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  1. Cytotoxic, Virucidal, and Antiviral Activity of South American Plant and Algae Extracts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paula Faral-Tello

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1 infection has a prevalence of 70% in the human population. Treatment is based on acyclovir, valacyclovir, and foscarnet, three drugs that share the same mechanism of action and of which resistant strains have been isolated from patients. In this aspect, innovative drug therapies are required. Natural products offer unlimited opportunities for the discovery of antiviral compounds. In this study, 28 extracts corresponding to 24 plant species and 4 alga species were assayed in vitro to detect antiviral activity against HSV-1. Six of the methanolic extracts inactivated viral particles by direct interaction and 14 presented antiviral activity when incubated with cells already infected. Most interesting antiviral activity values obtained are those of Limonium brasiliense, Psidium guajava, and Phyllanthus niruri, which inhibit HSV-1 replication in vitro with 50% effective concentration (EC50 values of 185, 118, and 60 μg/mL, respectively. For these extracts toxicity values were calculated and therefore selectivity indexes (SI obtained. Further characterization of the bioactive components of antiviral plants will pave the way for the discovery of new compounds against HSV-1.

  2. DGDG and Glycolipids in Plants and Algae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalisch, Barbara; Dörmann, Peter; Hölzl, Georg

    2016-01-01

    Photosynthetic organelles in plants and algae are characterized by the high abundance of glycolipids, including the galactolipids mono- and digalactosyldiacylglycerol (MGDG, DGDG) and the sulfolipid sulfoquinovosyldiacylglycerol (SQDG). Glycolipids are crucial to maintain an optimal efficiency of photosynthesis. During phosphate limitation, the amounts of DGDG and SQDG increase in the plastids of plants, and DGDG is exported to extraplastidial membranes to replace phospholipids. Algae often use betaine lipids as surrogate for phospholipids. Glucuronosyldiacylglycerol (GlcADG) is a further glycolipid that accumulates under phosphate deprived conditions. In contrast to plants, a number of eukaryotic algae contain very long chain polyunsaturated fatty acids of 20 or more carbon atoms in their glycolipids. The pathways and genes for galactolipid and sulfolipid synthesis are largely conserved between plants, Chlorophyta, Rhodophyta and algae with complex plastids derived from secondary or tertiary endosymbiosis. However, the relative contribution of the endoplasmic reticulum- and plastid-derived lipid pathways for glycolipid synthesis varies between plants and algae. The genes for glycolipid synthesis encode precursor proteins imported into the photosynthetic organelles. While most eukaryotic algae contain the plant-like galactolipid (MGD1, DGD1) and sulfolipid (SQD1, SQD2) synthases, the red alga Cyanidioschyzon harbors a cyanobacterium-type DGDG synthase (DgdA), and the amoeba Paulinella, derived from a more recent endosymbiosis event, contains cyanobacterium-type enzymes for MGDG and DGDG synthesis (MgdA, MgdE, DgdA).

  3. Extraction of essential oils from native plants and algae from the coast of Peniche (Portugal: antimicrobial and antioxidant activity.

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    Clélia Neves Afonso

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Coastal areas are highly complex and dynamic ecosystem of interface between land, sea and atmosphere, which also suffer biotic influences. These areas play several important ecological functions, and here we can find an enormous biodiversity. The coastline of Portugal features a high number of endemic flora and vegetation with the potential to provide functional compounds that may provide physiological benefits at nutritional and therapeutic levels, as sources of bioactive substances with antimicrobial, antioxidant, antifungal, antitumalr and anti-inflammatory activity. Among these compounds, we find essential oils, also known as volatile oils, which are a result of secondary metabolism of aromatic plants, containing a large number of substances with varied chemical composition that can be obtained by different methods of extraction. The aim of this study was to extract essential oils of native plants and seaweeds from the coast of Peniche by hydrodistillation in Clevenger apparatus, with optimization of the purification process. Extracted essential oils were tested as to their ability as antibacterial and antifungal agents, and also as antioxidants. The plants studied for this purpose were Inula chritmoides L., Juniperus phoenicea subsp. turbinata (Guss. Nyman, Daucus carota spp. halophilus and the seaweeds Fucus spiralis L., Codium tomentosum Stackhouse, Stypocaulon scoparium (Linnaeus Kützing and Plocamium cartilagineum (Linnaeus P.S.Dixon. The antimicrobial ability was tested in two bacteria species, Bacillus subtilis and Escherichia coli and in the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae, using standard procedures. The antioxidant potential was evaluated and from the results obtained, we can conclude that the essential oils extracted by the hydrodistillation method of plants and algae contain bioactive compounds present in its constitution with interesting bio-activity that can offer significant benefits and biotechnological relevance.

  4. Serpins in plants and green algae

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Roberts, Thomas Hugh; Hejgaard, Jørn

    2008-01-01

    . Serpins have been found in diverse species of the plant kingdom and represent a distinct clade among serpins in multicellular organisms. Serpins are also found in green algae, but the evolutionary relationship between these serpins and those of plants remains unknown. Plant serpins are potent inhibitors...... of mammalian serine proteinases of the chymotrypsin family in vitro but, intriguingly, plants and green algae lack endogenous members of this proteinase family, the most common targets for animal serpins. An Arabidopsis serpin with a conserved reactive centre is now known to be capable of inhibiting...

  5. Introduced aquatic plants and algae

    Science.gov (United States)

    Non-native aquatic plants such as waterhyacinth and hydrilla severely impair the uses of aquatic resources including recreational faculties (lakes, reservoirs, rivers) as well as timely delivery of irrigation water for agriculture. Costs associated with impacts and management of all types of aquatic...

  6. GROWTH-REGULATORY ACTIVITY OF THE ALGAE EXTRACT

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    О. V. Кyrychenkо

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available The growth-regulatory activity of the complex algae extract from Spirogira sp. at pre-so wing treatment of soybean seeds was studied in green-house and field experiments. It was shown that phytoextract has stimulated seeds germination on 12%, plants growth on 11–37%, soybean productivity increased on 6–27% as well as activated the development and functional ability of rhizospheric nitrogen-fixing microorganisms. The quantity of oligoazotrophes increased in 1,5–6,3 times, nitrogenase activity in 1,5–1,7 times. The possibility aspects of growth-regulatory activity of the algae extract in both plants and rhizospheric microorganisms is under discussion. Our results have confirmed the perspectives of practical use of the biological activity substances from the algae at soybean growing in order to increase plants productivity and improve microbiological indexes of soil.

  7. Antioxidant Activity of Hawaiian Marine Algae

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    Anthony D. Wright

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Marine algae are known to contain a wide variety of bioactive compounds, many of which have commercial applications in pharmaceutical, medical, cosmetic, nutraceutical, food and agricultural industries. Natural antioxidants, found in many algae, are important bioactive compounds that play an important role against various diseases and ageing processes through protection of cells from oxidative damage. In this respect, relatively little is known about the bioactivity of Hawaiian algae that could be a potential natural source of such antioxidants. The total antioxidant activity of organic extracts of 37 algal samples, comprising of 30 species of Hawaiian algae from 27 different genera was determined. The activity was determined by employing the FRAP (Ferric Reducing Antioxidant Power assays. Of the algae tested, the extract of Turbinaria ornata was found to be the most active. Bioassay-guided fractionation of this extract led to the isolation of a variety of different carotenoids as the active principles. The major bioactive antioxidant compound was identified as the carotenoid fucoxanthin. These results show, for the first time, that numerous Hawaiian algae exhibit significant antioxidant activity, a property that could lead to their application in one of many useful healthcare or related products as well as in chemoprevention of a variety of diseases including cancer.

  8. Expression and membrane-targeting of an active plant cytochrome P450 in the chloroplast of the green alga Chlamydomonas reinhardtii.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gangl, Doris; Zedler, Julie A Z; Włodarczyk, Artur; Jensen, Poul Erik; Purton, Saul; Robinson, Colin

    2015-02-01

    The unicellular green alga Chlamydomonas reinhardtii has potential as a cell factory for the production of recombinant proteins and other compounds, but mainstream adoption has been hindered by a scarcity of genetic tools and a need to identify products that can be generated in a cost-effective manner. A promising strategy is to use algal chloroplasts as a site for synthesis of high value bioactive compounds such as diterpenoids since these are derived from metabolic building blocks that occur naturally within the organelle. However, synthesis of these complex plant metabolites requires the introduction of membrane-associated enzymes including cytochrome P450 enzymes (P450s). Here, we show that a gene (CYP79A1) encoding a model P450 can be introduced into the C. reinhardtii chloroplast genome using a simple transformation system. The gene is stably expressed and the P450 is efficiently targeted into chloroplast membranes by means of its endogenous N-terminal anchor domain, where it is active and accounts for 0.4% of total cell protein. These results provide proof of concept for the introduction of diterpenoid synthesis pathways into the chloroplast of C. reinhardtii.

  9. Antihyperglycemic effect of crude extracts of some Egyptian plants and algae.

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    AbouZid, Sameh Fekry; Ahmed, Osama Mohamed; Ahmed, Rasha Rashad; Mahmoud, Ayman; Abdella, Ehab; Ashour, Mohamed Badr

    2014-03-01

    Diabetes mellitus is a major global health problem. Various plant extracts have proven antidiabetic activity and are considered as promising substitution for antidiabetic drugs. The antihyperglycemic effect of 16 plants and 4 algae, commonly used in Egypt for the treatment of diabetes mellitus, was investigated. A diabetes model was induced by intraperitoneal injection of nicotinamide (120 mg/kg body weight [b.wt.]), then streptozotocin (200 mg/kg b.wt.) after 15 min. Hydroethanolic extracts (80%) of the plants and algae under investigation were prepared. The extracts were orally administered to nicotinamide-streptozotocin-induced diabetic mice by a gastric tube at doses 10 or 50 mg/kg b.wt. for 1 week. The antidiabetic activity was assessed by detection of serum glucose concentrations at the fasting state and after 2 h of oral glucose loading (4.2 mg/kg b.wt.). Extracts prepared from Cassia acutifolia, Fraxinus ornus, Salix aegyptiaca, Cichorium intybus, and Eucalyptus globulus showed the highest antihyperglycemic activity among the tested plants. Extracts prepared from Sonchus oleraceus, Bougainvillea spectabilis (leaves), Plantago psyllium (seeds), Morus nigra (leaves), and Serena repens (fruits) were found to have antihyperglycemic potentials. Extracts prepared from Caulerpa lentillifera and Spirulina versicolor showed the most potent antihyperglycemic activity among the tested algae. However, some of the tested plants have insulinotropic effects, all assessed algae have not. Identification of lead compounds from these plants and algae for novel antidiabetic drug development is recommended.

  10. Bromophenols from Marine Algae with Potential Anti-Diabetic Activities

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIN Xiukun; LIU Ming

    2012-01-01

    Marine algae contain various bromophenols with a variety of biological activities,including antimicrobial,anticancer,and anti-diabetic effects.Here,we briefly review the recent progress in researches on the biomaterials from marine algae,emphasizing the relationship between the structure and the potential anti-diabetic applications.Bromophenols from marine algae display their hyperglycemic effects by inhibiting the activities of protein tyrosine phosphatase 1B,α-glucosidase,as well as other mechanisms.

  11. Ecotoxicological effects of carbon nanomaterials on algae, fungi and plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basiuk, Elena V; Ochoa-Olmos, Omar E; De la Mora-Estrada, León F

    2011-04-01

    The ecotoxicological effects of carbon nanomateriales (CNMs), namely fullerenes and carbon nanotubes, on algae, fungi and plants are analyzed. In different toxicity tests, both direct and indirect effects were found. The direct effects are determined by nanomaterial chemical composition and surface reactivity, which might catalyze redox reactions in contact with organic molecules and affect respiratory processes. Some indirect effects of carbon nanoparticles (CNPs) are physical restraints or release of toxic ions. Accumulation of CNPs in photosynthetic organs provokes obstruction in stomata, foliar heating and alteration in physiological processes. The phytotoxicity studies of CNMs should be focused on determining phytotoxicity mechanisms, size distribution of CNPs in solution, uptake and translocation of nanoparticles by plants, on characterization of their physical and chemical properties in rhizosphere and on root surfaces. More studies on plants and algae, as a part of food chain, are needed to understand profoundly the toxicity and health risks of CNMs as ecotoxicological stressors. Correct and detailed physical and chemical characterization of CNMs is very important to establish the exposure conditions matching the realistic ones. Ecotoxicity experiments should include examinations of both short and long-term effects. One must take into account that real carbon nanomaterials are complex mixtures of carbon forms and metal residues of variable chemistry and particle size, and the toxicity reported may reflect these byproducts/residues/impurities rather than the primary material structure. One more recommendation is not only to focus on the inherent toxicity of nanoparticles, but also consider their possible interactions with existing environmental contaminants.

  12. The cellulose synthase superfamily in fully sequenced plants and algae

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    Xu Ying

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The cellulose synthase superfamily has been classified into nine cellulose synthase-like (Csl families and one cellulose synthase (CesA family. The Csl families have been proposed to be involved in the synthesis of the backbones of hemicelluloses of plant cell walls. With 17 plant and algal genomes fully sequenced, we sought to conduct a genome-wide and systematic investigation of this superfamily through in-depth phylogenetic analyses. Results A single-copy gene is found in the six chlorophyte green algae, which is most closely related to the CslA and CslC families that are present in the seven land plants investigated in our analyses. Six proteins from poplar, grape and sorghum form a distinct family (CslJ, providing further support for the conclusions from two recent studies. CslB/E/G/H/J families have evolved significantly more rapidly than their widely distributed relatives, and tend to have intragenomic duplications, in particular in the grape genome. Conclusion Our data suggest that the CslA and CslC families originated through an ancient gene duplication event in land plants. We speculate that the single-copy Csl gene in green algae may encode a mannan synthase. We confirm that the rest of the Csl families have a different evolutionary origin than CslA and CslC, and have proposed a model for the divergence order among them. Our study provides new insights about the evolution of this important gene family in plants.

  13. Plant based phosphorus recovery from wastewater via algae and macrophytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shilton, Andrew N; Powell, Nicola; Guieysse, Benoit

    2012-12-01

    At present, resource recovery by irrigation of wastewater to plants is usually driven by the value of the water resource rather than phosphorus recovery. Expanded irrigation for increased phosphorus recovery may be expected as the scarcity and price of phosphorus increases, but providing the necessary treatment, storage and conveyance comes at significant expense. An alternative to taking the wastewater to the plants is instead to take the plants to the wastewater. Algal ponds and macrophyte wetlands are already in widespread use for wastewater treatment and if harvested, would require less than one-tenth of the area to recover phosphorus compared to terrestrial crops/pastures. This area could be further decreased if the phosphorus content of the macrophytes and algae biomass was tripled from 1% to 3% via luxury uptake. While this and many other opportunities for plant based recovery of phosphorus exist, e.g. offshore cultivation, much of this technology development is still in its infancy. Research that enhances our understanding of how to maximise phosphorus uptake and harvest yields; and further add value to the biomass for reuse would see the recovery of phosphorus via plants become an important solution in the future.

  14. Triacylglycerol Accumulation in Photosynthetic Cells in Plants and Algae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du, Zhi-Yan; Benning, Christoph

    2016-01-01

    Plant and algal oils are some of the most energy-dense renewable compounds provided by nature. Triacylglycerols (TAGs) are the major constituent of plant oils, which can be converted into fatty acid methyl esters commonly known as biodiesel. As one of the most efficient producers of TAGs, photosynthetic microalgae have attracted substantial interest for renewable fuel production. Currently, the big challenge of microalgae based TAGs for biofuels is their high cost compared to fossil fuels. A conundrum is that microalgae accumulate large amounts of TAGs only during stress conditions such as nutrient deprivation and temperature stress, which inevitably will inhibit growth. Thus, a better understanding of why and how microalgae induce TAG biosynthesis under stress conditions would allow the development of engineered microalgae with increased TAG production during conditions optimal for growth. Land plants also synthesize TAGs during stresses and we will compare new findings on environmental stress-induced TAG accumulation in plants and microalgae especially in the well-characterized model alga Chlamydomonas reinhardtii and a biotechnologically relevant genus Nannochloropsis.

  15. Alkaloids in Marine Algae

    OpenAIRE

    Ekrem Sezik; Aline Percot; Kasım Cemal Güven

    2010-01-01

    This paper presents the alkaloids found in green, brown and red marine algae. Algal chemistry has interested many researchers in order to develop new drugs, as algae include compounds with functional groups which are characteristic from this particular source. Among these compounds, alkaloids present special interest because of their pharmacological activities. Alkaloid chemistry has been widely studied in terrestrial plants, but the number of studies in algae is insignificant. In this review...

  16. Use of prolines for improving growth and other properties of plants and algae

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Unkefer, Pat J.; Knight, Thomas J.; Martinez, Rodolfo A.

    2003-07-15

    Increasing the concentration of prolines, such as 2-hydroxy-5-oxoproline, in the foliar portions of plants has been shown to cause an increase in carbon dioxide fixation, growth rate, dry weight, nutritional value (amino acids), nodulation and nitrogen fixation, photosynthetically derived chemical energy, and resistance to insect pests over the same properties for wild type plants. This can be accomplished in four ways: (1) the application of a solution of the proline directly to the foliar portions of the plant by spraying these portions; (2) applying a solution of the proline to the plant roots; (3) genetically engineering the plant and screening to produce lines that over-express glutamine synthetase in the leaves which gives rise to increased concentration of the metabolite, 2-hydroxy-5-oxoproline (this proline is also known as 2-oxoglutaramate); and (4) impairing the glutamine synthetase activity in the plant roots which causes increased glutamine synthetase activity in the leaves which gives rise to increased concentration of 2-hydroxy-5-oxoproline. Prolines have also been found to induce similar effects in algae.

  17. Use of prolines for improving growth and other properties of plants and algae

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Unkefer, Pat J. (Los Alamos, NM); Knight, Thomas J. (Portland, ME); Martinez, Rodolfo A. (Santa Fe, NM)

    2004-12-14

    Increasing the concentration of prolines, such as 2-hydroxy-5-oxoproline, in the foliar portions of plants has been shown to cause an increase in carbon dioxide fixation, growth rate, dry weight, nutritional value (amino acids), nodulation and nitrogen fixation, photosynthetically derived chemical energy, and resistance to insect pests over the same properties for wild type plants. This can be accomplished in four ways: (1) the application of a solution of the proline directly to the foliar portions of the plant by spraying these portions; (2) applying a solution of the proline to the plant roots; (3) genetically engineering the plant and screening to produce lines that over-express glutamine synthetase in the leaves which gives rise to increased concentration of the metabolite, 2-hydroxy-5-oxoproline (this proline is also known as 2-oxoglutaramate); and (4) impairing the glutamine synthetase activity in the plant roots which causes increased glutamine synthetase activity in the leaves which gives rise to increased concentration of 2-hydroxy-5-oxoproline. Prolines have also been found to induce similar effects in algae.

  18. Use of prolines for improving growth and other properties of plants and algae

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Unkefer, Pat J. (Los Alamos, NM); Knight, Thomas J. (Portland, ME); Martinez, Rodolfo A. (Santa Fe, NM)

    2003-04-29

    Increasing the concentration of prolines such as 2-hydroxy-5-oxoproline, in the foliar portions of plants has been shown to cause an increase in carbon dioxide fixation, growth rate, dry weight, nutritional value (amino acids), nodulation and nitrogen fixation, photosynthetically derived chemical energy, and resistance to insect pests over the same properties for wild type plants. This can be accomplished in four ways: (1) the application of a solution of the proline directly to the foliar portions of the plant by spraying these portions; (2) applying a solution of the proline to the plant roots; (3) genetically engineering the plant and screening to produce lines that overexpress glutamine synthetase in the leaves which gives rise to increased concentration of the metabolite, 2-hydroxy-5-oxoproline (this proline is also known as 2-oxoglutaramnate); and (4) impairing the glutamine synthetase activity in the plant roots which causes increased glutamine synthetase activity in the leaves which gives rise to increased concentration of 2-hydroxy-5-oxoproline. Prolines have also been found to induce similar effects in algae.

  19. Method and apparatus using an active ionic liquid for algae biofuel harvest and extraction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salvo, Roberto Di; Reich, Alton; Dykes, Jr., H. Waite H.; Teixeira, Rodrigo

    2012-11-06

    The invention relates to use of an active ionic liquid to dissolve algae cell walls. The ionic liquid is used to, in an energy efficient manner, dissolve and/or lyse an algae cell walls, which releases algae constituents used in the creation of energy, fuel, and/or cosmetic components. The ionic liquids include ionic salts having multiple charge centers, low, very low, and ultra low melting point ionic liquids, and combinations of ionic liquids. An algae treatment system is described, which processes wet algae in a lysing reactor, separates out algae constituent products, and optionally recovers the ionic liquid in an energy efficient manner.

  20. Antischistosomal activity from Brazilian marine algae

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    Erika M. Stein

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Schistosomiasis may be caused by six different species of the genus Schistosoma. Current treatment is based only on two drugs: oxamniquine, which is only effective against the Schistosoma mansoni species, and praziquantel, which is ineffective against young parasites. Therefore, research on new drugs and their targets for the treatment of this disease is urgently needed. In the present work, the efficacies of several seaweeds extracts against S. mansoni were tested. Worm couples were incubated with different concentration of seaweed extracts for 120 h and monitored after the first 2 h and then every 24 h to evaluate death, mobility reduction and couple detachment. The extracts of 13 different seaweed species were tested in a first trial and the active extracts were further evaluated in lower concentrations. The extracts of Gracilaria ornata and species belonging to the genera Dictyota and Laurencia showed activity at relatively low concentrations. The active extracts were analyzed by LC–MS, and possible candidates are proposed.

  1. Origin of land plants: Do conjugating green algae hold the key?

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    Melkonian Michael

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The terrestrial habitat was colonized by the ancestors of modern land plants about 500 to 470 million years ago. Today it is widely accepted that land plants (embryophytes evolved from streptophyte algae, also referred to as charophycean algae. The streptophyte algae are a paraphyletic group of green algae, ranging from unicellular flagellates to morphologically complex forms such as the stoneworts (Charales. For a better understanding of the evolution of land plants, it is of prime importance to identify the streptophyte algae that are the sister-group to the embryophytes. The Charales, the Coleochaetales or more recently the Zygnematales have been considered to be the sister group of the embryophytes However, despite many years of phylogenetic studies, this question has not been resolved and remains controversial. Results Here, we use a large data set of nuclear-encoded genes (129 proteins from 40 green plant taxa (Viridiplantae including 21 embryophytes and six streptophyte algae, representing all major streptophyte algal lineages, to investigate the phylogenetic relationships of streptophyte algae and embryophytes. Our phylogenetic analyses indicate that either the Zygnematales or a clade consisting of the Zygnematales and the Coleochaetales are the sister group to embryophytes. Conclusions Our analyses support the notion that the Charales are not the closest living relatives of embryophytes. Instead, the Zygnematales or a clade consisting of Zygnematales and Coleochaetales are most likely the sister group of embryophytes. Although this result is in agreement with a previously published phylogenetic study of chloroplast genomes, additional data are needed to confirm this conclusion. A Zygnematales/embryophyte sister group relationship has important implications for early land plant evolution. If substantiated, it should allow us to address important questions regarding the primary adaptations of viridiplants during the

  2. Metabolomic Assessment of Induced and Activated Chemical Defence in the Invasive Red Alga Gracilaria vermiculophylla

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nylund, Göran M.; Weinberger, Florian; Rempt, Martin; Pohnert, Georg

    2011-01-01

    In comparison with terrestrial plants the mechanistic knowledge of chemical defences is poor for marine macroalgae. This restricts our understanding in the chemically mediated interactions that take place between algae and other organisms. Technical advances such as metabolomics, however, enable new approaches towards the characterisation of the chemically mediated interactions of organisms with their environment. We address defence responses in the red alga Gracilaria vermiculophylla using mass spectrometry based metabolomics in combination with bioassays. Being invasive in the north Atlantic this alga is likely to possess chemical defences according to the prediction that well-defended exotics are most likely to become successful invaders in systems dominated by generalist grazers, such as marine macroalgal communities. We investigated the effect of intense herbivore feeding and simulated herbivory by mechanical wounding of the algae. Both processes led to similar changes in the metabolic profile. Feeding experiments with the generalist isopod grazer Idotea baltica showed that mechanical wounding caused a significant increase in grazer resistance. Structure elucidation of the metabolites of which some were up-regulated more than 100 times in the wounded tissue, revealed known and novel eicosanoids as major components. Among these were prostaglandins, hydroxylated fatty acids and arachidonic acid derived conjugated lactones. Bioassays with pure metabolites showed that these eicosanoids are part of the innate defence system of macroalgae, similarly to animal systems. In accordance with an induced defence mechanism application of extracts from wounded tissue caused a significant increase in grazer resistance and the up-regulation of other pathways than in the activated defence. Thus, this study suggests that G. vermiculophylla chemically deters herbivory by two lines of defence, a rapid wound-activated process followed by a slower inducible defence. By unravelling

  3. Metabolomic assessment of induced and activated chemical defence in the invasive red alga Gracilaria vermiculophylla.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Göran M Nylund

    Full Text Available In comparison with terrestrial plants the mechanistic knowledge of chemical defences is poor for marine macroalgae. This restricts our understanding in the chemically mediated interactions that take place between algae and other organisms. Technical advances such as metabolomics, however, enable new approaches towards the characterisation of the chemically mediated interactions of organisms with their environment. We address defence responses in the red alga Gracilaria vermiculophylla using mass spectrometry based metabolomics in combination with bioassays. Being invasive in the north Atlantic this alga is likely to possess chemical defences according to the prediction that well-defended exotics are most likely to become successful invaders in systems dominated by generalist grazers, such as marine macroalgal communities. We investigated the effect of intense herbivore feeding and simulated herbivory by mechanical wounding of the algae. Both processes led to similar changes in the metabolic profile. Feeding experiments with the generalist isopod grazer Idotea baltica showed that mechanical wounding caused a significant increase in grazer resistance. Structure elucidation of the metabolites of which some were up-regulated more than 100 times in the wounded tissue, revealed known and novel eicosanoids as major components. Among these were prostaglandins, hydroxylated fatty acids and arachidonic acid derived conjugated lactones. Bioassays with pure metabolites showed that these eicosanoids are part of the innate defence system of macroalgae, similarly to animal systems. In accordance with an induced defence mechanism application of extracts from wounded tissue caused a significant increase in grazer resistance and the up-regulation of other pathways than in the activated defence. Thus, this study suggests that G. vermiculophylla chemically deters herbivory by two lines of defence, a rapid wound-activated process followed by a slower inducible

  4. Fucoidans from brown alga Fucus evanescens: structure and biological activity

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    Roza Menshova

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Brown alga Fucus evanescens, widespread in the Far Eastern seas of Russia, is valuable source of sulfated polysaccharides – fucoidans with beneficial biological activities. The most homogenous fraction of fucoidan from F. evanescens was shown to be molecule containing linear main chain of alternating 2-sulfated 1,3- and 1,4-linked α-L-fucose residues. Few sulfate groups were found in position 4 of some 1,3-linked fucose residues. Acetyl groups occupied free C-3 of 1,4-linked residues and/or the C-4 of 1,3-linked fucose residues. Enzymatic hydrolysis, mild acid hydrolysis and autohydrolysis of native fucoidan were used for elucidation of the fine structural characteristics of fucoidan from F. evanescens. The aim of this review to summarize published data on biological activities of fucoidan from F. evanescens: antiviral, anticoagulant, thrombolytic, hepatoprotective, immunomodulatory, anticancer, and their practical application.

  5. Biosynthesis of open-chain tetrapyrroles in plants, algae, and cyanobacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beale, S I

    1994-01-01

    Phycobilins are open-chain tetrapyrroles of plants and algae which act as the chromophores of phycobiliproteins where they function as light energy-harvesting pigments. Phytochromobilin, another open-chain tetrapyrrole, is the chromophore of phytochrome, which functions as a light-sensing pigment in plant development. These open-chain tetrapyrroles are biosynthetically derived from protohaem. Enzyme reactions that convert protohaem to biliverdin IX alpha, and biliverdin IX alpha to phycocyanobilin, have been detected and characterized in extracts of the unicellular rhodophyte Cyanidium caldarium. Algal haem oxygenase and algal biliverdin-IX alpha reductase are both soluble enzymes that use electrons derived from reduced ferredoxin. Biochemical intermediates in the conversion of biliverdin IX alpha to (3E)-phycocyanobilin were identified as 15, 16-dihydrobiliverdin IX alpha, (3Z)-phycoerythrobilin and (3Z)-phycocyanobilin. Separate enzymes catalyse the two two-electron reduction steps in the conversion of biliverdin IX alpha to (3Z)-phycoerythrobilin. Z-to-E isomerization of the phycobilin ethylidine group is catalysed by an enzyme that requires glutathione for activity. Protein-bound phycoerythrobilin can be chemically converted to phytochromobilin which can then be released from the protein by methanolysis. This procedure was used to produce phytochromobilin in quantities sufficient to allow its chemical characterization and use in phytochrome reconstitution experiments. The results indicate that (2R,3E)-phytochromobilin spontaneously condenses with recombinant oat apophytochrome to form photoreversible holoprotein that is spectrally identical to native phytochrome.

  6. The alga Bryothamnion seaforthii contains carbohydrates with antinociceptive activity

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    L.A.P. Vieira

    2004-07-01

    Full Text Available Bryothamnion seaforthii, a red alga common to the Northeastern coast of Brazil, was used to prepare the protein fraction F0/60 by ammonium sulfate precipitation. The chromatography of F0/60 on DEAE-Sephadel column resulted in two lectin fractions, PI and PII, which have antinociceptive properties in rodents. We determined the antinociceptive activity of the PII fraction and of a carbohydrate-containing fraction (CF in mice. The CF was prepared from the dried algae, after digestion with 100 mM sodium acetate, pH 6.0, containing 5 mM cysteine, EDTA and 0.4% papain, at 60ºC. A 10% cetylpyridinium chloride was added to the filtrate, and the precipitate was dissolved with 2 M NaCl:ethanol (100:15, v/v followed by the carbohydrate precipitation with ethanol. The final precipitate, in acetone, was dried at 25ºC. The PII fraction markedly inhibited acetic acid-induced abdominal writhing after ip administration (control: 27.1 ± 2.20; PII 0.1 mg/kg: 5.5 ± 1.85; 1 mg/kg: 1.6 ± 0.72 writhes/20 min and after oral administration (control: 32.0 ± 3.32; PII 0.1 mg/kg: 13.1 ± 2.50; 1 mg/kg: 9.4 ± 3.96 writhes/20 min. PII was also effective against both phases of pain induced by 1% formalin (control, ip: 48.2 ± 2.40 and 27.7 ± 2.56 s; PII: 1 mg/kg, ip: 34.3 ± 5.13 and 5.6 ± 2.14 s; control, po: 44.5 ± 3.52 and 25.6 ± 2.39 s; PII 5 mg/kg, po: 26.5 ± 4.67 and 15.3 ± 3.54 s for the 1st and 2nd phases, respectively and in the hot-plate test. The CF (ip also displayed significant antinociceptive properties in all tests but at higher doses (1 and 5 mg/kg, ip and po. Thus, CF at the dose of 5 mg/kg significantly inhibited writhes (ip: 7.1 ± 2.47 and po: 14.5 ± 2.40 writhes/20 min as well as the 1st (po: 19.6 ± 1.74 s and 2nd (po: 7.1 ± 2.24 s phases of the formalin test compared to controls ip and po. The antinociceptive effects of both the PII and CF in the formalin and hot-plate tests were prevented at least partially by pretreatment with the

  7. Bioactivity of marine organisms. Part 3. Screening of marine algae of Indian coast for biological activity

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Kamat, S.Y.; Wahidullah, S.; Naik, C.G.; DeSouza, L.; Jayasree, V.; Ambiye, V.; Bhakuni, D.S.; Goel, A.K.; Garg, H.S.; Srimal, R.C.

    Ethanolic extracts from Indian marine algae have been tested for anti-viral, anti-bacterial, anti-fungal, anti-fertility, hypoglycaemic and a wide range of pharmacological activities. Of 34 species investigated 17 appeared biologically active. Six...

  8. Cytotoxic activity of marine algae against cancerous cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Élica A. C. Guedes

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents an investigation on the cytotoxic activity in human tumor cell from dichloromethane, chloroform, methanol, ethanol, water extracts, and hexane and chloroform fractions from green, brown and red algae collected at Riacho Doce Beach, north coast of Alagoas, Brazil, against the cancer cells K562 (chronic myelocytic leukemia, HEp-2 (laryngeal epidermoid carcinoma and NCI-H292 (human lung mucoepidermoid carcinoma through the MTT colorimetric method. The dichloromethane extract and chloroform fraction of Hypnea musciformis showed the best cytotoxic activity against K562 (3.8±0.2 µg.mL-1 and 6.4±0.4 µg.mL-1, respectively. Dichloromethane extracts of Dictyota dichotoma (16.3±0.3 µg.mL-1 and the chloroform fraction of H. musciformis (6.0±0.03 µg.mL-1 and chloroform fraction of P. gymnospora (8.2±0.4 were more active against HEp-2 as well as ethanol extracts of P. gymnospora (15.9±2.8 µg.mL-1 and chloroform fraction of H. musciformis (15.0±1.3 µg.mL-1 against the cell NCI-H292. The constituents with higher anticancer action are present in the extracts of dichloromethane and chloroform and in the chloroform fraction of H. musciformis, Digenea simplex, P. gymnospora, and D.dichotoma. In the case of the seaweed S. vulgare, the anticancer constituents are present in the aqueous extract.

  9. Evidence for land plant cell wall biosynthetic mechanisms in charophyte green algae

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mikkelsen, Maria Dalgaard; Harholt, Jesper; Ulvskov, Peter

    2014-01-01

    characterized in land plants. In addition, gene cloning was employed in two cases to answer important evolutionary questions. KEY RESULTS: Genetic evidence was obtained indicating that many of the most important core cell wall polysaccharides have their evolutionary origins in the CGA, including cellulose...... to colonize land. These cell walls provide support and protection, are a source of signalling molecules, and provide developmental cues for cell differentiation and elongation. The cell wall of land plants is a highly complex fibre composite, characterized by cellulose cross-linked by non......-cellulosic polysaccharides, such as xyloglucan, embedded in a matrix of pectic polysaccharides. How the land plant cell wall evolved is currently unknown: early-divergent chlorophyte and prasinophyte algae genomes contain a low number of glycosyl transferases (GTs), while land plants contain hundreds. The number of GTs...

  10. Biological activity of two red algae, Gracilaria salicornia and Hypnea flagelliformis from Persian Gulf.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S Saeidnia

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Among marine organisms, algae are a large and diverse group of organisms from which a wide range of secondary metabolites have been isolated. A number of these compounds possess biological activity. In this study, we aim to evaluate the cytotoxic, antibacterial and antifungal activity of two red algae, Gracilaria salicornia and Hypnea flagelliformis, collected from Persian Gulf. Ethyl acetate extracts of both algae showed a potent cytotoxic effect against Artemia salina nauplii (LC50 = 3 and 4 μg.ml−1, respectively. Aqueous methanol (50% extracts were also effective. None of the methanol and aqueous methanol extracts of the algae showed antifungal and antibacterial activity against Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli, Candida albicans and Aspergillus niger by the Broth-dilution method. Only the ethyl acetate extracts exhibited antibacterial activity (MIC = 2 μg.ml−1 on S. aureus. In conclusion, G. salicornia and H. flagelliformis could be a promising source of cytotoxic components.

  11. Reduction in toxicity of wastewater from three wastewater treatment plants to alga (Scenedesmus obliquus) in northeast China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Ying; Sun, Qing; Zhou, Jiti; Masunaga, Shigeki; Ma, Fang

    2015-09-01

    The toxicity of municipal wastewater to the receiving water bodies is still unknown, due to the lack of regulated toxicity based index for wastewater discharge in China. Our study aims at gaining insight into the acute toxic effects of local municipal wastewater on alga, Scenedesmus obliquus. Four endpoints, i.e. cell density, chlorophyll-A concentration, superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity and cell membrane integrity, of alga were analyzed to characterize the acute toxicity effects of wastewater from municipal wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) with different treatment techniques: sequencing batch reactor (SBR), Linpor and conventional activated sludge. Influent and effluent from each treatment stage in these three WWTPs were sampled and evaluated for their acute toxicity. Our results showed that all three techniques can completely affect the algal chlorophyll-A synthesis stimulation effects of influent; the algal cell growth stimulation effect was only completely removed by the secondary treatment process in conventional activated sludge technique; toxic effects on cell membrane integrity of two influents from WWTPs with SBR and conventional activated sludge techniques were completely removed; the acute toxicity on SOD activity was partially reduced in SBR and conventional activated sludge techniques while not significantly reduced by Linpor system. As to the disinfection unit, NaClO disinfection enhanced wastewater toxicity dramatically while UV radiation had no remarkable influence on wastewater toxicity. Our results illustrated that SOD activity and chlorophyll-A synthesis were relatively sensitive to municipal wastewater toxicity. Our results would aid to understand the acute toxicity of municipal wastewater, as well as the toxicity removal by currently utilized treatment techniques in China.

  12. Multi-Level Light Capture Control in Plants and Green Algae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wobbe, Lutz; Bassi, Roberto; Kruse, Olaf

    2016-01-01

    Life on Earth relies on photosynthesis, and the ongoing depletion of fossil carbon fuels has renewed interest in phototrophic light-energy conversion processes as a blueprint for the conversion of atmospheric CO2 into various organic compounds. Light-harvesting systems have evolved in plants and green algae, which are adapted to the light intensity and spectral composition encountered in their habitats. These organisms are constantly challenged by a fluctuating light supply and other environmental cues affecting photosynthetic performance. Excess light can be especially harmful, but plants and microalgae are equipped with different acclimation mechanisms to control the processing of sunlight absorbed at both photosystems. We summarize the current knowledge and discuss the potential for optimization of phototrophic light-energy conversion.

  13. Biological activities and potential health benefits of fucoxanthin derived from marine brown algae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Se-Kwon; Pangestuti, Ratih

    2011-01-01

    The importance of marine algae as sources of functional ingredients has been well recognized due to their valuable health beneficial effects. Therefore, isolation and investigation of novel bioactive ingredients with biological activities from marine algae have attracted great attention. Among functional ingredients identified from marine algae, fucoxanthin has received particular interest. Fucoxanthin has been attributed with extraordinary potential for protecting the organism against a wide range of diseases and has considerable potential and promising applications in human health. Fucoxanthin has been reported to exhibit various beneficial biological activities such as antioxidant, anticancer, anti-inflammatory, antiobesity, and neuroprotective activities. In this chapter, the currently available scientific literatures regarding the most significant activities of fucoxanthin are summarized.

  14. Larvicidal Activity against Aedes aegypti and Molluscicidal Activity against Biomphalaria glabrata of Brazilian Marine Algae

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guedes, Elíca Amara Cecília; de Carvalho, Cenira M.; Ribeiro Junior, Karlos Antonio Lisboa; Lisboa Ribeiro, Thyago Fernando; de Barros, Lurdiana Dayse; de Lima, Maria Raquel Ferreira; Prado Moura, Flávia de Barros; Goulart Sant'Ana, Antônio Euzebio

    2014-01-01

    This study investigated the biological activities of five benthic marine algae collected from Northeastern Region of Brazil. The tested activities included larvicidal activity against Aedes aegypti, molluscicidal activity against Biomphalaria glabrata, and toxicity against Artemia salina. Extracts of Ulva lactuca (Chlorophyta), Padina gymnospora, Sargassum vulgare (Phaeophyta), Hypnea musciformis, and Digenea simplex (Rhodophyta) were prepared using different solvents of increasing polarity, including dichloromethane, methanol, ethanol, and water. Of the extracts screened, the dichloromethane extracts of H. musciformis and P. gymnospora exhibited the highest activities and were subjected to bioassay-guided fractionation in hexane and chloroform. The chloroform fractions of the P. gymnospora and H. musciformis extracts showed molluscicidal activity at values below 40 μg·mL−1 (11.1460 μg·mL−1 and 25.8689 μg·mL−1, resp.), and the chloroform and hexane fractions of P. gymnospora showed larvicidal activity at values below 40 μg·mL−1 (29.018 μg·mL−1 and 17.230 μg·mL−1, resp.). The crude extracts were not toxic to A. salina, whereas the chloroform and hexane fractions of P. gymnospora (788.277 μg·mL−1 and 706.990 μg·mL−1) showed moderate toxicity, indicating that the toxic compounds present in these algae are nonpolar. PMID:24688787

  15. New methodologies for the integration of power plants with algae ponds

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schipper, K.; Gijp, S. van der; Stel, R.W van der; Goetheer, E.L.V.

    2013-01-01

    It is generally recognized that algae could be an interesting option for reducing CO2 emissions. Based on light and CO2, algae can be used for the production various economically interesting products. Current algae cultivation techniques, however, still present a number of limitations. Efficient fee

  16. Cultivation of phagotrophic algae with waste activated sludge as a fast approach to reclaim waste organics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Cong; Xiao, Suo; Ju, Lu-Kwang

    2016-03-15

    Substantial energy is reserved in waste activated sludge (WAS) organics but much of it is difficult to recover because the solid organics require long time to solubilize. In this work we introduced the new approach of recovering WAS organics into the biomass of phagotrophic algae. Phagotrophic algae have the unique ability to grow by ingesting insoluble organic particles including microbial cells. This phagotrophic ability renders the solubilization of WAS organics unnecessary and makes this approach remarkably fast. The approach consists of two stages: a short anaerobic digestion treatment followed by the algal growth on treated WAS. The short anaerobic digestion was exploited to release discrete bacteria from WAS flocs. Phagotrophic algae could then grow rapidly with the released bacteria as well as the solubilized nutrients in the treated WAS. The results showed that WAS organics could be quickly consumed by phagotrophic algae. Among all studied conditions the highest WAS volatile solids (VS) reduction was achieved with 72 h anaerobic digestion and 24 h algal growth. In this optimal process, 28% of WAS VS was reduced, and 41% and 20% of the reduced VS were converted into algal biomass and lipids, respectively. In comparison, only 18% WAS VS were reduced after the same time of aerobic digestion without algae addition. Through this approach, the amount of WAS organics requiring further treatment for final disposal is significantly reduced. With the production of significant amounts of algal biomass and lipids, WAS treatment is expected to be more economical and sustainable in material recycling.

  17. Small molecules that interact with RNA: riboswitch-based gene control and its involvement in metabolic regulation in plants and algae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bocobza, Samuel E; Aharoni, Asaph

    2014-08-01

    Riboswitches are RNA elements that bind small molecules and in turn regulate gene expression. This mechanism allows the cell to sense the intracellular concentration of these small molecules. A particular riboswitch typically regulates its adjacent gene by altering the transcription, the translation or the splicing of this gene. Recently, a riboswitch that binds thiamin pyrophosphate (TPP) was characterized and found to regulate thiamin biosynthesis in plants and algae. Furthermore, it appears that this element is an essential regulator of primary metabolism in plants. Manipulation of endogenous riboswitch activity resulted in metabolic phenotypes that underlined the role of these elements and their ligands in preserving metabolic homeostasis. This situation supports the hypothesis that riboswitches could be remnants of the most ancient metabolic regulators. Here, we review the mode of action of the plant and algal TPP riboswitch and its relevance to the metabolic network. We also discuss the potential engineering of riboswitches as metabolite sensors in plants and platforms for gene control. Whether additional such RNA-based mechanisms exist in plants and in algae is still an open question, yet, the importance of these elements to metabolic regulation is beyond doubt.

  18. Energetic metabolism response in algae and higher plant species from simulation experiments with the clinostat

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vasilenko, A.; Popova, A. F.

    Adenylate state is acknowledged to be among the most convenient approaches in the study of physiological changes in plant cells under simulation of altered gravity condition with the clinostat. Adenylate levels and the ATP/ADP ratio in cytoplasmic and mitochondrial extracts of cultivated cells of Haplopappus gracilis and algae cells of Chlorella vulgaris under initial stages of the fast-rotating and slow-rotating clinorotation, as well as the long-term clinorotation, have been investigated. For analysis of ATP and ADP levels in the plant cells under the clinorotation, we applied a high-sensitive bioluminescence method using the luciferase and piruvate kinase enzyme systems. It has been shown that the adenylate ratio is already increased during at the start of clinorotation with the different speed of rotation in the biological material tested. The considerable changes in mitochondrial ultrastructure of Chlorella cells, as well as the rising ATP level and dropping of the ATP/ADP ratio appear after long-duration clinorotation if compared to control material. It is probably connected with the distinctions in ATP-synthetase functioning in mitochondria of the cells under the clinorotation conditions.

  19. Strategies for psbA gene expression in cyanobacteria, green algae and higher plants: from transcription to PSII repair.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mulo, Paula; Sakurai, Isamu; Aro, Eva-Mari

    2012-01-01

    The Photosystem (PS) II of cyanobacteria, green algae and higher plants is prone to light-induced inactivation, the D1 protein being the primary target of such damage. As a consequence, the D1 protein, encoded by the psbA gene, is degraded and re-synthesized in a multistep process called PSII repair cycle. In cyanobacteria, a small gene family codes for the various, functionally distinct D1 isoforms. In these organisms, the regulation of the psbA gene expression occurs mainly at the level of transcription, but the expression is fine-tuned by regulation of translation elongation. In plants and green algae, the D1 protein is encoded by a single psbA gene located in the chloroplast genome. In chloroplasts of Chlamydomonas reinhardtii the psbA gene expression is strongly regulated by mRNA processing, and particularly at the level of translation initiation. In chloroplasts of higher plants, translation elongation is the prevalent mechanism for regulation of the psbA gene expression. The pre-existing pool of psbA transcripts forms translation initiation complexes in plant chloroplasts even in darkness, while the D1 synthesis can be completed only in the light. Replacement of damaged D1 protein requires also the assistance by a number of auxiliary proteins, which are encoded by the nuclear genome in green algae and higher plants. Nevertheless, many of these chaperones are conserved between prokaryotes and eukaryotes. Here, we describe the specific features and fundamental differences of the psbA gene expression and the regeneration of the PSII reaction center protein D1 in cyanobacteria, green algae and higher plants. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled Photosystem II.

  20. ANALYSIS OF BIOACTIVE COMPOUNDS AND ANTIMICROBIAL ACTIVITY OF MARINE ALGAE KAPPAPHYCUS ALVAREZII USING THREE SOLVENT EXTRACTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Prabha*, D.J. Prakash and P.N. Sudha

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The seaweeds are economically valuable resources, used as food, fodder, fertilizer and medicine and thus useful to mankind in many ways. In the present study, Kappaphycus alvarezii, a marine alga, has been analysed for the presence of bioactive products using three solvent extracts. Antimicrobial activity was also done using the same extracts of seaweed. The results revealed that the selected seaweed has active secondary metabolites and also exhibited antimicrobial activity, mainly in the methanolic extract of Kappaphycus alvarezii.

  1. Natural history of coral-algae competition across a gradient of human activity in the Line Islands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Barott, K.L.; Williams, G.J.; Vermeij, M.J.A.; Harris, J.; Smith, J.E.; Rohwer, F.L.; Sandin, S.A.

    2012-01-01

    Competition between corals and benthic algae is prevalent on coral reefs worldwide and has the potential to influence the structure of the reef benthos. Human activities may influence the outcome of these interactions by favoring algae to become the superior competitor, and this type of change in co

  2. Antibacterial activities of bioactive compounds extracted from Marine algae Gracilaria salicornia against Aeromonas hydrophila

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Somayeh Rasooli

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Herbal medicinal products have attracted significant research interest in recent years. Considering the efficiency of algae products in controlling pathogenic bacteria and also easy access to large resources of algae, this study was conducted to evaluate the effects of methanolic, chloroformic and aqueous extracts of Gracilaria salicornia against Aeromonas hydrophila, a heterotrophic, Gram-negative, rod-shaped bacterium found mainly in warm climate. Algae samples were collected from Qeshm Island coastlines and transferred to the laboratory. Standard methods were used to obtain the algae extract. Antibacterial activities of various extracts were tested against the bacterium using well diffusion assay method. Significant differences were observed in antibacterial activities of different extracts (P<0.05. The diameter of zone of growth inhibition varied in correlation with concentration of the extracts (50, 100, 200 and 300 mg.ml-1. The best inhibition zone was observed at 100, 200 and 300 mg.ml-1 methanolic and 300 mg.ml-1 aqueous extracts.

  3. Green algae Chlorococcum humicola- a new source of bioactive compounds with antimicrobial activity

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Bhagavathy S; Sumathi P; Jancy Sherene Bell I

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To analyse the existence of bioactive phytochemicals and their antimicrobial role of green algae Chlorococcum humicola (C. humicola). Methods: The various organic solvents such as acetone, benzene, chloroform, diethyl ether, ethyl acetate, ethanol, hexane and methanol were used for the preparation of the algal extracts then subjected to chemical analysis and further used for the screening of antimicrobial assay. The purified carotenoid pigments and chlorophylls were used for the antimicrobial studies against the harmful pathogens Escherichia coli, Pseudomonasaeruginosa, Salmonella typhimurium, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Vibreo cholerae, Staphylococcus aureus, Bacillus subtilis, Candida albicans, Aspergillus niger and Aspergillus flavus. Results: The chemical analysis showed the existence of bioactive compounds such as carotenoids, alkaloids, favanoids, fattyacids, saponins, aminoacids and carbohydrates. In vitro screening of organic solvent extracts of green algae C. humicola shows activity in inhibiting the growth of virulent strains of bacteria and fungi pathogenic to human. Eight different extracts showed effective inhibitory action against the selected pathogens. Depends upon their existence of the bioactive compounds the different organic algal extracts shows difference in their inhibitory zone against the microbes. Out of all the organic extracts benzene and ethyl acetate extracts showed excellent effect nearly 80% microbial growth inhibition. The separated carotenoid and chlorophyll fractions of C. humicola, also results in the microbial growth inhibition. Conclusions: The present study concludes that green algae C. humicola are a rich and varied source of pharmacologically active natural products and nutraceuticals. While nutraceutical and pharmaceutical content in the baseline algae strain is very small, they showed excellent effect against the microbial pathogens.

  4. Arsenic and other heavy metal accumulation in plants and algae growing naturally in contaminated area of West Bengal, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, N K; Raghubanshi, A S; Upadhyay, A K; Rai, U N

    2016-08-01

    The present study was conducted to quantify the arsenic (As) and other heavy metal concentrations in the plants and algae growing naturally in As contaminated blocks of North-24-Pargana and Nandia district, West Bengal, India to assess their bioaccumulation potential. The plant species included five macrophytes and five algae were collected from the nine selected sites for estimation of As and other heavy metals accumulated therein by using Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass Spectrophotometer (ICP-MS). Results revealed that maximum As concentration (117mgkg(-1)) was recorded in the agricultural soil at the Barasat followed by Beliaghat (111mgkg(-1)) sites of North-24-Pargana. Similarly, concentration of selenium (Si, 249mgkg(-1)), lead (Pb, 79.4mgkg(-1)), chromium (Cr, 138mgkg(-1)) was also found maximum in the soil at Barasat and cadmium (Cd, 163mgkg(-1)) nickel (Ni, 36.5mgkg(-1)) at Vijaynagar site. Among the macrophytes, Eichhornia crassipes found more dominating species in As contaminated area and accumulate As (597mgkg(-1)) in the shoot at kanchrapara site. The Lemna minor found to accumulate maximum As (735mgkg(-1)) in the leaves at Sonadanga and Pistia stratiotes accumulated minimum As (24.5mgkg(-1)) in the fronds from Ranaghat site. In case of diatoms, maximum As (760mgkg(-1)) was accumulated at Kanchrapara site followed by Hydrodictiyon reticulatum (403mgkg(-1)) at the Ranaghat site. High concentration of As and other heavy metal in soil indicates long term effects of irrigation with contaminated ground water, however, high concentration of heavy metals in naturally growing plants and algae revealed their mobilization through leaching and possible food chain contamination. Therefore, efficient heavy metal accumulator macrophytes Eichhornia crassipes, Lemna minor, Spirodela polyrhiza may be exploited in removing metals from contaminated water by developing a plant based treatment system. However, As accumulator algal species may be used as a bioresource for

  5. Phragmoplast of the green alga Spirogyra is functionally distinct from the higher plant phragmoplast.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sawitzky, H; Grolig, F

    1995-09-01

    Cytokinesis in the green alga Spirogyra (Zygnemataceae) is characterized by centripetal growth of a septum, which impinges on a persistent, centrifugally expanding telophase spindle, leading to a phragmoplast-like structure of potential phylogenetic significance (Fowke, L. C., and J. D. Pickett-Heaps. 1969. J. Phycol. 5:273-281). Combining fluorescent tagging of the cytoskeleton in situ and video-enhanced differential interference contrast microscopy of live cells, the process of cytokinesis was investigated with emphasis on cytoskeletal reorganization and concomitant redistribution of organelles. Based on a sequence of cytoskeletal arrangements and the effects of cytoskeletal inhibitors thereon, cytokinetic progression could be divided into three functional stages with respect to the contribution of microfilaments (MFs) and microtubules (MTs): (1) Initiation: in early prophase, a cross wall initial was formed independently of MFs and MTs at the presumptive site of wall growth. (2) Septum ingrowth: numerous organelles accumulated at the cross wall initial concomitant with reorganization of the extensive peripheral interphase MF array into a distinct circumferential MF array. This array guided the ingrowing septum until it contacted the expanding interzonal MT array. (3) Cross wall closure: MFs at the growing edge of the septum coaligned with and extended along the interzonal MTs toward the daughter nuclei. Thus, actin-based transportation of small organelles during this third stage occurred, in part, along a scaffold previously deployed in space by MTs. Displacement of the nuclei-associated interzonal MT array by centrifugation and depolymerization of the phragmoplast-like structure showed that the success of cytokinesis at the third stage depends on the interaction of both MF and MT cytoskeletons. Important features of the phragmoplast-like structure in Spirogyra were different from the higher plant phragmoplast: in particular, MFs were responsible for the

  6. Effect of Algae and Plant Lectins on Planktonic Growth and Biofilm Formation in Clinically Relevant Bacteria and Yeasts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vasconcelos, Mayron Alves; Arruda, Francisco Vassiliepe Sousa; Carneiro, Victor Alves; Silva, Helton Colares; Nascimento, Kyria Santiago; Sampaio, Alexandre Holanda; Cavada, Benildo; Teixeira, Edson Holanda; Henriques, Mariana

    2014-01-01

    This study aimed to evaluate the abilities of plant and algae lectins to inhibit planktonic growth and biofilm formation in bacteria and yeasts. Initially, ten lectins were tested on Staphylococcus epidermidis, Staphylococcus aureus, Klebsiella oxytoca, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Candida albicans, and C. tropicalis at concentrations of 31.25 to 250 μg/mL. The lectins from Cratylia floribunda (CFL), Vatairea macrocarpa (VML), Bauhinia bauhinioides (BBL), Bryothamnion seaforthii (BSL), and Hypnea musciformis (HML) showed activities against at least one microorganism. Biofilm formation in the presence of the lectins was also evaluated; after 24 h of incubation with the lectins, the biofilms were analyzed by quantifying the biomass (by crystal violet staining) and by enumerating the viable cells (colony-forming units). The lectins reduced the biofilm biomass and/or the number of viable cells to differing degrees depending on the microorganism tested, demonstrating the different characteristics of the lectins. These findings indicate that the lectins tested in this study may be natural alternative antimicrobial agents; however, further studies are required to better elucidate the functional use of these proteins. PMID:24982871

  7. Potentiating effect of ecofriendly synthesis of copper oxide nanoparticles using brown alga: antimicrobial and anticancer activities

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    SRI VISHNU PRIYA RAMASWAMY; S NARENDHRAN; RAJESHWARI SIVARAJ

    2016-04-01

    This study reports the in vitro antimicrobial and anticancer activities of biologically synthesized copper nanoparticles. The antimicrobial activity of green synthesized copper oxide nanoparticles was assessed by well diffusion method. The anticancer activity of brown algae-mediated copper oxide nanoparticles was determined by MTT assay against the cell line (MCF-7). Maximum activity was observed with Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Aspergillus niger. Effective growth inhibition of cells was observed to be more than 93% in antibacterial activity. Thus, the results of the present study indicates that biologically synthesized copper nanoparticles can be used for several diseases, however, it necessitates clinical studies to ascertain their potential as antimicrobial and anticancer agents.

  8. Determination of moisture content and water activity in algae and fish by thermoanalytical techniques

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vilma Mota da Silva

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The water content in seafoods is very important since it affects their sensorial quality, microbiological stability, physical characteristics and shelf life. In this study, thermoanalytical techniques were employed to develop a simple and accurate method to determine water content (moisture by thermogravimetry (TG and water activity from moisture content values and freezing point depression using differential scanning calorimetry (DSC. The precision of the results suggests that TG is a suitable technique to determine moisture content in biological samples. The average water content values for fish samples of Lutjanus synagris and Ocyurus chrysurus species were 76.4 ± 5.7% and 63.3 ± 3.9%, respectively, while that of Ulva lactuca marine algae species was 76.0 ± 4.4%. The method presented here was also successfully applied to determine water activity in two species of fish and six species of marine algae collected in the Atlantic coastal waters of Bahia, in Brazil. Water activity determined in fish samples ranged from 0.946 - 0.960 and was consistent with values reported in the literature, i.e., 0.9 - 1.0. The water activity values determined in marine algae samples lay within the interval of 0.974 - 0.979.

  9. Determination of moisture content and water activity in algae and fish by thermoanalytical techniques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silva, Vilma Mota da; Silva, Luciana Almeida; Andrade, Jailson B. de [Universidade Federal da Bahia (UFBA), Salvador, BA (Brazil). Inst. de Quimica]. E-mail: jailsong@ufba.br; Veloso, Marcia C. da Cunha [Centro Federal de Educacao Tecnologica da Bahia (CEFET-BA), Salvador, BA (Brazil)); Santos, Gislaine Vieira [Universidade Federal da Bahia (UFBA), Salvador, BA (Brazil). Inst. de Biologia

    2008-07-01

    The water content in seafoods is very important since it affects their sensorial quality, microbiological stability, physical characteristics and shelf life. In this study, thermoanalytical techniques were employed to develop a simple and accurate method to determine water content (moisture) by thermogravimetry (TG) and water activity from moisture content values and freezing point depression using differential scanning calorimetry (DSC). The precision of the results suggests that TG is a suitable technique to determine moisture content in biological samples. The average water content values for fish samples of Lutjanus synagris and Ocyurus chrysurus species were 76.4 {+-} 5.7% and 63.3 {+-} 3.9%, respectively, while that of Ulva lactuca marine algae species was 76.0 {+-} 4.4%. The method presented here was also successfully applied to determine water activity in two species of fish and six species of marine algae collected in the Atlantic coastal waters of Bahia, in Brazil. Water activity determined in fish samples ranged from 0.946 - 0.960 and was consistent with values reported in the literature, i.e., 0.9 - 1.0. The water activity values determined in marine algae samples lay within the interval of 0.974 - 0.979. (author)

  10. Antimicrobial Activities of Bacteria Associated with the Brown Alga

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ismail, A.; Ktari, L.; Bolhuis, H.; Ahmed, M.; Boudabbous, A.; Stal, L.J.; Cretoiu, M.S.; El Bour, M.

    2016-01-01

    Macroalgae belonging to the genus Padina are known to produce antibacterial compounds that may inhibit growth of human- and animal pathogens. Hitherto, it was unclear whether this antibacterial activity is produced by the macroalga itself or by secondary metabolite producing epiphytic bacteria. Here

  11. Evaluation of Supercritical Extracts of Algae as Biostimulants of Plant Growth in Field Trials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michalak, Izabela; Chojnacka, Katarzyna; Dmytryk, Agnieszka; Wilk, Radosław; Gramza, Mateusz; Rój, Edward

    2016-01-01

    The aim of the field trials was to determine the influence of supercritical algal extracts on the growth and development of winter wheat (variety Akteur). As a raw material for the supercritical fluid extraction, the biomass of microalga Spirulina plantensis, brown seaweed - Ascophyllum nodosum and Baltic green macroalgae was used. Forthial and Asahi SL constituted the reference products. It was found that the tested biostimulants did not influence statistically significantly the plant height, length of ear, and shank length. The ear number per m(2) was the highest in the group where the Baltic macroalgae extract was applied in the dose 1.0 L/ha (statistically significant differences). Number of grains in ear (statistically significant differences) and shank length was the highest in the group treated with Spirulina at the dose 1.5 L/ha. In the group with Ascophyllum at the dose 1.0 L/ha, the highest length of ear was observed. The yield was comparable in all the experimental groups (lack of statistically significant differences). Among the tested supercritical extracts, the best results were obtained for Spirulina (1.5 L/ha). The mass of 1000 grains was the highest for extract from Baltic macroalgae and was 3.5% higher than for Asahi, 4.0% higher than for Forthial and 18.5% higher than for the control group (statistically significant differences). Future work is needed to fully characterize the chemical composition of the applied algal extracts. A special attention should be paid to the extracts obtained from Baltic algae because they are inexpensive source of naturally occurring bioactive compounds, which can be used in sustainable agriculture and horticulture.

  12. Biological activity of a red-tide alga--A. tamarense under co-cultured condition with bacteria

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SU Jian-qiang; YU Zhi-ming; TIAN Yun; SONG Xiu-xian; HONG Hua-sheng; ZHENG Tian-ling

    2005-01-01

    The relationship between Alexandrium tamarense(Lebour) Balech, one of red-tide alga, and two strains of marine bacteria,Bacillius megaterium(S7 ) and B. halmapulus(S10) isolated from Xiamen Western Sea, was investigated by evaluating the growth state of A. tamarense and the variation of β-glucosidase activity in co-culture system. The results showed the growth and multiplication of the alga were related with the concentration, genus speciality of the bacteria, and growth stage of the alga itself. The growth of A. tamarense was obviously inhibited by S7 and S10 at high concentration. Either inhibition or promotion contributed much more clearly in earlier than in later stage of the growth of the alga. Furthermore, there was a roughly similar variation trend of the activity of extra-cellular enzyme, β-glucosidase, in the water of the separately co-cultured bacteria S7 and S10 with the alga. The β-glucosidase activity(β-GlcA) rapidly increased during the later algal growth accompanying the increase of the lysis of the alga cells. The obvious inhibition of A. tamarense by marine bacteria at high concentration and evident increase of β-GlcA in co-colture system would help us in better understanding the relationship between red-tide alga and bacteria, and also enlightened us the possible use of bacteria in the bio-control of red-tide.

  13. Determination of antimicrobial activity of two macro algae extracts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bahar Gümüş

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available In this study, antimicrobial activity of the possibility of using ethanol extracts obtained from seaweeds Ulva rigida and Gracilaria verrucosa were examined. U. rigida and G. verrucosa were collected from the Coast of Inciraltı (Izmir, Turkey. In the laboratory, the samples were cleaned by rinsing with tap and distilled water, and then dried at 40 °C for 24 hours. Dried and pulverized seaweed samples (10 g were weighed into an amber Erlenmeyer flask, and 200 ml of 95% (v/v ethanol was added. The mixture was shaken and extracted in a water bath shaker at temperatures of 30 °C, 45 °C and 60 °C for 30 min. The extracts were filtered, and ethanol was removed using a rotary evaporator to obtain extracts. Ethanolic extracts of U. rigida and G. verrucosa obtained at different temperatures were evaluated in vitro for antibacterial and antifungal activity on six bacteria (Bacillus subtilis, Staphylococcus aureus, Enterococcus faecalis, Listeria monocytogenes, Escherichia coli and Pseudomonas aeruginosa and two fungi (Aspergillus brasiliensis and Candida albicans using the paper disk agar diffusion method. All extract groups tested were found to have antimicrobial activity against all bacteria and fungi, except for Aspergillus brasiliensis.

  14. Isolation, antimicrobial activity, and metabolites of fungus Cladosporium sp. associated with red alga Porphyra yezoensis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, Ling; Qin, Song; Li, Fuchao; Chi, Xiaoyuan; Laatsch, Hartmut

    2008-03-01

    Cladosporium sp. isolate N5 was isolated as a dominant fungus from the healthy conchocelis of Porphyra yezoensis. In the re-infection test, it did not cause any pathogenic symptoms in the alga. Twenty-one cultural conditions were chosen to test its antimicrobial activity in order to obtain the best condition for large-scale fermentation. Phenylacetic acid, p-hydroxyphenylethyl alcohol, and L-beta-phenyllactic acid were isolated from the crude extract as strong antimicrobial compounds and they are the first reported secondary metabolites for the genus Cladosporium. In addition, the Cladosporium sp. produced the reported Porphyra yezoensis growth regulators phenylacetic acid and p-hydroxyphenylacetic acid. No cytotoxicity was found in the brine shrimp lethality test, which indicated that the environmental-friendly Cladosporium sp. could be used as a potential biocontrol agent to protect the alga from pathogens.

  15. Bioinformatics Reveal Five Lineages of Oleosins and the Mechanism of Lineage Evolution Related to Structure/Function from Green Algae to Seed Plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Ming-Der; Huang, Anthony H C

    2015-09-01

    Plant cells contain subcellular lipid droplets with a triacylglycerol matrix enclosed by a layer of phospholipids and the small structural protein oleosin. Oleosins possess a conserved central hydrophobic hairpin of approximately 72 residues penetrating into the lipid droplet matrix and amphipathic amino- and carboxyl (C)-terminal peptides lying on the phospholipid surface. Bioinformatics of 1,000 oleosins of green algae and all plants emphasizing biological implications reveal five oleosin lineages: primitive (in green algae, mosses, and ferns), universal (U; all land plants), and three in specific organs or phylogenetic groups, termed seed low-molecular-weight (SL; seed plants), seed high-molecular-weight (SH; angiosperms), and tapetum (T; Brassicaceae) oleosins. Transition from one lineage to the next is depicted from lineage intermediates at junctions of phylogeny and organ distributions. Within a species, each lineage, except the T oleosin lineage, has one to four genes per haploid genome, only approximately two of which are active. Primitive oleosins already possess all the general characteristics of oleosins. U oleosins have C-terminal sequences as highly conserved as the hairpin sequences; thus, U oleosins including their C-terminal peptide exert indispensable, unknown functions. SL and SH oleosin transcripts in seeds are in an approximately 1:1 ratio, which suggests the occurrence of SL-SH oleosin dimers/multimers. T oleosins in Brassicaceae are encoded by rapidly evolved multitandem genes for alkane storage and transfer. Overall, oleosins have evolved to retain conserved hairpin structures but diversified for unique structures and functions in specific cells and plant families. Also, our studies reveal oleosin in avocado (Persea americana) mesocarp and no acyltransferase/lipase motifs in most oleosins.

  16. Solar spectral conversion for improving the photosynthetic activity in algae reactors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wondraczek, Lothar; Batentschuk, Miroslaw; Schmidt, Markus A.; Borchardt, Rudolf; Scheiner, Simon; Seemann, Benjamin; Schweizer, Peter; Brabec, Christoph J.

    2013-06-01

    Sustainable biomass production is expected to be one of the major supporting pillars for future energy supply, as well as for renewable material provision. Algal beds represent an exciting resource for biomass/biofuel, fine chemicals and CO2 storage. Similar to other solar energy harvesting techniques, the efficiency of algal photosynthesis depends on the spectral overlap between solar irradiation and chloroplast absorption. Here we demonstrate that spectral conversion can be employed to significantly improve biomass growth and oxygen production rate in closed-cycle algae reactors. For this purpose, we adapt a photoluminescent phosphor of the type Ca0.59Sr0.40Eu0.01S, which enables efficient conversion of the green part of the incoming spectrum into red light to better match the Qy peak of chlorophyll b. Integration of a Ca0.59Sr0.40Eu0.01S backlight converter into a flat panel algae reactor filled with Haematococcus pluvialis as a model species results in significantly increased photosynthetic activity and algae reproduction rate.

  17. Toxicities of oils, dispersants and dispersed oils to algae and aquatic plants: review and database value to resource sustainability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, Michael; Pryor, Rachel

    2013-09-01

    Phytotoxicity results are reviewed for oils, dispersants and dispersed oils. The phytotoxicity database consists largely of results from a patchwork of reactive research conducted after oil spills to marine waters. Toxicity information is available for at least 41 crude oils and 56 dispersants. As many as 107 response parameters have been monitored for 85 species of unicellular and multicellular algae, 28 wetland plants, 13 mangroves and 9 seagrasses. Effect concentrations have varied by as much as six orders of magnitude due to experimental diversity. This diversity restricts phytotoxicity predictions and identification of sensitive species, life stages and response parameters. As a result, evidence-based risk assessments for most aquatic plants and petrochemicals and dispersants are not supported by the current toxicity database. A proactive and experimentally-consistent approach is recommended to provide threshold toxic effect concentrations for sensitive life stages of aquatic plants inhabiting diverse ecosystems.

  18. Antibiofilm Activity of the Brown Alga Halidrys siliquosa against Clinically Relevant Human Pathogens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alessandro Busetti

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The marine brown alga Halidrys siliquosa is known to produce compounds with antifouling activity against several marine bacteria. The aim of this study was to evaluate the antimicrobial and antibiofilm activity of organic extracts obtained from the marine brown alga H. siliquosa against a focused panel of clinically relevant human pathogens commonly associated with biofilm-related infections. The partially fractionated methanolic extract obtained from H. siliquosa collected along the shores of Co. Donegal; Ireland; displayed antimicrobial activity against bacteria of the genus Staphylococcus; Streptococcus; Enterococcus; Pseudomonas; Stenotrophomonas; and Chromobacterium with MIC and MBC values ranging from 0.0391 to 5 mg/mL. Biofilms of S. aureus MRSA were found to be susceptible to the algal methanolic extract with MBEC values ranging from 1.25 mg/mL to 5 mg/mL respectively. Confocal laser scanning microscopy using LIVE/DEAD staining confirmed the antimicrobial nature of the antibiofilm activity observed using the MBEC assay. A bioassay-guided fractionation method was developed yielding 10 active fractions from which to perform purification and structural elucidation of clinically-relevant antibiofilm compounds.

  19. Active ingredients fatty acids as antibacterial agent from the brown algae Padina pavonica and Hormophysa triquetra

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Gihan Ahmed El Shoubaky; Essam Abd El Rahman Salem

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To estimate the fatty acids content in the brown algae Padina pavonica (P. pavonica) and Hormophysa triquetra (H. triquetra) and evaluate their potential antimicrobial activity as bioactive compounds.Methods:The fatty acid compositions of the examined species were analyzed using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. The antimicrobial activity of crude and fatty acids was assessed using the agar plug technique.Results:The fatty acids profile ranged from C8:0 to C20:4. Concentration of saturated fatty acids in P. pavonica was in the order palmitic>myristic>stearic whereas concentration of the unsaturated fatty acids was oleic acid>palmitoleic>9-cis-hexadecenoic>linoleic acid>α-linolenic>arachidonic> elaidic acid. H. triquetra contained high concentration of saturated fatty acids than those of P. pavonica which was in the order as follows: palmitic>margaric>myristic>nonadecyclic>stearic>caprylic>tridecylic>pentadecylic>lauric while the unsaturated fatty acids consisted of oleic>nonadecenoic>non adecadienoate>margaroleic. The crude and fatty acid extracts of H. triquetra and P. pavonica were biologically active on the tested pathogens. H.triquetra exhibited a larger inhibitory zone than P. pavonica. Conclusions: The brown algae P. pavonica and H. triquetra have high efficient amount of fatty acids and showed strong antibacterial activity, especially H. triquetra.

  20. Isolation and characterization of fucoidans from five brown algae and evaluation of their antioxidant activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qu, Guiyan; Liu, Xu; Wang, Dongfeng; Yuan, Yi; Han, Lijun

    2014-10-01

    In this study, we evaluated the chemical property and antioxidant activity of fucoidans isolated from brown algae, Laminaria japonica (LJF), Lessonia nigrescens (LNF), Lessonia trabeculata (LTF), Ascophyllum mackaii (AMF), and Ecklonia maxima (EMF). LJF was less in sulfate content (14.16%) and more in galactose and mannose content (1.08 and 0.68) than the documented early. EMF contained 20%-30% of sulfate and fucose, 0.97 in molar ratio which was lower than that of sulfate to other four fucoidans (1.21-1.41). AMF (162 kDa) and EMF (150 kDa) were the first two largest in molecular weight, which were followed by LJP (126 kDa), LNF (113 kDa) and LTF (105 kDa). The fucoidans isolated these algae showed a wide range of antioxidant activity in vitro. It was found that the reducing power of the isolated fucoidans was positively correlated with their sulfate content and molecular weight. In addition, LNF and LTF at low concentrations exhibited high superoxide and hydroxyl radical scavenging activity. This demonstrated that low molecular weight fucoidans may perform a high antioxidant activity.

  1. Structural characterization and Biological Activity of Sulfolipids from selected Marine Algae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    El Baz, F. K.

