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Sample records for alfonso basin gulf

  1. Time-series measurements of settling particulate matter in Alfonso Basin, La Paz Bay, southwestern Gulf of California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silverberg, Norman; Aguirre-Bahena, Fernando; Mucci, Alfonso

    2014-08-01

    More than 200 sediment trap samples were collected at 310 or 360 m depth during 2002-2009 from the center of the 410 m-deep Alfonso Basin in La Paz Bay, an arid, subtropical embayment of the southern Gulf of California. Sample splits were analyzed for total mass flux (TMF), particulate organic carbon (POC), inorganic carbon (CaCO3) and opal (biogenic silica BioSi). The lithogenic (Litho) and biogenic fluxes (Biogen), but especially the particulate organic matter (POM) and CaCO3, fluxes are relatively high compared with those recorded in a number of other coastal basins at depths less than ~500 m. The average yearly Litho fluxes (mean of 133±158 g m-2 yr-1) are well correlated with the frequency of strong wind gusts and reflect the relative proximity of the mooring to shore and the importance of eolian transport. The sedimentation patterns are influenced by monsoonal shifts-cool temperatures and strong northerly winds in late fall and winter sustain a well-mixed deep surface layer and high lithogenic fluxes, whereas progressive heating and relatively weak southerlies in summer and fall lead to a shallower, more-stratified surface layer with lower nutrient levels, limited productivity and generally low particulate fluxes. There is considerable interannual variability in the size of the various fluxes. This is likely related to a number of regional and internal factors whose timing, intensity and interactions remain to be resolved. Although there is an inverse relationship between SST and satellite-derived net primary production (NPP) estimates, no correlation was found between NPP and the POC, CaCO3 and BioSi fluxes (r20.05). Significant correlations (p<0.001) do exist, however, between the POC flux and the total mineral flux as well as with the CaCO3, Litho and BioSi fluxes (r=0.86, 0.82, 0.79 and 0.69, respectively). As suggested by the ballast ratio hypothesis, the strength of these correlations follows the relative density of the individual ballast components

  2. Changes in productivity and redox conditions during the Last Glacial Maximum as recorded in high-resolution geochemical records from Alfonso Basin, Gulf of California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choumiline, K.; Lyons, T. W.; Carriquiry, J. D.; Perez-Cruz, L. L.; Beaufort, L.

    2015-12-01

    The Last Glacial Maximum represents the most recent major sea level low stand in Earth history. Such changes in eustatic sea level impacted the oxygenation of marine basins, yet the characteristics and mechanisms of those impacts remain poorly known. Specific basin conditions are needed to develop, record, and preserve those paleoredox changes through time most effectively, including rapid sedimentation rates and silled basin morphologies. The anoxic Alfonso Basin, partially separated from the Gulf of California by a bathymetric sill, is such a place. The basin is located in a dry semiarid region dominated by dust inputs and only occasional tropical cyclone-induced fluvial contributions. We present the first multi-proxy reconstruction of southern Gulf of California paleoredox that covers an uninterrupted timespan from the Late Pleistocene to the present, with an emphasis on the Last Glacial Maximum. In this research we contrast geochemical data from a 47-meter-long sediment core (collected with the giant CALYPSO corer aboard the R/V Marion Dufresne) with the solid phase and pore water chemical data from a shorter but very detailed box core (collected on the R/V El Puma), both from Alfonso Basin. Our results show that during the Late Pleistocene and throughout the Holocene several paleoredox shifts occurred, often accompanied by differences in lamination (laminated/massive alternations) and trace element (Mo, V, U) compositions; detailed Fe chemistry (FeHR/FeTand Fe/Al ratios); as well as carbon and sulfur concentrations and isotope ratios. For example, FeHR/FeT ratios indicate values of roughly 0.15 during the Last Glacial Maximum (lower than theoretic threshold of 0.2 between oxic and anoxic), suggesting more oxic conditions, in comparison to 0.25 and higher in the Holocene. Most of the variability seen in these proxies is related to global sea level change, while some variability is instead related to local variations in paleoproductivity, often connected to

  3. Gulf Coast Basins and Uplifts [gcstructsg

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — These data provide generalized outlines of major basins and uplifts in the Gulf Coast region modified after Plate 2, Principal structural features, Gulf of Mexico...

  4. Associations of major and trace components in time-series settling particle samples from Cuenca Alfonso, SW Gulf of California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez-Castañeda, A. P.; Shumilin, E.; Silverberg, N.; Morton-Bermea, O.; Hernandez-Alvarez, E.; Aguirre-Bahena, F.

    2007-12-01

    Cuenca Alfonso is a natural sedimentation basin in Bahía de La Paz, southern Baja California Peninsula, an arid subtropical region characterized by limited land runoff with a productive surface layer overlying a well-developed Oxygen Minimum Zone. A time-series sediment trap program was initiated in 2002 to help understand the processes controlling variations in the biogeochemistry of this environment. INAA, ICP-MS and ICP-OES analyses, as well as flame AAS were made for major and trace elements in 105 subsamples of material collected at 350 m depth during 2002-2005. Principal component analysis, including data for organic and inorganic carbon, biogenic silica and the lithogenic fraction, yielded four factors. Factor 1 (25% of the total variance) showed high eigenvalues for the classical terrigenous aluminosilicate elements: Al, Fe, Mn Sc. High loadings also occurred for the group of light to medium REEs (except for Eu). The latter are frequently associated with acid source rocks, such the granites and rhyolitic volcanics exposed on the margin of the bay. Factor 2 (18%) grouped mainly REEs, with high loading on the heavier members of the series that are more typical of basic rocks (thick sequences of andesitic volcanics occur to the NW), as well as Ni and Rb. Factor 3 (12%) appears to represent carbonate organism production, with high loadings for Cinorg, Ca and moderate levels for Corg and Cu, while %litho is moderately negative, as is biogenic silica. The fourth factor (9%) is characterized by high negative loadings for Cd, Co, Se and moderately negative values for Corg. Moderate positive loadings occur only for Sr and, at lower levels, for U, Sb and %lithogenic. This suggests that this grouping is related to particles that have been partially transformed within the Oxygen Minimum Zone. The results will be examined for distinctive periods within the time-series, such as the hurricane-influenced months of August-September 2003, the generally very low fluxes

  5. Cretaceous Onlap, Gulf of Mexico Basin [cretonlapg

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The maximum extent of Cretaceous onlap is generalized from Plate 3, Structure at the base and subcrop below Mesozoic marine section, Gulf of Mexico Basin (compiled...

  6. Alfonso Reyes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge Enrique Leal G.

    1960-01-01

    Full Text Available Nos hallábamos en Méjico en 1953 cuando, con oportunidad de unas circunstanciales estrofas nuestras, se suscitó una animada controversia que encontró eco en los periódicos de Colombia, acerca del correcto uso de una expresión utilizada en alguno de los versos; fue grande nuestra preocupación y, si bien a la luz de la más exigente ortodoxia sintáctica, nos parecía que la verdad nos acompañaba, no nos dimos tregua en el afán de convicción y fue así como en amenas e instructivas conversaciones con Laura Victoria, con Julián Motta Salas y con Alfonso Reyes, comprobamos hasta la saciedad que la razón estaba de nuestra parte.

  7. Particulate Matter Fluxes in Cuenca Alfonso During 2002-2005

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silverberg, N.; Aguirre-Bahena, F.

    2007-05-01

    Time-series sediment trap data were collected between 2002 and 2005 from Cuenca Alfonso, a 400m-deep basin in Bahía de La Paz, a large embayment on the southwestern coast of the Gulf of California. Despite the lack of significant land drainage in this semi-dessert environment, terrigenous material, probably wind-born, dominates the sinking particulate matter. Peak lithogenic fluxes appear to be associated with higher frequencies of wind gusts stronger than 5 ms-1. Total mass flux fluctuated from week to week, and between years, averaging 277 gm-2y-1, essentially the same as radiometrically-determined accumulation rates of about 0.4 mmy-1 in cores of the underlying sediment. In 2003, the passage of 2 hurricanes induced high winds and flash flooding and the total mass flux offshore remained very high for two weeks following each event. This unusual sedimentation was equivalent to that of a full year without hurricanes and such events may account for some of the laminations found in cores. During most of 2005, on the other hand, sedimentation rates were lower than average. Although fluxes of all components tended to be highest during late fall and early winter, biogenic fluxes displayed peaks during all seasons of the year in Cuenca Alfonso. This is in contrast to the strong seasonal alternation between terrigenous sedimentation and diatom blooms observed in Guaymas Basin in the central Gulf. Furthermore, calcium carbonate dominated over biogenic silica within the marine component. Average annual fluxes of CaCO3, biogenic silica and POC were 52.5, 32.5 and 13.9 gm-2y-1, respectively.

  8. Orogenic Thrust Belt, Gulf of Mexico Basin [gcthrustbg

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — These data provide the general location of the Ouachita and Appalachian structural fronts slightly modified from Plate 4, Natural resources, Gulf of Mexico Basin...

  9. Temporal variations of C, N, δ13C, and δ15N in organic matter collected by a sediment trap at Cuenca Alfonso, Bahía de La Paz, SW Gulf of California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aguiñiga, Sergio; Sanchez, Alberto; Silverberg, Norman

    2010-09-01

    To monitor the composition and the vertical flux of particulate matter from the sea surface, a sediment trap was moored in Cuenca Alfonso, Bahía de La Paz, a zone of high productivity in the southwestern Gulf of California. Carbonate-free samples from 2002 to 2005 were analyzed for C org, N, δ13C, and δ15N. The results show seasonal and interannual variability, with the δ13C and δ15N values larger in spring and summer than in fall and winter. The C:N ratio and δ13C increased by 1.5 units from 2002 to 2003-2005, suggesting a change in the supply of organic matter and-or the use or preferential degradation of N org. There was no interannual variation in δ15N. The occasional high δ15N values suggest that physical mechanisms, such as the shoaling and advection into the bay of 15N-rich subsurface equatorial water, occur over short time periods. The latter is presumed to be related to the periodic development of a significant cyclonic gyre in the southern Gulf.

  10. Geothermal resources of the northern gulf of Mexico basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, P.H.

    1970-01-01

    Published geothermal gradient maps for the northern Gulf of Mexico basin indicate little or no potential for the development of geothermal resources. Results of deep drilling, from 4000 to 7000 meters or more, during the past decade however, define very sharp increases in geothermal gradient which are associated with the occurrence of abnormally high interstitial fluid pressure (geopressure). Bounded by regional growth faults along the landward margin of the Gulf Basin, the geopressured zone extends some 1300 km from the Rio Grande (at the boundary between the United States and Mexico) to the mouth of the Mississippi river. Gulfward, it extends to an unknown distance across the Continental Shelf. Within geopressured deposits, geothermal gradients range upwards to 100 ??C/km, being greatest within and immediately below the depth interval in which the maximum pressure gradient change occurs. The 120 ??C isogeotherm ranges from about 2500 to 5000 m below sea level, and conforms in a general way with depth of occurrence of the top of the geopressured zone. Measured geostatic ratios range upward to 0.97; the maximum observed temperature is 273 ??C, at a depth of 5859 m. Dehydration of montmorillonite, which comprises 60 to 80 percent of clay deposited in the northern Gulf Basin during the Neogene, occurs at depths where temperature exceeds about 80 ??C, and is generally complete at depths where temperature exceeds 120 ??C. This process converts intracrystalline and bound water to free pore water, the volume produced being roughly equivalent to half the volume of montmorillonite so altered. Produced water is fresh, and has low viscosity and density. Sand-bed aquifers of deltaic, longshore, or marine origin form excellent avenues for drainage of geopressured deposits by wells, each of which may yield 10,000 m3 or more of superheated water per day from reservoirs having pressures up to 1000 bars at depths greater than 5000 m. ?? 1971.

  11. The Red Sea and Gulf of Aden Basins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bosworth, William; Huchon, Philippe; McClay, Ken

    2005-10-01

    We here summarize the evolution of the greater Red Sea-Gulf of Aden rift system, which includes the Gulfs of Suez and Aqaba, the Red Sea and Gulf of Aden marine basins and their continental margins, and the Afar region. Plume related basaltic trap volcanism began in Ethiopia, NE Sudan (Derudeb), and SW Yemen at ˜31 Ma, followed by rhyolitic volcanism at ˜30 Ma. Volcanism thereafter spread northward to Harrats Sirat, Hadan, Ishara-Khirsat, and Ar Rahat in western Saudi Arabia. This early magmatism occurred without significant extension, and continued to ˜25 Ma. Much of the Red Sea and Gulf of Aden region was at or near sea level at this time. Starting between ˜29.9 and 28.7 Ma, marine syn-tectonic sediments were deposited on continental crust in the central Gulf of Aden. At the same time the Horn of Africa became emergent. By ˜27.5-23.8 Ma a small rift basin was forming in the Eritrean Red Sea. At approximately the same time (˜25 Ma), extension and rifting commenced within Afar itself. At ˜24 Ma, a new phase of volcanism, principally basaltic dikes but also layered gabbro and granophyre bodies, appeared nearly synchronously throughout the entire Red Sea, from Afar and Yemen to northern Egypt. This second phase of magmatism was accompanied in the Red Sea by strong rift-normal extension and deposition of syn-tectonic sediments, mostly of marine and marginal marine affinity. Sedimentary facies were laterally heterogeneous, being comprised of inter-fingering siliciclastics, evaporite, and carbonate. Throughout the Red Sea, the principal phase of rift shoulder uplift and rapid syn-rift subsidence followed shortly thereafter at ˜20 Ma. Water depths increased dramatically and sedimentation changed to predominantly Globigerina-rich marl and deepwater limestone. Within a few million years of its initiation in the mid-Oligocene the Gulf of Aden continental rift linked the Owen fracture zone (oceanic crust) with the Afar plume. The principal driving force for extension

  12. Geothermal and Hydrocarbon Regimes, Northern Gulf of Mexico Basin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jones, Paul H.

    1975-01-01

    Geothermal heat flow in the Gulf basin is primarily a function of its hydrology. Water expelled from sediments with deepening burial and increasing overburden load escapes upward and toward the basin margin. Where it moves freely in the hydropressure zone, the basin is relatively cool; but where rapid sedimentation and contemporaneous faulting have retarded water loss from compacting sediments, the interstitial fluid pressure reflects a part of the overburden load, and the formation waters are superheated and geopressured. The geopressured zone is common below depths of about 3 km (9,600 ft) in the basin, beneath an area of 375,000 km{sup 2} (150,000 mi{sup 2}), and extends downward perhaps 15 km (50,000 ft) to the base of Cenozoic deposits. The upper boundary of the geopressured zone is the most important physical interface in the basin. Across it the head of formation water increases downward from a few hundred to several thousand feet above sea level; the geothermal gradient increases downward from 20° to 40° C/km to 100°C/km or more; the salinity of formation water decreases downward, commonly by 50,000 mg/l or more; and the porosity of shale and sand increases downward by 10 to 25 percent. Petroleum matures in geopressured clay at 140° to 220°F. Montmorillonite is dehydrated at 180° to 250°F; fresh water released may equal half the volume of the mineral altered. Molecular solubility in fresh water of the hydrocarbons in Gulf basin crude, under geopressured zone conditions, could account for petroleum resources of the basin. Exsolution of petroleum hydrocarbons near the geopressured zone boundary could account for observed occurrences. This geopressured zone is a natural pressure vessel from which superheated water of moderate salinity could be produced through wells, each yielding millions of gallons a day at pressures of several thousand pounds per square inch, and temperatures above 300°F. with considerable amounts of methane gas in solution. (63

  13. Comparison of Kuqa foreland basin with Persian Gulf Basin in salt tectonics

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Guimei WAN; Liangjie TANG; Wenzheng JIN

    2007-01-01

    Compared Kuqa foreland basin with Persian Gulf Basin in development of salt layers, salt tectonics, and the relation between salt tectonics and hydrocarbon, it is concluded that the salt diapirs are relative to hydrocarbon. Searching salt diapirs and related traps in Kuqa foreland basin is important. The forming mechanism of salt tectonic in Kuqa foreland basin is different from that of Hormuz Series, but similar to that of Lower Fars Series/Gachsaran Formation. Inspired by the role of salt tectonics of Lower Fars Series/Gachsaran Formation in hydrocarbon accumulation, the authors considered that the exploration below salt layer should be enforced, and the traps below salt layer in the southern part of the Kuqa foreland basin would be found where salt layer is thicker. On the contrary, the traps should be found both above and below the salt layer in front of the northern mountain where salt layer is thin. The Triassic and Jurassic source rocks are rich in this area with great exploration prospective.

  14. Wet bacterial gas in the northern Gulf of Mexico Basin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kornacki, A.S.; Allie, A.D.; Holman, W.E. [Shell Offshore, Inc., New Orleans, LA (United States)

    1996-09-01

    The northern margin of the offshore Gulf of Mexico Basin is a mixed gas-oil province. Natural gas pools are commonly found that consist largely of bacterial methane enriched in isotopically-light carbon ({delta}{sup 13}C < -55 per mil). But some bacterial gas accumulations, which are much wetter than might be expected, produce commercial amounts of condensate. The wet fraction of these gas pools typically consists of crude oil that has dissolved into dry bacterial methane. We illustrate these concepts using field data collected at two wet bacterial gas fields in the northern Gulf of Mexico. The Popeye Field is located along the Louisiana continental slope 25 miles east of Bullwinkle. This field consists of two commercial gas pools (EUR = 320 Bcf + 3 MMB condensate) in Pleistocene turbidites (G pay sands) separated by a saddle. A few thin sub-commercial oil zones (H sand series) also occur. Conventional cores obtained in the southern gas pool generally do not fluoresce, but a thin fluorescent zone immediately above the seat seal contains remnant oil. The natural gas at Popeye consists largely of bacterial methane; the geochemistry of Popeye condensate indicates it represents dissolved sour oil (similar to Bullwinkle crude). The Peccary Field (EUR = 105 Bcf) is located on the Louisiana Shelf 25 miles northeast of Popeye. Peccary pay sands also contain wet bacterial gas. During re-development of the field, one well unexpectedly produced waxy black oil when it was recompleted in an intermediate objective (C{sub 6} sand). Indirect evidence suggests that a wet gas accumulation in the shallower C{sub 5} sand that yielded colorless condensate was underlain by an oil rim. Just before a well in the C{sub 5} sand watered out, it produced a waxy, amber-colored liquid (apparently a mixture of gas condensate and waxy crude oil).

  15. Plate interactions control middle late Miocene, proto-Gulf and Basin and Range extension in the southern Basin and Range

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henry, Christopher D.; Aranda-Gomez, J. Jorge

    2000-03-01

    Middle-late Miocene (proto-Gulf; ˜12-6 Ma) extension around the Gulf of California (Gulf Extensional Province) is commonly interpreted as resulting from partitioning of oblique Pacific-North American plate motion into strike-slip displacement along the margin and east-northeast extension perpendicular to the margin within the North American plate. We propose that this mechanism also applies to kinematically similar, predominantly east-northeast extension that occurred at the same time throughout the southern Basin and Range province, from southern Arizona and New Mexico to the Trans-Mexican Volcanic Belt. New field and 40Ar/ 39Ar data in Sinaloa and Durango confirm that this episode of extension occurred on the mainland side of the Gulf and in the Basin and Range east of the Sierra Madre Occidental, which is generally considered the eastern margin of the Gulf Extensional Province. Published data indicate the middle-late Miocene episode also occurred across the northern and southern ends of the Sierra Madre where the Gulf Extensional Province connects with the Basin and Range: (1) from central Sonora into southern Arizona and New Mexico, and (2) from Nayarit into central Mexico north of the Trans-Mexican Volcanic Belt. This episode appears to have affected an area that continues to the eastern edge of the Basin and Range province in Texas and San Luis Potosi. Recognition that this episode of extension affected the entire southern Basin and Range resolves the discrepancy between the amount of extension calculated based on plate reconstructions and that based on field data within the Gulf Extensional Province alone. Published plate reconstructions require 160 to 110 km of east-northeast extension between ˜12 and 6 Ma. If taken up solely within the Gulf Extensional Province, this would have generated 66 to 78% extension, which is much greater than observed. Spread across the entire southern Basin and Range it requires only ˜20% total extension, which is more

  16. Crustal types, distribution of salt and the early evolution of the Gulf of Mexico basin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Buffler, R.T. (Univ. of Texas, Austin (USA))

    1990-05-01

    A new contour map on the top of basement shows the overall configuration of the entire Gulf of Mexico basin. Basement, as used here, is all rocks lying below (older than) the extensive Middle Jurassic (Callovian ) premarine evaporites (Louann Salt, etc.) plus the Late Jurassic oceanic crust in the deep part of the basin. The contour map combined with all other available geophysical data has been used to subdivide the gulf basin into four crustal types: continental, thick transitional, thin transitional, and oceanic crust. The broad region of transitional crust and the basic architecture of the basin shown by the map is believed to have formed mainly during a separate Middle Jurassic period of widespread attenuation of the entire gulf region. The area of thick transitional crust around the periphery of the northern gulf is characterized by broad basement highs and lows with wave lengths of 200-300 km. These features controlled the general distribution and thickness of salt and the overlying Jurassic through Lower Cretaceous rocks. In the area of thin transitional crust Mesozoic basins tend to be assymetrical and generally trend more parallel to the overall basin. The boundary between thin transitional crust and oceanic crust is characterized by various salt-related features. For example, the northwest and north-central boundaries are defined by two northeast trending salt-cored foldbelts, the Perdido and Mississippi fan foldbelts, respectively. The offset between the two foldbelts may represent a major transform boundary related to the northwest opening of the gulf basin. All these data put important constraints on models for early gulf evolution.

  17. Potential for deep basin-centered gas accumulation in Travis Peak (Hosston) Formation, Gulf Coastal Basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartberger, Charles E.; Dyman, Thaddeus S.; Condon, Steven M.

    2003-01-01

    The potential of Lower Cretaceous sandstones of the Travis Peak Formation in the northern Gulf Coast Basin to harbor a basin-centered gas accumulation was evaluated by examining (1) the depositional and diagenetic history and reservoir properties of Travis Peak sandstones, (2) the presence and quality of source rocks for generating gas, (3) the burial and thermal history of source rocks and time of gas generation and migration relative to tectonic development of Travis Peak traps, (4) gas and water recoveries from drill-stem and formation tests, (5) the distribution of abnormal pressures based on shut-in-pressure data, and (6) the presence or absence of gas-water contacts associated with gas accumulations in Travis Peak sandstones. The Travis Peak Formation (and correlative Hosston Formation) is a basinward-thickening wedge of terrigenous clastic sedimentary rocks that underlies the northern Gulf Coast Basin from eastern Texas across northern Louisiana to southern Mississippi. Clastic infl ux was focused in two main fl uvial-deltaic depocenters?one located in northeastern Texas and the other in southeastern Mississippi and northeastern Louisiana. Across the main hydrocarbon-productive trend in eastern Texas and northern Louisiana, the Travis Peak Formation is about 2,000 ft thick. Most Travis Peak hydrocarbon production in eastern Texas comes from drilling depths between 6,000 and 10,000 ft. Signifi cant decrease in porosity and permeability occurs through that depth interval. Above 8,000-ft drilling depth in eastern Texas, Travis Peak sandstone matrix permeabilities often are signifi cantly higher than the 0.1-millidarcy (mD) cutoff that characterizes tight-gas reservoirs. Below 8,000 ft, matrix permeability of Travis Peak sandstones is low because of pervasive quartz cementation, but abundant natural fractures impart signifi cant fracture permeability. Although pressure data within the middle and lower Travis Peak Formation are limited in eastern Texas

  18. Tectonoestratigraphic and Thermal Models of the Tiburon and Wagner Basins, northern Gulf of California Rift System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Contreras, J.; Ramirez Zerpa, N. A.; Negrete-Aranda, R.

    2014-12-01

    The northern Gulf of California Rift System consist sofa series faults that accommodate both normal and strike-slip motion. The faults formed a series of half-greens filled with more than 7 km of siliciclastic suc­cessions. Here, we present tectonostratigraphic and heat flow models for the Tiburón basin, in the southern part of the system, and the Wag­ner basin in the north. The models are constrained by two-dimensional seis­mic lines and by two deep boreholes drilled by PEMEX­-PEP. Analysis of the seismic lines and models' results show that: (i) subsidence of the basins is controlled by high-angle normal faults and by flow of the lower crust, (ii) basins share a common history, and (iii) there are significant differences in the way brittle strain was partitioned in the basins, a feature frequently observed in rift basins. On one hand, the bounding faults of the Tiburón basin have a nested geometry and became active following a west-to-east sequence of activation. The Tiburon half-graben was formed by two pulses of fault activity. One took place during the protogulf extensional phase in the Miocene and the other during the opening of Gulf of California in the Pleistocene. On the other hand, the Wagner basin is the result of two fault generations. During the late-to middle Miocene, the west-dipping Cerro Prieto and San Felipe faults formed a domino array. Then, during the Pleistocene the Consag and Wagner faults dissected the hanging-wall of the Cerro Prieto fault forming the modern Wagner basin. Thermal modeling of the deep borehole temperatures suggests that the heat flow in these basins in the order of 110 mW/m2 which is in agreement with superficial heat flow measurements in the northern Gulf of California Rift System.

  19. Genio y figura de don Alfonso Reyes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduardo Carranza

    1968-04-01

    Full Text Available Entre varias, escojo esta: por sobria y conmovida a un tiempo. La escribió Juan Fernández Figueroa para su revista " Indice", de Madrid. Nos parece ver a don Alfonso en el rellano de la escalera -al fondo, sus libros; más allá, toda su vida, noble y pura- nos parece verle por última vez, inclinado ya sobre la baranda de la muerte. Tiene la calidad y el dinamismo de unos cuantos dibujos rápidos, nerviosos, esta imagen última de don Alfonso Reyes.

  20. Currents at the sills bounding Delfin Basin in the northern Gulf of California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopez, M.; Candela, J.

