpus altilis and Calostropis gigantea was separately then blended with bioplastics derived from the red algae, to replace use of glycerol as plasticizer. Role of the glycerol and the selected latex on physical and mechanical properties of the red algae bioplastics obtained under a tensile test performed at room temperature are discussed. Tensile strength of some starch-based plastics collected from some recent references is also presented in this paperDoi: 10.12777/ijse.5.2.81-88 [How to cite this article: Machmud, M.N., Fahmi, R.,  Abdullah, R., and Kokarkin, C.  (2013. Characteristics of Red Algae Bioplastics/Latex Blends under Tension. International Journal of Science and Engineering, 5(2,81-88. Doi: 10.12777/ijse.5.2.81-88

  16. Homogeneity of Danish environmental and clinical isolates of Shewanella algae

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vogel, Birte Fonnesbech; Holt, H.M.; Gerner-Smidt, P.;

    2000-01-01

    Danish isolates of Shewanella algae constituted by whole-cell protein profiling a very homogeneous group, and no clear distinction was seen between strains from the marine environment and strains of clinical origin. Although variation between all strains was observed by ribotyping and random...... amplified polymorphic DNA analysis, no clonal relationship between infective strains was found. From several patients, clonally identical strains of S. algae were reisolated up to 8 months after the primary isolation, indicating that the same strain may be able to maintain the infection....

  17. LA PESCA COMO FACTOR DE DESARROLLO DEL TURISMO SOSTENIBLE. EL CASO DE ÁGUILAS (MURCIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pedro Pérez Piernas

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available De los municipios del litoral murciano, el de Águilas ha sido el que menos ha desarrollado la actividad turística, debido a que ha centrado su economía en la agricultura y la pesca. No por ello ha quedado al margen del proceso turístico urbanizador que ha afectado al Arco Mediterráneo en la pasada década, aunque no ha llegado a desarrollar su macroproyecto turístico de Marina de Cope. Entre mayo de 2004 y 2006, Águilas, junto a otros puertos pesqueros del Mediterráneo Occidental, participa en el proyecto MARIMED: la pesca como factor de desarrollo del turismo sostenible, iniciativa INTERREG III-B, cuyo fin es el desarrollo de formas de turismo teniendo como elemento central e innovador la pesca, considerada como sistema social, económico y cultural, capaz de ofrecer un valor añadido al beneficio del mar. Con los estudios realizados en el proyecto MARIMED se recogen los materiales necesarios para la puesta en valor del la pesca como recurso turístico en Águilas. Sobre esa base se pone en marcha en 2009 el Plan de Competitividad Turística de Águilas, el Mar y la Pesca. Con esta aportación se pretende analizar el desarrollo de un producto turístico nuevo sobre un espacio donde la tradición pesquera ha dejado una huella importante en su paisaje y cultura.

  18. Value of crops: Quantity, quality and cost price. [algae as a nutritional supplement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyer, C.

    1979-01-01

    Possibilities of using algae as a nutritional supplement are examined. The nutritional value and protein content of spirulines of blue algae are discussed. A cost analysis of growing them artificially is presented.

  19. El museo como espacio educativo

    OpenAIRE

    2013-01-01

    El Trabajo Fin de Grado titulado "El museo como espacio educativo" tutelado por D. Jesús Féliz Pascual Molina, trata sobre el estudio acerca de cómo se usan los museos como espacios lúdicos y como mediadores de enseñanza. Para su realización se ha tenido en cuenta la legislación vigente y sobre todo el Decreto 122/2007 de 27 de Diciembre, por el que se establece el currículo de Educación Infantil en Castilla y León. En él se hace mención a la evolución de los museos, los diferentes tipos exis...

  20. Rezension von: Karl Lenz, Marina Adler: Geschlechterverhältnisse. Einführung in die sozialwissenschaftliche Geschlechterforschung Band 1. Weinheim u.a.: Juventa Verlag 2010. — Karl Lenz, Marina Adler: Geschlechterbeziehungen. Weinheim u.a.: Juventa Verlag 2011.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heike Kahlert

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Karl Lenz und Marina Adler orientieren sich in ihrem zweibändigen Lehrbuch zur sozialwissenschaftlichen Geschlechterforschung an der etablierten Unterscheidung zwischen Makro- und Mikrosoziologie. Im ersten Band werden theoretische Perspektiven der Geschlechterforschung und unterschiedliche Zusammenhänge zu Kultur nachgezeichnet sowie zentrale Themenfelder einer Sozialstrukturanalyse der Geschlechterordnung fokussiert, nämlich Recht, Politik, Bildung und Arbeit. Im zweiten Band stehen neben der Sozialisation ausgewählte Erträge der mikrosoziologischen Geschlechterforschung im Zentrum, nämlich Körper, Sexualität, persönliche Beziehungen, Devianz und Gewalt. In dieser überfälligen, informativen, sorgfältig recherchierten, aber auch vergleichsweise traditionellen und empirisch orientierten Einführung wird die Geschlechterforschung zwar in einer breiteren Diversity-Forschung verortet, das Verhältnis von Diversität und Geschlecht leider aber nicht reflektiert.