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The sulfolipid classes (SLs in the total lipids of five species of marine algae, two species of Rhodophyta (Laurencia popillose, Galaxoura cylindriea, one species of Chlorophyta (Ulva fasciata, and two species of Phaeophyta (Dilophys fasciola, Taonia atomaria were separated and purified on DEAE-cellulose column chromatography. The SLs component was identified by IR, gas chromatography MS/MS and liquid chromatography MS/MS. The level of SLs contents va ried from 1.25% (in L. papillose to 11.82% (in D. fasciola of the total lipid contents. However, no significant differences in sulfate content (0.13 – 0.21% were observed among all these algae species. All SLs were characterized by high contents of palmitic acid (C 16:0, which ranged from 30.91% in G. cylindriea to 63.11% in T. atomatia. The main constitutes of algal sulfolipids were identified as sulfoquinovosyl-di-acylglycerol and sulfoquinovosyl acylglycerol. The sulfolipids of different algal species exhibited remarkable antiviral activity against herps simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1 with an IC50 ranging from 18.75 to 70. 2 μg mL–1. Moreover, algal sulfolipid inhibited the growth of the tumor cells of breast and liver human cancer cells with IC50 values ranging from 0.40 to 0.67 μg mL–1 for human breast adenocarcinoma cells (MCF7.Se separaron diferentes clases sulfolípidos (SL a partir de los lípidos totales de cinco especies de algas marinas: una especie de Chlorophyta (Ulva fasciata, dos especies de Phaeophyta (Dilophys fasciola, Taonia atomaria y dos especies de Rhodophyta (Laurencia popillose, Galaxoura cylindriea que se purificaron mediante cromatografía en columna de DEAE-celulosa. Los components de SLs fueron identificados por IR, cromatografía de gases MS/MS y cromatografía líquida MS/ MS. Los contenidos de SL en relación al total de lípidos varió de 1,25% (en L. papilosa al 11,82% (en D. fasciola. Sin embargo, no hay diferencias significativas en el contenido de sulfato

  2. Transcriptomics of desiccation tolerance in the streptophyte green alga Klebsormidium reveal a land plant-like defense reaction.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andreas Holzinger

    Full Text Available Water loss has significant effects on physiological performance and survival rates of algae. However, despite the prominent presence of aeroterrestrial algae in terrestrial habitats, hardly anything is known about the molecular events that allow aeroterrestrial algae to survive harsh environmental conditions. We analyzed the transcriptome and physiology of a strain of the alpine aeroterrestrial alga Klebsormidium crenulatum under control and strong desiccation-stress conditions.For comparison we first established a reference transcriptome. The high-coverage reference transcriptome includes about 24,183 sequences (1.5 million reads, 636 million bases. The reference transcriptome encodes for all major pathways (energy, carbohydrates, lipids, amino acids, sugars, nearly all deduced pathways are complete or missing only a few transcripts. Upon strong desiccation, more than 7000 transcripts showed changes in their expression levels. Most of the highest up-regulated transcripts do not show similarity to known viridiplant proteins, suggesting the existence of some genus- or species-specific responses to desiccation. In addition, we observed the up-regulation of many transcripts involved in desiccation tolerance in plants (e.g. proteins similar to those that are abundant in late embryogenesis (LEA, or proteins involved in early response to desiccation ERD, and enzymes involved in the biosynthesis of the raffinose family of oligosaccharides (RFO known to act as osmolytes. Major physiological shifts are the up-regulation of transcripts for photosynthesis, energy production, and reactive oxygen species (ROS metabolism, which is supported by elevated cellular glutathione content as revealed by immunoelectron microscopy as well as an increase in total antiradical power. However, the effective quantum yield of Photosystem II and CO2 fixation decreased sharply under the applied desiccation stress. In contrast, transcripts for cell integrative functions such as

  3. Estrogenic activity in extracts and exudates of cyanobacteria and green algae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sychrová, E; Štěpánková, T; Nováková, K; Bláha, L; Giesy, J P; Hilscherová, K

    2012-02-01

    Here is presented some of the first information on interactions of compounds produced by cyanobacteria and green algae with estrogen receptor signaling. Estrogenic potency of aqueous extracts and exudates (culture spent media with extracellular products) of seven species of cyanobacteria (10 different laboratory strains) and two algal species were assessed by use of in vitro trans-activation assays. Compounds produced by cyanobacteria and algae, and in particular those excreted from the cells, were estrogenic. Most exudates were estrogenic with potencies expressed at 50% of the maximum response under control of the estrogen receptor ranging from 0.2 to 7.2 ng 17β-estradiol (E(2)) equivalents (EEQ)/L. The greatest estrogenic potency was observed for exudates of Microcystis aerigunosa, a common species that forms water blooms. Aqueous extracts of both green algae, but only one species of cyanobacteria (Aphanizomenon gracile) elicited significant estrogenicity with EEQ ranging from 15 to 280 ng 17β-estradiol (E(2))/g dry weight. Scenedesmus quadricauda exudates and extracts of Aphanizomenon flos-aquae were antagonistic to the ER when coexposed to E(2). The EEQ potency was not correlated with concentrations of cyanotoxins, such as microcystin and cylindrospermopsin, which suggests that the EEQ was comprised of other compounds. The study demonstrates some differences between the estrogenic potency of aqueous extracts prepared from the same species, but of different origin, while the effects of exudates were comparable within species. The observed estrogenic potencies are important namely in relation to the possible mass expansion of cyanobacteria and release of the active compounds into surrounding water.

  4. Structural characterization and anticoagulant activity of a sulfated polysaccharide from the green alga Codium divaricatum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Na; Mao, Wenjun; Yan, Mengxia; Liu, Xue; Xia, Zheng; Wang, Shuyao; Xiao, Bo; Chen, Chenglong; Zhang, Lifang; Cao, Sujian

    2015-05-05

    A sulfated polysaccharide, designated CP2-1, was isolated from the green alga Codium divaricatum by water extraction and purified by anion-exchange and size-exclusion chromatography. CP2-1 is a galactan which is highly sulfated and substituted with pyruvic acid ketals. On the basis of chemical and spectroscopic analyses, the backbone of CP2-1 was mainly composed of (1→3)-β-d-galactopyranose residues, branched by single (1→)-β-d-galactopyranose units attached to the main chain at C-4 positions. The degree of branching was estimated to be about 12.2%. Sulfate groups were at C-4 of (1→3)-β-d-galactopyranose and C-6 of non-reducing terminal galactose residues. In addition, the ketals of pyruvic acid were found at 3,4- of non-reducing terminal galactose residues forming a five-membered ring. CP2-1 possessed a high anticoagulant activity as assessed by the activated partial thromboplastin time and thrombin time assays. The investigation demonstrated that CP2-1 was an anticoagulant-active sulfated polysaccharide distinguishing from other sulfated polysaccharides from marine green algae.

  5. Investigation of Anti-bacterial Activity against Food-borne Pathogens among Korean Domestic Algae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ki-hyo Jang

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study is to explore algal species with anti-bacterial activity against six food-borne pathogens. Among 51 marine algae, Laurencia okamurae Yamada and Dictyopteris undulata Holmes was elucidated to have a potent anti-bacterial activity against food-borne pathogens. Laurencia okamurae Yamada showed the clear zone around agar well on B. cereus, S. aureusand L. monocytogenes-spreading agar plate. Dictyopteris undulata Holmes had the anti-bacterial activity against S. chorelaesuis, B. cereus, S. aureus and L. monocytogenes on bacterial spreading agar plates. Antibacterial activity of L. okamurae Yamada and D. undulata Holmes had specifically susceptibility for B. cereus, S. aureus and L. monocytogenes and were superior to streptomycin, the authentic antibiotics. It is anticipated that new food preservatives can be explored and developed on the basis of this study.

  6. Study on the concentration and seasonal variation of inorganic elements in 35 species of marine algae

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hou, Xiaolin; Yan, X.J.

    1998-01-01

    The concentrations of five major and 28 trace elements in 35 marine algae collected along the coast of China were determined by instrumental neutron activation analysis. The concentrations of halogens, rare earth elements and many transition metal elements in marine algae are remarkably higher than...... those in terrestrial plants. The concentration factors for 31 elements in all collected algae were calculated, those for tri- and tetra-valent elements were higher than those of the mono- and di-valent elements in marine algae. The biogeochemical characteristics of inorganic elements in marine algae...

  7. The anti-allergic activity of polyphenol extracted from five marine algae

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yu; Lin, Hong; Li, Zhenxing; Mou, Quangui

    2015-08-01

    Natural polyphenol has been widely believed to be effective in allergy remission. Currently, most of the natural polyphenol products come from terrestrial sources such as tea, grape seeds among others, and few polyphenols have been developed from algae for their anti-allergic activity. The aim of the study was to screen some commercial seaweed for natural extracts with anti-allergic activity. Five algae including Laminaria japonica, Porphyra sp., Spirulina platensis, Chlorella pyrenoidosa and Scytosiphon sp. were extracted with ethanol, and the extracts were evaluated for total polyphenol contents and anti-allergic activity with the hyaluronidase inhibition assay. Results showed that the total polyphenol contents in the ethanol extracts ranged from 1.67% to 8.47%, while the highest was found in the extract from Scytosiphon sp. Hyaluronidase inhibition assay showed that the extracts from Scytosiphon sp. had the lowest IC50, 0.67 mg mL-1, while Chlorella pyrenoidosa extract had the highest IC50, 15.07 mg mL-1. The anti-allergic activity of Scytosiphon sp. extract was even higher than the typical anti-allergic drug Disodium Cromoglycate (DSCG) (IC50 = 1.13 mg mL-1), and was similar with natural polyphenol from Epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG) (IC50 = 0.56 mg mL-1). These results indicated that the ethanol extract of Scytosiphon sp. contains a high concentration of polyphenol with high anti-allergic activity. Potentially Scytosiphon sp. can be developed to a natural anti-allergic compound for allergy remission.

  8. Metabolitic activity of 11-deoxycorticosterone and prednisolone in the alga Chlorella vulgaris Beijerinck

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Romuald Czerpak

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The influence of optimal concentrations 5 x 10-6M - 10-6M of 11-deoxycorticosterone (mineralocorticoid and prednisolone (glucocorticoid on the growth (fresh and dry weight and content of soluble proteins, reducing sugars and nucleic acids in the green alga Chlorella vulgaris (Chlorophyceae. Both corticosteroids at concentration 5 x 10-6M were most strongly active metabolically between the 5th-15th day of the cultivation and this probably was caused by their chemical biotransformation. The applied corticosteroids induced the strongest stimulative effect on the content of soluble proteins in the range of 167-196% and reducing sugars (233-275% when compared to the control (100%. Prednisolone showed lower stimulative activity on the content of proteins. But 11-deoxycorticosterone showed weaker stimulation of on the content of sugar. Both of the corticosteroids showed a stimulating or inhibitory influence upon the content of nucleic acids in C. vulgaris cells without regard to the concentration.

  9. Cytotoxicity and antimicrobial activity of marine macro algae (Dictyotaceae and Ulvaceae) from the Persian Gulf.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mashjoor, Sakineh; Yousefzadi, Morteza; Esmaeili, Mohamad Ali; Rafiee, Roya

    2016-10-01

    Pharmaceutical industry now accept the worlds ocean which contains a vast array of organisms with unique biological properties, as a major frontier for medical investigation. Bioactive compounds with different modes of action, such as, antiproliferative, antioxidant, antimicrotubule, have been isolated from marine sources, specifically macro and micro algae, and cyanobacteria. The aim of this work was to investigate antimicrobial and cytotoxic activities of the extracts of marine macro algae Ulva flexuosa, Padina antillarum and Padina boergeseni from the northern coasts of the Persian Gulf, Qeshm Island, Iran, against three cell lines including MCF7, HeLa and Vero, as well as their inhibitory effects against a wide array (i.e. n = 11) of pathogenic bacteria and fungi. Antimicrobial activity of the marine macro algal extracts was assessed using a disc diffusion method; an MTT cytotoxicity assay was employed to test the effects of the extracts on each cancer cell line. The algal extracts showed considerable antimicrobial activity against the majority of the tested bacteria and fungi. Both ethyl acetate and methanol extracts at the highest concentration (100 µg/ml) caused cell death, with the IC50 values calculated for each cell type and each algal extracts. Results are exhibited a higher decrease in the viability of the cells treated at the highest concentration of marine macro algal ethyl acetate extracts compared to the methanol extracts (78.9 % death in Vero cells by ethyl acetate extracts from U. flexuosa). Despite, the ethyl acetate extracts with lower dose- response of cells, exhibited better cytotoxic activity than methanol extracts (IC50: 55.26 μg/ml in Vero cells by ethyl acetate extracts from U. flexuosa). Based on the findings, it is concluded that the marine macro algal extracts from the Persian Gulf possess antibacterial and cytotoxic potential, which could be considered for future applications in medicine and identifying novel drugs from the

  10. Let them eat algae

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ciferri, O.

    1981-09-24

    The blue-green alga, Spirulina appears to be one of the candidates for the solution of the global problems of energy, food and chemical feedstock supplies. The harvesting of algae from Lake Texcoco, Mexico for the making of bread was noted in the 16th century by the Spanish and over 400 years later, dried biscuits made from algae were noted in Chad. Recent investigations have shown that the alga contains a very high proportion of protein - even higher than soya beans and is of high quality. A pilot plant covering 2 hectares for culturing Spirulina in a closed system is under construction in Italy. The polyethylene tubes will function as solar collectors and so extend the production season of the algae in more temperate regions.

  11. Algae Derived Biofuel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jahan, Kauser [Rowan Univ., Glassboro, NJ (United States)

    2015-03-31

    One of the most promising fuel alternatives is algae biodiesel. Algae reproduce quickly, produce oils more efficiently than crop plants, and require relatively few nutrients for growth. These nutrients can potentially be derived from inexpensive waste sources such as flue gas and wastewater, providing a mutual benefit of helping to mitigate carbon dioxide waste. Algae can also be grown on land unsuitable for agricultural purposes, eliminating competition with food sources. This project focused on cultivating select algae species under various environmental conditions to optimize oil yield. Membrane studies were also conducted to transfer carbon di-oxide more efficiently. An LCA study was also conducted to investigate the energy intensive steps in algae cultivation.

  12. Fibonacci spirals in a brown alga [Sargassum muticum (Yendo Fensholt] and in a land plant [Arabidopsis thaliana (L. Heynh.]: a case of morphogenetic convergence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexis Peaucelle

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available In this article, the morphology of a brown alga is revisited and compared to the phyllotaxis of land plants. The alga, Sargassum muticum (Yendo Fensholt has a highly organized thallus with a stipe, the stem-like main axis, and hierarchically organized lateral branches of successive orders. Around each of these axes, the lateral organs: blades, side-branches, and receptacles grow in a spiral disposition. As in land plants, this organization is related to an apical mode of growth. Measurements performed along the mature differentiated axes as well as in their meristematic regions confirm the similarity of the large-scale organization of this brown alga with that of the land plants. In particular, the divergence angle between successive elements has similar values and it results from the existence around the meristem of parastichies having the same Fibonacci ordering. This is remarkable in view of the fact that brown algae (Phaeophyceae and land plants (Embryophyta are two clades that diverged approximately 1800 million years ago when they were both unicellular organisms. We argue that the observed similarity results from a morphogenetic convergence. This is in strong support of the genericity and robustness of self-organization models in which similar structures, here Fibonacci related spirals, can be obtained in various situations in which the genetic and physiological implementation of development can be of a different nature.

  13. Inhibition of reverse transcriptase activity of HIV by polysaccharides of brown algae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Queiroz, K C S; Medeiros, V P; Queiroz, L S; Abreu, L R D; Rocha, H A O; Ferreira, C V; Jucá, M B; Aoyama, H; Leite, E L

    2008-06-01

    Brown algae have two kinds of acid polysaccharides present in the extracellular matrix: sulfated fucan and alginic acid. We have previously isolated and characterized fucans from several species of brown seaweed. The characterized fucans from Dictyotaceae are heterofucans containing mainly fucose, galactose, glucose, xylose, and/or uronic acid. The fucan from Fucus vesiculosus is a homofucan containing only sulfated fucose. We assessed the activity of these fucans as inhibitors of HIV from reverse transcriptase (RT). Using activated DNA and template primers poly(rA)-oligo(dT), we found that fucans at a concentration of 0.5-1.0 microg/mL had a pronounced inhibitory effect in vitro on the avian reverse transcriptase, with the exception of xylogalactofucan isolated from Spatoglossum schröederi, which had no inhibitory activity. The alginic acid (1.0 microg/mL) inhibited the reverse transcriptase activity by 51.1% using activated DNA. The inhibitory effect of fucans was eliminated by their desulfation. Furthermore, only xylofucoglucuronan from S. schröederi lost its activity after carboxyreduction. We suggest that fucan activity is not only dependent on the ionic changes but also on the sugar rings that act to spatially orientate the charges in a configuration that recognizes the enzyme, thus determining the specificity of the binding.

  14. Induced modifications on algae photosynthetic activity monitored by pump-and-probe technique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barbini, R.; Colao, F.; Fantoni, R.; Palucci, A.; Ribezzo, S. [ENEA, Centro Ricerche Frascati, Rome (Italy). Dip. Innovazione; Tarzillo, G.; Carlozzi, P.; Pelosi, E. [CNR, Florence (Italy). Centro Studi Microorganismi Autotrofi

    1995-12-01

    The lidar fluorosensor system available at ENEA Frascati has been used for a series of laboratory measurements on brackish-water and marine phytoplankton grown in laboratory with the proper saline solution. The system, already used to measure the laser induced fluorescence spectra of different algae species and their detection limits, has been upgraded with a short pulse Nd:YAG laser and rearranged to test a new technique based on laser pump and probe excitation. Results of this new technique for remote monitoring of the in-vivo photosynthetic activity will be presented, as measured during a field campaign carried out in Florence during the Autumn 1993, where the effects of an actinic saturating light and different chemicals have also been checked.

  15. Phylogenetic relationship and antifouling activity of bacterial epiphytes from the marine alga Ulva lactuca.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Egan, S; Thomas, T; Holmström, C; Kjelleberg, S

    2000-06-01

    It is widely accepted that bacterial epiphytes can inhibit the colonization of surfaces by common fouling organisms. However, little information is available regarding the diversity and properties of these antifouling bacteria. This study assessed the antifouling traits of five epiphytes of the common green alga, Ulva lactuca. All isolates were capable of preventing the settlement of invertebrate larvae and germination of algal spores. Three of the isolates also inhibited the growth of a variety of bacteria and fungi. Their phylogenetic positions were determined by 16S ribosomal subunit DNA sequencing. All isolates showed a close affiliation with the genus Pseudoalteromonas and, in particular, with the species P. tunicata. Strains of this bacterial species also display a variety of antifouling activities, suggesting that antifouling ability may be an important trait for members of this genus to be highly successful colonizers of animate surfaces and for such species to protect their host against fouling.

  16. Antifertility activity of medicinal plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daniyal, Muhammad; Akram, Muhammad

    2015-07-01

    The aim of this review was to provide a comprehensive summary of medicinal plants used as antifertility agents in females throughout the world by various tribes and ethnic groups. We undertook an extensive bibliographic review by analyzing classical text books and peer reviewed papers, and further consulting well accepted worldwide scientific databases. We performed CENTRAL, Embase, and PubMed searches using terms such as "antifertility", "anti-implantation", "antiovulation", and "antispermatogenic" activity of plants. Plants, including their parts and extracts, that have traditionally been used to facilitate antifertility have been considered as antifertility agents. In this paper, various medicinal plants have been reviewed for thorough studies such as Polygonum hydropiper Linn, Citrus limonum, Piper nigrum Linn, Juniperis communis, Achyanthes aspera, Azadirachta indica, Tinospora cordifolia, and Barleria prionitis. Many of these medicinal plants appear to act through an antizygotic mechanism. This review clearly demonstrates that it is time to expand upon experimental studies to source new potential chemical constituents from medicinal plants; plant extracts and their active constituents should be further investigated for their mechanisms. This review creates a solid foundation upon which to further study the efficacy of plants that are both currently used by women as traditional antifertility medicines, but also could be efficacious as an antifertility agent with additional research and study.

  17. A comprehensive phylogeny reveals functional conservation of the UV-B photoreceptor UVR8 from green algae to higher plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Belén Fernández

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available UV-B is present in sunlight (280- 315 nm and has diverse effects on living organisms. Low fluence rate of exposure induces a specific photomorphogenic response regulated by the UV-B response locus 8 UVR8 receptor. UVR8 was first described in Arabidopsis thaliana. In the absence of stimuli is located in the cytoplasm as a homodimer, however, upon UV-B irradiation, it switches to a monomer and interacts with the ubiquitin ligase E3 COP1 via the UVR8 β- propeller domain and the VP core. This induces the expression of the transcription factor HY5 leading to changes in the expression of genes associated with UV-B acclimation and stress tolerance. UVR8 senses UV-B through tryptophan residues being Trp233 and 285 the most important. Here we report a comprehensive phylogeny of UVR8, trying to identify UVR8 homologs and the ancestral organism where this gene could be originated based on the comparison and analysis of UVR8 functionally important motifs. Results obtained showed that Chlorophytes are the first organisms from the Viridiplantae group where UVR8 appear. UVR8 is present in green algae, bryophytes, lycophytes and angiosperms. All the sequences identified contain tryptophans 233 and 285, arginines involved in homodimerization and the VP domain suggesting they are true UVR8 photoreceptors. We also determined that some species from bryophytes and angiosperms contain more than one UVR8 gene copy opening the question if UVR8 could constitute a gene family in these species. In conclusion, we described the functional conservation among UVR8 proteins from green algae to higher plants.

  18. SCREENING FOR ANTIBACTERIAL AND ANTIFUNGAL ACTIVITIES IN SOME MARINE ALGAE FROM THE FUJIAN COAST OF CHINA WITH THREE DIFFERENT SOLVENTS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郑怡; 陈寅山; 卢海声

    2001-01-01

    Three different solvents viz ethanol, acetone and methanol-toluene (3:1) were used to extract antibiotics from 23 species of marine algae belonging to the Chlorophyta, Phaeophyta and Rhodophyta. Their crude extracts were tested for antibacterial and antifungal activities. Among them, the ethanol extract showed the strongest activity against the bacteria and fungi tested. Four species of the Rhodophyta (Laurencia okamurai, Dasya scoparia, Grateloupia filicina and plocamium telfairiae ) showed a wide spectrum of antibacterial activity. Every solvent extract from the four species was active against all the bacteria tested. The test bacterium Pseudomonas solancearum and the fungus Penicilium citrinum were most sensitive to the extracts of marine algae. In general, the extracts of seaweeds inhibited bacteria more strongly than fungi and species of the Rhodophyta showed the greatest activity against the bacteria and fungi tested.

  19. SCREENING FOR ANTIBACTERIAL AND ANTIFUNGAL ACTIVITIES IN SOME MARINE ALGAE FROM THE FUJIAN COAST OF CHINA WITH THREE DIFFERENT SOLVENTS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郑怡; 陈寅山; 卢海声

    2001-01-01

    Three different solvents viz ethanol, acetone and methanol-toluene (3:1) were used to extract antibiotics from 23 species of marine algae belonging to the Chlomphyta, Phaeophyta and Rhodophyta. Their crude extracts were tested for antibacterial and antifungal activities. Among them, the ethanol extract showed the strongest activity against the bacteria and fungi tested. Four species of the Rhodophyta (Laurenc/a okamurai, Dasya scoparia, Grateloupia filicina and plocamium telfairiae ) showed a wide spectrum of antibacterial activity. Every solvent extract from the four species was active against all the bacteria tested. The test bacterium Pseudomonas solancearum and the fungus Penicilium citrinum were most sensitive to the extracts of marine algae. In general, the extracts of seaweeds inhibited bacteria more strongly than fungi and species of the Rhodophyta showed the greatest activity against the bacteria and fungi tested.

  20. Antinociceptive and Anti-Inflammatory Activity from Algae of the Genus Caulerpa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bárbara Viviana de Oliveira Santos

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Marine natural products have been the focus of discovery for new products of chemical and pharmacological interest. The aim of this study was to evaluate the antinociceptive activity of the methanolic (ME, acetate (AE, hexanic (HE and chloroform (CE extracts obtained from Caulerpa mexicana, and ME, CE and HE obtained from Caulerpa sertularioides. These marine algae are found all over the world, mainly in tropical regions. Models such as the writhing test, the hot plate test and formalin-induced nociception test were used to evaluate antinociceptive activity in laboratory mice. In the writhing test, all the extracts were administered orally at a concentration of 100 mg/kg, and induced high peripheral antinociceptive activity, with a reduction in the nociception induced by acetic acid above 65%. In the hot plate test, treatment with extracts from C. sertularioides (100 mg/kg, p.o. did not significantly increase the latency of response, although the ME, AE and HE from C. mexicana showed activity in this model. This result suggests that these extracts exhibit antinociceptive activity. In the formalin test, it was observed that ME, AE and HE obtained from C. mexicana reduced the effects of formalin in both phases. On the other hand only CE from C. sertularioides induced significant inhibition of the nociceptive response in the first phase. To better assess the potential anti-inflammatory activity of the extracts, the carrageenan-induced peritonitis test was used to test Caulerpa spp. extracts on cell migration into the peritoneal cavity. In this assay, all extracts evaluated were able to significantly inhibit leukocyte migration into the peritoneal cavity in comparison with carrageenan. These data demonstrate that extracts from Caulerpa species elicit pronounced antinociceptive and anti-inflamatory activity against several nociception models. However, pharmacological and chemical studies are continuing in order to characterize the mechanism

  1. Antinociceptive and anti-inflammatory activity from algae of the genus Caulerpa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    da Matta, Carolina Babosa Brito; de Souza, Everton Tenório; de Queiroz, Aline Cavalcanti; de Lira, Daysianne Pereira; de Araújo, Morgana Vital; Cavalcante-Silva, Luiz Henrique Agra; de Miranda, George Emmanuel C; de Araújo-Júnior, João Xavier; Barbosa-Filho, José Maria; de Oliveira Santos, Bárbara Viviana; Alexandre-Moreira, Magna Suzana

    2011-03-02

    Marine natural products have been the focus of discovery for new products of chemical and pharmacological interest. The aim of this study was to evaluate the antinociceptive activity of the methanolic (ME), acetate (AE), hexanic (HE) and chloroform (CE) extracts obtained from Caulerpa mexicana, and ME, CE and HE obtained from Caulerpa sertularioides. These marine algae are found all over the world, mainly in tropical regions. Models such as the writhing test, the hot plate test and formalin-induced nociception test were used to evaluate antinociceptive activity in laboratory mice. In the writhing test, all the extracts were administered orally at a concentration of 100 mg/kg, and induced high peripheral antinociceptive activity, with a reduction in the nociception induced by acetic acid above 65%. In the hot plate test, treatment with extracts from C. sertularioides (100 mg/kg, p.o.) did not significantly increase the latency of response, although the ME, AE and HE from C. mexicana showed activity in this model. This result suggests that these extracts exhibit antinociceptive activity. In the formalin test, it was observed that ME, AE and HE obtained from C. mexicana reduced the effects of formalin in both phases. On the other hand only CE from C. sertularioides induced significant inhibition of the nociceptive response in the first phase. To better assess the potential anti-inflammatory activity of the extracts, the carrageenan-induced peritonitis test was used to test Caulerpa spp. extracts on cell migration into the peritoneal cavity. In this assay, all extracts evaluated were able to significantly inhibit leukocyte migration into the peritoneal cavity in comparison with carrageenan. These data demonstrate that extracts from Caulerpa species elicit pronounced antinociceptive and anti-inflamatory activity against several nociception models. However, pharmacological and chemical studies are continuing in order to characterize the mechanism(s) responsible for the

  2. Antinociceptive and Anti-Inflammatory Activity from Algae of the Genus Caulerpa

    Science.gov (United States)

    da Matta, Carolina Babosa Brito; de Souza, Éverton Tenório; de Queiroz, Aline Cavalcanti; de Lira, Daysianne Pereira; de Araújo, Morgana Vital; Cavalcante-Silva, Luiz Henrique Agra; de Miranda, George Emmanuel C.; de Araújo-Júnior, João Xavier; Barbosa-Filho, José Maria; de Oliveira Santos, Bárbara Viviana; Alexandre-Moreira, Magna Suzana

    2011-01-01

    Marine natural products have been the focus of discovery for new products of chemical and pharmacological interest. The aim of this study was to evaluate the antinociceptive activity of the methanolic (ME), acetate (AE), hexanic (HE) and chloroform (CE) extracts obtained from Caulerpa mexicana, and ME, CE and HE obtained from Caulerpa sertularioides. These marine algae are found all over the world, mainly in tropical regions. Models such as the writhing test, the hot plate test and formalin-induced nociception test were used to evaluate antinociceptive activity in laboratory mice. In the writhing test, all the extracts were administered orally at a concentration of 100 mg/kg, and induced high peripheral antinociceptive activity, with a reduction in the nociception induced by acetic acid above 65%. In the hot plate test, treatment with extracts from C. sertularioides (100 mg/kg, p.o.) did not significantly increase the latency of response, although the ME, AE and HE from C. mexicana showed activity in this model. This result suggests that these extracts exhibit antinociceptive activity. In the formalin test, it was observed that ME, AE and HE obtained from C. mexicana reduced the effects of formalin in both phases. On the other hand only CE from C. sertularioides induced significant inhibition of the nociceptive response in the first phase. To better assess the potential anti-inflammatory activity of the extracts, the carrageenan-induced peritonitis test was used to test Caulerpa spp. extracts on cell migration into the peritoneal cavity. In this assay, all extracts evaluated were able to significantly inhibit leukocyte migration into the peritoneal cavity in comparison with carrageenan. These data demonstrate that extracts from Caulerpa species elicit pronounced antinociceptive and anti-inflamatory activity against several nociception models. However, pharmacological and chemical studies are continuing in order to characterize the mechanism(s) responsible for the

  3. Antibacterial activity of selected marine macro algae against vancomycin resistant Enterococcus faecalis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Manivachagam Chandrasekaran; Venugopalan Venkatesalu; Gnanaprakasam Adaikala Raj

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the antibacterial activity of different extracts of Caulerpa chemnitzia (Epser) J.V. Lamououx, Caulerpa racemosa (Frosk.) Weber-van-Bosse (C. racemosa), Caulerpascalpelliformis Forsk, Stoechospermum marginatum (Ag.) Kutz (S. marginatum), Sargassum wightii Grev,Gracilaria verrucosa (R.Br.) Weber-van-Bosse, Ulva lactuca Lin, Ulva fasciata Dellie, Ulva reticulata Enterococcus faecalis (MTCC 439) (E. faecalis) and one clinical isolate of vancomycin resistant E.faecalis. Methods: The selected marine macro algae were extracted with different solvents viz., hexane, chloroform, ethyl acetate, acetone and methanol. Antibacterial assay was carried out by using disc diffusion method, determination of minimum inhibitory concentration and minimum bactericidal concentration.Results:(Huds.) Papenfuss and Gracilaria edulis (S.G. Gemelin) P.C. Silva against marginatum and C. racemosa than the other extracts. The mean zone of inhibition produced by the extracts in agar diffusion assays against the tested bacterial strains ranged from 7.1 to 14.5 mm. The minimum inhibitory concentration was between 250 and 500 µg/mL, while the minimum bactericidal concentration was from 500 to 1000 µg/mL. The ethyl acetate extracts of the seaweeds showed the presence of strong terpenoids, tannins and phenolic compounds compared with the other solvent extracts.Conclusions:The maximum antibacterial activity was recorded in the ethyl acetate extracts of S. racemosa can be used as an antibacterial substance for the treatment of infection caused by E. faecalis. These findings suggest that ethyl acetate extracts of S. marginatum and C.

  4. Antibacterial activity of selected marine macro algae against vancomycin resistant Enterococcus faecalis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manivachagam Chandrasekaran

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To evaluate the antibacterial activity of different extracts of Caulerpa chemnitzia (Epser J.V. Lamououx, Caulerpa racemosa (Frosk. Weber-van-Bosse (C. racemosa, Caulerpa scalpelliformis (R.Br. Weber-van-Bosse, Ulva lactuca Lin, Ulva fasciata Dellie, Ulva reticulata Forsk, Stoechospermum marginatum (Ag. Kutz (S. marginatum, Sargassum wightii Grev, Gracilaria verrucosa (Huds. Papenfuss and Gracilaria edulis (S.G. Gemelin P.C. Silva against Enterococcus faecalis (MTCC 439 (E. faecalis and one clinical isolate of vancomycin resistant E. faecalis. Methods: The selected marine macro algae were extracted with different solvents viz., hexane, chloroform, ethyl acetate, acetone and methanol. Antibacterial assay was carried out by using disc diffusion method, determination of minimum inhibitory concentration and minimum bactericidal concentration. Results: The maximum antibacterial activity was recorded in the ethyl acetate extracts of S. marginatum and C. racemosa than the other extracts. The mean zone of inhibition produced by the extracts in agar diffusion assays against the tested bacterial strains ranged from 7.1 to 14.5 mm. The minimum inhibitory concentration was between 250 and 500 µg/mL, while the minimum bactericidal concentration was from 500 to 1 000 µg/mL. The ethyl acetate extracts of the seaweeds showed the presence of strong terpenoids, tannins and phenolic compounds compared with the other solvent extracts. Conclusions: These findings suggest that ethyl acetate extracts of S. marginatum and C. racemosa can be used as an antibacterial substance for the treatment of infection caused by E. faecalis.

  5. Biomass or growth rate endpoint for algae and aquatic plants: relevance for the aquatic risk assessment of herbicides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bergtold, Matthias; Dohmen, Gerhard Peter

    2011-04-01

    Ecotoxicological studies with algae and aquatic plants are essential parts of the aquatic risk assessment for crop protection products (CPP). Growth rate is used as a response variable and in addition the effects on biomass and/or yield (in the following biomass) can be measured. The parameter biomass generally provides a lower numerical value compared with the growth rate for systematic and mathematical reasons. Therefore, some regulators prefer to use the EbC50 value (i.e., the concentration at which 50% reduction of biomass is observed) rather than ErC50 (the concentration at which a 50% inhibition of growth rate is observed) as the endpoint for ecotoxicological risk assessment. However, the parameter growth rate is scientifically more appropriate and robust against deviations in test conditions, permitting better interpretation of, and comparison between, studies. The aim of the present work is to evaluate the growth rate and biomass parameters with regard to their protectiveness and suitability for environmental risk assessment of CPP. It has been shown for a number of herbicides that the use of the EC50 value (without distinction between growth rate and biomass endpoints) from laboratory studies in combination with an assessment factor of 10 is sufficiently protective for aquatic plants (except for the herbicide 2,4-D). In this paper we evaluated EbC50 and ErC50 values separately. Data on 19 different herbicides were compiled from the literature or GLP reports. The EbC50 and ErC50 values obtained in laboratory studies were compared with effect concentrations in ecosystem studies (mainly mesocosm). This comparison of laboratory and field data shows that the overall aquatic risk assessment using ErC50 values in combination with the currently applied assessment factor of 10 is sufficient to exclude significant risk to aquatic plants in the environment.

  6. Prediction of Toxicity of Phenols and Anilines to Algae by Quantitative Structure-activity Relationship

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GUANG-HUA LU; CHAO WANG; XIAO-LING GUO

    2008-01-01

    Objective To measure the toxicity of phenol, aniline, and their derivatives to algae and to assess, model and predict the toxicity using quantitative structure-activity relationship (QSAR) method. Methods Oxygen production was used as the response endpoint for assessing the toxic effects of chemicals on algal photosynthesis. The energy of the lowest unoccupied molecular orbital (ELUMO) and the energy of the highest occupied molecular orbital (E) Were obtained from the ChemOffice 2004 program using the quantum chemical method MOPAC, and the frontier orbital energy gap (ΔE) was obtained. Results The compounds exhibited a reasonably wide range of algal toxicity. The most toxic compound was α-naphthol, whereas the least toxic one was aniline. A two-descriptor model was derived from the algal toxicity and structural parameters:logl/EC50=0.268logKow-1.006ΔE+11.769 (n=20,r2=0.946). This model was stable and satisfactory for predicting toxicity. Conclusion Phenol aniline, and their derivatives axe polar narcotics. Their toxicity is greater than estimated by hydrophobicity only, and addition of the frontier orbital energy gap ΔE can significantly improve the prediction of logKow-dependont models.

  7. Toxicity of TiO(2) nanoparticles to cladocerans, algae, rotifers and plants - effects of size and crystalline structure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clément, Laura; Hurel, Charlotte; Marmier, Nicolas

    2013-01-01

    With the rapid development of nanotechnology, there is an increasing risk of human and environmental exposure to nanotechnology-based materials. However, the data on the potential environmental effects of nanoparticles are scarce. The aim of this study is to assess the effect of particle size and crystal structure (anatase and rutile) of titanium dioxide on their toxicity. Thus, acute and chronic toxicity tests included a modified acute test (72 h) using daphnies and algae, rotifers and plants as model organisms. Gradient of toxicity varied with the tested biological organisms. Our results revealed that TiO(2) nanoparticles in anatase crystal structure are toxic in the entire set of tests conducted. However, at highconcentration, through their antimicrobial properties, they significantly promoted growth of roots. Because of its lipophilicity, the rutile crystalline structure of TiO(2) NPs form larger aggregates in aqueous medium; then they have less effect on biological organisms, and thus a lower toxicity than the anatase crystalline form of TiO(2). We also demonstrated that exposure duration, aggregation and concentrations are contributing factors in nanoparticles-mediated toxicity.

  8. Amino acid content of selected plant, algae and insect species: a search for alternative protein sources for use in pet foods*

    OpenAIRE

    McCusker, Sarah; Buff, Preston R.; Yu, Zengshou; Fascetti,Andrea J.

    2014-01-01

    In response to global economic duress and heightened consumer awareness of nutrition and health, sustainable and natural ingredients are in demand. Identification of alternative sources of nitrogen and amino acids, including taurine, may help meet dietary requirements while fostering sustainability and natural feeding approaches. Twenty plants, eighteen marine algae and five insect species were analysed. All samples were freeze-dried, hydrolysed and filtered prior to amino acid analysis. Samp...

  9. The fucoidans from brown algae of Far-Eastern seas: anti-tumor activity and structure-function relationship.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vishchuk, Olesya S; Ermakova, Svetlana P; Zvyagintseva, Tatyana N

    2013-11-15

    The sulfated polysaccharides from brown algae - the fucoidans - are known to be a topic of numerous studies, due to their beneficial biological activities including anti-tumour activity. In this study the effect of fucoidans isolated from brown algae Saccharina cichorioides, Fucus evanescens, and Undaria pinnatifida on the proliferation, neoplastic transformation, and colony formation of mouse epidermal cells JB6 Cl41, human colon cancer DLD-1, breast cancer T-47D, and melanoma RPMI-7951 cell lines was investigated. The algal fucoidans specifically and markedly suppressed the proliferation of human cancer cells with less cytotoxic effects against normal mouse epidermal cells. The highly sulfated (1→3)-α-l-fucan from S. cichorioides was found to be vitally important in the inhibition of EGF-induced neoplastic transformation of JB6 Cl41 cells. In colony formation assay the fucoidans from different species of brown algae showed selective anti-tumour activity against different types of cancer, which depended on unique structures of the investigated polysaccharides. These results provide evidence for further exploring the use of the fucoidans from S. cichorioides, F. evanescens, and U. pinnatifida as novel chemotherapeutics against different types of cancer.

  10. Completion of cell division is associated with maximum telomerase activity in naturally synchronized cultures of the green alga Desmodesmus quadricauda.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ševčíková, Tereza; Bišová, Kateřina; Fojtová, Miloslava; Lukešová, Alena; Hrčková, Kristýna; Sýkorová, Eva

    2013-03-18

    Telomerase maintains the ends of eukaryotic chromosomes, and its activity is an important parameter correlating with the proliferative capacity of cells. We have investigated cell cycle-specific changes in telomerase activity using cultures of Desmodesmus quadricauda, a model alga naturally synchronized by light/dark entrainment. A quantitative telomerase assay revealed high activity in algal cultures, with slight changes during the light period. Significantly increased telomerase activity was observed at the end of the dark phase, when cell division was complete. In contrast to other models, a natural separation between nuclear and cellular division typical for the cell cycle in D. quadricauda made this observation possible.

  11. Application of power plant flue gas in a photobioreactor to grow Spirulina algae, and a bioactivity analysis of the algal water-soluble polysaccharides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Hsiao-Wei; Yang, Tsung-Shi; Chen, Mao-Jing; Chang, Yu-Ching; Lin, Chai-Yi; Wang, Eugene I-Chen; Ho, Chen-Lung; Huang, Kue-Ming; Yu, Chi-Cheng; Yang, Feng-Ling; Wu, Shih-Hsiung; Lu, Ying-Chen; Chao, Louis Kuop-Ping

    2012-09-01

    A novel photobioreactor was developed with a total volume of 30 m(3) which required merely 100 m(3) of land footprint. The bioreactor was capable of utilizing CO(2) in the flue gas of a power plant as the carbon source for the growth of a freshwater alga, Spirulina platensis, mitigating the greenhouse effect caused by the same amount of CO(2) discharge. Results of the study indicated that the photobioreactor was capable of fixing 2,234 kg of CO(2) per annum. Upon deducting the energy consumption of operating the bioreactor unit, the estimated amount of CO(2) to be fixed by a scaled-up reactor would be 74 tons ha(-1)year(-1). In addition, the study prove that protein-free polysaccharides of S. platensis could induce the production of pro-IL-1 and IL-1 proteins through the mediation of ERK, JNK, and p38 MAPKs pathways. As a consequence, immunogenic activities of the macrophage cells were enhanced.

  12. Fingerprinting antioxidative activities in plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saleh, Livia; Plieth, Christoph

    2009-01-01

    Background A plethora of concurrent cellular activities is mobilised in the adaptation of plants to adverse environmental conditions. This response can be quantified by physiological experiments or metabolic profiling. The intention of this work is to reduce the number of metabolic processes studied to a minimum of relevant parameters with a maximum yield of information. Therefore, we inspected 'summary parameters' characteristic for whole classes of antioxidative metabolites and key enzymes. Results Three bioluminescence assays are presented. A horseradish peroxidase-based total antioxidative capacity (TAC) assay is used to probe low molecular weight antioxidants. Peroxidases are quantified by their luminol converting activity (LUPO). Finally, we quantify high molecular weight superoxide anion scavenging activity (SOSA) using coelenterazine. Experiments with Lepidium sativum L. show how salt, drought, cold, and heat influence the antioxidative system represented here by TAC, LUPO, SOSA, catalase, and glutathione reductase (GR). LUPO and SOSA run anti-parallel under all investigated stress conditions suggesting shifts in antioxidative functions rather than formation of antioxidative power. TAC runs in parallel with GR. This indicates that a majority of low molecular weight antioxidants in plants is represented by glutathione. Conclusion The set of assays presented here is capable of characterising antioxidative activities in plants. It is inexpensive, quick and reproducible and delivers quantitative data. 'Summary parameters' like TAC, LUPO, and SOSA are quantitative traits which may be promising for implementation in high-throughput screening for robustness of novel mutants, transgenics, or breeds. PMID:19171044

  13. Immunolmodulatory activity of the alga Chlorella vulgaris in Ehrlich ascites tumor bearing mice

    OpenAIRE

    2008-01-01

    Resumo: A Chlorella vulgaris (CV) é uma alga microscópica bastante rica em nutrientes. Além de alto valor nutritivo, a Chlorella tem demonstrado possuir importantes atividades terapêuticas. Vários trabalhos do nosso laboratório e outros demonstram os efeitos protetores desta alga contra infecções virais e bacterianas, tumores, entre outros. No presente trabalho avaliamos os efeitos do tratamento profilático/terapêutico com a dose de 50mg/Kg/dia de CV sobre a resposta imunohematopoética de ani...

  14. Management of Powdery Mildew in Squash by Plant and Alga Extract Biopesticides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Shouan; Mersha, Zelalem; Vallad, Gary E; Huang, Cheng-Hua

    2016-12-01

    Although many fungicides are registered for use to control powdery mildew on cucurbits, management of resistance to fungicides in pathogen populations still remains a major challenge. Two biopesticides Regalia SC and HMO 736 were evaluated in the greenhouse and field for their efficacy against powdery mildew in squash. In greenhouses, Regalia SC alone significantly (P powdery mildew compared to the nontreated control, and was as effective as the chemical standard Procure 480SC (triflumizole). In alternation with Procure 480SC, Regalia SC demonstrated greater or equivalent effects on reducing the disease. HMO 736 alone showed varying levels of disease control, but alternating with Procure 480SC significantly improved control efficacy. In addition, application of Regalia SC or HMO 736 each in alternation with Procure 480SC significantly increased the chlorophyll content in leaves and the total fresh weight of squash plants, when compared with the water control, Regalia SC and HMO 736 alone. In field trials, application of Regalia SC and HMO 736 each alone significantly reduced disease severity in one of two field trials during the early stage of disease development, but not during later stages when disease pressure became high. Both Regalia SC and HMO 736 each applied in alternation with Procure 480SC significantly improved the control efficacy compared to Procure 480SC alone. Results from this study demonstrated that an integrated management program can be developed for powdery mildew in squash by integrating the biopesticides Regalia SC, HMO 736 with the chemical fungicide Procure 480SC.

  15. Management of Powdery Mildew in Squash by Plant and Alga Extract Biopesticides

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shouan Zhang

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Although many fungicides are registered for use to control powdery mildew on cucurbits, management of resistance to fungicides in pathogen populations still remains a major challenge. Two biopesticides Regalia SC and HMO 736 were evaluated in the greenhouse and field for their efficacy against powdery mildew in squash. In greenhouses, Regalia SC alone significantly (P < 0.05 reduced powdery mildew compared to the nontreated control, and was as effective as the chemical standard Procure 480SC (triflumizole. In alternation with Procure 480SC, Regalia SC demonstrated greater or equivalent effects on reducing the disease. HMO 736 alone showed varying levels of disease control, but alternating with Procure 480SC significantly improved control efficacy. In addition, application of Regalia SC or HMO 736 each in alternation with Procure 480SC significantly increased the chlorophyll content in leaves and the total fresh weight of squash plants, when compared with the water control, Regalia SC and HMO 736 alone. In field trials, application of Regalia SC and HMO 736 each alone significantly reduced disease severity in one of two field trials during the early stage of disease development, but not during later stages when disease pressure became high. Both Regalia SC and HMO 736 each applied in alternation with Procure 480SC significantly improved the control efficacy compared to Procure 480SC alone. Results from this study demonstrated that an integrated management program can be developed for powdery mildew in squash by integrating the biopesticides Regalia SC, HMO 736 with the chemical fungicide Procure 480SC.

  16. Growth responses of selected freshwater algae to trace elements and scrubber ash slurry generated by coal-fired power plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vocke, R.W.

    1979-01-01

    The development and implementation of standard toxicity tests is a necessity if consistent and reliable data are to be obtained for water quality criteria. The adapted EPA AAPBT is an ideal static algal toxicity test system. The algal test medium has a chemical composition similar to natural unpolluted waters of low ionic strength. It is appropriate to use MATC water quality criteria when assessing the potential impact of pollutants generated by coal-fired power stations because these energy-generated pollutants typically enter aquatic systems in small quantities over long periods. The MATC water quality criteria are estimates of trace element and SASE levels, based on the most sensitive alga investigated, that will not cause significant changes in naturally-functioning algal populations. These levels are 0.016f mg L/sup -1/ As(V), 0.001 mg L/sup -1/ Cd(II), 0.004 mg L/sup -1/ Hg(II), 0.006 mg L/sup -1/ Se(VI), and 0.344% SASE. To provide viable working water quality criteria, an extrapolation from the laboratory to the natural environment must be made. Therefore, those oxidation states of the trace elements were selected which are the dominant states occurring in natural, unpolluted, slightly alkaline freshwaters. It must be pointed out that these MATC values are based on algal responses to single toxicants and no allowance is made for synergistic, additive, or antagonistic relationships which could occur in natural aquatic systems. Additionally, natural chelation may influence toxicity. The highly toxic nature of potential pollutants from coal-fired generating plants emphasizes the need for minimizing stack effluent pollutants and retaining scrubber ash slurry for proper disposal in an effort to maintain trace elements in concentration ranges compatible with naturally-functioning ecosystems.

  17. Antinociceptive and Anti-Inflammatory Activities of Crude Methanolic Extract of Red Alga Bryothamnion triquetrum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cavalcante-Silva, Luiz Henrique Agra; da Matta, Carolina Barbosa Brito; de Araújo, Morgana Vital; Barbosa-Filho, José Maria; de Lira, Daysianne Pereira; de Oliveira Santos, Bárbara Viviana; de Miranda, George Emmanuel C.; Alexandre-Moreira, Magna Suzana

    2012-01-01

    The marine environment is an extraordinary reservoir of bioactive natural products, many of which exhibit chemical and structural features not found in terrestrial natural products. In this regard, the aim of this study was to investigate the possible antinociceptive and anti-inflammatory activities of a crude methanolic extract of the red alga Bryothamnion triquetrum (BT-MeOH) in murine models. Groups of Swiss mice of both sexes (25–30 g) were used throughout the experiments. The potential antinociceptive of BT-MeOH was evaluated by means of the following tests: acetic acid-induced writhing, hot-plate test and glutamate- and formalin-induced nociception. The anti-inflammatory activity of BT-MeOH was investigated using the zymosan A-induced peritonitis test. The tests were conducted using 100 mg/kg (p.o.) BT-MeOH, 33.3 mg/kg (p.o.) dipyrone, 35.7 mg/kg (p.o.) indomethacin and 5.7 mg/kg (s.c.) morphine. The extract and all standard drugs were administered 40 min before the nociceptive/inflammatory stimulus. In the acetic acid-induced writhing test, BT-MeOH and dipyrone inhibited the nociceptive response by 55.9% (22.2 ± 2.0 writhings; p < 0.01) and 80.9% (9.6 ± 2.1 writhings; p < 0.01). In the hot-plate test, BT-MeOH did not increase the latency time of the animals in the time evaluated. In addition, BT-MeOH inhibited glutamate-induced nociception by 50.1%. While BT-MeOH did not inhibit the neurogenic phase in formalin-induced nociception, the inflammatory phase was inhibited by 53.1% (66.8 ± 14.2 s; p < 0.01). Indomethacin inhibited the inflammatory phase by 60.2% (56.8 ± 8.7 s; p < 0.01). In the zymosan-induced peritonitis test, BT-MeOH inhibited 55.6% (6.6 ± 0.2 × 106 leukocytes/mL; p < 0.01) of leukocyte migration, while indomethacin inhibited 78.1% (3.2 ± 0.1 × 106 leukocytes/mL; p < 0.01). Based on the results obtained in this study, we conclude that BT-MeOH has peripheral antinociceptive and anti-inflammatory activities. However, more studies need

  18. A sulfated fucan from the brown alga Laminaria cichorioides has mainly heparin cofactor II-dependent anticoagulant activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoon, Seon-Joo; Pyun, Yu-Ryang; Hwang, Jae-Kwan; Mourão, Paulo A S

    2007-11-05

    The major acidic polysaccharide from the brown alga Laminaria cichorioides is a complex and heterogeneous sulfated fucan. Its preponderant structure is a 2,3-disulfated, 4-linked alpha-fucose unit. The purified polysaccharide has a potent anticoagulant activity, as estimated by APTT assay ( approximately 40 IU/mg), which is mainly mediated by thrombin inhibition by heparin cofactor II. It also accelerates thrombin and factor Xa inhibition by antithrombin but at a lower potency. Sulfated fucan from L. cichorioides is a promising anticoagulant polysaccharide and a possible alternative for an antithrombotic compound due to its preferential heparin cofactor II-dependent activity.

  19. Global Activities and Plant Survival

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bandick, Roger

    2014-01-01

    This chapter provides an extensive review of the empirical evidence found for Sweden concerning plant survival. The result reveals that foreign MNE plants and exporting non-MNE plants have the lowest exit rates, followed by purely domestic-oriented plants, and that domestic MNE plants have...... the highest exit rates. Moreover, the exit rates of globally engaged plants seem to be unaffected by increased foreign presence, whereas there appears to be a negative impact on the survival rates of non-exporting non-MNE plants. Finally, the result reveals that the survival ratio of plants of acquired...... exporters, but not other types of plants, improves post acquisition....

  20. 植物床-沟壕系统的藻类捕获功能%Algae trapping function of plant-bed/ditch systems

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郑军; 陈庆华; 张荣斌; 王为东; 魏宏斌; 尹澄清

    2012-01-01

    This case study corroborated the algae trapping function of plant-bed/ditch system through in si- tu field testing. Results showed that the system could effectively intercept and trap algae from source water. Un- der the driving of hydraulic gradients, about 35% source water flowed into the higher small ditch, and exuded through the root channel structure inside plant bed into the lower small ditch. The ehlorophyll-a (Chl-a) con- centration in the lower small ditch was significantly lower (P = 0. 0239) than that in the opposite higher small ditch. The decline percentage of Chl-a concentration amounted to 11.1% between both sides of plant bed. The Chl-a concentration dropped down by 27.0 % at the outlet of examined root channel purification zone with plant- bed/ditch system as structure form. According to rough estimation, this patch of root channel purification zone could trap algae fresh biomass of about 122 kg/d. Shijiuyang constructed wetland contains altogether 11 patches of root channel purification zones and provides 250 000 t/d purified raw water for the drinking water plant. The total trapped algae fresh biomass reached up to about 1 100 kg/d.%采用原位实验验证植物床.沟壕系统的藻类捕获功能。结果表明:该系统能够有效拦截和捕获源水藻类。在水力梯度驱动下,约35%源水进入高位小沟流经植物床内部根孔结构而汇至低位小沟。低位小沟内叶绿素a(Chl-a)浓度显著低于高位小沟(P=0.0239),其降低比例为11.1%。以植物床.沟壕系统为结构形式的根孔净化区其出水Chl-a浓度较源水整体下降了27.0%。估算该片根孔净化区捕获藻类鲜生物量约122kg/d。石臼漾湿地共含根孔净化区11片,按供水25万t/d计,估算捕获藻类鲜生物量约1100kg/d。

  1. Anticoagulant and antithrombotic activities of modified xylofucan sulfate from the brown alga Punctaria plantaginea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ustyuzhanina, Nadezhda E; Bilan, Maria I; Gerbst, Alexey G; Ushakova, Natalia A; Tsvetkova, Eugenia A; Dmitrenok, Andrey S; Usov, Anatolii I; Nifantiev, Nikolay E

    2016-01-20

    Selectively and totally sulfated (1 → 3)-linked linear homofucans bearing ∼ 20 monosaccharide residues on average have been prepared from the branched xylofucan sulfate isolated from the brown alga Punctaria plantaginea. Anticoagulant and antithrombotic properties of the parent biopolymer and its derivatives were assessed in vitro. Highly sulfated linear fucan derivatives were shown to inhibit clot formation in APTT assay and ristocetin induced platelets aggregation, while the partially sulfated analogs were inactive. In the experiments with purified proteins, fucan derivatives with degree of sulfation of ∼ 2.0 were found to enhance thrombin and factor Xa inhibition by antithrombin III. The effect of sulfated fucans on thrombin inhibition, which was similar to those of heparinoid Clexane(®) (enoxaparin) and of a fucoidan from the brown alga Saccharina latissima studied previously, can be explained by the multicenter interaction and formation of a ternary complex thrombin-antithrombin III-polysaccharide. The possibility of such complexation was confirmed by computer docking study.

  2. Phylogeny and evolution of charophytic algae and land plants%轮藻和陆地植物系统发育及其进化

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    仇寅龙

    2008-01-01

    Charophytic algae and land plants together make up a monophyletic group, streptophytes, which represents one of the main lineages of multicellular eukaryotes and has contributed greatly to the change of the environment on earth in the Phanerozoic Eon. Significant progress has been made to understand phylogenetic relationships among members of this group by phylogenetic studies of morphological and molecular data over the last twenty-five years. Mesostigma viride is now regarded as among the earliest diverging unicellular organisms in streptophytes. Characeae are the sister group to land plants. Liverworts represent the first diverging lineage of land plants. Hornworts and lycophytes are extant representatives of bryophytes and vascular plants, respectively, when early land plants changed from gametophyte to sporophyte as the dominant generation in the life cycle. Equisetum, Psilotaceae, and ferns constitute the monophyletic group of monilophytes, which are sister to seed plants. Gnetales are related to conifers, not to angiosperms as previously thought. Amborella, Nymphaeales, Hydatellaceae, Illiciales, Trimeniaceae, and Austrobaileya represent the earliest diverging lineages of extant angiosperms. These phylogenetic results, together with recent progress on elucidating genetic and developmental aspects of the plant life cycle, multicellularity, and gravitropism, will facilitate evolutionary developmental studies of these key traits, which will help us to gain mechanistic understanding on how plants adapted to environmental challenges when they colonized the land during one of the major transitions in evolution of life.

  3. Antioxidant activity and gas chromatographic-mass spectrometric analysis of extracts of the marine algae, caulerpa peltata and padina gymnospora

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kavitha Murugan

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The results of our previous investigations on extracts of selected marine algae showed that Caulerpa peltata and Padina gymnospora had more promising antiproliferative and antioxidant activities than Gelidiella acerosa and Sargassum wightii. Based on these results, the more active chloroform extract of C. peltata and ethyl acetate extract of P. gymnospora were further analyzed for their constituents by using gas chromatography in tandem with mass spectrometry. The GC-MS analysis (GC % peak area given in parentheses showed that fucosterol (12.45% and L-(+-ascorbic acid 2,6-dihexadecanoate (8.13% were the major compounds present in P. gymnospora ethyl acetate extract. On the other hand, C. peltata chloroform extract had 1-heptacosanol (10.52%, hexacosanol acetate (9.28%, tetradecyl ester of chloroacetic acid (7.22%, Z,Z-6,28-heptatriactontadien-2-one (6.77% and 10,13-dimethyl-methyl ester of tetradecanoic acid (5.34% as major compounds. Also described in the report are the beta-carotene bleaching inhibitory and total reducing activities of the chloroform and ethyl acetate extracts of C. peltata and P. gymnospora, respectively, relative to the other three extracts (aqueous, methanol, chloroform or ethyl acetate of the two algae.

  4. Algae Resources

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2016-06-01

    Algae are highly efficient at producing biomass, and they can be found all over the planet. Many use sunlight and nutrients to create biomass, which contain key components—including lipids, proteins, and carbohydrates— that can be converted and upgraded to a variety of biofuels and products. A functional algal biofuels production system requires resources such as suitable land and climate, sustainable management of water resources, a supplemental carbon dioxide (CO2) supply, and other nutrients (e.g., nitrogen and phosphorus). Algae can be an attractive feedstock for many locations in the United States because their diversity allows for highpotential biomass yields in a variety of climates and environments. Depending on the strain, algae can grow by using fresh, saline, or brackish water from surface water sources, groundwater, or seawater. Additionally, they can grow in water from second-use sources such as treated industrial wastewater; municipal, agricultural, or aquaculture wastewater; or produced water generated from oil and gas drilling operations.

  5. Identification of chemical structure and free radical scavenging activity of diphlorethohydroxycarmalol isolated from a brown alga, Ishige okamurae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heo, Soo-Jin; Kim, Jong-Pyung; Jung, Won-Kyo; Lee, Nam-Ho; Kang, Hahk-Soo; Jun, Eun-Mi; Park, Soon-Hye; Kang, Sung-Myung; Lee, Young-Jae; Park, Pyo-Jam; Jeon, You-Jin

    2008-04-01

    To obtain a natural antioxidant from a marine biomass, this study investigated the antioxidative activity of methanolic extracts from the marine brown alga, Ishige okamurae collected off Jeju Island. A potent free radical scavenging activity was detected in the ethyl acetate fraction containing polyphenolic compounds, and the potent antioxidant elucidated as a kind of phlorotannin, diphlorethohydroxycarmalol, by NMR and mass spectroscopic data. The free radical scavenging activities of the diphlorethohydroxycarmalol were investigated in relation to 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH), alkyl, and hydroxyl radicals using an electron spin resonance (ESR) system. The diphlorethohydroxycarmalol was found to scavenge DPPH (IC50=3.41 microM) and alkyl (IC50=4.92 microM) radicals more effectively than the commercial antioxidant, ascorbic acid. Therefore, these results present diphlorethohydroxycarmalol as a new phlorotannin with a potent antioxidative activity that could be useful in cosmetics, foods, and pharmaceuticals.

  6. AN IN VITRO STUDY OF THE STRUCTURE-ACTIVITY RELATIONSHIPS OF SULFATED POLYSACCHARIDE FROM BROWN ALGAE TO ITS ANTIOXIDANT EFFECT

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    JIN FENG HU; MEI YU GENG; JUN TIAN ZHANG; HAN DONG JIANG

    2001-01-01

    In this paper, the structure-activity relationships of chemically modified uronic acid polymer fragments from brown algae with regard to their antioxidant effects on H2O2-damaged lymphocyte were studied. The results indicated that the most potent antioxidant activity was obtained from the sulfated polysaccharide with ratio of mannuronate blocks (M-blocks) to guluronate blocks (G-blocks) of 3 to 1 and carboxyl residue unesterified. The sulfated G-blocks with esterified carboxyl residue also prevented lymphocyte from injury. However, the sulfated G-blocks bearing unesterified carboxyl residue hardly exerted antioxidant activity. These findings suggested that both M-blocks and esterified carboxyl residue were determinant structures in preventing lymphocyte from being oxidized by H2O2, indicating that the existence of M-blocks was more important in scavenging free radicals.

  7. Antimicrobial activity of ethanolic extracts from algae against Penicillium expansum Link (Trichocomaceae, Ascomycota

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Argus Cezar da Rocha Neto

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Penicillium expansum is a cosmopolitan, highly aggressive pathogen that causes blue mold, a disease of great importance that leads to losses in quality and quantity of harvested fruits. The application of chemicals is traditionally used as a control method. However, algae bioprospecting has revealed many antifungal compounds that can be used to control pathogens. Thus, the objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of ethanolic extracts from seven microalgae and five macroalgae against P. expansum. The antifungal potential was evaluated by analyzing germination percentage, the size of the germ tube, minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC, and the median effective concentration (EC50. The spectrophotometric profile was determined for extracts that showed an inhibitory effect. Among the investigated algae, the Chlorella sp. and H. pluvialis extracts, which had final concentrations of 18.8 and 125.95mg.mL-1, inhibited 100% and 91% germination, respectively. The EC50 was 2.93 and 61.20 mg.mL-1 for Chlorella sp. and H. pluvialis, respectively. Chlorella sp. showed absorption peaks in the range of chlorophyll-a and H. pluvialis presented a peak in the range of phenolic compounds. Although further studies are required to characterize the extracts, Chlorella sp. and H. pluvialis showed promising antifungal effects on the control of P. expansum.

  8. In vitro Mosquito Larvicidal Activity of Marine Algae Against the Human Vectors, Culex quinquefasciatus (Say and Aedes aegypti (Linnaeus (Diptera: Culicidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akbar Idhayadhulla

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available A total of twenty marine algae were collected from the rocky intertidal and subtidal regions of the southwest coast of India and extracted in methanol. The extracts were evaluated for larvicidal activity against the second and third instar larvae of the human vector mosquito Culex quinquefasciatus and Aedes aegypti (Diptera: Culicidae. Analysis on the activity profile of the above marine algae indicated that the early stage larvae were very sensitive to seven seaweed extracts that had been tested. Among the seven marine algae, Lobophora variegata was highly potential, showing LD50 value of 70.38 and 79.43 g mL-1 on the 2nd instar larvae of A. aegypti and C. quinquefasciatus respectively. The rank of larvicidal potency in highly active algae in the descending order is as follows: Lobophora variegata (Dictyotaceae>Spatoglossum asperum (Dictyotaceae>Stoechospermum marginatum (Dictyotaceae>Sargassum wightii (Sargassaceae >Acrosiphonia orientalis (Acrosiphoniaceae>Centroceras clavulatum (Ceramiacea>Padina tetrastromatica (Dictyotaceae. This is the first report that envisaged the mosquito larvicidal efficacy of L. variegata from the Indian coast. Therefore, this marine alga could be recognized as a potential resource of natural insecticide and can be developed to replace synthetic insecticides in future.

  9. Effects of polyunsaturated fatty acids from plant oils and algae on milk fat yield and composition are associated with mammary lipogenic and SREBF1 gene expression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Angulo, J; Mahecha, L; Nuernberg, K; Nuernberg, G; Dannenberger, D; Olivera, M; Boutinaud, M; Leroux, C; Albrecht, E; Bernard, L

    2012-12-01

    The main aim of the present study was to examine the effects of long-term supplementing diets with saturated or unprotected polyunsaturated fatty acids from two different plant oils rich in either n-3 or n-6 fatty acids (FAs) plus docosahexaenoic acid (DHA)-rich algae on mammary gene expression and milk fat composition in lactating dairy cows. Gene expression was determined from mammary tissue and milk epithelial cells. Eighteen primiparous German Holstein dairy cows in mid-lactation were randomly assigned into three dietary treatments that consist of silage-based diets supplemented with rumen-stable fractionated palm fat (SAT; 3.1% of the basal diet dry matter, DM), or a mixture of linseed oil (2.7% of the basal diet DM) plus DHA-rich algae (LINA; 0.4% of the basal diet DM) or a mixture of sunflower oil (2.7% of the basal diet DM) plus DHA-rich algae (SUNA; 0.4% of the basal diet DM), for a period of 10 weeks. At the end of the experimental period, the cows were slaughtered and mammary tissues were collected to study the gene expression of lipogenic enzymes. During the last week, the milk yield and composition were determined, and milk was collected for FA measurements and the isolation of milk purified mammary epithelial cells (MECs). Supplementation with plant oils and DHA-rich algae resulted in milk fat depression (MFD; yield and percentage). The secretion of de novo FAs in the milk was reduced, whereas the secretion of trans-10,cis-12-CLA and DHA were increased. These changes in FA secretions were associated in mammary tissue with a joint down-regulation of mammary lipogenic enzyme gene expression (stearoyl-CoA desaturase, SCD1; FA synthase, FASN) and expression of the regulatory element binding transcription factor (SREBF1), whereas no effect was observed on lipoprotein lipase (LPL) and glycerol-3-phosphate acyltransferase 1, mitochondrial (GPAM). A positive relationship between mammary SCD1 and SREBF1 mRNA abundances was observed, suggesting a similar

  10. Study on Algae Removal by Immobilized Biosystem on Sponge

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    PEI Haiyan; HU Wenrong

    2006-01-01

    In this study, sponges were used to immobilize domesticated sludge microbes in a limited space, forming an immobilized biosystem capable of algae and microcystins removal. The removal effects on algae, microcystins and UV260 of this biosystem and the mechanism of algae removal were studied. The results showed that active sludge from sewage treatment plants was able to remove algae from a eutrophic lake's water after 7 d of domestication. The removal efficiency for algae,organic matter and microcystins increased when the domesticated sludge was immobilized on sponges. When the hydraulic retention time (HRT) was 5h, the removal rates of algae, microcystins and UV260 were 90%, 94.17% and 84%, respectively.The immobilized biosystem consisted mostly of bacteria, the Ciliata and Sarcodina protozoans and the Rotifer metazoans.Algal decomposition by zoogloea bacteria and preying by microcreatures were the two main modes of algal removal, which occurred in two steps: first, absorption by the zoogloea; second, decomposition by the zoogloea bacteria and the predacity of the microcreatures.

  11. Screening of marine algae (Padina sp. from the Lengeh Port, Persian Gulf for antibacterial and antifungal activities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Azadeh Taherpour

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To evaluate the antibacterial efficacy of different solvent extracts of Padina sp. against selected human pathogenic bacteria and fungi species such as Escherichia coli, Shigella sp., Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Aspergillus flavus and Candida albicans. Methods: Various solvents including methanol, ethyl acetate, chloroform and hexane were used to acquire crude extracts from marine algae Padina sp. After crude preparation, antibacterial and antifungal activities were screened against clinically important human pathogenic bacteria using disc and well diffusion methods. For all the bacterial species used in this research, minimum inhibitory concentration was undertaken considering various solvent extracts of Padina sp. To ensure the accuracy of experiments, a positive control was also included. Results: Confirmed that hexane is the best solvent to extract antimicrobial agents from Padina sp. Among selected bacteria, S. aureus was the most sensitive test microorganism. While, all other microorganisms showed resistance against methanol, ethyl acetate, chloroform extracts. In fact, by increasing concentration of hexane extract, inhibition of S. aureus growth or antimicrobial activity was increased. Growth inhibition zone in well method showed better results compared to disc diffusion method. The minimum inhibitory concentration and minimum bactericidal concentration of hexane extract were 15 and 30 mg/mL against S. aureus, respectively. All Padina sp. extracts did not reveal any antifungal activities against fungi species in this study. Conclusions: Brown algae extracts showed sufficient antibacterial properties against S. aureus. Therefore, Padina sp. in this research can be a good candidate to design and manufacture novel antibacterial agents used in pharmaceutical industries.

  12. Screening of marine algae (Padina sp.) from the Lengeh Port, Persian Gulf for antibacterial and antifungal activities

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Azadeh Taherpour; Bita Archangi; Sadraddin Ghaemmaghami; Hossein Zolgharnein; Kamal Ghanemi

    2016-01-01

    Objective:To evaluate the antibacterial efficacy of different solvent extracts ofPadinasp. against selected human pathogenic bacteria and fungi species such asEscherichia coli,Shigella sp.,Staphylococcus aureus(S. aureus),Pseudomonas aeruginosa,Aspergillus flavus and Candida albicans. Methods:Various solvents including methanol, ethyl acetate, chloroform and hexane were used to acquire crude extracts from marine algaePadinasp. After crude preparation, antibacterial and antifungal activities were screened against clinically important human pathogenic bacteria using disc and well diffusion methods. For all the bacterial species used in this research, minimum inhibitory concentration was undertaken considering various solvent extracts of Padinasp. To ensure the accuracy of experiments, a positive control was also included. Results:Confirmed that hexane is the best solvent to extract antimicrobial agents fromPadina sp. Among selected bacteria,S. aureus was the most sensitive test microorganism. While, all other microorganisms showed resistance against methanol, ethyl acetate, chloroform extracts. In fact, by increasing concentration of hexane extract, inhibition ofS. aureus growth or antimicrobial activity was increased. Growth inhibition zone in well method showed better results compared to disc diffusion method. The minimum inhibitory concentration and minimum bactericidal concentration of hexane extract were 15 and 30 mg/mL against S. aureus, respectively. AllPadinasp. extracts did not reveal any antifungal activities against fungi species in this study. Conclusions: Brown algae extracts showed sufficient antibacterial properties againstS. aureus. Therefore,Padinasp. in this research can be a good candidate to design and manufacture novel antibacterial agents used in pharmaceutical industries.

  13. Biosynthesis, characterization and antimicrobial activity of copper oxide nanoparticles (CONPs) produced using brown alga extract ( Bifurcaria bifurcata)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abboud, Y.; Saffaj, T.; Chagraoui, A.; El Bouari, A.; Brouzi, K.; Tanane, O.; Ihssane, B.

    2014-06-01

    Recently, biosynthesis of nanoparticles has attracted scientists' attention because of the necessity to develop new clean, cost-effective and efficient synthesis techniques. In particular, metal oxide nanoparticles are receiving increasing attention in a large variety of applications. However, up to now, the reports on the biopreparation and characterization of nanocrystalline copper oxide are relatively few compared to some other metal oxides. In this paper, we report for the first time the use of brown alga ( Bifurcaria bifurcata) in the biosynthesis of copper oxide nanoparticles of dimensions 5-45 nm. The synthesized nanomaterial is characterized by UV-visible absorption spectroscopy and Fourier transform infrared spectrum analysis. X-ray diffraction confirms the formation and the crystalline nature of copper oxide nanomaterial. Further, these nanoparticles were found to exhibit high antibacterial activity against two different strains of bacteria Enterobacter aerogenes (Gram negative) and Staphylococcus aureus (Gram positive).

