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  1. Cytotoxic, Virucidal, and Antiviral Activity of South American Plant and Algae Extracts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paula Faral-Tello

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1 infection has a prevalence of 70% in the human population. Treatment is based on acyclovir, valacyclovir, and foscarnet, three drugs that share the same mechanism of action and of which resistant strains have been isolated from patients. In this aspect, innovative drug therapies are required. Natural products offer unlimited opportunities for the discovery of antiviral compounds. In this study, 28 extracts corresponding to 24 plant species and 4 alga species were assayed in vitro to detect antiviral activity against HSV-1. Six of the methanolic extracts inactivated viral particles by direct interaction and 14 presented antiviral activity when incubated with cells already infected. Most interesting antiviral activity values obtained are those of Limonium brasiliense, Psidium guajava, and Phyllanthus niruri, which inhibit HSV-1 replication in vitro with 50% effective concentration (EC50 values of 185, 118, and 60 μg/mL, respectively. For these extracts toxicity values were calculated and therefore selectivity indexes (SI obtained. Further characterization of the bioactive components of antiviral plants will pave the way for the discovery of new compounds against HSV-1.

  2. DGDG and Glycolipids in Plants and Algae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalisch, Barbara; Dörmann, Peter; Hölzl, Georg

    2016-01-01

    Photosynthetic organelles in plants and algae are characterized by the high abundance of glycolipids, including the galactolipids mono- and digalactosyldiacylglycerol (MGDG, DGDG) and the sulfolipid sulfoquinovosyldiacylglycerol (SQDG). Glycolipids are crucial to maintain an optimal efficiency of photosynthesis. During phosphate limitation, the amounts of DGDG and SQDG increase in the plastids of plants, and DGDG is exported to extraplastidial membranes to replace phospholipids. Algae often use betaine lipids as surrogate for phospholipids. Glucuronosyldiacylglycerol (GlcADG) is a further glycolipid that accumulates under phosphate deprived conditions. In contrast to plants, a number of eukaryotic algae contain very long chain polyunsaturated fatty acids of 20 or more carbon atoms in their glycolipids. The pathways and genes for galactolipid and sulfolipid synthesis are largely conserved between plants, Chlorophyta, Rhodophyta and algae with complex plastids derived from secondary or tertiary endosymbiosis. However, the relative contribution of the endoplasmic reticulum- and plastid-derived lipid pathways for glycolipid synthesis varies between plants and algae. The genes for glycolipid synthesis encode precursor proteins imported into the photosynthetic organelles. While most eukaryotic algae contain the plant-like galactolipid (MGD1, DGD1) and sulfolipid (SQD1, SQD2) synthases, the red alga Cyanidioschyzon harbors a cyanobacterium-type DGDG synthase (DgdA), and the amoeba Paulinella, derived from a more recent endosymbiosis event, contains cyanobacterium-type enzymes for MGDG and DGDG synthesis (MgdA, MgdE, DgdA).

  3. Serpins in plants and green algae

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Roberts, Thomas Hugh; Hejgaard, Jørn

    2008-01-01

    . Serpins have been found in diverse species of the plant kingdom and represent a distinct clade among serpins in multicellular organisms. Serpins are also found in green algae, but the evolutionary relationship between these serpins and those of plants remains unknown. Plant serpins are potent inhibitors...... of mammalian serine proteinases of the chymotrypsin family in vitro but, intriguingly, plants and green algae lack endogenous members of this proteinase family, the most common targets for animal serpins. An Arabidopsis serpin with a conserved reactive centre is now known to be capable of inhibiting...

  4. Introduced aquatic plants and algae

    Science.gov (United States)

    Non-native aquatic plants such as waterhyacinth and hydrilla severely impair the uses of aquatic resources including recreational faculties (lakes, reservoirs, rivers) as well as timely delivery of irrigation water for agriculture. Costs associated with impacts and management of all types of aquatic...

  5. Antibody Production in Plants and Green Algae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yusibov, Vidadi; Kushnir, Natasha; Streatfield, Stephen J

    2016-04-29

    Monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) have a wide range of modern applications, including research, diagnostic, therapeutic, and industrial uses. Market demand for mAbs is high and continues to grow. Although mammalian systems, which currently dominate the biomanufacturing industry, produce effective and safe recombinant mAbs, they have a limited manufacturing capacity and high costs. Bacteria, yeast, and insect cell systems are highly scalable and cost effective but vary in their ability to produce appropriate posttranslationally modified mAbs. Plants and green algae are emerging as promising production platforms because of their time and cost efficiencies, scalability, lack of mammalian pathogens, and eukaryotic posttranslational protein modification machinery. So far, plant- and algae-derived mAbs have been produced predominantly as candidate therapeutics for infectious diseases and cancer. These candidates have been extensively evaluated in animal models, and some have shown efficacy in clinical trials. Here, we review ongoing efforts to advance the production of mAbs in plants and algae. PMID:26905655

  6. The ice nucleation activity of extremophilic algae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kviderova, Jana; Hajek, Josef; Worland, Roger M

    2013-01-01

    Differences in the level of cold acclimation and cryoprotection estimated as ice nucleation activity in snow algae (Chlamydomonas cf. nivalis and Chloromonas nivalis), lichen symbiotic algae (Trebouxia asymmetrica, Trebouxia erici and Trebouxia glomerata), and a mesophilic strain (Chlamydomonas reinhardti) were evaluated. Ice nucleation activity was measured using the freezing droplet method. Measurements were performed using suspensions of cells of A750 (absorbance at 750 nm) ~ 1, 0.1, 0.01 and 0.001 dilutions for each strain. The algae had lower ice nucleation activity, with the exception of Chloromonas nivalis contaminated by bacteria. The supercooling points of the snow algae were higher than those of lichen photobionts. The supercooling points of both, mesophilic and snow Chlamydomonas strains were similar. The lower freezing temperatures of the lichen algae may reflect either the more extreme and more variable environmental conditions of the original localities or the different cellular structure of the strains examined. PMID:23625082

  7. Antioxidant Activity of Hawaiian Marine Algae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anthony D. Wright

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Marine algae are known to contain a wide variety of bioactive compounds, many of which have commercial applications in pharmaceutical, medical, cosmetic, nutraceutical, food and agricultural industries. Natural antioxidants, found in many algae, are important bioactive compounds that play an important role against various diseases and ageing processes through protection of cells from oxidative damage. In this respect, relatively little is known about the bioactivity of Hawaiian algae that could be a potential natural source of such antioxidants. The total antioxidant activity of organic extracts of 37 algal samples, comprising of 30 species of Hawaiian algae from 27 different genera was determined. The activity was determined by employing the FRAP (Ferric Reducing Antioxidant Power assays. Of the algae tested, the extract of Turbinaria ornata was found to be the most active. Bioassay-guided fractionation of this extract led to the isolation of a variety of different carotenoids as the active principles. The major bioactive antioxidant compound was identified as the carotenoid fucoxanthin. These results show, for the first time, that numerous Hawaiian algae exhibit significant antioxidant activity, a property that could lead to their application in one of many useful healthcare or related products as well as in chemoprevention of a variety of diseases including cancer.

  8. Algae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raven, John A; Giordano, Mario

    2014-07-01

    Algae frequently get a bad press. Pond slime is a problem in garden pools, algal blooms can produce toxins that incapacitate or kill animals and humans and even the term seaweed is pejorative - a weed being a plant growing in what humans consider to be the wrong place. Positive aspects of algae are generally less newsworthy - they are the basis of marine food webs, supporting fisheries and charismatic marine megafauna from albatrosses to whales, as well as consuming carbon dioxide and producing oxygen. Here we consider what algae are, their diversity in terms of evolutionary origin, size, shape and life cycles, and their role in the natural environment and in human affairs. PMID:25004359

  9. Antihyperglycemic effect of crude extracts of some Egyptian plants and algae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    AbouZid, Sameh Fekry; Ahmed, Osama Mohamed; Ahmed, Rasha Rashad; Mahmoud, Ayman; Abdella, Ehab; Ashour, Mohamed Badr

    2014-03-01

    Diabetes mellitus is a major global health problem. Various plant extracts have proven antidiabetic activity and are considered as promising substitution for antidiabetic drugs. The antihyperglycemic effect of 16 plants and 4 algae, commonly used in Egypt for the treatment of diabetes mellitus, was investigated. A diabetes model was induced by intraperitoneal injection of nicotinamide (120 mg/kg body weight [b.wt.]), then streptozotocin (200 mg/kg b.wt.) after 15 min. Hydroethanolic extracts (80%) of the plants and algae under investigation were prepared. The extracts were orally administered to nicotinamide-streptozotocin-induced diabetic mice by a gastric tube at doses 10 or 50 mg/kg b.wt. for 1 week. The antidiabetic activity was assessed by detection of serum glucose concentrations at the fasting state and after 2 h of oral glucose loading (4.2 mg/kg b.wt.). Extracts prepared from Cassia acutifolia, Fraxinus ornus, Salix aegyptiaca, Cichorium intybus, and Eucalyptus globulus showed the highest antihyperglycemic activity among the tested plants. Extracts prepared from Sonchus oleraceus, Bougainvillea spectabilis (leaves), Plantago psyllium (seeds), Morus nigra (leaves), and Serena repens (fruits) were found to have antihyperglycemic potentials. Extracts prepared from Caulerpa lentillifera and Spirulina versicolor showed the most potent antihyperglycemic activity among the tested algae. However, some of the tested plants have insulinotropic effects, all assessed algae have not. Identification of lead compounds from these plants and algae for novel antidiabetic drug development is recommended. PMID:24404976

  10. Preliminary Study of Cytotoxic and Antimicrobial Activities of Algae from South Sulawesi Waters

    OpenAIRE

    Zainuddin, Elmi Nurhaidah

    2013-01-01

    This presentation will cover recent progress from our laboratory into South Sulawesi marine algae and their microbial symbionts, as a source of cytotoxic and antimicrobial compounds. Preliminary data on the activities of algae extracts against human, aquaculture organism and plant pathogens will be presented along with the identification and characterization of microbial symbionts and pathogens.

  11. Bioremoval of toxic elements with aquatic plants and algae

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, T.C.; Ramesh, G. [Harbor Branch Oceanographic Inst., Fort Pierce, FL (United States); Weissman, J.C.; Varadarajan, R. [Microbial Products, Inc., Vero Beach, FL (United States); Benemann, J.R.

    1995-12-31

    Aquatic plants were screened to evaluate their ability to adsorb dissolved metals. The plants screened included those that are naturally immobilized (attached algae and rooted plants) and those that could be easily separated from suspension (filamentous microalgae, macroalgae, and floating plants). Two plants were observed to have high adsorption capabilities for cadmium (Cd) and zinc (Zn) removal: one blue green filamentous alga of the genus Phormidium and one aquatic rooted plant, water milfoil (Myriophyllum spicatum). These plants could also reduce the residual metal concentration to 0.1 mg/L or less. Both plants also exhibited high specific adsorption for other metals (Pb, Ni, and Cu) both individually and in combination. Metal concentrations were analyzed with an atomic absorption spectrophotometer (AAS).

  12. The Occurrence of Hormesis in Plants and Algae

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cedergreen, Nina; Streibig, Jens C; Kudsk, Per;

    2007-01-01

    This paper evaluated the frequency, magnitude and dose/concentration range of hormesis in four species: The aquatic plant Lemna minor, the micro-alga Pseudokirchneriella subcapitata and the two terrestrial plants Tripleurospermum inodorum and Stellaria media exposed to nine herbicides and one...

  13. Biosynthesis of Triacylglycerols (TAGs in plants and algae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandro Cagliari

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Triacylglycerols (TAGs, which consist of three fatty acids bound to a glycerol backbone, are major storage lipids that accumulate in developing seeds, flower petals, pollen grains, and fruits of innumerous plant species. These storage lipids are of great nutritional and nutraceutical value and, thus, are a common source of edible oils for human consumption and industrial purposes. Two metabolic pathways for the production of TAGs have been clarified: an acyl¬ CoA-dependent pathway and an acyl-CoA-independent pathway. Lipid metabolism, specially the pathways to fatty acids and TAG biosynthesis, is relatively well understood in plants, but poorly known in algae. It is generally accepted that the basic pathways of fatty acid and TAG biosynthesis in algae are analogous to those of higher plants. However, unlike higher plants where individual classes of lipids may be synthesized and localized in a specific cell, tissue or organ, the complete pathway, from carbon dioxide fixation to TAG synthesis and sequestration, takes place within a single algal cell. Another distinguishing feature of some algae is the large amounts of very long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (VLC- PUFAs as major fatty acid components. Nowadays, the focus of attention in biotechnology is the isolation of novel fatty acid metabolizing genes, especially elongases and desaturases that are responsible for PUFAs synthesis, from different species of algae, and its transfer to plants. The aim is to boost the seed oil content and to generate desirable fatty acids in oilseed crops through genetic engineering approaches. This paper presents the current knowledge of the neutral storage lipids in plants and algae from fatty acid biosynthesis to TAG accumulation.

  14. Bromophenols from Marine Algae with Potential Anti-Diabetic Activities

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIN Xiukun; LIU Ming

    2012-01-01

    Marine algae contain various bromophenols with a variety of biological activities,including antimicrobial,anticancer,and anti-diabetic effects.Here,we briefly review the recent progress in researches on the biomaterials from marine algae,emphasizing the relationship between the structure and the potential anti-diabetic applications.Bromophenols from marine algae display their hyperglycemic effects by inhibiting the activities of protein tyrosine phosphatase 1B,α-glucosidase,as well as other mechanisms.

  15. Ecotoxicological effects of carbon nanomaterials on algae, fungi and plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basiuk, Elena V; Ochoa-Olmos, Omar E; De la Mora-Estrada, León F

    2011-04-01

    The ecotoxicological effects of carbon nanomateriales (CNMs), namely fullerenes and carbon nanotubes, on algae, fungi and plants are analyzed. In different toxicity tests, both direct and indirect effects were found. The direct effects are determined by nanomaterial chemical composition and surface reactivity, which might catalyze redox reactions in contact with organic molecules and affect respiratory processes. Some indirect effects of carbon nanoparticles (CNPs) are physical restraints or release of toxic ions. Accumulation of CNPs in photosynthetic organs provokes obstruction in stomata, foliar heating and alteration in physiological processes. The phytotoxicity studies of CNMs should be focused on determining phytotoxicity mechanisms, size distribution of CNPs in solution, uptake and translocation of nanoparticles by plants, on characterization of their physical and chemical properties in rhizosphere and on root surfaces. More studies on plants and algae, as a part of food chain, are needed to understand profoundly the toxicity and health risks of CNMs as ecotoxicological stressors. Correct and detailed physical and chemical characterization of CNMs is very important to establish the exposure conditions matching the realistic ones. Ecotoxicity experiments should include examinations of both short and long-term effects. One must take into account that real carbon nanomaterials are complex mixtures of carbon forms and metal residues of variable chemistry and particle size, and the toxicity reported may reflect these byproducts/residues/impurities rather than the primary material structure. One more recommendation is not only to focus on the inherent toxicity of nanoparticles, but also consider their possible interactions with existing environmental contaminants.

  16. Alkaloids in Marine Algae

    OpenAIRE

    Ekrem Sezik; Aline Percot; Kasım Cemal Güven

    2010-01-01

    This paper presents the alkaloids found in green, brown and red marine algae. Algal chemistry has interested many researchers in order to develop new drugs, as algae include compounds with functional groups which are characteristic from this particular source. Among these compounds, alkaloids present special interest because of their pharmacological activities. Alkaloid chemistry has been widely studied in terrestrial plants, but the number of studies in algae is insignificant. In this review...

  17. Effect of Rice Plants on Nitrogenase Activity of Flooded Soils

    OpenAIRE

    Habte, Mitiku; Alexander, Martin

    1980-01-01

    In samples of flooded soil containing blue-green algae (cyanobacteria), the presence of rice plants did not influence the nitrogenase activity of the algae. Nitrogenase activity of heterotrophic bacteria was enhanced by the presence of rice plants, but this activity was not affected by changes in plant density. The rate of nitrogen fixation in the rhizosphere, however, varied significantly among the 16 rice varieties tested. A simple method was devised to test the nitrogen-fixing activity in ...

  18. Method and apparatus using an active ionic liquid for algae biofuel harvest and extraction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salvo, Roberto Di; Reich, Alton; Dykes, Jr., H. Waite H.; Teixeira, Rodrigo

    2012-11-06

    The invention relates to use of an active ionic liquid to dissolve algae cell walls. The ionic liquid is used to, in an energy efficient manner, dissolve and/or lyse an algae cell walls, which releases algae constituents used in the creation of energy, fuel, and/or cosmetic components. The ionic liquids include ionic salts having multiple charge centers, low, very low, and ultra low melting point ionic liquids, and combinations of ionic liquids. An algae treatment system is described, which processes wet algae in a lysing reactor, separates out algae constituent products, and optionally recovers the ionic liquid in an energy efficient manner.

  19. Use of prolines for improving growth and other properties of plants and algae

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Unkefer, Pat J. (Los Alamos, NM); Knight, Thomas J. (Portland, ME); Martinez, Rodolfo A. (Santa Fe, NM)

    2004-12-14

    Increasing the concentration of prolines, such as 2-hydroxy-5-oxoproline, in the foliar portions of plants has been shown to cause an increase in carbon dioxide fixation, growth rate, dry weight, nutritional value (amino acids), nodulation and nitrogen fixation, photosynthetically derived chemical energy, and resistance to insect pests over the same properties for wild type plants. This can be accomplished in four ways: (1) the application of a solution of the proline directly to the foliar portions of the plant by spraying these portions; (2) applying a solution of the proline to the plant roots; (3) genetically engineering the plant and screening to produce lines that over-express glutamine synthetase in the leaves which gives rise to increased concentration of the metabolite, 2-hydroxy-5-oxoproline (this proline is also known as 2-oxoglutaramate); and (4) impairing the glutamine synthetase activity in the plant roots which causes increased glutamine synthetase activity in the leaves which gives rise to increased concentration of 2-hydroxy-5-oxoproline. Prolines have also been found to induce similar effects in algae.

  20. Antischistosomal activity from Brazilian marine algae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erika M. Stein

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Schistosomiasis may be caused by six different species of the genus Schistosoma. Current treatment is based only on two drugs: oxamniquine, which is only effective against the Schistosoma mansoni species, and praziquantel, which is ineffective against young parasites. Therefore, research on new drugs and their targets for the treatment of this disease is urgently needed. In the present work, the efficacies of several seaweeds extracts against S. mansoni were tested. Worm couples were incubated with different concentration of seaweed extracts for 120 h and monitored after the first 2 h and then every 24 h to evaluate death, mobility reduction and couple detachment. The extracts of 13 different seaweed species were tested in a first trial and the active extracts were further evaluated in lower concentrations. The extracts of Gracilaria ornata and species belonging to the genera Dictyota and Laurencia showed activity at relatively low concentrations. The active extracts were analyzed by LC–MS, and possible candidates are proposed.

  1. Evidence for land plant cell wall biosynthetic mechanisms in charophyte green algae

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mikkelsen, Maria Dalgaard; Harholt, Jesper; Ulvskov, Peter;

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND AIMS: The charophyte green algae (CGA) are thought to be the closest living relatives to the land plants, and ancestral CGA were unique in giving rise to the land plant lineage. The cell wall has been suggested to be a defining structure that enabled the green algal ancestor......-cellulosic polysaccharides, such as xyloglucan, embedded in a matrix of pectic polysaccharides. How the land plant cell wall evolved is currently unknown: early-divergent chlorophyte and prasinophyte algae genomes contain a low number of glycosyl transferases (GTs), while land plants contain hundreds. The number of GTs...

  2. Neutron activation analysis of stable elements in marine algae

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The nuclear industry has grown during the last decades and continuing growth is predicted. Although considerable efforts are being made to minimize the release of the increasing amounts of radioactive wastes into marine environment, it is evident that the potential for radioactive contamination will continue to grow. The purposes of marine environment monitoring around nuclear facilities are to verify that they are functioning as it was designed and to detect the unplanned releases of radioactive contaminants. To provide a sufficient assessment with biological indicators of 60Co and 137Cs, most significant radionuclides in waste effluents released with nuclear power station, the concentration of stable elements in the Sargassum and other algae were surveyed with thermal neutron activation method. The results were followed: 1) The concentration of Mn, As, Zn, and Co were seem to be higher in the sargassum than in other algae. 2) The concentration of Co and Cs were higher in S. thunbergit than in other Sargassum. (author)

  3. Influence of foliar application of algae extract and amino acids mixture on fenugreek plants in sandy and clay soils

    OpenAIRE

    SHAHIRA A. TARRAF; Talaat, Iman M.; ABO EL-KHAIR B. EL-SAYED; LAILA K. BALBAA

    2015-01-01

    Abstract. Tarraf SA, Talaat IM, El-Sayed AEB, Balbaa LK. 2015. Influence of foliar application of algae extract and amino acids mixture on fenugreek plants in sandy and clay soils. Nusantara Bioscience 7: 33-37. Two pot experiments were conducted to study the effect of foliar application of algae extract and amino acids mixture on the growth and chemical constituents of fenugreek plants (Trigonella foenum-graecum L.). Plants were sprayed with different concentrations of algae extract (0.0, 2....

  4. Origin of land plants: Do conjugating green algae hold the key?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Melkonian Michael

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The terrestrial habitat was colonized by the ancestors of modern land plants about 500 to 470 million years ago. Today it is widely accepted that land plants (embryophytes evolved from streptophyte algae, also referred to as charophycean algae. The streptophyte algae are a paraphyletic group of green algae, ranging from unicellular flagellates to morphologically complex forms such as the stoneworts (Charales. For a better understanding of the evolution of land plants, it is of prime importance to identify the streptophyte algae that are the sister-group to the embryophytes. The Charales, the Coleochaetales or more recently the Zygnematales have been considered to be the sister group of the embryophytes However, despite many years of phylogenetic studies, this question has not been resolved and remains controversial. Results Here, we use a large data set of nuclear-encoded genes (129 proteins from 40 green plant taxa (Viridiplantae including 21 embryophytes and six streptophyte algae, representing all major streptophyte algal lineages, to investigate the phylogenetic relationships of streptophyte algae and embryophytes. Our phylogenetic analyses indicate that either the Zygnematales or a clade consisting of the Zygnematales and the Coleochaetales are the sister group to embryophytes. Conclusions Our analyses support the notion that the Charales are not the closest living relatives of embryophytes. Instead, the Zygnematales or a clade consisting of Zygnematales and Coleochaetales are most likely the sister group of embryophytes. Although this result is in agreement with a previously published phylogenetic study of chloroplast genomes, additional data are needed to confirm this conclusion. A Zygnematales/embryophyte sister group relationship has important implications for early land plant evolution. If substantiated, it should allow us to address important questions regarding the primary adaptations of viridiplants during the

  5. Environmental behaviour and ecotoxicity of engineered nanoparticles to algae, plants and fungi

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Navarro, E.; Baun, Anders; Behra, R.;

    2008-01-01

    for their aggregation behavior, and thus for their mobility in aquatic and terrestrial systems and for their interactions with algae, plants and, fungi. Interactions of ENPs with natural organic matter have to be considered as well, as those will alter the ENPs aggregation behavior in surface waters or in soils. Cells...... of plants, algae, and fungi possess cell walls that constitute a primary site for interaction and a barrier for the entrance of ENPs. Mechanisms allowing ENPs to pass through cell walls and membranes are as yet poorly understood. Inside cells, ENPs might directly provoke alterations of membranes and other...... the bioavailability of ENPs, their uptake by algae, plants, and fungi and the toxicity mechanisms remain to be elucidated...

  6. Alpha-amylase inhibitory activity and sterol composition of the marine algae, Sargassum glaucescens

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    Nasrin Payghami

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Sargassum species (phaeophyceae are economically important brown algae in southern parts of Iran. Sargassum is mainly harvested as a row material in alginate production industries and is a source of plant foods or plant bio-stimulants even a component of animal foods. Objective: In this study, Sargassum glaucescens, collected from the seashore of Chabahar, was employed for phytochemical and biological evaluations. Materials and Methods: For that purpose, the dried algae was extracted by methanol and subjected to different chromatographic separation methods. Results: Six sterols, fucosterol (1, 24(S-hydroxy-24-vinylcholesterol (2, 24(R-hydroxy-24-vinylcholesterol (3, stigmasterol (4, β-sitosterol (5 and cholesterol (6 were identified by spectroscopic methods including 1 H-NMR, 13 C-NMR and mass spectroscopy. In vitro alpha-amylase inhibitory test was performed on the methanolic extract and the results revealed a potent inhibition (IC 50 = 8.9 ± 2.4 mg/mL of the enzyme compared to acarbose as a positive control. Conclusion: Various biological activities and distribution of sterols in Sargassum genus have been critically reviewed here. The results concluded that these algae are a good candidate for further anti-diabetic investigations in animals and human.

  7. Metabolomic assessment of induced and activated chemical defence in the invasive red alga Gracilaria vermiculophylla.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nylund, Göran M; Weinberger, Florian; Rempt, Martin; Pohnert, Georg

    2011-01-01

    In comparison with terrestrial plants the mechanistic knowledge of chemical defences is poor for marine macroalgae. This restricts our understanding in the chemically mediated interactions that take place between algae and other organisms. Technical advances such as metabolomics, however, enable new approaches towards the characterisation of the chemically mediated interactions of organisms with their environment. We address defence responses in the red alga Gracilaria vermiculophylla using mass spectrometry based metabolomics in combination with bioassays. Being invasive in the north Atlantic this alga is likely to possess chemical defences according to the prediction that well-defended exotics are most likely to become successful invaders in systems dominated by generalist grazers, such as marine macroalgal communities. We investigated the effect of intense herbivore feeding and simulated herbivory by mechanical wounding of the algae. Both processes led to similar changes in the metabolic profile. Feeding experiments with the generalist isopod grazer Idotea baltica showed that mechanical wounding caused a significant increase in grazer resistance. Structure elucidation of the metabolites of which some were up-regulated more than 100 times in the wounded tissue, revealed known and novel eicosanoids as major components. Among these were prostaglandins, hydroxylated fatty acids and arachidonic acid derived conjugated lactones. Bioassays with pure metabolites showed that these eicosanoids are part of the innate defence system of macroalgae, similarly to animal systems. In accordance with an induced defence mechanism application of extracts from wounded tissue caused a significant increase in grazer resistance and the up-regulation of other pathways than in the activated defence. Thus, this study suggests that G. vermiculophylla chemically deters herbivory by two lines of defence, a rapid wound-activated process followed by a slower inducible defence. By unravelling

  8. Role of algae and higher aquatic plants in decontamination of cyanide-containing waters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cyanide compounds and especially free cyanides stand out among components of wastewaters of hydrometallurgy, electroforming, and other such enterprises with respect to toxicity and danger for man and fauna of water bodies. In this article data on a study of the regularities of decontamination of cyanide-containing wastewaters by hydrophytes are given, the mechanisms of this process are examined, and the results of testing the hydrobotanical method of treating wastewaters of a goldrecovery plant are examined. The experiments were carried out with hydrophytes from the Angara River, Lake Baikal, and small lakes and ponds in the vicinity of Irkutsk and Tashkent. The series of experiments established that algae and higher aquatic plants are resistant to cyanides. A table shows the kinetic parameters of the removal of cyanide by algae and higher aquatic plants collected in Baikal. Of the multitude of species investigated for detoxifying ability, the most resistant were detected in the experimental basins and the most suitable were charophytes

  9. Biosynthesis of open-chain tetrapyrroles in plants, algae, and cyanobacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beale, S I

    1994-01-01

    Phycobilins are open-chain tetrapyrroles of plants and algae which act as the chromophores of phycobiliproteins where they function as light energy-harvesting pigments. Phytochromobilin, another open-chain tetrapyrrole, is the chromophore of phytochrome, which functions as a light-sensing pigment in plant development. These open-chain tetrapyrroles are biosynthetically derived from protohaem. Enzyme reactions that convert protohaem to biliverdin IX alpha, and biliverdin IX alpha to phycocyanobilin, have been detected and characterized in extracts of the unicellular rhodophyte Cyanidium caldarium. Algal haem oxygenase and algal biliverdin-IX alpha reductase are both soluble enzymes that use electrons derived from reduced ferredoxin. Biochemical intermediates in the conversion of biliverdin IX alpha to (3E)-phycocyanobilin were identified as 15, 16-dihydrobiliverdin IX alpha, (3Z)-phycoerythrobilin and (3Z)-phycocyanobilin. Separate enzymes catalyse the two two-electron reduction steps in the conversion of biliverdin IX alpha to (3Z)-phycoerythrobilin. Z-to-E isomerization of the phycobilin ethylidine group is catalysed by an enzyme that requires glutathione for activity. Protein-bound phycoerythrobilin can be chemically converted to phytochromobilin which can then be released from the protein by methanolysis. This procedure was used to produce phytochromobilin in quantities sufficient to allow its chemical characterization and use in phytochrome reconstitution experiments. The results indicate that (2R,3E)-phytochromobilin spontaneously condenses with recombinant oat apophytochrome to form photoreversible holoprotein that is spectrally identical to native phytochrome.

  10. Bioactivity of marine organisms. Part 3. Screening of marine algae of Indian coast for biological activity

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Kamat, S.Y.; Wahidullah, S.; Naik, C.G.; DeSouza, L.; Jayasree, V.; Ambiye, V.; Bhakuni, D.S.; Goel, A.K.; Garg, H.S.; Srimal, R.C.

    Ethanolic extracts from Indian marine algae have been tested for anti-viral, anti-bacterial, anti-fungal, anti-fertility, hypoglycaemic and a wide range of pharmacological activities. Of 34 species investigated 17 appeared biologically active. Six...

  11. Cytotoxic activity of marine algae against cancerous cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Élica A. C. Guedes

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents an investigation on the cytotoxic activity in human tumor cell from dichloromethane, chloroform, methanol, ethanol, water extracts, and hexane and chloroform fractions from green, brown and red algae collected at Riacho Doce Beach, north coast of Alagoas, Brazil, against the cancer cells K562 (chronic myelocytic leukemia, HEp-2 (laryngeal epidermoid carcinoma and NCI-H292 (human lung mucoepidermoid carcinoma through the MTT colorimetric method. The dichloromethane extract and chloroform fraction of Hypnea musciformis showed the best cytotoxic activity against K562 (3.8±0.2 µg.mL-1 and 6.4±0.4 µg.mL-1, respectively. Dichloromethane extracts of Dictyota dichotoma (16.3±0.3 µg.mL-1 and the chloroform fraction of H. musciformis (6.0±0.03 µg.mL-1 and chloroform fraction of P. gymnospora (8.2±0.4 were more active against HEp-2 as well as ethanol extracts of P. gymnospora (15.9±2.8 µg.mL-1 and chloroform fraction of H. musciformis (15.0±1.3 µg.mL-1 against the cell NCI-H292. The constituents with higher anticancer action are present in the extracts of dichloromethane and chloroform and in the chloroform fraction of H. musciformis, Digenea simplex, P. gymnospora, and D.dichotoma. In the case of the seaweed S. vulgare, the anticancer constituents are present in the aqueous extract.

  12. Use of oxygen-18 isotopic labeling to assay photorespiration in terrestrial plants and algae

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    de Veau, E.J.

    1988-01-01

    A new method was devised to quantify photorespiration. The assay utilized {sup 18}O{sub 2} to isotopically label intermediates of the glycolate pathway, specifically glycolate, glycine, and serine, for various time periods. The pathway intermediates were isolated and analyzed on a mass spectrometer to determine molecular percent {sup 18}O-enrichment. Rates of glycolate synthesis were determined from: {sup 18}O-labeling kinetics of the intermediates, derived rate equations, and non-linear regression techniques. The method was adapted to measure photorespiratory rates in both terrestrial plants and algae. Test plants are Triticum aestivum, Zea mays L., Pavlova lutheri and Chlorella pyrenoidosa.

  13. Biosynthesis and biotransformation of lipids in plant cell cultures and algae

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The biosynthesis and metabolism of lipids in plant cell cultures grown photoautotrophically, has been studied since 1970. The most prominently occuring lipids in cell cultures and whole plants are phospholipids, glycolipids, triglycerides and glycosides. Radioactively labelled lipids have been produced from soybean cell cultures incubated with 14C-linoleic acid, and the fate of the phospholipid formed was investigated. Freshwater and marine algae cultured under different conditions of light, temperature and nutrient media have also been investigated for their lipid and fatty acid content. The exploitation of biotechnological processes for producing valuable lipids is encouraged. (U.K.)

  14. Biological activity of two red algae, Gracilaria salicornia and Hypnea flagelliformis from Persian Gulf.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S Saeidnia

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Among marine organisms, algae are a large and diverse group of organisms from which a wide range of secondary metabolites have been isolated. A number of these compounds possess biological activity. In this study, we aim to evaluate the cytotoxic, antibacterial and antifungal activity of two red algae, Gracilaria salicornia and Hypnea flagelliformis, collected from Persian Gulf. Ethyl acetate extracts of both algae showed a potent cytotoxic effect against Artemia salina nauplii (LC50 = 3 and 4 μg.ml−1, respectively. Aqueous methanol (50% extracts were also effective. None of the methanol and aqueous methanol extracts of the algae showed antifungal and antibacterial activity against Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli, Candida albicans and Aspergillus niger by the Broth-dilution method. Only the ethyl acetate extracts exhibited antibacterial activity (MIC = 2 μg.ml−1 on S. aureus. In conclusion, G. salicornia and H. flagelliformis could be a promising source of cytotoxic components.

  15. Plant architecture without multicellularity: quandaries over patterning and the soma-germline divide in siphonous algae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Viktoriya eConeva

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Multicellularity has independently evolved numerous times throughout the major lineages of life. Often, multicellularity can enable complex, macroscopic organismal architectures but it is not required for the elaboration of morphology. Several alternative cellular strategies have arisen as solutions permitting exquisite forms. The green algae class Ulvophyceae, for example, contains truly multicellular organisms, as well as macroscopic siphonous cells harboring one or multiple nuclei, and siphonocladous species, which are multinucleate and multicellular. These diverse cellular organizations raise a number of questions about the evolutionary and molecular mechanisms underlying complex organismal morphology in the green plants. Importantly, how does morphological patterning arise in giant coenocytes, and do nuclei, analogous to cells in multicellular organisms, take on distinct somatic and germline identities? Here, we comparatively explore examples of patterning and differentiation in diverse coenocytic and single-cell organisms and discuss possible mechanisms of development and nuclear differentiation in the siphonous algae.

  16. Antibiofilm Activity of the Brown Alga Halidrys siliquosa against Clinically Relevant Human Pathogens

    OpenAIRE

    Alessandro Busetti; Thompson, Thomas P.; Diana Tegazzini; Julianne Megaw; Maggs, Christine A.; Gilmore, Brendan F.

    2015-01-01

    The marine brown alga Halidrys siliquosa is known to produce compounds with antifouling activity against several marine bacteria. The aim of this study was to evaluate the antimicrobial and antibiofilm activity of organic extracts obtained from the marine brown alga H. siliquosa against a focused panel of clinically relevant human pathogens commonly associated with biofilm-related infections. The partially fractionated methanolic extract obtained from H. siliquosa collected along the shores o...

  17. Expression and assembly of a fully active antibody in algae

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayfield, Stephen P.; Franklin, Scott E.; Lerner, Richard A.

    2003-01-01

    Although combinatorial antibody libraries have solved the problem of access to large immunological repertoires, efficient production of these complex molecules remains a problem. Here we demonstrate the efficient expression of a unique large single-chain (lsc) antibody in the chloroplast of the unicellular, green alga, Chlamydomonas reinhardtii. We achieved high levels of protein accumulation by synthesizing the lsc gene in chloroplast codon bias and by driving expression of the chimeric gene using either of two C. reinhardtii chloroplast promoters and 5' and 3' RNA elements. This lsc antibody, directed against glycoprotein D of the herpes simplex virus, is produced in a soluble form by the alga and assembles into higher order complexes in vivo. Aside from dimerization by disulfide bond formation, the antibody undergoes no detectable posttranslational modification. We further demonstrate that accumulation of the antibody can be modulated by the specific growth regime used to culture the alga, and by the choice of 5' and 3' elements used to drive expression of the antibody gene. These results demonstrate the utility of alga as an expression platform for recombinant proteins, and describe a new type of single chain antibody containing the entire heavy chain protein, including the Fc domain.

  18. Survey of Hydrogenase Activity in Algae: Final Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brand, J. J.

    1982-04-01

    The capacity for hydrogen gas production was examined in nearly 100 strains of Eukaryotic algae. Each strain was assessed for rate of H2 production in darkness, at compensating light intensity and at saturating Tight intensity. Maximum H2 yield on illumination and sensitivity to molecular oxygen were also measured.

  19. Conserved and Diversified Gene Families of Monovalent Cation/H+ Antiporters from Algae to Flowering Plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salil eChanroj

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available All organisms have evolved strategies to regulate ion and pH homeostasis in response to developmental and environmental cues. One strategy is mediated by cation-proton antiporters (CPA. CPA1 genes found in bacteria, fungi, metazoa and plants have been functionally-characterized; though roles of plant CPA2 genes in KEA (K+-efflux antiporter and CHX (cation/H+ exchanger families are largely unknown. Phylogenetic analysis showed that three clades of the Na+-H+ exchanger (NHX family have been conserved from single-celled alga to Arabidopsis. These are i plasma membrane-bound SOS1/AtNHX7 that share ancestry with prokaryote NhaP, ii endosomal AtNHX5/6 that is part of the eukaryote Intracellular-NHE clade, and iii a vacuolar NHX clade (AtNHX1-4 specific to plants. Early diversification of KEA genes possibly from ancestral genes of a cyanobacterium is suggested for three K+-efflux antiporter clades (KEA/Kef seen in all plants. Intriguingly, the CHX gene family blossomed from a few members in early land plants to >40 genes in legumes. Homologs from spirogyra or moss share high similarity with guard cell-specific AtCHX20, suggesting that AtCHX20 and its relatives (AtCHX16-19 are founders of the family. Evolutionary analysis suggests pollen-expressed CHX genes appeared later in monocots and early eudicots. AtCHX proteins have been localized to intracellular and plasma membrane of plants, and shown to mediate K+ transport and pH homeostasis. Thus KEA genes are conserved from green algae to angiosperms, and their presence in red algae and secondary endosymbionts suggest a role in plastids. In contrast, AtNHX1-4 subtype evolved in ancestral plants to handle ion homeostasis of vacuoles in all cell types. The strong presence of CHX genes in land plants, but not in metazoa or fungi, would infer a role of ion and pH homeostasis at dynamic endomembranes to support vegetative and reproductive success of flowering plants.

  20. Chemical composition and antioxidant activities of Jeddah corniche algae, Saudi Arabia

    OpenAIRE

    Al-Amoudi, Omar A.; Mutawie, Hawazin H.; Patel, Asmita V.; Blunden, Gerald

    2009-01-01

    The increased use of natural product in the pharmaceutical industry has led to an increase in demand for screening for bioactive compounds in marine algae. An important economic algae, through chemical composition analysis and their antioxidant activities were investigated in this study. Chemical composition analysis of three algal samples from the Chlorophyta Ulva lactuca (U), Phaeophyta Sargassum crassifolia (S) and Rhodophyta Digenea simplex (D) was tested. Main components were sugars (57....

  1. Algae Removal by Electro-coagulation Process, Application for Treatment of the Effluent from an Industrial Wastewater Treatment Plant

    OpenAIRE

    GH Azarian; AR Mesdaghinia; F.Vaezi; R Nabizadeh; D. Nematollahi

    2007-01-01

    Background: Although stabilization ponds and lagoons are suitable treatment processes due to simplicity of operation and low per capital costs, the effluents of these systems have too high of a total suspended solids concentration to be discharged into receiving waters. This problem is mainly caused by algae. In this study, an electro-coagulation reactor was examined to re­move algae from the final effluent of the wastewater treatment plant belong to Bu-Ali Industrial Estates (Hamadan...

  2. Expression and assembly of a fully active antibody in algae

    OpenAIRE

    Mayfield, Stephen P.; Franklin, Scott E.; Lerner, Richard A.

    2003-01-01

    Although combinatorial antibody libraries have solved the problem of access to large immunological repertoires, efficient production of these complex molecules remains a problem. Here we demonstrate the efficient expression of a unique large single-chain (lsc) antibody in the chloroplast of the unicellular, green alga, Chlamydomonas reinhardtii. We achieved high levels of protein accumulation by synthesizing the lsc gene in chloroplast codon bias and by driving expression of the chimeric gene...

  3. Anticancer and antioxidant activities of the peptide fraction from algae protein waste.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheih, I-Chuan; Fang, Tony J; Wu, Tung-Kung; Lin, Peng-Hsiang

    2010-01-27

    Algae protein waste is a byproduct during production of algae essence from Chlorella vulgaris. There is no known report on the anticancer peptides derived from the microalgae protein waste. In this paper, the peptide fraction isolated from pepsin hydrolysate of algae protein waste had strong dose-dependent antiproliferation and induced a post-G1 cell cycle arrest in AGS cells; however, no cytotoxicity was observed in WI-38 lung fibroblasts cells in vitro. The peptide fraction also revealed much better antioxidant activity toward peroxyl radicals and LDL than those of Trolox. Among these peptides, a potent antiproliferative, antioxidant, and NO-production-inhibiting hendecapeptide was isolated, and its amino acid sequence was VECYGPNRPQF. These results demonstrate that inexpensive algae protein waste could be a new alternative to produce anticancer peptides. PMID:19916544

  4. Reduction in toxicity of wastewater from three wastewater treatment plants to alga (Scenedesmus obliquus) in northeast China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Ying; Sun, Qing; Zhou, Jiti; Masunaga, Shigeki; Ma, Fang

    2015-09-01

    The toxicity of municipal wastewater to the receiving water bodies is still unknown, due to the lack of regulated toxicity based index for wastewater discharge in China. Our study aims at gaining insight into the acute toxic effects of local municipal wastewater on alga, Scenedesmus obliquus. Four endpoints, i.e. cell density, chlorophyll-A concentration, superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity and cell membrane integrity, of alga were analyzed to characterize the acute toxicity effects of wastewater from municipal wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) with different treatment techniques: sequencing batch reactor (SBR), Linpor and conventional activated sludge. Influent and effluent from each treatment stage in these three WWTPs were sampled and evaluated for their acute toxicity. Our results showed that all three techniques can completely affect the algal chlorophyll-A synthesis stimulation effects of influent; the algal cell growth stimulation effect was only completely removed by the secondary treatment process in conventional activated sludge technique; toxic effects on cell membrane integrity of two influents from WWTPs with SBR and conventional activated sludge techniques were completely removed; the acute toxicity on SOD activity was partially reduced in SBR and conventional activated sludge techniques while not significantly reduced by Linpor system. As to the disinfection unit, NaClO disinfection enhanced wastewater toxicity dramatically while UV radiation had no remarkable influence on wastewater toxicity. Our results illustrated that SOD activity and chlorophyll-A synthesis were relatively sensitive to municipal wastewater toxicity. Our results would aid to understand the acute toxicity of municipal wastewater, as well as the toxicity removal by currently utilized treatment techniques in China. PMID:25996525

  5. Reduction in toxicity of wastewater from three wastewater treatment plants to alga (Scenedesmus obliquus) in northeast China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Ying; Sun, Qing; Zhou, Jiti; Masunaga, Shigeki; Ma, Fang

    2015-09-01

    The toxicity of municipal wastewater to the receiving water bodies is still unknown, due to the lack of regulated toxicity based index for wastewater discharge in China. Our study aims at gaining insight into the acute toxic effects of local municipal wastewater on alga, Scenedesmus obliquus. Four endpoints, i.e. cell density, chlorophyll-A concentration, superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity and cell membrane integrity, of alga were analyzed to characterize the acute toxicity effects of wastewater from municipal wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) with different treatment techniques: sequencing batch reactor (SBR), Linpor and conventional activated sludge. Influent and effluent from each treatment stage in these three WWTPs were sampled and evaluated for their acute toxicity. Our results showed that all three techniques can completely affect the algal chlorophyll-A synthesis stimulation effects of influent; the algal cell growth stimulation effect was only completely removed by the secondary treatment process in conventional activated sludge technique; toxic effects on cell membrane integrity of two influents from WWTPs with SBR and conventional activated sludge techniques were completely removed; the acute toxicity on SOD activity was partially reduced in SBR and conventional activated sludge techniques while not significantly reduced by Linpor system. As to the disinfection unit, NaClO disinfection enhanced wastewater toxicity dramatically while UV radiation had no remarkable influence on wastewater toxicity. Our results illustrated that SOD activity and chlorophyll-A synthesis were relatively sensitive to municipal wastewater toxicity. Our results would aid to understand the acute toxicity of municipal wastewater, as well as the toxicity removal by currently utilized treatment techniques in China.

  6. Larvicidal Activity against Aedes aegypti and Molluscicidal Activity against Biomphalaria glabrata of Brazilian Marine Algae

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guedes, Elíca Amara Cecília; de Carvalho, Cenira M.; Ribeiro Junior, Karlos Antonio Lisboa; Lisboa Ribeiro, Thyago Fernando; de Barros, Lurdiana Dayse; de Lima, Maria Raquel Ferreira; Prado Moura, Flávia de Barros; Goulart Sant'Ana, Antônio Euzebio

    2014-01-01

    This study investigated the biological activities of five benthic marine algae collected from Northeastern Region of Brazil. The tested activities included larvicidal activity against Aedes aegypti, molluscicidal activity against Biomphalaria glabrata, and toxicity against Artemia salina. Extracts of Ulva lactuca (Chlorophyta), Padina gymnospora, Sargassum vulgare (Phaeophyta), Hypnea musciformis, and Digenea simplex (Rhodophyta) were prepared using different solvents of increasing polarity, including dichloromethane, methanol, ethanol, and water. Of the extracts screened, the dichloromethane extracts of H. musciformis and P. gymnospora exhibited the highest activities and were subjected to bioassay-guided fractionation in hexane and chloroform. The chloroform fractions of the P. gymnospora and H. musciformis extracts showed molluscicidal activity at values below 40 μg·mL−1 (11.1460 μg·mL−1 and 25.8689 μg·mL−1, resp.), and the chloroform and hexane fractions of P. gymnospora showed larvicidal activity at values below 40 μg·mL−1 (29.018 μg·mL−1 and 17.230 μg·mL−1, resp.). The crude extracts were not toxic to A. salina, whereas the chloroform and hexane fractions of P. gymnospora (788.277 μg·mL−1 and 706.990 μg·mL−1) showed moderate toxicity, indicating that the toxic compounds present in these algae are nonpolar. PMID:24688787

  7. Neuroprotective Effects of Marine Algae

    OpenAIRE

    Se-Kwon Kim; Ratih Pangestuti

    2011-01-01

    The marine environment is known as a rich source of chemical structures with numerous beneficial health effects. Among marine organisms, marine algae have been identified as an under-exploited plant resource, although they have long been recognized as valuable sources of structurally diverse bioactive compounds. Presently, several lines of studies have provided insight into biological activities and neuroprotective effects of marine algae including antioxidant, anti-neuroinflammatory, choline...

  8. Multi-Level Light Capture Control in Plants and Green Algae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wobbe, Lutz; Bassi, Roberto; Kruse, Olaf

    2016-01-01

    Life on Earth relies on photosynthesis, and the ongoing depletion of fossil carbon fuels has renewed interest in phototrophic light-energy conversion processes as a blueprint for the conversion of atmospheric CO2 into various organic compounds. Light-harvesting systems have evolved in plants and green algae, which are adapted to the light intensity and spectral composition encountered in their habitats. These organisms are constantly challenged by a fluctuating light supply and other environmental cues affecting photosynthetic performance. Excess light can be especially harmful, but plants and microalgae are equipped with different acclimation mechanisms to control the processing of sunlight absorbed at both photosystems. We summarize the current knowledge and discuss the potential for optimization of phototrophic light-energy conversion.

  9. New methodologies for the integration of power plants with algae ponds

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schipper, K.; Gijp, S. van der; Stel, R.W van der; Goetheer, E.L.V.

    2013-01-01

    It is generally recognized that algae could be an interesting option for reducing CO2 emissions. Based on light and CO2, algae can be used for the production various economically interesting products. Current algae cultivation techniques, however, still present a number of limitations. Efficient fee

  10. Cultivation of phagotrophic algae with waste activated sludge as a fast approach to reclaim waste organics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Cong; Xiao, Suo; Ju, Lu-Kwang

    2016-03-15

    Substantial energy is reserved in waste activated sludge (WAS) organics but much of it is difficult to recover because the solid organics require long time to solubilize. In this work we introduced the new approach of recovering WAS organics into the biomass of phagotrophic algae. Phagotrophic algae have the unique ability to grow by ingesting insoluble organic particles including microbial cells. This phagotrophic ability renders the solubilization of WAS organics unnecessary and makes this approach remarkably fast. The approach consists of two stages: a short anaerobic digestion treatment followed by the algal growth on treated WAS. The short anaerobic digestion was exploited to release discrete bacteria from WAS flocs. Phagotrophic algae could then grow rapidly with the released bacteria as well as the solubilized nutrients in the treated WAS. The results showed that WAS organics could be quickly consumed by phagotrophic algae. Among all studied conditions the highest WAS volatile solids (VS) reduction was achieved with 72 h anaerobic digestion and 24 h algal growth. In this optimal process, 28% of WAS VS was reduced, and 41% and 20% of the reduced VS were converted into algal biomass and lipids, respectively. In comparison, only 18% WAS VS were reduced after the same time of aerobic digestion without algae addition. Through this approach, the amount of WAS organics requiring further treatment for final disposal is significantly reduced. With the production of significant amounts of algal biomass and lipids, WAS treatment is expected to be more economical and sustainable in material recycling.

  11. Natural history of coral-algae competition across a gradient of human activity in the Line Islands

    OpenAIRE

    Barott, K.L.; Williams, G. J.; Vermeij, M.J.A.; Harris, J.; Smith, J. E.; Rohwer, F.L.; Sandin, S.A.

    2012-01-01

    Competition between corals and benthic algae is prevalent on coral reefs worldwide and has the potential to influence the structure of the reef benthos. Human activities may influence the outcome of these interactions by favoring algae to become the superior competitor, and this type of change in competitive dynamics is a potential mechanism driving coral−algal phase shifts. Here we surveyed the types and outcomes of coral interactions with benthic algae in the Line Islands of the Central Pac...

  12. Heterotrimeric G-proteins in green algae: An early innovation in the evolution of the plant lineage

    OpenAIRE

    Hackenberg, Dieter; Pandey, Sona

    2014-01-01

    Heterotrimeric G-proteins (G-proteins, hereafter) are important signaling components in all eukaryotes. The absence of these proteins in the sequenced genomes of Chlorophycean green algae has raised questions about their evolutionary origin and prevalence in the plant lineage. The existence of G-proteins has often been correlated with the acquisition of embryophytic life-cycle and/or terrestrial habitats of plants which occurred around 450 million years ago. Our discovery of functional G-prot...

  13. The oxygen evolving enhancer protein 1 (OEE) of photosystem II in green algae exhibits thioredoxin activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heide, Heinrich; Kalisz, Henryk M; Follmann, Hartmut

    2004-02-01

    A thioredoxin-like chloroplast protein of the fructosebisphosphatase-stimulating f-type, but with an unusually high molecular mass of 28 kDa has previously been identified and purified to homogeneity in a fractionation scheme for resolution of the acid- and heat-stable, regular-size (12kDa) thioredoxins of the unicellular green algae, Scenedesmus obliquus. An apparently analogous protein of 26 kDa was described in a cyanobacterium, Anabaena sp., but no such large thioredoxin species f exists in the thioredoxin profiles of higher plants. The structure of the 28 kDa protein, which had been envisaged to represent a precursor, or fusion product of the two more specialized, common chloroplast thioredoxins f and m has now been determined by amino acid sequencing. Although it exhibits virtually all the properties and enzyme-modulating activities of a thioredoxin proper this algal protein, surprisingly, does not belong to the thioredoxin family of small redox proteins but is identical with OEE (oxygen evolving enhancer) protein 1, an auxiliary component of the photosystem II manganese cluster. Extracts of Chlorella vulgaris and Chlamydomonas reinhardtii also contain heat-stable protein fractions of 23-26 kDa capable of specifically stimulating chloroplast fructosebisphosphatase in vitro. In contrast, OEE protein 1 from spinach is not able to modulate FbPase or NADP malate dehydrogenase from spinach chloroplasts. A dual function of the OEE protein in algal photosynthesis is envisaged. PMID:15022827

  14. Green algae Chlorococcum humicola- a new source of bioactive compounds with antimicrobial activity

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Bhagavathy S; Sumathi P; Jancy Sherene Bell I

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To analyse the existence of bioactive phytochemicals and their antimicrobial role of green algae Chlorococcum humicola (C. humicola). Methods: The various organic solvents such as acetone, benzene, chloroform, diethyl ether, ethyl acetate, ethanol, hexane and methanol were used for the preparation of the algal extracts then subjected to chemical analysis and further used for the screening of antimicrobial assay. The purified carotenoid pigments and chlorophylls were used for the antimicrobial studies against the harmful pathogens Escherichia coli, Pseudomonasaeruginosa, Salmonella typhimurium, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Vibreo cholerae, Staphylococcus aureus, Bacillus subtilis, Candida albicans, Aspergillus niger and Aspergillus flavus. Results: The chemical analysis showed the existence of bioactive compounds such as carotenoids, alkaloids, favanoids, fattyacids, saponins, aminoacids and carbohydrates. In vitro screening of organic solvent extracts of green algae C. humicola shows activity in inhibiting the growth of virulent strains of bacteria and fungi pathogenic to human. Eight different extracts showed effective inhibitory action against the selected pathogens. Depends upon their existence of the bioactive compounds the different organic algal extracts shows difference in their inhibitory zone against the microbes. Out of all the organic extracts benzene and ethyl acetate extracts showed excellent effect nearly 80% microbial growth inhibition. The separated carotenoid and chlorophyll fractions of C. humicola, also results in the microbial growth inhibition. Conclusions: The present study concludes that green algae C. humicola are a rich and varied source of pharmacologically active natural products and nutraceuticals. While nutraceutical and pharmaceutical content in the baseline algae strain is very small, they showed excellent effect against the microbial pathogens.

  15. Antibacterial activities of bioactive compounds extracted from Marine algae Gracilaria salicornia against Aeromonas hydrophila

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Somayeh Rasooli

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Herbal medicinal products have attracted significant research interest in recent years. Considering the efficiency of algae products in controlling pathogenic bacteria and also easy access to large resources of algae, this study was conducted to evaluate the effects of methanolic, chloroformic and aqueous extracts of Gracilaria salicornia against Aeromonas hydrophila, a heterotrophic, Gram-negative, rod-shaped bacterium found mainly in warm climate. Algae samples were collected from Qeshm Island coastlines and transferred to the laboratory. Standard methods were used to obtain the algae extract. Antibacterial activities of various extracts were tested against the bacterium using well diffusion assay method. Significant differences were observed in antibacterial activities of different extracts (P<0.05. The diameter of zone of growth inhibition varied in correlation with concentration of the extracts (50, 100, 200 and 300 mg.ml-1. The best inhibition zone was observed at 100, 200 and 300 mg.ml-1 methanolic and 300 mg.ml-1 aqueous extracts.

  16. Antimicrobial and antioxidant activity of brown algae from the Aegean Sea

    OpenAIRE

    ZELIHA DEMIREL; FERDA F. YILMAZ-KOZ; ULKU N. KARABAY-YAVASOGLU; GUVEN OZDEMIR; ATAKAN SUKATAR

    2009-01-01

    The present study was conducted to evaluate the antioxidant and antimicrobial activity of methanol, dichloromethane and hexane extracts, as well as the essential oils of brown algae (Phaeophyta) Colpomenia sinuosa, Dictyota dichotoma, Dictyota dichotoma var. implexa, Petalonia fascia and Scytosiphon lomentaria. The essential oil of the macroalgae was obtained by steam distillation and analyzed by GC and GC/MS. The antioxidant activity of the algal extracts was determined using the procedures ...

  17. Potentiating effect of ecofriendly synthesis of copper oxide nanoparticles using brown alga: antimicrobial and anticancer activities

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    SRI VISHNU PRIYA RAMASWAMY; S NARENDHRAN; RAJESHWARI SIVARAJ

    2016-04-01

    This study reports the in vitro antimicrobial and anticancer activities of biologically synthesized copper nanoparticles. The antimicrobial activity of green synthesized copper oxide nanoparticles was assessed by well diffusion method. The anticancer activity of brown algae-mediated copper oxide nanoparticles was determined by MTT assay against the cell line (MCF-7). Maximum activity was observed with Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Aspergillus niger. Effective growth inhibition of cells was observed to be more than 93% in antibacterial activity. Thus, the results of the present study indicates that biologically synthesized copper nanoparticles can be used for several diseases, however, it necessitates clinical studies to ascertain their potential as antimicrobial and anticancer agents.

  18. Determination of moisture content and water activity in algae and fish by thermoanalytical techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The water content in seafoods is very important since it affects their sensorial quality, microbiological stability, physical characteristics and shelf life. In this study, thermoanalytical techniques were employed to develop a simple and accurate method to determine water content (moisture) by thermogravimetry (TG) and water activity from moisture content values and freezing point depression using differential scanning calorimetry (DSC). The precision of the results suggests that TG is a suitable technique to determine moisture content in biological samples. The average water content values for fish samples of Lutjanus synagris and Ocyurus chrysurus species were 76.4 ± 5.7% and 63.3 ± 3.9%, respectively, while that of Ulva lactuca marine algae species was 76.0 ± 4.4%. The method presented here was also successfully applied to determine water activity in two species of fish and six species of marine algae collected in the Atlantic coastal waters of Bahia, in Brazil. Water activity determined in fish samples ranged from 0.946 - 0.960 and was consistent with values reported in the literature, i.e., 0.9 - 1.0. The water activity values determined in marine algae samples lay within the interval of 0.974 - 0.979. (author)

  19. IN VITRO STUDY OF ANTIMICROBIAL ACTIVITY IN MARINE ALGAE CAULERPA TAXIFOLIA AND CAULERPA RACEMOSA (C. AGARDH).

    OpenAIRE

    Manjula Etcherla; G. M. Narasimha Rao

    2014-01-01

    The present study was carried out to investigate its antimicrobial potentiality of the algae such as Caulerpa taxifolia, Caulerpa racemosa (C. Agardh) were studied against both Gram-positive, Gram- negative and fungal pathogens. For microbiological testing of the different crude algal extracts (Hexane, Chloroform, Methanol and water) was determined by the well diffusion method.The zone of inhibition was measured for all the Crude extracts revealed a wide range of antimicrobial activity agains...

  20. Arsenic and other heavy metal accumulation in plants and algae growing naturally in contaminated area of West Bengal, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, N K; Raghubanshi, A S; Upadhyay, A K; Rai, U N

    2016-08-01

    The present study was conducted to quantify the arsenic (As) and other heavy metal concentrations in the plants and algae growing naturally in As contaminated blocks of North-24-Pargana and Nandia district, West Bengal, India to assess their bioaccumulation potential. The plant species included five macrophytes and five algae were collected from the nine selected sites for estimation of As and other heavy metals accumulated therein by using Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass Spectrophotometer (ICP-MS). Results revealed that maximum As concentration (117mgkg(-1)) was recorded in the agricultural soil at the Barasat followed by Beliaghat (111mgkg(-1)) sites of North-24-Pargana. Similarly, concentration of selenium (Si, 249mgkg(-1)), lead (Pb, 79.4mgkg(-1)), chromium (Cr, 138mgkg(-1)) was also found maximum in the soil at Barasat and cadmium (Cd, 163mgkg(-1)) nickel (Ni, 36.5mgkg(-1)) at Vijaynagar site. Among the macrophytes, Eichhornia crassipes found more dominating species in As contaminated area and accumulate As (597mgkg(-1)) in the shoot at kanchrapara site. The Lemna minor found to accumulate maximum As (735mgkg(-1)) in the leaves at Sonadanga and Pistia stratiotes accumulated minimum As (24.5mgkg(-1)) in the fronds from Ranaghat site. In case of diatoms, maximum As (760mgkg(-1)) was accumulated at Kanchrapara site followed by Hydrodictiyon reticulatum (403mgkg(-1)) at the Ranaghat site. High concentration of As and other heavy metal in soil indicates long term effects of irrigation with contaminated ground water, however, high concentration of heavy metals in naturally growing plants and algae revealed their mobilization through leaching and possible food chain contamination. Therefore, efficient heavy metal accumulator macrophytes Eichhornia crassipes, Lemna minor, Spirodela polyrhiza may be exploited in removing metals from contaminated water by developing a plant based treatment system. However, As accumulator algal species may be used as a bioresource for

  1. Arsenic and other heavy metal accumulation in plants and algae growing naturally in contaminated area of West Bengal, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, N K; Raghubanshi, A S; Upadhyay, A K; Rai, U N

    2016-08-01

    The present study was conducted to quantify the arsenic (As) and other heavy metal concentrations in the plants and algae growing naturally in As contaminated blocks of North-24-Pargana and Nandia district, West Bengal, India to assess their bioaccumulation potential. The plant species included five macrophytes and five algae were collected from the nine selected sites for estimation of As and other heavy metals accumulated therein by using Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass Spectrophotometer (ICP-MS). Results revealed that maximum As concentration (117mgkg(-1)) was recorded in the agricultural soil at the Barasat followed by Beliaghat (111mgkg(-1)) sites of North-24-Pargana. Similarly, concentration of selenium (Si, 249mgkg(-1)), lead (Pb, 79.4mgkg(-1)), chromium (Cr, 138mgkg(-1)) was also found maximum in the soil at Barasat and cadmium (Cd, 163mgkg(-1)) nickel (Ni, 36.5mgkg(-1)) at Vijaynagar site. Among the macrophytes, Eichhornia crassipes found more dominating species in As contaminated area and accumulate As (597mgkg(-1)) in the shoot at kanchrapara site. The Lemna minor found to accumulate maximum As (735mgkg(-1)) in the leaves at Sonadanga and Pistia stratiotes accumulated minimum As (24.5mgkg(-1)) in the fronds from Ranaghat site. In case of diatoms, maximum As (760mgkg(-1)) was accumulated at Kanchrapara site followed by Hydrodictiyon reticulatum (403mgkg(-1)) at the Ranaghat site. High concentration of As and other heavy metal in soil indicates long term effects of irrigation with contaminated ground water, however, high concentration of heavy metals in naturally growing plants and algae revealed their mobilization through leaching and possible food chain contamination. Therefore, efficient heavy metal accumulator macrophytes Eichhornia crassipes, Lemna minor, Spirodela polyrhiza may be exploited in removing metals from contaminated water by developing a plant based treatment system. However, As accumulator algal species may be used as a bioresource for

  2. Phragmoplast of the green alga Spirogyra is functionally distinct from the higher plant phragmoplast.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sawitzky, H; Grolig, F

    1995-09-01

    Cytokinesis in the green alga Spirogyra (Zygnemataceae) is characterized by centripetal growth of a septum, which impinges on a persistent, centrifugally expanding telophase spindle, leading to a phragmoplast-like structure of potential phylogenetic significance (Fowke, L. C., and J. D. Pickett-Heaps. 1969. J. Phycol. 5:273-281). Combining fluorescent tagging of the cytoskeleton in situ and video-enhanced differential interference contrast microscopy of live cells, the process of cytokinesis was investigated with emphasis on cytoskeletal reorganization and concomitant redistribution of organelles. Based on a sequence of cytoskeletal arrangements and the effects of cytoskeletal inhibitors thereon, cytokinetic progression could be divided into three functional stages with respect to the contribution of microfilaments (MFs) and microtubules (MTs): (1) Initiation: in early prophase, a cross wall initial was formed independently of MFs and MTs at the presumptive site of wall growth. (2) Septum ingrowth: numerous organelles accumulated at the cross wall initial concomitant with reorganization of the extensive peripheral interphase MF array into a distinct circumferential MF array. This array guided the ingrowing septum until it contacted the expanding interzonal MT array. (3) Cross wall closure: MFs at the growing edge of the septum coaligned with and extended along the interzonal MTs toward the daughter nuclei. Thus, actin-based transportation of small organelles during this third stage occurred, in part, along a scaffold previously deployed in space by MTs. Displacement of the nuclei-associated interzonal MT array by centrifugation and depolymerization of the phragmoplast-like structure showed that the success of cytokinesis at the third stage depends on the interaction of both MF and MT cytoskeletons. Important features of the phragmoplast-like structure in Spirogyra were different from the higher plant phragmoplast: in particular, MFs were responsible for the

  3. Biological activity of a red-tide alga--A. tamarense under co-cultured condition with bacteria

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SU Jian-qiang; YU Zhi-ming; TIAN Yun; SONG Xiu-xian; HONG Hua-sheng; ZHENG Tian-ling

    2005-01-01

    The relationship between Alexandrium tamarense(Lebour) Balech, one of red-tide alga, and two strains of marine bacteria,Bacillius megaterium(S7 ) and B. halmapulus(S10) isolated from Xiamen Western Sea, was investigated by evaluating the growth state of A. tamarense and the variation of β-glucosidase activity in co-culture system. The results showed the growth and multiplication of the alga were related with the concentration, genus speciality of the bacteria, and growth stage of the alga itself. The growth of A. tamarense was obviously inhibited by S7 and S10 at high concentration. Either inhibition or promotion contributed much more clearly in earlier than in later stage of the growth of the alga. Furthermore, there was a roughly similar variation trend of the activity of extra-cellular enzyme, β-glucosidase, in the water of the separately co-cultured bacteria S7 and S10 with the alga. The β-glucosidase activity(β-GlcA) rapidly increased during the later algal growth accompanying the increase of the lysis of the alga cells. The obvious inhibition of A. tamarense by marine bacteria at high concentration and evident increase of β-GlcA in co-colture system would help us in better understanding the relationship between red-tide alga and bacteria, and also enlightened us the possible use of bacteria in the bio-control of red-tide.

  4. Effect of Algae and Plant Lectins on Planktonic Growth and Biofilm Formation in Clinically Relevant Bacteria and Yeasts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mayron Alves Vasconcelos

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to evaluate the abilities of plant and algae lectins to inhibit planktonic growth and biofilm formation in bacteria and yeasts. Initially, ten lectins were tested on Staphylococcus epidermidis, Staphylococcus aureus, Klebsiella oxytoca, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Candida albicans, and C. tropicalis at concentrations of 31.25 to 250 μg/mL. The lectins from Cratylia floribunda (CFL, Vatairea macrocarpa (VML, Bauhinia bauhinioides (BBL, Bryothamnion seaforthii (BSL, and Hypnea musciformis (HML showed activities against at least one microorganism. Biofilm formation in the presence of the lectins was also evaluated; after 24 h of incubation with the lectins, the biofilms were analyzed by quantifying the biomass (by crystal violet staining and by enumerating the viable cells (colony-forming units. The lectins reduced the biofilm biomass and/or the number of viable cells to differing degrees depending on the microorganism tested, demonstrating the different characteristics of the lectins. These findings indicate that the lectins tested in this study may be natural alternative antimicrobial agents; however, further studies are required to better elucidate the functional use of these proteins.