  1. Innovación docente en las asignaturas de Biología Marina y Zoología Marina: aprendizaje basado en problemas y trabajo en pequeños grupos

    OpenAIRE

    Guerra García, José Manuel; Corzo Toscano, Juan; Espinosa Torre, Free; García Gómez, José Carlos

    2012-01-01

    El inicio del grado de Biología en la Universidad de Sevilla modifica sustancialmente la organización de los estudios universitarios, pasando de licenciatura de 5 años a grado de 4 años. Ello supone la desaparición de la asignatura optativa “Biología Marina” y la de libre configuración “Zoología Marina”. Por tanto, el futuro del mantenimiento de la línea docente en Biología Marina en la Universidad de Sevilla dependerá del desarrollo de un máster. De este modo, en la asignat...

  2. Epilithic algae from caves of the Krakowsko-Częstochowska Upland (Southern Poland)

    OpenAIRE

    Joanna Czerwik-Marcinkowska; Teresa Mrozińska

    2011-01-01

    This paper describes the first study of algae assemblages in 20 caves in the Krakowsko-Częstochowska Upland (Southern Poland), in the period between 2005-2006. The investigations showed mostly on epilithic algae and their subaeric habitats (rock faces within caves and walls at cave entrances). The morphological and cytological variability of algae were studied in fresh samples, in cultures grown on agar plates and in SPURR preparations. A total of 43 algae species was identified, mostly epili...

  3. Research of Influence of Aniline on the Growth of Ocean Algae

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    QIU Haiyuan; WANG Xian

    2005-01-01

    This article discusses the interaction of aniline and ocean algae based on the standard appraisal method of chemical medicine for algae toxicity. It is showed by experimental results that aniline has pretty toxic effects on algae. Suspended substances in water can offset some effects of aniline. It also discusses the dynamic constant of first order degradation reaction rate of algae on aniline from the point of view of chemical dynamics.

  4. Montagem e Imagem como Paradigma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cesar Huapaya

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available O pensar como montagem e imagem tornou-se um método revelador nos processos de estudos práticos e teóricos do artista e dos pesquisadores nos séculos XX e XXI. Este artigo procura articular três formas de pensar por montagem: nas obras de Bertolt Brecht, Sergei Eisenstein e Georges DidiHuberman. O filósofo e historiador da arte Georges Didi-Huberman reinaugura o debate e o exercício de pensar a antropologia da imagem e a montagem como metalinguagem e forma de conhecimento.

  5. Where Have All the Algae Gone, or, How Many Kingdoms Are There?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blackwell, Will H.; Powell, Martha J.

    1995-01-01

    Examined 10 introductory college-level, general biology survey textbooks for the coverage of algae to assess the efficacy of coverage. Describes a proposal of seven kingdoms and discusses the disposition of algae among five of these kingdoms. Contends that textbooks should highlight the concept of algae across the five kingdoms. Contains 59…

  6. A review of the taxonomical and ecological studies on Netherlands’ Algae

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koster, Joséphine Th.

    1939-01-01

    The earliest account of the Netherlands’ Algae appeared in 1781 in D. de Gorter, Flora VII Prov. Belgii foederati indigen. Here, however, in the Algae lichens and liverworts have been incorporated. The true Algae, of which 35 are enumerated, are principally marine, though also aërophytical and fresh

  7. Food and feed products from micro-algae: Market opportunities and challenges for the EU

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vigani, M.; Parisi, C.; Rodriguez-Cerezo, E.; Barbosa, M.J.; Sijtsma, L.; Ploeg, M.; Enzing, C.

    2015-01-01

    Micro-algae are a new and promising source of nutrients. The main products obtainable are dried algae with high nutrients content and high-value compounds such as fatty acids, pigments and anti-oxidants. This paper analyses the market and the economic opportunities of micro-algae-based food and feed

  8. Critical conditions for ferric chloride-induced flocculation of freshwater algae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wyatt, Nicholas B; Gloe, Lindsey M; Brady, Patrick V; Hewson, John C; Grillet, Anne M; Hankins, Matthew G; Pohl, Phillip I

    2012-02-01

    The effects of algae concentration, ferric chloride dose, and pH on the flocculation efficiency of the freshwater algae Chlorella zofingiensis can be understood by considering the nature of the electrostatic charges on the algae and precipitate surfaces. Two critical conditions are identified which, when met, result in flocculation efficiencies in excess of 90% for freshwater algae. First, a minimum concentration of ferric chloride is required to overcome the electrostatic stabilization of the algae and promote bridging of algae cells by hydroxide precipitates. At low algae concentrations, the minimum amount of ferric chloride required increases linearly with algae concentration, characteristic of flocculation primarily through electrostatic bridging by hydroxide precipitates. At higher algae concentrations, the minimum required concentration of ferric chloride for flocculation is independent of algae concentration, suggesting a change in the primary flocculation mechanism from bridging to sweep flocculation. Second, the algae must have a negative surface charge. Experiments and surface complexation modeling show that the surface charge of C. zofingiensis is negative above a pH of 4.0 ± 0.3 which agrees well with the minimum pH required for effective flocculation. These critical flocculation criteria can be extended to other freshwater algae to design effective flocculation systems.