  14. Gene sampling can bias multi-gene phylogenetic inferences: the relationship between red algae and green plants as a case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inagaki, Yuji; Nakajima, Yoshihiro; Sato, Mitsuhisa; Sakaguchi, Miako; Hashimoto, Tetsuo

    2009-05-01

    The monophyly of Plantae including glaucophytes, red algae, and green plants (green algae plus land plants) has been recovered in recent phylogenetic analyses of large multi-gene data sets (e.g., those including >30,000 amino acid [aa] positions). On the other hand, Plantae monophyly has not been stably reconstructed in inferences from multi-gene data sets with fewer than 10,000 aa positions. An analysis of 5,216 aa positions in Nozaki et al. (Nozaki H, Iseki M, Hasegawa M, Misawa K, Nakada T, Sasaki N, Watanabe M. 2007. Phylogeny of primary photosynthetic eukaryotes as deduced from slowly evolving nuclear genes. Mol Biol Evol. 24:1592-1595.) strongly rejected the monophyly of Plantae, whereas Hackett et al. (Hackett JD, Yoon HS, Li S, Reyes-Prieto A, Rummele SE, Bhattacharya D. 2007. Phylogenomic analysis supports the monophyly of cryptophytes and haptophytes and the association of rhizaria with chromalveolates. Mol Biol Evol. 24:1702-1713.) robustly recovered the Plantae clade in an analysis of 6,735 aa positions. We suspected that the significant incongruity observed between the two studies was attributable to a bias generally overlooked in multi-gene phylogenetic estimation, rather than data size, taxon sampling, or methods for tree reconstruction. Although glaucophytes were excluded from our analyses due to a shortage of sequence data, we found that the recovery of a sister-group relationship between red algae and green plants primarily depends on gene sampling in phylogenetic inferences from <10,000 aa positions. Phylogenetic analyses of data sets with fewer than 10,000 aa positions, which can be prepared without large-scale sequencing (e.g., expressed sequence tag analyses), are practical in challenging various unresolved issues in eukaryotic evolution. However, our results indicate that severe biases can arise from gene sampling in multi-gene inferences from <10,000 aa positions. We also address the validity of fast-evolving gene exclusion in multi

  15. Structural elucidation of polysaccharide fractions from the brown alga Coccophora langsdorfii and in vitro investigation of their anticancer activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Imbs, Tatiana I; Ermakova, Svetlana P; Malyarenko Vishchuk, Olesya S; Isakov, Vladimir V; Zvyagintseva, Tatiana N

    2016-01-01

    Laminaran, fucoidan, and alginate were isolated from the brown alga Coccophora langsdorfii collected in the Japan Sea. The structural characteristics of polysaccharides were investigated by NMR spectroscopy. The laminaran was determined as β-d-glucan, which consisted of 80% of 1,3- and 20% of 1,6-linked residues and was terminated with mannitol. The alginate was a guluronic acid-rich polysaccharide (M/G=0.85). Fucoidan, sulfated α-l-fucan, contained a linear backbone of alternating (1→3)- and (1→4)- linked α-l-fucopyranose residues with sulfate at C2 and C4 of (1→3)-α-l-fucopyranose residues. Anticancer activity of this fucoidan was investigated in comparison with activity of fucoidan having similar linear backbone from the brown alga Fucus evanescens. The fucoidan from C. langsdorfii significantly inhibited colony formation of SK-MEL-5 and SK-MEL-28 melanoma cells (the percentage of inhibition was 28 and 76, respectively) and weakly inhibited colony formation of breast adenocarcinoma cells MDA-MB-231 (the percentage of inhibition was about 5). Similar results were obtained for fucoidan from F. evanescens; the percentage of inhibition of colony formation of SK-MEL-5 and SK-MEL-28 melanoma cells was 54 and 56, respectively. The inhibition of colony formation of breast adenocarcinoma cells MDA-MB-231 was weak. We suppose that other sulfated and partially acetylated fucoidans consisting of (1→3)- and (1→4)-linked α-l-fucopyranose residues may suppress progression of melanoma cell colony formation similar to fucoidans of C. langsdorfii and F. evanescens.

  16. Antibacterial, antifungal and cytotoxic activities exhibited by endophytic fungi from the Brazilian marine red alga Bostrychia tenella (Ceramiales

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    Rafael de Felício

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Marine environment is one of the most important sources regarding natural products research. Besides, marine microorganisms have been denominated as a talented natural source for discovery of new leads. Although the association of macroalgae and fungi has been described regarding ecological issues, there is a lack of studies about marine seaweed endophytic fungi. In this context, the goal of this study was to evaluate cytotoxic, antifungal and antibacterial activities of endophytic fungi isolated from the Brazilian marine seaweed Bostrychia tenella (J.V. Lamouroux J. Agardh (Ceramiales, Rhodophyta. Forty-five endophytic microorganism strains were isolated from B. tenella. Crude extracts and organic fractions of ten selected strains were obtained after growth in rice medium. Samples were evaluated for cytotoxicity, antifungal and antibacterial assays. Penicillium strains showed positive results in a diversity of assays, and other five strains were active in at least one test. In addition, cytochalasin D was isolated from Xylaria sp. This alga is composed of a microbiological potential, since its endophytic strains exhibited remarkable biological properties. Moreover, cytochalasin D isolation has confirmed chemical potential of marine endophytic strains. This is the first study in which cultured fungi isolates from the Brazilian macroalga B. tenella were evaluated concerning biological properties. Results corroborated that this species could be a pharmaceutical source from marine environment. Furthermore, Acremonium implicatum is being firstly described as marine endophyte and Xylaria sp., Trichoderma atroviride and Nigrospora oryzae as marine seaweed endophytes. Thus, this work reports the first study relating detailed isolation, cultivation and biological evaluation (cytotoxic, antifungal and antibacterial of endophytes Penicillium decaturense and P. waksmanii from the Brazilian marine red alga B. tenella. We are also reporting the

  17. Allelopatrhic effect of Acorus tatarinowii upon algae

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    Besides competing with algae for light and mineralnutrients (i.e. N, P, etc.), the root system of Acorus tatarinowii excretes some chemical substances, which injure and eliminate alga cells, to inhibit the growth of the algae. When the algae cells were treated in "A. tatarinowii water", some of the chlorophyll a were destroyed and the photosynthetic rate of algae decreased markedly and the ability of alga cells to deoxidize triphenyltetrazolium chloride (TTC) reduced greatly. Then alga cells turned from bright red to bluish green under fluorescence microscope. These showed that the allelopathic effects of A.tatarinowii on algae were obvious and planting A. tatarinowii can control some green algae. The experiment on the extractions of the secretions of the root system showed that the inhibitory effect had a concentration effect. If the concentration of the root secretion was below 30 /disc, the inhibitory rate was negative; if it was over 45 /disc, the inhibitory rate was positive. This proved that the influence of the root secretion on the same acceptor was a kind of concentration effect. When the concentration of the root secretion was low, it promoted the growth of algae; when the concentration reached a definite threshold value, it restrained the growth of algae. In present case, the threshold value was between 30 /disc and 45 u?disc.

  18. Antibacterial activity of selected Egyptian ethnomedicinal plants

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    Mashait, M.

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Aims: Medicinal plants have recently received the attention of the antimicrobial activity of plants and their metabolites due to the challenge of growing incidences of drug-resistant pathogens. The aims of this study were to determine the antibacterial activities of plant extracts used as ethnomedicinal in Egypt. Methodology and Results: Investigations were carried out to assess the antibacterial efficiency of 11 plant extracts used as ethnopharmacological among Egyptian native people against infectious diseases. Crude methanol, ethanol,chloroform, hexane, acetone and aqueous extract of plants were tested for antibacterial activity in vitro against ten bacterial isolates using the disc diffusion method test. Discs were impregnated with 2 mg/mL of different solvent extracts. Among all the crude extracts, the methanol extract showed the highest activity than other extracts. P. harmala and S. officinalis exhibited highest antibacterial activity against gram positive and negative bacteria while the remainingplants extracts showed less activity. All the plant extracts showed no significant effect against the Bordetella bronchisepta ATCC 4617 except the extracts of M. fragrans and L. sativum. E. coli is the most sensitive microorganism tested, with the lowest MIC value (0.5 mg/mL in the presence of the plant extract of P. harmala and S. officinalis.Conclusion, significance and impact of study: Results obtained herein, may suggest that the ethnomedicinal Egyptian plants possess antimicrobial activity and therefore, they can be used in biotechnological fields as natural preservative ingredients in food and/or pharmaceutical industry.

  19. Impacts of Elevated CO2 Concentration on Biochemical Composition,Carbonic Anhydrase, and Nitrate Reductase Activity of Freshwater Green Algae

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jian-Rong XIA; Kun-Shan GAO

    2005-01-01

    To investigate the biochemical response of freshwater green algae to elevated CO2 concentrations,Chlorella pyrenoidosa Chick and Chlamydomonas reinhardtii Dang cells were cultured at different CO2concentrations within the range 3-186 μmol/L and the biochemical composition, carbonic anhydrase (CA),and nitrate reductase activities of the cells were investigated. Chlorophylls (Chl), carotenoids, carbonhydrate,and protein contents were enhanced to varying extents with increasing CO2 concentration from 3-186μmol/L. The CO2 enrichment significantly increased the Chl a/Chl b ratio in Chlorella pyrenoidosa, but not in Chlamydomonas reinhardtii. The CO2 concentration had significant effects on CA and nitrate reductase activity. Elevating CO2 concentration to 186 μmol/L caused a decline in intracellular and extracellullar CA activity. Nitrate reductase activity, under either light or dark conditions, in C. reinhardtii and C. pyrenoidosa was also significantly decreased with CO2 enrichment. From this study, it can be concluded that CO2enrichment can affect biochemical composition, CA, and nitrate reductase activity, and that the biochemical response was species dependent.

  20. A survey for isoenzymes of glucosephosphate isomerase, phosphoglucomutase, glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase and 6-Phosphogluconate dehydrogenase in C3-, C 4-and crassulacean-acid-metabolism plants, and green algae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herbert, M; Burkhard, C; Schnarrenberger, C

    1979-01-01

    Two isoenzymes each of glucosephosphate isomerase (EC 5.3.1.9), phosphoglucomutase (EC 2.7.5.1), glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (EC 1.1.1.49) and 6-phosphogluconate dehydrogenase (EC 1.1.1.43) were separated by (NH4)2SO4 gradient solubilization and DEAE-cellulose ion-exchange chromatography from green leaves of the C3-plants spinach (Spinacia oleracea L.), tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum L.) and wheat (Triticum aestivum L.), of the Crassulacean-acid-metabolism plants Crassula lycopodioides Lam., Bryophyllum calycinum Salisb. and Sedum rubrotinctum R.T. Clausen, and from the green algae Chlorella vulgaris and Chlamydomonas reinhardii. After isolation of cell organelles from spinach leaves by isopyenic centrifugation in sucrose gradients one of two isoenzymes of each of the four enzymes was found to be associated with whole chloroplasts while the other was restricted to the soluble cell fraction, implying the same intracellular distribution of these isoenzymes also in the other species.Among C4-plants, glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase and 6-phosphogluconate dehydrogenase were found in only one form in corn (Zea mays L.), sugar cane (Saccharum officinarum L.) and Coix lacrymajobi L., but as two isoenzymes in Atriplex spongiosa L. and Portulaca oleracea L. In corn, the two dehydrogenases were mainly associated with isolated mesophyll protoplasts while in Atriplex spongiosa they were of similar specific activity in both mesophyll protoplasts and bundle-sheath strands. In all five C4-plants three isoenzymes of glucosephosphate isomerase and phosphoglucomutase were found. In corn two were localized in the bundle-sheath strands and the third one in the mesophyll protoplasts. The amount of activity of the enzymes was similar in each of the two cell fractions. Apparently, C4 plants have isoenzymes not only in two cell compartments, but also in physiologically closely linked cell types such as mesophyll and bundle-sheath cells.

  1. Stress activated MAPKs in plants

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ligterink, W.

    2000-01-01

    Plants are exposed to a wide variety of extracellular stimuli and employ a broad set of signaling pathways to give the appropriate response. M itogen a ctivated p rotein k inases (MAPKs) play an important role in the signal transduction of yeast and animals and increasing

  2. Structural Characteristics and Anticancer Activity of Fucoidan from the Brown Alga Sargassum mcclurei

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    Tatiana N. Zvyagintseva

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Three different fucoidan fractions were isolated and purified from the brown alga, Sargassum mcclurei. The SmF1 and SmF2 fucoidans are sulfated heteropolysaccharides that contain fucose, galactose, mannose, xylose and glucose. The SmF3 fucoidan is highly sulfated (35% galactofucan, and the main chain of the polysaccharide contains a →3-α-l-Fucp(2,4SO3−-(1→3-α-l-Fucp(2,4SO3−-(1→ motif with 1,4-linked 3-sulfated α-l-Fucp inserts and 6-linked galactose on reducing end. Possible branching points include the 1,2,6- or 1,3,6-linked galactose and/or 1,3,4-linked fucose residues that could be glycosylated with terminal β-d-Galp residues or chains of alternating sulfated 1,3-linked α-l-Fucp and 1,4-linked β-d-Galp residues, which have been identified in galactofucans for the first time. Both α-l-Fucp and β-d-Galp residues are sulfated at C-2 and/or C-4 (and some C-6 of β-d-Galp and potentially the C-3 of terminal β-d-Galp, 1,4-linked β-d-Galp and 1,4-linked α-l-Fucp residues. All fucoidans fractions were less cytotoxic and displayed colony formation inhibition in colon cancer DLD-1 cells. Therefore, these fucoidan fractions are potential antitumor agents.

  3. The brown algae Pl.LSU/2 group II intron-encoded protein has functional reverse transcriptase and maturase activities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zerbato, Madeleine; Holic, Nathalie; Moniot-Frin, Sophie; Ingrao, Dina; Galy, Anne; Perea, Javier

    2013-01-01

    Group II introns are self-splicing mobile elements found in prokaryotes and eukaryotic organelles. These introns propagate by homing into precise genomic locations, following assembly of a ribonucleoprotein complex containing the intron-encoded protein (IEP) and the spliced intron RNA. Engineered group II introns are now commonly used tools for targeted genomic modifications in prokaryotes but not in eukaryotes. We speculate that the catalytic activation of currently known group II introns is limited in eukaryotic cells. The brown algae Pylaiella littoralis Pl.LSU/2 group II intron is uniquely capable of in vitro ribozyme activity at physiological level of magnesium but this intron remains poorly characterized. We purified and characterized recombinant Pl.LSU/2 IEP. Unlike most IEPs, Pl.LSU/2 IEP displayed a reverse transcriptase activity without intronic RNA. The Pl.LSU/2 intron could be engineered to splice accurately in Saccharomyces cerevisiae and splicing efficiency was increased by the maturase activity of the IEP. However, spliced transcripts were not expressed. Furthermore, intron splicing was not detected in human cells. While further tool development is needed, these data provide the first functional characterization of the PI.LSU/2 IEP and the first evidence that the Pl.LSU/2 group II intron splicing occurs in vivo in eukaryotes in an IEP-dependent manner.

  4. The brown algae Pl.LSU/2 group II intron-encoded protein has functional reverse transcriptase and maturase activities.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Madeleine Zerbato

    Full Text Available Group II introns are self-splicing mobile elements found in prokaryotes and eukaryotic organelles. These introns propagate by homing into precise genomic locations, following assembly of a ribonucleoprotein complex containing the intron-encoded protein (IEP and the spliced intron RNA. Engineered group II introns are now commonly used tools for targeted genomic modifications in prokaryotes but not in eukaryotes. We speculate that the catalytic activation of currently known group II introns is limited in eukaryotic cells. The brown algae Pylaiella littoralis Pl.LSU/2 group II intron is uniquely capable of in vitro ribozyme activity at physiological level of magnesium but this intron remains poorly characterized. We purified and characterized recombinant Pl.LSU/2 IEP. Unlike most IEPs, Pl.LSU/2 IEP displayed a reverse transcriptase activity without intronic RNA. The Pl.LSU/2 intron could be engineered to splice accurately in Saccharomyces cerevisiae and splicing efficiency was increased by the maturase activity of the IEP. However, spliced transcripts were not expressed. Furthermore, intron splicing was not detected in human cells. While further tool development is needed, these data provide the first functional characterization of the PI.LSU/2 IEP and the first evidence that the Pl.LSU/2 group II intron splicing occurs in vivo in eukaryotes in an IEP-dependent manner.

  5. The leaves of green plants as well as a cyanobacterium, a red alga, and fungi contain insulin-like antigens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L.B. Silva

    2002-03-01

    Full Text Available We report the detection of insulin-like antigens in a large range of species utilizing a modified ELISA plate assay and Western blotting. We tested the leaves or aerial parts of species of Rhodophyta (red alga, Bryophyta (mosses, Psilophyta (whisk ferns, Lycopodophyta (club mosses, Sphenopsida (horsetails, gymnosperms, and angiosperms, including monocots and dicots. We also studied species of fungi and a cyanobacterium, Spirulina maxima. The wide distribution of insulin-like antigens, which in some cases present the same electrophoretic mobility as bovine insulin, together with results recently published by us on the amino acid sequence of an insulin isolated from the seed coat of jack bean (Canavalia ensiformis and from the developing fruits of cowpea (Vigna unguiculata, suggests that pathways depending on this hormone have been conserved through evolution.

  6. The leaves of green plants as well as a cyanobacterium, a red alga, and fungi contain insulin-like antigens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, L B; Santos, S S S; Azevedo, C R; Cruz, M A L; Venâncio, T M; Cavalcante, C P; Uchôa, A F; Astolfi Filho, S; Oliveira, A E A; Fernandes, K V S; Xavier-Filho, J

    2002-03-01

    We report the detection of insulin-like antigens in a large range of species utilizing a modified ELISA plate assay and Western blotting. We tested the leaves or aerial parts of species of Rhodophyta (red alga), Bryophyta (mosses), Psilophyta (whisk ferns), Lycopodophyta (club mosses), Sphenopsida (horsetails), gymnosperms, and angiosperms, including monocots and dicots. We also studied species of fungi and a cyanobacterium, Spirulina maxima. The wide distribution of insulin-like antigens, which in some cases present the same electrophoretic mobility as bovine insulin, together with results recently published by us on the amino acid sequence of an insulin isolated from the seed coat of jack bean (Canavalia ensiformis) and from the developing fruits of cowpea (Vigna unguiculata), suggests that pathways depending on this hormone have been conserved through evolution.

  7. Antimicrobial activity of some Iranian medicinal plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ghasemi Pirbalouti Abdollah

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The major aim of this study was to determine the antimicrobial activity of the extracts of eight plant species which are endemic in Iran. The antimicrobial activities of the extracts of eight Iranian traditional plants, including Hypericum scabrum, Myrtus communis, Pistachia atlantica, Arnebia euchroma, Salvia hydrangea, Satureja bachtiarica, Thymus daenensis and Kelussia odoratissima, were investigated against Escherichia coli O157:H7, Bacillus cereus, Listeria monocytogenes and Candida albicans by agar disc diffusion and serial dilution assays. Most of the extracts showed a relatively high antimicrobial activity against all the tested bacteria and fungi. Of the plants studied, the most active extracts were those obtained from the essential oils of M. communis and T. daenensis. The MIC values for active extract and essential oil ranged between 0.039 and 10 mg/ml. It can be said that the extract and essential oil of some medicinal plants could be used as natural antimicrobial agents in food preservation. .

  8. In vitro antioxidant activities of Asteraceae Plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vijaylakshmi, S; Nanjan, M J; Suresh, B

    2009-10-01

    Anaphalis neelgerriana DC and Cnicus wallichi DC belonging to the family Asteraceae (Compositae) are important medicinal plants indigenous to Nilgiris. Since the related species Anaphalis morrisonicola and Cnicus benedictus were reported for its anti cancer activities, the above mentioned plants were screened for Invitro antioxidant activity. In vitro antioxidant studies were carried out by DPPH, Nitric oxide and Hydrogen peroxide methods for the aerial part extracts of the plants. Different extracts were obtained from the aerial parts of the whole plant by successive solvent extraction and cold maceration process and subjected for Invitro antioxidant activity studies. Among the extracts tested, the ethyl acetate extract of Anaphalis neelgerriana DC and Cnicus wallchi DC showed significant anti oxidant activity in all the above methods. The potent ethyl acetate extract should be tested for anti oxidant activity in animal models.

  9. Preliminary study of the green algae chlorella (Chlorella vulgaris) for control on the root-knot nematode (Meloidogyne arenaria) in tomato plants and ectoparasite Xiphinema indexin grape seedlings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choleva, B; Bileva, T; Tzvetkov, Y; Barakov, P

    2005-01-01

    The alternative ecological methods require investigation of many organo-biological means for plant protection against dangerous root parasites such as root-knot nematode Meloidogyne arenaria and some ectoparasites (Xiphinema index). The Bulgarian organic product - dry extract of green alga Chlorella vulgaris ("The Golden Apple"-Plamen Barakov) is the latest product, which in comparative aspect gives the best results. Series of laboratory and pot experiments are carried out with tomato (cv. Bele and cv. Ideal) and grape seedlings (cv. Cabernet Sauvignon). Different dosages of Chlorella from 0.5 g to 2 g per plant/pot are investigated. The first results show that even low dosages had double effect - on the one hand they suppress the parasite development and on the other hand they strongly stimulate plant growing. The very important conclusion is that Chlorella vulgaris ignores the negative influence of M. arenaria and X. index. These results give us opportunity for future model and field investigations of Chlorella vulgaris with the aim of its practical application.

  10. Bioactivity of marine organisms. Part 3. Screening of marine algae of Indian coast for biological activity

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Kamat, S.Y.; Wahidullah, S.; Naik, C.G.; DeSouza, L.; Jayasree, V.; Ambiye, V.; Bhakuni, D; Goel, A.K.; Garg, H.S.; Srimal, R.C.

    were diuretic, 3 hypoglycaemic, 3 hypotensive, 4 exhibited anti-implantation activity, cytokinin activity was observed in one and one showed adrenergic blocking action. The extracts neither, had anti-bacterial, anti-fungal and anti-viral activities nor...

  11. The Shewanella algae strain YM8 produces volatiles with strong inhibition activity against Aspergillus pathogens and aflatoxins

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andong eGong

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Aflatoxigenic Aspergillus fungi and associated aflatoxins are ubiquitous in the production and storage of food/feed commodities. Controlling these pests is a challenge. In this study, the Shewanella algae strain YM8 was found to produce volatiles that have strong antifungal activity against Aspergillus pathogens. Gas chromatography-mass spectrometry profiling revealed 15 volatile organic compounds (VOCs emitted from YM8, of which dimethyl trisulfide was the most abundant. We obtained authentic reference standards for six of the VOCs; these all significantly reduced mycelial growth and conidial germination in Aspergillus; dimethyl trisulfide and 2,4-bis(1,1-dimethylethyl-phenol showed the strongest inhibitory activity. YM8 completely inhibited Aspergillus growth and aflatoxin biosynthesis in maize and peanut samples stored at different water activity levels, and scanning electron microscopy revealed severely damaged conidia and a complete lack of mycelium development and conidiogenesis. YM8 also completely inhibited the growth of eight other agronomically important species of phytopathogenic fungi: A. parasiticus, A. niger, Alternaria alternate, Botrytis cinerea, Fusarium graminearum, Fusarium oxysporum, Monilinia fructicola, and Sclerotinia sclerotiorum. This study demonstrates the susceptibility of Aspergillus and other fungi to VOCs from marine bacteria and indicates a new strategy for effectively controlling these pathogens and the associated mycotoxin production in the field and during storage.

  12. Human sperm motility stimulating activity of a sulfono glycolipid isolated from Sri Lankan marine red alga Gelidiella acerosa

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    G. A.S. Premakumara; W.D. Ratnasooriya; L.M.V. Tillekeratne; A. S. Amarasekare; Atta-Ur-Rahman

    2001-01-01

    To evaluate the sperm motility stimulating activity of a sulfono glycolipid (S-ACT-l) isolated from Gelidiella acerosa, a Sri Lankan marine red algae. Methods: S-ACT-l, a white amorphous powder was separated from more polar fractions of the hexane soluble of 1:1 CH2Cl2/MeOH extract and subjected to 1H, 1 3C NMR and IR Spectroscopy after reverse phase HPLC for identification. Effects of S-ACT-1 on human sperm motility was assessed in vitro at 10,100 and 1000μg/Ml concentrations at 37℃ for 0, 5, 15, 30 and 60 min. Results: S-ACT-1 was identified as a glycolipid sulfate. The lower dose increased the sperm motility slightly, whilst the medium dose significantly increased the motility ( P < 0.05) from 5 min of incubation reaching a peak at 15 min and the stimulant effect was sustained throughout the experimental period. Furthermore, the medium dose rendered 80% of the immotile viable sperm motile.In contrast, the highest dose impaired the sperm motility. The sperm stimulating activity of S-ACT-1 was dose-depen dent and had a bell-shaped dose response curve for all the 5 incubation periods. Conclusion: S-ACT-1 of Gelidiella acerosa is a Sulfono glycolipid. S-ACT-1 has a potent sperm motility stimulating activity in vitro and has the potential to be developed into a sperm stimulant.

  13. Anti-photoaging activity and inhibition of matrix metalloproteinase (MMP) by marine red alga, Corallina pilulifera methanol extract

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryu, BoMi; Qian, Zhong-Ji; Kim, Moon-Moo; Nam, Ki Wan; Kim, Se-Kwon

    2009-02-01

    Matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs), a key component in photoaging of the skin due to exposure to ultraviolet A, appear to be increased by UV-irradiation-associated generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS). In this study, the alga Corallina pilulifera methanol (CPM) extract has been shown to exert a potent antioxidant activity and protective effect on UVA-induced oxidative stress of human dermal fibroblast (HDF) cell. Antioxidant evaluated by various antioxidant assays. These include reducing power, total antioxidant, DPPH radical scavenging, hydroxyl radical scavenging and protective effect on DNA damage caused by hydroxyl radicals generated. Further, the ROS level was detected using a fluorescence probe, 2',7'-dichlorofluorescein diacetate (DCFH-DA), which could be converted to highly fluorescent dichlorofluorescein (DCF) with the presence of intracellular ROS on HT-1080 cells. Those various antioxidant activities were compared to standard antioxidants such as α-tocopherol. In addition, the in vitro activities of MMP-2 and MMP-9 in HDF cell were inhibited by C. pilulifera methanol extract dose dependently by using gelatin zymography method. The results obtained in the present study suggested that the C. pilulifera methanol extract may be a potential source of natural anti-photoaging.

  14. Anti-photoaging activity and inhibition of matrix metalloproteinase (MMP) by marine red alga, Corallina pilulifera methanol extract

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ryu, Bo Mi [Department of Chemistry, Pukyoung National University, Busan 608-737 (Korea, Republic of); Qian Zhongji [Marine Bioprocess Research Center, Pukyong National University, Busan 608-737 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Moon-Moo [Department of Chemistry, Dong-Eui University, Busan 614-714 (Korea, Republic of); Nam, Ki Wan [Department of Marine Biology, Pukyong National University, Busan 608-737 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Se-Kwon [Department of Chemistry, Pukyoung National University, Busan 608-737 (Korea, Republic of); Marine Bioprocess Research Center, Pukyong National University, Busan 608-737 (Korea, Republic of)], E-mail: sknkim@pknu.ac.kr

    2009-02-15

    Matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs), a key component in photoaging of the skin due to exposure to ultraviolet A, appear to be increased by UV-irradiation-associated generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS). In this study, the alga Corallina pilulifera methanol (CPM) extract has been shown to exert a potent antioxidant activity and protective effect on UVA-induced oxidative stress of human dermal fibroblast (HDF) cell. Antioxidant evaluated by various antioxidant assays. These include reducing power, total antioxidant, DPPH radical scavenging, hydroxyl radical scavenging and protective effect on DNA damage caused by hydroxyl radicals generated. Further, the ROS level was detected using a fluorescence probe, 2',7'-dichlorofluorescein diacetate (DCFH-DA), which could be converted to highly fluorescent dichlorofluorescein (DCF) with the presence of intracellular ROS on HT-1080 cells. Those various antioxidant activities were compared to standard antioxidants such as {alpha}-tocopherol. In addition, the in vitro activities of MMP-2 and MMP-9 in HDF cell were inhibited by C. pilulifera methanol extract dose dependently by using gelatin zymography method. The results obtained in the present study suggested that the C. pilulifera methanol extract may be a potential source of natural anti-photoaging.

  15. Atividade biológica de metabólitos secundários de algas marinhas do gênero Laurencia Biological activity of the secondary metabolite from marine algae of the genus Laurencia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernanda L. da S. Machado

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available As algas vermelhas do gênero Laurencia são conhecidas como uma riquíssima fonte de metabólitos secundários. As principais classes químicas já isoladas são terpenos - sesquiterpenos, diterpenos, triterpenos - e acetogeninas. Estudos apontam que estas substâncias apresentam importantes atividades biológicas, principalmente citotóxica e antibacteriana. Existem ainda alguns poucos trabalhos com informações sobre atividade antiparasitária, antiviral e antifúngica dos metabólitos de Laurencia. O forte perfil bioativo observado em alguns estudos sugere que alguns destes metabólitos podem ser futuramente utilizados como fármacos ou como protótipos de novos agentes antitumorais e antibacterianos. Muitos dos metabólitos de Laurencia ainda não foram avaliados sob o ponto de vista farmacológico, o que representa um grande potencial a ser explorado por diversos campos da farmacologia.The red alga of the genus Laurencia is known as an endless source of metabolites. The main substances produced are sesquiterpenes, diterpenes, triterpenes and acetogenins. Many studies reveal that these metabolites are active, especially cytotoxic and antibacterial. There are few other studies that describe the antiparasital, antifungal and antiviral actions of the metabolites produced by the alga of the genus Laurencia. The results observed in some studies suggest that these metabolites may be used in the future as drugs or lead compounds as antitumoral and/or antibacterial agents. Many metabolites have not been submitted to pharmacological studies which still represents an area to be explored.

  16. Monitoring Biological Activity at Geothermal Power Plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peter Pryfogle

    2005-09-01

    The economic impact of microbial growth in geothermal power plants has been estimated to be as high as $500,000 annually for a 100 MWe plant. Many methods are available to monitor biological activity at these facilities; however, very few plants have any on-line monitoring program in place. Metal coupon, selective culturing (MPN), total organic carbon (TOC), adenosine triphosphate (ATP), respirometry, phospholipid fatty acid (PLFA), and denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) characterizations have been conducted using water samples collected from geothermal plants located in California and Utah. In addition, the on-line performance of a commercial electrochemical monitor, the BIoGEORGE?, has been evaluated during extended deployments at geothermal facilities. This report provides a review of these techniques, presents data on their application from laboratory and field studies, and discusses their value in characterizing and monitoring biological activities at geothermal power plants.

  17. Nitric oxide production inhibition and anti-mycobacterial activity of extracts and halogenated sesquiterpenes from the Brazilian red alga laurencia dendroidea J. Agardh

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thatiana Lopes Biá Ventura

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Red algae of the genus Laurencia J. V. Lamouroux are a rich source of secondary metabolites with important pharmacological activities such as anti-tumoral, anti-inflammatory, anti-fungal, anti-viral, anti-leishmanial, anti-helminthic, anti-malarial, anti-trypanosomal, anti-microbial as well as anti-bacterial against Mycobacterium tuberculosis. Objective: In the present study, we evaluated the inhibition of nitric oxide (NO and tumor necrosis factor-a production and the anti-mycobacterial activity of crude extracts from the red Alga Laurencia dendroidea (from the South-Eastern coast of Brazil. Halogenated sesquiterpenes elatol (1, obtusol (2 and cartilagineol (3, previously isolated from this Alga by our group, were also studied. Materials and Methods: The lipopolysaccharide-activated macrophage cells (RAW 264.7 were used as inflammation model. Cytotoxic effect was determined using a commercial  lactate dehydrogenase (LDH kit and 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide assay. The growing Mycobacterium inhibition was verified against Mycobacterium bovis Bacillus Calmette-Guιrin and M. tuberculosis H 37 Rv strains. Results: The crude extract from Alga collected at Angra dos Reis, RJ, Brazil, was the most active inhibitor of both mycobacterial growth (half maximal inhibitory concentration [IC 50 ] 8.7 ± 1.4 mg/mL and NO production by activated macrophages (IC 50 5.3 ± 1.3 mg/mL. The assays with isolated compounds revealed the anti-mycobacterial activity of obtusol (2, whereas (--elatol (1 inhibited the release of inflammatory mediators, especially NO. To our knowledge, this is the first report describing an anti-mycobacterial effect of L. dendroidea extract and demonstrating the association of this activity with obtusol (2. Conclusion: The described effects of active compounds from L. dendroidea are promising for the control of inflammation in infectious diseases and specifically, against mycobacterial

  18. The use of algae in monitoring discharges of radionuclides. Experiences from the 1992 and 1993 monitoring programmes at the Swedish nuclear power plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Snoeijs, P. [Uppsala Univ. (Sweden). Dept. of Ecological Botany; Simenstad, P. [Swedish Radiation Protection Inst., Stockholm (Sweden)

    1995-01-01

    All four Swedish nuclear power plants (Forsmark, Oskarshamn, Barsebaeck and Ringhals) use brackish water as coolant (Baltic Sea and Swedish west coast). Radionuclides are discharged together with the cooling water. The gamma spectra of monthly algal samples harvested in 1992 and 1993 close to the discharge points of these power plants were determined within the routine monitoring programmes. The main radionuclides detected in the algal samples were {sup 54}Mn, {sup 58}Co, {sup 60}Co and {sup 137}Cs. Most {sup 137}Cs in the samples from the northern Baltic Sea (Forsmark) still originated from the 1986 Chernobyl accident. Other radionuclides, notably {sup 51}Cr, {sup 65}Zn, {sup 95}Zr, {sup 95}Nb, {sup 110m}Ag, {sup 124}b, {sup 125}Sb and {sup 134}Cs, were regularly detected at s of the sites. Transfer factors from discharge to algae were generally in the order of 0.3-3 Bq kg{sup -1} per MBq discharge. For the major discharged radionuclides, significant linear relationships were in most cases found between discharges and concentrations in algal samples. Differences in transfer factors and regression coefficients were explained by location of the sampling sites and type of radionuclide. It is concluded that algal samples provide useful complements to water and sediment samples in the monitoring programmes since radionuclide concentrations are much higher in algal samples and proportional to the discharges. 21 refs, figs.

  19. Sulfation, anticoagulant and antioxidant activities of polysaccharide from green algae Enteromorpha linza.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xiaomei; Zhang, Zhongshan; Yao, Zhiyun; Zhao, Mingxing; Qi, Huimin

    2013-07-01

    Sulfated polysaccharides exerted potent biological property which was relative to degree of sulfation, molecular weight, substitution position and chain conformation. In present study, the polysaccharide with low molecular weight (LEP) from Enteromorpha linza was sulfated with chlorosulfuric acid in formamide. The obtained polysaccharide sulfate was selected to evaluate their antioxidant activities and the anticoagulant activity in the coagulation assays, activated partial thromboplastin time (APTT), thrombin time (TT) and prothrombin time (PT). The data obtained in vitro models indicated that high DS and moderate Mw showed the best anticoagulant and antioxidant activities.

  20. Toxicities of oils, dispersants and dispersed oils to algae and aquatic plants: review and database value to resource sustainability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Published toxicity results are reviewed for oils, dispersants and dispersed oils and aquatic plants. The historical phytotoxicity database consists largely of results from a patchwork of research conducted after oil spills to marine waters. Toxicity information is available for ...

  1. Suppression of Tla1 gene expression for improved solar conversion efficiency and photosynthetic productivity in plants and algae

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melis, Anastasios; Mitra, Mautusi

    2010-06-29

    The invention provides method and compositions to minimize the chlorophyll antenna size of photosynthesis by decreasing TLA1 gene expression, thereby improving solar conversion efficiencies and photosynthetic productivity in plants, e.g., green microalgae, under bright sunlight conditions.

  2. Anti- Sporothrix spp. activity of medicinal plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefanie Bressan Waller

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Cases of sporotrichosis in humans and animals without satisfactory clinical response have increased, a warning sign of strains resistant to conventional antifungal agents. The urgent search for alternative therapies was an incentive for research on medicinal plants with anti-Sporothrix spp. properties. A bibliographic survey was performed based on scientific papers about in vitro and in vivo antifungal activity of essential oils and extracts of plants in differents solvents against the fungal of the Sporothrix schenckii complex. The study methodology consisted of a literature review in Google Scholar, Science Direct, Pubmed, Bireme and Springer link with papers from 1986 to 2015. We found 141 species of plants that were investigated, of which 100 species were concentrated in 39 botanical families that had confirmed anti-Sporothrix activity. Combretaceae, Asteraceae and Lamiaceae represented the botanical families with the greatest number of plants species with antifungal potential, using different methodologies. However, there are few studies with medicinal plants in experimental infection in animals that prove their activity in the treatment of sporotrichosis. It reinforces the need for further research related to standardization of in vitro methodologies and in vivo studies related to safety and to toxicity potential of these plants with anti-Sporothrix spp. activity.

  3. Evaluation of the Marine Algae Gracilaria and its Activated Carbon for the Adsorption of Ni(II from Wastewater

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Esmaeili

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The batch removal of Ni2+ from aqueous solution and wastewater using marine dried (MD red algae Gracilaria and its activated carbon (AC was studied. For these experiments, adsorption of Ni2+ was used to form two biomasses of AC and MD. Both methods used different pH values, biomass and initial concentration of Ni2+. Subsequently adsorption models and kinetic studies were carried out. The maximum efficiencies of Ni2+ removal were 83.55% and 99.04% for MD and AC respectively developed from it. The experimental adsorption data were fitted to the Langmuir adsorption model. The nickel(II uptake by the biosorbents was best described by pseudo-second order rate model. The kinetic studies showed that the heavy metal uptake was observed more rapidly by the AC with compared to MD. AC method developed from MD biomass exhibited higher biosorption capacity. Adsorption capacity is related to the pH of solution, pH 5.0 is optimal for nickel. The maximum efficiencies of Ni2+ removal were for AC method. The capacity is related to the pH of solution, pH 5.0 is optimal for nickel. The equilibrium adsorption data are correlated by Langmuir isotherm equation. The adsorption kinetic data can be described by the second order kinetic models

  4. Red algae (Gelidium amansii reduces adiposity via activation of lipolysis in rats with diabetes induced by streptozotocin-nicotinamide

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    Tsung-Han Yang

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Gelidium amansii (GA is an edible red algae that is distributed mainly in northeastern Taiwan. This study was designed to investigate the effects of GA on plasma glucose, lipids, and adipocytokines in rats with streptozotocin-nicotinamide-induced diabetes. Rats were divided into four groups: (1 rats without diabetes fed a high-fat diet (control group; (2 rats with diabetes fed a high-fat diet; (3 rats with diabetes fed a high-fat diet with thiazolidinedione in the diet; and (4 rats with diabetes fed a high-fat diet and GA. The experimental diet and drinking water were available ad libitum for 11 weeks. After the 11-week feeding study, plasma glucose, triglyceride, and cholesterol concentrations were lower in rats with diabetes fed the GA diet than in animals with diabetes fed the control diet. In addition, cholesterol and triglyceride excretion were significantly higher in rats with diabetes fed the GA diet. Moreover, GA feeding induced lipolysis in both paraepididymal and perirenal adipose tissues. Adipose tissue (paraepididymal and perirenal weight and triglyceride contents were lower after GA treatment. Plasma adipocytokines including tumor necrosis factor-alpha, interleukin-6, and plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 were reduced by GA feeding in rats with diabetes. The results of the current study suggest that GA feeding may regulate plasma glucose and lipid levels and prevent adipose tissue accumulation in rats with diabetes.

  5. [Antimicrobial activity of Calendula L. plants].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radioza, S A; Iurchak, L D

    2007-01-01

    The sap of different organs of genus Calendula plant species has been studied for antimicrobial activity. The sap of racemes demonstrated the most expressed antimicrobial effect while that of the roots - the least one. Calendula species inhibited all tested pathogenic microorganisms, especially Pseudomonas syringae, P. fluorescens, Xanthomonas campestris, Agrobacterium tumefaciens. Calendula suffruticosa was the most active to all investigated microorganisms.

  6. Structure and anticoagulant activity of sulfated fucans. Comparison between the regular, repetitive, and linear fucans from echinoderms with the more heterogeneous and branched polymers from brown algae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pereira, M S; Mulloy, B; Mourão, P A

    1999-03-19

    Sulfated fucans are among the most widely studied of all the sulfated polysaccharides of non-mammalian origin that exhibit biological activities in mammalian systems. Examples of these polysaccharides extracted from echinoderms have simple structures, composed of oligosaccharide repeating units within which the residues differ by specific patterns of sulfation among different species. In contrast the algal fucans may have some regular repeating structure but are clearly more heterogeneous when compared with the echinoderm fucans. The structures of the sulfated fucans from brown algae also vary from species to species. We compared the anticoagulant activity of the regular and repetitive fucans from echinoderms with that of the more heterogeneous fucans from three species of brown algae. Our results indicate that different structural features determine not only the anticoagulant potency of the sulfated fucans but also the mechanism by which they exert this activity. Thus, the branched fucans from brown algae are direct inhibitors of thrombin, whereas the linear fucans from echinoderms require the presence of antithrombin or heparin cofactor II for inhibition of thrombin, as reported for mammalian glycosaminoglycans. The linear sulfated fucans from echinoderms have an anticoagulant action resembling that of mammalian dermatan sulfate and a modest action through antithrombin. A single difference of one sulfate ester per tetrasaccharide repeating unit modifies the anticoagulant activity of the polysaccharide markedly. Possibly the spatial arrangements of sulfate esters in the repeating tetrasaccharide unit of the echinoderm fucan mimics the site in dermatan sulfate with high affinity for heparin cofactor II.

  7. Rhodiola plants: Chemistry and biological activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hsiu-Mei Chiang

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Rhodiola is a genus of medicinal plants that originated in Asia and Europe and are used traditionally as adaptogens, antidepressants, and anti-inflammatory remedies. Rhodiola plants are rich in polyphenols, and salidroside and tyrosol are the primary bioactive marker compounds in the standardized extracts of Rhodiola rosea. This review article summarizes the bioactivities, including adaptogenic, antifatigue, antidepressant, antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, antinoception, and anticancer activities, and the modulation of immune function of Rhodiola plants and its two constituents, as well as their potential to prevent cardiovascular, neuronal, liver, and skin disorders.

  8. Antibacterial activity of Green Seaweed Caulerpa racemosa from Takalar Waters against pathogenic bacteria promoting ice-ice diseases in the agar-producing red algae Gracilaria verrucosa.

    OpenAIRE

    Zainuddin, Elmi Nurhaidah; Anshary, Hilal; Huyyirnah; Hiola, Ridha

    2012-01-01

    The Ice-ice disease caused by bacterial pathogens which attack the algae tissue resulted white and brittle of seaweed thallus on red seaweed Gracilaria verrucosa farming. Study of antibacterial activity of green seaweed Caulerpa racemosa against the pathogens has been done using method include isolation of bacteria, pathogenicity test with Koch's postulates method, characterization of ice-ice bacteria, extraction of Caulerpa racemosa, and antibacterial test by agar diffusion method. The res...

  9. In vitro antimicrobial activities of methanolic extract from marine alga Enteromorpha intestinalis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ibrahim Darah; Sheh-Hong Lim

    2015-01-01

    To extract the bioactive compound from Enteromorpha intestinalis (E. intestinalis) and determine its in vitro antimicrobial activity. Methods: E. intestinalis was extracted by methanol and subjected to antimicrobial screening. The antimicrobial activity was studied by using disc diffusion and broth dilution method. The effect of the extract on the growth profile of the bacterial was also examined via time-kill assay. Microscopy observations using SEM was done to determine the major alterations in the microstructure of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA). Results: The results showed methanolic extract of E. intestinalis exhibited a favourable antimicrobial activity against tested bacteria with produced inhibition zone ranging from 8.0-19.0 mm. However, all the tested fungi and yeast were resistant to the extract treatment. Time kill assay suggested that methanolic extract of E. intestinalis had completely inhibited MRSA growth and also exhibited prolonged antibacterial activity. The main abnormalities noted from the microscopic observations were the structural deterioration in the normal morphology and complete collapsed of the bacteria cells after 36 h of treatment. Conclusions: The significant antibacterial activity shown by crude extract suggested its potential against MRSA infection. The extract may have potential to develop as antibacterial agent in pharmaceutical use.

  10. In vitro antimicrobial activities of methanolic extract from marine alga Enteromorpha intestinalis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ibrahim; Darah; Sheh-Hong; Lim

    2015-01-01

    Objective:To extract the bioactive compound from Enteromorpha intestinalis(E. intestinalis) and determine its in vitro antimicrobial activity. Methods: E. intestinalis was extracted by methanol and subjected to antimicrobial screening. The antimicrobial activity was studied by using disc diffusion and broth dilution method. The effect of the extract on the growth profile of the bacterial was also examined via time-kill assay. Microscopy observations using SEM was done to determine the major alterations in the microstructure of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus(MRSA). Results: The results showed methanolic extract of E. intestinalis exhibited a favourable antimicrobial activity against tested bacteria with produced inhibition zone ranging from 8.0-19.0 mm. However, all the tested fungi and yeast were resistant to the extract treatment. Time kill assay suggested that methanolic extract of E. intestinalis had completely inhibited MRSA growth and also exhibited prolonged antibacterial activity. The main abnormalities noted from the microscopic observations were the structural deterioration in the normal morphology and complete collapsed of the bacteria cells after 36 h of treatment. Conclusions: The significant antibacterial activity shown by crude extract suggested its potential against MRSA infection. The extract may have potential to develop as antibacterial agent in pharmaceutical use.

  11. Amino acid content of selected plant, algae and insect species: a search for alternative protein sources for use in pet foods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCusker, Sarah; Buff, Preston R; Yu, Zengshou; Fascetti, Andrea J

    2014-01-01

    In response to global economic duress and heightened consumer awareness of nutrition and health, sustainable and natural ingredients are in demand. Identification of alternative sources of nitrogen and amino acids, including taurine, may help meet dietary requirements while fostering sustainability and natural feeding approaches. Twenty plants, eighteen marine algae and five insect species were analysed. All samples were freeze-dried, hydrolysed and filtered prior to amino acid analysis. Samples for amino acids were analysed in duplicate and averaged. Nitrogen was analysed and crude protein (CP) determined by calculation. With the exception of taurine concentration in soldier fly larvae, all insects exceeded both the National Research Council's canine and feline minimal requirements (MR) for growth of all essential amino acids (EAA) and CP. Although some plants and marine algal species exceeded the canine and feline MR for growth for EAA and CP, only very low concentrations of taurine were found in plants. Taurine concentration in insects was variable but high, with the greatest concentration found in ants (6·42 mg/g DM) and adult flesh flies (3·33 mg/g DM). Taurine was also high in some macroalgae, especially the red algal species: Mazaella spp. (4·11 mg/g DM), Porphyra spp. (1·22 mg/g DM) and Chondracanthus spp. (6·28 mg/g DM). Preliminary results suggest that insects and some marine algal species may be practical alternatives to traditional protein and supplemental taurine sources in pet foods. Safety, bioavailability, palatability and source variability of alternative items as food ingredients should be investigated prior to incorporation into canine and feline diets.

  12. Study on Algae Inhibitory Effects by Three Floating-Bed Plant Systems in Eutrophic Water%3种浮床植物系统对富营养化水体中藻类的抑制效果

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周真明; 梅玉龙; 叶青; 沈春花; 赵志领

    2011-01-01

    以叶绿素a、藻类密度表征水体藻类含量,通过静态试验,研究风车草(Cyperus alterni folius)、菖蒲(Acorus clamus)和富贵竹(Dracaena sanderiana)3种浮床植物系统对富营养化水体中藻类的抑制效果.结果表明:风车草、菖蒲和富贵竹对叶绿素a的平均抑制率分别为42.6%,36.7%和18.7%,对藻类密度的平均抑制率分别为45.4%,39.9%和23.3%;3种浮床植物系统对叶绿素a、藻类密度的抑制效果与空白对照组对比存在显著差异(P<0.05).风车草对蓝藻、绿藻、硅藻和铜绿微囊藻的平均抑制率分别40.1%,24.8%,32.3%和29.8%;而菖蒲则分别为38.2%,34.2%,30.1%和27.6%.%Using chlorophyll-a and algae density to quantify algae, the algae inhibitory effects by floating-bed plant systems of Cyperus alternifolius, Acorus calamus and Dracaena sanderiana in eutrophic water were investigated through static experiment.Results show that the average inhibitory rates of chlorophyll-a by three plants are 42.6%, 36.7% and 18.7% respectively, and the average inhibitory rates of algae density are 45.4%, 39.9% and 23.3% respectively.The algae inhibitory effects of the floating-bed systems in chlorophyll-a and algae density are significantly different (P<0.05) for three plants and the blank control The average inhibitory rates of cyanophyta, green algae, diatom and Microcystis aeruginosa by Cyperus alternifolius are 40.1%, 24.8 %, 32.3 % and 29.8 % respectively, and these by Acorus calamus are 38.2%, 34.2%, 30.1% and 27.6% respectively.

  13. Cytotoxic Activity of Selected Nigerian Plants

    OpenAIRE

    Sowemimo, A; Venter, M.; Baatjies, L; Koekemoer, T

    2009-01-01

    Cancer is one of the most prominent human diseases which has stimulated scientific and commercial interest in the discovery of new anticancer agents from natural sources. The current study investigates the cytotoxic activity of ethanolic extracts of sixteen Nigerian plants used locally for the treatment of cancer using the MTT assay on the HeLa cell line. Sapium ellipticum leaves showed activity comparable to the reference compound Cisplatin and greater cytotoxic activity than Combretum panic...

  14. Isolation and purification of antialgal compounds from the red alga Gracilaria lemaneiformis for activity against common harmful red tide microalgae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Ying-Ying; Meng, Kun; Su, Zhen-Xia; Guo, Gan-Lin; Pu, Yin-Fang; Wang, Chang-Hai

    2016-12-19

    Seven antialgal compounds (1-7) were successfully isolated from the red alga Gracilaria lemaneiformis through a combination of silica gel column chromatography and repeated preparative thin-layer chromatography. On the basis of the spectral data, the compounds were identified as gossonorol (1), 7,10-epoxy-ar-bisabol-11-ol (2), glycerol monopalmitate (3), stigmasterol (4), 15-hydroxymethyl-2, 6, 10, 18, 22, 26, 30-heptamethyl-14-methylene-17-hentriacontene (5), 4-hydroxyphenethyl alcohol (6), and margaric acid (7). These seven compounds were isolated from G. lemaneiformis for the first time, while the compounds 4, 6, and 7 were isolated from marine macroalgae for the first time. Furthermore, a quantitative relationship between the inhibition of algal growth and the concentration of each antialgal compound was determined and important parameters for future practical HAB control, e.g., EC50-96h, were also obtained. The results indicated that isolated compounds 1-7 possess selective antialgal activity against the growth of several red tide microalgae (including Amphidinium carterae, Heterosigma akashiwo, Karenia mikimitoi, Phaeocystis globsa, Prorocentrum donghaiense, and Skeletonema costatum). Their antialgal activity against test red tide microalgae has not been previously reported. Furthermore, the EC50-96h of one or more of the compounds towards the tested red microalgae was not only significantly less than 10 μg/mL but also was smaller than that of the characteristic antialgal agent potassium dichromate. The study demonstrates that compounds 1-7 possess significant application potential as antialgal agents against several harmful red tide microalgae.

  15. ANTIBACTERIAL ACTIVITY OF BENTHIC MARINE ALGAE EXTRACTS FROM THE MEDITERRANEAN COAST OF MOROCCO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hanaâ Zbakh

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Marine organisms are potentially prolific sources of highly bioactive secondary metabolites that might represent useful leads in the development of new pharmaceutical agents. The Moroccan marine biodiversity including macroalgae remains partially unexplored in term of their potential bioactivities. Antibacterial activity of methanolic extracts from 20 species of macroalgae (9 Chlorophyta, 3 Phaeophyta and 8 Rhodophyta collected from Moroccan Mediterranean coasts was evaluated against Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus and Enterococcus faecalis. The extracts of the studied Rhodophyceae inhibited considerably the growth of the three tested bacterial strains and gave inhibition zones between 20 and 24 mm. The results indicate that these species of seaweed present a significant capacity of antibacterial activities, which makes them interesting for screening for natural products.

  16. Antibacterial and insecticidal activity of volatile compounds of three algae species of Oman Sea

    OpenAIRE

    Pasdaran, Ardalan; Hamedi, Azadeh; Mamedov, Nazim A.

    2016-01-01

    Many of the volatile oils showed important biologicaland pharmacological activities, these compounds as part of the traditionalmedicine in many cultures used as long time. Potencies of them caused thesenatural products gained many scientific researches in felid of naturalproducts. The volatile oils of Actinotrichiafragilis (Forsskål) Børgesen,Liagora ceranoides J.V.Lamouroux and Colpomenia sinuosa (Mertensex Roth) Derbes and. Solier were extracted by hydrodistillation. Thesevolatile oils were...

  17. Biologically Active and Antimicrobial Peptides from Plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos E. Salas

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Bioactive peptides are part of an innate response elicited by most living forms. In plants, they are produced ubiquitously in roots, seeds, flowers, stems, and leaves, highlighting their physiological importance. While most of the bioactive peptides produced in plants possess microbicide properties, there is evidence that they are also involved in cellular signaling. Structurally, there is an overall similarity when comparing them with those derived from animal or insect sources. The biological action of bioactive peptides initiates with the binding to the target membrane followed in most cases by membrane permeabilization and rupture. Here we present an overview of what is currently known about bioactive peptides from plants, focusing on their antimicrobial activity and their role in the plant signaling network and offering perspectives on their potential application.

  18. The Effect of Kanamycin and Tetracycline on Growth and Photosynthetic Activity of Two Chlorophyte Algae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khawaja Muhammad Imran Bashir

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Antibiotics are routinely used in microalgae culture screening, stock culture maintenance, and genetic transformation. By studying the effect of antibiotics on microalgae growth, we can estimate the least value to inhibit growth of undesired pathogens in algal culture. We studied the effect of kanamycin and tetracycline on the growth and photosynthetic activity of two chlorophyte microalgae, Dictyosphaerium pulchellum and Micractinium pusillum. We measured CFU mL−1 on agar plates, optical density, fluorescence yields, and photosynthetic inhibition. Our results showed a significant effect of kan and tet on the tested microalgae species except tet, which showed a minor effect on M. pusillum. Both antibiotics are believed to interact with the protein synthesis machinery; hence, the inhibitory effect of the tested antibiotics was further confirmed by isolation and quantification of the whole cell protein. A significant reduction in protein quantity was observed at concentrations more than 5 mg L−1, except M. pusillum, which showed only a slight reduction in protein quantity even at the maximum tested concentration of tet (30 mg L−1. This study can further aid in aquaculture industry, for the maintenance of the microalgae stock cultures and it can also help the microalgae genetic engineers in the construction of molecular markers.

  19. Platinum anniversary: virus and lichen alga together more than 70 years.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karel Petrzik

    Full Text Available Trebouxia aggregata (Archibald Gärtner (phylum Chlorophyta, family Trebouxiaceae, a lichen symbiotic alga, has been identified as host of the well-known herbaceous plant virus Cauliflower mosaic virus (CaMV, family Caulimoviridae. The alga had been isolated from Xanthoria parietina more than 70 years ago and has been maintained in a collection since that time. The CaMV detected in this collection entry has now been completely sequenced. The virus from T. aggregata is mechanically transmissible to a herbaceous host and induces disease symptoms there. Its genome differs by 173 nt from the closest European CaMV-D/H isolate from cauliflower. No site under positive selection was found on the CaMV genome from T. aggregata. We therefore assume that the virus's presence in this alga was not sufficiently long to fix any specific changes in its genome. Apart from this symbiotic alga, CaMV capsid protein sequences were amplified from many other non-symbiotic algae species maintained in a collection (e.g., Oonephris obesa, Elliptochloris sp., Microthamnion kuetzingianum, Chlorella vulgaris, Pseudococcomyxa sp.. CaMV-free Chlorella vulgaris was treated with CaMV to establish virus infection. The virus was still detected there after five passages. The virus infection is morphologically symptomless on Chlorella algae and the photosynthesis activity is slightly decreased in comparison to CaMV-free alga culture. This is the first proof as to the natural presence of CaMV in algae and the first demonstration of algae being artificially infected with this virus.

  20. Determination of essential elements in edible seaweed by neutron activation analysis; Determinacao de elementos essenciais em algas marinhas comestiveis por analise por ativacao neutronica

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alves, Cassio Bessa Lima; Maihara, Vera Akiko, E-mail: cassio_man@hotmail.com, E-mail: vmaihara@ipen.br [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2013-07-01

    Comestible marine algae are gaining wider global trade, not only because of the taste but also the nutritional quality they present. They are rich in protein, fiber, vitamins and are excellent sources of essential elements due to their ability to absorb substances storing them in their bodies. its chemical composition varies according to the species, habitat, maturity and environmental conditions which are submitted. The method of Neutron Activation Analysis was used to determine the essential elements Cl, K, Mg, Mn and Na present in marine algae from different countries, which are sold in the city of Sao Paulo. A total of 6 samples of marine algae were analyzed, 4 species of Nori (Porphyra umbilicates) from China, Korea, Japan and USA; 1 of Hijiki (Hijikia fusiforme) species from Japan; and 1 species of Kombu (Laminaria sp.) of South Korea. To validate the methodology used was the reference material NIST SRM 1577b Bovine Liver. The concentrations range from 5265-1175 μg/g to CL; from 14413-90261 μg/g to K; from 3007-7091 μg/g to Mg; from 2,3-33,8 μg/g to Mn and from 5161-24973 μg/g to Na.

  1. Conserved and species-specific oxylipin pathways in the wound-activated chemical defense of the noninvasive red alga Gracilaria chilensis and the invasive Gracilaria vermiculophylla

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rempt, Martin; Weinberger, Florian; Grosser, Katharina

    2012-01-01

    Summary Chemical defense of the invasive red alga Gracilaria vermiculophylla has been studied and compared to that of the noninvasive but related Gracilaria chilensis. Both species rely on a wound-activated chemical defense that makes them less attractive to the herbivorous sea snail Echinolittorina peruviana. The chemical stress response of both species was monitored by LC–ESIMS-based metabolic profiling and revealed commonalities and differences. Both algae rely on a rapid lipoxygenase mediated transformation of arachidonic acid to known and novel oxylipins. Common products are 7,8-dihydroxyeicosatetraenoic acid and a novel eicosanoid with an unusual γ-lactone moiety. Several prostaglandins were predominantly formed by the invasive species. The role of some of these metabolites was investigated by surveying the attachment of E. peruviana on artificial food containing the respective oxylipins. Both algae species are defended against this general herbivore by 7,8-dihydroxyeicosatetraenoic acid, whereas the prostaglandins and the novel oxylipins were inactive at naturally occurring concentrations. The role of different oxylipins in the invasive potential of Gracilaria spp. is discussed. PMID:22423296

  2. Conserved and species-specific oxylipin pathways in the wound-activated chemical defense of the noninvasive red alga Gracilaria chilensis and the invasive Gracilaria vermiculophylla

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin Rempt

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Chemical defense of the invasive red alga Gracilaria vermiculophylla has been studied and compared to that of the noninvasive but related Gracilaria chilensis. Both species rely on a wound-activated chemical defense that makes them less attractive to the herbivorous sea snail Echinolittorina peruviana. The chemical stress response of both species was monitored by LC–ESIMS-based metabolic profiling and revealed commonalities and differences. Both algae rely on a rapid lipoxygenase mediated transformation of arachidonic acid to known and novel oxylipins. Common products are 7,8-dihydroxyeicosatetraenoic acid and a novel eicosanoid with an unusual γ-lactone moiety. Several prostaglandins were predominantly formed by the invasive species. The role of some of these metabolites was investigated by surveying the attachment of E. peruviana on artificial food containing the respective oxylipins. Both algae species are defended against this general herbivore by 7,8-dihydroxyeicosatetraenoic acid, whereas the prostaglandins and the novel oxylipins were inactive at naturally occurring concentrations. The role of different oxylipins in the invasive potential of Gracilaria spp. is discussed.

  3. Protease Inhibitors from Plants with Antimicrobial Activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yoonkyung Park

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Antimicrobial proteins (peptides are known to play important roles in the innate host defense mechanisms of most living organisms, including plants, insects, amphibians and mammals. They are also known to possess potent antibiotic activity against bacteria, fungi, and even certain viruses. Recently, the rapid emergence of microbial pathogens that are resistant to currently available antibiotics has triggered considerable interest in the isolation and investigation of the mode of action of antimicrobial proteins (peptides. Plants produce a variety of proteins (peptides that are involved in the defense against pathogens and invading organisms, including ribosome-inactivating proteins, lectins, protease inhibitors and antifungal peptides (proteins. Specially, the protease inhibitors can inhibit aspartic, serine and cysteine proteinases. Increased levels of trypsin and chymotrypsin inhibitors correlated with the plants resistance to the pathogen. Usually, the purification of antimicrobial proteins (peptides with protease inhibitor activity was accomplished by salt-extraction, ultrafiltration and C18 reverse phase chromatography, successfully. We discuss the relation between antimicrobial and anti-protease activity in this review. Protease inhibitors from plants potently inhibited the growth of a variety of pathogenic bacterial and fungal strains and are therefore excellent candidates for use as the lead compounds for the development of novel antimicrobial agents.

  4. Antifungal activity of plant extracts against dermatophytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ali-Shtayeh, M S; Abu Ghdeib, S I

    1999-01-01

    The aqueous extracts (15 micrograms ml-1 medium) of 22 plants used in folkloric medicine in Palestine were investigated for their antifungal activity and minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) against nine isolates of Microsporum canis, Trichophyton mentagrophytes and Trichophyton violaceum. The extract of the different plant species reduced colony growth of the three dermatophytes by 36 to 100% compared with the control treatment. Antimycotic activity of the extract against the three dermatophytes varied significantly (P Inula viscosa, J. regia and P. lentiscus against T. mentagrophytes; and Asphodelus luteus, A. arvensis, C. spinosa, Clematis cirrhosa, I. viscosa, J. regia, P. lentiscus, Plumbago europea, Ruscus aculeatus, Retema raetam and Salvia fruticosa against T. violaceum. The MICs of these most active plants ranged from 0.6 to 40 micrograms ml-1. The three dermatophytes differed significantly with regard to their susceptibility to plant extracts. Trichophyton violaceum was the most susceptible being completely inhibited by 50% of the extracts followed by M. canis and T. mentagrophytes which were completely inhibited by only 23 and 14% of the extracts, respectively.

  5. ANTI-ULCER ACTIVITY OF LEGUMINOSAE PLANTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Noemi D. PAGUIGAN

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Context Ulcer is the most common gastrointestinal disturbance resulting from an inadequate gastric mucosal defense. Several drugs are available in the market to address the disease; however, these drugs are associated with unnecessary side effects. Objectives Previous research have confirmed the efficacy of plant extracts for possible treatment of the disease. This research aims to evaluate the anti-ulcer properties of medicinal plants. Methods Methanol extracts from the leaves of Intsia bijuga, Cynometra ramiflora, Tamarindus indica, Cassia javanica, Cassia fistula, Bauhini purpurea, Senna spectabilis, Senna siamea and Saraca thaipingensis were evaluated for their anti-ulcer activity using HCl-ethanol as ulcerogen. Results All extracts showed inhibitory activity with I. bijuga, T. indica, S. spectabilis and S. thaipingensis exhibiting more than 50% inhibition. S. thaipingensis showed the highest activity at 80%. S. spectabilis and S. thaipingensis were partitioned further into hexane, ethyl acetate and aqueous fractions. The aqueous and ethyl acetate fractions of S. spectabilis showed significant increased in its activity while the hexane and ethyl acetate fractions of S. thaipingensis gave higher activity than its aqueous portions. Conclusions We conclude that plant extracts are potential sources of new anti-ulcer agents.

  6. Magnetic separation of algae

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nath, Pulak; Twary, Scott N.

    2016-04-26

    Described herein are methods and systems for harvesting, collecting, separating and/or dewatering algae using iron based salts combined with a magnetic field gradient to separate algae from an aqueous solution.

  7. Clastogenic effects of dietary supplement--Spirulina alga, and some medicinal plant products from Boswellia serrata, Withania somnifera on mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghoshal, S; Mukhopadhyay, M J; Mukherjee, A

    2001-10-01

    Pretreatment of aqueous extracts of Zyrulina (Spirulina), Aswagandha (Withania) and Nopane (Boswellia) on colchicine induced chromosome damage showed weakness of clastogenic activity in Swiss albino mice. None of the treatments increased significantly the number of chromosome aberrations.

  8. Take a Dip! Culturing Algae Is Easy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    James, Daniel E.

    1983-01-01

    Describes laboratory activities using algae as the organisms of choice. These include examination of typical algal cells, demonstration of alternation of generations, sexual reproduction in Oedogonium, demonstration of phototaxis, effect of nitrate concentration on Ankistrodesmus, and study of competition between two algae in the same environment.…

  9. Medicinal plants with anti-inflammatory activities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maione, Francesco; Russo, Rosa; Khan, Haroon; Mascolo, Nicola

    2016-06-01

    Medicinal plants have been the main remedy to treat various ailments for a long time and nowadays, many drugs have been developed from traditional medicine. This paper reviews some medicinal plants and their main constituents which possess anti-inflammatory activities useful for curing joint inflammation, inflammatory skin disorders, cardiovascular inflammation and other inflammatory diseases. Here, we provide a brief overview of quick and easy reading on the role of medicinal plants and their main constituents in these inflammatory diseases. We hope that this overview will shed some light on the function of these natural anti-inflammatory compounds and attract the interest of investigators aiming at the design of novel therapeutic approaches for the treatment of various inflammatory conditions.

  10. Inhibitory effects of brown algae extracts on histamine production in mackerel muscle via inhibition of growth and histidine decarboxylase activity of Morganella morganii.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Dong Hyun; Kim, Koth Bong Woo Ri; Cho, Ji Young; Ahn, Dong Hyun

    2014-04-01

    This study was performed to investigate the inhibitory effects of brown algae extracts on histamine production in mackerel muscle. First, antimicrobial activities of brown algae extracts against Morganella morganii were investigated using a disk diffusion method. An ethanol extract of Ecklonia cava (ECEE) exhibited strong antimicrobial activity. The minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) of ECEE was 2 mg/ml. Furthermore, the brown algae extracts were examined for their ability to inhibit crude histidine decarboxylase (HDC) of M. morganii. The ethanol extract of Eisenia bicyclis (EBEE) and ECEE exhibited significant inhibitory activities (19.82% and 33.79%, respectively) at a concentration of 1 mg/ml. To obtain the phlorotannin dieckol, ECEE and EBEE were subjected to liquid-liquid extraction, silica gel column chromatography, and HPLC. Dieckol exhibited substantial inhibitory activity with an IC50 value of 0.61 mg/ml, and exhibited competitive inhibition. These extracts were also tested on mackerel muscle. The viable cell counts and histamine production in mackerel muscle inoculated with M. morganii treated with ≥2.5 MIC of ECEE (weight basis) were highly inhibited compared with the untreated sample. Furthermore, treatment of crude HDC-inoculated mackerel muscle with 0.5% ECEE and 0.5% EBEE (weight basis), which exhibited excellent inhibitory activities against crude HDC, reduced the overall histamine production by 46.29% and 56.89%, respectively, compared with the untreated sample. Thus, these inhibitory effects of ECEE and EBEE should be helpful in enhancing the safety of mackerel by suppressing histamine production in this fish species.

  11. Antibacterial activity of eight Brazilian annonaceae plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takahashi, Jacqueline A; Pereira, Cássia R; Pimenta, Lúcia P S; Boaventura, Maria Amélia D; Silva, Luiz G F E

    2006-01-01

    Sixteen extracts, obtained from eight Brazilian plants of Annonaceae family, were screened for their antibacterial activity: Xylopia frutescens, X. aromatica, X. amazonica, X. benthamii, Annona ambotay, A. crassiflora, A. muricata and A. cherimolia. Amongst the investigated extracts, six showed antibacterial activity against at least one of the tested organisms at the concentration of 100 microg/mL. The most active extracts were those prepared from X. frutescens, X. amazonica, and A. ambotay. A phytochemical screening showed the presence of anonaceus acetogenins in some active extracts. Eleven diterpenoids were also tested for comparison purposes. Six were natural products, previously isolated from Xylopia sp. (kaurenoic, frutoic, xylopic, 15beta-hydroxy-kaurenoic and trachylobanic acids plus kaurenol) and five were derivatives of such compounds, obtained by esterification or reduction reactions. Trachylobanic acid showed antibacterial activity against B. subtilis and S. aureus.

  12. Inventory of North-West European algae initiatives

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Spruijt, J.

    2015-01-01

    In 2012 an inventory of North-West European (NWE) algae initiatives was carried out to get an impression of the market and research activities on algae production and refinery, especially for bioenergy purposes. A questionnaire was developed that would provide the EnAlgae project with information on

  13. Structural and hemostatic activities of a sulfated galactofucan from the brown alga Spatoglossum schroederi - An ideal antithrombotic agent?

    OpenAIRE

    Rocha, Hugo Alexandre Oliveira; Moraes, Fabio A. [UNIFESP; Trindade, Edvaldo da Silva [UNIFESP; Franco, CRC; Torquato, Ricardo José Soares; Veiga, Silvio Sanches; Valente, A. P.; Mourao, PAS; E.L. Leite; Nader, Helena Bonciani; Dietrich, Carl Peter [UNIFESP

    2005-01-01

    The brown alga Spatoglossum schroederi contains three fractions of sulfated polysaccharides. One of them was purified by acetone fractionation, ion exchange, and molecular sieving chromatography. It has a molecular size of 21.5 kDa and contains fucose, xylose, galactose, and sulfate in a molar ratio of 1.0:0.5:2.0:2.0 and contains trace amounts of glucuronic acid. Chemical analyses, methylation studies, and NMR spectroscopy showed that the polysaccharide has a unique structure, composed of a ...

  14. Phosphogypsum as a soil fertilizer: Ecotoxicity of amended soil and elutriates to bacteria, invertebrates, algae and plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hentati, Olfa, E-mail: olfa_hentati@yahoo.fr [High Institute of Biotechnology of Sfax, University of Sfax, Route de Soukra Km 4.5 P.O. Box 1175, 3038 Sfax (Tunisia); Abrantes, Nelson [Departamento de Ambiente da Universidade de Aveiro, Campus de Santiago, 3810-193 Aveiro (Portugal); CESAM - Centro de Estudos do Ambiente e do Mar, Campus de Santiago, 3810-193 Aveiro (Portugal); Caetano, Ana Luísa [Departamento de Biologia da Universidade de Aveiro, Campus de Santiago, 3810-193 Aveiro (Portugal); CESAM - Centro de Estudos do Ambiente e do Mar, Campus de Santiago, 3810-193 Aveiro (Portugal); Bouguerra, Sirine [High Institute of Biotechnology of Sfax, University of Sfax, Route de Soukra Km 4.5 P.O. Box 1175, 3038 Sfax (Tunisia); Departamento de Biologia da Faculdade de Ciências da Universidade do Porto, Universidade do Porto, Rua do Campo Alegre s/n, 4169-007 Porto (Portugal); Interdisciplinary Centre of Marine and Environmental Research (CIIMAR/CIMAR), University of Porto, Rua dos Bragas 289, P 4050-123 Porto (Portugal); Gonçalves, Fernando [Departamento de Biologia da Universidade de Aveiro, Campus de Santiago, 3810-193 Aveiro (Portugal); CESAM - Centro de Estudos do Ambiente e do Mar, Campus de Santiago, 3810-193 Aveiro (Portugal); Römbke, Jörg [ECT Oekotoxikologie GmbH, Böttgerstrasse 2-14, D-65439 Flörsheim am Main (Germany); Pereira, Ruth [Departamento de Biologia da Faculdade de Ciências da Universidade do Porto, Universidade do Porto, Rua do Campo Alegre s/n, 4169-007 Porto (Portugal); Interdisciplinary Centre of Marine and Environmental Research (CIIMAR/CIMAR), University of Porto, Rua dos Bragas 289, P 4050-123 Porto (Portugal)

    2015-08-30

    observed. Terrestrial and aquatic plants were the most tolerant species, which is in line with studies supporting the application of PG to increase crop yields. Nevertheless, no stimulatory effects on growth were observed for any of the species tested despite the high levels of phosphorus added to soils by PG. Given the importance of soil invertebrates for several soil functions and services, this study gives rise to new serious concerns about the consequences of PG applications on agricultural soils.