  5. Isolation, antimicrobial activity, and metabolites of fungus Cladosporium sp. associated with red alga Porphyra yezoensis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, Ling; Qin, Song; Li, Fuchao; Chi, Xiaoyuan; Laatsch, Hartmut

    2008-03-01

    Cladosporium sp. isolate N5 was isolated as a dominant fungus from the healthy conchocelis of Porphyra yezoensis. In the re-infection test, it did not cause any pathogenic symptoms in the alga. Twenty-one cultural conditions were chosen to test its antimicrobial activity in order to obtain the best condition for large-scale fermentation. Phenylacetic acid, p-hydroxyphenylethyl alcohol, and L-beta-phenyllactic acid were isolated from the crude extract as strong antimicrobial compounds and they are the first reported secondary metabolites for the genus Cladosporium. In addition, the Cladosporium sp. produced the reported Porphyra yezoensis growth regulators phenylacetic acid and p-hydroxyphenylacetic acid. No cytotoxicity was found in the brine shrimp lethality test, which indicated that the environmental-friendly Cladosporium sp. could be used as a potential biocontrol agent to protect the alga from pathogens.

  6. Antiproliferative activity of methanolic extracts from two green algae, Enteromorpha intestinalis and Rizoclonium riparium on HeLa cells

    OpenAIRE

    Paul, Subhabrata; Kundu, Rita

    2013-01-01

    Background Natural compounds can be alternative sources for finding new lead anti-cancer molecules. Marine algae have been a traditional source for bioactive compounds. Enteromorpha intestinalis and Rhizoclonium riparium are two well distributed saline/brackish water algae from Sundarbans. There’s no previous report of these two for their anti-proliferative activities. Methods Cytotoxicity of the algal methanolic extracts (AMEs) on HeLa cells were assayed by 3-(4, 5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2, 5...

  7. Antibiofilm Activity of the Brown Alga Halidrys siliquosa against Clinically Relevant Human Pathogens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alessandro Busetti

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The marine brown alga Halidrys siliquosa is known to produce compounds with antifouling activity against several marine bacteria. The aim of this study was to evaluate the antimicrobial and antibiofilm activity of organic extracts obtained from the marine brown alga H. siliquosa against a focused panel of clinically relevant human pathogens commonly associated with biofilm-related infections. The partially fractionated methanolic extract obtained from H. siliquosa collected along the shores of Co. Donegal; Ireland; displayed antimicrobial activity against bacteria of the genus Staphylococcus; Streptococcus; Enterococcus; Pseudomonas; Stenotrophomonas; and Chromobacterium with MIC and MBC values ranging from 0.0391 to 5 mg/mL. Biofilms of S. aureus MRSA were found to be susceptible to the algal methanolic extract with MBEC values ranging from 1.25 mg/mL to 5 mg/mL respectively. Confocal laser scanning microscopy using LIVE/DEAD staining confirmed the antimicrobial nature of the antibiofilm activity observed using the MBEC assay. A bioassay-guided fractionation method was developed yielding 10 active fractions from which to perform purification and structural elucidation of clinically-relevant antibiofilm compounds.

  8. Antibiofilm Activity of the Brown Alga Halidrys siliquosa against Clinically Relevant Human Pathogens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Busetti, Alessandro; Thompson, Thomas P; Tegazzini, Diana; Megaw, Julianne; Maggs, Christine A; Gilmore, Brendan F

    2015-06-01

    The marine brown alga Halidrys siliquosa is known to produce compounds with antifouling activity against several marine bacteria. The aim of this study was to evaluate the antimicrobial and antibiofilm activity of organic extracts obtained from the marine brown alga H. siliquosa against a focused panel of clinically relevant human pathogens commonly associated with biofilm-related infections. The partially fractionated methanolic extract obtained from H. siliquosa collected along the shores of Co. Donegal; Ireland; displayed antimicrobial activity against bacteria of the genus Staphylococcus; Streptococcus; Enterococcus; Pseudomonas; Stenotrophomonas; and Chromobacterium with MIC and MBC values ranging from 0.0391 to 5 mg/mL. Biofilms of S. aureus MRSA were found to be susceptible to the algal methanolic extract with MBEC values ranging from 1.25 mg/mL to 5 mg/mL respectively. Confocal laser scanning microscopy using LIVE/DEAD staining confirmed the antimicrobial nature of the antibiofilm activity observed using the MBEC assay. A bioassay-guided fractionation method was developed yielding 10 active fractions from which to perform purification and structural elucidation of clinically-relevant antibiofilm compounds. PMID:26058011

  9. Bioinformatics Reveal Five Lineages of Oleosins and the Mechanism of Lineage Evolution Related to Structure/Function from Green Algae to Seed Plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Ming-Der; Huang, Anthony H C

    2015-09-01

    Plant cells contain subcellular lipid droplets with a triacylglycerol matrix enclosed by a layer of phospholipids and the small structural protein oleosin. Oleosins possess a conserved central hydrophobic hairpin of approximately 72 residues penetrating into the lipid droplet matrix and amphipathic amino- and carboxyl (C)-terminal peptides lying on the phospholipid surface. Bioinformatics of 1,000 oleosins of green algae and all plants emphasizing biological implications reveal five oleosin lineages: primitive (in green algae, mosses, and ferns), universal (U; all land plants), and three in specific organs or phylogenetic groups, termed seed low-molecular-weight (SL; seed plants), seed high-molecular-weight (SH; angiosperms), and tapetum (T; Brassicaceae) oleosins. Transition from one lineage to the next is depicted from lineage intermediates at junctions of phylogeny and organ distributions. Within a species, each lineage, except the T oleosin lineage, has one to four genes per haploid genome, only approximately two of which are active. Primitive oleosins already possess all the general characteristics of oleosins. U oleosins have C-terminal sequences as highly conserved as the hairpin sequences; thus, U oleosins including their C-terminal peptide exert indispensable, unknown functions. SL and SH oleosin transcripts in seeds are in an approximately 1:1 ratio, which suggests the occurrence of SL-SH oleosin dimers/multimers. T oleosins in Brassicaceae are encoded by rapidly evolved multitandem genes for alkane storage and transfer. Overall, oleosins have evolved to retain conserved hairpin structures but diversified for unique structures and functions in specific cells and plant families. Also, our studies reveal oleosin in avocado (Persea americana) mesocarp and no acyltransferase/lipase motifs in most oleosins.

  10. Bioinformatics Reveal Five Lineages of Oleosins and the Mechanism of Lineage Evolution Related to Structure/Function from Green Algae to Seed Plants1[OPEN

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Ming-Der; Huang, Anthony H.C.

    2015-01-01

    Plant cells contain subcellular lipid droplets with a triacylglycerol matrix enclosed by a layer of phospholipids and the small structural protein oleosin. Oleosins possess a conserved central hydrophobic hairpin of approximately 72 residues penetrating into the lipid droplet matrix and amphipathic amino- and carboxyl (C)-terminal peptides lying on the phospholipid surface. Bioinformatics of 1,000 oleosins of green algae and all plants emphasizing biological implications reveal five oleosin lineages: primitive (in green algae, mosses, and ferns), universal (U; all land plants), and three in specific organs or phylogenetic groups, termed seed low-molecular-weight (SL; seed plants), seed high-molecular-weight (SH; angiosperms), and tapetum (T; Brassicaceae) oleosins. Transition from one lineage to the next is depicted from lineage intermediates at junctions of phylogeny and organ distributions. Within a species, each lineage, except the T oleosin lineage, has one to four genes per haploid genome, only approximately two of which are active. Primitive oleosins already possess all the general characteristics of oleosins. U oleosins have C-terminal sequences as highly conserved as the hairpin sequences; thus, U oleosins including their C-terminal peptide exert indispensable, unknown functions. SL and SH oleosin transcripts in seeds are in an approximately 1:1 ratio, which suggests the occurrence of SL-SH oleosin dimers/multimers. T oleosins in Brassicaceae are encoded by rapidly evolved multitandem genes for alkane storage and transfer. Overall, oleosins have evolved to retain conserved hairpin structures but diversified for unique structures and functions in specific cells and plant families. Also, our studies reveal oleosin in avocado (Persea americana) mesocarp and no acyltransferase/lipase motifs in most oleosins. PMID:26232488

  11. Bioinformatics Reveal Five Lineages of Oleosins and the Mechanism of Lineage Evolution Related to Structure/Function from Green Algae to Seed Plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Ming-Der; Huang, Anthony H C

    2015-09-01

    Plant cells contain subcellular lipid droplets with a triacylglycerol matrix enclosed by a layer of phospholipids and the small structural protein oleosin. Oleosins possess a conserved central hydrophobic hairpin of approximately 72 residues penetrating into the lipid droplet matrix and amphipathic amino- and carboxyl (C)-terminal peptides lying on the phospholipid surface. Bioinformatics of 1,000 oleosins of green algae and all plants emphasizing biological implications reveal five oleosin lineages: primitive (in green algae, mosses, and ferns), universal (U; all land plants), and three in specific organs or phylogenetic groups, termed seed low-molecular-weight (SL; seed plants), seed high-molecular-weight (SH; angiosperms), and tapetum (T; Brassicaceae) oleosins. Transition from one lineage to the next is depicted from lineage intermediates at junctions of phylogeny and organ distributions. Within a species, each lineage, except the T oleosin lineage, has one to four genes per haploid genome, only approximately two of which are active. Primitive oleosins already possess all the general characteristics of oleosins. U oleosins have C-terminal sequences as highly conserved as the hairpin sequences; thus, U oleosins including their C-terminal peptide exert indispensable, unknown functions. SL and SH oleosin transcripts in seeds are in an approximately 1:1 ratio, which suggests the occurrence of SL-SH oleosin dimers/multimers. T oleosins in Brassicaceae are encoded by rapidly evolved multitandem genes for alkane storage and transfer. Overall, oleosins have evolved to retain conserved hairpin structures but diversified for unique structures and functions in specific cells and plant families. Also, our studies reveal oleosin in avocado (Persea americana) mesocarp and no acyltransferase/lipase motifs in most oleosins. PMID:26232488

  12. Active ingredients fatty acids as antibacterial agent from the brown algae Padina pavonica and Hormophysa triquetra

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gihan Ahmed El Shoubaky

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To estimate the fatty acids content in the brown algae Padina pavonica (P. pavonica and Hormophysa triquetra (H. triquetra and evaluate their potential antimicrobial activity as bioactive compounds. Methods: The fatty acid compositions of the examined species were analyzed using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. The antimicrobial activity of crude and fatty acids was assessed using the agar plug technique. Results: The fatty acids profile ranged from C8:0 to C20:4. Concentration of saturated fatty acids in P. pavonica was in the order palmitic>myristic>stearic whereas concentration of the unsaturated fatty acids was oleic acid>palmitoleic>9-cis-hexadecenoic>linoleic acid>α- linolenic>arachidonic> elaidic acid. H. triquetra contained high concentration of saturated fatty acids than those of P. pavonica which was in the order as follows: palmitic>margaric>myristic> nonadecyclic>stearic>caprylic>tridecylic>pentadecylic>lauric while the unsaturated fatty acids consisted of oleic>nonadecenoic>non adecadienoate>margaroleic. The crude and fatty acid extracts of H. triquetra and P. pavonica were biologically active on the tested pathogens. H. triquetra exhibited a larger inhibitory zone than P. pavonica. Conclusions: The brown algae P. pavonica and H. triquetra have high efficient amount of fatty acids and showed strong antibacterial activity, especially H. triquetra.

  13. Active ingredients fatty acids as antibacterial agent from the brown algae Padina pavonica and Hormophysa triquetra

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Gihan Ahmed El Shoubaky; Essam Abd El Rahman Salem

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To estimate the fatty acids content in the brown algae Padina pavonica (P. pavonica) and Hormophysa triquetra (H. triquetra) and evaluate their potential antimicrobial activity as bioactive compounds.Methods:The fatty acid compositions of the examined species were analyzed using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. The antimicrobial activity of crude and fatty acids was assessed using the agar plug technique.Results:The fatty acids profile ranged from C8:0 to C20:4. Concentration of saturated fatty acids in P. pavonica was in the order palmitic>myristic>stearic whereas concentration of the unsaturated fatty acids was oleic acid>palmitoleic>9-cis-hexadecenoic>linoleic acid>α-linolenic>arachidonic> elaidic acid. H. triquetra contained high concentration of saturated fatty acids than those of P. pavonica which was in the order as follows: palmitic>margaric>myristic>nonadecyclic>stearic>caprylic>tridecylic>pentadecylic>lauric while the unsaturated fatty acids consisted of oleic>nonadecenoic>non adecadienoate>margaroleic. The crude and fatty acid extracts of H. triquetra and P. pavonica were biologically active on the tested pathogens. H.triquetra exhibited a larger inhibitory zone than P. pavonica. Conclusions: The brown algae P. pavonica and H. triquetra have high efficient amount of fatty acids and showed strong antibacterial activity, especially H. triquetra.

  14. Isolation and characterization of fucoidans from five brown algae and evaluation of their antioxidant activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qu, Guiyan; Liu, Xu; Wang, Dongfeng; Yuan, Yi; Han, Lijun

    2014-10-01

    In this study, we evaluated the chemical property and antioxidant activity of fucoidans isolated from brown algae, Laminaria japonica (LJF), Lessonia nigrescens (LNF), Lessonia trabeculata (LTF), Ascophyllum mackaii (AMF), and Ecklonia maxima (EMF). LJF was less in sulfate content (14.16%) and more in galactose and mannose content (1.08 and 0.68) than the documented early. EMF contained 20%-30% of sulfate and fucose, 0.97 in molar ratio which was lower than that of sulfate to other four fucoidans (1.21-1.41). AMF (162 kDa) and EMF (150 kDa) were the first two largest in molecular weight, which were followed by LJP (126 kDa), LNF (113 kDa) and LTF (105 kDa). The fucoidans isolated these algae showed a wide range of antioxidant activity in vitro. It was found that the reducing power of the isolated fucoidans was positively correlated with their sulfate content and molecular weight. In addition, LNF and LTF at low concentrations exhibited high superoxide and hydroxyl radical scavenging activity. This demonstrated that low molecular weight fucoidans may perform a high antioxidant activity.

  15. Structural characterization and Biological Activity of Sulfolipids from selected Marine Algae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    El Baz, F. K.

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The sulfolipid classes (SLs in the total lipids of five species of marine algae, two species of Rhodophyta (Laurencia popillose, Galaxoura cylindriea, one species of Chlorophyta (Ulva fasciata, and two species of Phaeophyta (Dilophys fasciola, Taonia atomaria were separated and purified on DEAE-cellulose column chromatography. The SLs component was identified by IR, gas chromatography MS/MS and liquid chromatography MS/MS. The level of SLs contents va ried from 1.25% (in L. papillose to 11.82% (in D. fasciola of the total lipid contents. However, no significant differences in sulfate content (0.13 – 0.21% were observed among all these algae species. All SLs were characterized by high contents of palmitic acid (C 16:0, which ranged from 30.91% in G. cylindriea to 63.11% in T. atomatia. The main constitutes of algal sulfolipids were identified as sulfoquinovosyl-di-acylglycerol and sulfoquinovosyl acylglycerol. The sulfolipids of different algal species exhibited remarkable antiviral activity against herps simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1 with an IC50 ranging from 18.75 to 70. 2 μg mL–1. Moreover, algal sulfolipid inhibited the growth of the tumor cells of breast and liver human cancer cells with IC50 values ranging from 0.40 to 0.67 μg mL–1 for human breast adenocarcinoma cells (MCF7.Se separaron diferentes clases sulfolípidos (SL a partir de los lípidos totales de cinco especies de algas marinas: una especie de Chlorophyta (Ulva fasciata, dos especies de Phaeophyta (Dilophys fasciola, Taonia atomaria y dos especies de Rhodophyta (Laurencia popillose, Galaxoura cylindriea que se purificaron mediante cromatografía en columna de DEAE-celulosa. Los components de SLs fueron identificados por IR, cromatografía de gases MS/MS y cromatografía líquida MS/ MS. Los contenidos de SL en relación al total de lípidos varió de 1,25% (en L. papilosa al 11,82% (en D. fasciola. Sin embargo, no hay diferencias significativas en el contenido de sulfato

  16. Algae Removal by Electro-coagulation Process, Application for Treatment of the Effluent from an Industrial Wastewater Treatment Plant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    GH Azarian

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: Although stabilization ponds and lagoons are suitable treatment processes due to simplicity of operation and low per capital costs, the effluents of these systems have too high of a total suspended solids concentration to be discharged into receiving waters. This problem is mainly caused by algae. In this study, an electro-coagulation reactor was examined to re­move algae from the final effluent of the wastewater treatment plant belong to Bu-Ali Industrial Estates (Hamadan City.  Methods: For the continuous flow electro-coagulation reactor used in these experiments three aluminum anodes were util­ized. This type of metal was selected because it could introduce the flocculation agent into the effluent, thereby algae could be removed by both mechanisms of electro-flotation and electro-flocculation. Results: The results of treatment were remarkably good and the efficiencies of total suspended solids (TSS and chlorophyll a removal reached to as high as 99.5% and about 100% by applying a power input of about 550 W. In fact, this level of power input was needed for complete removal of algae in a low retention time of 15 minutes. Meanwhile, by applying less power input of about 100Wdm-3, the required time for a relatively same treatment was reached to 30 minutes.Conclusion: It is expected that this method which is also known as a multiple contaminants removal process will be consid­ered as a suitable alternative for final polishing of effluents from lagoons and similar treatment systems. 

  17. Investigation of Anti-bacterial Activity against Food-borne Pathogens among Korean Domestic Algae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ki-hyo Jang

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study is to explore algal species with anti-bacterial activity against six food-borne pathogens. Among 51 marine algae, Laurencia okamurae Yamada and Dictyopteris undulata Holmes was elucidated to have a potent anti-bacterial activity against food-borne pathogens. Laurencia okamurae Yamada showed the clear zone around agar well on B. cereus, S. aureusand L. monocytogenes-spreading agar plate. Dictyopteris undulata Holmes had the anti-bacterial activity against S. chorelaesuis, B. cereus, S. aureus and L. monocytogenes on bacterial spreading agar plates. Antibacterial activity of L. okamurae Yamada and D. undulata Holmes had specifically susceptibility for B. cereus, S. aureus and L. monocytogenes and were superior to streptomycin, the authentic antibiotics. It is anticipated that new food preservatives can be explored and developed on the basis of this study.

  18. The Chloroplast Protein Translocation Complexes of Chlamydomonas reinhardtii: A Bioinformatic Comparison of Toc and Tic Components in Plants, Green Algae and Red Algae

    OpenAIRE

    Kalanon, Ming; McFadden, Geoffrey I

    2008-01-01

    The recently completed genome of Chlamydomonas reinhardtii was surveyed for components of the chloroplast protein translocation complexes. Putative components were identified using reciprocal BlastP searches with the protein sequences of Arabidopsis thaliana as queries. As a comparison, we also surveyed the new genomes of the bryophyte Physcomitrella patens, two prasinophyte green algae (Ostreococcus lucimarinus and Ostreococcus tauri), the red alga Cyanidioschizon merolae, and several cyanob...

  19. Merchant Plant activity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hepple, R.T. [Calpine Corp., San Jose, CA (United States)

    1998-07-01

    The changes facing the electric power industry in the 1990s have created opportunities to build new power plants. These plants are called Merchant Plants because they will not benefit from long-term power purchase agreements as in the past. Currently in Canada and the United States, about 45 per cent of the generating capacity is provided by plants that are more than 25 years old. These plants have high heat rates (i.e. the cost of generating one kWh of electricity is high) and are a major source of pollution. Nuclear power, which held much promise 30 years ago, has been rejected on both sides of the border, and coal-fired power plants are facing their own set of challenges. Modern natural gas-fired combined-cycle power plants appear to be a feasible, less polluting way to generate electricity. The per kilowatt cost of building a modern combined-cycle power plant averages about $500/kw which is far below the cost of coal or nuclear plants. Costing and siting new merchant plants, configuring a plant in such a way as to achieve the lowest-cost power generation were some of the topics that were highlighted.

  20. ANTIOXIDANT ACTIVITY OF BROWN ALGAE SARGASSUM SPECIES EXTRACTS FROM THE COASTLINE OF JAVA ISLAND

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Siti A. Budhiyanti

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The coastlines with rocky shores at Java Island Indonesia, Gunung Kidul (Yogyakarta and Jepara (Central Java, have abundant resource of brown algae Sargassum sp. Little effort, however, has been made to explore the antioxidant potential of the algae harvested from these area. Tropical brown algae have proven to produce a very effective antioxidant defence system due to the strong UV radiation in the tropical environment. The Total Phenolic Content (TPC of the extracts were evaluated by using Follin Ciocalteau reagent, while antioxidant activities were evaluated by using 2,2-Diphenyl-1-Picrylhydrzyl Radical Scavenging Activity (DPPH-RSA and Ferrous Ion-Chelating (FIC ability. The effects of treatments on TPC and antioxidant activities were analysed using analysis of variance models. There were four treatments and three replicates. These treatments were extract types (cytoplasmic and membrane bound, harvest sites (Gunung Kidul and Jepara, harvest seasons (dry and rainy and various Sargassum species. The TPC of extracts varied from 0.006-0.65 and 6.72-21.99 g phloroglucinol equivalent/100 g dried extract for cytoplasmic and membrane bound extract, respectively. The DPPH-RSA in extracts concentration of 0.45 mg mL-1 were in the range of 14.61-48.71 % for membrane bound and 0.17-44.05 % for cytoplasmic extracts. The FIC in extract concentration of 3.3 mg mL-1 were in the range of 2.0512.51 and 26.77-68.80 % for cytoplasmic and membrane bound extract, respectively. Nevertheless, these extracts had lower activity when compared with BHT and EDTA as positive control of RSA-DPPH and FIC, respectively. The antioxidant activities of Sargassum were influenced by types of extracts, harvest sites, seasons and species. The antioxidant activity of membrane bound was higher than cytoplasmic extract. The increasing of DPPH-RSA and FIC were proportional to TPC. The highest antioxidant activity was found at S. hystrix from Gunung Kidul area harvested during dry

  1. IN VITRO STUDY OF ANTIMICROBIAL ACTIVITY IN MARINE ALGAE CAULERPA TAXIFOLIA AND CAULERPA RACEMOSA (C. AGARDH.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manjula Etcherla

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The present study was carried out to investigate its antimicrobial potentiality of the algae such as Caulerpa taxifolia, Caulerpa racemosa (C. Agardh were studied against both Gram-positive, Gram- negative and fungal pathogens. For microbiological testing of the different crude algal extracts (Hexane, Chloroform, Methanol and water was determined by the well diffusion method.The zone of inhibition was measured for all the Crude extracts revealed a wide range of antimicrobial activity against tested pathogens. The overall antimicrobial activity assessed from the above results indicates the presence of active constituents in the extractions of Seaweeds which can be exploited for the production of lead molecules which are use of in pharmaceutical industry.

  2. Transcriptomics of desiccation tolerance in the streptophyte green alga Klebsormidium reveal a land plant-like defense reaction.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andreas Holzinger

    Full Text Available Water loss has significant effects on physiological performance and survival rates of algae. However, despite the prominent presence of aeroterrestrial algae in terrestrial habitats, hardly anything is known about the molecular events that allow aeroterrestrial algae to survive harsh environmental conditions. We analyzed the transcriptome and physiology of a strain of the alpine aeroterrestrial alga Klebsormidium crenulatum under control and strong desiccation-stress conditions.For comparison we first established a reference transcriptome. The high-coverage reference transcriptome includes about 24,183 sequences (1.5 million reads, 636 million bases. The reference transcriptome encodes for all major pathways (energy, carbohydrates, lipids, amino acids, sugars, nearly all deduced pathways are complete or missing only a few transcripts. Upon strong desiccation, more than 7000 transcripts showed changes in their expression levels. Most of the highest up-regulated transcripts do not show similarity to known viridiplant proteins, suggesting the existence of some genus- or species-specific responses to desiccation. In addition, we observed the up-regulation of many transcripts involved in desiccation tolerance in plants (e.g. proteins similar to those that are abundant in late embryogenesis (LEA, or proteins involved in early response to desiccation ERD, and enzymes involved in the biosynthesis of the raffinose family of oligosaccharides (RFO known to act as osmolytes. Major physiological shifts are the up-regulation of transcripts for photosynthesis, energy production, and reactive oxygen species (ROS metabolism, which is supported by elevated cellular glutathione content as revealed by immunoelectron microscopy as well as an increase in total antiradical power. However, the effective quantum yield of Photosystem II and CO2 fixation decreased sharply under the applied desiccation stress. In contrast, transcripts for cell integrative functions such as

  3. The anti-allergic activity of polyphenol extracted from five marine algae

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yu; Lin, Hong; Li, Zhenxing; Mou, Quangui

    2015-08-01

    Natural polyphenol has been widely believed to be effective in allergy remission. Currently, most of the natural polyphenol products come from terrestrial sources such as tea, grape seeds among others, and few polyphenols have been developed from algae for their anti-allergic activity. The aim of the study was to screen some commercial seaweed for natural extracts with anti-allergic activity. Five algae including Laminaria japonica, Porphyra sp., Spirulina platensis, Chlorella pyrenoidosa and Scytosiphon sp. were extracted with ethanol, and the extracts were evaluated for total polyphenol contents and anti-allergic activity with the hyaluronidase inhibition assay. Results showed that the total polyphenol contents in the ethanol extracts ranged from 1.67% to 8.47%, while the highest was found in the extract from Scytosiphon sp. Hyaluronidase inhibition assay showed that the extracts from Scytosiphon sp. had the lowest IC50, 0.67 mg mL-1, while Chlorella pyrenoidosa extract had the highest IC50, 15.07 mg mL-1. The anti-allergic activity of Scytosiphon sp. extract was even higher than the typical anti-allergic drug Disodium Cromoglycate (DSCG) (IC50 = 1.13 mg mL-1), and was similar with natural polyphenol from Epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG) (IC50 = 0.56 mg mL-1). These results indicated that the ethanol extract of Scytosiphon sp. contains a high concentration of polyphenol with high anti-allergic activity. Potentially Scytosiphon sp. can be developed to a natural anti-allergic compound for allergy remission.

  4. The "Martian" flora: new collections of vascular plants, lichens, fungi, algae, and cyanobacteria from the Mars Desert Research Station, Utah

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freebury, Colin E.; Hamilton, Paul B.; Saarela, Jeffery M.

    2016-01-01

    Abstract The Mars Desert Research Station is a Mars analog research site located in the desert outside of Hanksville, Utah, U.S.A. Here we present a preliminary checklist of the vascular plant and lichen flora for the station, based on collections made primarily during a two-week simulated Mars mission in November, 2014. Additionally, we present notes on the endolithic chlorophytes and cyanobacteria, and the identification of a fungal genus also based on these collections. Altogether, we recorded 38 vascular plant species from 14 families, 13 lichen species from seven families, six algae taxa including both chlorophytes and cyanobacteria, and one fungal genus from the station and surrounding area. We discuss this floristic diversity in the context of the ecology of the nearby San Rafael Swell and the desert areas of Wayne and Emery counties in southeastern Utah. PMID:27350765

  5. Metabolitic activity of 11-deoxycorticosterone and prednisolone in the alga Chlorella vulgaris Beijerinck

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Romuald Czerpak

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available The influence of optimal concentrations 5 x 10-6M - 10-6M of 11-deoxycorticosterone (mineralocorticoid and prednisolone (glucocorticoid on the growth (fresh and dry weight and content of soluble proteins, reducing sugars and nucleic acids in the green alga Chlorella vulgaris (Chlorophyceae. Both corticosteroids at concentration 5 x 10-6M were most strongly active metabolically between the 5th-15th day of the cultivation and this probably was caused by their chemical biotransformation. The applied corticosteroids induced the strongest stimulative effect on the content of soluble proteins in the range of 167-196% and reducing sugars (233-275% when compared to the control (100%. Prednisolone showed lower stimulative activity on the content of proteins. But 11-deoxycorticosterone showed weaker stimulation of on the content of sugar. Both of the corticosteroids showed a stimulating or inhibitory influence upon the content of nucleic acids in C. vulgaris cells without regard to the concentration.

  6. Antimicrobial activity of volatile components and various extracts of the red alga Jania rubens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karabay-Yavasoglu, N Ulku; Sukatar, Atakan; Ozdemir, Guven; Horzum, Zerrin

    2007-02-01

    The methanol, dichloromethane, hexane, chloroform and volatile oil extracts of the red alga Jania rubens were tested in vitro for their antimicrobial activity (five Gram-positive, four Gram-negative bacteria and Candida albicans ATCC 10239). GC-MS analysis of the volatile components of J. rubens identified 40 compounds which constituted 77.53% of the total. The volatile components of J. rubens consisted of n-docosane (6.35%), n-eicosane (5.77%) and n-tetratriacontane (5.58%) as major components. The methanol and chloroform extracts (4 mg/disc) showed more potent antimicrobial activity than the hexane and dichloromethane extracts and the volatile oil of J. rubens. PMID:17128433

  7. Cytotoxicity and antimicrobial activity of marine macro algae (Dictyotaceae and Ulvaceae) from the Persian Gulf.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mashjoor, Sakineh; Yousefzadi, Morteza; Esmaeili, Mohamad Ali; Rafiee, Roya

    2016-10-01

    Pharmaceutical industry now accept the worlds ocean which contains a vast array of organisms with unique biological properties, as a major frontier for medical investigation. Bioactive compounds with different modes of action, such as, antiproliferative, antioxidant, antimicrotubule, have been isolated from marine sources, specifically macro and micro algae, and cyanobacteria. The aim of this work was to investigate antimicrobial and cytotoxic activities of the extracts of marine macro algae Ulva flexuosa, Padina antillarum and Padina boergeseni from the northern coasts of the Persian Gulf, Qeshm Island, Iran, against three cell lines including MCF7, HeLa and Vero, as well as their inhibitory effects against a wide array (i.e. n = 11) of pathogenic bacteria and fungi. Antimicrobial activity of the marine macro algal extracts was assessed using a disc diffusion method; an MTT cytotoxicity assay was employed to test the effects of the extracts on each cancer cell line. The algal extracts showed considerable antimicrobial activity against the majority of the tested bacteria and fungi. Both ethyl acetate and methanol extracts at the highest concentration (100 µg/ml) caused cell death, with the IC50 values calculated for each cell type and each algal extracts. Results are exhibited a higher decrease in the viability of the cells treated at the highest concentration of marine macro algal ethyl acetate extracts compared to the methanol extracts (78.9 % death in Vero cells by ethyl acetate extracts from U. flexuosa). Despite, the ethyl acetate extracts with lower dose- response of cells, exhibited better cytotoxic activity than methanol extracts (IC50: 55.26 μg/ml in Vero cells by ethyl acetate extracts from U. flexuosa). Based on the findings, it is concluded that the marine macro algal extracts from the Persian Gulf possess antibacterial and cytotoxic potential, which could be considered for future applications in medicine and identifying novel drugs from the

  8. Radiation degradation of carbohydrates and their biological activities for plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kume, T.; Nagasawa, N.; Matsuhashi, S. [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Takasaki, Gunma (Japan). Takasaki Radiation Chemistry Research Establishment] [and others

    2000-03-01

    Radiation effects on carbohydrates such as chitosan, sodium alginate, carrageenan, cellulose, pectin have been investigated to improve the biological activities. These carbohydrates were easily degraded by irradiation and induced various kinds of biological activities such as anti-bacterial activity, promotion of plant growth, suppression of heavy metal stress, phytoalexins induction. Pectic fragments obtained from degraded pectin induced the phytoalexins such as glyceollins in soybean and pisatin in pea. The irradiated chitosan shows the higher elicitor activity for pisatin than that of pectin. For the plant growth promotion, alginate derived from brown marine algae, chitosan and ligno-cellulosic extracts show a strong activity. Kappa and iota carrageenan derived from red marine algae can promote growth of rice and the highest effect was obtained with kappa irradiated at 100 kGy. Some radiation degraded carbohydrates suppressed the damage of heavy metals on plants. The effects of irradiated carbohydrates on transportation of heavy metals have been investigated by PETIS (Positron Emitting Tracer Imaging System) and autoradiography using {sup 48}V and {sup 62}Zn. (author)

  9. Radiation degradation of carbohydrates and their biological activities for plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radiation effects on carbohydrates such as chitosan, sodium alginate, carrageenan, cellulose, pectin have been investigated to improve the biological activities. These carbohydrates were easily degraded by irradiation and induced various kinds of biological activities such as anti-bacterial activity, promotion of plant growth, suppression of heavy metal stress, phytoalexins induction. Pectic fragments obtained from degraded pectin induced the phytoalexins such as glyceollins in soybean and pisatin in pea. The irradiated chitosan shows the higher elicitor activity for pisatin than that of pectin. For the plant growth promotion, alginate derived from brown marine algae, chitosan and ligno-cellulosic extracts show a strong activity. Kappa and iota carrageenan derived from red marine algae can promote growth of rice and the highest effect was obtained with kappa irradiated at 100 kGy. Some radiation degraded carbohydrates suppressed the damage of heavy metals on plants. The effects of irradiated carbohydrates on transportation of heavy metals have been investigated by PETIS (Positron Emitting Tracer Imaging System) and autoradiography using 48V and 62Zn. (author)

  10. Influence of a protein hydrolysate from green algae on the activity of some ATPase systems in frog skeletal muscle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ivanov, R; Georgieva, B; Naumova, P; Mileva, K; Radicheva, N

    1999-06-01

    The present study investigated the effect of a protein hydrolysate from green algae cultured in the Bulgarian region of Rupy, on the enzyme activity of frog skeletal muscle. The activity of pure Mg(2+)-ATPase, Mg2+,Ca(2+)-ATPase, NaHCO3-stimulated Mg(2+)-ATPase and the latter in the presence of the inhibitors NaSCN and NaN3 in mitochondrial (B-3) and membrane (B-12) fractions were determined before and after treatment with the protein hydrolysate from green algae (30 and 300 micrograms/ml). The differences between ATPase activity of mitochondrial and membrane fractions were described and it was established that in the B-3 fraction, the activity of the NaHCO3-stimulated Mg(2+)-ATPase and Ca(2+)-dependent Mg(2+)-ATPase were accelerated by increasing concentrations of the algae protein hydrolysate. Irrespective of the different (equal or inverse) dose-dependent effects, the protein hydrolysate stimulated Mg(2+)-ATPase and that inhibited by NaSCN an NaN3 bicarbonate-stimulated Mg(2+)-ATPase activity. In most of the probes, the protein hydrolysate produced some increase in enzyme activity of NaHCO3-stimulated Mg(2+)-ATPase and Ca(2+)-dependent Mg(2+)-ATPase in B-12 fractions. The observed properties of the algae protein hydrolysate suggest that it is capable of stimulating enzyme processes in addition to having some antitoxic effect in skeletal muscle. PMID:10420389

  11. Antimicrosporidian activity of sulphated polysaccharides from algae and their potential to control honeybee nosemosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roussel, M; Villay, A; Delbac, F; Michaud, P; Laroche, C; Roriz, D; El Alaoui, H; Diogon, M

    2015-11-20

    Nosemosis is one of the most common and widespread diseases of adult honeybees. The causative agents, Nosema apis and Nosema ceranae, belong to microsporidia some obligate intracellular eukaryotic parasites. In this study, 10 sulphated polysaccharides from algae were evaluated for their antimicrosporidian activity. They were first shown to inhibit the in vitro growth of the mammal microsporidian model, Encephalitozoon cuniculi. The most efficient polysaccharides were then tested for their ability to inhibit the growth of Nosema ceranae in experimentally-infected adult honeybees. Two polysaccharides extracted from Porphyridium spp. did not show any toxicity in honeybees and one of them allowed a decrease of both parasite load and mortality rate due to N. ceranae infection. A decrease in parasite abundance but not in mortality rate was also observed with an iota carrageenan. Our results are promising and suggest that algal sulphated polysaccharides could be used to prevent and/or control bee nosemosis. PMID:26344274

  12. Induced modifications on algae photosynthetic activity monitored by pump-and-probe technique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barbini, R.; Colao, F.; Fantoni, R.; Palucci, A.; Ribezzo, S. [ENEA, Centro Ricerche Frascati, Rome (Italy). Dip. Innovazione; Tarzillo, G.; Carlozzi, P.; Pelosi, E. [CNR, Florence (Italy). Centro Studi Microorganismi Autotrofi

    1995-12-01

    The lidar fluorosensor system available at ENEA Frascati has been used for a series of laboratory measurements on brackish-water and marine phytoplankton grown in laboratory with the proper saline solution. The system, already used to measure the laser induced fluorescence spectra of different algae species and their detection limits, has been upgraded with a short pulse Nd:YAG laser and rearranged to test a new technique based on laser pump and probe excitation. Results of this new technique for remote monitoring of the in-vivo photosynthetic activity will be presented, as measured during a field campaign carried out in Florence during the Autumn 1993, where the effects of an actinic saturating light and different chemicals have also been checked.

  13. Let them eat algae

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ciferri, O.

    1981-09-24

    The blue-green alga, Spirulina appears to be one of the candidates for the solution of the global problems of energy, food and chemical feedstock supplies. The harvesting of algae from Lake Texcoco, Mexico for the making of bread was noted in the 16th century by the Spanish and over 400 years later, dried biscuits made from algae were noted in Chad. Recent investigations have shown that the alga contains a very high proportion of protein - even higher than soya beans and is of high quality. A pilot plant covering 2 hectares for culturing Spirulina in a closed system is under construction in Italy. The polyethylene tubes will function as solar collectors and so extend the production season of the algae in more temperate regions.

  14. Algae Derived Biofuel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jahan, Kauser [Rowan Univ., Glassboro, NJ (United States)

    2015-03-31

    One of the most promising fuel alternatives is algae biodiesel. Algae reproduce quickly, produce oils more efficiently than crop plants, and require relatively few nutrients for growth. These nutrients can potentially be derived from inexpensive waste sources such as flue gas and wastewater, providing a mutual benefit of helping to mitigate carbon dioxide waste. Algae can also be grown on land unsuitable for agricultural purposes, eliminating competition with food sources. This project focused on cultivating select algae species under various environmental conditions to optimize oil yield. Membrane studies were also conducted to transfer carbon di-oxide more efficiently. An LCA study was also conducted to investigate the energy intensive steps in algae cultivation.

  15. Occurrence of arsenic species in algae and freshwater plants of an extreme arid region in northern Chile, the Loa River Basin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pell, Albert; Márquez, Anna; López-Sánchez, José Fermín; Rubio, Roser; Barbero, Mercedes; Stegen, Susana; Queirolo, Fabrizio; Díaz-Palma, Paula

    2013-01-01

    This study reports data on arsenic speciation in two green algae species (Cladophora sp. and Chara sp.) and in five aquatic plants (Azolla sp., Myriophyllum aquaticum, Phylloscirpus cf. desserticola, Potamogeton pectinatus, Ruppia filifolia and Zannichellia palustris) from the Loa River Basin in the Atacama Desert (northern Chile). Arsenic content was measured by Mass spectrometry coupled with Inductively Coupled Plasma (ICP-MS), after acidic digestion. Liquid chromatography coupled to ICP-MS was used for arsenic speciation, using both anionic and cationic chromatographic exchange systems. Inorganic arsenic compounds were the main arsenic species measured in all samples. The main arsenic species in the extracts of freshwater algae and plants were arsenite and arsenate, whereas glycerol-arsenosugar (gly-sug), dimethylarsinic acid (DMA) and methylarsonic acid (MA) were present only as minor constituents. Of the samples studied, algae species accumulated more arsenic than aquatic plants. Total arsenic content ranged from 182 to 11100 and from 20 to 248 mg As kg(-1) (d.w.) in algae and freshwater plants, respectively. In comparison with As concentration in water samples, there was hyper-accumulation (>0.1% d.w.) in Cladophora sp. PMID:22981629

  16. Solar PAR and UVR modify the community composition and photosynthetic activity of sea ice algae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Enberg, Sara; Piiparinen, Jonna; Majaneva, Markus; Vähätalo, Anssi V; Autio, Riitta; Rintala, Janne-Markus

    2015-10-01

    The effects of increased photosynthetically active radiation (PAR) and ultraviolet radiation (UVR) on species diversity, biomass and photosynthetic activity were studied in fast ice algal communities. The experimental set-up consisted of nine 1.44 m(2) squares with three treatments: untreated with natural snow cover (UNT), snow-free (PAR + UVR) and snow-free ice covered with a UV screen (PAR). The total algal biomass, dominated by diatoms and dinoflagellates, increased in all treatments during the experiment. However, the smaller biomass growth in the top 10-cm layer of the PAR + UVR treatment compared with the PAR treatment indicated the negative effect of UVR. Scrippsiella complex (mainly Scrippsiella hangoei, Biecheleria baltica and Gymnodinium corollarium) showed UV sensitivity in the top 5-cm layer, whereas Heterocapsa arctica ssp. frigida and green algae showed sensitivity to both PAR and UVR. The photosynthetic activity was highest in the top 5-cm layer of the PAR treatment, where the biomass of the pennate diatom Nitzschia frigida increased, indicating the UV sensitivity of this species. This study shows that UVR is one of the controlling factors of algal communities in Baltic Sea ice, and that increased availability of PAR together with UVR exclusion can cause changes in algal biomass, photosynthetic activity and community composition. PMID:26310455

  17. SCREENING FOR ANTIBACTERIAL AND ANTIFUNGAL ACTIVITIES IN SOME MARINE ALGAE FROM THE FUJIAN COAST OF CHINA WITH THREE DIFFERENT SOLVENTS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郑怡; 陈寅山; 卢海声

    2001-01-01

    Three different solvents viz ethanol, acetone and methanol-toluene (3:1) were used to extract antibiotics from 23 species of marine algae belonging to the Chlomphyta, Phaeophyta and Rhodophyta. Their crude extracts were tested for antibacterial and antifungal activities. Among them, the ethanol extract showed the strongest activity against the bacteria and fungi tested. Four species of the Rhodophyta (Laurenc/a okamurai, Dasya scoparia, Grateloupia filicina and plocamium telfairiae ) showed a wide spectrum of antibacterial activity. Every solvent extract from the four species was active against all the bacteria tested. The test bacterium Pseudomonas solancearum and the fungus Penicilium citrinum were most sensitive to the extracts of marine algae. In general, the extracts of seaweeds inhibited bacteria more strongly than fungi and species of the Rhodophyta showed the greatest activity against the bacteria and fungi tested.

  18. SCREENING FOR ANTIBACTERIAL AND ANTIFUNGAL ACTIVITIES IN SOME MARINE ALGAE FROM THE FUJIAN COAST OF CHINA WITH THREE DIFFERENT SOLVENTS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郑怡; 陈寅山; 卢海声

    2001-01-01

    Three different solvents viz ethanol, acetone and methanol-toluene (3:1) were used to extract antibiotics from 23 species of marine algae belonging to the Chlorophyta, Phaeophyta and Rhodophyta. Their crude extracts were tested for antibacterial and antifungal activities. Among them, the ethanol extract showed the strongest activity against the bacteria and fungi tested. Four species of the Rhodophyta (Laurencia okamurai, Dasya scoparia, Grateloupia filicina and plocamium telfairiae ) showed a wide spectrum of antibacterial activity. Every solvent extract from the four species was active against all the bacteria tested. The test bacterium Pseudomonas solancearum and the fungus Penicilium citrinum were most sensitive to the extracts of marine algae. In general, the extracts of seaweeds inhibited bacteria more strongly than fungi and species of the Rhodophyta showed the greatest activity against the bacteria and fungi tested.

  19. Research Progress on Allelopathic Effects of Terrestrial Plants for Inhibitting Harmful Algae%陆生植物化感作用抑制有害藻应用研究进展

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王聪; 张饮江; 李岩; 文晓峰; 董悦; 刘晓培; 马海峰

    2012-01-01

    The inhibitory allelopathy of plants on algae aroused extensive concern because of its high efficiency and selective character of inhibitting harmful algae,as well as harmless to the environment.lt is expected to be a valuable and safe ' alternative for algal bloom control with the intensive study .The progress of the inhibition on the harmful algae by allelopathy was introduced, the evaluation methodology of allelopathic effect were analyzed from aspects of algae cell density, chlorophyll content, growth and metabolism and ultrastmcture, antioxidant enzyme activities. The inhibition of water boom algae and red tide algae by terrestrial plants were mainly described, Some herbaceous plants such as crops and medicinal herb as well as some ligneous plants such as common trees were included in these terrestrial plants.The antialgal compounds in these terrestrial plants were explored and analyzed,which provide theoretical guidence for developing new algistat. The potential value of inhibiting filamentous algae by allelochemicals was further discussed, which achieved diversity of algal-inhibiting objects.The problem of allelopathy by terrestrial plants were pionted out and the prospect of allelopathic algae control was put forward.%植物化感物质由于对藻类抑制的高效性和选择作用性,以及对环境无污染等特点而备受关注,有望成为具有应用价值的安全性生物抑藻技术.文章探究了利用植物化感作用抑制有害藻类生长的进展,从藻细胞密度、叶绿素含量、超微结构及生长代谢、抗氧化酶活性等方面分析了化感抑藻作用效果的评价方法,重点阐述了陆生植物对水华藻、赤潮藻主要藻种的抑制作用,包括草本植物中一些农作物和药用植物以及木本植物中的常见树木,同时对这些陆生植物中所含抑藻物质开展了探索与分析,为开发新的抑藻制剂提供理论指导,深入讨论了陆生植物化感物质抑

  20. Antinociceptive and Anti-Inflammatory Activity from Algae of the Genus Caulerpa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bárbara Viviana de Oliveira Santos

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Marine natural products have been the focus of discovery for new products of chemical and pharmacological interest. The aim of this study was to evaluate the antinociceptive activity of the methanolic (ME, acetate (AE, hexanic (HE and chloroform (CE extracts obtained from Caulerpa mexicana, and ME, CE and HE obtained from Caulerpa sertularioides. These marine algae are found all over the world, mainly in tropical regions. Models such as the writhing test, the hot plate test and formalin-induced nociception test were used to evaluate antinociceptive activity in laboratory mice. In the writhing test, all the extracts were administered orally at a concentration of 100 mg/kg, and induced high peripheral antinociceptive activity, with a reduction in the nociception induced by acetic acid above 65%. In the hot plate test, treatment with extracts from C. sertularioides (100 mg/kg, p.o. did not significantly increase the latency of response, although the ME, AE and HE from C. mexicana showed activity in this model. This result suggests that these extracts exhibit antinociceptive activity. In the formalin test, it was observed that ME, AE and HE obtained from C. mexicana reduced the effects of formalin in both phases. On the other hand only CE from C. sertularioides induced significant inhibition of the nociceptive response in the first phase. To better assess the potential anti-inflammatory activity of the extracts, the carrageenan-induced peritonitis test was used to test Caulerpa spp. extracts on cell migration into the peritoneal cavity. In this assay, all extracts evaluated were able to significantly inhibit leukocyte migration into the peritoneal cavity in comparison with carrageenan. These data demonstrate that extracts from Caulerpa species elicit pronounced antinociceptive and anti-inflamatory activity against several nociception models. However, pharmacological and chemical studies are continuing in order to characterize the mechanism

  1. Antinociceptive and anti-inflammatory activity from algae of the genus Caulerpa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    da Matta, Carolina Babosa Brito; de Souza, Everton Tenório; de Queiroz, Aline Cavalcanti; de Lira, Daysianne Pereira; de Araújo, Morgana Vital; Cavalcante-Silva, Luiz Henrique Agra; de Miranda, George Emmanuel C; de Araújo-Júnior, João Xavier; Barbosa-Filho, José Maria; de Oliveira Santos, Bárbara Viviana; Alexandre-Moreira, Magna Suzana

    2011-03-02

    Marine natural products have been the focus of discovery for new products of chemical and pharmacological interest. The aim of this study was to evaluate the antinociceptive activity of the methanolic (ME), acetate (AE), hexanic (HE) and chloroform (CE) extracts obtained from Caulerpa mexicana, and ME, CE and HE obtained from Caulerpa sertularioides. These marine algae are found all over the world, mainly in tropical regions. Models such as the writhing test, the hot plate test and formalin-induced nociception test were used to evaluate antinociceptive activity in laboratory mice. In the writhing test, all the extracts were administered orally at a concentration of 100 mg/kg, and induced high peripheral antinociceptive activity, with a reduction in the nociception induced by acetic acid above 65%. In the hot plate test, treatment with extracts from C. sertularioides (100 mg/kg, p.o.) did not significantly increase the latency of response, although the ME, AE and HE from C. mexicana showed activity in this model. This result suggests that these extracts exhibit antinociceptive activity. In the formalin test, it was observed that ME, AE and HE obtained from C. mexicana reduced the effects of formalin in both phases. On the other hand only CE from C. sertularioides induced significant inhibition of the nociceptive response in the first phase. To better assess the potential anti-inflammatory activity of the extracts, the carrageenan-induced peritonitis test was used to test Caulerpa spp. extracts on cell migration into the peritoneal cavity. In this assay, all extracts evaluated were able to significantly inhibit leukocyte migration into the peritoneal cavity in comparison with carrageenan. These data demonstrate that extracts from Caulerpa species elicit pronounced antinociceptive and anti-inflamatory activity against several nociception models. However, pharmacological and chemical studies are continuing in order to characterize the mechanism(s) responsible for the

  2. Antinociceptive and Anti-Inflammatory Activity from Algae of the Genus Caulerpa

    Science.gov (United States)

    da Matta, Carolina Babosa Brito; de Souza, Éverton Tenório; de Queiroz, Aline Cavalcanti; de Lira, Daysianne Pereira; de Araújo, Morgana Vital; Cavalcante-Silva, Luiz Henrique Agra; de Miranda, George Emmanuel C.; de Araújo-Júnior, João Xavier; Barbosa-Filho, José Maria; de Oliveira Santos, Bárbara Viviana; Alexandre-Moreira, Magna Suzana

    2011-01-01

    Marine natural products have been the focus of discovery for new products of chemical and pharmacological interest. The aim of this study was to evaluate the antinociceptive activity of the methanolic (ME), acetate (AE), hexanic (HE) and chloroform (CE) extracts obtained from Caulerpa mexicana, and ME, CE and HE obtained from Caulerpa sertularioides. These marine algae are found all over the world, mainly in tropical regions. Models such as the writhing test, the hot plate test and formalin-induced nociception test were used to evaluate antinociceptive activity in laboratory mice. In the writhing test, all the extracts were administered orally at a concentration of 100 mg/kg, and induced high peripheral antinociceptive activity, with a reduction in the nociception induced by acetic acid above 65%. In the hot plate test, treatment with extracts from C. sertularioides (100 mg/kg, p.o.) did not significantly increase the latency of response, although the ME, AE and HE from C. mexicana showed activity in this model. This result suggests that these extracts exhibit antinociceptive activity. In the formalin test, it was observed that ME, AE and HE obtained from C. mexicana reduced the effects of formalin in both phases. On the other hand only CE from C. sertularioides induced significant inhibition of the nociceptive response in the first phase. To better assess the potential anti-inflammatory activity of the extracts, the carrageenan-induced peritonitis test was used to test Caulerpa spp. extracts on cell migration into the peritoneal cavity. In this assay, all extracts evaluated were able to significantly inhibit leukocyte migration into the peritoneal cavity in comparison with carrageenan. These data demonstrate that extracts from Caulerpa species elicit pronounced antinociceptive and anti-inflamatory activity against several nociception models. However, pharmacological and chemical studies are continuing in order to characterize the mechanism(s) responsible for the

  3. [Illumination's effect on the growth and nitrate reductase activity of typical red-tide algae in the East China Sea].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Hong-mei; Shi, Xiao-yong; Ding, Yan-yan; Tang, Hong-jie

    2013-09-01

    Two typical red-tide algae, Skeletonema costatum and Prorocentrum donghaiense were selected as studied objects. The nitrate reductase activity (NRA) and the growth of the two algae under different illuminations through incubation experiment were studied. The illumination condition was consistent with in situ. Results showed that P. donghaiense and S. costatum could grow normally in the solar radiation ranged from 30-60 W x m(-2), and the growth curve was "S" type. However, when solar radiation was below 9 W x m(-2), the two alga could hardly grow. In the range of 0-60 W x m(-2), three parameters (NRAmax, micro(max), Bf) increased with the increasing of light intensity, indicating that the light intensity can influence the grow of alga indirectly through influencing the nitrate reductase activity. The micro(max) and NRAmax in unite volume of Skeletonema costatum were higher than those of Prorocentrum donghaiense, indicating that Skeletonema costatum can better utilize the nitrate than Prorocentrum donghaiense. PMID:24288981

  4. Antifertility activity of medicinal plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daniyal, Muhammad; Akram, Muhammad

    2015-07-01

    The aim of this review was to provide a comprehensive summary of medicinal plants used as antifertility agents in females throughout the world by various tribes and ethnic groups. We undertook an extensive bibliographic review by analyzing classical text books and peer reviewed papers, and further consulting well accepted worldwide scientific databases. We performed CENTRAL, Embase, and PubMed searches using terms such as "antifertility", "anti-implantation", "antiovulation", and "antispermatogenic" activity of plants. Plants, including their parts and extracts, that have traditionally been used to facilitate antifertility have been considered as antifertility agents. In this paper, various medicinal plants have been reviewed for thorough studies such as Polygonum hydropiper Linn, Citrus limonum, Piper nigrum Linn, Juniperis communis, Achyanthes aspera, Azadirachta indica, Tinospora cordifolia, and Barleria prionitis. Many of these medicinal plants appear to act through an antizygotic mechanism. This review clearly demonstrates that it is time to expand upon experimental studies to source new potential chemical constituents from medicinal plants; plant extracts and their active constituents should be further investigated for their mechanisms. This review creates a solid foundation upon which to further study the efficacy of plants that are both currently used by women as traditional antifertility medicines, but also could be efficacious as an antifertility agent with additional research and study.

  5. Antifertility activity of medicinal plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daniyal, Muhammad; Akram, Muhammad

    2015-07-01

    The aim of this review was to provide a comprehensive summary of medicinal plants used as antifertility agents in females throughout the world by various tribes and ethnic groups. We undertook an extensive bibliographic review by analyzing classical text books and peer reviewed papers, and further consulting well accepted worldwide scientific databases. We performed CENTRAL, Embase, and PubMed searches using terms such as "antifertility", "anti-implantation", "antiovulation", and "antispermatogenic" activity of plants. Plants, including their parts and extracts, that have traditionally been used to facilitate antifertility have been considered as antifertility agents. In this paper, various medicinal plants have been reviewed for thorough studies such as Polygonum hydropiper Linn, Citrus limonum, Piper nigrum Linn, Juniperis communis, Achyanthes aspera, Azadirachta indica, Tinospora cordifolia, and Barleria prionitis. Many of these medicinal plants appear to act through an antizygotic mechanism. This review clearly demonstrates that it is time to expand upon experimental studies to source new potential chemical constituents from medicinal plants; plant extracts and their active constituents should be further investigated for their mechanisms. This review creates a solid foundation upon which to further study the efficacy of plants that are both currently used by women as traditional antifertility medicines, but also could be efficacious as an antifertility agent with additional research and study. PMID:25921562

  6. 陆生植物化感作用的抑藻研究进展%Advance research on the allelopathy of terrestrial plants in inhibition of algae

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    倪利晓; 陈世金; 任高翔; 郝向阳

    2011-01-01

    Currently, it is a hot issue in environmental field to control algal bloom effectively and to treat the eutrophic water body. The allelochemical is the secondary metabolites what are produced by plants, bacteria, viruses and fungi. The allelopathy of aquatic autotrophs has drawn the most attention because it is believed to be high effective, low toxic and eco-friendly approach to control algal blooms. However, only a little research has been carried on the algicidal activity of the terrestrial plants. This paper made a systematic discussion on the evolution of the concept of the allelopathy, many kinds of biological inhibitions on algae and the mechanism of allelochemicals, ect. And it summarizes the research progress of the allelopathy of terrestrial plants in inhibition of algae by domestic and foreign scholars in recent years. The paper considered that the advantages of terrrstrial plants which were compared with aquatic ones embodied some aspects such as obvious allelopathy effect, rich allelopathy and noise immunity in aquatic biological environment, ect. And it also made a prospect for the research direction of the terrestrial plants in algal inhibition. The terrestrial plants and especially the compositae have a broad prospects in inhibition of algae. Finally, there are still some questions in several aspects such as a deep exploration and improvement of the allelopathy's extraction and identification, the research of the mechanism of allelochemicals, ecological safety and so on should be solved.%有效控制水华,治理富营养化水体是目前环境领域的研究热点和前沿.所谓化感物质,就是由植物、细菌、病毒和真菌所产生的二次代谢产物.利用水生植物的化感作用或化感物质抑制水体中藻类的爆发被认为是一种高效、低毒、环境亲合性好的方法而备受关注.然而,对于陆生植物应用于抑制藻类生长的研究却较少.文章在对化感作用的概念的演化、各种生物对

  7. Antibacterial activity of selected marine macro algae against vancomycin resistant Enterococcus faecalis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Manivachagam Chandrasekaran; Venugopalan Venkatesalu; Gnanaprakasam Adaikala Raj

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the antibacterial activity of different extracts of Caulerpa chemnitzia (Epser) J.V. Lamououx, Caulerpa racemosa (Frosk.) Weber-van-Bosse (C. racemosa), Caulerpascalpelliformis Forsk, Stoechospermum marginatum (Ag.) Kutz (S. marginatum), Sargassum wightii Grev,Gracilaria verrucosa (R.Br.) Weber-van-Bosse, Ulva lactuca Lin, Ulva fasciata Dellie, Ulva reticulata Enterococcus faecalis (MTCC 439) (E. faecalis) and one clinical isolate of vancomycin resistant E.faecalis. Methods: The selected marine macro algae were extracted with different solvents viz., hexane, chloroform, ethyl acetate, acetone and methanol. Antibacterial assay was carried out by using disc diffusion method, determination of minimum inhibitory concentration and minimum bactericidal concentration.Results:(Huds.) Papenfuss and Gracilaria edulis (S.G. Gemelin) P.C. Silva against marginatum and C. racemosa than the other extracts. The mean zone of inhibition produced by the extracts in agar diffusion assays against the tested bacterial strains ranged from 7.1 to 14.5 mm. The minimum inhibitory concentration was between 250 and 500 µg/mL, while the minimum bactericidal concentration was from 500 to 1000 µg/mL. The ethyl acetate extracts of the seaweeds showed the presence of strong terpenoids, tannins and phenolic compounds compared with the other solvent extracts.Conclusions:The maximum antibacterial activity was recorded in the ethyl acetate extracts of S. racemosa can be used as an antibacterial substance for the treatment of infection caused by E. faecalis. These findings suggest that ethyl acetate extracts of S. marginatum and C.

  8. Antibacterial activity of selected marine macro algae against vancomycin resistant Enterococcus faecalis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manivachagam Chandrasekaran

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To evaluate the antibacterial activity of different extracts of Caulerpa chemnitzia (Epser J.V. Lamououx, Caulerpa racemosa (Frosk. Weber-van-Bosse (C. racemosa, Caulerpa scalpelliformis (R.Br. Weber-van-Bosse, Ulva lactuca Lin, Ulva fasciata Dellie, Ulva reticulata Forsk, Stoechospermum marginatum (Ag. Kutz (S. marginatum, Sargassum wightii Grev, Gracilaria verrucosa (Huds. Papenfuss and Gracilaria edulis (S.G. Gemelin P.C. Silva against Enterococcus faecalis (MTCC 439 (E. faecalis and one clinical isolate of vancomycin resistant E. faecalis. Methods: The selected marine macro algae were extracted with different solvents viz., hexane, chloroform, ethyl acetate, acetone and methanol. Antibacterial assay was carried out by using disc diffusion method, determination of minimum inhibitory concentration and minimum bactericidal concentration. Results: The maximum antibacterial activity was recorded in the ethyl acetate extracts of S. marginatum and C. racemosa than the other extracts. The mean zone of inhibition produced by the extracts in agar diffusion assays against the tested bacterial strains ranged from 7.1 to 14.5 mm. The minimum inhibitory concentration was between 250 and 500 µg/mL, while the minimum bactericidal concentration was from 500 to 1 000 µg/mL. The ethyl acetate extracts of the seaweeds showed the presence of strong terpenoids, tannins and phenolic compounds compared with the other solvent extracts. Conclusions: These findings suggest that ethyl acetate extracts of S. marginatum and C. racemosa can be used as an antibacterial substance for the treatment of infection caused by E. faecalis.

  9. A novel thyroglobulin-binding lectin from the brown alga Hizikia fusiformis and its antioxidant activities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Mingjiang; Tong, Changqing; Wu, Yue; Liu, Shuai; Li, Wei

    2016-06-15

    A lectin (HFL) was isolated from the brown alga, Hizikia fusiformis, through ion exchange on cellulose DE52 and HPLC with a TSK-gel G4000PWXL column. SDS-PAGE showed that HFL had a molecular mass of 16.1 kDa. The HPLC (with a TSK-gel G4000PWXL column) indicated that HFL is a tetramer in its native state. The total carbohydrate content was 41%. Glucose, galactose and fucose were the monosaccharide units of HFL, and the normalized mol% values were 6, 14 and 80, respectively. HFL contains a large amount of the acidic amino acid, Asx. The β-elimination reaction suggested that the oligosaccharide and peptide moieties of HFL may belong to the N-glucosidic linkage. The amino acid sequences, of about five segments of HFL, were acquired by MALDI-TOF/TOF, and the sequences have no homology with other lectins. HFL was found to agglutinate sheep erythrocytes. The hemagglutination activity was inhibited by thyroglobulin, from bovine thyroid, but not by any of the monosaccharides tested. The lectin reaction was independent of the presence of the divalent cation Ca(2+). HFL showed free radical scavenging activity against hydroxyl, DPPH and ABTS(+) radicals. PMID:26868541

  10. Green alga Ulva pertusa--a new source of bioactive compounds with antialgal activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ying-ying, Sun; Hui, Wang; Gan-lin, Guo; Yin-fang, Pu; Bin-lun, Yan; Chang-hai, Wang

    2015-07-01

    We tested the effects of solvent fractions (FA, FB, FC, and FD), which partitioned by liquid-liquid extraction from the methanol extract of Ulva pertusa, on the growth of red tide microalgae (Karenia mikimitoi, Skeletonema costatum, Alexandrium tamarense, Heterosigma akashiwo, Prorocentrum donghaiense), and FA, FB, and FC exhibited significantly antialgal activity. The chemical constituent analysis showed the existence of bioactive compounds such as phenols and alkaloids. Further, four solvent fractions were applied to silica gel column and repeated preparative TLC to produce 13 samples and their purity qualified as thin-layer chromatographic grade. Among these purified samples, FA111, FB411, FC411, FD111, and FD211 exhibited stronger antialgal activity. Furthermore, their functional groups were analyzed by colorimetric methods and UV spectra data. FD111 and FD211 were temptatively identified as alkaloids; the others were initially identified as phenolic acids. This is a preliminary study and the structure identification of these purified samples requires further investigation. While concentration of these purified samples in this algae was very small, they showed excellent effects against red tide microalgae. PMID:25724801

  11. Prediction of Toxicity of Phenols and Anilines to Algae by Quantitative Structure-activity Relationship

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GUANG-HUA LU; CHAO WANG; XIAO-LING GUO

    2008-01-01

    Objective To measure the toxicity of phenol, aniline, and their derivatives to algae and to assess, model and predict the toxicity using quantitative structure-activity relationship (QSAR) method. Methods Oxygen production was used as the response endpoint for assessing the toxic effects of chemicals on algal photosynthesis. The energy of the lowest unoccupied molecular orbital (ELUMO) and the energy of the highest occupied molecular orbital (E) Were obtained from the ChemOffice 2004 program using the quantum chemical method MOPAC, and the frontier orbital energy gap (ΔE) was obtained. Results The compounds exhibited a reasonably wide range of algal toxicity. The most toxic compound was α-naphthol, whereas the least toxic one was aniline. A two-descriptor model was derived from the algal toxicity and structural parameters:logl/EC50=0.268logKow-1.006ΔE+11.769 (n=20,r2=0.946). This model was stable and satisfactory for predicting toxicity. Conclusion Phenol aniline, and their derivatives axe polar narcotics. Their toxicity is greater than estimated by hydrophobicity only, and addition of the frontier orbital energy gap ΔE can significantly improve the prediction of logKow-dependont models.

  12. Cytotoxic activity of some marine brown algae against cancer cell lines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khanavi, Mahnaz; Nabavi, Maryam; Sadati, Nargess; Shams Ardekani, Mohammadreza; Sohrabipour, Jelve; Nabavi, Seyed Mohammad B; Ghaeli, Padideh; Ostad, Seyed Nasser

    2010-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the in vitro cytotoxic activity of total extract of MeOH (70%) and partition fractions of hexan, chloroform (CHCL3), ethylacetate (EtOAc) and MeOH-H2O of brown algae species (Sargassum swartzii, Cystoseira myrica, Colpomenia sinuosa) found in the Persian Gulf against in different cell lines including HT-29, Caco-2, T47D, MDA-MB468 and NIH 3T3 cell lines by MTT and AnnexinV-PI assay. The hexan fraction of S. swartzii and C. myrica showed selective cytotoxicity against proliferation of Caco-2 cells (IC50 hexan fraction of C. myrica on T47D parent cells was lower than it was on T47D-TR cells (IC50 99.9 ± 8.11 vs. 143.15 ± 7.80). This finding suggests a role for the MDR-1 in the development of possible future tolerance to the extract. PMID:21157630

  13. Antiprotozoal activities of Colombian plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weniger, B; Robledo, S; Arango, G J; Deharo, E; Aragón, R; Muñoz, V; Callapa, J; Lobstein, A; Anton, R

    2001-12-01

    In our search for therapeutical alternatives for antiprotozoal chemotherapy, we collected a selection of 44 plants from western Colombia upon ethnopharmacological and chemotaxonomic considerations. Polar and apolar extracts of these species were examined for antimalarial activity using in vitro tests with two clones of Plasmodium falciparum. Leishmanicidal and trypanocidal activity were determined in vitro using promastigote and amastigote forms of several strains of Leishmania sp. and epimastigotes of Trypanosoma cruzi. Among the selected plants, the 15 following species showed good or very good antiprotozoal activity in vitro: Aspidosperma megalocarpon, Campnosperma panamense, Conobea scoparioides, Guarea polymera, Guarea guidonia, Guatteria amplifolia, Huberodendron patinoi, Hygrophila guianensis, Jacaranda caucana, Marila laxiflora, Otoba novogranatensis, Otoba parviflora, Protium amplium, Swinglea glutinosa and Tabernaemontana obliqua. Cytotoxicity was assessed in U-937 cells and the ratio of cytotoxicity to antiprotozoal activity was determined for the active extracts. Ten extracts from eight species showed selectivity indexes > or = 10. Among the extracts that showed leishmanicidal activity, the methylene chloride extract of leaves from C. scoparioides showed a selectivity index in the same range that the one of the Glucantime control. Several of the active leishmanicidal plants are traditionally used against leishmaniasis by the population of the concerned area. PMID:11694364

  14. Medicinal Plants with Antiplatelet Activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El Haouari, Mohammed; Rosado, Juan A

    2016-07-01

    Blood platelets play an essential role in the hemostasis and wound-healing processes. However, platelet hyperactivity is associated to the development and the complications of several cardiovascular diseases. In this sense, the search for potent and safer antiplatelet agents is of great interest. This article provides an overview of experimental studies performed on medicinal plants with antiplatelet activity available through literature with particular emphasis on the bioactive constituents, the parts used, and the various platelet signaling pathways modulated by medicinal plants. From this review, it was suggested that medicinal plants with antiplatelet activity mainly belong to the family of Asteraceae, Rutaceae, Fabaceae, Lamiaceae, Zygophyllaceae, Rhamnaceae, Liliaceae, and Zingiberaceae. The antiplatelet effect is attributed to the presence of bioactive compounds such as polyphenols, flavonoids, coumarins, terpenoids, and other substances which correct platelet abnormalities by interfering with different platelet signalization pathways including inhibition of the ADP pathway, suppression of TXA2 formation, reduction of intracellular Ca(2+) mobilization, and phosphoinositide breakdown, among others. The identification and/or structure modification of the plant constituents and the understanding of their action mechanisms will be helpful in the development of new antiplatelet agents based on medicinal plants which could contribute to the prevention of thromboembolic-related disorders by inhibiting platelet aggregation. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. PMID:27062716

  15. 陆生植物对藻类化感抑制作用的研究进展%Research progress in the inhibition effect of terrestrial plant on algae allelopathy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    江中央; 郭沛涌

    2011-01-01

    如何有效抑制藻类的生长、防治水华发生是目前水环境领域研究的热点和前沿问题之一.利用植物的化感作用抑藻作为一种新型的生物除藻技术而备受关注.阐述了陆生植物对水华微藻生长的抑制作用研究成果,论述了其对藻类生长的抑制作用方式、抑藻化感物质及种类,以及抑藻化感作用机理,并对植物化感抑藻前景进行了展望.%How to inhibit the growth of algae and to effectively control the existence of water bloom is a hot and front-line issue in water environmental field. The novel biological algae removing technology by making use of allelopathic effect of plants to inhibit the algae has received much concern. The research achievements of the inhibition effect of terrestrial plant on the growth of water bloom micro-algae are expounded. The modes of inhibition effect on algae growth,the substances and species of algae inhibiting allelopathy and the mechanism of algae inhibiting allelopathy are discussed. The foreground of plant allelopathic effect on algae inhibition is predicted.