  9. New methodologies for the integration of power plants with algae ponds

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schipper, K.; Gijp, S. van der; Stel, R.W van der; Goetheer, E.L.V.

    2013-01-01

    It is generally recognized that algae could be an interesting option for reducing CO2 emissions. Based on light and CO2, algae can be used for the production various economically interesting products. Current algae cultivation techniques, however, still present a number of limitations. Efficient fee

  10. Distribution and biomass estimation of shell-boring algae in the intertidal area at Goa India

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Raghukumar, C.; Sharma, S.; Lande, V.

    The distribution and frequency of shell-boring green and blue-green algae in the intertidal at Goa, India were studied. The green alga Gomontia sp. and the blue green algae Hyella caespitosa Bornet et Flahault, H. gigas Lucas et Golubic...

  11. Isolasi dan Identifikasi Protein Bioaktif Alga Merah Eucheuma cottonii serta Potensinya Sebagai Antikanker

    OpenAIRE

    Ismail, Ayu Indayanti

    2014-01-01

    Isolasi dan Identifikasi Senyawa Protein Bioaktif dari Alga Merah Eucheuma cottoni dari Teluk Laikang Kabupaten Takalar Sulawesi Selatan telah dilakukan. Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk mengisolasi dan mengidentifikasi senyawa protein bioaktif dari alga merah Eucheuma cottonii serta potensinya sebagai antikanker. Metode penelitian yang digunakan adalah metode eksperimental dengan tahapan perlakuan yaitu isolasi senyawa protein bioaktif dari alga merah Eucheuma cottonii melalui proses lisis, ...

  12. EL IMPACTO DE LA AGRICULTURA INTENSIVA EN EL USO TURÍSTICO DE LAS PLAYAS DE MARINA DE COPE (MURCIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Belmonte Serrato

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available El desarrollo de la agricultura intensiva y, especialmente, la ocupación agrícola de los fondos de las ramblas, ha ocasionado un desequilibrio sedimentario en las playas de Marina de COPE. Los retrocesos de la línea de costa oscilan entre 16 y 68 m y la disminución de la superficie se estima en un 50% de la correspondiente a 1956. Esto, ha reducido su capacidad de carga potencial que, para una intensidad de uso de 25 m2/usuario, ha pasado de 4.400 usuarios potenciales por día a 2.200. Lo que implica, para los meses de uso de estas playas, julio y agosto, una pérdida de capacidad de 130.000 usuarios.

  13. Effect of sonication frequency on the disruption of algae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurokawa, Masaki; King, Patrick M; Wu, Xiaoge; Joyce, Eadaoin M; Mason, Timothy J; Yamamoto, Ken

    2016-07-01

    In this study, the efficiency of ultrasonic disruption of Chaetoceros gracilis, Chaetoceros calcitrans, and Nannochloropsis sp. was investigated by applying ultrasonic waves of 0.02, 0.4, 1.0, 2.2, 3.3, and 4.3 MHz to algal suspensions. The results showed that reduction in the number of algae was frequency dependent and that the highest efficiency was achieved at 2.2, 3.3, and 4.3MHz for C. gracilis, C. calcitrans, and Nannochloropsis sp., respectively. A review of the literature suggested that cavitation, rather than direct effects of ultrasonication, are required for ultrasonic algae disruption, and that chemical effects are likely not the main mechanism for algal cell disruption. The mechanical resonance frequencies estimated by a shell model, taking into account elastic properties, demonstrated that suitable disruption frequencies for each alga were associated with the cell's mechanical properties. Taken together, we consider here that physical effects of ultrasonication were responsible for algae disruption.

  14. Free Sterols of the red alga Chondria armata (Kutz.) Okamura

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Govenkar, M.B.; Wahidullah, S.

    The free sterols of the red alga, Chondria armata have been identified by means of NMR, EIMS and GCMS analyses. The mixture contained besides cholesterol, C sub(28) and C sub(29) saturated as well as unsaturated components. The major component...

  15. Photo-producing Hydrogen with Marine Green Algae

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2005-01-01

    @@ Hydrogen is often hailed as a potential source of unlimited clean power.It can be produced with green algae from water and solar energy through a process called "photobiological hydrogen production."Although its efficiency is rather low at present, scientists believe,an increase to 10% would make this process economically feasible.