    2013-05-01

    One-year-long currents at the two sills bounding Delfin basin (maximum depth ˜900 m), are analyzed. The Delfin (DEL) sill (˜400 m depth) has the largest mean velocities near the bottom in an overflow that discharges water into the Delfin Basin (roughly towards the head of the gulf), whereas the Ballenas Channel (BC) sill (˜600 m depth) has the largest mean velocities close to the surface which also flow towards the head of the gulf. The energy of the subinertial current fluctuations is also quite different. Most of the energy at the DEL sill is concentrated in the lowest frequencies (periods > 15 days). In the case of the BC sill, the spectra are not red and much of the energy is concentrated at periods ≤ 15 days except close to the surface, where most the energy is also concentrated in the lowest frequencies associated with the current fluctuations of the mean near-surface current towards the head of the gulf. Near-bottom current fluctuations towards the head of the gulf at the overflow of the DEL sill are well correlated with intermediate and deeper currents towards the mouth of the gulf, as well as with surface currents towards the head of the gulf at the BC sill for periods ≥ 20 days. Transport of the overflow also has the largest coherences with near-surface currents at the BC sill for periods ≥ 20 days, but there is also significant coherence with deeper currents at the same low frequencies. The relationship between the overflow and the exchange at the BC sill is also clearly borne out by the first empirical mode of currents at both locations. This is interpreted as part of the exchange of the northern gulf by which fluctuations of the near-bottom flow into the deepest basins are compensated by fluctuations of the near-surface flow out of the same basins. In addition, near-bottom transport and currents at the DEL sill are coherent with deep currents at the CB sill at the shorter periods of 10 and 3.2 days. At these periods, there is also good

  1. Basin architecture, salt tectonics, and Upper Jurassic structural styles, DeSoto Canyon Salt basin, northeastern Gulf of Mexico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    MacRae, G.; Watkins, J.S. (Texas A M Univ., College Station, TX (United States))

    1993-10-01

    Despite the Gulf of Mexico being a mature hydrocarbon province, the least understood aspects of the basin's geologic history are undoubtedly those concerning pre-Middle Jurassic tectonic events and their implication for the tectonic and sedimentary evolution of the region. Despite awareness of the importance of continental extension during rifting, there are few quantitative studies that show the influence of crustal extension on basin architecture, the distribution of salt, and Late Jurassic sedimentation in the DeSoto Canyon Salt basin, northeastern Gulf of Mexico. Application of simplified isostatic principles using a lithospheric buoyancy model allow quantification of total tectonic subsidence, crustal thickness, crustal extension, and crust type. An average crustal thickness of 25 km and crustal extension [beta] values between 1.4 and 1.8 suggest the sedimentary succession is underlain by moderately stretched and attenuated continental crust. The widespread distribution and geometry of dipping subsalt reflectors, particularly in the shelfal areas, provide evidence for a Late Triassic-Early Jurassic phase of rifting prior to deposition of Middle Jurassic salt. Although deposition occurred in a slowly subsiding, stable marginal setting, salt movement and associated growth faulting are the most significant tectonic elements affecting the stratigraphic and structural development of the overlying strata.

  2. Multiproxy Study of a Holocene Record From Western Pescadero Basin, Gulf of California, Mexico: Paleoclimatic inferences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perez-Cruz, L. L.; Valdez, M.; Roy, P. D.

    2013-12-01

    A sedimentary sequence (gravity core T-56, 256 cm length) from Pescadero Basin on the western side of the Gulf of California is analyzed as part of a multiproxy study. The core was collected within the Oxygen Minimum Zone (OMZ) at 597 m depth, aboard of the R/V "El Puma". Pescadero basin is located at mouth of the gulf; in a location sensitive to record the changes in the gulf and the Eastern Pacific Ocean. The sedimentary sequence is analyzed to contribute to understanding the climatic variability in the southern part of the gulf of California during the Holocene using geochemistry (major and trace elements and Corg), magnetic properties and benthic foraminifera assemblages as proxy of changes in paleoproductivity, paleoprecipitation and bottom water oxygenation. The core is characterized by silty-clay sediments, and exhibits a turbidite between 130 and 235 cm, distinguished by sandy sediments and reworking material. From 130 cm to the top it shows a visible laminated structure. Chronology is based on six AMS radiocarbon dates, and estimated sedimentation rates are 0.22, 0.18, 0.17 and 0.05 mm/yr. The core covers c. last 10,500 years. Variations in major and trace elements (Ti, K, Al, K, Zr) and magnetic susceptibility indicate fluctuations in terrigenous input related to changes in hydrological conditions, Benthic foraminifera assemblages and Corg along the sequence indicate that Pescadero basin is sensitive to paleoceanographic changes. Corg and benthic foraminiferal assemblages show downcore variations related to paleoproductivity changes. For the Early Holocene, low values of Corg and epifaunal benthic foraminifera suggest oxic conditions in bottom waters and strong stratification with low productivity. Organic carbon shows higher values towards the bottom of the core, for the last 1300 years.

  3. Coccolithophore export production in Guaymas Basin, Gulf of California: response to climate forcing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ziveri, P.; Thunell, R. C.

    The flux and taxonomic composition of coccolithophores has been determined for sediment trap samples collected over a two-year period from Guaymas Basin, central Gulf of California. The Gulf of California is a subtropical marginal sea with exceptionally high rates of primary productivity. The annual biogenic sediment fluxes are largely dominated by silica, with diatoms as the major contributor to the opal flux. For the July 1990 through November 1992 study period, the total coccolithophore export production in Guaymas varied in response to the strength of El Niño/Southern Oscillation (ENSO). Coccolithophore production follows the general surface primary productivity pattern with relatively high fluxes from late fall to late winter, and low production in the summer when the water column is highly stratified and nutrient depleted. High fluxes of up to 10 9 coccoliths m -2 day-1 and 3×10 6 coccospheres m -2 day-1 indicate that coccolithophores are an important component of the phytoplankton population in Guaymas Basin. The intensification of ENSO conditions during 1992 altered the typical hydrography of the Gulf of California by increasing SST and reducing the strength of spring upwelling. This is reflected in reduced opal and diatom fluxes during this period. Conversely, these more oligotrophic conditions resulted in higher total coccolithophore fluxes during spring and summer 1992. Gephyrocapsa oceanica is present in the Gulf throughout the study period, but is dominant during weak or non-ENSO times. Emiliania huxleyi and, to a lesser degree, Florisphaera profunda are abundant during strong ENSO periods. Two major coccolithophore signals are indicative of strong ENSO conditions and could be used as paleo-ENSO indicators in the Gulf of California: (a) the switch in dominance between G. oceanica and E. huxleyi and (b) high abundances of the deep dwelling species F. profunda. The abundance of this latter species shows a strong inverse relationship with opal fluxes. A

  4. Biostratigraphy and paleoecologic tolerances of Oligocene through Paleocene foraminiferal assemblages of the Gulf Coast Basin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Breard, S.Q.; Nault, M.J.; Callender, A.D. [Applied Biostratigraphix, Houston, TX (United States)

    1994-12-31

    Operationally oriented biostratigraphic and paleoecologic models are developed for Paleocene, Eocene, and Oligocene foraminifera of the Gulf Coast Basin. This paper is a companion to Breard et al. (1993), which describes models of significant paleoecologic and biostratigraphic foraminifera of the Miocene through Pleistocene of this region. Key benthic paleoenvironmental markers for particular depth zones of the Paleogene are graphically presented with updated biostratigraphic charts. Estimates of environment ranges for optimal stratigraphic utility are listed for all marker species on the biostratigraphic charts. Species depth ranges on the two biostratigraphic charts are for their zones of optimum stratigraphic utility. It is also possible to find deeper water species ranging into shallower zones in the lower bathyal to abyssal zones of the Eocene and Paleocene, where species considered characteristic of these zones range above those environments. Because relatively few wells have penetrated such deep environments in the Eocene and Paleocene, we have relied on the literature for Paleogene deep-water sections of Mexico and Trinidad to supplement our list of environmentally important species. Published material on foraminifera from deep-water Eocene and Paleocene sections penetrated in oil and gas exploration wells is almost nonexistent. Combination of data from this paper with that of Breard et al.(1993) will allow explorationists to estimate environmental tolerances for the entire Gulf Coast Cenozoic biostratigraphic column. This should serve as a predictive tool for foraminiferal studies useful in the exploration and production of oil and gas for the post-Mesozoic strata of the Gulf Coast basin and beyond.

  5. Benthic foraminifera records in marine sediments during the Holocene from Pescadero basin, Gulf of California, Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valdez, M.; Perez-Cruz, L. L.; Roy, P.; Monreal, M.; Fenero, R.

    2013-05-01

    Gravity core T-56 (256 cm length) was collected in Pescadero Basin located on the western side of the Gulf of California within the oxygen minim zone (OMZ) at 597 cm depth, aboard of the R/V "El Puma". Pescadero basin is located at mouth of the gulf; because of its location is sensitive to record the changes in the gulf and in the Eastern Pacific Ocean. The sedimentary sequence is analyzed to contribute to the understanding the oceanographic variability in the southern part of the gulf of California during the Holocene using benthic foraminifera assemblages and organic carbon as proxies of organic matter flux and bottom water oxygenation. In general, the core is characterized by silty-clay sediments, and it exhibits a turbidite between 198 and 134 cm, distinguished by sandy sediments and reworking material. From 134 cm to the top shows a visible laminated structure. The initial chronology is based on three AMS radiocarbon dates, and estimated sedimentation rates are 0.22 and 0.19 mm/yr for the first 32 cm of the core. Six radiocarbon dates are in progress. Preliminary results of benthic foraminiferal assemblages showed that species of Bolivina are dominated, mainly megalospheric forms, from 134 cm to top of the core. They are small and thin-shelled forms (e.g., Bolivina subadvena, Bolivina minuta, Bolivina seminuda, Bolivina plicata), and also Buliminella, Cassidulina and Epistominella are abundant. In particular, species of Bolivina are environmental indicators and exhibit a typical reproductive dimorphism. The predominance of the genus Bolivina suggest organic flux variations, because of the productivity changes that might be related to changes in ocean circulation and in the environmental variability in the region.

  6. Basin-Wide Temperature Constraints On Gas Hydrate Stability In The Gulf Of Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacDonald, I. R.; Reagan, M. T.; Guinasso, N. L.; Garcia-Pineda, O. G.

    2012-12-01

    Gas hydrate deposits commonly occur at the seafloor-water interface on marine margins. They are especially prevalent in the Gulf of Mexico where they are associated with natural oil seeps. The stability of these deposits is potentially challenged by fluctuations in bottom water temperature, on an annual time-scale, and under the long-term influence of climate change. We mapped the locations of natural oil seeps where shallow gas hydrate deposits are known to occur across the entire Gulf of Mexico basin based on a comprehensive review of synthetic aperture radar (SAR) data (~200 images). We prepared a bottom water temperature map based on the archive of CTD casts from the Gulf (~6000 records). Comparing the distribution of gas hydrate deposits with predicted bottom water temperature, we find that a broad area of the upper slope lies above the theoretical stability horizon for structure 1 gas hydrate, while all sites where gas hydrate deposits occur are within the stability horizon for structure 2 gas hydrate. This is consistent with analytical results that structure 2 gas hydrates predominate on the upper slope (Klapp et al., 2010), where bottom water temperatures fluctuate over a 7 to 10 C range (approx. 600 m depth), while pure structure 1 hydrates are found at greater depths (approx. 3000 m). Where higher hydrocarbon gases are available, formation of structure 2 gas hydrate should significantly increase the resistance of shallow gas hydrate deposits to destabilizing effects variable or increasing bottom water temperature. Klapp, S.A., Bohrmann, G., Kuhs, W.F., Murshed, M.M., Pape, T., Klein, H., Techmer, K.S., Heeschen, K.U., and Abegg, F., 2010, Microstructures of structure I and II gas hydrates from the Gulf of Mexico: Marine and Petroleum Geology, v. 27, p. 116-125.Bottom temperature and pressure for Gulf of Mexico gas hydrate outcrops and stability horizons for sI and sII hydrate.

  7. Advective and Conductive Heat Flow Budget Across the Wagner Basin, Northern Gulf of California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neumann, F.; Negrete-Aranda, R.; Contreras, J.; Müller, C.; Hutnak, M.; Gonzalez-Fernandez, A.; Harris, R. N.; Sclater, J. G.

    2015-12-01

    In May 2015, we conducted a cruise across the northern Gulf of California, an area of continental rift basin formation and rapid deposition of sediments. The cruise was undertaken aboard the R/V Alpha Helix; our goal was to study variation in superficial conductive heat flow, lateral changes in the shallow thermal conductivity structure, and advective transport of heat across the Wagner basin. We used a Fielax heat flow probe with 22 thermistors that can penetrate up to 6 m into the sediment cover. The resulting data set includes 53 new heat flow measurements collected along three profiles. The longest profile (42 km) contains 30 measurements spaced 1-2 km apart. The western part of the Wagner basin (hanging wall block) exhibit low to normal conductive heat flow whereas the eastern part of the basin (foot wall block) heat flow is high to very high (up to 2500 mWm-2). Two other short profiles (12 km long each) focused on resolving an extremely high heat flow anomaly up to 15 Wm-2 located near the intersection between the Wagner bounding fault system and the Cerro Prieto fault. We hypothesize that the contrasting heat flow values observed across the Wagner basin are due to horizontal water circulation through sand layers and fault pathways of high permeability. Circulation appears to be from west (recharge zone) to east (discharge zone). Additionally, our results reveal strong vertical advection of heat due to dehydration reactions and compaction of fine grained sediments.

  8. Paleoclimatic and Paleoceanographic Holocene Sedimentary Records in the Gulf of California - Eastern Pacific Ocean Interhemispheric Connections

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perez-Cruz, L.; Urrutia-Fucugauchi, J.

    2009-05-01

    Initial results of a study on the distribution, thickness and stratigraphy of the sedimentary sequences in the Gulf of California are presented. The Gulf is an elongated narrow young oceanic basin bordered by the Baja California peninsula and mainland Mexico. The Gulf extends over 1200 km across the Tropic of Cancer from the tropical to the temperate zones, surrounded by arid and semi-arid regions, including the Sonora-Mojave Desert. Paleoceanographic conditions are dominated by water exchange at the Gulf mouth and water masses changes along the Gulf. Tectonic basins reach down in excess of 3000 m depths and get shallower to the north. Here we focus on the Holocene sediment sequences in the southern sector, which contains several marginal and central anoxic basins that constitute rich archives of paleoclimatic and paleoenvironmental evolution for the past 3.6 Ma. In the mouth area, main sources of sediments are silicic volcanic and intrusive rocks in the Baja peninsula and mainland, including Los Cabos and Puerto Vallarta batholiths. Fine-grained eolian dusts, pluvial and biogenic sediments are present in the sediment cores in the Gulf basins such as La Paz, Alfonso, Carmen, Pescadero and Guaymas basins. Turbiditic currents and tephra deposits also occur in the cores. Paleoclimatic records show the influences of regional processes, including the ENSO and PDO signals marked by drought and increased precipitation phases. Relative distribution and thickness of sediments at the mouth of the Gulf correlate with bathymetry and location with respect to spreading center, transform faults and margins of the peninsula and mainland Mexico. Rock magnetic core scans and mineralogy at few locations are available, which allow inferences on sediment sources, transport and deposition processes, diagenesis, paleoceanographic and paleoclimatic evolution for the Holocene.

  9. Seismic Structural Setting of Western Farallon Basin, Southern Gulf of California, Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinero-Lajas, D.; Gonzalez-Fernandez, A.; Lopez-Martinez, M.; Lonsdale, P.

    2007-05-01

    Data from a number of high resolution 2D multichannel seismic (MCS) lines were used to investigate the structure and stratigraphy of the western Farallon basin in the southern Gulf of California. A Generator-Injector air gun provided a clean seismic source shooting each 12 s at a velocity of 6 kts. Each signal was recorded during 6- 8 s, at a sampling interval of 1 ms, by a 600 m long digital streamer with 48 channels and a spacing of 12.5 m. The MCS system was installed aboard CICESE's (Centro de Investigacion Cientifica y de Educacion Superior de Ensenada) 28 m research vessel Francisco de Ulloa. MCS data were conventionally processed, to obtain post- stack time-migrated seismic sections. The MCS seismic sections show a very detailed image of the sub-bottom structure up to 2-3 s two-way travel time (aprox. 2 km). We present detailed images of faulting based on the high resolution and quality of these data. Our results show distributed faulting with many active and inactive faults. Our study also constrains the depth to basement near the southern Baja California eastern coast. The acoustic basement appears as a continuous feature in the western part of the study area and can be correlated with some granite outcrops located in the southern Gulf of California islands. To the East, near the center of the Farallon basin, the acoustic basement changes, it is more discontinuous, and the seismic sections show a number of diffracted waves.

  10. Paleoecologic and biostratigraphic models for pleistocene through miocene foraminiferal assemblages of the Gulf Coast Basin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Breard, S.Q.; Callender, A.D.; Nault, M.J. (Paleo Control Inc., Houston, TX (United States))

    1993-09-01

    We have developed operationally oriented paleoecologic models used in hydrocarbon exploration of the Gulf Coast basin for Pleistocene through Miocene foraminifera and an updated, refined biostratigraphic chart. We also present estimated paleoecologic tolerances for major benthic and planktic foraminiferal markers, and discuss a number of rules and problems encountered in oil industry paleoenvironmental reconstruction. Key benthic paleoenvironmental markers for particular depth zones are graphically presented for the Pleistocene through Miocene. Improvements over previous models include greater use of calcareous and arenaceous foraminiferal species not used or recognized in earlier studies. Finer subdivisions of bathyal paleoenvironments are of particular significance due to current Gulf of Mexico deep-water exploration. Operationally, the abyssal environmental is difficult to recognize due to a reliance of faunal abundance to delineate abyssal from bathyal and the lack of abyssal zone markers. A number of genera and species are identified as having changed habitat preference through time. Some forms have moved progressively into deeper water (Ceratobulimina Cyclammina cancellata and Nonion pompiloides). Conversely, the movement of species into progressively shallower occurrences through time (Pullenia bullodies) appears to be less common. The widespread occurrence of known Gulf of Mexico foraminiferal species from countries such as Mexico, Venezuela, Ecuador, Jamaica, Trinidad, and the Dominican Republic, suggest that these; models have direct application to Neogene studies in Central America, South America, the Caribbean, and the U.S. Gulf Coast. We introduce a variety of deep-water benthic marker foraminifera, many for the first time. These taxa help fill gaps for deeper-water sections where standard benthic marker foraminifera do not occur, helping debunk the popular myth that benthic foraminifera are useless as markers in the exploration of deep-water sections.

  11. FALLECIMIENTO DEL DOCTOR ALFONSO AGUSTI PASTOR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hector Pedraza M.

    1982-12-01

    Full Text Available

    Palabras del Profesor Héctor Pedraza M., en el Cementerio Central de Bogotá.


    Señores Académicos, colegas, señoras, señores:

    El doctor Hernando Groot, Presidente de la Academia Nacional de Medicina, nos encomienda que pronunciemos algunas palabras frente al féretro que contiene los despojos mortales del Académico Alfonso Agusti Pastor, Miembro Numerario de nuestra ilustre corporación, Médico ejemplar en el ejercicio profesional y Profesor Agregado por concurso en la Facultad de Medicina de la Universidad Nacional, para que hagamos breve elogio de quien fue sobresaliente en aquel plantel por su caballerosidad y consagración al estudio,
    por lo cual obtuvo, desde entonces, merecidas distinciones.

    Su temperamento observador y analítico lo condujo a ejercer la medicina en el dificil campo de la siquiatría, la cual exige cualidades especiales de sabiduría, templanza y equilibrio en el razonamiento y el concepto. Poseedor de estas cualidades pudo cuidar con éxito y humanidad a sus pacientes que estaban sumergidos en la tinieblas de la demencia
    y de otras afecciones menores, que en este tiempo alteran cada vez con mayor frecuencia el siquismo, y que estorban o impiden vivir en paz consigo y con sus semejantes. El doctor Alfonso Agusti Pastor fue de los primeros en nuestro medio con el Profesor Maximiliano Rueda, en aplicar el shock, para ciertas enfermedades mentales; por tal motivo obtuvo merecido renombre.

    En la Academia de Medicina nos deleitó con magníficas semblanzas de sus ilustres maestros profesores: Edmundo Rico, Julio Manrique, Maximiliano Rueda y Alfonso Esguerra Gómez, dando así prueba de su generosidad y agradecimiento y de su compromiso con Hipócrates.

    Felizmente tales escritos quedaron consignados en la Revista "Medicina", órgano de publicidad de la Academia...

  12. Regional maps of subsurface geopressure gradients of the onshore and offshore Gulf of Mexico basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burke, Lauri A.; Kinney, Scott A.; Dubiel, Russell F.; Pitman, Janet K.

    2013-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey created a comprehensive geopressure-gradient model of the regional pressure system spanning the onshore and offshore Gulf of Mexico basin, USA. This model was used to generate ten maps that included (1) five contour maps characterizing the depth to the surface defined by the first occurrence of isopressure gradients ranging from 0.60 psi/ft to 1.00 psi/ft, in 0.10-psi/ft increments; and (2) five supporting maps illustrating the spatial density of the data used to construct the contour maps. These contour maps of isopressure-gradients at various increments enable the identification and quantification of the occurrence, magnitude, location, and depth of the subsurface pressure system, which allows for the broad characterization of regions exhibiting overpressured, underpressured, and normally pressured strata. Identification of overpressured regions is critical for exploration and evaluation of potential undiscovered hydrocarbon accumulations based on petroleum-generation pressure signatures and pressure-retention properties of reservoir seals. Characterization of normally pressured regions is essential for field development decisions such as determining the dominant production drive mechanisms, evaluating well placement and drainage patterns, and deciding on well stimulation methods such as hydraulic fracturing. Identification of underpressured regions is essential for evaluating the feasibility of geological sequestration and long-term containment of fluids such as supercritical carbon dioxide for alternative disposal methods of greenhouse gases. This study is the first, quantitative investigation of the regional pressure systems of one of the most important petroleum provinces in the United States. Although this methodology was developed for pressure studies in the Gulf of Mexico basin, it is applicable to any basin worldwide.

  13. Alfonso Reyes y el cine del porvenir

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Betina Keizman

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Este artículo se propone situar la reflexión de Alfonso Reyes sobre el cine en el marco de las recepciones del primer cine, considerando también cómo esta reflexión se articula en relación con el pensamiento crítico del escritor mexicano. En particular, se analiza el modo en que, por vía de la especulación, Reyes ensaya posibles redefiniciones para una nueva distribución de lo sensible y de las artes, de los valores cognitivos y expresivos de la luz y de los vínculos arte-ciencia. Lo que se lee en Reyes es un esfuerzo por pensar nuevas formas de inventiva que se desprenden (o podrían desprenderse del arte cinematográfico.

  14. Bathymetric characterization of tectonically active basins in the northern Gulf of California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prol-Ledesma, R. M.; Canet, C.; Dando, P. R.

    2009-04-01

    The Wagner Basin can be considered a "nascent spreading centre" that evolved from a half graben with a thick sediment cover that may mask magmatic activity at depth. The 200-210 m deep Wagner and Consag Basins are the northernmost of the 8 active extensional basins within the Gulf of California rift system and have been assumed to be mostly hydrothermally inactive; however, bathymetric data show dense deep faulting, mainly on the SE edge of the basins; additionally, the presence of extensive gas venting and heated sediments along the Wagner Fault was observed. Detailed bathymetry of the Wagner and Consag Basins shows the steep eastern edge of the basins bordered by the Wagner Fault. Bathymetry and profiler data revealed large vertical displacements due to faulting that disrupted the sedimentary column. More than 246 bubble plumes were mapped on the echo-sounder profiles, many rising to the surface from 65 -150 m depth and the area affected by low bottom pH, due to CO2 discharge, was in excess of 365 km2. Bubbles were observed breaking the sea surface from some large plumes. Only a minority of the vents present were mapped with the echo-sounders, since the closest survey lines were 1km apart. Based on the bottom coverage of the acoustic beam we estimate that there are at least 15,000 individual gas vents along the Wagner fault. Profiler images showed gas channels and chimneys associated with sedimentary layers. The gas plumes originated from sites of intense disruptions of the upper sediments (synsedimentary faults, pockmarks, mud domes and diapirs and raised irregular hard reflectors). Beneath the plumes, there were enhanced sedimentary reflectors and acoustic blanking indicative of subsurface gas accumulation. One of the strongest vents was associated with a mud diapir. Cemented sediments were common inside pockmarks and around gas outlets; 13 (22%) of grab and box core samples in the outgassing area contained these but in many cases the grab was empty after

  15. Radiogenic heat production in sedimentary rocks of the Gulf of Mexico Basin, south Texas

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKenna, T.E.; Sharp, J.M.

    1998-01-01

    Radiogenic heat production within the sedimentary section of the Gulf of Mexico basin is a significant source of heat. Radiogenic heat should be included in thermal models of this basin (and perhaps other sedimentary basins). We calculate that radiogenic heat may contribute up to 26% of the overall surface heat-flow density for an area in south Texas. Based on measurements of the radioactive decay rate of ??-particles, potassium concentration, and bulk density, we calculate radiogenic heat production for Stuart City (Lower Cretaceous) limestones, Wilcox (Eocene) sandstones and mudrocks, and Frio (Oligocene) sandstones and mudrocks from south Texas. Heat production rates range from a low of 0.07 ?? 0.01 ??W/m3 in clean Stuart City limestones to 2.21 ?? 0.24??W/m3 in Frio mudrocks. Mean heat production rates for Wilcox sandstones, Frio sandstones, Wilcox mudrocks, and Frio mudrocks are 0.88, 1.19, 1.50, and 1.72 ??W/m3, respectively. In general, the mudrocks produce about 30-40% more heat than stratigraphically equivalent sandstones. Frio rocks produce about 15% more heat than Wilcox rocks per unit volume of clastic rock (sandstone/mudrock). A one-dimensional heat-conduction model indicates that this radiogenic heat source has a significant effect on subsurface temperatures. If a thermal model were calibrated to observed temperatures by optimizing basal heat-flow density and ignoring sediment heat production, the extrapolated present-day temperature of a deeply buried source rock would be overestimated.Radiogenic heat production within the sedimentary section of the Gulf of Mexico basin is a significant source of heat. Radiogenic heat should be included in thermal models of this basin (and perhaps other sedimentary basins). We calculate that radiogenic heat may contribute up to 26% of the overall surface heat-flow density for an area in south Texas. Based on measurements of the radioactive decay rate of ??-particles, potassium concentration, and bulk density, we

  16. Active deformation and shallow structure of the Wagner, Consag, and Delfín Basins, northern Gulf of California, Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Persaud, Patricia; Stock, Joann M.; Steckler, Michael S.; MartíN-Barajas, Arturo; Diebold, John B.; GonzáLez-FernáNdez, Antonio; Mountain, Gregory S.

    2003-07-01

    Oblique rifting began synchronously along the length of the Gulf of California at 6 Ma, yet there is no evidence for the existence of oceanic crust or a spreading transform fault system in the northern Gulf. Instead, multichannel seismic data show a broad shallow depression, ˜70 × 200 km, marked by active distributed deformation and six ˜10-km-wide segmented basins lacking well-defined transform faults. We present detailed images of faulting and magmatism based on the high resolution and quality of these data. The northern Gulf crust contains a dense (up to 18 faults in 5 km) complex network of mainly oblique-normal faults, with small offsets, dips of 60-80° and strikes of N-N30°E. Faults with seafloor offsets of tens of meters bound the Lower and two Upper Delfín Basins. These subparallel basins developed along splays from a transtensional zone at the NW end of the Ballenas Transform Fault. Twelve volcanic knolls were identified and are associated with the strands or horsetails from this zone. A structural connection between the two Upper Delfín Basins is evident in the switching of the center of extension along axis. Sonobuoy refraction data suggest that the basement consists of mixed igneous sedimentary material, atypical of mid-ocean ridges. On the basis of the near-surface manifestations of active faulting and magmatism, seafloor spreading will likely first occur in the Lower Delfín Basin. We suggest the transition to seafloor spreading is delayed by the lack of strain-partitioned and focused deformation as a consequence of shear in a broad zone beneath a thick sediment cover.