  15. Phosphogypsum as a soil fertilizer: Ecotoxicity of amended soil and elutriates to bacteria, invertebrates, algae and plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hentati, Olfa; Abrantes, Nelson; Caetano, Ana Luísa; Bouguerra, Sirine; Gonçalves, Fernando; Römbke, Jörg; Pereira, Ruth

    2015-08-30

    Phosphogypsum (PG) is a metal and radionuclide rich-waste produced by the phosphate ore industry, which has been used as soil fertilizer in many parts of the world for several decades. The positive effects of PG in ameliorating some soil properties and increasing crop yields are well documented. More recently concerns are emerging related with the increase of metal/radionuclide residues on soils and crops. However, few studies have focused on the impact of PG applications on soil biota, as well as the contribution to soils with elements in mobile fractions of PG which may affect freshwater species as well. In this context the main aim of this study was to assess the ecotoxicity of soils amended with different percentages of Tunisian phosphogypsum (0.0, 4.9, 7.4, 11.1, 16.6 and 25%) and of elutriates obtained from PG - amended soil (0.0, 6.25, 12.5 and 25% of PG) to a battery of terrestrial (Eisenia andrei, Enchytraeus crypticus, Folsomia candida, Hypoaspis aculeifer, Zea mays, Lactuca sativa) and aquatic species (Vibrio fischeri, Daphnia magna, Raphidocelis subcapitata, Lemna minor). Both for amended soils and elutriates, invertebrates (especially D. magna and E. andrei) were the most sensitive species, displaying acute (immobilization) and chronic (reproduction inhibition) effects, respectively. Despite the presence of some concerning metals in PG and elutriates (e.g., zinc and cadmium), the extremely high levels of calcium found in both test mediums, suggest that this element was the mainly responsible for the ecotoxicological effects observed. Terrestrial and aquatic plants were the most tolerant species, which is in line with studies supporting the application of PG to increase crop yields. Nevertheless, no stimulatory effects on growth were observed for any of the species tested despite the high levels of phosphorus added to soils by PG. Given the importance of soil invertebrates for several soil functions and services, this study gives rise to new serious

  16. MORPHOLOGICAL ANATOMICAL AND PHITOCHEMICAL CHARACTERISTICS OF SOME ALGAE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. S. Kaysheva

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Morphological and anatomical features of thalluses of brown (Laminaria saccharina, Fucus vesiculosus and red (Ahnfeltia plicata algae, procured at a coastal strip of the Northern basin in gulfs of Ura-Guba and Palkina-Guba at different depths. Compliance of Fucus and Ahnfeltia with pharmacopoeial norms and merchandising indices for Laminaria was established, except for high concentration of sand in Ahnfeltia thalluses. The identity of algae between each other was shown based on the results of qualitative analysis on polysaccharides, alginic acids, reducing sugars, iodine, mannitol, amino acids presence. Quantitative content of polysaccharides, alginic acids, reducing sugars, pentosans, iodine, cellulose, mannitol, proteins, lipids, agar was determined. In comparison with Fucus and Ahnfeltia higher concentration of the following content was noted in Laminaria: alginic acids (1.4 and 5.75 times higher, polysaccharides (1.3 and 1.4 times, iodine (4.5 and 1.8 times, mannatol (1.5 and 2.5 times (data received is statistically reliable. Impropriety of storm algae for processing was shown as law quality raw material. The highest concentration of active substances was revealed in Laminaria thalluses which were procured at the depth of 10 m in a period from September to October. Active accumulation of sodium, potassium, calcium, iron, magnesium, manganese corresponding to similar sea water composition was established in algae. Mathematical equations of regression between protein and manganese, protein and iron content in algae were deduced. Under proper conditions of drying and storage high quality of the materials can be preserved during 3 years. Based on the findings of photochemical researches, taking into account squares of plantations and possible exploitation stocks, the possibility and prospectivity of industrial processing of Fucus vesiculosus and Ahnfeltia plicata together with Laminaria saccharina as plant sources of polysaccharides (mainly

  17. Bacteriocins active against plant pathogenic bacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grinter, Rhys; Milner, Joel; Walker, Daniel

    2012-12-01

    Gram-negative phytopathogens cause significant losses in a diverse range of economically important crop plants. The effectiveness of traditional countermeasures, such as the breeding and introduction of resistant cultivars, is often limited by the dearth of available sources of genetic resistance. An alternative strategy to reduce loss to specific bacterial phytopathogens is to use narrow-spectrum protein antibiotics such as colicin-like bacteriocins as biocontrol agents. A number of colicin-like bacteriocins active against phytopathogenic bacteria have been described previously as have strategies for their application to biocontrol. In the present paper, we discuss these strategies and our own recent work on the identification and characterization of candidate bacteriocins and how these potent and selective antimicrobial agents can be effectively applied to the control of economically important plant disease.

  18. The Pleasures and the Pitfalls of Plant Science Activities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hershey, David R.

    2000-01-01

    Classroom plant activities have long been inexpensive, easy to do, and fun for students, and have become more central to biology teaching. Introduces some plant science activities and their pleasures and pitfalls. (ASK)

  19. Advanced treatment of effluent from a wastewater treatment plant by embedded immobilized bacteria and algae system%固定化菌藻系统对污水处理厂出水的深度处理

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    严清; 高旭; 彭绪亚

    2012-01-01

    将海藻酸钠固定化活性污泥和小球藻制成颗粒小球,以自制的流化床反应器对重庆市某污水处理厂出水进行深度处理,探讨了系统对氨氮、TP、COD的去除效果,实验结果表明:在HRT=12 h,溶解氧浓度为3.0 mg/L左右,pH值为6.2至8.0之间,环境室温条件下,系统对氨氮、TP、COD均有较好的去除效果,系统稳定运行后对氨氮、TP、COD去除率基本维持在60%、60%和30%以上,出水氨氮、TP、COD浓度基本维持在8、0.5和40 mg/L以下,出水浓度达到了《城镇污水处理厂污染物排放标准》(GB 18918-2002)的一级A标准。这项研究显示固定化菌藻胶球系统在污水处理厂出水的深度处理中具有潜在的应用前景。%Coimmobilized activated sludge and Chlorella vulgaris with sodium alginate as entrapping agent were made into beads to treat effluent from a wastewater treatment plant in the fluidized bed reactor and the removal efficiencies of ammonia nitrogen,TP and COD were studied.The experiment indicates that under the conditions of natural temperature,HRT,DO,pH were 12 hours,3 mg/L,6.2 to 8.0,respectively,the embedded immobilized bacteria-algae has strong ability to remove ammonia nitrogen,TP and COD,and the removal rates are more than 60%,60% and 30%,respectively.The effluent concentrations of ammonia nitrogen,TP and COD basically maintain less than 8,0.5 and 40 mg/L,respectively,meeting the first level A criteria specified in the Discharge Standard of Pollutants for Municipal Wastewater Treatment Plant(GB18918-2002).This study shows that coimmobilization of activated sludge and Chlorella vulgaris in small beads has the potential application prospect in the advanced treatment of effluent from wastewater treatment plants.

  20. Cytotoxic activity of ten algae from the Persian Gulf and Oman Sea on human breast cancer cell lines; MDA-MB-231, MCF-7, and T-47D

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nasrollah Erfani

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Seaweeds have proven to be a promising natural source of bioactive metabolites for drug development. Objective: This study aimed to monitor the ethanol extract of ten algae from the Persian Gulf and Oman Sea, for their in vitro cytotoxic activity on three human breast cancer cell lines. Materials and Methods: Three human breast cancer cell lines including MDA-MB-231(ER− , MCF-7(ER + , and T-47D (ER + were treated by different concentrations of total ethanol (90% algae extracts and the cytotoxic effects were evaluated by 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide assay. Doxorubicin (Ebewe, Austria was used as a positive control. After 72 h of incubation, the cytotoxic effect of the algae was calculated and presented as 50%-inhibitory concentration (IC 50 . Results: The results indicated Gracilaria foliifera and Cladophoropsis sp. to be the most active algae in terms of cytotoxic effects on the investigated cancer cell lines. The IC 50 values against MDA-MB-231, MCF-7, and T-47D cells were, respectively, 74.89 ± 21.71, 207.81 ± 12.07, and 203.25 ± 30.98 mg/ml for G. foliifera and 66.48 ± 4.96, 150.86 ± 51.56 and >400 mg/ml for Cladophoropsis sp. The rest of the algal extracts were observed not to have significant cytotoxic effects in the concentration range from 6.25 mg/ml to 400 mg/ml. Conclusion: Our data conclusively suggest that G. foliifera and Cladophoropsis sp. may be good candidates for further fractionation to obtain novel anticancer substances. Moreover, stronger cytotoxic effects on estrogen negative breast cancer cell line (MDA-MB-231(ER− in comparison to estrogen positive cells (MCF-7 and T-47D suggest that the extract of G. foliifera and Cladophoropsis sp. may have an estrogen receptor/progesterone receptor-independent mechanism for their cellular growth inhibition.

  1. Algae decorated TiO2/Ag hybrid nanofiber membrane with enhanced photocatalytic activity for Cr(VI) removal under visible light

    OpenAIRE

    WANG, L.; Zhang, C; Gao, F.; MAILHOT, G; Pan, G

    2016-01-01

    Algae as an abundant natural biomass, more attention has been paid to explore its potential application in environmental pollutants treatment. This work prepared the algae-TiO2/Ag bionano hybrid material by loading algae cells on the ultrafine TiO2/Ag chitosan hybrid nanofiber mat. For the first time, the synergistic photocatalytic effect of fresh algae and TiO2/Ag nanomaterial was investigated by removal of Cr(VI). The addition of algae significantly improved the photo-removal of Cr(VI) in t...

  2. Effect of Different Light Qualities on Growth, Pigment Content, Chlorophyll Fluorescence, and Antioxidant Enzyme Activity in the Red Alga Pyropia haitanensis (Bangiales, Rhodophyta)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-01-01

    Spectral light changes evoke different morphogenetic and photosynthetic responses that can vary among different algae species. The aim of this study is to investigate the photosynthetic characteristics of the red macroalgae grown under different spectrum environments. In this study, Pyropia haitanensis were cultured under blue, red, and green LED and fluorescent tubes light. The growth rate, photopigment composition, chlorophyll fluorescence, and antioxidative enzymes activities in different light spectrums were investigated. The results revealed that growth rate was significantly higher in the thalli grown under blue, green, and fluorescent tubes light. Contents of Chl a and phycobiliprotein in red light were lower among all the growth conditions. Furthermore, a striking increase in SOD and CAT activity was observed in red light treatment along with the NPQ increase. The results revealed that the photosynthetic efficiency and increased growth rate of P. haitanensis benefitted from light spectrums such as blue, green, and fluorescent tubes light by pigment composition and photochemical efficiency manipulation, whereas red light has disadvantageous effects. Accordingly, the results for improving quality and the economic yield of algae species in some extent and the combination of different wavelengths could allow better economic resource exploitation. PMID:27642603

  3. Triclosan causes toxic effects to algae in marine biofilms, but does not inhibit the metabolic activity of marine biofilm bacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johansson, C Henrik; Janmar, Lisa; Backhaus, Thomas

    2014-07-15

    Effects of the antimicrobial agent triclosan to natural periphyton communities (biofilms, comprising primarily microalgae and bacteria) were assessed in two independent experiments during spring and summer. For that purpose a semi-static test system was used in which periphyton was exposed to a concentration range of 5-9054 nmol/L triclosan. Effects on algae were analyzed as content and composition of photosynthetic pigments. The corresponding EC50 values were 39.25 and 302.45 nmol/L for the spring and summer experiment, respectively. Effects on periphytic bacteria were assessed as effects on carbon utilization patterns, using Biolog Ecoplates. No inhibition of either total carbon utilization or functional diversity was observed, indicating a pronounced triclosan tolerance of the marine bacteria. In contrast, a small stimulation of the total carbon utilization was observed at triclosan concentrations exceeding 100 nmol/L.

  4. Phospholipases and galactolipases trigger oxylipin-mediated wound-activated defence in the red alga Gracilaria chilensis against epiphytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lion, Ulrich; Wiesemeier, Theresa; Weinberger, Florian; Beltrán, Jessica; Flores, Verónica; Faugeron, Sylvain; Correa, Juan; Pohnert, Georg

    2006-03-01

    We investigated the wound response of the commercially important red alga, Gracilaria chilensis, in order to obtain insight into its interaction with epiphytic pests. After wounding, the host releases free fatty acids as well as the hydroxylated eicosanoids, 8R-hydroxy eicosatetraenoic acid (8-HETE) and 7S,8R-dihydroxy eicosatetraenoic acid (7,8-di-HETE). While the release of free arachidonic acid and subsequent formation of 8-HETE is controlled by phospholipase A, 7,8-di-HETE production is independent of this lipase. This dihydroxylated fatty acid might be directly released from galactolipids. Physiologically relevant concentrations of oxylipins reduced spore settlement of Acrochaetium sp. (Rhodophyta, Acrochaetiaceae) and suppressed the development of hapteria in Ceramium rubrum (Rhodophyta, Ceramiaceae) when these model epiphytes were exposed to artificial surfaces that contained 8-HETE or 7,8-di-HETE. Thus, the immediate release of oxylipins can be seen as G. chilensis defence against epiphytes.

  5. Fluorescence activated cell sorting of plant protoplasts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bargmann, Bastiaan O R; Birnbaum, Kenneth D

    2010-02-18

    High-resolution, cell type-specific analysis of gene expression greatly enhances understanding of developmental regulation and responses to environmental stimuli in any multicellular organism. In situ hybridization and reporter gene visualization can to a limited extent be used to this end but for high resolution quantitative RT-PCR or high-throughput transcriptome-wide analysis the isolation of RNA from particular cell types is requisite. Cellular dissociation of tissue expressing a fluorescent protein marker in a specific cell type and subsequent Fluorescence Activated Cell Sorting (FACS) makes it possible to collect sufficient amounts of material for RNA extraction, cDNA synthesis/amplification and microarray analysis. An extensive set of cell type-specific fluorescent reporter lines is available to the plant research community. In this case, two marker lines of the Arabidopsis thaliana root are used: P(SCR;)::GFP (endodermis and quiescent center) and P(WOX5;)::GFP (quiescent center). Large numbers (thousands) of seedlings are grown hydroponically or on agar plates and harvested to obtain enough root material for further analysis. Cellular dissociation of plant material is achieved by enzymatic digestion of the cell wall. This procedure makes use of high osmolarity-induced plasmolysis and commercially available cellulases, pectinases and hemicellulases to release protoplasts into solution. FACS of GFP-positive cells makes use of the visualization of the green versus the red emission spectra of protoplasts excited by a 488 nm laser. GFP-positive protoplasts can be distinguished by their increased ratio of green to red emission. Protoplasts are typically sorted directly into RNA extraction buffer and stored for further processing at a later time. This technique is revealed to be straightforward and practicable. Furthermore, it is shown that it can be used without difficulty to isolate sufficient numbers of cells for transcriptome analysis, even for very scarce

  6. Composition and structure of the 80S ribosome from the green alga Chlamydomonas reinhardtii: 80S ribosomes are conserved in plants and animals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manuell, Andrea L; Yamaguchi, Kenichi; Haynes, Paul A; Milligan, Ronald A; Mayfield, Stephen P

    2005-08-12

    We have conducted a proteomic analysis of the 80S cytosolic ribosome from the eukaryotic green alga Chlamydomonas reinhardtii, and accompany this with a cryo-electron microscopy structure of the ribosome. Proteins homologous to all but one rat 40S subunit protein, including a homolog of RACK1, and all but three rat 60S subunit proteins were identified as components of the C. reinhardtii ribosome. Expressed Sequence Tag (EST) evidence and annotation of the completed C. reinhardtii genome identified genes for each of the four proteins not identified by proteomic analysis, showing that algae potentially have a complete set of orthologs to mammalian 80S ribosomal proteins. Presented at 25A, the algal 80S ribosome is very similar in structure to the yeast 80S ribosome, with only minor distinguishable differences. These data show that, although separated by billions of years of evolution, cytosolic ribosomes from photosynthetic organisms are highly conserved with their yeast and animal counterparts.

  7. Importance of algae oil as a source of biodiesel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Demirbas, Ayhan [Sirnak University, Dean of Engineering Faculty, Sirnak (Turkey); Fatih Demirbas, M. [Sila Science, University Mah., Mekan Sok No. 24, Trabzon (Turkey)

    2011-01-15

    Algae are the fastest-growing plants in the world. Industrial reactors for algal culture are open ponds, photobioreactors and closed systems. Algae are very important as a biomass source. Algae will some day be competitive as a source for biofuel. Different species of algae may be better suited for different types of fuel. Algae can be grown almost anywhere, even on sewage or salt water, and does not require fertile land or food crops, and processing requires less energy than the algae provides. Algae can be a replacement for oil based fuels, one that is more effective and has no disadvantages. Algae are among the fastest-growing plants in the world, and about 50% of their weight is oil. This lipid oil can be used to make biodiesel for cars, trucks, and airplanes. Microalgae have much faster growth-rates than terrestrial crops. the per unit area yield of oil from algae is estimated to be from 20,000 to 80,000 l per acre, per year; this is 7-31 times greater than the next best crop, palm oil. The lipid and fatty acid contents of microalgae vary in accordance with culture conditions. Most current research on oil extraction is focused on microalgae to produce biodiesel from algal oil. Algal-oil processes into biodiesel as easily as oil derived from land-based crops. (author)

  8. Influence of the Brown Marine Algae on the Physicochemical and Sensory Characteristcs of the Sausages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudiu Dan Sălăgean

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available  The aim of this study was to asses the influence of the brown algae on the quality in manufacturing of a certain halfsmoked sausages assortment.  Exploiting the natural plant resources as well as reducing the animal fat in the finished product by replacing it with proteins, fibers and minerals (provided by the brown marine algae were also intended. Two technological variants with different ratios of algae (V1-10% respectively V2-15% from those 25% of fat (the remaining of 75% beeing represented, in each case, by beef were experienced and compared with the control sample (VM, without algae, 75% beef and 25% fat. The finished products were analyzed in terms of organoleptic and physicochemical, in different stages of storage, at 24 hours after obtaining and seven days of storage at 10 to 12 degrees. The correlations between investigated quality parameters and the ratios of algae were also established. The physicochemical analysis highlighted the highest values regarding the protein, moisture, sodium chloride and the lowest fat content values in the case of the V2 variant compared to the V1 and VM variants. Furthermore, an increase in protein, fat, sodium chloride and a decrease of the moisture content have been found in all variants observed during the storage. The shelf life of the product was not negatively affected by the addition of algae due to their antimicrobial activity. The addition of algae in combination with beef components led to obtaining a higher quality product with functional characteristics.

  9. Cytotoxic activity of four Mexican medicinal plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vega-Avila, Elisa; Espejo-Serna, Adolfo; Alarcón-Aguilar, Francisco; Velasco-Lezama, Rodolfo

    2009-01-01

    Ibervillea sonorae Greene, Cucurbita ficifolia Bouché, Tagetes lucida Cav and Justicia spicigera Scheltdd are Mexican native plants used in the treatment of different illnesses. The ethanolic extract of J. spicigera and T. lucida as well as aqueous extracts from I. sonorae, C. ficifolia, T. lucida and J. spicigera were investigated using sulforhodamine B assay. These extracts were assessed using two cell line: T47D (Human Breast cancer) and HeLa (Human cervix cancer). Colchicine was used as the positive control. Data are presented as the dose that inhibited 50% control growth (ED50). All of the assessed extracts were cytotoxic (ED50 < 20 microg/ml) against T47D cell line, meanwhile only the aqueous extract from T. lucida and the ethanolic extract from J. spicigera were cytotoxic to HeLa cell line. Ethanolic extract from J. spicigera presented the best cytotoxic effect. The cytotoxic activity of J. spicigera correlated with one of the popular uses, the treatment of cancer.

  10. Antibacterial and antifungal activities of some Mexican medicinal plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruiz-Bustos, E; Velazquez, C; Garibay-Escobar, A; García, Z; Plascencia-Jatomea, M; Cortez-Rocha, M O; Hernandez-Martínez, J; Robles-Zepeda, R E

    2009-12-01

    In Mexico about 4,000 plant species have some medicinal use. The aim of this work was to evaluate the antimicrobial activity of six Mexican medicinal plants against fungi and Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria. Methanolic extracts were prepared from the Mexican medicinal plants Amphypteringium adstrigens, Castella tortuosa, Coutarea latiflora, Ibervillea sonorae, Jatropha cuneata, and Selaginella lepidophylla. The antibacterial and antifungal activities of the plants were determined by the broth microdilution method and the radial growth inhibition assay, respectively. All Mexican plants tested showed antimicrobial activity. Among the six plant extracts analyzed, J. cuneata showed the highest growth-inhibitory activity against fungi, Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria (J. cuneata > A. adstrigens > C. latiflora > C. tortuosa > I. sonorae approximately S. lepidophylla). Shigella flexneri and Staphylococcus aureus were the most susceptible bacteria to plant extracts. Complete inhibition of S. flexneri growth was observed with J. cuneata methanolic extract at 90 microg/mL. This plant extract also showed the strongest antifungal activity against Fusarium verticillioides and Aspergillus niger. Our data suggest that the medicinal plants tested have important antimicrobial properties. This is the first report describing the antimicrobial activities of several of the Mexican medicinal plants used in this study.

  11. Long term effects on petrochemical activated sludge on plants and soil. Plant growth and metal absorption

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tedesco, M.J.; Gianello, C. [Rio Grande do Sul Univ., Porto Alegre, RS (Brazil). Dept. de Solos; Ribas, P.I.F.; Carvalho, E.B. [CORSAN-SITEL, Triunfo, RS (Brazil). Polo Petroquimico do Sul. Dept. de Operacao e Manutencao

    1993-12-31

    An experiment to study the effects of several application rates of excess activated sludge on plants, soil and leached water was started in 1985. Sludge was applied for six years and increased plant growth due to its nitrogen and phosphorous contribution, even though the decomposition rate in soil is low. Plant zinc, cadmium and nickel content increased with sludge application, while liming decreased the amounts of these metals taken up by plants. 9 refs., 8 tabs.

  12. Cell cycle activation by plant parasitic nematodes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Goverse, A.; Almeida Engler, de J.; Verhees, J.; Krol, van der S.; Helder, J.; Gheysen, G.

    2000-01-01

    Sedentary nematodes are important pests of crop plants. They are biotrophic parasites that can induce the (re)differentiation of either differentiated or undifferentiated plant cells into specialized feeding cells. This (re)differentiation includes the reactivation of the cell cycle in specific plan

  13. Microspectroscopy of the photosynthetic compartment of algae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evangelista, Valtere; Frassanito, Anna Maria; Passarelli, Vincenzo; Barsanti, Laura; Gualtieri, Paolo

    2006-01-01

    We performed microspectroscopic evaluation of the pigment composition of the photosynthetic compartments of algae belonging to different taxonomic divisions and higher plants. The feasibility of microspectroscopy for discriminating among species and/or phylogenetic groups was tested on laboratory cultures. Gaussian bands decompositions and a fitting algorithm, together with fourth-derivative transformation of absorbance spectra, provided a reliable discrimination among chlorophylls a, b and c, phycobiliproteins and carotenoids. Comparative analysis of absorption spectra highlighted the evolutionary grouping of the algae into three main lineages in accordance with the most recent endosymbiotic theories.

  14. Foresight Brief: Seaweed & Algae as Biofuels Feedstocks

    OpenAIRE

    Institute, Marine

    2008-01-01

    Seaweed is a known potential carbon-dioxide (CO2) neutral source of second generation biofuels. When seaweed grows it absorbs CO2 from the atmosphere and this CO2 is released back to the atmosphere during combustion. What makes seaweed, and in particular micro algae, so promising as a fuel source is their growth rates and high lipid (oil) content. Algae are among the fastest-growing plants in the world. Energy is stored inside the cell as lipids and carbohydrates, and can be converted into fu...

  15. Wastewater treatment with algae

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wong Yukshan [Hong Kong Univ. of Science and Technology, Kowloon (China). Research Centre; Tam, N.F.Y. [eds.] [City Univ. of Hong Kong, Kowloon (China). Dept. of Biology and Chemistry

    1998-05-01

    Immobilized algal technology for wastewater treatment purposes. Removal of copper by free and immobilized microalga, Chlorella vulgaris. Biosorption of heavy metals by microalgae in batch and continuous systems. Microalgal removal of organic and inorganic metal species from aqueous solution. Bioaccumulation and biotransformation of arsenic, antimony and bismuth compounds by freshwater algae. Metal ion binding by biomass derived from nonliving algae, lichens, water hyacinth root and spagnum moss. Metal resistance and accumulation in cyanobacteria. (orig.)

  16. Cultivation of macroscopic marine algae

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ryther, J.H.

    1982-11-01

    The red alga Gracilaria tikvahiae may be grown outdoors year-round in central Florida with yields averaging 35.5 g dry wt/m/sup 2/.day, greater than the most productive terrestrial plants. This occurs only when the plants are in a suspended culture, with vigorous aeration and an exchange of 25 or more culture volumes of enriched seawater per day, which is not cost-effective. A culture system was designed in which Gracilaria, stocked at a density of 2 kg wet wt/m/sup 2/, grows to double its biomass in one to two weeks; it is then harvested to its starting density, and anaerobically digested to methane. The biomass is soaked for 6 hours in the digester residue, storing enough nutrients for two weeks' growth in unenriched seawater. The methane is combusted for energy and the waste gas is fed to the culture to provide mixing and CO/sub 2/, eliminating the need for aeration and seawater exchange. The green alga Ulva lactuca, unlike Gracilaria, uses bicarbonate as a photosynthesis carbon source, and can grow at high pH, with little or no free CO/sub 2/. It can therefore produce higher yields than Gracilaria in low water exchange conditions. It is also more efficiently converted to methane than is Gracilaria, but cannot tolerate Florida's summer temperatures so cannot be grown year-round. Attempts are being made to locate or produce a high-temperature tolerant strain.

  17. Screening of Various Herbicide Modes of Action for Selective Control of Algae Responsible for Harmful Blooms

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-01-01

    that have selective activity against harmful algal blooms (HAB). The U.S. Army Corps of Engineers is responsible for managing numerous large reservoirs ...selective herbicides against numerous aquatic macrophyte species. Because algae, including cyanobacteria, and higher plants have many of the same enzyme...to be multifaceted and poorly understood (Dokulil and Teubner 2000). The proliferation of freshwater HAB in lakes and reservoirs around the world

  18. [Methods of hygromycin B phosphotransferase activity assay in transgenic plant].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhuo, Qin; Yang, Xiaoguang

    2004-07-01

    Hygromycin B phosphotransferase (HPT) is a widely used selectable marker protein of transgenic plant. Detection of its activity is critical to studies on the development of various transgenic plants, silence of inserted gene, marker-free system development and safety assessment of transgenic food. In this paper, several methods for detecting the activity of this enzyme were reviewed.

  19. Native New Zealand plants with inhibitory activity towards Mycobacterium tuberculosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Swift Simon

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Plants have long been investigated as a source of antibiotics and other bioactives for the treatment of human disease. New Zealand contains a diverse and unique flora, however, few of its endemic plants have been used to treat tuberculosis. One plant, Laurelia novae-zelandiae, was reportedly used by indigenous Maori for the treatment of tubercular lesions. Methods Laurelia novae-zelandiae and 44 other native plants were tested for direct anti-bacterial activity. Plants were extracted with different solvents and extracts screened for inhibition of the surrogate species, Mycobacterium smegmatis. Active plant samples were then tested for bacteriostatic activity towards M. tuberculosis and other clinically-important species. Results Extracts of six native plants were active against M. smegmatis. Many of these were also inhibitory towards M. tuberculosis including Laurelia novae-zelandiae (Pukatea. M. excelsa (Pohutukawa was the only plant extract tested that was active against Staphylococcus aureus. Conclusions Our data provide support for the traditional use of Pukatea in treating tuberculosis. In addition, our analyses indicate that other native plant species possess antibiotic activity.

  20. Algae a promising alternative for biofuel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.H. Sayadi

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Research on renewable and environmentally friendly fuel is growing rapidly and many scientists and governments are interested to grow it fast due to limitation of conventional fuel sources and their harmful effects on the environment. Biofuels are not only the best and reliably available fuels attained from renewable sources which are environment friendly. Besdies biofuels are abundantly available in all the locations easily accessible and highly sustainable. In the present review, the authors present a brief highlight of challenges that necessitates to be covered in order to make both, micro as well as macro algae a viable option to produce renewable biofuels. It is interesting to note that algae are varied, pervasive, and productive and also having less impact with plants as a food for human and animals. Further research is required to a high quantity of product innovation because most dedicated algae are faced uneconomically high costs.

  1. Algae fuels : a tantalizing alternative

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Granson, E.

    2010-11-15

    This article surveyed the current state of research and development in the area of algae use as a basis for fuel and as a feedstock for the chemical industry. The constraints inhibiting the commercialization of algae-related processes were discussed and a brief overview of the history of algae research was presented. Interest in algae research has ebbed and flowed in conjunction with economic and social concerns. It is unknown whether algae can be grown on a scale and cost that is commercially viable. A bench-scale algae cultivation system involving photobioreactors was described. Algae are increasingly being used in treating wastewater from industrial processes, as algae can reduce ammonia and phosphate loads in effluent. Exhaust carbon dioxide is being used to feed algae crops. Advances are needed to make turning algae oil into fuel cost effective. A bench-stage process for extracting algae oil from water for biofuel conversion was described. The process results in easier-to-dry biomass without using chemical solvents or centrifuges. Algae biomass is also being explored for used as a polymer feedstock. Algae can be grown anywhere there is sun, but the challenge is in developing a large enough supply of algae biomass. Second generation algae plastic products will be more complex and may involve the creation of a monomer out of algae itself, which could make algae competitive with oil in the plastics industry. Skeptics doubt that algae processes can be commercialized, but some within the industry believe that algae biomass will eventually work within the norms of industrial processes. 5 figs.

  2. Biological activity of some Patagonian plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cuadra, Pedro; Furrianca, María; Oyarzún, Alejandra; Yáñez, Erwin; Gallardo, Amalia; Fajardo, Víctor

    2005-12-01

    Citotoxicity (inhibition of cell division in fertilized eggs of Loxechinus albus) and general toxicity (using embryos of Artemia salina) of plants belonging to the genera Senecio, Deschampsia, Alstroemeria, Anarthrophyllum, Chloraea and Geranium were investigated.

  3. Acetyl-CoA synthetase is activated as part of the PDH-bypass in the oleaginous green alga Chlorella desiccata.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avidan, Omri; Pick, Uri

    2015-12-01

    In a recent study, it has been shown that biosynthesis of triacylglycerol (TAG) in the oleaginous green alga Chlorella desiccata is preceded by a large increase in acetyl-coenzyme A (Ac-CoA) levels and by upregulation of plastidic pyruvate dehydrogenase (ptPDH). It was proposed that the capacity to accumulate high TAG critically depends on enhanced production of Ac-CoA. In this study, two alternative Ac-CoA producers-plastidic Ac-CoA synthase (ptACS) and ATP citrate lyase (ACL)-are shown to be upregulated prior to TAG accumulation under nitrogen deprivation in the oleaginous species C. desiccata, but not in the moderate TAG accumulators Dunaliella tertiolecta and Chlamydomonas reinhardtii. Measurements of endogenous acetate production and of radiolabelled acetate incorporation into lipids are consistent with the upregulation of ptACS, but suggest that its contribution to the overall TAG biosynthesis is negligible. Induction of ACS and production of endogenous acetate are correlated with activation of alcohol dehydrogenase, suggesting that the upregulation of ptACS is associated with activation of PDH-bypass in C. desiccata. It is proposed that activation of the PDH-bypass in C. desiccata is needed to enable a high rate of lipid biosynthesis under nitrogen deprivation by controlling the level of pyruvate reaching ptPHD and/or mtPDH. This may be an important parameter for massive TAG accumulation in microalgae.

  4. A Receptor-Like Kinase, Related to Cell Wall Sensor of Higher Plants, is Required for Sexual Reproduction in the Unicellular Charophycean Alga, Closterium peracerosum-strigosum-littorale Complex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirano, Naoko; Marukawa, Yuka; Abe, Jun; Hashiba, Sayuri; Ichikawa, Machiko; Tanabe, Yoichi; Ito, Motomi; Nishii, Ichiro; Tsuchikane, Yuki; Sekimoto, Hiroyuki

    2015-07-01

    Here, we cloned the CpRLK1 gene, which encodes a receptor-like protein kinase expressed during sexual reproduction, from the heterothallic Closterium peracerosum-strigosum-littorale complex, one of the closest unicellular alga to land plants. Mating-type plus (mt(+)) cells with knockdown of CpRLK1 showed reduced competence for sexual reproduction and formed an abnormally enlarged conjugation papilla after pairing with mt(-) cells. The knockdown cells were unable to release a naked gamete, which is indispensable for zygote formation. We suggest that the CpRLK1 protein is an ancient cell wall sensor that now functions to regulate osmotic pressure in the cell to allow proper gamete release.

  5. Exploring the potential of using algae in cosmetics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Hui-Min David; Chen, Ching-Chun; Huynh, Pauline; Chang, Jo-Shu

    2015-05-01

    The applications of microalgae in cosmetic products have recently received more attention in the treatment of skin problems, such as aging, tanning and pigment disorders. There are also potential uses in the areas of anti-aging, skin-whitening, and pigmentation reduction products. While algae species have already been used in some cosmetic formulations, such as moisturizing and thickening agents, algae remain largely untapped as an asset in this industry due to an apparent lack of utility as a primary active ingredient. This review article focuses on integrating studies on algae pertinent to skin health and beauty, with the purpose of identifying serviceable algae functions in practical cosmetic uses.

  6. In vitro chemopreventive potential of fucophlorethols from the brown alga Fucus vesiculosus L. by anti-oxidant activity and inhibition of selected cytochrome P450 enzymes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parys, Sabine; Kehraus, Stefan; Krick, Anja; Glombitza, Karl-Werner; Carmeli, Shmuel; Klimo, Karin; Gerhäuser, Clarissa; König, Gabriele M

    2010-02-01

    Within a project focusing on the chemopreventive potential of algal phenols, two phloroglucinol derivatives, belonging to the class of fucophlorethols, and the known fucotriphlorethol A were obtained from the ethanolic extract of the brown alga Fucus vesiculosus L. The compounds trifucodiphlorethol A and trifucotriphlorethol A are composed of six and seven units of phloroglucinol, respectively. The compounds were examined for their cancer chemopreventive potential, in comparison with the monomer phloroglucinol. Trifucodiphlorethol A, trifucotriphlorethol A as well as fucotriphlorethol A were identified as strong radical scavengers, with IC(50) values for scavenging of 1,1-diphenyl-2 picrylhydrazyl radicals (DPPH) in the range of 10.0-14.4 microg/ml. All three compounds potently scavenged peroxyl radicals in the oxygen radical absorbance capacity (ORAC) assay. In addition, the compounds were shown to inhibit cytochrome P450 1A activity with IC(50) values in the range of 17.9-33 microg/ml, and aromatase (Cyp19) activity with IC(50) values in the range of 1.2-5.6 microg/ml.

  7. Active Targeting to Osteosarcoma Cells and Apoptotic Cell Death Induction by the Novel Lectin Eucheuma serra Agglutinin Isolated from a Marine Red Alga

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Keita Hayashi

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Previously, we demonstrated that the novel lectin Eucheuma serra agglutinin from a marine red alga (ESA induces apoptotic cell death in carcinoma. We now find that ESA induces apoptosis also in the case of sarcoma cells. First, propidium iodide assays with OST cells and LM8 cells showed a decrease in cell viability after addition of ESA. With 50 μg/ml ESA, the viabilities after 24 hours decreased to 54.7 ± 11.4% in the case of OST cells and to 41.7 ± 12.3% for LM8 cells. Second, using fluorescently labeled ESA and flow cytometric and fluorescence microscopic measurements, it could be shown that ESA does not bind to cells that were treated with glycosidases, indicating importance of the carbohydrate chains on the surface of the cells for efficient ESA-cell interactions. Third, Span 80 vesicles with surface-bound ESA as active targeting ligand were shown to display sarcoma cell binding activity, leading to apoptosis and complete OST cell death after 48 hours at 2 μg/ml ESA. The findings indicate that Span 80 vesicles with surface-bound ESA are a potentially useful drug delivery system not only for the treatment of carcinoma but also for the treatment of osteosarcoma.

  8. Active Targeting to Osteosarcoma Cells and Apoptotic Cell Death Induction by the Novel Lectin Eucheuma serra Agglutinin Isolated from a Marine Red Alga.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayashi, Keita; Walde, Peter; Miyazaki, Tatsuhiko; Sakayama, Kenshi; Nakamura, Atsushi; Kameda, Kenji; Masuda, Seizo; Umakoshi, Hiroshi; Kato, Keiichi

    2012-01-01

    Previously, we demonstrated that the novel lectin Eucheuma serra agglutinin from a marine red alga (ESA) induces apoptotic cell death in carcinoma. We now find that ESA induces apoptosis also in the case of sarcoma cells. First, propidium iodide assays with OST cells and LM8 cells showed a decrease in cell viability after addition of ESA. With 50 μg/ml ESA, the viabilities after 24 hours decreased to 54.7 ± 11.4% in the case of OST cells and to 41.7 ± 12.3% for LM8 cells. Second, using fluorescently labeled ESA and flow cytometric and fluorescence microscopic measurements, it could be shown that ESA does not bind to cells that were treated with glycosidases, indicating importance of the carbohydrate chains on the surface of the cells for efficient ESA-cell interactions. Third, Span 80 vesicles with surface-bound ESA as active targeting ligand were shown to display sarcoma cell binding activity, leading to apoptosis and complete OST cell death after 48 hours at 2 μg/ml ESA. The findings indicate that Span 80 vesicles with surface-bound ESA are a potentially useful drug delivery system not only for the treatment of carcinoma but also for the treatment of osteosarcoma.

  9. Effect of chromium oxide (III) nanoparticles on the production of reactive oxygen species and photosystem II activity in the green alga Chlamydomonas reinhardtii

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Costa, Cristina Henning da [Department of Sanitary and Environmental Engineering, Federal University of Santa Catarina, Campus Universitário, CEP: 88040-970, Florianópolis, SC (Brazil); Perreault, François [School of Sustainable Engineering and the Built Environment, Arizona State University, Tempe, AZ 85287-3005 (United States); Oukarroum, Abdallah [Department of Chemistry, University of Quebec in Montréal, 2101, Jeanne Mance Street, Station Centre-Ville, Montréal, QC H2X 2J6 (Canada); Melegari, Sílvia Pedroso [Department of Sanitary and Environmental Engineering, Federal University of Santa Catarina, Campus Universitário, CEP: 88040-970, Florianópolis, SC (Brazil); Center of Marine Studies, Federal University of Parana, Beira-mar Avenue, 83255-976, Pontal do Parana, PR (Brazil); Popovic, Radovan [Department of Chemistry, University of Quebec in Montréal, 2101, Jeanne Mance Street, Station Centre-Ville, Montréal, QC H2X 2J6 (Canada); Matias, William Gerson, E-mail: william.g.matias@ufsc.br [Department of Sanitary and Environmental Engineering, Federal University of Santa Catarina, Campus Universitário, CEP: 88040-970, Florianópolis, SC (Brazil)

    2016-09-15

    With the growth of nanotechnology and widespread use of nanomaterials, there is an increasing risk of environmental contamination by nanomaterials. However, the potential implications of such environmental contamination are hard to evaluate since the toxicity of nanomaterials if often not well characterized. The objective of this study was to evaluate the toxicity of a chromium-based nanoparticle, Cr{sub 2}O{sub 3}-NP, used in a wide diversity of industrial processes and commercial products, on the unicellular green alga Chlamydomonas reinhardtii. The deleterious impacts of Cr{sub 2}O{sub 3}-NP were characterized using cell density measurements, production of reactive oxygen species (ROS), esterase enzymes activity, and photosystem II electron transport as indicators of toxicity. Cr{sub 2}O{sub 3}-NP exposure inhibited culture growth and significantly lowered cellular Chlorophyll a content. From cell density measurements, EC50 values of 2.05 ± 0.20 and 1.35 ± 0.06 g L{sup −1} Cr{sub 2}O{sub 3}-NP were obtained after 24 and 72 h of exposure, respectively. In addition, ROS levels were increased to 160.24 ± 2.47% and 59.91 ± 0.15% of the control value after 24 and 72 h of exposition to 10 g L{sup −1} Cr{sub 2}O{sub 3}-NP. At 24 h of exposure, the esterase activity increased to 160.24% of control value, revealing a modification of the short-term metabolic response of algae to Cr{sub 2}O{sub 3}-NP exposure. In conclusion, the metabolism of C. reinhardtii was the most sensitive to Cr{sub 2}O{sub 3}-NP after 24 h of treatment. - Highlights: • Cr{sub 2}O{sub 3} nanoparticles are unstable and form large aggregates in the medium. • EC50 for growth inhibition of C. reinhardtii is 1.35 g L{sup −1} at 72 h. • Cr{sub 2}O{sub 3} nanoparticles increase ROS levels at 10 g L{sup −1}. • Cr{sub 2}O{sub 3} nanoparticles affect photosynthetic electron transport.

  10. Antiinflammatory activity of whole plant of Sonerila tinnnevelliensis Fischer (Melastomataceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. R. Mohan

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available In the present study, Sonerila tennevelliensis whole plant was extracted with ethanol and evaluated for antiinflammatory activity in rats using a carrageenan induced paw edema method. Ethanol extract exhibits potent antiinflammatory activity at 500mg/kg at 3hr administration. The study was compared with standard drug indomethacin (10mg/kg. Observed pharmacological activity in the present study provides scientific validation of ethnomedical uses of this plant in treating acute inflammation.

  11. Sustainability of algae derived biodiesel: a mass balance approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pfromm, Peter H; Amanor-Boadu, Vincent; Nelson, Richard

    2011-01-01

    A rigorous chemical engineering mass balance/unit operations approach is applied here to bio-diesel from algae mass culture. An equivalent of 50,000,000 gallons per year (0.006002 m3/s) of petroleum-based Number 2 fuel oil (US, diesel for compression-ignition engines, about 0.1% of annual US consumption) from oleaginous algae is the target. Methyl algaeate and ethyl algaeate diesel can according to this analysis conceptually be produced largely in a technologically sustainable way albeit at a lower available diesel yield. About 11 square miles of algae ponds would be needed with optimistic assumptions of 50 g biomass yield per day and m2 pond area. CO2 to foster algae growth should be supplied from a sustainable source such as a biomass-based ethanol production. Reliance on fossil-based CO2 from power plants or fertilizer production renders algae diesel non-sustainable in the long term.

  12. Anticoagulant screening of marine algae from Mexico, and partial characterization of the active sulfated polysaccharide from Eisenia arborea

    OpenAIRE

    Muñoz Ochoa, Mauricio; Murillo-Álvarez, Jesús Iván; Rodríguez Montesinos, Yoloxochilt Elizabeth; Hernández Carmona, Gustavo; Arvizu Higuera, Dora Luz; Peralta Cruz, Javier;; Lizardi Mendoza, Jaime

    2009-01-01

    The in vitro anticoagulant activity of 41 water extracts of various seaweeds from Baja California Sur, Mexico was evaluated. In this study, nine extracts exhibited anticoagulant activity in the prothrombin time assay, and 29 extracts were active in the activated partial thromboplastin time assay. The water extract obtained at 25°C from the brown seaweed Eisenia arborea was the most active in both assays, increasing the normal blood clotting-time over 300 s at 100 mg mL-1. The fractionation of...

  13. In Vivo and in Vitro Anti-Inflammatory Activity of Neorogioltriol, a New Diterpene Extracted from the Red Algae Laurencia glandulifera

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Riadh Kharrat

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Neorogioltriol is a tricyclic brominated diterpenoid isolated from the organic extract of the red algae Laurencia glandulifera. In the present study, the anti-inflammatory effects of neorogioltriol were evaluated both in vivo using carrageenan-induced paw edema and in vitro on lipopolysaccharide (LPS-treated Raw264.7 macrophages. The in vivo study demonstrated that the administration of 1 mg/kg of neorogioltriol resulted in the significant reduction of carregeenan-induced rat edema. In vitro, our results show that neorogioltriol treatment decreased the luciferase activity in LPS-stimulated Raw264.7 cells, stably transfected with the NF-κB-dependent luciferase reporter. This effect on NF-κB activation is not mediated through MAPK pathways. The inhibition of NF-κB activity correlates with decreased levels of LPS-induced tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNFα present in neorogioltriol treated supernatant cell culture. Further analyses indicated that this product also significantly inhibited the release of nitric oxide and the expression of cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2 in LPS-stimulated Raw264.7 cells. These latter effects could only be observed for neorogioltriol concentrations below 62.5 µM. To our knowledge, this is the first report describing a molecule derived from Laurencia glandulifera with anti-inflammatory activity both in vivo and in vitro. The effect demonstrated in vitro may be explained by the inhibition of the LPS-induced NF-κB activation and TNFα production. NO release and COX-2 expression may reinforce this effect.

  14. In Vivo and in Vitro Anti-Inflammatory Activity of Neorogioltriol, a New Diterpene Extracted from the Red Algae Laurencia glandulifera

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chatter, Rim; Ben Othman, Rym; Rabhi, Sameh; Kladi, Maria; Tarhouni, Safa; Vagias, Constantinos; Roussis, Vassilios; Guizani-Tabbane, Lamia; Kharrat, Riadh

    2011-01-01

    Neorogioltriol is a tricyclic brominated diterpenoid isolated from the organic extract of the red algae Laurencia glandulifera. In the present study, the anti-inflammatory effects of neorogioltriol were evaluated both in vivo using carrageenan-induced paw edema and in vitro on lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-treated Raw264.7 macrophages. The in vivo study demonstrated that the administration of 1 mg/kg of neorogioltriol resulted in the significant reduction of carregeenan-induced rat edema. In vitro, our results show that neorogioltriol treatment decreased the luciferase activity in LPS-stimulated Raw264.7 cells, stably transfected with the NF-κB-dependent luciferase reporter. This effect on NF-κB activation is not mediated through MAPK pathways. The inhibition of NF-κB activity correlates with decreased levels of LPS-induced tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNFα) present in neorogioltriol treated supernatant cell culture. Further analyses indicated that this product also significantly inhibited the release of nitric oxide and the expression of cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) in LPS-stimulated Raw264.7 cells. These latter effects could only be observed for neorogioltriol concentrations below 62.5 μM. To our knowledge, this is the first report describing a molecule derived from Laurencia glandulifera with anti-inflammatory activity both in vivo and in vitro. The effect demonstrated in vitro may be explained by the inhibition of the LPS-induced NF-κB activation and TNFα production. NO release and COX-2 expression may reinforce this effect. PMID:21822417

  15. Determination Of Antioxidant Activities In Freshliver (Salvia Officinalis) Plant

    OpenAIRE

    Arıduru, Rana; Arabacı, Gülnur

    2013-01-01

    In this study, we determined the antioxidant activities of four different solvent fractions (ethanol, methanol, acetone and ethyl acetate) obtained from Freshliver plant leaves (Salvia officinalis) by employing two different assays such as 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl hydrate (DPPH) and Folin-Ciocaltaeu method. The results showed that ethanolextract of freshliver plant exhibited the highest total phenolic contents (43.55 mg GAE/g extract), followed by methanol-extract of freshliver plant (23...

  16. Biosorption of U(VI) by the green algae Chlorella vulgaris in dependence of pH value and cell activity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vogel, M., E-mail: M.Vogel@fzd.de; Guenther, A.; Rossberg, A.; Li, B.; Bernhard, G.; Raff, J.

    2010-12-15

    Biosorption of uranium(VI) by the green alga Chlorella vulgaris was studied at varying uranium concentrations from 5 {mu}M to 1 mM, and in the environmentally relevant pH range of 4.4 to 7.0. Living cells bind in a 0.1 mM uranium solution at pH 4.4 within 5 min 14.3 {+-} 5.5 mg U/g dry biomass and dead cells 28.3 {+-} 0.6 mg U/g dry biomass which corresponds to 45% and 90% of total uranium in solution, respectively. During 96 h of incubation with uranium initially living cells died off and with 26.6 {+-} 2.1 mg U/g dry biomass bound similar amounts of uranium compared to dead cells, binding 27.0 {+-} 0.7 mg U/g dry biomass. In both cases, these amounts correspond to around 85% of the initially applied uranium. Interestingly, at a lower and more environmentally relevant uranium concentration of 5 {mu}M, living cells firstly bind with 1.3 {+-} 0.2 mg U/g dry biomass to 1.4 {+-} 0.1 mg U/g dry biomass almost all uranium within the first 5 min of incubation. But then algal cells again mobilize up to 80% of the bound uranium during ongoing incubation in the time from 48 h to 96 h. The release of metabolism related substances is suggested to cause this mobilization of uranium. As potential leachates for algal-bound uranium oxalate, citrate and ATP were tested and found to be able to mobilize more than 50% of the algal-bound uranium within 24 h. Differences in complexation of uranium by active and inactive algae cells were investigated with a combination of time-resolved laser-induced fluorescence spectroscopy (TRLFS), extended X-ray absorption fine structure (EXAFS) spectroscopy and attenuated total reflection Fourier transform infrared (ATR-FTIR) spectroscopy. Obtained results demonstrated an involvement of carboxylic and organic/inorganic phosphate groups in the uranium complexation with varying contributions dependent on cell status, uranium concentration and pH.

  17. Anti-inflamatory activity of some Indian medicinal plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thenmozhi, V; Elango, V; Sadique, J

    1989-01-01

    The anti-inflamatory activity of some of the medicinal plants were assayed at a dose of 1000 mg/kg b.wt. in male albino rats using Carrageenin induced rat raw edema. Among the fifteen medicinal plants were found to be highly effective which are discussed in this paper.

  18. Fate of linear alkylbenzene sulfonate (LAS) in activated sludge plants

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Temmink, B.G.; Klapwijk, A.

    2004-01-01

    Monitoring data were collected in a pilot-scale municipal activated sludge plant to assess the fate of the C12-homologue of linear alkyl benzene sulfonate (LAS-C12). The pilot-plant was operated at influent LAS-C12 concentrations between 2 and 12 mg/l and at sludge retention times of 10 and 27 days<

  19. Research and development for algae-based technologies in Korea: a review of algae biofuel production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, Ji Won; Jo, Seung-Woo; Yoon, Ho-Sung

    2015-03-01

    This review covers recent research and development (R&D) activities in the field of algae-based biofuels in Korea. As South Korea's energy policy paradigm has focused on the development of green energies, the government has funded several algae biofuel R&D consortia and pilot projects. Three major programs have been launched since 2009, and significant efforts are now being made to ensure a sustainable supply of algae-based biofuels. If these R&D projects are executed as planned for the next 10 years, they will enable us to overcome many technical barriers in algae biofuel technologies and help Korea to become one of the leading countries in green energy by 2020.

  20. Composición química y actividad antioxidante del alga marina roja Bryothamnion triquetrum (S.G.Gmelin Howe Chemical composition and antioxidant activity of the red marine algae Bryothamnion triquetrum (S.G.Gmelin Howe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexis Vidal

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available En la actualidad existe un marcado interés por la búsqueda de antioxidantes de fuentes naturales, incluidas las algas marinas. El objetivo de este trabajo fue evaluar la composición química y propiedades antioxidantes del alga Bryothamnion triquetrum. Se estudió la composición centesimal y de minerales, identificación de ácidos grasos y sustancias antioxidantes. La composición centesimal es la siguiente: Proteínas (9,5%, Lípidos (1,3%, Carbohidratos (5,9%, Fibras (10,2% y Cenizas (43%. Los resultados de la actividad antioxidante para las diferentes metodologías empleadas fueron: atrapamiento de radicales DPPH• (38%, 4 mg de liofilizado, beta-Caroteno-Linoleico (12%, 4 mg de liofilizado, actividad atrapadora de radicales O2•- (CI50 0,36 mg/mL, de radicales OH• (CI50 2,11 mg/mL y unión al Fe (CI50 0,37 mg/mL. Las propiedades antioxidantes de esta alga parecen explicarse por la capacidad atrapadora de radicales libres, particularmente relacionada con mecanismos de dismutación de radicales O2•-, inactivación de radicales OH• y quelación de Fe. En trabajos previos se identificaron ácidos cinámicos y fenólicos como moléculas que pudieran explicar la actividad antioxidante, sin embargo adicionalmente se debe considerar un efecto sumatorio y/o sinérgico de otros componentes antioxidantes del extracto, como los descritos en este trabajo, incluidos minerales, carotenoides y vitamina C.An increasing interest has been growing during the past years for the search of natural origin antioxidants, particularly those from marine algae. In this context, the main objective of current research was to evaluate the chemical composition and some antioxidant properties of the aqueous extract of the seaweed Bryothamnion triquetrum. The extracts contains: Proteins (9.5%, Lipids (1.3%, Carbohydrates (5.9%, Fibers (10.2% and Ashes (43%. In current approach, the following results were obtained for the different procedures assessed: DPPH

  1. Active Mines and Mineral Plants in the US

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — Mine plants and operations for commodities monitored by the Minerals Information Team of the USGS. Operations included are those considered active in 2003 and...

  2. The Medicinal Plant of Mimusops Elengi (Sapodaceae in Antimicrobial Activities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kannadhasan M.

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available The selected study area for this study is Pachaimalai Hills, situated in Eastern ghats of Tamil Nadu. This study was focussed on the antimicrobial activity of Mimosopselengi, one of the medicinal plant belongs to the family sapotaceae. It is a tropically distributed the highly medicinal plant. Antimicrobial activities and extracts of petroleum ether, Ethyl acetate and methanol were also found to be better with respect to inhibitory function against the two fungal species, Fusarium oxysporum and Aspergillus flavus. The study scientifically validates the use of plant in traditional and ethno medicine. Three solvents such as Petroleum ether, Ethyl acetate and Ethanol were used to take plant extract. These extracts were studied for antimicrobial activity against two gram positive bacterial strains such as Bacillus substilis andBacillus thuriengensis and two gram negative bacterial strains such as Klebsiella pneumonia and Escherichia coli. This study also extended to find antifungal activity against four fungal strains.

  3. Toxicity and mutagenic activity of some selected Nigerian plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sowemimo, A A; Fakoya, F A; Awopetu, I; Omobuwajo, O R; Adesanya, S A

    2007-09-25

    The toxicity and mutagenic potential of most African plants implicated in the management of cancer have not been investigated. The ethanolic extracts of selected Nigerian plants were subsequently studied using the brine shrimp lethality tests, inhibition of telomerase activity and induction of chromosomal aberrations in vivo in rat lymphocytes. Morinda lucida root bark, Nymphaea lotus whole plant and Garcinia kola root were active in the three test systems. Bryophyllum calycinum whole plant, Annona senegalensis root, Hymenocardia acida stem bark, Erythrophleum suaveolens leaves and Spondiathus preussii stem bark were toxic to brine shrimps and caused chromosomal damage in rat lymphocytes. Ficus exasperata leaves, Chrysophyllum albidum root bark and Hibiscus sabdariffa leaves were non-toxic to all the three test systems. Chenopodium ambrosioides whole plant was non-toxic to brine shrimps and rat lymphocyte chromosomes but showed inhibition in the conventional telomerase assay indicating a possible selectivity for human chromosomes. The result justified the use of the first eight plants and Chenopodium ambrosioides in the management of cancer in south west Nigeria although they appear to be non-selective and their mode of action may be different from plant to plant. All these plants except Chenopodium ambrosioides are also mutagenic and cytotoxic.

  4. Screening of Crude Plant Extracts with Anti-Obesity Activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Changhyun Roh

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Obesity is a global health problem. It is also known to be a risk factor for the development of metabolic disorders, type 2 diabetes, systemic hypertension, cardiovascular disease, dyslipidemia, and atherosclerosis. In this study, we screened crude extracts from 400 plants to test their anti-obesity activity using porcine pancreatic lipase assay (PPL; triacylglycerol lipase, EC 3.1.1.3 in vitro activity. Among the 400 plants species examined, 44 extracts from plants, showed high anti-lipase activity using 2,4-dinitrophenylbutyrate as a substrate in porcine pancreatic lipase assay. Furthermore, 44 plant extracts were investigated for their inhibition of lipid accumulation in 3T3-L1 cells. Among these 44 extracts examined, crude extracts from 4 natural plant species were active. Salicis Radicis Cortex had the highest fat inhibitory activity, whereas Rubi Fructus, Corni Fructus, and Geranium nepalense exhibited fat inhibitory capacity higher than 30% at 100 μg/mL in 3T3-L1 adipocytes, suggesting anti-obesity activity. These results suggest that four potent plant extracts might be of therapeutic interest with respect to the treatment of obesity.

  5. Anti-HIV activity of Indian medicinal plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sabde, Sudeep; Bodiwala, Hardik S; Karmase, Aniket; Deshpande, Preeti J; Kaur, Amandeep; Ahmed, Nafees; Chauthe, Siddheshwar K; Brahmbhatt, Keyur G; Phadke, Rasika U; Mitra, Debashis; Bhutani, Kamlesh Kumar; Singh, Inder Pal

    2011-07-01

    Acquired immunodeficiency syndrome patients face great socio-economic difficulties in obtaining treatment. There is an urgent need for new, safe, and cheap anti-HIV agents. Traditional medicinal plants are a valuable source of novel anti-HIV agents and may offer alternatives to expensive medicines in future. Various medicinal plants or plant-derived natural products have shown strong anti-HIV activity and are under various stages of clinical development in different parts of the world. The present study was directed towards assessment of anti-HIV activity of various extracts prepared from Indian medicinal plants. The plants were chosen on the basis of similarity of chemical constituents with reported anti-HIV compounds or on the basis of their traditional usage as immunomodulators. Different extracts were prepared by Soxhlet extraction and liquid-liquid partitioning. Ninety-two extracts were prepared from 23 plants. Anti-HIV activity was measured in a human CD4+ T-cell line, CEM-GFP cells infected with HIV-1NL4.3. Nine extracts of 8 different plants significantly reduced viral production in CEM-GFP cells infected with HIV-1NL4.3. Aegle marmelos, Argemone mexicana, Asparagus racemosus, Coleus forskohlii, and Rubia cordifolia demonstrated promising anti-HIV potential and were investigated for their active principles.

  6. Antibacterial activity of alimentary plants against Staphylococcus aureus growth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez, C; Anesini, C

    1994-01-01

    Alimentary plants were screened for antibacterial activity against a penicillin G resistant strain of Staphylococcus aureus. Twenty-five samples of plant material corresponding to 21 species from 13 families were used. Both aqueous and ethanol extracts were obtained from them. Antibacterial activity was determined by the agar-well diffusion method, using cephazolin as a standard antibiotic. Seventeen ethanol extracts were found active. Eugenia caryophyllata (clavo de olor*) flowers, Myristica fragans (nuez moscada*) seeds, Theobroma cacao (cacao*) seed bark, Triticum sp (trigo*) fruit, Zea mays (maíz*) fruit and Piper nigrum (pimienta*) ripe fruit produced some of the more active extracts (* = Argentine vulgar names).

  7. Modulation of the pharmacological effects of enzymatically-active PLA2 by BTL-2, an isolectin isolated from the Bryothamnion triquetrum red alga

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nagano Celso S

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background An interaction between lectins from marine algae and PLA2 from rattlesnake was suggested some years ago. We, herein, studied the effects elicited by a small isolectin (BTL-2, isolated from Bryothamnion triquetrum, on the pharmacological and biological activities of a PLA2 isolated from rattlesnake venom (Crotalus durissus cascavella, to better understand the enzymatic and pharmacological mechanisms of the PLA2 and its complex. Results This PLA2 consisted of 122 amino acids (approximate molecular mass of 14 kDa, its pI was estimated to be 8.3, and its amino acid sequence shared a high degree of similarity with that of other neurotoxic and enzymatically-active PLA2s. BTL-2 had a molecular mass estimated in approximately 9 kDa and was characterized as a basic protein. In addition, BTL-2 did not exhibit any enzymatic activity. The PLA2 and BTL-2 formed a stable heterodimer with a molecular mass of approximately 24–26 kDa, estimated by molecular exclusion HPLC. In the presence of BTL-2, we observed a significant increase in PLA2 activity, 23% higher than that of PLA2 alone. BTL-2 demonstrated an inhibition of 98% in the growth of the Gram-positive bacterial strain, Clavibacter michiganensis michiganensis (Cmm, but only 9.8% inhibition of the Gram-negative bacterial strain, Xanthomonas axonopodis pv passiflorae (Xap. PLA2 decreased bacterial growth by 27.3% and 98.5% for Xap and Cmm, respectively, while incubating these two proteins with PLA2-BTL-2 inhibited their growths by 36.2% for Xap and 98.5% for Cmm. PLA2 significantly induced platelet aggregation in washed platelets, whereas BTL-2 did not induce significant platelet aggregation in any assay. However, BTL-2 significantly inhibited platelet aggregation induced by PLA2. In addition, PLA2 exhibited strong oedematogenic activity, which was decreased in the presence of BTL-2. BTL-2 alone did not induce oedema and did not decrease or abolish the oedema induced by the 48

  8. Antifungal activity of traditional medicinal plants from Tamil Nadu, India

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Duraipandiyan V; Ignacimuthu S

    2011-01-01

    Objective:To assess the antifungal activity of hexane, ethyl acetate and methanol extracts of 45 medicinal plants and to determine the minimum inhibitory concentration for each extract against human pathogenic fungi. Methods:A total of 45 medicinal plants were collected from different places of Tamil Nadu and identified. Hexane, ethyl acetate and methanol extracts of 45 medicinal plants were assessed for antifungal susceptibility using broth microdilution method. Two known antifungal agents were used as positive controls. Results: Most of the extracts inhibited more than four fungal strains. From the evaluation we found that ethyl acetate extracts inhibited large number of fungal growth. Hexane extracts also nearly showed the same level of inhibition against fungal growth. Methanol extracts showed the minimum antifungal activity. Among the 45 plants tested, broad spectrum antifungal activity was detected in Albizzia procera (A. procera), Atalantia monophylla, Asclepias curassavica, Azima tetracantha, Cassia fistula (C. fistula), Cinnomomum verum, Costus speciosus (C. speciosus), Nymphaea stellata, Osbeckia chinensis, Piper argyrophyllum, Punica granatum, Tinospora cordifolia and Toddalia asiatica (T. asiatica). Promising antifungal activity was seen in A. procera, C. speciosus, C. fistula and T. asiatica. Conclusions:It can be concluded that the plant species assayed possess antifungal properties. Further phytochemical research is needed to identify the active principles responsible for the antifungal effects of some of these medicinal plants.

  9. Antimicrobial Activity of Five Medicinal Plants on Candida Albicans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fatemeh Masomi

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: In recent years, drug resistance to human pathogenic fungi has been increased. Medicinal plants are one way to overcome antibiotic resistance. The aim of this study was to evaluate the antifungal and inhibitory activity of five medicinal plants on the growth of Candida albicans. Methods: This study was done in the Microbiology Lab of Shahid Bahonar University of Kerman, Iran in 2015. Five medicinal plants include: Trachyspermum ammi (seed, Teucrium polium (leaf, Piper nigrum (seed, Pistachia vera (skin, Camelia sinensis (leaf were collected. Collected plant materials were extracted by ethanol and methanol solvent with maceration method. Antifungal activity of the ethanolic and methanolic extracts was evaluated by paper disc diffusion and agar well diffusion methods. Besides, MIC and MBC of each extract was determined. Results: All plant extracts had sufficient inhibitory effect against C. albicans but the extracts of P. vera had the best inhibitory effect on C. albicans (ZOI: 40 mm. The lowest antifungal effect between these five plants related to Piper nigrum (ZOI: 13 mm. Besides, the P. vera extracts had the best MIC and MBC values (6.25 and 12.5 mg/ml. Conclusion: This study strongly evidence the maximum antimicrobial activity of medicinal plants against C. albicans that this inhibitory effect varies with the different solvent-extract form. A more comprehensive study need to identify the effective compounds that have these antifungal properties.

  10. Fucoidans - sulfated polysaccharides of brown algae

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Usov, Anatolii I; Bilan, M I [N.D.Zelinsky Institute of Organic Chemistry, Russian Academy of Sciences, Moscow (Russian Federation)

    2009-08-31

    The methods of isolation of fucoidans and determination of their chemical structures are reviewed. The fucoidans represent sulfated polysaccharides of brown algae, the composition of which varies from simple fucan sulfates to complex heteropolysaccharides. The currently known structures of such biopolymers are presented. A variety of the biological activities of fucoidans is briefly summarised.

  11. Fucoidans — sulfated polysaccharides of brown algae

    Science.gov (United States)

    Usov, Anatolii I.; Bilan, M. I.

    2009-08-01

    The methods of isolation of fucoidans and determination of their chemical structures are reviewed. The fucoidans represent sulfated polysaccharides of brown algae, the composition of which varies from simple fucan sulfates to complex heteropolysaccharides. The currently known structures of such biopolymers are presented. A variety of the biological activities of fucoidans is briefly summarised.

  12. Bromophenols in Marine Algae and Their Bioactivities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ming, Liu; Hansen, Poul Erik; Lin, Xiukun

    2011-01-01

    Marine algae contain various bromophenols that have been shown to possess a variety of biological activities, including antioxidant, antimicrobial, anticancer, anti-diabetic, and anti-thrombotic effects. Here, we briefly review the recent progress of these marine algal biomaterials, with respect...

  13. Antimicrobial activity of mangrove plant (Lumnitzera littorea)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Shahbudin Saad; Muhammad Taher; Deny Susanti; Haitham Qaralleh; Nurul Afifah Binti Abdul Rahim

    2011-01-01

    Objective:To investigate the antimicrobial activities ofn-hexane, ethyl acetate and methanol extracts of the leaves ofLumnitzera littorea (L. littorea) against six human pathogenic microbes. Methods: The antimicrobial activity was evaluated using disc diffusion and microdilution methods.Results:The antimicrobial activities of the crude extracts were increased with increasing the concentration. It is clear thatn-hexane extract was the most effective extract. Additionally, Gram positiveBacillus cereus (B. cereus) appear to be the most sensitive strain whilePseudomonas aeruginosa (P. aeruginosa) and the yeast strains (Candida albicans (C. albicans) andCryptococcus neoformans (C. neoformans)) appear to be resistance to the tested concentrations since no inhibition zone was observed. The inhibition of microbial growth at concentration as low as0.04 mg/mL indicated the potent antimicrobial activity ofL. littorea extracts.Conclusions:The obtained results are considered sufficient for further study to isolate the compounds responsible for the activity and suggesting the possibility of finding potent antibacterial agents fromL. littorea extracts.

  14. Isolation of fucoidan from Sargassum polycystum brown algae: Structural characterization, in vitro antioxidant and anticancer activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palanisamy, Subramanian; Vinosha, Manoharan; Marudhupandi, Thangapandi; Rajasekar, Periyannan; Prabhu, Narayanan Marimuthu

    2017-04-08

    In this study antioxidant and anticancer effect of fucoidan isolated from brown seaweed Sargassum polycystum was investigated. The total yield of fucoidan was 4.51±0.24%, of these, 46.8% of fucose and 22.35±0.23% of sulphate respectively. The structural characteristic of fucoidan was analyzed by fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and nuclear magnatic resonance. The antioxidant properties were determined by DPPH scavenging, reducing power and total antioxidant assays. The maximum DPPH scavenging activity (61.2±0.33%), reducing ability (67.56±0.26%) and total antioxidant activity (65.3± 0.66%) were obtained at 1000μg/ml of fucoidan. The cytotoxicity effect of fucoidan showed a higher percentage (90.4±0.25%) of inhibition against the MCF-7cell line at 150μg/ml with an estimated IC50 at 50μg/ml. Further, cytomorphological and apoptosis changes of fucoidan treated cells were observed under inverted light microscope and confocal laser scanning microscope (CLSM). The results demonstrated that the isolated fucoidan from S. polycystum possessed potent antioxidant and anticancer properties.

  15. Reassessing the Potential Activities of Plant CGI-58 Protein.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khatib, Abdallah; Arhab, Yani; Bentebibel, Assia; Abousalham, Abdelkarim; Noiriel, Alexandre

    2016-01-01

    Comparative Gene Identification-58 (CGI-58) is a widespread protein found in animals and plants. This protein has been shown to participate in lipolysis in mice and humans by activating Adipose triglyceride lipase (ATGL), the initial enzyme responsible for the triacylglycerol (TAG) catabolism cascade. Human mutation of CGI-58 is the cause of Chanarin-Dorfman syndrome, an orphan disease characterized by a systemic accumulation of TAG which engenders tissue disorders. The CGI-58 protein has also been shown to participate in neutral lipid metabolism in plants and, in this case, a mutation again provokes TAG accumulation. Although its roles as an ATGL coactivator and in lipid metabolism are quite clear, the catalytic activity of CGI-58 is still in question. The acyltransferase activities of CGI-58 have been speculated about, reported or even dismissed and experimental evidence that CGI-58 expressed in E. coli possesses an unambiguous catalytic activity is still lacking. To address this problem, we developed a new set of plasmids and site-directed mutants to elucidate the in vivo effects of CGI-58 expression on lipid metabolism in E. coli. By analyzing the lipid composition in selected E. coli strains expressing CGI-58 proteins, and by reinvestigating enzymatic tests with adequate controls, we show here that recombinant plant CGI-58 has none of the proposed activities previously described. Recombinant plant and mouse CGI-58 both lack acyltransferase activity towards either lysophosphatidylglycerol or lysophosphatidic acid to form phosphatidylglycerol or phosphatidic acid and recombinant plant CGI-58 does not catalyze TAG or phospholipid hydrolysis. However, expression of recombinant plant CGI-58, but not mouse CGI-58, led to a decrease in phosphatidylglycerol in all strains of E. coli tested, and a mutation of the putative catalytic residues restored a wild-type phenotype. The potential activities of plant CGI-58 are subsequently discussed.

  16. Reassessing the Potential Activities of Plant CGI-58 Protein.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdallah Khatib

    Full Text Available Comparative Gene Identification-58 (CGI-58 is a widespread protein found in animals and plants. This protein has been shown to participate in lipolysis in mice and humans by activating Adipose triglyceride lipase (ATGL, the initial enzyme responsible for the triacylglycerol (TAG catabolism cascade. Human mutation of CGI-58 is the cause of Chanarin-Dorfman syndrome, an orphan disease characterized by a systemic accumulation of TAG which engenders tissue disorders. The CGI-58 protein has also been shown to participate in neutral lipid metabolism in plants and, in this case, a mutation again provokes TAG accumulation. Although its roles as an ATGL coactivator and in lipid metabolism are quite clear, the catalytic activity of CGI-58 is still in question. The acyltransferase activities of CGI-58 have been speculated about, reported or even dismissed and experimental evidence that CGI-58 expressed in E. coli possesses an unambiguous catalytic activity is still lacking. To address this problem, we developed a new set of plasmids and site-directed mutants to elucidate the in vivo effects of CGI-58 expression on lipid metabolism in E. coli. By analyzing the lipid composition in selected E. coli strains expressing CGI-58 proteins, and by reinvestigating enzymatic tests with adequate controls, we show here that recombinant plant CGI-58 has none of the proposed activities previously described. Recombinant plant and mouse CGI-58 both lack acyltransferase activity towards either lysophosphatidylglycerol or lysophosphatidic acid to form phosphatidylglycerol or phosphatidic acid and recombinant plant CGI-58 does not catalyze TAG or phospholipid hydrolysis. However, expression of recombinant plant CGI-58, but not mouse CGI-58, led to a decrease in phosphatidylglycerol in all strains of E. coli tested, and a mutation of the putative catalytic residues restored a wild-type phenotype. The potential activities of plant CGI-58 are subsequently discussed.

  17. Antitubercular activity and phytochemical screening of selected medicinal plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rajandeep Kaur

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Medicinal plants offer a hope for developing alternate medicines for the treatment of Tuberculosis.. The present study was done to evaluate in vitro anti-tubercular activity of five medicinal plants viz., Syzygium aromaticum, Piper nigrum, Glycyrrhiza glabra, Aegele marmelos and Lawsonia inermis. Solvent extracts of Syzygium aromaticum, Piper nigrum, Glycyrrhiza glabra, Aegele marmelos and Lawsonia inermis were tested in vitro for their activity against Mycobacterium tuberculosis H37Rv strain using Microplate Alamar Blue Assay. Activity in MABA was evaluated by lowest concentration of sample that prevents color change to pink. Extracts of all the five plants Syzygium aromaticum, Piper nigrum, Glycyrrhiza glabra, Aegele marmelos and Lawsonia inermis exhibited anti-tuberculosis activity, the proportion of inhibition of these plants extracts for M. tuberculosis H37Rv, inhibition was found to be 0.8µg/ml, 50µg/ml, 12.5µg/ml and 50µg/ml respectively. Our findings showed that all these plants exhibited activity against MDR isolates of H37Rv M. tuberculosis strain. Further studies aimed at isolation and identification of active substances from the extracts needs to be carried out

  18. Analysis of bioactive ingredients in the brown alga Fucus vesiculosus by capillary electrophoresis and neutron activation analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Truus, Kalle; Vaher, Merike; Koel, Mihkel; Mähar, Andres; Taure, Imants

    2004-07-01

    Two different types of bioactive components of the seaweed Fucus vesiculosus were analysed: (1) polyphenols (phlorotannins) by capillary electrophoresis (CE) and (2) mineral part (including bioactive microelements) by neutron activation analysis (NAA). CE experiments were carried out using a UV detector (at 210 nm) and an uncoated silica capillary. The best separation was achieved at a voltage of 20 kV using borate or acetate buffer in a methanol/acetonitrile mixture as background electrolyte. The CE analysis data were confirmed by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). Determination of mineral composition of algal biomass by NAA was performed on the basis of various nuclides; the best results (from 38 elements determined) were obtained for Mn, Fe, Zn, As, Br, Sr, I, Ba, Au and Hg.

  19. A REVIEW ON HERBAL PLANTS SHOWING ANTIDEPRESSANT ACTIVITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Talha Jawaid et al.

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Depression is a heterogenous mood disorder that has been classified and treated in variety of ways. Although a number of synthetic drugs are being used as standard treatment for clinically depressed patient, they have adverse effects that can compromise the therapeutic treatment .Thus, it is worthwhile to look for antidepressant from plants with proven advantage and favorable benefit to risk ratio. A number of medicinal plants and medicine derived from these plants have shown antidepressant properties by virtue of combined effect of their medicinal constituents. The causes of depression are decreased brain levels of monoamines like noradrenaline, dopamine and serotonin. Therefore, drugs restoring the reduced levels of these monoamines in the brain either by inhibiting monoamine oxidase or by inhibiting reuptake of these neurotransmitters might be fruitful in the treatment of depression. The present review is focused on the medicinal plants and plants based formulations having antidepressant activity in animal studies and in humans.

  20. Tricin from a malagasy connaraceous plant with potent antihistaminic activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuwabara, Hidenori; Mouri, Kyoko; Otsuka, Hideaki; Kasai, Ryoji; Yamasaki, Kazuo

    2003-09-01

    The bioassay-guided separation of a Malagasy plant, Agelaea pentagyna, led to the isolation of a flavonoid, tricin (1), with potent inhibitory activity toward exocytosis from antigen-stimulated rat leukemia basophils (RBL-2H3). The structure-activity relationships among structurally related natural and synthetic flavonoids are also discussed.