  16. Alga-lysing bioreactor and the dominant bacteria strain

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    PEI Hai-yan; HU Wen-rong; MU Rui-min; LI Xiao-cai

    2007-01-01

    Alga-lysing bacteria have been paid much attention to in recent years. In this study, the alga-lysing strain P05 which was isolated from an immobilizing biosystem was immobilized by coke and elastic filler, forming two biological reactors. The removal efficiencies of algae, NH3-N and organic matter using the two reactors were studied. The results showed that strain P05 was an ideal algal-lysing bacteria strain because it was easy to be immobilized by coke and elastic filler which are of cheap, low biodegradability and the simple immobilization procedure. After 7 d filming, the biological film could be formed and the reactors were used to treat the eutrophic water. These two reactors were of stability and high effect with low cost and easy operation. The optimal hydraulic retention time (HRT) of each reactor was 4 h. The algae removal rates were 80.38% and 82.1% (in term of Chl-a) of coke reactor and filler reactor, respectively. And that of NH3-N were 52.3% and 52.7%. The removal rates of CODMn were 39.03% and 39.64%. The strain P05 was identified as Bacillus sp. by PCR amplification of the 16S rRNA gene, BLAST analysis, and comparison with sequences in the GenBank nucleotide database.

  17. A REVIEW OF HEAVY METAL ADSORPTION BY MARINE ALGAE

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    Accumulation of heavy metals by algae had been studied extensively for biomonitoring or bioremediation purposes. Having the advantages of low cost raw material, big adsorbing capacity, no secondary pollution, etc., algae may be used to treat industrial water containing heavy metals. The adsorption processes were carried out in two steps: rapid physical adsorption first, and then slow chemical adsorption. pH is the major factor influencing the adsorption. The Freundlich equation fitted very well the adsorption isotherms. The uptake decreased with increasing ionic strength. The principal mechanism of metallic cation sequestration involves the formation of complexes between a metal ion and functional groups on the surface or inside the porous structure of the biological material. The carboxyl groups of alginate play a major role in the complexation. Different species of algae and the algae of the same species may have different adsorption capacity. Their selection affinity for heavy metals was the major criterion for the screening of a biologic adsorbent to be used in water treatment. The surface complex formation model (SCFM) can solve the equilibrium and kinetic problems in the biosorption.

  18. A Novel Lanostanoid Lactone From the Alga Hypnea cerricornis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XU, Xiao-Hua; CHEN, Xiao; LU, Jian-Hua; YAO, Guang-Min; LI, Yah-Ming; ZE NG, Long-Mei

    2001-01-01

    A novel lanntanoid lactone (1) was first isolated fron the Alga Hypnen cerriconis collected from the Xisha Islands in theSouth China Sea. The structure of 1 was determined on spectral evidence as 5a-tansta-8-en-3β,22ζ-dihydroxy-22 (R), 24(S)-lactone.

  19. Fuzzy Pattern Recognition System for Detection of Alga Distribution

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    To realize the on-line measurement and make analysis on the density of algae and their cluster distribution, the fluorescent detection and fuzzy pattern recognition techniques are used. The principle of fluorescent fiber-optic detection is given as well as the method of fuzzy feature extraction using a class of neural network.

  20. Decreased abundance of crustose coralline algae due to ocean acidification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuffner, Ilsa B.; Andersson, Andreas J; Jokiel, Paul L.; Rodgers, Ku'ulei S.; Mackenzie, Fred T.

    2008-01-01

    Owing to anthropogenic emissions, atmospheric concentrations of carbon dioxide could almost double between 2006 and 2100 according to business-as-usual carbon dioxide emission scenarios1. Because the ocean absorbs carbon dioxide from the atmosphere2, 3, 4, increasing atmospheric carbon dioxide concentrations will lead to increasing dissolved inorganic carbon and carbon dioxide in surface ocean waters, and hence acidification and lower carbonate saturation states2, 5. As a consequence, it has been suggested that marine calcifying organisms, for example corals, coralline algae, molluscs and foraminifera, will have difficulties producing their skeletons and shells at current rates6, 7, with potentially severe implications for marine ecosystems, including coral reefs6, 8, 9, 10, 11. Here we report a seven-week experiment exploring the effects of ocean acidification on crustose coralline algae, a cosmopolitan group of calcifying algae that is ecologically important in most shallow-water habitats12, 13, 14. Six outdoor mesocosms were continuously supplied with sea water from the adjacent reef and manipulated to simulate conditions of either ambient or elevated seawater carbon dioxide concentrations. The recruitment rate and growth of crustose coralline algae were severely inhibited in the elevated carbon dioxide mesocosms. Our findings suggest that ocean acidification due to human activities could cause significant change to benthic community structure in shallow-warm-water carbonate ecosystems.

  1. New bromotriterpene polyethers from the Indian alga Chondria armata

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Ciavatta, M.L.; Wahidullah, S.; De; Scognamiglio, G.; Cimino, G.

    Six new bromotriterpene polyethers, armatol A-F (1-6), with a rearranged carbon skeleton, were isolated from the Indian Ocean red alga Chondria armata. The structures were characterized by spectroscopic techniques, in particular 1D- and 2D-NMR...