  17. A Potential Integrated Water Quality Strategy for the Mississippi River Basin and the Gulf of Mexico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suzie Greenhalgh

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available Nutrient pollution, now the leading cause of water quality impairment in the U.S., has had significant impact on the nation’s waterways. Excessive nutrient pollution has been linked to habitat loss, fish kills, blooms of toxic algae, and hypoxia (oxygen-depleted water. The hypoxic “dead zone” in the Gulf of Mexico is one of the most striking illustrations of what can happen when too many nutrients from inland watersheds reach coastal areas. Despite programs to improve municipal wastewater treatment facilities, more stringent industrial wastewater requirements, and agricultural programs designed to reduce sediment loads in waterways, water quality and nutrient pollution continues to be a problem, and in many cases has worsened. We undertook a policy analysis to assess how the agricultural community could better reduce its contribution to the dead zone and also to evaluate the synergistic impacts of these policies on other environmental concerns such as climate change. Using a sectorial model of U.S. agriculture, we compared policies including untargeted conservation subsidies, nutrient trading, Conservation Reserve Program extension, agricultural sales of carbon and greenhouse gas credits, and fertilizer reduction. This economic and environmental analysis is watershed-based, primarily focusing on nitrogen in the Mississippi River basin, which allowed us to assess the distribution of nitrogen reduction in streams, environmental co-benefits, and impact on agricultural cash flows within the Mississippi River basin from various options. The model incorporates a number of environmental factors, making it possible to get a more a complete picture of the costs and co-benefits of nutrient reduction. These elements also help to identify the policy options that minimize the costs to farmers and maximize benefits to society.

  18. The fabric of Mass Transport Deposits in the Ursa Basin, Gulf of Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Day-Stirrat, R. J.; Flemings, P. B.; Strong, H. E.; Schneider, J.; Sawyer, D. E.; Schleicher, A. M.; Germaine, J. T.

    2009-12-01

    Mass Transport Deposits (MTDs) in the Ursa Basin, Gulf of Mexico, are densified relative to surrounding, undeformed, sediments. MTDs form a large fraction of the stratigraphic record. Their properties control basin fluid flow, impact seismic imaging, and are important for the development of subsea infrastructure. MTD-2 is one outstanding ~50m thick example where at a depth of 104.5mbsf, the porosity is 35%, while the immediate undeformed sediment below has a porosity of 47%. We analyzed the fabric of sediment within and outside, both above and below, of the MTD’s at Ursa. High-resolution x-ray texture goniometry (HRXTG) quantifies the alignment of clay minerals and shows greater basal plane alignment of smectite and illite within the MTDs relative to sediment outside the MTDs. A non-MTD sample immediately below MTD-2 has a weak fabric (m.r.d. = 2.5) whereas samples within the MTD have moderate fabrics (m.r.d. = 3-3.5). Pore throat analysis illustrates that the increase in alignment and the decrease in porosity is associated with a shift in mode pore throat size from 121 to 52 nanometers in the MTD vs. outside of the MTD. SEM images on ion-milled surfaces confirm that large pore throats are lost within the MTD. We interpret that the densification within MTDs is due to sediment remolding during debris flow. Remolding reorients the original clay mineral fabric, resulting in grains that have closer packing, lower porosity, and greater alignment than non-remolded sediments at the same effective stress.

  19. Alfonso Braojos, fundador de la Academia del Periodismo

    OpenAIRE

    Gómez y Méndez, José Manuel; Arias Castañón, Eloy; Barroso Villar, María Elena (Coordinador); Parias Sáinz de Rozas, María (Coordinador); Ruiz Acosta, María José (Coordinador)

    2001-01-01

    Alfonso Braojos fue miembro fundador de la Academia del Periodismo con sede en Sevilla, junto a otros 31 profesionales del orbe periodistico bien con ejercicio en el campo docente o en los Medios de Comunicación Social. En las siguientes páginas se ofrece la relacion del profesor Braojos con la naciente Academia del Periodismo dejádose constancia de como él consideró la misma como una vía para la dignificación y cualificacion de los mass media. Alfonso Braojos was a founder member of t...

  20. Statistical inference of seabed sound-speed structure in the Gulf of Oman Basin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sagers, Jason D; Knobles, David P

    2014-06-01

    Addressed is the statistical inference of the sound-speed depth profile of a thick soft seabed from broadband sound propagation data recorded in the Gulf of Oman Basin in 1977. The acoustic data are in the form of time series signals recorded on a sparse vertical line array and generated by explosive sources deployed along a 280 km track. The acoustic data offer a unique opportunity to study a deep-water bottom-limited thickly sedimented environment because of the large number of time series measurements, very low seabed attenuation, and auxiliary measurements. A maximum entropy method is employed to obtain a conditional posterior probability distribution (PPD) for the sound-speed ratio and the near-surface sound-speed gradient. The multiple data samples allow for a determination of the average error constraint value required to uniquely specify the PPD for each data sample. Two complicating features of the statistical inference study are addressed: (1) the need to develop an error function that can both utilize the measured multipath arrival structure and mitigate the effects of data errors and (2) the effect of small bathymetric slopes on the structure of the bottom interacting arrivals.

  1. Late Holocene record of sedimentologic and paleooceanographic events in western Guaymas Basin, Gulf of California

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGann, M.; Paull, C. K.; Herguera, J. C.; Barron, J. A.; Gwiazda, R.; Anderson, K.; Lundsten, E. M.; Edwards, B. D.; Caress, D. W.

    2015-12-01

    Transects of ≤1.5 m-long vibracores obtained with MBARI's ROV Doc Ricketts reveal late Holocene sedimentologic and paleooceanographic events in western Guaymas Basin, Gulf of California (GOC) (~26.87°N, 111.338°W). Cores were located where layered near-seafloor sediments and subtle bedforms occur in 1793 to 1863 m water depths on the SW flank of the basin using detailed bathymetry and chirp profiles. Color banding was observed in the cores and gamma-density, XRF, grain size, and stable isotope data show that most of the banding is attributed to distal deposition from two turbidities. Distinctive white bands ~4 cm thick are present in three cores dispersed across ~300 m. The white bands are diatom oozes composed primarily of Thalassiothrix longissima as well as lesser abundances of Fragilariopsis doliolus and are probably a result of aggregations of Thalassiothrix-dominated mats that settle through the water column and accumulate on the seafloor. An AMS14C date taken ~3 cm above the white band in one core suggests this event occurred shortly before cal AD 1290±30. The core sites were most likely located beneath an important oceanographic front between nutrient-rich and oligotrophic water masses, probably as the result of well-mixed upper intermediate and surface waters in the mid-GOC and better-stratified tropical waters to the south. This implies the existence of a deeper mixed layer to the N in the mid GOC region most likely controlled by equatorial La Niña events fueled by stronger and more persistent NW winds along the GOC. A substantial reduction in diatom abundance evident by low specimen counts and lack of white bands following this mat-forming event seem to correlate with an abrupt decline in biosiliceous productivity and increases in the abundance of tropical diatoms and silicoflagellates in core MD02-2517 (887 m water depth; western Guaymas Basin slope) at the end of the Medieval Climate Anomaly and transition to the Little Ice Age (~AD 1200-1300).

  2. Alfonso XII: el rey que quiso ser constitucional

    OpenAIRE

    Lario González, María Ángeles

    2003-01-01

    La restauración de los Borbones en la persona del hijo de Isabel II, Alfonso XII, significó el inicio de una nueva etapa en la historia del liberalismo español. De nuevo, tras la sucesión de Constituciones de partido que significó la ruptura de los a

  3. Middle-late Holocene climate variability in La Paz Basin, southern Gulf of California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gómez-Lizárraga, L. E.; Perez-Cruz, L. L.; Fucugauchi, J. U.

    2013-12-01

    Sediments from DIPAL III-K47 core collected at 830 m depth in the western slope within the oxygen minimum zone of La Paz Basin, southern Gulf of California provide a detailed record of paleoceanography and paleoclimatology for the tropical Pacific on centennial time scales for the past 7300 years. The sedimentary sequence is compose of hemipelagic sediments and is laminated throughout its entire length (145 cm). According to the preliminary age model based on radiocarbon AMS dates, core covers the period from ca 7300 to 1000 cal yr BP. The estimated sedimentation rates are between 0.20 and 0.29 mm/yr. Radiolarian assemblages, geochemical (major and trace elements Al, Ba, Ca, K, Si Ti, Zr and Zr/Al and Ba/Al ratios) and magnetic susceptibility are used as proxies of variations of oceanic circulation patterns, paleoproductivity, aeolian activity and precipitation. Eighty-two intervals were sampled for radiolarians and the core was sampled at 1-cm intervals to produce records of major and trace elements. Factor Analysis of the radiolarian abundances counted in sediments samples identified three assemblages. The first one (Arachnocorallium calvata, Lithomelissa setosa, Lithomelissa thoracites and Peridium longispinum) suggests winter-spring like conditions (cold and dry), Gulf of California Water persistence and a relative increase in productivity that might become from the east-to-west upwelling gradient. The second radiolarian assemblage (Tetrapyle octacantha group and Phorticium pylonium group) was interpreted as stratification of the column water and the incursion of warm, oligotrophic Tropical Surface Water that remind summer-fall like conditions. The third assemblage (Clathrocircus stapedius, Phorticium pylonium group, Lithomelissa pentacantha, Phormacantha hystrix, Phormospyris stabilis scaphipes, Lithomelissa thoracites, Pseudocubus obeliscus, Druppatractus irregularis and Druppatractus variabilis), suggests a mix water column that favors the organic carbon

  4. Methane hydrate-bearing sediments in the Terrebonne basin, northern Gulf of Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meazell, K.; Flemings, P. B.

    2015-12-01

    We characterize the geological, geophysical, and thermodynamic state of three dipping, hydrate-bearing sands in the Terrebonne mini basin of the northern Gulf of Mexico, and describe three potential drilling locations to sample these hydrate reservoirs. Within the sand bodies, there is a prominent negative polarity seismic reflection (opposite phase to the seafloor reflector) that we interpret to record the boundary between gas hydrate above and free gas below. This anomaly is the Bottom Simulating Reflector (BSR) and the base of the Gas Hydrate Stability Zone (BGHSZ). Above the BSR, reflection seismic data record these reservoirs with a positive polarity while below it, they record the reservoirs with a negative polarity event. Within the sand bodies, seismic amplitudes are generally strongest immediately above and below the BSR and weaken in updip and downdip directions. Beneath the BSR, two of the reservoirs have a strong negative amplitude event that parallels structure that we interpret to record a gas-water contact, while the third reservoir does not clearly record this behavior. Much like the seafloor, the BSR is bowl-shaped, occurring at greatest depths in the northwest and rising near salt bodies in the south and east. In the north east area of previous exploration, the BSR is found at a depth of 2868 meters below sealevel, implying a geothermal gradient of 20.1oC/km for type I hydrates. Logging while drilling data reveal that the sands are composed of numerous thin, hydrocarbon-charged, coarse-grained sediments. Hydrate saturation in these sands is greatest near the BGHSZ. Pressure coring is proposed for three wells that will penetrate the reservoirs at different structural elevations in order to further elucidate reservoir conditions of the sands.

  5. The Influence of Methane Venting on Benthic Foraminiferal Assemblages in Guaymas Basin, Gulf of California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perez, E.; Herguera, J.; Paull, C.; Ussler, W.; Cortina, A.

    2004-12-01

    Fossil foraminifera are critical for paleoenvironmental reconstructions including the study of past episodes of methane venting from gas hydrate reservoirs. However, the use of benthic foraminifera as indicators of methane release remains controversial and more modern analog data is needed to understand the ecology and isotopic signatures of foraminifera in methane seeps. The objective of this investigation was to characterize the species composition and vertical distribution of living benthic foraminifera (rose Bengal stained) along known gradients of present methane venting in order to gain insight into the ecological tolerances and preferences of benthic foraminifera in methane seeps. Vertical distribution patterns are also important in determining carbon isotope variability. Samples were retrieved along the NE transform margin of the Guaymas Basin in the Gulf of California (about 1,582 m). Suites of ROV cores were collected from beds of living calyptogenid clams, tubeworms, and bacterial mats; from a methane venting site evidenced by a continuous stream of gas bubbles; and from control sites. Our data shows that foraminiferal abundance is lower in the methane-influenced sites than in the control sites. Lowest foraminiferal abundance occurs at the bacterial mats, probably caused by higher levels of sulfide. The assemblage is dominated by calcareous species that are characteristic of other organic-rich, oxygen-poor environments (e.g., Uvigerina peregrina, Bulimina mexicana, Buliminella tenuata, Globobulimina pacifica). The vertical distributions of several species are different from those of conspecifics observed in previous studies of non-seep habitats, with deeper and broader depth ranges for some species at the methane-influenced habitats in this study. Of special interest is the occurrence of Planulina wuellerstorfi, traditionally considered an epifaunal species, at sediment depths of 6 cm and with density maxima between 1 and 3 cm. This may result from

  6. Authigenic carbon entombed in methane-soaked sediments from the northeastern transform margin of the Guaymas Basin, Gulf of California

    OpenAIRE

    Paull, C. K.; Ussler, W.; E. T. Peltzer; Brewer, P.G.; Keaten, R.; Mitts, P. J.; Nealon, J. W.; Greinert, J.; Herguera, J.C.; Perez, M. E.

    2007-01-01

    Extensive ROV-based sampling and exploration of the seafloor was conducted along an eroded transform-parallel fault scarp on the northeastern side of the Guaymas Basin in the Gulf of California to observe the nature of fluids venting from the seafloor, measure the record left by methane-venting on the carbonates from this area, and determine the association with gas hydrate. One gas vent vigorous enough to generate a water-column gas plume traceable for over 800 m above the seafloor was found...

  7. BASIN ANALYSIS AND PETROLEUM SYSTEM CHARACTERIZATION AND MODELING, INTERIOR SALT BASINS, CENTRAL AND EASTERN GULF OF MEXICO

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ernest A. Mancini; Donald A. Goddard

    2005-08-01

    The principal research effort for Year 3 of the project is basin modeling and petroleum system identification, comparative basin evaluation and resource assessment. In the first six (6) months of Year 3, the research focus is on basin modeling and petroleum system identification and the remainder of the year the emphasis is on the comparative basin evaluation and resource assessment. No major problems have been encountered to date, and the project is on schedule.

  8. The Cretaceous-Paleogene boundary deposit in the Gulf of Mexico: Large-scale oceanic basin response to the Chicxulub impact

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanford, Jason C.; Snedden, John W.; Gulick, Sean P. S.

    2016-03-01

    Hydrocarbon exploration in the last decade has yielded sufficient data to evaluate the Gulf of Mexico basin response to the Chicxulub asteroid impact. Given its passive marine setting and proximity to the impact structure on the Yucatán Peninsula, the gulf is the premier locale in which to study the near-field geologic effect of a bolide impact. We mapped a thick (decimeter- to hectometer-scale) deposit of carbonate debris at the Cretaceous-Paleogene boundary that is ubiquitous in the gulf and readily identifiable on borehole and seismic data. We interpret deposits seen in seismic and borehole data in the deepwater gulf to be predominately muddy debrites with minor turbidites based on cores in the southeastern gulf. Mapping of the deposit in the northern Gulf of Mexico reveals that the impact redistributed roughly 1.05 × 105 km3 of sediment therein and over 1.98 × 105 km3 gulfwide. Deposit distribution suggests that the majority of sediment derived from coastal and shallow-water environments throughout the gulf via seismic and megatsunamic processes initiated by the impact. The Texas shelf and northern margin of the Florida Platform were significant sources of sediment, while the central and southern Florida Platform underwent more localized platform collapse. The crustal structure of the ancestral gulf influenced postimpact deposition both directly and indirectly through its control on salt distribution in the Louann Salt Basin. Nevertheless, impact-generated deposition overwhelmed virtually all topography and depositional systems at the start of the Cenozoic, blanketing the gulf with carbonate debris within days.

  9. Basin Analysis and Petroleum System Characterization and Modeling, Interior Salt Basins, Central and Eastern Gulf of Mexico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ernest A. Mancini; Paul Aharon; Donald A. Goddard; Roger Barnaby

    2006-02-28

    The principal research effort for Year 3 of the project is basin modeling and petroleum system identification, comparative basin evaluation and resource assessment. In the first six (6) months of Year 3, the research focus is on basin modeling and petroleum system identification and the remainder of the year the emphasis is on the comparative basin evaluation and resource assessment. No major problems have been encountered to date, and the project is on schedule. The principal objectives of the project are to develop through basin analysis and modeling the concept that petroleum systems acting in a basin can be identified through basin modeling and to demonstrate that the information and analysis resulting from characterizing and modeling of these petroleum systems in the North Louisiana Salt Basin and the Mississippi Interior Salt Basin can be used in providing a more reliable and advanced approach for targeting stratigraphic traps and specific reservoir facies within a geologic system and in providing a refined assessment of undiscovered and underdeveloped reservoirs and associated oil and gas resources.

  10. Formation mechanisms of heavy oils in the Liaohe Western Depression,Bohai Gulf Basin

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    The Liaohe Oilfield in the Liaohe Western Depression of the Bohai Gulf Basin is the third-largest oil producing province and the largest heavy oil producing oilfield in China. A total of 65 oil samples,35 rock samples and 36 reservoir sandstone samples were collected and analyzed utilizing conventional geochemical and biogeochemical approaches to unravel the mechanisms of the formation of the heavy oils. Investigation of the oils with the lowest maturity compared with the oils in the Gaosheng and Niuxintuo oilfields indicates no apparent relation between the maturity and physical properties of the heavy oils. It is suggested that the heavy oil with primary origin is not likely the main mechanism re-sponsible for the majority of the heavy oils in the Liaohe Western Slope. The absence and/or depletion of n-alkanes etc.,with relatively low molecular weight and the occurrence of 25-norhopane series in the heavy oils as well as the relatively high acidity of the oils all suggest that the majority of the heavy oils once experienced secondary alteration. The fingerprints of the total scanning fluorescence (TSF) of the inner adsorbed hydrocarbons on the reservoir grains and the included hydrocarbons in fluid inclusions are similar to that of the normal oils in the area but are different from the outer adsorbed and reser-voired free oils at present,further indicating that most of the heavy oils are secondary in origin. Analyses of bacteria (microbes) in 7 oil samples indicate that anaerobic and hyperthermophilic Ar-chaeoglobus sp. are the dominant microbes relevant to oil biodegradation,which coincides with the shallow commercial gas reservoirs containing anaerobic bacteria derived gas in the Gaosheng and Leijia teotonic belts. The biodegradation most likely occurs at the water/oil interface,where the forma-tion water is essential for microbe removal and nutrient transportation. We think that biodegradation,water washing and oxidization are interrelated and are the main

  11. Basin Analysis and Petroleum System Characterization and Modeling, Interior Salt Basins, Central and Eastern Gulf of Mexico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ernest A. Mancini; Paul Aharon; Donald A. Goddard; Roger Barnaby

    2006-05-26

    The principal research effort for Phase 1 (Concept Development) of the project has been data compilation; determination of the tectonic, depositional, burial, and thermal maturation histories of the North Louisiana Salt Basin; basin modeling (geohistory, thermal maturation, hydrocarbon expulsion); petroleum system identification; comparative basin evaluation; and resource assessment. Existing information on the North Louisiana Salt Basin has been evaluated, an electronic database has been developed, and regional cross sections have been prepared. Structure, isopach and formation lithology maps have been constructed, and burial history, thermal maturation history, and hydrocarbon expulsion profiles have been prepared. Seismic data, cross sections, subsurface maps and burial history, thermal maturation history, and hydrocarbon expulsion profiles have been used in evaluating the tectonic, depositional, burial and thermal maturation histories of the basin. Oil and gas reservoirs have been found to be associated with salt-supported anticlinal and domal features (salt pillows, turtle structures and piercement domes); with normal faulting associated with the northern basin margin and listric down-to-the-basin faults (state-line fault complex) and faulted salt features; and with combination structural and stratigraphic features (Sabine and Monroe Uplifts) and monoclinal features with lithologic variations. Petroleum reservoirs include Upper Jurassic and Cretaceous fluvial-deltaic sandstone facies; shoreline, marine bar and shallow shelf sandstone facies; and carbonate shoal, shelf and reef facies. Cretaceous unconformities significantly contribute to the hydrocarbon trapping mechanism capacity in the North Louisiana Salt Basin. The chief petroleum source rock in this basin is Upper Jurassic Smackover lime mudstone beds. The generation of hydrocarbons from Smackover lime mudstone was initiated during the Early Cretaceous and continued into the Tertiary. Hydrocarbon

  12. ALFONSO REYES Y LA CREACIÓN DE SU MUNDO AMERICANO (1906-1924)

    OpenAIRE

    Enríquez Perea, Alberto Donato

    2012-01-01

    América en la obra de Alfonso Reyes ha sido un tema clásico en los estudios y en los estudiosos alfonsinos. Basta con los siguientes autores y títulos de sus obras para darse cuenta de la importancia que ha tenida la cuestión americana en el pensamiento del escritor y diplomático mexicano: Rafael Gutiérrez Giradort, Premio Internacional Alfonso Reyes (2002), en su estudio pionero, La imagen de América en Alfonso Reyes (1955)1; Ramón Jiménez López, Alfonso Reyes y el descubrimie...

  13. BASIN ANALYSIS AND PETROLEUM SYSTEM CHARACTERIZATION AND MODELING, INTERIOR SALT BASINS, CENTRAL AND EASTERN GULF OF MEXICO

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ernest A. Mancini; Donald A. Goddard; Ronald K. Zimmerman

    2005-05-10

    The principal research effort for Year 2 of the project has been data compilation and the determination of the burial and thermal maturation histories of the North Louisiana Salt Basin and basin modeling and petroleum system identification. In the first nine (9) months of Year 2, the research focus was on the determination of the burial and thermal maturation histories, and during the remainder of the year the emphasis has basin modeling and petroleum system identification. Existing information on the North Louisiana Salt Basin has been evaluated, an electronic database has been developed, regional cross sections have been prepared, structure and isopach maps have been constructed, and burial history, thermal maturation history and hydrocarbon expulsion profiles have been prepared. Seismic data, cross sections, subsurface maps and related profiles have been used in evaluating the tectonic, depositional, burial and thermal maturation histories of the basin. Oil and gas reservoirs have been found to be associated with salt-supported anticlinal and domal features (salt pillows, turtle structures and piercement domes); with normal faulting associated with the northern basin margin and listric down-to-the-basin faults (state-line fault complex) and faulted salt features; and with combination structural and stratigraphic features (Sabine and Monroe Uplifts) and monoclinal features with lithologic variations. Petroleum reservoirs are mainly Upper Jurassic and Lower Cretaceous fluvial-deltaic sandstone facies and Lower Cretaceous and Upper Cretaceous shoreline, marine bar and shallow shelf sandstone facies. Cretaceous unconformities significantly contribute to the hydrocarbon trapping mechanism capacity in the North Louisiana Salt Basin. The chief petroleum source rock in this basin is Upper Jurassic Smackover lime mudstone beds. The generation of hydrocarbons from Smackover lime mudstone was initiated during the Early Cretaceous and continued into the Tertiary

  14. Coastal marine basins as records of continental palaeoenvironments (Gulf of Guinea and Iullemmeden cretaceous and tertiary basins)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rat, P.; Lang, J.; Alzouma, K.; Dikouma, M.; Johnson, A.; Laurin, B.; Mathey, B.; Pascal, A.

    Deposits in nearshore marine basins provide data about the adjacent emerged lands. Examples are taken from the Togo coastal basin, on an ocean margin, and the Iullemmeden intracratonic basin (Niger). A continental landscape is fossilized by the onlapping layers of the transgressions: an eroded crystalline basement (Togo) or a broad and complex alluvial plain (Iullemmeden). Clastics, trapped in the marine deposits, provide information on the source area. Two types of information can be obtained from the sands: the nature of the parent rocks, and the environment at the time of genesis, storage and transportation (tectonic and climatic stability or change). The significance of clays is more complex; they can be formed or modified in the marine environment. However their elastic or chemical components originate from biochemical weathering and provide information on climate, morphology, vegetation cover and drainage of the emerged lands. In the Iullemmeden basin, the important change between Maastrichtian and Paleocene probably reflects a change to a drier climate in accordance with a slight shift of the equator to the south. The properties of marine waters are dependent on climate and morphology of the emergent lands which determines runoff. These properties may be inferred from the analysis of the clastic/carbonate conflict and indicators of salinity (mangrove). In conclusion, the Togo and Iullemmeden basins were located downstream of tectonically quiecent, large continental areas of gentle relief. Transgressions were migrations of a broad littoral system upon very flat continental surfaces caused by erosion or river-dominated deposition.

  15. Silicoflagellate Fluxes in Cuenca Alfonso, Mexico During the 2002-2003 El Niño Event

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alvarez, I. G.; Martínez-López, A.; Silverberg, N.

    2007-05-01

    Changes in the circulation and water mass patterns in the Gulf of California are closely associated with changes in atmospheric circulation. At the interannual scale, such changes are associated with events like El Niño, which in the Gulf are characterized by greater penetration of tropical-equatorial water. Subsamples of sediment trap material, collected between January 2002 and February 2004 were examined with the aim of inferring average oceanographic conditions in Cuenca Alfonso, Bahia de La Paz and those during the relatively mild 2002- 03 El Niño. Analysis of the silicoflagellate data series reveals seasonal and interannual relationships between the silicoflagellate fluxes and the dynamics of the water column. Comparison of silicoflagellate fluxes with those of the diatom group indicate that the former represent 0-52% of their combined flux. Both silicate groups generally co-vary but show differences in intensity. Thirteen taxa made up the silicoflagellate species composition. The simultaneous occurrence of Dictyocha epiodon and Distephanus speculum with Dictyocha calida and Dictyocha californica during August 2002 to May 2003, indicated the presence of both California Current Water and Equatorial Surface Water in the area close to Cuenca Alfonso. This favored the increase, mainly in November-December, in the flux of the dominant species, Octactis pulchra (as high as 7 x 106 skeletons m-2 day-1). Spring, on the other hand, was notable for a drop in the total silicoflagellate flux, probably due to the influence of the El Niño event. The subsequent increase in species typical of warm water and the replacement of the dominant species (O. pulchra) by Dictyocha messanensis var messanensis, suggest that the effects of El Niño extended to the fall of 2003.