  16. Epithermal neutron activation analysis of blue-green algae Spirulina Platensis as a matrix for selenium-containing pharmaceuticals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To evaluate the potentiality of the blue-green algae Spirulina Platensis as a matrix for the production of Se-containing pharmaceuticals, the background levels of 31 major, minor and trace elements (Na, Mg, Al, Cl, K, Ca, Sc, V, Cr, Mn, Fe, Co, Ni (using (n,p)-reaction), As, Br, Zn, Rb, Mo, Ag, Sb, I, Ba, Sm, Tb, Tm, Hf, Ta, W, Au, Hg, Th) in Spirulina Platensis biomass were determined by means of epithermal neutron activation analysis. The possibility of the purpose-oriented incorporation of Se into Spirulina Platensis biomass was demonstrated. The polynomial dependence of the Se accumulation on nutritional medium loading was revealed. The employed analytical technique allows one to reliably control the amount of toxic elements in algae Spirulina Platensis. Based on this study, a conclusion of the possibility to use Spirulina Platensis as a matrix for the production of Se-containing pharmaceuticals was drawn

  17. Epithermal neutron activation analysis of blue-green algae Spirulina platensis as a matrix for selenium-containing pharmaceuticals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To evaluate the potentiality of the blue-green algae Spirulina platensis as a matrix for the production of Se-containing pharmaceuticals, the background levels of 31 major, minor and trace elements (Na, Mg, Al, Cl, K, Ca, Sc, V, Cr, Mn, Fe, Co, Ni using (n,p) reaction), As, Br, Zn, Rb, Mo, Ag, Sb, I, Ba, Sm, Tb, Tm, Hf, Ta, W, Au, Hg, Th were determined in Spirulina platensis biomass by means of epithermal neutron activation analysis. The possibility of the purpose-oriented incorporation of Se into Spirulina platensis biomass was demonstrated. The polynomial dependence of the Se accumulation on nutritional medium loading was revealed. The analytical technique used allows to control the amount of toxic elements in algae Spirulina platensis. Conclusion of the possibility to use Spirulina platensis as a matrix for the production of Se-containing pharmaceutical was drawn. (author)

  18. Amino acid content of selected plant, algae and insect species: a search for alternative protein sources for use in pet foods*

    OpenAIRE

    McCusker, Sarah; Buff, Preston R.; Yu, Zengshou; Fascetti, Andrea J.

    2014-01-01

    In response to global economic duress and heightened consumer awareness of nutrition and health, sustainable and natural ingredients are in demand. Identification of alternative sources of nitrogen and amino acids, including taurine, may help meet dietary requirements while fostering sustainability and natural feeding approaches. Twenty plants, eighteen marine algae and five insect species were analysed. All samples were freeze-dried, hydrolysed and filtered prior to amino acid analysis. Samp...

  19. Fingerprinting antioxidative activities in plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Plieth Christoph

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background A plethora of concurrent cellular activities is mobilised in the adaptation of plants to adverse environmental conditions. This response can be quantified by physiological experiments or metabolic profiling. The intention of this work is to reduce the number of metabolic processes studied to a minimum of relevant parameters with a maximum yield of information. Therefore, we inspected 'summary parameters' characteristic for whole classes of antioxidative metabolites and key enzymes. Results Three bioluminescence assays are presented. A horseradish peroxidase-based total antioxidative capacity (TAC assay is used to probe low molecular weight antioxidants. Peroxidases are quantified by their luminol converting activity (LUPO. Finally, we quantify high molecular weight superoxide anion scavenging activity (SOSA using coelenterazine. Experiments with Lepidium sativum L. show how salt, drought, cold, and heat influence the antioxidative system represented here by TAC, LUPO, SOSA, catalase, and glutathione reductase (GR. LUPO and SOSA run anti-parallel under all investigated stress conditions suggesting shifts in antioxidative functions rather than formation of antioxidative power. TAC runs in parallel with GR. This indicates that a majority of low molecular weight antioxidants in plants is represented by glutathione. Conclusion The set of assays presented here is capable of characterising antioxidative activities in plants. It is inexpensive, quick and reproducible and delivers quantitative data. 'Summary parameters' like TAC, LUPO, and SOSA are quantitative traits which may be promising for implementation in high-throughput screening for robustness of novel mutants, transgenics, or breeds.

  20. The Study of Algae

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rushforth, Samuel R.

    1977-01-01

    Included in this introduction to the study of algae are drawings of commonly encountered freshwater algae, a summary of the importance of algae, descriptions of the seven major groups of algae, and techniques for collection and study of algae. (CS)

  1. Antinociceptive and Anti-Inflammatory Activities of Crude Methanolic Extract of Red Alga Bryothamnion triquetrum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luiz Henrique Agra Cavalcante-Silva

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available The marine environment is an extraordinary reservoir of bioactive natural products, many of which exhibit chemical and structural features not found in terrestrial natural products. In this regard, the aim of this study was to investigate the possible antinociceptive and anti-inflammatory activities of a crude methanolic extract of the red alga Bryothamnion triquetrum (BT-MeOH in murine models. Groups of Swiss mice of both sexes (25–30 g were used throughout the experiments. The potential antinociceptive of BT-MeOH was evaluated by means of the following tests: acetic acid-induced writhing, hot-plate test and glutamate- and formalin-induced nociception. The anti-inflammatory activity of BT-MeOH was investigated using the zymosan A-induced peritonitis test. The tests were conducted using 100 mg/kg (p.o. BT-MeOH, 33.3 mg/kg (p.o. dipyrone, 35.7 mg/kg (p.o. indomethacin and 5.7 mg/kg (s.c. morphine. The extract and all standard drugs were administered 40 min before the nociceptive/inflammatory stimulus. In the acetic acid-induced writhing test, BT-MeOH and dipyrone inhibited the nociceptive response by 55.9% (22.2 ± 2.0 writhings; p < 0.01 and 80.9% (9.6 ± 2.1 writhings; p < 0.01. In the hot-plate test, BT-MeOH did not increase the latency time of the animals in the time evaluated. In addition, BT-MeOH inhibited glutamate-induced nociception by 50.1%. While BT-MeOH did not inhibit the neurogenic phase in formalin-induced nociception, the inflammatory phase was inhibited by 53.1% (66.8 ± 14.2 s; p < 0.01. Indomethacin inhibited the inflammatory phase by 60.2% (56.8 ± 8.7 s; p < 0.01. In the zymosan-induced peritonitis test, BT-MeOH inhibited 55.6% (6.6 ± 0.2 × 106 leukocytes/mL; p < 0.01 of leukocyte migration, while indomethacin inhibited 78.1% (3.2 ± 0.1 × 106 leukocytes/mL; p < 0.01. Based on the results obtained in this study, we conclude that BT-MeOH has peripheral antinociceptive and anti-inflammatory activities. However, more

  2. Antinociceptive and Anti-Inflammatory Activities of Crude Methanolic Extract of Red Alga Bryothamnion triquetrum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cavalcante-Silva, Luiz Henrique Agra; da Matta, Carolina Barbosa Brito; de Araújo, Morgana Vital; Barbosa-Filho, José Maria; de Lira, Daysianne Pereira; de Oliveira Santos, Bárbara Viviana; de Miranda, George Emmanuel C.; Alexandre-Moreira, Magna Suzana

    2012-01-01

    The marine environment is an extraordinary reservoir of bioactive natural products, many of which exhibit chemical and structural features not found in terrestrial natural products. In this regard, the aim of this study was to investigate the possible antinociceptive and anti-inflammatory activities of a crude methanolic extract of the red alga Bryothamnion triquetrum (BT-MeOH) in murine models. Groups of Swiss mice of both sexes (25–30 g) were used throughout the experiments. The potential antinociceptive of BT-MeOH was evaluated by means of the following tests: acetic acid-induced writhing, hot-plate test and glutamate- and formalin-induced nociception. The anti-inflammatory activity of BT-MeOH was investigated using the zymosan A-induced peritonitis test. The tests were conducted using 100 mg/kg (p.o.) BT-MeOH, 33.3 mg/kg (p.o.) dipyrone, 35.7 mg/kg (p.o.) indomethacin and 5.7 mg/kg (s.c.) morphine. The extract and all standard drugs were administered 40 min before the nociceptive/inflammatory stimulus. In the acetic acid-induced writhing test, BT-MeOH and dipyrone inhibited the nociceptive response by 55.9% (22.2 ± 2.0 writhings; p < 0.01) and 80.9% (9.6 ± 2.1 writhings; p < 0.01). In the hot-plate test, BT-MeOH did not increase the latency time of the animals in the time evaluated. In addition, BT-MeOH inhibited glutamate-induced nociception by 50.1%. While BT-MeOH did not inhibit the neurogenic phase in formalin-induced nociception, the inflammatory phase was inhibited by 53.1% (66.8 ± 14.2 s; p < 0.01). Indomethacin inhibited the inflammatory phase by 60.2% (56.8 ± 8.7 s; p < 0.01). In the zymosan-induced peritonitis test, BT-MeOH inhibited 55.6% (6.6 ± 0.2 × 106 leukocytes/mL; p < 0.01) of leukocyte migration, while indomethacin inhibited 78.1% (3.2 ± 0.1 × 106 leukocytes/mL; p < 0.01). Based on the results obtained in this study, we conclude that BT-MeOH has peripheral antinociceptive and anti-inflammatory activities. However, more studies need

  3. Growth responses of selected freshwater algae to trace elements and scrubber ash slurry generated by coal-fired power plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vocke, R.W.

    1979-01-01

    The development and implementation of standard toxicity tests is a necessity if consistent and reliable data are to be obtained for water quality criteria. The adapted EPA AAPBT is an ideal static algal toxicity test system. The algal test medium has a chemical composition similar to natural unpolluted waters of low ionic strength. It is appropriate to use MATC water quality criteria when assessing the potential impact of pollutants generated by coal-fired power stations because these energy-generated pollutants typically enter aquatic systems in small quantities over long periods. The MATC water quality criteria are estimates of trace element and SASE levels, based on the most sensitive alga investigated, that will not cause significant changes in naturally-functioning algal populations. These levels are 0.016f mg L/sup -1/ As(V), 0.001 mg L/sup -1/ Cd(II), 0.004 mg L/sup -1/ Hg(II), 0.006 mg L/sup -1/ Se(VI), and 0.344% SASE. To provide viable working water quality criteria, an extrapolation from the laboratory to the natural environment must be made. Therefore, those oxidation states of the trace elements were selected which are the dominant states occurring in natural, unpolluted, slightly alkaline freshwaters. It must be pointed out that these MATC values are based on algal responses to single toxicants and no allowance is made for synergistic, additive, or antagonistic relationships which could occur in natural aquatic systems. Additionally, natural chelation may influence toxicity. The highly toxic nature of potential pollutants from coal-fired generating plants emphasizes the need for minimizing stack effluent pollutants and retaining scrubber ash slurry for proper disposal in an effort to maintain trace elements in concentration ranges compatible with naturally-functioning ecosystems.

  4. Anti-Proliferative Activity of Meroditerpenoids Isolated from the Brown Alga Stypopodium flabelliforme against Several Cancer Cell Lines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patricia Valentao

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available The sea constitutes one of the most promising sources of novel compounds with potential application in human therapeutics. In particular, algae have proved to be an interesting source of new bioactive compounds. In this work, six meroditerpenoids (epitaondiol, epitaondiol diacetate, epitaondiol monoacetate, stypotriol triacetate, 14-ketostypodiol diacetate and stypodiol isolated from the brown alga Stypopodium flabelliforme were tested for their cell proliferation inhibitory activity in five cell lines. Cell lines tested included human colon adenocarcinoma (Caco-2, human neuroblastoma (SH-SY5Y, rat basophilic leukemia (RBL-2H3, murine macrophages (RAW.267 and Chinese hamster fibroblasts (V79. Antimicrobial activity of the compounds was also evaluated against Staphylococcus aureus, Salmonella typhimurium, Proteus mirabilis, Bacillus cereus, Enterococcus faecalis and Micrococcus luteus. Overall, the compounds showed good activity against all cell lines, with SH-SY5Y and RAW.267 being the most susceptible. Antimicrobial capacity was observed for epitaondiol monoacetate, stypotriol triacetate and stypodiol, with the first being the most active. The results suggest that these molecules deserve further studies in order to evaluate their potential as therapeutic agents.

  5. Global Activities and Plant Survival

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bandick, Roger

    2014-01-01

    This chapter provides an extensive review of the empirical evidence found for Sweden concerning plant survival. The result reveals that foreign MNE plants and exporting non-MNE plants have the lowest exit rates, followed by purely domestic-oriented plants, and that domestic MNE plants have...... the highest exit rates. Moreover, the exit rates of globally engaged plants seem to be unaffected by increased foreign presence, whereas there appears to be a negative impact on the survival rates of non-exporting non-MNE plants. Finally, the result reveals that the survival ratio of plants of acquired...... exporters, but not other types of plants, improves post acquisition....

  6. Antioxidant activity and gas chromatographic-mass spectrometric analysis of extracts of the marine algae, caulerpa peltata and padina gymnospora

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kavitha Murugan

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The results of our previous investigations on extracts of selected marine algae showed that Caulerpa peltata and Padina gymnospora had more promising antiproliferative and antioxidant activities than Gelidiella acerosa and Sargassum wightii. Based on these results, the more active chloroform extract of C. peltata and ethyl acetate extract of P. gymnospora were further analyzed for their constituents by using gas chromatography in tandem with mass spectrometry. The GC-MS analysis (GC % peak area given in parentheses showed that fucosterol (12.45% and L-(+-ascorbic acid 2,6-dihexadecanoate (8.13% were the major compounds present in P. gymnospora ethyl acetate extract. On the other hand, C. peltata chloroform extract had 1-heptacosanol (10.52%, hexacosanol acetate (9.28%, tetradecyl ester of chloroacetic acid (7.22%, Z,Z-6,28-heptatriactontadien-2-one (6.77% and 10,13-dimethyl-methyl ester of tetradecanoic acid (5.34% as major compounds. Also described in the report are the beta-carotene bleaching inhibitory and total reducing activities of the chloroform and ethyl acetate extracts of C. peltata and P. gymnospora, respectively, relative to the other three extracts (aqueous, methanol, chloroform or ethyl acetate of the two algae.

  7. Biological activities of fucose-containing polysaccharide ascophyllan isolated from the brown alga Ascophyllum nodosum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakayasu, Seiichirou; Soegima, Ryo; Yamaguchi, Kenichi; Oda, Tatsuya

    2009-04-23

    A fucose-containing, sulfated polysaccharide ascophyllan was isolated from the brown alga Ascophyllum nodosum. Composition analysis demonstrated that ascophyllan mainly contains uronic acid, xylose, fucose, and sulfate half ester in approximately equimolecular proportions, which are evidently distinct from those of alginate and fucoidan. Ascophyllan inhibited the proliferation of U937 cells in a concentration-dependent manner, and DNA-fragmentation and typical apoptotic nuclear morphological changes were observed in the ascophyllan-treated cells. Furthermore, ascophyllan induced the secretion of tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha) and granulocyte colony-stimulating factor (G-CSF) from mouse macrophage cell line RAW264.7. PMID:19352011

  8. Algae Resources

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2016-06-01

    Algae are highly efficient at producing biomass, and they can be found all over the planet. Many use sunlight and nutrients to create biomass, which contain key components—including lipids, proteins, and carbohydrates— that can be converted and upgraded to a variety of biofuels and products. A functional algal biofuels production system requires resources such as suitable land and climate, sustainable management of water resources, a supplemental carbon dioxide (CO2) supply, and other nutrients (e.g., nitrogen and phosphorus). Algae can be an attractive feedstock for many locations in the United States because their diversity allows for highpotential biomass yields in a variety of climates and environments. Depending on the strain, algae can grow by using fresh, saline, or brackish water from surface water sources, groundwater, or seawater. Additionally, they can grow in water from second-use sources such as treated industrial wastewater; municipal, agricultural, or aquaculture wastewater; or produced water generated from oil and gas drilling operations.

  9. AN IN VITRO STUDY OF THE STRUCTURE-ACTIVITY RELATIONSHIPS OF SULFATED POLYSACCHARIDE FROM BROWN ALGAE TO ITS ANTIOXIDANT EFFECT

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    JIN FENG HU; MEI YU GENG; JUN TIAN ZHANG; HAN DONG JIANG

    2001-01-01

    In this paper, the structure-activity relationships of chemically modified uronic acid polymer fragments from brown algae with regard to their antioxidant effects on H2O2-damaged lymphocyte were studied. The results indicated that the most potent antioxidant activity was obtained from the sulfated polysaccharide with ratio of mannuronate blocks (M-blocks) to guluronate blocks (G-blocks) of 3 to 1 and carboxyl residue unesterified. The sulfated G-blocks with esterified carboxyl residue also prevented lymphocyte from injury. However, the sulfated G-blocks bearing unesterified carboxyl residue hardly exerted antioxidant activity. These findings suggested that both M-blocks and esterified carboxyl residue were determinant structures in preventing lymphocyte from being oxidized by H2O2, indicating that the existence of M-blocks was more important in scavenging free radicals.

  10. Antimicrobial activity of ethanolic extracts from algae against Penicillium expansum Link (Trichocomaceae, Ascomycota

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Argus Cezar da Rocha Neto

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Penicillium expansum is a cosmopolitan, highly aggressive pathogen that causes blue mold, a disease of great importance that leads to losses in quality and quantity of harvested fruits. The application of chemicals is traditionally used as a control method. However, algae bioprospecting has revealed many antifungal compounds that can be used to control pathogens. Thus, the objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of ethanolic extracts from seven microalgae and five macroalgae against P. expansum. The antifungal potential was evaluated by analyzing germination percentage, the size of the germ tube, minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC, and the median effective concentration (EC50. The spectrophotometric profile was determined for extracts that showed an inhibitory effect. Among the investigated algae, the Chlorella sp. and H. pluvialis extracts, which had final concentrations of 18.8 and 125.95mg.mL-1, inhibited 100% and 91% germination, respectively. The EC50 was 2.93 and 61.20 mg.mL-1 for Chlorella sp. and H. pluvialis, respectively. Chlorella sp. showed absorption peaks in the range of chlorophyll-a and H. pluvialis presented a peak in the range of phenolic compounds. Although further studies are required to characterize the extracts, Chlorella sp. and H. pluvialis showed promising antifungal effects on the control of P. expansum.

  11. Phylogeny and evolution of charophytic algae and land plants%轮藻和陆地植物系统发育及其进化

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    仇寅龙

    2008-01-01

    Charophytic algae and land plants together make up a monophyletic group, streptophytes, which represents one of the main lineages of multicellular eukaryotes and has contributed greatly to the change of the environment on earth in the Phanerozoic Eon. Significant progress has been made to understand phylogenetic relationships among members of this group by phylogenetic studies of morphological and molecular data over the last twenty-five years. Mesostigma viride is now regarded as among the earliest diverging unicellular organisms in streptophytes. Characeae are the sister group to land plants. Liverworts represent the first diverging lineage of land plants. Hornworts and lycophytes are extant representatives of bryophytes and vascular plants, respectively, when early land plants changed from gametophyte to sporophyte as the dominant generation in the life cycle. Equisetum, Psilotaceae, and ferns constitute the monophyletic group of monilophytes, which are sister to seed plants. Gnetales are related to conifers, not to angiosperms as previously thought. Amborella, Nymphaeales, Hydatellaceae, Illiciales, Trimeniaceae, and Austrobaileya represent the earliest diverging lineages of extant angiosperms. These phylogenetic results, together with recent progress on elucidating genetic and developmental aspects of the plant life cycle, multicellularity, and gravitropism, will facilitate evolutionary developmental studies of these key traits, which will help us to gain mechanistic understanding on how plants adapted to environmental challenges when they colonized the land during one of the major transitions in evolution of life.

  12. In vitro Mosquito Larvicidal Activity of Marine Algae Against the Human Vectors, Culex quinquefasciatus (Say and Aedes aegypti (Linnaeus (Diptera: Culicidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akbar Idhayadhulla

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available A total of twenty marine algae were collected from the rocky intertidal and subtidal regions of the southwest coast of India and extracted in methanol. The extracts were evaluated for larvicidal activity against the second and third instar larvae of the human vector mosquito Culex quinquefasciatus and Aedes aegypti (Diptera: Culicidae. Analysis on the activity profile of the above marine algae indicated that the early stage larvae were very sensitive to seven seaweed extracts that had been tested. Among the seven marine algae, Lobophora variegata was highly potential, showing LD50 value of 70.38 and 79.43 g mL-1 on the 2nd instar larvae of A. aegypti and C. quinquefasciatus respectively. The rank of larvicidal potency in highly active algae in the descending order is as follows: Lobophora variegata (Dictyotaceae>Spatoglossum asperum (Dictyotaceae>Stoechospermum marginatum (Dictyotaceae>Sargassum wightii (Sargassaceae >Acrosiphonia orientalis (Acrosiphoniaceae>Centroceras clavulatum (Ceramiacea>Padina tetrastromatica (Dictyotaceae. This is the first report that envisaged the mosquito larvicidal efficacy of L. variegata from the Indian coast. Therefore, this marine alga could be recognized as a potential resource of natural insecticide and can be developed to replace synthetic insecticides in future.

  13. [Algicidal activity against red-tide algaes by marine bacterial strain N3 isolated from a HABs area, southern China].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Rong-jun; Huang, Hong-hui; Qi, Zhan-hui; Hu, Wei-an; Tian, Zi-yang; Dai, Ming

    2013-05-01

    A marine algicidal bacterium N3 was isolated from a HABs area in Mirs Bay, a subtropical bay, in southern China. Algicidal activity and algicidal mode against Phaeodactylum tricornutum, Scrippsiella trochoidea, Prorocentrum micans and Skeletonema costatum were observed by the liquid infection method. The results showed that there were no algicidal activities against P. tricornutum and S. costatum. However, when the bacterial volume fractions were 2% and 10% , S. trochoidea and P. micans could be killed, respectively. S. trochoidea cells which were exposed to strain N3 became irregular in shape and the cellular components lost their integrity and were decomposed. While, the P. micans cells became inflated and the cellular components aggregated, followed by cell lysis. Strain N3 killed S. trochoidea and P. micans directly, and the algicidal activities of the bacterial strain N3 was concentration-dependent. To S. trochoidea, 2% (V/V) of bacteria in algae showed the strongest algicidal activity, all of the S. trochoidea cells were killed within 120 h. But the growth rates of cells, in the 1% and 0. 1% treatment groups, were only slightly lower than that in the control group. In all treatment groups, the densities of strain N3 were in declining trends. While, to P. micans, 10% and 5% of bacteria in algae showed strong algicidal activities, 78% and 70% of the S. trochoidea were killed within 120 h, respectively. However, the number of S. trochoidea after exposure to 1% of bacterial cultures still increased up to 5 incubation days. And in the three treatment groups, the densities of strain N3 experienced a decrease process. The isolated strain N3 was identified as Bacillus sp. by morphological observation, physiological and biochemical characterization, and homology comparisons based on 16S rRNA sequences. PMID:23914549

  14. Marine algae and seagrasses of Tekirdag (Black Sea,Turkey)*

    OpenAIRE

    Aysel, Veysel; Erdugan, Hüseyin; DURAL, Berrin; SükranOkudan, E.

    2006-01-01

    Abstract In this study, marine algae and seagrasses in the upper infralittoral zone of the Black Sea coast of Tekirdag (Turkey) were investigated. A total 156 taxon (153 algae and 3 seagrasses) in species or inferior to the species category were determined. 15 of them belong to blue-green bacteria (Cyanophyta), 84 to red algae (Rhodophyta), 26 to brown algae (Heterokontophyta), 28 to green algae (Chlorophyta) and 3 to marineflowering plants (Magnoliophyta).

  15. Screening of marine algae (Padina sp.) from the Lengeh Port, Persian Gulf for antibacterial and antifungal activities

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Azadeh Taherpour; Bita Archangi; Sadraddin Ghaemmaghami; Hossein Zolgharnein; Kamal Ghanemi

    2016-01-01

    Objective:To evaluate the antibacterial efficacy of different solvent extracts ofPadinasp. against selected human pathogenic bacteria and fungi species such asEscherichia coli,Shigella sp.,Staphylococcus aureus(S. aureus),Pseudomonas aeruginosa,Aspergillus flavus and Candida albicans. Methods:Various solvents including methanol, ethyl acetate, chloroform and hexane were used to acquire crude extracts from marine algaePadinasp. After crude preparation, antibacterial and antifungal activities were screened against clinically important human pathogenic bacteria using disc and well diffusion methods. For all the bacterial species used in this research, minimum inhibitory concentration was undertaken considering various solvent extracts of Padinasp. To ensure the accuracy of experiments, a positive control was also included. Results:Confirmed that hexane is the best solvent to extract antimicrobial agents fromPadina sp. Among selected bacteria,S. aureus was the most sensitive test microorganism. While, all other microorganisms showed resistance against methanol, ethyl acetate, chloroform extracts. In fact, by increasing concentration of hexane extract, inhibition ofS. aureus growth or antimicrobial activity was increased. Growth inhibition zone in well method showed better results compared to disc diffusion method. The minimum inhibitory concentration and minimum bactericidal concentration of hexane extract were 15 and 30 mg/mL against S. aureus, respectively. AllPadinasp. extracts did not reveal any antifungal activities against fungi species in this study. Conclusions: Brown algae extracts showed sufficient antibacterial properties againstS. aureus. Therefore,Padinasp. in this research can be a good candidate to design and manufacture novel antibacterial agents used in pharmaceutical industries.

  16. Removal of toxic chromium from aqueous solution, wastewater and saline water by marine red alga Pterocladia capillacea and its activated carbon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmed El Nemr

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Pterocladia capillacea, a red marine macroalgae, was tested for its ability to remove toxic hexavalent chromium from aqueous solution. A new activated carbon obtained from P. capillacea via acid dehydration was also investigated as an adsorbent for toxic chromium. The experiments were conducted to study the effect of important parameters such as pH, chromium concentration and adsorbent weight. Batch equilibrium tests at different pH conditions showed that at pH 1.0, a maximum chromium uptake was observed for both inactivated dried red alga P. capillacea and its activated carbon. The maximum sorption capacities for dried red alga and its activated carbon were about 12 and 66 mgg−1, respectively, as calculated by Langmuir model. The ability of inactivated red alga P. capillacea and developed activated carbon to remove chromium from synthetic sea water, natural sea water and wastewater was investigated as well. Different isotherm models were used to analyze the experimental data and the models parameters were evaluated. This study showed that the activated carbon developed from red alga P. capillacea is a promising activated carbon for removal of toxic chromium.

  17. Study on the concentration and seasonal variation of inorganic elements in 35 species of marine algae

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hou, Xiaolin; Yan, X.J.

    1998-01-01

    The concentrations of five major and 28 trace elements in 35 marine algae collected along the coast of China were determined by instrumental neutron activation analysis. The concentrations of halogens, rare earth elements and many transition metal elements in marine algae are remarkably higher than...... those in terrestrial plants. The concentration factors for 31 elements in all collected algae were calculated, those for tri- and tetra-valent elements were higher than those of the mono- and di-valent elements in marine algae. The biogeochemical characteristics of inorganic elements in marine algae...... were investigated. In addition, the seasonal variation of inorganic elements in Sargassum kjellmanianum was also studied. (C) 1998 Elsevier Science B.V. All rights reserved....

  18. Study on Algae Removal by Immobilized Biosystem on Sponge

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    PEI Haiyan; HU Wenrong

    2006-01-01

    In this study, sponges were used to immobilize domesticated sludge microbes in a limited space, forming an immobilized biosystem capable of algae and microcystins removal. The removal effects on algae, microcystins and UV260 of this biosystem and the mechanism of algae removal were studied. The results showed that active sludge from sewage treatment plants was able to remove algae from a eutrophic lake's water after 7 d of domestication. The removal efficiency for algae,organic matter and microcystins increased when the domesticated sludge was immobilized on sponges. When the hydraulic retention time (HRT) was 5h, the removal rates of algae, microcystins and UV260 were 90%, 94.17% and 84%, respectively.The immobilized biosystem consisted mostly of bacteria, the Ciliata and Sarcodina protozoans and the Rotifer metazoans.Algal decomposition by zoogloea bacteria and preying by microcreatures were the two main modes of algal removal, which occurred in two steps: first, absorption by the zoogloea; second, decomposition by the zoogloea bacteria and the predacity of the microcreatures.

  19. Fuel From Algae: Scaling and Commercialization of Algae Harvesting Technologies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2010-01-15

    Broad Funding Opportunity Announcement Project: Led by CEO Ross Youngs, AVS has patented a cost-effective dewatering technology that separates micro-solids (algae) from water. Separating micro-solids from water traditionally requires a centrifuge, which uses significant energy to spin the water mass and force materials of different densities to separate from one another. In a comparative analysis, dewatering 1 ton of algae in a centrifuge costs around $3,400. AVS’s Solid-Liquid Separation (SLS) system is less energy-intensive and less expensive, costing $1.92 to process 1 ton of algae. The SLS technology uses capillary dewatering with filter media to gently facilitate water separation, leaving behind dewatered algae which can then be used as a source for biofuels and bio-products. The biomimicry of the SLS technology emulates the way plants absorb and spread water to their capillaries.

  20. In vitro antioxidant activities of Asteraceae Plants

    OpenAIRE

    Vijaylakshmi, S.; Nanjan, M.J.; Suresh, B.

    2009-01-01

    Anaphalis neelgerriana DC and Cnicus wallichi DC belonging to the family Asteraceae (Compositae) are important medicinal plants indigenous to Nilgiris. Since the related species Anaphalis morrisonicola and Cnicus benedictus were reported for its anti cancer activities, the above mentioned plants were screened for Invitro antioxidant activity. In vitro antioxidant studies were carried out by DPPH, Nitric oxide and Hydrogen peroxide methods for the aerial part extracts of the plants. Different ...

  1. Impacts of Elevated CO2 Concentration on Biochemical Composition,Carbonic Anhydrase, and Nitrate Reductase Activity of Freshwater Green Algae

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jian-Rong XIA; Kun-Shan GAO

    2005-01-01

    To investigate the biochemical response of freshwater green algae to elevated CO2 concentrations,Chlorella pyrenoidosa Chick and Chlamydomonas reinhardtii Dang cells were cultured at different CO2concentrations within the range 3-186 μmol/L and the biochemical composition, carbonic anhydrase (CA),and nitrate reductase activities of the cells were investigated. Chlorophylls (Chl), carotenoids, carbonhydrate,and protein contents were enhanced to varying extents with increasing CO2 concentration from 3-186μmol/L. The CO2 enrichment significantly increased the Chl a/Chl b ratio in Chlorella pyrenoidosa, but not in Chlamydomonas reinhardtii. The CO2 concentration had significant effects on CA and nitrate reductase activity. Elevating CO2 concentration to 186 μmol/L caused a decline in intracellular and extracellullar CA activity. Nitrate reductase activity, under either light or dark conditions, in C. reinhardtii and C. pyrenoidosa was also significantly decreased with CO2 enrichment. From this study, it can be concluded that CO2enrichment can affect biochemical composition, CA, and nitrate reductase activity, and that the biochemical response was species dependent.

  2. Molecular biology and physiology of isolated chloroplasts from the algae Vaucheria

    OpenAIRE

    Didriksen, Alena

    2010-01-01

    Sea slugs of the genus Elysia (e.g. E. chlorotica) are known for their ability to incorporate chloroplasts from the yellow-green alga Vaucheria litorea. These “kleptoplasts” stay active in the digestive tract of the sea slug for several months. Chloroplasts from Vaucheria litorea are also reported to be significantly more stable after in vitro isolation than chloroplasts of other algae or of higher plants. In organello assays with isolated chloroplasts are used in studies on photosynthetical ...

  3. Allelopatrhic effect of Acorus tatarinowii upon algae

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    Besides competing with algae for light and mineralnutrients (i.e. N, P, etc.), the root system of Acorus tatarinowii excretes some chemical substances, which injure and eliminate alga cells, to inhibit the growth of the algae. When the algae cells were treated in "A. tatarinowii water", some of the chlorophyll a were destroyed and the photosynthetic rate of algae decreased markedly and the ability of alga cells to deoxidize triphenyltetrazolium chloride (TTC) reduced greatly. Then alga cells turned from bright red to bluish green under fluorescence microscope. These showed that the allelopathic effects of A.tatarinowii on algae were obvious and planting A. tatarinowii can control some green algae. The experiment on the extractions of the secretions of the root system showed that the inhibitory effect had a concentration effect. If the concentration of the root secretion was below 30 /disc, the inhibitory rate was negative; if it was over 45 /disc, the inhibitory rate was positive. This proved that the influence of the root secretion on the same acceptor was a kind of concentration effect. When the concentration of the root secretion was low, it promoted the growth of algae; when the concentration reached a definite threshold value, it restrained the growth of algae. In present case, the threshold value was between 30 /disc and 45 u?disc.

  4. Antibacterial activity of selected Egyptian ethnomedicinal plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mashait, M.

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Aims: Medicinal plants have recently received the attention of the antimicrobial activity of plants and their metabolites due to the challenge of growing incidences of drug-resistant pathogens. The aims of this study were to determine the antibacterial activities of plant extracts used as ethnomedicinal in Egypt. Methodology and Results: Investigations were carried out to assess the antibacterial efficiency of 11 plant extracts used as ethnopharmacological among Egyptian native people against infectious diseases. Crude methanol, ethanol,chloroform, hexane, acetone and aqueous extract of plants were tested for antibacterial activity in vitro against ten bacterial isolates using the disc diffusion method test. Discs were impregnated with 2 mg/mL of different solvent extracts. Among all the crude extracts, the methanol extract showed the highest activity than other extracts. P. harmala and S. officinalis exhibited highest antibacterial activity against gram positive and negative bacteria while the remainingplants extracts showed less activity. All the plant extracts showed no significant effect against the Bordetella bronchisepta ATCC 4617 except the extracts of M. fragrans and L. sativum. E. coli is the most sensitive microorganism tested, with the lowest MIC value (0.5 mg/mL in the presence of the plant extract of P. harmala and S. officinalis.Conclusion, significance and impact of study: Results obtained herein, may suggest that the ethnomedicinal Egyptian plants possess antimicrobial activity and therefore, they can be used in biotechnological fields as natural preservative ingredients in food and/or pharmaceutical industry.

  5. Structural Characteristics and Anticancer Activity of Fucoidan from the Brown Alga Sargassum mcclurei

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tatiana N. Zvyagintseva

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Three different fucoidan fractions were isolated and purified from the brown alga, Sargassum mcclurei. The SmF1 and SmF2 fucoidans are sulfated heteropolysaccharides that contain fucose, galactose, mannose, xylose and glucose. The SmF3 fucoidan is highly sulfated (35% galactofucan, and the main chain of the polysaccharide contains a →3-α-l-Fucp(2,4SO3−-(1→3-α-l-Fucp(2,4SO3−-(1→ motif with 1,4-linked 3-sulfated α-l-Fucp inserts and 6-linked galactose on reducing end. Possible branching points include the 1,2,6- or 1,3,6-linked galactose and/or 1,3,4-linked fucose residues that could be glycosylated with terminal β-d-Galp residues or chains of alternating sulfated 1,3-linked α-l-Fucp and 1,4-linked β-d-Galp residues, which have been identified in galactofucans for the first time. Both α-l-Fucp and β-d-Galp residues are sulfated at C-2 and/or C-4 (and some C-6 of β-d-Galp and potentially the C-3 of terminal β-d-Galp, 1,4-linked β-d-Galp and 1,4-linked α-l-Fucp residues. All fucoidans fractions were less cytotoxic and displayed colony formation inhibition in colon cancer DLD-1 cells. Therefore, these fucoidan fractions are potential antitumor agents.

  6. The brown algae Pl.LSU/2 group II intron-encoded protein has functional reverse transcriptase and maturase activities.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Madeleine Zerbato

    Full Text Available Group II introns are self-splicing mobile elements found in prokaryotes and eukaryotic organelles. These introns propagate by homing into precise genomic locations, following assembly of a ribonucleoprotein complex containing the intron-encoded protein (IEP and the spliced intron RNA. Engineered group II introns are now commonly used tools for targeted genomic modifications in prokaryotes but not in eukaryotes. We speculate that the catalytic activation of currently known group II introns is limited in eukaryotic cells. The brown algae Pylaiella littoralis Pl.LSU/2 group II intron is uniquely capable of in vitro ribozyme activity at physiological level of magnesium but this intron remains poorly characterized. We purified and characterized recombinant Pl.LSU/2 IEP. Unlike most IEPs, Pl.LSU/2 IEP displayed a reverse transcriptase activity without intronic RNA. The Pl.LSU/2 intron could be engineered to splice accurately in Saccharomyces cerevisiae and splicing efficiency was increased by the maturase activity of the IEP. However, spliced transcripts were not expressed. Furthermore, intron splicing was not detected in human cells. While further tool development is needed, these data provide the first functional characterization of the PI.LSU/2 IEP and the first evidence that the Pl.LSU/2 group II intron splicing occurs in vivo in eukaryotes in an IEP-dependent manner.

  7. Modelling activity transport behavior in PWR plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The activation and transport of corrosion products around a PWR circuit is a major concern to PWR plant operators as these may give rise to high personnel doses. The understanding of what controls dose rates on ex-core surfaces and shutdown releases has improved over the years but still several questions remain unanswered. For example the relative importance of particle and soluble deposition in the core to activity levels in the plant is not clear. Wide plant to plant and cycle to cycle variations are noted with no apparent explanations why such variations are observed. Over the past few years this group have been developing models to simulate corrosion product transport around a PWR circuit. These models form the basis for the latest version of the BOA code and simulate the movement of Fe and Ni around the primary circuit. Part of this development is to include the activation and subsequent transport of radioactive species around the circuit and this paper describes some initial modelling work in this area. A simple model of activation, release and deposition is described and then applied to explain the plant behaviour at Sizewell B and Vandellos II. This model accounts for activation in the core, soluble and particulate activity movement around the circuit and for activity capture ex-core on both the inner and outer oxides. The model gives a reasonable comparison with plant observations and highlights what controls activity transport in these plants and importantly what factors can be ignored. (authors)

  8. Bioactivity of marine organisms. Part 3. Screening of marine algae of Indian coast for biological activity

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Kamat, S.Y.; Wahidullah, S.; Naik, C.G.; DeSouza, L.; Jayasree, V.; Ambiye, V.; Bhakuni, D.S.; Goel, A.K.; Garg, H.S.; Srimal, R.C.

    were diuretic, 3 hypoglycaemic, 3 hypotensive, 4 exhibited anti- implantation activity, cytokinin activity was observed in one and one showed adrenergic blocking action. The extracts neither , had anti-bacterial, anti-fungal and anti-viral activities...

  9. Human sperm motility stimulating activity of a sulfono glycolipid isolated from Sri Lankan marine red alga Gelidiella acerosa

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    G. A.S. Premakumara; W.D. Ratnasooriya; L.M.V. Tillekeratne; A. S. Amarasekare; Atta-Ur-Rahman

    2001-01-01

    To evaluate the sperm motility stimulating activity of a sulfono glycolipid (S-ACT-l) isolated from Gelidiella acerosa, a Sri Lankan marine red algae. Methods: S-ACT-l, a white amorphous powder was separated from more polar fractions of the hexane soluble of 1:1 CH2Cl2/MeOH extract and subjected to 1H, 1 3C NMR and IR Spectroscopy after reverse phase HPLC for identification. Effects of S-ACT-1 on human sperm motility was assessed in vitro at 10,100 and 1000μg/Ml concentrations at 37℃ for 0, 5, 15, 30 and 60 min. Results: S-ACT-1 was identified as a glycolipid sulfate. The lower dose increased the sperm motility slightly, whilst the medium dose significantly increased the motility ( P < 0.05) from 5 min of incubation reaching a peak at 15 min and the stimulant effect was sustained throughout the experimental period. Furthermore, the medium dose rendered 80% of the immotile viable sperm motile.In contrast, the highest dose impaired the sperm motility. The sperm stimulating activity of S-ACT-1 was dose-depen dent and had a bell-shaped dose response curve for all the 5 incubation periods. Conclusion: S-ACT-1 of Gelidiella acerosa is a Sulfono glycolipid. S-ACT-1 has a potent sperm motility stimulating activity in vitro and has the potential to be developed into a sperm stimulant.

  10. Anti-photoaging activity and inhibition of matrix metalloproteinase (MMP) by marine red alga, Corallina pilulifera methanol extract

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ryu, Bo Mi [Department of Chemistry, Pukyoung National University, Busan 608-737 (Korea, Republic of); Qian Zhongji [Marine Bioprocess Research Center, Pukyong National University, Busan 608-737 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Moon-Moo [Department of Chemistry, Dong-Eui University, Busan 614-714 (Korea, Republic of); Nam, Ki Wan [Department of Marine Biology, Pukyong National University, Busan 608-737 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Se-Kwon [Department of Chemistry, Pukyoung National University, Busan 608-737 (Korea, Republic of); Marine Bioprocess Research Center, Pukyong National University, Busan 608-737 (Korea, Republic of)], E-mail: sknkim@pknu.ac.kr

    2009-02-15

    Matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs), a key component in photoaging of the skin due to exposure to ultraviolet A, appear to be increased by UV-irradiation-associated generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS). In this study, the alga Corallina pilulifera methanol (CPM) extract has been shown to exert a potent antioxidant activity and protective effect on UVA-induced oxidative stress of human dermal fibroblast (HDF) cell. Antioxidant evaluated by various antioxidant assays. These include reducing power, total antioxidant, DPPH radical scavenging, hydroxyl radical scavenging and protective effect on DNA damage caused by hydroxyl radicals generated. Further, the ROS level was detected using a fluorescence probe, 2',7'-dichlorofluorescein diacetate (DCFH-DA), which could be converted to highly fluorescent dichlorofluorescein (DCF) with the presence of intracellular ROS on HT-1080 cells. Those various antioxidant activities were compared to standard antioxidants such as {alpha}-tocopherol. In addition, the in vitro activities of MMP-2 and MMP-9 in HDF cell were inhibited by C. pilulifera methanol extract dose dependently by using gelatin zymography method. The results obtained in the present study suggested that the C. pilulifera methanol extract may be a potential source of natural anti-photoaging.

  11. Anti-photoaging activity and inhibition of matrix metalloproteinase (MMP) by marine red alga, Corallina pilulifera methanol extract

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryu, BoMi; Qian, Zhong-Ji; Kim, Moon-Moo; Nam, Ki Wan; Kim, Se-Kwon

    2009-02-01

    Matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs), a key component in photoaging of the skin due to exposure to ultraviolet A, appear to be increased by UV-irradiation-associated generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS). In this study, the alga Corallina pilulifera methanol (CPM) extract has been shown to exert a potent antioxidant activity and protective effect on UVA-induced oxidative stress of human dermal fibroblast (HDF) cell. Antioxidant evaluated by various antioxidant assays. These include reducing power, total antioxidant, DPPH radical scavenging, hydroxyl radical scavenging and protective effect on DNA damage caused by hydroxyl radicals generated. Further, the ROS level was detected using a fluorescence probe, 2',7'-dichlorofluorescein diacetate (DCFH-DA), which could be converted to highly fluorescent dichlorofluorescein (DCF) with the presence of intracellular ROS on HT-1080 cells. Those various antioxidant activities were compared to standard antioxidants such as α-tocopherol. In addition, the in vitro activities of MMP-2 and MMP-9 in HDF cell were inhibited by C. pilulifera methanol extract dose dependently by using gelatin zymography method. The results obtained in the present study suggested that the C. pilulifera methanol extract may be a potential source of natural anti-photoaging.

  12. The Shewanella algae strain YM8 produces volatiles with strong inhibition activity against Aspergillus pathogens and aflatoxins

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andong eGong

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Aflatoxigenic Aspergillus fungi and associated aflatoxins are ubiquitous in the production and storage of food/feed commodities. Controlling these pests is a challenge. In this study, the Shewanella algae strain YM8 was found to produce volatiles that have strong antifungal activity against Aspergillus pathogens. Gas chromatography-mass spectrometry profiling revealed 15 volatile organic compounds (VOCs emitted from YM8, of which dimethyl trisulfide was the most abundant. We obtained authentic reference standards for six of the VOCs; these all significantly reduced mycelial growth and conidial germination in Aspergillus; dimethyl trisulfide and 2,4-bis(1,1-dimethylethyl-phenol showed the strongest inhibitory activity. YM8 completely inhibited Aspergillus growth and aflatoxin biosynthesis in maize and peanut samples stored at different water activity levels, and scanning electron microscopy revealed severely damaged conidia and a complete lack of mycelium development and conidiogenesis. YM8 also completely inhibited the growth of eight other agronomically important species of phytopathogenic fungi: A. parasiticus, A. niger, Alternaria alternate, Botrytis cinerea, Fusarium graminearum, Fusarium oxysporum, Monilinia fructicola, and Sclerotinia sclerotiorum. This study demonstrates the susceptibility of Aspergillus and other fungi to VOCs from marine bacteria and indicates a new strategy for effectively controlling these pathogens and the associated mycotoxin production in the field and during storage.

  13. Anti-photoaging activity and inhibition of matrix metalloproteinase (MMP) by marine red alga, Corallina pilulifera methanol extract

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs), a key component in photoaging of the skin due to exposure to ultraviolet A, appear to be increased by UV-irradiation-associated generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS). In this study, the alga Corallina pilulifera methanol (CPM) extract has been shown to exert a potent antioxidant activity and protective effect on UVA-induced oxidative stress of human dermal fibroblast (HDF) cell. Antioxidant evaluated by various antioxidant assays. These include reducing power, total antioxidant, DPPH radical scavenging, hydroxyl radical scavenging and protective effect on DNA damage caused by hydroxyl radicals generated. Further, the ROS level was detected using a fluorescence probe, 2',7'-dichlorofluorescein diacetate (DCFH-DA), which could be converted to highly fluorescent dichlorofluorescein (DCF) with the presence of intracellular ROS on HT-1080 cells. Those various antioxidant activities were compared to standard antioxidants such as α-tocopherol. In addition, the in vitro activities of MMP-2 and MMP-9 in HDF cell were inhibited by C. pilulifera methanol extract dose dependently by using gelatin zymography method. The results obtained in the present study suggested that the C. pilulifera methanol extract may be a potential source of natural anti-photoaging

  14. [The effect of charged local anesthetics on the inactivation of Ca2+-activated Cl-channels of characean algae].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kataev, A A; Zherelova, O M; Berestovskiĭ, G N

    1988-01-01

    Effects of local anesthetics (LA) and a number of organic cations on Ca2+-activated Cl-channels in plasmalemma of intracellularly perfused giant algae Nitellopsis obtusa were studied using voltage-clamp technique. It was shown earlier that Ca2+ ions cause irreversible inactivation of Cl-channels with a characteristic time equal to a few minutes, but not only activate Cl-channels. It has been found that amphiphilic cations (AC), including LA+, introduced intracellularly together with Ca2+ produced delayed action on the beginning of the inactivation process (approximately ten minutes) producing no effect on activation during this period. The time of delayed action was linearly dependent on the concentrations ratio alpha = [AC]/[Ca2+]. Procaine is the most effective agent in this respect, the time of its delayed action on the inactivation process being 20 min at alpha = 1. LA in the neural form, hydrophilic AC of tetraethylammonium, as well as LA+ from the outside had no effect on Cl-channels. Cl-channels inactivated "irreversibly" by Ca2+ ions may be restored after addition of AC in Ca2+-containing perfusion medium. PMID:2470412

  15. Structural Characterization and Anti-HSV-1 and HSV-2 Activity of Glycolipids from the Marine Algae Osmundaria obtusiloba Isolated from Southeastern Brazilian Coast

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lauro M. de Souza

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Glycolipids were extracted from the red alga Osmundaria obtusiloba from Southeastern Brazilian coast. The acetone insoluble material was extracted with chloroform/methanol and the lipids, enriched in glycolipids, were fractionated on a silica gel column eluted with chloroform, acetone and then methanol. Three major orcinol-positive bands were found in the acetone and methanol fractions, being detected by thin layer chromatography. The structures of the corresponding glycolipids were elucidated by ESI-MS and 1H/13C NMR analysis, on the basis of their tandem-MS behavior and HSQC, TOCSY fingerprints. For the first time, the structure of sulfoquinovosyldiacylglycerol from the red alga Osmundaria obtusiloba was characterized. This molecule exhibited potent antiviral activity against HSV-1 and HSV-2 with EC50 values of 42 µg/mL to HSV-1 and 12 µg/mL to HSV-2, respectively. Two other glycolipids, mono- and digalactosyldiacylglycerol, were also found in the alga, being characterized by ESI-MS/MS. The structural elucidation of algae glycolipids is a first step for a better understanding of the relation between these structures and their biological activities.

  16. Structural Characterization and Anti-HSV-1 and HSV-2 Activity of Glycolipids from the Marine Algae Osmundaria obtusiloba Isolated from Southeastern Brazilian Coast

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eliana Barreto-Bergter

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Glycolipids were extracted from the red alga Osmundaria obtusiloba from Southeastern Brazilian coast. The acetone insoluble material was extracted with chloroform/methanol and the lipids, enriched in glycolipids, were fractionated on a silica gel column eluted with chloroform, acetone and then methanol. Three major orcinol-positive bands were found in the acetone and methanol fractions, being detected by thin layer chromatography. The structures of the corresponding glycolipids were elucidated by ESI-MS and 1H/13C NMR analysis, on the basis of their tandem-MS behavior and HSQC, TOCSY fingerprints. For the first time, the structure of sulfoquinovosyldiacylglycerol from the red alga Osmundaria obtusiloba was characterized. This molecule exhibited potent antiviral activity against HSV-1 and HSV-2 with EC50 values of 42 µg/mL to HSV-1 and 12 µg/mL to HSV-2, respectively. Two other glycolipids, mono- and digalactosyldiacylglycerol, were also found in the alga, being characterized by ESI-MS/MS. The structural elucidation of algae glycolipids is a first step for a better understanding of the relation between these structures and their biological activities.

  17. Antimicrobial activity of some Iranian medicinal plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ghasemi Pirbalouti Abdollah

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The major aim of this study was to determine the antimicrobial activity of the extracts of eight plant species which are endemic in Iran. The antimicrobial activities of the extracts of eight Iranian traditional plants, including Hypericum scabrum, Myrtus communis, Pistachia atlantica, Arnebia euchroma, Salvia hydrangea, Satureja bachtiarica, Thymus daenensis and Kelussia odoratissima, were investigated against Escherichia coli O157:H7, Bacillus cereus, Listeria monocytogenes and Candida albicans by agar disc diffusion and serial dilution assays. Most of the extracts showed a relatively high antimicrobial activity against all the tested bacteria and fungi. Of the plants studied, the most active extracts were those obtained from the essential oils of M. communis and T. daenensis. The MIC values for active extract and essential oil ranged between 0.039 and 10 mg/ml. It can be said that the extract and essential oil of some medicinal plants could be used as natural antimicrobial agents in food preservation. .

  18. Active condensation of water by plants

    OpenAIRE

    Prokhorov Alexey Anatolievich

    2013-01-01

    This paper is devoted to some peculiarities of water condensation on the surface of plants . Arguments in support of the hypothesis that in decreasing temperature of leaves and shoots below the dew point, the plant can actively condense moisture from the air, increasing the duration of dewfall are presented. Evening dewfall on plant surfaces begins before starting the formation of fog. Morning condensation continues for some time after the air temperature exceeds the dew point . The phenomen...

  19. Atividade biológica de metabólitos secundários de algas marinhas do gênero Laurencia Biological activity of the secondary metabolite from marine algae of the genus Laurencia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernanda L. da S. Machado

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available As algas vermelhas do gênero Laurencia são conhecidas como uma riquíssima fonte de metabólitos secundários. As principais classes químicas já isoladas são terpenos - sesquiterpenos, diterpenos, triterpenos - e acetogeninas. Estudos apontam que estas substâncias apresentam importantes atividades biológicas, principalmente citotóxica e antibacteriana. Existem ainda alguns poucos trabalhos com informações sobre atividade antiparasitária, antiviral e antifúngica dos metabólitos de Laurencia. O forte perfil bioativo observado em alguns estudos sugere que alguns destes metabólitos podem ser futuramente utilizados como fármacos ou como protótipos de novos agentes antitumorais e antibacterianos. Muitos dos metabólitos de Laurencia ainda não foram avaliados sob o ponto de vista farmacológico, o que representa um grande potencial a ser explorado por diversos campos da farmacologia.The red alga of the genus Laurencia is known as an endless source of metabolites. The main substances produced are sesquiterpenes, diterpenes, triterpenes and acetogenins. Many studies reveal that these metabolites are active, especially cytotoxic and antibacterial. There are few other studies that describe the antiparasital, antifungal and antiviral actions of the metabolites produced by the alga of the genus Laurencia. The results observed in some studies suggest that these metabolites may be used in the future as drugs or lead compounds as antitumoral and/or antibacterial agents. Many metabolites have not been submitted to pharmacological studies which still represents an area to be explored.

  20. The leaves of green plants as well as a cyanobacterium, a red alga, and fungi contain insulin-like antigens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L.B. Silva

    2002-03-01

    Full Text Available We report the detection of insulin-like antigens in a large range of species utilizing a modified ELISA plate assay and Western blotting. We tested the leaves or aerial parts of species of Rhodophyta (red alga, Bryophyta (mosses, Psilophyta (whisk ferns, Lycopodophyta (club mosses, Sphenopsida (horsetails, gymnosperms, and angiosperms, including monocots and dicots. We also studied species of fungi and a cyanobacterium, Spirulina maxima. The wide distribution of insulin-like antigens, which in some cases present the same electrophoretic mobility as bovine insulin, together with results recently published by us on the amino acid sequence of an insulin isolated from the seed coat of jack bean (Canavalia ensiformis and from the developing fruits of cowpea (Vigna unguiculata, suggests that pathways depending on this hormone have been conserved through evolution.

  1. SCREENING OF PLANTS FOR ANTI DERMATOPHYTE ACTIVITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V.S. Chauhan, A. Suthar, V. Naik and K. Salkar*

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Mycotic infections of skin are caused by dermatophytes. Screening of plants for anti dermatophyte activity was carried out based on the literature search done. Native plants of Maharashtra (India were screened for anti dermatophyte activity. Various plant parts from different regions were collected and then extracted with three different solvents viz. alcohol, hydro-alcohol and aqueous. The obtained extracts were subjected for anti dermatophyte activity using agar-well diffusion technique. Three different concentrations of extract were checked for activity. Two species of dermatophytes, viz. - Trichophyton and Microsporum were used in the screening assay. Out of the twenty-eight plants screened by agar diffusion method, seven were found to be active with different activity profile. Methanol extract was the most active extract. Pterospermum suberifolium, Trachyspermum ammi, Peltaphorum pterocarpum, Ixora coccinia, Persicaria glabra, Terminallia elliptica and Cicca acida showed activity at different concentrations against the two species of dermatophytes. The data obtained can be used for further studying the anti dermatophyte potential of active plants.

  2. Inventory of North-West European algae initiatives

    OpenAIRE

    Spruijt, J.

    2015-01-01

    In 2012 an inventory of North-West European (NWE) algae initiatives was carried out to get an impression of the market and research activities on algae production and refinery, especially for bioenergy purposes. A questionnaire was developed that would provide the EnAlgae project with information on the value chains in which algae production was positioned within these initiatives. The questionnaire was used by EnAlgae project partners to collect information in Great Britain, Ireland, Germany...

  3. Preliminary study of the green algae chlorella (Chlorella vulgaris) for control on the root-knot nematode (Meloidogyne arenaria) in tomato plants and ectoparasite Xiphinema indexin grape seedlings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choleva, B; Bileva, T; Tzvetkov, Y; Barakov, P

    2005-01-01

    The alternative ecological methods require investigation of many organo-biological means for plant protection against dangerous root parasites such as root-knot nematode Meloidogyne arenaria and some ectoparasites (Xiphinema index). The Bulgarian organic product - dry extract of green alga Chlorella vulgaris ("The Golden Apple"-Plamen Barakov) is the latest product, which in comparative aspect gives the best results. Series of laboratory and pot experiments are carried out with tomato (cv. Bele and cv. Ideal) and grape seedlings (cv. Cabernet Sauvignon). Different dosages of Chlorella from 0.5 g to 2 g per plant/pot are investigated. The first results show that even low dosages had double effect - on the one hand they suppress the parasite development and on the other hand they strongly stimulate plant growing. The very important conclusion is that Chlorella vulgaris ignores the negative influence of M. arenaria and X. index. These results give us opportunity for future model and field investigations of Chlorella vulgaris with the aim of its practical application.

  4. Antimicrobial activity of amazonian medicinal plants

    OpenAIRE

    Oliveira, Amanda A; Segovia, Jorge FO; Sousa, Vespasiano YK; Mata, Elida CG; Gonçalves, Magda CA; Bezerra, Roberto M; Junior, Paulo OM; Kanzaki, Luís IB

    2013-01-01

    Objectives The aqueous extracts of currently utilized Amazonian medicinal plants were assayed in vitro searching for antimicrobial activity against human and animal pathogenic microorganisms. Methods Medium resuspended lyophilized aqueous extracts of different organs of Amazonian medicinal plants were assayed by in vitro screening for antimicrobial activity. ATCC and standardized microorganisms obtained from Oswaldo Cruz Foundation/Brazil were individually and homogeneously grown in agar plat...

  5. Antibacterial activity of selected Myanmar medicinal plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thirteen plants which are traditionally used for the treatment of dysentery and diarrhoea in Myanmar were selected and tested for antibacterial activity by using agar disc diffusion technique. Polar and nonpolar solvents were employed for extraction of plants. The minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) of the extracts with the most significant predominant activity were evaluated by plate dilution method. The plants Eugenia jambolana, Quisqualis indica, Leucaena glauca and Euphorbia splendens var. 1 were found to show significant antibacterial activity. It was also observed that extracts using nonpolar solvents did not show any antibacterial activity and extracts using polar solvents showed antibacterial activity on tested bacteria, indicating that the active chemical compound responsible for the antibacterial action must be a polar soluble compound. (author)

  6. Evaluating Medicinal Plants for Anticancer Activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elisha Solowey

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Plants have been used for medical purposes since the beginning of human history and are the basis of modern medicine. Most chemotherapeutic drugs for cancer treatment are molecules identified and isolated from plants or their synthetic derivatives. Our hypothesis was that whole plant extracts selected according to ethnobotanical sources of historical use might contain multiple molecules with antitumor activities that could be very effective in killing human cancer cells. This study examined the effects of three whole plant extracts (ethanol extraction on human tumor cells. The extracts were from Urtica membranacea (Urticaceae, Artemesia monosperma (Asteraceae, and Origanum dayi post (Labiatae. All three plant extracts exhibited dose- and time-dependent killing capabilities in various human derived tumor cell lines and primary cultures established from patients’ biopsies. The killing activity was specific toward tumor cells, as the plant extracts had no effect on primary cultures of healthy human cells. Cell death caused by the whole plant extracts is via apoptosis. Plant extract 5 (Urtica membranacea showed particularly strong anticancer capabilities since it inhibited actual tumor progression in a breast adenocarcinoma mouse model. Our results suggest that whole plant extracts are promising anticancer reagents.

  7. Monitoring Biological Activity at Geothermal Power Plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peter Pryfogle

    2005-09-01

    The economic impact of microbial growth in geothermal power plants has been estimated to be as high as $500,000 annually for a 100 MWe plant. Many methods are available to monitor biological activity at these facilities; however, very few plants have any on-line monitoring program in place. Metal coupon, selective culturing (MPN), total organic carbon (TOC), adenosine triphosphate (ATP), respirometry, phospholipid fatty acid (PLFA), and denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) characterizations have been conducted using water samples collected from geothermal plants located in California and Utah. In addition, the on-line performance of a commercial electrochemical monitor, the BIoGEORGE?, has been evaluated during extended deployments at geothermal facilities. This report provides a review of these techniques, presents data on their application from laboratory and field studies, and discusses their value in characterizing and monitoring biological activities at geothermal power plants.

  8. Evaluation of the Marine Algae Gracilaria and its Activated Carbon for the Adsorption of Ni(II from Wastewater

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Esmaeili

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The batch removal of Ni2+ from aqueous solution and wastewater using marine dried (MD red algae Gracilaria and its activated carbon (AC was studied. For these experiments, adsorption of Ni2+ was used to form two biomasses of AC and MD. Both methods used different pH values, biomass and initial concentration of Ni2+. Subsequently adsorption models and kinetic studies were carried out. The maximum efficiencies of Ni2+ removal were 83.55% and 99.04% for MD and AC respectively developed from it. The experimental adsorption data were fitted to the Langmuir adsorption model. The nickel(II uptake by the biosorbents was best described by pseudo-second order rate model. The kinetic studies showed that the heavy metal uptake was observed more rapidly by the AC with compared to MD. AC method developed from MD biomass exhibited higher biosorption capacity. Adsorption capacity is related to the pH of solution, pH 5.0 is optimal for nickel. The maximum efficiencies of Ni2+ removal were for AC method. The capacity is related to the pH of solution, pH 5.0 is optimal for nickel. The equilibrium adsorption data are correlated by Langmuir isotherm equation. The adsorption kinetic data can be described by the second order kinetic models

  9. Red algae (Gelidium amansii reduces adiposity via activation of lipolysis in rats with diabetes induced by streptozotocin-nicotinamide

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tsung-Han Yang

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Gelidium amansii (GA is an edible red algae that is distributed mainly in northeastern Taiwan. This study was designed to investigate the effects of GA on plasma glucose, lipids, and adipocytokines in rats with streptozotocin-nicotinamide-induced diabetes. Rats were divided into four groups: (1 rats without diabetes fed a high-fat diet (control group; (2 rats with diabetes fed a high-fat diet; (3 rats with diabetes fed a high-fat diet with thiazolidinedione in the diet; and (4 rats with diabetes fed a high-fat diet and GA. The experimental diet and drinking water were available ad libitum for 11 weeks. After the 11-week feeding study, plasma glucose, triglyceride, and cholesterol concentrations were lower in rats with diabetes fed the GA diet than in animals with diabetes fed the control diet. In addition, cholesterol and triglyceride excretion were significantly higher in rats with diabetes fed the GA diet. Moreover, GA feeding induced lipolysis in both paraepididymal and perirenal adipose tissues. Adipose tissue (paraepididymal and perirenal weight and triglyceride contents were lower after GA treatment. Plasma adipocytokines including tumor necrosis factor-alpha, interleukin-6, and plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 were reduced by GA feeding in rats with diabetes. The results of the current study suggest that GA feeding may regulate plasma glucose and lipid levels and prevent adipose tissue accumulation in rats with diabetes.

  10. Marine algae that display anti-tumorigenic activity against Agrobacterium tumefaciens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    el-Masry, M H; Mostafa, M H; Ibrahim, A M; el-Naggar, M M

    1995-05-01

    Thirty-five extracts representing different seasonal growths of 17 marine algal species collected from the Alexandria coast were tested for anti-tumorigenic activity against Agrobacterium tumefaciens galls on potato discs. Eleven extracts (nine species) displayed > 20% inhibition of tumor initiation, with three of these (Codium tomentosum, winter; Jania rubens, summer; Padina pavonia, winter) displaying relatively high activity. Bacterial viability tests showed that the inhibitory effects were directly due to anti-tumorigenesis rather than an indirect result of anti-bacterial activity. PMID:7750733

  11. Algae commensal community in Genlisea traps

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Konrad Wołowski

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available The community of algae occurring in Genlisea traps and on the external traps surface in laboratory conditions were studied. A total of 29 taxa were found inside the traps, with abundant diatoms, green algae (Chlamydophyceae and four morphotypes of chrysophytes stomatocysts. One morphotype is described as new for science. There are two ways of algae getting into Genlisea traps. The majority of those recorded inside the traps, are mobile; swimming freely by flagella or moving exuding mucilage like diatoms being ablate to colonize the traps themselves. Another possibility is transport of algae by invertebrates such as mites and crustaceans. In any case algae in the Genlisea traps come from the surrounding environment. Two dominant groups of algae (Chladymonas div. and diatoms in the trap environment, show ability to hydrolyze phosphomonoseters. We suggest that algae in carnivorous plant traps can compete with plant (host for organic phosphate (phosphomonoseters. From the spectrum and ecological requirements of algal species found in the traps, environment inside the traps seems to be acidic. However, further studies are needed to test the relations between algae and carnivorous plants both in laboratory conditions and in the natural environment. All the reported taxa are described briefly and documented with 74 LM and SEM micrographs.

  12. In vitro antimicrobial activities of methanolic extract from marine alga Enteromorpha intestinalis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ibrahim; Darah; Sheh-Hong; Lim

    2015-01-01

    Objective:To extract the bioactive compound from Enteromorpha intestinalis(E. intestinalis) and determine its in vitro antimicrobial activity. Methods: E. intestinalis was extracted by methanol and subjected to antimicrobial screening. The antimicrobial activity was studied by using disc diffusion and broth dilution method. The effect of the extract on the growth profile of the bacterial was also examined via time-kill assay. Microscopy observations using SEM was done to determine the major alterations in the microstructure of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus(MRSA). Results: The results showed methanolic extract of E. intestinalis exhibited a favourable antimicrobial activity against tested bacteria with produced inhibition zone ranging from 8.0-19.0 mm. However, all the tested fungi and yeast were resistant to the extract treatment. Time kill assay suggested that methanolic extract of E. intestinalis had completely inhibited MRSA growth and also exhibited prolonged antibacterial activity. The main abnormalities noted from the microscopic observations were the structural deterioration in the normal morphology and complete collapsed of the bacteria cells after 36 h of treatment. Conclusions: The significant antibacterial activity shown by crude extract suggested its potential against MRSA infection. The extract may have potential to develop as antibacterial agent in pharmaceutical use.