  2. Meteorological effects on variation of airborne algae in Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosas, Irma; Roy-Ocotla, Guadalupe; Mosiño, Pedro

    1989-09-01

    Sixteen species of algae were collected from 73.8 m3 of air. Eleven were obtained in Minatitlán and eleven in México City. The data show that similar diversity occurred between the two localities, in spite of the difference in altitude. This suggests that cosmopolitan airborne microorganisms might have been released from different sources. Three major algal divisions (Chlorophyta, Cyanophyta and Chrysophyta) formed the airborne algal group. Also, a large concentration of 2220 algae m-3 was found near sea-level, while lower amounts were recorded at the high altitude of México City. The genera Scenedesmus, Chlorella and Chlorococcum dominated. Striking relationships were noted between the concentration of airborne green and blue-green algae, and meteorological conditions such as rain, vapour pressure, temperature and winds for different altitudes. In Minatitlán a linear relationship was established between concentration of algae and both vapour pressure (mbar) and temperature (° C), while in México City the wind (m s-1) was associated with variations in the algal count.

  3. [Phycobiliproteins of blue-green, red and cryptophytic algae].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stadnichuk, I N; Gusev, M V

    1979-04-01

    The present-day concepts on phycobiliproteins, the protein pigments of blue-green, red and cryptophyte algae are reviewed. The functions, distribution, localization, physico-chemical, spectral and immunochemical properties of phycobiliproteins are described. The properties of the polypeptide protein subunits and the composition and chemical structure of chromophores as well as their binding to the apoprotein molecules are discussed.

  4. Algas vene kirjanduse nädal / Raimu Hanson

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Hanson, Raimu, 1957-

    2008-01-01

    22. septembril algas Tartu Linnaraamatukogus vene kirjanduse nädal Inga Ivanova raamatu "Kadunud koerte saladus" esitlusega; 24. sept. toimub Igor Kotjuhi autoriõhtu; 26.-28. toimub Tartu Ülikoolis vene kirjandusele pühendatud rahvusvaheline teaduskonverents. Raamatukogust saab osta ka venekeelseid raamatuid

  5. Emulsion properties of algae soluble protein isolate from Tetraselmis sp.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schwenzfeier, A.; Helbig, A.; Wierenga, P.A.; Gruppen, H.

    2013-01-01

    To study possible applications of microalgae proteins in foods, a colourless, protein-rich fraction was isolated from Tetraselmis sp. In the present study the emulsion properties of this algae soluble protein isolate (ASPI) were investigated. Droplet size and droplet aggregation of ASPI stabilized o

  6. A New Bromophenol from the Brown Alga Leathesia nana

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xiu Li XU; Xiao FAN; Fu Hang SONG; Jie Lu ZHAO; Li Jun HAN; Jian Gong SHI

    2004-01-01

    A novel bromophenol was isolated from ethanolic extract of the brown alga Leathesia nana S.et G. The structure was elucidated as (E)-3-(2,3-dibromo-4,5-dihydroxyphenyl)-2-methyl- propenal by spectroscopic methods including IR, HREIMS, 1D and 2D NMR techniques.

  7. Study of ecotoxicity of silver nanoparticles using algae

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kustov, L. M.; Abramenko, N. B.

    2016-11-01

    Silver nanoparticles have been prepared and tested for their ecotoxicity using Chlorella vulgaris Beijer. algae as a hydrobiotic test organism and a photometric method of control. The toxicity was supposed to originate from Ag+ ions released into the aqueous solution. Also, the toxicity of the stabilizing agent was found to be comparable to that of silver nanoparticles.

  8. Controlled artificial upwelling in a fjord to combat toxic algae

    Science.gov (United States)

    McClimans, T. A.; Hansen, A. H.; Fredheim, A.; Lien, E.; Reitan, K. I.

    2003-04-01

    During the summer, primary production in the surface layers of some fjords depletes the nutrients to the degree that some arts of toxic algae dominate the flora. We describe an experiment employing a bubble curtain to lift significant amounts of nutrient-rich seawater to the light zone and provide an environment in which useful algae can survive. The motivation for the experiment is to provide a local region in which mussels can be cleansed from the effects of toxic algae. Three 100-m long, perforated pipes were suspended at 40 m depth in the Arnafjord, a side arm of the Sognefjord. Large amounts of compressed air were supplied during a period of three weeks. The deeper water mixed with the surface water and flowed from the mixing region at 5 to 15 m depth. Within a few days, the mixture of nutrient-rich water covered most of the inner portion of Arnafjord. Within 10 days, the plankton samples showed that the artificial upwelling produced the desired type of algae and excluded the toxic blooms that were occurring outside the manipulated fjord arm. The project (DETOX) is supported by the Norwegian ministries of Fisheries, Agriculture and Public Administration.