  1. Plant Pigment Identification: A Classroom and Outreach Activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garber, Kathleen C. A.; Odendaal, Antoinette Y.; Carlson, Erin E.

    2013-01-01

    Anthocyanins are a class of pigments responsible for the bright colors of many flowers, fruits, and vegetables typically resulting in shades of red, blue, and purple. Students were asked to perform an activity to enable them to identify which anthocyanin was present in one of several possible plant materials through a hands-on activity. Students…

  2. Abortifacient activity of a medicinal plant "moringa oleifera" in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sethi, N; Nath, D; Shukla, S C; Dyal, R

    1988-01-01

    Dried powder of leaf extract of common Indian plant Moringa Oleifera of Moringaceae family was tested experimentally in albino rats in our laboratory for its antifertility activity. Cant per cent abortifacient activity was found when administered orally in aqueous solution at dose of 175 mg/kg body weight daily to Charles foster strain albino rats from days 5-10 post mated.

  3. Plant Cell Cultures as Source of Cosmetic Active Ingredients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ani Barbulova

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The last decades witnessed a great demand of natural remedies. As a result, medicinal plants have been increasingly cultivated on a commercial scale, but the yield, the productive quality and the safety have not always been satisfactory. Plant cell cultures provide useful alternatives for the production of active ingredients for biomedical and cosmetic uses, since they represent standardized, contaminant-free and biosustainable systems, which allow the production of desired compounds on an industrial scale. Moreover, thanks to their totipotency, plant cells grown as liquid suspension cultures can be used as “biofactories” for the production of commercially interesting secondary metabolites, which are in many cases synthesized in low amounts in plant tissues and differentially distributed in the plant organs, such as roots, leaves, flowers or fruits. Although it is very widespread in the pharmaceutical industry, plant cell culture technology is not yet very common in the cosmetic field. The aim of the present review is to focus on the successful research accomplishments in the development of plant cell cultures for the production of active ingredients for cosmetic applications.

  4. Chitosan-induced antiviral activity and innate immunity in plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iriti, Marcello; Varoni, Elena Maria

    2015-02-01

    Immunity represents a trait common to all living organisms, and animals and plants share some similarities. Therefore, in susceptible host plants, complex defence machinery may be stimulated by elicitors. Among these, chitosan deserves particular attention because of its proved efficacy. This survey deals with the antiviral activity of chitosan, focusing on its perception by the plant cell and mechanism of action. Emphasis has been paid to benefits and limitations of this strategy in crop protection, as well as to the potential of chitosan as a promising agent in virus disease control.

  5. Dynamic regulation of Polycomb group activity during plant development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bemer, Marian; Grossniklaus, Ueli

    2012-11-01

    Polycomb group (PcG) complexes play important roles in phase transitions and cell fate determination in plants and animals, by epigenetically repressing sets of genes that promote either proliferation or differentiation. The continuous differentiation of new organs in plants, such as leaves or flowers, requires a highly dynamic PcG function, which can be induced, modulated, or repressed when necessary. In this review, we discuss the recent advance in understanding PcG function in plants and focus on the diverse molecular mechanisms that have been described to regulate and counteract PcG activity in Arabidopsis.

  6. Spiruline, a virtuous algae

    OpenAIRE

    Various, Authors

    2015-01-01

    A short video about a local development practice focusing on the production and commercialization of spiruline, an algae used as an nutritional integrator. The practice was one of six prize winners resulting from a national competition for innovative practices of local development, launched by the Senegalese Ministry of local governance, development and territorial planning, with funding from the Italian Cooperation and technical support from the KIP International School.

  7. Biological activity of diterpenoids isolated from Anatolian Lamiaceae Plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gülaçtı Topçu

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available In this study, antibacterial, antifungal, antimycobacterial, cytotoxic, antitumor, cardiovascular, antifeedant, insecticidal, antileishmanial and some other single activities of diterpenoids and norditerpenoids isolated from Turkish Lamiaceae plants, are reviewed. The diterpenoids were isolated from species of Salvia, Sideritis, and Ballota species growing in Anatolia. Fifty abietanes, ten kaurenes, seven pimaranes, six labdanes with their biological activities were reported. While twenty five diterpenoids showed antibacterial activity, eight of which showed activity against fungi. The most cytotoxic one was found to be taxodione (44 isolated from species of Salvia. Antifeedant, insecticidal and insect repellent activity of kaurenes, antimycobacterial activity and cardioactivity of abietanes and norabietanes together with labdanes were also reported.

  8. Proteolytic activity in some Patagonian plants from Argentina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sequeiros, Cynthia; López, Laura M I; Caffini, Néstor O; Natalucci, Claudia L

    2003-09-01

    Six Patagonian plants were screened for proteolytic activity: Colliguaja integerrima, Euphorbia collina, E. peplus and Stillingia patagonica (Euphorbiaceae), Philibertia gilliesii (Asclepiadaceae) and Grindelia chiloensis (Asteraceae). P. gilliesii extracts showed the highest specific activity, followed by S. patagonica and E. collina. Proteolytic activity was unnoticeable in the other three species studied. Inhibition assays revealed that P. gilliesii and S. patagonica extracts contain cysteine-type peptidases and that in E. collina serine-type peptidases are present.

  9. Screening of some Nigerian plants for molluscicidal activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kela, S L; Ogunsusi, R A; Ogbogu, V C; Nwude, N

    1989-01-01

    Methanolic (MEOH), evaporated crude water (ECW) and unevaporated crude water (UECW) extracts of 25 Nigerian plants, used for different medicinal and domestic purposes were screened for molluscacidal activity on laboratory-reared Lymnaea natalensis Krauss. Seven of the plants were not active; extracts from 18 (72 per cent) of the plants, some of which are renowned fish poisons, had molluscicidal activity. These were Acacia nilotica, Aristolochia albida, Balanites aegyptiaca, Blighia sapida, Boswellia dalzielii, Detarium microcarpum, Gnidia kraussiana, Kigelia africana, Nauclea latifolia, Opilia celtidefolia, Parkia clappertoniana, Polygonum limbatum, Pseudocedrela kotschyi, Sclerocarya birrea, Securidaca longipedunculata, Ximenia americana, Vetiveria nigritana and Ziziphus abyssinica. The LC50 of these extracts were determined. It is strongly recommended that the toxic effects of these extracts against fish, cercariae, snail eggs and mammals be further investigated so as to determine the right concentration, especially for use in fish ponds.

  10. Antibacterial activity of five Peruvian medicinal plants against Pseudomonas aeruginosa

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Gabriela; Ulloa-Urizar; Miguel; Angel; Aguilar-Luis; María; del; Carmen; De; Lama-Odría; José; Camarena-Lizarzaburu; Juana; del; Valle; Mendoza

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the susceptibility of Pseudomonas aeruginosa(P. aeruginosa)in vitro to the ethanolic extracts obtained from five different Peruvian medicinal plants.Methods: The plants were chopped and soaked in absolute ethanol(1:2, w/v). The antibacterial activity of compounds against P. aeruginosa was evaluated using the cupplate agar diffusion method.Results: The extracts from Maytenus macrocarpa("Chuchuhuasi"), Dracontium loretense Krause("Jergon Sacha"), Tabebuia impetiginosa("Tahuari"), Eucalyptus camaldulensis Dehn(eucalyptus), Uncaria tomentosa("U?a de gato") exhibited favorable antibacterial activity against P. aeruginosa. The inhibitory effect of the extracts on the strains of P. aeruginosa tested demonstrated that Tabebuia impetiginosa and Maytenus macrocarpa possess higher antibacterial activity.Conclusions: The results of the present study scientifically validate the inhibitory capacity of the five medicinal plants attributed by their common use in folk medicine and contribute towards the development of new treatment options based on natural products.

  11. Antioxidant activity of the medicinal plant Enicostemma littorale Blume

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P Abirami

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Medicinal plants are the source for wide variety of natural antioxidants. In the study reported here, we have conducted a comparative study between the different parts of the plant Enicostemma littorale. The amount of total phenols and antioxidant enzymes Glutathione-S-Transferase, Superoxide Dismutase, Catalase and Peroxidase activities were evaluated and also the non-enzymatic antioxidants ascorbic acid, α- tocopherol and Glutathione activities were evaluated. The results showed that the antioxidant activities varied greatly among the different plant parts used in this study and some parts are rich in natural antioxidants especially the flowers of E. littorale. These results suggest that Enicostemma littorale have strong antioxidant potential. Further study is necessary for isolation and characterization of antioxidant agents, which can be used to treat various oxidative stress-related diseases.

  12. Antibacterial activity of ifve Peruvian medicinal plants against Pseudomonas aeruginosa

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Gabriela Ulloa-Urizar; Miguel Angel Aguilar-Luis; Mara del Carmen De Lama-Odra; Jos Camarena-Lizarzaburu; Juana del Valle Mendoza

    2015-01-01

    Objective:To evaluate the susceptibility of Pseudomonas aeruginosa (P. aeruginosa) in vitro to the ethanolic extracts obtained from five different Peruvian medicinal plants. Methods:The plants were chopped and soaked in absolute ethanol (1:2, w/v). The antibacterial activity of compounds against P. aeruginosa was evaluated using the cup-plate agar diffusion method. Results:The extracts from Maytenus macrocarpa (“Chuchuhuasi”), Dracontium loretense Krause (“Jergon Sacha”), Tabebuia impetiginosa (“Tahuari”), Eucalyptus camaldulensis Dehn (eucalyptus), Uncaria tomentosa (“Uña de gato”) exhibited favorable antibacterial activity against P. aeruginosa. The inhibitory effect of the extracts on the strains of P. aeruginosa tested demonstrated that Tabebuia impetiginosa and Maytenus macrocarpa possess higher antibacterial activity. Conclusions:The results of the present study scientifically validate the inhibitory capacity of the five medicinal plants attributed by their common use in folk medicine and contribute towards the development of new treatment options based on natural products.

  13. Oral insecticidal activity of plant-associated pseudomonads.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruffner, Beat; Péchy-Tarr, Maria; Ryffel, Florian; Hoegger, Patrik; Obrist, Christian; Rindlisbacher, Alfred; Keel, Christoph; Maurhofer, Monika

    2013-03-01

    Biocontrol pseudomonads are most known to protect plants from fungal diseases and to increase plant yield, while intriguing aspects on insecticidal activity have been discovered only recently. Here, we demonstrate that Fit toxin producing pseudomonads, in contrast to a naturally Fit-deficient strain, exhibit potent oral activity against larvae of Spodoptera littoralis, Heliothis virescens and Plutella xylostella, all major insect pests of agricultural crops. Spraying plant leaves with suspensions containing only 1000 Pseudomonas cells per ml was sufficient to kill 70-80% of Spodoptera and Heliothis larvae. Monitoring survival kinetics and bacterial titres in parallel, we demonstrate that Pseudomonas fluorescens CHA0 and Pseudomonas chlororaphis PCL1391, two bacteria harbouring the Fit gene cluster colonize and kill insects via oral infection. Using Fit mutants of CHA0 and PCL1391, we show that production of the Fit toxin contributes substantially to oral insecticidal activity. Furthermore, the global regulator GacA is required for full insecticidal activity. Our findings demonstrate the lethal oral activity of two root-colonizing pseudomonads so far known as potent antagonists of fungal plant pathogens. This adds insecticidal activity to the existing biocontrol repertoire of these bacteria and opens new perspectives for applications in crop pest control and in research on their ecological behaviour.

  14. Screening of the components with blood-anticoagulant activity from marine algae Sargassum fusiforme and Undaria pinnatifida%羊栖菜和裙带菜中抗凝血活性物质的初步筛选

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘承初; 周颖; 邬英睿; 甘建红; 周培根

    2004-01-01

    Components with blood-anticoagulant activity were fractionated from marine algae Sargassumfusiforrne and Undaria pinnatifida and the activity of the components was investigated by using the method of bioassay. It was found that the 80% ethanol soluble fraction of Sargassumfusiforme exhibited no blood-anticoagulant activity, while the components obtained from the 80 % ethanol insoluble fraction (hot water extract) gave obvious bloodanticoagulant activity. A further study suggests that the principal component in the hot water extract from Sargassumfusiforrne with high blood-anticoagulant activity should be sulfated polysaccharides, in which the activity was positively correlated with the content of total sugar and fucose in sulfated polysaccharides. As for Undaria pinnatifida, the n-butanol extract fractionated from the 80% ethanol soluble fraction had blood anticoagulant activity, while the petroleum ether, ether, ethyl acetate, or water extract showed no bloodanticoagulant activity.

  15. Screening of Iranian plants for antifungal activity: Part 2

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    "Amin Gh.R

    2002-08-01

    Full Text Available In this study, 278 species from 37 families of native Iranian plants were screened for in vitro antifungal activity against 19 fungal strains. Initially, the crude extracts in concentration of 100 μg/ml were tested. Among 278 plant extracts, 201(71.27% of them showed antifungal activity against at least one fungal strain. A wide range of total extracts of different species were shown to have potentially noticeable antifungal effects. The outstanding species were: Mentha longifolia, Saliva multicaulis, Thymus transcaspicus, Zataria multiflora, Glycyrrhiza glabra, Hulthemia persica, Heracleum persicum, Pimpinella anisum, Pragnos ferulacea, Pragnos uloptera, and Viola odorata.

  16. Savannah River Plant history plantwide activities, July 1954--December 1972

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    none,

    1972-12-31

    This report recounts the yearly activities of the Savannah River Plant nonproduction agencies and is concerned mainly with Plant personnel and items of general interest. The ``History of Plantwide Activities`` is published as an accumulative document; at the end of each year a new writeup is added to the volume to bring it up to date. Writeups for 1955 and 1956 are based on the governmental fiscal year; those for 1957 and subsequent years are on a calendar year basis. The history of the period from prestartup through June 30, 1953, is presented in DPSP 53-368; the history from July 1953 through June 1954 is presented in DPSP 54-448.

  17. Antibacterial activity of some folklore medicinal plants from South India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goud, M Jaya Prakash; Komraiah, A; Rao, K Narasimha; Ragan, A; Raju, V S; Charya, M A Singara

    2008-06-18

    Antibacterial activity and phytochemical tests of eight whole plant methanol extracts belonging to family Euphorbiaceae were evaluated. In agar well diffusion assay the diameter of inhibition zones ranged from 3-13 mm. Phyllanthus emblica showed maximum activity of 13 mm. The MIC and MBC observed were 30-140 mcg/ml and 40-160 mcg/ml, respectively. P. piscatorum and P. emblica showed the lowest MIC (30 mcg/ml), P. emblica the lowest MBC (40 mcg/ml) and thus an effective inhibitor of the tested bacteria. Alkaloids, saponins and tannins were detected in 7 out of 8 tested plants.

  18. Antioxidant activity and protecting health effects of common medicinal plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Škrovánková, Soňa; Mišurcová, Ladislava; Machů, Ludmila

    2012-01-01

    Medicinal plants are traditionally used in folk medicine as natural healing remedies with therapeutic effects such as prevention of cardiovascular diseases, inflammation disorders, or reducing the risk of cancer. In addition, pharmacological industry utilizes medicinal plants due to the presence of active chemical substances as agents for drug synthesis. They are valuable also for food and cosmetic industry as additives, due to their preservative effects because of the presence of antioxidants and antimicrobial constituents. To commonly used medicinal plants with antioxidant activity known worldwide belong plants from several families, especially Lamiaceae (rosemary, sage, oregano, marjoram, basil, thyme, mints, balm), Apiaceae (cumin, fennel, caraway), and Zingiberaceae (turmeric, ginger). The antioxidant properties of medicinal plants depend on the plant, its variety, environmental conditions, climatic and seasonal variations, geographical regions of growth, degree of ripeness, growing practices, and many other factors such as postharvest treatment and processing. In addition, composition and concentration of present antioxidants, such as phenolic compounds, are related to antioxidant effect. For appropriate determination of antioxidant capacity, the extraction technique, its conditions, solvent used, and particular assay methodology are important.

  19. Chemical examination of the Red alga Acanthophora spicifera

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Wahidullah, S.; Kamat, S.Y.

    Analyses of petroleum ether and chloroform extracts of the marine alga Acanthophora spicifera exhibiting antifertility activity led to the isolation of sterols and fatty acids as well as the rare dipeptides aurantiamides. All the compounds were...

  20. Phytochemical and Biological Activities of Four Wild Medicinal Plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anwar Ali Shad

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The fruits of four wild plants, namely, Capparis decidua, Ficus carica, Syzygium cumini, and Ziziphus jujuba, are separately used as traditional dietary and remedial agents in remote areas of Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, Pakistan. The results of our study on these four plants revealed that the examined fruits were a valuable source of nutraceuticals and exhibited good level of antimicrobial activity. The fruits of these four investigated plants are promising source of polyphenols, flavonoids, alkaloids, terpenoids, and saponins. These four plants' fruits are good sources of iron, zinc, copper, manganese, selenium, and chromium. It was also observed that these fruits are potential source of antioxidant agent and the possible reason could be that these samples had good amount of phytochemicals. Hence, the proper propagation, conservation, and chemical investigation are recommended so that these fruits should be incorporated for the eradication of food and health related problems.

  1. Evaluation of some medicinal plant extracts for antidiarrhoeal activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atta, Attia H; Mouneir, Samar M

    2005-06-01

    The antidiarrhoeal effect of seven plant extracts namely: the aerial parts of Euphorbia paralias L. (EP), Bidens bipinnata L. (BB), Cynachum acutum L. (CyAc), Diplotaxis acris (Forssk.) Boiss (DA), Convolvulus fatmensis (CF) and Schouwia thebaica Webb (ST) and the leaves of Plantago major L. (PM), was evaluated on castor oil-induced diarrhoea, gastrointestinal movement in rats (charcoal meal) and on the motility of duodenum isolated from freshly slaughtered rabbits. A significant antidiarrhoeal effect of the tested plant extracts against castor oil-induced diarrhoea in rats was achieved by 200 and 400 mg/kg. The tested plant extracts decreased the gastrointestinal movement as indicated by the significantly (pmajor active constituents of the tested plants.

  2. Cytotoxic activity of Thai medicinal plants for cancer treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chawaboon Dechsukum

    2005-08-01

    Full Text Available Twelve Thai medicinal plants as the ingredients of a Southern Thai traditional formula for cancer treatment were selected to test cytotoxicity activity against two types of human cancer cell lines ; large cell lung carcinoma (CORL-23 and prostate cancer cell lines (PC3 and one type of normal human cell line, fibroblast cells (10FS. SRB assay was used to test cytotoxic activity against all the cell types. Two of the extracts (water and ethanolic extracts procedures used were similar to those practised by Thai traditional doctors. One concentration (50 μg/ml of two different extracts was tested first against cell lines and the active plant extracts were diluted and tested for calculating IC50. The ethanolic extracts of six plants (Bridelia ovata, Curcuma zedoaria, Derris scandens, Dioscorea membranacea, Nardostachys jatamansi and Rhinacanthus nasutus showed cytotoxic activity (IC50< 30 μg/ml against lung and prostate cancer cell lines. Dioscorea membranacea roots showed the highest cytotoxic activity against lung cancer cell lines ( IC50= 4.6 μg/ml but it exhibited low cytotoxic activity against prostate cancer cell lines (IC50= 17.55 μg/ml and less cytotoxic activity against normal cell lines (IC50= 66.05 μg/ml. Curcuma zedoaria showed cytotoxic activity against COR L-23 and PC3 but less cytotoxic activity against 10FS (IC50 = 6.05, 17.84 and 55.50 μg/ml respectively Rhinacanthus nasutus root extract showed the highest cytotoxic activity against PC3 ( IC50 = 2.01 μg/ml and this extract also showed high activity against COR L-23 and 10FS (IC50=5.05 and 10.95 μg/ml respectively. The water extract of all plants exhibited no activity against all types of human cells. Two ethanolic plant extracts (Dioscorea membranacea and Curcuma zedoaria which showed specific activity against lung cancer cell lines and less cytotoxic activity against normal cells should be further investigated for active compounds against lung cancer cell.

  3. [Occupational radiation exposures during maintenance activities at nuclear power plants].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Imahori, A

    1987-11-01

    Occupational exposures at nuclear power plants occur mostly during maintenance activities rather than during routine reactor operation. In this paper, statistical summaries of occupational exposures during routine maintenance activities for the years 1982-84 at nuclear power plants in Japan are presented, including comparison of the exposure levels by reactor type and by plant age. Average annual collective doses per reactor for BWRs and PWRs are 7.30 man-Sv and 2.84 man-Sv, respectively, and 78% and 89% of annual doses are incurred during maintenance activities. Average annual outage days of BWRs and PWRs for routine maintenance are 102 d and 97 d. Annual collective doses per reactor, most of which occur during maintenance activities, usually increase with plant age. Higher collective doses are observed for routine maintenance performed on older reactors as compared to newer reactors, especially in BWRs. Collective doses accrued during respective routine maintenance activities have a significant correlation with duration of maintenance and number of workers involved in maintenance.

  4. Plant compounds insecticide activity against Coleoptera pests of stored products

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moreira, Marcio Dionizio; Picanco, Marcelo Coutinho; Guedes, Raul Narciso Carvalho; Campos, Mateus Ribeiro de; Silva, Gerson Adriano; Martins, Julio Claudio [Universidade Federal de Vicosa (UFV), MG (Brazil). Dept. de Biologia Animal]. E-mail: marcio.dionizio@gmail.com; picanco@ufv.br; guedes@ufv.br; mateusc3@yahoo.com.br; agronomiasilva@yahoo.com.br

    2007-07-15

    The objective of this work was to screen plants with insecticide activity, in order to isolate, identify and assess the bioactivity of insecticide compounds present in these plants, against Coleoptera pests of stored products: Oryzaephilus surinamensis L. (Silvanidae), Rhyzopertha dominica F. (Bostrichidae) and Sitophilus zeamais Mots. (Curculionidae). The plant species used were: basil (Ocimum selloi Benth.), rue (Ruta graveolens L.), lion's ear (Leonotis nepetifolia (L.) R.Br.), jimson weed (Datura stramonium L.), baleeira herb (Cordia verbenacea L.), mint (Mentha piperita L.), wild balsam apple (Mormodica charantia L.), and billy goat weed or mentrasto (Ageratum conyzoides L.). The insecticide activity of hexane and ethanol extracts from those plants on R. dominica was evaluated. Among them, only hexane extract of A. conyzoides showed insecticide activity; the hexane extract of this species was successively fractionated by silica gel column chromatography, for isolation and purification of the active compounds. Compounds 5,6,7,8,3',4',5'-heptamethoxyflavone; 5,6,7,8,3'-pentamethoxy-4',5'-methilenedioxyflavone and coumarin were identified. However, only coumarin showed insecticide activity against three insect pests (LD{sub 50} from 2.72 to 39.71 mg g{sup -1} a.i.). The increasing order of insects susceptibility to coumarin was R. dominica, S. zeamais and O. surinamensis. (author)

  5. Insights into Animal and Plant Lectins with Antimicrobial Activities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renata de Oliveira Dias

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Lectins are multivalent proteins with the ability to recognize and bind diverse carbohydrate structures. The glyco -binding and diverse molecular structures observed in these protein classes make them a large and heterogeneous group with a wide range of biological activities in microorganisms, animals and plants. Lectins from plants and animals are commonly used in direct defense against pathogens and in immune regulation. This review focuses on sources of animal and plant lectins, describing their functional classification and tridimensional structures, relating these properties with biotechnological purposes, including antimicrobial activities. In summary, this work focuses on structural-functional elucidation of diverse lectin groups, shedding some light on host-pathogen interactions; it also examines their emergence as biotechnological tools through gene manipulation and development of new drugs.

  6. Lead stress effects on physiobiochemical activities of higher plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sengar, Rakesh Singh; Gautam, Madhu; Sengar, Rajesh Singh; Garg, Sanjay Kumar; Sengar, Kalpana; Chaudhary, Reshu

    2008-01-01

    Lead is a metallic pollutant emanating from various environmental sources including industrial wastes, combustion of fossil fuels, and use of agrochemicals. Lead may exist in the atmosphere as dusts, fumes, mists, and vapors, and in soil as a mineral. Soils along roadsides are rich in lead because vehicles burn leaded gasoline, which contributes to environmental lead pollution. Other important sources of lead pollution are geological weathering, industrial processing of ores and minerals, leaching of lead from solid wastes, and animal and human excreta. Lead is nondegradable, readily enters the food chain, and can subsequently endanger human and animal health. Lead is one of the most important environment pollutants and deserves the increasing attention it has received in recent decades. The present effort was undertaken to review lead stress effects on the physiobiochemical activity of higher plants. Lead has gained considerable attention as a potent heavy metal pollutant because of growing anthropogenic pressure on the environment. Lead-contaminated soils show a sharp decline in crop productivity. Lead is absorbed by plants mainly through the root system and in minor amounts through the leaves. Within the plants, lead accumulates primarily in roots, but some is translocated to aerial plant parts. Soil pH, soil particle size, cation-exchange capacity, as well as root surface area, root exudation, and mycorrhizal transpiration rate affect the availability and uptake of lead by plants. Only a limited amount of lead is translocated from roots to other organs because there are natural plant barriers in the root endodermis. At lethal concentrations, this barrier is broken and lead may enter vascular tissues. Lead in plants may form deposits of various sizes, present mainly in intercellular spaces, cell walls, and vacuoles. Small deposits of this metal are also seen in the endoplasmic reticulum, dictyosome, and dictyosome-derived vesicles. After entering the cells, lead

  7. Screening of Australian plants for antimicrobial activity against Campylobacter jejuni.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurekci, Cemil; Bishop-Hurley, Sharon L; Vercoe, Philip E; Durmic, Zoey; Al Jassim, Rafat A M; McSweeney, Christopher S

    2012-02-01

    Campylobacter jejuni is the most common cause of acute enteritis in humans, with symptoms such as diarrhoea, fever and abdominal cramps. In this study, 115 extracts from 109 Australian plant species were investigated for their antimicrobial activities against two C. jejuni strains using an in vitro broth microdilution assay. Among the plants tested, 107 (93%) extracts showed activity at a concentration between 32 and 1024 µg/mL against at least one C. jejuni strain. Seventeen plant extracts were selected for further testing against another six C. jejuni strains, as well as Campylobacter coli, Escherichia coli, Salmonella typhimurium, Bacillus cereus, Proteus mirabilis and Enterococcus faecalis. The extract from Eucalyptus occidentalis demonstrated the highest antimicrobial activity, with an inhibitory concentration of 32 µg/mL against C. jejuni and B. cereus. This study has shown that extracts of selected Australian plants possess antimicrobial activity against C. jejuni and thus may have application in the control of this organism in live poultry and retail poultry products.

  8. Anti-Inflammatory Activity of Compounds Isolated from Plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R.M. Perez G.

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available This review shows over 300 compounds isolated and identified from plants that previously demonstrated anti-inflammatory activity. They have been classified in appropriate chemical groups and data are reported on their pharmacological effects, mechanisms of action, and other properties.

  9. Phytochemicals and Their Biological Activities of Plants in Tagetes L.

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XU Li-wei; CHEN Juan; QI Huan-yang; SHI Yan-ping

    2012-01-01

    Tagetes L.,the genus in the family Asteraceae,consists of about 30 species spread in South and Middle America as well as Mexico.More than one hundred secondary metabolites have been obtained in phytochemical investigation on the species,some of which have potent biological activities.The advances in phytochemical studies and biological activities of the plants in Tagetes L.from 1925 to 2011 are summarized in this paper.

  10. In vitro antiplasmodial activity of extracts of Argentinian plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Debenedetti, S; Muschietti, L; van Baren, C; Clavin, M; Broussalis, A; Martino, V; Houghton, P J; Warhurst, D; Steele, J

    2002-05-01

    Fifteen extracts from nine selected Argentine medicinal plants were tested for their antiplasmodial activity in vitro by assessing their ability to inhibit the uptake of [3H]-hypoxanthine into the Plasmodium falciparum K1 pyrimethamine/chloroquine resistant strain. The methanol extract of Satureja parvifolia showed good antiplasmodial activity (IC(50) 3 microg/ml). Inhibition of the growth of P. falciparum was also observed with aqueous extracts of Buddleja globosa and S. parvifolia.

  11. Antioxidant and antimicrobial activities of selected medicinal plants from Algeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krimat Soumia

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To evaluate the antioxidant and antimicrobial activity of methanolic extract extracts of selected Algerian medicinal plants. Methods: Antioxidant activity of extracts was evaluated in terms of radical scavenging potential (2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl and β-carotene bleaching assay. Total phenolic contents and flavonoid contents were also measured. Antimicrobial activity of these plants was examined against Bacillus subtilis, Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Candida albicans. Results: The values of IC50 ranged from 4.30 μg/mL to 486.6 μg/mL for the DPPH method, while total antioxidant activity using β-carotene/linoleic acid bleaching assay ranged from 17.03% to 86.13%. It was found that Pistacia lentiscus showed the highest antioxidant capacities using DPPH assay (IC50=4.30 μg/mL, while Populus trimula, Origanum glandulosum, Centaurea calcitrapa, Sysimbrium officinalis and Rhamnus alaternus showed the highest percent of total antioxidant activity in β-carotene/linoleic acid bleaching assay. Total phenolic and flavonoid contents ranged from 3.96 to 259.65 mg GAE/g extract and from 1.13 to 26.84 mg QE/g extract, respectively. The most interesting antimicrobial activity was obtained from Sysimbrium officinalis, Rhamnus alaternus, Origanum glandulosum, Cupressus sempervirens, Pinus halipensis and Centaurea calcitrapa. Conclusions: The results indicated that the plants tested may be potential sources for isolation of natural antioxidant and antimicrobial compounds.

  12. Antimicrobial activity of Northwestern Mexican plants against Helicobacter pylori.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robles-Zepeda, Ramón E; Velázquez-Contreras, Carlos A; Garibay-Escobar, Adriana; Gálvez-Ruiz, Juan C; Ruiz-Bustos, Eduardo

    2011-10-01

    Helicobacter pylori is the major etiologic agent of such gastric disorders as chronic active gastritis and gastric carcinoma. Over the past few years, the appearance of antibiotic-resistant bacteria has led to the development of better treatments, such as the use of natural products. This study evaluated the anti-H. pylori activity of 17 Mexican plants used mainly in the northwestern part of Mexico (Sonora) for the empirical treatment of gastrointestinal disorders. The anti-H. pylori activity of methanolic extracts of the plants was determined by using the broth microdilution method. The 50% minimum inhibitory concentrations ranged from less than 200 to 400 μg/mL for Castella tortuosa, Amphipterygium adstringens, Ibervillea sonorae, Pscalium decompositum, Krameria erecta, Selaginella lepidophylla, Pimpinella anisum, Marrubium vulgare, Ambrosia confertiflora, and Couterea latiflora and were greater than 800 μg/mL for Byophyllum pinnatum, Tecoma stans linnaeus, Kohleria deppena, Jatropha cuneata, Chenopodium ambrosoides, and Taxodium macronatum. Only Equisetum gigantum showed no activity against H. pylori. This study suggests the important role that these plants may have in the treatment of gastrointestinal disorders caused by H. pylori. The findings set the groundwork for further characterization and elucidation of the active compounds responsible for such activity.

  13. HPTLC Analysis, Antioxidant and Antigout Activity of Indian Plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nile, Shivraj Hariram; Park, Se Won

    2014-01-01

    The HPTLC analysis, antioxidant, and antigout activity of Asparagus racemosus, Withania somnifera, Vitex negundo, Plumbago zeylanica, Butea monosperma and Tephrosia purpurea extracts were investigated. The chemical fingerprinting were carried out by high performance thin layer chromatography (HPTLC), antioxidant activity by ABTS, DPPH, FRAP radical scavenging assays, and antiogout activity by cow milk xanthine oxidase. The HPTLC fingerprint qualitatively revealed predominant amount of flavonoids. The TEAC values ranged from 45.80 to 140 µM trolox/100 g dry weight for ABTS, from 85 to 430 µM trolox/ 100 g dw DPPH, and 185 to 560 µM trolox/100 g dw for FRAP respectively. Plants used in this study was found to inhibit the toxicity, as seen from the decreased LPO and increased GSH, SOD and CAT levels. The total phenolic and flavonoid content ranged from 10.21 to 28.17 and 5.80 to 10.1 mg of gallic acid equivalents (GAE)/100 gdw respectively. The plant extracts demonstrated significant xanthine oxidase inhibitory activity at 100 g/mL and revealed an inhibition greater than 50 % and IC50 values below the standard. This effect was almost similar to the activity of allopurinol (Standard drug) against xanthine oxidase (90.2 ± 0.4 %). These plant root extract will be subjected for further extensive studies to isolate and identify their active constituents which are useful for against inflammation and gout.

  14. Antioxidant and antimicrobial activities of selected medicinal plants from Algeria

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Krimat Soumia; Dob Tahar; Lamari Lynda; Boumeridja Saida; Chelghoum Chabane; Metidji Hafidha

    2014-01-01

    Objective:To evaluate the antioxidant and antimicrobial activity of methanolic extract extracts of selected Algerian medicinal plants. Methods:Antioxidant activity of extracts was evaluated in terms of radical scavenging potential (2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl) and β-carotene bleaching assay. Total phenolic contents and flavonoid contents were also measured. Antimicrobial activity of these plants was examined against Bacillus subtilis, Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Candida albicans. Results:The values of IC50 ranged from 4.30 μg/mL to 486.6 μg/mL for the DPPH method, while total antioxidant activity using β-carotene/linoleic acid bleaching assay ranged from 17.03%to 86.13%. It was found that Pistacia lentiscus showed the highest antioxidant capacities using DPPH assay (IC50=4.30 μg/mL), while Populus trimula, Origanum glandulosum, Centaurea calcitrapa, Sysimbrium officinalis and Rhamnus alaternus showed the highest percent of total antioxidant activity inβ-carotene/linoleic acid bleaching assay. Total phenolic and flavonoid contents ranged from 3.96 to 259.65 mg GAE/g extract and from 1.13 to 26.84 mg QE/g extract, respectively. The most interesting antimicrobial activity was obtained from Sysimbrium officinalis, Rhamnus alaternus, Origanum glandulosum, Cupressus sempervirens, Pinus halipensis and Centaurea calcitrapa. Conclusions:The results indicated that the plants tested may be potential sources for isolation of natural antioxidant and antimicrobial compounds.

  15. The future viability of algae-derived biodiesel under economic and technical uncertainties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brownbridge, George; Azadi, Pooya; Smallbone, Andrew; Bhave, Amit; Taylor, Benjamin; Kraft, Markus

    2014-01-01

    This study presents a techno-economic assessment of algae-derived biodiesel under economic and technical uncertainties associated with the development of algal biorefineries. A global sensitivity analysis was performed using a High Dimensional Model Representation (HDMR) method. It was found that, considering reasonable ranges over which each parameter can vary, the sensitivity of the biodiesel production cost to the key input parameters decreases in the following order: algae oil content>algae annual productivity per unit area>plant production capacity>carbon price increase rate. It was also found that the Return on Investment (ROI) is highly sensitive to the algae oil content, and to a lesser extent to the algae annual productivity, crude oil price and price increase rate, plant production capacity, and carbon price increase rate. For a large scale plant (100,000 tonnes of biodiesel per year) the production cost of biodiesel is likely to be £0.8-1.6 per kg.

  16. PPF1 May Suppress Plant Senescence via Activating TFL1 in Transgenic Arabidopsis Plants

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Da-Yong Wang; Qing Li; Ke-Ming Cui; Yu-Xian Zhu

    2008-01-01

    Senescence, a sequence of biochemical and physiological events, constitutes the final stage of development In higher plants and is modulated by a variety of environmental factors and intemal factors. PPF1 possesses an important biological function in plant development by controlling the Ca2+ storage capacity within chloroplasts. Here we show that the expression of PPF1 might play a pivotal role in negatively regulating plant senescence as revealed by the regulation of overexpression and suppression of PPF1 on plant development. Moreover, TFL1, a key regulator in the floral repression pathway, was screened out as one of the downstream targets for PPF1 in the senescence-signaling pathway. Investigation of the senescence-related phenotypes in PPF1(-) tfl1-1 and PPF1(+) tfl1-1 double mutants confirmed and further highlighted the relation of PPF1 with TFL1 in tranegenic plants. The activation of TFL1 expression by PPF1 defines an important pathway possibly essential for the negative regulation of plant senescence in transgenic Arabidopsis.

  17. Screening for bioactive compounds from algae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plaza, M; Santoyo, S; Jaime, L; García-Blairsy Reina, G; Herrero, M; Señoráns, F J; Ibáñez, E

    2010-01-20

    In the present work, a comprehensive methodology to carry out the screening for novel natural functional compounds is presented. To do that, a new strategy has been developed including the use of unexplored natural sources (i.e., algae and microalgae) together with environmentally clean extraction techniques and advanced analytical tools. The developed procedure allows also estimating the functional activities of the different extracts obtained and even more important, to correlate these activities with their particular chemical composition. By applying this methodology it has been possible to carry out the screening for bioactive compounds in the algae Himanthalia elongata and the microalgae Synechocystis sp. Both algae produced active extracts in terms of both antioxidant and antimicrobial activity. The obtained pressurized liquid extracts were chemically characterized by GC-MS and HPLC-DAD. Different fatty acids and volatile compounds with antimicrobial activity were identified, such as phytol, fucosterol, neophytadiene or palmitic, palmitoleic and oleic acids. Based on the results obtained, ethanol was selected as the most appropriate solvent to extract this kind of compounds from the natural sources studied.

  18. Miocene Coralline algae

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bosence, D.W.J.

    1988-01-01

    The coralline algae (Order Corallinales) were sedimentologically and ecologically important during the Miocene, a period when they were particularly abundant. The many poorly described and illustrated species and the lack of quantitative data in coralline thalli make specific determinations particularly difficult, but some species are well known and widespread in the Tethyan area. The sedimentologic importance of the Miocene coralline algae is reflected in the abundance of in-situ coralline buildups, rhodoliths, and coralline debris facies at Malta and Spain; similar sequences are known throughout the Tethyan Miocene. In-situ buildups vary from leafy crustose biostromes to walled reefs with dense coralline crusts and branches. Growth forms are apparently related to hydraulic energy. Rhodoliths vary from leafy, crustose, and open-branched forms in muddy sediments to dense, crustose, and radial-branching forms in coarse grainstones. Rhodolith form and internal structure correlate closely with hydraulic energy. Coralline genera are conservative and, as such, are useful in paleoenvironmental analysis. Of particular interest are the restricted depth ranges of recent coralline genera. More research is needed on the sedimentology, paleoecology, and systematics of the Cenozoic corallines, as they have particular value in paleoenvironmental analysis.

  19. ANTIFUNGAL ACTIVITY OF SOME PLANT EXTRACT S AGAINST FUSARIUM SOLANI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S.K. BHARADWAJ

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The aqueous extracts of twenty plants were screened for their antifungal activity Fusarium solani, causal organism if Sudden Death Syndrome (SDS of Soybean (Glycine max wilt diseases, soft rot of potato. The maximum inhibitory effect was shown by leaf extracts of Camellia sinensis (67.17%, root extracts of Asparagus racemosus (54.43%. Some of the other plants showed moderate to intermediate inhibition against the mycelium growth of test fungi whcih varied in the following range Callistemon lanceolatus> Agegle marmelos> Azadirachta> Acacia catechu> Aloevera.

  20. Determination Of Antioxidant Activities In Freshliver (Salvia Officinalis) Plant

    OpenAIRE

    Rana Arıduru; Gülnur Arabacı

    2013-01-01

    In this study, we determined the antioxidant activities of four different solvent fractions obtained from Freshliver plant leaves (Salvia officinalis) by employing two different assays such as 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl hydrate (DPPH) and Folin-Ciocaltaeu method. The results showed that ethanol-extract of freshliver plant exhibited the highest total phenolic contents mg GAE/g extract; 43,55, methanol-extract of 23.62, ethyl acetate extract 18.29, and acetone extract 11.58. All the extracti...

  1. Influence of aerogenic contamination on phytoncide activity of woody plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. O. Volodarez

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The main objective of this paper is to determine variations of antimicrobial activity of the volatile organic compounds from leaves of woody plants, which are growing on the areas with the different air pollution degree in the south-east of Ukraine. The research objects were Aesculus hippocastanum L., Betula pendula Roth, Salix alba L., Picea pungens Engelm. in Donetsk, Ukraine, and 6 species (Betula pendula Roth, Fraxinus excelsior L., Robinia pseudoacacia L., Populus nigra L., Tilia cordata Mill., Picea pungens Engelm. in Kramatorsk, Ukraine. Samples were collected in Donetsk every month during 2012 and 2013 years on four sample areas. Three research areas border with Donetsk Metallurgical Plant PSC, heavy traffic road and Kalinin coal mine, that feature such pollutants as CO2, SO2, NO2, and marsh gas. The fourth research area is the recreation zone (Donetsk Culture and Leisure Park near Donbass Arena stadium. The control area is located in the Donetsk Botanical Garden. The leaves from trees in Kramatorsk were collected in July and August 2013 on the sample area. The research area borders with Novokramatorsk Machine-building Plant JSC, which also features CO2, SO2, NO2 and other pollutants. The control area is located in the Jubilejnyi park. The research proves that antimicrobial activity of the volatile organic compounds from leaves of species under studyis sensitive to the impact of pollutants. Moreover, the antimicrobial activity of leaves B. pendula, S. alba, F. excelsior, R. pseudoacacia, P. nigra increases under the influence of pollutants from metallurgical plants and traffic exhausts. The antimicrobial ability of A. hippocastanum, T. cordata and P. pungens enhances in the areas with the cleaner air. These species are not gas-resistant species. Consequently, gas-resistant species feature the higher antimicrobial activity in the conditions of contamination. The other benefit of this study consists in monitoring of the seasonal

  2. Anti-Candida activity of Brazilian medicinal plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duarte, Marta Cristina Teixeira; Figueira, Glyn Mara; Sartoratto, Adilson; Rehder, Vera Lúcia Garcia; Delarmelina, Camila

    2005-02-28

    Essential oils and ethanolic extracts from the leaves and/or roots of 35 medicinal plants commonly used in Brazil were screened for anti-Candida albicans activity. The oils were obtained by water-distillation using a Clevenger-type system. Essential oils from 13 plants showed anti-Candida activity, including Aloysia triphylla, Anthemis nobilis, Cymbopogon martini, Cymbopogon winterianus, Cyperus articulatus, Cyperus rotundus, Lippia alba, Mentha arvensis, Mikania glomerata, Mentha piperita, Mentha sp., Stachys byzantina, and Solidago chilensis. The ethanol extract was not effective at any of the concentrations tested. Chemical analyses showed the presence of compounds with known antimicrobial activity, including 1,8-cineole, geranial, germacrene-D, limonene, linalool, and menthol.

  3. The role of activated charcoal in plant tissue culture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, T Dennis

    2008-01-01

    Activated charcoal has a very fine network of pores with large inner surface area on which many substances can be adsorbed. Activated charcoal is often used in tissue culture to improve cell growth and development. It plays a critical role in micropropagation, orchid seed germination, somatic embryogenesis, anther culture, synthetic seed production, protoplast culture, rooting, stem elongation, bulb formation etc. The promotary effects of AC on morphogenesis may be mainly due to its irreversible adsorption of inhibitory compounds in the culture medium and substancially decreasing the toxic metabolites, phenolic exudation and brown exudate accumulation. In addition to this activated charcoal is involved in a number of stimulatory and inhibitory activities including the release of substances naturally present in AC which promote growth, alteration and darkening of culture media, and adsorption of vitamins, metal ions and plant growth regulators, including abscisic acid and gaseous ethylene. The effect of AC on growth regulator uptake is still unclear but some workers believe that AC may gradually release certain adsorbed products, such as nutrients and growth regulators which become available to plants. This review focuses on the various roles of activated charcoal in plant tissue culture and the recent developments in this area.

  4. Radical scavenging, antioxidant and cytotoxic activity of Brazilian Caatinga plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    David, Juceni P; Meira, Marilena; David, Jorge M; Brandão, Hugo N; Branco, Alexsandro; de Fátima Agra, M; Barbosa, M Regina V; de Queiroz, Luciano P; Giulietti, Ana M

    2007-04-01

    Extracts of 32 plants from the Brazilian northeastern semi-arid region called Caatinga were evaluated through DPPH radical scavenging assay, beta-carotene bleaching, and brine shrimp lethality tests (BST). Among the extracts studied Byrsonima cf. gardneriana, Mascagnia coriacea, Cordia globosa, Diodia apiculata and Hypenia salzmannii showed the highest activities in DPPH radical scavenging test. In the beta-carotene bleaching test the highest activities were observed for Passiflora cincinnata, Chamaecrista repens, B. cf. gardneriana, Rollinia leptopetala, Serjania glabrata, Diospyros gaultheriifolia, C. globosa, Mimosa ophtalmocentra, M. coriacea and Lippia cf. microphylla. In contrast, R. leptopetala, Zornia cf. brasiliensis and Leonotis nepetifolia were the most active species in the BST.

  5. Pharmacological activities of Solanum melongena Linn. (Brinjal plant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mitali Das

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Solanum melongena Linn. is a herbaceous plant, with coarsely lobed leaves, white to purple flowers, fruit is berry and are grown mainly for food and medicinal purposes. The plant contains flavonoids, tropane, glycoalkaloids, arginine, lanosterol, gramisterol, aspartic acid as important constituents. The plant is reported to have analgesic, antipyretic, antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, antiasthmatic, hypolipidemic, hypotensive, antiplatelet, intraocular pressure reducing, CNS depressant and anaphylactic reaction inhibitory activities. Traditional herbal medicine existed before the application of modern scientific method to health care and even today majority of the world population depends on herbal health care practices. This review gives an overview mainly on the medicinal uses, phytochemistry and pharmacological actions of Solanum melongena.

  6. Cycloartane triterpenes from marine green alga Cladophora fascicularis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HUANG Xinping; ZHU Xiaobin; DENG Liping; DENG Zhiwei; LIN Wenhan

    2006-01-01

    Six cycloartanes were isolated from ethanol extract of marine green alga Cladophora fascicularis by column chromatography. Procedure of isolation and description of these compounds are given in this paper. The structures were elucidated as (1). 24-hydroperoxycycloart-25- en-3β-ol; (2).cycloart-25-en-3β 24-diol; (3). 25-hydroperoxycycloart-23-en-3β-ol; (4). cycloart-23-en-3β, 25-diol; (5).cycloart-23, 25-dien-3β-ol; and (6). cycloart-24-en-3β-ol by spectroscopic (MS, 1D and 2D NMR) data analysis. Cycloartane derivatives are widely distributed in terrestrial plants, but only few were obtained in the alga. All these compounds that have been isolated from terrestrial plants, were found in the marine alga for the first time.

  7. [Pharmacology and toxicology of Spirulina alga].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chamorro, G; Salazar, M; Favila, L; Bourges, H

    1996-01-01

    Spirulina, a unicellular filamentous blue-green alga has been consumed by man since ancient times in Mexico and central Africa. It is currently grown in many countries by synthetic methods. Initially the interest in Spirulina was on its nutritive value: it was found almost equal to other plant proteins. More recently, some preclinical testing suggests it has several therapeutic properties such as hypocholesterolemic, immunological, antiviral and antimutagenic. This has led to more detailed evaluations such as nucleic acid content and presence of toxic metals, biogenic toxins and organic chemicals: they have shown absence or presence at tolerable levels according to the recommendations of international regulatory agencies. In animal experiments for acute, subchronic and chronic toxicity, reproduction, mutagenicity, and teratogenicity the algae did not cause body or organ toxicity. In all instances, the Spirulina administered to the animals were at much higher amounts than those expected for human consumption. On the other hand there is scant information of the effects of the algae in humans. This area needs more research.

  8. Antibacterial activity of caffeine against plant pathogenic bacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sledz, Wojciech; Los, Emilia; Paczek, Agnieszka; Rischka, Jacek; Motyka, Agata; Zoledowska, Sabina; Piosik, Jacek; Lojkowska, Ewa

    2015-01-01

    The objective of the present study was to evaluate the antibacterial properties of a plant secondary metabolite - caffeine. Caffeine is present in over 100 plant species. Antibacterial activity of caffeine was examined against the following plant-pathogenic bacteria: Ralstonia solanacearum (Rsol), Clavibacter michiganesis subsp. sepedonicus (Cms), Dickeya solani (Dsol), Pectobacterium atrosepticum (Pba), Pectobacterium carotovorum subsp. carotovorum (Pcc), Pseudomonas syringae pv. tomato (Pst), and Xanthomonas campestris subsp. campestris (Xcc). MIC and MBC values ranged from 5 to 20 mM and from 43 to 100 mM, respectively. Caffeine increased the bacterial generation time of all tested species and caused changes in cell morphology. The influence of caffeine on the synthesis of DNA, RNA and proteins was investigated in cultures of plant pathogenic bacteria with labelled precursors: [(3)H]thymidine, [(3)H]uridine or (14)C leucine, respectively. RNA biosynthesis was more affected than DNA or protein biosynthesis in bacterial cells treated with caffeine. Treatment of Pba with caffeine for 336 h did not induce resistance to this compound. Caffeine application reduced disease symptoms caused by Dsol on chicory leaves, potato slices, and whole potato tubers. The data presented indicate caffeine as a potential tool for the control of diseases caused by plant-pathogenic bacteria, especially under storage conditions.

  9. Antibacterial Activity of Medicinal Aqueous Plant Extracts against Mycobacterium tuberculosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muna Mohammed Buzayan

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Tuberculosis (TB remains a serious health problem in many regions of the world, and the development of resistance to antibiotics by this microbe created the need for new drugs to replace those which have lost effectiveness. This study assesses the medicinal anti-Mycobacterium tuberculosis properties of natural products obtained from plants collected from Eastern Libya. In this study aqueous extracts of nine different plants were assayed for their Mycobacterium tuberculosis inhibitory activity using the BACTEC MGIT960 susceptibility test method. The aqueous extracts of Ceratonia siliqua L, Helichrysum stoechas (L. Moench and Thymus algeriensis did not show any activity against M. tuberculosis in different concentrations. The aqueous extract of Marrubium vulgare L. from Syria showed high activity against M. tuberculosis. Marrubium alysson L., Marrubium vulgare L., Pistacia lentiscus L, Quercus coccifera L, Thymus capitatus (L. Hoffm. & Link, showed varying degrees of activity against M. tuberculosis. The results of this study show that aqueous extracts from six different medicinal plants have different effects against M. tuberculosis in vitro.

  10. Screening of antidiabetic and antioxidant activities of medicinal plants

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Amal Bakr Shori

    2015-01-01

    Diabetes is a common metabolic disorder characterized by abnormaly increased plasma glucose levels. Postprandial hyperglycemia plays an essential role in development of type-2 diabetes. Inhibitors of carbohydrate-hydrolyzing enzymes (such as α-glucosidase and α-amylase) offer an effective strategy to regulate/prevent hyperglycemia by controling starch breakdown. Natural α-amylase and α-glucosidase inhibitors, as wel as antioxidants from plant-based sources, offer a source of dietary ingredients that affect human physiological function in order to treat diabetes. Several research studies have investigated the effectiveness of plant-based inhibitors of α-amylase and α-glucosidase, as wel as their antioxidant activity. The aim of this review is to summarize the antidiabetic and antioxidant properties of several medicinal plants around the world. Half inhibitory concentration (IC50,for enzyme suppression) and half effective concentration (EC50, for antioxidant activity) values of less than 500 μg/mL were deifned as the most potent plant-based inhibitors (in vitro) and are expected to provide interesting candidates for herbal treatment of diabetes, as foods, supplements, or reifned drugs.

  11. Flavonoids from the Red Alga Acanthophora spicifera

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZENG Long-Mei(曾陇梅); 曾陇梅; WANG Chao-Jie(王超杰); 王超杰; SU Jing-Yu(苏镜娱); 苏镜娱; LI Du(李笃); 李笃; OWEN Noel L.; OWEN Noel L; LU Yang(吕扬); 吕扬; LU Nan(鲁南); 鲁南; ZHENG Qi-Tai(郑启泰); 郑启泰

    2001-01-01

    Two new flavonoids, acanthophorin A (1) and acanthophorin B (2), along with three known compounds tiliroside (3),( - )-catechin (4) and quercetin (5) were isolated from the red alga Acanthophora spicifera. The structures of 1 and 2were determined to be kaempferol 3-O-α-L-fucopyranoside (1) and quercetin 3-O-α-L-fucopyranoside (2) by spectroscopic methods. Both 1 and 2 showed significant anfioxidant activity.

  12. In plant activation: an inducible, hyperexpression platform for recombinant protein production in plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dugdale, Benjamin; Mortimer, Cara L; Kato, Maiko; James, Tess A; Harding, Robert M; Dale, James L

    2013-07-01

    In this study, we describe a novel protein production platform that provides both activation and amplification of transgene expression in planta. The In Plant Activation (INPACT) system is based on the replication machinery of tobacco yellow dwarf mastrevirus (TYDV) and is essentially transient gene expression from a stably transformed plant, thus combining the advantages of both means of expression. The INPACT cassette is uniquely arranged such that the gene of interest is split and only reconstituted in the presence of the TYDV-encoded Rep/RepA proteins. Rep/RepA expression is placed under the control of the AlcA:AlcR gene switch, which is responsive to trace levels of ethanol. Transgenic tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum cv Samsun) plants containing an INPACT cassette encoding the β-glucuronidase (GUS) reporter had negligible background expression but accumulated very high GUS levels (up to 10% total soluble protein) throughout the plant, within 3 d of a 1% ethanol application. The GUS reporter was replaced with a gene encoding a lethal ribonuclease, barnase, demonstrating that the INPACT system provides exquisite control of transgene expression and can be adapted to potentially toxic or inhibitory compounds. The INPACT gene expression platform is scalable, not host-limited, and has been used to express both a therapeutic and an industrial protein.

  13. Antimicrobial and antioxidant activities of plants from northeast of Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salazar-Aranda, Ricardo; Pérez-López, Luis Alejandro; López-Arroyo, Joel; Alanís-Garza, Blanca Alicia; Waksman de Torres, Noemí

    2011-01-01

    Traditional medicine has a key role in health care worldwide. Obtaining scientific information about the efficacy and safety of the plants from our region is one of the goals of our research group. In this report, 17 plants were selected and collected in different localities from northeast Mexico. The dried plants were separated into leaves, flowers, fruit, stems, roots and bark. Each part was extracted with methanol, and 39 crude extracts were prepared. The extracts were tested for their antimicrobial activity using three Gram-negative bacterial strains (Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Klebsiella pneumoniae and Acinetobacter baumannii), three Gram-positive bacterial strains (Enterococcus faecalis and two Staphylococcus aureus strains), and seven clinically isolated yeasts (Candida albicans, C. krusei, C. tropicalis, C. parapsilosis and C. glabrata); their antioxidant activity was tested using a DPPH free radical assay. No activity against Gram-negative bacteria was observed with any extract up to the maximum concentration tested, 1000 μg ml(-1). We report here for the first time activity of Ceanothus coeruleus against S. aureus (flowers, minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC) 125 μg ml(-1)), C. glabrata (MICs 31.25 μg ml(-1)) and C. parapsilosis (MICs between 31.25 and 125 μg ml(-1)); Chrysanctinia mexicana against C. glabrata (MICs 31.25 μg ml(-1)); Colubrina greggii against E. faecalis (MICs 250 μg ml(-1)) and Cordia boissieri against C. glabrata (MIC 125 μg ml(-1)). Furthermore, this is the first report about antioxidant activity of extracts from Ceanothus coeruleus, Chrysanctinia mexicana, Colubrina greggii and Cyperus alternifolius. Some correlation could exist between antioxidant activity and antiyeast activity against yeasts in the species Ceanothus coeruleus, Schinus molle, Colubrina greggii and Cordia boissieri.

  14. Antimicrobial and Antioxidant Activities of Plants from Northeast of Mexico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ricardo Salazar-Aranda

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Traditional medicine has a key role in health care worldwide. Obtaining scientific information about the efficacy and safety of the plants from our region is one of the goals of our research group. In this report, 17 plants were selected and collected in different localities from northeast Mexico. The dried plants were separated into leaves, flowers, fruit, stems, roots and bark. Each part was extracted with methanol, and 39 crude extracts were prepared. The extracts were tested for their antimicrobial activity using three Gram-negative bacterial strains (Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Klebsiella pneumoniae and Acinetobacter baumannii, three Gram-positive bacterial strains (Enterococcus faecalis and two Staphylococcus aureus strains, and seven clinically isolated yeasts (Candida albicans, C. krusei, C. tropicalis, C. parapsilosis and C. glabrata; their antioxidant activity was tested using a DPPH free radical assay. No activity against Gram-negative bacteria was observed with any extract up to the maximum concentration tested, 1000 μg ml−1. We report here for the first time activity of Ceanothus coeruleus against S. aureus (flowers, minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC 125 μg ml−1, C. glabrata (MICs 31.25 μg ml−1 and C. parapsilosis (MICs between 31.25 and 125 μg ml−1; Chrysanctinia mexicana against C. glabrata (MICs 31.25 μg ml−1; Colubrina greggii against E. faecalis (MICs 250 μg ml−1 and Cordia boissieri against C. glabrata (MIC 125 μg ml−1. Furthermore, this is the first report about antioxidant activity of extracts from Ceanothus coeruleus, Chrysanctinia mexicana, Colubrina greggii and Cyperus alternifolius. Some correlation could exist between antioxidant activity and antiyeast activity against yeasts in the species Ceanothus coeruleus, Schinus molle, Colubrina greggii and Cordia boissieri.

  15. Biological activity of selected plants with adaptogenic effect

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eva Ivanišová

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to determine biological activity of plants with adaptogenic effect: Panax ginseng Mayer., Withania somnifera L., Eleuterococcus senticosus Rupr. et Maxim., Astragallus membranaceus Fisch. and Codonopsis pilosulae Franch. The antioxidant activity was detected by DPPH and phosphomolybdenum method, total polyphenol content with Folin – Ciocalteu reagent, flavonoids content by aluminium chloride method. The detection of antimicrobial activity was carried out by disc diffusion method against three species of Gram-negative bacteria: Escherichia coli CCM 3988, Salmonella enterica subsp. enterica CCM 3807, Yersinia enterocolitica CCM 5671 and two Gram-positive bacteria: Bacillus thuringiensis CCM 19, Stapylococcus aureus subsp. aureus CCM 2461. Results showed that plants with adaptogenic effect are rich for biologically active substances. The highest antioxidant activity by DPPH method was determined in the sample of Eleuterococcus senticosus (3.15 mg TEAC – Trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity per g of sample and by phosphomolybdenum method in the sample of Codonopsis pilosulae (188.79 mg TEAC per g of sample. In the sample of Panax ginseng was measured the highest content of total polyphenols (8.10 mg GAE – galic acid equivalent per g of sample and flavonoids (3.41 μg QE – quercetin equivalent per g of sample. All samples also showed strong antimicrobial activity with the best results in Panax ginseng and Withania somnifera in particular for species Yersinia enterocolitica CCM 5671 and Salmonella enterica subsp. enterica CCM 3807. The analyzed species of plant with high value of biological activity can be used more in the future, not only in food, but also in cosmetics and pharmaceutical industries.

  16. Gulf ring algae

    Science.gov (United States)

    Although they rank among the tiniest of the microspcopic phytoplankton, coccolithophore algae aid oceanographers studying the Gulf Stream rings and the ring boundaries. The algal group could help to identify more precisely the boundary of the warm rings of water that spin off from the Gulf Stream and become independent pools of warm water in the colder waters along the northeastern U.S. coast.Coccolithophore populations in the Gulf Stream rings intrigue oceanographers for two reasons: The phytoplankton are subjected to an environment that changes every few days, and population explosions within one coccolithophore species seem to be associated with changes in the characteristics of ocean water, said Pat Blackwelder, an associate professor at the Nova Oceanographic Center in Dania, Fla. She is one of many studying the physics, chemistry, and biology of warm core rings. A special oceanography session on these rings was held at the recent AGU Fall Meeting/ASLO Winter Meeting.

  17. Antimicrobial activity of plant extracts against sexually transmitted pathogens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jadhav, Nutan; Kulkarni, Sangeeta; Mane, Arati; Kulkarni, Roshan; Palshetker, Aparna; Singh, Kamalinder; Joshi, Swati; Risbud, Arun; Kulkarni, Smita

    2015-01-01

    Comprehensive management of sexually transmitted infections (STIs) using vaginal or rectal microbicide-based intervention is one of the strategies for prevention of HIV infection. Herbal products have been used for treating STIs traditionally. Herein, we present in vitro activity of 10 plant extracts and their 34 fractions against three sexually transmitted/reproductive tract pathogens - Neisseria gonorrhoeae, Haemophilus ducreyi and Candida albicans. The plant parts were selected; the extracts/fractions were prepared and screened by disc diffusion method. The minimum inhibitory and minimum cidal concentrations were determined. The qualitative phytochemical analysis of selected extracts/fractions showing activity was performed. Of the extracts/fractions tested, three inhibited C. albicans, ten inhibited N. gonorrhoeae and five inhibited H. ducreyi growth. Our study demonstrated that Terminalia paniculata Roth. extracts/fractions inhibited growth of all three organisms. The ethyl acetate fraction of Syzygium cumini Linn. and Bridelia retusa (L.) Spreng. extracts was found to inhibit N. gonorrhoeae at lowest concentrations.

  18. Algae-based oral recombinant vaccines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Specht, Elizabeth A; Mayfield, Stephen P

    2014-01-01

    Recombinant subunit vaccines are some of the safest and most effective vaccines available, but their high cost and the requirement of advanced medical infrastructure for administration make them impractical for many developing world diseases. Plant-based vaccines have shifted that paradigm by paving the way for recombinant vaccine production at agricultural scale using an edible host. However, enthusiasm for "molecular pharming" in food crops has waned in the last decade due to difficulty in developing transgenic crop plants and concerns of contaminating the food supply. Microalgae could be poised to become the next candidate in recombinant subunit vaccine production, as they present several advantages over terrestrial crop plant-based platforms including scalable and contained growth, rapid transformation, easily obtained stable cell lines, and consistent transgene expression levels. Algae have been shown to accumulate and properly fold several vaccine antigens, and efforts are underway to create recombinant algal fusion proteins that can enhance antigenicity for effective orally delivered vaccines. These approaches have the potential to revolutionize the way subunit vaccines are made and delivered - from costly parenteral administration of purified protein, to an inexpensive oral algae tablet with effective mucosal and systemic immune reactivity.

  19. Algae-based oral recombinant vaccines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elizabeth A Specht

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Recombinant subunit vaccines are some of the safest and most effective vaccines available, but their high cost and the requirement of advanced medical infrastructure for administration make them impractical for many developing world diseases. Plant-based vaccines have shifted that paradigm by paving the way for recombinant vaccine production at agricultural scale using an edible host. However, enthusiasm for molecular pharming in food crops has waned in the last decade due to difficulty in developing transgenic crop plants and concerns of contaminating the food supply. Microalgae are poised to become the next candidate in recombinant subunit vaccine production, and they present several advantages over terrestrial crop plant-based platforms including scalable and contained growth, rapid transformation, easily obtained stable cell lines, and consistent transgene expression levels. Algae have been shown to accumulate and properly fold several vaccine antigens, and efforts are underway to create recombinant algal fusion proteins that can enhance antigenicity for effective orally-delivered vaccines. These approaches have the potential to revolutionize the way subunit vaccines are made and delivered – from costly parenteral administration of purified protein, to an inexpensive oral algae tablet with effective mucosal and system immune reactivity.

  20. Larvicidal activity of some Cerrado plant extracts against Aedes aegypti.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodrigues, A M S; De Paula, J E; Degallier, N; Molez, J E; Espindola, L S

    2006-06-01

    One hundred ninety hexanic and ethanolic extract from 27 plant species from the Cerrado biome of Brazil were tested for larvicidal activity against 3rd-stage Aedes aegypti larvae at 500 microg/ml. Fourteen extracts from 7 species showed activity (>65% mortality) against the larvae. Of these Dugeutia furfuracea, Piptocarpha rotundifolia, Casearia sylvestris var. lingua, Serjania lethalis, and Xylopia aromatica were active at 56.6, 162.31, 232.4, 285.76, and 384.37 microg/ml, respectively. Annona crassiflora and Cybistax antisyphilitica showed activity at 23.06 and 27.61 microg/ml. The larvicidal properties of these species are described for the first time, and may prove to be promising in active chemical compound isolation.

  1. In vitro antitrypanosomal activity of plant terpenes against Trypanosoma brucei.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Otoguro, Kazuhiko; Iwatsuki, Masato; Ishiyama, Aki; Namatame, Miyuki; Nishihara-Tukashima, Aki; Kiyohara, Hiroaki; Hashimoto, Toshihiro; Asakawa, Yoshinori; Omura, Satoshi; Yamada, Haruki

    2011-11-01

    During the course of screening to discover antitrypanosomal compounds, 24 known plant terpenes (6 sesquiterpenes, 14 sesquiterpene lactones and 4 diterpenes) were evaluated for in vitro antitrypanosomal activity against Trypanosoma brucei brucei. Among them, 22 terpenes exhibited antitrypanosomal activity. In particular, α-eudesmol, hinesol, nardosinone and 4-peroxy-1,2,4,5-tetrahydro-α-santonin all exhibited selective and potent antitrypanosomal activities in vitro. Detailed here in an in vitro antitrypanosomal properties and cytotoxicities of the 24 terpenes compared with two therapeutic antitrypanosomal drugs (eflornithine and suramin). This finding represents the first report of promising trypanocidal activity of these terpenes. Present results also provide some valuable insight with regard to structure-activity relationships and the possible mode of action of the compounds.

  2. Antileishmanial and trypanocidal activity of Brazilian Cerrado plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariana Laundry de Mesquita

    2005-11-01

    Full Text Available The side effects and the emerging resistance to the available drugs against leishmaniasis and trypanosomiasis led to the urgent need for new therapeutic agents against these diseases. Thirty one extracts of thirteen medicinal plants from the Brazilian Cerrado were therefore evaluated in vitro for their antiprotozoal activity against promastigotes of Leishmania donovani, and amastigotes of Trypanosoma cruzi. Among the selected plants, Casearia sylvestris var. lingua was the most active against both L. donovani and T. cruzi. Fifteen extracts were active against promastigotes of L. donovani with concentrations inhibiting 50% of parasite growth (IC50 between 0.1-10 µg/ml, particularly those of Annona crassiflora (Annonaceae, Himatanthus obovatus (Apocynaceae, Guarea kunthiana (Meliaceae, Cupania vernalis (Sapindaceae, and Serjania lethalis (Sapindaceae. With regard to amastigotes of T. cruzi, extracts of A. crassiflora, Duguetia furfuracea (Annonaceae, and C. sylvestris var. lingua were active with IC50 values between 0.3-10 µg/ml. Bioassay fractionations of the more active extracts are under progress to identify the active antiparasite compounds.

  3. Antileishmanial and trypanocidal activity of Brazilian Cerrado plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mesquita, Mariana Laundry de; Desrivot, Julie; Bories, Christian; Fournet, Alain; Paula, José Elias de; Grellier, Philippe; Espindola, Laila Salmen

    2005-11-01

    The side effects and the emerging resistance to the available drugs against leishmaniasis and trypanosomiasis led to the urgent need for new therapeutic agents against these diseases. Thirty one extracts of thirteen medicinal plants from the Brazilian Cerrado were therefore evaluated in vitro for their antiprotozoal activity against promastigotes of Leishmania donovani, and amastigotes of Trypanosoma cruzi. Among the selected plants, Casearia sylvestris var. lingua was the most active against both L. donovani and T. cruzi. Fifteen extracts were active against promastigotes of L. donovani with concentrations inhibiting 50% of parasite growth (IC50) between 0.1-10 microg/ml, particularly those of Annona crassiflora (Annonaceae), Himatanthus obovatus (Apocynaceae), Guarea kunthiana (Meliaceae), Cupania vernalis (Sapindaceae), and Serjania lethalis (Sapindaceae). With regard to amastigotes of T. cruzi, extracts of A. crassiflora, Duguetia furfuracea (Annonaceae), and C. sylvestris var. lingua were active with IC50 values between 0.3-10 microg/ml. Bioassay fractionations of the more active extracts are under progress to identify the active antiparasite compounds.

  4. Subcellular Sequestration and Impact of Heavy Metals on the Ultrastructure and Physiology of the Multicellular Freshwater Alga Desmidium swartzii

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ancuela Andosch

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Due to modern life with increasing traffic, industrial production and agricultural practices, high amounts of heavy metals enter ecosystems and pollute soil and water. As a result, metals can be accumulated in plants and particularly in algae inhabiting peat bogs of low pH and high air humidity. In the present study, we investigated the impact and intracellular targets of aluminum, copper, cadmium, chromium VI and zinc on the filamentous green alga Desmidium swartzii, which is an important biomass producer in acid peat bogs. By means of transmission electron microscopy (TEM and electron energy loss spectroscopy (EELS it is shown that all metals examined are taken up into Desmidium readily, where they are sequestered in cell walls and/or intracellular compartments. They cause effects on cell ultrastructure to different degrees and additionally disturb photosynthetic activity and biomass production. Our study shows a clear correlation between toxicity of a metal and the ability of the algae to compartmentalize it intracellularly. Cadmium and chromium, which are not compartmentalized, exert the most toxic effects. In addition, this study shows that the filamentous alga Desmidium reacts more sensitively to aluminum and zinc when compared to its unicellular relative Micrasterias, indicating a severe threat to the ecosystem.

  5. Structure and anticoagulant activity of sulfated galactans. Isolation of a unique sulfated galactan from the red algae Botryocladia occidentalis and comparison of its anticoagulant action with that of sulfated galactans from invertebrates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farias, W R; Valente, A P; Pereira, M S; Mourão, P A

    2000-09-22

    We have characterized the structure of a sulfated d-galactan from the red algae Botryocladia occidentalis. The following repeating structure (-4-alpha-d-Galp-1-->3-beta-d-Galp-1-->) was found for this polysaccharide, but with a variable sulfation pattern. Clearly one-third of the total alpha-units are 2,3-di-O-sulfated and another one-third are 2-O-sulfated. The algal sulfated d-galactan has a potent anticoagulant activity (similar potency as unfractionated heparin) due to enhanced inhibition of thrombin and factor Xa by antithrombin and/or heparin cofactor II. We also extended the experiments to several sulfated polysaccharides from marine invertebrates with simple structures, composed of a single repeating structure. A 2-O- or 3-O-sulfated l-galactan (as well as a 2-O-sulfated l-fucan) has a weak anticoagulant action when compared with the potent action of the algal sulfated d-galactan. Possibly, the addition of two sulfate esters to a single alpha-galactose residue has an "amplifying effect" on the anticoagulant action, which cannot be totally ascribed to the increased charge density of the polymer. These results indicate that the wide diversity of polysaccharides from marine alga and invertebrates is a useful tool to elucidate structure/anticoagulant activity relationships.

  6. Anthelmintic activity of some Mediterranean browse plants against parasitic nematodes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manolaraki, F; Sotiraki, S; Stefanakis, A; Skampardonis, V; Volanis, M; Hoste, H

    2010-04-01

    The anthelmintic properties of tannin-rich plants are being explored as an alternative to chemical drugs. Most data have been acquired on legume forages, but only few on browse plants. The present study aimed to (i) screen the in vitro effects of extracts from 7 Mediterranean plants on Haemonchus contortus, (ii) verify the role of tannins using an inhibitor, polyvinyl polypyrrolidone (PVPP) and (iii) verify the in vivo effects of extracts from 4 plants. Significant inhibition was shown in vitro using a larval migration inhibition (LMI) assay for all extracts except that from Olea europaea var. koroneiki. After adding PVPP, the LMI values were restored to control levels for all plants except Pistacia lentiscus and Ceratonia siliqua, confirming a role for tannins in the activity. In the in vivo experiment, 48 lambs composed 6 groups, depending on diet. On Day 0, groups G1-G5 received H. contortus and Trichostrongylus colubriformis larvae and G6 remained uninfected. The various diets were distributed from Days 14 to 45: P. lentiscus (G1), Quercus coccifera (G2), C. siliqua (G3), Onobrychis viciifolia (G4), or Medicago sativa for the 2 control groups (G5, G6). Egg excretion, packed cell volumes (PCVs) and inorganic phosphate were measured weekly throughout the entire experimental period. At slaughter, the worms were enumerated and their fecundity assessed. Consumption of the 4 browser plants did not provoke differences in pathophysiological measurements but there were significant decreases in egg excretion, mainly explained by significant decreases in worm fecundity for both species, without any statistical difference in worm numbers.