  16. Multiple evidence for methylotrophic methanogenesis as the dominant methanogenic pathway in hypersaline sediments from the Orca Basin, Gulf of Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhuang, Guang-Chao; Elling, Felix J.; Nigro, Lisa M.; Samarkin, Vladimir; Joye, Samantha B.; Teske, Andreas; Hinrichs, Kai-Uwe

    2016-08-01

    Among the most extreme habitats on Earth, dark, deep, anoxic brines host unique microbial ecosystems that remain largely unexplored. As the terminal step of anaerobic degradation of organic matter, methanogenesis is a potentially significant but poorly constrained process in deep-sea hypersaline environments. We combined biogeochemical and phylogenetic analyses with incubation experiments to unravel the origin of methane in the hypersaline sediments of Orca Basin in the northern Gulf of Mexico. Substantial concentrations of methane, up to 3.4 mM, coexisted with high concentrations of sulfate from 16 to 43 mM in two sediment cores retrieved from the northern and southern parts of Orca Basin. The strong depletion of 13C in methane (-77‰ to -89‰) points towards a biological source. While low concentrations of competitive substrates limited the significance of hydrogenotrophic and acetoclastic methanogenesis, the presence of non-competitive methylated substrates (methanol, trimethylamine, dimethyl sulfide, dimethylsulfoniopropionate) supported the potential for methane generation through methylotrophic methanogenesis. Thermodynamic calculations demonstrated that hydrogenotrophic and acetoclastic methanogenesis were unlikely to occur under in situ conditions, while methylotrophic methanogenesis from a variety of substrates was highly favorable. Likewise, carbon isotope relationships between methylated substrates and methane suggested methylotrophic methanogenesis was the major source of methane. Stable and radio-isotope tracer experiments with 13C-labeled bicarbonate, acetate and methanol and 14C-labeled methylamine indicated that methylotrophic methanogenesis was the predominant methanogenic pathway. Based on 16S rRNA gene sequences, halophilic methylotrophic methanogens related to the genus Methanohalophilus dominated the benthic archaeal community in the northern basin and also occurred in the southern basin. High abundances of methanogen lipid biomarkers such as

  17. Is the extension of the Mexican Mesa Central (southern Basin & Range province) related to a gravitational collapse toward the Gulf of Mexico?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andreani, L.; Rangin, C.; Le Pichon, X.; Martínez-Reyes, J.; Le Roy, C.

    2009-04-01

    The middle to late Cenozoic extension that generated the Basin and Range province (western North America) is one of the most important tectonic events to affect the North American plate. The characteristics of this extension have been extensively studied, but its origin is equally extensively debated. Proposed origins can be broadly categorized into interplate mechanisms that focus on various interactions between the Pacific or Farallon and North American plates and intraplate mechanisms that interpret extension to result from the gravitational collapse of a previously overthickened crust. It is commonly admitted that the Basin and Range extension in western Mexico migrated from East to West toward the Gulf of California. Middle to late Miocene extension around the Gulf of California (Gulf Extensional Province) is commonly interpreted as resulting from partitioning of oblique Pacific-North American plate motion into strike-slip displacement along the margin and ENE extension perpendicular to the margin within the North American plate. It is generally assumed that this mechanism also applies to the kinematically similar, predominantly ENE extension that occurred at the same time throughout the southern Basin and Range province. However structural data we collected in the Mesa Central area, along the eastern part of the Mexican Basin and Range province, argue for a post-27My N130° extension toward the Gulf of Mexico that produced highly asymmetrical grabens, with a major motion along their western flanks. Our recent works, based on the interpretation of seismic profiles, also show that the late Oligocene to present deformation along the western margin of the Gulf of Mexico was generated by a crustal shortening. In spite of a low crustal thickness the Mesa Central is an uplifted plateau with a mean altitude of 1800m. This elevation of the Mesa Central is mainly due to the high thermal gradients that characterize the back arc domain. By contrast the crust of the Gulf

  18. La esclavitud americana y las Partidas de Alfonso X

    OpenAIRE

    Lucena Salmoral, Manuel

    1995-01-01

    El autor expone de manera sorprendente la relación entre la esclavitud americana en 1808, en los albores de la Independencia y su coincidencia con un conjunto de leyes como fueron las Partidas de Alfonso X, hechas siete siglos antes. Dentro del marco de las Partidas, que fueron el único Código Negro que la América española tuvo en su vida colonial, se centra en la servidumbre del hombre como mal antinatural y la manumisión de los siervos. The author exposes in an amazing way the relationsh...

  19. Postglacial development of the eastern Gulf of Finland: from Pleistocene glacial lake basins to Holocene lagoon systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryabchuk, Daria; Sergeev, Alexander; Kotilainen, Aarno; Hyttinen, Outi; Grigoriev, Andrey; Gerasimov, Dmitry; Anisimov, Mikhail; Gusentsova, Tatiana; Zhamoida, Vladimir; Amantov, Aleksey; Budanov, Leonid

    2016-04-01

    Despite significant amount of data, there are still lots of debatable questions and unsolved problems concerning postglacial geological history of the Eastern Gulf of Finland, the Baltic Sea. Among these problems are: 1) locations of the end moraine and glacio-fluvial deposits; 2) time and genesis of the large accretion forms (spits, bars, dunes); 3) basinwide correlations of trangression/regression culminations with the other parts of the Baltic Sea basin; 4) study of salinity, timing, frequency and intensity of Holocene saline water inflows and their links of sedimentation processes associated with climate change. Aiming to receive new data about regional postglacial development, the GIS analyses of bottom relief and available geological and geophysical data was undertaken, the maps of preQuaternary relief, moraine and Late Pleistocene surfaces, glacial moraine and Holocene sediments thicknesses were compiled. High-resolution sediment proxy study of several cores, taken from eastern Gulf of Finland bottom, allows to study grain-size distribution and geochemical features of glacial lake and Holocene sediments, to reveal sedimentation rates and paleoenvironment features of postglacial basins. Interdisciplinary geoarcheological approaches offer new opportunities for studying the region's geological history and paleogeography. Based on proxy marine geological and coastal geoarcheological studies (e.g. off-shore acoustic survey, side-scan profiling and sediment sampling, on-shore ground-penetrating radar (GPR SIR 2000), leveling, drilling, grain-size analyses and radiocarbon dating and archeological research) detailed paleogeographical reconstruction for three micro-regions - Sestroretsky and Lahta Lowlands, Narva-Luga Klint Bay and Southern Ladoga - were compiled. As a result, new high resolution models of Holocene geological development of the Eastern Gulf of Finland were received. Model calibration and verification used results from proxy geoarcheological research

  20. Evolution of the Sedimentary Basin Within the Eastern Eez Polygon at the Gulf of Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valle, S.; Mortera-Gutierrez, C. A.; Bandy, W. L.; Escobar-Briones, E. G.; Perez, D. A.

    2013-05-01

    This study shows the seafloor structures and magnetic anomalies inside the eastern EEZ polygon at the Gulf of Mexico. The objective of this study is to examine the previous hypothesis of the Gulf of Mexico opening, based on the seafloor magnetic character. Researchers from the "Instituto de Ciencias del Mar y Limnología" at UNAM, collected , multibeam bathymetric data, high-resolution seismic reflection and magnetic profiles along 37 E-W transects during two campaigns on board the UNAM vessel, BO JUSTO SIERRA, SIGSBEE-11 in 2008 and SIGSBEE-13 in 2010. Results of the bathymetry data gathered with the EM300 multibeam echo sounder (Kongsberg) and processed with the software Caraibes from IFREMER has generated a bathymetry chart of seafloor at the Eastern Polygon, and a mosaic of back-scattering images. The high-resolution seismic profiles gathered with the subbottom profiler TOPAS PS-18 (Kongsberg) provide information on the stratigraphy sediment packages across this polygon and across the deep Mississippi Canyon. The magnetic anomalies are reduced from the data gathered with a proton-precession magnetometer, G877 (GEOMETRICS). The anomalies are modeled, based on a N_S rift at the Gulf central sector. The bathymetric chart and reflectivity mosaics of SIGSBEE-11 and SIGSBEE-13 documented the smooth relief of the seabed slope toward the Gulf central sector and abrupt morphological features associated to the meanders of the Mississippi Canyon that trend to the East. The multibeam bathymetry chart shows a relief depth that goes from 2,900 to 3,400 m from north to south. Meanders are observed in the seabed within the Eastern Polygon which is related to turbidity currents from the Mississippi River, and having a trend from west to east. The relief of the canyon shows channels with widths between 400 and 1800 m, and canyon depths up to 80 m. The high-resolution seismic sections, show well defined stratigraphy packages, where clear sediment strata are interrupted by

  1. Structure of the Wagner Basin in the Northern Gulf of California From Interpretation of Seismic Reflexion Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonzalez, M.; Aguilar, C.; Martin, A.

    2007-05-01

    The northern Gulf of California straddles the transition in the style of deformation along the Pacific-North America plate boundary, from distributed deformation in the Upper Delfin and Wagner basins to localized dextral shear along the Cerro Prieto transform fault. Processing and interpretation of industry seismic data adquired by Petroleos Mexicanos (PEMEX) allow us to map the main fault structures and depocenters in the Wagner basin and to unravel the way strain is transferred northward into the Cerro Prieto fault system. Seismic data records from 0.5 to 5 TWTT. Data stacking and time-migration were performed using semblance coefficient method. Subsidence in the Wagner basin is controlled by two large N-S trending sub-parallel faults that intersect the NNW-trending Cerro Prieto transform fault. The Wagner fault bounds the eastern margin of the basin for more than 75 km. This fault dips ~50° to the west (up to 2 seconds) with distinctive reflectors displaced more than 1 km across the fault zone. The strata define a fanning pattern towards the Wagner fault. Northward the Wagner fault intersects the Cerro Prieto fault at 130° on map view and one depocenter of the Wagner basin bends to the NW adjacent to the Cerro Prieto fault zone. The eastern boundary of the modern depocenter is the Consag fault, which extends over 100 km in a N-S direction with an average dip of ~50° (up to 2s) to the east. The northern segment of the Consag fault bends 25° and intersects the Cerro Prieto fault zone at an angle of 110° on map view. The acoustic basement was not imaged in the northwest, but the stratigraphic succession increases its thickness towards the depocenter of the Wagner basin. Another important structure is El Chinero fault, which runs parallel to the Consag fault along 60 km and possibly intersects the Cerro Prieto fault to the north beneath the delta of the Colorado River. El Chinero fault dips at low-angle (~30°) to the east and has a vertical offset of about 0

  2. Resource Assessment of the In-Place and Potentially Recoverable Deep Natural Gas Resource of the Onshore Interior Salt Basins, North Central and Northeastern Gulf of Mexico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ernest A. Mancini; Donald A. Goddard

    2005-04-15

    The principal research effort for the first six months of Year 2 of the project has been petroleum system characterization. Understanding the burial and thermal maturation histories of the strata in the onshore interior salt basins of the North Central and Northeastern Gulf of Mexico areas is important in petroleum system characterization. The underburden and overburden rocks in these basins and subbasins are a product of their rift-related geohistory. Petroleum source rock analysis and thermal maturation and hydrocarbon expulsion modeling indicate that an effective regional petroleum source rock in the onshore interior salt basins, the North Louisiana Salt Basin, Mississippi Interior Salt Basin, Manila Subbasin and Conecuh Subbasin, was the Upper Jurassic Smackover lime mudstone. The Upper Cretaceous Tuscaloosa shale was an effective local petroleum source rock in the Mississippi Interior Salt Basin and a possible local source bed in the North Louisiana Salt Basin. Hydrocarbon generation and expulsion was initiated in the Early Cretaceous and continued into the Tertiary in the North Louisiana Salt Basin and the Mississippi Interior Salt Basin. Hydrocarbon generation and expulsion was initiated in the Late Cretaceous and continued into the Tertiary in the Manila Subbasin and Conecuh Subbasin. Reservoir rocks include Jurassic, Cretaceous and Tertiary siliciclastic and carbonate strata. Seal rocks include Jurassic, Cretaceous and Tertiary anhydrite and shale beds. Petroleum traps include structural and combination traps.

  3. The Sills of Guaymas Basin, Gulf of California: Their Distribution and Seismic Estimates of Their Thickness and Alteration of Intruded Sediments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lizarralde, D.; Feng, H.; Soule, S. A.; Mortera, C.

    2015-12-01

    A variety of observations, including seismic images and seafloor backscatter and photography, indicate that active igneous sill intrusion into sediments occurs over a broad region, up to 40 km from the plate boundary, in Guaymas Basin in the Gulf of California. The two, young (types of measurements, with ground truthing from drilling results, can provide strong constraints for models of sill/sediment hydro-thermal-chemical dynamics that span a range of environments and age. We also present new seismic images of sill intrusions and subbottom images of features related to gas expulsion that demonstrate some of this range present in Guaymas Basin.

  4. Structure and Stratigraphy of the Rift Basins in the Northern Gulf of California: Results from Analysis of Seismic Reflection and Borehole Data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martín, A.; González, M.; Helenes, J.; García, J.; Aragón, M.; Carreño, A.

    2008-12-01

    The northern Gulf of California contains two parallel, north-south trending rift basin systems separated by a basement-high. The interpretation of several exploration wells, and ~4500 km of seismic reflection data from PEMEX (Mexican national oil company) indicate that the tectonically active basins to the west (Wagner- Consag and Upper Delfin basins) may have initiated synchronously with the now abandoned Tiburón- Tepoca-Altar basins to the east in the Sonora margin. In both basin systems the lower sequence (A) is marine mudstone-siltstone, has parallel reflectors and a largely uniform thickness that reaches up to1.5 km, and gradually pinches out toward the lateral margins. This suggests that the unit was deposited prior to their segmentation by transtensional faulting. Marine microfossils from borehole samples from sequence A in the Tiburón and Consag basins indicates middle Miocene (>11.2 Ma) proto-Gulf conditions. Sequence B conformably overlies sequence A, and is characterized by up to 2 km growth strata with a fanning geometry that show a clear genetic relationship to the major transtensional faults that control the segmentation of the two basin systems. Sequence C in the Tiburón and Tepoca basins is comparatively thin (<800 m) and includes several unconformities, but is much less affected by faulting. In contrast, sequence C in the active Wagner, Consag and Upper Delfin basin is a much thicker (up to 2 km) growth sequence with abundant volcanic intrusions. Marked variations in sequence C in the different basin systems clearly demonstrate a major westward shift of deformation and subsidence at this time. The modern depocenter in Wagner-Consag basins is controlled by the Consag and Wagner faults, which trend parallel to the north ~20 km apart, and show opposite normal offset. These two faults merge at an oblique angle (70°-50°, respectively) into the Cerro Prieto transform fault to the north and likely accommodate an important amount of dextral shear. To

  5. Targeted technology applications for infield reserve growth: A synopsis of the Secondary Natural Gas Recovery project, Gulf Coast Basin. Topical report, September 1988--April 1993

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Levey, R.A.; Finley, R.J.; Hardage, B.A.

    1994-06-01

    The Secondary Natural Gas Recovery (SGR): Targeted Technology Applications for Infield Reserve Growth is a joint venture research project sponsored by the Gas Research Institute (GRI), the US Department of Energy (DOE), the State of Texas through the Bureau of Economic Geology at The University of Texas at Austin, with the cofunding and cooperation of the natural gas industry. The SGR project is a field-based program using an integrated multidisciplinary approach that integrates geology, geophysics, engineering, and petrophysics. A major objective of this research project is to develop, test, and verify those technologies and methodologies that have near- to mid-term potential for maximizing recovery of gas from conventional reservoirs in known fields. Natural gas reservoirs in the Gulf Coast Basin are targeted as data-rich, field-based models for evaluating infield development. The SGR research program focuses on sandstone-dominated reservoirs in fluvial-deltaic plays within the onshore Gulf Coast Basin of Texas. The primary project research objectives are: To establish how depositional and diagenetic heterogeneities cause, even in reservoirs of conventional permeability, reservoir compartmentalization and hence incomplete recovery of natural gas. To document examples of reserve growth occurrence and potential from fluvial and deltaic sandstones of the Texas Gulf Coast Basin as a natural laboratory for developing concepts and testing applications. To demonstrate how the integration of geology, reservoir engineering, geophysics, and well log analysis/petrophysics leads to strategic recompletion and well placement opportunities for reserve growth in mature fields.

  6. Benthic macrofaunal colonization patterns and preservation of laminated sediments: Observations in an extreme coastal basin environment in the lower Gulf of California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herguera, J.; Paull, C. K.; Anderson, K.; Gwiazda, R.; Lundsten, E. M.; Kundz, L.; Edwards, B. D.; McGann, M. L.

    2012-12-01

    New observations and cores obtained with the ROV Doc Ricketts operated from the RV/Western Flyer provide a glimpse into a macrofauna barren sea-floor where laminated sediments are known to accumulate on the sea-floor of Alfonso Basin. This basin, located north of La Paz Bay, Baja California, is known to be an important repository of laminated sediments due to a combination of the relatively high input of terrigenous sediments brought in by summer rains, a moderate to high export productivity from its surface waters, and the very low oxygen concentrations at depth bathed by tropical subsurface waters. These laminated sediments are unique repositories of paleoceanographic and paleoclimatic information for its very high resolution records of past conditions comparable to ice core, tree ring, coral and cave records although spanning continuously much further back in time. However, the paleoceanographic community rarely has had the opportunity to visualize the seafloor surface where these sediments are accumulating and examine the biological abundance patterns in these extreme environments. Here we will show results from ROV Doc Ricketts quantitative video transects providing benthic faunal abundance patterns on the seafloor in these highly oxygen depleted bottom waters. These observations are further compared with the underlying stratigraphy. A coring system carried on the ROV allowed us to replicate cores and to collect a transect of 5 closely spaced cores to evaluate the horizontal extent of the observed variability down-core. We will also show some preliminary results from x-radiographs showing the nature of the laminations and its sediment composition based on elemental analysis on organic carbon, carbonate and biogenic opal analysis. New XRF results from a box core will be used to calibrate its terrigenous components with the historical rainfall record and evaluate its potential to reconstruct summer precipitation patterns in this region.

  7. Resource Assessment of the In-Place and Potentially Recoverable Deep Natural Gas Resource of the Onshore Interior Salt Basins, North Central and Northeastern Gulf of Mexico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ernest A. Mancini; Paul Aharon; Donald A. Goddard; Roger Barnaby

    2005-10-28

    The principal research effort for Year 2 of the project has been petroleum system characterization and modeling. Understanding the burial, thermal maturation, and hydrocarbon expulsion histories of the strata in the onshore interior salt basins of the North Central and Northeastern Gulf of Mexico areas is important in hydrocarbon resource assessment. The underburden and overburden rocks in these basins and subbasins are a product of their rift-related geohistory. Petroleum source rock analysis and initial thermal maturation and hydrocarbon expulsion modeling indicated that an effective regional petroleum source rock in the onshore interior salt basins and subbasins, the North Louisiana Salt Basin, Mississippi Interior Salt Basin, Manila Subbasin and Conecuh Subbasin, was Upper Jurassic Smackover lime mudstone. The initial modeling also indicated that hydrocarbon generation and expulsion were initiated in the Early Cretaceous and continued into the Tertiary in the North Louisiana Salt Basin and the Mississippi Interior Salt Basin and that hydrocarbon generation and expulsion were initiated in the Late Cretaceous and continued into the Tertiary in the Manila Subbasin and Conecuh Subbasin. Refined thermal maturation and hydrocarbon expulsion modeling and additional petroleum source rock analysis have confirmed that the major source rock in the onshore interior salt basins and subbasins is Upper Jurassic Smackover lime mudstone. Hydrocarbon generation and expulsion were initiated in the Early to Late Cretaceous and continued into the Tertiary.

  8. Tectono-Stratigraphy of the Seeps on the Guaymas Basin at the Sonora Margin, Gulf of California, Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Figueroa Albornoz, L. J.; Mortera-Gutierrez, C. A.; Bandy, W. L.; Escobar-Briones, E. G.; Godfroy, A.; Fouquet, Y.

    2013-05-01

    Recently several hydrothermal and gas seeps systems has been located precisely at the Sonora margin within the Guaymas Basin (GB), Gulf of California. Since late 1970's , several marine studies had reported two main hydrothermal systems in the Guaymas Rift (one at the Northern Rift, and other at the Southern Rift) and a cold seeps system at the Satellite Basin in the Sonora-margin lower edge. During the campaign BIG10, onboard the IFREMER vessel, NO L'Atalante, the EM122 echo-sounder log more than 30,000 water column acoustic images, which allows us to create a data base of the bubble plumes active systems on the northern part of the GB and the Sonora Margin. These plumes are the expression on the water column of an active seeps site during the cruise time. These images document the presence of the cold seep activity around the scarp of the Guaymas Transform Fault (GTF), and within the Satellite Basin. Few active plumes are first located off-axis, on both sides of the Northern Rift. Although it is not observed any plume within NR. Sub-bottom profiles and bathymetric data logged during the campaign GUAYRIV10, onboard the UNAM vessel, BO EL PUMA, are analyzed to determine the shallow tectonic-stratigraphy of GB near the Sonora Margin. We analyze 17 high-resolution seismic profiles (13 with NE-SW strike and 3 with NW-SE strike). From this data set, the continental shelf stratigraphy at the Sonora Margin tilts toward the slope, showing 3 low angle unconformities due to tectonics and slope angle changes. The strata slope changes angle up to 60°. However, the constant trans-tension shear along the GTF causes gravitation instability on the slope, generating a few submarine landslides close to the Northern Rift, and the rotation of blocks, tilting toward the shelf. To the north, the GTF splits in two fault escarpments, forming a narrow pull-apart basin, known as Satellite Basin. The submarine canyon from the Sonora River flows through the Satellite Basin into the GB

  9. Upwelling-driven reworking of a MTD's fine-grained plume: an example at the Cariaco Basin/Cariaco Gulf connection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aguilar, Iliana; Beck, Christian; Audemard, Franck; Crouzet, Christian; Sabatier, Pierre; Develle, Anne-Lise; Boussafir, Mohammed; Campos, Corina

    2016-04-01

    The Cariaco Basin is a 1400 m-deep and 90 km-wide pull-apart basin, in the south-eastern corner of the Caribbean Sea. To the East, it is connected to the Cariaco Gulf, a 60 km-long, 15 km-wide, and 90 m-deep appendix. Both are E-W elongated and developed upon the south-eastern transform boundary of the Caribbean Plate, an active limit here mainly represented by the El Pilar Fault. The Gulf of Cariaco entrance is a 55 m-deep, and 5 km-wide sill mainly controlled by the large Manzanares River delta, which western foreset slope is facing the Basin's eastern edge. Within this connection area, two particular sedimentary processes have been previously documented: 1) strong seasonal upwelling responsible for the transfer of deep particulate organic matter from the Basin into the Gulf; 2) the recent occurrence, in the Basin, of a fine-grained suspension related to a submarine landslide; this event was detected after the 1997 Cariaco earthquake (Thunell et al., 1999; Lorenzoni et al., 2012) and was related to a slope failure of the Manzanares delta western foreset. From short gravity cores retrieved in the Gulf, we analysed the last millennium of sedimentation (components, transport and settling processes) using classical proxies and physical properties. All parameters led to underline: - a permanent mixed provenance of particulate Organic Matter in the main part of the Gulf: i) in situ and ii) allochtonous; - the occurrence of coarse siliciclastic layers related to flooding from the southern edge of the Gulf; - the occurrence of one peculiar fine-grained siliciclastic layer with a widespread distribution, dated around 1850 AD; - an abrupt increase of open marine influence just after the above-mentioned layer. Concerning the "background" permanent sedimentation, these results confirm the importance of upwelling through the connection between the Gulf and the Basin (transfer of the "allochtonous" O.M.). For the fine-grained silicilastic "event", we could discard a

  10. Reconstructing hypoxia of the southeastern Gulf of California over the last 18,000 years: sediments of Pescadero Basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choumiline, K.; Lyons, T.; Perez-Cruz, L. L.; Escorza-Reyes, M.; Bates, S.

    2014-12-01

    We present the first high-resolution multiproxy reconstruction of the past 18,000 years of oceanic redox variability in the southeastern Gulf of California (GC) and eastern Pacific. The variation in oxygen content prove to be a crucial regulator responsible for changes in biota distribution, water chemistry, physicochemical transformations of dissolved and particulate phases for trace elements in the water column, and formation of authigenic minerals, among other effects. The gravity core DIPAL-III T2 collected aboard the R/V "El Puma" (UNAM) from Pescadero Basin, located within the oxygen minimum zone (OMZ) of the southern GC, was thoroughly studied in terms of C, S, trace element and Fe speciation. After establishing the age-model of the marine sediments, the produced data revealed two clear episodes of peleoceanographic variability, associated with changes in hypoxia. The first period (18.0 - 11.6 cal kyr BP), represented by massive sediments, points to a time with an oxygenated water column and moderate productivity, elucidated by low Corg, high S and a relatively low redox sensitive trace element content (Mo and U). The second (11.6 cal kyr BP - present), easily perceived by a clear lamination pattern, indicates a suboxic/anoxic episode, evidenced by higher Corg, Mo and U, among others. A clear dramatic shift is distinctly observable between these periods for most of the redox-proxies. This shift is related to the changes in sea-level that immediately followed the Last Glacial Maximum, when the ice sheets began to melt. This transitioned Pescadero hydrochemistry from a shallow well-ventilated basin (prior to 11.6 cal kyr BP) to a deep OMZ system. When compared to renowned marine sedimentary records, such as Cariaco and Guaymas basins, some events became more eminent than others. In the particular case of the Younger Dryas (YD) stadial and Bolling Allerod (BA) interstadial, the Corg, S and some trace element patterns were similar among basins even from

  11. Lithostratigraphic description, sedimentological characteristics and depositional environments of rocks penetrated by Illela borehole, Sokoto Basin, NW Nigeria: A connection between Gulf of Guinea Basins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toyin, A.; Adekeye, O. A.; Bale, R. B.; Sanni, Z. J.; Jimoh, O. A.

    2016-09-01

    The basal unit of the succession in the Illela borehole belongs to the Dange Formation comprising thick calcareous and variably coloured dark-greyish shale of 36.30 m thick which is overlain by a 31.44 m thick limestone of Kalambaina Formation with 1.7 m thick shaly-limestone inclusive. The uppermost part of the section belongs to the Gwandu Formation which has intercalation of silty-clay, muddy siltstones with well lithified ironstone capping the borehole section. The limestone/carbonate microfacie as deduced from their salient lithologic, sedimentologic and paleontologic features are comparable to standard microfacie (SMF) types 9 and 10, i.e. bioclastic wackestone/bioclastic micrite and packstone-wackestone respectively. Diagenetically, syndepositional and early diagenesis have taken place particularly cementation and replacement in the carbonate rocks and these have greatly affected the reservoir potential negatively. The matrix/grain relationships indicate a shallow marine environment of deposition. The borehole section is delineated into upper foraminifera and lower ostracod biostratigraphic units as no formal biostratigraphic zonation could be attempted due to low diversity of both benthic foraminifera, marine ostracods and the absence of planktonic foraminifera. The similarity of the ostracod assemblages between this study area, Illela borehole, West Africa, North Africa (Libya), Mali and Niger Republic) and South-Western Nigeria (West Africa) suggests that a marine connection exists between the Gulf of Guinea and the Sokoto Basin via the area occupied by the River Niger during the Paleocene.

  12. Bacterial sulfate reduction in hydrothermal sediments of the Guaymas Basin, Gulf of California, Mexico

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Weber, A.; Jørgensen, BB

    2002-01-01

    Depth distribution and temperature dependence of bacterial sulfate reduction were studied in hydrothermal surface sediments of the southern trough of the Guaymas Basin at 2000 m water depth. In situ temperatures ranged from 2.8 degreesC at the sediment surface to > 130degreesC at 30 cm depth in t...