  9. A review of heavy metal adsorption by marine algae

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Jin-Fen; Lin, Rong-Gen; Ma, Li

    2000-09-01

    Accumulation of heavy metals by algae had been studied extensively for biomonitoring or bioremediation purposes. Having the advantages of low cost raw material, big adsorbing capacity, no secondary pollution, etc., algae may be used to treat industrial water containing heavy metals. The adsorption processes were carried out in two steps: rapid physical adsorption first, and then slow chemical adsorption. pH is the major factor influencing the adsorption. The Freundlich equation fitted very well the adsorption isotherms. The uptake decreased with increasing ionic strength. The principal mechanism of metallic cation sequestration involves the formation of complexes between a metal ion and functional groups on the surface or inside the porous structure of the biological material. The carboxyl groups of alginate play a major role in the complexation. Different species of algae and the algae of the same species may have different adsorption capacity. Their selection affinity for heavy metals was the major criterion for the screening of a biologic adsorbent to be used in water treatment. The surface complex formation model (SCFM) can solve the equilibrium and kinetic problems in the biosorption.

  10. Ecological assessments with algae: a review and synthesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stevenson, Jan

    2014-06-01

    Algae have been used for a century in environmental assessments of water bodies and are now used in countries around the world. This review synthesizes recent advances in the field around a framework for environmental assessment and management that can guide design of assessments, applications of phycology in assessments, and refinements of those applications to better support management decisions. Algae are critical parts of aquatic ecosystems that power food webs and biogeochemical cycling. Algae are also major sources of problems that threaten many ecosystems goods and services when abundances of nuisance and toxic taxa are high. Thus, algae can be used to indicate ecosystem goods and services, which complements how algal indicators are also used to assess levels of contaminants and habitat alterations (stressors). Understanding environmental managers' use of algal ecology, taxonomy, and physiology can guide our research and improve its application. Environmental assessments involve characterizing ecological condition and diagnosing causes and threats to ecosystems goods and services. Recent advances in characterizing condition include site-specific models that account for natural variability among habitats to better estimate effects of humans. Relationships between algal assemblages and stressors caused by humans help diagnose stressors and establish targets for protection and restoration. Many algal responses to stressors have thresholds that are particularly important for developing stakeholder consensus for stressor management targets. Future research on the regional-scale resilience of algal assemblages, the ecosystem goods and services they provide, and methods for monitoring and forecasting change will improve water resource management.

  11. La ciudad como ecosistema urbano

    OpenAIRE

    Higueras García, Esther

    2013-01-01

    LA CIUDAD COMO ECOSISTEMA URBANO .- La ecología y los ecosistemas .- El ecosistema urbano, definición, alcance y oportunidad .- El metabolismo urbano .- Los síntomas de la patología urbana .- Los objetivos del nuevo ecosistema urbano .- Las aportaciones de los ecobarrios

  12. River export of nutrients to the coastal waters of China: the MARINA model to assess sources, effects and solutions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Strokal, Maryna

    2016-01-01

    Rivers export increasing amounts of nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P) to the coastal waters of China. This causes eutrophication problems that can damage living organisms when oxygen levels drop and threaten human health through toxic algae. We know that these problems result from human activities on

  13. Consumers' risk elimination in fuel supply chain. The Attica's Marinas yacht fuelling case study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liapis, Nikolaos [ELINOIL-HELLENIC PETROLEUM COMPANY, S.A., Kifisia (Greece); Zannikos, Fanourios [National Technical Univ. of Athens (Greece). Lab. of Fuels Technology and Lubricants

    2013-06-01

    Oil products distribution system is a complicated supply chain and includes a lot of uncertainties. A limited but quite interesting part of this system is yachting supply in marinas. Yachts usually are equipped with high efficiency and big horsepower modem engines; sea travelling is risky itself so fuel quality contributes significant in safety; many of the yachts are chartered for hired cruises and so operators have the right to purchase tax-free marine diesel, which creates conditions for smuggling and adulteration. All above create a great need for quality control in these fuels, as Greek oil companies do not apply at the moment Total Quality Management (TQM) for securing both quality specifications and quantity paid by the end user. In this research project the Laboratory of Fuel Technology and Lubricants of NTUA collected samples and analysed fuels delivered by tank trucks to yachts in six marinas in the district of Attica. These fuels were marketed by ELINOIL SA, a medium size oil distribution company, operating in Greece. ELINOIL has a market share of 6% of the Greek fuel market but is a market leader in yachting supply in Attica, having more than 50% of the specific market. Problems concerning fuel quality were analysed, direct or indirect causes were tracked, recorded and analysed, always in comparison with data from other Quality Control procedures applied from the company. A specially developed database was updated with facts and figures from incidents and quality issues covering this activity of the company during this period. The project, as it was targeted, detected the quality problems of the specific supply chain and ended to suggestions concerning the building of Quality Assurance System in yachting fuel supply. (orig.)