  13. In vitro antimicrobial activities of methanolic extract from marine alga Enteromorpha intestinalis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ibrahim Darah; Sheh-Hong Lim

    2015-01-01

    To extract the bioactive compound from Enteromorpha intestinalis (E. intestinalis) and determine its in vitro antimicrobial activity. Methods: E. intestinalis was extracted by methanol and subjected to antimicrobial screening. The antimicrobial activity was studied by using disc diffusion and broth dilution method. The effect of the extract on the growth profile of the bacterial was also examined via time-kill assay. Microscopy observations using SEM was done to determine the major alterations in the microstructure of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA). Results: The results showed methanolic extract of E. intestinalis exhibited a favourable antimicrobial activity against tested bacteria with produced inhibition zone ranging from 8.0-19.0 mm. However, all the tested fungi and yeast were resistant to the extract treatment. Time kill assay suggested that methanolic extract of E. intestinalis had completely inhibited MRSA growth and also exhibited prolonged antibacterial activity. The main abnormalities noted from the microscopic observations were the structural deterioration in the normal morphology and complete collapsed of the bacteria cells after 36 h of treatment. Conclusions: The significant antibacterial activity shown by crude extract suggested its potential against MRSA infection. The extract may have potential to develop as antibacterial agent in pharmaceutical use.

  14. Algae. LC Science Tracer Bullet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niskern, Diana, Comp.

    The plants and plantlike organisms informally grouped together as algae show great diversity of form and size and occur in a wide variety of habitats. These extremely important photosynthesizers are also economically significant. For example, some species contaminate water supplies; others provide food for aquatic animals and for man; still others…

  15. Antinociceptive activity of sulfated carbohydrates from the red algae Bryothamnion seaforthii (Turner) Kütz. and B. triquetrum (S.G. Gmel.) M. Howe

    OpenAIRE

    Viana G.S.B.; Freitas A.L.P.; Lima M.M.L.; Vieira L.A.P.; Andrade M.C.H.; Benevides N.M.B.

    2002-01-01

    We report the antinociceptive activity, determined by the writhing, formalin and hot-plate tests in mice, of crude (F0/60), lectin and carbohydrate fractions isolated by ammonium sulfate precipitation (0 to 60%) from Bryothamnion seaforthii and B. triquetrum, species of red algae. Not only fraction F0/60 but also lectins from both species significantly inhibited acetic acid-induced abdominal contractions after intraperitoneal or oral administrations. In the formalin test, lectins (1 and 5 mg/...

  16. Streptomycin affects the growth and photochemical activity of the alga Chlorella vulgaris.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perales-Vela, Hugo Virgilio; García, Roberto Velasco; Gómez-Juárez, Evelyn Alicia; Salcedo-Álvarez, Martha Ofelia; Cañizares-Villanueva, Rosa Olivia

    2016-10-01

    Antibiotics are increasingly being used in human and veterinary medicine, as well as pest control in agriculture. Recently, their emergence in the aquatic environment has become a global concern. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of streptomycin on growth and photosynthetic activity of Chlorella vulgaris after 72h exposure. We found that growth, photosynthetic activity and the content of the D1 protein of photosystem II decreased. Analysis of chlorophyll a fluorescence emission shows a reduction in the energy transfer between the antenna complex and reaction center. Also the activity of the oxygen evolution complex and electron flow between QA and QB were significantly reduced; in contrast, we found an increase in the reduction rate of the acceptor side of photosystem I. The foregoing can be attributed to the inhibition of the synthesis of the D1 protein and perhaps other coded chloroplast proteins that are part of the electron transport chain which are essential for the transformation of solar energy in the photosystems. We conclude that micromolar concentrations of streptomycin can affect growth and photosynthetic activity of Chlorella vulgaris. The accumulation of antibiotics in the environment can become an ecological problem for primary producers in the aquatic environment. PMID:27344399

  17. The use of algae in monitoring discharges of radionuclides. Experiences from the 1992 and 1993 monitoring programmes at the Swedish nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    All four Swedish nuclear power plants (Forsmark, Oskarshamn, Barsebaeck and Ringhals) use brackish water as coolant (Baltic Sea and Swedish west coast). Radionuclides are discharged together with the cooling water. The gamma spectra of monthly algal samples harvested in 1992 and 1993 close to the discharge points of these power plants were determined within the routine monitoring programmes. The main radionuclides detected in the algal samples were 54Mn, 58Co, 60Co and 137Cs. Most 137Cs in the samples from the northern Baltic Sea (Forsmark) still originated from the 1986 Chernobyl accident. Other radionuclides, notably 51Cr, 65Zn, 95Zr, 95Nb, 110mAg, 124b, 125Sb and 134Cs, were regularly detected at s of the sites. Transfer factors from discharge to algae were generally in the order of 0.3-3 Bq kg-1 per MBq discharge. For the major discharged radionuclides, significant linear relationships were in most cases found between discharges and concentrations in algal samples. Differences in transfer factors and regression coefficients were explained by location of the sampling sites and type of radionuclide. It is concluded that algal samples provide useful complements to water and sediment samples in the monitoring programmes since radionuclide concentrations are much higher in algal samples and proportional to the discharges. 21 refs, figs

  18. ANTIBACTERIAL ACTIVITY OF BENTHIC MARINE ALGAE EXTRACTS FROM THE MEDITERRANEAN COAST OF MOROCCO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hanaâ Zbakh

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Marine organisms are potentially prolific sources of highly bioactive secondary metabolites that might represent useful leads in the development of new pharmaceutical agents. The Moroccan marine biodiversity including macroalgae remains partially unexplored in term of their potential bioactivities. Antibacterial activity of methanolic extracts from 20 species of macroalgae (9 Chlorophyta, 3 Phaeophyta and 8 Rhodophyta collected from Moroccan Mediterranean coasts was evaluated against Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus and Enterococcus faecalis. The extracts of the studied Rhodophyceae inhibited considerably the growth of the three tested bacterial strains and gave inhibition zones between 20 and 24 mm. The results indicate that these species of seaweed present a significant capacity of antibacterial activities, which makes them interesting for screening for natural products.

  19. Suppression of Tla1 gene expression for improved solar conversion efficiency and photosynthetic productivity in plants and algae

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melis, Anastasios; Mitra, Mautusi

    2010-06-29

    The invention provides method and compositions to minimize the chlorophyll antenna size of photosynthesis by decreasing TLA1 gene expression, thereby improving solar conversion efficiencies and photosynthetic productivity in plants, e.g., green microalgae, under bright sunlight conditions.

  20. Toxicities of oils, dispersants and dispersed oils to algae and aquatic plants: review and database value to resource sustainability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Published toxicity results are reviewed for oils, dispersants and dispersed oils and aquatic plants. The historical phytotoxicity database consists largely of results from a patchwork of research conducted after oil spills to marine waters. Toxicity information is available for ...

  1. Rhodiola plants: Chemistry and biological activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hsiu-Mei Chiang

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Rhodiola is a genus of medicinal plants that originated in Asia and Europe and are used traditionally as adaptogens, antidepressants, and anti-inflammatory remedies. Rhodiola plants are rich in polyphenols, and salidroside and tyrosol are the primary bioactive marker compounds in the standardized extracts of Rhodiola rosea. This review article summarizes the bioactivities, including adaptogenic, antifatigue, antidepressant, antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, antinoception, and anticancer activities, and the modulation of immune function of Rhodiola plants and its two constituents, as well as their potential to prevent cardiovascular, neuronal, liver, and skin disorders.

  2. Cytotoxic Activity of Selected Nigerian Plants

    OpenAIRE

    Sowemimo, A; M. Venter; Baatjies, L; Koekemoer, T

    2009-01-01

    Cancer is one of the most prominent human diseases which has stimulated scientific and commercial interest in the discovery of new anticancer agents from natural sources. The current study investigates the cytotoxic activity of ethanolic extracts of sixteen Nigerian plants used locally for the treatment of cancer using the MTT assay on the HeLa cell line. Sapium ellipticum leaves showed activity comparable to the reference compound Cisplatin and greater cytotoxic activity than Combretum panic...

  3. Photosynthetic activity and protein overexpression found in Cr(III)-tolerant cells of the green algae Dictyosphaerium chlorelloides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pereira, M; Bartolomé, C M; Sánchez-Fortún, S

    2014-08-01

    Chromium is an important constituent in effluents obtained from chromium plating industries. Due to the highly toxic nature of Cr(VI), attention has been shifted to less hazardous Cr(III) electroplating processes. This study evaluated aquatic toxicity of Cr(III)-containing laboratory samples representative of effluents from chromium electroplating industries, on the photosynthetic activity exhibited by both Cr(III)-sensitive (Dc1M(wt)) and tolerant (Dc1M(Cr(III)R30)) Dictyosphaerium chlorelloides strains. Additionally, selected de novo-determined peptide sequences, obtained from Dc1M(Cr(III)R30), have been analyzed to evidence the possible Cr(III) toxic mechanism involved in the resistance of these cells to high Cr(III) levels in aquatic environments. Dc1M(Cr(III)R30) strain exhibited a gross photosynthetic balance of about five times lower than that exhibited by Dc1M(wt) strain, demonstrating that Dc1M(Cr(III)R30) has a photosynthetic yield significantly lower than Dc1M(wt). SDS-PAGE of Dc1M(Cr(III)R30) samples showed the presence of at least two protein bands (23.05 and 153.46 KDa, respectively) absent in wild-type strain samples. Although it has achieved a low coincidence between the lower molecular weight band and a GTPase identified from genome of the green alga Chlamydomonas reinhardtii, none of de novo peptide sequences obtained showed a significant MS-BLAST score, so that further studies will be required. PMID:24556547

  4. Amino acid content of selected plant, algae and insect species: a search for alternative protein sources for use in pet foods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCusker, Sarah; Buff, Preston R; Yu, Zengshou; Fascetti, Andrea J

    2014-01-01

    In response to global economic duress and heightened consumer awareness of nutrition and health, sustainable and natural ingredients are in demand. Identification of alternative sources of nitrogen and amino acids, including taurine, may help meet dietary requirements while fostering sustainability and natural feeding approaches. Twenty plants, eighteen marine algae and five insect species were analysed. All samples were freeze-dried, hydrolysed and filtered prior to amino acid analysis. Samples for amino acids were analysed in duplicate and averaged. Nitrogen was analysed and crude protein (CP) determined by calculation. With the exception of taurine concentration in soldier fly larvae, all insects exceeded both the National Research Council's canine and feline minimal requirements (MR) for growth of all essential amino acids (EAA) and CP. Although some plants and marine algal species exceeded the canine and feline MR for growth for EAA and CP, only very low concentrations of taurine were found in plants. Taurine concentration in insects was variable but high, with the greatest concentration found in ants (6·42 mg/g DM) and adult flesh flies (3·33 mg/g DM). Taurine was also high in some macroalgae, especially the red algal species: Mazaella spp. (4·11 mg/g DM), Porphyra spp. (1·22 mg/g DM) and Chondracanthus spp. (6·28 mg/g DM). Preliminary results suggest that insects and some marine algal species may be practical alternatives to traditional protein and supplemental taurine sources in pet foods. Safety, bioavailability, palatability and source variability of alternative items as food ingredients should be investigated prior to incorporation into canine and feline diets.

  5. Amino acid content of selected plant, algae and insect species: a search for alternative protein sources for use in pet foods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCusker, Sarah; Buff, Preston R; Yu, Zengshou; Fascetti, Andrea J

    2014-01-01

    In response to global economic duress and heightened consumer awareness of nutrition and health, sustainable and natural ingredients are in demand. Identification of alternative sources of nitrogen and amino acids, including taurine, may help meet dietary requirements while fostering sustainability and natural feeding approaches. Twenty plants, eighteen marine algae and five insect species were analysed. All samples were freeze-dried, hydrolysed and filtered prior to amino acid analysis. Samples for amino acids were analysed in duplicate and averaged. Nitrogen was analysed and crude protein (CP) determined by calculation. With the exception of taurine concentration in soldier fly larvae, all insects exceeded both the National Research Council's canine and feline minimal requirements (MR) for growth of all essential amino acids (EAA) and CP. Although some plants and marine algal species exceeded the canine and feline MR for growth for EAA and CP, only very low concentrations of taurine were found in plants. Taurine concentration in insects was variable but high, with the greatest concentration found in ants (6·42 mg/g DM) and adult flesh flies (3·33 mg/g DM). Taurine was also high in some macroalgae, especially the red algal species: Mazaella spp. (4·11 mg/g DM), Porphyra spp. (1·22 mg/g DM) and Chondracanthus spp. (6·28 mg/g DM). Preliminary results suggest that insects and some marine algal species may be practical alternatives to traditional protein and supplemental taurine sources in pet foods. Safety, bioavailability, palatability and source variability of alternative items as food ingredients should be investigated prior to incorporation into canine and feline diets. PMID:26101608

  6. Ribosomal protein L10 is encoded in the mitochondrial genome of many land plants and green algae

    OpenAIRE

    Bonen Linda; Mower Jeffrey P

    2009-01-01

    Abstract Background The mitochondrial genomes of plants generally encode 30-40 identified protein-coding genes and a large number of lineage-specific ORFs. The lack of wide conservation for most ORFs suggests they are unlikely to be functional. However, an ORF, termed orf-bryo1, was recently found to be conserved among bryophytes suggesting that it might indeed encode a functional mitochondrial protein. Results From a broad survey of land plants, we have found that the orf-bryo1 gene is also ...

  7. A survey of Marine Algae and Seagrasses of İstanbul, (Turkey)

    OpenAIRE

    Aysel, V.; Erduğan, H.; Dural, B.; Okudan, E.Ş.

    2008-01-01

    Abstract In this research, have been studied marine algae in the upper infralittoral zone of the Bosphorus coasts of İstanbul (including Bosphorus) . A total of 244 taxon have been determined. 11 of them belong to blue-green bacteria (Cyanophyta), 127 to red algae (Rhodophyta), 46 to brown algae (Heterokontophyta), 60 to green algae (Chlorophyta) and 2 to flowering plants (Tracheophyta).

  8. Antibacterial activity of Brazilian Amazon plant extracts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivana Barbosa Suffredini

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Infections caused by multiresistant bacteria are a widespread problem, especially in intensive care units. New antibiotics are necessary, and we need to search for alternatives, including natural products. Brazil is one of the hottest spots in the world in terms of biodiversity, but little is known about the chemical and pharmacological properties of most of the plants found in the Amazon rain forest and the Atlantic Forest. We screened 1,220 organic and aqueous extracts, obtained from Amazon and Atlantic rain forest plants, against Staphylococcus aureus, Enterococcus faecalis, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and E. coli. Seventeen organic and aqueous extracts obtained from 16 plants showed activity against both Gram-positive bacteria. None of the extracts showed relevant activity against the Gram-negative E. coli and Pseudomonas aeruginosa.

  9. Determination of essential elements in edible seaweed by neutron activation analysis; Determinacao de elementos essenciais em algas marinhas comestiveis por analise por ativacao neutronica

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alves, Cassio Bessa Lima; Maihara, Vera Akiko, E-mail: cassio_man@hotmail.com, E-mail: vmaihara@ipen.br [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2013-07-01

    Comestible marine algae are gaining wider global trade, not only because of the taste but also the nutritional quality they present. They are rich in protein, fiber, vitamins and are excellent sources of essential elements due to their ability to absorb substances storing them in their bodies. its chemical composition varies according to the species, habitat, maturity and environmental conditions which are submitted. The method of Neutron Activation Analysis was used to determine the essential elements Cl, K, Mg, Mn and Na present in marine algae from different countries, which are sold in the city of Sao Paulo. A total of 6 samples of marine algae were analyzed, 4 species of Nori (Porphyra umbilicates) from China, Korea, Japan and USA; 1 of Hijiki (Hijikia fusiforme) species from Japan; and 1 species of Kombu (Laminaria sp.) of South Korea. To validate the methodology used was the reference material NIST SRM 1577b Bovine Liver. The concentrations range from 5265-1175 μg/g to CL; from 14413-90261 μg/g to K; from 3007-7091 μg/g to Mg; from 2,3-33,8 μg/g to Mn and from 5161-24973 μg/g to Na.

  10. 陆生植物化感作用抑制藻类生长的研究进展%Review on Inhibition of Terrestrial Plant Allelopathy of Algae Growth

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    边归国

    2012-01-01

    Research of the plant allelopathy inhibition of algae growth is focused on aquatic plants, yet there are few researches on terrestrial plant. Terrestrial plants have the features of widely distributed, large biomass, easy cultivation, easy harvesting and easy processing. Many herbaceous and woody plants are rich in allelochemicals, which have prospect in the algae blooms inhibition and emergency response of the blooms. According to domestic and abroad research reports about terrestrial plant inhibition of algae growth, with sorting of herbaceous and woody, as well as classification of different plants, 15 families and 26Kinds of land plants allelopathy were evaluated.%目前关于植物化感抑制藻类生长的研究主要集中于水生植物,陆生植物对藻类化感作用的研究相对较少.陆生植物具有分布广泛、生物量大、便于培植、容易收割、加工方便等特点,许多草本植物和木本植物体内含有丰富的化感物质,在抑制水中藻类生长和应急处置水华等方面具有良好的应用前景.根据国内外近年来对陆生植物关于抑制藻类生长的研究报道,按草本和木本分类,并以植物的科划分,较全面地评述了15科26种陆生植物化感作用的研究进展.

  11. Inhibitory effects of brown algae extracts on histamine production in mackerel muscle via inhibition of growth and histidine decarboxylase activity of Morganella morganii.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Dong Hyun; Kim, Koth Bong Woo Ri; Cho, Ji Young; Ahn, Dong Hyun

    2014-04-01

    This study was performed to investigate the inhibitory effects of brown algae extracts on histamine production in mackerel muscle. First, antimicrobial activities of brown algae extracts against Morganella morganii were investigated using a disk diffusion method. An ethanol extract of Ecklonia cava (ECEE) exhibited strong antimicrobial activity. The minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) of ECEE was 2 mg/ml. Furthermore, the brown algae extracts were examined for their ability to inhibit crude histidine decarboxylase (HDC) of M. morganii. The ethanol extract of Eisenia bicyclis (EBEE) and ECEE exhibited significant inhibitory activities (19.82% and 33.79%, respectively) at a concentration of 1 mg/ml. To obtain the phlorotannin dieckol, ECEE and EBEE were subjected to liquid-liquid extraction, silica gel column chromatography, and HPLC. Dieckol exhibited substantial inhibitory activity with an IC50 value of 0.61 mg/ml, and exhibited competitive inhibition. These extracts were also tested on mackerel muscle. The viable cell counts and histamine production in mackerel muscle inoculated with M. morganii treated with ≥2.5 MIC of ECEE (weight basis) were highly inhibited compared with the untreated sample. Furthermore, treatment of crude HDC-inoculated mackerel muscle with 0.5% ECEE and 0.5% EBEE (weight basis), which exhibited excellent inhibitory activities against crude HDC, reduced the overall histamine production by 46.29% and 56.89%, respectively, compared with the untreated sample. Thus, these inhibitory effects of ECEE and EBEE should be helpful in enhancing the safety of mackerel by suppressing histamine production in this fish species.

  12. 藻类多糖药用活性的最新进展%Advancement in pharmacological activity of marine algae

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王芳; 王业菊; 李金龙; 许晓曦; 李新胜; 滕国新

    2011-01-01

    Polysaccharides of edible algae attracted extensive interest, due to their numerous biological activities.Sulphated polysaccharides (fucoidan, sulphated galactose, sulphated galactofucan, sulphated polymannuroguluronate) which were extracted from marine algae exhibit high biological activities, such as anticancer, anti- inflammatory, virucidal activity, antioxidant activity, anti- asthmatic effect, immunomodulating activity and anticoagulant activity, and so on.The advancement of the functional properties of polysaccharides were reviewed.%可食用藻类多糖的生物活性引起了人们的广泛关注.近两年来,尤其是对几种从藻类中提取出的新型多糖,如墨角藻聚糖,硫酸化半乳糖,硫酸化的呋喃半乳聚糖,硫酸化多糖polymannuroguluronate(SPMG)等多糖的药用价值,如抗癌、抗菌、抗病毒、抗氧化、抗哮喘、免疫调节、抗凝血等研究有了新的进展,对该方面研究进行了较为全面的综述.

  13. Platinum anniversary: virus and lichen alga together more than 70 years.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karel Petrzik

    Full Text Available Trebouxia aggregata (Archibald Gärtner (phylum Chlorophyta, family Trebouxiaceae, a lichen symbiotic alga, has been identified as host of the well-known herbaceous plant virus Cauliflower mosaic virus (CaMV, family Caulimoviridae. The alga had been isolated from Xanthoria parietina more than 70 years ago and has been maintained in a collection since that time. The CaMV detected in this collection entry has now been completely sequenced. The virus from T. aggregata is mechanically transmissible to a herbaceous host and induces disease symptoms there. Its genome differs by 173 nt from the closest European CaMV-D/H isolate from cauliflower. No site under positive selection was found on the CaMV genome from T. aggregata. We therefore assume that the virus's presence in this alga was not sufficiently long to fix any specific changes in its genome. Apart from this symbiotic alga, CaMV capsid protein sequences were amplified from many other non-symbiotic algae species maintained in a collection (e.g., Oonephris obesa, Elliptochloris sp., Microthamnion kuetzingianum, Chlorella vulgaris, Pseudococcomyxa sp.. CaMV-free Chlorella vulgaris was treated with CaMV to establish virus infection. The virus was still detected there after five passages. The virus infection is morphologically symptomless on Chlorella algae and the photosynthesis activity is slightly decreased in comparison to CaMV-free alga culture. This is the first proof as to the natural presence of CaMV in algae and the first demonstration of algae being artificially infected with this virus.

  14. Magnetic separation of algae

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nath, Pulak; Twary, Scott N.

    2016-04-26

    Described herein are methods and systems for harvesting, collecting, separating and/or dewatering algae using iron based salts combined with a magnetic field gradient to separate algae from an aqueous solution.

  15. ANTI-ULCER ACTIVITY OF LEGUMINOSAE PLANTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Noemi D. PAGUIGAN

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Context Ulcer is the most common gastrointestinal disturbance resulting from an inadequate gastric mucosal defense. Several drugs are available in the market to address the disease; however, these drugs are associated with unnecessary side effects. Objectives Previous research have confirmed the efficacy of plant extracts for possible treatment of the disease. This research aims to evaluate the anti-ulcer properties of medicinal plants. Methods Methanol extracts from the leaves of Intsia bijuga, Cynometra ramiflora, Tamarindus indica, Cassia javanica, Cassia fistula, Bauhini purpurea, Senna spectabilis, Senna siamea and Saraca thaipingensis were evaluated for their anti-ulcer activity using HCl-ethanol as ulcerogen. Results All extracts showed inhibitory activity with I. bijuga, T. indica, S. spectabilis and S. thaipingensis exhibiting more than 50% inhibition. S. thaipingensis showed the highest activity at 80%. S. spectabilis and S. thaipingensis were partitioned further into hexane, ethyl acetate and aqueous fractions. The aqueous and ethyl acetate fractions of S. spectabilis showed significant increased in its activity while the hexane and ethyl acetate fractions of S. thaipingensis gave higher activity than its aqueous portions. Conclusions We conclude that plant extracts are potential sources of new anti-ulcer agents.

  16. ANTIEMETIC ACTIVITY OF SOME AROMATIC PLANTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hasan MuhammadMohtasheemul

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Current study was conducted to explore the antiemetic activity of ten aromatic medicinal plants viz., Carissa carandus L. (fruits, Chichorium intybus L (flowers, Cinnamum tamala L (leaves, Curcuma caesia Roxb (rhizomes, Lallemantia royleana Benth (leaves, Matricaria chamomila L (flowers, Piper longum L (fruits, Piper methysticum G. Forst (fruits, Piper nigrum Linn. (fruits and Syzygium aromaticum (Linn. Merr. & Perry (flowering buds was studied using chick emetic model. The ethanol extracts of these plants were administered at 150 mg/kg body weight orally. Domperidone was given at 100 mg/kg as a reference drug. All the extracts decrease in retches induced by copper sulphate pentahydrate given orally at 50 mg/kg body weight and showed comparable antiemetic activity with domperidone. Compound targeted antiemetic activity is further suggested.

  17. Antifungal activity of 10 Guadeloupean plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biabiany, Murielle; Roumy, Vincent; Hennebelle, Thierry; François, Nadine; Sendid, Boualem; Pottier, Muriel; Aliouat, El Moukhtar; Rouaud, Isabelle; Lohézic-Le Dévéhat, Françoise; Joseph, Henry; Bourgeois, Paul; Sahpaz, Sevser; Bailleul, François

    2013-11-01

    Screening of the antifungal activities of ten Guadeloupean plants was undertaken to find new extracts and formulations against superficial mycoses such as onychomycosis, athlete's foot, Pityriasis versicolor, as well as the deep fungal infection Pneumocystis pneumonia. For the first time, the CMI of these plant extracts [cyclohexane, ethanol and ethanol/water (1:1, v/v)] was determined against five dermatophytes, five Candida species, Scytalidium dimidiatum, a Malassezia sp. strain and Pneumocystis carinii. Cytotoxicity tests of the most active extracts were also performed on an HaCat keratinocyte cell line. Results suggest that the extracts of Bursera simaruba, Cedrela odorata, Enterolobium cyclocarpum and Pluchea carolinensis have interesting activities and could be good candidates for developing antifungal formulations. PMID:23280633

  18. Medicinal plants with anti-inflammatory activities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maione, Francesco; Russo, Rosa; Khan, Haroon; Mascolo, Nicola

    2016-06-01

    Medicinal plants have been the main remedy to treat various ailments for a long time and nowadays, many drugs have been developed from traditional medicine. This paper reviews some medicinal plants and their main constituents which possess anti-inflammatory activities useful for curing joint inflammation, inflammatory skin disorders, cardiovascular inflammation and other inflammatory diseases. Here, we provide a brief overview of quick and easy reading on the role of medicinal plants and their main constituents in these inflammatory diseases. We hope that this overview will shed some light on the function of these natural anti-inflammatory compounds and attract the interest of investigators aiming at the design of novel therapeutic approaches for the treatment of various inflammatory conditions.

  19. Isolation and Identification of a Flavone Apigenin from Marine Red Alga Acanthophora spicifera with Antinociceptive and Anti-Inflammatory Activities

    OpenAIRE

    Gihan A. El Shoubaky; Abdel-Daim, Mohamed M.; Mohamed H. Mansour; Essam A. Salem

    2016-01-01

    Physicochemical investigation of the red alga Acanthophora spicifera (Vahl) Borgesen, collected from Al-Shoaiba coast, Red Sea, Saudi Arabia, led to the isolation of a flavone from the algal tissue with acetone. Preparative chromatography on silica gel thin-layer chromatography was used for the separation of the flavone and eluted with the methanol:chloroform:ethyl acetate (1:7:2) solvent system. The physicochemical analyses infrared, mass spectra, and ultraviolet spectra in addition to shift...

  20. Antibacterial activity of eight Brazilian annonaceae plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takahashi, Jacqueline A; Pereira, Cássia R; Pimenta, Lúcia P S; Boaventura, Maria Amélia D; Silva, Luiz G F E

    2006-01-01

    Sixteen extracts, obtained from eight Brazilian plants of Annonaceae family, were screened for their antibacterial activity: Xylopia frutescens, X. aromatica, X. amazonica, X. benthamii, Annona ambotay, A. crassiflora, A. muricata and A. cherimolia. Amongst the investigated extracts, six showed antibacterial activity against at least one of the tested organisms at the concentration of 100 microg/mL. The most active extracts were those prepared from X. frutescens, X. amazonica, and A. ambotay. A phytochemical screening showed the presence of anonaceus acetogenins in some active extracts. Eleven diterpenoids were also tested for comparison purposes. Six were natural products, previously isolated from Xylopia sp. (kaurenoic, frutoic, xylopic, 15beta-hydroxy-kaurenoic and trachylobanic acids plus kaurenol) and five were derivatives of such compounds, obtained by esterification or reduction reactions. Trachylobanic acid showed antibacterial activity against B. subtilis and S. aureus.

  1. Seasonal and diel changes in photosynthetic activity of the snow alga Chlamydomonas nivalis (Chlorophyceae) from Svalbard determined by pulse amplitude modulation fluorometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stibal, Marek; Elster, Josef; Sabacká, Marie; Kastovská, Klára

    2007-02-01

    The seasonal and diel dynamics of the physiological state and photosynthetic activity of the snow alga Chlamydomonas nivalis were investigated in a snowfield in Svalbard. The snow surface represents an environment with very high irradiation intensities along with stable low temperatures close to freezing point. Photosynthetic activity was measured using pulse amplitude modulation fluorometry. Three types of cell (green biflagellate vegetative cells, orange spores clustered by means of mucilaginous sheaths, and purple spores with thick cell walls) were found, all of them photosynthetically active. The pH of snow ranged between 5.0 and 7.5, and the conductivity ranged between 5 and 75 microS cm(-1). The temperature of snow was stable (-0.1 to +0.1 degrees C), and the incident radiation values ranged from 11 to 1500 micromol photons m(-2) s(-1). The photosynthetic activity had seasonal and diel dynamics. The Fv/Fm values ranged between 0.4 and 0.7, and generally declined over the course of the season. A dynamic response of Fv/Fm to the irradiance was recorded. According to the saturating photon fluence values Ek, the algae may have obtained saturating light as deep as 3 cm in the snow when there were higher-light conditions, whereas they were undersaturated at prevalent low light even if on the surface. PMID:17313577

  2. Neutron activation analysis applied to the study of heavy metal marine pollution observed through bioaccumulation in macroscopic algae near El Jadida, Morocco

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The heavy metals bio-accumulation ability of algae was studied along the North Atlantic Morrocan coast. Instrumental neutron activation analysis was used, to determine concentrations of various elements. The k0 standardization method was used. Some interferences corrections, particularly due to high concentrations of uranium were applied. The quality of the method was checked by using the CRM 140, a Fucus provided by IAEA. Important pollutions appear for several heavy metals from the Morrocan phosphate industry, with respect to the natural background environment. (author)

  3. Inventory of North-West European algae initiatives

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Spruijt, J.

    2015-01-01

    In 2012 an inventory of North-West European (NWE) algae initiatives was carried out to get an impression of the market and research activities on algae production and refinery, especially for bioenergy purposes. A questionnaire was developed that would provide the EnAlgae project with information on

  4. ANTIEMETIC ACTIVITY OF SOME AROMATIC PLANTS

    OpenAIRE

    Hasan MuhammadMohtasheemul; Ahmed Salman; Ahmed Ziauddin; Azhar Iqbal

    2012-01-01

    Current study was conducted to explore the antiemetic activity of ten aromatic medicinal plants viz., Carissa carandus L. (fruits), Chichorium intybus L (flowers), Cinnamum tamala L (leaves), Curcuma caesia Roxb (rhizomes), Lallemantia royleana Benth (leaves), Matricaria chamomila L (flowers), Piper longum L (fruits), Piper methysticum G. Forst (fruits), Piper nigrum Linn. (fruits) and Syzygium aromaticum (Linn.) Merr. & Perry (flowering buds) was studied using chick emetic model. The ethan...

  5. Antioxidant activities of five Lamiaceae plants

    OpenAIRE

    Olívia R. Pereira; Perez, Maria J.; Macias, Rócio I.R.; Marín, Jose J. G.; Cardoso, Susana M.

    2013-01-01

    In the last decades, oxidative stress has been recognized as a key process in the physiopathology of several diseases. Consequently, the search for new antioxidant compounds, as well as new antioxidant sources, has increased exponentially. The Lamiaceae family encloses many plant species which are potential sources of antioxidant compounds. The present study evaluates the antioxidant activity of phenolic enriched extracts of Lamium album, Leonurus cardiaca, Lavandula dentata, Mentha aquatica ...

  6. Antileishmanial activity and cytotoxicity of Brazilian plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ribeiro, Tatiana G; Chávez-Fumagalli, Miguel A; Valadares, Diogo G; Franca, Juçara R; Lage, Paula S; Duarte, Mariana C; Andrade, Pedro H R; Martins, Vivian T; Costa, Lourena E; Arruda, Ana L A; Faraco, André A G; Coelho, Eduardo A F; Castilho, Rachel O

    2014-08-01

    Leishmaniasis is a major public health problem, and the alarming spread of parasite resistance has increased the importance of discovering new therapeutic products. The present study aimed to investigate the in vitro leishmanicidal activity from 16 different Brazilian medicinal plants. Stationary-phase promastigotes of Leishmania amazonensis and murine macrophages were exposed to 44 plant extracts or fractions for 48 h at 37°C, in order to evaluate their antileishmanial activity and cytotoxicity, respectively. The most potent extracts against L. amazonensis were the hexanic extract of Dipteryx alata (IC50 of 0.08 μg/mL), the hexanic extract of Syzygium cumini (IC50 of 31.64 μg/mL), the ethanolic and hexanic extracts of leaves of Hymenaea courbaril (IC50 of 44.10 μg/mL and 35.84 μg/mL, respectively), the ethanolic extract of H. stignocarpa (IC50 of 4.69 μg/mL), the ethanolic extract of Jacaranda caroba (IC50 of 13.22 μg/mL), and the ethanolic extract of J. cuspidifolia leaves (IC50 of 10.96 μg/mL). Extracts of D. alata and J. cuspidifolia presented higher selectivity index, with high leishmanicidal activity and low cytotoxicity in the mammalian cells. The capacity in treated infected macrophages using the extracts and/or fractions of D. alata and J. cuspidifolia was also analyzed, and reductions of 95.80%, 98.31%, and 97.16%, respectively, in the parasite burden, were observed. No nitric oxide (NO) production could be observed in the treated macrophages, after stimulation with the extracts and/or fractions of D. alata and J. cuspidifolia, suggesting that the biological activity could be due to mechanisms other than macrophage activation mediated by NO production. Based on phytochemistry studies, the classes of compounds that could contribute to the observed activities are also discussed. In conclusion, the data presented in this study indicated that traditional medicinal plant extracts present effective antileishmanial activity. Future studies could focus on

  7. Study of Algae Removal by Coagulation and Precipitation in Zhengzhou Baimiao Potable Water Plant%郑州市白庙水厂混凝沉淀除藻的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    尹卫红; 宋向阳; 张湛军; 施东文; 孙仲平

    2000-01-01

    Algae removal has been a rather important issue in China's water plants. The usual solution for it is to killalgae by adding chlorine, which, however, results in the water taste being inferior to standard. This is even maore seriouswhen algae concentration becomes high suddenly in the raw water. The use of PFS linked with high - molecular poly-electrolyte to intensify coagulation and precipitation when algae reproduce vigorously has well improved the taste of the exitwater from the water plant.%在我国的水厂中,藻类去除一直是一个比较重要的问题。通常采用加氯杀藻,但随之带来的是水质的味觉超标,特别是在原水高藻类爆发时,尤为严重。采用聚铁硅酸钠与高分子电解质联用的方法,强化混凝沉淀,在藻类爆发时,出厂水的味觉得到较好的改善。

  8. Antinociceptive activity of sulfated carbohydrates from the red algae Bryothamnion seaforthii (Turner Kütz. and B. triquetrum (S.G. Gmel. M. Howe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Viana G.S.B.

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available We report the antinociceptive activity, determined by the writhing, formalin and hot-plate tests in mice, of crude (F0/60, lectin and carbohydrate fractions isolated by ammonium sulfate precipitation (0 to 60% from Bryothamnion seaforthii and B. triquetrum, species of red algae. Not only fraction F0/60 but also lectins from both species significantly inhibited acetic acid-induced abdominal contractions after intraperitoneal or oral administrations. In the formalin test, lectins (1 and 5 mg/kg, ip, and 5 to 20 mg/kg, po inhibited the 1st and 2nd phases (5 and 20 min, respectively, but the effect occurred predominantly on the 2nd phase. The effects of the lectins were totally or partially reversed by naloxone (2 mg/kg, sc in the 1st and 2nd phases, respectively. Experiments performed with lectins in the absence and presence of avidin (1 mg/kg, ip and D-mannose (1 mg/kg, ip showed that avidin did not interfere with the effect of B. seaforthii lectin but partially reversed the effect of B. triquetrum lectin. D-Mannose completely reversed the effects of both species. F0/60 fractions from both algae significantly increased the latency time in response to thermal stimuli, and naloxone reversed antinociception, indicating the involvement of the opioid system in both the peripheral and central effects of the fractions. In the writhing test, the carbohydrate fractions were the most active, inhibiting the contractions by 71 and 79% (B. triquetrum and by 46 and 69% (B. seaforthii at doses of 1 and 5 mg/kg, ip, respectively. Sulfated carbohydrate fractions of B. seaforthii and B. triquetrum, containing only about 5% protein as contaminants, are probably responsible for the antinociceptive effects of these red algae.

  9. Enzyme inhibitory activity of selected Philippine plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the Philippines, the number one cause of death are cardiovascular diseases. Diseases linked with inflammation are proliferating. This research aims to identify plant extracts that have potential activity of cholesterol-lowering, anti-hypertension, anti-gout, anti-inflammatory and fat blocker agents. Although there are commercially available drugs to treat the aforementioned illnesses, these medicine have adverse side-effects, aside from the fact that they are expensive. The results of this study will serve as added knowledge to contribute to the development of cheaper, more readily available, and effective alternative medicine. 100 plant extracts from different areas in the Philippines have been tested for potential inhibitory activity against Hydroxymethylglutaryl-coenzyme A (HMG-CoA), Lipoxygenase, and Xanthine Oxidase. The plant samples were labeled with codes and distributed to laboratories for blind testing. The effective concentration of the samples tested for Xanthine oxidase is 100 ppm. Samples number 9, 11, 14, 29, 43, 46, and 50 have shown significant inhibitory activity at 78.7%, 78.4%, 70%, 89.2%, 79%, 67.4%, and 67.5% respectively. Samples tested for Lipoxygenase inhibition were set at 33ppm. Samples number 2, 37, 901, 1202, and 1204 have shown significant inhibitory activity at 66, 84.9%, 88.55%, 93.3%, and 84.7% respectively. For HMG-CoA inhibition, the effective concentration of the samples used was 100 ppm. Samples number 1 and 10 showed significant inhibitory activity at 90.1% and 81.8% respectively. (author)

  10. Phosphogypsum as a soil fertilizer: Ecotoxicity of amended soil and elutriates to bacteria, invertebrates, algae and plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    observed. Terrestrial and aquatic plants were the most tolerant species, which is in line with studies supporting the application of PG to increase crop yields. Nevertheless, no stimulatory effects on growth were observed for any of the species tested despite the high levels of phosphorus added to soils by PG. Given the importance of soil invertebrates for several soil functions and services, this study gives rise to new serious concerns about the consequences of PG applications on agricultural soils

  11. Phosphogypsum as a soil fertilizer: Ecotoxicity of amended soil and elutriates to bacteria, invertebrates, algae and plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hentati, Olfa, E-mail: olfa_hentati@yahoo.fr [High Institute of Biotechnology of Sfax, University of Sfax, Route de Soukra Km 4.5 P.O. Box 1175, 3038 Sfax (Tunisia); Abrantes, Nelson [Departamento de Ambiente da Universidade de Aveiro, Campus de Santiago, 3810-193 Aveiro (Portugal); CESAM - Centro de Estudos do Ambiente e do Mar, Campus de Santiago, 3810-193 Aveiro (Portugal); Caetano, Ana Luísa [Departamento de Biologia da Universidade de Aveiro, Campus de Santiago, 3810-193 Aveiro (Portugal); CESAM - Centro de Estudos do Ambiente e do Mar, Campus de Santiago, 3810-193 Aveiro (Portugal); Bouguerra, Sirine [High Institute of Biotechnology of Sfax, University of Sfax, Route de Soukra Km 4.5 P.O. Box 1175, 3038 Sfax (Tunisia); Departamento de Biologia da Faculdade de Ciências da Universidade do Porto, Universidade do Porto, Rua do Campo Alegre s/n, 4169-007 Porto (Portugal); Interdisciplinary Centre of Marine and Environmental Research (CIIMAR/CIMAR), University of Porto, Rua dos Bragas 289, P 4050-123 Porto (Portugal); Gonçalves, Fernando [Departamento de Biologia da Universidade de Aveiro, Campus de Santiago, 3810-193 Aveiro (Portugal); CESAM - Centro de Estudos do Ambiente e do Mar, Campus de Santiago, 3810-193 Aveiro (Portugal); Römbke, Jörg [ECT Oekotoxikologie GmbH, Böttgerstrasse 2-14, D-65439 Flörsheim am Main (Germany); Pereira, Ruth [Departamento de Biologia da Faculdade de Ciências da Universidade do Porto, Universidade do Porto, Rua do Campo Alegre s/n, 4169-007 Porto (Portugal); Interdisciplinary Centre of Marine and Environmental Research (CIIMAR/CIMAR), University of Porto, Rua dos Bragas 289, P 4050-123 Porto (Portugal)

    2015-08-30

    observed. Terrestrial and aquatic plants were the most tolerant species, which is in line with studies supporting the application of PG to increase crop yields. Nevertheless, no stimulatory effects on growth were observed for any of the species tested despite the high levels of phosphorus added to soils by PG. Given the importance of soil invertebrates for several soil functions and services, this study gives rise to new serious concerns about the consequences of PG applications on agricultural soils.

  12. Phosphogypsum as a soil fertilizer: Ecotoxicity of amended soil and elutriates to bacteria, invertebrates, algae and plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hentati, Olfa; Abrantes, Nelson; Caetano, Ana Luísa; Bouguerra, Sirine; Gonçalves, Fernando; Römbke, Jörg; Pereira, Ruth

    2015-08-30

    Phosphogypsum (PG) is a metal and radionuclide rich-waste produced by the phosphate ore industry, which has been used as soil fertilizer in many parts of the world for several decades. The positive effects of PG in ameliorating some soil properties and increasing crop yields are well documented. More recently concerns are emerging related with the increase of metal/radionuclide residues on soils and crops. However, few studies have focused on the impact of PG applications on soil biota, as well as the contribution to soils with elements in mobile fractions of PG which may affect freshwater species as well. In this context the main aim of this study was to assess the ecotoxicity of soils amended with different percentages of Tunisian phosphogypsum (0.0, 4.9, 7.4, 11.1, 16.6 and 25%) and of elutriates obtained from PG - amended soil (0.0, 6.25, 12.5 and 25% of PG) to a battery of terrestrial (Eisenia andrei, Enchytraeus crypticus, Folsomia candida, Hypoaspis aculeifer, Zea mays, Lactuca sativa) and aquatic species (Vibrio fischeri, Daphnia magna, Raphidocelis subcapitata, Lemna minor). Both for amended soils and elutriates, invertebrates (especially D. magna and E. andrei) were the most sensitive species, displaying acute (immobilization) and chronic (reproduction inhibition) effects, respectively. Despite the presence of some concerning metals in PG and elutriates (e.g., zinc and cadmium), the extremely high levels of calcium found in both test mediums, suggest that this element was the mainly responsible for the ecotoxicological effects observed. Terrestrial and aquatic plants were the most tolerant species, which is in line with studies supporting the application of PG to increase crop yields. Nevertheless, no stimulatory effects on growth were observed for any of the species tested despite the high levels of phosphorus added to soils by PG. Given the importance of soil invertebrates for several soil functions and services, this study gives rise to new serious

  13. Cytotoxic activity of ten algae from the Persian Gulf and Oman Sea on human breast cancer cell lines; MDA-MB-231, MCF-7, and T-47D

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nasrollah Erfani

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Seaweeds have proven to be a promising natural source of bioactive metabolites for drug development. Objective: This study aimed to monitor the ethanol extract of ten algae from the Persian Gulf and Oman Sea, for their in vitro cytotoxic activity on three human breast cancer cell lines. Materials and Methods: Three human breast cancer cell lines including MDA-MB-231(ER− , MCF-7(ER + , and T-47D (ER + were treated by different concentrations of total ethanol (90% algae extracts and the cytotoxic effects were evaluated by 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide assay. Doxorubicin (Ebewe, Austria was used as a positive control. After 72 h of incubation, the cytotoxic effect of the algae was calculated and presented as 50%-inhibitory concentration (IC 50 . Results: The results indicated Gracilaria foliifera and Cladophoropsis sp. to be the most active algae in terms of cytotoxic effects on the investigated cancer cell lines. The IC 50 values against MDA-MB-231, MCF-7, and T-47D cells were, respectively, 74.89 ± 21.71, 207.81 ± 12.07, and 203.25 ± 30.98 mg/ml for G. foliifera and 66.48 ± 4.96, 150.86 ± 51.56 and >400 mg/ml for Cladophoropsis sp. The rest of the algal extracts were observed not to have significant cytotoxic effects in the concentration range from 6.25 mg/ml to 400 mg/ml. Conclusion: Our data conclusively suggest that G. foliifera and Cladophoropsis sp. may be good candidates for further fractionation to obtain novel anticancer substances. Moreover, stronger cytotoxic effects on estrogen negative breast cancer cell line (MDA-MB-231(ER− in comparison to estrogen positive cells (MCF-7 and T-47D suggest that the extract of G. foliifera and Cladophoropsis sp. may have an estrogen receptor/progesterone receptor-independent mechanism for their cellular growth inhibition.

  14. High cytotoxicity and anti-proliferative activity of algae extracts on an in vitro model of human hepatocellular carcinoma

    OpenAIRE

    Alves, Celso; Pinteus, Susete; Horta, André; Pedrosa, Rui

    2016-01-01

    Background: Cancer represents a serious threat for human health with high social and economic impacts worldwide. Therefore, the development of new anticancer drugs is of most importance. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the antitumor potential of twelve algae from Portugal coast on an in vitro model of human hepatocellular carcinoma (HepG-2 cells).Results: Both extracts of Asparagopsis armata (1000 µg/ml; 24 h) presented high cytotoxicity with 11.22 ± 2.98 and 1.51 ± 0.38 % of Hep...

  15. Red algae (Gelidium amansii) reduces adiposity via activation of lipolysis in rats with diabetes induced by streptozotocin-nicotinamide

    OpenAIRE

    Tsung-Han Yang; Hsien-Tsung Yao; Meng-Tsan Chiang

    2015-01-01

    Gelidium amansii (GA) is an edible red algae that is distributed mainly in northeastern Taiwan. This study was designed to investigate the effects of GA on plasma glucose, lipids, and adipocytokines in rats with streptozotocin-nicotinamide-induced diabetes. Rats were divided into four groups: (1) rats without diabetes fed a high-fat diet (control group); (2) rats with diabetes fed a high-fat diet; (3) rats with diabetes fed a high-fat diet with thiazolidinedione in the diet; and (4) rats with...

  16. MORPHOLOGICAL ANATOMICAL AND PHITOCHEMICAL CHARACTERISTICS OF SOME ALGAE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. S. Kaysheva

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Morphological and anatomical features of thalluses of brown (Laminaria saccharina, Fucus vesiculosus and red (Ahnfeltia plicata algae, procured at a coastal strip of the Northern basin in gulfs of Ura-Guba and Palkina-Guba at different depths. Compliance of Fucus and Ahnfeltia with pharmacopoeial norms and merchandising indices for Laminaria was established, except for high concentration of sand in Ahnfeltia thalluses. The identity of algae between each other was shown based on the results of qualitative analysis on polysaccharides, alginic acids, reducing sugars, iodine, mannitol, amino acids presence. Quantitative content of polysaccharides, alginic acids, reducing sugars, pentosans, iodine, cellulose, mannitol, proteins, lipids, agar was determined. In comparison with Fucus and Ahnfeltia higher concentration of the following content was noted in Laminaria: alginic acids (1.4 and 5.75 times higher, polysaccharides (1.3 and 1.4 times, iodine (4.5 and 1.8 times, mannatol (1.5 and 2.5 times (data received is statistically reliable. Impropriety of storm algae for processing was shown as law quality raw material. The highest concentration of active substances was revealed in Laminaria thalluses which were procured at the depth of 10 m in a period from September to October. Active accumulation of sodium, potassium, calcium, iron, magnesium, manganese corresponding to similar sea water composition was established in algae. Mathematical equations of regression between protein and manganese, protein and iron content in algae were deduced. Under proper conditions of drying and storage high quality of the materials can be preserved during 3 years. Based on the findings of photochemical researches, taking into account squares of plantations and possible exploitation stocks, the possibility and prospectivity of industrial processing of Fucus vesiculosus and Ahnfeltia plicata together with Laminaria saccharina as plant sources of polysaccharides (mainly

  17. Effect of Different Light Qualities on Growth, Pigment Content, Chlorophyll Fluorescence, and Antioxidant Enzyme Activity in the Red Alga Pyropia haitanensis (Bangiales, Rhodophyta)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-01-01

    Spectral light changes evoke different morphogenetic and photosynthetic responses that can vary among different algae species. The aim of this study is to investigate the photosynthetic characteristics of the red macroalgae grown under different spectrum environments. In this study, Pyropia haitanensis were cultured under blue, red, and green LED and fluorescent tubes light. The growth rate, photopigment composition, chlorophyll fluorescence, and antioxidative enzymes activities in different light spectrums were investigated. The results revealed that growth rate was significantly higher in the thalli grown under blue, green, and fluorescent tubes light. Contents of Chl a and phycobiliprotein in red light were lower among all the growth conditions. Furthermore, a striking increase in SOD and CAT activity was observed in red light treatment along with the NPQ increase. The results revealed that the photosynthetic efficiency and increased growth rate of P. haitanensis benefitted from light spectrums such as blue, green, and fluorescent tubes light by pigment composition and photochemical efficiency manipulation, whereas red light has disadvantageous effects. Accordingly, the results for improving quality and the economic yield of algae species in some extent and the combination of different wavelengths could allow better economic resource exploitation. PMID:27642603

  18. Effect of Different Light Qualities on Growth, Pigment Content, Chlorophyll Fluorescence, and Antioxidant Enzyme Activity in the Red Alga Pyropia haitanensis (Bangiales, Rhodophyta).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Huanyang

    2016-01-01

    Spectral light changes evoke different morphogenetic and photosynthetic responses that can vary among different algae species. The aim of this study is to investigate the photosynthetic characteristics of the red macroalgae grown under different spectrum environments. In this study, Pyropia haitanensis were cultured under blue, red, and green LED and fluorescent tubes light. The growth rate, photopigment composition, chlorophyll fluorescence, and antioxidative enzymes activities in different light spectrums were investigated. The results revealed that growth rate was significantly higher in the thalli grown under blue, green, and fluorescent tubes light. Contents of Chl a and phycobiliprotein in red light were lower among all the growth conditions. Furthermore, a striking increase in SOD and CAT activity was observed in red light treatment along with the NPQ increase. The results revealed that the photosynthetic efficiency and increased growth rate of P. haitanensis benefitted from light spectrums such as blue, green, and fluorescent tubes light by pigment composition and photochemical efficiency manipulation, whereas red light has disadvantageous effects. Accordingly, the results for improving quality and the economic yield of algae species in some extent and the combination of different wavelengths could allow better economic resource exploitation. PMID:27642603

  19. Antibacterial activity of resin rich plant extracts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohd Shuaib

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: The in vitro antibacterial activity of resin rich methanolic extracts (RRMEs of Commiphora myrrha, Operculina turpethum, and Pinus roxburghii. Materials and Methods: Different concentration were studied by agar-well diffusion method against Gram-positive (Staphylococcus aureus, Bacillus subtilis, Micrococcus luteus, Enterococcus faecalis and Gram-negative bacterial strains (Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Salmonella typhi, Shigella dysenteriae. Results: Among all the bacterial strains tested, E. faecalis was most sensitive and S. typhi was resistant to C. myrrha and P. roxburghii. The extracts of O. turpethum were active against all tested strains in which B. subtilis and S. aureus were the most sensitive. Conclusion: This suggested that the antibacterial activity of RRMEs of O. turpethum was more than C. myrrha and P. roxburghii. This probably explains the potential of these plants against a number of infections caused by bacterial strains tested.

  20. Identification of a small protein domain present in all plant lineages that confers high prephenate dehydratase activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Azaz, Jorge; de la Torre, Fernando; Ávila, Concepción; Cánovas, Francisco M

    2016-07-01

    l-Phenylalanine serves as a building block for the biosynthesis of proteins, but also as a precursor for a wide range of plant-derived compounds essential for plants and animals. Plants can synthesize Phe within the plastids using arogenate as a precursor; however, an alternative pathway using phenylpyruvate as an intermediate, described for most microorganisms, has recently been proposed. The functionality of this pathway requires the existence of enzymes with prephenate dehydratase (PDT) activity (EC 4.2.1.51) in plants. Using phylogenetic studies, functional complementation assays in yeast and biochemical analysis, we have identified the enzymes displaying PDT activity in Pinus pinaster. Through sequence alignment comparisons and site-directed mutagenesis we have identified a 22-amino acid region conferring PDT activity (PAC domain) and a single Ala314 residue critical to trigger this activity. Our results demonstrate that all plant clades include PAC domain-containing ADTs, suggesting that the PDT activity, and thus the ability to synthesize Phe using phenylpyruvate as an intermediate, has been preserved throughout the evolution of plants. Moreover, this pathway together with the arogenate pathway gives plants a broad and versatile capacity to synthesize Phe and its derived compounds. PAC domain-containing enzymes are also present in green and red algae, and glaucophytes, the three emerging clades following the primary endosymbiont event resulting in the acquisition of plastids in eukaryotes. The evolutionary prokaryotic origin of this domain is discussed. PMID:27125254

  1. A Simple Green Synthesis of Palladium Nanoparticles with Sargassum Alga and Their Electrocatalytic Activities Towards Hydrogen Peroxide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Momeni, S; Nabipour, I

    2015-08-01

    This study presents the synthesis of palladium nanoparticles (PdNPs) using the extract derived from the marine alga, Sargassum bovinum, collected from Persian Gulf area. Water-soluble compounds that exist in the marine alga extract were the main cause of the reduction of palladium ions to Pd nanoparticles. The basic properties of PdNPs produced in this method were confirmed by UV-visible spectroscopy, transmission electron microscopy (TEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD), energy-dispersive X-ray (EDX) analysis, and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR). TEM confirmed the monodispersed and octahedral shape of PdNPs within the size ranges from 5 to 10 nm. Catalytic performance of the biosynthetic PdNPs was investigated by electrochemical reduction of hydrogen peroxide (H2O2). PdNP-modified carbon ionic liquid electrode (PdNPs/CILE) was developed as a nonenzymatic sensor for the determination of hydrogen peroxide. Amperometric measurements showed that PdNPs/CILE is a reliable sensor for the detection of hydrogen peroxide in the range of 5.0 μM-15.0 mM with a sensitivity of 284.35 mAmM(-1) cm(-2) and a detection limit of 1.0 μM. Moreover, PdNPs/CILE exhibits a wide linear range, high sensitivity and selectivity, and excellent stability for the detection of H2O2 in aqueous solutions. PMID:26041058

  2. Antioxidant activity of some Turkish medicinal plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karadeniz, A; Çinbilgel, I; Gün, S Ş; Çetin, A

    2015-01-01

    DPPH, superoxide and nitric oxide radical scavenging activities and total phenolic content (TPC) of some less known plants, distributed in Burdur-Antalya provinces and consumed both as food and for the medicine, Asplenium ceterach L. (golden herb), Valeriana dioscoridis Sm. (valerian), Doronicum orientale Hoffm. (tiger herb), Cota pestalozzae (Boiss.) Boiss. (camomile), Eremurus spectabilis M. Bieb. (foxtail lily), Asphodeline lutea (L.) Rchb. (asphodel) and Smyrnium connatum Boiss. and Kotschy (hemlock) were investigated. As a result, the highest 2,2-diphenyl-1-picril hydrazyl (DPPH) radical scavenging activity was determined in C. pestalozzae extract (IC50 = 18.66 μg mL(-1)), the highest superoxide and nitric oxide radical scavenging activity was determined in A. ceterach extract (IC50 = 145.17 and 372.03 μg mL(-1)). The highest TPC was determined in A. ceterach extract (59,26 μg mL(-1)) as gallic acid equivalent. Further bioactivity and phytochemistry studies on these plants may enlighten new drug discovery researches. PMID:25649168

  3. The physiological responses of Vallisneria natans to epiphytic algae with the increase of N and P concentrations in water bodies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Yu-Zhi; Wang, Jin-Qi; Gao, Yong-Xia; Xie, Xue-Jian

    2015-06-01

    To reveal the mechanism of submerged plants decline in progressively eutrophicated freshwaters, physiological responses of Vallisneria natans to epiphytic algae were studied in simulation lab by measuring plant physiological indexes of chlorophyll content, malondialdehyde (MDA) content, and superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity based on a 2 × 4 factorial design with two epiphytic conditions (with epiphytic algae and without) and four levels of N and P concentrations in water (N-P[mg.L(-1)]: 0.5, 0.05; 2.5, 0.25; 4.5, 0.45; 12.5, 1.25). Compared with control (non-presence of epiphytic algae), chlorophyll contents of V. natans were significantly decreased (p < 0.01) for the presence of epiphytic algae under any concentrations of N and P in water bodies. While the presence of epiphytic algae induced peroxidation of membrane lipids, MDA contents of V. natans had significantly increased (p < 0.05) by comparing with control. SOD activity significantly enhanced (p < 0.05) with the presence of epiphytic algae in the treatments of T2 and T3 in the whole culture process by comparing with control, sometimes reaching an extremely significant level (p < 0.01). However, in the treatments of T1 and T4, SOD activity had no obvious change with the presence of epiphytic algae (p < 0.05) by comparing with control. At the end of the experiment, the effects of epiphytic algae on chlorophyll content and SOD activity in the leaves of V. natans were increased at first and then decreased with the concentrations of N and P in water, and MDA content became higher with the increase of N and P. concentrations. Repeated measurement data testing showed that the effects of epiphytic algae on the chlorophyll content and MDA content and SOD activity were significant, respectively (p < 0.001), the effects of epiphytic algae were combining with effects of concentrations of N and P (p < 0.001), respectively, and their interaction (p < 0.001). Our observations

  4. The charophycean green algae as model systems to study plant cell walls and other evolutionary adaptations that gave rise to land plants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Iben; Rose, Jocelyn K.C.; Doyle, Jeff J.;

    2012-01-01

    for terrestrial colonization. The nature and molecular bases of such traits are still being determined, but one critical adaptation is thought to have been the evolution of a complex cell wall. Very little is known about the identity, origins and diversity of the biosynthetic machinery producing the major suites...... of structural polymers (i. e., cell wall polysaccharides and associated molecules) that must have been in place for land colonization. However, it has been suggested that the success of the earliest land plants was partly based on the frequency of gene duplication, and possibly whole genome sduplications...

  5. Hyperspectral imaging of snow algae and green algae from aeroterrestrial habitats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holzinger, Andreas; Allen, Michael C; Deheyn, Dimitri D

    2016-09-01

    Snow algae and green algae living in aeroterrestrial habitats are ideal objects to study adaptation to high light irradiation. Here, we used a detailed description of the spectral properties as a proxy for photo-acclimation/protection in snow algae (Chlamydomonas nivalis, Chlainomonas sp. and Chloromonas sp.) and charophyte green algae (Zygnema sp., Zygogonium ericetorum and Klebsormidium crenulatum). The hyperspectral microscopic mapping and imaging technique allowed us to acquire total absorption spectra of these microalgae in the waveband of 400-900nm. Particularly in Chlamydomonas nivalis and Chlainomonas sp., a high absorbance between 400-550nm was observed, due to naturally occurring secondary carotenoids; in Chloromonas sp. and in the charopyhte algae this high absorbance was missing, the latter being close relatives to land plants. To investigate if cellular water loss has an influence on the spectral properties, the cells were plasmolysed in sorbitol or desiccated at ambient air. While in snow algae, these treatments did hardly change the spectral properties, in the charopyhte algae the condensation of the cytoplasm and plastids increased the absorbance in the lower waveband of 400-500nm. These changes might be ecologically relevant and photoprotective, as aeroterrestrial algae are naturally exposed to occasional water limitation, leading to desiccation, which are conditions usually occurring together with higher irradiation. PMID:27442511

  6. Algae liquefaction / Hope Baloyi

    OpenAIRE

    Baloyi, Hope

    2012-01-01

    The liquefaction of algae for the recovery of bio–oil was studied. Algae oil is a non–edible feedstock and has minimal impact on food security and food prices; furthermore, it has been identified as a favourable feedstock for the production of biodiesel and this is attributed to its high oil yield per hectare. Algae oil can be potentially used for fuel blending for conventional diesel. The recovery step for algae oil for the production of biodiesel is costly and demands a lot of energy due to...

  7. Biological Activities of Plant Pigments Betalains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gandía-Herrero, Fernando; Escribano, Josefa; García-Carmona, Francisco

    2016-04-25

    Betalains are a family of natural pigments present in most plants of the order Caryophyllales. They provide colors ranging from yellow to violet to structures that in other plants are colored by anthocyanins. These include not only edible fruits and roots but also flowers, stems, and bracts. The recent characterization of different bioactivities in experiments with betalain containing extracts and purified pigments has renewed the interest of the research community in these molecules used by the food industry as natural colorants. Studies with multiple cancer cell lines have demonstrated a high chemopreventive potential that finds in vitro support in a strong antiradical and antioxidant activity. Experiments in vivo with model animals and bioavailability studies reinforce the possible role played by betalains in the diet. This work provides a critical review of all the claimed biological activities of betalains, showing that the bioactivities described might be supported by the high antiradical capacity of their structural unit, betalamic acid. Although more investigations with purified compounds are needed, the current evidences suggest a strong health-promoting potential. PMID:25118005

  8. Low oxygen consumption in slow sand filtration by effective removal of floating algae

    OpenAIRE

    ISOBE, Yoshikuni; NAKAMOTO, Nobutada

    2004-01-01

    Slow Sand Filtration (SSF) is a biolofical system to purify tap water. In this study, dissolced oxygen concentration and its diurnal changes were measured at three different production rate was almost the same in there three different SSF plants. Different tratments of floating algae were done in these SSF plants. The daily respiration rate at the Sodeyama plant was the lowest rate. The floating algae were effectively removed at this plant. Therefore, oxygen consumption by floating algae beca...

  9. Fluorescence activated cell sorting of plant protoplasts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bargmann, Bastiaan O R; Birnbaum, Kenneth D

    2010-02-18

    High-resolution, cell type-specific analysis of gene expression greatly enhances understanding of developmental regulation and responses to environmental stimuli in any multicellular organism. In situ hybridization and reporter gene visualization can to a limited extent be used to this end but for high resolution quantitative RT-PCR or high-throughput transcriptome-wide analysis the isolation of RNA from particular cell types is requisite. Cellular dissociation of tissue expressing a fluorescent protein marker in a specific cell type and subsequent Fluorescence Activated Cell Sorting (FACS) makes it possible to collect sufficient amounts of material for RNA extraction, cDNA synthesis/amplification and microarray analysis. An extensive set of cell type-specific fluorescent reporter lines is available to the plant research community. In this case, two marker lines of the Arabidopsis thaliana root are used: P(SCR;)::GFP (endodermis and quiescent center) and P(WOX5;)::GFP (quiescent center). Large numbers (thousands) of seedlings are grown hydroponically or on agar plates and harvested to obtain enough root material for further analysis. Cellular dissociation of plant material is achieved by enzymatic digestion of the cell wall. This procedure makes use of high osmolarity-induced plasmolysis and commercially available cellulases, pectinases and hemicellulases to release protoplasts into solution. FACS of GFP-positive cells makes use of the visualization of the green versus the red emission spectra of protoplasts excited by a 488 nm laser. GFP-positive protoplasts can be distinguished by their increased ratio of green to red emission. Protoplasts are typically sorted directly into RNA extraction buffer and stored for further processing at a later time. This technique is revealed to be straightforward and practicable. Furthermore, it is shown that it can be used without difficulty to isolate sufficient numbers of cells for transcriptome analysis, even for very scarce

  10. Neutron activation analysis of new botanical reference materials. Pt. 2. Evaluation of Czechoslovak green algae, lucerne, wheat and rye bread flour

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kucera, J.; Soukal, L. (Nuclear Research Inst., Rez (Czechoslovakia))

    1993-01-01

    The certified, information, and other values of elemental contents were compared with results of neutron activation analysis (NAA) for the new Czechoslovak botanical reference materials (RMs) Green Algae 12-02-02, Lucerne 12-02-03, Wheat Bread Fluor 12-02-04, and Rye Bread Flour 12-02-05. These were prepared by the Institute of Radioecology and Applied Nuclear Techniques (IRANT), Kosice, and statistically evaluated after interlaboratory comparisons. For the majority of elements, a very good agreement was found between the IRANT values and the results of NAA. In several cases, however, significant differences were detected; possible analytical reasons for the differences and the suitability of a purely statistical evaluation of intercomparison results without analytical considerations for RM certification are discussed. (orig.).

  11. Effect of chromium oxide (III) nanoparticles on the production of reactive oxygen species and photosystem II activity in the green alga Chlamydomonas reinhardtii.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costa, Cristina Henning da; Perreault, François; Oukarroum, Abdallah; Melegari, Sílvia Pedroso; Popovic, Radovan; Matias, William Gerson

    2016-09-15

    With the growth of nanotechnology and widespread use of nanomaterials, there is an increasing risk of environmental contamination by nanomaterials. However, the potential implications of such environmental contamination are hard to evaluate since the toxicity of nanomaterials if often not well characterized. The objective of this study was to evaluate the toxicity of a chromium-based nanoparticle, Cr2O3-NP, used in a wide diversity of industrial processes and commercial products, on the unicellular green alga Chlamydomonas reinhardtii. The deleterious impacts of Cr2O3-NP were characterized using cell density measurements, production of reactive oxygen species (ROS), esterase enzymes activity, and photosystem II electron transport as indicators of toxicity. Cr2O3-NP exposure inhibited culture growth and significantly lowered cellular Chlorophyll a content. From cell density measurements, EC50 values of 2.05±0.20 and 1.35±0.06gL(-1) Cr2O3-NP were obtained after 24 and 72h of exposure, respectively. In addition, ROS levels were increased to 160.24±2.47% and 59.91±0.15% of the control value after 24 and 72h of exposition to 10gL(-1) Cr2O3-NP. At 24h of exposure, the esterase activity increased to 160.24% of control value, revealing a modification of the short-term metabolic response of algae to Cr2O3-NP exposure. In conclusion, the metabolism of C. reinhardtii was the most sensitive to Cr2O3-NP after 24h of treatment. PMID:26803219

  12. Importance of algae oil as a source of biodiesel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Algae are the fastest-growing plants in the world. Industrial reactors for algal culture are open ponds, photobioreactors and closed systems. Algae are very important as a biomass source. Algae will some day be competitive as a source for biofuel. Different species of algae may be better suited for different types of fuel. Algae can be grown almost anywhere, even on sewage or salt water, and does not require fertile land or food crops, and processing requires less energy than the algae provides. Algae can be a replacement for oil based fuels, one that is more effective and has no disadvantages. Algae are among the fastest-growing plants in the world, and about 50% of their weight is oil. This lipid oil can be used to make biodiesel for cars, trucks, and airplanes. Microalgae have much faster growth-rates than terrestrial crops. the per unit area yield of oil from algae is estimated to be from 20,000 to 80,000 l per acre, per year; this is 7-31 times greater than the next best crop, palm oil. The lipid and fatty acid contents of microalgae vary in accordance with culture conditions. Most current research on oil extraction is focused on microalgae to produce biodiesel from algal oil. Algal-oil processes into biodiesel as easily as oil derived from land-based crops.

  13. Involvement of plant endogenous ABA in Bacillus megaterium PGPR activity in tomato plants

    OpenAIRE

    Porcel, Rosa; Zamarreño, Ángel M.; García-Mina, José M.; AROCA, RICARDO

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Background Plant growth-promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR) are naturally occurring soil bacteria which benefit plants by improving plant productivity and immunity. The mechanisms involved in these processes include the regulation of plant hormone levels such as ethylene and abscisic acid (ABA). The aim of the present study was to determine whether the activity of Bacillus megaterium PGPR is affected by the endogenous ABA content of the host plant. The ABA-deficient tomato mutants flacca ...