  13. Data collection for cooperative water resources modeling in the Lower Rio Grande Basin, Fort Quitman to the Gulf of Mexico.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Passell, Howard David; Pallachula, Kiran (GRAM, Inc., Albuquerque, NM); Tidwell, Vincent Carroll; Villalobos, Joshua (Texas A& M University); Piccinni, Giovanni (Texas A& M University); Brainard, James Robert; Gerik, Thomas (Texas A& M University); Morrison, Wendy (Texas A& M University); Serrat-Capdevila, Aleix (University of Arizona); Valdes, Juan (University of Arizona); Sheng, Zhuping (Texas A& M University); Lovato, Rene (Instituto Mexicano de Tecnologia del Agua); Guitron, Alberto (Instituto Mexicano de Tecnologia del Agua); Ennis, Martha Lee; Aparicio, Javier (Instituto Mexicano de Tecnologia del Agua); Newman, Gretchen Carr (GRAM, Inc., Albuquerque, NM); Michelsen, Ari M. (Texas A& M University)

    2004-10-01

    Water resource scarcity around the world is driving the need for the development of simulation models that can assist in water resources management. Transboundary water resources are receiving special attention because of the potential for conflict over scarce shared water resources. The Rio Grande/Rio Bravo along the U.S./Mexican border is an example of a scarce, transboundary water resource over which conflict has already begun. The data collection and modeling effort described in this report aims at developing methods for international collaboration, data collection, data integration and modeling for simulating geographically large and diverse international watersheds, with a special focus on the Rio Grande/Rio Bravo. This report describes the basin, and the data collected. This data collection effort was spatially aggregated across five reaches consisting of Fort Quitman to Presidio, the Rio Conchos, Presidio to Amistad Dam, Amistad Dam to Falcon Dam, and Falcon Dam to the Gulf of Mexico. This report represents a nine-month effort made in FY04, during which time the model was not completed.

  14. Stratigraphy and structural development of the southwest Isla Tiburón marine basin: Implications for latest Miocene tectonic opening and flooding of the northern Gulf of California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bennett, Scott E K.; Oskin, Michael; Dorsey, Rebecca; Iriondo, Alexander; Kunk, Michael J.

    2015-01-01

    Accurate information on the timing of earliest marine incursion into the Gulf of California (northwestern México) is critical for paleogeographic models and for understanding the spatial and temporal evolution of strain accommodation across the obliquely divergent Pacific-North America plate boundary. Marine strata exposed on southwest Isla Tiburón (SWIT) have been cited as evidence for a middle Miocene marine incursion into the Gulf of California at least 7 m.y. prior to plate boundary localization ca. 6 Ma. A middle Miocene interpretation for SWIT marine deposits has played a large role in subsequent interpretations of regional tectonics and rift evolution, the ages of marine basins containing similar fossil assemblages along ~1300 km of the plate boundary, and the timing of marine incursion into the Gulf of California. We report new detailed geologic mapping and geochronologic data from the SWIT basin, an elongate sedimentary basin associated with deformation along the dextral-oblique La Cruz fault. We integrate these results with previously published biostratigraphic and geochronologic data to bracket the age of marine deposits in the SWIT basin and show that they have a total maximum thickness of ~300 m. The 6.44 ± 0.05 Ma (Ar/Ar) tuff of Hast Pitzcal is an ash-flow tuff stratigraphically below the oldest marine strata, and the 6.01 ± 0.20 Ma (U/Pb) tuff of Oyster Amphitheater, also an ash-flow tuff, is interbedded with marine conglomerate near the base of the marine section. A dike-fed rhyodacite lava flow that caps all marine strata yields ages of 3.51 ± 0.05 Ma (Ar/Ar) and 4.13 ± 0.09 Ma (U/Pb) from the base of the flow, consistent with previously reported ages of 4.16 ± 1.81 Ma (K-Ar) from the flow top and (K-Ar) 3.7 ± 0.9 Ma from the feeder dike. Our new results confirm a latest Miocene to early Pliocene age for the SWIT marine basin, consistent with previously documented latest Miocene to early Pliocene (ca. 6.2-4.3 Ma) planktonic and benthic

  15. ASSESSING AND FORECASTING, BY PLAY, NATURAL GAS ULTIMATE RECOVERY GROWTH AND QUANTIFYING THE ROLE OF TECHNOLOGY ADVANCEMENTS IN THE TEXAS GULF COAST BASIN AND EAST TEXAS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    William L. Fisher; Eugene M. Kim

    2000-12-01

    A detailed natural gas ultimate recovery growth (URG) analysis of the Texas Gulf Coast Basin and East Texas has been undertaken. The key to such analysis was determined to be the disaggregation of the resource base to the play level. A play is defined as a conceptual geologic unit having one or more reservoirs that can be genetically related on the basis of depositional origin of the reservoir, structural or trap style, source rocks and hydrocarbon generation, migration mechanism, seals for entrapment, and type of hydrocarbon produced. Plays are the geologically homogeneous subdivision of the universe of petroleum pools within a basin. Therefore, individual plays have unique geological features that can be used as a conceptual model that incorporates geologic processes and depositional environments to explain the distribution of petroleum. Play disaggregation revealed important URG trends for the major natural gas fields in the Texas Gulf Coast Basin and East Texas. Although significant growth and future potential were observed for the major fields, important URG trends were masked by total, aggregated analysis based on a broad geological province. When disaggregated by plays, significant growth and future potential were displayed for plays that were associated with relatively recently discovered fields, deeper reservoir depths, high structural complexities due to fault compartmentalization, reservoirs designated as tight gas/low-permeability, and high initial reservoir pressures. Continued technology applications and advancements are crucial in achieving URG potential in these plays.

  16. Aptian ‘Shale Gas’ Prospectivity in the Downdip Mississippi Interior Salt Basin, Gulf Coast, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hackley, Paul C.; Valentine, Brett J.; Enomoto, Catherine B.; Lohr, Celeste D.; Scott, Krystina R.; Dulong, Frank T.; Bove, Alana M.

    2016-01-01

    This study evaluates regional ‘shale gas’ prospectivity of the Aptian section (primarily Pine Island Shale) in the downdip Mississippi Salt Basin (MSB). Previous work by the U.S. Geological Survey estimated a mean undiscovered gas resource of 8.8 trillion cubic feet (TCF) in the chronostratigraphic-equivalent Pearsall Formation in the Maverick Basin of south Texas, where industry has established a moderately successful horizontal gas and liquids play. Wells penetrating the downdip MSB Aptian section at depths of 12,000-15,000 ft were used to correlate formation tops in a 15-well cross-section extending about 200 miles (mi) east-southeastward from Adams Co. to Jackson Co. Legacy cuttings from these wells were analyzed for thermal maturity and source rock quality. Bitumen reflectance (n=53) increases with increasing present-day burial depth in the east-central study area from 1.0% to 1.7%. As the Aptian section shallows in Adams Co. to the west, bitumen Ro values are higher (1.7-2.0%), either from relatively greater heat flux or greater mid-Cenomanian uplift and erosion in this area. Total organic carbon (TOC) content ranges 0.01-1.21 and averages 0.5 wt.% (n=51); pyrolysis output (S2; n=51) averages 0.40 mg HC/g rock, indicating little present-day hydrocarbon-generative potential. Bitumen reflectance is preferred as a thermal maturity parameter as Tmax values are unreliable. Normalized X-ray diffraction (XRD) mineral analyses (n=26) indicate high average clay abundance (53 wt.%) relative to quartz (29%) and carbonate (18%). Mineral content shows a spatial relationship to an Appalachian orogen clastic sediment source, with proximal high clay and quartz and distal high carbonate content. Clastic influx from the Appalachian orogen is confirmed by detrital zircon U-Pb ages with dominant Grenville and Paleozoic components [105 ages from a Rodessa sandstone and 112 ages from a Paluxy (Albian) sandstone]. Preliminary information from fluid inclusion microthermometry

  17. Digital archive of drilling mud weight pressures and wellbore temperatures from 49 regional cross sections of 967 well logs in Louisiana and Texas, onshore Gulf of Mexico basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burke, Lauri A.; Kinney, Scott A.; Kola-Kehinde, Temidayo B.

    2011-01-01

    This document provides the digital archive of in-situ temperature and drilling mud weight pressure data that were compiled from several historical sources. The data coverage includes the states of Texas and Louisiana in the Gulf of Mexico basin. Data are also provided graphically, for both Texas and Louisiana, as plots of temperature as a function of depth and pressure as a function of depth. The minimum, arithmetic average, and maximum values are tabulated for each 1,000-foot depth increment for temperature as well as pressure in the Texas and Louisiana data.

  18. Phenols in hydrothermal petroleums and sediment bitumen from Guaymas Basin, Gulf of California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simoneit, B. R.; Leif, R. N.; Ishiwatari, R.

    1996-01-01

    The aliphatic, aromatic and polar (NSO) fractions of seabed petroleums and sediment bitumen extracts from the Guaymas Basin hydrothermal system have been analyzed by gas chromatography and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (free and silylated). The oils were collected from the interiors and exteriors of high temperature hydrothermal vents and represent hydrothermal pyrolyzates that have migrated to the seafloor by hydrothermal fluid circulation. The downcore sediments are representative of both thermally unaltered and thermally altered sediments. The survey has revealed the presence of oxygenated compounds in samples with a high degree of thermal maturity. Phenols are one class of oxygenated compounds found in these samples. A group of methyl-, dimethyl- and trimethyl-isoprenoidyl phenols (C27-C29) is present in all of the seabed NSO fractions, with the methyl- and dimethyl-isoprenoidyl phenols occurring as major components, and a trimethyl-isoprenoidyl phenol as a minor component. A homologous series of n-alkylphenols (C13-C33) has also been found in the seabed petroleums. These phenols are most likely derived from the hydrothermal alteration of sedimentary organic matter. The n-alkylphenols are probably synthesized under hydrothermal conditions, but the isoprenoidyl phenols are probably hydrothermal alteration products of natural product precursors. The suites of phenols do not appear to be useful tracers of high temperature hydrothermal processes.

  19. Resource Assessment of the In-Place and Potentially Recoverable Deep Natural Gas Resource of the Onshore Interior Salt Basins, North Central and Northeastern Gulf of Mexico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ernest A. Mancini; Donald A. Goddard

    2004-10-28

    The objectives of the study are: to perform resource assessment of the in-place deep (>15,000 ft) natural gas resource of the onshore interior salt basins of the North Central and Northeastern Gulf of Mexico areas through petroleum system identification, characterization and modeling and to use the petroleum system based resource assessment to estimate the volume of the in-place deep gas resource that is potentially recoverable and to identify those areas in the interior salt basins with high potential to recover commercial quantities of the deep gas resource. The principal research effort for Year 1 of the project is data compilation and petroleum system identification. The research focus for the first nine (9) months of Year 1 is on data compilation and for the remainder of the year the emphasis is on petroleum system identification.

  20. "De arauigo en lenguaie castellano": Politica linguistica e traduzione secondo Alfonso X

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruggiero Pergola

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract – After Alfonso X’s accession to the throne in mid-13th-century Spain, the translating activity of scientific texts from Arabic changed route: Castilian, instead of Latin, became the language of science. Such a plan, ambitious though risky, was carried out through the writing of the huge Alfonsine corpus of texts, a fundamental contribution to medieval culture, which shaped the picture of Alfonso as “Emperor of Culture”. The aim of this paper is to provide, in the light of recent research, an overall view of the main translators and of the translations of scientific texts from Arabic into Castilian at Alfonso’s court.Abstract – Con l’avvento di Alfonso X nella Spagna della metà del XIII secolo, l’attività traduttiva di testi scientifici dall’arabo conobbe un significativo cambio di rotta: il passaggio dal latino al castigliano come lingua scientifica. Il progetto, ambizioso e rischioso, si realizzò nella redazione dell’immenso corpus alfonsino, fondamentale contributo alla cultura medievale, che ha creato l’immagine di Alfonso “imperatore della cultura”. Obiettivo di questo contributo è offrire, alla luce degli studi più recenti, una visione d’insieme sui principali traduttori e sulle traduzioni di testi scientifici dall’arabo in castigliano realizzate alla corte di Alfonso X.

  1. Seismic reflection-based evidence of a transfer zone between the Wagner and Consag basins: implications for defining the structural geometry of the northern Gulf of California

    Science.gov (United States)

    González-Escobar, Mario; Suárez-Vidal, Francisco; Hernández-Pérez, José Antonio; Martín-Barajas, Arturo

    2010-12-01

    This study examines the structural characteristics of the northern Gulf of California by processing and interpreting ca. 415 km of two-dimensional multi-channel seismic reflection lines (data property of Petróleos Mexicanos PEMEX) collected in the vicinity of the border between the Wagner and Consag basins. The two basins appear to be a link between the Delfín Superior Basin to the south, and the Cerro Prieto Basin to the north in the Mexicali-Imperial Valley along the Pacific-North America plate boundary. The seismic data are consistent with existing knowledge of four main structures (master faults) in the region, i.e., the Percebo, Santa María, Consag Sur, and Wagner Sur faults. The Wagner and Consag basins are delimited to the east by the Wagner Sur Fault, and to the west by the Consag Sur Fault. The Percebo Fault borders the western margin of the modern Wagner Basin depocenter, and is oriented N10°W, dipping (on average) ˜40° to the northeast. The trace of the Santa María Fault located in the Wagner Basin strikes N19°W, dipping ˜40° to the west. The Consag Sur Fault is oriented N14°W, and dips ˜42° to the east over a distance of 21 km. To the east of the study area, the Wagner Sur Fault almost parallels the Consag Sur Fault over a distance of ˜86 km, and is oriented N10°W with an average dip of 59° to the east. Moreover, the data provide new evidence that the Wagner Fault is discontinuous between the two basins, and that its structure is more complex than previously reported. A structural high separates the northern Consag Basin from the southern Wagner Basin, comprising several secondary faults oriented NE oblique to the main faults of N-S direction. These could represent a zone of accommodation, or transfer zone, where extension could be transferred from the Wagner to the Consag Basin, or vice versa. This area shows no acoustic basement and/or intrusive body, which is consistent with existing gravimetric and magnetic data for the region.

  2. The Cretaceous-Paleogene boundary unit in the Gulf of Mexico: Large-scale oceanic basin response to the Chicxulub impact

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanford, J. C.; Gulick, S. P.; Snedden, J.

    2013-12-01

    The prevailing theory for the Cretaceous-Paleogene (K-Pg) extinction event cites the Chicxulub asteroid impact on the Yucatán Peninsula as the catalyst for the global climatologic and ecologic crisis. This theory has been corroborated by a multitude of K-Pg boundary deposits observed globally in both boreholes and outcrops. The change in character of these deposits with proximity to the crater, from a millimeter-scale clay layer to a hectometer-scale carbonate sequence, supports a causal link between the boundary unit and the asteroid impact. Due to its passive marine setting and proximity to the Chicxulub crater, the Gulf of Mexico is the premier locale in which to study the near-field geologic effect of a massive bolide impact. Until recently, investigation of the K-Pg boundary deposit within the Gulf has been largely confined to outcrops and boreholes on the periphery of the basin due to the difficulty of observation of the boundary unit in the deep water. However, hydrocarbon exploration in the past decade has yielded significant borehole and seismic data that can be used to better understand the deep-water response to the impact and to gain a comprehensive regional understanding impact-related processes in the Gulf. Based on roughly 100 offshore and 300 onshore Cretaceous well penetrations, the K-Pg boundary is interpreted to range from a strictly erosional surface in shallow-water and coastal regimes to a mass transport deposit up to ~400 meters thick. Depth-converted seismic data throughout the Gulf corroborate such thicknesses and reveal that the deposit is virtually ubiquitous throughout the deep water. For the first time, the K-Pg boundary deposit has been tied from the central Gulf to the Chicxulub crater, further establishing a causative link between the two. Biostratigraphic data in wells confirm the age of the deposit and document the presence of the 'K-Pg boundary cocktail.' Seismic data reveals areas of extensive debris flows and slump deposits on

  3. Basin Analysis of the Mississippi Interior Salt Basin and Petroleum System Modeling of the Jurassic Smackover Formation, Eastern Gulf Coastal Plain

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mancini, Ernest A.

    2003-02-06

    The project objectives are improving access to information for the Mississippi Interior Salt Basin by inventorying data files and records of the major information repositories in the region, making these inventories easily accessible in electronic format, increasing the amount of information available on domestic sedimentary basins through a comprehensive analysis of the Mississippi Interior Salt Basin, and enhancing the understanding of the petroleum systems operating in the Mississippi Interior Salt Basin.

  4. [Science and life--the history of Marquis Alfonso Corti].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Betlejewski, Stanisław

    2008-01-01

    Alfonso Corti was born at Gambarana, near Pavia in 1822. A famous friend of Corti's father, Antonio Scarpa, may have kindled his boyhood interest in anatomy and medicine. As a medical student he enrolled first at the University of Pavia. Corti's favorite study there was microanatomy with Bartolomeo Panizza and Mario Rusconi. In 1845, against paternal wishes, Corti moved to Vienna to complete his medical studies and to work in the anatomical institute of Joseph Hirtl. There he received the degree in medicine in 1847 under the supervision of professor Hyrtl, with a thesis on the bloodstream system of a reptile. He was then appointed by Hyrtl to be his Second Prosector. With the outbreak of the 1848 Revolution he left Vienna, and after brief military service in Italy made visits to eminent scientist in Bern, London and Paris. By the beginning of 1850 Corti had received the invitation of the anatomist Albert Kölliker and had moved to Würzburg, where he made friends with Virchow. At the Kölliker Laboratory he began to work on the mammalian auditory system. A short time Corti spent in Utrecht, where he visited Professors Schroeder van der Kolk and Pieter Harting. In Utrecht Corti learned to use methods to preserve several preparations of the cochlea. From Utrecht he returned to Würzburg to complete his study of at least 200 cochlea's' of man and different animals. His famous paper: "Recherches sur l'organe de l'ouïe des mammiferes" appeared in 1851 in Kölliker's journal "Zeitschrift für wissenschaftliche Zoologie". In the same year, after death of his father, he inherited father's title Marchese de San Stefano Belbo and estate and moved back to Italy. In 1855 Corti married the daughter from a neighboring estate, Maria Bettinzoli. His young wife presented him with a daughter Bianca, and a son Gaspare, but in 1861 she died, leaving him with the responsibility of rearing the children. Unfortunately he was gradually developing arthritis deformans. Corti's last 15

  5. Water-quality assessment of the Trinity River basin, Texas : ground-water quality of the Trinity, Carrizo-Wilcox, and Gulf Coast aquifers, February-August 1994

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reutter, David C.; Dunn, David D.

    2000-01-01

    Ground-water samples were collected from wells in the outcrops of the Trinity, Carrizo-Wilcox, and Gulf Coast aquifers during February-August 1994 to determine the quality of ground water in the three major aquifers in the Trinity River Basin study unit, Texas. These samples were collected and analyzed for selected properties, nutrients, major inorganic constituents, trace elements, pesticides, dissolved organic carbon, total phenols, methylene blue active substances, and volatile organic compounds as part of the U.S. Geological Survey National Water-Quality Assessment Program. Quality-control practices included the collection and analysis of blank, duplicate, and spiked samples. Samples were collected from 12 shallow wells (150 feet or less) and from 12 deep wells (greater than 150 feet) in the Trinity aquifer, 11 shallow wells and 12 deep wells in the Carrizo-Wilcox aquifer, and 14 shallow wells and 10 deep wells in the Gulf Coast aquifer. The three aquifers had similar water chemistries-calcium was the dominant cation and bicarbonate the dominant anion. Statistical tests relating well depths to concentrations of nutrients and major inorganic constituents indicated correlations between well depth and concentrations of ammonia nitrogen, nitrite plus nitrate nitrogen, bicarbonate, sodium, and dissolved solids in the Carrizo-Wilcox aquifer and between well depth and concentrations of sulfate in the Gulf Coast aquifer. The tests indicated no significant correlations for the Trinity aquifer. Concentrations of dissolved solids were larger than the secondary maximum contaminant level of 500 milligrams per liter established for drinking water by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency in 12 wells in the Trinity aquifer, 4 wells in the Carrizo-Wilcox aquifer, and 6 wells in the Gulf Coast aquifer. Iron concentrations were larger than the secondary maximum contaminant level of 300 micrograms per liter in at least 3 samples from each aquifer, and manganese concentrations

  6. Holocene late Pleistocene non-tropical carbonate sediments and tectonic history of the western rift basin margin of the southern Gulf of California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halfar, Jochen; Godinez-Orta, Lucio; Goodfriend, Glenn A.; Mucciarone, David A.; Ingle, James C.; Holden, Peter

    2001-10-01

    Using high-resolution seismic reflection profiling and dating of (1) shallow marine vibracores and (2) sediments collected from uplifted marine terraces we reconstruct the tectonic history and sediment accumulation patterns of Holocene to late Pleistocene warm-temperate to subtropical carbonates in the southern Gulf of California, Mexico. The study was conducted in the vicinity of La Paz where carbonates form along the fault bounded narrow western shelf of the tectonically active Gulf of California rift basin. The non-tropical nature of the setting is responsible for (1) poor cementation of the bioclastic carbonates, and (2) a composition which is dominated by rhodoliths (coralline red algae), corals and mollusks. Unrimmed carbonate flats forming in small pocket bays and a rhodolith bioherm, which has a surface area of more than 20 km 2 and is up to 16 m thick, constitute the major carbonate factories. Holocene carbonate accumulation rates were deduced from seismic and core data and are highest on the rhodolith bioherm (260 cm/ka) and in subtidal zones of pocket bays (210 cm/ka), and lowest on the inner and middle shelf (100 cm/ka). Taken together, rates of carbonate accumulation are intermediate in magnitude between higher rates recorded in fully tropical carbonate settings and lower rates typical of cool-water carbonates. Seismic reflection profiles demonstrate that Isla Espiritu Santo in the center of the study area is a west dipping fault block, which is tectonically influenced by two distinct faults, the La Paz and Espiritu Santo faults. The latter fault accommodates at least 700 m of east-side down normal offset, and forms a steep eastern escarpment leading into the La Paz slope basin. Some of the sediments produced in the shallow carbonate factories of the narrow La Paz shelf are transported across this escarpment and are redeposited in the slope basin at a water depth of 750 m. Uranium-series dates of marine terraces exposed on Isla Espiritu Santo indicate

  7. Diferentiation of Basements Types Using Seismic Reflection Data and 40Ar-39Ar Dating in the Western Half of the Farallon Basin (gulf of California, Mexico)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piñero Lajas, D.; González Fernández, A.; López-Martínez, M.; Lonsdale, P.; Kluesner, J.

    2009-04-01

    The Gulf of California is an active continental rift with an oblique right lateral displacement. Defining a clear boundary between continental and oceanic crust is difficult due to the high sedimentation rate. The new crust is a mixture of sills and sediments that do not produce aligned magnetic anomalies. The main objective of this work is to identify this boundary in the western part of the Farallon Basin. In order to accomplish this goal we used multichannel 2D high-resolution seismic reflection data taken during a cruise aboard oceanographic vessel Francisco de Ulloa in 2006. We also used petrological characterization and 40Ar-39Ar dating of continental samples collected in nearby Santa Catalina, Santa Cruz and San Diego islands, Punta Botella in the Baja California Peninsula, and marine samples of the continental margin next to Las Animas island (ROCA 2008 cruise). Oceanic crust created in the Farallòn spreading axis is identified primarily by saucer-shaped structures in the seismic profiles, which are interpreted as sills. The plutonic continental basement is located on the westernmost part of the margin and is recognized by a continuous high amplitude reflector. There are also volcanic patches in this area, like the South Farallon Massif, which are evident as discontinuities in the high amplitude reflector and with a different seismic character. The Farallon Basin is affected by two different tectonic regimes, the first (compressive) is related to the subduction of the Farallon Plate under the North American Plate, when the plutonic basement was originated. It consists of granodiorites and tonalites belonging to two phases of subduction during the Upper Cretaceous and Early Miocene. Outcrops of the latter phase are exposed in the peninsula of Baja California (Conception Bay); Mexico mainland (middle Sinaloa); and dredged samples of Pescadero Basin. These are similar to the plutonic Santa Catalina Island outcrop described and dated in this study. These

  8. RESOURCE ASSESSMENT OF THE IN-PLACE AND POTENTIALLY RECOVERABLE DEEP NATURAL GAS RESOURCE OF THE ONSHORE INTERIOR SALT BASINS, NORTH CENTRAL AND NORTHEASTERN GULF OF MEXICO

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ernest A. Mancini

    2004-04-16

    The University of Alabama and Louisiana State University have undertaken a cooperative 3-year, advanced subsurface methodology resource assessment project, involving petroleum system identification, characterization and modeling, to facilitate exploration for a potential major source of natural gas that is deeply buried (below 15,000 feet) in the onshore interior salt basins of the North Central and Northeastern Gulf of Mexico areas. The project is designed to assist in the formulation of advanced exploration strategies for funding and maximizing the recovery from deep natural gas domestic resources at reduced costs and risks and with minimum impact. The results of the project should serve to enhance exploration efforts by domestic companies in their search for new petroleum resources, especially those deeply buried (below 15,000 feet) natural gas resources, and should support the domestic industry's endeavor to provide an increase in reliable and affordable supplies of fossil fuels. The principal research effort for Year 1 of the project is data compilation and petroleum system identification. The research focus for the first nine (9) months of Year 1 is on data compilation and for the remainder of the year the emphasis is on petroleum system identification. The objectives of the study are: to perform resource assessment of the in-place deep (>15,000 ft) natural gas resource of the onshore interior salt basins of the North Central and Northeastern Gulf of Mexico areas through petroleum system identification, characterization and modeling and to use the petroleum system based resource assessment to estimate the volume of the in-place deep gas resource that is potentially recoverable and to identify those areas in the interior salt basins with high potential to recover commercial quantities of the deep gas resource. The project objectives will be achieved through a 3-year effort. First, emphasis is on petroleum system identification and characterization in the

  9. Centenario del profesor Alfonso Esguerra Gómez

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gilberto Rueda Pérez

    1994-09-01

    Full Text Available

    Bogotá, junio 30 de 1994
    Palabras del Presidente de la Academia Nacional de Medicina
    Dr. Gilberto Rueda Pérez
    Sesión solemne
    Homenaje al Doctor Alfonso Esguerra Gómez con motivo del
    centenario de su nacimiento.
    Señores Miembros de la Junta Directiva;
    Doña Carlina Esguerra Samper;
    Don Carlos, Doña Paulina, Don Alfonso, Don Juan Pablo y
    demás distinguidos Miembros de la familia Esguerra;
    Académico Fernando Serpa Flórez;
    Señores Académicos;
    Señoras, señores:
    Bienvenidos a la solemne sesión con que celebra la Academia,
    el centenario del natalicio del Profesor Alfonso Esguerra Gómez.

    Este ilustre maestro de la radiología primero y luego de la fisiología humana, conformó en su laboratorio ese remanso de paz, de iniciación a la ciencia y a la investigación médica, que suavizaba y atemperaba el espíritu atormentado de los alumnos que, impresionados hasta la angustia por la aventura macondiana de la anatomía descriptiva y la disección cadavérica tan rigurosa, tan excluyente, tan extenuante para esos jóvenes bachilleres, no acostumbrados a las disciplinas de la exigencia total de sus capacidades de aprendizaje, de dedicación, de sacrificio, pero también de pundonor y orgullo que despertaba en ellos la enseñanza de la anatomía, primer gran obstáculo muchas veces insuperable de su incipiente carrera médica, pero que, a pesar de su extrema dureza, o tal vez gracias a ella, iniciaba el afinamiento de ese temple, de esa capacidad de superación, de ese espíritu de

  10. HYPOXIA IN THE GULF OF MEXICO: ASSESSING AND MANAGING RISKS FROM NONPOINT SOURCE POLLUTANTS IN THE MISSISSIPPI RIVER BASIN

    Science.gov (United States)

    . Hypoxia is the condition in which dissolved oxygen levels are below that necessary to sustain most animal life. The largest zone of oxygen depletion in U.S. coastal waters is found in the northern Gulf of Mexico (NGOM) on the Louisiana/Texas continental shelf. In response to...