  14. Molecular mechanisms that underlie the sexual stimulant actions of Avicennia marina (Forssk.) Vierh. and Crocus sativus L.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Rehaily, Adnan Jathlan; Alhowiriny, Tawfeq Abdullah; El-Tahir, Kamal Eh; Al-Taweel, Areej Mohammad; Perveen, Shagufta

    2015-01-01

    The effects of extracts and sub-fractions of Avicennia marina, Crocus sativus and sildenafil on the sexual behavior of male rats and their effects on the intracavernosal pressure (I.CV), intracavernosal cyclic GMP and dihydrotestosterone plasma level were examined. The sexual behavior was followed for four hours using infra-red video cameras to quantify the effects on various male sexual behaviors. The results revealed that the active sub-fraction in case of A. marina was the hexane fraction of the chloroform extracts (C/H) whereas that of C. sativus was the hexane fraction of the alcoholic extract (A/H). (C/H), (A/H) and sildenafil significantly increased the total sexual stimulation index from 53.8±2.7 (control) to 406±7.8, 225±4 and 401±30.1, respectively (P<0.001, N=6). They significantly increased the index of successful mounting and ejaculation from 2.6±0.5 (control) to 40±2.7, 21±2.3 and 18±1.7, respectively (P<0.01, N=6). They significantly increased the cyclic GMP level from 0.94±0.07 (control) to 3.1±0.13, 1.59±0.11 and 3.66±0.19 ng/mg wet tissue, respectively (P<0.05, N=7). They did not affect dihydrotestosterone plasma level. (C/H), (A/H) and sildenafil increased the (I.CV) pressure by 4.8±0.3, 1.4±0.8 and 4.2±0.9 mmHg. The (C/H) seemed to be more active than sildenafil and twice active than (A/H). Both extracts and sildenafil acted via an increase in cyclic GMP.

  15. Aerobic scope and cardiovascular oxygen transport is not compromised at high temperatures in the toad Rhinella marina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Overgaard, Johannes; Andersen, Jonas L; Findsen, Anders; Pedersen, Pil B M; Hansen, Kasper; Ozolina, Karlina; Wang, Tobias

    2012-10-15

    Numerous recent studies convincingly correlate the upper thermal tolerance limit of aquatic ectothermic animals to reduced aerobic scope, and ascribe the decline in aerobic scope to failure of the cardiovascular system at high temperatures. In the present study we investigate whether this 'aerobic scope model' applies to an air-breathing and semi-terrestrial vertebrate Rhinella marina (formerly Bufo marinus). To quantify aerobic scope, we measured resting and maximal rate of oxygen consumption at temperatures ranging from 10 to 40°C. To include potential effects of acclimation, three groups of toads were acclimated chronically at 20, 25 and 30°C, respectively. The absolute difference between resting and maximal rate of oxygen consumption increased progressively with temperature and there was no significant decrease in aerobic scope, even at temperature immediately below the lethal limit (41-42°C). Haematological and cardiorespiratory variables were measured at rest and immediately after maximal activity at benign (30°C) and critically high (40°C) temperatures. Within this temperature interval, both resting and active heart rate increased, and there was no indication of respiratory failure, judged from high arterial oxygen saturation, P(O2) and [Hb(O2)]. With the exception of elevated resting metabolic rate for cold-acclimated toads, we found few differences in the thermal responses between acclimation groups with regard to the cardiometabolic parameters. In conclusion, we found no evidence for temperature-induced cardiorespiratory failure in R. marina, indicating that maintenance of aerobic scope and oxygen transport is unrelated to the upper thermal limit of this air-breathing semi-terrestrial vertebrate.

  16. Population genetic structure of eelgrass (Zostera marina) on the Korean coast: Current status and conservation implications for future management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jae Hwan; Kang, Ji Hyoun; Jang, Ji Eun; Choi, Sun Kyeong; Kim, Min Ji; Park, Sang Rul; Lee, Hyuk Je

    2017-01-01

    Seagrasses provide numerous ecosystem services for coastal and estuarine environments, such as nursery functions, erosion protection, pollution filtration, and carbon sequestration. Zostera marina (common name “eelgrass”) is one of the seagrass bed-forming species distributed widely in the northern hemisphere, including the Korean Peninsula. Recently, however, there has been a drastic decline in the population size of Z. marina worldwide, including Korea. We examined the current population genetic status of this species on the southern coast of Korea by estimating the levels of genetic diversity and genetic structure of 10 geographic populations using eight nuclear microsatellite markers. The level of genetic diversity was found to be significantly lower for populations on Jeju Island [mean allelic richness (AR) = 1.92, clonal diversity (R) = 0.51], which is located approximately 155 km off the southernmost region of the Korean Peninsula, than for those in the South Sea (mean AR = 2.69, R = 0.82), which is on the southern coast of the mainland. South Korean eelgrass populations were substantially genetically divergent from one another (FST = 0.061–0.573), suggesting that limited contemporary gene flow has been taking place among populations. We also found weak but detectable temporal variation in genetic structure within a site over 10 years. In additional depth comparisons, statistically significant genetic differentiation was observed between shallow (or middle) and deep zones in two of three sites tested. Depleted genetic diversity, small effective population sizes (Ne) and limited connectivity for populations on Jeju Island indicate that these populations may be vulnerable to local extinction under changing environmental conditions, especially given that Jeju Island is one of the fastest warming regions around the world. Overall, our work will inform conservation and restoration efforts, including transplantation for eelgrass populations at the southern