  7. Anti-diabetic effects of brown algae derived phlorotannins, marine polyphenols through diverse mechanisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Seung-Hong; Jeon, You-Jin

    2013-04-01

    Marine algae are popular and abundant food ingredients mainly in Asian countries, and also well known for their health beneficial effects due to the presence of biologically active components. The marine algae have been studied for biologically active components and phlorotannins, marine polyphenols are among them. Among marine algae, brown algae have extensively studied for their potential anti-diabetic activities. Majority of the investigations on phlorotannins derived from brown algae have exhibited their various anti-diabetic mechanisms such as α-glucosidase and α-amylase inhibitory effect, glucose uptake effect in skeletal muscle, protein tyrosine phosphatase 1B (PTP 1B) enzyme inhibition, improvement of insulin sensitivity in type 2 diabetic db/db mice, and protective effect against diabetes complication. In this review, we have made an attempt to discuss the various anti-diabetic mechanisms associated with phlorotannins from brown algae that are confined to in vitro and in vivo.

  8. The P450-type carotene hydroxylase PuCHY1 from Porphyra suggests the evolution of carotenoid metabolism in red algae

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Li-En Yang; Xing-Qi Huang; Yu Hang; Yin-Yin Deng; Qin-Qin Lu; Shan Lu

    2014-01-01

    Carotene hydroxylases catalyze the hydroxylation of a-and b-carotene hydrocarbons into xanthophylls. In red algae, b-carotene is a ubiquitously distributed carotenoid, and hydroxylated carotenoids such as zeaxanthin and lutein are also found. However, no enzyme with carotene hydroxy-lase activity had been previously identified in red algae. Here, we report the isolation of a gene encoding a cytochrome P450-type carotene hydroxylase (PuCHY1) from Porphyra umbilicalis, a red alga with an ancient origin. Sequence comparisons found PuCHY1 belongs to the CYP97B subfamily, which has members from different photosynthetic organisms ranging from red algae to land plants. Functional comple-mentation in Escherichia coli suggested that PuCHY1 catalyzed the conversion from b-carotene to zeaxanthin. When we overexpressed PuCHY1 in the Arabidopsis thaliana chy2 mutant, pigment analysis showed a significant accumu-lation of hydroxylated carotenoids, including neoxanthin, violaxanthin, and lutein in the leaves of transgenic plants. These results confirmed a b-hydroxylation activity of PuCHY1, and also suggested a possible e-hydroxylation function. The pigment profile and gene expression analyses of the algal thallus under high-light stress suggested that P. umbilicalis is unlikely to operate a partial xanthophyll cycle for photoprotection.

  9. Exploration of the gasification of Spirulina algae in supercritical water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Andrew; Hendry, Doug; Wilkinson, Nikolas; Venkitasamy, Chandrasekar; Jacoby, William

    2012-09-01

    This study presents non-catalytic gasification of Spirulina algae in supercritical water using a plug flow reactor and a mechanism for feeding solid carbon streams into high pressure (>25 MPa) environments. A 2(III)(3-1) factorial experimental design explored the effect of concentration, temperature, and residence time on gasification reactions. A positive displacement pump fed algae slurries into the reactor at a temperature range of 550-600°C, and residence times between 4 and 9s. The results indicate that algae gasify efficiently in supercritical water, highlighting the potential for a high throughput process. Additional experiments determined Arrhenius parameters of Spirulina algae. This study also presents a model of the gasification reaction using the estimated activation energy (108 kJ/mol) and other Arrhenius parameters at plug flow conditions. The maximum rate of gasification under the conditions studied of 53 g/Ls is much higher than previously reported.

  10. Lab on a chip technologies for algae detection: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schaap, Allison; Rohrlack, Thomas; Bellouard, Yves

    2012-08-01

    Over the last few decades, lab on a chip technologies have emerged as powerful tools for high-accuracy diagnosis with minute quantities of liquid and as tools for exploring cell properties in general. In this paper, we present a review of the current status of this technology in the context of algae detection and monitoring. We start with an overview of the detection methods currently used for algae monitoring, followed by a review of lab on a chip devices for algae detection and classification, and then discuss a case study based on our own research activities. We conclude with a discussion on future challenges and motivations for algae-oriented lab on a chip technologies.

  11. Screening of Uruguayan plants for deterrent activity against insects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castillo, Lucía; González-Coloma, Azucena; González, Andrés; Díaz, Martina; Santos, Estela; Alonso-Paz, Eduardo; Bassagoda, María Julia; Rossini, Carmen

    2009-01-01

    We evaluated the anti-insectan activity of extracts from different vegetative parts of ten plant species native to Uruguay. The selected plants belong to five families: Bignoniaceae: Clytostoma callistegioides, Dolichandra cynanchoides, Macfadyena unguis-cati; Sapindaceae: Dodonaea viscosa, Allophylus edulis, Serjania meridionalis; Lamiaceae: Salvia procurrens, Salvia guaranitica; Solanaceae: Lycium cestroides; and Phytolaccaceae: Phytolacca dioica. The extracts were evaluated in independent bioassays against four insect pests and one beneficial insect. Aphid settling inhibition was evaluated with a grass specialist, Rhopalosiphum padi, and a feeding generalist, Myzus persicae (both Hemiptera: Aphididae). Antifeedant activity was tested with adults of the specialist Epilachna paenulata (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae) and larvae of the generalist Spodoptera littoralis (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae). Finally, contact toxicity was assessed with honey bees, Apis mellifera (Hymenoptera: Apidae). Strong settling inhibition (SI) activity (expressed as %SI, where 100% means complete inhibition by the extract) was found only for the twig extracts of A. edulis (Sapindaceae) against M. persicae (% SI = 77 +/- 4). Antifeedant activity (expressed as % of feeding reduction (FR), where 100% means no consumption on extract-treated diet) against E. paenulata was significant for the leaf extracts of L. cestroides (Solanaceae) (% FR = 100 +/- 0) as well as of all Bignoniaceae and Sapindaceae species. No extracts were active against S. littoralis larvae, and most of them were innocuous to honey bees, with the exception of L. cestroides and S. meridionalis leaf extracts.

  12. Transgenic algae engineered for higher performance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Unkefer, Pat J; Anderson, Penelope S; Knight, Thomas J

    2014-10-21

    The present disclosure relates to transgenic algae having increased growth characteristics, and methods of increasing growth characteristics of algae. In particular, the disclosure relates to transgenic algae comprising a glutamine phenylpyruvate transaminase transgene and to transgenic algae comprising a glutamine phenylpyruvate transaminase transgene and a glutamine synthetase.

  13. A Review on Medicinal Plants with Anti-Ulcer Activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shaikh A. M

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available A peptic ulcer is erosion in a segment of the gastro intestinal mucosa. It may typically in the stomach (gastric ulcer or first few centimeters of duodenum (duodenal ulcer that penetrates through the muscularis mucosae. Contrary to popular belief, ulcer is not only caused by spicy food but also most commonly due to an infection of Helicobacter Pylori and long term use of medications. Standard treatment is a combination of drugs including antibiotics and a proton pump inhibitors. Literature suggests that number of synthetic drugs are used in the management of peptic ulcers but elicit several adverse effects. Therefore Indian herbal plants stand out as being exceptional for its ethnic, ethobotanical and ethno-pharmaceutical use. In this review attempts have been made to know about some plants which may be used in treatment or prevention of peptic ulcers. Various plants like Excoecaria agallocha, Mentha arvensis, Utleria salicifolia, Emblica officinalis etc. proved active in antiulcer therapy. This combination of traditional and modern knowledge can produced better antiulcer drugs with fewer side effects. The medicinal plants are available in India and other countries, recent technologies advances have renewal interest in natural product in drug discovery.

  14. [Peculicidal activity of plant essential oils and their based preparations].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopatina, Iu V; Eremina, O Iu

    2014-01-01

    The peculicidal activity of eight plant essential oils in 75% isopropyl alcohol was in vitro investigated. Of them, the substances that were most active against lice were tea tree (Melaleuca), eucalyptus, neem, citronella (Cymbopogon nardus), and clove (Syzygium aromaticum) oils; KT50 was not more than 3 minutes on average; KT95 was 4 minutes. After evaporating the solvent, only five (tea tree, cassia, clove, anise (Anisum vulgare), and Japanese star anise (Illicium anisatum) oils) of the eight test botanical substances were active against lice. At the same time, KT50 and KT95 showed 1.5-5-fold increases. Citronella and anise oils had incomplete ovicidal activity. Since the lice were permethrin-resistant, the efficacy of preparations based on essential oils was much higher than permethrin.

  15. Antiviral activities of medicinal plants of southern Nepal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, R S; Hudson, J B; Manandhar, N P; Towers, G H

    1996-08-01

    In a screening of plants used traditionally in Nepal to treat diseases that could be caused by viruses, twenty-one methanol extracts from twenty species were quantitatively assayed for activity against three mammalian viruses: herpes simplex virus, Sindbis virus and poliovirus. Assays were performed in ultraviolet (UV)-A or visible light, as well as dark, and cytotoxicity was also noted. Impressive antiviral activities were exhibited by species of Bauhinia (Fabaceae), Carissa (Apocynaceae), Milletia (Fabaceae), Mallotus (Fabaceae), Rumex (Polygonaceae), Streblus (Moraceae), Terminalia (Combretaceae) and Tridax (Asteraceae). The Carissa extract was the most active, showing activity against all three viruses at a concentration of 12 micrograms/ml. Many of the other extracts showed partial inactivation of one or more test viruses.

  16. Antiurease activity of plants growing in the Czech Republic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hřibová, Petra; Khazneh, Elian; Žemlička, Milan; Švajdlenka, Emil; Ghoneim, Mohammed M; Elokely, Khaled M; Ross, Samir A

    2014-01-01

    The antiurease activity of the aqueous extracts of 42 plants growing in the Czech Republic was investigated. A phenol-hypochlorite reaction was used for the determination of ammonia produced by urease. The inhibitory activity of the extracts at a concentration of 0.2 mg/mL varied from 17.8% to 80.0%. Extracts from six Potentilla species expressed inhibitory activity against jack bean urease. They were further investigated for their phenolic constituents and the major compounds were subjected to molecular docking. The results revealed that both jack bean urease and Helicobacter pylori urease were inhibited by quercetin-3-O-β-D-galactopyranoside-6″-gallate (1), myricetin-3-O-β-D-glucuronide (2), tiliroside (3) and B-type procyanidin (4). The antiurease activity of the investigated Potentilla species is probably due to the presence of complex phenolic constituents such as flavonoid glycosides and catechin dimers.

  17. Antiviral Activity of Some Plants Used in Nepalese Traditional Medicine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Rajbhandari

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Methanolic extracts of 41 plant species belonging to 27 families used in the traditional medicine in Nepal have been investigated for in vitro antiviral activity against Herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1 and influenza virus A by dye uptake assay in the systems HSV-1/Vero cells and influenza virus A/MDCK cells. The extracts of Astilbe rivularis, Bergenia ciliata, Cassiope fastigiata and Thymus linearis showed potent anti-herpes viral activity. The extracts of Allium oreoprasum, Androsace strigilosa, Asparagus filicinus, Astilbe rivularis, Bergenia ciliata and Verbascum thapsus exhibited strong anti-influenza viral activity. Only the extracts of A. rivularis and B. ciliata demonstrated remarkable activity against both viruses.

  18. Anti-bacterial activity of some Brazilian medicinal plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Lima, Maria Raquel Ferreira; de Souza Luna, Josiane; dos Santos, Aldenir Feitosa; de Andrade, Maria Cristina Caño; Sant'Ana, Antônio Euzébio Goulart; Genet, Jean-Pierre; Marquez, Béatrice; Neuville, Luc; Moreau, Nicole

    2006-04-21

    Extracts from various organs of 25 plants of Brazilian traditional medicine were assayed with respect to their anti-bacterial activities against Escherichia coli, a susceptible strain of Staphylococcus aureus and two resistant strains of Staphylococcus aureus harbouring the efflux pumps NorA and MsrA. Amongst the 49 extracts studied, 14 presented anti-bacterial activity against Staphylococcus aureus, including the ethanolic extracts from the rhizome of Jatropha elliptica, from the stem barks of Schinus terebinthifolius and Erythrina mulungu, from the stems and leaves of Caesalpinia pyramidalis and Serjania lethalis, and from the stem bark and leaves of Lafoensia pacari. The classes of compounds present in the active extracts were determined as a preliminary step towards their bioactivity-guided separation. No extracts were active against Escherichia coli.

  19. Antimycobacterial and cytotoxic activity of selected medicinal plant extracts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguta, Joseph M.; Appiah-Opong, Regina; Nyarko, Alexander K.; Yeboah-Manu, Dorothy; Addo, Phyllis G.A.; Otchere, Isaac; Kissi-Twum, Abena

    2016-01-01

    Ethnopharmacological relevance Tuberculosis (TB) caused by Mycobacterium tuberculosis remains an ongoing threat to human health. Several medicinal plants are used traditionally to treat tuberculosis in Ghana. The current study was designed to investigate the antimycobacterial activity and cytotoxicity of crude extracts from five selected medicinal plants. Material and methods The microplate alamar blue assay (MABA) was used for antimycobacterial studies while the CellTiter 96® AQueous Assay, which is composed of solutions of a novel tetrazolium compound [3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-5-(3-carboxymethoxyphenyl)-2-(4-sulfophenyl)-2H-tetrazolium, inner salt; MTS] and an electron coupling reagent (phenazine methosulfate) PMS, was used for cytotoxic studies. Correlation coefficients were used to compare the activity of crude extracts against nonpathogenic strains and the pathogenic Mycobacterium tuberculosis subsp.tuberculosis. Results Results of the MIC determinations indicated that all the crude extracts were active on all the three tested mycobacterial strains. Minimum inhibitory concentration values as low as 156.3 µg/mL against M. tuberculosis; Strain H37Ra (ATCC® 25,177™) were recorded from the leaves of Solanum torvum Sw. (Solanaceae). Cytotoxicity of the extracts varied, and the leaves from S. torvum had the most promising selectivity index. Activity against M. tuberculosis; Strain H37Ra was the best predictor of activity against pathogenic Mycobacterium tuberculosis subsp.tuberculosis (correlation coefficient=0.8). Conclusion The overall results of the present study provide supportive data on the use of some medicinal plants for tuberculosis treatment. The leaves of Solanum torvum are a potential source of anti-TB natural products and deserve further investigations to develop novel anti-TB agents against sensitive and drug resistant strains of M. tuberculosis. PMID:26875647

  20. Complex effects of fertilization on plant and herbivore performance in the presence of a plant competitor and activated carbon.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nafiseh Mahdavi-Arab

    Full Text Available Plant-herbivore interactions are influenced by host plant quality which in turn is affected by plant growth conditions. Competition is the major biotic and nutrient availability a major abiotic component of a plant's growth environment. Yet, surprisingly few studies have investigated impacts of competition and nutrient availability on herbivore performance and reciprocal herbivore effects on plants. We studied growth of the specialist aphid, Macrosiphoniella tanacetaria, and its host plant tansy, Tanacetum vulgare, under experimental addition of inorganic and organic fertilizer crossed with competition by goldenrod, Solidago canadensis. Because of evidence that competition by goldenrod is mediated by allelopathic compounds, we also added a treatment with activated carbon. Results showed that fertilization increased, and competition with goldenrod decreased, plant biomass, but this was likely mediated by resource competition. There was no evidence from the activated carbon treatment that allelopathy played a role which instead had a fertilizing effect. Aphid performance increased with higher plant biomass and depended on plant growth conditions, with fertilization and AC increasing, and plant competition decreasing aphid numbers. Feedbacks of aphids on plant performance interacted with plant growth conditions in complex ways depending on the relative magnitude of the effects on plant biomass and aphid numbers. In the basic fertilization treatment, tansy plants profited from increased nutrient availability by accumulating more biomass than they lost due to an increased number of aphids under fertilization. When adding additional fertilizer, aphid numbers increased so high that tansy plants suffered and showed reduced biomass compared with controls without aphids. Thus, the ecological cost of an infestation with aphids depends on the balance of effects of growth conditions on plant and herbivore performance. These results emphasize the importance

  1. Complex effects of fertilization on plant and herbivore performance in the presence of a plant competitor and activated carbon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahdavi-Arab, Nafiseh; Meyer, Sebastian T; Mehrparvar, Mohsen; Weisser, Wolfgang W

    2014-01-01

    Plant-herbivore interactions are influenced by host plant quality which in turn is affected by plant growth conditions. Competition is the major biotic and nutrient availability a major abiotic component of a plant's growth environment. Yet, surprisingly few studies have investigated impacts of competition and nutrient availability on herbivore performance and reciprocal herbivore effects on plants. We studied growth of the specialist aphid, Macrosiphoniella tanacetaria, and its host plant tansy, Tanacetum vulgare, under experimental addition of inorganic and organic fertilizer crossed with competition by goldenrod, Solidago canadensis. Because of evidence that competition by goldenrod is mediated by allelopathic compounds, we also added a treatment with activated carbon. Results showed that fertilization increased, and competition with goldenrod decreased, plant biomass, but this was likely mediated by resource competition. There was no evidence from the activated carbon treatment that allelopathy played a role which instead had a fertilizing effect. Aphid performance increased with higher plant biomass and depended on plant growth conditions, with fertilization and AC increasing, and plant competition decreasing aphid numbers. Feedbacks of aphids on plant performance interacted with plant growth conditions in complex ways depending on the relative magnitude of the effects on plant biomass and aphid numbers. In the basic fertilization treatment, tansy plants profited from increased nutrient availability by accumulating more biomass than they lost due to an increased number of aphids under fertilization. When adding additional fertilizer, aphid numbers increased so high that tansy plants suffered and showed reduced biomass compared with controls without aphids. Thus, the ecological cost of an infestation with aphids depends on the balance of effects of growth conditions on plant and herbivore performance. These results emphasize the importance to investigate both

  2. Plants from Brazilian Cerrado with potent tyrosinase inhibitory activity.

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    Paula Monteiro Souza

    Full Text Available The increased amount of melanin leads to skin disorders such as age spots, freckles, melasma and malignant melanoma. Tyrosinase is known to be the key enzyme in melanin production. Plants and their extracts are inexpensive and rich resources of active compounds that can be utilized to inhibit tyrosinase as well as can be used for the treatment of dermatological disorders associated with melanin hyperpigmentation. Using in vitro tyrosinase inhibitory activity assay, extracts from 13 plant species from Brazilian Cerrado were evaluated. The results showed that Pouteria torta and Eugenia dysenterica extracts presented potent in vitro tyrosinase inhibition compared to positive control kojic acid. Ethanol extract of Eugenia dysenterica leaves showed significant (p<0.05 tyrosinase inhibitory activity exhibiting the IC₅₀ value of 11.88 µg/mL, compared to kojic acid (IC₅₀ value of 13.14 µg/mL. Pouteria torta aqueous extract leaves also showed significant inhibitory activity with IC₅₀ value of 30.01 µg/mL. These results indicate that Pouteria torta and Eugenia dysenterica extracts and their isolated constituents are promising agents for skin-whitening or antimelanogenesis formulations.

  3. In vitro activity of Amazon plant extracts against Enterococcus faecalis

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    Adriana Lígia de Castilho

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Previous studies analyzing 2,200 plant extracts indicated anti-enterococcal activity in 25 extracts obtained from Brazilian forests' plants. In the present study, these extracts were subjected to microdilution broth assay (MDBA and disk diffusion assay (DDA using planktonic Enterococcus faecalis ATCC® 29212TM and were submitted to phytochemical analysis in TLC and HPLC. Three extracts obtained from Ipomoea alba (MIC < 40 µg/mL, Diclinanona calycina (MIC < 40 µg/mL and Moronobea coccinea (40 < MIC < 80 µg/mL; MBC = 80 µg/mL showed significant bactericidal activity in the MDBA and four extracts obtained from I. alba (14.04 ± 0.55 mm diameter S. globulifera (14.43 ± 0.33 mm and 12.18 ± 0.28 mm diameter and Connarus ruber var. ruber (13.13 ± 0.18 mm diameter were active in DDA. Residues H2O obtained from Psidium densicomum (mean of 16.78 mm diameter and from Stryphnodendron pulcherrimum (mean of 15.97 mm diameter have shown an improved antibacterial activity after fractionation if compared to that obtained from the respective crude extracts. Antioxidant activity was observed in some residues of the active extracts. TLC analysis showed that phenolic compounds are likely to be found in active extracts. Three molecules were isolated from S. globulifera and were identified by 13C NMR lupeol, α-amyrin and 3β-hydroxyglutin-5-ene. The present chemical and biological findings suggest that these extracts are a potential source of new anti-Enterococcus compounds to be introduced in endodontic therapy.

  4. Antifungal activity of plant extracts with potential to control plant pathogens in pineapple

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Maria Diana Cerqueira Sales; Helber Barcellos Costa; Jose Aires Ventura; Debora Dummer Meira

    2016-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the in vitro antifungal activity of extracts, resins, oils and mother tinctures from plants against the filamentous fungi Fusarium guttiforme (F. guttiforme) and Chalara paradoxa, and to evaluate the control of the pineapple fusariosis in situ using mother tinctures. Methods: The screening of the antifungal potential of 131 extract forms from 63 plant species was performed in vitro by using plate-hole method. To control pineapple fusar-iosis in situ, preventive and post-infection treatments were performed on detached pineapple leaves of cv. P´erola (susceptible). Results: The quantitative study indicated that among the 49 mother tincture samples analyzed, 46% were effective against F. guttiforme and 29% for the Chalara paradoxa. The natural plant extracts, mother tincture of Glycyrrhiza glabra (MTGG1), mother tincture of Myroxylon balsamum (MTBT2), mother tincture of Aloe vera (MTAV3), mother tincture of Allium sativum (MTAS4), resin of Protium heptaphyllum (RESAM5) and crude extracts of Rhizophora mangle (CEMV6), exhibited an antifungal activity against F. guttiforme. In the preventive treatment against pineapple fusariosis, MTAV3, MTAS4 and MTGG1 were statistically similar to the treatment with tebuconazol fungicide. The curative treatments with MTAV3, MTAS4, MTGG1 and MTBT2 presented similar activity to fungicide (P Conclusions: The findings of the present study concluded that mother tinctures can effectively control phytopathogens. The mother tincture extract of Myroxylon balsamum showed antifungal activity and was used here for the first time for inhibition of phyto-pathogenic fungi. This study paves the way for the development of bioactive natural products with phytosanitary applications, with the added benefits of an environmentally safe and economically viable product.

  5. Antifungal activity of plant extracts with potential to control plant pathogens in pineapple

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Maria Diana Cerqueira Sales; Helber Barcellos Costa; Patrícia Machado Bueno Fernandes; José Aires Ventura; Debora Dummer Meira

    2016-01-01

    Objective:To evaluate the in vitro antifungal activity of extracts,resins,oils and mother tinctures from plants against the filamentous fungi Fusarium guttiforme(F.guttiforme)and Chalara paradoxa,and to evaluate the control of the pineapple fusariosis in situ using mother tinctures.Methods:The screening of the antifungal potential of 131 extract forms from 63 plant species was performed in vitro by using plate-hole method.To control pineapple fusariosis in situ,preventive and post-infection treatments were performed on detached pineapple leaves of cv.Perola(susceptible).Results:The quantitative study indicated that among the 49 mother tincture samples analyzed,46% were effective against F.guttiforme and 29% for the Chalara paradoxa.The natural plant extracts,mother tincture of Glycyrrhiza glabra(MTGG1),mother tincture of Myroxylon balsamum(MTBT2),mother tincture of Aloe vera(MTAV3),mother tincture of Allium sativum(MTAS4),resin of Protium heptaphyllum(RESAM5) and crude extracts of Rhizophora mangle(CEMV6),exhibited an antifungal activity against F.guttiforme.In the preventive treatment against pineapple fusariosis,MTAV3,MTAS4 and MTGG1 were statistically similar to the treatment with tebuconazol fungicide.The curative treatments with MTAV3,MTAS4,MTGG1 and MTBT2 presented similar activity to fungicide(P < 0.05).Conclusions:The findings of the present study concluded that mother tinctures can effectively control phytopathogens.The mother tincture extract of Myroxylon balsamum showed antifungal activity and was used here for the first time for inhibition of phytopathogenic fungi.This study paves the way for the development of bioactive natural products with phytosanitary applications,with the added benefits of an environmentally safe and economically viable product.

  6. In vitro cytotoxic activity of Brazilian Middle West plant extracts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Talal Suleiman Mahmoud

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Cytotoxic activity of eight plant extracts, native from the Mid-West of Brazil comprising Cerrado, Pantanal and semideciduous forest, was evaluated for MDA-MB-435, SF-295, and HCT-8 cancer cell strains. A single 100 µg.mL-1 dose of each extract was employed with 72 h of incubation for all tests. Doxorubicin (1 µg.mL-1 was used as the positive control and the MTT method was used to detect the activity. Cytotoxicity of distinct polarities was observed in thirty extracts (46%, from different parts of the following species: Tabebuia heptaphylla (Vell. Toledo, Bignoniaceae, Tapirira guianensis Aubl., Anacardiaceae, Myracrodruon urundeuva Allemão, Anacardiaceae, Schinus terebinthifolius Raddi, Anacardiaceae, Gomphrena elegans Mart., Amaranthaceae, Attalea phalerata Mart. ex Spreng., Arecaceae, Eugenia uniflora L., Myrtaceae, and Annona dioica A. St.-Hil., Annonaceae. Extracts of at least two tested cell strains were considered to be highly active since their inhibition rate was over 75%.

  7. Bio sorption of copper ions with biomass of algae and dehydrated waste of olives; Biosorcion de iones cobre con biomasa de algas y orujos deshidratados

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tapia, P.; Santander, M.; Pavez, O.; Valderrama, L.; Guzman, D.; Romero, L.

    2011-07-01

    They were carried out experiments of biosorption batch and in continuous to remove copper from aqueous solutions using as adsorbents green algae and olive residues under virgins conditions and chemically activated. The results of batch bio sorption indicate that the algae present mayor elimination capacities than the waste of olives, with uptakes of copper of the order of 96 % using activated algae with dissolution of Na{sub 2}SO{sub 4} under the optimum conditions. The results of the columns tests show that the virgin algae permits the removal of more copper ions than the activate algae, with removal efficiency of 98 % during the firth 20 min, a breakthrough time of 240 min and a saturation at time of 600 min. In the second cycle the regenerated biomass showed a best performance indicating that they can be used for another bio sorption cycle. (Author) 42 refs.

  8. Phenolic Constituents of Medicinal Plants with Activity against Trypanosoma brucei

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    Ya Nan Sun

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Neglected tropical diseases (NTDs affect over one billion people all over the world. These diseases are classified as neglected because they impact populations in areas with poor financial conditions and hence do not attract sufficient research investment. Human African Trypanosomiasis (HAT or sleeping sickness, caused by the parasite Trypanosoma brucei, is one of the NTDs. The current therapeutic interventions for T. brucei infections often have toxic side effects or require hospitalization so that they are not available in the rural environments where HAT occurs. Furthermore, parasite resistance is increasing, so that there is an urgent need to identify novel lead compounds against this infection. Recognizing the wide structural diversity of natural products, we desired to explore and identify novel antitrypanosomal chemotypes from a collection of natural products obtained from plants. In this study, 440 pure compounds from various medicinal plants were tested against T. brucei by in a screening using whole cell in vitro assays. As the result, twenty-two phenolic compounds exhibited potent activity against cultures of T. brucei. Among them, eight compounds—4, 7, 11, 14, 15, 18, 20, and 21—showed inhibitory activity against T. brucei, with IC50 values below 5 µM, ranging from 0.52 to 4.70 μM. Based on these results, we attempt to establish some general trends with respect to structure-activity relationships, which indicate that further investigation and optimization of these derivatives might enable the preparation of potentially useful compounds for treating HAT.

  9. A look at diacylglycerol acyltransferases (DGATs) in algae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Jit Ern; Smith, Alison G

    2012-11-30

    Triacylglycerols (TAGs) from algae are considered to be a potentially viable source of biodiesel and thereby renewable energy, but at the moment very little is known about the biosynthetic pathway in these organisms. Here we compare what is currently known in eukaryotic algal species, in particular the characteristics of algal diacylglycerol acyltransferase (DGAT), the last enzyme of de novo TAG biosynthesis. Several studies in plants and mammals have shown that there are two DGAT isoforms, DGAT1 and DGAT2, which catalyse the same reaction but have no clear sequence similarities. Instead, they have differences in functionality and spatial and temporal expression patterns. Bioinformatic searches of sequenced algal genomes reveal that most algae have multiple copies of putative DGAT2s, whereas other eukaryotes have single genes. Investigating whether these putative isoforms are indeed functional and whether they confer significantly different phenotypes to algal cells will be vital for future efforts to genetically modify algae for biofuel production.

  10. Algae from the arid southwestern United States: an annotated bibliography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thomas, W.H.; Gaines, S.R.

    1983-06-01

    Desert algae are attractive biomass producers for capturing solar energy through photosynthesis of organic matter. They are probably capable of higher yields and efficiencies of light utilization than higher plants, and are already adapted to extremes of sunlight intensity, salinity and temperature such as are found in the desert. This report consists of an annotated bibliography of the literature on algae from the arid southwestern United States. It was prepared in anticipation of efforts to isolate desert algae and study their yields in the laboratory. These steps are necessary prior to setting up outdoor algal culture ponds. Desert areas are attractive for such applications because land, sunlight, and, to some extent, water resources are abundant there. References are sorted by state.

  11. Optimization of the coke-oven activated sludge plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Raizer Neto, Ernesto [Santa Catarina Univ., Florianopolis, SC (Brazil); Colin, Francois [Institut de Recherches Hydrologiques, 54 - Nancy (France); Prost, Christian [Laboratoire de Sciences de Genie Chimique, Nancy (France)

    1993-12-31

    In the coke-oven activated sludge plants one of the greatest problems of malfunction is due to inffluent variability. The composition and, or, concentration variations of the inffluent substrate, which can cause an unstable system, are function of the pollutant load. Nevertheless, the knowledge of the kinetic biodegradation of the coke-oven effluent represents the limiting factor to develop an effective biological treatment. This work describes a computational model of the biological treatment which was elaborated and validated from continuous pilot scale experiments and calibrated by comparing its predictions to the pilot experiment`s results. 12 refs., 9 figs., 3 tabs.

  12. 海藻源细菌群体感应抑制剂筛选及其活性的初步研究%Primary studies on screening of marine algae polyphenols for quorum sensing inhibitor and their activities

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘尊英; 曾惠; 曾名湧

    2014-01-01

    ObjectiveTo evaluate the quorum sensing inhibitors activity of marine algae polyphenols. Methods Quorum sensing (QS) inhibition was measured by qualitative agar diffusion assay using the bacterial model ofChromobacterium violaceum CV026. The presence of phenolic compounds were detected by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC).ResultsTwelve out of 25 tested algae polyphenols possessed QS inhibitors activity. Polyphenols extracted fromUlva lactucal, Sargassum vachellianum and Undaria pinnatifida significantly reduced violacein production of C. violaceum CV026 at the concentration of 1.0 mg/mL, and the diameter of inhibitory violacein was 25.18, 21.61 and 20.43 mm, respectively. The presence of phenolic compounds were detected by HPLC, which revealed that the reduced violacein production of C. violaceum CV026 might be due to the high content of catechin and epicatechin with respect to their quorum sensing inhibitors activity. ConclusionThe results suggested the inhibiting QS system of bacteria using algae polyphones could lead to the development of new quorum sensing inhibitors.%目的:从海藻多酚提取物中筛选细菌群体感应抑制剂并研究其活性。方法采用紫色杆菌Chromo-bacteriumviolaceum CV026琼胶扩散法及高效液相色谱(high performance liquid chromatography, HPLC)法检测海藻多酚群体感应抑制活性及其成分组成。结果在选取的25种海藻中,12种海藻多酚具有群体感应抑制活性,其中石莼、马尾藻、裙带菜多酚的抑制活性最强。在1.0 mg/mL多酚浓度下,其形成的群体感应抑制圈直径分别为25.18、21.61、20.43 mm。采用HPLC进一步对三种海藻多酚的成分进行检测,结果显示三种海藻多酚均含有儿茶酚及表儿茶素。此外,还含有少量的阿魏酸及芦丁。结论石莼、马尾藻、裙带菜多酚具有群体感应抑制活性,有望开发为新型群体感应抑制剂。

  13. Antitumor and Antiviral Activity of Colombian Medicinal Plant Extracts

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    Betancur-Galvis LA

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available Extracts of nine species of plants traditionally used in Colombia for the treatment of a variety of diseases were tested in vitro for their potential antitumor (cytotoxicity and antiherpetic activity. MTT (Tetrazolium blue and Neutral Red colorimetric assays were used to evaluate the reduction of viability of cell cultures in presence and absence of the extracts. MTT was also used to evaluate the effects of the extracts on the lytic activity of herpes simplex virus type 2 (HSV-2. The 50% cytotoxic concentration (CC50 and the 50% inhibitory concentration of the viral effect (EC50 for each extract were calculated by linear regression analysis. Extracts from Annona muricata, A. cherimolia and Rollinia membranacea, known for their cytotoxicity were used as positive controls. Likewise, acyclovir and heparin were used as positive controls of antiherpetic activity. Methanolic extract from Annona sp. on HEp-2 cells presented a CC50 value at 72 hr of 49.6x103mg/ml. Neither of the other extracts examined showed a significant cytotoxicity. The aqueous extract from Beta vulgaris, the ethanol extract from Callisia grasilis and the methanol extract Annona sp. showed some antiherpetic activity with acceptable therapeutic indexes (the ratio of CC50 to EC50. These species are good candidates for further activity-monitored fractionation to identify active principles.

  14. In vitro antibacterial activity of some plant essential oils

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    Ignacimuthu Savarimuthu

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background: To evaluate the antibacterial activity of 21 plant essential oils against six bacterial species. Methods: The selected essential oils were screened against four gram-negative bacteria (Escherichia coli, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Proteus vulgaris and two gram-positive bacteria Bacillus subtilis and Staphylococcus aureus at four different concentrations (1:1, 1:5, 1:10 and 1:20 using disc diffusion method. The MIC of the active essential oils were tested using two fold agar dilution method at concentrations ranging from 0.2 to 25.6 mg/ml. Results: Out of 21 essential oils tested, 19 oils showed antibacterial activity against one or more strains. Cinnamon, clove, geranium, lemon, lime, orange and rosemary oils exhibited significant inhibitory effect. Cinnamon oil showed promising inhibitory activity even at low concentration, whereas aniseed, eucalyptus and camphor oils were least active against the tested bacteria. In general, B. subtilis was the most susceptible. On the other hand, K. pneumoniae exhibited low degree of sensitivity. Conclusion: Majority of the oils showed antibacterial activity against the tested strains. However Cinnamon, clove and lime oils were found to be inhibiting both gram-positive and gram-negative bacteria. Cinnamon oil can be a good source of antibacterial agents.

  15. Boron uptake, localization, and speciation in marine brown algae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Eric P; Wu, Youxian; Carrano, Carl J

    2016-02-01

    In contrast to the generally boron-poor terrestrial environment, the concentration of boron in the marine environment is relatively high (0.4 mM) and while there has been extensive interest in its use as a surrogate of pH in paleoclimate studies in the context of climate change-related questions, the relatively depth independent, and the generally non-nutrient-like concentration profile of this element have led to boron being neglected as a potentially biologically relevant element in the ocean. Among the marine plant-like organisms the brown algae (Phaeophyta) are one of only five lineages of photosynthetic eukaryotes to have evolved complex multicellularity. Many of unusual and often unique features of brown algae are attributable to this singular evolutionary history. These adaptations are a reflection of the marine coastal environment which brown algae dominate in terms of biomass. Consequently, brown algae are of fundamental importance to oceanic ecology, geochemistry, and coastal industry. Our results indicate that boron is taken up by a facilitated diffusion mechanism against a considerable concentration gradient. Furthermore, in both Ectocarpus and Macrocystis some boron is most likely bound to cell wall constituent alginate and the photoassimilate mannitol located in sieve cells. Herein, we describe boron uptake, speciation, localization and possible biological function in two species of brown algae, Macrocystis pyrifera and Ectocarpus siliculosus.

  16. Evaluation of antidiabetic activity of plants used in Western Sudan

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Maha; Abdulrahman; Alamin; Ahmed; Ibrahim; Yagi; Sakina; Mohamed; Yagi

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the traditional antidiabetic uses of some indigenous Sudanese plants on streptozotocin-induced diabetes rats. Methods: Diabetic rats were treated with a 400 mg/kg dose of aqueous extracts of five plant species orally for 2 h(acute) or 14 days(chronic). In acute model blood glucose levels were monitored at specific intervals. In the chronic model blood samples were collected from overnight fasted diabetic rats on day 15 to estimate blood glucose level. And the body weight, serum lipid profile and activities of liver and kidney enzymes were measured. Histopathological observations of liver sections were also studied.Results: In the case of acute treatment, aqueous extracts of Tinospora bakis(T. bakis), Nauclea latifolia(N. latifolia) and Randia nilotica(R. nilotica) at 400 mg/kg significantly lowered(P < 0.05) blood glucose levels in diabetic rats whereas, chronic treatment of diabetic rats with 400 mg/kg of T. bakis, N. latifolia, R. nilotica and Mitragyna inremis proved to have significant(P < 0.05) antihyperglycemic effect and have the capacity to correct the metabolic disturbances associated with diabetes. Histopathological studies showed that the aqueous extracts of these four plants reinforced the healing of liver. However, Striga hermonthica aqueous extract did not exert any antihyperglycemic effect to diabetic rats. Conclusions: This study demonstrated that T. bakis, N. latifolia, R. nilotica and Mitragyna inremis have therapeutic value in diabetes and related complications and thus supporting the traditional uses of these plants in Sudanese traditional medicine.

  17. Abiotic Stress Tolerance of Charophyte Green Algae: New Challenges for Omics Techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holzinger, Andreas; Pichrtová, Martina

    2016-01-01

    Charophyte green algae are a paraphyletic group of freshwater and terrestrial green algae, comprising the classes of Chlorokybophyceae, Coleochaetophyceae, Klebsormidiophyceae, Zygnematophyceae, Mesostigmatophyceae, and Charo- phyceae. Zygnematophyceae (Conjugating green algae) are considered to be closest algal relatives to land plants (Embryophyta). Therefore, they are ideal model organisms for studying stress tolerance mechanisms connected with transition to land, one of the most important events in plant evolution and the Earth's history. In Zygnematophyceae, but also in Coleochaetophyceae, Chlorokybophyceae, and Klebsormidiophyceae terrestrial members are found which are frequently exposed to naturally occurring abiotic stress scenarios like desiccation, freezing and high photosynthetic active (PAR) as well as ultraviolet (UV) irradiation. Here, we summarize current knowledge about various stress tolerance mechanisms including insight provided by pioneer transcriptomic and proteomic studies. While formation of dormant spores is a typical strategy of freshwater classes, true terrestrial groups are stress tolerant in vegetative state. Aggregation of cells, flexible cell walls, mucilage production and accumulation of osmotically active compounds are the most common desiccation tolerance strategies. In addition, high photophysiological plasticity and accumulation of UV-screening compounds are important protective mechanisms in conditions with high irradiation. Now a shift from classical chemical analysis to next-generation genome sequencing, gene reconstruction and annotation, genome-scale molecular analysis using omics technologies followed by computer-assisted analysis will give new insights in a systems biology approach. For example, changes in transcriptome and role of phytohormone signaling in Klebsormidium during desiccation were recently described. Application of these modern approaches will deeply enhance our understanding of stress reactions in an

  18. Active current control in wind power plants during grid faults

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Martinez, Jorge; Kjær, Phillip C.; Rodriguez, Pedro;

    2010-01-01

    , wind turbines usually have solutions that enable the turbines to control the generation of reactive power during faults. This paper addresses the importance of using an optimal injection of active current during faults in order to fulfil these grid codes. This is of relevant importance for severe......Modern wind power plants are required and designed to ride through faults in electrical networks, subject to fault clearing. Wind turbine fault current contribution is required from most countries with a high amount of wind power penetration. In order to comply with such grid code requirements...... faults, causing low voltages at the point of common coupling. As a consequence, a new wind turbine current controller for operation during faults is proposed. It is shown that to achieve the maximum transfer of reactive current at the point of common coupling, a strategy for optimal setting of the active...

  19. A bacterial tyrosine phosphatase inhibits plant pattern recognition receptor activation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macho, Alberto P; Schwessinger, Benjamin; Ntoukakis, Vardis; Brutus, Alexandre; Segonzac, Cécile; Roy, Sonali; Kadota, Yasuhiro; Oh, Man-Ho; Sklenar, Jan; Derbyshire, Paul; Lozano-Durán, Rosa; Malinovsky, Frederikke Gro; Monaghan, Jacqueline; Menke, Frank L; Huber, Steven C; He, Sheng Yang; Zipfel, Cyril

    2014-03-28

    Innate immunity relies on the perception of pathogen-associated molecular patterns (PAMPs) by pattern-recognition receptors (PRRs) located on the host cell's surface. Many plant PRRs are kinases. Here, we report that the Arabidopsis receptor kinase EF-TU RECEPTOR (EFR), which perceives the elf18 peptide derived from bacterial elongation factor Tu, is activated upon ligand binding by phosphorylation on its tyrosine residues. Phosphorylation of a single tyrosine residue, Y836, is required for activation of EFR and downstream immunity to the phytopathogenic bacterium Pseudomonas syringae. A tyrosine phosphatase, HopAO1, secreted by P. syringae, reduces EFR phosphorylation and prevents subsequent immune responses. Thus, host and pathogen compete to take control of PRR tyrosine phosphorylation used to initiate antibacterial immunity.

  20. Assessment of endotoxin activity in wastewater treatment plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guizani, Mokhtar; Dhahbi, Mahmoud; Funamizu, Naoyuki

    2009-07-01

    Endotoxic material, commonly associated to biological reactions, is thought to be one of the most important constituents in water. This has become a very important topic because of the common interest in microbial products governed by the possible shift to water reuse for drinking purposes. In this light, this study was conducted to provide an assessment of endotoxic activity in reclaimed wastewater. A bacterial endotoxin test (LAL test) was applied to water samples from several wastewater treatment plants (WWTP) in Sapporo, Japan keeping in view the seasonal variation. Samples were taken from several points in WWTP (influent, effluent, return sludge, advanced treatment effluent). The findings of this study indicated that wastewater shows high endotoxin activity. The value of Endotoxin (Endo) to COD ratio in the effluent is usually higher than that of the influent. Moreover, it is found that wastewater contains initially endotoxic active material. Some of those chemicals are biodegradable and but most of them are non-biodegradable. Batch scale activated sludge studies were undertaken to understand the origin of endotoxic active material in the effluent. This study showed that those chemicals are mainly produced during biological reactions, more precisely during decay process. Moreover, raw wastewater (RWW) contains high amounts of organic matter having endotoxicity which remains in the effluent.

  1. Antiplasmodial activity of the ethnobotanical plant Cassia fistula.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grace, Mary H; Lategan, Carmen; Graziose, Rocky; Smith, Peter J; Raskin, Ilya; Lila, Mary Ann

    2012-10-01

    In our ongoing investigation of new compounds with activity against malaria parasites, we tested the in vitro antiplasmodial activity of fractions and purified compounds from Cassia fistula L., a plant traditionally used by native populations of Tanzania, Zimbabwe, Mozambique and Brazil to treat malaria or symptoms associated with this disease. Crude extracts from leaves, bark and fruits were tested for their antiplasmodial activity against the chloroquine-sensitive strain of Plasmodium falciparum (D10), where leaf extracts showed the highest activity. The chloroform extract of the leaves was further bioassay-guided fractionated using a combination of centrifugal partition chromatography and flash column chromatography. Three main antiplasmodial principles, phytol (1) (IC50 18.9 +/- 0.60 microM), lutein (2) (IC50 12.5 +/- 0.35 microM), and di-lineolylgalactopyranosyl-glycerol (DLGG) (IC50 5.8 +/- 0.27 microM) (3), were isolated and identified using spectroscopic methods. When the three active principles were tested for their cytotoxicity using a Chinese Hamster Ovarian (CHO) cell line, compound 3 showed very weak toxicity (IC50 75.9 +/- 0.28 microM), while the other two compounds were nontoxic, even at the highest concentration tested. The study provides evidence to support the use of Cassia fistula as an antimalarial remedy and describes the antiplasmodial constituents from the leaves.

  2. Characteristics and phylogeny of light-harvesting complex gene encoded proteins from marine red alga Griffithsia japonica

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Chenlin; HUANG Xiaohang; LEE Yookyung; LEE Hongkum; LI Guangyou

    2005-01-01

    Six genes encoding light-harvesting complex (LHC) protein have been characterized in the multicellular red alga Griffithsia japonica EST analysis. Three of them were full sequences while others were partial sequences with 3'-UTRs. The cleavage sites between signal peptide and mature LHC protein were analyzed on these three full sequences. The sequence characteristics, calculated molecular weights and isoelectric point (pI) values and hydrophobieity of the mature proteins were deduced and analyzed. Comparing the LHC sequences of G. japonica with higher plant, Chlorophyta, chromophytes and other red algae, the high conservation of the chlorophyll (Chl) binding site among chromophytes and red algae were revealed. Phylogenetic analysis on LHC proteins from higher plant, green algae, euglena, brown algae, diatom, cryptomonad, Raphidophyte and red algae reveals that (1) there are two distinct groups of Chl a/b and Chl a/c -binding LHC; (2) Chl a binding proteins of red algae share greater similarities with the Chl a/c-binding proteins of the chromophytes and dinoflagellate than with the Chl a/b - binding proteins of the green algae and higher plants; (3) chromophyte' s LHC is supposed to be evolved from red algae LHC.

  3. Structure-Function Relations of Strigolactone Analogs: Activity as Plant Hormones and Plant Interactions

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Maja Cohen; Cristina Prandi; Ernesto G. Occhiato; Silvia Tabasso; Smadar Wininger; Nathalie Resnick; Yosef Steinberger

    2013-01-01

    Strigolactones (SLs) have several functions as signaling molecules in their interactions with symbiotic arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungi and the parasitic weeds Orobanche and Striga.SLs are also a new class of plant hormone regulating plant development.In all three organisms,a specific and sensitive receptor-mediated perception system is suggested.By comparing the activity of synthetic SL analogs on Arabidopsis root-hair elongation,Orobanche aegyptiaca seed germination,and hyphal branching of the AM fungus Glomus intraradices,we found that each of the tested organisms differs in its response to the various examined synthetic SL analogs.Structure-function relations of the SL analogs suggest substitutions on the A-ring as the cause of this variation.Moreover,the description of competitive antagonistic analogs suggests that the A-ring of SL can affect not only affinity to the receptor,but also the molecule's ability to activate it.The results support the conclusion that Arabidopsis,Orobanche,and AM fungi possess variations in receptor sensitivity to SL analogs,probably due to variation in SL receptors among the different species.

  4. In vitro antimicrobial activity of mangrove plant Sonneratia alba

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Shahbudin Saad; Muhammad Taher; Deny Susanti; Haitham Qaralleh; Anis Fadhlina Izyani Bt Awang

    2012-01-01

    Objective:To investigate the antimicrobial property of mangrove plant Sonneratia alba (S. alba). Methods: The antimicrobial activity was evaluated using disc diffusion and microdilution methods against six microorganisms. Soxhlet apparatus was used for extraction with a series of solvents, n-hexane, ethyl acetate and methanol in sequence of increasing polarity. Results:Methanol extract appeared to be the most effective extract while n-hexane extract showed no activity. The antimicrobial activities were observed against the gram positive bacteria Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus) and Bacillus cereus (B. cereus), the gram negative Escherichia coli (E. coli) and the yeast Cryptococcus neoformans. Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Candida albicans appeared to be not sensitive to the concentrations tested since no inhibition zone was observed. E. coli (17.5 mm) appeared to be the most sensitive strain followed by S. aureus (12.5 mm) and B. cereus (12.5 mm). Conclusions:From this study, it can be concluded that S. alba exhibits antimicrobial activities against certain microorganisms.

  5. Phytohormone profiles induced by trichoderma isolates correspond with their biocontrol and plant growth-promoting activity on melon plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez-Medina, Ainhoa; Del Mar Alguacil, Maria; Pascual, Jose A; Van Wees, Saskia C M

    2014-07-01

    The application of Trichoderma strains with biocontrol and plant growth-promoting capacities to plant substrates can help reduce the input of chemical pesticides and fertilizers in agriculture. Some Trichoderma isolates can directly affect plant pathogens, but they also are known to influence the phytohormonal network of their host plant, thus leading to an improvement of plant growth and stress tolerance. In this study, we tested whether alterations in the phytohormone signature induced by different Trichoderma isolates correspond with their ability for biocontrol and growth promotion. Four Trichoderma isolates were collected from agricultural soils and were identified as the species Trichoderma harzianum (two isolates), Trichoderma ghanense, and Trichoderma hamatum. Their antagonistic activity against the plant pathogen Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. melonis was tested in vitro, and their plant growth-promoting and biocontrol activity against Fusarium wilt on melon plants was examined in vivo, and compared to that of the commercial strain T. harzianum T-22. Several growth- and defense-related phytohormones were analyzed in the shoots of plants that were root-colonized by the different Trichoderma isolates. An increase in auxin and a decrease in cytokinins and abscisic acid content were induced by the isolates that promoted the plant growth. Principal component analysis (PCA) was used to evaluate the relationship between the plant phenotypic and hormonal variables. PCA pointed to a strong association of auxin induction with plant growth stimulation by Trichoderma. Furthermore, the disease-protectant ability of the Trichoderma strains against F. oxysporum infection seems to be more related to their induced alterations in the content of the hormones abscisic acid, ethylene, and the cytokinin trans-zeatin riboside than to the in vitro antagonism activity against F. oxysporum.

  6. SOIL ALGAE OF BLADE OF COIL IN DONETSK REGION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maltseva I.A.

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available On territory of Donbass for more than 200 years the underground coal mining has produced, accompanied by the formation of the mine dumps. Finding ways to reduce their negative impact on the environment should be based on their comprehensive study. The soil algae are active participants in the syngenetic processes in industrial dumps of different origin. The purpose of this paper is to identify the species composition and dominant algae groups in dump mine SH/U5 “Western” in the western part of Donetsk.The test blade is covered with vegetation to the middle from all sides, and on the north side of 20-25 m to the top. The vegetation cover of the lower and middle tiers of all the exposures range in 70-80%. Projective vegetation cover of upper tiers of the northern, north-eastern and north-western exposures are in the range of 20-40%, other – 5-10%. We revealed some 38 algae species as a result of our research in southern, northern, western, and eastern slopes of the blade “Western”. The highest species diversity has Chlorophyta - 14 species (36.8% of the total number of species, then Cyanophyta - 9 (23,7%, Bacillariophyta - 7 (18,4%, Xantophyta - 5 (13.2%, and Eustigmatophyta - 3 (7.9%. The dominants are represented by Hantzschia amphyoxys (Ehrenberg Grunow in Cleve et Grunow, Bracteacoccus aerius, Klebsormidium flaccidum (Kützing Silva et al., Phormidium autumnale, Pinnularia borealis Ehrenberg, Planothidium lanceolatum (Brebisson in Kützing Bukhtiyarova, Xanthonema exile (Klebs Silva.It should be noted that the species composition of algae groups in different slopes of the blade was significantly different. Jacquard coefficient was calculated for algae communities varied in the range of 15,4-39,1%. The smallest number of algae species was observed on the southern slope of the blade (14 species, maximum was registered in the areas of north and west slopes. Differences in the species composition of algae were also observed in three

  7. Antioxidative activities and active compounds of extracts from Catalpa plant leaves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Hongyu; Hu, Gege; Dong, Juane; Wei, Qin; Shao, Hongbo; Lei, Ming

    2014-01-01

    In order to screen the Catalpa plant with high antioxidant activity and confirm the corresponding active fractions from Catalpa ovata G. Don, C. fargesii Bur., and C. bungei C. A. Mey., total flavonoid contents and antioxidant activities of the extracts/fractions of Catalpa plant leaves were determined. The determined total flavonoid content and antioxidant activity were used as assessment criteria. Those compounds with antioxidant activity were isolated with silica gel column chromatography and ODS column chromatography. Our results showed that the total flavonoid content in C. bungei C. A. Mey. (30.07 mg/g · DW) was the highest, followed by those in C. fargesii Bur. (25.55 mg/g · DW) and C. ovata G. Don (24.96 mg/g · DW). According to the determination results of total flavonoid content and antioxidant activity in 3 clones of leaves of C. bungei C. A. Mey., the total flavonoid content and antioxidant activity in crude extracts from C. bungei C. A. Mey. 6 (CA6) leaves were the highest. Moreover, the results showed that the total flavonoid content and antioxidant activities of ethyl acetate (EA) fraction in ethanol crude extracts in CA6 leaves were the highest, followed by n-butanol, petroleum ether (PE), and water fractions. Two flavonoid compounds with antioxidant activity were firstly isolated based on EA fraction. The two compounds were luteolin (1) and apigenin (2), respectively.

  8. Antioxidative Activities and Active Compounds of Extracts from Catalpa Plant Leaves

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hongyu Xu

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In order to screen the Catalpa plant with high antioxidant activity and confirm the corresponding active fractions from Catalpa ovata G. Don, C. fargesii Bur., and C. bungei C. A. Mey., total flavonoid contents and antioxidant activities of the extracts/fractions of Catalpa plant leaves were determined. The determined total flavonoid content and antioxidant activity were used as assessment criteria. Those compounds with antioxidant activity were isolated with silica gel column chromatography and ODS column chromatography. Our results showed that the total flavonoid content in C. bungei C. A. Mey. (30.07 mg/g·DW was the highest, followed by those in C. fargesii Bur. (25.55 mg/g·DW and C. ovata G. Don (24.96 mg/g·DW. According to the determination results of total flavonoid content and antioxidant activity in 3 clones of leaves of C. bungei C. A. Mey., the total flavonoid content and antioxidant activity in crude extracts from C. bungei C. A. Mey. 6 (CA6 leaves were the highest. Moreover, the results showed that the total flavonoid content and antioxidant activities of ethyl acetate (EA fraction in ethanol crude extracts in CA6 leaves were the highest, followed by n-butanol, petroleum ether (PE, and water fractions. Two flavonoid compounds with antioxidant activity were firstly isolated based on EA fraction. The two compounds were luteolin (1 and apigenin (2, respectively.

  9. DYNAMICS OF LEAF PEROXIDASE ACTIVITY DURING ONTOGENY OF HEMP PLANTS, IN RELATION TO SEXUAL PHENOTYPE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena Truta

    2005-08-01

    Full Text Available During vegetation of female and male hemp plants (Cannabis sativa L., five quantitative determinations of peroxidase activities were made (40 days, 55 days, 70 days, 85 days, 105 days. Peroxidase activity presented some differences in hemp plants, between females and males, during their vegetation cycle. In female plants, before anthesis were registered peaks of peroxidase activities. The blossoming of male plants was coincident with the increase of catalitic action of peroxidase. Generally, the male plants displayed greater levels of peroxidasic activity.

  10. A Review on Antiulcer Activity of Few Indian Medicinal Plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Vimala

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Ulcer is a common gastrointestinal disorder which is seen among many people. It is basically an inflamed break in the skin or the mucus membrane lining the alimentary tract. Ulceration occurs when there is a disturbance of the normal equilibrium caused by either enhanced aggression or diminished mucosal resistance. It may be due to the regular usage of drugs, irregular food habits, stress, and so forth. Peptic ulcers are a broad term that includes ulcers of digestive tract in the stomach or the duodenum. The formation of peptic ulcers depends on the presence of acid and peptic activity in gastric juice plus a breakdown in mucosal defenses. A number of synthetic drugs are available to treat ulcers. But these drugs are expensive and are likely to produce more side effects when compared to herbal medicines. The literature revealed that many medicinal plants and polyherbal formulations are used for the treatment of ulcer by various ayurvedic doctors and traditional medicinal practitioners. The ideal aims of treatment of peptic ulcer disease are to relieve pain, heal the ulcer, and delay ulcer recurrence. In this review attempts have been made to know about some medicinal plants which may be used in ayurvedic as well as modern science for the treatment or prevention of peptic ulcer.

  11. Screening of estrogenic and antiestrogenic activities from medicinal plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, In Gyu; Kang, Se Chan; Kim, Kug Chan; Choung, Eui Su; Zee, Ok Pyo

    2008-01-01

    The medicinal plant extracts commercially used in Asia were screened for their estrogenic and antiestrogenic activities in a recombinant yeast system featuring both a human estrogen receptor (ER) expression plasmid and a reporter plasmid. Pueraria lobata (flower) had the highest estrogenic relative potency (RP, 7.75×10(-3); RP of 17β-estradiol=1), followed by Amomum xanthioides (1.25×10(-3)). Next potent were a group consisting of Glycyrrhiza uralensis, Zingiber officinale, Rheum undulatum, Curcuma aromatica, Eriobotrya japonica, Sophora flavescens, Anemarrhena asphodeloides, Polygonum multiflorum, and Pueraria lobata (root) (ranging from 9.5×10(-4) to 1.0×10(-4)). Least potent were Prunus persica, Lycoppus lucidus, and Adenophora stricta (ranging from 9.0×10(-5) to 8.0×10(-5)). The extracts exerting antiestrogenic effects, Cinnamomum cassia and Prunus persica, had relative potencies of 1.14×10(-3) and 7.4×10(-4), respectively (RP of tamoxifen=1). The solvent fractions from selected estrogenic or antiestrogenic herbs had higher estrogenic relative potencies, with their RP ranging from 9.3×10(-1) to 2.7×10(-4) and from 8.2×10(-1) to 9.1×10(-3), respectively. These results support previous reports on the efficacy of Oriental medicinal plants used or not used as phytoestrogens for hormone replacement therapy.

  12. Root endophyte Piriformospora indica DSM 11827 alters plant morphology, enhances biomass and antioxidant activity of medicinal plant Bacopa monniera.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prasad, Ram; Kamal, Shwet; Sharma, Pradeep K; Oelmüller, Ralf; Varma, Ajit

    2013-12-01

    Unorganized collections and over exploitation of naturally occurring medicinal plant Bacopa monniera is leading to rapid depletion of germplasm and is posing a great threat to its survival in natural habitats. The species has already been listed in the list of highly threatened plants of India. This calls for micropropagation based multiplication of potential accessions and understanding of their mycorrhizal associations for obtaining plants with enhanced secondary metabolite contents. The co-cultivation of B. monniera with axenically cultivated root endophyte Piriformospora indica resulted in growth promotion, increase in bacoside content, antioxidant activity and nuclear hypertrophy of this medicinal plant.

  13. Algae Bloom in a Lake

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Sanabria

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this paper is to determine the likelihood of an algae bloom in a particular lake located in upstate New York. The growth of algae in this lake is caused by a high concentration of phosphorous that diffuses to the surface of the lake. Our calculations, based on Fick's Law, are used to create a mathematical model of the driving force of diffusion for phosphorous. Empirical observations are also used to predict whether the concentration of phosphorous will diffuse to the surface of this lake within a specified time and under specified conditions.

  14. Cyanobacteria: algas productoras de toxinas

    OpenAIRE

    Echenique, Ricardo Omar; Giannuzzi, Leda; Andrinolo, Darío

    2007-01-01

    El de las Cyanobacteria es un grupo de algas con características particulares. Por su coloración, dada por los pigmentos que posee, comúnmente se las conoce como algas verde-azules. Según registros fósiles, son los primeros organismos fotosintéticos aparecidos en nuestro planeta (3000-3500 millones de años), por esto se los consideran los responsables de originar la atmósfera inicial que posibilitó la evolución del resto de los seres vivos habitantes de la Tierra. Estos organismos, desde micr...

  15. Pheromones in marine algae: A technical approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gassmann, G.; Müller, D. G.; Fritz, P.

    1995-03-01

    It is now well known that many marine organisms use low-molecular volatile substances as signals, in order to coordinate activities between different individuals. The study of such pheromones requires the isolation and enrichment of the secretions from undisturbed living cells or organisms over extended periods of time. The Grob-Hersch extraction device, which we describe here, avoids adverse factors for the biological materials such as strong water currents, rising gas bubbles or chemical solvents. Furthermore, the formation of sea-water spray is greatly reduced. The application of this technique for the isolation of pheromones of marine algae and animals is described.

  16. Screening of antimutagenicity via antioxidant activity in Cuban medicinal plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramos, A; Visozo, A; Piloto, J; García, A; Rodríguez, C A; Rivero, R

    2003-08-01

    The reducing activity on the 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical, z.rad;OH radical scavenging potential, in vitro inhibition of lipid peroxidation and modulation of mutagenicity induced by ter-butyl hydroperoxide (TBH) in Escherichia coli were sequentially screened in 45 species of plants used with medicinal purposes in Cuba, in a search for antioxidant agents which protect DNA against oxidative stress.Five species, e.g. Tamarindus indica L., Lippia alba L., Pimenta dioica (L.) Merr, Rheedia aristata Griseb. and Curcuma longa L. displayed IC(50)essential oil of Pimenta dioica, also inhibited oxidative mutagenesis by TBH in Escherichia coli, at concentrations ranging from 150 to 400 micro g/plate.

  17. Formation of algae growth constitutive relations for improved algae modeling.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gharagozloo, Patricia E.; Drewry, Jessica Louise.

    2013-01-01

    This SAND report summarizes research conducted as a part of a two year Laboratory Directed Research and Development (LDRD) project to improve our abilities to model algal cultivation. Algae-based biofuels have generated much excitement due to their potentially large oil yield from relatively small land use and without interfering with the food or water supply. Algae mitigate atmospheric CO2 through metabolism. Efficient production of algal biofuels could reduce dependence on foreign oil by providing a domestic renewable energy source. Important factors controlling algal productivity include temperature, nutrient concentrations, salinity, pH, and the light-to-biomass conversion rate. Computational models allow for inexpensive predictions of algae growth kinetics in these non-ideal conditions for various bioreactor sizes and geometries without the need for multiple expensive measurement setups. However, these models need to be calibrated for each algal strain. In this work, we conduct a parametric study of key marine algae strains and apply the findings to a computational model.

  18. Antioxidant and antibacterial activities of polyphenols from ethnomedicinal plants of Burkina Faso

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Karou, D.; Dicko, M.H.; Simpore, J.; Traore, A.S.

    2005-01-01

    Polyphenols from four medicinal plants of Burkina Faso, Combretum micranthum, Khaya senegalensis, Pterocarpus erinaceus and Sida acuta, were screened for their antioxidant and antimicrobial activities against pathogenic bacteria. The medicinal plants displayed different polyphenols contents and anti

  19. Molecular analysis of plant architecture in Arabidopsis thaliana using activation tagging.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chalfun Junior, A.

    2004-01-01

    Keywords: Arabidopsisthaliana, activation tagging, T-DNA, transposon, mutants, enhancer, DNA methylation, plant architecture, development, forward/reverse genetics, lateral organs, flower, vascular tissue, HLH, transmembrane, transcription factorsPlant development is one of the mos

  20. An overview of historical harmful algae blooms outbreaks in the Arabian Seas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al Shehhi, Maryam R; Gherboudj, Imen; Ghedira, Hosni

    2014-09-15

    Harmful algae blooms (HABs), often composed of oceanic plants called phytoplankton, are potentially harmful to the marine life, water quality, human health, and desalination plants, a chief source of potable water in the Arabian Gulf. The last decade has seen a noticeable increase in the frequency of HAB outbreaks in the Arabian Seas. This increase is mainly caused by the unprecedented economic growth in the region. The increased human activities in the region have added more stress to the marine environment and contributed to the changes observed in the properties of the marine ecosystem: high temperature and salinity, high evaporation rates, limited freshwater inflow, shallow nature, pollution. However, very few studies that cover the HAB outbreaks, causes, impacts and biological characteristics over the region have been published. This work presents a comprehensive overview of historical HAB outbreaks recorded in the region, and investigate their causes and impact, and seasonal variability.

  1. The stereochemistry of chlorophyll-c₃ from the haptophyte Emiliania huxleyi: the (13²R)-enantiomers of chlorophylls-c are exclusively selected as the photosynthetically active pigments in chromophyte algae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mizoguchi, Tadashi; Kimura, Yuki; Yoshitomi, Taichi; Tamiaki, Hitoshi

    2011-11-01

    Chlorophyll(Chl)-c pigments in algae, diatoms and some prokaryotes are characterized by the fully conjugated porphyrin π-system as well as the acrylate residue at the 17-position. The precise structural characterization of Chl-c(3) from the haptophyte Emiliania huxleyi was performed. The conformations of the π-conjugated peripheral substituents, the 3-/8-vinyl, 7-methoxycarbonyl and 17-acrylate moieties were evaluated, in a solution, using nuclear Overhauser enhancement correlations and molecular modeling calculations. The rotation of the 17-acrylate residue was considerably restricted, whereas the other three substituents readily rotated at ambient temperature. Moreover, the stereochemistry at the 13²-position was determined by combination of chiral high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) with circular dichroism (CD) spectroscopy. Compared with the CD spectra of the structurally related, synthetic (13²R)- and (13²S)-protochlorophyllide(PChlide)-a, naturally occurring Chl-c₃ had exclusively the (13²R)-configuration. To elucidate this natural selection of a single enantiomer, we analyzed the three major Chl-c pigments (Chl-c₁, c₂ and c₃) in four phylogenetically distinct classes of Chl-c containing algae, i.e., heterokontophyta, dinophyta, cryptophyta and haptophyta using chiral HPLC. All the photosynthetic organisms contained only the (13²R)-enantiomerically pure Chls-c, and lacked the corresponding enantiomeric (13²S)-forms. Additionally, Chl-c₂ was found in all the organisms as the common Chl-c. These results throw a light on the biosynthesis as well as photosynthetic function of Chl-c pigments: Chl-c₂ is derived from 8-vinyl-PChlide-a by dehydrogenation of the 17-propionate to acrylate residues as generally proposed, and the (13²R)-enantiomers of Chls-c function as photosynthetically active, light-harvesting pigments together with the principal Chl-a and carotenoids.

  2. 21 CFR 184.1120 - Brown algae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Brown algae. 184.1120 Section 184.1120 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN... Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1120 Brown algae. (a) Brown algae are seaweeds of the species...

  3. Phycobiliproteins: A Novel Green Tool from Marine Origin Blue-Green Algae and Red Algae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chandra, Rashmi; Parra, Roberto; Iqbal, Hafiz M N

    2017-01-01

    Marine species are comprising about a half of the whole global biodiversity; the sea offers an enormous resource for novel bioactive compounds. Several of the marine origin species show multifunctional bioactivities and characteristics that are useful for a discovery and/or reinvention of biologically active compounds. For millennia, marine species that includes cyanobacteria (blue-green algae) and red algae have been targeted to explore their enormous potential candidature status along with a wider spectrum of novel applications in bio- and non-bio sectors of the modern world. Among them, cyanobacteria are photosynthetic prokaryotes, phylogenetically a primitive group of Gramnegative prokaryotes, ranging from Arctic to Antarctic regions, capable of carrying out photosynthesis and nitrogen fixation. In the recent decade, a great deal of research attention has been paid on the pronouncement of bio-functional proteins along with novel peptides, vitamins, fine chemicals, renewable fuel and bioactive compounds, e.g., phycobiliproteins from marine species, cyanobacteria and red algae. Interestingly, they are extensively commercialized for natural colorants in food and cosmetics, antimicrobial, antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, neuroprotective, hepatoprotective agents and fluorescent neo-glycoproteins as probes for single particle fluorescence imaging fluorescent applications in clinical and immunological analysis. However, a comprehensive knowledge and technological base for augmenting their commercial utilities are lacking. Therefore, this paper will provide an overview of the phycobiliproteins-based research literature from marine cyanobacteria and red algae. This review is also focused towards analyzing global and commercial activities with application oriented-based research. Towards the end, the information is also given on the potential biotechnological and biomedical applications of phycobiliproteins.

  4. Evidence for the occurrence of photorespiration in synurophyte algae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhatti, Shabana; Colman, Brian

    2011-09-01

    The fluxes of CO(2) and oxygen during photosynthesis by cell suspensions of Tessellaria volvocina and Mallomonas papillosa were monitored mass spectrometrically. There was no rapid uptake of CO(2,) only a slow drawdown to compensation concentrations of 26 μM for T. volvocina and 18 μM for M. papillosa, when O(2) evolution ceased, indicating a lack of active bicarbonate uptake by the cells. Darkening of the cells after a period of photosynthesis did not cause rapid release of CO(2), indicating the absence of an intracellular inorganic carbon pool. However, upon darkening a brief burst of CO(2) was observed similar to the post-illumination burst characteristic of C(3) higher plants. Treatment of the cells of both species with the membrane-permeable carbonic anhydrase inhibitor ethoxyzolamide had no adverse effect on photosynthetic rate, but stimulated the dark CO(2) burst indicating the dark oxidation of a compound formed in the light. In the absence of any active accumulation of inorganic carbon photosynthesis in these species should be inhibited by O(2). This was investigated in four synurophyte species T. volvocina, M. papillosa, Synura petersenii, and Synura uvella: photosynthetic O(2) evolution rates in all four algae, measured by O(2) electrode, were significantly higher (40-50%) in media at low O(2) (4%) than in air-equilibrated (21% O(2)) media, indicating an O(2) inhibition of photosynthesis (Warburg effect) and thus the occurrence of photorespiration in these species.

  5. Pharmacological activities of Solanum melongena Linn. (Brinjal plant)

    OpenAIRE

    Mitali Das; Nilotpal Barua

    2013-01-01

    Solanum melongena Linn. is a herbaceous plant, with coarsely lobed leaves, white to purple flowers, fruit is berry and are grown mainly for food and medicinal purposes. The plant contains flavonoids, tropane, glycoalkaloids, arginine, lanosterol, gramisterol, aspartic acid as important constituents. The plant is reported to have analgesic, antipyretic, antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, antiasthmatic, hypolipidemic, hypotensive, antiplatelet, intraocular pressure reducing, CNS depressant and ana...

  6. Algae -- a poor man's HAART?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teas, Jane; Hebert, James R; Fitton, J Helen; Zimba, Paul V

    2004-01-01

    Drawing inferences from epidemiologic studies of HIV/AIDS and in vivo and in vitro HIV inhibition by algae, we propose algal consumption as one unifying characteristic of countries with anomalously low rates. HIV/AIDS incidence and prevalence in Eastern Asia ( approximately 1/10000 adults in Japan and Korea), compared to Africa ( approximately 1/10 adults), strongly suggest that differences in IV drug use and sexual behavior are insufficient to explain the 1000-fold variation. Even in Africa, AIDS/HIV rates vary. Chad has consistently reported low rates of HIV/AIDS (2-4/100). Possibly not coincidentally, most people in Japan and Korea eat seaweed daily and the Kanemba, one of the major tribal groups in Chad, eat a blue green alga (Spirulina) daily. Average daily algae consumption in Asia and Africa ranges between 1 and 2 tablespoons (3-13 g). Regular consumption of dietary algae might help prevent HIV infection and suppress viral load among those infected.

  7. Scenario studies for algae production

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Slegers, P.M.

    2014-01-01

    Microalgae are a promising biomass for the biobased economy to produce food, feed, fuel, chemicals and materials. So far, large-scale production of algae is limited and as a result estimates on the performance of such large systems are scarce. There is a need to estimate large-scale biomass producti

  8. Larvicidal activity of plant extracts on Aedes Aegypti L.

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Anitha Rajasekaran; Geethapriya Duraikannan

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the larvicidal activity of plant extracts on Aedes aegypti. Methods:Petroleum ether, Chloroform and aqueous extracts obtained from Acalypha indica, Aerva lanata,Boerhaavia diffusa, Commelina benghalensis, Gompherna sps, Datura stramonium, Euphorpia hirta, Cynodon dactylon, Lantana camara and Tridax procumbens were used for larvicidal activity at concentration of 1000μg/ml and the mortality rate was calculated after 24 and 48hrs . The LC50 for the extracts were also estimated after 24 hrs. Results: The petroleum ether extract ofLantana camara, Tridax procumbens and Datura stramonium showed 100% mortality after 48hrs of incubation. Tridax procumbens petroleum ether extract had the least LC50 of 219 μg/ml followed by Lantana and Datura with 251and 288 μg/ml respectively. A combination of petroleum ether extracts of Aerva lanata and Cynodon dactylon, Boerhaavia diffusa and Commelina benghalensis exhibited 100% mortality of larvae. Formulation-1 inhibited the metamorphosis of the larvae by retaining 60% in its larval stage. Petroleum ether extracts of Lantana, Tridax, Datura and a combination of extracts were effective larvicide. The formulations proved to be effective in inhibiting the metamorphosis. Alkaloids and flavonoids were present in datura petroleum ether extract . Conclusions: Either the crude extracts of Datura stramonium, Lantana camara and Tridax procumbens or its phytochemicals can be used as effective vector control agents individually or in combination.

  9. Bacterial Diversity of Active Sludge in Wastewater Treatment Plant

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Xin; Ma, Mingchao; Li, Jun; Lu, Anhuai; Zhong, Zuoshen

    A bacterial 16S rDNA gene clone library was constructed to analyze the bacterial diversity of active sludge in Gaobeidian Wastewater Treatment Plant, Beijing. The results indicated that the bacterial diversity of active sludge was very high, and the clones could be divided into 5 different groups. The dominant bacterial community was proteobacteria, which accounted for 76.7%. The dominant succession of bacterial community were as follows: the β-proteobacteria (39.8%), the uncultured bacteria (22.33%), the γ-proteobacteria (20.15%), the α-proteobacteria (6.79%), and the σ-proteobacteria (4.85%). Nitrosomonas-like and Nitrospira-like bacteria, such as Nitrosomonas sp. (1.94%) and uncultured Nitrospirae bacterium (11.65%) were also detected, which have played important roles in ammonia and nitrite oxidisers in the system. However, they were only a little amount because of their slow growth and less competitive advantage than heterotrophic bacteria. Denitrifying bacteria like Thauera sp. was at a high percentage, which implies a strong denitrification ability; Roseomonas sp. was also detected in the clone library, which could be related to the degradation of organophosphorus pesticide.