  11. Gulf Coast Geology (GCG) Online

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — A large percentage of the present and future energy resources of the United States reside in the Gulf of Mexico Basin, one of the major hydrocarbon producing areas...

  12. Does a strong pycnocline impact organic-matter preservation and accumulation in an anoxic setting? The case of the Orca Basin, Gulf of Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tribovillard, Nicolas; Bout-Roumazeilles, Viviane; Sionneau, Thomas; Serrano, Jean Carlos Montero; Riboulleau, Armelle; Baudin, François

    2009-01-01

    The Orca Basin (an intraslope depression located in the Gulf of Mexico) collects sedimentary particles of terrestrial origin (clastic and organic particles mainly supplied by the Mississippi River) and of marine origin (biogenic productivity). The basin is partly filled with dense brines leached from salt diapirs cropping out on the sea floor, and is permanently stratified. A strong pycnocline induces anoxic bottom conditions, expectedly favorable to organic matter (OM) preservation. Here, we report on OM in the upper 750 cm below sea floor of Core MD02-2552 (Holocene). The organic content is dominated by marine-derived amorphous OM. The organic assemblage is unexpectedly degraded to some extent, which may be accounted for by a relatively long residence time of organic particles at the halocline-pycnocline at ˜2240 m. Thus the organic particles are temporarily trapped and kept in contact with the dissolved oxygen-rich overlying water mass. Lastly, the land-derived organic fraction shows co-variations with the land-derived clay mineral supply.

  13. Resource Assessment of the In-Place and Potentially Recoverable Deep Natural Gas Resource of the Onshore Interior Salt Basins, North Central and Northeastern Gulf of Mexico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ernest A. Mancini

    2006-09-30

    The objectives of the study were: (1) to perform resource assessment of the thermogenic gas resources in deeply buried (>15,000 ft) natural gas reservoirs of the onshore interior salt basins of the north central and northeastern Gulf of Mexico areas through petroleum system identification, characterization and modeling; and (2) to use the petroleum system based resource assessment to estimate the volume of the deep thermogenic gas resource that is available for potential recovery and to identify those areas in the interior salt basins with high potential for this thermogenic gas resource. Petroleum source rock analysis and petroleum system characterization and modeling, including thermal maturation and hydrocarbon expulsion modeling, have shown that the Upper Jurassic Smackover Formation served as the regional petroleum source rock in the North Louisiana Salt Basin, Mississippi Interior Salt Basin, Manila Subbasin and Conecuh Subbasin. Thus, the estimates of the total hydrocarbons, oil, and gas generated and expelled are based on the assumption that the Smackover Formation is the main petroleum source rock in these basins and subbasins. The estimate of the total hydrocarbons generated for the North Louisiana Salt Basin in this study using a petroleum system approach compares favorably with the total volume of hydrocarbons generated published by Zimmermann (1999). In this study, the estimate is 2,870 billion barrels of total hydrocarbons generated using the method of Schmoker (1994), and the estimate is 2,640 billion barrels of total hydrocarbons generated using the Platte River software application. The estimate of Zimmermann (1999) is 2,000 to 2,500 billion barrels of total hydrocarbons generated. The estimate of gas generated for this basin is 6,400 TCF using the Platte River software application, and 12,800 TCF using the method of Schmoker (1994). Barnaby (2006) estimated that the total gas volume generated for this basin ranges from 4,000 to 8,000 TCF. Seventy

  14. Evidence For Decadal and Century Scale Climate and Oceanic Variability in the Guaymas Basin, Gulf of California, Over the Last Millenium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pineda, L.; Ravelo, A. C.; Aiello, I. W.; Stewart, Z.; Sauthoff, W.

    2015-12-01

    Linda Pineda1Ana Christina Ravelo2Ivano Aiello3Zach Stewart2Wilson Sauthoff2 Earth and Planetary Sciences Department, UCSC Ocean Sciences Department, UCSC Moss Landing Marine Lab Natural climate change affects coastal water resources, human land use, and marine biological productivity. In particular, the seasonal migration of the Intertropical Convergence Zone (ITCZ) is influenced by changes in global-scale temperature and pressure gradients and is responsible for spatial changes in summertime rainfall in Mesoamerica impacting regional water resources and the strength of upwelling. In October 2014, aboard the Research Vessel El Puma, a 3.9 meter long core (G14-P12) was recovered from the Northeast flank of the Guaymas Basin in the Gulf of California within the oxygen minimum zone (27˚52.11'N, 111˚41.51'W, water depth of 677m) to investigate changes in seasonal upwelling and Central Mexico rainfall over the last ~1000 years. The age model was developed using Pb210, C14 and lamination counting. The time interval includes the Little Ice Age and the Medieval Warm Period. Biological productivity and precipitation proxy records were produced using an X-Ray Fluorescence (XRF) core-scanner and a color line scanner to generate a record of bulk chemistry and color reflectance. The records indicate marked decadal and centennial scale variability in the lithologic composition of the sediment superimposed on millimeter-scale variability that reflects the presence of seasonally laminated sediments. Nitrogen isotopic and nitrogen weight % measurements were used, in combination with the scanned data, to interpret changes in nitrate utilization and biological productivity. These new records will have broad implications on the link between regional coastal environmental conditions in the Gulf of California and global climate change.

  15. The role of the cold sector of extratropical cyclones in setting atmospheric mean state features of the Gulf Stream basin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vannière, Benoît; Czaja, Arnaud; Dacre, Helen; Woollings, Tim

    2016-04-01

    The mechanism by which the Gulf Stream SST front anchors a band of precipitation on its warm edge is still a matter of debate and little is known about how synoptic activity contributes to shape precipitation mean state pattern. In this talk, we introduce a new indicator for the cold sector of extratropical storms based on low-level PV. This indicator is used in ERA interim data to separate the cold sector contribution to precipitation and vertical wind from the contribution of the rest of the storm. We find that cold sector precipitation forms a band following the SST front closely. In contrast, the enhanced ascent on the warm edge of the front is set primarily by the warm sector and cannot be directly related to the precipitation band as proposed by previous studies. Numerical sensitivity experiments of an extratropical cyclone passing over different sets of SST further confirms that the anchoring effect of the SST front on precipitation comes exclusively from the cold sector. These results lead us to revisit the atmospheric boundary layer model proposed to describe air-sea interactions over the Gulf-Stream SST gradient. Finally, we explore the role of the cold sector convection in restoring baroclinicity in the wake of an extratropical cyclone.

  16. Adjustment of the basin-scale circulation at 26° N to variations in Gulf Stream, deep western boundary current and Ekman transports as observed by the Rapid array

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. A. Cunningham

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available The Rapid instrument array across the Atlantic Ocean along 26° N provides unprecedented monitoring of the basin-scale circulation. A unique feature of the Rapid array is the combination of full-depth moorings with instruments measuring temperature, salinity, pressure time series at many depths with co-located bottom pressure measurements so that dynamic pressure can be measured from surface to bottom. Bottom pressure measurements show a zonally uniform rise (and fall of bottom pressure of 0.015 dbar on a 5 to 10 day time scale, suggesting that the Atlantic basin is filling and draining on a short time scale. After removing the zonally uniform bottom pressure fluctuations, bottom pressure variations at 4000 m depth against the western boundary compensate instantaneously for baroclinic fluctuations in the strength and structure of the deep western boundary current so there is no basin-scale mass imbalance resulting from variations in the deep western boundary current. After removing the mass compensating bottom pressure, residual bottom pressure fluctuations at the western boundary just east of the Bahamas balance variations in Gulf Stream transport. Again the compensation appears to be especially confined close to the western boundary. Thus, fluctuations in either Gulf Stream or deep western boundary current transports are compensated in a depth independent (barotropic manner very close to the continental slope off the Bahamas. In contrast, compensation for variations in wind-driven surface Ekman transport appears to involve fluctuations in both western basin and eastern basin bottom pressures, though the bottom pressure difference fluctuations appear to be a factor of 3 too large, perhaps due to an inability to resolve small bottom pressure fluctuations after removal of larger zonal average, baroclinic, and Gulf Stream pressure components. For 4 tall moorings where time series dynamic height (geostrophic pressure profiles can be estimated from

  17. High molecular weight (C+35) n-alkanes of high-waxy condensate and its source kitchen orientation in the Qianmiqiao burial-hill zone, Bohai Gulf Basin

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Tieguan(WANG T.-G.); ZHU Dan; LU Hong; ZHANG Zhihuan; SU Junqing; LIAO Qianjin

    2004-01-01

    The high-waxy condensate in the Qianmiqiao Ordovician burial-hill zone, Bohai Gulf Basin, North China has been investigated by way of high temperature gas chromatography. As high-mature oil, its high molecular weight wax fraction is mainly composed of C35-C69 n-alkanes with CPI37-55 values of 0.94-1.10. On conditions that core-drilling of source rocks was limited and the exact location of source kitchen is still uncertain in the region, it is inferred that the orientation of main source kitchen for the condensate should be on the east of the burial-hill zone, i.e. from the direction of Qikou Sag, according to oil-oil correlation between the condensate and surrounding high-waxy oils as well as lateral distribution of the wax content of crude oils. In addition, it is also further confirmed that the oil filling direction for this condensate reservoir is from NE to SW, i.e. from wells BS-4, through BS-7, to BS-8 based on the analyses of 9 maturity and 3 pyrrolic N-compound parameters.

  18. Influence of inherited features on the boundaries and fault patterns of the Transtensional Gulf of California to Walker Lane/Basin and Range

    Science.gov (United States)

    Umhoefer, P. J.

    2012-12-01

    The Basin and Range (BR) includes a continuous belt from the Gulf of California extensional province of Mexico through Southwestern USA to the Walker Lane and northern BR. This includes the core extensional to transtensional belt that lies east of the Pacific - North America (PAC-NAM) plate boundary. Much of the BR is the result of the westward to northwestward motion of the Baja California and Sierra Nevada microplates away from North America during PAC-NAM motion. These microplates are parts of the Cretaceous batholith and the eastern edge of the batholiths define the western edge of the BR. The transtensional faulting of eastern Baja California and Walker Lane are remarkably similar and show down-to-the-east normal faults along the batholith boundary. To the east are linked normal and strike-slip faults, the latter striking from parallel to relative motion of the microplates to nearly parallel to the batholith boundary. The Walker Lane boundary has domains of strain partitioning and other domains with northwesterly regional shear and no partitioning. Why certain areas are partitioned is not known, but secondary inherited structures may play a role. The eastern edge of the BR is dominated by the Sierra Madre Occidental and the Colorado Plateau and is more variable in faulting patterns because the boundary is more variable in shape, the previous geologic history is more complex, and most extension occurred just before and in the early stage of PAC-NAM motion. The Sierra Madre is likely underlain by a large batholith formed during caldera eruptions in the Oligocene; this batholith roughly parallels the Cretaceous batholith on the Baja California microplate and the SE BR is dominated by early extensional faults. The southern and western edges of the Colorado Plateau form the eastern boundary of the BR in the north with mainly ENE-directed core complexes in pre-17-15 Ma PAC-NAM history. Extension near Las Vegas 17 - ~10 Ma was westward and the inherited NE

  19. El retorno a lo humano en Gravedad, de Alfonso Cuarón

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arturo Morales-Campos

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Bajo una perspectiva socio-semiótica, el filme Gravedad (2013, de Alfonso Cuarón, presenta, dentro de su estructura significante, signos de diferente código (visual, musical, sonoro, lingüístico, etc., que se agrupan en núcleos semánticos. Estos núcleos remiten a una microestructura fundamental de polos opuestos y complementarios: el ambiente científico-tecnológico en el que se desarrolla la diégesis del texto visual encuentra, una vez y otra, su contrario en una posibilidad de retorno a lo humano esencial: la vida.

  20. La naturalidad del dominio humano sobre las cosas en Alfonso de Madrigal

    OpenAIRE

    Zorroza, M.ª Idoya

    2016-01-01

    This paper deals with the theory of human dominion over the things what we can found in the fifteenth century Salamanca’s Professor Alfonso de Madrigal, «el Tostado». Madrigal is the mainly author of a renewal at the University of Salamanca, called «humanist». In his comments on Genesis and Chronicles, Madrigal has a theory of the problem of dominion, asking how can be human being owner, the relationship and subordination of the domain to the full and primary domain –what it is in God, the go...

  1. La China gótica de Alfonso Hernández Catá

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandra Casanova-Vizcaíno

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Este artículo analiza dos cuentos del escritor cubano Alfonso Hernández Catá (1885-1940, “Los chinos” (1924 y “El gato” (1933, cuyos personajes asiáticos son descritos como seres grotescos y monstruosos tal como y ocurre en el género gótico. Esta monstruosidad de los chinos, además, se presenta como una enfermedad contagiosa que amenaza con contagiar y desestabilizar los límites entre la vida y la muerte, la cordura y la locura, la familiaridad y la extrañeza, Occidente y Oriente. This article analyzes two short stories by Cuban writer Alfonso Hernández Catá (1885-1940: “Los chinos” (1924 and “El gato” (1933. In these texts, Asian characters are described as grotesque and monstrous beings like the ones found in the Gothic genre. Moreover, this monstrosity is depicted as a contagious disease that threatens to infect and destabilize the boundaries between life and death, sanity and insanity, the familiar and the unknown, the West and the East.

  2. Historia de los MSS BH 133 y 128 de Alfonso de Palencia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Durán Barceló, Javier

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available El investigador que inspeccione los volúmenes UCM BH MSS 133 y 128 de Alfonso de Palencia encontrará un buen número de marcas y cotas librarias acumuladas a lo largo de su historia. Como veremos en este trabajo, estas signaturas tienen su correspondencia en los inventarios y catálogos de la biblioteca del Colegio de San Ildefonso desde 1720, 1745, 1800 y 1878. Además, la historia de estos manuscritos se puede rastrear hasta la fundación del Colegio mediante un examen analítico de los primitivos inventarios de la librería ildefonsina incluso más allá del año 1517.The researcher who inspects volumes UCM BH MSS 133 and 128 of Alfonso de Palencia will encounter a great variety of old call numbers and librarian marks accumulated throughout their history. As we will find out in this paper, these call numbers have also a parallel existence in the inventories and catalogues of the Library of the Colegio de San Ildefonso produced since 1720, 1745, 1800 y 1878. But the history of these manuscripts can be also traced back to the foundation of the College, as it is demonstrated by an analytical examination of the earlier Library inventories as far as 1517 and beyond.

  3. Making James Joyce’s life into a graphic novel. An interview with Alfonso Zapico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Menéndez Otero

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Alfonso Zapico was born in Blimea, Asturias, Spain, in 1981.He started working as a professional illustrator and cartoonist in 2006 and has since published four graphic novels: La guerre du professeur Bertenev (2006, set in the Crimean War; Café Budapest (2008, about the Israeli-Palestinian conflict; Dublinés (2011, a biography of James Joyce, and  La ruta Joyce (2011, a kind of ‘making of’ of Dublinés. His works have received several prestigious awards and been published in Spain, France, Belgium, Switzerland, Poland, Germany and Ireland, where The O’Brien Press released the English version of Dublinés, James Joyce. Portrait of a Dubliner, in May 2013. Just a few days before, the Niemeyer Center in Avilés, Asturias, opened Pasos encontrados. Un viaje dibujado de Alfonso Zapico, an exhibition focused on his career and, more particularly, on Dublinés and La ruta Joyce. He will soon be publishing his fifth graphic novel, El otro mar, about Vasco Núñez de Balboa and the expedition that led to the European discovery of the Pacific Ocean in 1513.We interviewed Zapico at the Niemeyer Center on June 29th, 2013.

  4. Volcanics in the Gulf Coast [volcanicg

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The volcanic provinces are modified after Plate 2, Principal structural features, Gulf of Mexico Basin (compiled by T.E. Ewing and R.F. Lopez) in Volume J, The...

  5. Trace Metal Distribution and Speciation in Pore Water of Hydrothermal Sediments From the Guaymas Basin, Gulf of California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morales-Villafuerte, M.; Ortega-Osorio, A.; Wheat, G.; Seewald, J.

    2004-12-01

    Thirteen sediment cores were collected through out direct sampling with the MBARI/ ROV "Tiburon" in the southern trough of the Guaymas Basin in March 2003. Pore water samples from regular 2.5 cm intervals of sediment cores were extracted onboard by centrifugation. The supernatants were collected in clean polystyrene vials and stored at 4° C until analytical work on shore. Dissolved Fe, Mn, Cu, Pb, Zn and Ni concentrations in extracted fluid samples were analyzed by direct injection of atomic absorption spectrometry. Four zones in the hydrothermal field were classified according to their physical characteristics. A core located away from the influence of active vents was recovered as a background site. The second zone is characterized by low temperatures (4.2-80° C) and sediments saturated in hydrocarbons. Sulfides formation and higher temperatures (4-166° C) were observed in the third zone. Precipitation of carbonates on top of the sediment characterizes the fourth zone. Concentration of trace metals at the water-sediment interface appears to be the highest, probably due to metal precipitation from the hydrothermal plume, followed by diffusion into the pore water. A decrease in concentration is observed between 5-12 cm depth, suggesting that biological activity is consuming essential metals (zone of bioturbation). Metal concentrations in zones where sulfide phases are rich, exhibit smaller values in pore water (Fe=2.4-3.8 μ mol/kg, Cu=0.6-0.8 μ mol/kg, Pb=1.2-1.5 μ mol/kg, Zn=0.4-0.5 μ mol/kg and Ni= 3.4-4.4 μ mol/kg) relative to samples located at hydrocarbon sites (Fe= 2.7-11.4, Cu= 0.7-1.0 μ mol/kg, Pb= 1.2-2.2 μ mol/kg, Zn= 0.4-0.7 μ mol/kg and Ni= 3.4-5.2 μ mol/kg). At sulfide zones, pH and Eh conditions help to precipitate their stable sulfides as opposed to the hydrocarbon areas, where conditions are not favorable for sulfide formation due to the absence of H2S. In general, Fe concentrations in pore water are lower than that of Mn, very likely

  6. Archaeal and anaerobic methane oxidizer communities in the Sonora Margin cold seeps, Guaymas Basin (Gulf of California).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vigneron, Adrien; Cruaud, Perrine; Pignet, Patricia; Caprais, Jean-Claude; Cambon-Bonavita, Marie-Anne; Godfroy, Anne; Toffin, Laurent

    2013-08-01

    Cold seeps, located along the Sonora Margin transform fault in the Guaymas Basin, were extensively explored during the 'BIG' cruise in June 2010. They present a seafloor mosaic pattern consisting of different faunal assemblages and microbial mats. To investigate this mostly unknown cold and hydrocarbon-rich environment, geochemical and microbiological surveys of the sediments underlying two microbial mats and a surrounding macrofaunal habitat were analyzed in detail. The geochemical measurements suggest biogenic methane production and local advective sulfate-rich fluxes in the sediments. The distributions of archaeal communities, particularly those involved in the methane cycle, were investigated at different depths (surface to 18 cm below the sea floor (cmbsf)) using complementary molecular approaches, such as Automated method of Ribosomal Intergenic Spacer Analysis (ARISA), 16S rRNA libraries, fluorescence in situ hybridization and quantitative polymerase chain reaction with new specific primer sets targeting methanogenic and anaerobic methanotrophic lineages. Molecular results indicate that metabolically active archaeal communities were dominated by known clades of anaerobic methane oxidizers (archaeal anaerobic methanotroph (ANME)-1, -2 and -3), including a novel 'ANME-2c Sonora' lineage. ANME-2c were found to be dominant, metabolically active and physically associated with syntrophic Bacteria in sulfate-rich shallow sediment layers. In contrast, ANME-1 were more prevalent in the deepest sediment samples and presented a versatile behavior in terms of syntrophic association, depending on the sulfate concentration. ANME-3 were concentrated in small aggregates without bacterial partners in a restricted sediment horizon below the first centimetres. These niche specificities and syntrophic behaviors, depending on biological surface assemblages and environmental availability of electron donors, acceptors and carbon substrates, suggest that ANME could support

  7. Adjustment of the basin-scale circulation at 26° N to variations in Gulf Stream, deep western boundary current and Ekman transports as observed by the Rapid array

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. A. Cunningham

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available The Rapid instrument array across the Atlantic Ocean along 26° N provides unprecedented monitoring of the basin-scale circulation. A unique feature of the Rapid array is the combination of full-depth moorings with instruments measuring temperature, salinity, pressure time series at many depths with co-located bottom pressure measurements so that dynamic pressure can be measured from surface to bottom. Bottom pressure measurements show a zonally uniform rise (and fall of bottom pressure of 0.015 dbar on a 5 to 10 day time scale, suggesting that the Atlantic basin is filling and draining on a short time scale. After removing the zonally uniform bottom pressure fluctuations, bottom pressure variations at 4000 m depth against the western boundary compensate instantaneously for baroclinic fluctuations in the strength and structure of the deep western boundary current so there is no basin-scale mass imbalance resulting from variations in the deep western boundary current. After removing the mass compensating bottom pressure, residual bottom pressure fluctuations at the western boundary just east of the Bahamas balance variations in Gulf Stream transport. Again the compensation appears to be especially confined close to the western boundary. Thus, fluctuations in either Gulf Stream or deep western boundary current transports are compensated in a depth independent (barotropic manner very close to the continental slope off the Bahamas. In contrast, compensation for variations in wind-driven surface Ekman transport appears to involve fluctuations in both western basin and eastern basin bottom pressures, though the bottom pressure difference fluctuations appear to be a factor of 3 too large, perhaps due to an inability to resolve small bottom pressure fluctuations after removal of larger zonal average, baroclinic, and Gulf Stream pressure components. For 4 tall moorings where time series dynamic height (geostrophic pressure profiles can be estimated from

  8. Geological Characteristics of Gas Accumulation Combination of Persian Khuff Formation in Gulf Basin%波斯湾盆地Khuff组成藏组合地质特征

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李浩武; 童晓光

    2012-01-01

    The combination of source rock, reservoir and cap rock in the Persian Khuff Formation is the most important gas accumulation combination in the Persian Gulf basin. Both Permian Khuff carbonate and interlayer anhydrite consist in the basic elements of gas accumulation combination of Persian Khuff Formation. The Silurian Qusaiba Formation hot shale is the source rock, with wide distribution, high TOC and moderate thermal maturity at late Craterous. The time of trap formation is earlier than that of hydrocarbon generation window,and many basement faults take vertically a good passageway for hydrocarbon migration from Qusaiba hot shale to Unayzah sandstone and the Unayzah sandstone make a lateral migration passageway. The cyclically deposited anhydrite and carbonates act the good cap rock and high quality reservoir. The Khuff Formation reservoir rocks with good original property are composed of oolite, pellete, hiodetritus packstone and grainstone,with good moldic pore and interparticle pore. The action of leaching and dolomitization greatly improved the reservoir pore at later stage. In most area, the faults do not make the cap rock loss the sealing, so little gas is lost. The potential area of gas exploration is in the overlay area of Qusaiba'Formation mature source rock and interlayer anhydrite, including West Arabian sub-basin, central- east part of Widyan-Mesopotamia sub-basin, northwest of Persian Gulf, and southern area of Ghawar oil field. It is paid more attention in the future to identify the big traps with low closure. Additionally,for the high economy limit of exploration and development in the Middle East, the production for small hydrocar- bon reservoirs need the support of high oil price.%Khuff组成藏组合是波斯湾盆地最重要的天然气成藏组合,二叠系Khuff组储层和层间硬石膏盖层构成了成藏组合的基本要素。下志留统Qusaiba段热页岩是Khuff组成藏组合的烃源岩,其分布广、有机质含量高,在晚

  9. La reforma laboral implementada durante el segundo gobierno de Alfonso López Pumarejo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Óliver Mora Toscano

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available En este artículo se estudian los elementos más relevantes de la reforma laboral propuesta y puesta en práctica por el presidente Alfonso López Pumarejo durante su segunda gestión de Gobierno. La reforma fue implementada fundamentalmente a través de la Ley 6ª de 1945. Los elementos más relevantes de la misma fueron la institucionalización y regulación de los movimientos obreros para que contribuyesen de esta forma a la estabilidad del crecimiento económico y el desarrollo empresarial pretendido en ese momento por el Estado colombiano, así como el reconocimiento de un conjunto de reivindicaciones y derechos a los trabajadores urbanos, que hicieron de esta reforma la más avanzada en Colombia en términos sociales durante el siglo XX.

  10. La doctrina sobre el poder del príncipe en Alfonso Hojeda de Mendoza

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    Salustiano de DIOS

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available RESUMEN: Alfonso Hojeda fue un notable canonista sevillano que en 1576 publicó en Venecia un libro acerca de los beneficios eclesiásticos. La obra se divide en dos partes: la primera está dedicada a argumentar en contra de la pluralidad de beneficios en una misma persona, de acuerdo con los decretos tridentinos de reforma, mientras la segunda trata en cambio de la compatibilidad de beneficios mediante dispensa papal. Los propios términos en que se manifiestan las dos partes ya están indicando las contradicciones en que ha de moverse el autor, difíciles de salvar. La doctrina de la causa es, además de la distinción entre órdenes normativos, la principal herramienta conciliatoria para Hojeda. El papa está desligado del derecho positivo o humano, pues de otro modo no podría dispensar, o privilegiar, mas sólo puede hacerlo con justa causa.ABSTRACT: Alfonso Hojeda de Mendoza was an outstanding canonist that in 1576 published a book in Venice on the eclesiástica benefits. The book is divided into two parts: the first one is devoted to argue against the plurality of benefits in the same person, according to Trento's decrees, while the second one deals, however, with the compatibility of benefits by the Pope's dispense. The own terms in which both parts are expressed reveal the contradictions, in which the author must move, always difficult to avoid. The doctrine of the cause, as well as the distinction among normative orders, is the main conciliatory tool for Hojeda. The Pope is unlinked to human or positive right, otherwise he could not dispense or privilege, however he can only do it for a just cause.

  11. Water Masses and the Thermohaline Circulation at the Entrance to the Gulf of California

    Science.gov (United States)

    1993-09-01

    depressions to Delfin Basin. Then, as the surface waters of the northern Gulf (CDW) cool in the winter, thus increasing their 11 density above that of the...conduit for inflow of CGW into the northern Gulf is through the channel connecting Wagner Basin, via depressions to Delfin Basin. Then, as the surface

  12. O Rei e a Lei. Algumas reflexões em torno das obras jurídicas de Alfonso X / The king and the Law. Some reflections around the legal works of Alfonso X

    OpenAIRE

    Pisnitchenko, Olga; Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais

    2015-01-01

    O Artigo propõe uma analise das três obras legislativas de Alfonso X, Fuero, Real, Especulo e Siete Partidas. Levando em conta o debate historiográfico em torno da realeza, do direito medieval e das obras jurídicas alfonsinas, identificamos, na representação do rei como vigário de Deus nos códigos de Alfonso X, uma afirmação da concepção da realeza centrada na lei. Ao ser cabeça do corpo político, o monarca é apresentado na legislação alfonsina ao mesmo tempo como juiz e legislador supremo. N...