  17. Patterns of Genetic Variability in Island Populations of the Cane Toad (Rhinella marina) from the Mouth of the Amazon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bessa-Silva, Adam Rick; Vallinoto, Marcelo; Sodré, Davidson; da Cunha, Divino Bruno; Hadad, Dante; Asp, Nils Edvin; Sampaio, Iracilda; Schneider, Horacio; Sequeira, Fernando

    2016-01-01

    The Amazonian coast has several unique geological characteristics resulting from the interaction between drainage pattern of the Amazon River and the Atlantic Ocean. It is one of the most extensive and sedimentologically dynamic regions of the world, with a large number of continental islands mostly formed less than 10,000 years ago. The natural distribution of the cane toad (Rhinella marina), one of the world’s most successful invasive species, in this complex Amazonian system provides an intriguing model for the investigation of the effects of isolation or the combined effects of isolation and habitat dynamic changes on patterns of genetic variability and population differentiation. We used nine fast-evolving microsatellite loci to contrast patterns of genetic variability in six coastal (three mainlands and three islands) populations of the cane toad near the mouth of the Amazon River. Results from Bayesian multilocus clustering approach and Discriminant Analyses of Principal Component were congruent in showing that each island population was genetically differentiated from the mainland populations. All FST values obtained from all pairwise comparisons were significant, ranging from 0.048 to 0.186. Estimates of both recent and historical gene flow were not significantly different from zero across all population pairs, except the two mainland populations inhabiting continuous habitats. Patterns of population differentiation, with a high level of population substructure and absence/restricted gene flow, suggested that island populations of R. marina are likely isolated since the Holocene sea-level rise. However, considering the similar levels of genetic variability found in both island and mainland populations, it is reliable to assume that they were also isolated for longer periods. Given the genetic uniqueness of each cane toad population, together with the high natural vulnerability of the coastal regions and intense human pressures, we suggest that these

  18. FACILITIES PLANNING WORKSHOP FOR BLASTING SUPPORT THE ACTIVITY OF DEVELOPMENT AND REPAIR SHIP IN PT. JASA MARINA INDAH UNIT II

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samuel Samuel

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Blasting in the process of planning the workshop production of new building and ship repair to play a role in providing blasting and paint on the block that will be of erection. As a result of blasting workshop facilities that do not have resulted in low production capacity that can be achieved by this workshop, namely three block ships per month. Capacity blasting and paint shop in this low resulted in low productivity process stage (stage the previous workshops which of course result in a decrease in vessel productivity in general.                 In penelitiaan aims to plan for blasting and paint shop facility which has been adjusted to the planned production capacity of PT. JASA MARINA INDAH II units.                 In this study it - thing to note is to understand the data - the data field for research conducted in terms of both technical and economic terms, with the blasting and paint shop facilities on the construction or repair of ships that have been planned, then the effectiveness of the work and production flow at. Jasa Marina Indah II units can be known.                 Based on the analysis and calculation of both technical and economical it can be identified by the workshop on the process of blasting Blasting efficiency is obtained for 2.55 hours, at 10.16 hours during the painting process, while economical in terms of labor costs can be reduced blasting cost is Rp.930000    for          paint       and         Rp.1.23million

  19. The MARINA Risk Assessment Strategy: A Flexible Strategy for Efficient Information Collection and Risk Assessment of Nanomaterials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter M. J. Bos

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available An engineered nanomaterial (ENM may actually consist of a population of primary particles, aggregates and agglomerates of various sizes. Furthermore, their physico-chemical characteristics may change during the various life-cycle stages. It will probably not be feasible to test all varieties of all ENMs for possible health and environmental risks. There is therefore a need to further develop the approaches for risk assessment of ENMs. Within the EU FP7 project Managing Risks of Nanoparticles (MARINA a two-phase risk assessment strategy has been developed. In Phase 1 (Problem framing a base set of information is considered, relevant exposure scenarios (RESs are identified and the scope for Phase 2 (Risk assessment is established. The relevance of an RES is indicated by information on exposure, fate/kinetics and/or hazard; these three domains are included as separate pillars that contain specific tools. Phase 2 consists of an iterative process of risk characterization, identification of data needs and integrated collection and evaluation of data on the three domains, until sufficient information is obtained to conclude on possible risks in a RES. Only data are generated that are considered to be needed for the purpose of risk assessment. A fourth pillar, risk characterization, is defined and it contains risk assessment tools. This strategy describes a flexible and efficient approach for data collection and risk assessment which is essential to ensure safety of ENMs. Further developments are needed to provide guidance and make the MARINA Risk Assessment Strategy operational. Case studies will be needed to refine the strategy.

  20. Effects of Hydrogen Sulfide (H2S) on Z. marina seedlings, seed germination and shoot density from 2013-01-16 to 2015-09-11 (NCEI Accession 0156588)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Multiple experiments were conducted to determine the effects hydrogen sulfide had on seedlings and seed germination in the seagrass Zostera marina. One study...