  14. Composition and structure of the 80S ribosome from the green alga Chlamydomonas reinhardtii: 80S ribosomes are conserved in plants and animals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manuell, Andrea L; Yamaguchi, Kenichi; Haynes, Paul A; Milligan, Ronald A; Mayfield, Stephen P

    2005-08-12

    We have conducted a proteomic analysis of the 80S cytosolic ribosome from the eukaryotic green alga Chlamydomonas reinhardtii, and accompany this with a cryo-electron microscopy structure of the ribosome. Proteins homologous to all but one rat 40S subunit protein, including a homolog of RACK1, and all but three rat 60S subunit proteins were identified as components of the C. reinhardtii ribosome. Expressed Sequence Tag (EST) evidence and annotation of the completed C. reinhardtii genome identified genes for each of the four proteins not identified by proteomic analysis, showing that algae potentially have a complete set of orthologs to mammalian 80S ribosomal proteins. Presented at 25A, the algal 80S ribosome is very similar in structure to the yeast 80S ribosome, with only minor distinguishable differences. These data show that, although separated by billions of years of evolution, cytosolic ribosomes from photosynthetic organisms are highly conserved with their yeast and animal counterparts.

  15. Influence of the Brown Marine Algae on the Physicochemical and Sensory Characteristcs of the Sausages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudiu Dan Sălăgean

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available  The aim of this study was to asses the influence of the brown algae on the quality in manufacturing of a certain halfsmoked sausages assortment.  Exploiting the natural plant resources as well as reducing the animal fat in the finished product by replacing it with proteins, fibers and minerals (provided by the brown marine algae were also intended. Two technological variants with different ratios of algae (V1-10% respectively V2-15% from those 25% of fat (the remaining of 75% beeing represented, in each case, by beef were experienced and compared with the control sample (VM, without algae, 75% beef and 25% fat. The finished products were analyzed in terms of organoleptic and physicochemical, in different stages of storage, at 24 hours after obtaining and seven days of storage at 10 to 12 degrees. The correlations between investigated quality parameters and the ratios of algae were also established. The physicochemical analysis highlighted the highest values regarding the protein, moisture, sodium chloride and the lowest fat content values in the case of the V2 variant compared to the V1 and VM variants. Furthermore, an increase in protein, fat, sodium chloride and a decrease of the moisture content have been found in all variants observed during the storage. The shelf life of the product was not negatively affected by the addition of algae due to their antimicrobial activity. The addition of algae in combination with beef components led to obtaining a higher quality product with functional characteristics.

  16. Anti-inflammatory activity of some traditional medicinal plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, R K; Joshi, V K; Gambhir, S S

    1998-10-01

    The ethanol extract of roots, fruits and roots of solanum indicum and saccharum munja respectively and water soluble resin of commiphora myrrha were studied for antiinflammatory activity against carrageenin induced oedema in rats, the significant antiinflammatory activity were found in former two plants will slight anti inflammatory activity was observed in latter plant.

  17. Sustainable Algae Biodiesel Production in Cold Climates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rudras Baliga

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available This life cycle assessment aims to determine the most suitable operating conditions for algae biodiesel production in cold climates to minimize energy consumption and environmental impacts. Two hypothetical photobioreactor algae production and biodiesel plants located in Upstate New York (USA are modeled. The photobioreactor is assumed to be housed within a greenhouse that is located adjacent to a fossil fuel or biomass power plant that can supply waste heat and flue gas containing CO2 as a primary source of carbon. Model results show that the biodiesel areal productivity is high (19 to 25 L of BD/m2/yr. The total life cycle energy consumption was between 15 and 23 MJ/L of algae BD and 20 MJ/L of soy BD. Energy consumption and air emissions for algae biodiesel are substantially lower than soy biodiesel when waste heat was utilized. Algae's most substantial contribution is a significant decrease in the petroleum consumed to make the fuel.

  18. Isoprenoid biosynthesis in eukaryotic phototrophs: A spotlight on algae

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lohr M.; Schwender J.; Polle, J. E. W.

    2012-04-01

    Isoprenoids are one of the largest groups of natural compounds and have a variety of important functions in the primary metabolism of land plants and algae. In recent years, our understanding of the numerous facets of isoprenoid metabolism in land plants has been rapidly increasing, while knowledge on the metabolic network of isoprenoids in algae still lags behind. Here, current views on the biochemistry and genetics of the core isoprenoid metabolism in land plants and in the major algal phyla are compared and some of the most pressing open questions are highlighted. Based on the different evolutionary histories of the various groups of eukaryotic phototrophs, we discuss the distribution and regulation of the mevalonate (MVA) and the methylerythritol phosphate (MEP) pathways in land plants and algae and the potential consequences of the loss of the MVA pathway in groups such as the green algae. For the prenyltransferases, serving as gatekeepers to the various branches of terpenoid biosynthesis in land plants and algae, we explore the minimal inventory necessary for the formation of primary isoprenoids and present a preliminary analysis of their occurrence and phylogeny in algae with primary and secondary plastids. The review concludes with some perspectives on genetic engineering of the isoprenoid metabolism in algae.

  19. Algae and blue-green algae as mosquito food

    OpenAIRE

    Rettich, František; Popovský, Jiří; Cepák, Vladimír

    2001-01-01

    Ten genera of cyanophytes and 73 genera of algae were found in the guts of Aedes, Culex, Anopheles and Culiseta larvae collected in various breeding places of the Elbe-Lowland (Bohemia) and Prague. The quality and quantity of blue-green algae and algae found in mosquito guts depended on their presence in the water of mosquito breeding places and on the feeding type (filter fieders, scrapers) of mosquito larvae. Chlorophycean algae possesing cell wall with sporopollenin and algae with a mucila...

  20. The performance of hybrid titania/silica-derived xerogels as active antifouling/fouling-release surfaces against the marine alga Ulva linza: in situ generation of hypohalous acids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Damon, Corey A; Gatley, Caitlyn M; Beres, Joshua J; Finlay, John A; Franco, Sofia C; Clare, Anthony S; Detty, Michael R

    2016-09-13

    Mixed titania/silica xerogels were prepared using titanium tetraisopropoxide (TTIP) and tetraethoxy orthosilicate (TEOS). Xerogel properties were modified by incorporating n-octyltriethoxysilane (C8). The xerogels catalyze the oxidation of bromide and chloride with hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) to produce hypohalous acids at pH 7 and pH 8. The antifouling/ fouling-release performance of a TTIP/C8/TEOS xerogel in the presence and absence of H2O2 was evaluated for the settlement of zoospores of the marine alga Ulva linza and for the removal of sporelings (young plants). In the absence of H2O2, differences in the settlement of zoospores and removal of sporelings were not significant relative to a titanium-free C8/TEOS xerogel. Addition of H2O2 gave a significant reduction in zoospore settlement and sporeling removal relative to the C8/TEOS xerogel and relative to peroxide-free conditions. The impact of TTIP on xerogel characteristics was evaluated by comprehensive contact angle analysis, scanning electron microscopy, and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. PMID:27458654

  1. Aquatic plant surface as a niche for methanotrophs

    OpenAIRE

    YasuyoshiSakai; NaokoYoshida; AkioMurakami

    2014-01-01

    This study investigated the potential local CH4 sink in various plant parts as a boundary environment of CH4 emission and consumption. By comparing CH4 consumption activities in cultures inoculated with parts from 39 plant species, we observed significantly higher consumption of CH4 associated with aquatic plants than other emergent plant parts such as woody plant leaves, macrophytic marine algae, and sea grass. In situ activity of CH4 consumption by methanotrophs associated with different s...

  2. Aquatic plant surface as a niche for methanotrophs

    OpenAIRE

    Yoshida, Naoko; Iguchi, Hiroyuki; Yurimoto, Hiroya; Murakami, Akio; Sakai, Yasuyoshi

    2014-01-01

    This study investigated the potential local CH4 sink in various plant parts as a boundary environment of CH4 emission and consumption. By comparing CH4 consumption activities in cultures inoculated with parts from 39 plant species, we observed significantly higher consumption of CH4 associated with aquatic plants than other emergent plant parts such as woody plant leaves, macrophytic marine algae, and sea grass. In situ activity of CH4 consumption by methanotrophs associated with different sp...

  3. Reduced Chitinase Activities in Ant Plants of the Genus Macaranga

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heil, Martin; Fiala, Brigitte; Linsenmair, K. Eduard; Boller, Thomas

    Many plant species have evolved mutualistic associations with ants, protecting their host against detrimental influences such as herbivorous insects. Letourneau (1998) reported in the case of Piper that ants defend their plants principally against stem-boring insects and also reduce fungal infections on inflorescences. Macaranga plants that were experimentally deprived of their symbiotic Crematogaster ants suffered heavily from shoot borers and pathogenic fungi (Heil 1998). Here we report that ants seem to reduce fungal infections actively in the obligate myrmecophyte Macarangatriloba (Euphorbiaceae), while ant-free plants can be easily infected. We also found extremely low chitinase activity in Macaranga plants. The plants' own biochemical defense seems to be reduced, and low chitinase activity perhaps may represent a predisposition for the evolution of myrmecophytism. These plants are therefore highly dependent on their ants, which obviously function not only as an antiherbivore defense but also as an effective agent against fungal pathogens.

  4. Acetyl-CoA synthetase is activated as part of the PDH-bypass in the oleaginous green alga Chlorella desiccata.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avidan, Omri; Pick, Uri

    2015-12-01

    In a recent study, it has been shown that biosynthesis of triacylglycerol (TAG) in the oleaginous green alga Chlorella desiccata is preceded by a large increase in acetyl-coenzyme A (Ac-CoA) levels and by upregulation of plastidic pyruvate dehydrogenase (ptPDH). It was proposed that the capacity to accumulate high TAG critically depends on enhanced production of Ac-CoA. In this study, two alternative Ac-CoA producers-plastidic Ac-CoA synthase (ptACS) and ATP citrate lyase (ACL)-are shown to be upregulated prior to TAG accumulation under nitrogen deprivation in the oleaginous species C. desiccata, but not in the moderate TAG accumulators Dunaliella tertiolecta and Chlamydomonas reinhardtii. Measurements of endogenous acetate production and of radiolabelled acetate incorporation into lipids are consistent with the upregulation of ptACS, but suggest that its contribution to the overall TAG biosynthesis is negligible. Induction of ACS and production of endogenous acetate are correlated with activation of alcohol dehydrogenase, suggesting that the upregulation of ptACS is associated with activation of PDH-bypass in C. desiccata. It is proposed that activation of the PDH-bypass in C. desiccata is needed to enable a high rate of lipid biosynthesis under nitrogen deprivation by controlling the level of pyruvate reaching ptPHD and/or mtPDH. This may be an important parameter for massive TAG accumulation in microalgae.

  5. STUDY OF DRUG LIKENESS ACTIVITY OF PHYTOCHEMICALS IN MEDICINAL PLANTS

    OpenAIRE

    V. Sathya; Gopalakrishnan, V. K.

    2012-01-01

    Phytochemicals in medicinal plants can deliver potential therapeutic drugs such as anticancer, antiviral, antioxidant etc. The plant kingdom is a treasure house of potential drugs and each phytochemical cannot be tested in the wetlab preparations. Hence the main aim of the study is the drug likeness activity of phytochemicals in medicinal plants such as Anethum graveolens, Apium graveolens against hepatocellular carcinoma. These plants have anticancer, antilivercancer, hepatoprotective, antiv...

  6. Microspectroscopy of the photosynthetic compartment of algae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evangelista, Valtere; Frassanito, Anna Maria; Passarelli, Vincenzo; Barsanti, Laura; Gualtieri, Paolo

    2006-01-01

    We performed microspectroscopic evaluation of the pigment composition of the photosynthetic compartments of algae belonging to different taxonomic divisions and higher plants. The feasibility of microspectroscopy for discriminating among species and/or phylogenetic groups was tested on laboratory cultures. Gaussian bands decompositions and a fitting algorithm, together with fourth-derivative transformation of absorbance spectra, provided a reliable discrimination among chlorophylls a, b and c, phycobiliproteins and carotenoids. Comparative analysis of absorption spectra highlighted the evolutionary grouping of the algae into three main lineages in accordance with the most recent endosymbiotic theories.

  7. Foresight Brief: Seaweed & Algae as Biofuels Feedstocks

    OpenAIRE

    Institute, Marine

    2008-01-01

    Seaweed is a known potential carbon-dioxide (CO2) neutral source of second generation biofuels. When seaweed grows it absorbs CO2 from the atmosphere and this CO2 is released back to the atmosphere during combustion. What makes seaweed, and in particular micro algae, so promising as a fuel source is their growth rates and high lipid (oil) content. Algae are among the fastest-growing plants in the world. Energy is stored inside the cell as lipids and carbohydrates, and can be converted into fu...

  8. Bibliographical review of radioactive cesium uptake capacity and processes in aquatic plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Both freshwater and marine plants are included in this survey covering 217 reports published between 1954 and 1979. These articles involve the radiocesium abundance found in areas either directly or indirectly affected by liquid waste releases. They specify the concentration factors determined from field measurements and laboratory works. Other areas covered include contamination kinetics, radiocesium distribution in higher plants, effects of biological and environmental factors. Radiocesium uptake potential is higher in freshwater algae and plants than in marine algae. Radiocesium adsorption phenomena seem to predominate in algae over absorption, while in the higher freshwater plants absorption is the primary phenomena. In areas not directly affected by liquid wastes, plant activity levels increased until they reached 10000 pCi/kg wet weight in 1965, and reduced thereafter. In areas directly affected by waste discharges, the activity levels range from 10 to 16000 pCi/kg wet weight in seawater, and from practically zero to 230000 pCi/kg in fresh water. This variability also affects the concentration factors. In most cases, the values measured in marine algae range from 10 to 100; the highest radiocesium uptake is found in brown algae and red algae. The concentration factors measured in freshwater mosses and algae are most often around 4000, while they are about 2000 in submerged, floating and emergent plants. Some plants, specially mosses and algae, proved to be better bioindicators than others. The biological half-lives range from 2 to 21 days in marine algae, and from 1 to 65 days in freshwater plants. This survey underscores the necessity of allowing for the ecological characteristics of each site when evaluating the impact of nuclear plants

  9. Cultivation of macroscopic marine algae

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ryther, J.H.

    1982-11-01

    The red alga Gracilaria tikvahiae may be grown outdoors year-round in central Florida with yields averaging 35.5 g dry wt/m/sup 2/.day, greater than the most productive terrestrial plants. This occurs only when the plants are in a suspended culture, with vigorous aeration and an exchange of 25 or more culture volumes of enriched seawater per day, which is not cost-effective. A culture system was designed in which Gracilaria, stocked at a density of 2 kg wet wt/m/sup 2/, grows to double its biomass in one to two weeks; it is then harvested to its starting density, and anaerobically digested to methane. The biomass is soaked for 6 hours in the digester residue, storing enough nutrients for two weeks' growth in unenriched seawater. The methane is combusted for energy and the waste gas is fed to the culture to provide mixing and CO/sub 2/, eliminating the need for aeration and seawater exchange. The green alga Ulva lactuca, unlike Gracilaria, uses bicarbonate as a photosynthesis carbon source, and can grow at high pH, with little or no free CO/sub 2/. It can therefore produce higher yields than Gracilaria in low water exchange conditions. It is also more efficiently converted to methane than is Gracilaria, but cannot tolerate Florida's summer temperatures so cannot be grown year-round. Attempts are being made to locate or produce a high-temperature tolerant strain.

  10. Long term effects on petrochemical activated sludge on plants and soil. Plant growth and metal absorption

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tedesco, M.J.; Gianello, C. [Rio Grande do Sul Univ., Porto Alegre, RS (Brazil). Dept. de Solos; Ribas, P.I.F.; Carvalho, E.B. [CORSAN-SITEL, Triunfo, RS (Brazil). Polo Petroquimico do Sul. Dept. de Operacao e Manutencao

    1993-12-31

    An experiment to study the effects of several application rates of excess activated sludge on plants, soil and leached water was started in 1985. Sludge was applied for six years and increased plant growth due to its nitrogen and phosphorous contribution, even though the decomposition rate in soil is low. Plant zinc, cadmium and nickel content increased with sludge application, while liming decreased the amounts of these metals taken up by plants. 9 refs., 8 tabs.

  11. G protein activation stimulates phospholipase D signaling in plants

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Munnik, T.; Arisz, S.A.; Vrije, de T.; Musgrave, A.

    1995-01-01

    We provide direct evidence for phospholipase D (PLD) signaling in plants by showing that this enzyme is stimulated by the G protein activators mastoparan, ethanol, and cholera toxin. An in vivo assay for PLD activity in plant cells was developed based on the use of a "reporter alcohol" rather than w

  12. Biological activity of some Patagonian plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cuadra, Pedro; Furrianca, María; Oyarzún, Alejandra; Yáñez, Erwin; Gallardo, Amalia; Fajardo, Víctor

    2005-12-01

    Citotoxicity (inhibition of cell division in fertilized eggs of Loxechinus albus) and general toxicity (using embryos of Artemia salina) of plants belonging to the genera Senecio, Deschampsia, Alstroemeria, Anarthrophyllum, Chloraea and Geranium were investigated. PMID:16229970

  13. Radiation effects on algae and its application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The effects of radiation on algae have been summarized in this article. Today, algae are being considered to have the great potential to fulfill the demand of food, fodder, fuel and various pharmaceutical products. Red algae are particularly rich in the content of polysaccharides present in their cell wall. For isolation of these polysaccharides, separation of cells cemented together by middle lamella is essential. The gamma rays are known to bring about biochemical changes in the cell wall and cause the breakdown of the middle lamella. These rays ate also known to speed up the starch sugar inter-conversion in the cells which is very useful for the tapping the potential of algae to be used as biofuel as well as in pharmaceutical industries. Cyanobacteria, among algae and other plants are more resistant to the radiation. In some cyanobacteria the radiation treatment is known to enhance the resistance against the antibiotics. Radiation treatment is also known to enhance the diameter of cell and size of the nitrogen fixing heterocyst. (author)

  14. Anti-Trypanosomal Activity of Nigerian Plants and Their Constituents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ngozi Justina Nwodo

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available African trypanosomiasis is a vector-borne parasitic disease causing serious risks to the lives of about 60 million people and 48 million cattle globally. Nigerian medicinal plants are known to contain a large variety of chemical structures and some of the plant extracts have been screened for antitrypanosomal activity, in the search for potential new drugs against the illness. We surveyed the literatures on plants and plant-derived products with antitrypanosomal activity from Nigerian flora published from 1990 to 2014. About 90 plants were identified, with 54 compounds as potential active agents and presented by plant families in alphabetical order. This review indicates that the Nigerian flora may be suitable as a starting point in searching for new and more efficient trypanocidal molecules.

  15. In Vivo and in Vitro Anti-Inflammatory Activity of Neorogioltriol, a New Diterpene Extracted from the Red Algae Laurencia glandulifera

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Riadh Kharrat

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Neorogioltriol is a tricyclic brominated diterpenoid isolated from the organic extract of the red algae Laurencia glandulifera. In the present study, the anti-inflammatory effects of neorogioltriol were evaluated both in vivo using carrageenan-induced paw edema and in vitro on lipopolysaccharide (LPS-treated Raw264.7 macrophages. The in vivo study demonstrated that the administration of 1 mg/kg of neorogioltriol resulted in the significant reduction of carregeenan-induced rat edema. In vitro, our results show that neorogioltriol treatment decreased the luciferase activity in LPS-stimulated Raw264.7 cells, stably transfected with the NF-κB-dependent luciferase reporter. This effect on NF-κB activation is not mediated through MAPK pathways. The inhibition of NF-κB activity correlates with decreased levels of LPS-induced tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNFα present in neorogioltriol treated supernatant cell culture. Further analyses indicated that this product also significantly inhibited the release of nitric oxide and the expression of cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2 in LPS-stimulated Raw264.7 cells. These latter effects could only be observed for neorogioltriol concentrations below 62.5 µM. To our knowledge, this is the first report describing a molecule derived from Laurencia glandulifera with anti-inflammatory activity both in vivo and in vitro. The effect demonstrated in vitro may be explained by the inhibition of the LPS-induced NF-κB activation and TNFα production. NO release and COX-2 expression may reinforce this effect.

  16. In Vivo and in Vitro Anti-Inflammatory Activity of Neorogioltriol, a New Diterpene Extracted from the Red Algae Laurencia glandulifera

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chatter, Rim; Ben Othman, Rym; Rabhi, Sameh; Kladi, Maria; Tarhouni, Safa; Vagias, Constantinos; Roussis, Vassilios; Guizani-Tabbane, Lamia; Kharrat, Riadh

    2011-01-01

    Neorogioltriol is a tricyclic brominated diterpenoid isolated from the organic extract of the red algae Laurencia glandulifera. In the present study, the anti-inflammatory effects of neorogioltriol were evaluated both in vivo using carrageenan-induced paw edema and in vitro on lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-treated Raw264.7 macrophages. The in vivo study demonstrated that the administration of 1 mg/kg of neorogioltriol resulted in the significant reduction of carregeenan-induced rat edema. In vitro, our results show that neorogioltriol treatment decreased the luciferase activity in LPS-stimulated Raw264.7 cells, stably transfected with the NF-κB-dependent luciferase reporter. This effect on NF-κB activation is not mediated through MAPK pathways. The inhibition of NF-κB activity correlates with decreased levels of LPS-induced tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNFα) present in neorogioltriol treated supernatant cell culture. Further analyses indicated that this product also significantly inhibited the release of nitric oxide and the expression of cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) in LPS-stimulated Raw264.7 cells. These latter effects could only be observed for neorogioltriol concentrations below 62.5 μM. To our knowledge, this is the first report describing a molecule derived from Laurencia glandulifera with anti-inflammatory activity both in vivo and in vitro. The effect demonstrated in vitro may be explained by the inhibition of the LPS-induced NF-κB activation and TNFα production. NO release and COX-2 expression may reinforce this effect. PMID:21822417

  17. Exploring the potential of using algae in cosmetics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Hui-Min David; Chen, Ching-Chun; Huynh, Pauline; Chang, Jo-Shu

    2015-05-01

    The applications of microalgae in cosmetic products have recently received more attention in the treatment of skin problems, such as aging, tanning and pigment disorders. There are also potential uses in the areas of anti-aging, skin-whitening, and pigmentation reduction products. While algae species have already been used in some cosmetic formulations, such as moisturizing and thickening agents, algae remain largely untapped as an asset in this industry due to an apparent lack of utility as a primary active ingredient. This review article focuses on integrating studies on algae pertinent to skin health and beauty, with the purpose of identifying serviceable algae functions in practical cosmetic uses. PMID:25537136

  18. Exploring the potential of using algae in cosmetics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Hui-Min David; Chen, Ching-Chun; Huynh, Pauline; Chang, Jo-Shu

    2015-05-01

    The applications of microalgae in cosmetic products have recently received more attention in the treatment of skin problems, such as aging, tanning and pigment disorders. There are also potential uses in the areas of anti-aging, skin-whitening, and pigmentation reduction products. While algae species have already been used in some cosmetic formulations, such as moisturizing and thickening agents, algae remain largely untapped as an asset in this industry due to an apparent lack of utility as a primary active ingredient. This review article focuses on integrating studies on algae pertinent to skin health and beauty, with the purpose of identifying serviceable algae functions in practical cosmetic uses.

  19. A Receptor-Like Kinase, Related to Cell Wall Sensor of Higher Plants, is Required for Sexual Reproduction in the Unicellular Charophycean Alga, Closterium peracerosum-strigosum-littorale Complex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirano, Naoko; Marukawa, Yuka; Abe, Jun; Hashiba, Sayuri; Ichikawa, Machiko; Tanabe, Yoichi; Ito, Motomi; Nishii, Ichiro; Tsuchikane, Yuki; Sekimoto, Hiroyuki

    2015-07-01

    Here, we cloned the CpRLK1 gene, which encodes a receptor-like protein kinase expressed during sexual reproduction, from the heterothallic Closterium peracerosum-strigosum-littorale complex, one of the closest unicellular alga to land plants. Mating-type plus (mt(+)) cells with knockdown of CpRLK1 showed reduced competence for sexual reproduction and formed an abnormally enlarged conjugation papilla after pairing with mt(-) cells. The knockdown cells were unable to release a naked gamete, which is indispensable for zygote formation. We suggest that the CpRLK1 protein is an ancient cell wall sensor that now functions to regulate osmotic pressure in the cell to allow proper gamete release.

  20. Biosorption of U(VI) by the green algae Chlorella vulgaris in dependence of pH value and cell activity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vogel, M., E-mail: M.Vogel@fzd.de; Guenther, A.; Rossberg, A.; Li, B.; Bernhard, G.; Raff, J.

    2010-12-15

    Biosorption of uranium(VI) by the green alga Chlorella vulgaris was studied at varying uranium concentrations from 5 {mu}M to 1 mM, and in the environmentally relevant pH range of 4.4 to 7.0. Living cells bind in a 0.1 mM uranium solution at pH 4.4 within 5 min 14.3 {+-} 5.5 mg U/g dry biomass and dead cells 28.3 {+-} 0.6 mg U/g dry biomass which corresponds to 45% and 90% of total uranium in solution, respectively. During 96 h of incubation with uranium initially living cells died off and with 26.6 {+-} 2.1 mg U/g dry biomass bound similar amounts of uranium compared to dead cells, binding 27.0 {+-} 0.7 mg U/g dry biomass. In both cases, these amounts correspond to around 85% of the initially applied uranium. Interestingly, at a lower and more environmentally relevant uranium concentration of 5 {mu}M, living cells firstly bind with 1.3 {+-} 0.2 mg U/g dry biomass to 1.4 {+-} 0.1 mg U/g dry biomass almost all uranium within the first 5 min of incubation. But then algal cells again mobilize up to 80% of the bound uranium during ongoing incubation in the time from 48 h to 96 h. The release of metabolism related substances is suggested to cause this mobilization of uranium. As potential leachates for algal-bound uranium oxalate, citrate and ATP were tested and found to be able to mobilize more than 50% of the algal-bound uranium within 24 h. Differences in complexation of uranium by active and inactive algae cells were investigated with a combination of time-resolved laser-induced fluorescence spectroscopy (TRLFS), extended X-ray absorption fine structure (EXAFS) spectroscopy and attenuated total reflection Fourier transform infrared (ATR-FTIR) spectroscopy. Obtained results demonstrated an involvement of carboxylic and organic/inorganic phosphate groups in the uranium complexation with varying contributions dependent on cell status, uranium concentration and pH.

  1. Composición química y actividad antioxidante del alga marina roja Bryothamnion triquetrum (S.G.Gmelin Howe Chemical composition and antioxidant activity of the red marine algae Bryothamnion triquetrum (S.G.Gmelin Howe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexis Vidal

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available En la actualidad existe un marcado interés por la búsqueda de antioxidantes de fuentes naturales, incluidas las algas marinas. El objetivo de este trabajo fue evaluar la composición química y propiedades antioxidantes del alga Bryothamnion triquetrum. Se estudió la composición centesimal y de minerales, identificación de ácidos grasos y sustancias antioxidantes. La composición centesimal es la siguiente: Proteínas (9,5%, Lípidos (1,3%, Carbohidratos (5,9%, Fibras (10,2% y Cenizas (43%. Los resultados de la actividad antioxidante para las diferentes metodologías empleadas fueron: atrapamiento de radicales DPPH• (38%, 4 mg de liofilizado, beta-Caroteno-Linoleico (12%, 4 mg de liofilizado, actividad atrapadora de radicales O2•- (CI50 0,36 mg/mL, de radicales OH• (CI50 2,11 mg/mL y unión al Fe (CI50 0,37 mg/mL. Las propiedades antioxidantes de esta alga parecen explicarse por la capacidad atrapadora de radicales libres, particularmente relacionada con mecanismos de dismutación de radicales O2•-, inactivación de radicales OH• y quelación de Fe. En trabajos previos se identificaron ácidos cinámicos y fenólicos como moléculas que pudieran explicar la actividad antioxidante, sin embargo adicionalmente se debe considerar un efecto sumatorio y/o sinérgico de otros componentes antioxidantes del extracto, como los descritos en este trabajo, incluidos minerales, carotenoides y vitamina C.An increasing interest has been growing during the past years for the search of natural origin antioxidants, particularly those from marine algae. In this context, the main objective of current research was to evaluate the chemical composition and some antioxidant properties of the aqueous extract of the seaweed Bryothamnion triquetrum. The extracts contains: Proteins (9.5%, Lipids (1.3%, Carbohydrates (5.9%, Fibers (10.2% and Ashes (43%. In current approach, the following results were obtained for the different procedures assessed: DPPH

  2. Uptake by benthic algae of critical radionuclides to be released in the liquid effluent of the Angra dos Reis Nuclear Power Plant, R.J., Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In vitro interaction of benthic algae from the Angra dos Reis region, R.J., Brazil, was studied with critical radionuclides to be released in the liquid effluent of CNAAA (unit I). 137Cs-60Co - and 125I uptake and loss by Sargassum filipendula, Padina Vickersiae and Acanthophora Spicifera were observed. Biological half-lives and bioaccumulation factors (B.F.) were estimated. Co and I uptake were fast (apparent equilibrium in 3 to 7 days). Cs uptake was slower (2 to 3 weeks). Loss followed an inverse pattern (fast for Cs, slow for Co and I). B.F. ranged from 101 for Cs, to 103 for I and 103-104 for Co. Higher B.F. for Co and I were found for P. vickersiae (up to 1,4 X 104) an A. spicifera (up to 7 X 103) respectively. These species represent important potential media for the transference of Co-I-and-to a much lesser extent - Cs isotopes, through food-webs. They exhibited high capacity to compete with local sandy sediments for the retention of Co and I. High B.F., rapid uptake and moderate to long biological half-lives enable S. filipendula, P. vickersiae and A. specifera to be powerful aids in the monitoring of radioactive contamination by Co and I isotopes. Since the majority of marine organisms tends to exhibit Cs B.F. similars to those reported here, these algae may also be used as monitors for Cs isotopes, the low B.F. being compensated by their abundance, wide distribution and facility of collection. (M.A.)

  3. Determination Of Antioxidant Activities In Freshliver (Salvia Officinalis) Plant

    OpenAIRE

    Arıduru, Rana; Arabacı, Gülnur

    2013-01-01

    In this study, we determined the antioxidant activities of four different solvent fractions (ethanol, methanol, acetone and ethyl acetate) obtained from Freshliver plant leaves (Salvia officinalis) by employing two different assays such as 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl hydrate (DPPH) and Folin-Ciocaltaeu method. The results showed that ethanolextract of freshliver plant exhibited the highest total phenolic contents (43.55 mg GAE/g extract), followed by methanol-extract of freshliver plant (23...

  4. Study on the effect of irradiation on algae by proteomics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choi, Jong Il; Yoon, Yo Han; Kim, Jae Hun

    2010-06-15

    Algae has been utilized as food material from long time ago, and recently newly recognized as functional materials and the source of bio-fuel. But, the study on the algae is just beginning and the study on protein expression and growth by the change of condition was not reported. In this study, the effect of radiation on the protein expression was investigated for the protection mechanisms and new genome source and furthermore, isolation of new mutant strains. To monitor the growth of algae, absorbance and FDA staining methods were developed and the content of lipid of algae species were measured. With these methods, the radiation sensitivity of algae species was determined. To investigate the proteome of algae, 2D-electrophoresis methods was applied. From the comparison of proteomes, the radiation specific expressed protein was identified as thioredoxin-h and its nucleotide sequences was defined. The expression of thioredoxin-h was further defined on the mRNA level. Also, the extract of algae species was analyzed for its antioxidant activity and polyphenolic content. The changes in antioxidant activity of extract by radiation was investigated. From the radiation experiments, mutant Spirogyra species having higher resistant against radical stress was obtained. The mutant strain has higher antioxidant activity. This results can provide the proteome date and mutation technology of algae and further contribute in the activation of fishery industry and national health enhancement

  5. Study on the effect of irradiation on algae by proteomics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Algae has been utilized as food material from long time ago, and recently newly recognized as functional materials and the source of bio-fuel. But, the study on the algae is just beginning and the study on protein expression and growth by the change of condition was not reported. In this study, the effect of radiation on the protein expression was investigated for the protection mechanisms and new genome source and furthermore, isolation of new mutant strains. To monitor the growth of algae, absorbance and FDA staining methods were developed and the content of lipid of algae species were measured. With these methods, the radiation sensitivity of algae species was determined. To investigate the proteome of algae, 2D-electrophoresis methods was applied. From the comparison of proteomes, the radiation specific expressed protein was identified as thioredoxin-h and its nucleotide sequences was defined. The expression of thioredoxin-h was further defined on the mRNA level. Also, the extract of algae species was analyzed for its antioxidant activity and polyphenolic content. The changes in antioxidant activity of extract by radiation was investigated. From the radiation experiments, mutant Spirogyra species having higher resistant against radical stress was obtained. The mutant strain has higher antioxidant activity. This results can provide the proteome date and mutation technology of algae and further contribute in the activation of fishery industry and national health enhancement

  6. Nuclear power plant construction activity, 1986

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cost estimates, chronological data on construction progress, and the physical characteristics of nuclear units in commercial operation and units in the construction pipeline as of December 31, 1986, are presented. This report, which is updated annually, was prepared to provide an overview of the nuclear power plant construction industry. The report contains information on the status of nuclear generating units, average construction costs and lead-times, and construction milestones for individual reactors

  7. Antibacterial activity of Brazilian Amazon plant extracts

    OpenAIRE

    Ivana Barbosa Suffredini; Mateus Luís Barradas Paciencia; Antonio Drauzio Varella; Riad Naim Younes

    2006-01-01

    Infections caused by multiresistant bacteria are a widespread problem, especially in intensive care units. New antibiotics are necessary, and we need to search for alternatives, including natural products. Brazil is one of the hottest spots in the world in terms of biodiversity, but little is known about the chemical and pharmacological properties of most of the plants found in the Amazon rain forest and the Atlantic Forest. We screened 1,220 organic and aqueous extracts, obtained from Amazon...

  8. Importance of sulfate groups for the macrophage-stimulating activities of ascophyllan isolated from the brown alga Ascophyllum nodosum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Zedong; Ueno, Mikinori; Nishiguchi, Tomoki; Abu, Ryogo; Isaka, Shogo; Okimura, Takasi; Yamaguchi, Kenichi; Oda, Tatsuya

    2013-10-18

    To investigate the role of sulfate groups on the macrophage-stimulating activities of ascophyllan, we prepared desulfated ascophyllan, and its effects on RAW264.7 cells were compared with native ascophyllan. The chemical structural analysis revealed that nearly 21% of sulfate groups of ascophyllan were removed by desulfation reaction, while no significant changes in the molecular mass and monosaccharide composition occurred after desulfation. NO- and cytokine- (TNF-α and G-CSF) inducing activities of the desulfated ascophyllan on RAW264.7 cells were significantly decreased as compared to native ascophyllan. Furthermore, the activity of desulfated ascophyllan to induce reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation from RAW264.7 cells decreased to almost negligible level. Our results suggest that the level of sulfate groups of ascophyllan is an important structural element responsible for the macrophage-stimulating activities. Probably, even the limited removal of sulfate residues sensitive to desulfation reaction may result in significant decrease in the bioactivities of ascophyllan. PMID:24025707

  9. ANTI-INFLAMATORY ACTIVITY OF SOME INDIAN MEDICINAL PLANTS

    OpenAIRE

    Thenmozhi, V.; Elango, V.; Sadique, J.

    1989-01-01

    The anti-inflamatory activity of some of the medicinal plants were assayed at a dose of 1000 mg/kg b.wt. in male albino rats using Carrageenin induced rat raw edema. Among the fifteen medicinal plants were found to be highly effective which are discussed in this paper.

  10. Anti-inflamatory activity of some Indian medicinal plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thenmozhi, V; Elango, V; Sadique, J

    1989-01-01

    The anti-inflamatory activity of some of the medicinal plants were assayed at a dose of 1000 mg/kg b.wt. in male albino rats using Carrageenin induced rat raw edema. Among the fifteen medicinal plants were found to be highly effective which are discussed in this paper.

  11. Modulation of the pharmacological effects of enzymatically-active PLA2 by BTL-2, an isolectin isolated from the Bryothamnion triquetrum red alga

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nagano Celso S

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background An interaction between lectins from marine algae and PLA2 from rattlesnake was suggested some years ago. We, herein, studied the effects elicited by a small isolectin (BTL-2, isolated from Bryothamnion triquetrum, on the pharmacological and biological activities of a PLA2 isolated from rattlesnake venom (Crotalus durissus cascavella, to better understand the enzymatic and pharmacological mechanisms of the PLA2 and its complex. Results This PLA2 consisted of 122 amino acids (approximate molecular mass of 14 kDa, its pI was estimated to be 8.3, and its amino acid sequence shared a high degree of similarity with that of other neurotoxic and enzymatically-active PLA2s. BTL-2 had a molecular mass estimated in approximately 9 kDa and was characterized as a basic protein. In addition, BTL-2 did not exhibit any enzymatic activity. The PLA2 and BTL-2 formed a stable heterodimer with a molecular mass of approximately 24–26 kDa, estimated by molecular exclusion HPLC. In the presence of BTL-2, we observed a significant increase in PLA2 activity, 23% higher than that of PLA2 alone. BTL-2 demonstrated an inhibition of 98% in the growth of the Gram-positive bacterial strain, Clavibacter michiganensis michiganensis (Cmm, but only 9.8% inhibition of the Gram-negative bacterial strain, Xanthomonas axonopodis pv passiflorae (Xap. PLA2 decreased bacterial growth by 27.3% and 98.5% for Xap and Cmm, respectively, while incubating these two proteins with PLA2-BTL-2 inhibited their growths by 36.2% for Xap and 98.5% for Cmm. PLA2 significantly induced platelet aggregation in washed platelets, whereas BTL-2 did not induce significant platelet aggregation in any assay. However, BTL-2 significantly inhibited platelet aggregation induced by PLA2. In addition, PLA2 exhibited strong oedematogenic activity, which was decreased in the presence of BTL-2. BTL-2 alone did not induce oedema and did not decrease or abolish the oedema induced by the 48

  12. Antioxidant and nitric oxide inhibition activities of Thai medicinal plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Makchuchit, Sunita; Itharat, Arunporn; Tewtrakul, Supinya

    2010-12-01

    Nineteen Thai medicinal plants used in Thai traditional medicine preparation to treat colds, asthma and fever were studied for their antioxidant and NO inhibitory activities. Three extracts were obtained from each plant. First extract obtained by macerating the plant part in 95% ethanol (Et) residue was boiled in water, where water extract (EW) was obtained. The third extract (HW) was obtained by boiling each plant in water similar to that of Thai traditional medicine practice. These extracts were tested for their antioxidant activity using DPPH assay, and anti-inflammatory activity by determination of inhibitory activity on lipopolysaccharide (LPS) induced nitric oxide (NO) production in RAW 264.7 cell lines using Griess reagent. Results indicated that Et, EW and HW of Syzygium aromaticum showed the highest antioxidant activity (EC50 = 6.56, 4.73 and 5.30 microg/ml, respectively). Et of Atractylodes lancea exhibited the most potent inhibitory activity on lipopolysaccharide (LPS) induced nitric oxide (NO) production in RAW 264.7 cells, with IC50 value of 9.70 microg/ml, followed by Et of Angelica sinensis and Cuminum cyminum (IC50 = 12.52 and 13.56 microg/ml, respectively) but water extract (EW, HW) of all plants were apparently inactive. These results of anti-inflammatory activity of these plants correspond with the traditional use for fever; cold, allergic-related diseases and inflammatory-related diseases. PMID:21294419

  13. Isolation of stigmast-5,24-dien-3-ol from marine brown algae Sargassum tenerrimum and its antipredatory activity

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Majik, M.S.; Adel, H.; Shirodkar, D.; Tilvi, S.; Furtado, J.

    against reactive species generated by oxidative processes.3 Therefore, macroalgae need to adapt quickly to different biotic and abiotic stresses in ecosystem by means of chemical protection mechanisms such as creation of antioxidants to limit oxidation4... which constitute 83–97% of the sterol content.8 Interestingly, stigmast-5,24-dien-3-ol (fucosterol) is widely utilized in biological activity studies, including antioxidant, hepatoprotective,9 anti-inflammatory,10 anticancer,11 anti-fungal,12 anti...

  14. The Brown Algae Pl.LSU/2 Group II Intron-Encoded Protein Has Functional Reverse Transcriptase and Maturase Activities

    OpenAIRE

    Madeleine Zerbato; Nathalie Holic; Sophie Moniot-Frin; Dina Ingrao; Anne Galy; Javier Perea

    2013-01-01

    Group II introns are self-splicing mobile elements found in prokaryotes and eukaryotic organelles. These introns propagate by homing into precise genomic locations, following assembly of a ribonucleoprotein complex containing the intron-encoded protein (IEP) and the spliced intron RNA. Engineered group II introns are now commonly used tools for targeted genomic modifications in prokaryotes but not in eukaryotes. We speculate that the catalytic activation of currently known group II introns is...

  15. Active Mines and Mineral Plants in the US

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — Mine plants and operations for commodities monitored by the Minerals Information Team of the USGS. Operations included are those considered active in 2003 and...

  16. The Medicinal Plant of Mimusops Elengi (Sapodaceae in Antimicrobial Activities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kannadhasan M.

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available The selected study area for this study is Pachaimalai Hills, situated in Eastern ghats of Tamil Nadu. This study was focussed on the antimicrobial activity of Mimosopselengi, one of the medicinal plant belongs to the family sapotaceae. It is a tropically distributed the highly medicinal plant. Antimicrobial activities and extracts of petroleum ether, Ethyl acetate and methanol were also found to be better with respect to inhibitory function against the two fungal species, Fusarium oxysporum and Aspergillus flavus. The study scientifically validates the use of plant in traditional and ethno medicine. Three solvents such as Petroleum ether, Ethyl acetate and Ethanol were used to take plant extract. These extracts were studied for antimicrobial activity against two gram positive bacterial strains such as Bacillus substilis andBacillus thuriengensis and two gram negative bacterial strains such as Klebsiella pneumonia and Escherichia coli. This study also extended to find antifungal activity against four fungal strains.

  17. Antimalarial activity of some Colombian medicinal plants

    OpenAIRE

    Garavito, G. (G.); Rincon, J.; Arteaga, L.; Hata, Y; Bourdy, Geneviève; Gimenez, A.; Pinzon, R.; Deharo, Eric

    2006-01-01

    Antimalarial activity of 10 vegetal extracts (9 ethanolic extracts and 1 crude alkaloid extract), obtained from eight species traditionally used in Colombia to treat malaria symptoms, was evaluated in culture using Plasmodium falciparum chloroquine resistant (FcB2) strain and in vivo on rodent malaria Plasmodium berghei. The activity on ferriprotoporphyrin biomineralization inhibition test (FBIT) was also assessed. Against Plasmodium falciparum, eight extracts displayed good activity Abuta gr...

  18. Effect of selected toxicants on epiphytic activity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Severn, S.R.T.

    1985-01-01

    The effects of mercury, cadmium, 2,4-D and Atrazine added to the hydrosoil of Myriophyllum spicatum, on the cell number, electron transport system (ETS) activity and /sup 14/C-fixation of the epiphytic and pelagic algae and bacteria were examined. Mercury caused a significant reduction in the number of epiphytic algae. However, the remaining algae had photosynthetic-ETS activity. Furthermore, the population size and percentage of bacteria with respiratory-ETS activity increased. Addition of cadmium caused a significant reduction in photosynthetic-ETS activity. The bacterial population size and respiratory-ETS activity were significantly reduced by the metal. The population size of the epiphytic bacteria and algae increased in the presence of 2,4-D but, the percentage of epiphytic algae with photosynthetic-ETS activity and the measured /sup 14/C-fixation rates decreased, because of increased competition for nutrients. The effect of Atrazine on the epiphytes was similar to that of 2,4-D. A computer-assisted data acquisition system (CADAS) was used to examine the effect of toxicants added to the hydrosoil of M. spicatum. Addition of cadmium and mercury increased the rate of chlorophyll fluorescence decay of the attached filamentous algae, demonstrating the toxicity of the metals. Addition of 2,4-D and Atrazine did not affect the fluorescence decay kinetics of the attached algae. To further investigate the connection between the epiphytic algae and the macrophyte, the fluorescent dyes disodium fluorescein and Calcofluor M2R New were used. Movement of fluorescein from the plant to the algae was conclusive evidence that an intimate association existed between the plant and the algae.

  19. Blue-green algae

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... for 6 months relieves allergy symptoms in adults. Arsenic poisoning. Early research shows that taking a combination of blue-green algae and zinc by mouth twice daily for 12 weeks reduces arsenic levels and its effects on the skin in ...

  20. The resource utilization of algae - preparing coal slurry with algae

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weidong Li; Weifeng Li; Haifeng Li [East China University of Science and Technology, Shanghai (China). Key Laboratory of Coal Gasification of Education Ministry of China

    2010-05-15

    Nowadays, the occurrence of harmful algal blooms is increasing rapidly all over the world. However, the methods of resource utilization of algae are very few. In this study, we propose a new way to dispose algae, which is gasification of coal-algae slurry. Coal slurries prepared with algae were investigated, and gasification reactivity of coal-algae slurry was compared with that of coal-water slurry (CWS). The results showed that, anaerobic fermentation, chemical treatment, high-speed shearing and heating are effective pre-treatment methods on reducing the viscosity of algae, which could obviously increase the maximum solids concentration of coal-algae slurry. When the de-ionized water/algae ratio is 1:1, the maximum solids concentration could get to 62.5 wt.%, which is almost the same as that of CWS. All the coal-algae slurries exhibit pseudo-plastic behavior, and this type of fluid is shear-thinning. Compared with CWS, the stability of coal-algae slurry is much better, which could be no solids deposition after 70 h. The coal-algae slurry displays better gasification reactivity than CWS. 30 refs., 6 figs., 3 tabs.

  1. Uptake of technetium by marine algae: autoradiographic localization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bonotto, S.; Nuyts, G.; Robbrecht, V.; Cogneau, M.; Ben, D. van der

    1988-02-01

    The uptake of technetium (sup(95m)Tc) by marine algae was localized by autoradiography. In the brown (Ascophyllum nodosum, Fucus spiralis and F. vesiculosus) as well as in the red (Porphyra umbilicalis) species, the distribution of technetium was heterogeneous, this radioelement being mostly accumulated in the parts of the plant which bear reproductive cells or which contain young tissues. Since brown algae have high concentration factors, they could constitute an important link in the transfer of technetium through the food chain. On the contrary, the edible alga Porphyra umbilicalis shows a very low incorporation of technetium.

  2. Inhibition of Naja kaouthia venom activities by plant polyphenols.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pithayanukul, Pimolpan; Ruenraroengsak, Pakatip; Bavovada, Rapepol; Pakmanee, Narumol; Suttisri, Rutt; Saen-oon, Suwipa

    2005-03-21

    Plant polyphenols from the aqueous extracts of Pentace burmanica, Pithecellobium dulce, Areca catechu and Quercus infectoria were tested for their inhibitory activities against Naja kaouthia (NK) venom by in vitro neutralization method. The first three extracts could completely inhibit the lethality of the venom at 4 LD50 concentration and the venom necrotizing activity at the minimum necrotizing dose while also inhibited up to 90% of the acetylcholinesterase activity of NK venom at much lower tannin concentrations than that of Quercus infectoria. The ED50 of plant tannins in inhibiting NK venom activities varied according to condensed tannins and their content in the extracts. Molecular docking of the complexes between alpha-cobratoxin and either hydrolysable or condensed tannins at their lowest energetic conformations were proposed. The anti-venom activities of these plant polyphenols by selectively blocking the nicotinic acetylcholine receptor and non-selectively by precipitation of the venom proteins were suggested. PMID:15740891

  3. Characterization of phosphorus forms in lake macrophytes and algae by solution 31P nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aquatic macrophytes and algae are important sources of phosphorus (P) in the lake environment that cause blooms of algae under certain biogeochemical conditions. However, the knowledge of forms of P in these plants and algae and their contribution to internal loads of lake P is very limited. Witho...

  4. Antifungal activity of traditional medicinal plants from Tamil Nadu, India

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Duraipandiyan V; Ignacimuthu S

    2011-01-01

    Objective:To assess the antifungal activity of hexane, ethyl acetate and methanol extracts of 45 medicinal plants and to determine the minimum inhibitory concentration for each extract against human pathogenic fungi. Methods:A total of 45 medicinal plants were collected from different places of Tamil Nadu and identified. Hexane, ethyl acetate and methanol extracts of 45 medicinal plants were assessed for antifungal susceptibility using broth microdilution method. Two known antifungal agents were used as positive controls. Results: Most of the extracts inhibited more than four fungal strains. From the evaluation we found that ethyl acetate extracts inhibited large number of fungal growth. Hexane extracts also nearly showed the same level of inhibition against fungal growth. Methanol extracts showed the minimum antifungal activity. Among the 45 plants tested, broad spectrum antifungal activity was detected in Albizzia procera (A. procera), Atalantia monophylla, Asclepias curassavica, Azima tetracantha, Cassia fistula (C. fistula), Cinnomomum verum, Costus speciosus (C. speciosus), Nymphaea stellata, Osbeckia chinensis, Piper argyrophyllum, Punica granatum, Tinospora cordifolia and Toddalia asiatica (T. asiatica). Promising antifungal activity was seen in A. procera, C. speciosus, C. fistula and T. asiatica. Conclusions:It can be concluded that the plant species assayed possess antifungal properties. Further phytochemical research is needed to identify the active principles responsible for the antifungal effects of some of these medicinal plants.

  5. Bromophenols in Marine Algae and Their Bioactivities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ming, Liu; Hansen, Poul Erik; Lin, Xiukun

    2011-01-01

    Marine algae contain various bromophenols that have been shown to possess a variety of biological activities, including antioxidant, antimicrobial, anticancer, anti-diabetic, and anti-thrombotic effects. Here, we briefly review the recent progress of these marine algal biomaterials, with respect...

  6. Antimicrobial activity of mangrove plant (Lumnitzera littorea)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Shahbudin Saad; Muhammad Taher; Deny Susanti; Haitham Qaralleh; Nurul Afifah Binti Abdul Rahim

    2011-01-01

    Objective:To investigate the antimicrobial activities ofn-hexane, ethyl acetate and methanol extracts of the leaves ofLumnitzera littorea (L. littorea) against six human pathogenic microbes. Methods: The antimicrobial activity was evaluated using disc diffusion and microdilution methods.Results:The antimicrobial activities of the crude extracts were increased with increasing the concentration. It is clear thatn-hexane extract was the most effective extract. Additionally, Gram positiveBacillus cereus (B. cereus) appear to be the most sensitive strain whilePseudomonas aeruginosa (P. aeruginosa) and the yeast strains (Candida albicans (C. albicans) andCryptococcus neoformans (C. neoformans)) appear to be resistance to the tested concentrations since no inhibition zone was observed. The inhibition of microbial growth at concentration as low as0.04 mg/mL indicated the potent antimicrobial activity ofL. littorea extracts.Conclusions:The obtained results are considered sufficient for further study to isolate the compounds responsible for the activity and suggesting the possibility of finding potent antibacterial agents fromL. littorea extracts.

  7. Antimalarial activity of some Colombian medicinal plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garavito, G; Rincón, J; Arteaga, L; Hata, Y; Bourdy, G; Gimenez, A; Pinzón, R; Deharo, E

    2006-10-11

    Antimalarial activity of 10 vegetal extracts (9 ethanolic extracts and 1 crude alkaloid extract), obtained from eight species traditionally used in Colombia to treat malaria symptoms, was evaluated in culture using Plasmodium falciparum chloroquine resistant (FcB2) strain and in vivo on rodent malaria Plasmodium berghei. The activity on ferriprotoporphyrin biomineralization inhibition test (FBIT) was also assessed. Against Plasmodium falciparum, eight extracts displayed good activity Abuta grandifolia (Mart.) Sandwith (Menispermaceae) leaves, Acacia farnesiana (L.) Willd. (Mimosaceae) leaves, Acnistus arborescens (L.) Schltdl. (Solanaceae) aerial part, Croton leptostachyus Kunth (Euphorbiaceae) aerial part, Piper cumanense Kunth (Piperaceae) fruits and leaves, Piper holtonii C. DC. (Piperaceae) aerial part and Xylopia aromatica (Lam.) Mart. (Annonaceae) bark with IC(50) values ranging from <1 to 2.1 microg/ml, while in the in vivo model only Abuta grandifolia alkaloid crude extract exhibits activity, inhibiting 66% of the parasite growth at 250 mg/kg/day. In the FBIT model, five extracts were active (Abuta grandifolia, Croton leptostachyus, Piper cumanense fruit and leaves and Xylopia aromatica). PMID:16713157

  8. Reassessing the Potential Activities of Plant CGI-58 Protein.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khatib, Abdallah; Arhab, Yani; Bentebibel, Assia; Abousalham, Abdelkarim; Noiriel, Alexandre

    2016-01-01

    Comparative Gene Identification-58 (CGI-58) is a widespread protein found in animals and plants. This protein has been shown to participate in lipolysis in mice and humans by activating Adipose triglyceride lipase (ATGL), the initial enzyme responsible for the triacylglycerol (TAG) catabolism cascade. Human mutation of CGI-58 is the cause of Chanarin-Dorfman syndrome, an orphan disease characterized by a systemic accumulation of TAG which engenders tissue disorders. The CGI-58 protein has also been shown to participate in neutral lipid metabolism in plants and, in this case, a mutation again provokes TAG accumulation. Although its roles as an ATGL coactivator and in lipid metabolism are quite clear, the catalytic activity of CGI-58 is still in question. The acyltransferase activities of CGI-58 have been speculated about, reported or even dismissed and experimental evidence that CGI-58 expressed in E. coli possesses an unambiguous catalytic activity is still lacking. To address this problem, we developed a new set of plasmids and site-directed mutants to elucidate the in vivo effects of CGI-58 expression on lipid metabolism in E. coli. By analyzing the lipid composition in selected E. coli strains expressing CGI-58 proteins, and by reinvestigating enzymatic tests with adequate controls, we show here that recombinant plant CGI-58 has none of the proposed activities previously described. Recombinant plant and mouse CGI-58 both lack acyltransferase activity towards either lysophosphatidylglycerol or lysophosphatidic acid to form phosphatidylglycerol or phosphatidic acid and recombinant plant CGI-58 does not catalyze TAG or phospholipid hydrolysis. However, expression of recombinant plant CGI-58, but not mouse CGI-58, led to a decrease in phosphatidylglycerol in all strains of E. coli tested, and a mutation of the putative catalytic residues restored a wild-type phenotype. The potential activities of plant CGI-58 are subsequently discussed. PMID:26745266

  9. Reassessing the Potential Activities of Plant CGI-58 Protein.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdallah Khatib

    Full Text Available Comparative Gene Identification-58 (CGI-58 is a widespread protein found in animals and plants. This protein has been shown to participate in lipolysis in mice and humans by activating Adipose triglyceride lipase (ATGL, the initial enzyme responsible for the triacylglycerol (TAG catabolism cascade. Human mutation of CGI-58 is the cause of Chanarin-Dorfman syndrome, an orphan disease characterized by a systemic accumulation of TAG which engenders tissue disorders. The CGI-58 protein has also been shown to participate in neutral lipid metabolism in plants and, in this case, a mutation again provokes TAG accumulation. Although its roles as an ATGL coactivator and in lipid metabolism are quite clear, the catalytic activity of CGI-58 is still in question. The acyltransferase activities of CGI-58 have been speculated about, reported or even dismissed and experimental evidence that CGI-58 expressed in E. coli possesses an unambiguous catalytic activity is still lacking. To address this problem, we developed a new set of plasmids and site-directed mutants to elucidate the in vivo effects of CGI-58 expression on lipid metabolism in E. coli. By analyzing the lipid composition in selected E. coli strains expressing CGI-58 proteins, and by reinvestigating enzymatic tests with adequate controls, we show here that recombinant plant CGI-58 has none of the proposed activities previously described. Recombinant plant and mouse CGI-58 both lack acyltransferase activity towards either lysophosphatidylglycerol or lysophosphatidic acid to form phosphatidylglycerol or phosphatidic acid and recombinant plant CGI-58 does not catalyze TAG or phospholipid hydrolysis. However, expression of recombinant plant CGI-58, but not mouse CGI-58, led to a decrease in phosphatidylglycerol in all strains of E. coli tested, and a mutation of the putative catalytic residues restored a wild-type phenotype. The potential activities of plant CGI-58 are subsequently discussed.

  10. Reassessing the Potential Activities of Plant CGI-58 Protein.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khatib, Abdallah; Arhab, Yani; Bentebibel, Assia; Abousalham, Abdelkarim; Noiriel, Alexandre

    2016-01-01

    Comparative Gene Identification-58 (CGI-58) is a widespread protein found in animals and plants. This protein has been shown to participate in lipolysis in mice and humans by activating Adipose triglyceride lipase (ATGL), the initial enzyme responsible for the triacylglycerol (TAG) catabolism cascade. Human mutation of CGI-58 is the cause of Chanarin-Dorfman syndrome, an orphan disease characterized by a systemic accumulation of TAG which engenders tissue disorders. The CGI-58 protein has also been shown to participate in neutral lipid metabolism in plants and, in this case, a mutation again provokes TAG accumulation. Although its roles as an ATGL coactivator and in lipid metabolism are quite clear, the catalytic activity of CGI-58 is still in question. The acyltransferase activities of CGI-58 have been speculated about, reported or even dismissed and experimental evidence that CGI-58 expressed in E. coli possesses an unambiguous catalytic activity is still lacking. To address this problem, we developed a new set of plasmids and site-directed mutants to elucidate the in vivo effects of CGI-58 expression on lipid metabolism in E. coli. By analyzing the lipid composition in selected E. coli strains expressing CGI-58 proteins, and by reinvestigating enzymatic tests with adequate controls, we show here that recombinant plant CGI-58 has none of the proposed activities previously described. Recombinant plant and mouse CGI-58 both lack acyltransferase activity towards either lysophosphatidylglycerol or lysophosphatidic acid to form phosphatidylglycerol or phosphatidic acid and recombinant plant CGI-58 does not catalyze TAG or phospholipid hydrolysis. However, expression of recombinant plant CGI-58, but not mouse CGI-58, led to a decrease in phosphatidylglycerol in all strains of E. coli tested, and a mutation of the putative catalytic residues restored a wild-type phenotype. The potential activities of plant CGI-58 are subsequently discussed.

  11. Antitubercular activity and phytochemical screening of selected medicinal plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rajandeep Kaur

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Medicinal plants offer a hope for developing alternate medicines for the treatment of Tuberculosis.. The present study was done to evaluate in vitro anti-tubercular activity of five medicinal plants viz., Syzygium aromaticum, Piper nigrum, Glycyrrhiza glabra, Aegele marmelos and Lawsonia inermis. Solvent extracts of Syzygium aromaticum, Piper nigrum, Glycyrrhiza glabra, Aegele marmelos and Lawsonia inermis were tested in vitro for their activity against Mycobacterium tuberculosis H37Rv strain using Microplate Alamar Blue Assay. Activity in MABA was evaluated by lowest concentration of sample that prevents color change to pink. Extracts of all the five plants Syzygium aromaticum, Piper nigrum, Glycyrrhiza glabra, Aegele marmelos and Lawsonia inermis exhibited anti-tuberculosis activity, the proportion of inhibition of these plants extracts for M. tuberculosis H37Rv, inhibition was found to be 0.8µg/ml, 50µg/ml, 12.5µg/ml and 50µg/ml respectively. Our findings showed that all these plants exhibited activity against MDR isolates of H37Rv M. tuberculosis strain. Further studies aimed at isolation and identification of active substances from the extracts needs to be carried out

  12. Health benefit of fucosterol from marine algae: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdul, Qudeer Ahmed; Choi, Ran Joo; Jung, Hyun Ah; Choi, Jae Sue

    2016-04-01

    Seaweeds belong to a group of marine plants known as algae, which are consumed as sea vegetables in several Asian countries. Recent studies have focused on the biological and pharmacological activities of seaweeds and their highly bioactive secondary metabolites because of their potential in the development of new pharmaceutical agents. Although several varieties of bioactive novel compounds such as phlorotannins, diterpenes and polysaccharides from seaweeds have already been well scrutinized, fucosterol as a phytosterol still needs to reinvent itself. Fucosterol (24-ethylidene cholesterol) is a sterol that can be isolated from algae, seaweed and diatoms. Fucosterol exhibits various biological therapeutics, including anticancer, antidiabetic, antioxidant, hepatoprotective, antihyperlipidemic, antifungal, antihistaminic, anticholinergic, antiadipogenic, antiphotodamaging, anti-osteoporotic, blood cholesterol reducing, blood vessel thrombosis preventive and butyrylcholinesterase inhibitory activities. In this review, we address some potential approaches for arbitrating novel fucosterol biologics in the medical field, focusing on the selection of personalized drug candidates and highlighting the challenges and opportunities regarding medical breakthroughs. We also highlight recent advances made in the design of this novel compound, as the significant health benefits from using these optimized applications apply to the nutraceutical and pharmaceutical fields. PMID:26455344

  13. Plant Pigment Identification: A Classroom and Outreach Activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garber, Kathleen C. A.; Odendaal, Antoinette Y.; Carlson, Erin E.

    2013-01-01

    Anthocyanins are a class of pigments responsible for the bright colors of many flowers, fruits, and vegetables typically resulting in shades of red, blue, and purple. Students were asked to perform an activity to enable them to identify which anthocyanin was present in one of several possible plant materials through a hands-on activity. Students…

  14. Assessment of catalase activity, lipid peroxidation, chlorophyll-a, and growth rate in the freshwater green algae Pseudokirchneriella subcapitata exposed to copper and zinc Evaluación de la actividad de la catalasa, peroxidación lipídica, clorofila-a y tasa de crecimiento en la alga verde de agua dulce Pseudokirchneriella subcapitata expuesta a cobre y zinc

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulina Soto

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available In this work, the effect of copper and zinc on green alga Pseudokirchneriella subcapitata was evaluated through catalase activity, lipid peroxidation by TBARS essay, growth rate, and the chlorophyll-a concentration. Catalase activity increased significantly (P En este trabajo, se evaluó el efecto del cobre y zinc en la alga verde Pseudokirchneriella subcapitata a través de la actividad catalasa, peroxidación lipídica por el ensayo TBARS, tasa de crecimiento y concentración de clorofila-a. La actividad catalasa aumentó significativamente (P < 0,05 en comparación al control en 0,1 mg L-1 y 0,075 mg L-1 de cobre y zinc respectivamente, mientras que el daño en la membrana celular expresado en nanomols/10(6 células de malondialdehído aumentó significativamente en 0,025 mg L-1 y 0,1 mg L-1 de cobre y zinc respectivamente. Por otra parte, hubo una disminución significativa (P < 0,05 en la concentración de clorofila-a en ambos metales a 0,075 mgL-1. Los resultados mostrados en actividad catalasa, peroxidación lipídica y concentración de clorofila-a son parámetros más sensibles que la tasa de crecimiento a los metales.

  15. Screening of the components with blood-anticoagulant activity from marine algae Sargassum fusiforme and Undaria pinnatifida%羊栖菜和裙带菜中抗凝血活性物质的初步筛选

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘承初; 周颖; 邬英睿; 甘建红; 周培根

    2004-01-01

    Components with blood-anticoagulant activity were fractionated from marine algae Sargassumfusiforrne and Undaria pinnatifida and the activity of the components was investigated by using the method of bioassay. It was found that the 80% ethanol soluble fraction of Sargassumfusiforme exhibited no blood-anticoagulant activity, while the components obtained from the 80 % ethanol insoluble fraction (hot water extract) gave obvious bloodanticoagulant activity. A further study suggests that the principal component in the hot water extract from Sargassumfusiforrne with high blood-anticoagulant activity should be sulfated polysaccharides, in which the activity was positively correlated with the content of total sugar and fucose in sulfated polysaccharides. As for Undaria pinnatifida, the n-butanol extract fractionated from the 80% ethanol soluble fraction had blood anticoagulant activity, while the petroleum ether, ether, ethyl acetate, or water extract showed no bloodanticoagulant activity.

  16. Algae Review Fact Sheet

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2016-06-01

    Algae-based biofuels and bioproducts offer great promise in contributing to the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Bioenergy Technologies Office’s (BETO’s) vision of a thriving and sustainable bioeconomy fueled by innovative technologies. The state of technology for producing algal biofuels continues to mature with ongoing investment by DOE and the private sector, but additional research, development, and demonstration (RD&D) is needed to achieve widespread deployment of affordable, scalable, and sustainable algal biofuels.

  17. Biological activity of diterpenoids isolated from Anatolian Lamiaceae Plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gülaçtı Topçu

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available In this study, antibacterial, antifungal, antimycobacterial, cytotoxic, antitumor, cardiovascular, antifeedant, insecticidal, antileishmanial and some other single activities of diterpenoids and norditerpenoids isolated from Turkish Lamiaceae plants, are reviewed. The diterpenoids were isolated from species of Salvia, Sideritis, and Ballota species growing in Anatolia. Fifty abietanes, ten kaurenes, seven pimaranes, six labdanes with their biological activities were reported. While twenty five diterpenoids showed antibacterial activity, eight of which showed activity against fungi. The most cytotoxic one was found to be taxodione (44 isolated from species of Salvia. Antifeedant, insecticidal and insect repellent activity of kaurenes, antimycobacterial activity and cardioactivity of abietanes and norabietanes together with labdanes were also reported.

  18. ANTIMICROBIAL ACTIVITY OF NINE MEDICINAL PLANTS FROM VERACRUZ, MEXICO

    OpenAIRE

    Chena-Becerra, F; Palmeros-Sánchez, B; Fernández, M.S; Lozada-García, J.A

    2014-01-01

    The medicinal plants are an alternative source to the treatment of primary health care problems. An ethnobotanical study performed on Tlalchy, Ixhuacán de los Reyes, Veracruz, México, allowed the selection of nine plant species involved in infectious diseases treatments. Antimicrobial activities of ethanolic crude extracts were tested on fifteen bacterial and yeast clinical isolates. Every extract showed a level of inhibition against almost all the microorganisms assayed. According to the Cli...

  19. Plant Cell Cultures as Source of Cosmetic Active Ingredients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ani Barbulova

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The last decades witnessed a great demand of natural remedies. As a result, medicinal plants have been increasingly cultivated on a commercial scale, but the yield, the productive quality and the safety have not always been satisfactory. Plant cell cultures provide useful alternatives for the production of active ingredients for biomedical and cosmetic uses, since they represent standardized, contaminant-free and biosustainable systems, which allow the production of desired compounds on an industrial scale. Moreover, thanks to their totipotency, plant cells grown as liquid suspension cultures can be used as “biofactories” for the production of commercially interesting secondary metabolites, which are in many cases synthesized in low amounts in plant tissues and differentially distributed in the plant organs, such as roots, leaves, flowers or fruits. Although it is very widespread in the pharmaceutical industry, plant cell culture technology is not yet very common in the cosmetic field. The aim of the present review is to focus on the successful research accomplishments in the development of plant cell cultures for the production of active ingredients for cosmetic applications.

  20. Dynamic regulation of Polycomb group activity during plant development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bemer, Marian; Grossniklaus, Ueli

    2012-11-01

    Polycomb group (PcG) complexes play important roles in phase transitions and cell fate determination in plants and animals, by epigenetically repressing sets of genes that promote either proliferation or differentiation. The continuous differentiation of new organs in plants, such as leaves or flowers, requires a highly dynamic PcG function, which can be induced, modulated, or repressed when necessary. In this review, we discuss the recent advance in understanding PcG function in plants and focus on the diverse molecular mechanisms that have been described to regulate and counteract PcG activity in Arabidopsis.