  13. Award for Distinguished Senior Career Contributions to Psychology in the Public Interest: José Toro-Alfonso.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-11-01

    The APA Awards for Distinguished Contributions to Psychology in the Public Interest recognize persons who have advanced psychology as a science and/or profession by a single extraordinary achievement or a lifetime of outstanding contributions in the public interest. The 2016 corecipient of the Award for Distinguished Senior Career Contributions to Psychology in the Public Interest is José Toro-Alfonso, who was posthumously given this award for his commitment to "issues of inequity, diversity, and to the alleviation of human suffering particularly among Latino/Latina and LGBTQ communities." He "pioneered HIV/AIDS-related services for youth, women, gay, and transgender populations," and Toro-Alfonso's award citation, biography, and a selected bibliography are presented here. (PsycINFO Database Record

  14. Mito, identidad y poestética en Carmen la de Ronda (1959, una idea de Alfonso Sastre

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    García-Abad García, M.ª Teresa

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available The study of the movie Carmen la de Ronda (Tulio Demicheli, 1959 reveals the dysfunctions promoted between Alfonso Sastre’s idea in its origin and the final dissolution of a myth that hide surprising paradoxes; a crossed complex capable of revealing the misunderstandings originated by the interaction between production and reception in cultural appliances.A través del estudio de la película Carmen la de Ronda (Tulio Demicheli, 1959 se plantean las disfunciones promovidas entre la idea de Alfonso Sastre que le sirve de origen y la disolución final de un mito por el que transitar la más abierta paradoja; un complejo recorrido capaz de revelar los desencuentros originados por la interacción entre la producción y la recepción de los artefactos culturales.

  15. El caballero : análisis comparativo entre "Las Partidas" de Alfonso X y "El Quijote" de Cervantes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María José Hernando Garicochea

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Este trabajo intenta llevar a cabo una comparación entre «Las Partidas» alfonsinas y «El Quijote» de Cervantes con el propósito de analizar los cambios producidos en el ideal caballeresco entre la Edad Media y la época barroca. Expone la realidad de un tópico, «el honor del caballero» que reglamentado por Alfonso X. llega a ser respetado en tiempos de Reconquista y pasa a ser objeto de crítica y mofa en la obra cumbre del barroco español como ejemplo moralizante.This paper tries to compare «Las Partidas» of Alfonso X and «El Quijote» of Cervantes, with the purpose of analyzing the changes produced in the knightly ideal, from the Middle Ages to the Baroque period. It shows the real situation of a commonplace, «the knight's honour», which was regulated by Alfonso X and, having been respected during the Reconquest period, it is then subject to criticism and mockery in the masterpiece of the Spanish Baroque period, as a moralizing example.

  16. Texto e imagen en España de sol a sol de Alfonso Armada

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Champeau, Geneviève

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available España de sol a sol (2001 by Alfonso Armada gives an example of the development of the «travel narrative» genre in Spain today. Faced with the «end of travel» (Marc Augé, he proposes a renovation of the perception of the familiar by travelling across Spain and Portugal and by substituting «endotic» (Georges Pérec for exotic.The poetics in the narrative differs greatly from that by travelling writers of «social realism», in the Spain of the sixties. Interpretation replaces information, the poetic image prevails over the referential function of language, and polysemy, omnipresent intertexuality and metatextuality play an important part. The change also affects the links between text and image, which are now more complementary than redundant. Playing with stereotypes, the photography actively contributes to establishing argumentative strategies meant to make the reader-viewer adhere to the message, all while affirming itself as an autonomous aesthetic experience.España de sol a sol (2001 de Alfonso Armada proporciona una muestra de la evolución del género del «libro de viajes» en la España contemporánea. Ante la imposibilidad del viaje (Marc Augé, propone renovar la percepción de lo familiar recorriendo el espacio nacional y sustituyendo el «endotismo» (Georges Pérec al exotismo. La poética del viaje que propone el relato difiere profundamente de la de los escritores viajeros del «realismo social», en la España de los años sesenta, anteponiendo la interpretación a la información, la imagen poética a la función referencial del lenguaje, cultivando la polisemia, una intertextualidad masiva y una reflexión metatextual. Distintos son también los vínculos que se establecen entre texto e imagen, de complementariedad más que de redundancia. La fotografía participa activamente, por la reelaboración de tópicos, del dispositivo argumentativo destinado a favorecer la adhesión del lector-espectador al mensaje y se afirma

  17. Alfonso W. Quiroz. Historia de la corrupción en el Perú.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Joaquín Pinto Bernal

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Más que un libro, el trabajo de Quiroz constituye un verdadero testamento intelectual, la culminación de una obra pletórica de incontables aportes para la historiografía latinoamericana, en la que se destacan trabajos como Deudas olvidadas: instrumentos de crédito en la economía colonial peruana 1750-1820 y La deuda defraudada: consolidación de 1850 y dominio económico en el Perú, investigaciones que han servido de inspiración para la labor de académicos que aún consideran que la historia tiene un papel primordial en el análisis del presente y la construcción de un porvenir más justo, y no como una disciplina retorica de la contemplación pasiva de las bondades de un pasado repleto de artefactos y lenguajes o discursos idílicos. Fiel a su legado y tradición, Alfonso Quiroz, poco antes de morir, nos ha legado no solo un libro, sino la obligación moral de efectuar ejercicios similares en el conjunto de los países latinoamericanos azotados por el flagelo de la inequidad, alimentada por la corrupción rampante.

  18. José Miguel Jiménez receives Order of Alfonso X the Wise

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN Bulletin

    2016-01-01

    On 12 July 2016, José Miguel Jiménez, Head of CERN Technology Department, has been awarded a spanish civil decoration — an encomienda — of the Order of Alfonso X the Wise (see here), for his outstanding experience in the field of research and scientific management in particle physics.   The ceremony took place at the National Library of Spain, in Madrid, on 12 July. From left: Marcial Marín Hellín, Secretary of State for Education, Professional training and Universities; José María Lassalle Ruiz, Secretary of State for Culture; Íñigo Méndez de Vigo y Montojo, Ministry of Education, Culture and Sport; José Miguel Jiménez, Head of CERN Technology Department; Carmen Vela Olmo, Secretary of State for Investigation, Development and Innovation. (Photo: ©Javier Martínez de la Torre, M...

  19. From Founding Father to Pious Son: Filiation, Language, and Royal Inheritance in Alfonso X, the Learned

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ryan Szpiech

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The influence of King Alfonso X of Castile (reg. 1252–1284 has been so wide that modern historians have stressed Alfonso’s foundational role as a ‘father’ of many Castilian cultural institutions and areas of writing, including prose literature, science, the legal code, and vernacular historiography. This paper argues that the modern focus on Alfonso’s foundational, ‘fatherly’ role, while logical in the context of modern literary historiography, is at odds with Alfonso’s own medieval view of himself as a ‘son’ and heir, one who inherited rather than founded cultural institutions. It proposes that a reorientation of Alfonsine studies according to this medieval worldview, one focused less on Alfonso’s innovations and foundations and more on his continuty with and dependance on his forebears, will permit a clearer portrayal of Alfonso’s importance in medieval literary history. To this end, it explores Aflonso’s representation of himself as the ‘son’ of his father, King Fernando III, in the prologues to his scientific translations, in his encomium of his father known as the Setenario, and in song 292 of his Cantigas de Santa María. A reading of these examples is offered as a first step towards the study of filiation and ‘sonship’ in the vast Alfonsine historiographical and legal corpuses.

  20. Escape tectonism in the Gulf of Thailand: Paleogene left-lateral pull-apart rifting in the Vietnamese part of the Malay Basin

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fyhn, Michael B.W.; Boldreel, Lars Ole; Nielsen, Lars H

    2010-01-01

    . The Vietnamese part of the Malay Basin comprises a large and deep Paleogene pull-apart basin formed through Middle or Late Eocene to Oligocene left-lateral strike-slip along NNW-trending fault zones. The Tho Chu Fault Zone constitutes a significant Paleogene left-lateral strike-slip zone most likely associated...... to distribute sinistral shearing cross the width of the basin. Extensive thermal sagging throughout the Neogene has led to the accommodation of a very thick sedimentary succession. Moderate rifting resumed during the Early Miocene following older structural fabric. The intensity of rifting increases towards...

  1. Petroleum distribution rules and controlling factor analysis of Gulf of Mexico Basin%墨西哥湾盆地油气分布规律及成藏主控因素分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘延莉; 徐向华

    2014-01-01

    墨西哥湾盆地属裂谷与被动大陆边缘叠加的复合型盆地,盆地经历了3个演化阶段。在研究墨西哥湾盆地形成演化的基础上,分析油气分布规律。油气藏主要发育于被动陆缘期,盆地内共有5套成藏组合,常规油气与非常规油气并存,其中常规油气主要有3个成藏组合,具有由陆向海依次为侏罗-白垩系成藏组合、古近系成藏组合、新近系成藏组合;其成藏主控因素为进积、盐和砂体。非常规油气目前发现2套成藏组合:Eagle ford和Haynesvil-bossier页岩油气带,均位于陆上;成藏主控因素主要为有机质丰度和热演化程度。%The Gulf of Mexico Basin is a composite basin with passive continental margins superimposing on rift basin. The basin has experienced 3 evolution stages. Based on the research of basin formation and evolution, the distribution rules of oil and gas were analyzed. Oil and gas mainly developed during the passive margin period. There are 5 sets of oil and gas plays including the conventional and unconventional petroleum. The 3 main con-ventional oil and gas plays are located following seaward direction, which include the Jurassic-Cretaceous play, the Paleogene play and the Neogene play, from onshore to offshore. The main controlling factors are prograda-tion, salt and sand distribution. The 2 unconventional oil and gas plays include the Eagle ford and the Haynesvill-bossier shale belt, both locating onshore. The main controlling factors are organic matter abundance and thermal evolution.

  2. Limit of Salt in the Gulf Coast [saltlimitg

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The data provides the approximate limit of Middle Jurassic salt from Plate 2, Principal structural features, Gulf of Mexico Basin (compiled by T.E. Ewing and R.F....

  3. El linaje maldito de Alfonso X. Conflictos en torno a la legitimidad regia en Castilla (c. 1275-1390)

    OpenAIRE

    2013-01-01

    La controvertida sucesión de Alfonso X puso en duda la legitimidad de sus descendientes, quienes vieron su posición cuestionada. Los conflictos en torno a la misma se prolongaron durante mucho tiempo, hasta el punto de que, en 1386, Juan I justificó sus derechos al trono a través de su parentesco con los infantes de la Cerda, al considerar que habían sido injustamente desposeídos de la corona un siglo antes. Un recorrido por los acontecimientos acaecidos en este período permitirá analizar con...

  4. Resource Assessment of the In-Place and Potentially Recoverable Deep Natural Gas Resource of the Onshore Interior Salt Basins, North Central and Northeastern Gulf of Mexico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ernest A. Mancini; Paul Aharon; Donald A. Goddard; Roger Barnaby

    2006-04-26

    The principal research effort for the first half of Year 3 of the project has been resource assessment. Emphasis has been on estimating the total volume of hydrocarbons generated and the potential amount of this resource that is classified as deep (>15,000 ft) gas in the North Louisiana Salt Basin, the Mississippi Interior Salt Basin, the Manila Subbasin and the Conecuh Subbasin. The amount of this resource that has been expelled, migrated and entrapped is also the focus of the first half of Year 3 of this study.

  5. Palaeoenvironmental and biostratigraphic implications of microbial mat-related structures:Examples from the modern Gulf of Cambay and the Precambrian Vindhyan Basin,India

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Santanu; Banerjee; Subir; Sarkar; Patrick; G.Eriksson

    2014-01-01

    A stretch of the modern hypersaline coastal plain of the Gulf of Cambay was chosen to examine the distribution of the microbial mat-related structures(MRS) on siliciclastic sediments in the intertidal and supratidal zones.The abundance of MRS increases from the lower intertidal zone to the upper supratidal zone while the type of MRS records a systematic change.While the lower intertidal zone exhibits wrinkle structures,sieve-like surfaces and patchy ripples in places,the upper intertidal zone exhibits diverse MRS related to reduced current activity on the mat layer and intermittent exposure.MRS in the upper intertidal zone include wrinkle structures,sieve-like surfaces,gas domes,reticulated surfaces,multi-directional ripples,patchy ripples,rolled-up mat fragments,setulfs and occasional petee ridges and cracked mat surfaces.The lower supratidal zone is characterized by increased occurrence of petee ridges,gas domes and cracked mat surfaces compared to the upper intertidal zone.The upper supratidal zone is distinguished by the presence of abundant cracked mat surfaces,petee ridges,gas domes and wrinkle structures.The presence of cm-scale,disc-shaped microbial colonies(DMC) with a variety of internal structures is a unique feature of the Gulf of Cambay study area.While wrinkle structures occur in all the coastal zones,setulfs occur close to the boundary between the upper intertidal and lower supratidal zones.An attempt has been made to compare the distribution of MRS in this modern environment with those in the ~1.6 Ga Chorhat Sandstone of the Vindhyan Supergroup for high-resolution palaeoenvironmental interpretation.The upper part of the intertidal segment of the Chorhat Sandstone is distinguished from its lower part by the presence of abundant cracked mat surfaces,petee ridges and gas domes in the former,while wrinkle structures,Kinneyia,rolled-up mat fragments,patchy ripples and multi-directional ripples are equally abundant in both parts.The lower part of the

  6. Palaeoenvironmental and biostratigraphic implications of microbial mat-related structures:Examples from the modern Gulf of Cambay and the Precambrian Vindhyan Basin, India

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Santanu Banerjee; Subir Sarkar; Patrick GEriksson

    2014-01-01

    A stretch of the modern hypersaline coastal plain of the Gulf of Cambay was cho-sen to examine the distribution of the microbial mat-related structures (MRS) on siliciclastic sed-iments in the intertidal and supratidal zones. The abundance of MRS increases from the lower intertidal zone to the upper supratidal zone while the type of MRS records a systematic change. While the lower intertidal zone exhibits wrinkle structures, sieve-like surfaces and patchy rip-ples in places, the upper intertidal zone exhibits diverse MRS related to reduced current activity on the mat layer and intermittent exposure. MRS in the upper intertidal zone include wrinkle structures, sieve-like surfaces, gas domes, reticulated surfaces, multi-directional ripples, patchy ripples, rolled-up mat fragments, setulfs and occasional petee ridges and cracked mat surfaces. The lower supratidal zone is characterized by increased occurrence of petee ridges, gas domes and cracked mat surfaces compared to the upper intertidal zone. The upper supratidal zone is distinguished by the presence of abundant cracked mat surfaces, petee ridges, gas domes and wrinkle structures. The presence of cm-scale, disc-shaped microbial colonies (DMC) with a variety of internal structures is a unique feature of the Gulf of Cambay study area. While wrinkle structures occur in all the coastal zones, setulfs occur close to the boundary between the upper intertidal and lower supratidal zones. An attempt has been made to compare the distribution of MRS in this modern environment with those in the ~1.6 Ga Chorhat Sandstone of the Vindhyan Supergroup for high-resolution palaeoenvironmental interpretation. The upper part of the inter-tidal segment of the Chorhat Sandstone is distinguished from its lower part by the presence of abundant cracked mat surfaces, petee ridges and gas domes in the former, while wrinkle struc-tures,Kinneyia, rolled-up mat fragments, patchy ripples and multi-directional ripples are equally abundant in

  7. El mito de Orestes en Les mouches de Jean-Paul Sartre y El pan de todos de Alfonso Sastre: La necesidad de la acción

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Rovecchio Antón L.

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available ENIn Les mouches and El pan de todos, Jean-Paul Sartre and Alfonso Sastre speak about the mythological figure of Orestes to reveal the problems of their society. In this article I will focus on the analysis of these two plays and, more specifically, the question of the necessity of the action, which is closely linked with human freedom. A freedom based on choosing a way that leads to direct action or passivity. A choice that, in turn, becomes the essence of human being.Keywords: Jean-Paul Sartre, Alfonso Sastre, Orestes, freedom, action.  ESEn Les mouches y El pan de todos, Jean-Paul Sartre y Alfonso Sastre discurren sobre la figura mitológica de Orestes para revelarnos los problemas de la sociedad que les rodea. En este artículo me centraré en el análisis de estas dos piezas teatrales y, más concretamente, en la cuestión de la necesidad de la acción, que está íntimamente ligada con la libertad del hombre. Una libertad que se basa en la elección de un camino que lleva a la actuación directa o a la pasividad. Una elección que, a su vez, se convierte en la esencia del ser humano.Palabras claves: Jean-Paul Sartre, Alfonso Sastre, Orestes, libertad, acción.

  8. Fault Zones in the Gulf Coast [gcfltzoneg

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — These data represent major fault zones as indicated on Plate 2, Principal structural features, Gulf of Mexico Basin (compiled by T.E. Ewing and R.F. Lopez) in volume...

  9. Faults in the Gulf Coast [gcfaultsg

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — These mapped faults are modified from Plate 2, Principal structural features, Gulf of Mexico Basin (compiled by T.E. Ewing and R.F. Lopez) in Volume J, The Geology...

  10. Salt Diapirs in the Gulf Coast [gcdiapirg

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — Locations and shapes of salt diapirs were modified after the New Orleans Geological Society map, Salt tectonism of the U.S. Gulf Coast Basin (compiled by J.A. Lopez,...

  11. 墨西哥湾盆地深水区油气分布特征及勘探潜力%Distribution features and exploration potential of oil and gas in a deepwater area of the Gulf of Mexico Basin

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    韩彧; 黄娟; 赵雯

    2015-01-01

    通过分析墨西哥湾盆地油气资源勘探现状、油气地质特征,及与油气成藏密切相关的盐岩形成、演化和分布特征,进一步认识到墨西哥湾盆地上侏罗统牛津阶—第四系更新统发育了4套优质烃源岩和多套性能优越的储集层,封堵性能良好的局部和区域盖层遍布整个新生界层系,断层提供了运移通道,构造和地层圈闭发育,具有优越的生储盖等油气成藏条件。盆内中侏罗统发育一套广泛分布的厚层盐岩,很多大型油气藏均与该盐岩相关。盐上和盐下储层中均有可观的油气发现,随着油气勘探理论和技术的进步,盐下油气藏的潜力逐渐显现出来,勘探潜力很大。%The hydrocarbon exploration conditions and geologic features of the Gulf of Mexico Basin were studied, and the formation, evolution and distribution of salt deposits which were closely related to the reservoirs were analyzed. From the Oxfordian Stage of the Upper Jurassic to the Pleistocene Series of the Quaternary, four sets of excellent hydrocarbon source rocks and various favorable reservoirs developed. Effective sealing formations were widespread in the Cenozoic. Faults provided pathways for hydrocarbon migration. Structural and stratigraphic traps were common. All these contributed to the generation and preservation of hydrocarbon. Thick salt deposits were widespread in the Middle Jurassic of the basin, which had a close relationship with giant oil and gas pools. Major discoveries have been made in both pre⁃salt and post⁃salt formations. As petroleum exploration theory and technique advanced, the pre⁃salt formations in the deepwater area of the basin attracted more attention and showed good potential.

  12. El asta de la lanza: los mecanismos de financiación de la guerra durante el reinado de Alfonso XI (1312-1350

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agrait, Nicolás

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available To understand how it was possible for Alfonso XI to triumph militarily over his enemies, it is not enough to look at his courage, leadership and military strategies and tactics. One also has to study in depth the mechanisms he used to cover the high costs of his multiple campaigns and ordinary defense costs. In addition to the Crown’s regular fiscal resources and those taxes specifically related to warfare, Alfonso came to depend more and more on extraordinary levies, like monedas foreras, servicios, alcabalas, the temporary suspension of fiscal exemptions at the local level, the wealth of the Church, loans, and the sale of parts of the royal patrimony. These financial mechanisms opened up new sources of revenue to feed his military ambitions and truly constituted one of the most fundamental reasons for Alfonso’s success as a monarch and commander.

    Para entender cómo fue posible el triunfo militar de Alfonso XI sobre sus enemigos hay que mirar más allá de su valor, liderazgo y estrategias y tácticas bélicas, y estudiar a fondo los mecanismos que utilizó para sufragar los elevados costes de sus múltiples campañas y los gastos de defensa ordinarios. Además de utilizar los recursos fiscales de la Corona y los tributos tradicionales relacionados a la guerra, Alfonso dependió, cada vez más, de impuestos extraordinarios, como monedas foreras, servicios, alcabalas, la suspensión temporal de exenciones fiscales a nivel local, recursos monetarios eclesiásticos, empréstitos, y ventas de patrimonio real. Estos mecanismos financieros abrieron nuevas fuentes de ingreso para financiar sus ambiciones militares y realmente constituyeron una de las razones fundamentales del éxito de Alfonso como monarca y comandante militar.

  13. Modeling the Gulf Stream System: How Far from Reality?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choa, Yi; Gangopadhyay, Avijit; Bryan, Frank O.; Holland, William R.

    1996-01-01

    Analyses of a primitive equation ocean model simulation of the Atlantic Ocean circulation at 1/6 deg horizontal resolution are presented with a focus on the Gulf Stream region. Among many successful features of this simulation, this letter describes the Gulf Stream separation from the coast of North America near Cape Hatteras, meandering of the Gulf Stream between Cape Hatteras and the Grand Banks, and the vertical structure of temperature and velocity associated with the Gulf Stream. These results demonstrate significant improvement in modeling the Gulf Stream system using basin- to global scale ocean general circulation models. Possible reasons responsible for the realistic Gulf Stream simulation are discussed, contrasting the major differences between the present model configuration and those of previous eddy resolving studies.

  14. Three decadal inputs of total organic carbon from four major coastal river basins to the summer hypoxic zone of the Northern Gulf of Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Songjie; Xu, Y Jun

    2015-01-15

    This study investigated long-term (1980-2009) yields and variability of total organic carbon (TOC) from four major coastal rivers in Louisiana entering the Northern Gulf of Mexico where a large-area summer hypoxic zone has been occurring since the middle 1980s. Two of these rivers drain agriculture-intensive (>40%) watersheds, while the other two rivers drain forest-pasture dominated (>50%) watersheds. The study found that these rivers discharged a total of 13.0×10(4)t TOC annually, fluctuating from 5.9×10(4) to 22.8×10(4)t. Seasonally, the rivers showed high TOC yield during the winter and early spring months, corresponding to the seasonal trend of river discharge. While river hydrology controlled TOC yields, land use has played an important role in fluxes, seasonal variations, and characteristics of TOC. The findings fill in a critical information gap of quantity and quality of organic carbon transport from coastal watersheds to one of the world's largest summer hypoxic zones.

  15. Reporting the first 3 years of 225-GHz opacity measurements at the site of the Large Millimeter Telescope Alfonso Serrano

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeballos, M.; Ferrusca, D.; Contreras R., J.; Hughes, D. H.

    2016-07-01

    The Large Millimeter Telescope Alfonso Serrano (LMT) is located in Puebla, Mexico, at an altitude of 4580 m. It is currently the largest single-dish telescope constructed to observe the Universe at wavelengths between 0.85 and 4 mm. Identifying interstellar molecules, exploring dense dark clouds, and understanding the properties of cold matter and interstellar dust in the local and distant Universe are among its main scientific goals. Since June 2013, the LMT has conducted four shared-risk early science campaigns* observing at 1.1 mm (AzTEC), and 3 mm (RSR) with the aid of a new meteorological and radiometer system to guide the flexibility scheduling of observing time. Here we report measurements of the atmospheric opacity taken with this radiometer at 225 GHz between June 2013 and April 2016. These measurements show that the LMT site has exceptional weather conditions with opacities season, making it a very convenient site for sub-millimeter/millimeter astronomy.

  16. Basin Analysis of the Mississippi Interior Salt Basin and Petroleum System Modeling of the Jurassic Smackover Formation, Eastern Gulf Coastal Plain, Final Report and Topical Reports 5-8 on Smackover Petroleum system and Underdevelopment Reservoirs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mancini, Ernest A.; Puckett, T. Markham; Parcell, William C.; Llinas, Juan Carlos; Kopaska-Merkel, David C.; Townsend, Roger N.

    2002-03-05

    The Smackover Formation, a major hydrocarbon-producing horizon in the Mississippi Interior Salt Basin (MISB), conformably overlies the Norphlet Formation and is conformably overlain by the Buckner Anhydrite Member of the Haynesville Formation. The Norphlet-Smackover contact can be either gradational or abrupt. The thickness and lithofacies distribution of the Smackover Formation were controlled by the configuration of incipient paleotopography. The Smackover Formation has been subdivided into three informal members, referred to as the lower, middle and upper members.

  17. Cultura e política: José Vasconcelos e Alfonso Reyes no Brasil (1922-1938

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Regina Aída Crespo

    2003-07-01

    Full Text Available De 1922 a 1938, as relações culturais entre o México e o Brasil conheceram um momento particularmente fecundo, devido em grande parte à atuação de dois intelectuais mexicanos: José Vasconcelos e Alfonso Reyes. A ausência de uma tradição de intercâmbio cultural entre o México e o Brasil fez do âmbito diplomático um espaço fundamental para a aproximação entre os dois países. Como representantes do governo mexicano - e transitando entre as fronteiras muitas vezes difusas da cultura e da política -, Vasconcelos, em 1922, e Reyes, de 1930 a 1938, estabeleceram uma ampla rede de contatos com intelectuais brasileiros e conseguiram fazer do México uma referência cultural e política importante no Brasil, durante o período.From 1922 to 1938, cultural relations between Mexico and Brazil had a particularly rich moment basically due to two Mexican intellectuals: José Vasconcelos and Alfonso Reyes. There was no tradition of cultural interchange between Mexico and Brazil; so the diplomatic sphere was transformed into a fundamental space for the approximation between these two countries. As representatives of the Mexican government - traveling between the frequently diffuse boundaries of culture and politics - Vasconcelos, in 1922, and Reyes, from 1930 to 1938, established a wide network of contacts with Brazilian intellectuals and managed to make Mexico an important cultural reference in Brazil, during that period.

  18. Un paso de América: Alfonso Reyes, Victoria Ocampo y el cosmopolitismo en la década de 1930 / Un paso de América: Alfonso Reyes, Victoria Ocampo and the Cosmopolitanism in the 1930’s

    OpenAIRE

    2014-01-01

    El artículo trata de las construcciones americanistas del cosmopolitismo (entendido en relación a la geopolítica imperial) en los textos de Victoria Ocampo y Alfonso Reyes de los años treinta. Al analizar su relación con los movimientos de inmigración y la subsiguiente revalorización de la nación, el artículo postula que en Alfonso Reyes la mediación cosmopolita es «des-jerarquizada», ubicada casi siempre en una «periferia», a diferencia de Victoria Ocampo cuyas visiones cosmopolitas son medi...