  10. Application of algae-biosensor for environmental monitoring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Umar, Lazuardi; Alexander, Frank A; Wiest, Joachim

    2015-01-01

    Environmental problems including water and air pollution, over fertilization, insufficient wastewater treatment and even ecological disaster are receiving greater attention in the technical and scientific area. In this paper, a method for water quality monitoring using living green algae (Chlorella Kessleri) with the help of the intelligent mobile lab (IMOLA) is presented. This measurement used two IMOLA systems for measurement and reference simultaneously to verify changes due to pollution inside the measurement system. The IMOLA includes light emitting diodes to stimulate photosynthesis of the living algae immobilized on a biochip containing a dissolved oxygen microsensor. A fluid system is used to transport algae culture medium in a stop and go mode; 600s ON, 300s OFF, while the oxygen concentration of the water probe is measured. When the pump stops, the increase in dissolved oxygen concentration due to photosynthesis is detected. In case of a pollutant being transported toward the algae, this can be detected by monitoring the photosynthetic activity. Monitoring pollution is shown by adding emulsion of 0,5mL of Indonesian crude palm oil and 10mL algae medium to the water probe in the biosensor.

  11. Epithermal Neutron Activation Analysis of the Asian Herbal Plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baljinnyam, N.; Jugder, B.; Norov, N.; Frontasyeva, M. V.; Ostrovnaya, T. M.; Pavlov, S. S.

    2011-06-01

    Asian medicinal herbs Chrysanthemum (Spiraea aquilegifolia Pall.) and Red Sandalwood (Pterocarpus Santalinus) are widely used in folk and Ayurvedic medicine for healing and preventing some diseases. The modern medical science has proved that the Chrysanthemum (Spiraea aquilegifolia Pall.) possesses the following functions: reducing blood press, dispelling cancer cell, coronary artery's expanding and bacteriostating and Red Sandalwood (Pterocarpus Santalinus) is recommended against headache, toothache, skin diseases, vomiting and sometimes it is taken for treatment of diabetes. Species of Chrysanthemums were collected in the north-eastern and central Mongolia, and the Red Sandalwood powder was imported from India. Samples of Chrysanthemums (branches, flowers and leaves) (0.5 g) and red sandalwood powder (0.5 g) were subjected to the multi-element instrumental neutron activation analysis using epithermal neutrons (ENAA) at the IBR-2 reactor, Frank Laboratory of Neutron Physics (FLNP) JINR, Dubna. A total of 41 elements (Na, Mg, Al, Cl, K, Ca, Sc, V, Cr, Mn, Fe, Co, Ni, Zn, As, Se, Br, Rb, Sr, Zr, Mo, Cd, Cs, Ba, La, Hf, Ta, W, Sb, Au, Hg, Ce, Nd, Sm, Eu, Tb, Dy, Yb, Th, U, Lu) were determined. For the first time such a large group of elements was determined in the herbal plants used in Mongolia. The quality control of the analytical results was provided by using certified reference material Bowen Cabbage. The results obtained are compared to the "Reference plant» data (B. Markert, 1992) and interpreted in terms of excess of such elements as Se, Cr, Ca, Fe, Ni, Mo, and rare earth elements.

  12. Melanogenesis and antityrosinase activity of selected South african plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mapunya, Manyatja Brenda; Nikolova, Roumiana Vassileva; Lall, Namrita

    2012-01-01

    Melanin is the pigment that is responsible for the colour of eyes, hair, and skin in humans. Tyrosinase is known to be the key enzyme in melanin biosynthesis. Overactivity of this enzyme leads to dermatological disorders such as age spots, melanoma and sites of actinic damage. Ten plants belonging to four families (Asphodelaceae, Anacardiaceae, Oleaceae, and Rutaceae) were investigated for their effect on tyrosinase using both L-tyrosine and L-DOPA as substrates. Ethanol leaf extracts (500 μg/mL) of Aloe ferox, Aloe aculeata, Aloe pretoriensis, and Aloe sessiliflora showed 60%, 31%, 17%, and 13% inhibition of tyrosinase activity respectively, when L-tyrosine was used as a substrate. Harpephyllum caffrum (leaves) at a concentration of 500 μg/mL had an inhibitory effect of 70% on tyrosinase when L-DOPA was used as a substrate. The IC(50) of Harpephyllum caffrum (leaves and bark) were found to be 51 ± 0.002 and 40 ± 0.035 μg/mL, respectively. Following the results obtained from the tyrosinase assay, extracts from Harpephyllum caffrum were selected for further testing on their effect on melanin production and their cytotoxicity on melanocytes in vitro. The IC(50) of both extracts was found to be 6.25 μg/mL for melanocyte cells. Bark extract of Harpephyllum caffrum showed 26% reduction in melanin content of melanocyte cells at a concentration of 6.25 μg/mL. The leaf extract of this plant showed some toxicity on melanocyte cells. Therefore, the bark extract of Harpephyllum caffrum could be considered as an antityrosinase agent for dermatological disorders such as age spots and melasoma.

  13. Melanogenesis and Antityrosinase Activity of Selected South African Plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manyatja Brenda Mapunya

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Melanin is the pigment that is responsible for the colour of eyes, hair, and skin in humans. Tyrosinase is known to be the key enzyme in melanin biosynthesis. Overactivity of this enzyme leads to dermatological disorders such as age spots, melanoma and sites of actinic damage. Ten plants belonging to four families (Asphodelaceae, Anacardiaceae, Oleaceae, and Rutaceae were investigated for their effect on tyrosinase using both L-tyrosine and L-DOPA as substrates. Ethanol leaf extracts (500 μg/mL of Aloe ferox, Aloe aculeata, Aloe pretoriensis, and Aloe sessiliflora showed 60%, 31%, 17%, and 13% inhibition of tyrosinase activity respectively, when L-tyrosine was used as a substrate. Harpephyllum caffrum (leaves at a concentration of 500 μg/mL had an inhibitory effect of 70% on tyrosinase when L-DOPA was used as a substrate. The IC50 of Harpephyllum caffrum (leaves and bark were found to be 51±0.002 and 40±0.035 μg/mL, respectively. Following the results obtained from the tyrosinase assay, extracts from Harpephyllum caffrum were selected for further testing on their effect on melanin production and their cytotoxicity on melanocytes in vitro. The IC50 of both extracts was found to be 6.25 μg/mL for melanocyte cells. Bark extract of Harpephyllum caffrum showed 26% reduction in melanin content of melanocyte cells at a concentration of 6.25 μg/mL. The leaf extract of this plant showed some toxicity on melanocyte cells. Therefore, the bark extract of Harpephyllum caffrum could be considered as an antityrosinase agent for dermatological disorders such as age spots and melasoma.

  14. Fate of linear alkylbenzene sulfonate (LAS) in activated sludge plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Temmink, H; Klapwijk, Bram

    2004-02-01

    Monitoring data were collected in a pilot-scale municipal activated sludge plant to assess the fate of the C12-homologue of linear alkyl benzene sulfonate (LAS-C12). The pilot-plant was operated at influent LAS-C12 concentrations between 2 and 12 mg l(-1) and at sludge retention times of 10 and 27 days. Effluent and waste sludge concentrations varied between 5 and 10 microg l(-1) and between 37 and 69 microg g(-1) VSS, respectively. In the sludge samples only 2-8% was present as dissolved LAS-C12, whereas the remaining 92-98% was found to be adsorbed to the sludge. In spite of this high degree of sorption, more than 99% of the LAS-C12 load was removed by biodegradation, showing that not only the soluble fraction but also the adsorbed fraction of LAS-C12 is readily available for biodegradation. Sorption and biodegradation of LAS-C12 were also investigated separately. Sorption was an extremely fast and reversible process and could be described by a linear isotherm with a partition coefficient of 3.2 l g(-1) volatile suspended solids. From the results of biodegradation kinetic tests it was concluded that primary biodegradation of LAS-C12 cannot be described by a (growth) Monod model, but a secondary utilisation model should be used instead. The apparent affinity of the sludge to biodegrade LAS-C12 increased when the sludge was loaded with higher influent concentrations of LAS-C12.

  15. Hydrothermal liquefaction of municipal wastewater cultivated algae: Increasing overall sustainability and value streams of algal biofuels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, Griffin William

    The forefront of the 21st century presents ongoing challenges in economics, energy, and environmental remediation, directly correlating with priorities for U.S. national security. Displacing petroleum-derived fuels with clean, affordable renewable fuels represents a solution to increase energy independence while stimulating economic growth and reducing carbon-based emissions. The U.S. government embodied this goal by passing the Energy Independence and Security Act (EISA) in 2007, mandating 36 billion gallons of annual biofuel production by 2022. Algae possess potential to support EISA goals and have been studied for the past 30-50 years as an energy source due to its fast growth rates, noncompetitive nature to food markets, and ability to grow using nutrient waste streams. Algae biofuels have been identified by the National Research Council to have significant sustainability concerns involving water, nutrient, and land use. Utilizing municipal wastewater to cultivate algae provides both water and nutrients needed for growth, partially alleviating these concerns. This dissertation demonstrates a pathway for algae biofuels which increases both sustainability and production of high-value products. Algae are cultivated in pilot-scale open ponds located at the Lawrence Wastewater Treatment Plant (Lawrence, KS) using solely effluent from the secondary clarifier, prior to disinfection and discharge, as both water and nutrient sources. Open ponds were self-inoculated by wastewater effluent and produced a mixed-species culture of various microalgae and macroalgae. Algae cultivation provided further wastewater treatment, removing both nitrogen and phosphorus, which have devastating pollution effects when discharged to natural watersheds, especially in large draining watersheds like the Gulf Coast. Algae demonstrated significant removal of other trace metals such as iron, manganese, barium, aluminum, and zinc. Calcium did not achieve high removal rate but did present a

  16. Antioxidant response of the brown algae Dictyota dichotoma epiphytized by the invasive red macroalgae Lophocladia lallemandii

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvia Tejada

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To evaluate the response of the brown alga Dictyota dichotoma (D. dichotoma epiphytized by the red alga Lophocladia lallemandii in Mallorca coastal waters (Balearic Islands by means of biomarker measures. Methods: Samples of epiphytized and non-epiphytized D. dichotoma were collected in Cala Morlanda (East Mallorca, Balearic Islands. Markers of lipid peroxidation and activities of antioxidant enzymes were measured in D. dichotoma. Results: Lipid peroxidation measured as malondialdehyde and all the antioxidant activities measured were significantly higher in the epiphytized brown algae when compared with the control algae. Conclusions: In conclusion, the invasive algae Lophocladia lallemandii seems to produce a more oxidized status in the epiphytized D. dichotoma and cellular damage that could induce increased mortality.

  17. Antioxidant response of the brown algae Dictyota dichotoma epiphytized by the invasive red macroalgae Lophocladia lallemandii

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Silvia Tejada; Antoni Sureda

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the response of the brown alga Dictyota dichotoma (D. dichotoma) epiphytized by the red alga Lophocladia lallemandii in Mallorca coastal waters (Balearic Islands) by means of biomarker measures. Methods: Samples of epiphytized and non-epiphytized D. dichotoma were collected in Cala Morlanda (East Mallorca, Balearic Islands). Markers of lipid peroxidation and activities of antioxidant enzymes were measured in D. dichotoma. Results: Lipid peroxidation measured as malondialdehyde and all the antioxidant activities measured were significantly higher in the epiphytized brown algae when compared with the control algae. Conclusions:In conclusion, the invasive algae Lophocladia lallemandii seems to produce a more oxidized status in the epiphytized D. dichotoma and cellular damage that could induce increased mortality.

  18. Transcriptome Profiling of the Green Alga Spirogyra pratensis (Charophyta) Suggests an Ancestral Role for Ethylene in Cell Wall Metabolism, Photosynthesis, and Abiotic Stress Responses1[OPEN

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-01-01

    It is well known that ethylene regulates a diverse set of developmental and stress-related processes in angiosperms, yet its roles in early-diverging embryophytes and algae are poorly understood. Recently, it was shown that ethylene functions as a hormone in the charophyte green alga Spirogyra pratensis. Since land plants evolved from charophytes, this implies conservation of ethylene as a hormone in green plants for at least 450 million years. However, the physiological role of ethylene in charophyte algae has remained unknown. To gain insight into ethylene responses in Spirogyra, we used mRNA sequencing to measure changes in gene expression over time in Spirogyra filaments in response to an ethylene treatment. Our analyses show that at the transcriptional level, ethylene predominantly regulates three processes in Spirogyra: (1) modification of the cell wall matrix by expansins and xyloglucan endotransglucosylases/hydrolases, (2) down-regulation of chlorophyll biosynthesis and photosynthesis, and (3) activation of abiotic stress responses. We confirmed that the photosynthetic capacity and chlorophyll content were reduced by an ethylene treatment and that several abiotic stress conditions could stimulate cell elongation in an ethylene-dependent manner. We also found that the Spirogyra transcriptome harbors only 10 ethylene-responsive transcription factor (ERF) homologs, several of which are regulated by ethylene. These results provide an initial understanding of the hormonal responses induced by ethylene in Spirogyra and help to reconstruct the role of ethylene in ancestral charophytes prior to the origin of land plants. PMID:27489312

  19. Freshwater Cyanobacteria (Blue-Green Algae) Toxins: Isolation and Characterization

    Science.gov (United States)

    1985-10-01

    9, 1985. Toxic peptides of freshwater cyanobacteria (blue-green algae) from two European Hicr tis aegi and one Canadian &nAnbaflo s- agua were...8217Algal toxin from Potable Water Supplies: A Pilot Plant Investi- gation. p. 26 In Technical papers presented at the Tenth Federal Convention of the...W.H. Watson. Studies on aphantoxin from A12han izomenon flos- aguae in New Hampshire. In: Carmichael, W.W. (ed.) The Water Envir’onment: Algal Toxins and

  20. Macro algae as substrate for biogas production

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møller, Henrik; Sarker, Shiplu; Gautam, Dhan Prasad

    Algae as a substrate for biogas is superior to other crops since it has a much higher yield of biomass per unit area and since algae grows in the seawater there will be no competition with food production on agricultural lands. So far, the progress in treating different groups of algae as a source...... of energy is promising. In this study 5 different algae types were tested for biogas potential and two algae were subsequent used for co-digestion with manure. Green seaweed, Ulva lactuca and brown seaweed Laminaria digitata was co-digested with cattle manure at mesophilic and thermophilic condition...

  1. Inhibitory activity against cyclooxygenase-2 enzyme of extraction from algae%海藻提取物环氧加酶-2抑制活性研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    史大永; 李晓红; 李敬; 郭书举; 苏华

    2009-01-01

    Cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) is a key enzyme that catalyzes the biosynthesis of prostaglandins from arachidonic acid and plays a critical role in inflammation, pain and fever. In order to search for new type inhibitors against COX-2, extractions from 10 algae were screened indirectly by determination of prostaglandin E2 which was synthesized from arachidonic acid. Human cyclooxygenase-2 genes were cloned from human monocyte cell line THP-1 cells and expressed in Spodoptera frugiperda (sf9) insect cell line by Bac-to-Bac baculovirus expression systems. The results showed that ethanolic extraction of Scytosiphon lomentarius, EtOAc phase of Sargassum thunbergii and Codium fragile and butanolic phase of Rhodomela confervoides exhibited good bioactivities with inhibitory ratio higher than 50% at a dose of 10 μg/mL.%系统采集中国沿海10种代表性海藻,进行有效成分提取与粗分;利用昆虫杆状病毒表达系统克隆人COX-2基因,并在昆虫Spodoptera frugiperda(sf9)细胞中表达获得COX-2蛋白;以花生四烯酸为底物,通过测定前列腺素PGE2的生成浓度,测定海藻不同部位对COX-2酶的抑制活性.结果表明,萱藻(Scytosiphon lomentarius)乙醇提取物、鼠尾藻(Sargassum thunbergii)和刺松藻(Codium fragile)乙酸乙酯相、松节藻(Rhodomela conferroides)正丁醇相表现出良好的COX-2酶抑制活性(质量浓度为10μg/mL时,抑制率大于50%).首次对上述海藻进行COX-2酶抑制活性研究,其中萱藻乙醇提取物、鼠尾藻和刺松藻乙酸乙酯相、松节藻正丁醇相表现出良好的COX-2抑制活性.

  2. Sprectroradiometric characteristics of inland water bodies infestated by Oscillatoria rubescens algae

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ciraolo, Giuseppe; La Loggia, Goffredo; Maltese, Antonino

    2010-10-01

    In December 2006 blooms of Oscillatoria rubescens were found in the reservoir Prizzi in Sicily. Oscillatoria is a genus of filamentous alga comprising approximately 6 species, between these the O. rubescens is sadly famous since this organism produces microcystins which are powerful hepatotoxins. Firstly found in Europe in 1825 on Geneva lake, recently (2006) those algae has been find out in Pozzillo, Nicoletti e Ancipa reservoirs (Enna Province), as well as in Prizzi (Palermo Province) and Garcia reservoirs (Trapani Province). Toxins produced by those bacteria (usually called microcystine LR-1 and LR-2) are highly toxic since they can activate oncogenes cells causing cancer pathologies on liver and gastrointestinal tract. Even if water treatment plants should ensure the provision of safe drinking water from surface waters contaminated with those toxic algae blooms, the contamination of reservoirs used for civil and agricultural supply highlights human health risks. International literature suggests a threshold value of 0.01 μgl-1 to avoid liver cancer using water coming from contaminated water bodies for a long period. Since O. rubescens activities is strongly related to phosphate and nitrogen compounds as well as to temperature and light transmission within water, the paper presents the comparison between optical properties of the water of an infested reservoir and those of a reservoir characterized by clear water. Field campaigns were carried out in February-March 2008 in order to quantify the spectral transparencies of two water bodies through the calculation of the diffuse attenuation coefficient, measuring underwater downwelling irradiance at different depths as well as water spectral reflectance. Results show that diffuse attenuation coefficient is reduced by approximately 15% reducing light penetration in the water column; coherently reflectance spectral signature generally decreases, exhibiting a characteristic peak around 703 nm not present in

  3. Overexpression of INCREASED CAMBIAL ACTIVITY, a putative methyltransferase, increases cambial activity and plant growth

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hyunsook Kim; Mikiko Kojima; Daeseok Choi; Soyoung Park; Minami Matsui; Hitoshi Sakakibara; Ildoo Hwang

    2016-01-01

    Cambial activity is a prerequisite for secondary growth in plants; however, regulatory factors control ing the activity of the secondary meristem in radial growth remain elusive. Here, we identified INCREASED CAMBIAL ACTIVITY (ICA), a gene encoding a putative pectin methyltransferase, which could function as a modulator for the meristematic activity of fascicular and interfascicular cambium in Arabidopsis. An overexpressing transgenic line, 35S::ICA, showed accelerated stem elongation and radial thickening, resulting in increased accumulation of biomass, and increased levels of cytokinins (CKs) and gibberel ins (GAs). Expression of genes encoding pectin methylesterases involved in pectin modification together with pectin methyltransferases was highly induced in 35S::ICA, which might contribute to an increase of methanol emission as a byproduct in 35S::ICA. Methanol treatment induced the expression of GA-or CK-responsive genes and stimulated plant growth. Overal , we propose that ectopic expression of ICA increases cambial activity by regulating CK and GA homeostasis, and methanol emission, eventual y leading to stem elongation and radial growth in the inflorescence stem.

  4. Fate of xenobiotic compounds and plants activity in reed bed sludge treatment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chen, Xijuan; Pauli, Udo; Rehfus, Stefan

    different plants: bulrush (Typha), reed (Phragmites australis) and reed canary grass (Phalaris arundinacea) were planted into 12 containers with a size of 1m Х 1m X 1m which were builded with 20cm gravel and 50cm sludge to study the plants activity in sludge degradation process, 4 containers were left...

  5. The Increasing Impact of Activity-Based Protein Profiling in Plant Science.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morimoto, Kyoko; van der Hoorn, Renier A L

    2016-03-01

    The active proteome dictates plant physiology. Yet, active proteins are difficult to predict based on transcript or protein levels, because protein activities are regulated post-translationally in their microenvironments. Over the past 10 years, activity-based protein profiling (ABPP) is increasingly used in plant science. ABPP monitors the activities of hundreds of plant proteins using tagged chemical probes that react with the active site of proteins in a mechanism-dependent manner. Since labeling is covalent and irreversible, labeled proteins can be detected and identified on protein gels and by mass spectrometry using tagged fluorophores and/or biotin. Here, we discuss general concepts, approaches and practical considerations of ABPP, before we summarize the discoveries made using 40 validated probes representing 14 chemotypes that can monitor the active state of >4,500 plant proteins. These discoveries and new opportunities indicate that this emerging functional proteomic technology is a powerful discovery tool that will have an increasing impact on plant science.

  6. Expression activity of the CpTI gene in transgenic rice plants

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    @@Plant harboured protease inhibitor is a part of the natural plant defense system against insect predation. Plants transformed with foreign plant protease inhibitor genes can enhance resistance to insect pests. So far, at least 20 kinds of plants, including tobacco, rice, tomato, cotton et al., have been transformed with various plant protease inhibitor genes. We have transformed rice with CpTI (cowpea trypsin inhibitor) gene. To assess the range and stability of expression of the CpTI gene, CpTI protein activities were determined in various tissues and at different development stages of transgenic inbred lines.

  7. Atividade antioxidante in vitro de extratos de algumas algas verdes (Chlorophyta do litoral catarinense (Brasil Antioxidant in vitro activity of extracts of some green seaweed (Chlorophyta from southern Brazilian coast

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Melissa dos Santos Raymundo

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available O efeito antioxidante de quatro espécies de algas marinhas do filo Chlorophyta (Codium decorticatum, Enteromorpha intestinalis, Ulva fasciata e Chaetomorpha anteninna foi avaliado através da inibição da peroxidação do ácido linoléico em emulsão. Os extratos etéreos e metanólicos, na concentração de 0,01%, foram obtidos por extração seqüencial das biomassas secas. As espécies mais efetivas sobre a peroxidação lipídica foram Enteromorpha intestinalis e Chaetomorpha anteninna, com porcentagens de inibição acima de 70%. A habilidade dos extratos metanólicos para seqüestrar o peróxido de hidrogênio foi avaliada, obtendo-se valores médios para porcentagens de captura entre 1,26% e 20,01%. Além disto, quantificaram-se os teores de clorofila a, carotenóides totais e compostos fenólicos totais nas biomassas algais. Os resultados indicam que as algas verdes estudadas são uma fonte promissora de compostos biologicamente ativos com propriedades antioxidantes.The antioxidant activity of four species of green seaweeds of the phylo Chlorophyta (Codium decorticatum, Enteromorpha intestinalis, Ulva fasciata and Chaetomorpha anteninna collected at the seacoast of the State of Santa Catarina, Brazil, was evaluated by means of the inhibition of peroxidation of linoleic acid converted into emulsion. Both ethereal and methanolic extracts were obtained from dried biomasses by sequential extraction procedures in concentrations of 0.01%. The most efficient species towards lipid peroxidation were E. intestinalis and C. anteninna with inhibition yields above 70% .The capacity of methanolic extracts to quench hydrogen peroxide was also estimated. Mean values varied from 1.26 to 20.01%. Chlorophylls a, total carotenoids and phenolic compounds were also quantified in the biomasses. Results indicated that studied green seaweeds are a very promising source of biologically active compounds with antioxidant properties.

  8. Benchmarking procedure for full-scale activated sludge plants

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Abusam, A.; Keesman, K.J.; Spanjers, H.; Straten, van G.

    2004-01-01

    To enhance development and acceptance of new control strategies, a standard simulation benchmarking methodology to evaluate the performance of wastewater treatment plants has recently been proposed. The proposed methodology is, however, for a typical plant and that works under typical loading and en

  9. Iron encrustations on filamentous algae colonized by Gallionella-related bacteria in a metal-polluted freshwater stream

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mori, J. F.; Neu, T. R.; Lu, S.; Händel, M.; Totsche, K. U.; Küsel, K.

    2015-09-01

    Filamentous macroscopic algae were observed in slightly acidic to circumneutral (pH 5.9-6.5), metal-rich stream water that leaked out from a former uranium mining district (Ronneburg, Germany). These algae differed in color and morphology and were encrusted with Fe-deposits. To elucidate their potential interaction with Fe(II)-oxidizing bacteria (FeOB), we collected algal samples at three time points during summer 2013 and studied the algae-bacteria-mineral compositions via confocal laser scanning microscopy (CLSM), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectra, and a 16S and 18S rRNA gene-based bacterial and algae community analysis. Surprisingly, sequencing analysis of 18S rRNA gene regions of green and brown algae revealed high homologies with the freshwater algae Tribonema (99.9-100 %). CLSM imaging indicated a loss of active chloroplasts in the algae cells, which may be responsible for the change in color in gene-targeted studies revealed that Gallionella-related FeOB dominated the bacterial RNA and DNA communities (70-97 and 63-96 %, respectively), suggesting their capacity to compete with the abiotic Fe-oxidation under the putative oxygen-saturated conditions that occur in association with photosynthetic algae. Quantitative PCR (polymerase chain reaction) revealed even higher Gallionella-related 16S rRNA gene copy numbers on the surface of green algae compared to the brown algae. The latter harbored a higher microbial diversity, including some putative predators of algae. A loss of chloroplasts in the brown algae could have led to lower photosynthetic activities and reduced EPS production, which is known to affect predator colonization. Collectively, our results suggest the coexistence of oxygen-generating algae Tribonema sp. and strictly microaerophilic neutrophilic FeOB in a heavy metal-rich environment.

  10. Antimicrobial activity of 20 plants used in folkloric medicine in the Palestinian area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ali-Shtayeh, M S; Yaghmour, R M; Faidi, Y R; Salem, K; Al-Nuri, M A

    1998-04-01

    Ethanolic and aqueous extracts of 20 Palestinian plant species used in folk medicine were investigated for their antimicrobial activities against five bacterial species (Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Proteus vulgaris, Pseudomonas aeruginosa) and one yeast (Candida albicans). The plants showed 90% of antimicrobial activity, with significant difference in activity between the different plants. The most antimicrobially active plants were Phagnalon rupestre and Micromeria nervosa, whereas, the least active plant was Ziziphus spina-christi. Only ten of the tested plant extracts were active against C. albicans, with the most active from M. nervosa and Inula viscosa and the least active from Ruscus aculeatus. Of all extracts the ethanolic extract of M. nervosa was the most active, whereas, the aqueous extract of Phagnalon rupestre was the most active of all aqueous extracts tested. The ethanolic extracts (70%) showed activity against both Gram positive and negative bacteria and 40% of these extracts showed anticandidal activity, whereas, 50% of the aqueous extracts showed antibacterial activity and 20% of these extracts showed anticandidal activity.

  11. Synthetic polyester from algae oil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roesle, Philipp; Stempfle, Florian; Hess, Sandra K; Zimmerer, Julia; Río Bártulos, Carolina; Lepetit, Bernard; Eckert, Angelika; Kroth, Peter G; Mecking, Stefan

    2014-06-23

    Current efforts to technically use microalgae focus on the generation of fuels with a molecular structure identical to crude oil based products. Here we suggest a different approach for the utilization of algae by translating the unique molecular structures of algae oil fatty acids into higher value chemical intermediates and materials. A crude extract from a microalga, the diatom Phaeodactylum tricornutum, was obtained as a multicomponent mixture containing amongst others unsaturated fatty acid (16:1, 18:1, and 20:5) phosphocholine triglycerides. Exposure of this crude algae oil to CO and methanol with the known catalyst precursor [{1,2-(tBu2 PCH2)2C6H4}Pd(OTf)](OTf) resulted in isomerization/methoxycarbonylation of the unsaturated fatty acids into a mixture of linear 1,17- and 1,19-diesters in high purity (>99 %). Polycondensation with a mixture of the corresponding diols yielded a novel mixed polyester-17/19.17/19 with an advantageously high melting and crystallization temperature.

  12. Parasites in algae mass culture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Todd William Lane

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Parasites are now known to be ubiquitous across biological systems and can play an important role in modulating algal populations. However, there is a lack of extensive information on their role in artificial ecosystems such as algal production ponds and photobioreactors. Parasites have been implicated in the demise of algal blooms. Because individual mass culture systems often tend to be unialgal and a select few algal species are in wide scale application, there is an increased potential for parasites to have a devastating effect on commercial scale monoculture. As commercial algal production continues to expand with a widening variety of applications, including biofuel, food and pharmaceuticals, the parasites associated with algae will become of greater interest and potential economic impact. A number of important algal parasites have been identified in algal mass culture systems in the last few years and this number is sure to grow as the number of commercial algae ventures increases. Here, we review the research that has identified and characterized parasites infecting mass cultivated algae, the techniques being proposed and or developed to control them, and the potential impact of parasites on the future of the algal biomass industry.

  13. Microbial to reef scale interactions between the reef-building coral Montastraea annularis and benthic algae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barott, Katie L; Rodriguez-Mueller, Beltran; Youle, Merry; Marhaver, Kristen L; Vermeij, Mark J A; Smith, Jennifer E; Rohwer, Forest L

    2012-04-22

    Competition between reef-building corals and benthic algae is of key importance for reef dynamics. These interactions occur on many spatial scales, ranging from chemical to regional. Using microprobes, 16S rDNA pyrosequencing and underwater surveys, we examined the interactions between the reef-building coral Montastraea annularis and four types of benthic algae. The macroalgae Dictyota bartayresiana and Halimeda opuntia, as well as a mixed consortium of turf algae, caused hypoxia on the adjacent coral tissue. Turf algae were also associated with major shifts in the bacterial communities at the interaction zones, including more pathogens and virulence genes. In contrast to turf algae, interactions with crustose coralline algae (CCA) and M. annularis did not appear to be antagonistic at any scale. These zones were not hypoxic, the microbes were not pathogen-like and the abundance of coral-CCA interactions was positively correlated with per cent coral cover. We propose a model in which fleshy algae (i.e. some species of turf and fleshy macroalgae) alter benthic competition dynamics by stimulating bacterial respiration and promoting invasion of virulent bacteria on corals. This gives fleshy algae a competitive advantage over corals when human activities, such as overfishing and eutrophication, remove controls on algal abundance. Together, these results demonstrate the intricate connections and mechanisms that structure coral reefs.

  14. Anti hyperlipidemic activity of Tephrosia purpurea plant extracts in poloxomer 407 induced hyperlipidemic rats

    OpenAIRE

    Pankti P. Dalwadi; Pragnesh Patani

    2014-01-01

    Aim & Objective: Screening Of Antihyperlipidemic Activity of Tephrosia purpurea Plant Extracts.   Material & Method: Screening of antihyperlipidemic was done by using Tephrosia purpurea Leaves, Stem and Whole plant (except Leaves) extracts. Part extracts used for antihyperlipidemic activity were stem (500 mg/kg), leaves (400mg/kg) and whole plant extracts except leaves at the dose of (300mg/kg, 600mg/kg).Hyperlipidemia was administered in experimental animals using Poloxomer 407 by in...

  15. In vitro antibacterial activity of selected medicinal plants traditionally used in Vietnam against human pathogenic bacteria

    OpenAIRE

    Vu, Thuy Thu; Kim, Hyungrok; Tran, Vu Khac; Le Dang, Quang; Nguyen, Hoa Thi; Kim, Hun; Kim, In Seon; Choi, Gyung Ja; Kim, Jin-Cheol

    2016-01-01

    Background Medicinal plants are widely used for the treatment of different infectious diseases. Infectious diseases caused by bacteria have a large impact on public health. This study aimed to determine the in vitro antibacterial activity of the medicinal plants traditionally used in Vietnam against the bacterial strains associated with infectious diseases. Methods Methanol extracts of twelve Vietnamese medicinal plants were tested for their antibacterial activity against five bacterial speci...

  16. Phospholipase D activation correlates with microtubule reorganization in living plant cells

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    P.B. Dhonukshe; A.M. Laxalt; J. Goedhart; Th.W.J. Gadella; T. Munnik

    2003-01-01

    A phospholipase D (PLD) was shown recently to decorate microtubules in plant cells. Therefore, we used tobacco BY-2 cells expressing the microtubule reporter GFP-MAP4 to test whether PLD activation affects the organization of plant microtubules. Within 30 min of adding n-butanol, a potent activator

  17. Antifungal compounds from turmeric and nutmeg with activity against plant pathogens

    Science.gov (United States)

    The antifungal activity of twenty-two common spices was evaluated against plant pathogens using direct-bioautography coupled Colletotrichum bioassays. Turmeric, nutmeg, ginger, clove, oregano, cinnamon, anise, fennel, basil, black cumin, and black pepper showed antifungal activity against the plant ...

  18. [Content and distribution of active components in cultivated and wild Taxus chinensis var. mairei plants].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Shao-Shuai; Sun, Qi-Wu; Zhang, Xiao-Ping; Tian, Sheng-Ni; Bo, Pei-Lei

    2012-10-01

    Taxus chinensis var. mairei is an endemic and endangered plant species in China. The resources of T. chinensis var. mairei have been excessively exploited due to its anti-cancer potential, accordingly, the extant T. chinensis var. mairei population is decreasing. In this paper, ultrasonic extraction and HPLC were adopted to determine the contents of active components paclitaxel, 7-xylosyltaxol and cephalomannine in cultivated and wild T. chinensis var. mairei plants, with the content distribution of these components in different parts of the plants having grown for different years and at different slope aspects investigated. There existed obvious differences in the contents of these active components between cultivated and wild T. chinensis var. mairei plants. The paclitaxel content in the wild plants was about 0.78 times more than that in the cultivated plants, whereas the 7-xylosyltaxol and cephalomannine contents were slishtly higher in the cultivated plants. The differences in the three active components contents between different parts and tree canopies of the plants were notable, being higher in barks and upper tree canopies. Four-year old plants had comparatively higher contents of paclitaxel, 7-xylosyltaxol and cephalomannine (0.08, 0.91 and 0.32 mg x g(-1), respectively), and the plants growing at sunny slope had higher contents of the three active components, with significant differences in the paclitaxel and 7-xylosyltaxol contents and unapparent difference in the cephalomannine content of the plants at shady slope. It was suggested that the accumulation of the three active components in T. chinensis var. mairei plants were closely related to the sunshine conditions. To appropriately increase the sunshine during the artificial cultivation of T. chinensis var. mairei would be beneficial to the accumulation of the three active components in T. chinensis var. mairei plants.

  19. Antibacterial activity of crude extracts from Mexican medicinal plants and purified coumarins and xanthones.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yasunaka, Kakuko; Abe, Fumiko; Nagayama, Ariaki; Okabe, Hikaru; Lozada-Pérez, Lucio; López-Villafranco, Edith; Muñiz, Elizabeth Estrada; Aguilar, Abigail; Reyes-Chilpa, Ricardo

    2005-02-28

    Thirty-two extracts from 22 Mexican medicinal plants of 15 different families were assayed to determine their antibacterial activity against Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus. Seventeen plants showed antibacterial activity, while five plants showed no activity against both bacteria. All of the extracts showed higher activity against Staphylococcus aureus (methicillin-sensitive and methicillin-resistant) than against Escherichia coli, except one. Among the plants examined, Bursera simaruba (L.) Sarg. (Burseraceae), Haematoxylum brasiletto H. Karst. (Fabaceae), Calophyllum brasiliense Cambess. (Clusiaceae), and Mammea americana L. (Clusiaceae) were highly active against Staphylococcus aureus. Coumarins (mammea A/BA and mammea A/AA) and xanthones, namely jacareubin and 1,3,5,6-tetrahydroxy-2-(3,3-dimethylallyl) xanthone, were isolated as the principle compounds from the last two plants.

  20. The biochemical mechanisms of the plant activation of promutagenic aromatic amines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wagner, E.D.; Verdier, M.M.; Plewa, M.J. (Univ. of Illinois, Urbana (USA))

    1990-01-01

    Using specific monooxygenase and oxidase inhibitors in a plant cell/microbe coincubation assay, the biochemical mechanisms of the plant activation of two aromatic amines were compared. The biological endpoints included mutation induction, inhibition of mutagenicity, viability of the plant cells (activating system), and viability of the microbial cells. The activation of m-phenylenediamine by TX1 cells was mediated by enzyme systems that were inhibited by diethyldithiocarbamate, potassium cyanide, methimazole, (+)-catechin or acetaminophen. The inhibition by metyrapone was attended by toxicity in the plant cells. These data implicate a TX1 cell peroxidase and a FAD-dependent monoxygenase in the plant activation of m-phenylenediamine. The TX1 cell activation of 2-aminofluorene was inhibited by diethyldithiocarbamate, 7,8-benzoflavone, acetaminophen or (+)-catechin.

  1. MEDICINAL PLANTS WITH POTENTIAL ANTICANCER ACTIVITIES: A REVIEW

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Narah Merina

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Plants have been the beacon of therapeutic sources for curing diseases from times immemorial. Medicinal plants with their isolated lead molecules are also used as an alternative medicine for treating neoplastic cells. Neoplastic cells are the anomalous proliferation of cells in the body which cause cancer. Diverse efficient compounds derived from natural products have been isolated as anticancer agents. These chemical compounds are formulated with a view to create effective drugs against cancer. Some of the lead molecules isolated from different medicinal plants are already in use to treat cancer and chemotherapeutic side effects. These potential and successful anticancer molecules include Vincristine, Vinblastin, Taxol, Camptothecin and Podophyllotoxin. This paper deals with the selective medicinal plants having anticancer properties which could be further designed to produce cancer curing drugs.

  2. Antibacterial activity of five Peruvian medicinal plants against Pseudomonas aeruginosa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriela Ulloa-Urizar

    2015-11-01

    Conclusions: The results of the present study scientifically validate the inhibitory capacity of the five medicinal plants attributed by their common use in folk medicine and contribute towards the development of new treatment options based on natural products.

  3. Design and construction of an in-plant activation cassette for transgene expression and recombinant protein production in plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dugdale, Benjamin; Mortimer, Cara L; Kato, Maiko; James, Tess A; Harding, Robert M; Dale, James L

    2014-05-01

    Virus-based transgene expression systems have become particularly valuable for recombinant protein production in plants. The dual-module in-plant activation (INPACT) expression platform consists of a uniquely designed split-gene cassette incorporating the cis replication elements of Tobacco yellow dwarf geminivirus (TYDV) and an ethanol-inducible activation cassette encoding the TYDV Rep and RepA replication-associated proteins. The INPACT system is essentially tailored for recombinant protein production in stably transformed plants and provides both inducible and high-level transient transgene expression with the potential to be adapted to diverse crop species. The construction of a novel split-gene cassette, the inducible nature of the system and the ability to amplify transgene expression via rolling-circle replication differentiates this system from other DNA- and RNA-based virus vector systems used for stable or transient recombinant protein production in plants. Here we provide a detailed protocol describing the design and construction of a split-gene INPACT cassette, and we highlight factors that may influence optimal activation and amplification of gene expression in transgenic plants. By using Nicotiana tabacum, the protocol takes 6-9 months to complete, and recombinant proteins expressed using INPACT can accumulate to up to 10% of the leaf total soluble protein.

  4. ANTIOXIDANT ACTIVITY IN CALLUS CULTURES AND IN VITRO REGENERATED PLANTS OF ARTEMISIA NILAGIRICA (CLARKE PAMP.- AN IMPORTANT MEDICINAL PLANT SPECIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. K. BALIARSINGH 1* , L. SAMANTA 2 AND S. S. MOHANTY 3

    2015-01-01

    dichlorophenoxyacetic  acid  (2,4-D  with  1.0  mg/L  Kinetin  (Kin  yielded maximum  callogenic  response.  Shoot  organogenesis  in  callus  cultures  was most favoured in MS containing 2.0 mg/L 6-benzylaminopurine (BAP and 0.5 mg/L indole-3-acetic acid (IAA. In vitro regenerated plantlets, emerged from culture medium, were acclimatized and the survival rate of ex vitro plants after soil transplantation  was 80-83% with  no apparent  phenotypic variations. The antioxidant  potential  of  natural  (in  vivo  plants,  callus  tissues  and  in  vitro regenerated plants before and after field transplantation (ex vitro plants were compared. DPPH scavenging activity was the highest in aqueous extracts of 10 week-old ex vitro plants than  other  sources.  Superoxide  anion  and  nitric  oxide  radical  scavenging  activity  was  the  highest  in ethanolic  extracts  of  10 week-old  ex  vitro  plants  where  as  the  hydroxyl  radical  was  the  maximum  in  6 week-old in vivo plants. Lipid peroxidation was neither observed in calli nor in regenerated plants of A. nilagirica.

  5. Medicinal plants with potential anti-arthritic activity:

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manjusha Choudhary

    2015-06-01

    Conclusion: This review clearly indicates that list of medicinal plants presented in this review might be useful to researchers as well as practioners. This review can be useful for preliminary screening of potential anti- arthritis plants. Further toxicity profile given in the review can be useful for the researchers for finding the safe dose. [J Intercult Ethnopharmacol 2015; 4(2.000: 147-179

  6. Evaluation of antimicrobial activity of selected plant extracts by rapid XTT colorimetry and bacterial enumeration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Bakri, Amal G; Afifi, Fatma U

    2007-01-01

    The aim of this study was to screen and evaluate the antimicrobial activity of indigenous Jordanian plant extracts, dissolved in dimethylsulfoxide, using the rapid XTT assay and viable count methods. XTT rapid assay was used for the initial screening of antimicrobial activity for the plant extracts. Antimicrobial activity of potentially active plant extracts was further assessed using the "viable plate count" method. Four degrees of antimicrobial activity (high, moderate, weak and inactive) against Bacillus subtilis, Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli and Pseudomonas aeruginosa, respectively, were recorded. The plant extracts of Hypericum triquetrifolium, Ballota undulata, Ruta chalepensis, Ononis natrix, Paronychia argentea and Marrubium vulgare had shown promising antimicrobial activity. This study showed that while both XTT and viable count methods are comparable when estimating the overall antimicrobial activity of experimental substances, there is no strong linear correlation between the two methods.

  7. Ribonuclease activity of buckwheat plant (Fagopyrum esculentum) cultivars with different sensitivities to buckwheat burn virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sindarovska, Y R; Guzyk, O I; Yuzvenko, L V; Demchenko, O A; Didenko, L F; Grynevych, O I; Spivak, M Ya

    2014-01-01

    Ribonucleases (RNases) are present in base-level amounts in intact plants, but this level is able to increase greatly under stress conditions. The possible cause for such an increase is protection against plant RNA-virus attack. Buckwheat burn virus (BBV) is a highly virulent pathogen that belongs to Rhabdoviridae family. In our study, we have analyzed the correlation between RNase activity and resistance of different buckwheat cultivars to BBV infection. Two cultivars, Kara-Dag and Roksolana, with different sensitivities to BBV have been used. Kara-Dag is a cultivar with medium sensitivity to virus and Roksolana is a tolerant cultivar. It has been shown that the base level of RNase activity in Roksolana cultivar was in most cases higher than the corresponding parameter in Kara-Dag cultivar. Both infected and uninfected plants of Roksolana cultivar demonstrated high RNase activity during two weeks. Whereas infected plants of Kara-Dag cultivar demonstrated unstable levels of RNase activity. Significant decline in RNase activity was detected on the 7th day post infection with subsequent gradual increase in RNase activity. Decline of the RNase activity during the first week could promote the virus replication and therefore more successful infection of upper leaves of plants. Unstable levels of RNase activity in infected buckwheat plants may be explained by insufficiency of virus-resistant mechanisms that determines the medium sensitivity of the cultivar to BBV. Thus, plants of buckwheat cultivar having less sensitivity to virus, displayed in general higher RNase activity.

  8. Changes in physiological activity of algae Desmodesmus quadricauda after active bioaccumulation of newly prepared and characterized Fe(III) complexes with pyridine-3-carboxamide (pca) by living algal cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fargasová, Agáta; Ondrejkovicová, Iveta; Kramarová, Zuzana; Fáberová, Zuzana

    2010-08-01

    The study characterized five iron(III) complexes with heterocyclic N-donor ligand pyridine-3-carboxamide (pca) [FeCl(3)(pca)(3)], [Fe(H(2)O)(2)(pca)(3)](ClO(4))(3), [Fe(2)O(ac)(2)(pca)(6)]Cl(2).3H(2)O, [Fe(NO(3))(3)(pca)(3)].3H(2)O, [Fe(Cl(2)ac)(3)(pca)(3)] (ac=acetate, Cl(2)ac=dichloroacetate) and their effects on biomass, chlorophylls (a, b), photosynthetic oxygen production and iron biosorption in algae Desmodesmus quadricauda. The effects of Fe(III) complexes were compared with control and those of FeCl(3).6H(2)O. While pca coordination to iron atom through the nitrogen atom of its heterocyclic ring mostly increased iron inhibitory effect on algal biomass and chlorophylls production, oxygen production was enhanced. The exceptions were observed only for [Fe(2)O(ac)(2)(pca)(6)]Cl(2).3H(2)O complex effect on biomass and oxygen production and [Fe(H(2)O)(2)(pca)(3)](ClO(4))(3) complex effect on chlorophylls production. Complexation increased iron biosorption in algal biomass and iron accumulated amount in algae was 2.8-20 times higher than that from FeCl(3).6H(2)O with maximal accumulation from dimeric complex [Fe(2)O(ac)(2)(pca)(6)]Cl(2).3H(2)O.

  9. Desiccation induces accumulations of antheraxanthin and zeaxanthin in intertidal macro-alga Ulva pertusa (Chlorophyta.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiujun Xie

    Full Text Available For plants and algae, exposure to high light levels is deleterious to their photosynthetic machineries. It also can accelerate water evaporation and thus potentially lead to drought stress. Most photosynthetic organisms protect themselves against high light caused photodamages by xanthophyll cycle-dependent thermal energy dissipation. It is generally accepted that high light activates xanthophyll cycle. However, the relationship between xanthophyll cycle and drought stress remains ambiguous. Herein, Ulva pertusa (Chlorophyta, a representative perennial intertidal macro-algae species with high drought-tolerant capabilities and simple structures, was used to investigate the operation of xanthophyll cycle during desiccation in air. The results indicate that desiccation under dim light induced accumulation of antheraxanthin (Ax and zeaxanthin (Zx at the expense of violaxanthin (Vx. This accumulation could be arrested by dithiothreitol completely and by uncoupler (carbonyl cyanide p-trifluoromethoxyphenylhydrazone partially, implying the participation of Vx de-epoxidase in conversion of Vx to Ax and Zx. Treatment with inhibitors of electron transport along thylakoid membrane, e.g. DCMU, PG and DBMIB, did not significantly arrest desiccation-induced accumulation of Ax and Zx. We propose that for U. pertusa, besides excess light, desiccation itself could also induce accumulation of Ax and Zx. This accumulation could proceed without electron transport along thylakoid membrane, and is possibly resulting from the reduction of thylakoid lumen volume during desiccation. Considering the pleiotropic effects of Ax and Zx, accumulated Ax and Zx may function in protecting thylakoid membrane and enhancing thermal quenching during emersion in air.

  10. Sodium, potassium-atpases in algae and oomycetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barrero-Gil, Javier; Garciadeblás, Blanca; Benito, Begoña

    2005-08-01

    We have investigated the presence of K(+)-transporting ATPases that belong to the phylogenetic group of animal Na(+),K(+)-ATPases in the Pythium aphanidermatum Stramenopile oomycete, the Porphyra yezoensis red alga, and the Udotea petiolata green alga, by molecular cloning and expression in heterologous systems. PCR amplification and search in EST databases allowed one gene to be identified in each species that could encode ATPases of this type. Phylogenetic analysis of the sequences of these ATPases revealed that they cluster with ATPases of animal origin, and that the algal ATPases are closer to animal ATPases than the oomycete ATPase is. The P. yezoensis and P. aphanidermatum ATPases were functionally expressed in Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Escherichia coli alkali cation transport mutants. The aforementioned cloning and complementary searches in silicio for H(+)- and Na(+),K(+)-ATPases revealed a great diversity of strategies for plasma membrane energization in eukaryotic cells different from typical animal, plant, and fungal cells.

  11. In vitro assessment of antioxidant and antibacterial activities of six edible plants from Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tabaraki, Reza; Nateghi, Ashraf; Ahmady-Asbchin, Salman

    2013-06-01

    The antioxidant and antibacterial activities of six edible plants were evaluated. The active constituents of the edible plants were extracted using boiling water or 80% methanol. Results demonstrated that extraction of antioxidants by boiling water was more efficient. Lycium depressum and Berula angustifolia had the highest antioxidant activities and, therefore, could be rich sources of natural antioxidants. The antibacterial activities of the extracts were tested against Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli, Entrococcus faecalis and Proteus mirabilis. Further research is needed to isolate, characterize, and identify the bioactive compounds present in these plants.

  12. Toxic Effects of Phthalates on Ocean Algae

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2005-01-01

    This article discusses the interaction of phthalates and ocean algae based on the standard appraisal method of chemical medicine for algae toxicity. Through the experiments on the toxic effects of dimethyl (o-) phthalate (DMP), diethyl (o-) phthalate (DEP), dibutyl (o-)phthalate (DBP) on ocean algae, the 50 % lethal concentration of the three substances in 48 h and 96 h for plaeodectylum tricornutum, platymonas sp, isochrysis galbana, and skeletonema costatum is obtained. Tolerance limits of the above ocean algae of DMP, DEP, and DBP are discussed.

  13. Photobioreactors for mass cultivation of algae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ugwu, C U; Aoyagi, H; Uchiyama, H

    2008-07-01

    Algae have attracted much interest for production of foods, bioactive compounds and also for their usefulness in cleaning the environment. In order to grow and tap the potentials of algae, efficient photobioreactors are required. Although a good number of photobioreactors have been proposed, only a few of them can be practically used for mass production of algae. One of the major factors that limits their practical application in algal mass cultures is mass transfer. Thus, a thorough understanding of mass transfer rates in photobioreactors is necessary for efficient operation of mass algal cultures. In this review article, various photobioreactors that are very promising for mass production of algae are discussed.

  14. Determination of photosynthetic and enzymatic biomarkers sensitivity used to evaluate toxic effects of copper and fludioxonil in alga Scenedesmus obliquus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dewez, David; Geoffroy, Laure; Vernet, Guy; Popovic, Radovan

    2005-08-30

    Modulated PAM fluorometry and Plant Efficiency Analyser methods were used to investigate photosynthetic fluorescence parameters of alga Scenedesmus obliquus exposed to inhibitory effect of fungicides copper sulphate and fludioxonil (N-(4-nitrophenyl)-N'-propyl-uree). The change of those parameters were studied when alga S. obliquus have been exposed during 48 h to different concentrations of fungicides (1, 2 and 3 mgl(-1)). Under the same condition, enzymatic activities of catalase, ascorbate peroxidase, glutathione reductase and glutathione S-transferase were investigated to evaluate antioxidative response to fungicides effects. The change of sensitivity of those parameters was dependent to the mode of fungicide action, their concentration and time of exposure. For copper effects, the most indicative photosynthetic biomarkers were parameters Q(N) as non-photochemical fluorescence quenching, Q(Emax) as the proton induced fluorescence quenching and ABS/RC as the antenna size per photosystem II reaction center. Copper induced oxidative stress was indicated by increased activity of catalase serving as the most sensitive and valuable enzymatic biomarker. On the other hand, fludioxonil effect on photosynthetic parameters was very negligible and consequently not very useful as biomarkers. However, fludioxonil induced strong antioxidative activities associated with cytosol enzymes, as we found for catalase, ascorbate peroxidase and glutathione S-transferase activities. By obtained results, we may suggest for the activation of those enzymes to be sensitive and valuable biomarkers of oxidative stress induced by fludioxonil. Determination of biomarkers sensitivity may offer advantages in providing real criteria to use them for ecotoxicological diagnostic studies.

  15. Inference of allelopathy is complicated by effects of activated carbon on plant growth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lau, Jennifer A; Puliafico, Kenneth P; Kopshever, Joseph A; Steltzer, Heidi; Jarvis, Edward P; Schwarzländer, Mark; Strauss, Sharon Y; Hufbauer, Ruth A

    2008-01-01

    Allelopathy can play an important role in structuring plant communities, but allelopathic effects are often difficult to detect because many methods used to test for allelopathy can be confounded by experimental artifacts. The use of activated carbon, a technique for neutralizing allelopathic compounds, is now employed in tests for allelopathy; however, this technique also could produce large experimental artifacts. In three independent experiments, it was shown that adding activated carbon to potting media affected nutrient availability and plant growth. For most species tested, activated carbon increased plant biomass, even in the absence of the potentially allelopathic agent. The increased growth corresponded to increased plant nitrogen content, likely resulting from greater nitrogen availability. Activated carbon also affected nitrogen and other nutrient concentrations in soil media in the absence of plants. The observed effects of activated carbon on plant growth can confound its use to test for allelopathy. The detection of allelopathy relies on the difference between plant growth in medium with carbon and that in medium without carbon in the presence of the potentially allelopathic competitor; however, this difference may be biased if activated carbon alters soil nutrient availability and plant growth even in the absence of the focal allelopathic agent.

  16. Nuclear material safeguards for enrichments plants: Part 4, Gas Centrifuge Enrichment Plant: Diversion scenarios and IAEA safeguards activities: Safeguards training course

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1988-10-01

    This publication is Part 4 of a safeguards training course in Nuclear Material Safeguards for enrichment plants. This part of the course deals with diversion scenarios and safeguards activities at gas centrifuge enrichment plants.

  17. Arbuscular mycorrhizal symbiosis and active ingredients of medicinal plants: current research status and prospectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeng, Yan; Guo, Lan-Ping; Chen, Bao-Dong; Hao, Zhi-Peng; Wang, Ji-Yong; Huang, Lu-Qi; Yang, Guang; Cui, Xiu-Ming; Yang, Li; Wu, Zhao-Xiang; Chen, Mei-Lan; Zhang, Yan

    2013-05-01

    Medicinal plants have been used world-wide for thousands of years and are widely recognized as having high healing but minor toxic side effects. The scarcity and increasing demand for medicinal plants and their products have promoted the development of artificial cultivation of medicinal plants. Currently, one of the prominent issues in medicinal cultivation systems is the unstable quality of the products. Arbuscular mycorrhiza (AM) affects secondary metabolism and the production of active ingredients of medicinal plants and thus influence the quality of herbal medicines. In this review, we have assembled, analyzed, and summarized the effects of AM symbioses on secondary metabolites of medicinal plants. We conclude that symbiosis of AM is conducive to favorable characteristics of medicinal plants, by improving the production and accumulation of important active ingredients of medicinal plants such as terpenes, phenols, and alkaloids, optimizing the composition of different active ingredients in medicinal plants and ultimately improving the quality of herbal materials. We are convinced that the AM symbiosis will benefit the cultivation of medicinal plants and improve the total yield and quality of herbal materials. Through this review, we hope to draw attention to the status and prospects of, and arouse more interest in, the research field of medicinal plants and mycorrhiza.

  18. Sulfated polysaccharide extracted of the green algae Caulerpa racemosa increase the enzymatic activity and paw edema induced by sPLA2 from Crotalus durissus terrificus venom

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Camila L. Pires

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Sulfated polysaccharides derived from seaweed have shown great potential for use in the development of new drugs. In this study, we observed that a low-molecular-weight sulfated polysaccharide from Caulerpa racemosa, termed CrSP, could interact with secretory phospholipase A2 (sPLA2 isolated from Crotalus durissus terrificus venom. When native sPLA2 (14 kDa was incubated with CrSP, they formed a molecular complex (sPLA2:CrSP with a molecular mass of 32 kDa, approximately. Size exclusion chromatography experiments suggested that CrSP formed a stable complex with sPLA2. We belived that sPLA2 and SPCr are involved an ionic interaction between negatively charged CrSP and the positively charged basic amino acid residues of sPLA2, because this interaction induced significant changes in sPLA2 enzymatic and pharmacological activities. CrSP caused a significant increase in sPLA2 enzymatic and bactericidal activity and increased its edematogenic effect. A pharmacological assay showed that the myotoxic activity of sPLA2:CrSP is unrelated to its enzymatic activity and that sPLA2:CrSP may have a practical application as a natural antibacterial agent for use in humans and commercially raised animals.

  19. The globins of cyanobacteria and algae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Eric A; Lecomte, Juliette T J

    2013-01-01

    Approximately, 20 years ago, a haemoglobin gene was identified within the genome of the cyanobacterium Nostoc commune. Haemoglobins have now been confirmed in multiple species of photosynthetic microbes beyond N. commune, and the diversity of these proteins has recently come under increased scrutiny. This chapter summarizes the state of knowledge concerning the phylogeny, physiology and chemistry of globins in cyanobacteria and green algae. Sequence information is by far the best developed and the most rapidly expanding aspect of the field. Structural and ligand-binding properties have been described for just a few proteins. Physiological data are available for even fewer. Although activities such as nitric oxide dioxygenation and oxygen scavenging are strong candidates for cellular function, dedicated studies will be required to complete the story on this intriguing and ancient group of proteins.

  20. THE ANTIFUNGAL AND ANTIBACTERIAL ACTIVITY OF TWO PLANTS FROM ASTEMCEAE

    OpenAIRE

    2015-01-01

    In this study, we have found that, Chlysanthemum coronarium has shownantifungal and antibacterial activity, but Inula viscosa didn't show any antifungalor antibacterial activity.Key words: Chrysanthemum coronarium; Inula viscosa; antifungal andantibacterial activities.

  1. Anticancer activities against cholangiocarcinoma, toxicity and pharmacological activities of Thai medicinal plants in animal models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Plengsuriyakarn Tullayakorn

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Chemotherapy of cholangiocarcinoma (CCA, a devastating cancer with increasing worldwide incidence and mortality rates, is largely ineffective. The discovery and development of effective chemotherapeutics is urgently needed. Methods/Design The study aimed at evaluating anticancer activities, toxicity, and pharmacological activities of the curcumin compound (CUR, the crude ethanolic extracts of rhizomes of Zingiber officinale Roscoe (Ginger: ZO and Atractylodes lancea thung. DC (Khod-Kha-Mao: AL, fruits of Piper chaba Hunt. (De-Plee: PC, and Pra-Sa-Prao-Yhai formulation (a mixture of parts of 18 Thai medicinal plants: PPF were investigated in animal models. Anti-cholangiocarcinoma (anti-CCA was assessed using CCA-xenograft nude mouse model. The antihypertensive, analgesic, anti-inflammatory, antipyretic, and anti-ulcer activities and effects on motor coordination were investigated using Rota-rod test, CODA tail-cuff system, writhing and hot plate tests, carrageenan-induced paw edema test, brewer's yeast test, and alcohol-induced gastric ulcer test, respectively. Acute and subacute toxicity tests were performed according to the OECD guideline for testing of chemicals with modification. Results Promising anticancer activity against CCA in nude mouse xenograft model was shown for the ethanolic extract of AL at all oral dose levels (1000, 3000, and 5000 mg/kg body weight as well as the extracts of ZO, PPF, and CUR compound at the highest dose level (5000, 4000, and 5000 mg/kg body weight, respectively. PC produced no significant anti-CCA activity. Results from acute and subacute toxicity tests both in mice and rats indicate safety profiles of all the test materials in a broad range of dose levels. No significant toxicity except stomach irritation and general CNS depressant signs were observed. Investigation of pharmacological activities of the test materials revealed promising anti-inflammatory (ZO, PPF, and AL, analgesic (CUR and

  2. The Features of Dasyclad Algae and the Dasycladaceae Fossils in Jiaonan Region

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhang Songmei; Cheng Liren; Liu Diantao

    2000-01-01

    The features of all fossil assemblage from Jiaonan region are equal to those of the plant in the forth stage or the fifth stage. The time of samples association of Dasycladaceae algae in Jiaonan area should be in early Cretaceous period. The group of Dasycladaceae algae in Jiaonan region is marine plant, and belongs to the Tethys paleobotanic province. They began to distribute westward and eastward from Triassic period in a radiating way. And the geographical position was in tropical or subtropical zoneat that time.

  3. Catalytic Hydrothermal Gasification of Lignin-Rich Biorefinery Residues and Algae Final Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Elliott, Douglas C.; Neuenschwander, Gary G.; Hart, Todd R.; Rotness, Leslie J.; Zacher, Alan H.; Santosa, Daniel M.; Valkenburt, Corinne; Jones, Susanne B.; Tjokro Rahardjo, Sandra A.

    2009-11-03

    This report describes the results of the work performed by PNNL using feedstock materials provided by the National Renewable Energy Laboratory, KL Energy and Lignol lignocellulosic ethanol pilot plants. Test results with algae feedstocks provided by Genifuel, which provided in-kind cost share to the project, are also included. The work conducted during this project involved developing and demonstrating on the bench-scale process technology at PNNL for catalytic hydrothermal gasification of lignin-rich biorefinery residues and algae. A technoeconomic assessment evaluated the use of the technology for energy recovery in a lignocellulosic ethanol plant.

  4. Plant Research '75

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1975-01-01

    Research is reported on stomatal regulation of the gas exchanges between plant and environment; inhibitory effects in flower formation; plant growth and development through hormones; hormone action; development and nitrogen fixation in algae; primary cell wall glycoprotein ectensin; enzymic mechanisms and control of polysaccharide and glycoprotein synthesis; molecular studies of membrane studies; sensory transduction in plants; regulation of formation of protein complexes and enzymes in higher plant cell and mechanism of sulfur dioxide toxicity in plants. (PCS)

  5. Decreased abundance of crustose coralline algae due to ocean acidification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuffner, Ilsa B.; Andersson, Andreas J; Jokiel, Paul L.; Rodgers, Ku'ulei S.; Mackenzie, Fred T.

    2008-01-01

    Owing to anthropogenic emissions, atmospheric concentrations of carbon dioxide could almost double between 2006 and 2100 according to business-as-usual carbon dioxide emission scenarios1. Because the ocean absorbs carbon dioxide from the atmosphere2, 3, 4, increasing atmospheric carbon dioxide concentrations will lead to increasing dissolved inorganic carbon and carbon dioxide in surface ocean waters, and hence acidification and lower carbonate saturation states2, 5. As a consequence, it has been suggested that marine calcifying organisms, for example corals, coralline algae, molluscs and foraminifera, will have difficulties producing their skeletons and shells at current rates6, 7, with potentially severe implications for marine ecosystems, including coral reefs6, 8, 9, 10, 11. Here we report a seven-week experiment exploring the effects of ocean acidification on crustose coralline algae, a cosmopolitan group of calcifying algae that is ecologically important in most shallow-water habitats12, 13, 14. Six outdoor mesocosms were continuously supplied with sea water from the adjacent reef and manipulated to simulate conditions of either ambient or elevated seawater carbon dioxide concentrations. The recruitment rate and growth of crustose coralline algae were severely inhibited in the elevated carbon dioxide mesocosms. Our findings suggest that ocean acidification due to human activities could cause significant change to benthic community structure in shallow-warm-water carbonate ecosystems.

  6. Emerging oomycete threats to plants and animals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Derevnina, Lida; Petre, Benjamin; Kellner, Ronny; Dagdas, Yasin F; Sarowar, Mohammad Nasif; Giannakopoulou, Artemis; De la Concepcion, Juan Carlos; Chaparro-Garcia, Angela; Pennington, Helen G; van West, Pieter; Kamoun, Sophien

    2016-12-05

    Oomycetes, or water moulds, are fungal-like organisms phylogenetically related to algae. They cause devastating diseases in both plants and animals. Here, we describe seven oomycete species that are emerging or re-emerging threats to agriculture, horticulture, aquaculture and natural ecosystems. They include the plant pathogens Phytophthora infestans, Phytophthora palmivora, Phytophthora ramorum, Plasmopara obducens, and the animal pathogens Aphanomyces invadans, Saprolegnia parasitica and Halioticida noduliformans For each species, we describe its pathology, importance and impact, discuss why it is an emerging threat and briefly review current research activities.This article is part of the themed issue 'Tackling emerging fungal threats to animal health, food security and ecosystem resilience'.

  7. Microwave-mediated extracellular synthesis of metallic silver and zinc oxide nanoparticles using macro-algae (Gracilaria edulis) extracts and its anticancer activity against human PC3 cell lines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Priyadharshini, Ramaramesh Indra; Prasannaraj, Govindaraj; Geetha, Natesan; Venkatachalam, Perumal

    2014-12-01

    A rapid and novel microwave-mediated protocol was established for extracellular synthesis of metallic silver (Ag) and zinc oxide (ZnO) nanoparticles using the extracts of macro-algae Gracilaria edulis (GE) and also examined its anticancer activity against human prostate cancer cell lines (PC3). The formation of silver nanoparticles (GEAgNPs) and zinc oxide nanoparticles (GEZnONPs) in the reaction mixture was determined by ultraviolet-visible spectroscopy. The synthesized Ag and ZnO nanoparticles were characterized by X-ray diffraction, Fourier transform infra-red spectroscopy, energy dispersive X-ray, and field emission scanning electron microscopy. The silver and zinc oxide nanoparticles were spherical and rod-shaped, respectively. Cell viability assays were carried out to determine the cytotoxic effects of AgNPs and ZnONPs against PC3 and normal African monkey kidney (VERO) cell line. The inhibitory concentration values were found to be 39.60, 28.55, 53.99 μg/mL and 68.49, 88.05, 71.98 μg/mL against PC3 cells and Vero cells for AgNPs, ZnONPs, and aqueous G. edulis extracts, respectively, at 48 h incubation period. As evidenced by acridine orange/ethidium bromide staining, the percentage of the apoptotic bodies was found to be 62 and 70 % for AgNPs and ZnONPs, respectively. The present results strongly suggest that the synthesized ZnONPs showed an effective anticancer activity against PC3 cell lines than AgNPs.

  8. Induction time of Fe-SOD synthesis and activity determine different tolerance of two Desmodesmus (green algae) strains to chloridazon: a study with synchronized cultures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pokora, Wojciech; Tukaj, Zbigniew

    2013-09-01

    Cells of two Desmodesmus armatus strains (276-4a and 276-4d) grown asynchronously in batch cultures after 24-h treatment revealed different tolerance to chloridazon (photosynthetic herbicide) applied at a concentration of 3.45 mg L(-1). To find time- and cell cycle-dependent biochemical reasons leading to such a difference, a population of young autospores of both strains synchronized by a light/dark (14/10) regime were exposed to chloridazon at the initiation of the light period. Chloridazon reduced the growth and number of divisions of cell strain 276-4d. In consequence, at the end of the dark phase the number of released autospores was reduced by 50% compared with the control. In contrast, the growth and reproductive processes of cell strains 276-4a was unaffected. Moreover, chloridazon treatment speeded up cell development, as a result of which the release of autospores took this process observed in the control cells over. There is a relationship between photosynthetic activity response to chloridazon and time-dependent changes in Fe-SOD content and activity. The energy trapped in the reaction centre (RC) was similar in both strains, but the amount of energy absorbed by RCs was twice as high in strain 276-4d as in 276-4a. In consequence, non-photochemical energy dissipation occurring in the cells of 276-4d strain far exceed the value obtained for 276-4a strain. The control cells of both strains differed significantly in the content of FSD 1 and FSD 2 proteins, whereas the differences in Fe-SOD isoforms activities were slight. The 8-fold increase in SOD content in CHD treated cells of strain 276-4a was associated with the transience of photosynthetic efficiency impairment. In CHD treated cells of strain 276-4d, neither activity of Fe-SOD nor FSDs protein content was instantly affected. Different response of developing cells of two Desmodesmus strains to CHD is influenced by the inherent features of cells; the short time required to induce stress adaptive

  9. Anti-pseudomona and Anti-bacilli Activity of Some Medicinal Plants of Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gholam Hosein Shahidi Bonjar

    2003-10-01

    Full Text Available The use of plants in treatment of burns, dermatophytes, and infectious diseases is common in traditional medicine of Iran. Based on ethno pharmacological and taxonomic information, antibacterial activities of methanol extracts of some medicinal plants of Iran were determined by In Vitro bioassays using agar diffusion-method against standard strains of Pseudomonas aeruginosa, P. fluorescens, Bacillus subtilis, B. cereus and B. pumilis at 20 mg/ml. From 180 plant species of 72 families, 78 species (43.3% in 42 families (58.3% showed antibacterial activities against B. cereus (88.4%, B. subtilis (39.7%, B. pumilis (37.1%, P. fluorescens (37.1% and P. aeruginos (10.2%. The most active plant families were Apiaceae, Compositae and Labiatae with 9, 8 and 7 active plant species respectively. Minimum inhibitory concentrations (MIC of the active plants were determined using two fold serial dilutions. Most active plant against Bacilli was Myrtus communis L. with MIC of 1.87 mg/ml. For Pseudomonas species, Dianthus caryophyllus L. and Terminalia chebula (Gaertner Retz. were more active with the MIC of 0.46 mg/ml for P. fluorescens and of 1.87 mg/ml for P. aeruginosa respectively.

  10. Mechanism of Growth Enhancement of Plants Induced by Active Species in Plasmas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watanabe, Satoshi; Ono, Reoto; Hayashi, Nobuya

    2015-09-01

    Plant growth enhances when seeds are irradiated by plasma. However the mechanism of the growth enhancement by plasma has not been clarified. In this study, growth enhancement of plants using various active species and variation of plant cells are investigated. RF plasma is generated under conditions where pressure is 60 Pa and input electrical power is 60 W. Irradiation period varies from 0 (control) to 75 min. Air plasma shows maximum growth of plants with irradiation period of 60 min on the other hand, oxygen plasma shows the maximum growth with irradiation period of 15 min. From change of gaseous species and pressure dependence, growth enhancing factor is expected to be active oxygen species produced in plasma. According to gene expression analysis of Arabidopsis, there are two speculated mechanism of plant growth enhancement. The first is acceleration of cell cycle by gene expressions of photosynthesis and glycolytic pathway, and the second is increase of cell size via plant hormone production.

  11. Plant derived substances with anti-cancer activity: from folklore to practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fridlender, Marcelo; Kapulnik, Yoram; Koltai, Hinanit

    2015-01-01

    Plants have had an essential role in the folklore of ancient cultures. In addition to the use as food and spices, plants have also been utilized as medicines for over 5000 years. It is estimated that 70-95% of the population in developing countries continues to use traditional medicines even today. A new trend, that involved the isolation of plant active compounds begun during the early nineteenth century. This trend led to the discovery of different active compounds that are derived from plants. In the last decades, more and more new materials derived from plants have been authorized and subscribed as medicines, including those with anti-cancer activity. Cancer is among the leading causes of morbidity and mortality worldwide. The number of new cases is expected to rise by about 70% over the next two decades. Thus, there is a real need for new efficient anti-cancer drugs with reduced side effects, and plants are a promising source for such entities. Here we focus on some plant-derived substances exhibiting anti-cancer and chemoprevention activity, their mode of action and bioavailability. These include paclitaxel, curcumin, and cannabinoids. In addition, development and use of their synthetic analogs, and those of strigolactones, are discussed. Also discussed are commercial considerations and future prospects for development of plant derived substances with anti-cancer activity.

  12. Evaluation of Antileishmanial Activity of Selected Brazilian Plants and Identification of the Active Principles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valdir Cechinel Filho

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This study evaluated extracts, fractions, and isolated compounds from some selected Brazilian medicinal plants against strains of promastigotes of Leishmania amazonensis and L. brasiliensis in vitro. The cell viability was determined, comparing the results with reference standards. The dichloromethane fractions of the roots, stems, and leaves of Allamanda schottii showed IC50 values between 14.0 and 2.0 μg/mL. Plumericin was the main active compound, with IC50 of 0.3 and 0.04 μg/mL against the two species of Leishmania analyzed. The hexane extract of Eugenia umbelliflora fruits showed IC50 of 14.3 and 5.7 μg/mL against L. amazonensis and L. brasiliensis, respectively. The methanolic extracts of the seeds of Garcinia achachairu and guttiferone A presented IC50 values of 35.9 and 10.4 μg/mL, against L. amazonensis, respectively. The ethanolic extracts of the stem barks of Rapanea ferruginea and the isolated compound, myrsinoic acid B, presented activity against L. brasiliensis with IC50 of 24.1 and 6.1 μg/mL. Chloroform fraction of Solanum sisymbriifolium exhibited IC50 of 33.8 and 20.5 μg/mL, and cilistol A was the main active principle, with IC50 of 6.6 and 3.1 μg/mL against L. amazonensis and L. brasiliensis, respectively. It is concluded that the analyzed plants are promising as new and effective antiparasitic agents.