  1. Antimalarial activity of extracts of Malaysian medicinal plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Najib Nik A Rahman, N; Furuta, T; Kojima, S; Takane, K; Ali Mohd, M

    1999-03-01

    In vitro and in vivo studies revealed that Malaysian medicinal plants, Piper sarmentosum, Andrographis paniculata and Tinospora crispa produced considerable antimalarial effects. Chloroform extract in vitro did show better effect than the methanol extract. The chloroform extract showed complete parasite growth inhibition as low as 0.05 mg/ml drug dose within 24 h incubation period (Andrographis paniculata) as compared to methanol extract of drug dose of 2.5 mg/ml but under incubation time of 48 h of the same plant spesies. In vivo activity of Andrographis paniculata also demonstrated higher antimalarial effect than other two plant species. PMID:10363840

  2. Extraction of essential oils from native plants and algae from the coast of Peniche (Portugal): antimicrobial and antioxidant activity.

    OpenAIRE

    Clélia Neves Afonso

    2014-01-01

    Coastal areas are highly complex and dynamic ecosystem of interface between land, sea and atmosphere, which also suffer biotic influences. These areas play several important ecological functions, and here we can find an enormous biodiversity. The coastline of Portugal features a high number of endemic flora and vegetation with the potential to provide functional compounds that may provide physiological benefits at nutritional and therapeutic levels, as sources of bioactive substances with ant...

  3. Antibacterial activity of five Peruvian medicinal plants against Pseudomonas aeruginosa

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Gabriela; Ulloa-Urizar; Miguel; Angel; Aguilar-Luis; María; del; Carmen; De; Lama-Odría; José; Camarena-Lizarzaburu; Juana; del; Valle; Mendoza

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the susceptibility of Pseudomonas aeruginosa(P. aeruginosa)in vitro to the ethanolic extracts obtained from five different Peruvian medicinal plants.Methods: The plants were chopped and soaked in absolute ethanol(1:2, w/v). The antibacterial activity of compounds against P. aeruginosa was evaluated using the cupplate agar diffusion method.Results: The extracts from Maytenus macrocarpa("Chuchuhuasi"), Dracontium loretense Krause("Jergon Sacha"), Tabebuia impetiginosa("Tahuari"), Eucalyptus camaldulensis Dehn(eucalyptus), Uncaria tomentosa("U?a de gato") exhibited favorable antibacterial activity against P. aeruginosa. The inhibitory effect of the extracts on the strains of P. aeruginosa tested demonstrated that Tabebuia impetiginosa and Maytenus macrocarpa possess higher antibacterial activity.Conclusions: The results of the present study scientifically validate the inhibitory capacity of the five medicinal plants attributed by their common use in folk medicine and contribute towards the development of new treatment options based on natural products.

  4. Screening of some Nigerian plants for molluscicidal activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kela, S L; Ogunsusi, R A; Ogbogu, V C; Nwude, N

    1989-01-01

    Methanolic (MEOH), evaporated crude water (ECW) and unevaporated crude water (UECW) extracts of 25 Nigerian plants, used for different medicinal and domestic purposes were screened for molluscacidal activity on laboratory-reared Lymnaea natalensis Krauss. Seven of the plants were not active; extracts from 18 (72 per cent) of the plants, some of which are renowned fish poisons, had molluscicidal activity. These were Acacia nilotica, Aristolochia albida, Balanites aegyptiaca, Blighia sapida, Boswellia dalzielii, Detarium microcarpum, Gnidia kraussiana, Kigelia africana, Nauclea latifolia, Opilia celtidefolia, Parkia clappertoniana, Polygonum limbatum, Pseudocedrela kotschyi, Sclerocarya birrea, Securidaca longipedunculata, Ximenia americana, Vetiveria nigritana and Ziziphus abyssinica. The LC50 of these extracts were determined. It is strongly recommended that the toxic effects of these extracts against fish, cercariae, snail eggs and mammals be further investigated so as to determine the right concentration, especially for use in fish ponds. PMID:2626572

  5. Antioxidant activity of the medicinal plant Enicostemma littorale Blume

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P Abirami

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Medicinal plants are the source for wide variety of natural antioxidants. In the study reported here, we have conducted a comparative study between the different parts of the plant Enicostemma littorale. The amount of total phenols and antioxidant enzymes Glutathione-S-Transferase, Superoxide Dismutase, Catalase and Peroxidase activities were evaluated and also the non-enzymatic antioxidants ascorbic acid, α- tocopherol and Glutathione activities were evaluated. The results showed that the antioxidant activities varied greatly among the different plant parts used in this study and some parts are rich in natural antioxidants especially the flowers of E. littorale. These results suggest that Enicostemma littorale have strong antioxidant potential. Further study is necessary for isolation and characterization of antioxidant agents, which can be used to treat various oxidative stress-related diseases.

  6. Antibacterial activity of ifve Peruvian medicinal plants against Pseudomonas aeruginosa

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Gabriela Ulloa-Urizar; Miguel Angel Aguilar-Luis; Mara del Carmen De Lama-Odra; Jos Camarena-Lizarzaburu; Juana del Valle Mendoza

    2015-01-01

    Objective:To evaluate the susceptibility of Pseudomonas aeruginosa (P. aeruginosa) in vitro to the ethanolic extracts obtained from five different Peruvian medicinal plants. Methods:The plants were chopped and soaked in absolute ethanol (1:2, w/v). The antibacterial activity of compounds against P. aeruginosa was evaluated using the cup-plate agar diffusion method. Results:The extracts from Maytenus macrocarpa (“Chuchuhuasi”), Dracontium loretense Krause (“Jergon Sacha”), Tabebuia impetiginosa (“Tahuari”), Eucalyptus camaldulensis Dehn (eucalyptus), Uncaria tomentosa (“Uña de gato”) exhibited favorable antibacterial activity against P. aeruginosa. The inhibitory effect of the extracts on the strains of P. aeruginosa tested demonstrated that Tabebuia impetiginosa and Maytenus macrocarpa possess higher antibacterial activity. Conclusions:The results of the present study scientifically validate the inhibitory capacity of the five medicinal plants attributed by their common use in folk medicine and contribute towards the development of new treatment options based on natural products.

  7. The use of NPAR [Nuclear Plant Aging Research] results in plant inspection activities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The US NRC's Nuclear Plant Aging Research (NPAR) Program is a hardware oriented research program which has produced a large data base of equipment and system operating, maintenance, and testing information. Equipment and systems which have a propensity for age related degradation are identified, and methods for detecting and mitigating aging effects have been evaluated. As plants age, it becomes increasingly important that NRC inspectors be cognizant of plant aging phenomena. This paper describes the NPAR information which can enhance inspection activities, and provides a mechanism for making pertinent research available to the inspectors. 7 refs., 2 figs

  8. The use of NPAR (Nuclear Plant Aging Research) results in plant inspection activities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gunther, W.; Taylor, J.

    1989-01-01

    The US NRC's Nuclear Plant Aging Research (NPAR) Program is a hardware oriented research program which has produced a large data base of equipment and system operating, maintenance, and testing information. Equipment and systems which have a propensity for age related degradation are identified, and methods for detecting and mitigating aging effects have been evaluated. As plants age, it becomes increasingly important that NRC inspectors be cognizant of plant aging phenomena. This paper describes the NPAR information which can enhance inspection activities, and provides a mechanism for making pertinent research available to the inspectors. 7 refs., 2 figs.

  9. Chemical examination of the Red alga Acanthophora spicifera

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Wahidullah, S.; Kamat, S.Y.

    Analyses of petroleum ether and chloroform extracts of the marine alga Acanthophora spicifera exhibiting antifertility activity led to the isolation of sterols and fatty acids as well as the rare dipeptides aurantiamides. All the compounds were...

  10. Savannah River Plant history plantwide activities, July 1954--December 1972

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    none,

    1972-12-31

    This report recounts the yearly activities of the Savannah River Plant nonproduction agencies and is concerned mainly with Plant personnel and items of general interest. The ``History of Plantwide Activities`` is published as an accumulative document; at the end of each year a new writeup is added to the volume to bring it up to date. Writeups for 1955 and 1956 are based on the governmental fiscal year; those for 1957 and subsequent years are on a calendar year basis. The history of the period from prestartup through June 30, 1953, is presented in DPSP 53-368; the history from July 1953 through June 1954 is presented in DPSP 54-448.

  11. Biological importance of marine algae

    OpenAIRE

    Ali A. El Gamal

    2009-01-01

    Marine organisms are potentially prolific sources of highly bioactive secondary metabolites that might represent useful leads in the development of new pharmaceutical agents. Algae can be classified into two main groups; first one is the microalgae, which includes blue green algae, dinoflagellates, bacillariophyta (diatoms)… etc., and second one is macroalgae (seaweeds) which includes green, brown and red algae. The microalgae phyla have been recognized to provide chemical and pharmacological...

  12. Cytotoxic activity of Thai medicinal plants for cancer treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chawaboon Dechsukum

    2005-08-01

    Full Text Available Twelve Thai medicinal plants as the ingredients of a Southern Thai traditional formula for cancer treatment were selected to test cytotoxicity activity against two types of human cancer cell lines ; large cell lung carcinoma (CORL-23 and prostate cancer cell lines (PC3 and one type of normal human cell line, fibroblast cells (10FS. SRB assay was used to test cytotoxic activity against all the cell types. Two of the extracts (water and ethanolic extracts procedures used were similar to those practised by Thai traditional doctors. One concentration (50 μg/ml of two different extracts was tested first against cell lines and the active plant extracts were diluted and tested for calculating IC50. The ethanolic extracts of six plants (Bridelia ovata, Curcuma zedoaria, Derris scandens, Dioscorea membranacea, Nardostachys jatamansi and Rhinacanthus nasutus showed cytotoxic activity (IC50< 30 μg/ml against lung and prostate cancer cell lines. Dioscorea membranacea roots showed the highest cytotoxic activity against lung cancer cell lines ( IC50= 4.6 μg/ml but it exhibited low cytotoxic activity against prostate cancer cell lines (IC50= 17.55 μg/ml and less cytotoxic activity against normal cell lines (IC50= 66.05 μg/ml. Curcuma zedoaria showed cytotoxic activity against COR L-23 and PC3 but less cytotoxic activity against 10FS (IC50 = 6.05, 17.84 and 55.50 μg/ml respectively Rhinacanthus nasutus root extract showed the highest cytotoxic activity against PC3 ( IC50 = 2.01 μg/ml and this extract also showed high activity against COR L-23 and 10FS (IC50=5.05 and 10.95 μg/ml respectively. The water extract of all plants exhibited no activity against all types of human cells. Two ethanolic plant extracts (Dioscorea membranacea and Curcuma zedoaria which showed specific activity against lung cancer cell lines and less cytotoxic activity against normal cells should be further investigated for active compounds against lung cancer cell.

  13. Plant compounds insecticide activity against Coleoptera pests of stored products

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moreira, Marcio Dionizio; Picanco, Marcelo Coutinho; Guedes, Raul Narciso Carvalho; Campos, Mateus Ribeiro de; Silva, Gerson Adriano; Martins, Julio Claudio [Universidade Federal de Vicosa (UFV), MG (Brazil). Dept. de Biologia Animal]. E-mail: marcio.dionizio@gmail.com; picanco@ufv.br; guedes@ufv.br; mateusc3@yahoo.com.br; agronomiasilva@yahoo.com.br

    2007-07-15

    The objective of this work was to screen plants with insecticide activity, in order to isolate, identify and assess the bioactivity of insecticide compounds present in these plants, against Coleoptera pests of stored products: Oryzaephilus surinamensis L. (Silvanidae), Rhyzopertha dominica F. (Bostrichidae) and Sitophilus zeamais Mots. (Curculionidae). The plant species used were: basil (Ocimum selloi Benth.), rue (Ruta graveolens L.), lion's ear (Leonotis nepetifolia (L.) R.Br.), jimson weed (Datura stramonium L.), baleeira herb (Cordia verbenacea L.), mint (Mentha piperita L.), wild balsam apple (Mormodica charantia L.), and billy goat weed or mentrasto (Ageratum conyzoides L.). The insecticide activity of hexane and ethanol extracts from those plants on R. dominica was evaluated. Among them, only hexane extract of A. conyzoides showed insecticide activity; the hexane extract of this species was successively fractionated by silica gel column chromatography, for isolation and purification of the active compounds. Compounds 5,6,7,8,3',4',5'-heptamethoxyflavone; 5,6,7,8,3'-pentamethoxy-4',5'-methilenedioxyflavone and coumarin were identified. However, only coumarin showed insecticide activity against three insect pests (LD{sub 50} from 2.72 to 39.71 mg g{sup -1} a.i.). The increasing order of insects susceptibility to coumarin was R. dominica, S. zeamais and O. surinamensis. (author)

  14. Antibacterial, Antifungal and antioxidant activities of some medicinal plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wazir, Asma; Mehjabeen, -; Jahan, Noor; Sherwani, Sikander Khan; Ahmad, Mansoor

    2014-11-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the antibacterial, antifungal and antioxidant activities of medicinal plants. The antibacterial activity of methanolic extracts of three medicinal plants (Swertia chirata, Terminalia bellerica and Zanthoxylum armatum) were tested against Gentamicin (standard drug) on eleven gram positive and seventeen gram negative bacteria by agar well method. It was revealed that seven-gram negative and six gram positive bacterial species were inhibited by these plant extracts. Minimum inhibitory concentrations (MIC) of the extracts were determined by broth micro-dilution method. The significant MIC value of Swertia chirata was 20mg/ml against Serratia marcesens, Zanthoxylum armatum was 10 mg/ml against Aeromonas hydrophila and Terminali bellerica was 20mg/ml against Acinetobacter baumanii as well as Serratia marcesens. Antifungal screening was done for methanolic extracts of these plants by agar well method with the 6 saprophytic, 5 dermatophytic and 6 yeasts. In this case Griseofulvin was used as a standard. All saprophytes and dermatophytes were showed resistance by these plants extracts except Microsporum canis, which was inhibited by Z. armatum and S. chirata extracts. The significant MIC value of Zanthoxylum armatum was 10mg/ml against Microsporum canis and Swertia chirata was 10mg/ml against Candida tropicalis. The anti-oxidant study was performed by DPPH free radical scavenging assay using ascorbic acid as a reference standard. Significant antioxidant activities were observed by Swertia chirata and Zanthoxylum armatum at concentration 200μg/ml was 70% DPPH scavenging activity (EC50=937.5μg/ml) while Terminalia bellerica showed 55.6% DPPH scavenging activity (EC50=100μg/ml). This study has shown that these plants could provide potent antibacterial compounds and may possible preventive agents in ROS related ailments. PMID:26045377

  15. Microbes and algae for biodiesel production - Microfuel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ruohonen, L. [VTT Technical Research Centre of Finland, Espoo (Finland)], email: laura.ruohonen@vtt.fi; Tamminen, T. [Finnish Environment Institute (SYKE), Helsinki (Finland)

    2012-07-01

    There is an acute need to identify alternatives to replace fossil resources, in particular in transportation fuels. Thus, biomass-based biofuels such as bioethanol and biodiesel have gained significant attention towards this goal. However, the source of biomass has raised concerns; competition with the food chain and arable land must be avoided. The project focused on identification of alternative ways to produce biomass for triacylglycerides production as raw material for biodiesel, that of autotrophic production by algae, and heterotrophic production by fungi. The fungal production process is already presently implemented by Neste Oil: In the press release on 28 August 2012, Neste Oil announced the completion of the first phase of its microbial oil pilot plant. A joint algae research programme between Neste Oil and SYKE was launched in August 2011, with the aim of further developing the knowledge basis for cost-effective microalgal production in industrial-scale volumes for future production needs.

  16. Evaluation of some medicinal plant extracts for antidiarrhoeal activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atta, Attia H; Mouneir, Samar M

    2005-06-01

    The antidiarrhoeal effect of seven plant extracts namely: the aerial parts of Euphorbia paralias L. (EP), Bidens bipinnata L. (BB), Cynachum acutum L. (CyAc), Diplotaxis acris (Forssk.) Boiss (DA), Convolvulus fatmensis (CF) and Schouwia thebaica Webb (ST) and the leaves of Plantago major L. (PM), was evaluated on castor oil-induced diarrhoea, gastrointestinal movement in rats (charcoal meal) and on the motility of duodenum isolated from freshly slaughtered rabbits. A significant antidiarrhoeal effect of the tested plant extracts against castor oil-induced diarrhoea in rats was achieved by 200 and 400 mg/kg. The tested plant extracts decreased the gastrointestinal movement as indicated by the significantly (pmajor active constituents of the tested plants.

  17. Plant-Derived Compounds with Potential Sedative and Anxiolytic Activities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Theresa Ibibia Edewor-Kuponiyi

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available A wide variety of active phytochemicals such as flavonoids, alkaloids, saponins, etc., have been isolated and identified in different plants. Pharmacological and chemical investigations of medicinal plants have provided important advances in therapeutic approach to several pathologies as well as extremely useful tools for the theoretical study of physiology and pharmacology. With increased use of herbal medicine, medicinal plants are receiving more attention from the scientific and pharmaceutical communities. Several compounds have been isolated and evaluated for their sedative and anxiolytic properties. Although most of the reported works are more of academic interest and very few find entry at clinical trials; one is hopeful that as more discoveries of sedative and anxiolytic compounds from plants are made, it will lead to generation of more effective drugs.

  18. In Vitro and In Vivo Plant Growth Promoting Activities and DNA Fingerprinting of Antagonistic Endophytic Actinomycetes Associates with Medicinal Plants

    OpenAIRE

    Ajit Kumar Passari; Vineet Kumar Mishra; Vijai Kumar Gupta; Mukesh Kumar Yadav; Ratul Saikia; Bhim Pratap Singh

    2015-01-01

    Endophytic actinomycetes have shown unique plant growth promoting as well as antagonistic activity against fungal phytopathogens. In the present study forty-two endophytic actinomycetes recovered from medicinal plants were evaluated for their antagonistic potential and plant growth-promoting abilities. Twenty-two isolates which showed the inhibitory activity against at least one pathogen were subsequently tested for their plant-growth promoting activities and were compared genotypically using...

  19. Screening of selected Indian medicinal plants for acetylcholinesterase inhibitory activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vinutha, B; Prashanth, D; Salma, K; Sreeja, S L; Pratiti, D; Padmaja, R; Radhika, S; Amit, A; Venkateshwarlu, K; Deepak, M

    2007-01-19

    Seventy-six plant extracts including methanolic and successive water extracts from 37 Indian medicinal plants were investigated for acetylcholinesterase (AChE) inhibitory activity (in vitro). Results indicated that methanolic extracts to be more active than water extracts. The potent AChE inhibiting methanolic plant extracts included Withania somnifera (root), Semecarpus anacardium (stem bark), Embelia ribes (Root), Tinospora cordifolia (stem), Ficus religiosa (stem bark) and Nardostachys jatamansi (rhizome). The IC(50) values obtained for these extracts were 33.38, 16.74, 23.04, 38.36, 73.69 and 47.21mug/ml, respectively. These results partly substantiate the traditional use of these herbs for improvement of cognition. PMID:16950584

  20. Analysis of medicinal plant extracts by neutron activation method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This dissertation has presented the results from analysis of medicinal plant extracts using neutron activation method. Instrumental neutron activation analysis was applied to the determination of the elements Al, Br, Ca, Ce, Cl, Cr, Cs, Fe, K, La, Mg, Mn, Na, Rb, Sb, Sc and Zn in medicinal extracts obtained from Achyrolcline satureoides DC, Casearia sylvestris, Centella asiatica, Citrus aurantium L., Solano lycocarpum, Solidago microglossa, Stryphnondedron barbatiman and Zingiber officinale R. plants. The elements Hg and Se were determined using radiochemical separation by means of retention of Se in HMD inorganic exchanger and solvent extraction of Hg by bismuth diethyl-dithiocarbamate solution. Precision and accuracy of the results have been evaluated by analysing reference materials. The therapeutic action of some elements found in plant extracts analyzed was briefly discussed

  1. Insights into Animal and Plant Lectins with Antimicrobial Activities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renata de Oliveira Dias

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Lectins are multivalent proteins with the ability to recognize and bind diverse carbohydrate structures. The glyco -binding and diverse molecular structures observed in these protein classes make them a large and heterogeneous group with a wide range of biological activities in microorganisms, animals and plants. Lectins from plants and animals are commonly used in direct defense against pathogens and in immune regulation. This review focuses on sources of animal and plant lectins, describing their functional classification and tridimensional structures, relating these properties with biotechnological purposes, including antimicrobial activities. In summary, this work focuses on structural-functional elucidation of diverse lectin groups, shedding some light on host-pathogen interactions; it also examines their emergence as biotechnological tools through gene manipulation and development of new drugs.

  2. Photosynthetic production of hydrogen by algae

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chang, H.

    1978-09-01

    Because hydrogen as a fuel is very attractive both in energy and ecological terms, the photosynthetic production of hydrogen by some algae is attracting considerable attention. In addition to the ordinary photosynthetic mechanisms, many algae have enzymes which can produce hydrogen: hydrogenation enzymes and nitrogen-fixation enzymes. Certain enzymes with the former begin to produce hydrogen after several hours in an anaerobic envirionment; the reason for the delay is that the hydrogen-producing enzymes must adjust to the anaerobic conditions. Eventually the production of hydrogen ceases because production of oxygen by the ordinary photosynthetic mechanism suppresses activity of the hydrogen-producing enzymes. Any use of these algae to produce hydrogen must involve alternating hydrogen production and rest. Nitrogen-fixing enzymes are found especially in the blue-green algae. These seem to produce hydrogen from organic compounds produced by the ordinary photosynthetic process. The nitrogen-fixation type of hydrogen-producing photosynthesis seems the more promising type for future exploitation.

  3. Cytotoxic activity screening of Bangladeshi medicinal plant extracts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akter, Raushanara; Uddin, Shaikh J; Grice, I Darren; Tiralongo, Evelin

    2014-01-01

    The cytotoxic activity of 23 crude methanol extracts from 19 Bangladeshi medicinal plants was investigated against healthy mouse fibroblasts (NIH3T3), healthy monkey kidney (VERO) and four human cancer cell lines (gastric, AGS; colon, HT-29; and breast, MCF-7 and MDA-MB-231) using MTT assay. High cytotoxicity across all cell lines tested was exhibited by Aegiceras corniculatum (fruit) and Hymenodictyon excelsum (bark) extracts (IC50 values ranging from 0.0005 to 0.9980 and 0.08 to 0.44 mg/mL, respectively). Fourteen extracts from 11 plant species, namely Clitoria ternatea (flower and leaf), Dillenia indica (leaf), Diospyros peregrina (leaf), Dipterocarpus turbinatus (bark and leaf), Ecbolium viride (leaf), Glinus oppositifolius (whole plant), Gnaphalium luteoalbum (leaf), Jasminum sambac (leaf), Lannea coromandelica (bark and leaf), Mussaenda glabrata (leaf) and Saraca asoca (leaf), were also significantly cytotoxic (IC50 ternatea (flower and leaf), Caesalpinia pulcherrima (leaf), E. viride (leaf) and G. oppositifolius (whole plant) showed cytotoxicity only against both of the breast cancer cell lines (MCF-7 and MDA-MB-231). In contrast, C. ternatea (flower and leaf) exhibited high cytotoxic activity against MDA-MB-231 (IC50 values of 0.11 and 0.49 mg/mL, respectively), whereas E. viride and G. oppositifolius whole plant extracts exhibited high activity against MCF-7 cells (IC50 values of 0.06 and 0.15 mg/mL, respectively). The cytotoxic activity test results for 9 of the plant species correlate with their traditional use as anticancer agents, thus making them interesting sources for further drug development. PMID:23846168

  4. Anticariogenic activity of some tropical medicinal plants against Streptococcus mutans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hwang, Jae-Kwan; Shim, Jae-Seok; Chung, Jae-Youn

    2004-09-01

    The methanol extracts of five tropical plants, Baeckea frutescens, Glycyrrhiza glabra, Kaempferia pandurata, Physalis angulata and Quercus infectoria, exhibited potent antibacterial activity against the cariogenic bacterium Streptococcus mutans. In particular, G. glabra, K. pandurata and P. angulata conferred fast killing bactericidal effect against S. mutans in 2 min at 50 microg/ml of extract concentration. PMID:15351117

  5. Screening of Australian plants for antimicrobial activity against Campylobacter jejuni.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurekci, Cemil; Bishop-Hurley, Sharon L; Vercoe, Philip E; Durmic, Zoey; Al Jassim, Rafat A M; McSweeney, Christopher S

    2012-02-01

    Campylobacter jejuni is the most common cause of acute enteritis in humans, with symptoms such as diarrhoea, fever and abdominal cramps. In this study, 115 extracts from 109 Australian plant species were investigated for their antimicrobial activities against two C. jejuni strains using an in vitro broth microdilution assay. Among the plants tested, 107 (93%) extracts showed activity at a concentration between 32 and 1024 µg/mL against at least one C. jejuni strain. Seventeen plant extracts were selected for further testing against another six C. jejuni strains, as well as Campylobacter coli, Escherichia coli, Salmonella typhimurium, Bacillus cereus, Proteus mirabilis and Enterococcus faecalis. The extract from Eucalyptus occidentalis demonstrated the highest antimicrobial activity, with an inhibitory concentration of 32 µg/mL against C. jejuni and B. cereus. This study has shown that extracts of selected Australian plants possess antimicrobial activity against C. jejuni and thus may have application in the control of this organism in live poultry and retail poultry products.

  6. Anti-Inflammatory Activity of Compounds Isolated from Plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R.M. Perez G.

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available This review shows over 300 compounds isolated and identified from plants that previously demonstrated anti-inflammatory activity. They have been classified in appropriate chemical groups and data are reported on their pharmacological effects, mechanisms of action, and other properties.

  7. Phytochemicals and Their Biological Activities of Plants in Tagetes L.

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XU Li-wei; CHEN Juan; QI Huan-yang; SHI Yan-ping

    2012-01-01

    Tagetes L.,the genus in the family Asteraceae,consists of about 30 species spread in South and Middle America as well as Mexico.More than one hundred secondary metabolites have been obtained in phytochemical investigation on the species,some of which have potent biological activities.The advances in phytochemical studies and biological activities of the plants in Tagetes L.from 1925 to 2011 are summarized in this paper.

  8. In vitro antiplasmodial activity of extracts of Argentinian plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Debenedetti, S; Muschietti, L; van Baren, C; Clavin, M; Broussalis, A; Martino, V; Houghton, P J; Warhurst, D; Steele, J

    2002-05-01

    Fifteen extracts from nine selected Argentine medicinal plants were tested for their antiplasmodial activity in vitro by assessing their ability to inhibit the uptake of [3H]-hypoxanthine into the Plasmodium falciparum K1 pyrimethamine/chloroquine resistant strain. The methanol extract of Satureja parvifolia showed good antiplasmodial activity (IC(50) 3 microg/ml). Inhibition of the growth of P. falciparum was also observed with aqueous extracts of Buddleja globosa and S. parvifolia.

  9. Screening of Iranian plants for antifungal activity: Part 1

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amin Gh.R

    2002-07-01

    Full Text Available In this study, 250 species from 37 families of native Iranian plants were screened for in vitro antifungal activity against 19 fungal strains in vitro. Primarily, the crude extracts at concentration of 100μg/ml were tested. Of 250 extracts tested, 185(74% showed antifungal activity against at least one fungal strain. The outstanding species were Artemisia aucheri, Artemisia scoparia, Carthamus oxyacantha, Francoeuria undulate, Tripleurospermum disciform, and Xanthium spinosum.

  10. Cytotoxic activity of Thai medicinal plants for cancer treatment

    OpenAIRE

    Chawaboon Dechsukum; Pranee Ratanasuwan; Niwat Keawpradub; Chatchai Wattanapiromsakul; Arunporn Itharat; Athima Saetung

    2005-01-01

    Twelve Thai medicinal plants as the ingredients of a Southern Thai traditional formula for cancer treatment were selected to test cytotoxicity activity against two types of human cancer cell lines ; large cell lung carcinoma (CORL-23) and prostate cancer cell lines (PC3) and one type of normal human cell line, fibroblast cells (10FS). SRB assay was used to test cytotoxic activity against all the cell types. Two of the extracts (water and ethanolic extracts) procedures used were similar to tho...

  11. Antioxidant and antimicrobial activities of selected medicinal plants from Algeria

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Krimat Soumia; Dob Tahar; Lamari Lynda; Boumeridja Saida; Chelghoum Chabane; Metidji Hafidha

    2014-01-01

    Objective:To evaluate the antioxidant and antimicrobial activity of methanolic extract extracts of selected Algerian medicinal plants. Methods:Antioxidant activity of extracts was evaluated in terms of radical scavenging potential (2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl) and β-carotene bleaching assay. Total phenolic contents and flavonoid contents were also measured. Antimicrobial activity of these plants was examined against Bacillus subtilis, Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Candida albicans. Results:The values of IC50 ranged from 4.30 μg/mL to 486.6 μg/mL for the DPPH method, while total antioxidant activity using β-carotene/linoleic acid bleaching assay ranged from 17.03%to 86.13%. It was found that Pistacia lentiscus showed the highest antioxidant capacities using DPPH assay (IC50=4.30 μg/mL), while Populus trimula, Origanum glandulosum, Centaurea calcitrapa, Sysimbrium officinalis and Rhamnus alaternus showed the highest percent of total antioxidant activity inβ-carotene/linoleic acid bleaching assay. Total phenolic and flavonoid contents ranged from 3.96 to 259.65 mg GAE/g extract and from 1.13 to 26.84 mg QE/g extract, respectively. The most interesting antimicrobial activity was obtained from Sysimbrium officinalis, Rhamnus alaternus, Origanum glandulosum, Cupressus sempervirens, Pinus halipensis and Centaurea calcitrapa. Conclusions:The results indicated that the plants tested may be potential sources for isolation of natural antioxidant and antimicrobial compounds.

  12. Antioxidant and antimicrobial activities of selected medicinal plants from Algeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krimat Soumia

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To evaluate the antioxidant and antimicrobial activity of methanolic extract extracts of selected Algerian medicinal plants. Methods: Antioxidant activity of extracts was evaluated in terms of radical scavenging potential (2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl and β-carotene bleaching assay. Total phenolic contents and flavonoid contents were also measured. Antimicrobial activity of these plants was examined against Bacillus subtilis, Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Candida albicans. Results: The values of IC50 ranged from 4.30 μg/mL to 486.6 μg/mL for the DPPH method, while total antioxidant activity using β-carotene/linoleic acid bleaching assay ranged from 17.03% to 86.13%. It was found that Pistacia lentiscus showed the highest antioxidant capacities using DPPH assay (IC50=4.30 μg/mL, while Populus trimula, Origanum glandulosum, Centaurea calcitrapa, Sysimbrium officinalis and Rhamnus alaternus showed the highest percent of total antioxidant activity in β-carotene/linoleic acid bleaching assay. Total phenolic and flavonoid contents ranged from 3.96 to 259.65 mg GAE/g extract and from 1.13 to 26.84 mg QE/g extract, respectively. The most interesting antimicrobial activity was obtained from Sysimbrium officinalis, Rhamnus alaternus, Origanum glandulosum, Cupressus sempervirens, Pinus halipensis and Centaurea calcitrapa. Conclusions: The results indicated that the plants tested may be potential sources for isolation of natural antioxidant and antimicrobial compounds.

  13. Antimicrobial activity of Northwestern Mexican plants against Helicobacter pylori.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robles-Zepeda, Ramón E; Velázquez-Contreras, Carlos A; Garibay-Escobar, Adriana; Gálvez-Ruiz, Juan C; Ruiz-Bustos, Eduardo

    2011-10-01

    Helicobacter pylori is the major etiologic agent of such gastric disorders as chronic active gastritis and gastric carcinoma. Over the past few years, the appearance of antibiotic-resistant bacteria has led to the development of better treatments, such as the use of natural products. This study evaluated the anti-H. pylori activity of 17 Mexican plants used mainly in the northwestern part of Mexico (Sonora) for the empirical treatment of gastrointestinal disorders. The anti-H. pylori activity of methanolic extracts of the plants was determined by using the broth microdilution method. The 50% minimum inhibitory concentrations ranged from less than 200 to 400 μg/mL for Castella tortuosa, Amphipterygium adstringens, Ibervillea sonorae, Pscalium decompositum, Krameria erecta, Selaginella lepidophylla, Pimpinella anisum, Marrubium vulgare, Ambrosia confertiflora, and Couterea latiflora and were greater than 800 μg/mL for Byophyllum pinnatum, Tecoma stans linnaeus, Kohleria deppena, Jatropha cuneata, Chenopodium ambrosoides, and Taxodium macronatum. Only Equisetum gigantum showed no activity against H. pylori. This study suggests the important role that these plants may have in the treatment of gastrointestinal disorders caused by H. pylori. The findings set the groundwork for further characterization and elucidation of the active compounds responsible for such activity. PMID:21663492

  14. Screening and antibacterial activity analysis of some important medicinal plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Senthilmurugan Viji

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available The screening and study of five different plant specimens belonging to different families for phytochemical constituents was performed using generally accepted laboratory technique for qualitative determinations. The constituents screened were saponins, combined anthraquinones, terpenoids, flavonoids, carotenoids, steroids, xantho proteins, couramins, alkaloids, quinones, vitamin C. The distribution of these constituents in the plant specimens were assessed and compared. The medicinal plant studied were Acalypha indica, Camellia sinensis, Plectranthus amboinicus, Curcuma longa, Rauvolfia tetraphylla. All the plant speciemens were found to contain terpenoids, xantho proteins, couramins and vitamin C. They also contain Saponins (except Curcuma longa, Combined anthroquinones (except Acalypha indica, Camellia sinensis, Curcuma longa flavonoids (except Acalypha indica, Camellia sinensis, Carotenoids (except Acalypha indica, Curcuma longa, and steroids (except Plectranthus amboinicus, Rauvolfia tetraphylla Quinones were found in one out of the five specimens. Some of the medicinal plant seemed to have potential as source of useful drugs. Though the one percent extracts of all the plants showed some degree of antimicrobial activity, it was significant in Acalypha indica, Camellia sinensis, Plectranthus amboinicus, Curcuma longa, and Rauvolfia tetraphylla. The extract of Camellia sinensis and Acalypha indica was most effective against Enterobacter faecalis (ZI = 3 cm and ZI = 1.7cm and Camellia sinensis and Acalypha indica was most effective against Staphylococcus aureus (ZI = 2.1 cm.

  15. Miocene Coralline algae

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bosence, D.W.J.

    1988-01-01

    The coralline algae (Order Corallinales) were sedimentologically and ecologically important during the Miocene, a period when they were particularly abundant. The many poorly described and illustrated species and the lack of quantitative data in coralline thalli make specific determinations particularly difficult, but some species are well known and widespread in the Tethyan area. The sedimentologic importance of the Miocene coralline algae is reflected in the abundance of in-situ coralline buildups, rhodoliths, and coralline debris facies at Malta and Spain; similar sequences are known throughout the Tethyan Miocene. In-situ buildups vary from leafy crustose biostromes to walled reefs with dense coralline crusts and branches. Growth forms are apparently related to hydraulic energy. Rhodoliths vary from leafy, crustose, and open-branched forms in muddy sediments to dense, crustose, and radial-branching forms in coarse grainstones. Rhodolith form and internal structure correlate closely with hydraulic energy. Coralline genera are conservative and, as such, are useful in paleoenvironmental analysis. Of particular interest are the restricted depth ranges of recent coralline genera. More research is needed on the sedimentology, paleoecology, and systematics of the Cenozoic corallines, as they have particular value in paleoenvironmental analysis.

  16. Influence of aerogenic contamination on phytoncide activity of woody plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. O. Volodarez

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The main objective of this paper is to determine variations of antimicrobial activity of the volatile organic compounds from leaves of woody plants, which are growing on the areas with the different air pollution degree in the south-east of Ukraine. The research objects were Aesculus hippocastanum L., Betula pendula Roth, Salix alba L., Picea pungens Engelm. in Donetsk, Ukraine, and 6 species (Betula pendula Roth, Fraxinus excelsior L., Robinia pseudoacacia L., Populus nigra L., Tilia cordata Mill., Picea pungens Engelm. in Kramatorsk, Ukraine. Samples were collected in Donetsk every month during 2012 and 2013 years on four sample areas. Three research areas border with Donetsk Metallurgical Plant PSC, heavy traffic road and Kalinin coal mine, that feature such pollutants as CO2, SO2, NO2, and marsh gas. The fourth research area is the recreation zone (Donetsk Culture and Leisure Park near Donbass Arena stadium. The control area is located in the Donetsk Botanical Garden. The leaves from trees in Kramatorsk were collected in July and August 2013 on the sample area. The research area borders with Novokramatorsk Machine-building Plant JSC, which also features CO2, SO2, NO2 and other pollutants. The control area is located in the Jubilejnyi park. The research proves that antimicrobial activity of the volatile organic compounds from leaves of species under studyis sensitive to the impact of pollutants. Moreover, the antimicrobial activity of leaves B. pendula, S. alba, F. excelsior, R. pseudoacacia, P. nigra increases under the influence of pollutants from metallurgical plants and traffic exhausts. The antimicrobial ability of A. hippocastanum, T. cordata and P. pungens enhances in the areas with the cleaner air. These species are not gas-resistant species. Consequently, gas-resistant species feature the higher antimicrobial activity in the conditions of contamination. The other benefit of this study consists in monitoring of the seasonal

  17. Biological Activity of Vegetal Extracts Containing Phenols on Plant Metabolism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ertani, Andrea; Pizzeghello, Diego; Francioso, Ornella; Tinti, Anna; Nardi, Serenella

    2016-01-01

    The influence of vegetal extracts derived from red grape, blueberry fruits and hawthorn leaves on Zea mays L. plant growth and the activity of phenylalanine ammonia-lyase (PAL), a key enzyme of the phenylpropanoid pathway, was investigated in laboratory experiments. The extracts were characterized using FT-IR and Raman spectroscopies in order to obtain a pattern of the main functional groups. In addition, phenols content was determined by HPLC, whereas the content of indoleacetic acid and isopentenyladenosine hormones was determined by ELISA test and the auxin and gibberellin-like activities by plant-bioassays. The treated maize revealed increased root and leaf biomass, chlorophyll and sugars content with respect to untreated plants. Hawthorn, red grape skin and blueberry at 1.0 mL/L induced high p-coumaric content values, whilst hawthorn also showed high amounts of gallic and p-hydroxybenzoic acids. PAL activity induced by hawthorn at 1.0 mL/L had the highest values (11.1-fold UNT) and was strongly and linearly related with the sum of leaf phenols. Our results suggest that these vegetal extracts contain more than one group of plant-promoting substances.

  18. Biological Activity of Vegetal Extracts Containing Phenols on Plant Metabolism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea Ertani

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available The influence of vegetal extracts derived from red grape, blueberry fruits and hawthorn leaves on Zea mays L. plant growth and the activity of phenylalanine ammonia-lyase (PAL, a key enzyme of the phenylpropanoid pathway, was investigated in laboratory experiments. The extracts were characterized using FT-IR and Raman spectroscopies in order to obtain a pattern of the main functional groups. In addition, phenols content was determined by HPLC, whereas the content of indoleacetic acid and isopentenyladenosine hormones was determined by ELISA test and the auxin and gibberellin-like activities by plant-bioassays. The treated maize revealed increased root and leaf biomass, chlorophyll and sugars content with respect to untreated plants. Hawthorn, red grape skin and blueberry at 1.0 mL/L induced high p-coumaric content values, whilst hawthorn also showed high amounts of gallic and p-hydroxybenzoic acids. PAL activity induced by hawthorn at 1.0 mL/L had the highest values (11.1-fold UNT and was strongly and linearly related with the sum of leaf phenols. Our results suggest that these vegetal extracts contain more than one group of plant-promoting substances.

  19. ANTIFUNGAL ACTIVITY OF SOME PLANT EXTRACT S AGAINST FUSARIUM SOLANI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S.K. BHARADWAJ

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The aqueous extracts of twenty plants were screened for their antifungal activity Fusarium solani, causal organism if Sudden Death Syndrome (SDS of Soybean (Glycine max wilt diseases, soft rot of potato. The maximum inhibitory effect was shown by leaf extracts of Camellia sinensis (67.17%, root extracts of Asparagus racemosus (54.43%. Some of the other plants showed moderate to intermediate inhibition against the mycelium growth of test fungi whcih varied in the following range Callistemon lanceolatus> Agegle marmelos> Azadirachta> Acacia catechu> Aloevera.

  20. Determination Of Antioxidant Activities In Freshliver (Salvia Officinalis) Plant

    OpenAIRE

    Rana Arıduru; Gülnur Arabacı

    2013-01-01

    In this study, we determined the antioxidant activities of four different solvent fractions obtained from Freshliver plant leaves (Salvia officinalis) by employing two different assays such as 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl hydrate (DPPH) and Folin-Ciocaltaeu method. The results showed that ethanol-extract of freshliver plant exhibited the highest total phenolic contents mg GAE/g extract; 43,55, methanol-extract of 23.62, ethyl acetate extract 18.29, and acetone extract 11.58. All the extracti...

  1. AlgaeEconomics: bio-economic production models of micro-algae and downstream processing to produce bio energy carriers

    OpenAIRE

    Spruijt, J.; Schipperus, R.; Kootstra, A.M.J.; de Visser

    2015-01-01

    This report describes results of work carried out within the EnAlgae project to describe production costs and identify the variables that have most effect in determining future cost prices so that R&D can be focussed on these issues. This has been done by making use of pilots within the EnAlgae consortium and by describing the process in Excel models that have been spread among and discussed with stakeholders active in the field of commercial algae production. The expectation is that this...

  2. Anti-Candida activity of Brazilian medicinal plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duarte, Marta Cristina Teixeira; Figueira, Glyn Mara; Sartoratto, Adilson; Rehder, Vera Lúcia Garcia; Delarmelina, Camila

    2005-02-28

    Essential oils and ethanolic extracts from the leaves and/or roots of 35 medicinal plants commonly used in Brazil were screened for anti-Candida albicans activity. The oils were obtained by water-distillation using a Clevenger-type system. Essential oils from 13 plants showed anti-Candida activity, including Aloysia triphylla, Anthemis nobilis, Cymbopogon martini, Cymbopogon winterianus, Cyperus articulatus, Cyperus rotundus, Lippia alba, Mentha arvensis, Mikania glomerata, Mentha piperita, Mentha sp., Stachys byzantina, and Solidago chilensis. The ethanol extract was not effective at any of the concentrations tested. Chemical analyses showed the presence of compounds with known antimicrobial activity, including 1,8-cineole, geranial, germacrene-D, limonene, linalool, and menthol. PMID:15707770

  3. PPF1 May Suppress Plant Senescence via Activating TFL1 in Transgenic Arabidopsis Plants

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Da-Yong Wang; Qing Li; Ke-Ming Cui; Yu-Xian Zhu

    2008-01-01

    Senescence, a sequence of biochemical and physiological events, constitutes the final stage of development In higher plants and is modulated by a variety of environmental factors and intemal factors. PPF1 possesses an important biological function in plant development by controlling the Ca2+ storage capacity within chloroplasts. Here we show that the expression of PPF1 might play a pivotal role in negatively regulating plant senescence as revealed by the regulation of overexpression and suppression of PPF1 on plant development. Moreover, TFL1, a key regulator in the floral repression pathway, was screened out as one of the downstream targets for PPF1 in the senescence-signaling pathway. Investigation of the senescence-related phenotypes in PPF1(-) tfl1-1 and PPF1(+) tfl1-1 double mutants confirmed and further highlighted the relation of PPF1 with TFL1 in tranegenic plants. The activation of TFL1 expression by PPF1 defines an important pathway possibly essential for the negative regulation of plant senescence in transgenic Arabidopsis.

  4. Spurious Activation of Digital Plant Protection System in Nuclear Power Plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Reactor Protection System (RPS) of a nuclear power plant (NPP) is employed to detect abnormal (hazardous) condition of the plant and perform automatic safe shutdown of a nuclear reactor. However, the reactor can shutdown within the normal range of plant process parameters, which is known as spurious trip of reactor. Spurious trip model for common process industries has been developed, which optimizes the maintenance frequency of a safety instrumented system (SIS) for process industries. Spurious activation of SIS due to constant random hardware failures has been addressed. The spurious activation of SIS for oil and gas industries has been defined with developing a set of formulas for STR. However, the maintenance human errors were not explicitly considered in those studies. Incidence of maintenance errors should be considered for spurious trip rate estimation since those are the major causes of unplanned shutdowns of process industries and nuclear power industries. Maintenance human error is an important factor for component failure and unplanned trip. There appears to be no model available which can estimate spurious trip frequency of a reactor caused by random hardware failure and maintenance human error in a digital plant protection system for nuclear power plants. Our model is well defined and pragmatic for quantification of spurious trip rate and explicitly considers maintenance human errors. Fault-tree analysis has been done to estimate the spurious trip frequency of digital plant protection system. The model may be employed by the plant maintainer as well as designers to identify the influential components responsible for high spurious trip rate

  5. Radical scavenging, antioxidant and cytotoxic activity of Brazilian Caatinga plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    David, Juceni P; Meira, Marilena; David, Jorge M; Brandão, Hugo N; Branco, Alexsandro; de Fátima Agra, M; Barbosa, M Regina V; de Queiroz, Luciano P; Giulietti, Ana M

    2007-04-01

    Extracts of 32 plants from the Brazilian northeastern semi-arid region called Caatinga were evaluated through DPPH radical scavenging assay, beta-carotene bleaching, and brine shrimp lethality tests (BST). Among the extracts studied Byrsonima cf. gardneriana, Mascagnia coriacea, Cordia globosa, Diodia apiculata and Hypenia salzmannii showed the highest activities in DPPH radical scavenging test. In the beta-carotene bleaching test the highest activities were observed for Passiflora cincinnata, Chamaecrista repens, B. cf. gardneriana, Rollinia leptopetala, Serjania glabrata, Diospyros gaultheriifolia, C. globosa, Mimosa ophtalmocentra, M. coriacea and Lippia cf. microphylla. In contrast, R. leptopetala, Zornia cf. brasiliensis and Leonotis nepetifolia were the most active species in the BST.

  6. Radical scavenging, antioxidant and cytotoxic activity of Brazilian Caatinga plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    David, Juceni P; Meira, Marilena; David, Jorge M; Brandão, Hugo N; Branco, Alexsandro; de Fátima Agra, M; Barbosa, M Regina V; de Queiroz, Luciano P; Giulietti, Ana M

    2007-04-01

    Extracts of 32 plants from the Brazilian northeastern semi-arid region called Caatinga were evaluated through DPPH radical scavenging assay, beta-carotene bleaching, and brine shrimp lethality tests (BST). Among the extracts studied Byrsonima cf. gardneriana, Mascagnia coriacea, Cordia globosa, Diodia apiculata and Hypenia salzmannii showed the highest activities in DPPH radical scavenging test. In the beta-carotene bleaching test the highest activities were observed for Passiflora cincinnata, Chamaecrista repens, B. cf. gardneriana, Rollinia leptopetala, Serjania glabrata, Diospyros gaultheriifolia, C. globosa, Mimosa ophtalmocentra, M. coriacea and Lippia cf. microphylla. In contrast, R. leptopetala, Zornia cf. brasiliensis and Leonotis nepetifolia were the most active species in the BST. PMID:17331673

  7. Blue-green algae in rice fields. Their ecology and their use as inoculant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper is a short review on blue-green algae in rice fields, their ecology and their use as inoculants. Some emphasis has been given to the recent studies of the relations between blue-green algae and rice which include the availability of algal nitrogen to the rice plant and epiphytic relationships. (author)

  8. Cell death upon H(2)O(2) induction in the unicellular green alga Micrasterias.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Darehshouri, A; Affenzeller, M; Lütz-Meindl, U

    2008-11-01

    In the present study, we investigated whether the unicellular green alga Micrasterias denticulata is capable of executing programmed cell death (PCD) upon experimental induction, and which morphological, molecular and physiological hallmarks characterise this. This is particularly interesting as unicellular freshwater green algae growing in shallow bog ponds are exposed to extreme environmental conditions, and the capacity to perform PCD may be an important strategy to guarantee survival of the population. The theoretically 'immortal' alga Micrasterias is an ideal object for such investigations as it has served as a cell biological model system for many years and details on its growth properties, physiology and ultrastructure throughout the cell cycle are well known. Treatments with low concentrations of H(2)O(2) are known to induce PCD in other organisms, resulting in severe ultrastructural changes to organelles, as observed in TEM. These include deformation and part disintegration of mitochondria, abnormal dilatation of cisternal rims of dictyosomes, occurrence of multivesicular bodies, an increase in the number of ER compartments, and slight condensation of chromatin. Additionally, a statistically significant increase in caspase-3-like activity was detected, which was abrogated by a caspase-3 inhibitor. Photosynthetic activity measured by fast chlorophyll fluorescence decreased as a consequence of H(2)O(2) exposure, whereas pigment composition, except for a reduction in carotenoids, was the same as in untreated controls. TUNEL positive staining and ladder-like degradation of DNA, both frequently regarded as a hallmark of PCD in higher plants, could only be detected in dead Micrasterias cells. PMID:18950431

  9. ANTIMICROBIAL ACTIVITY OF NINE MEDICINAL PLANTS FROM VERACRUZ, MEXICO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chena-Becerra, F

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available The medicinal plants are an alternative source to the treatment of primary health care problems. An ethnobotanical study performed on Tlalchy, Ixhuacán de los Reyes, Veracruz, México, allowed the selection of nine plant species involved in infectious diseases treatments. Antimicrobial activities of ethanolic crude extracts were tested on fifteen bacterial and yeast clinical isolates. Every extract showed a level of inhibition against almost all the microorganisms assayed. According to the Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute norms, representative results emerged over three species: T. diversifolia, C. nitidula y L. racemosa, therefore, Minimal Inhibitory Concentration values were determined on these species. The data suggest that using medicinal plants of Tlalchy is convenient, for this reason, we put forward further investigation on several species

  10. Isotopic techniques for measuring the biological activity in plant rhizosphere

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The use of 14C made it possible to separate root respired CO2 and microbial CO2 resulting from exudates utilisation by the rhizosphere microflora. Measurements were done after wheat plants grown under axenic and non axenic conditions were placed during short period of time in an atmosphere contaning 14CO2. Under axenic conditions evolution of 14CO2 follows a bell shaped curve due to the brief appearance of labelled compounds translocated from the aerial part of the plants to the roots. In the presence of microorganisms, the maximum of activity due to root respiration is identical but immediately followed by a second peak of 14CO2 evolution that was attributed to the decomposition of labelled exudates by the microflora. The same observations resulted from the labelling of a grassland vegetation sampled with its soil and placed in the laboratory. Preliminary results obtained using this method of short term labelling of plants are presented here

  11. Antibacterial Activity of Medicinal Aqueous Plant Extracts against Mycobacterium tuberculosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muna Mohammed Buzayan

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Tuberculosis (TB remains a serious health problem in many regions of the world, and the development of resistance to antibiotics by this microbe created the need for new drugs to replace those which have lost effectiveness. This study assesses the medicinal anti-Mycobacterium tuberculosis properties of natural products obtained from plants collected from Eastern Libya. In this study aqueous extracts of nine different plants were assayed for their Mycobacterium tuberculosis inhibitory activity using the BACTEC MGIT960 susceptibility test method. The aqueous extracts of Ceratonia siliqua L, Helichrysum stoechas (L. Moench and Thymus algeriensis did not show any activity against M. tuberculosis in different concentrations. The aqueous extract of Marrubium vulgare L. from Syria showed high activity against M. tuberculosis. Marrubium alysson L., Marrubium vulgare L., Pistacia lentiscus L, Quercus coccifera L, Thymus capitatus (L. Hoffm. & Link, showed varying degrees of activity against M. tuberculosis. The results of this study show that aqueous extracts from six different medicinal plants have different effects against M. tuberculosis in vitro.

  12. Cycloartane triterpenes from marine green alga Cladophora fascicularis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HUANG Xinping; ZHU Xiaobin; DENG Liping; DENG Zhiwei; LIN Wenhan

    2006-01-01

    Six cycloartanes were isolated from ethanol extract of marine green alga Cladophora fascicularis by column chromatography. Procedure of isolation and description of these compounds are given in this paper. The structures were elucidated as (1). 24-hydroperoxycycloart-25- en-3β-ol; (2).cycloart-25-en-3β 24-diol; (3). 25-hydroperoxycycloart-23-en-3β-ol; (4). cycloart-23-en-3β, 25-diol; (5).cycloart-23, 25-dien-3β-ol; and (6). cycloart-24-en-3β-ol by spectroscopic (MS, 1D and 2D NMR) data analysis. Cycloartane derivatives are widely distributed in terrestrial plants, but only few were obtained in the alga. All these compounds that have been isolated from terrestrial plants, were found in the marine alga for the first time.

  13. Flavonoids from the Red Alga Acanthophora spicifera

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZENG Long-Mei(曾陇梅); 曾陇梅; WANG Chao-Jie(王超杰); 王超杰; SU Jing-Yu(苏镜娱); 苏镜娱; LI Du(李笃); 李笃; OWEN Noel L.; OWEN Noel L; LU Yang(吕扬); 吕扬; LU Nan(鲁南); 鲁南; ZHENG Qi-Tai(郑启泰); 郑启泰

    2001-01-01

    Two new flavonoids, acanthophorin A (1) and acanthophorin B (2), along with three known compounds tiliroside (3),( - )-catechin (4) and quercetin (5) were isolated from the red alga Acanthophora spicifera. The structures of 1 and 2were determined to be kaempferol 3-O-α-L-fucopyranoside (1) and quercetin 3-O-α-L-fucopyranoside (2) by spectroscopic methods. Both 1 and 2 showed significant anfioxidant activity.

  14. Antibacterial activity of caffeine against plant pathogenic bacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sledz, Wojciech; Los, Emilia; Paczek, Agnieszka; Rischka, Jacek; Motyka, Agata; Zoledowska, Sabina; Piosik, Jacek; Lojkowska, Ewa

    2015-01-01

    The objective of the present study was to evaluate the antibacterial properties of a plant secondary metabolite - caffeine. Caffeine is present in over 100 plant species. Antibacterial activity of caffeine was examined against the following plant-pathogenic bacteria: Ralstonia solanacearum (Rsol), Clavibacter michiganesis subsp. sepedonicus (Cms), Dickeya solani (Dsol), Pectobacterium atrosepticum (Pba), Pectobacterium carotovorum subsp. carotovorum (Pcc), Pseudomonas syringae pv. tomato (Pst), and Xanthomonas campestris subsp. campestris (Xcc). MIC and MBC values ranged from 5 to 20 mM and from 43 to 100 mM, respectively. Caffeine increased the bacterial generation time of all tested species and caused changes in cell morphology. The influence of caffeine on the synthesis of DNA, RNA and proteins was investigated in cultures of plant pathogenic bacteria with labelled precursors: [(3)H]thymidine, [(3)H]uridine or (14)C leucine, respectively. RNA biosynthesis was more affected than DNA or protein biosynthesis in bacterial cells treated with caffeine. Treatment of Pba with caffeine for 336 h did not induce resistance to this compound. Caffeine application reduced disease symptoms caused by Dsol on chicory leaves, potato slices, and whole potato tubers. The data presented indicate caffeine as a potential tool for the control of diseases caused by plant-pathogenic bacteria, especially under storage conditions. PMID:26307771

  15. Screening of antidiabetic and antioxidant activities of medicinal plants

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Amal Bakr Shori

    2015-01-01

    Diabetes is a common metabolic disorder characterized by abnormaly increased plasma glucose levels. Postprandial hyperglycemia plays an essential role in development of type-2 diabetes. Inhibitors of carbohydrate-hydrolyzing enzymes (such as α-glucosidase and α-amylase) offer an effective strategy to regulate/prevent hyperglycemia by controling starch breakdown. Natural α-amylase and α-glucosidase inhibitors, as wel as antioxidants from plant-based sources, offer a source of dietary ingredients that affect human physiological function in order to treat diabetes. Several research studies have investigated the effectiveness of plant-based inhibitors of α-amylase and α-glucosidase, as wel as their antioxidant activity. The aim of this review is to summarize the antidiabetic and antioxidant properties of several medicinal plants around the world. Half inhibitory concentration (IC50,for enzyme suppression) and half effective concentration (EC50, for antioxidant activity) values of less than 500 μg/mL were deifned as the most potent plant-based inhibitors (in vitro) and are expected to provide interesting candidates for herbal treatment of diabetes, as foods, supplements, or reifned drugs.

  16. Antimicrobial and Antioxidant Activities of Plants from Northeast of Mexico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ricardo Salazar-Aranda

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Traditional medicine has a key role in health care worldwide. Obtaining scientific information about the efficacy and safety of the plants from our region is one of the goals of our research group. In this report, 17 plants were selected and collected in different localities from northeast Mexico. The dried plants were separated into leaves, flowers, fruit, stems, roots and bark. Each part was extracted with methanol, and 39 crude extracts were prepared. The extracts were tested for their antimicrobial activity using three Gram-negative bacterial strains (Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Klebsiella pneumoniae and Acinetobacter baumannii, three Gram-positive bacterial strains (Enterococcus faecalis and two Staphylococcus aureus strains, and seven clinically isolated yeasts (Candida albicans, C. krusei, C. tropicalis, C. parapsilosis and C. glabrata; their antioxidant activity was tested using a DPPH free radical assay. No activity against Gram-negative bacteria was observed with any extract up to the maximum concentration tested, 1000 μg ml−1. We report here for the first time activity of Ceanothus coeruleus against S. aureus (flowers, minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC 125 μg ml−1, C. glabrata (MICs 31.25 μg ml−1 and C. parapsilosis (MICs between 31.25 and 125 μg ml−1; Chrysanctinia mexicana against C. glabrata (MICs 31.25 μg ml−1; Colubrina greggii against E. faecalis (MICs 250 μg ml−1 and Cordia boissieri against C. glabrata (MIC 125 μg ml−1. Furthermore, this is the first report about antioxidant activity of extracts from Ceanothus coeruleus, Chrysanctinia mexicana, Colubrina greggii and Cyperus alternifolius. Some correlation could exist between antioxidant activity and antiyeast activity against yeasts in the species Ceanothus coeruleus, Schinus molle, Colubrina greggii and Cordia boissieri.

  17. Biological activity of selected plants with adaptogenic effect

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eva Ivanišová

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to determine biological activity of plants with adaptogenic effect: Panax ginseng Mayer., Withania somnifera L., Eleuterococcus senticosus Rupr. et Maxim., Astragallus membranaceus Fisch. and Codonopsis pilosulae Franch. The antioxidant activity was detected by DPPH and phosphomolybdenum method, total polyphenol content with Folin – Ciocalteu reagent, flavonoids content by aluminium chloride method. The detection of antimicrobial activity was carried out by disc diffusion method against three species of Gram-negative bacteria: Escherichia coli CCM 3988, Salmonella enterica subsp. enterica CCM 3807, Yersinia enterocolitica CCM 5671 and two Gram-positive bacteria: Bacillus thuringiensis CCM 19, Stapylococcus aureus subsp. aureus CCM 2461. Results showed that plants with adaptogenic effect are rich for biologically active substances. The highest antioxidant activity by DPPH method was determined in the sample of Eleuterococcus senticosus (3.15 mg TEAC – Trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity per g of sample and by phosphomolybdenum method in the sample of Codonopsis pilosulae (188.79 mg TEAC per g of sample. In the sample of Panax ginseng was measured the highest content of total polyphenols (8.10 mg GAE – galic acid equivalent per g of sample and flavonoids (3.41 μg QE – quercetin equivalent per g of sample. All samples also showed strong antimicrobial activity with the best results in Panax ginseng and Withania somnifera in particular for species Yersinia enterocolitica CCM 5671 and Salmonella enterica subsp. enterica CCM 3807. The analyzed species of plant with high value of biological activity can be used more in the future, not only in food, but also in cosmetics and pharmaceutical industries.

  18. Summary of active test at Rokkasho reprocessing plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Introduction: Rokkasho Reprocessing Plant (RRP), the first commercial reprocessing plant in Japan, has adopted Purex Process like the Tokai plant in Japan, the La Hague plant in France and the Sellafield plant in England. Its annual reprocessing capacity is 800 tU, while the daily reprocessing capacity is 4.8 tU. Spent fuels contained in casks are transported to RRP from nuclear power plants in Japan. Spent fuels are cooled down and stored in spent fuels storage pools. When the radioactivity is weakened to predetermined level, spent fuels are sheared in pieces of 3 to 4 centimeters long. After fuels are dissolved with nitric acid, uranium, plutonium and fission products are separated from each other. Both uranium solution and plutonium solution are purified and de-nitrated. They turn into two types of powder products: uranium oxide and uranium-plutonium mixed oxide, and are then stored. Liquid waste generated in the reprocessing processes contains most of fission products and TRU and has a high radioactivity. It is mixed and solidified together with special glass, is poured into a stainless container (canister), and is cooled down. Outline of Active Test: The test operation at RRP has been carried out step by step with 'Water Test', 'Chemical Test', 'Uranium Test' and 'Active Test', toward the planned start of the commercial operation. Active Test started since 31 March 2006 has been performed with spent fuels for the verification of safety functions and performance of equipment and facilities. Active Test is divided into 5 steps, and Step 1, Step 2, Step 3 and Step 4 were already completed. Results: It has been confirmed that the safety functions and the target performance of equipment and facilities of shearing, dissolution, separation, purification and de-nitration process had been obtained. It has been confirmed that the total release activities to atmosphere and sea were well below the control target value and effective dose by external exposure and internal

  19. Antioxidative/acetylcholinesterase inhibitory activity of some Asteraceae plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mekinić, Ivana Generalić; Burcul, Franko; Blazević, Ivica; Skroza, Danijela; Kerum, Daniela; Katalinić, Visnja

    2013-04-01

    The extracts obtained by 80% EtOH from some Asteraceae plants (Calendula officinalis, Inula helenium, Arctium lappa, Artemisia absinthium and Achillea millefolium) were studied. Rosmarinic acid, one of the main compounds identified in all extracts, was determined quantitatively by using HPLC. In addition, spectrophotometric methods were evaluated as an alternative for rosmarinic acid content determination. Total phenolic content was also established for all extracts. A. millefolium extract was found to have the highest content of rosmarinic acid as well as total phenols. All extracts were tested for antioxidant and acetylcholinesterase inhibitory activity. A. millefolium was shown to possess the best antioxidant activity (for all tested methods) as well as acetylcholinesterase inhibitory activity. Highly positive linear relationships were obtained between antioxidant/acetylcholinesterase inhibitory activity and the determined rosmarinic acid content indicating its significance for the observed activities. PMID:23738456

  20. Review on medicinal uses, pharmacological, phytochemistry and immunomodulatory activity of plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akram, M; Hamid, A; Khalil, A; Ghaffar, A; Tayyaba, N; Saeed, A; Ali, M; Naveed, A

    2014-01-01

    Since ancient times, plants have been an exemplary source of medicine. Researchers have discovered some important compounds from plants. The present work constitutes a review of the medicinal plants whose immunomodulant activity has been proven. We performed PUBMED, EMBASE, Google scholar searches for research papers of medicinal plants having immunomodulant activity. Medicinal plants used by traditional physicians or reported as having immunomodulant activity include Acacia concocinna, Camellia sinensis, Lawsonia inermis Linn, Piper longum Linn, Gelidium amansii, Petroselinum crispum, Plantago major and Allium sativum. Immunomodulant activities of some of these medicinal plants have been investigated. The medicinal plants documented have immunomodulant activity and should be further investigated via clinical trial. PMID:25280022

  1. Antimicrobial Activities of Various Medicinal and Commercial Plant Extracts

    OpenAIRE

    ATEŞ, D. Ayfer; Erdoğrul, Özlem Turgay

    2003-01-01

    The antibacterial activities of the alcohol, ethyl acetate, acetone and chloroform extracts of 5 plant species were studied. The extracts of Pimpinella anisum (L.) (anise, aniseed) (seed), Coriandrum sativum (L.) (coriander, cilantro) (seed), Glycyrrhiza glabra (L.) (liquorice) (root), Cinnamomum cassia Blume (cassia bark, Chinese cinnamon) (bark), and Juniperus oxycedrus (L.) (juniper) (seed) were tested in vitro against 13 bacterial species and strains by the agar diffusion method. Bacillus...

  2. Antifungal activity of aloe vera gel against plant pathogenic fungi

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aloe vera gel extracted from the Aloe vera leaves was evaluated for their antifungal activity at the rate of 0.15%, 0.25% and 0.35% concentration against five plants pathogenic fungi viz., Aspergillus niger, Aspergillus flavus, Alternaria alternata, Drechslera hawaiensis and Penicillum digitatum 0.35% concentration Aloe vera gel completely inhibited the growth of Drechslera hawaiensis and Alternaria alternata. (author)

  3. Linking economic activities to the distribution of exotic plants

    OpenAIRE

    Taylor, Brad W.; Rebecca E Irwin

    2004-01-01

    The human enterprise is flooding Earth's ecosystems with exotic species. Human population size is often correlated with species introductions, whereas more proximate mechanisms, such as economic activities, are frequently overlooked. Here we present a hypothesis that links ecology and economics to provide a causal framework for the distribution of exotic plants in the United States. We test two competing hypotheses (the population-only and population-economic models) using a national data set...

  4. Algae-based oral recombinant vaccines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Specht, Elizabeth A; Mayfield, Stephen P

    2014-01-01

    Recombinant subunit vaccines are some of the safest and most effective vaccines available, but their high cost and the requirement of advanced medical infrastructure for administration make them impractical for many developing world diseases. Plant-based vaccines have shifted that paradigm by paving the way for recombinant vaccine production at agricultural scale using an edible host. However, enthusiasm for "molecular pharming" in food crops has waned in the last decade due to difficulty in developing transgenic crop plants and concerns of contaminating the food supply. Microalgae could be poised to become the next candidate in recombinant subunit vaccine production, as they present several advantages over terrestrial crop plant-based platforms including scalable and contained growth, rapid transformation, easily obtained stable cell lines, and consistent transgene expression levels. Algae have been shown to accumulate and properly fold several vaccine antigens, and efforts are underway to create recombinant algal fusion proteins that can enhance antigenicity for effective orally delivered vaccines. These approaches have the potential to revolutionize the way subunit vaccines are made and delivered - from costly parenteral administration of purified protein, to an inexpensive oral algae tablet with effective mucosal and systemic immune reactivity. PMID:24596570

  5. Algae-based oral recombinant vaccines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Specht, Elizabeth A; Mayfield, Stephen P

    2014-01-01

    Recombinant subunit vaccines are some of the safest and most effective vaccines available, but their high cost and the requirement of advanced medical infrastructure for administration make them impractical for many developing world diseases. Plant-based vaccines have shifted that paradigm by paving the way for recombinant vaccine production at agricultural scale using an edible host. However, enthusiasm for "molecular pharming" in food crops has waned in the last decade due to difficulty in developing transgenic crop plants and concerns of contaminating the food supply. Microalgae could be poised to become the next candidate in recombinant subunit vaccine production, as they present several advantages over terrestrial crop plant-based platforms including scalable and contained growth, rapid transformation, easily obtained stable cell lines, and consistent transgene expression levels. Algae have been shown to accumulate and properly fold several vaccine antigens, and efforts are underway to create recombinant algal fusion proteins that can enhance antigenicity for effective orally delivered vaccines. These approaches have the potential to revolutionize the way subunit vaccines are made and delivered - from costly parenteral administration of purified protein, to an inexpensive oral algae tablet with effective mucosal and systemic immune reactivity.

  6. Algae-based oral recombinant vaccines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elizabeth A Specht

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Recombinant subunit vaccines are some of the safest and most effective vaccines available, but their high cost and the requirement of advanced medical infrastructure for administration make them impractical for many developing world diseases. Plant-based vaccines have shifted that paradigm by paving the way for recombinant vaccine production at agricultural scale using an edible host. However, enthusiasm for molecular pharming in food crops has waned in the last decade due to difficulty in developing transgenic crop plants and concerns of contaminating the food supply. Microalgae are poised to become the next candidate in recombinant subunit vaccine production, and they present several advantages over terrestrial crop plant-based platforms including scalable and contained growth, rapid transformation, easily obtained stable cell lines, and consistent transgene expression levels. Algae have been shown to accumulate and properly fold several vaccine antigens, and efforts are underway to create recombinant algal fusion proteins that can enhance antigenicity for effective orally-delivered vaccines. These approaches have the potential to revolutionize the way subunit vaccines are made and delivered – from costly parenteral administration of purified protein, to an inexpensive oral algae tablet with effective mucosal and system immune reactivity.

  7. Mannitol metabolism in brown algae involves a new phosphatase family.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Groisillier, Agnès; Shao, Zhanru; Michel, Gurvan; Goulitquer, Sophie; Bonin, Patricia; Krahulec, Stefan; Nidetzky, Bernd; Duan, Delin; Boyen, Catherine; Tonon, Thierry

    2014-02-01

    Brown algae belong to a phylogenetic lineage distantly related to green plants and animals, and are found predominantly in the intertidal zone, a harsh and frequently changing environment. Because of their unique evolutionary history and of their habitat, brown algae feature several peculiarities in their metabolism. One of these is the mannitol cycle, which plays a central role in their physiology, as mannitol acts as carbon storage, osmoprotectant, and antioxidant. This polyol is derived directly from the photoassimilate fructose-6-phosphate via the action of a mannitol-1-phosphate dehydrogenase and a mannitol-1-phosphatase (M1Pase). Genome analysis of the brown algal model Ectocarpus siliculosus allowed identification of genes potentially involved in the mannitol cycle. Among these, two genes coding for haloacid dehalogenase (HAD)-like enzymes were suggested to correspond to M1Pase activity, and thus were named EsM1Pase1 and EsM1Pase2, respectively. To test this hypothesis, both genes were expressed in Escherichia coli. Recombinant EsM1Pase2 was shown to hydrolyse the phosphate group from mannitol-1-phosphate to produce mannitol but was not active on the hexose monophosphates tested. Gene expression analysis showed that transcription of both E. siliculosus genes was under the influence of the diurnal cycle. Sequence analysis and three-dimensional homology modelling indicated that EsM1Pases, and their orthologues in Prasinophytes, should be seen as founding members of a new family of phosphatase with original substrate specificity within the HAD superfamily of proteins. This is the first report describing the characterization of a gene encoding M1Pase activity in photosynthetic organisms. PMID:24323504

  8. In plant activation: an inducible, hyperexpression platform for recombinant protein production in plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dugdale, Benjamin; Mortimer, Cara L; Kato, Maiko; James, Tess A; Harding, Robert M; Dale, James L

    2013-07-01

    In this study, we describe a novel protein production platform that provides both activation and amplification of transgene expression in planta. The In Plant Activation (INPACT) system is based on the replication machinery of tobacco yellow dwarf mastrevirus (TYDV) and is essentially transient gene expression from a stably transformed plant, thus combining the advantages of both means of expression. The INPACT cassette is uniquely arranged such that the gene of interest is split and only reconstituted in the presence of the TYDV-encoded Rep/RepA proteins. Rep/RepA expression is placed under the control of the AlcA:AlcR gene switch, which is responsive to trace levels of ethanol. Transgenic tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum cv Samsun) plants containing an INPACT cassette encoding the β-glucuronidase (GUS) reporter had negligible background expression but accumulated very high GUS levels (up to 10% total soluble protein) throughout the plant, within 3 d of a 1% ethanol application. The GUS reporter was replaced with a gene encoding a lethal ribonuclease, barnase, demonstrating that the INPACT system provides exquisite control of transgene expression and can be adapted to potentially toxic or inhibitory compounds. The INPACT gene expression platform is scalable, not host-limited, and has been used to express both a therapeutic and an industrial protein.

  9. Subcellular Sequestration and Impact of Heavy Metals on the Ultrastructure and Physiology of the Multicellular Freshwater Alga Desmidium swartzii

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ancuela Andosch

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Due to modern life with increasing traffic, industrial production and agricultural practices, high amounts of heavy metals enter ecosystems and pollute soil and water. As a result, metals can be accumulated in plants and particularly in algae inhabiting peat bogs of low pH and high air humidity. In the present study, we investigated the impact and intracellular targets of aluminum, copper, cadmium, chromium VI and zinc on the filamentous green alga Desmidium swartzii, which is an important biomass producer in acid peat bogs. By means of transmission electron microscopy (TEM and electron energy loss spectroscopy (EELS it is shown that all metals examined are taken up into Desmidium readily, where they are sequestered in cell walls and/or intracellular compartments. They cause effects on cell ultrastructure to different degrees and additionally disturb photosynthetic activity and biomass production. Our study shows a clear correlation between toxicity of a metal and the ability of the algae to compartmentalize it intracellularly. Cadmium and chromium, which are not compartmentalized, exert the most toxic effects. In addition, this study shows that the filamentous alga Desmidium reacts more sensitively to aluminum and zinc when compared to its unicellular relative Micrasterias, indicating a severe threat to the ecosystem.

  10. [From algae to "functional foods"].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vadalà, M; Palmieri, B

    2015-01-01

    In the recent years, a growing interest for nutraceutical algae (tablets, capsules, drops) has been developed, due to their effective health benefits, as a potential alternative to the classic drugs. This review explores the use of cyanobacterium Spirulina, the microalgae Chlorella, Dunaliella, Haematococcus, and the macroalgae Klamath, Ascophyllum, Lithothamnion, Chondrus, Hundaria, Glacilaria, Laminaria, Asparagopsis, Eisenia, Sargassum as nutraceuticals and dietary supplements, in terms of production, nutritional components and evidence-based health benefits. Thus, our specific goals are: 1) Overview of the algae species currently used in nutraceuticals; 2) Description of their characteristics, action mechanisms, and possible side effects; 3) Perspective of specific algae clinical investigations development. PMID:26378764

  11. Anthelmintic activity of some Mediterranean browse plants against parasitic nematodes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manolaraki, F; Sotiraki, S; Stefanakis, A; Skampardonis, V; Volanis, M; Hoste, H

    2010-04-01

    The anthelmintic properties of tannin-rich plants are being explored as an alternative to chemical drugs. Most data have been acquired on legume forages, but only few on browse plants. The present study aimed to (i) screen the in vitro effects of extracts from 7 Mediterranean plants on Haemonchus contortus, (ii) verify the role of tannins using an inhibitor, polyvinyl polypyrrolidone (PVPP) and (iii) verify the in vivo effects of extracts from 4 plants. Significant inhibition was shown in vitro using a larval migration inhibition (LMI) assay for all extracts except that from Olea europaea var. koroneiki. After adding PVPP, the LMI values were restored to control levels for all plants except Pistacia lentiscus and Ceratonia siliqua, confirming a role for tannins in the activity. In the in vivo experiment, 48 lambs composed 6 groups, depending on diet. On Day 0, groups G1-G5 received H. contortus and Trichostrongylus colubriformis larvae and G6 remained uninfected. The various diets were distributed from Days 14 to 45: P. lentiscus (G1), Quercus coccifera (G2), C. siliqua (G3), Onobrychis viciifolia (G4), or Medicago sativa for the 2 control groups (G5, G6). Egg excretion, packed cell volumes (PCVs) and inorganic phosphate were measured weekly throughout the entire experimental period. At slaughter, the worms were enumerated and their fecundity assessed. Consumption of the 4 browser plants did not provoke differences in pathophysiological measurements but there were significant decreases in egg excretion, mainly explained by significant decreases in worm fecundity for both species, without any statistical difference in worm numbers.

  12. Antiviral Activity of Some Plants Used in Nepalese Traditional Medicine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Rajbhandari

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Methanolic extracts of 41 plant species belonging to 27 families used in the traditional medicine in Nepal have been investigated for in vitro antiviral activity against Herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1 and influenza virus A by dye uptake assay in the systems HSV-1/Vero cells and influenza virus A/MDCK cells. The extracts of Astilbe rivularis, Bergenia ciliata, Cassiope fastigiata and Thymus linearis showed potent anti-herpes viral activity. The extracts of Allium oreoprasum, Androsace strigilosa, Asparagus filicinus, Astilbe rivularis, Bergenia ciliata and Verbascum thapsus exhibited strong anti-influenza viral activity. Only the extracts of A. rivularis and B. ciliata demonstrated remarkable activity against both viruses.

  13. Antiurease activity of plants growing in the Czech Republic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hřibová, Petra; Khazneh, Elian; Žemlička, Milan; Švajdlenka, Emil; Ghoneim, Mohammed M; Elokely, Khaled M; Ross, Samir A

    2014-01-01

    The antiurease activity of the aqueous extracts of 42 plants growing in the Czech Republic was investigated. A phenol-hypochlorite reaction was used for the determination of ammonia produced by urease. The inhibitory activity of the extracts at a concentration of 0.2 mg/mL varied from 17.8% to 80.0%. Extracts from six Potentilla species expressed inhibitory activity against jack bean urease. They were further investigated for their phenolic constituents and the major compounds were subjected to molecular docking. The results revealed that both jack bean urease and Helicobacter pylori urease were inhibited by quercetin-3-O-β-D-galactopyranoside-6″-gallate (1), myricetin-3-O-β-D-glucuronide (2), tiliroside (3) and B-type procyanidin (4). The antiurease activity of the investigated Potentilla species is probably due to the presence of complex phenolic constituents such as flavonoid glycosides and catechin dimers.

  14. [Peculicidal activity of plant essential oils and their based preparations].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopatina, Iu V; Eremina, O Iu

    2014-01-01

    The peculicidal activity of eight plant essential oils in 75% isopropyl alcohol was in vitro investigated. Of them, the substances that were most active against lice were tea tree (Melaleuca), eucalyptus, neem, citronella (Cymbopogon nardus), and clove (Syzygium aromaticum) oils; KT50 was not more than 3 minutes on average; KT95 was 4 minutes. After evaporating the solvent, only five (tea tree, cassia, clove, anise (Anisum vulgare), and Japanese star anise (Illicium anisatum) oils) of the eight test botanical substances were active against lice. At the same time, KT50 and KT95 showed 1.5-5-fold increases. Citronella and anise oils had incomplete ovicidal activity. Since the lice were permethrin-resistant, the efficacy of preparations based on essential oils was much higher than permethrin. PMID:25296426

  15. Transgenic algae engineered for higher performance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Unkefer, Pat J; Anderson, Penelope S; Knight, Thomas J

    2014-10-21

    The present disclosure relates to transgenic algae having increased growth characteristics, and methods of increasing growth characteristics of algae. In particular, the disclosure relates to transgenic algae comprising a glutamine phenylpyruvate transaminase transgene and to transgenic algae comprising a glutamine phenylpyruvate transaminase transgene and a glutamine synthetase.

  16. The P450-type carotene hydroxylase PuCHY1 from Porphyra suggests the evolution of carotenoid metabolism in red algae

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Li-En Yang; Xing-Qi Huang; Yu Hang; Yin-Yin Deng; Qin-Qin Lu; Shan Lu

    2014-01-01

    Carotene hydroxylases catalyze the hydroxylation of a-and b-carotene hydrocarbons into xanthophylls. In red algae, b-carotene is a ubiquitously distributed carotenoid, and hydroxylated carotenoids such as zeaxanthin and lutein are also found. However, no enzyme with carotene hydroxy-lase activity had been previously identified in red algae. Here, we report the isolation of a gene encoding a cytochrome P450-type carotene hydroxylase (PuCHY1) from Porphyra umbilicalis, a red alga with an ancient origin. Sequence comparisons found PuCHY1 belongs to the CYP97B subfamily, which has members from different photosynthetic organisms ranging from red algae to land plants. Functional comple-mentation in Escherichia coli suggested that PuCHY1 catalyzed the conversion from b-carotene to zeaxanthin. When we overexpressed PuCHY1 in the Arabidopsis thaliana chy2 mutant, pigment analysis showed a significant accumu-lation of hydroxylated carotenoids, including neoxanthin, violaxanthin, and lutein in the leaves of transgenic plants. These results confirmed a b-hydroxylation activity of PuCHY1, and also suggested a possible e-hydroxylation function. The pigment profile and gene expression analyses of the algal thallus under high-light stress suggested that P. umbilicalis is unlikely to operate a partial xanthophyll cycle for photoprotection.

  17. GRAMINEAE PLANTS GROWTH STIMULATION BY SURFACE-ACTIVE RHAMNOLIPIDS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. V. Karpenko

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The effect of biogenic surfactants which were synthesized by the culture Pseudomonas sp. PS-17, particularly rhamnolipid biocomplex, on the growth of cereal plants — wheat and barley in the early stages of vegetation, as well as its effect on the activity of indole-3-acetic acid was studied. The effect of rhamnolipid biocomplex on the growth activity of winter wheat and spring barley was studied in vegetation (sand culture and field experiments with pre-sowing treatment of seeds with rhamnolipid biocomplex solutions of different concentrations. To investigate the action of surfaceactive rhamnolipid biocomplex on the extension growth of plant cells the specific biotest on sections of wheat coleoptiles was used. The stimulating effect of rhamnolipid biocomplex on the growth of cereal plants, as well as the optimal concentration for its use in pre-sowing treatment of seeds was established: for winter wheat — 10 mg/l, for spring barley — 50 mg/l (Р ? 0,05. The application of rhamnolipid biocomplex contributed to the increase of aboveground dry weight of wheat on 16%, of barley — on 18% compared to the control (Р ? 0,05. Rhamnolipid biocomplex effectiveness was also confirmed in the field experiment — after the treatment of spring barley seeds the vegetative mass was averagely 34% (Р ? 0,05 higher than in the control. The obtained results indicate the prospects of practical use of rhamnolipid surfactants as environmentally friendly growth stimulants for cereal plants for modern technologies in agriculture. They can be effective in creating complex preparations with indole-3-acetic acid and, possibly also with other phytohormones, that will allow the enhancement of their activity.

  18. Evaluation of some medicinal plant extracts for antidiarrhoeal activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atta, Attia H; Mouneir, Samar M

    2005-06-01

    The antidiarrhoeal effect of seven plant extracts namely: the aerial parts of Euphorbia paralias L. (EP), Bidens bipinnata L. (BB), Cynachum acutum L. (CyAc), Diplotaxis acris (Forssk.) Boiss (DA), Convolvulus fatmensis (CF) and Schouwia thebaica Webb (ST) and the leaves of Plantago major L. (PM), was evaluated on castor oil-induced diarrhoea, gastrointestinal movement in rats (charcoal meal) and on the motility of duodenum isolated from freshly slaughtered rabbits. A significant antidiarrhoeal effect of the tested plant extracts against castor oil-induced diarrhoea in rats was achieved by 200 and 400 mg/kg. The tested plant extracts decreased the gastrointestinal movement as indicated by the significantly (peffective than the small one. The antidiarrhoeal effect was confirmed by the reported dose dependent inhibition of the motility of duodenum isolated from freshly slaughtered rabbits. The EP and PM methanol extract produced a transient stimulation followed by inhibition in doses of less than 0.05 and 1.6 mg/kg, respectively. Higher concentrations caused rapid muscle relaxation. Tannins, flavonoids, unsaturated sterols/triterpenes, carbohydrates, lactones and proteins/amino acids were reported as major active constituents of the tested plants. PMID:16114083

  19. A Review on Medicinal Plants with Anti-Ulcer Activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shaikh A. M

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available A peptic ulcer is erosion in a segment of the gastro intestinal mucosa. It may typically in the stomach (gastric ulcer or first few centimeters of duodenum (duodenal ulcer that penetrates through the muscularis mucosae. Contrary to popular belief, ulcer is not only caused by spicy food but also most commonly due to an infection of Helicobacter Pylori and long term use of medications. Standard treatment is a combination of drugs including antibiotics and a proton pump inhibitors. Literature suggests that number of synthetic drugs are used in the management of peptic ulcers but elicit several adverse effects. Therefore Indian herbal plants stand out as being exceptional for its ethnic, ethobotanical and ethno-pharmaceutical use. In this review attempts have been made to know about some plants which may be used in treatment or prevention of peptic ulcers. Various plants like Excoecaria agallocha, Mentha arvensis, Utleria salicifolia, Emblica officinalis etc. proved active in antiulcer therapy. This combination of traditional and modern knowledge can produced better antiulcer drugs with fewer side effects. The medicinal plants are available in India and other countries, recent technologies advances have renewal interest in natural product in drug discovery.

  20. Current status of active tests at Rokkasho reprocessing plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    At Rokkasho Reprocessing Plant (RRP), the first commercial reprocessing plant in Japan, the test operation has been carried out step by step with 'water and steam', 'chemical products', 'depleted uranium' and 'spent fuels' toward the planned start of the commercial operation. Water Test was performed as the final stage of plant construction work and functioning of each equipment was tested with water and steam. In Chemical Test the performance of each equipment and unit was verified with chemical products such as nitric acid. In Uranium Test with depleted uranium, function and performance of equipment such as the sharing machine and the dissolver was verified. All its tests were completed by 22 January 2006. Active Test has been performed with spent fuels for the verification of safety functions and performances of equipment and facilities related to the processing of fission products and of plutonium, which had not been tested previously. Active Test which has been in progress since 31 March 2006 is divided into 5 steps, and Step 1, Step 2 and Step 3 are already completed. (authors)

  1. The management plan preparation activities nuclear power plant in Indonesia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A feasibility Study that has been updated show that two nuclear power units with each unit of power up to 1000 MWe can represent decently an economical alternative energy supply. It added that the available time schedule was quite tight so that the preparation for the development must be starting first. This paper will discuss the preparation of plans of the first nuclear power plant which includes program activities, the structure of contracts, schedules of activities and funding. From the information obtained to date that in addition to a candidate site that is ready to be built in Muria peninsula is still required another potential alternative site besides to search other complete data information. This site investigation activities completed within the time schedule was passed ''critical path'', so that these activities should be carried out intensively and obey the time. This paper describes the steps that need to be prepared to welcome the first nuclear power plant, after reviewing the various input above and apply the reality in Indonesia as the initial conditions. (author)

  2. Plants from Brazilian Cerrado with potent tyrosinase inhibitory activity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paula Monteiro Souza

    Full Text Available The increased amount of melanin leads to skin disorders such as age spots, freckles, melasma and malignant melanoma. Tyrosinase is known to be the key enzyme in melanin production. Plants and their extracts are inexpensive and rich resources of active compounds that can be utilized to inhibit tyrosinase as well as can be used for the treatment of dermatological disorders associated with melanin hyperpigmentation. Using in vitro tyrosinase inhibitory activity assay, extracts from 13 plant species from Brazilian Cerrado were evaluated. The results showed that Pouteria torta and Eugenia dysenterica extracts presented potent in vitro tyrosinase inhibition compared to positive control kojic acid. Ethanol extract of Eugenia dysenterica leaves showed significant (p<0.05 tyrosinase inhibitory activity exhibiting the IC₅₀ value of 11.88 µg/mL, compared to kojic acid (IC₅₀ value of 13.14 µg/mL. Pouteria torta aqueous extract leaves also showed significant inhibitory activity with IC₅₀ value of 30.01 µg/mL. These results indicate that Pouteria torta and Eugenia dysenterica extracts and their isolated constituents are promising agents for skin-whitening or antimelanogenesis formulations.

  3. FUNCTIONAL VEGETABLE SALADS WITH ALGAE

    OpenAIRE

    Козонова, Ю.О.; Авдєєва, А.А.

    2015-01-01

    Now on the Ukrainian market frozen vegetable salads are well represented. They contain a small amount of protein and have an unbalanced composition nutrientny. Adding algae to the vegetable salads composition allows to resolve this contradiction. In this paper the functional vegetable salads expanding assortment possibilities are represented. The product components composition was designed. It is advisable to add different types of algae (kelp, spirulina and fucus) to the quick-frozen functio...

  4. Scenario studies for algae production

    OpenAIRE

    Slegers, P.M.

    2014-01-01

    Microalgae are a promising biomass for the biobased economy to produce food, feed, fuel, chemicals and materials. So far, large-scale production of algae is limited and as a result estimates on the performance of such large systems are scarce. There is a need to estimate large-scale biomass productivity and energy consumption, while considering the uncertainty and complexity in such large-scale systems. In this thesis frameworks are developed to assess 1) the productivity during algae cultiva...

  5. Carotenoids in Algae: Distributions, Biosyntheses and Functions

    OpenAIRE

    Shinichi Takaichi

    2011-01-01

    For photosynthesis, phototrophic organisms necessarily synthesize not only chlorophylls but also carotenoids. Many kinds of carotenoids are found in algae and, recently, taxonomic studies of algae have been developed. In this review, the relationship between the distribution of carotenoids and the phylogeny of oxygenic phototrophs in sea and fresh water, including cyanobacteria, red algae, brown algae and green algae, is summarized. These phototrophs contain division- or class-specific carote...

  6. Antiprotozoal and molluscicidal activities of five Brazilian plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.C.T. Truiti

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available Leishmaniasis, Chagas' disease and schistosomiasis (bilharzia are parasitic diseases with wide distribution on the American continent, affecting millions of people. In the present study, biological assays for antiprotozoal and molluscicidal activities were carried out with ethanolic extracts of plant species from the Brazilian part of the Upper Paraná River. Crude extracts were obtained by percolation with absolute ethanol from the leaves of Cayaponia podantha Cogn., Nectandra falcifolia (Nees Castiglioni and Paullinia elegans Cambess., as well as from the aerial parts of Helicteres gardneriana St. Hil. & Naud. and Melochia arenosa Benth., all belonging to genera used in folk medicine. Trypanocidal activity of plants was assayed on epimastigote cultures in liver infusion tryptose. Anti-leishmanial activity was determined over cultures of promastigote forms of the parasite in Schneider's Drosophila medium. Microscopic countings of parasites, after their incubation in the presence of different concentrations of the crude extracts, were made in order to determine the percentage of growth inhibition. C. podantha and M. arenosa, at a concentration of 10 µg/mL, showed 90.4 ± 11.52 and 88.9 ± 2.20% growth inhibition, respectively, of epimastigote forms of Trypanosoma cruzi, whereas N. falcifolia demonstrated an LD50 of 138.5 µg/mL against promastigote forms of Leishmania (Viannia braziliensis. Regarding molluscicidal activity, the acute toxicity of the extracts on Biomphalaria glabrata was evaluated by a rapid screening procedure. M. arenosa was 100% lethal to snails at 200 µg/mL and showed an LD50 of 143 µg/mL. Screening of plant extracts represents a continuous effort to find new antiparasitic drugs.

  7. Cytotoxic activity of plants of family zygophyllaceae and euphorbiaceae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dastagir, Ghulam; Hussain, Farrukh

    2014-07-01

    The methanolic and n-hexane extracts of studied plants showed significant toxicity to brine shrimps. The methanolic extract of Fagonia cretica had highest LD50 (117.72) value, while Peganum harmala showed low LD50 value (41.70) compared to n-hexane extract. The methanolic and n-hexane extracts of Tribulus terrestris showed similar LD50 values. The methanolic extract of Chrozophora tinctoria showed low LD50 value than the n-hexane extract. The methanolic extract of Ricinus communis showed highest LD50 value while the n-hexane extract showed lowest LD50 value. The LD50 value less than 100 was obtained for n-hexane extracts of Fagonia cretica, Peganum harmala and Ricinus communis. The n-hexane extracts of these plants also showed the highest toxicity as compare to methanolic extracts. The chemical constituents detected in the present investigation might be responsible for cytotoxic activity. PMID:25015443

  8. Complex effects of fertilization on plant and herbivore performance in the presence of a plant competitor and activated carbon.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nafiseh Mahdavi-Arab

    Full Text Available Plant-herbivore interactions are influenced by host plant quality which in turn is affected by plant growth conditions. Competition is the major biotic and nutrient availability a major abiotic component of a plant's growth environment. Yet, surprisingly few studies have investigated impacts of competition and nutrient availability on herbivore performance and reciprocal herbivore effects on plants. We studied growth of the specialist aphid, Macrosiphoniella tanacetaria, and its host plant tansy, Tanacetum vulgare, under experimental addition of inorganic and organic fertilizer crossed with competition by goldenrod, Solidago canadensis. Because of evidence that competition by goldenrod is mediated by allelopathic compounds, we also added a treatment with activated carbon. Results showed that fertilization increased, and competition with goldenrod decreased, plant biomass, but this was likely mediated by resource competition. There was no evidence from the activated carbon treatment that allelopathy played a role which instead had a fertilizing effect. Aphid performance increased with higher plant biomass and depended on plant growth conditions, with fertilization and AC increasing, and plant competition decreasing aphid numbers. Feedbacks of aphids on plant performance interacted with plant growth conditions in complex ways depending on the relative magnitude of the effects on plant biomass and aphid numbers. In the basic fertilization treatment, tansy plants profited from increased nutrient availability by accumulating more biomass than they lost due to an increased number of aphids under fertilization. When adding additional fertilizer, aphid numbers increased so high that tansy plants suffered and showed reduced biomass compared with controls without aphids. Thus, the ecological cost of an infestation with aphids depends on the balance of effects of growth conditions on plant and herbivore performance. These results emphasize the importance

  9. Complex effects of fertilization on plant and herbivore performance in the presence of a plant competitor and activated carbon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahdavi-Arab, Nafiseh; Meyer, Sebastian T; Mehrparvar, Mohsen; Weisser, Wolfgang W

    2014-01-01

    Plant-herbivore interactions are influenced by host plant quality which in turn is affected by plant growth conditions. Competition is the major biotic and nutrient availability a major abiotic component of a plant's growth environment. Yet, surprisingly few studies have investigated impacts of competition and nutrient availability on herbivore performance and reciprocal herbivore effects on plants. We studied growth of the specialist aphid, Macrosiphoniella tanacetaria, and its host plant tansy, Tanacetum vulgare, under experimental addition of inorganic and organic fertilizer crossed with competition by goldenrod, Solidago canadensis. Because of evidence that competition by goldenrod is mediated by allelopathic compounds, we also added a treatment with activated carbon. Results showed that fertilization increased, and competition with goldenrod decreased, plant biomass, but this was likely mediated by resource competition. There was no evidence from the activated carbon treatment that allelopathy played a role which instead had a fertilizing effect. Aphid performance increased with higher plant biomass and depended on plant growth conditions, with fertilization and AC increasing, and plant competition decreasing aphid numbers. Feedbacks of aphids on plant performance interacted with plant growth conditions in complex ways depending on the relative magnitude of the effects on plant biomass and aphid numbers. In the basic fertilization treatment, tansy plants profited from increased nutrient availability by accumulating more biomass than they lost due to an increased number of aphids under fertilization. When adding additional fertilizer, aphid numbers increased so high that tansy plants suffered and showed reduced biomass compared with controls without aphids. Thus, the ecological cost of an infestation with aphids depends on the balance of effects of growth conditions on plant and herbivore performance. These results emphasize the importance to investigate both

  10. In vitro cytotoxic activity of Brazilian Middle West plant extracts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Talal Suleiman Mahmoud

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Cytotoxic activity of eight plant extracts, native from the Mid-West of Brazil comprising Cerrado, Pantanal and semideciduous forest, was evaluated for MDA-MB-435, SF-295, and HCT-8 cancer cell strains. A single 100 µg.mL-1 dose of each extract was employed with 72 h of incubation for all tests. Doxorubicin (1 µg.mL-1 was used as the positive control and the MTT method was used to detect the activity. Cytotoxicity of distinct polarities was observed in thirty extracts (46%, from different parts of the following species: Tabebuia heptaphylla (Vell. Toledo, Bignoniaceae, Tapirira guianensis Aubl., Anacardiaceae, Myracrodruon urundeuva Allemão, Anacardiaceae, Schinus terebinthifolius Raddi, Anacardiaceae, Gomphrena elegans Mart., Amaranthaceae, Attalea phalerata Mart. ex Spreng., Arecaceae, Eugenia uniflora L., Myrtaceae, and Annona dioica A. St.-Hil., Annonaceae. Extracts of at least two tested cell strains were considered to be highly active since their inhibition rate was over 75%.

  11. Anti - HIV-1 integrase activity of Thai Medicinal Plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kingkan Bunluepuech

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available For the purpose of discovering anti-HIV-1 agents from natural sources, the aqueous and EtOH extracts of eight Thaiplants including Clerodendron indicum (whole plant, Tiliacora triandra (stem, Capparis micracantha (wood, Harrissoniaperforata (wood, Ficus glomerata (wood, Diospyros decandra (wood, Dracaena loureiri (heartwood, and Tinospora crispa (stem were screened for their inhibitory activities against HIV-1 integrase (IN using the multiplate integration assay(MIA. Of the EtOH extracts, Ficus glomerata (wood was the most potent with an IC50 value of 7.8 g/ml; whereas the water extract of Harrisonia perforata (wood was the most potent aqueous extract with an IC50 value of 2.3 g/ml. The isolation of active principles against HIV-1 IN from Ficus glomerata is now actively pursued.

  12. Bio sorption of copper ions with biomass of algae and dehydrated waste of olives; Biosorcion de iones cobre con biomasa de algas y orujos deshidratados

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tapia, P.; Santander, M.; Pavez, O.; Valderrama, L.; Guzman, D.; Romero, L.

    2011-07-01

    They were carried out experiments of biosorption batch and in continuous to remove copper from aqueous solutions using as adsorbents green algae and olive residues under virgins conditions and chemically activated. The results of batch bio sorption indicate that the algae present mayor elimination capacities than the waste of olives, with uptakes of copper of the order of 96 % using activated algae with dissolution of Na{sub 2}SO{sub 4} under the optimum conditions. The results of the columns tests show that the virgin algae permits the removal of more copper ions than the activate algae, with removal efficiency of 98 % during the firth 20 min, a breakthrough time of 240 min and a saturation at time of 600 min. In the second cycle the regenerated biomass showed a best performance indicating that they can be used for another bio sorption cycle. (Author) 42 refs.

  13. In Silico Analysis of Correlations between Protein Disorder and Post-Translational Modifications in Algae

    OpenAIRE

    Atsushi Kurotani; Tetsuya Sakurai

    2015-01-01

    Recent proteome analyses have reported that intrinsically disordered regions (IDRs) of proteins play important roles in biological processes. In higher plants whose genomes have been sequenced, the correlation between IDRs and post-translational modifications (PTMs) has been reported. The genomes of various eukaryotic algae as common ancestors of plants have also been sequenced. However, no analysis of the relationship to protein properties such as structure and PTMs in algae has been reporte...

  14. Antifungal activity of plant extracts with potential to control plant pathogens in pineapple

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Maria Diana Cerqueira Sales; Helber Barcellos Costa; Jose Aires Ventura; Debora Dummer Meira

    2016-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the in vitro antifungal activity of extracts, resins, oils and mother tinctures from plants against the filamentous fungi Fusarium guttiforme (F. guttiforme) and Chalara paradoxa, and to evaluate the control of the pineapple fusariosis in situ using mother tinctures. Methods: The screening of the antifungal potential of 131 extract forms from 63 plant species was performed in vitro by using plate-hole method. To control pineapple fusar-iosis in situ, preventive and post-infection treatments were performed on detached pineapple leaves of cv. P´erola (susceptible). Results: The quantitative study indicated that among the 49 mother tincture samples analyzed, 46% were effective against F. guttiforme and 29% for the Chalara paradoxa. The natural plant extracts, mother tincture of Glycyrrhiza glabra (MTGG1), mother tincture of Myroxylon balsamum (MTBT2), mother tincture of Aloe vera (MTAV3), mother tincture of Allium sativum (MTAS4), resin of Protium heptaphyllum (RESAM5) and crude extracts of Rhizophora mangle (CEMV6), exhibited an antifungal activity against F. guttiforme. In the preventive treatment against pineapple fusariosis, MTAV3, MTAS4 and MTGG1 were statistically similar to the treatment with tebuconazol fungicide. The curative treatments with MTAV3, MTAS4, MTGG1 and MTBT2 presented similar activity to fungicide (P Conclusions: The findings of the present study concluded that mother tinctures can effectively control phytopathogens. The mother tincture extract of Myroxylon balsamum showed antifungal activity and was used here for the first time for inhibition of phyto-pathogenic fungi. This study paves the way for the development of bioactive natural products with phytosanitary applications, with the added benefits of an environmentally safe and economically viable product.

  15. An overview of algae biofuel production and potential environmental impact.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menetrez, Marc Y

    2012-07-01

    Algae are among the most potentially significant sources of sustainable biofuels in the future of renewable energy. A feedstock with virtually unlimited applicability, algae can metabolize various waste streams (e.g., municipal wastewater, carbon dioxide from industrial flue gas) and produce products with a wide variety of compositions and uses. These products include lipids, which can be processed into biodiesel; carbohydrates, which can be processed into ethanol; and proteins, which can be used for human and animal consumption. Algae are commonly genetically engineered to allow for advantageous process modification or optimization. However, issues remain regarding human exposure to algae-derived toxins, allergens, and carcinogens from both existing and genetically modified organisms (GMOs), as well as the overall environmental impact of GMOs. A literature review was performed to highlight issues related to the growth and use of algal products for generating biofuels. Human exposure and environmental impact issues are identified and discussed, as well as current research and development activities of academic, commercial, and governmental groups. It is hoped that the ideas contained in this paper will increase environmental awareness of issues surrounding the production of algae and will help the algae industry develop to its full potential. PMID:22681590

  16. Phenolic Constituents of Medicinal Plants with Activity against Trypanosoma brucei

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ya Nan Sun

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Neglected tropical diseases (NTDs affect over one billion people all over the world. These diseases are classified as neglected because they impact populations in areas with poor financial conditions and hence do not attract sufficient research investment. Human African Trypanosomiasis (HAT or sleeping sickness, caused by the parasite Trypanosoma brucei, is one of the NTDs. The current therapeutic interventions for T. brucei infections often have toxic side effects or require hospitalization so that they are not available in the rural environments where HAT occurs. Furthermore, parasite resistance is increasing, so that there is an urgent need to identify novel lead compounds against this infection. Recognizing the wide structural diversity of natural products, we desired to explore and identify novel antitrypanosomal chemotypes from a collection of natural products obtained from plants. In this study, 440 pure compounds from various medicinal plants were tested against T. brucei by in a screening using whole cell in vitro assays. As the result, twenty-two phenolic compounds exhibited potent activity against cultures of T. brucei. Among them, eight compounds—4, 7, 11, 14, 15, 18, 20, and 21—showed inhibitory activity against T. brucei, with IC50 values below 5 µM, ranging from 0.52 to 4.70 μM. Based on these results, we attempt to establish some general trends with respect to structure-activity relationships, which indicate that further investigation and optimization of these derivatives might enable the preparation of potentially useful compounds for treating HAT.

  17. Antiviral activity of some South American medicinal plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abad, M J; Bermejo, P; Sanchez Palomino, S; Chiriboga, X; Carrasco, L

    1999-03-01

    Folk medicinal plants are potential sources of useful therapeutic compounds including some with antiviral activities. Extracts prepared from 10 South American medicinal plants (Baccharis trinervis, Baccharis teindalensis, Eupatorium articulatum, Eupatorium glutinosum, Tagetes pusilla, Neurolaena lobata, Conyza floribunda, Phytolacca bogotensis, Phytolacca rivinoides and Heisteria acuminata) were screened for in vitro antiviral activity against herpes simplex type I (HSV-1), vesicular stomatitis virus (VSV) and poliovirus type 1. The most potent inhibition was observed with an aqueous extract of B. trinervis, which inhibited HSV-1 replication by 100% at 50-200 micrograms/mL, without showing cytotoxic effects. Good activities were also found with the ethanol extract of H. acuminata and the aqueous extract of E. articulatum, which exhibited antiviral effects against both DNA and RNA viruses (HSV-1 and VSV, respectively) at 125-250 micrograms/mL. The aqueous extracts of T. pusilla (100-250 micrograms/mL), B. teindalensis (50-125 micrograms/mL) and E. glutinosum (50-125 micrograms/mL) also inhibited the replication of VSV, but none of the extracts tested had any effect on poliovirus replication. PMID:10190189

  18. Optimization of the coke-oven activated sludge plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Raizer Neto, Ernesto [Santa Catarina Univ., Florianopolis, SC (Brazil); Colin, Francois [Institut de Recherches Hydrologiques, 54 - Nancy (France); Prost, Christian [Laboratoire de Sciences de Genie Chimique, Nancy (France)

    1993-12-31

    In the coke-oven activated sludge plants one of the greatest problems of malfunction is due to inffluent variability. The composition and, or, concentration variations of the inffluent substrate, which can cause an unstable system, are function of the pollutant load. Nevertheless, the knowledge of the kinetic biodegradation of the coke-oven effluent represents the limiting factor to develop an effective biological treatment. This work describes a computational model of the biological treatment which was elaborated and validated from continuous pilot scale experiments and calibrated by comparing its predictions to the pilot experiment`s results. 12 refs., 9 figs., 3 tabs.

  19. In vitro antibacterial activity of some plant essential oils

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ignacimuthu Savarimuthu

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background: To evaluate the antibacterial activity of 21 plant essential oils against six bacterial species. Methods: The selected essential oils were screened against four gram-negative bacteria (Escherichia coli, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Proteus vulgaris and two gram-positive bacteria Bacillus subtilis and Staphylococcus aureus at four different concentrations (1:1, 1:5, 1:10 and 1:20 using disc diffusion method. The MIC of the active essential oils were tested using two fold agar dilution method at concentrations ranging from 0.2 to 25.6 mg/ml. Results: Out of 21 essential oils tested, 19 oils showed antibacterial activity against one or more strains. Cinnamon, clove, geranium, lemon, lime, orange and rosemary oils exhibited significant inhibitory effect. Cinnamon oil showed promising inhibitory activity even at low concentration, whereas aniseed, eucalyptus and camphor oils were least active against the tested bacteria. In general, B. subtilis was the most susceptible. On the other hand, K. pneumoniae exhibited low degree of sensitivity. Conclusion: Majority of the oils showed antibacterial activity against the tested strains. However Cinnamon, clove and lime oils were found to be inhibiting both gram-positive and gram-negative bacteria. Cinnamon oil can be a good source of antibacterial agents.

  20. Antitumor and Antiviral Activity of Colombian Medicinal Plant Extracts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    LA Betancur-Galvis

    1999-07-01

    Full Text Available Extracts of nine species of plants traditionally used in Colombia for the treatment of a variety of diseases were tested in vitro for their potential antitumor (cytotoxicity and antiherpetic activity. MTT (Tetrazolium blue and Neutral Red colorimetric assays were used to evaluate the reduction of viability of cell cultures in presence and absence of the extracts. MTT was also used to evaluate the effects of the extracts on the lytic activity of herpes simplex virus type 2 (HSV-2. The 50% cytotoxic concentration (CC50 and the 50% inhibitory concentration of the viral effect (EC50 for each extract were calculated by linear regression analysis. Extracts from Annona muricata, A. cherimolia and Rollinia membranacea, known for their cytotoxicity were used as positive controls. Likewise, acyclovir and heparin were used as positive controls of antiherpetic activity. Methanolic extract from Annona sp. on HEp-2 cells presented a CC50 value at 72 hr of 49.6x103mg/ml. Neither of the other extracts examined showed a significant cytotoxicity. The aqueous extract from Beta vulgaris, the ethanol extract from Callisia grasilis and the methanol extract Annona sp. showed some antiherpetic activity with acceptable therapeutic indexes (the ratio of CC50 to EC50. These species are good candidates for further activity-monitored fractionation to identify active principles.

  1. ALGAE AS AN ALTERNATIVE SOURCE OF ENERGY

    OpenAIRE

    Тітлова, О.А.

    2015-01-01

    Today humanity is beginning to understand the consequences of ill-considered use of energy resources. In the last decade  a new direction of the economy is actively developing – «The Blue Economy». Its aim is to find innovative solutions that are safe for the environment and society. Bioenergy is one of the directions of the «Blue Economy» which is actively developing lately. The article discusses the possibility, advisability and examples of the algae use as a feedstock for the energy resour...

  2. Essential Oil Prepared from Cymbopogon citrates Exerted an Antimicrobial Activity Against Plant Pathogenic and Medical Microorganisms

    OpenAIRE

    Jeong, Mi-Ran; Park, Pyeong Beom; Kim, Dae-Hyuk; Jang, Yong-Suk; Jeong, Han Sol; Choi, Sang-Hoon

    2009-01-01

    Essential oils are mixtures of volatile, lipophilic compounds originating from plants. Some essential oils have useful biological activities including antimicrobial, spasmolytic, antiplasmodial, and insect-repelling activities. In this study, we tested the antimicrobial activity of essential oil prepared from the aromatic plant, Cymbopogon citrates, against three important plant pathogenic and medical microorganisms, Pectobacterium carotovorum, Colletotrichum gloeosporioides, and Aspergillus ...

  3. A look at diacylglycerol acyltransferases (DGATs) in algae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Jit Ern; Smith, Alison G

    2012-11-30

    Triacylglycerols (TAGs) from algae are considered to be a potentially viable source of biodiesel and thereby renewable energy, but at the moment very little is known about the biosynthetic pathway in these organisms. Here we compare what is currently known in eukaryotic algal species, in particular the characteristics of algal diacylglycerol acyltransferase (DGAT), the last enzyme of de novo TAG biosynthesis. Several studies in plants and mammals have shown that there are two DGAT isoforms, DGAT1 and DGAT2, which catalyse the same reaction but have no clear sequence similarities. Instead, they have differences in functionality and spatial and temporal expression patterns. Bioinformatic searches of sequenced algal genomes reveal that most algae have multiple copies of putative DGAT2s, whereas other eukaryotes have single genes. Investigating whether these putative isoforms are indeed functional and whether they confer significantly different phenotypes to algal cells will be vital for future efforts to genetically modify algae for biofuel production.

  4. Algae from the arid southwestern United States: an annotated bibliography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thomas, W.H.; Gaines, S.R.

    1983-06-01

    Desert algae are attractive biomass producers for capturing solar energy through photosynthesis of organic matter. They are probably capable of higher yields and efficiencies of light utilization than higher plants, and are already adapted to extremes of sunlight intensity, salinity and temperature such as are found in the desert. This report consists of an annotated bibliography of the literature on algae from the arid southwestern United States. It was prepared in anticipation of efforts to isolate desert algae and study their yields in the laboratory. These steps are necessary prior to setting up outdoor algal culture ponds. Desert areas are attractive for such applications because land, sunlight, and, to some extent, water resources are abundant there. References are sorted by state.

  5. Evaluation of antidiabetic activity of plants used in Western Sudan

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Maha; Abdulrahman; Alamin; Ahmed; Ibrahim; Yagi; Sakina; Mohamed; Yagi

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the traditional antidiabetic uses of some indigenous Sudanese plants on streptozotocin-induced diabetes rats. Methods: Diabetic rats were treated with a 400 mg/kg dose of aqueous extracts of five plant species orally for 2 h(acute) or 14 days(chronic). In acute model blood glucose levels were monitored at specific intervals. In the chronic model blood samples were collected from overnight fasted diabetic rats on day 15 to estimate blood glucose level. And the body weight, serum lipid profile and activities of liver and kidney enzymes were measured. Histopathological observations of liver sections were also studied.Results: In the case of acute treatment, aqueous extracts of Tinospora bakis(T. bakis), Nauclea latifolia(N. latifolia) and Randia nilotica(R. nilotica) at 400 mg/kg significantly lowered(P < 0.05) blood glucose levels in diabetic rats whereas, chronic treatment of diabetic rats with 400 mg/kg of T. bakis, N. latifolia, R. nilotica and Mitragyna inremis proved to have significant(P < 0.05) antihyperglycemic effect and have the capacity to correct the metabolic disturbances associated with diabetes. Histopathological studies showed that the aqueous extracts of these four plants reinforced the healing of liver. However, Striga hermonthica aqueous extract did not exert any antihyperglycemic effect to diabetic rats. Conclusions: This study demonstrated that T. bakis, N. latifolia, R. nilotica and Mitragyna inremis have therapeutic value in diabetes and related complications and thus supporting the traditional uses of these plants in Sudanese traditional medicine.

  6. Boron uptake, localization, and speciation in marine brown algae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Eric P; Wu, Youxian; Carrano, Carl J

    2016-02-01

    In contrast to the generally boron-poor terrestrial environment, the concentration of boron in the marine environment is relatively high (0.4 mM) and while there has been extensive interest in its use as a surrogate of pH in paleoclimate studies in the context of climate change-related questions, the relatively depth independent, and the generally non-nutrient-like concentration profile of this element have led to boron being neglected as a potentially biologically relevant element in the ocean. Among the marine plant-like organisms the brown algae (Phaeophyta) are one of only five lineages of photosynthetic eukaryotes to have evolved complex multicellularity. Many of unusual and often unique features of brown algae are attributable to this singular evolutionary history. These adaptations are a reflection of the marine coastal environment which brown algae dominate in terms of biomass. Consequently, brown algae are of fundamental importance to oceanic ecology, geochemistry, and coastal industry. Our results indicate that boron is taken up by a facilitated diffusion mechanism against a considerable concentration gradient. Furthermore, in both Ectocarpus and Macrocystis some boron is most likely bound to cell wall constituent alginate and the photoassimilate mannitol located in sieve cells. Herein, we describe boron uptake, speciation, localization and possible biological function in two species of brown algae, Macrocystis pyrifera and Ectocarpus siliculosus. PMID:26679972

  7. Mitogen-activated protein kinase signaling in plants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rodriguez, Maria Cristina Suarez; Petersen, Morten; Mundy, John

    2010-01-01

    of substrate proteins, whose altered activities mediate a wide array of responses, including changes in gene expression. Cascades may share kinase components, but their signaling specificity is maintained by spaciotemporal constraints and dynamic protein-protein interactions and by mechanisms that include......Eukaryotic mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) cascades have evolved to transduce environmental and developmental signals into adaptive and programmed responses. MAPK cascades relay and amplify signals via three types of reversibly phosphorylated kinases leading to the phosphorylation...... crossinhibition, feedback control, and scaffolding. Plant MAPK cascades regulate numerous processes, including stress and hormonal responses, innate immunity, and developmental programs. Genetic analyses have uncovered several predominant MAPK components shared by several of these processes including...

  8. A bacterial tyrosine phosphatase inhibits plant pattern recognition receptor activation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macho, Alberto P; Schwessinger, Benjamin; Ntoukakis, Vardis; Brutus, Alexandre; Segonzac, Cécile; Roy, Sonali; Kadota, Yasuhiro; Oh, Man-Ho; Sklenar, Jan; Derbyshire, Paul; Lozano-Durán, Rosa; Malinovsky, Frederikke Gro; Monaghan, Jacqueline; Menke, Frank L; Huber, Steven C; He, Sheng Yang; Zipfel, Cyril

    2014-03-28

    Innate immunity relies on the perception of pathogen-associated molecular patterns (PAMPs) by pattern-recognition receptors (PRRs) located on the host cell's surface. Many plant PRRs are kinases. Here, we report that the Arabidopsis receptor kinase EF-TU RECEPTOR (EFR), which perceives the elf18 peptide derived from bacterial elongation factor Tu, is activated upon ligand binding by phosphorylation on its tyrosine residues. Phosphorylation of a single tyrosine residue, Y836, is required for activation of EFR and downstream immunity to the phytopathogenic bacterium Pseudomonas syringae. A tyrosine phosphatase, HopAO1, secreted by P. syringae, reduces EFR phosphorylation and prevents subsequent immune responses. Thus, host and pathogen compete to take control of PRR tyrosine phosphorylation used to initiate antibacterial immunity.

  9. Antiplasmodial activity of the ethnobotanical plant Cassia fistula.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grace, Mary H; Lategan, Carmen; Graziose, Rocky; Smith, Peter J; Raskin, Ilya; Lila, Mary Ann

    2012-10-01

    In our ongoing investigation of new compounds with activity against malaria parasites, we tested the in vitro antiplasmodial activity of fractions and purified compounds from Cassia fistula L., a plant traditionally used by native populations of Tanzania, Zimbabwe, Mozambique and Brazil to treat malaria or symptoms associated with this disease. Crude extracts from leaves, bark and fruits were tested for their antiplasmodial activity against the chloroquine-sensitive strain of Plasmodium falciparum (D10), where leaf extracts showed the highest activity. The chloroform extract of the leaves was further bioassay-guided fractionated using a combination of centrifugal partition chromatography and flash column chromatography. Three main antiplasmodial principles, phytol (1) (IC50 18.9 +/- 0.60 microM), lutein (2) (IC50 12.5 +/- 0.35 microM), and di-lineolylgalactopyranosyl-glycerol (DLGG) (IC50 5.8 +/- 0.27 microM) (3), were isolated and identified using spectroscopic methods. When the three active principles were tested for their cytotoxicity using a Chinese Hamster Ovarian (CHO) cell line, compound 3 showed very weak toxicity (IC50 75.9 +/- 0.28 microM), while the other two compounds were nontoxic, even at the highest concentration tested. The study provides evidence to support the use of Cassia fistula as an antimalarial remedy and describes the antiplasmodial constituents from the leaves.

  10. ANTIMICROBIAL ACTIVITY OF MEDICINAL PLANTS AGAINST DIFFERENT STRAINS OF BACTERIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander Vatľák

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available In this study, methanolic extracts of Tilia cordata Mill. and Aesculus hippocastanum which had been described in herbal books, were screened for their antimicrobial activity against gramnegative and grampositive bacteria. The following strains of bacteria for antimicrobial activity were used gramnegative bacteria: Escherichia coli CCM 3988, Listeria ivanovii CCM 5884, Listeria innocua CCM 4030, Pseudomonas aeruginosa CCM 1960, Serratia rubidaea CCM 4684 and grampositive bacteria: Brochothrix thermosphacta CCM 4769, Enterococcus raffinosus CCM 4216, Lactobacillus rhamnosus CCM 1828, Paenobacillus larvae CCM 4483 and Staphylococcus epidermis CCM 4418 using disc diffusion method and microbroth dilution technique according to CLSI. Probit analysis was used in this experiment. Of the 2 plant extracts tested, all extracts showed antimicrobial activity against one or more species of microorganisms. The highest antibacterial activity of Tilia cordata and Aesculus hippocastanum methanolic extract was measured against gramnegative bacteria Pseudomonas aeruginosa used with disc diffusion method. The strong antimicrobial activity with microbroth dilution method of Tilia cordata and Aesculus hippocastanum were found against Listeria ivanovii.

  11. Photorespiratory glycolate oxidase is essential for the survival of the red alga Cyanidioschyzon merolae under ambient CO2 conditions

    OpenAIRE

    Rademacher, Nadine; Kern, Ramona; Fujiwara, Takayuki; Mettler-Altmann, Tabea; Miyagishima, Shin-Ya; Hagemann, Martin; Eisenhut, Marion; Weber, Andreas P. M.

    2016-01-01

    Photorespiration is essential for all organisms performing oxygenic photosynthesis. The evolution of photorespiratory metabolism began among cyanobacteria and led to a highly compartmented pathway in plants. A molecular understanding of photorespiration in eukaryotic algae, such as glaucophytes, rhodophytes, and chlorophytes, is essential to unravel the evolution of this pathway. However, mechanistic detail of the photorespiratory pathway in red algae is scarce. The unicellular red alga Cyani...

  12. Abiotic Stress Tolerance of Charophyte Green Algae: New Challenges for Omics Techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holzinger, Andreas; Pichrtová, Martina

    2016-01-01

    Charophyte green algae are a paraphyletic group of freshwater and terrestrial green algae, comprising the classes of Chlorokybophyceae, Coleochaetophyceae, Klebsormidiophyceae, Zygnematophyceae, Mesostigmatophyceae, and Charo- phyceae. Zygnematophyceae (Conjugating green algae) are considered to be closest algal relatives to land plants (Embryophyta). Therefore, they are ideal model organisms for studying stress tolerance mechanisms connected with transition to land, one of the most important events in plant evolution and the Earth's history. In Zygnematophyceae, but also in Coleochaetophyceae, Chlorokybophyceae, and Klebsormidiophyceae terrestrial members are found which are frequently exposed to naturally occurring abiotic stress scenarios like desiccation, freezing and high photosynthetic active (PAR) as well as ultraviolet (UV) irradiation. Here, we summarize current knowledge about various stress tolerance mechanisms including insight provided by pioneer transcriptomic and proteomic studies. While formation of dormant spores is a typical strategy of freshwater classes, true terrestrial groups are stress tolerant in vegetative state. Aggregation of cells, flexible cell walls, mucilage production and accumulation of osmotically active compounds are the most common desiccation tolerance strategies. In addition, high photophysiological plasticity and accumulation of UV-screening compounds are important protective mechanisms in conditions with high irradiation. Now a shift from classical chemical analysis to next-generation genome sequencing, gene reconstruction and annotation, genome-scale molecular analysis using omics technologies followed by computer-assisted analysis will give new insights in a systems biology approach. For example, changes in transcriptome and role of phytohormone signaling in Klebsormidium during desiccation were recently described. Application of these modern approaches will deeply enhance our understanding of stress reactions in an

  13. Endozoic algae in shelled gastropods — a new symbiotic association in coral reefs?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berner, T.; Wishkovsky, A.; Dubinsky, Z.

    1986-10-01

    Live algae were found in the hepatopancreas and gonads of the Red Sea snail Strombus tricornis. These organs are constantly concealed within the upper whorls of the snail's shell. Light penetration was 5 15% of the incident light reaching the shell. Pigment analysis indicated the presence of chlorophyll a, c and peridinin, a composition resembling the Dinoflagellata. Chlorophyll a concentration in the algae was 1.18±0.36 pg chl/cell. 14C assimilation of isolated algae incubated in the light exceeded that of dark controls, demonstrating the photosynthetic activity of the endozoic algae.

  14. Structure-Function Relations of Strigolactone Analogs: Activity as Plant Hormones and Plant Interactions

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Maja Cohen; Cristina Prandi; Ernesto G. Occhiato; Silvia Tabasso; Smadar Wininger; Nathalie Resnick; Yosef Steinberger

    2013-01-01

    Strigolactones (SLs) have several functions as signaling molecules in their interactions with symbiotic arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungi and the parasitic weeds Orobanche and Striga.SLs are also a new class of plant hormone regulating plant development.In all three organisms,a specific and sensitive receptor-mediated perception system is suggested.By comparing the activity of synthetic SL analogs on Arabidopsis root-hair elongation,Orobanche aegyptiaca seed germination,and hyphal branching of the AM fungus Glomus intraradices,we found that each of the tested organisms differs in its response to the various examined synthetic SL analogs.Structure-function relations of the SL analogs suggest substitutions on the A-ring as the cause of this variation.Moreover,the description of competitive antagonistic analogs suggests that the A-ring of SL can affect not only affinity to the receptor,but also the molecule's ability to activate it.The results support the conclusion that Arabidopsis,Orobanche,and AM fungi possess variations in receptor sensitivity to SL analogs,probably due to variation in SL receptors among the different species.

  15. Characteristics and phylogeny of light-harvesting complex gene encoded proteins from marine red alga Griffithsia japonica

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Chenlin; HUANG Xiaohang; LEE Yookyung; LEE Hongkum; LI Guangyou

    2005-01-01

    Six genes encoding light-harvesting complex (LHC) protein have been characterized in the multicellular red alga Griffithsia japonica EST analysis. Three of them were full sequences while others were partial sequences with 3'-UTRs. The cleavage sites between signal peptide and mature LHC protein were analyzed on these three full sequences. The sequence characteristics, calculated molecular weights and isoelectric point (pI) values and hydrophobieity of the mature proteins were deduced and analyzed. Comparing the LHC sequences of G. japonica with higher plant, Chlorophyta, chromophytes and other red algae, the high conservation of the chlorophyll (Chl) binding site among chromophytes and red algae were revealed. Phylogenetic analysis on LHC proteins from higher plant, green algae, euglena, brown algae, diatom, cryptomonad, Raphidophyte and red algae reveals that (1) there are two distinct groups of Chl a/b and Chl a/c -binding LHC; (2) Chl a binding proteins of red algae share greater similarities with the Chl a/c-binding proteins of the chromophytes and dinoflagellate than with the Chl a/b - binding proteins of the green algae and higher plants; (3) chromophyte' s LHC is supposed to be evolved from red algae LHC.

  16. In vitro antimicrobial activity of mangrove plant Sonneratia alba

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Shahbudin Saad; Muhammad Taher; Deny Susanti; Haitham Qaralleh; Anis Fadhlina Izyani Bt Awang

    2012-01-01

    Objective:To investigate the antimicrobial property of mangrove plant Sonneratia alba (S. alba). Methods: The antimicrobial activity was evaluated using disc diffusion and microdilution methods against six microorganisms. Soxhlet apparatus was used for extraction with a series of solvents, n-hexane, ethyl acetate and methanol in sequence of increasing polarity. Results:Methanol extract appeared to be the most effective extract while n-hexane extract showed no activity. The antimicrobial activities were observed against the gram positive bacteria Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus) and Bacillus cereus (B. cereus), the gram negative Escherichia coli (E. coli) and the yeast Cryptococcus neoformans. Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Candida albicans appeared to be not sensitive to the concentrations tested since no inhibition zone was observed. E. coli (17.5 mm) appeared to be the most sensitive strain followed by S. aureus (12.5 mm) and B. cereus (12.5 mm). Conclusions:From this study, it can be concluded that S. alba exhibits antimicrobial activities against certain microorganisms.

  17. Trypanocidal activity of flavonoids and limonoids isolated from Myrsinaceae and Meliaceae active plant extracts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana C. Leite

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available The activity of crude extracts of three Rapanea species (Myrsinaceae and Cipadessa fruticosa (Meliaceae was evaluated in vitro against the trypomastigote forms of Trypanosoma cruzi. Thirty-three extracts from different organs of these species were assayed and eleven of them showed significant activity (lysis % >50. The fractionation of an active extract from branches of R. lancifolia (99.5% led to the isolation of two flavonoids: quercetin and taxifolin, which have weak trypanocidal activity. Additionally, one active extract from fruits of C. fruticosa (97.7% afforded mexicanolide limonoids: cipadesin, mexicanolide, febrifugin and cipadesin A, that were slightly active on T. cruzi. Moreover, other two flavonoids (flavone and 7-methoxyflavone, previously assayed against T. cruzi, were isolated from the hexane extract from branches of C. fruticosa (100%. The results presented here suggest that the plants evaluated could be a source of new active compounds against T. cruzi.

  18. Activity of medicinal plants from Ghana against the parasitic gut protist Blastocystis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bremer Christensen, Charlotte; Soelberg, Jens; Stensvold, Christen R;

    2015-01-01

    with other flavourings. The aim of this study was to evaluate the anti-Blastocystis activity of 24 plant parts from 21 medicinal plants from Ghana. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The medicinal plants were collected in the Greater Accra region of Ghana. Every plant part was tested in three different extracts...... activity as the reference anti-protozoal drug MTZ. Historically, the active plants found in this study have been used against dysentery, diarrhoea or other stomach disorders. Nowadays they are not used specifically for dysentery, but they are being used as medicinal plants against various stomach disorders....

  19. Hygienic and microbiological influences exerted on natural water biotopes by algae and the growth of water plants. 2. Communication: improvement of the chemical and bacteriological water quality by the natural growth of aquatic plants (author's transl)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Graef, W.; Kersch, D.; Pawlofsky, C.M.

    1981-12-01

    For a natural pond, whose waters are used for recreational purposes (swimming) and are subject to waste water inflow, the biological purifying function of a zone overgrown with reeds and aquatic plants was ascertained by means of chemical and bacteriological water quality parameters. In the years from 1975 to 1980 the contents of ammonia, nitrites, nitrates, phosphates and chlorides as well as the colony counts (CFU/ml), the coli titres and the content of fruiting myxobacteria were determined from water samples, both during the lush-growth summer period and the low-growth winter season. The location of the 6 sampling points systematically extended from the sewage outlet via the tributary ditch, in front of and behind the natural growth zone as far as the swimming waters. The test series showed - that in the tributary ditch and especially during the passage through the upper water zone densely overgrown with aquatic plants, the proportion of degradable nitrogen compounds and phosphates is distinctly reduced beyond the extent of reduction by dilution processes, - that the colony counts in the effluent water as well as the content of E. coli and of the fruiting myxobacteria, which act as indirect faecal indicator, are also reduced considerably, - that the biological purifying of the vegetation zone is definitely higher in summer than during the low-growth winter months. From this the conclusion can be drawn that for maintaining and furthering an adequate water quality of recreational waters compromised by waste water, the preservation of the naturally growing aquatic plants both in the water itself and on the banks is absolutely necessary.

  20. Algae Bloom in a Lake

    OpenAIRE

    David Sanabria

    2008-01-01

    The objective of this paper is to determine the likelihood of an algae bloom in a particular lake located in upstate New York. The growth of algae in this lake is caused by a high concentration of phosphorous that diffuses to the surface of the lake. Our calculations, based on Fick's Law, are used to create a mathematical model of the driving force of diffusion for phosphorous. Empirical observations are also used to predict whether the concentration of phosphorous will diffuse to the surface...

  1. Algae Bloom in a Lake

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Sanabria

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this paper is to determine the likelihood of an algae bloom in a particular lake located in upstate New York. The growth of algae in this lake is caused by a high concentration of phosphorous that diffuses to the surface of the lake. Our calculations, based on Fick's Law, are used to create a mathematical model of the driving force of diffusion for phosphorous. Empirical observations are also used to predict whether the concentration of phosphorous will diffuse to the surface of this lake within a specified time and under specified conditions.

  2. Low Molecular Weight Carbohydrates, Prebiotic Content, and Prebiotic Activity of Selected Food Plants in Thailand

    OpenAIRE

    A. Moongngarm; Trachoo, N.; N. Sirigungwan

    2011-01-01

    The study aimed to determine the content of Low Molecular Weight Carbohydrate (LMWC), prebiotic, and prebiotic activity of thirteen food plants commonly consumed in Thailand. The prebiotics (inulin and fructooligosaccharide (FOS)) and LMWC content (glucose, maltose, sucrose, isomaltose, maltotriose, and maltotetraose) were determined using High Performance Liquid Chromatography (HPLC). Prebiotic activity of plant extracts (including LMWC and prebiotics) obtained from potential food plants was...

  3. Formation of algae growth constitutive relations for improved algae modeling.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gharagozloo, Patricia E.; Drewry, Jessica Louise.

    2013-01-01

    This SAND report summarizes research conducted as a part of a two year Laboratory Directed Research and Development (LDRD) project to improve our abilities to model algal cultivation. Algae-based biofuels have generated much excitement due to their potentially large oil yield from relatively small land use and without interfering with the food or water supply. Algae mitigate atmospheric CO2 through metabolism. Efficient production of algal biofuels could reduce dependence on foreign oil by providing a domestic renewable energy source. Important factors controlling algal productivity include temperature, nutrient concentrations, salinity, pH, and the light-to-biomass conversion rate. Computational models allow for inexpensive predictions of algae growth kinetics in these non-ideal conditions for various bioreactor sizes and geometries without the need for multiple expensive measurement setups. However, these models need to be calibrated for each algal strain. In this work, we conduct a parametric study of key marine algae strains and apply the findings to a computational model.

  4. DYNAMICS OF LEAF PEROXIDASE ACTIVITY DURING ONTOGENY OF HEMP PLANTS, IN RELATION TO SEXUAL PHENOTYPE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena Truta

    2005-08-01

    Full Text Available During vegetation of female and male hemp plants (Cannabis sativa L., five quantitative determinations of peroxidase activities were made (40 days, 55 days, 70 days, 85 days, 105 days. Peroxidase activity presented some differences in hemp plants, between females and males, during their vegetation cycle. In female plants, before anthesis were registered peaks of peroxidase activities. The blossoming of male plants was coincident with the increase of catalitic action of peroxidase. Generally, the male plants displayed greater levels of peroxidasic activity.

  5. Phytohormone profiles induced by trichoderma isolates correspond with their biocontrol and plant growth-promoting activity on melon plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez-Medina, Ainhoa; Del Mar Alguacil, Maria; Pascual, Jose A; Van Wees, Saskia C M

    2014-07-01

    The application of Trichoderma strains with biocontrol and plant growth-promoting capacities to plant substrates can help reduce the input of chemical pesticides and fertilizers in agriculture. Some Trichoderma isolates can directly affect plant pathogens, but they also are known to influence the phytohormonal network of their host plant, thus leading to an improvement of plant growth and stress tolerance. In this study, we tested whether alterations in the phytohormone signature induced by different Trichoderma isolates correspond with their ability for biocontrol and growth promotion. Four Trichoderma isolates were collected from agricultural soils and were identified as the species Trichoderma harzianum (two isolates), Trichoderma ghanense, and Trichoderma hamatum. Their antagonistic activity against the plant pathogen Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. melonis was tested in vitro, and their plant growth-promoting and biocontrol activity against Fusarium wilt on melon plants was examined in vivo, and compared to that of the commercial strain T. harzianum T-22. Several growth- and defense-related phytohormones were analyzed in the shoots of plants that were root-colonized by the different Trichoderma isolates. An increase in auxin and a decrease in cytokinins and abscisic acid content were induced by the isolates that promoted the plant growth. Principal component analysis (PCA) was used to evaluate the relationship between the plant phenotypic and hormonal variables. PCA pointed to a strong association of auxin induction with plant growth stimulation by Trichoderma. Furthermore, the disease-protectant ability of the Trichoderma strains against F. oxysporum infection seems to be more related to their induced alterations in the content of the hormones abscisic acid, ethylene, and the cytokinin trans-zeatin riboside than to the in vitro antagonism activity against F. oxysporum.

  6. Life cycle assessment of biofuels from an integrated Brazilian algae-sugarcane biorefinery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sugarcane ethanol biorefineries in Brazil produce carbon dioxide, electricity and heat as byproducts. These are essential inputs for algae biodiesel production. In this paper, we assessed ethanol's life cycle greenhouse gas emissions and fossil energy use produced in an integrated sugarcane and algae biorefinery where biodiesel replaces petroleum diesel for all agricultural operations. Carbon dioxide from cane juice fermentation is used as the carbon source for algae cultivation, and sugarcane bagasse is the sole source of energy for the entire facility. Glycerin produced from the biodiesel plant is consumed by algae during the mixotrophic growth phase. We assessed the uncertainties through a detailed Monte-Carlo analysis. We found that this integrated system can improve both the life cycle greenhouse gas emissions and the fossil energy use of sugarcane ethanol by around 10% and 50%, respectively, compared to a traditional Brazilian sugarcane ethanol distillery. - Highlights: • A high diesel consumption is associated to the ethanol sugarcane life-cycle. • Sugarcane industry can provide sources of carbon and energy for the algae growing. • The sugarcane-algae integration can improve the ethanol life-cycle performance. • This integration is a promising pathway for the deployment of algae biodiesel. • There are still significant techno-economic barriers associated with algae biodiesel

  7. Alga-Lysing Activity of a Strain of Actinomycete to Microcystis aeruginosa.%一株放线菌对铜绿微囊藻的溶藻活性

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    余甜甜; 张炳火; 李汉全; 过七根; 李文均

    2011-01-01

    A strain of actinomycete JXJ 0071 was isolated from soil of the Lushan Mountain.Activities of its spores, mycelia and metabolites lysing Microcystis aeruginosa, stability of the active components of the activities and its taxonomic status were studied.Both spores and mycelia of actinomycete JXJ 0071 reduced the density of M.aeruginosa remarkably.Metabolites of the strain showed a very strong activity lysing M.aeruginosa, and 98% alga cells perished three days after addition of fermentation supernatant 2% in volume into the culture ( 1.0 × 107 mL-1 ) of M.aeruginosa.The alga-lysing active components were mainly water-soluble extracellular products, which remained quite stable regardless of exposure to high temperature, pH and ultraviolet radiation.The fermentation liquid stir showed a high alga-lysing rate, over 95% after being incubated under 60 ℃ for two hours, over 93.8% at pH 7 -9, and 85.7% after exposure to 254 nm ultraviolet radiation for 2 hours.Based on 16S rRNA sequences, strain JXJ 0071 was identified to be of the genus of Streptomyces,being as high as 99% similar to Streptomyces rectiviolaceus in 16S rRNA gene sequence.However, differences were found between JXJ 0071 and S.rectiviolaceus in physiological and biochemical properties.Further studies should be carried out to determine its exact taxonomic status at the species level.%从庐山土样中分离得到一株放线菌JXJ0071,研究了该菌的孢子、菌丝体和代谢产物对铜绿微囊藻(Microcystis aeruginosa)的溶藻活性以及溶藻活性成分的稳定性,并对其分类地位进行鉴定.结果表明,放线菌JXJ0071的孢子和菌丝体均能使铜绿微囊藻细胞密度显著降低.该菌代谢产物对铜绿微囊藻具有很强的溶藻活性,在藻密度为1.O×107mL-1的藻液中加入体积分数ψ为2%的该菌发酵上清液,3 d后溶藻效率达98%.溶藻活性成分主要来自水溶性胞外产物,其对高温、pH和紫外线处理

  8. Antioxidant and antibacterial activities of polyphenols from ethnomedicinal plants of Burkina Faso

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Karou, D.; Dicko, M.H.; Simpore, J.; Traore, A.S.