  13. Medicinal plants with hepatoprotective activity in Iranian folk medicine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Majid Asadi-Samani

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available There are a number of medicinal combinations in the Iranian traditional medicine which are commonly used as tonic for liver. In this review, we have introduced some medicinal plants that are used mainly for the treatment of liver disorders in Iranian folk medicine, with focus on their hepatoprotective effects particularly against CC14 agent. In this study, online databases including Web of Science, PubMed, Scopus, and Science Direct were searched for papers published from January 1970 to December 2013. Search terms consisted of medicinal plants, traditional medicine, folk medicine, hepatoprotective, Iran, liver, therapeutic uses, compounds, antioxidant, CC14, anti-inflammatory, and antihepatotoxic, hepatitis, alone or in combination. Allium hirtifolium Boiss., Apium graveolens L., Cynara scolymus, Berberis vulgaris L., Calendula officinalis, Nigella sativa L., Taraxacum officinale, Tragopogon porrifolius, Prangos ferulacea L., Allium sativum, Marrubium vulgare, Ammi majus L., Citrullus lanatus Thunb, Agrimonia eupatoria L. and Prunus armeniaca L. are some of the medicinal plants that have been used for the treatment of liver disorders in Iranian folk medicine. Out of several leads obtained from plants containing potential hepatoprotective agents, silymarin, β-sitosterol, betalain, neoandrographolide, phyllanthin, andrographolide, curcumin, picroside, hypophyllanthin, kutkoside, and glycyrrhizin have been demonstrated to have potent hepatoprotective properties. Despite encouraging data on possibility of new discoveries in the near future, the evidence on treating viral hepatitis or other chronic liver diseases by herbal medications is not adequate.

  14. POSSIBILITY OF PLANTS ACTIVE PARTS USAGE FOR ONCOLOGICAL DISEASES TREATMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. S. Goncharova

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The article describes an implementation of plant drugs for oncological diseases treatment. It focuses on multicomponent combination herbal medicinal preparation, its therapeutic action, and supposed efficiency during its implementation with basic therapy for oncological disease.

  15. Molecular Characterization and Analysis of Antimicrobial Activity of Endophytic Fungi From Medicinal Plants in Saudi Arabia

    OpenAIRE

    Gashgari, Rukaia; Gherbawy, Youssuf; Ameen, Fuad; Alsharari, Salam

    2016-01-01

    Background: Endophytic fungi, which have been reported in numerous plant species, are important components of the forest community and contribute significantly to the diversity of natural ecosystems. Objectives: The current study aimed to evaluate and characterize, at the molecular level, the diversity and antimicrobial activities of endophytic fungi from medicinal plants in Saudi Arabia. Materials and Methods: Fungi growing on plant segments were isolated and identified based on morphologica...

  16. Screening of Korean Medicinal Plant Extracts for α-Glucosidase Inhibitory Activities

    OpenAIRE

    Sancheti,Shruti; Sancheti,Sandesh; LEE, Seung-Hun; Lee, Jae-Eun; Seo, Sung-Yum

    2011-01-01

    Glycosidases are the enzymes involved in various biochemical processes related to metabolic disorders and diseases. Therefore, much effort has been focused on searching novel pharmacotherapy for the treatment of these ailments from medicinal plants due to higher safety margins. To pursue these efforts, the present study was performed to evaluate the α-glucosidase inhibitory activities of thirty Korean medicinal plant extracts. Among the plants studied, Euonymus sachalinensis, Rhododendron sch...

  17. Radionuclides determination in the Sargassum algae located in the Saco de Piraquara de Fora - Angra dos Reis - Rio de Janeiro - Brazil; Determinacao de radionuclideos na alga marinha bentonica localizada no Saco de Piraquara de Fora, Angra dos Reis/RJ

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arantes, Patricia V.S.; Cardoso, Sergio N.M. [ELETRONUCLEAR S.A., Angra dos Reis, RJ (Brazil). Lab. de Monitoracao Ambiental

    1999-11-01

    The main purpose of the Environmental Monitoring Laboratory, in the Mambucaba Residential Site is to control all environment around Almirante Alvaro Alberto Nuclear Power Station (AAANPS) in order to check its operational influence on the local ecosystem. Angra I Nuclear Power Plant usually discharges liquid waste from the Treatment System (waste and recycle evaporators). Before the water is discharged into the sea, it is chemically and radiochemically and analysed to verify if dissolved contaminants are in agreement with the specifications established by the Fundacao Estadual de Engenharia de Meio Ambiente (FEEMA) for the chemical parameters and by the Comissao Nacional de Energia Nuclear (CNEN) for radiochemical parameters. Such radioactive contaminants are {sup 58} Co, {sup 60} Co and {sup 54} Mn, which are activated corrosion products from structural materials of the primary system and {sup 134} Cs and {sup 137} Cs, fission products produced by the nuclear reactor during its operation. To measure and control the possible discharge of these radionuclides into the sea and their incorporation to the marine organisms, it was created the Environmental Radiological Monitoring Special Program (ERMSP). The purpose of this program is to control the absorption of the radionuclides {sup 58} Co, {sup 60} Co, {sup 54} Mn, {sup 134} Cs and {sup 137} Cs in algae of the genus Sargassum located in the surroundings the discharge of the liquid effluents of the genus Sargassum located in the surroundings the discharge of the liquid effluents of the Plant in Saco de Piraquara de Fora. The algae are considered excellent bioindicators because they are fixed on the rocks, being totally dependent on the water quality where they live, being being as easy target to incorporate and to detect those radionuclides. The algae are collected bimestrally and analysed by the Laboratory. This work presents the sampling process, the preparation, the sampling process, the preparation, the analysis

  18. Biological screening of some Turkish medicinal plant extracts for antimicrobial and toxicity activities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turker, A U; Usta, C

    2008-01-20

    Screening of antibacterial activity and toxicity of 22 aqueous plant extracts from 17 Turkish plants was conducted. Antibacterial activity was performed with six bacteria including Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Streptococcus pyogenes, Staphylococcus aureus and Staphylococcus epidermidis. Extracts of Tussilago farfara leaves, Helichyrsum plicatum flowers, Solanum dulcamara aerial parts and Urtica dioica leaves gave the best inhibitory activity against S. pyogenes, S. aureus and S. epidermidis. Of the 22 plant extracts, 20 extracts displayed toxicity (LC50 was radish seed bioassay, two different determinations (root length and seed germination) were performed with a comparison between two concentrations (50,000 mg L(-1) and 10,000 mg L(-1)). At low concentration (10,000 mg L(-1)), S. dulcamara aerial parts and Primula vulgaris leaf extracts were observed to inhibit the root length more than the other plant extracts. Also, the most inhibitive plant extract for seed germination was obtained with S. dulcamara aerial parts.

  19. Computational Fluid Dynamics Simulation Study of Active Power Control in Wind Plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fleming, Paul; Aho, Jake; Gebraad, Pieter; Pao, Lucy; Zhang, Yingchen

    2016-08-01

    This paper presents an analysis performed on a wind plant's ability to provide active power control services using a high-fidelity computational fluid dynamics-based wind plant simulator. This approach allows examination of the impact on wind turbine wake interactions within a wind plant on performance of the wind plant controller. The paper investigates several control methods for improving performance in waked conditions. One method uses wind plant wake controls, an active field of research in which wind turbine control systems are coordinated to account for their wakes, to improve the overall performance. Results demonstrate the challenge of providing active power control in waked conditions but also the potential methods for improving this performance.

  20. Aquatic Plants and their Control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michigan State Dept. of Natural Resources, Lansing.

    Aquatic plants can be divided into two types: algae and macrophytes. The goal of aquatic plant management is to maintain a proper balance of plants within a lake and still retain the lake's recreational and economic importance. Aquatic plant management programs have two phases: long-term management (nutrient control), and short-term management…

  1. Trypanocidal constituents in plants 5. Evaluation of some Mexican plants for their trypanocidal activity and active constituents in the seeds of Persea americana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abe, Fumiko; Nagafuji, Shinya; Okawa, Masafumi; Kinjo, Junei; Akahane, Hiroshige; Ogura, Tetsuya; Martinez-Alfaro, Miguel Angel; Reyes-Chilpa, Ricardo

    2005-07-01

    Crude extracts of Mexican medicinal plants were screened for trypanocidal activity against Trypanosoma cruzi, which is the etiological agent for Chagas' disease, one of the most serious protozoan diseases in Latin America. There were 71 kinds of methanolic and other organic extracts from 65 plants, which were newly examined by a preliminary screening test to observe immobilization of epimastigotes and trypomastigotes of T. cruzi in vitro. The MeOH extract of seeds of Persea americana (avocado) showed moderate activity against epimastigotes. In order to identify the principal compounds for the activity, the MeOH extract was subjected to bioassay-guided fractionation. From the active fractions, six 1,2,4-trihydroxyheptadecane derivatives and two 1,2,4-trihydroxynonadecane derivatives including a new one were isolated. These compounds showed moderate activity against epimastigotes and trypomastigotes.

  2. Antibacterial Activity of Twenty Iranian Plant Extracts Against Clinical Isolates of Helicobacter pylori

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farahnaz Nariman

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Objective(sDue to increasing emergence of drug-resistance in Helicobacter pylori isolates, traditional plants arepotentially valuable sources of novel anti-H. pylori agents. In this research, anti-H. pylori activity of theorganic extracts of twenty native Iranian plants was determined against ten clinical isolates of H. pylori.Materials and MethodsDisc diffusion was used to determine the biological activity of 20 plant extracts as well as 8 antibioticscommonly used to treat H. pylori infections. Minimum inhibitory concentrations were also measured by tubeand agar dilution methods for the biologically active plant extracts.ResultsOf the twenty plant extracts analyzed, sixteen exhibited good anti-H. pylori activity, using disc diffusion.The ten most active extracts were Carum bulbocastanum, Carum carvi, Mentha longifolia, Saliva limbata,Saliva sclarea, Ziziphora clinopodioides, Thymus caramanicus, Glycyrrhiza glabra, Xanthium brasilicumand Trachyspermum copticum. Minimum inhibitory concentrations measured for the 10 biologically activeplant extracts were within the range of 31.25 to 500 μg/ml.ConclusionAmong the ten plant extracts effective against H. pylori clinical isolates, Carum carvi, Xanthium brasilicumand Trachyspermum copticum showed the highest activity.Keywords: Anti-Helicobacter pylori, Iranian plants, Organic extracts

  3. Antinociceptive, Anti-Inflammatory, and Antipyretic Activity of Mangrove Plants: A Mini Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. A. Shilpi

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Mangrove plants are specialised plants that grow in the tidal coasts of tropic and subtropic regions of the world. Their unique ecology and traditional medicinal uses of mangrove plants have attracted the attention of researchers over the years, and as a result, reports on biological activity of mangrove plants have increased significantly in recent years. This review has been set out to compile and appraise the results on antinociceptive, anti-inflammatory, and antipyretic activity of mangrove plants. While the Web of Knowledge, Google Scholar, and PubMed were the starting points to gather information, other pieces of relevant published literature were also adequately explored for this purpose. A total of 29 reports on 17 plant species have been found to report such activities. While 19 reports were on the biological activity of the crude extracts, 10 reports identified the active compound(s of various chemical classes of natural products including terpenes, steroids, and flavonoids. This review finds that antinociceptive, anti-inflammatory, and antipyretic activity appears to be widespread in mangrove plants.

  4. Modeling and optimization of algae growth

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Thornton, Anthony; Weinhart, Thomas; Bokhove, Onno; Zhang, Bowen; Sar, van der Dick M.; Kumar, Kundan; Pisarenco, Maxim; Rudnaya, Maria; Savceno, Valeriu; Rademacher, Jens; Zijlstra, Julia; Szabelska, Alicja; Zyprych, Joanna; Schans, van der Martin; Timperio, Vincent; Veerman, Frits; Frank, J.; van der Mei, R.; den Boer, A.; Bosman, J.; Bouman, N.; van Dam, S.; Verhoef, C.

    2010-01-01

    The wastewater from greenhouses has a high amount of mineral contamination and an environmentally-friendly method of removal is to use algae to clean this runo water. The algae consume the minerals as part of their growth process. In addition to cleaning the water, the created algal bio-mass has a v

  5. Vanadium in marine mussels and algae

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sperling, K.R.; Bahr, B. [Alfred-Wegener-Institut fuer Polar- und Meeresforschung, Bremerhaven (Germany); Ott, J. [Fachhochschule Hamburg (Germany). Fachbereich Naturwissenschaftliche Technik, Studiengang Biotechnologie

    2000-01-01

    A method is presented which is sensitive enough for the determination of vanadium (V) in marine organisms such as mussels and algae. It was sufficiently checked by a reference material and it was applied to V determination in blue mussels and brown algae from the German Bight. (orig.)

  6. The in-vitro antimicrobial activity of some medicinal plants against beta-lactam-resistant bacteria

    OpenAIRE

    Gangoue Pieboji, Joseph; Eze, N.; Ngongang Djintchui, A.; Ngameni, B; Tsabang, N.; Pegnyemb, D. E.; Biyiti, L.; Ngassam, P.; Koulla-Shiro, S.; Galleni, Moreno

    2009-01-01

    BACKGROUND: In effort to identify novel bacterial agents, this study was initiated to evaluate the antimicrobial properties of 17 crude extracts from 12 medicinal plants against beta-lactam-resistant bacteria. METHODOLOGY: The antimicrobial activities of plant extracts were evaluated against clinically proved beta-lactam-resistant bacteria (Klebsiella pneumoniae, Klebsiella oxytoca, Enterobacter cloacae, Serratia marcescens, Acinetobacter baumannii, Staphylococcus aureus and Enterococcus sp.)...

  7. Antibacterial activity of plant extracts and phytochemicals on antibiotic-resistant bacteria

    OpenAIRE

    Nascimento,Gislene G. F.; Locatelli,Juliana; Freitas,Paulo C.; Silva,Giuliana L.

    2000-01-01

    The antimicrobial activity of plant extracts and phytochemicals was evaluated with antibiotic susceptible and resistant microorganisms. In addition, the possible synergistic effects when associated with antibiotics were studied. Extracts from the following plants were utilized: Achillea millifolium (yarrow), Caryophyllus aromaticus (clove), Melissa offficinalis (lemon-balm), Ocimun basilucum (basil), Psidium guajava (guava), Punica granatum (pomegranate), Rosmarinus officinalis (rosemary), Sa...

  8. A study of online plant modelling methods for active control of sound and vibration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Laugesen, Søren

    1996-01-01

    Active control systems using the filtered-x algorithm require plant models to describe the relations between the secondary sources and the error sensors. For practical applications online plant modelling may be required if the environment changes significantly. In this study, two dominant methods...

  9. In Vitro and In Vivo Plant Growth Promoting Activities and DNA Fingerprinting of Antagonistic Endophytic Actinomycetes Associates with Medicinal Plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Passari, Ajit Kumar; Mishra, Vineet Kumar; Gupta, Vijai Kumar; Yadav, Mukesh Kumar; Saikia, Ratul; Singh, Bhim Pratap

    2015-01-01

    Endophytic actinomycetes have shown unique plant growth promoting as well as antagonistic activity against fungal phytopathogens. In the present study forty-two endophytic actinomycetes recovered from medicinal plants were evaluated for their antagonistic potential and plant growth-promoting abilities. Twenty-two isolates which showed the inhibitory activity against at least one pathogen were subsequently tested for their plant-growth promoting activities and were compared genotypically using DNA based fingerprinting, including enterobacterial repetitive intergenic consensus (ERIC) and BOX repetitive elements. Genetic relatedness based on both ERIC and BOX-PCR generates specific patterns corresponding to particular genotypes. Exponentially grown antagonistic isolates were used to evaluate phosphate solubilization, siderophores, HCN, ammonia, chitinase, indole-3-acetic acid production, as well as antifungal activities. Out of 22 isolates, the amount of indole-3-acetic acid (IAA) ranging between 10-32 μg/ml was produced by 20 isolates and all isolates were positive for ammonia production ranging between 5.2 to 54 mg/ml. Among 22 isolates tested, the amount of hydroxamate-type siderophores were produced by 16 isolates ranging between 5.2 to 36.4 μg/ml, while catechols-type siderophores produced by 5 isolates ranging from 3.2 to 5.4 μg/ml. Fourteen isolates showed the solubilisation of inorganic phosphorous ranging from 3.2 to 32.6 mg/100ml. Chitinase and HCN production was shown by 19 and 15 different isolates, respectively. In addition, genes of indole acetic acid (iaaM) and chitinase (chiC) were successively amplified from 20 and 19 isolates respectively. The two potential strains Streptomyces sp. (BPSAC34) and Leifsonia xyli (BPSAC24) were tested in vivo and improved a range of growth parameters in chilli (Capsicum annuum L.) under greenhouse conditions. This study is the first published report that actinomycetes can be isolated as endophytes from within these

  10. In Vitro and In Vivo Plant Growth Promoting Activities and DNA Fingerprinting of Antagonistic Endophytic Actinomycetes Associates with Medicinal Plants.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ajit Kumar Passari

    Full Text Available Endophytic actinomycetes have shown unique plant growth promoting as well as antagonistic activity against fungal phytopathogens. In the present study forty-two endophytic actinomycetes recovered from medicinal plants were evaluated for their antagonistic potential and plant growth-promoting abilities. Twenty-two isolates which showed the inhibitory activity against at least one pathogen were subsequently tested for their plant-growth promoting activities and were compared genotypically using DNA based fingerprinting, including enterobacterial repetitive intergenic consensus (ERIC and BOX repetitive elements. Genetic relatedness based on both ERIC and BOX-PCR generates specific patterns corresponding to particular genotypes. Exponentially grown antagonistic isolates were used to evaluate phosphate solubilization, siderophores, HCN, ammonia, chitinase, indole-3-acetic acid production, as well as antifungal activities. Out of 22 isolates, the amount of indole-3-acetic acid (IAA ranging between 10-32 μg/ml was produced by 20 isolates and all isolates were positive for ammonia production ranging between 5.2 to 54 mg/ml. Among 22 isolates tested, the amount of hydroxamate-type siderophores were produced by 16 isolates ranging between 5.2 to 36.4 μg/ml, while catechols-type siderophores produced by 5 isolates ranging from 3.2 to 5.4 μg/ml. Fourteen isolates showed the solubilisation of inorganic phosphorous ranging from 3.2 to 32.6 mg/100ml. Chitinase and HCN production was shown by 19 and 15 different isolates, respectively. In addition, genes of indole acetic acid (iaaM and chitinase (chiC were successively amplified from 20 and 19 isolates respectively. The two potential strains Streptomyces sp. (BPSAC34 and Leifsonia xyli (BPSAC24 were tested in vivo and improved a range of growth parameters in chilli (Capsicum annuum L. under greenhouse conditions. This study is the first published report that actinomycetes can be isolated as endophytes from

  11. Antimicrobial Activities of Skincare Preparations from Plant Extracts

    OpenAIRE

    Kareru, PG; Keriko, JM; Kenji, GM; Thiong'o, GT; Gachanja, AN; Mukiira, HN

    2010-01-01

    In this study, Tithonia diversifolia Helms. (A Gray), Aloe secundiflora (Miller) and Azadirachta indica (A. Juss) plant extracts were used to make herbal soaps while Thevetia peruviana (Schum) seed oil was used to make a herbal lotion for skincare. The soaps were tested for the growth inhibition of Escherichia coli, and Candida albicans. The lotion was evaluated against Staphylococcus aureus and E.coli. Although Tithonia diversifolia soap exhibited the highest inhibitory effect on the test ba...

  12. Phototropins and chloroplast activity in plant blue light signaling

    OpenAIRE

    Goh, Chang-Hyo

    2009-01-01

    In plants, phototropins 1 (phot1) and 2 (phot2) mediate chloroplast movement to blue light (BL). A recent report showed that phototropins (phot) are required for the expression of chloroplast genes in rice. The light-induced responses of phot1a rice mutants result in H2O2-mediated damage to chloroplast photosystems, indicating that phot-regulated responses might be associated with the other photoreceptor, such as cryptochrome (cry) BL receptor. This suggests diversification and specialization...

  13. Medicinal plants with hepatoprotective activity in Iranian folk medicine

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Majid; Asadi-Samani; Najme; Kafash-Farkhad; Nafiseh; Azimi; Ali; Fasihi; Ebrahim; Alinia-Ahandani; Mahmoud; Rafieian-Kopaei

    2015-01-01

    There are a number of medicinal combinations in the Iranian traditional medicine which are commonly used as tonic for liver.In this review,we have introduced some medicinal plants that are used mainly for the treatment of liver disorders in Iranian folk medicine,with focus on their hepatoprotective effects particularly against CCI4 agent.In this study,online databases including Web of Science.PubMed.Scopus,and Science Direct were searched for papers published from January 1970 to December 2013.Search terms consisted of medicinal plants,traditional medicine,folk medicine,hepatoprotective.Iran,liver,therapeutic uses,compounds,antioxidant.CCI4.anti-inflammatory,and antihepatotoxic,hepatitis,alone or in combination.Allium hirtifolium Boiss..Apium graveolens L..Cynara scolyinus.Berberis vulgaris L..,Calendula officinalis,Nigella sativa L..Taraxacum officinale.Tragopogon porrifolius.Prangos ferulacea L..Allium sativum,Marribium vulgare,Ammi majus L..Citrullus lanatus Thunb.Agrimonia eupatoria L.and Primus armeniaca L.are some of the medicinal plants that have been used for the treatment of liver disorders in Iranian folk medicine.Out of several leads obtained from plants containing potential hepatoprotective agents,silymarin,P-sitosterol,betalain,neoandrographolide.phyllanthin.andrographolide.curcumin.picroside.hypophyllanlhin.kutkoside,and glycyrrhizin have been demonstrated to have potent hepatoprotective properties.Despite encouraging data on possibility of new discoveries in the near future,the evidence on treating viral hepatitis or other chronic liver diseases by herbal medications is not adequate.

  14. Composting of waste algae: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Wei; Clarke, William; Pratt, Steven

    2014-07-01

    Although composting has been successfully used at pilot scale to manage waste algae removed from eutrophied water environments and the compost product applied as a fertiliser, clear guidelines are not available for full scale algae composting. The review reports on the application of composting to stabilize waste algae, which to date has mainly been macro-algae, and identifies the peculiarities of algae as a composting feedstock, these being: relatively low carbon to nitrogen (C/N) ratio, which can result in nitrogen loss as NH3 and even N2O; high moisture content and low porosity, which together make aeration challenging; potentially high salinity, which can have adverse consequence for composting; and potentially have high metals and toxin content, which can affect application of the product as a fertiliser. To overcome the challenges that these peculiarities impose co-compost materials can be employed.

  15. Algae inhibition experiment and load characteristics of the algae solution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiong, L.; Gao, J. X.; Zhang, Y. X.; Yang, Z. K.; Zhang, D. Q.; He, W.

    2016-08-01

    It is necessary to inhibit microbial growth in an industrial cooling water system. This paper has developed a Monopolar/Bipolar polarity high voltage pulser with load adaptability for an algal experimental study. The load characteristics of the Chlorella pyrenoidosa solution were examined, and it was found that the solution load is resistive. The resistance is related to the plate area, concentration, and temperature of the solution. Furthermore, the pulser's treatment actually inhibits the algae cell growth. This article also explores the influence of various parameters of electric pulses on the algal effect. After the experiment, the optimum pulse parameters were determined to be an electric field intensity of 750 V/cm, a pulse width per second of 120μs, and monopolar polarity.

  16. Antimicrobial Activity of Medicinal Plants Correlates with the Proportion of Antagonistic Endophytes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Egamberdieva, Dilfuza; Wirth, Stephan; Behrendt, Undine; Ahmad, Parvaiz; Berg, Gabriele

    2017-01-01

    Medicinal plants are known to harbor potential endophytic microbes, due to their bioactive compounds. In a first study of ongoing research, endophytic bacteria were isolated from two medicinal plants, Hypericum perforatum and Ziziphora capitata with contrasting antimicrobial activities from the Chatkal Biosphere Reserve of Uzbekistan, and their plant-specific traits involved in biocontrol and plant growth promotion were evaluated. Plant extracts of H. perforatum exhibited a remarkable activity against bacterial and fungal pathogens, whereas extracts of Z. capitata did not exhibit any potential antimicrobial activity. Matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization (MALDI) time-of-flight (TOF) mass spectrometry (MS) was used to identify plant associated culturable endophytic bacteria. The isolated culturable endophytes associated with H. perforatum belong to eight genera (Arthrobacter, Achromobacter, Bacillus, Enterobacter, Erwinia, Pseudomonas, Pantoea, Serratia, and Stenotrophomonas). The endophytic isolates from Z. capitata also contain those genera except Arthrobacter, Serratia, and Stenotrophomonas. H. perforatum with antibacterial activity supported more bacteria with antagonistic activity, as compared to Z. capitata. The antagonistic isolates were able to control tomato root rot caused by Fusarium oxysporum and stimulated plant growth under greenhouse conditions and could thus be a cost-effective source for agro-based biological control agents. PMID:28232827

  17. Antiplasmodial activity of ethanolic extracts of some selected medicinal plants from the northwest of Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sangian, Hadi; Faramarzi, Hossein; Yazdinezhad, Alireza; Mousavi, Seyed Javad; Zamani, Zahra; Noubarani, Maryam; Ramazani, Ali

    2013-11-01

    The effectiveness of antimalarial drugs is declining at an ever accelerating rate, with consequent increase in malaria-related morbidity and mortality. The newest antiplasmodial drug from plants is needed to overcome this problem. The aim of this study was to assess antimalarial activity of the ethanolic extracts of 10 different medicinal plants from eight families against Plasmodium falciparum chloroquine-sensitive 3D7 strain. The selection of the hereby studied plants was based on the existing information on their local ethnobotanic history. Plants were dried, powdered, and macerated in a hydroalcoholic solution. Resulting extracts have been assessed for in vitro and in vivo antimalarial and brine shrimp toxicity activities. Of 10 plant species tested, four plants: Althea officinalis L. (Malvaceae), Myrtus communis Linn (Myrtaceae), Plantago major (Plantaginaceae), and Glycyrrhiza glabra L. (Papilionaceae) displayed promising antimalarial activity in vitro (50% inhibitory concentration values of 62.77, 42.18, 40.00, and 13.56 μg/mL, respectively) with no toxicity against brine shrimp larvae. The crude extracts of three active plants, G. glabra, M. communis, and A. officinalis, also significantly reduced parasitemia in vivo in female Swiss albino mice at a dose of 400 mg/kg compared to no treatment. Antiplasmodial activities of extracts of A. officinalis and M. communis are reported for the first time.

  18. Antileishmanial Activity of Medicinal Plants Used in Endemic Areas in Northeastern Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aline Cavalcanti De Queiroz

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This study investigates the leishmanicidal activity of five species of plants used in folk medicine in endemic areas of the state of Alagoas, Brazil. Data were collected in the cities of Colonia Leopoldina, Novo Lino, and União dos Palmares, Alagoas state, from patients with cutaneous leishmaniasis (Leishmania amazonensis who use medicinal plants to treat this disease. Plants extracts were tested at a concentration of 1–100 μg/mL in all experiments, except in an assay to evaluate activity against amastigotes, when 10 μg/mL was used. All plants extracts did not show deleterious activity to the host cell evidenced by LDH assay at 100, 10, and 1 μg/mL after 48 h of incubation. The plants extracts Hyptis pectinata (L. Poit, Aloe vera L., Ruta graveolens L., Pfaffia glomerata (Spreng. Pedersen, and Chenopodium ambrosioides L. exhibited direct activity against extracellular forms at 100 μg/mL; these extracts inhibited growth by 81.9%, 82.9%, 74.4%, 88.7%, and 87.4%, respectively, when compared with promastigotes. The plants extracts H. pectinata, A. vera, and R. graveolens also significantly diminished the number of amastigotes at 10 μg/mL, inhibiting growth by 85.0%, 40.4%, 94.2%, and 97.4%, respectively, when compared with control. Based on these data, we conclude that the five plants exhibited considerable leishmanicidal activity.

  19. Antileishmanial Activity of Medicinal Plants Used in Endemic Areas in Northeastern Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Queiroz, Aline Cavalcanti; Dias, Thays de Lima Matos Freire; Da Matta, Carolina Barbosa Brito; Cavalcante Silva, Luiz Henrique Agra; de Araújo-Júnior, João Xavier; de Araújo, Givanildo Bernardino; Moura, Flávia de Barros Prado; Alexandre-Moreira, Magna Suzana

    2014-01-01

    This study investigates the leishmanicidal activity of five species of plants used in folk medicine in endemic areas of the state of Alagoas, Brazil. Data were collected in the cities of Colonia Leopoldina, Novo Lino, and União dos Palmares, Alagoas state, from patients with cutaneous leishmaniasis (Leishmania amazonensis) who use medicinal plants to treat this disease. Plants extracts were tested at a concentration of 1–100 μg/mL in all experiments, except in an assay to evaluate activity against amastigotes, when 10 μg/mL was used. All plants extracts did not show deleterious activity to the host cell evidenced by LDH assay at 100, 10, and 1 μg/mL after 48 h of incubation. The plants extracts Hyptis pectinata (L.) Poit, Aloe vera L., Ruta graveolens L., Pfaffia glomerata (Spreng.) Pedersen, and Chenopodium ambrosioides L. exhibited direct activity against extracellular forms at 100 μg/mL; these extracts inhibited growth by 81.9%, 82.9%, 74.4%, 88.7%, and 87.4%, respectively, when compared with promastigotes. The plants extracts H. pectinata, A. vera, and R. graveolens also significantly diminished the number of amastigotes at 10 μg/mL, inhibiting growth by 85.0%, 40.4%, 94.2%, and 97.4%, respectively, when compared with control. Based on these data, we conclude that the five plants exhibited considerable leishmanicidal activity. PMID:25126099

  20. DNA damage during G2 phase does not affect cell cycle progression of the green alga Scenedesmus quadricauda.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monika Hlavová

    Full Text Available DNA damage is a threat to genomic integrity in all living organisms. Plants and green algae are particularly susceptible to DNA damage especially that caused by UV light, due to their light dependency for photosynthesis. For survival of a plant, and other eukaryotic cells, it is essential for an organism to continuously check the integrity of its genetic material and, when damaged, to repair it immediately. Cells therefore utilize a DNA damage response pathway that is responsible for sensing, reacting to and repairing damaged DNA. We have studied the effect of 5-fluorodeoxyuridine, zeocin, caffeine and combinations of these on the cell cycle of the green alga Scenedesmus quadricauda. The cells delayed S phase and underwent a permanent G2 phase block if DNA metabolism was affected prior to S phase; the G2 phase block imposed by zeocin was partially abolished by caffeine. No cell cycle block was observed if the treatment with zeocin occurred in G2 phase and the cells divided normally. CDKA and CDKB kinases regulate mitosis in S. quadricauda; their kinase activities were inhibited by Wee1. CDKA, CDKB protein levels were stabilized in the presence of zeocin. In contrast, the protein level of Wee1 was unaffected by DNA perturbing treatments. Wee1 therefore does not appear to be involved in the DNA damage response in S. quadricauda. Our results imply a specific reaction to DNA damage in S. quadricauda, with no cell cycle arrest, after experiencing DNA damage during G2 phase.

  1. The cell walls of green algae: a journey through evolution and diversity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David eDomozych

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available The green algae represent a large group of morphologically diverse photosynthetic eukaryotes that occupy virtually every photic habitat on the planet. The extracellular coverings of green algae including cell walls are also diverse. A recent surge of research in green algal cell walls fueled by new emerging technologies has revealed new and critical insight concerning these coverings. For example, the late divergent taxa of the Charophycean Green Algae possess cell walls containing assemblages of polymers with notable similarity to the cellulose, pectins, hemicelluloses, arabinogalactan proteins, extensin and lignin present in embryophyte walls. Ulvophycean seaweeds have cell wall components whose most abundant fibrillar constituents may change from cellulose to β-mannans to β-xylans and during different life cycle phases. Likewise, these algae produce complex sulfated polysaccharides, arabinogalactan proteins and extensin. Chlorophycean green algae produce a wide array of walls ranging from cellulose-pectin complexes to ones made of hydroxyproline-rich glycoproteins. Larger and more detailed surveys of the green algal taxa including incorporation of emerging genomic and transcriptomic data are required in order to more fully resolve evolutionary trends within the green algae and in relationship with higher plants as well as potential applications of wall components in the food and pharmaceutical industries.

  2. Rapid Evolution of microRNA Loci in the Brown Algae

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Fuli; Duan, Delin; Bourdareau, Simon; Lipinska, Agnieszka P.; Coelho, Susana M.; Tarver, James E.

    2017-01-01

    Stringent searches for microRNAs (miRNAs) have so far only identified these molecules in animals, land plants, chlorophyte green algae, slime molds and brown algae. The identification of miRNAs in brown algae was based on the analysis of a single species, the filamentous brown alga Ectocarpus sp. Here, we have used deep sequencing of small RNAs and a recently published genome sequence to identify miRNAs in a second brown alga, the kelp Saccharina japonica. S. japonica possesses a large number of miRNAs (117) and these miRNAs are highly diverse, falling into 98 different families. Surprisingly, none of the S. japonica miRNAs share significant sequence similarity with the Ectocarpus sp. miRNAs. However, the miRNA repertoires of the two species share a number of structural and genomic features indicating that they were generated by similar evolutionary processes and therefore probably evolved within the context of a common, ancestral miRNA system. This lack of sequence similarity suggests that miRNAs evolve rapidly in the brown algae (the two species are separated by ∼95 Myr of evolution). The sets of predicted targets of miRNAs in the two species were also very different suggesting that the divergence of the miRNAs may have had significant consequences for miRNA function. PMID:28338896

  3. Extraction, Purification, and NMR Analysis of Terpenes from Brown Algae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaysinski, Marc; Ortalo-Magné, Annick; Thomas, Olivier P; Culioli, Gérald

    2015-01-01

    Algal terpenes constitute a wide and well-documented group of marine natural products with structures differing from their terrestrial plant biosynthetic analogues. Amongst macroalgae, brown seaweeds are considered as one of the richest source of biologically and ecologically relevant terpenoids. These metabolites, mostly encountered in algae of the class Phaeophyceae, are mainly diterpenes and meroditerpenes (metabolites of mixed biogenesis characterized by a toluquinol or a toluquinone nucleus linked to a diterpene moiety).In this chapter, we describe analytical processes commonly employed for the isolation and structural characterization of the main terpenoid constituents obtained from organic extracts of brown algae. The successive steps include (1) extraction of lipidic content from algal samples; (2) purification of terpenes by column chromatography and semi-preparative high-performance liquid chromatography; and (3) structure elucidation of the isolated terpenes by means of 1D and 2D nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR). More precisely, we propose a representative methodology which allows the isolation and structural determination of the monocyclic meroditerpene methoxybifurcarenone (MBFC) from the Mediterranean brown alga Cystoseira amentacea var. stricta. This methodology has a large field of applications and can then be extended to terpenes isolated from other species of the family Sargassaceae.

  4. Screening of radical scavenging activity of some medicinal and aromatic plant extracts

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Miliauskas, G.; Venskutonis, R.P.; Beek, van T.A.

    2004-01-01

    Extracts of 12 medicinal and aromatic plants were investigated for their radical scavenging activity using DPPH and ABTS assays: Salvia sclarea, Salvia glutinosa, Salvia pratensis, Lavandula angustifolia, Calendula officinalis, Matricaria recutita, Echinacea purpurea, Rhaponticum carthamoides, Jugla

  5. Small intestinal hydrolysis of plant glucosides: higher glucohydrolase activities in rodents than passerine birds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lessner, Krista M; Dearing, M Denise; Izhaki, Ido; Samuni-Blank, Michal; Arad, Zeev; Karasov, William H

    2015-09-01

    Glycosides are a major group of plant secondary compounds characterized by one or more sugars conjugated to a lipophilic, possibly toxic aglycone, which is released upon hydrolysis. We compared small intestinal homogenate hydrolysis activity of three rodent and two avian species against four substrates: amygdalin and sinigrin, two plant-derived glucosides, the sugar lactose, whose hydrolysis models some activity against flavonoid and isoflavonoid glucosides, and the disaccharide sugar maltose (from starch), used as a comparator. Three new findings extend our understanding of physiological processing of plant glucosides: (1) the capacity of passerine birds to hydrolyze plant glucosides seems relatively low, compared with rodents; (2) in this first test of vertebrates' enzymic capacity to hydrolyze glucosinolates, sinigrin hydrolytic capacity seems low; (3) in laboratory mice, hydrolytic activity against lactose resides on the enterocytes' apical membrane facing the intestinal lumen, but activity against amygdalin seems to reside inside enterocytes.

  6. Anti hyperlipidemic activity of Tephrosia purpurea plant extracts in poloxomer 407 induced hyperlipidemic rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pankti P. Dalwadi

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Aim & Objective: Screening Of Antihyperlipidemic Activity of Tephrosia purpurea Plant Extracts.   Material & Method: Screening of antihyperlipidemic was done by using Tephrosia purpurea Leaves, Stem and Whole plant (except Leaves extracts. Part extracts used for antihyperlipidemic activity were stem (500 mg/kg, leaves (400mg/kg and whole plant extracts except leaves at the dose of (300mg/kg, 600mg/kg.Hyperlipidemia was administered in experimental animals using Poloxomer 407 by intraperitoneal administration at the dose of 1g/kg. Blood was withdrawn through retro orbital puncture at 15& 24 hrs intervals. Antihyperlipidemic activity of Tephrosia purpurea plant extracts were evaluated by estimation of lipid profiles.Results: Estimation of lipid profile shows that Tephrosia purpurea stem extract (500mg/kg, Tephrosia purpurea leaves extract (400mg/kg, Tephrosia purpurea whole plant extract (300mg/kg shows the less significant antihyperlipidemic activity. While Tephrosia purpurea whole plant extract at the dose of 600mg/kg shows potent antihyperlipidemic activity. It decreases TC, TG, LDL, VLDL and increases HDL levels. Tephrosia purpurea whole plant extract 600 mg/kg shows significant antihyperlipidemic activity as standard drug Atorvastatin.Conclusion: Hydro methanolic extracts of Tephrosia purpurea whole plant inhibits cholesterol and triglycerides synthesis. Increasing in stimulation of lipolysis by lipoprotein lipase  is responsible for plasma triglycerides hydrolysis. The elevation of serum cholesterol levels following i.p. injection of Poloxomer 407 solution to rats was due to stimulation of 3-hydroxy-3-rmethylglutaryl-Co-enzyme A (HMG-Co A reductase activity in the liver by the Poloxomer. Hydro methanolic extract of Tephrosia purpurea Showed lowering of TG levels by increasing the lipoprotein lipase activities. The cholesterol lowering effect of Tephrosia purpurea extract were observed in rats treated with the Poloxomer 407 by the

  7. Activation of Defense Mechanisms against Pathogens in Mosses and Flowering Plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ponce de León, Inés; Montesano, Marcos

    2013-02-04

    During evolution, plants have developed mechanisms to cope with and adapt to different types of stress, including microbial infection. Once the stress is sensed, signaling pathways are activated, leading to the induced expression of genes with different roles in defense. Mosses (Bryophytes) are non-vascular plants that diverged from flowering plants more than 450 million years ago, allowing comparative studies of the evolution of defense-related genes and defensive metabolites produced after microbial infection. The ancestral position among land plants, the sequenced genome and the feasibility of generating targeted knock-out mutants by homologous recombination has made the moss Physcomitrella patens an attractive model to perform functional studies of plant genes involved in stress responses. This paper reviews the current knowledge of inducible defense mechanisms in P. patens and compares them to those activated in flowering plants after pathogen assault, including the reinforcement of the cell wall, ROS production, programmed cell death, activation of defense genes and synthesis of secondary metabolites and defense hormones. The knowledge generated in P. patens together with comparative studies in flowering plants will help to identify key components in plant defense responses and to design novel strategies to enhance resistance to biotic stress.

  8. Endolithic algae and micrite envelope formation in Bahamian oolites as revealed by scanning electron microscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Margolis, S.; Rex, R. W.

    1971-01-01

    Examination of Holocene Bahamian ooelites by scanning electron and light microscopy has revealed the morphology and orientation of aragonite crystals in the lamellar ooelitic envelope, and their modification by the boring activities of endolithic algae. The voids produced by these algae are found in progressive stages of being lined and filled with precipitated microcrystalline aragonite, which is similar to the process of micrite envelope formation in molluscan and other skeletal carbonate grains.

  9. Antimalarial activity of Bidens pilosa L. (Asteraceae) ethanol extracts from wild plants collected in various localities or plants cultivated in humus soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrade-Neto, Valter F; Brandão, Maria G L; Oliveira, Francielda Q; Casali, Vicente W D; Njaine, Brian; Zalis, Mariano G; Oliveira, Luciana A; Krettli, Antoniana U

    2004-08-01

    Bidens pilosa (Asteraceae), a medicinal plant used worldwide, has antimalarial activity as shown in previous work. This study tested ethanol extracts from wild plants collected in three different regions of Brazil and from plants cultivated in various soil conditions. The extracts were active in mice infected with P. berghei: doses of humus enriched soil, were active; but the wild plants were the most active. Analysis using thin layer chromatography demonstrated the presence of flavonoids (compounds considered responsible for the antimalarial activity) in all plants tested, even though at different profiles. Because B. pilosa is proven to be active against P. falciparum drug-resistant parasites in vitro, and in rodent malaria in vivo, it is a good candidate for pre-clinical tests as a phytotherapeutic agent or for chemical isolation of the active compounds with the aim of finding new antimalarial drugs.

  10. Activity of medicinal plants from Ghana against the parasitic gut protist Blastocystis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bremer Christensen, Charlotte; Soelberg, Jens; Stensvold, Christen R

    2015-01-01

    ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: The plants tested in this study were examples of plants historically used to treat or alleviate several types of stomach disorders manifested by e.g. stomachache, diarrhoea or dysentery. These plants have been consumed typically as a decoction, sometimes mixed......; an ethanolic, a warm, and a cold water extract, at a final concentration of 1mg/mL for the initial screening, and in a range from 0.0156 to 1mg/mL for determination of inhibitory concentrations. The obligate anaerobic parasitic gut protist Blastocystis (subtype 4) was used as a 48h old subcultivated isolate...... (IC50) was derived after 24h and 48h. Antimicrobial activity was tested against two Gram-positive and two Gram-negative bacteria for all 24 plant parts at a final concentration of 1mg/mL. RESULTS: Screening of the 24 different plant parts showed significant anti-Blastocystis activity of six...

  11. Cytoplasmic streaming velocity as a plant size determinant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tominaga, Motoki; Kimura, Atsushi; Yokota, Etsuo; Haraguchi, Takeshi; Shimmen, Teruo; Yamamoto, Keiichi; Nakano, Akihiko; Ito, Kohji

    2013-11-11

    Cytoplasmic streaming is active transport widely occurring in plant cells ranging from algae to angiosperms. Although it has been revealed that cytoplasmic streaming is generated by organelle-associated myosin XI moving along actin bundles, the fundamental function in plants remains unclear. We generated high- and low-speed chimeric myosin XI by replacing the motor domains of Arabidopsis thaliana myosin XI-2 with those of Chara corallina myosin XI and Homo sapiens myosin Vb, respectively. Surprisingly, the plant sizes of the transgenic Arabidopsis expressing high- and low-speed chimeric myosin XI-2 were larger and smaller, respectively, than that of the wild-type plant. This size change correlated with acceleration and deceleration, respectively, of cytoplasmic streaming. Our results strongly suggest that cytoplasmic streaming is a key determinant of plant size. Furthermore, because cytoplasmic streaming is a common system for intracellular transport in plants, our system could have applications in artificial size control in plants.

  12. Evaluation of the Activity of Plant Extracts in Boer Goats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Worku

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: The effect of extracts from Neem (Azadirachta indica, Wormwood (Artemisia absinthium and Tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum with added copper sulfate, on female Boer goats infected with gastrointestinal parasites (GIN was evaluated. Approach: Following initial screening for infection, animals were artificially infected with a mix containing approximately 80% Haemonchus contortus and 20% Trichostrongylus spp. After 21 days, fecal samples were collected to determine the fecal egg count. Plant extracts (200 mg kg-1 body weight in sterile distilled water were administered on day 28. Treatment I was a control without anthelmintic (distilled water; treatment II received Neem leaf extracts; treatment III received an extract prepared from Wormwood leaves, flowers and roots; treatment IV received Tobacco leaf extracts with copper sulphate. Body Weight (BW, Fecal Egg Count (FEC, Packed Cell Volume (PCV, Total White Blood Cell Counts (TWBCC and White Blood Cell Differential Counts (WBCDC were determined in goats once a week, for a 4-week period. Results: There was no difference in FEC among the groups. The results showed that the plant extracts at the tested concentration were not effective anthelmintics; The PCV of the control group was significantly higher than all treatment groups (p≤0.05. Groups treated with Wormwood and Tobacco copper sulphate had dramatic decreases in PCV which may be an indicator of toxicity from these treatments. Significant differences in BW were observed between the control group and that of the Tobacco-copper sulphate group (p≤0.05. Low concentrations of Tobacco-copper sulphate treatment enhanced body weight. The extracts tested were not effective in reducing the levels of TWBCC. Circulating eosinophil counts, TWBCC and FEC, were negatively correlated with PCV in goats in this study. Conclusion: Aqueous extracts containing water soluble proteins from Neem, wormwood and tobacco are not effective anthelmintics in

  13. Developing restoration planting mixes for active ski slopes: a multi-site reference community approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burt, Jennifer Williamson

    2012-03-01

    Downhill ski areas occupy large expanses of mountainous lands where restoration of ecosystem function is of increasing importance and interest. Establishing diverse native plant communities on ski runs should enhance sediment and water retention, wildlife habitat, biodiversity and aesthetics. Because ski slopes are managed for recreation, ski slope revegetation mixes must consist of low-stature or herbaceous plants that can tolerate typical environmental conditions on ski slopes (high elevation, disturbed soils, open, steep slopes). The most appropriate reference communities for selecting ski slope revegetation species are thus successional, or seral plant communities in similar environments (i.e., other ski slopes). Using results from a broad-scale reference community analysis, I evaluated plant communities naturally occurring on ski slopes from 21 active and abandoned ski areas throughout the northern Sierra Nevada to identify native plant species suitable for use in ski slope restoration. I constructed a baseline planting palette of regionally appropriate plant species (for restoration of either newly created or already existing ski runs) that is functionally diverse and is likely to succeed across a broad range of environments. I also identify a more comprehensive list of species for more specialized planting mixes based on site-specific goals and particular environmental settings. Establishing seral plant communities may be an appropriate restoration goal for many other types of managed lands, including roadsides, firebreaks and utility rights-of-way. This study describes an ecological (and potentially cost-effective) approach to developing restoration planting palettes for such managed lands.

  14. Bioactivities from Marine Algae of the Genus Gracilaria

    OpenAIRE

    José M. Barbosa-Filho; Maria de Fátima V. de Souza; Rodrigues, Luis C.; Athayde-Filho, Petrônio F.; Lira, Narlize S.; Camila De A. Montenegro; Gedson R. De M. Lima; Batista,Leônia M.; Heloina de S. Falcão; Cynthia Layse F. De Almeida

    2011-01-01

    Seaweeds are an important source of bioactive metabolites for the pharmaceutical industry in drug development. Many of these compounds are used to treat diseases like cancer, acquired immune-deficiency syndrome (AIDS), inflammation, pain, arthritis, as well as viral, bacterial, and fungal infections. This paper offers a survey of the literature for Gracilaria algae extracts with biological activity, and identifies avenues for future research. Nineteen species of this genus that were tested fo...

  15. Effect of light on the content of photosynthetically active pigments in plants. Pt. 4. Chromatic adaption in blue-green algae Anabaena cylindrica and A. variabilis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Czeczuga, B.

    1986-07-15

    The photosynthetic pigments (chlorophyll a, carotenoids and phycobiliprotein pigments) of two species of the genus Anabaena grown in white, red, yellow, green and blue light were examined. The highest concentration of the cells was observed in the sample with red light in case of the both species, and the smallest with blue light. The biggest amounts of chlorophyll a and carotenoids were included in the cells of samples with the yellow and the smallest in case of the red light. The ratio of two phycobiliproteins is as follows: - in Anabaena cylindrica: the highest amount of C-phycocyanin in the cells was observed in the case of the red light, and C-phycoerytherin was found in the blue light; - in Anabaena variabiles: the highest amount of C-phycocyanien in the cells was found in case of the yellow light, and allophycocyanin was found in the blue light.

  16. Nepenthesin protease activity indicates digestive fluid dynamics in carnivorous nepenthes plants.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Franziska Buch

    Full Text Available Carnivorous plants use different morphological features to attract, trap and digest prey, mainly insects. Plants from the genus Nepenthes possess specialized leaves called pitchers that function as pitfall-traps. These pitchers are filled with a digestive fluid that is generated by the plants themselves. In order to digest caught prey in their pitchers, Nepenthes plants produce various hydrolytic enzymes including aspartic proteases, nepenthesins (Nep. Knowledge about the generation and induction of these proteases is limited. Here, by employing a FRET (fluorescent resonance energy transfer-based technique that uses a synthetic fluorescent substrate an easy and rapid detection of protease activities in the digestive fluids of various Nepenthes species was feasible. Biochemical studies and the heterologously expressed Nep II from Nepenthes mirabilis proved that the proteolytic activity relied on aspartic proteases, however an acid-mediated auto-activation mechanism was necessary. Employing the FRET-based approach, the induction and dynamics of nepenthesin in the digestive pitcher fluid of various Nepenthes plants could be studied directly with insect (Drosophila melanogaster prey or plant material. Moreover, we observed that proteolytic activity was induced by the phytohormone jasmonic acid but not by salicylic acid suggesting that jasmonate-dependent signaling pathways are involved in plant carnivory.

  17. Acetylcholinesterase and butyrylcholinesterase inhibitory activity of some selected Nigerian medicinal plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Taiwo O. Elufioye

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Plants have been found to be useful as memory enhansers as well as antiaging. Twenty two of such plants from sixteen families were investigated for their acetylcholinesterase (AChE and butyrylcholinesterase (BuChE inhibitory activities using the in vitro Ellman's spectrophotometric and in situ bioautographic methods with physostigmine as standard. At least three morphological parts were examined for each of the plants investigated and the test concentration was 42.5 µg/ mL. Some plants were active on both enzymes though with some morphological parts being more active than others. The root bark of Spondias mombin showed the highest activity to the two enzymes; 64.77% and 83.94% on AChE and BuChE respectively. Other plant parts of the selected plants exhibited some remarkable selectivity in their actions. Those selectively active against AChE were Alchornia laxiflora stem bark (41.12% and root bark, Callophyllum inophyllurn root bark (56.52%. The leaves of C. jagus (74.25%, Morinda lucida leaves (40.15%, Peltophorum pterocarpum leaves and stem bark (49.5% and 68.85%, respectively, physiostigmine gave 90.31% inhibition. Generally higher activities were found against BuChE. Bombax bromoposenze leaves, root bark and stem bark were particularly active. The inhibition was over 80%. Other selective plant parts are the leaves Antiaris africana, Cissampelos owarensis aerial parts (78.96%, Combretum molle leaves and stem bark (90.42% and 88.13%, respectively, Dioscorea dumentorum root bark and tuber (over 87%, G. kola leaves, Markhamia tomentosa root bark, Pycnanthus angolensis stem bark and Tetrapleura tetraptera leaves. Most of these plants are taken as food or are food ingredients in Nigeria and may account for the low incidence of Alzheimer's disease in the country and may play certain roles in the mediation of the disease.

  18. Ecophysiology of novel core phylotypes in activated sludge wastewater treatment plants with nutrient removal

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    McIlroy, Simon Jon; Awata, Takanori; Nierychlo, Marta

    An in depth understanding of the ecology of activated sludge nutrient removal wastewater treatment systems requires detailed knowledge of the community composition and metabolic activities of individual members. Recent 16S rRNA gene amplicon surveys of activated sludge wastewater treatment plants...... with nutrient removal in Denmark indicate a core set of bacterial genera. These core genera are suggested to be responsible for the bulk of nutrient transformations underpinning the functions of these plants. While we know the basic in situ activities of some of these genera, there is little to no information...

  19. Characterization of the in situ ecophysiology of novel phylotypes in nutrient removal activated sludge treatment plants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    McIlroy, Simon Jon; Awata, Takanori; Nierychlo, Marta

    2015-01-01

    An in depth understanding of the ecology of activated sludge nutrient removal wastewater treatment systems requires detailed knowledge of the community composition and metabolic activities of individual members. Recent 16S rRNA gene amplicon surveys of activated sludge wastewater treatment plants...... with nutrient removal indicate the presence of a core set of bacterial genera. These organisms are likely responsible for the bulk of nutrient transformations underpinning the functions of these plants. While the basic activities of some of these genera in situ are known, there is little to no information...

  20. Costs and benefits of chemical defence in the Red Alga Bonnemaisonia hamifera.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Göran M Nylund

    Full Text Available A number of studies have shown that the production of chemical defences is costly in terrestrial vascular plants. However, these studies do not necessarily reflect the costs of defence production in macroalgae, due to structural and functional differences between vascular plants and macroalgae. Using a specific culturing technique, we experimentally manipulated the defence production in the red alga Bonnemaisonia hamifera to examine if the defence is costly in terms of growth. Furthermore, we tested if the defence provides fitness benefits by reducing harmful bacterial colonisation of the alga. Costly defences should provide benefits to the producer in order to be maintained in natural populations, but such benefits through protection against harmful bacterial colonisation have rarely been documented in macroalgae. We found that algae with experimentally impaired defence production, but with an externally controlled epibacterial load, grew significantly better than algae with normal defence production. We also found that undefended algae exposed to a natural epibacterial load experienced a substantial reduction in growth and a 6-fold increase in cell bleaching, compared to controls. Thus, this study provides experimental evidence that chemical defence production in macroalgae is costly, but that the cost is outweighed by fitness benefits provided through protection against harmful bacterial colonisation.

  1. Evaluation of antioxidant activities of some Nigerian medici-nal plants

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Uche FI; Ezugwu CO

    2009-01-01

    Objective:The methanol extracts of the leaves of Kolancheo (K.)pinnata,Aspilia (A.)africana,Mucuna (M.)pruriens,Emilia (E.)coccinea,Triumfetta (T.)rhomboidea,Laportea (L.)ovalifolis,Celosia (C.) trigynea,Cucurbita (C.)moschata and Asystesia (A.)gangestica were evaluated for antioxidant activities,the reducing potentials of these plants were also determined and phytochemical screening of some of these plants were carried out.Methods:The antioxidant activities of these plants were evaluated by the use of 2,2-di-phenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH)free radical assay and spectrophotomer.The reducing potentials of these plants were determined using Ferric chloride,Potassium Ferricyanide and Trichloroacetic acid proceedures. The phytochemical screenings of the medicinal plants were equally done using standard procedures.Results:The percentage of antioxidant activities values for the plants were:(31.00 ±1.80)%,(58.40 ±1.26)%,(59.10 ±1.60)%,(60.00 ±1.05)%,(60.80 ±1.28)%,(62.40 ±1.26)%,(64.80 ±2. 10)% ,(75.70 ±2.60)% and (82.70 ±2.80)% for A.gangestica,C.moschata,C.trigynea,L . ovalifolia,E.coccinea,M.pruriens,A.africana,K.pinnata and T .rhomboidea ,respectively.These values were dose-dependent and statistically significant at P <0.05 (ANOVA).The results showed that T.rhom-boidea had the highest antioxidant activity value (82.70 ±2.80 %)while A.gangestica had the least value (31.00 ±1.80 %).The percentage of antioxidant activities of these plants were comparable to the standard used,Tocopherol which was found to be (97.20 ±1.06)%.The reducing potentials of the plants were found to be positively correlated to the antioxidant activities of the plants.Phytochemical screenings revealed the presence of alkaloids,flavonoids,terpenoids,saponins and tannins in the medicinal plants.Conclusion:The findings from this study have revealed the potentials of these plants as antioxidants.This could be exploited in drug development in search of powerful antioxidants which are urgently

  2. Algae Biofuel in the Nigerian Energy Context

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elegbede, Isa; Guerrero, Cinthya

    2016-05-01

    The issue of energy consumption is one of the issues that have significantly become recognized as an important topic of global discourse. Fossil fuels production reportedly experiencing a gradual depletion in the oil-producing nations of the world. Most studies have relatively focused on biofuel development and adoption, however, the awareness of a prospect in the commercial cultivation of algae having potential to create economic boost in Nigeria, inspired this research. This study aims at exploring the potential of the commercialization of a different but commonly found organism, algae, in Nigeria. Here, parameters such as; water quality, light, carbon, average temperature required for the growth of algae, and additional beneficial nutrients found in algae were analysed. A comparative cum qualitative review of analysis was used as the study made use of empirical findings on the work as well as the author's deductions. The research explored the cultivation of algae with the two major seasonal differences (i.e. rainy and dry) in Nigeria as a backdrop. The results indicated that there was no significant difference in the contribution of algae and other sources of biofuels as a necessity for bioenergy in Nigeria. However, for an effective sustainability of this prospect, adequate measures need to be put in place in form of funding, provision of an economically-enabling environment for the cultivation process as well as proper healthcare service in the face of possible health hazard from technological processes. Further studies can seek to expand on the potential of cultivating algae in the Harmattan season.

  3. Report: Studies on antibacterial activity of some traditional medicinal plants used in folk medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Israr, Fozia; Hassan, Fouzia; Naqvi, Baqir Shyum; Azhar, Iqbal; Jabeen, Sabahat; Hasan, S M Farid

    2012-07-01

    Ethanolic extracts of eight medicinal plants commonly used in folk medicine were tested for their antibacterial activity against four Gram positive strains (Bacillus subtilis, Staphylococcus aureus, Staphylococcus epidermidis and, Streptococcus pneumoniae) and six Gram negative strains (Escherichia coli, Proteus vulgaris, Proteus mirabilis. Salmonella typhi para A, Salmonella typhi para B and Shigella dysenteriae) that were obtained from different pathological laboratories located in Karachi, Pakistan. Disc diffusion method was used to analyze antibacterial activity. Out of eight, five medicinal plants showed antibacterial activity against two or more than two microbial species. The most effective antimicrobial plant found to be Punica granatum followed by Curcuma zedoaria Rosc, Grewia asiatica L and Carissa carandas L, Curcuma caesia Roxb respectively. From these results, it is evident that medicinal plants could be used as a potential source of new antibacterial agents.

  4. Paperless activation. Optimization potentials in power plants; Papierlose Freischaltung. Optimierungspotenziale im Kraftwerk

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goestenkors, Robert [Gemeinschaftskraftwerk Bergkamen der Evonik Steag GmbH und RWE Power AG, Bergkamen (Germany); Wieder, Ralf [Arbeitssicherheit fuer die Kraftwerke der Evonik Steag GmbH, Essen (Germany)

    2011-03-15

    Activation of plants or components is a very important task in any power plant. Evonik Steag started to use computer-assisted activation procedures many years ago. The operation management system SI {sup registered} was developed by the Evonik Steag subsidiary Evonik Energy Services; it comprises and activation module that manages the planning and execution of activation and connection processes for all aggregates of a power plant. The module was now extended to support also local activation operators. Instead of documents on paper, the activation operator receives a PDA description of the steps to be taken. The correct following of the procedure is ensured by a RFID chip connected at the activation site. Documentation of the activation is still carried out by signing a paper document. Further developments are still required to make the whole activation process at Bergkamen power plant paperless. The contribution describes the current status and the first step that was taken and then proceeds to describe the implemented paperless activation procedure.

  5. Microbial growth and quorum sensing antagonist activities of herbal plants extracts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Hussaini, Reema; Mahasneh, Adel M

    2009-09-03

    Antimicrobial and antiquorum sensing (AQS) activities of fourteen ethanolic extracts of different parts of eight plants were screened against four Gram-positive, five Gram-negative bacteria and four fungi. Depending on the plant part extract used and the test microorganism, variable activities were recorded at 3 mg per disc. Among the Grampositive bacteria tested, for example, activities of Laurus nobilis bark extract ranged between a 9.5 mm inhibition zone against Bacillus subtilis up to a 25 mm one against methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus. Staphylococcus aureus and Aspergillus fumigatus were the most susceptible among bacteria and fungi tested towards other plant parts. Of interest is the tangible antifungal activity of a Tecoma capensis flower extract, which is reported for the first time. However, minimum inhibitory concentrations (MIC's) for both bacteria and fungi were relatively high (0.5-3.0 mg). As for antiquorum sensing activity against Chromobacterium violaceum, superior activity (>17 mm QS inhibition) was associated with Sonchus oleraceus and Laurus nobilis extracts and weak to good activity (8-17 mm) was recorded for other plants. In conclusion, results indicate the potential of these plant extracts in treating microbial infections through cell growth inhibition or quorum sensing antagonism, which is reported for the first time, thus validating their medicinal use.

  6. Microbial Growth and Quorum Sensing Antagonist Activities of Herbal Plants Extracts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reema Al-Hussaini

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Antimicrobial and antiquorum sensing (AQS activities of fourteen ethanolic extracts of different parts of eight plants were screened against four Gram-positive, five Gram-negative bacteria and four fungi. Depending on the plant part extract used and the test microorganism, variable activities were recorded at 3 mg per disc. Among the Grampositive bacteria tested, for example, activities of Laurus nobilis bark extract ranged between a 9.5 mm inhibition zone against Bacillus subtilis up to a 25 mm one against methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus. Staphylococcus aureus and Aspergillus fumigatus were the most susceptible among bacteria and fungi tested towards other plant parts. Of interest is the tangible antifungal activity of a Tecoma capensis flower extract, which is reported for the first time. However, minimum inhibitory concentrations (MIC's for both bacteria and fungi were relatively high (0.5-3.0 mg. As for antiquorum sensing activity against Chromobacterium violaceum, superior activity (>17 mm QS inhibition was associated with Sonchus oleraceus and Laurus nobilis extracts and weak to good activity (8-17 mm was recorded for other plants. In conclusion, results indicate the potential of these plant extracts in treating microbial infections through cell growth inhibition or quorum sensing antagonism, which is reported for the first time, thus validating their medicinal use.

  7. Antimicrobial activities of skincare preparations from plant extracts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kareru, P G; Keriko, J M; Kenji, G M; Thiong'o, G T; Gachanja, A N; Mukiira, H N

    2010-04-03

    In this study, Tithonia diversifolia Helms. (A Gray), Aloe secundiflora (Miller) and Azadirachta indica (A. Juss) plant extracts were used to make herbal soaps while Thevetia peruviana (Schum) seed oil was used to make a herbal lotion for skincare. The soaps were tested for the growth inhibition of Escherichia coli, and Candida albicans. The lotion was evaluated against Staphylococcus aureus and E.coli. Although Tithonia diversifolia soap exhibited the highest inhibitory effect on the test bacterial strains, it had the least inhibition against C. albicans. Results from this study indicated that the 'Tithonia diversifolia' soap would have superior skin protection against the tested bacteria but would offer the least skin protection against C. albicans. The herbal lotion inhibited S. aureus and E. coli in a concentration dependent manner, however, the inhibitory effect was more pronounced on S. aureus.

  8. Plants and Fungal Products with Activity Against Tuberculosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcus Vinicius Nora De Souza

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Tuberculosis (TB is becoming an ever more serious worldwide problem. This contagious disease kills four people every minute somewhere in the world and accounts for more than 2 million deaths per year. Due to the rapid spread of TB strains resistant to all the major anti-TB drugs on the market, and the association of TB with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV infection in AIDS, we urgently need to develop new drugs to fight against TB. In this context, due to the importance of nature in the development of new drugs, the aim of the present review is to highlight a series of new and promising anti-TB agents derived from plants and fungi discovered between 2001 and 2005.

  9. Antioxidant activity of twenty five plants from Colombian biodiversity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mosquera, Oscar M; Correa, Yaned M; Buitrago, Diana C; Niño, Jaime

    2007-08-01

    The antioxidant activity of the crude n-hexane, dichloromethane, and methanol extracts from 25 species belonging to the Asteraceae, Euphorbiaceae, Rubiaceae, and Solanaceae families collected at natural reserves from the Eje Cafetero Ecorregión Colombia, were evaluated by using the spectrophotometric 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) free radical-scavenging method. The strongest antioxidant activities were showed by the methanol and dichloromethane extracts from the Euphorbiaceae, Alchornea coelophylla (IC50 41.14 mg/l) and Acalypha platyphilla (IC50 111.99 mg/l), respectively. These two species had stronger DPPH radical scavenging activities than hydroquinone (IC50 151.19 mg/l), the positive control. The potential use of Colombian flora for their antioxidant activities is discussed.

  10. Heat-stable oral alga-based vaccine protects mice from Staphylococcus aureus infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dreesen, Imke A J; Charpin-El Hamri, Ghislaine; Fussenegger, Martin

    2010-02-01

    While 15 million deaths per year are caused by communicable pathogens worldwide, health care authorities emphasize the considerable impact of poverty on the incidence of infectious diseases. The emergence of antigen-expressing plant tissues (e.g. rice, tomato, potato) has indicated the potential of land plants for low-cost vaccines in oral immunization programs. In this study, we engineered the chloroplasts of the unicellular green alga Chlamydomonas reinhardtii for the stable expression of the D2 fibronectin-binding domain of Staphylococcus aureus fused with the cholera toxin B subunit (CTB), under the control of rbcL UTRs. Analysis of sera and faeces of mice, fed for 5 weeks with transgenic algae grown in confined Wave Bioreactor, revealed the induction of specific mucosal and systemic immune responses. Algae-based vaccination significantly reduced the pathogen load in the spleen and the intestine of treated mice and protected 80% of them against lethal doses of S. aureus. Importantly, the alga vaccine was stable for more than 1.5 years at room temperature. These results indicate that C. reinhardtii may play an important role in molecular pharming, as it combines the beneficial features of land plant vaccines, while offering unmatched ease of growth compared to other members of the plant kingdom.

  11. Biologically Active Substances of Plants from Sali x L. Genus

    OpenAIRE

    O. O. Frolova; E. V. Kompantseva; T. M. Dementieva

    2016-01-01

    The review systematizes data about chemical composition of bark, leaves, inflorescences, and sprouts of different species of Salix L. The closest attention is payed to investigations of Salix, which has been recently carried out in our country and abroad. For every group of biologically active substances described in Salix there are data about suppressed types of pharmacological activity.

  12. Biologically Active Substances of Plants from Sali x L. Genus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. O. Frolova

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The review systematizes data about chemical composition of bark, leaves, inflorescences, and sprouts of different species of Salix L. The closest attention is payed to investigations of Salix, which has been recently carried out in our country and abroad. For every group of biologically active substances described in Salix there are data about suppressed types of pharmacological activity.

  13. Arabidopsis sigma factor binding proteins are activators of the WRKY33 transcription factor in plant defense.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lai, Zhibing; Li, Ying; Wang, Fei; Cheng, Yuan; Fan, Baofang; Yu, Jing-Quan; Chen, Zhixiang

    2011-10-01

    Necrotrophic pathogens are important plant pathogens that cause many devastating plant diseases. Despite their impact, our understanding of the plant defense response to necrotrophic pathogens is limited. The WRKY33 transcription factor is important for plant resistance to necrotrophic pathogens; therefore, elucidation of its functions will enhance our understanding of plant immunity to necrotrophic pathogens. Here, we report the identification of two WRKY33-interacting proteins, nuclear-encoded SIGMA FACTOR BINDING PROTEIN1 (SIB1) and SIB2, which also interact with plastid-encoded plastid RNA polymerase SIGMA FACTOR1. Both SIB1 and SIB2 contain an N-terminal chloroplast targeting signal and a putative nuclear localization signal, suggesting that they are dual targeted. Bimolecular fluorescence complementation indicates that WRKY33 interacts with SIBs in the nucleus of plant cells. Both SIB1 and SIB2 contain a short VQ motif that is important for interaction with WRKY33. The two VQ motif-containing proteins recognize the C-terminal WRKY domain and stimulate the DNA binding activity of WRKY33. Like WRKY33, both SIB1 and SIB2 are rapidly and strongly induced by the necrotrophic pathogen Botrytis cinerea. Resistance to B. cinerea is compromised in the sib1 and sib2 mutants but enhanced in SIB1-overexpressing transgenic plants. These results suggest that dual-targeted SIB1 and SIB2 function as activators of WRKY33 in plant defense against necrotrophic pathogens.

  14. PHYTOCHEMISTRY AND EVALUATION OF ANTIOXIDANT ACTIVITY OF WHOLE PLANT OF CALOTROPIS GIGANTEA LINN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joshi Amit

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Calotropis gigantea Linn. belongs family Asclepiadaceae and contains flavonoids, tannins, reducing sugars cardiac glycoside alkaloids. In the present study, ethanolic extract of Calotropis gigantea was investigated for its antioxidant activity. Antioxidant activity was determined in vitro by reducing power, DPPH and nitric oxide method. Hydroalcohlic extract of Calotropis gigantea shown significant antioxidant activity. Calotropis gigantea (Asclepiadaceae commonly known as arka and wild growing tropical plant, which possesses number of medicinal properties. It is reported to contain cardiac glycosides, -sitosterol, madrine, saponins, alkaloids, tannins, trisecharoides and flavonols. The plant has been used for various disease conditions, including leprosy, ulcers, tumours and piles. Various pharmacological activities reported like antifertility, anti-inflammatory activity, hepatoprotective activity, antimyocardial infraction activity and antidiarrhoeal activity.

  15. Gain and loss of polyadenylation signals during evolution of green algae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Glöckner Gernot

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The Viridiplantae (green algae and land plants consist of two monophyletic lineages: the Chlorophyta and the Streptophyta. Most green algae belong to the Chlorophyta, while the Streptophyta include all land plants and a small group of freshwater algae known as Charophyceae. Eukaryotes attach a poly-A tail to the 3' ends of most nuclear-encoded mRNAs. In embryophytes, animals and fungi, the signal for polyadenylation contains an A-rich sequence (often AAUAAA or related sequence 13 to 30 nucleotides upstream from the cleavage site, which is commonly referred to as the near upstream element (NUE. However, it has been reported that the pentanucleotide UGUAA is used as polyadenylation signal for some genes in volvocalean algae. Results We set out to investigate polyadenylation signal differences between streptophytes and chlorophytes that may have emerged shortly after the evolutionary split between Streptophyta and Chlorophyta. We therefore analyzed expressed genes (ESTs from three streptophyte algae, Mesostigma viride, Klebsormidium subtile and Coleochaete scutata, and from two early-branching chlorophytes, Pyramimonas parkeae and Scherffelia dubia. In addition, to extend the database, our analyses included ESTs from six other chlorophytes (Acetabularia acetabulum, Chlamydomonas reinhardtii, Helicosporidium sp. ex Simulium jonesii, Prototheca wickerhamii, Scenedesmus obliquus and Ulva linza and one streptophyte (Closterium peracerosum. Our results indicate that polyadenylation signals in green algae vary widely. The UGUAA motif is confined to late-branching Chlorophyta. Most streptophyte algae do not have an A-rich sequence motif like that in embryophytes, animals and fungi. We observed polyadenylation signals similar to those of Arabidopsis and other land plants only in Mesostigma. Conclusion Polyadenylation signals in green algae show considerable variation. A new NUE (UGUAA was invented in derived chlorophytes and replaced

  16. 4-Methylthiobutyl isothiocyanate (Erucin) from rocket plant dichotomously affects the activity of human immunocompetent cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gründemann, Carsten; Garcia-Käufer, Manuel; Lamy, Evelyn; Hanschen, Franziska S; Huber, Roman

    2015-03-15

    Isothiocyanates (ITC) from the Brassicaceae plant family are regarded as promising for prevention and treatment of cancer. However, experimental settings consider their therapeutic action without taking into account the risk of unwanted effects on healthy tissues. In the present study we investigated the effects of Eruca sativa seed extract containing MTBITC (Erucin) and pure Erucin from rocket plant on healthy cells of the human immune system in vitro. Hereby, high doses of the plant extract as well as of Erucin inhibited cell viability of human lymphocytes via induction of apoptosis to comparable amounts. Non-toxic low concentrations of the plant extract and pure Erucin altered the expression of the interleukin (IL)-2 receptor but did not affect further T cell activation, proliferation and the release of the effector molecules interferon (IFN)-gamma and IL-2 of T-lymphocytes. However, the activity of NK-cells was significantly reduced by non-toxic concentrations of the plant extract and pure Erucin. These results indicate that the plant extract and pure Erucin interfere with the function of human T lymphocytes and decreases the activity of NK-cells in comparable concentrations. Long-term clinical studies with ITC-enriched plant extracts from Brassicaceae should take this into account.

  17. Brassinolide alleviates salt stress and increases antioxidant activity of cowpea plants (Vigna sinensis).

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Mashad, Ali Abdel Aziz; Mohamed, Heba Ibrahim

    2012-07-01

    Soil salinity is one of the most severe factors limiting growth and physiological response in Vigna sinensis plants. Plant salt stress tolerance requires the activation of complex metabolic activities including antioxidative pathways, especially reactive oxygen species and scavenging systems within the cells which can contribute to continued growth under water stress. The present investigation was carried out to study the role of brassinolide in enhancing tolerance of cowpea plants to salt stress (NaCl). Treatment with 0.05 ppm brassinolide as foliar spray mitigated salt stress by inducing enzyme activities responsible for antioxidation, e.g., superoxide dismutase, peroxidase, polyphenol oxidase, and detoxification as well as by elevating contents of ascorbic acid, tocopherol, and glutathione. On the other hand, total soluble proteins decreased with increasing NaCl concentrations in comparison with control plants. However, lipid peroxidation increased with increasing concentrations of NaCl. In addition to, the high concentrations of NaCl (100 and 150 mM) decreased total phenol of cowpea plants as being compared with control plants. SDS-PAGE