    2005-01-01

    Polyphenols from four medicinal plants of Burkina Faso, Combretum micranthum, Khaya senegalensis, Pterocarpus erinaceus and Sida acuta, were screened for their antioxidant and antimicrobial activities against pathogenic bacteria. The medicinal plants displayed different polyphenols contents and anti

  9. Root endophyte Piriformospora indica DSM 11827 alters plant morphology, enhances biomass and antioxidant activity of medicinal plant Bacopa monniera.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prasad, Ram; Kamal, Shwet; Sharma, Pradeep K; Oelmüller, Ralf; Varma, Ajit

    2013-12-01

    Unorganized collections and over exploitation of naturally occurring medicinal plant Bacopa monniera is leading to rapid depletion of germplasm and is posing a great threat to its survival in natural habitats. The species has already been listed in the list of highly threatened plants of India. This calls for micropropagation based multiplication of potential accessions and understanding of their mycorrhizal associations for obtaining plants with enhanced secondary metabolite contents. The co-cultivation of B. monniera with axenically cultivated root endophyte Piriformospora indica resulted in growth promotion, increase in bacoside content, antioxidant activity and nuclear hypertrophy of this medicinal plant.

  10. 21 CFR 184.1120 - Brown algae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Brown algae. 184.1120 Section 184.1120 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN... Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1120 Brown algae. (a) Brown algae are seaweeds of the species...

  11. 21 CFR 184.1121 - Red algae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Red algae. 184.1121 Section 184.1121 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN... Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1121 Red algae. (a) Red algae are seaweeds of the species...

  12. Macro algae as substrate for biogas production

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møller, Henrik; Sarker, Shiplu; Gautam, Dhan Prasad;

    Algae as a substrate for biogas is superior to other crops since it has a much higher yield of biomass per unit area and since algae grows in the seawater there will be no competition with food production on agricultural lands. So far, the progress in treating different groups of algae as a sourc...

  13. Physiological and biochemical responses of the freshwater green algae Closterium ehrenbergii to the common disinfectant chlorine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sathasivam, Ramaraj; Ebenezer, Vinitha; Guo, Ruoyu; Ki, Jang-Seu

    2016-11-01

    Chlorine (Cl2) is widely used as a disinfectant in water treatment plants and for cleaning swimming pools; it is finally discharged into aquatic environments, possibly causing damage to the non-target organisms in the receiving water bodies. Present study evaluated the effects of the biocide Cl2 to the green alga Closterium ehrenbergii (C. ehrenbergii). Growth rate, chlorophyll a levels, carotenoids, chlorophyll autofluorescence, and antioxidant enzymes were monitored up to 72-h after Cl2 exposure. C. ehrenbergii showed dose-dependent decrease in growth rate and cell division after exposure to Cl2. By using cell counts, the median effective concentration (EC50)-72-h was calculated to be 0.071mgL(-1). Cl2 significantly decreased the pigment levels and chlorophyll autofluorescence intensity, indicating that the photosystem was damaged in C. ehrenbergii. In addition, it increased the production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in the cells. This stressor significantly increased the activities of antioxidant enzymes, including superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase, and glutathione, and affected the physiology of the cells. These results indicate that Cl2 induces oxidative stress in the cellular metabolic process and leads to physiological and biochemical damages in the green algae. Cl2 discharged in industrial effluents and from water treatment plants may cause harmful effects to the C. ehrenbergii a common freshwater microalgae and other non-target organisms. PMID:27552343

  14. Growth and Metabolism of the Green Alga, Chlorella Pyrenoidosa, in Simulated Microgravity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mills, W. Ronald

    2003-01-01

    . Presently, the basis for, or significance of, the cell aggregation is unknown. The results from this study suggest that cell growth and morphological characteristics of green algae may be altered by culture in simulated microgravity. The data obtained to date should provide a solid basis for additional experimentation regarding the influence of modeled microgravity on cell morphology, physiological activity, protein production and possibly gene expression in algal and plant cell systems. The final aim of the study is to provide useful information to elucidate the underlying mechanism for the biological effects of microgravity on cells.

  15. Scenario studies for algae production

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Slegers, P.M.

    2014-01-01

    Microalgae are a promising biomass for the biobased economy to produce food, feed, fuel, chemicals and materials. So far, large-scale production of algae is limited and as a result estimates on the performance of such large systems are scarce. There is a need to estimate large-scale biomass producti

  16. Determination of Algae and Macrophyte Species Distribution in Three Wastewater Stabilization Ponds Using Metagenomics Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jack Wallace

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available This study involved the evaluation of algae and macrophyte species distributions in three wastewater stabilization ponds (WSPs at a wastewater treatment plant in Ontario, Canada, which has experienced high pH levels at the final effluent and excessive algae growth during the summer since 2003. From samples collected from the system, the relative abundances of specific algae and aquatic plant (macrophyte taxa were assessed and correlated to water chemistry data. A strong shift from the dominance of green algae, chlorophyceae, in WSP#2, to the dominance of aquatic macrophytes, embryophyta, in WSP#4, was observed and corresponded to field observations. Correlation of the abundances to nutrient parameters suggested that the macronutrient rich conditions in WSP#2 allowed floating green algae to proliferate against macrophytes. In WSP#1 and WSP#4, macrophytes competed against algae and thrived, due to their adaptability to lower nutrient conditions. The pH increases occurred primarily in WSP#2 and were not buffered or reduced in WSP#1 and WSP#4. Two alternatives strategies for pH control were recommended for the system: decreasing algae growth in WSP#2 through duckweed seeding or macronutrient loading reduction; or designing and implementing a constructed wetland (CW in WSP#4 with soil and vegetation to buffer pH prior to release.

  17. ANTIHYPERGLYCEMIC ACTIVITY OF Exacum wightianum Arn. AN ENDEMIC MEDICINAL PLANT.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Madathupatti Ramanathan Udhayasankar

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available An attempt was made to study the beneficial effects of ethanol extract of Exacum wightianum Arn. (Gentianaceae on its antihyperglycemic activity in streptozotocin induced diabetic rats. The pilot studies were carried after oral administration at doses of ethanolic extract of E. wightianum 100, 200, 500 and 1000 mg/kgb.wt. in sub-acute study. In diabetic induced rats fed with E. wightianum ethanol extract at 100 and 200 mg/kg body b.wt., the fasting plasma glucose levels were reduced to normal body and liver weight were found to be increased. Where as blood glucose, protein, albumin and creatinine levels were estimated after two weeks. Theextract significantly inhibited the induction of albuminuria, proteinemia and uremia. The present study clearly indicated a significant antidiabetic activity with the ethanol extract of E. wightianum supports the traditional usage of the plant by Ayurvedic physicians for the control of diabetes. Also the extract is useful in preventing the incidence of long term complications of diabetes mellitus.

  18. Allosteric receptor activation by the plant peptide hormone phytosulfokine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jizong; Li, Hongju; Han, Zhifu; Zhang, Heqiao; Wang, Tong; Lin, Guangzhong; Chang, Junbiao; Yang, Weicai; Chai, Jijie

    2015-09-10

    Phytosulfokine (PSK) is a disulfated pentapeptide that has a ubiquitous role in plant growth and development. PSK is perceived by its receptor PSKR, a leucine-rich repeat receptor kinase (LRR-RK). The mechanisms underlying the recognition of PSK, the activation of PSKR and the identity of the components downstream of the initial binding remain elusive. Here we report the crystal structures of the extracellular LRR domain of PSKR in free, PSK- and co-receptor-bound forms. The structures reveal that PSK interacts mainly with a β-strand from the island domain of PSKR, forming an anti-β-sheet. The two sulfate moieties of PSK interact directly with PSKR, sensitizing PSKR recognition of PSK. Supported by biochemical, structural and genetic evidence, PSK binding enhances PSKR heterodimerization with the somatic embryogenesis receptor-like kinases (SERKs). However, PSK is not directly involved in PSKR-SERK interaction but stabilizes PSKR island domain for recruitment of a SERK. Our data reveal the structural basis for PSKR recognition of PSK and allosteric activation of PSKR by PSK, opening up new avenues for the design of PSKR-specific small molecules. PMID:26308901

  19. Antibacterial and cytotoxic activity of Brazilian plant extracts - Clusiaceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivana B Suffredini

    2006-05-01

    Full Text Available Twelve extracts obtained from nine plants belonging to six different genera of Clusiaceae were analyzed against Gram-negative (Escherichia coli and Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Gram-positive (Staphylococcus aureus and Enterococcus faecalis bacteria using the microdilution broth assay. Tovomita aff. longifolia, T. brasiliensis, Clusia columnaris, Garcinia madruno, Haploclathra paniculata, and Caraipa grandifolia extracts showed significant results against the bacteria. The organic extract obtained from the leaves of T. aff. longifolia showed minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC = 70 µg/ml and minimal bactericidal concentration (MBC = 90 µg/ml against E. faecalis and the organic extract made with the stem of C. columnaris showed MIC = 180 µg/ml and MBC = 270 µg/ml against P. aeruginosa. None of the antibacterial extracts showed lethal activity against brine shrimp nauplii. On the other hand, both aqueous and organic extracts obtained from the aerial organs of Vismia guianensis that were cytotoxic to brine shrimp nauplii did not show a significant antibacterial activity in the assay.

  20. Larvicidal activity of plant extracts on Aedes Aegypti L.

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Anitha Rajasekaran; Geethapriya Duraikannan

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the larvicidal activity of plant extracts on Aedes aegypti. Methods:Petroleum ether, Chloroform and aqueous extracts obtained from Acalypha indica, Aerva lanata,Boerhaavia diffusa, Commelina benghalensis, Gompherna sps, Datura stramonium, Euphorpia hirta, Cynodon dactylon, Lantana camara and Tridax procumbens were used for larvicidal activity at concentration of 1000μg/ml and the mortality rate was calculated after 24 and 48hrs . The LC50 for the extracts were also estimated after 24 hrs. Results: The petroleum ether extract ofLantana camara, Tridax procumbens and Datura stramonium showed 100% mortality after 48hrs of incubation. Tridax procumbens petroleum ether extract had the least LC50 of 219 μg/ml followed by Lantana and Datura with 251and 288 μg/ml respectively. A combination of petroleum ether extracts of Aerva lanata and Cynodon dactylon, Boerhaavia diffusa and Commelina benghalensis exhibited 100% mortality of larvae. Formulation-1 inhibited the metamorphosis of the larvae by retaining 60% in its larval stage. Petroleum ether extracts of Lantana, Tridax, Datura and a combination of extracts were effective larvicide. The formulations proved to be effective in inhibiting the metamorphosis. Alkaloids and flavonoids were present in datura petroleum ether extract . Conclusions: Either the crude extracts of Datura stramonium, Lantana camara and Tridax procumbens or its phytochemicals can be used as effective vector control agents individually or in combination.

  1. Comparing the effects of symbiotic algae (Symbiodinium clades C1 and D on early growth stages of Acropora tenuis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ikuko Yuyama

    Full Text Available Reef-building corals switch endosymbiotic algae of the genus Symbiodinium during their early growth stages and during bleaching events. Clade C Symbiodinium algae are dominant in corals, although other clades - including A and D - have also been commonly detected in juvenile Acroporid corals. Previous studies have been reported that only molecular data of Symbiodinium clade were identified within field corals. In this study, we inoculated aposymbiotic juvenile polyps with cultures of clades C1 and D Symbiodinium algae, and investigated the different effect of these two clades of Symbiodinium on juvenile polyps. Our results showed that clade C1 algae did not grow, while clade D algae grew rapidly during the first 2 months after inoculation. Polyps associated with clade C1 algae exhibited bright green fluorescence across the body and tentacles after inoculation. The growth rate of polyp skeletons was lower in polyps associated with clade C1 algae than those associated with clade D algae. On the other hand, antioxidant activity (catalase of corals was not significantly different between corals with clade C1 and clade D algae. Our results suggested that clade D Symbiodinium algae easily form symbiotic relationships with corals and that these algae could contribute to coral growth in early symbiosis stages.

  2. Screening and antibacterial activity analysis of some important medicinal plants

    OpenAIRE

    G. Senthilmurugan Viji; B. Vasanthe; Kuru Suresh

    2013-01-01

    The screening and study of five different plant specimens belonging to different families for phytochemical constituents was performed using generally accepted laboratory technique for qualitative determinations. The constituents screened were saponins, combined anthraquinones, terpenoids, flavonoids, carotenoids, steroids, xantho proteins, couramins, alkaloids, quinones, vitamin C. The distribution of these constituents in the plant specimens were assessed and compared. The medicinal plant s...

  3. Application of algae-biosensor for environmental monitoring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Umar, Lazuardi; Alexander, Frank A; Wiest, Joachim

    2015-08-01

    Environmental problems including water and air pollution, over fertilization, insufficient wastewater treatment and even ecological disaster are receiving greater attention in the technical and scientific area. In this paper, a method for water quality monitoring using living green algae (Chlorella Kessleri) with the help of the intelligent mobile lab (IMOLA) is presented. This measurement used two IMOLA systems for measurement and reference simultaneously to verify changes due to pollution inside the measurement system. The IMOLA includes light emitting diodes to stimulate photosynthesis of the living algae immobilized on a biochip containing a dissolved oxygen microsensor. A fluid system is used to transport algae culture medium in a stop and go mode; 600s ON, 300s OFF, while the oxygen concentration of the water probe is measured. When the pump stops, the increase in dissolved oxygen concentration due to photosynthesis is detected. In case of a pollutant being transported toward the algae, this can be detected by monitoring the photosynthetic activity. Monitoring pollution is shown by adding emulsion of 0,5mL of Indonesian crude palm oil and 10mL algae medium to the water probe in the biosensor. PMID:26737928

  4. The economics of producing biodiesel from algae

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Biodiesel is an alternative fuel for conventional diesel that is made from natural plant oils, animal fats, and waste cooking oils. This paper discusses the economics of producing biodiesel fuel from algae grown in open ponds. There is potential for large-scale production of biodiesel from algal farms on non-arable land; however, previous studies have failed to demonstrate an economically viable process that could be scalable to a commercialized industry. The problems include inconsistent and insufficient algal productivities, uncertain capital and operating costs, volatile market prices and unknown levels of government support. Although intensive work is being done on many technological issues, the economic studies and data are incomplete and out of date. This paper presents an updated financial analysis of the production and economic conditions that could have a profound effect on the success of this important alternative fuel production process. (author)

  5. Epithermal Neutron Activation Analysis of the Asian Herbal Plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Asian medicinal herbs Chrysanthemum (Spiraea aquilegifolia Pall.) and Red Sandalwood (Pterocarpus Santalinus) are widely used in folk and Ayurvedic medicine for healing and preventing some diseases. The modern medical science has proved that the Chrysanthemum (Spiraea aquilegifolia Pall.) possesses the following functions: reducing blood press, dispelling cancer cell, coronary artery's expanding and bacteriostating and Red Sandalwood (Pterocarpus Santalinus) is recommended against headache, toothache, skin diseases, vomiting and sometimes it is taken for treatment of diabetes. Species of Chrysanthemums were collected in the north-eastern and central Mongolia, and the Red Sandalwood powder was imported from India. Samples of Chrysanthemums (branches, flowers and leaves)(0.5 g) and red sandalwood powder (0.5 g) were subjected to the multi-element instrumental neutron activation analysis using epithermal neutrons (ENAA) at the IBR-2 reactor, Frank Laboratory of Neutron Physics (FLNP) JINR, Dubna. A total of 41 elements (Na, Mg, Al, Cl, K, Ca, Sc, V, Cr, Mn, Fe, Co, Ni, Zn, As, Se, Br, Rb, Sr, Zr, Mo, Cd, Cs, Ba, La, Hf, Ta, W, Sb, Au, Hg, Ce, Nd, Sm, Eu, Tb, Dy, Yb, Th, U, Lu) were determined. For the first time such a large group of elements was determined in the herbal plants used in Mongolia. The quality control of the analytical results was provided by using certified reference material Bowen Cabbage. The results obtained are compared to the ''Reference plant? data (B. Markert, 1992) and interpreted in terms of excess of such elements as Se, Cr, Ca, Fe, Ni, Mo, and rare earth elements.

  6. Epithermal Neutron Activation Analysis of the Asian Herbal Plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baljinnyam, N.; Jugder, B.; Norov, N.; Frontasyeva, M. V.; Ostrovnaya, T. M.; Pavlov, S. S.

    2011-06-01

    Asian medicinal herbs Chrysanthemum (Spiraea aquilegifolia Pall.) and Red Sandalwood (Pterocarpus Santalinus) are widely used in folk and Ayurvedic medicine for healing and preventing some diseases. The modern medical science has proved that the Chrysanthemum (Spiraea aquilegifolia Pall.) possesses the following functions: reducing blood press, dispelling cancer cell, coronary artery's expanding and bacteriostating and Red Sandalwood (Pterocarpus Santalinus) is recommended against headache, toothache, skin diseases, vomiting and sometimes it is taken for treatment of diabetes. Species of Chrysanthemums were collected in the north-eastern and central Mongolia, and the Red Sandalwood powder was imported from India. Samples of Chrysanthemums (branches, flowers and leaves) (0.5 g) and red sandalwood powder (0.5 g) were subjected to the multi-element instrumental neutron activation analysis using epithermal neutrons (ENAA) at the IBR-2 reactor, Frank Laboratory of Neutron Physics (FLNP) JINR, Dubna. A total of 41 elements (Na, Mg, Al, Cl, K, Ca, Sc, V, Cr, Mn, Fe, Co, Ni, Zn, As, Se, Br, Rb, Sr, Zr, Mo, Cd, Cs, Ba, La, Hf, Ta, W, Sb, Au, Hg, Ce, Nd, Sm, Eu, Tb, Dy, Yb, Th, U, Lu) were determined. For the first time such a large group of elements was determined in the herbal plants used in Mongolia. The quality control of the analytical results was provided by using certified reference material Bowen Cabbage. The results obtained are compared to the "Reference plant» data (B. Markert, 1992) and interpreted in terms of excess of such elements as Se, Cr, Ca, Fe, Ni, Mo, and rare earth elements.

  7. Melanogenesis and Antityrosinase Activity of Selected South African Plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manyatja Brenda Mapunya

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Melanin is the pigment that is responsible for the colour of eyes, hair, and skin in humans. Tyrosinase is known to be the key enzyme in melanin biosynthesis. Overactivity of this enzyme leads to dermatological disorders such as age spots, melanoma and sites of actinic damage. Ten plants belonging to four families (Asphodelaceae, Anacardiaceae, Oleaceae, and Rutaceae were investigated for their effect on tyrosinase using both L-tyrosine and L-DOPA as substrates. Ethanol leaf extracts (500 μg/mL of Aloe ferox, Aloe aculeata, Aloe pretoriensis, and Aloe sessiliflora showed 60%, 31%, 17%, and 13% inhibition of tyrosinase activity respectively, when L-tyrosine was used as a substrate. Harpephyllum caffrum (leaves at a concentration of 500 μg/mL had an inhibitory effect of 70% on tyrosinase when L-DOPA was used as a substrate. The IC50 of Harpephyllum caffrum (leaves and bark were found to be 51±0.002 and 40±0.035 μg/mL, respectively. Following the results obtained from the tyrosinase assay, extracts from Harpephyllum caffrum were selected for further testing on their effect on melanin production and their cytotoxicity on melanocytes in vitro. The IC50 of both extracts was found to be 6.25 μg/mL for melanocyte cells. Bark extract of Harpephyllum caffrum showed 26% reduction in melanin content of melanocyte cells at a concentration of 6.25 μg/mL. The leaf extract of this plant showed some toxicity on melanocyte cells. Therefore, the bark extract of Harpephyllum caffrum could be considered as an antityrosinase agent for dermatological disorders such as age spots and melasoma.

  8. Antioxidant response of the brown algae Dictyota dichotoma epiphytized by the invasive red macroalgae Lophocladia lallemandii

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Silvia Tejada; Antoni Sureda

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the response of the brown alga Dictyota dichotoma (D. dichotoma) epiphytized by the red alga Lophocladia lallemandii in Mallorca coastal waters (Balearic Islands) by means of biomarker measures. Methods: Samples of epiphytized and non-epiphytized D. dichotoma were collected in Cala Morlanda (East Mallorca, Balearic Islands). Markers of lipid peroxidation and activities of antioxidant enzymes were measured in D. dichotoma. Results: Lipid peroxidation measured as malondialdehyde and all the antioxidant activities measured were significantly higher in the epiphytized brown algae when compared with the control algae. Conclusions:In conclusion, the invasive algae Lophocladia lallemandii seems to produce a more oxidized status in the epiphytized D. dichotoma and cellular damage that could induce increased mortality.

  9. Antioxidant response of the brown algae Dictyota dichotoma epiphytized by the invasive red macroalgae Lophocladia lallemandii

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvia Tejada

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To evaluate the response of the brown alga Dictyota dichotoma (D. dichotoma epiphytized by the red alga Lophocladia lallemandii in Mallorca coastal waters (Balearic Islands by means of biomarker measures. Methods: Samples of epiphytized and non-epiphytized D. dichotoma were collected in Cala Morlanda (East Mallorca, Balearic Islands. Markers of lipid peroxidation and activities of antioxidant enzymes were measured in D. dichotoma. Results: Lipid peroxidation measured as malondialdehyde and all the antioxidant activities measured were significantly higher in the epiphytized brown algae when compared with the control algae. Conclusions: In conclusion, the invasive algae Lophocladia lallemandii seems to produce a more oxidized status in the epiphytized D. dichotoma and cellular damage that could induce increased mortality.

  10. Hydrothermal liquefaction of municipal wastewater cultivated algae: Increasing overall sustainability and value streams of algal biofuels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, Griffin William

    The forefront of the 21st century presents ongoing challenges in economics, energy, and environmental remediation, directly correlating with priorities for U.S. national security. Displacing petroleum-derived fuels with clean, affordable renewable fuels represents a solution to increase energy independence while stimulating economic growth and reducing carbon-based emissions. The U.S. government embodied this goal by passing the Energy Independence and Security Act (EISA) in 2007, mandating 36 billion gallons of annual biofuel production by 2022. Algae possess potential to support EISA goals and have been studied for the past 30-50 years as an energy source due to its fast growth rates, noncompetitive nature to food markets, and ability to grow using nutrient waste streams. Algae biofuels have been identified by the National Research Council to have significant sustainability concerns involving water, nutrient, and land use. Utilizing municipal wastewater to cultivate algae provides both water and nutrients needed for growth, partially alleviating these concerns. This dissertation demonstrates a pathway for algae biofuels which increases both sustainability and production of high-value products. Algae are cultivated in pilot-scale open ponds located at the Lawrence Wastewater Treatment Plant (Lawrence, KS) using solely effluent from the secondary clarifier, prior to disinfection and discharge, as both water and nutrient sources. Open ponds were self-inoculated by wastewater effluent and produced a mixed-species culture of various microalgae and macroalgae. Algae cultivation provided further wastewater treatment, removing both nitrogen and phosphorus, which have devastating pollution effects when discharged to natural watersheds, especially in large draining watersheds like the Gulf Coast. Algae demonstrated significant removal of other trace metals such as iron, manganese, barium, aluminum, and zinc. Calcium did not achieve high removal rate but did present a

  11. The activation and suppression of plant innate immunity by parasitic nematodes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goverse, Aska; Smant, Geert

    2014-01-01

    Plant-parasitic nematodes engage in prolonged and intimate relationships with their host plants, often involving complex alterations in host cell morphology and function. It is puzzling how nematodes can achieve this, seemingly without activating the innate immune system of their hosts. Secretions released by infective juvenile nematodes are thought to be crucial for host invasion, for nematode migration inside plants, and for feeding on host cells. In the past, much of the research focused on the manipulation of developmental pathways in host plants by plant-parasitic nematodes. However, recent findings demonstrate that plant-parasitic nematodes also deliver effectors into the apoplast and cytoplasm of host cells to suppress plant defense responses. In this review, we describe the current insights in the molecular and cellular mechanisms underlying the activation and suppression of host innate immunity by plant-parasitic nematodes along seven critical evolutionary and developmental transitions in plant parasitism. PMID:24906126

  12. Macro algae as substrate for biogas production

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møller, Henrik; Sarker, Shiplu; Gautam, Dhan Prasad;

    Algae as a substrate for biogas is superior to other crops since it has a much higher yield of biomass per unit area and since algae grows in the seawater there will be no competition with food production on agricultural lands. So far, the progress in treating different groups of algae as a source...... of energy is promising. In this study 5 different algae types were tested for biogas potential and two algae were subsequent used for co-digestion with manure. Green seaweed, Ulva lactuca and brown seaweed Laminaria digitata was co-digested with cattle manure at mesophilic and thermophilic condition...

  13. Micro-algae come of age as a platform for recombinant protein production

    OpenAIRE

    Specht, Elizabeth; Miyake-Stoner, Shigeki; Mayfield, Stephen

    2010-01-01

    A complete set of genetic tools is still being developed for the micro-alga Chlamydomonas reinhardtii. Yet even with this incomplete set, this photosynthetic single-celled plant has demonstrated significant promise as a platform for recombinant protein expression. In recent years, techniques have been developed that allow for robust expression of genes from both the nuclear and plastid genome. With these advances, many research groups have examined the pliability of this and other micro-algae...

  14. Evolutionary origins, molecular cloning and expression of carotenoid hydroxylases in eukaryotic photosynthetic algae

    OpenAIRE

    Cui, Hongli; Yu, Xiaona; Wang, Yan; Cui, Yulin; Li, Xueqin; Liu, Zhaopu; Qin, Song

    2013-01-01

    Background Xanthophylls, oxygenated derivatives of carotenes, play critical roles in photosynthetic apparatus of cyanobacteria, algae, and higher plants. Although the xanthophylls biosynthetic pathway of algae is largely unknown, it is of particular interest because they have a very complicated evolutionary history. Carotenoid hydroxylase (CHY) is an important protein that plays essential roles in xanthophylls biosynthesis. With the availability of 18 sequenced algal genomes, we performed a c...

  15. PCD and autophagy in the unicellular green alga Micrasterias denticulata

    OpenAIRE

    Affenzeller, Matthias Josef; Darehshouri, Anza; Andosch, Ancuela; Lütz, Cornelius; LÜTZ-MEINDL, URSULA

    2009-01-01

    Programmed cell death (PCD) plays a central role in normal plant development and is also induced by various biotic and abiotic stress factors. In the unicellular freshwater green alga Micrasterias denticulata morphological and biochemical hallmarks such as the appearance of autophagosomes, increased production of ROS and degradation of genomic DNA into small fragments (“DNA laddering”) indicate PCD. Our data not only demonstrate that Micrasterias is capable of performing PCD under salt stress...

  16. Sprectroradiometric characteristics of inland water bodies infestated by Oscillatoria rubescens algae

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ciraolo, Giuseppe; La Loggia, Goffredo; Maltese, Antonino

    2010-10-01

    In December 2006 blooms of Oscillatoria rubescens were found in the reservoir Prizzi in Sicily. Oscillatoria is a genus of filamentous alga comprising approximately 6 species, between these the O. rubescens is sadly famous since this organism produces microcystins which are powerful hepatotoxins. Firstly found in Europe in 1825 on Geneva lake, recently (2006) those algae has been find out in Pozzillo, Nicoletti e Ancipa reservoirs (Enna Province), as well as in Prizzi (Palermo Province) and Garcia reservoirs (Trapani Province). Toxins produced by those bacteria (usually called microcystine LR-1 and LR-2) are highly toxic since they can activate oncogenes cells causing cancer pathologies on liver and gastrointestinal tract. Even if water treatment plants should ensure the provision of safe drinking water from surface waters contaminated with those toxic algae blooms, the contamination of reservoirs used for civil and agricultural supply highlights human health risks. International literature suggests a threshold value of 0.01 μgl-1 to avoid liver cancer using water coming from contaminated water bodies for a long period. Since O. rubescens activities is strongly related to phosphate and nitrogen compounds as well as to temperature and light transmission within water, the paper presents the comparison between optical properties of the water of an infested reservoir and those of a reservoir characterized by clear water. Field campaigns were carried out in February-March 2008 in order to quantify the spectral transparencies of two water bodies through the calculation of the diffuse attenuation coefficient, measuring underwater downwelling irradiance at different depths as well as water spectral reflectance. Results show that diffuse attenuation coefficient is reduced by approximately 15% reducing light penetration in the water column; coherently reflectance spectral signature generally decreases, exhibiting a characteristic peak around 703 nm not present in

  17. Cell death in the unicellular green alga Micrasterias upon H2O2 induction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Darehshouri, Anza; Affenzeller, Matthias; Lütz-Meindl, Ursula

    2010-01-01

    In the present study we investigate whether the unicellular green alga Micrasterias denticulata is capable of executing programmed cell death (PCD) upon experimental induction and by which morphological, molecular and physiological hallmarks it is characterized. This is particularly interesting as unicellular fresh water green algae growing in shallow bog ponds are exposed to extreme environmental conditions and the capability to perform PCD may provide an important strategy to guarantee survival of the population. The theoretically “immortal” alga Micrasterias is an ideal object for such investigations as it has served as a cell biological model system since many years and details on its growth properties, physiology and ultrastructure throughout the cell cycle are well known. Treatment with low concentrations of H2O2 known to induce PCD in other organisms resulted in severe ultrastructural changes of organelles as observed in TEM. These include deformation and partly disintegration of mitochondria, abnormal dilatation of cisternal rims of dictyosomes, the occurrence of multivesicular bodies, an increase in the number of ER compartments and slight condensation of chromatin. Additionally, a statistically significant increase in caspase-3-like activity could be detected which was abrogated by a caspase-3 inhibitor. Photosynthetic activity measured by fast chlorophyll fluorescence decreased as a consequence of H2O2 exposure whereas pigment composition, except of a reduction in carotenoids, was the same as in untreated controls. TUNEL positive staining and ladder-like degradation of DNA, both frequently regarded as PCD hallmark in higher plants could only be detected in dead Micrasterias cells. PMID:18950431

  18. Transcriptome Profiling of the Green Alga Spirogyra pratensis (Charophyta) Suggests an Ancestral Role for Ethylene in Cell Wall Metabolism, Photosynthesis, and Abiotic Stress Responses1[OPEN

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-01-01

    It is well known that ethylene regulates a diverse set of developmental and stress-related processes in angiosperms, yet its roles in early-diverging embryophytes and algae are poorly understood. Recently, it was shown that ethylene functions as a hormone in the charophyte green alga Spirogyra pratensis. Since land plants evolved from charophytes, this implies conservation of ethylene as a hormone in green plants for at least 450 million years. However, the physiological role of ethylene in charophyte algae has remained unknown. To gain insight into ethylene responses in Spirogyra, we used mRNA sequencing to measure changes in gene expression over time in Spirogyra filaments in response to an ethylene treatment. Our analyses show that at the transcriptional level, ethylene predominantly regulates three processes in Spirogyra: (1) modification of the cell wall matrix by expansins and xyloglucan endotransglucosylases/hydrolases, (2) down-regulation of chlorophyll biosynthesis and photosynthesis, and (3) activation of abiotic stress responses. We confirmed that the photosynthetic capacity and chlorophyll content were reduced by an ethylene treatment and that several abiotic stress conditions could stimulate cell elongation in an ethylene-dependent manner. We also found that the Spirogyra transcriptome harbors only 10 ethylene-responsive transcription factor (ERF) homologs, several of which are regulated by ethylene. These results provide an initial understanding of the hormonal responses induced by ethylene in Spirogyra and help to reconstruct the role of ethylene in ancestral charophytes prior to the origin of land plants. PMID:27489312

  19. Acaricidal activity against Panonychus citri and active ingredient of the mangrove plant Cerbera manghas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Yecheng; Yongmei Liao; Li, Jingjing; Yang, Linlin; Zhong, Hui; Zhou, Qiuyan; Qing, Zhen

    2014-09-01

    Cerbera manghas is a mangrove plant which possesses comprehensive biological activities. A great deal of research has been undertaken on the chemical constituents and medical functions of C. manghas; insecticidal and antifungal activities have also been reported, but the acaricidal activity has not been studied. In our study, the acaricidal activity and active substances of C. manghas were investigated using a spray method, which showed that the methanol extracts of the fruit, twigs and leaves exhibited contact activity against female adults of Panonychus citri, with LC50 values at 24 h of 3.39 g L(-1), 4.09 g L(-1) and 4.11 g L(-1), respectively. An acaricidal compound was isolated from C. manghas by an activity-guided isolation method, and identified as (-)-17β-neriifolin, which is a cardiac glycoside. (-)-17β-Neriifolin revealed high contact activity against female adults, nymphae, larvae and eggs of P. citri, with LC50 values at 24 h of 0.28 g L(-1), 0.29 g L(-1), 0.28 g L(-1) and 1.45 g L(-1), respectively. PMID:25918788

  20. Development of filters and housings for use on active plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    New designs of housings for conventional HEPA filters have been developed and are now in use. A further design is planned for future use. The main features to be developed are the engineering of double door systems to replace bag posting and other methods of filter changing which expose personnel to hazardous environments and the addition of a secondary containment to reduce the role of the gasket seal in the filtration efficiency. Also under development are circular geometry filters of HEPA standard which offer significant advantages over rectangular filters for applications requiring remote shielded change facilities. Two types of filter construction are being evaluated, conventional radial flow cartridge filters and spiral-wound, axial-flow filters. The application of circular filters for primary filter systems on active plant is in hand. A push-through change system has been developed for a new cell facility under construction at Harwell. Existing rectangular filters on a high activity cell are being replaced with clusters of small cartridge filters to overcome changing and disposal problems. A similar system but using 1700 m3/h filters for large volume off-gas treatment is also being studied. A remote change shielded filter installation is being developed for use in high alpha, beta, gamma extract systems. The design incorporates large cartridge filters in sealed drums with remote transfer and connection to duct work in the facility. A novel application of the use of double-lid technology removes the need for separate shut off dampers and enables the drums to be sealed for all transfer operations

  1. Results of activated sludge plants applying enhanced biological phosphorus removal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Machado, A.; Pinto, M.; Neder, K.; Hoffmann, H.

    1989-02-01

    To stop the eutrophication in lakes and rivers, the input of nutrient and phosphorus compounds must be limited. The biological elimination of phosphorus describes a possibility, to reduce phosphorus in the biological stage of a treatment plant to a considerable extent. In this paper the process-system and the operation-results of a pilot plant and two municipal treatment plants are presented, where biological phosphorus reduction about 80% takes place without any constructional modifications.

  2. 15 CFR 922.122 - Prohibited or otherwise regulated activities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... other bottom formation, coralline algae or other plant, marine invertebrate, brine-seep biota or... purposes, any carbonate rock, coral or other bottom formation, coralline algae or other plant,...

  3. Screening of Antibacterial Activities of Essential Oils from Selected Medicinal Plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Essential oils were extracted from the five medicinal plants (Syzygium aromaticum Linn, Cinnamoum tamala. Nees, Piper betle. Linn, Ocimum sanctum, Clausena exacavata Burn) by steam distillation method and percolation method with petroleum ether. These plants do not contain cyanogenic glycosides according to phytochemical tests. Essential oils from these plants were also tested on antimicrobial activity by agar well diffusion method. It was observed that essential oils extracted from these five plants have various effects on Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria and fungus. Among them, essential oils of Syzygium aromaticum possess the highest antimicrobial activity aganist all test organisms. B. pumalis and Calbican are the most susceptible to the five plants.

  4. Expression activity of the CpTI gene in transgenic rice plants

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    @@Plant harboured protease inhibitor is a part of the natural plant defense system against insect predation. Plants transformed with foreign plant protease inhibitor genes can enhance resistance to insect pests. So far, at least 20 kinds of plants, including tobacco, rice, tomato, cotton et al., have been transformed with various plant protease inhibitor genes. We have transformed rice with CpTI (cowpea trypsin inhibitor) gene. To assess the range and stability of expression of the CpTI gene, CpTI protein activities were determined in various tissues and at different development stages of transgenic inbred lines.

  5. D-lactate metabolism in the alga, Chlamydomonas Reinhardtii

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    [14C]D-lactate rapidly accumulates in Chlamydomonas cells under anaerobic conditions from the sugar-phosphate pools which are labeled during photosynthesis with 14CO2. A soluble D-lactate dehydrogenase (30 μmol NADH oxidized/h/mg Chl), which functions only in the direction of pyruvate reduction, has been partially purified and characterized. The D-lactate is reoxidized in Chlamydomonas by a mitochondrial membrane-bound dehydrogenase. This enzyme is known in the plant literature as glycolate dehydrogenase, an enzyme of the oxidative photosynthetic carbon (C2) cycle. This dehydrogenase may be linked to the mitochondrial electron transport chain, although the direct electron acceptor is unknown. Therefore, D-lactate accumulation may be, in part, due to the shut down of electron transport during anaerobiosis. In vivo chase experiments have shown that the D-lactate turns over rapidly when algal cells, which have been grown with air levels of CO2 (0.04%), are returned to aerobic conditions in the light. Such turnover is not observed in cells which had been grown with 1 to 5% CO2. Cells grown with high CO2 have lower levels of glycolate dehydrogenase activity. They are currently using mutants of Chlamydomonas deficient in mitochondrial respiration to study the role of D-lactate oxidation in these algae

  6. PPR proteins of green algae

    OpenAIRE

    Tourasse, Nicolas J; Choquet, Yves; Vallon, Olivier

    2013-01-01

    Using the repeat finding algorithm FT-Rep, we have identified 154 pentatricopeptide repeat (PPR) proteins in nine fully sequenced genomes from green algae (with a total of 1201 repeats) and grouped them in 47 orthologous groups. All data are available in a database, PPRdb, accessible online at http://giavap-genomes.ibpc.fr/ppr. Based on phylogenetic trees generated from the repeats, we propose evolutionary scenarios for PPR proteins. Two PPRs are clearly conserved in the entire green lineage:...

  7. Benchmarking procedure for full-scale activated sludge plants

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Abusam, A.; Keesman, K.J.; Spanjers, H.; Straten, van G.

    2004-01-01

    To enhance development and acceptance of new control strategies, a standard simulation benchmarking methodology to evaluate the performance of wastewater treatment plants has recently been proposed. The proposed methodology is, however, for a typical plant and that works under typical loading and en

  8. A bacterial tyrosine phosphatase inhibits plant pattern recognition receptor activation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perception of pathogen-associated molecular patterns (PAMPs) by surface-localised pattern-recognition receptors (PRRs) is a key component of plant innate immunity. Most known plant PRRs are receptor kinases and initiation of PAMP-triggered immunity (PTI) signalling requires phosphorylation of the PR...

  9. Iron encrustations on filamentous algae colonized by Gallionella-related bacteria in a metal-polluted freshwater stream

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mori, J. F.; Neu, T. R.; Lu, S.; Händel, M.; Totsche, K. U.; Küsel, K.

    2015-09-01

    Filamentous macroscopic algae were observed in slightly acidic to circumneutral (pH 5.9-6.5), metal-rich stream water that leaked out from a former uranium mining district (Ronneburg, Germany). These algae differed in color and morphology and were encrusted with Fe-deposits. To elucidate their potential interaction with Fe(II)-oxidizing bacteria (FeOB), we collected algal samples at three time points during summer 2013 and studied the algae-bacteria-mineral compositions via confocal laser scanning microscopy (CLSM), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectra, and a 16S and 18S rRNA gene-based bacterial and algae community analysis. Surprisingly, sequencing analysis of 18S rRNA gene regions of green and brown algae revealed high homologies with the freshwater algae Tribonema (99.9-100 %). CLSM imaging indicated a loss of active chloroplasts in the algae cells, which may be responsible for the change in color in gene-targeted studies revealed that Gallionella-related FeOB dominated the bacterial RNA and DNA communities (70-97 and 63-96 %, respectively), suggesting their capacity to compete with the abiotic Fe-oxidation under the putative oxygen-saturated conditions that occur in association with photosynthetic algae. Quantitative PCR (polymerase chain reaction) revealed even higher Gallionella-related 16S rRNA gene copy numbers on the surface of green algae compared to the brown algae. The latter harbored a higher microbial diversity, including some putative predators of algae. A loss of chloroplasts in the brown algae could have led to lower photosynthetic activities and reduced EPS production, which is known to affect predator colonization. Collectively, our results suggest the coexistence of oxygen-generating algae Tribonema sp. and strictly microaerophilic neutrophilic FeOB in a heavy metal-rich environment.

  10. Cytotoxic Activity of Some Medicinal Plants from Hamedan District of Iran

    OpenAIRE

    Behzad, Sahar; Pirani, Atefeh; Mosaddegh, Mahmoud

    2014-01-01

    Medicinal plants have been investigated for possible anti-cancer effects. The aim of the present study was to examine the cytotoxic activity of several medicinal plants on different tumor cell lines. 11 selected plant species which have been used in folkloric prescriptions were collected from different sites of Hamedan district of Iran. The methanolic extracts of the plants were prepared and their cytotoxic effects on four human cancer cell lines (A549, human lung adenocarcinoma; MCF7, human ...

  11. Parasites in algae mass culture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Todd William Lane

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Parasites are now known to be ubiquitous across biological systems and can play an important role in modulating algal populations. However, there is a lack of extensive information on their role in artificial ecosystems such as algal production ponds and photobioreactors. Parasites have been implicated in the demise of algal blooms. Because individual mass culture systems often tend to be unialgal and a select few algal species are in wide scale application, there is an increased potential for parasites to have a devastating effect on commercial scale monoculture. As commercial algal production continues to expand with a widening variety of applications, including biofuel, food and pharmaceuticals, the parasites associated with algae will become of greater interest and potential economic impact. A number of important algal parasites have been identified in algal mass culture systems in the last few years and this number is sure to grow as the number of commercial algae ventures increases. Here, we review the research that has identified and characterized parasites infecting mass cultivated algae, the techniques being proposed and or developed to control them, and the potential impact of parasites on the future of the algal biomass industry.

  12. Bio diesel production from algae

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Algae appear to be an emerging source of biomass for bio diesel that has the potential to completely displace fossil fuel. Two thirds of earth's surface is covered with water, thus alga e would truly be renewable option of great potential for global energy needs. This study discusses specific and comparative bio diesel quantitative potential of Cladophora sp., also highlighting its biomass (after oil extraction), pH and sediments (glycerine, water and pigments) quantitative properties. Comparison of Cladophora sp., with Oedogonium sp., and Spirogyra sp., (Hossain et al., 2008) shows that Cladophora sp., produce higher quantity of bio diesel than Spirogyra sp., whereas biomass and sediments were higher than the both algal specimens in comparison to the results obtained by earlier workers. No prominent difference in pH of bio diesel was found. In Pakistan this is a first step towards bio diesel production from algae. Results indicate that Cladophora sp., provide a reasonable quantity of bio diesel, its greater biomass after oil extraction and sediments make it a better option for bio diesel production than the comparing species. (author)

  13. Advanced emission control system: CO2 sequestration using algae integrated management system (AIMS)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    One of the companies under Algae tech, Sasaran Bio fuel Sdn. Bhd. provides project management, technology transfer and technical expertise to develop a solution to minimize and mitigate Carbon Dioxide (CO2) emissions through the diversion of the CO2 to open algal ponds and enclosed photo-bioreactors as algal propagation technologies to consume CO2 waste stream. The company is presently consulting a listed company from Indonesia to address the technology know-how and implementation of microalgae development from the flue gas of the Groups power plants. Nowadays, one of the aspects that contribute to the air pollution is the emission of flue gases from the factories. So, we provide a system that can reduce the emission of flue gas to the atmosphere and at the same time, cultivate certain strain of algae. With the technology, Algae Integrated Management System (AIMS), it will be for sure a new beginning for way to reduce air pollution. The utilization of power plant resources for growing selected microalgae at a low energy cost for valuable products and bio-fuels while providing CO2 sequestering. In the same time, it also a low cost algae agriculture. By doing so, it provides all year algae production which can be an income. This residual energy used CO2 produced from power stations and industrial plants to feed the process (CO2 recycling and bio-fixation) in cultivation of algae. This will be a low cost flue gas (CO2) to the developer. In a nutshell, CO2 Sequestration by algae reactors is a potential to reduce greenhouse gas emission by using the CO2 in the stack gases to produce algae. (author)

  14. Microbial to reef scale interactions between the reef-building coral Montastraea annularis and benthic algae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barott, Katie L; Rodriguez-Mueller, Beltran; Youle, Merry; Marhaver, Kristen L; Vermeij, Mark J A; Smith, Jennifer E; Rohwer, Forest L

    2012-04-22

    Competition between reef-building corals and benthic algae is of key importance for reef dynamics. These interactions occur on many spatial scales, ranging from chemical to regional. Using microprobes, 16S rDNA pyrosequencing and underwater surveys, we examined the interactions between the reef-building coral Montastraea annularis and four types of benthic algae. The macroalgae Dictyota bartayresiana and Halimeda opuntia, as well as a mixed consortium of turf algae, caused hypoxia on the adjacent coral tissue. Turf algae were also associated with major shifts in the bacterial communities at the interaction zones, including more pathogens and virulence genes. In contrast to turf algae, interactions with crustose coralline algae (CCA) and M. annularis did not appear to be antagonistic at any scale. These zones were not hypoxic, the microbes were not pathogen-like and the abundance of coral-CCA interactions was positively correlated with per cent coral cover. We propose a model in which fleshy algae (i.e. some species of turf and fleshy macroalgae) alter benthic competition dynamics by stimulating bacterial respiration and promoting invasion of virulent bacteria on corals. This gives fleshy algae a competitive advantage over corals when human activities, such as overfishing and eutrophication, remove controls on algal abundance. Together, these results demonstrate the intricate connections and mechanisms that structure coral reefs.

  15. Community structure of actively growing bacterial populations in plant pathogen suppressive soil

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hjort, K.; Lembke, A.; Speksnijder, A.G.C.L.; Smalla, K.; Jansson, J.K.

    2007-01-01

    The bacterial community in soil was screened by using various molecular approaches for bacterial populations that were activated upon addition of different supplements. Plasmodiophora brassicae spores, chitin, sodium acetate, and cabbage plants were added to activate specific bacterial populations a

  16. Screening of some traditionally used medicinal plants for potential antibacterial activity

    OpenAIRE

    Parekh Jigna; Karathia Nehal; Chanda Sumitra

    2006-01-01

    In the present work an attempt has been made to carry out screening for the preliminary antibacterial activity of different plants used in Indian folk medicine. The aim of the study was to select an active plant extract which may be useful in developing new lead compounds to combat deadly diseases. Twelve plants were selected for preliminary screening for their antibacterial potentiality, viz., Abutilon indicum L., Acorous calamus L., Ammania baccifera L., Argyrea nervosa Burm. F., B...

  17. Antibacterial Activity of Twenty Iranian Plant Extracts Against Clinical Isolates of Helicobacter pylori

    OpenAIRE

    Farahnaz Nariman; Fereshteh Eftekhar; Zohreh Habibi; Sadegh Massarrat; Reza Malekzadeh

    2009-01-01

    Objective(s)Due to increasing emergence of drug-resistance in Helicobacter pylori isolates, traditional plants arepotentially valuable sources of novel anti-H. pylori agents. In this research, anti-H. pylori activity of theorganic extracts of twenty native Iranian plants was determined against ten clinical isolates of H. pylori.Materials and MethodsDisc diffusion was used to determine the biological activity of 20 plant extracts as well as 8 antibioticscommonly used to treat H. pylori infecti...

  18. Screening of radical scavenging activity and polyphenol content of Bulgarian plant species

    OpenAIRE

    Milena Nikolova

    2011-01-01

    Background: Discovery of new plant species with antioxidant properties is a priority of many research teams. Most of the species included in this study are unstudied for antioxidant properties, but they are taxonomically related to reference plants with well-documented antioxidant activity. Materials and Methods: Free radical scavenging activity of plant extracts was evaluated using a 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) assay. An aluminum chloride colorimetric method was used for flavonoid d...

  19. Anti hyperlipidemic activity of Tephrosia purpurea plant extracts in poloxomer 407 induced hyperlipidemic rats

    OpenAIRE

    Pankti P. Dalwadi; Pragnesh Patani

    2014-01-01

    Aim & Objective: Screening Of Antihyperlipidemic Activity of Tephrosia purpurea Plant Extracts.   Material & Method: Screening of antihyperlipidemic was done by using Tephrosia purpurea Leaves, Stem and Whole plant (except Leaves) extracts. Part extracts used for antihyperlipidemic activity were stem (500 mg/kg), leaves (400mg/kg) and whole plant extracts except leaves at the dose of (300mg/kg, 600mg/kg).Hyperlipidemia was administered in experimental animals using Poloxomer 407 by in...

  20. ANTIMICROBIAL ACTIVITY OF ESSENTIAL OILS OF PLANTS BELONGING TO LAMIACEAE JUSS. FAMILY

    OpenAIRE

    Shanayda M.I.; Pokryshko O.V

    2015-01-01

    Introduction. One of the important sources of therapeutic and prophylactic agents of modern medicines are essential oils of medicinal plants. Essential oils are the main group of biologically active substances of a number of plants belonging to Lamiaceae Juss. Family. Antibacterial activity of medicinal plants belonging to Lamiaceae Family many scientists associated with containing of essential oils. In this regard, considerable interest presents the comparative analysis of the antimicrobial ...

  1. Antifungal compounds from turmeric and nutmeg with activity against plant pathogens

    Science.gov (United States)

    The antifungal activity of twenty-two common spices was evaluated against plant pathogens using direct-bioautography coupled Colletotrichum bioassays. Turmeric, nutmeg, ginger, clove, oregano, cinnamon, anise, fennel, basil, black cumin, and black pepper showed antifungal activity against the plant ...

  2. Phospholipase D activation correlates with microtubule reorganization in living plant cells

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    P.B. Dhonukshe; A.M. Laxalt; J. Goedhart; Th.W.J. Gadella; T. Munnik

    2003-01-01

    A phospholipase D (PLD) was shown recently to decorate microtubules in plant cells. Therefore, we used tobacco BY-2 cells expressing the microtubule reporter GFP-MAP4 to test whether PLD activation affects the organization of plant microtubules. Within 30 min of adding n-butanol, a potent activator

  3. Increasing of antioxidant and superoxide dismutase activity in chicory transgenic plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matvieieva N. A.

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Aim. Determination of the antioxidant activity (AOA and superoxide dismutase (SOD activity in transgenic chicory plants carrying the human interferon α2b target and nptII or bar selective genes. Methods. AOA was measured by a method based on the determination of kinetics of the reduced 2,6-dichlorophenolindophenol oxidation. SOD activity was assayed using the system consisting of ethionine, riboflavin, and nitroblue tetrazolium. Results. Antioxidant activity of transformed plants extracts was more than 1,91–2,59 and 2,04–2,43 times over the activity of control non-transgenic plants (at nptII and bar gene presence respectively. SOD activity was higher in transgenic plants than in the control, and was 2,03 ± 0,46–3,33 ± 0,54 U/g weight (nptII gene and 2,25 ± 0,46–2,68 ± 0,08 U/g weight (bar gene. Conclusions. Transgenic C. intybus plants have higher antioxidant and superoxide dismutase activity compared to non-transgenic plants. The increasing of AOA and SOD activity is a response of plants to transformation stress factor and integration of foreign genes in plant genome.

  4. Antimicrobial Activity of Some Medicinal Plants from East and Central Part of Nepal

    OpenAIRE

    Bimala Subba*; Prakash Basnet

    2014-01-01

    To evaluate the antimicrobial activities of extract of eleven plants were examined against four common bacterials. The ethanolic extracts of various plants such as Cissus repens, Hedyotis scandens, Jatropha curcas, Morus alba, Inula cappa, Equisetum ramosissimum, Osyris wightiana, Alternantheria sessilis and Hibiscus lampas investigated individually for antimicrobial activity by disc diffusion method. These were investigated against selected species of Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia col...

  5. Antibacterial activity of five Peruvian medicinal plants against Pseudomonas aeruginosa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriela Ulloa-Urizar

    2015-11-01

    Conclusions: The results of the present study scientifically validate the inhibitory capacity of the five medicinal plants attributed by their common use in folk medicine and contribute towards the development of new treatment options based on natural products.

  6. MEDICINAL PLANTS WITH POTENTIAL ANTICANCER ACTIVITIES: A REVIEW

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Narah Merina

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Plants have been the beacon of therapeutic sources for curing diseases from times immemorial. Medicinal plants with their isolated lead molecules are also used as an alternative medicine for treating neoplastic cells. Neoplastic cells are the anomalous proliferation of cells in the body which cause cancer. Diverse efficient compounds derived from natural products have been isolated as anticancer agents. These chemical compounds are formulated with a view to create effective drugs against cancer. Some of the lead molecules isolated from different medicinal plants are already in use to treat cancer and chemotherapeutic side effects. These potential and successful anticancer molecules include Vincristine, Vinblastin, Taxol, Camptothecin and Podophyllotoxin. This paper deals with the selective medicinal plants having anticancer properties which could be further designed to produce cancer curing drugs.

  7. Evaluation of antidiabetic activity of plants used in Western Sudan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maha Abdulrahman Alamin

    2015-05-01

    Conclusions: This study demonstrated that T. bakis, N. latifolia, R. nilotica and Mitragyna inremis have therapeutic value in diabetes and related complications and thus supporting the traditional uses of these plants in Sudanese traditional medicine.

  8. The biochemical mechanisms of the plant activation of promutagenic aromatic amines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wagner, E.D.; Verdier, M.M.; Plewa, M.J. (Univ. of Illinois, Urbana (USA))

    1990-01-01

    Using specific monooxygenase and oxidase inhibitors in a plant cell/microbe coincubation assay, the biochemical mechanisms of the plant activation of two aromatic amines were compared. The biological endpoints included mutation induction, inhibition of mutagenicity, viability of the plant cells (activating system), and viability of the microbial cells. The activation of m-phenylenediamine by TX1 cells was mediated by enzyme systems that were inhibited by diethyldithiocarbamate, potassium cyanide, methimazole, (+)-catechin or acetaminophen. The inhibition by metyrapone was attended by toxicity in the plant cells. These data implicate a TX1 cell peroxidase and a FAD-dependent monoxygenase in the plant activation of m-phenylenediamine. The TX1 cell activation of 2-aminofluorene was inhibited by diethyldithiocarbamate, 7,8-benzoflavone, acetaminophen or (+)-catechin.

  9. Evaluation of antidiabetic activity of plants used in Western Sudan

    OpenAIRE

    Maha Abdulrahman Alamin; Ahmed Ibrahim Yagi; Sakina Mohamed Yagi

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the traditional antidiabetic uses of some indigenous Sudanese plants on streptozotocin-induced diabetes rats. Methods: Diabetic rats were treated with a 400 mg/kg dose of aqueous extracts of five plant species orally for 2 h (acute) or 14 days (chronic). In acute model blood glucose levels were monitored at specific intervals. In the chronic model blood samples were collected from overnight fasted diabetic rats on day 15 to estimate blood glucose level. And the bo...

  10. Plant oligoadenylates: enzymatic synthesis, isolation, and biological activities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An enzyme that converts [3H, 32P]ATP, with a 3H:32P ratio of 1:1, to oligoadenylates with the same 3H:32P ratio was increased in plants following treatment with human leukocyte interferon or plant antiviral factor or inoculation with tobacco mosaic virus. The enzyme was extracted from tobacco leaves, callus tissue cultures, or cell suspension cultures. The enzyme, a putative plant oligoadenylate synthetase, was immobilized on poly(rI) . poly(rC)-agarose columns and converted ATP into plant oligoadenylates. These oligoadenylates were displaced from DEAE-cellulose columns with 350 mM KCl buffer, dialyzed, and further purified by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) and DEAE-cellulose gradient chromatography. In all steps of purification, the ratio of 3H:32P in the oligoadenylates remained 1:1. The plant oligoadenylates isolated by displacement with 350 mM KCl had a molecular weight greater than 1000. The plant oligoadenylates had charges of 5- and 6-. HPLC resolved five peaks, three of which inhibited protein synthesis in reticulocyte and wheat germ systems. Partial structural elucidation of the plant oligoadenylates has been determined by enzymatic and chemical treatments. An adenylate with a 3',5'-phosphodiester and/or a pyrophosphoryl linkage with either 3'- or 5'-terminal phosphates is postulated on the basis of treatment of the oligoadenylates with T2 RNase, snake venom phosphodiesterase, and bacterial alkaline phosphatase and acid and alkaline hydrolyses. The plant oligoadenylates at 8 X 10(-7) M inhibit protein synthesis by 75% in lysates from rabbit reticulocytes and 45% in wheat germ cell-free systems

  11. Antibacterial Activity of Medicinal Aqueous Plant Extracts against Mycobacterium tuberculosis

    OpenAIRE

    Muna Mohammed Buzayan; Fauzia Rajab El-Garbulli

    2012-01-01

    Tuberculosis (TB) remains a serious health problem in many regions of the world, and the development of resistance to antibiotics by this microbe created the need for new drugs to replace those which have lost effectiveness. This study assesses the medicinal anti-Mycobacterium tuberculosis properties of natural products obtained from plants collected from Eastern Libya. In this study aqueous extracts of nine different plants were assayed for their Mycobacterium tuberculosis inhibitory activit...

  12. MEDICINAL PLANTS WITH POTENTIAL ANTICANCER ACTIVITIES: A REVIEW

    OpenAIRE

    Narah Merina; Kalita Jogen Chandra; Kotoky Jibon

    2012-01-01

    Plants have been the beacon of therapeutic sources for curing diseases from times immemorial. Medicinal plants with their isolated lead molecules are also used as an alternative medicine for treating neoplastic cells. Neoplastic cells are the anomalous proliferation of cells in the body which cause cancer. Diverse efficient compounds derived from natural products have been isolated as anticancer agents. These chemical compounds are formulated with a view to create effective drugs against can...

  13. Database on pharmacophore analysis of active principles, from medicinal plants

    OpenAIRE

    Pitchai, Daisy; Manikkam, Rajalakshmi; Rajendran, Sasikala R; Pitchai, Gnanamani

    2010-01-01

    Plants continue to be a major source of medicines, as they have been throughout human history. In the present days, drug discovery from plants involves a multidisciplinary approach combining ethnobotanical, phytochemical and biological techniques to provide us new chemical compounds (lead molecules) for the development of drugs against various pharmacological targets, including cancer, diabetes and its secondary complications. In view of this need in current drug discovery from medicinal plan...

  14. Evaluation of antimicrobial activity of selected plant extracts by rapid XTT colorimetry and bacterial enumeration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Bakri, Amal G; Afifi, Fatma U

    2007-01-01

    The aim of this study was to screen and evaluate the antimicrobial activity of indigenous Jordanian plant extracts, dissolved in dimethylsulfoxide, using the rapid XTT assay and viable count methods. XTT rapid assay was used for the initial screening of antimicrobial activity for the plant extracts. Antimicrobial activity of potentially active plant extracts was further assessed using the "viable plate count" method. Four degrees of antimicrobial activity (high, moderate, weak and inactive) against Bacillus subtilis, Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli and Pseudomonas aeruginosa, respectively, were recorded. The plant extracts of Hypericum triquetrifolium, Ballota undulata, Ruta chalepensis, Ononis natrix, Paronychia argentea and Marrubium vulgare had shown promising antimicrobial activity. This study showed that while both XTT and viable count methods are comparable when estimating the overall antimicrobial activity of experimental substances, there is no strong linear correlation between the two methods. PMID:16831479

  15. In Silico Analysis of Correlations between Protein Disorder and Post-Translational Modifications in Algae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Atsushi Kurotani

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Recent proteome analyses have reported that intrinsically disordered regions (IDRs of proteins play important roles in biological processes. In higher plants whose genomes have been sequenced, the correlation between IDRs and post-translational modifications (PTMs has been reported. The genomes of various eukaryotic algae as common ancestors of plants have also been sequenced. However, no analysis of the relationship to protein properties such as structure and PTMs in algae has been reported. Here, we describe correlations between IDR content and the number of PTM sites for phosphorylation, glycosylation, and ubiquitination, and between IDR content and regions rich in proline, glutamic acid, serine, and threonine (PEST and transmembrane helices in the sequences of 20 algae proteomes. Phosphorylation, O-glycosylation, ubiquitination, and PEST preferentially occurred in disordered regions. In contrast, transmembrane helices were favored in ordered regions. N-glycosylation tended to occur in ordered regions in most of the studied algae; however, it correlated positively with disordered protein content in diatoms. Additionally, we observed that disordered protein content and the number of PTM sites were significantly increased in the species-specific protein clusters compared to common protein clusters among the algae. Moreover, there were specific relationships between IDRs and PTMs among the algae from different groups.

  16. Bacterial Enhancement of Vinyl Fouling by Algae

    OpenAIRE

    Holmes, Paul E.

    1986-01-01

    The role of bacteria in the development of algae on low-density vinyl was investigated. Unidentified bacterial contaminants in unialgal stock cultures of Phormidium faveolarum and Pleurochloris pyrenoidosa enhanced, by 1 to 2 orders of magnitude, colonization of vinyl by these algae, as determined by epifluorescence microscopy counts and chlorophyll a in extracts of colonized vinyl. Colonization by bacteria always preceded that by algae. Scanning electron microscopy of the colonized Phormidiu...

  17. Ribonuclease activity of buckwheat plant (Fagopyrum esculentum) cultivars with different sensitivities to buckwheat burn virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sindarovska, Y R; Guzyk, O I; Yuzvenko, L V; Demchenko, O A; Didenko, L F; Grynevych, O I; Spivak, M Ya

    2014-01-01

    Ribonucleases (RNases) are present in base-level amounts in intact plants, but this level is able to increase greatly under stress conditions. The possible cause for such an increase is protection against plant RNA-virus attack. Buckwheat burn virus (BBV) is a highly virulent pathogen that belongs to Rhabdoviridae family. In our study, we have analyzed the correlation between RNase activity and resistance of different buckwheat cultivars to BBV infection. Two cultivars, Kara-Dag and Roksolana, with different sensitivities to BBV have been used. Kara-Dag is a cultivar with medium sensitivity to virus and Roksolana is a tolerant cultivar. It has been shown that the base level of RNase activity in Roksolana cultivar was in most cases higher than the corresponding parameter in Kara-Dag cultivar. Both infected and uninfected plants of Roksolana cultivar demonstrated high RNase activity during two weeks. Whereas infected plants of Kara-Dag cultivar demonstrated unstable levels of RNase activity. Significant decline in RNase activity was detected on the 7th day post infection with subsequent gradual increase in RNase activity. Decline of the RNase activity during the first week could promote the virus replication and therefore more successful infection of upper leaves of plants. Unstable levels of RNase activity in infected buckwheat plants may be explained by insufficiency of virus-resistant mechanisms that determines the medium sensitivity of the cultivar to BBV. Thus, plants of buckwheat cultivar having less sensitivity to virus, displayed in general higher RNase activity.

  18. Amebicidal activity of plant extracts from Southeast Asia on Acanthamoeba spp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chu, D M; Miles, H; Toney, D; Ngyuen, C; Marciano-Cabral, F

    1998-09-01

    The effect of 100 polar and 100 nonpolar plant extract materials obtained from Southeast Asia were evaluated for amebicidal activity in vitro against three species of Acanthamoeba. A. culbertsoni, A. castellanii, and A. polyphaga, the causative agents of granulomatous amebic encephalitis and amebic keratitis, were studied in vitro to determine whether the plant extracts exhibited amebicidal activity or induced encystment of the amebae. Of the 200 plant extracts tested, extracts obtained from three plants (Ipomoea sp., Kaempferia galanga, and Cananga odorata) were amebicidal for all three species of Acanthamoeba and a fourth extract prepared from Gastrochilus panduratum was lytic for A. polyphaga and growth-inhibitory for A. castellanii and A. culbertsoni. Three plant extracts induced encystment of all three species of Acanthamoeba. Select plant extracts were tested as well for tumoricidal activity against B103 neuroblastoma cells. Some plant extracts that exhibited tumoricidal activity for B103 cells were not amebicidal for Acanthamoeba spp. Additionally, the polar and nonpolar extracts that exhibited amebicidal activity were also tested for activity against primary murine peritoneal macrophage cultures. Plant extracts that demonstrated tumoricidal or amebicidal activity were not lytic for normal macrophage cultures. PMID:9766904

  19. DPPH free radical scavenging activity and phenotypic difference in hepatoprotective plant (Silybum marianum L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmad, Nisar; Fazal, Hina; Abbasi, Bilal Haider; Anwar, Shazma; Basir, Abdul

    2013-06-01

    Silybum marianum L. is medicinally important for its active principle component silymarin. Silymarin regenerates damaged hepatic tissues. On the basis of such regenerative properties, the radical scavenging activity (1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH)) of different tissues and the phenotypic difference of the hepatoprotective species, S. marianum L. were evaluated. There was less phenotypic difference in purple and white varieties of S. marianum. Assay of the antioxidant potential of different parts of the plant revealed that significantly higher activity (78.2%) was observed in seeds of the purple flowering plant than seeds of white flowering plant (49%) after different time intervals. Young leaves collected from white flowering plant exhibit 64.8% activity, which is higher than the purple flowering plant (55.1%). Significantly, same activity was observed in mature leaves of white (52%) and purple flowering plants (50%). The main stem collected from both the varieties exhibits similar activity from 50 to 52%. A 67.2% activity was recorded for mature roots of white flowering plant followed by roots of the purple variety (65%). The present study revealed that seeds and roots of both the varieties scavenge and detoxify more DPPH free radicals than other plant parts and can be used as a source of natural antioxidants and food additives. PMID:22362017

  20. Development of chemistry support programme for algae control in spray pond waters of CIRUS reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A major problem in any open recirculating cooling water system, is the growth of micro-organisms, especially algae, which adversely affects the efficient and safe operation of the plant. The algae control depends to a great extent, on the selection of an effective algaecide and on the adoption of proper dose and dosing frequency of the algaecide. The present paper describes the development of (i) a generally applicable analytical method for comparing the algicidal efficacies of available commercial algaecides, for the specific local strains of algae in the spray pond waters of CIRUS reactor at Trombay, and (ii) a procedure for assessing 'algicide demand' in open recirculating cooling water systems, which can be used to establish an effective and efficient algae control programme. (author)