  19. Coastal fisheries in the Eastern Baltic Sea (Gulf of Finland and its basin from the 15 to the Early 20th centuries.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julia Lajus

    Full Text Available The paper describes and analyzes original data, extracted from historical documents and scientific surveys, related to Russian fisheries in the southeastern part of the Gulf of Finland and its inflowing rivers during the 15- early 20(th centuries. The data allow tracing key trends in fisheries development and in the abundance of major commercial species. In particular, results showed that, over time, the main fishing areas moved from the middle part of rivers downstream towards and onto the coastal sea. Changes in fishing patterns were closely interrelated with changes in the abundance of exploited fish. Anadromous species, such as Atlantic sturgeon, Atlantic salmon, brown trout, whitefish, vimba bream, smelt, lamprey, and catadromous eel were the most important commercial fish in the area because they were abundant, had high commercial value and were easily available for fishing in rivers. Due to intensive exploitation and other human-induced factors, populations of most of these species had declined notably by the early 20(th century and have now lost commercial significance. The last sturgeon was caught in 1996, and today only smelt and lamprey support small commercial fisheries. According to historical sources, catches of freshwater species such as roach, ide, pike, perch, ruffe and burbot regularly occurred, in some areas exceeding half of the total catch, but they were not as important as migrating fish and no clear trends in abundance are apparent. Of documented marine catch, Baltic herring appeared in the 16(th century, but did not become commercially significant until the 19(th century. From then until now herring have been the dominant catch.

  20. Coastal fisheries in the Eastern Baltic Sea (Gulf of Finland) and its basin from the 15 to the Early 20th centuries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lajus, Julia; Kraikovski, Alexei; Lajus, Dmitry

    2013-01-01

    The paper describes and analyzes original data, extracted from historical documents and scientific surveys, related to Russian fisheries in the southeastern part of the Gulf of Finland and its inflowing rivers during the 15- early 20(th) centuries. The data allow tracing key trends in fisheries development and in the abundance of major commercial species. In particular, results showed that, over time, the main fishing areas moved from the middle part of rivers downstream towards and onto the coastal sea. Changes in fishing patterns were closely interrelated with changes in the abundance of exploited fish. Anadromous species, such as Atlantic sturgeon, Atlantic salmon, brown trout, whitefish, vimba bream, smelt, lamprey, and catadromous eel were the most important commercial fish in the area because they were abundant, had high commercial value and were easily available for fishing in rivers. Due to intensive exploitation and other human-induced factors, populations of most of these species had declined notably by the early 20(th) century and have now lost commercial significance. The last sturgeon was caught in 1996, and today only smelt and lamprey support small commercial fisheries. According to historical sources, catches of freshwater species such as roach, ide, pike, perch, ruffe and burbot regularly occurred, in some areas exceeding half of the total catch, but they were not as important as migrating fish and no clear trends in abundance are apparent. Of documented marine catch, Baltic herring appeared in the 16(th) century, but did not become commercially significant until the 19(th) century. From then until now herring have been the dominant catch.

  1. Gulf War

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dalgaard-Nielsen, Anja

    2003-01-01

    As it became a non‐permanent member of the UN Security Council in January 2003, Germany stepped up its opposition to war with Iraq. The stage was set for a repeat of Germany's uncomfortable position during the 1991 Gulf War. At that time, as most of Germany's allies rallied behind Washington......, Germany made only financial contributions, and hundreds of thousands of Germans took to the streets to protest against the war. Yet, since 1991, Germany had come a long way in its attitudes towards military force. From a policy of complete abstention from military deployments beyond NATO's area (so...

  2. Risking basin analysis: Procedures, methods and case studies in the Arctic National Wildlife Refuge, Alaska, and the Gulf of Mexico, Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rocha Legorreta, Francisco Javier

    Integrated basin analysis was conducted using a state-of-the-art code developed for Excel, interfacing with the Monte Carlo risking program Crystal BallRTM with the purpose to perform a total uncertainty analysis that can be done with as many uncertain inputs as required and as many outputs of interest as needed without increasing the computer time involved. Two main examples using the code are described: the first one uses synthetic information and the second example uses real but minimal information from the Arctic National Wildlife Refuge (ANWR) Area 1002 (undeformed area Brookian Sequence), Alaska, USA. In both examples, the code serves to identify which parameters in the input (ranging from uncertain data, uncertain thermal history, uncertain permeability, uncertain fracture coefficients for rocks, uncertain geochemistry kinetics, uncertain kerogen amounts and types per formation, through to uncertain volumetric factors) are causing the greatest contributions to the uncertainty in any of the selected outputs. Relative importance, relative contribution and relative sensitivity are examined to illustrate when individual parameters need to have their ranges of uncertainty narrowed in order to reduce the range of uncertainty of particular outputs. Relevant results from the ANWR case of study revealed that forecasts for oil available charge gave around 2.3 Bbbl; for gas the maximum charge available reached is 46 Bm3 . These ranges, in comparison with previous assessments, are quite different due to the group of variables used being influenced basically by the input data, the equation parameter and intrinsic assumptions. As part of the future research, the third section of this work describes the actual and future prospective areas for gas in the Mexican Basins. The main point here is to identify the advances and the important role of the Mexican gas industry as part of a future strategic investment opportunity.

  3. Variations in the chemical and stable isotope composition of carbon and sulfur species during organic-rich sediment alteration: An experimental and theoretical study of hydrothermal activity at guaymas basin, gulf of california

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seewald, Jeffrey S.; Seyfried, William E., Jr.; Shanks, Wayne C., III

    1994-11-01

    Organic-rich diatomaceous ooze was reacted with seawater and a Na-Ca-K-Cl fluid of seawater chlorinity at 325-400°C, 400-500 bars, and fluid/sediment mass ratios of 1.56-2.35 to constrain factors regulating the abundance and stable isotope composition of C and S species during hydrothermal alteration of sediment from Guaymas Basin, Gulf of California. Alteration of inorganic and organic sedimentary components resulted in extensive exchange reactions, the release of abundant H 2S, CO 2, CH 4, and C organic, to solution, and recrystallization of the sediment to an assemblage containing albitic plagioclase, quartz, pyrrhotite, and calcite. The δ 34S cdt values of dissolved H 2S varied from -10.9 to +4.3‰ during seawater-sediment interaction at 325 and 400°C and from -16.5 to -9.0‰ during Na-Ca-K-Cl fluid-sediment interaction at 325 and 375°C. In the absence of seawater SO 4, H 2S is derived from both the transformation of pyrite to pyrrhotite and S released during the degradation of organic matter. In the presence of seawater SO 4, reduction of SO 4 contributes directly to H 2S production. Sedimentary organic matter acts as the reducing agent during pyrite and SO 4 reduction. Requisite acidity for the reduction of SO 4 is provided by Mg fixation during early-stage sediment alteration and by albite and calcite formation in Mg-free solutions. Organically derived CH 4 was characterized by δ 13C pdb values ranging between -20.8 and -23.1‰, whereas δ 13C pdb values for dissolved C organic ranged between -14.8 and -17.7%. Mass balance calculations indicate that δ13C values for organically derived CO 2 were ≥ - 14.8%. Residual solid sedimentary organic C showed small (≤ 0.7‰) depletions in 13C relative to the starting sediment. The experimental results are consistent with the isotopic and chemical composition of natural hydrothermal fluids and minerals at Guaymas Basin and permit us to better constrain sources and sinks for C and S species in subseafloor

  4. Variations in the chemical and stable isotope composition of carbon and sulfur species during organic-rich sediment alteration: An experimental and theoretical study of hydrothermal activity at guaymas basin, gulf of california

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seewald, Jeffrey S.; Seyfried, W.E.; Shanks, Wayne C.

    1994-01-01

    Organic-rich diatomaceous ooze was reacted with seawater and a Na-Ca-K-Cl fluid of seawater chlorinity at 325-400??C, 400-500 bars, and fluid/sediment mass ratios of 1.56-2.35 to constrain factors regulating the abundance and stable isotope composition of C and S species during hydrothermal alteration of sediment from Guaymas Basin, Gulf of California. Alteration of inorganic and organic sedimentary components resulted in extensive exchange reactions, the release of abundant H2S, CO2, CH4, and Corganic, to solution, and recrystallization of the sediment to an assemblage containing albitic plagioclase, quartz, pyrrhotite, and calcite. The ??34Scdt values of dissolved H2S varied from -10.9 to +4.3??? during seawater-sediment interaction at 325 and 400??C and from -16.5 to -9.0??? during Na-Ca-K-Cl fluid-sediment interaction at 325 and 375??C. In the absence of seawater SO4, H2S is derived from both the transformation of pyrite to pyrrhotite and S released during the degradation of organic matter. In the presence of seawater SO4, reduction of SO4 contributes directly to H2S production. Sedimentary organic matter acts as the reducing agent during pyrite and SO4 reduction. Requisite acidity for the reduction of SO4 is provided by Mg fixation during early-stage sediment alteration and by albite and calcite formation in Mg-free solutions. Organically derived CH4 was characterized by ??13Cpdb values ranging between -20.8 and -23.1???, whereas ??13Cpdb values for dissolved Corganic ranged between -14.8 and -17.7%. Mass balance calculations indicate that ??13C values for organically derived CO2 were ??? - 14.8%. Residual solid sedimentary organic C showed small (??? 0.7???) depletions in 13C relative to the starting sediment. The experimental results are consistent with the isotopic and chemical composition of natural hydrothermal fluids and minerals at Guaymas Basin and permit us to better constrain sources and sinks for C and S species in subseafloor hydrothermal systems

  5. 渤海湾沙北地区盆地结构构造及其演化分析%Structure and Evolution Analyses of the Shabei Area of Bohai Gulf Basin

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈树光; 任建业; 辛云路; 张建丽; 吴峰

    2015-01-01

    本文以覆盖全区的3D 地震和钻井资料为基础,追踪并闭合了盆内重要的层序界面,精细解释了盆内主要构造和地震反射特征,新识别出了中生代逆冲构造体系,包括逆冲反转构造和逆冲未反转构造两种型式,它们分别形成了中生代的半地堑盆地和古潜山。分析了新生代不同时期盆地结构构造特征和古构造格架,发现在E2s3-E3s1时期,盆地受到NW-SE向伸展作用,到Ed3-Ed1时期盆地应力场转变成了近SN向伸展,表明东营组底界面是古近纪应力场发生变化的重要构造变革界面,反映了盆地由沙河街时期走滑伸展到东营时期斜向走滑拉分的演化过程。研究了不同时期控盆断裂体系特征,认为盆地中、新生代主要经历了四期构造演化阶段,分别为中生代的挤压剥蚀,沙河街时期NW-SE向伸展,东营时期近SN向伸展以及新近纪的热沉降和共轭走滑阶段。根据以上盆地结构构造特征和演化过程分析,结合区域动力学背景,认为地幔物质上拱导致的地壳减薄是盆地发生裂陷作用的直接因素,周缘板块重组事件是控制并影响断陷盆地演化和不同期次断裂体系展布方向不同的重要因素。%Based on the 3D seismic and drilling data of the Shabei area of the Bohai Gulf Basin, we tracked the important basin sequence boundaries and interpreted the structure styles and seismic reflection characteristics. Two types of Mesozoic thrust structures, i.e., the negative inversion and non-negative inversion structures, were identified in the study area, which led to the formation of the Mesozoic half-grabens and buried hills, respectively. Analyzing the basin-structure characteristics and tectonic framework of different period, we found that the basin was influenced by the NW-SE trending stretching in E2s3-E3s1 and the nearly SN trending stretching forces in Ed3-Ed1. The change of the Paleogene stress

  6. Un paso de América: Alfonso Reyes, Victoria Ocampo y el cosmopolitismo en la década de 1930 / Un paso de América: Alfonso Reyes, Victoria Ocampo and the Cosmopolitanism in the 1930’s

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gorica Majstorovic

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available El artículo trata de las construcciones americanistas del cosmopolitismo (entendido en relación a la geopolítica imperial en los textos de Victoria Ocampo y Alfonso Reyes de los años treinta. Al analizar su relación con los movimientos de inmigración y la subsiguiente revalorización de la nación, el artículo postula que en Alfonso Reyes la mediación cosmopolita es «des-jerarquizada», ubicada casi siempre en una «periferia», a diferencia de Victoria Ocampo cuyas visiones cosmopolitas son mediadas desde un «centro» —ya sea París o Buenos Aires— y relacionadas con una jerarquía de valores estéticos y políticos.The article deals with Americanist constructions of cosmopolitanism (understood in relation to the imperial geopolitics in the texts of Victoria Ocampo and Alfonso Reyes in the 1930’s. Upon analyzing its relationship with immigration movements and the subsequent revaluation of the nation, the article suggests that in Alfonso Reyes cosmopolitan mediation is «dis-hierarchized», almost always located in a periphery, unlike Victoria Ocampo whose cosmopolitan visions are mediated from a «center» —either Paris or Buenos Aires— and related to a hierarchy of aesthetic and political values.

  7. La pluma y la cruz al servicio de Franco: Alfonso Junco y el exilio republicano español en México

    OpenAIRE

    2014-01-01

    Tras la Guerra Civil de 1936, el escritor y periodista mexicano Alfonso Junco habría de ser uno de los partidarios no sólo de la cruzada del general Franco en contra del bando republicano, sino de la decisión, que al término del conlicto adoptaría, de mandar a la otra España al exilio. Ferviente defensor de la cruz y detractor de ideologías como el liberalismo, el comunismo y hasta el fascismo, Alfonso Junco critica- ría con dureza la llegada de los refugiados españoles a Méxic o, bajo el pro...

  8. Algunas precisiones y nuevos datos en torno a los Alfonso: una familia de canteros en el arzobispado de Toledo (1383-1431

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Palomo Fernández, Gema

    2000-12-01

    Full Text Available The documents from the archives in the cathedral of Cuenca mention, among the masters working there since the first century, the names of two stonemasons: Ferrand and Juan, with the common surname «Alfonso». The latter will become «master of the construction of the church» in 1420, These two stonemasons are evidently members of the polemical family Alfonso. They were working at the same time at the Cathedral of Toledo, where they had been employed for a long time, as well as in other buildings under the orders of archbishop Pedro Tenorio. In this article, I will provide some unpublished data about this important and large clan which has produced so much confusion among the specialists.No disponible

  9. Papilionoidea (Insecta: Lepidoptera) type specimens at the Museo de Zoología "Alfonso L. Herrera" from Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luis-Martínez, Armando; Covarrubias, Arturo Arellano; Llorente-Bousquets, Jorge

    2017-02-15

    We list and illustrate Papilionoidea (s. l.) type specimens deposited in the Museo de Zoología "Alfonso L. Herrera" of the National Autonomous University of Mexico. The 36 type specimens belong to 29 genera, 14 subfamilies, and five families. We note locality data for each type, and illustrate 23 holotypes, 8 allotypes and 13 paratypes. The names were published between 1984 and 2013.

  10. Last millennium sedimentation in the Gulf of Cariaco (NE Venezuela): Evidence for morphological changes of gulf entrance and possible relations with large earthquakes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aguilar, Iliana; Beck, Christian; Audemard, Franck; Develle, Anne-Lise; Boussafir, Mohammed; Campos, Corina; Crouzet, Christian

    2016-01-01

    The Cariaco Basin and the Gulf of Cariaco in Venezuela are two major basins along the seismogenic El Pilar right lateral fault, among which the Cariaco Basin is a pull-apart. Both basins are sites of anoxia and organic-rich deposits. To examine whether the sediments in the Gulf of Cariaco have recorded traces of historical or prehistorical earthquakes, we extracted and analyzed twelve 1 m-long gravity cores, sampling the last millennium sedimentation. We focused on analyzing the sediment sources with different techniques (particle size analysis, XRF, loss on ignition tests, magnetic properties, Rock-Eval pyrolysis, 14C dating). The results confirm that major upwelling occurs at the western gulf entrance and makes deep water flowing from the Cariaco Basin into the Gulf of Cariaco. These flows carry an organic-rich suspended load. Furthermore, we found evidence of a particular, widespread fine-grained siliciclastic deposit (named SiCL3) within the gulf, whose age suggests that it likely formed during the large 1853 AD earthquake that stroke the Cumaná city. We suggest that the earthquake-induced large submarine landslides that modified the topography of the gulf's entrance, which in turn promoted upwelling and open marine water flows from the Cariaco Basin. The layer SiCL3 would be the sediment load remobilized during this chain of events.

  11. El desarrollo de la psicología en Cuba en la obra del Dr. Alfonso Bernal del Riesgo

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    Isabel Louro Bernal

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Los hitos relevantes en el desarrollo de la Psicología en Cuba se vinculan a la obra del psicólogo cubano Dr. Alfonso Bernal del Riesgo. Método. Construcción de una cronología basada en la investigación histórica, la revisión documental y las entrevistas. Resultados. Se establecieron tres períodos: 1 Bases teóricas de la Psicología General y la Cívica, donde aborda el concepto de cubanosofìa, la comprensión psicológica y socio cultural de la identidad cubana; 2 El desarrollo de la Psicología como asignatura en la Universidad de la Habana y como carrera universitaria independiente de la Filosofía, así como la fundación de la Sociedad Cubana de Psicología y la Revista Cubana de Psicología como su órgano científico; 3 La Psicología como ciencia vinculada a diferentes ámbitos de actuación profesional. El estudio de la obra de Bernal del Riesgo permite comprender procesos en el desarrollo histórico de la Psicología en Cuba.

  12. Alfonso Reyes en dos tiempos. Entre el arielismo y la doble experiencia literaria: "La venganza creadora" y "La cena"

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    Pablo Aparicio Durán

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Es sabido que Alfonso Reyes dejó una enorme impronta intelectual y literaria no sólo en la literatura de su país, Méjico, sino en toda la literatura hispanoamericana. Pero, aparte de las dimensiones de la huella dejada por el autor, lo realmente interesante es el terreno que pisa, y ese, para nosotros, es el terreno ideológico. Así, en el presente artículo ofrecemos una panorámica general sobre la significación cultural del autor mejicano, precisamente para tratar de delimitar que una cosa son las ideologías culturales explícitas y otra cosa es el inconsciente ideológico/literario implícito. En este sentido, se ha efectuado el análisis de dos cuentos del prolífico escritor de Monterrey (La venganza creadora y La cena en relación con otros dos de Edgar Allan Poe y Ernest Hemingway (Allá en Michigan y La casa Usher, respectivamente.

  13. Alfonso IX de León y el iter de su corte (1188-1230

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    Gregoria CAVERO DOMÍNGUEZ

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Alfonso IX de León, a lo largo de su dilatado reinado, desarrolló la mayor parte de las actividades de la corte de forma itinerante, es decir en medio de sus largos y continuados desplazamientos, tal como reflejan las datas de los documentos de su cancillería. La ciudad de León, sede regia, no fue el epicentro de su corte, aunque en ella se desarrollaran las primeras cortes.La majeure partie des activités du roi de León Alphonse IX se déroulèrent, au cours de son long règne, de façon itinérante, c’est-à-dire au cours de ses longs déplacements, comme le réflètent les données documentaires de sa chancellerie. La ville de León, siège royal, ne fut pas l’épicentre de sa cour, mais accueillit pourtant les premières cortes.

  14. La poesía de Alfonso Álvarez Guerrero: arte mayor al servicio del Imperio

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    Xavier Tubau

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Alfonso Álvarez Guerrero (1502-1576, juriste tolédan qui exerça longtemps sa profession au royaume de Naples, publia en 1520, juste après la diffusion de la nouvelle de l’élection de Charles-Quint comme Roi des Romains, un volume contenant deux œuvres en vers, Las Doscientas del Castillo de la Fama (200 coplas en arte mayor et Las Cincuenta del Laberinto contra Fortuna (50 coplas reales. Dix plus tard, dans le contexte du couronnement impérial de Bologne, un autre volume parut, avec deux nouveaux poèmes: le Palacio de la Fama (154 coplas en arte mayor et l’Historia de las guerras de Italia (354 coplas en arte mayor. Le propos de cet article est de présenter une première analyse du contenu de ces œuvres poétiques. La première partie du travail replace ces œuvres dans le cadre de l’histoire littéraire de l’époque, en soulignant la survivance de la poétique de l’arte mayor – qui prend exemple sur l’œuvre de Juan de Mena – dans les premières décennies du XVIe siècle. La seconde partie tente d’expliquer les implications politiques de certaines idées formulées par l’auteur dans ses poèmes, à la lumière du jeu des diverses factions concurrentes à la cour du jeune empereur, au cours de la décennie de 1520.Alfonso Álvarez Guerrero (1502-1576, jurista toledano que desarrolló buena parte de su trayectoria profesional en el Reino de Nápoles, publicó en 1520, justo después de conocerse la elección de Carlos V como futuro Rey de Romanos, un volumen en el que se incluían dos obras en verso, Las Doscientas del Castillo de la Fama (200 coplas en arte mayor y Las Cincuenta del Laberinto contra Fortuna (50 coplas reales. Diez años más tarde, en el contexto de la coronación imperial en Bolonia, aparecía otro volumen con dos poemas más: el Palacio de la Fama (154 coplas en arte mayor y la Historia de las guerras de Italia (354 coplas en arte mayor. El propósito de este artículo es presentar una primera

  15. A propósito del desarrollo urbano del País Vasco durante el reinado de Alfonso X

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    González Mínguez, César

    1997-06-01

    Full Text Available One aspect of long lasting consequences in the policy of king Alfonso X the Wise is that concerning the urbanization and resetting of the territories of the Castilian Kingdom, which up to the middle of the 13th century had already achieved the territorial expansion that almost with no changes is going to be mantained till 1492. This work looks through the urbanization policy followed by the mentioned king in the Basque Country, particularly in the cases of Vitoria and Mondragon. At the same time, we want to underline some of the data which allow us to state that the growing phase in the Basque urban area went on till the earlier years of the 14th century.[fr] L'un des aspects qui, dans la politique du roi Alphonse X le Savant, a eu les conséquences les plus heureuses et les plus durables, est celui qui concerne le repeuplement et l'urbanisation du territoire appartenant à la Couronne de Castille. Déjà vers le milieu du XlIIème siècle celle-ci avait pris une tournure qui, avec peu de variations, se maintiendra jusqu'en 1492. En partant de cette perspective, il s'agit de passer en revue la politique de fondation de villes développée par ce même roi au Pays Basque, en particulier pour le cas de Mondragon et de Vitoria. Au même temps, nous voulons mettre en relief quelques données historiques permettant d'établir la durée de la période de croissance du milieu urbain basque jusqu'aux premières dates du XIVème siècle.

  16. Alfonso de Palencia. Ad Alfonsum de Velasco in funebrem Abulensis praesulis fabulosa narratio (ca. 1455: edición crítica del MS UCM BH 133

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    Durán Barceló, Javier

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Aunque ya estaba catalogado desde 1745 y de nuevo en 1800, los modernos estudiosos no tuvieron noticia de la existencia de este manuscrito del siglo XV de Alfonso de Palencia hasta que Bartolomé José Gallardo lo describió. Gallardo describe el manuscrito Ad Alfonsum de Velasco in funebrem Abulensis praesulis cuando éste se encontraba a modo de préstamo en la Real Academia de la Historia, en Madrid, a mediados del siglo XIX. En aquella época la RAH procuraba la publicación de las obras de Alfonso de Palencia y seguramente a aquellos esfuerzos se debe que se conserve actualmente en la RAH una copia moderna de este manuscrito medieval, el cual fue devuelto a su propietaria. La primera edición del texto la hicieron en 1982 Brian Tate y Rafael Alemany Ferrer basándose para ello en la copia decimonónica. Pues, dado que Gallardo había dado una información confusa acerca de la localización del manuscrito medieval, los modernos editores no pudieron localizarlo. Este trabajo resuelve finalmente el problema de la localización del manuscrito original, conservado en la Universidad Complutense de Madrid. Gracias a este hallazgo mi edición del texto se basa directamente en el original medieval sobre el que intento dilucidar algunas lecturas difícilesAlthough it had been catalogued in 1745 and again in 1800, it was not until Bartolomé José Gallardo reported the existence of this 15th century manuscript of Alfonso de Palencia when scholars became aware of its existence. Gallardo described the manuscript Ad Alfonsum de Velasco in funebrem Abulensis praesulis when it was borrowed by the Royal Academy of History, in Madrid, in mid 19th century. At that time the Academy was involved in the edition of the works of Alfonso de Palencia and for this reason a hand written copy of the medieval manuscript remained in the Academy, while the original was returned to its owner. Based on this 19th century copy, Brian Tate and Rafael Alemany Ferrer published

  17. El mito de Orestes en Les mouches de Jean-Paul Sartre y El pan de todos de Alfonso Sastre: La necesidad de la acción

    OpenAIRE

    L. Rovecchio Antón L.

    2012-01-01

    ENIn Les mouches and El pan de todos, Jean-Paul Sartre and Alfonso Sastre speak about the mythological figure of Orestes to reveal the problems of their society. In this article I will focus on the analysis of these two plays and, more specifically, the question of the necessity of the action, which is closely linked with human freedom. A freedom based on choosing a way that leads to direct action or passivity. A choice that, in turn, becomes the essence of human being.Keywords: Jean-Paul Sar...

  18. El redescubrimiento de la otredad: nuevas perspectivas sobre el descubrimiento de la conquista en Caminarás con el sol de Alfonso Mateo Sagasta

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    Francesca Crippa

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available RESUMEN: Alfonso Mateo-Sagasta es uno de los autores más representativos del panorama literario español actual. Su última novela, Caminarás con el sol, aborda uno de los episodios más controvertidos de la historia española e hispanoamericana a través del punto de vista de un hombre, Gonzalo Guerrero, que decidió abandonar sus tradiciones para convertirse en guerrero maya. La finalidad de este trabajo es analizar los principales recursos temáticos y estilísticos de la obra de Mateo-Sagasta en relación con la específica época histórica de ambientación de la novela. ABSTRACT: Alfonso Mateo-Sagasta is one of the most popular authors of the present Spanish literary panorama. His last novel, Caminarás con el sol, approaches one of the most debated episodes of the Spanish and Latin American history by adopting the point of view of a man, Gonzalo Guerrero, who decided to renounce to his own culture in order to become a Mayan warrior. The aim of this article is to analyze the main thematic and stylistic features of Mateo-Sagasta’s novel and its approach to the specific historical period.

  19. Anécdotas castellanas en escritura hebraica. Apuntes paremiológicos conservados en las anotaciones hebreas de Alfonso de Zamora (Ms. Leiden Or. 645

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alonso Fontela, Carlos

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Problems of translation and interpretation are addressed in this presentation of Alfonso de Zamora’s Hebrew and Hebrew “Aljamiado” Spanish notes (ca. 1530 from Leiden University Library Ms. Or. 645 (ol. Warner 65 containing anecdotes, sayings and short tales. Additional notes dealing with a manuscript copy of the Targum to the Prophets comissioned by the University of Salamanca are also discussed.

    Este artículo estudia algunas notas manuscritas de Alfonso de Zamora en hebreo y en aljamía hebraico-castellana datadas hacia 1530, y procedentes del ms. Or. 645 (ol. Warner 65 de la Biblioteca de la Universidad de Leiden. Dichas notas contienen anécdotas, refranes y «cuentecillos», tales como las anécdotas «de fray Palomo», «de un portugués», y «de lo que dijo el gallego». Otras anotaciones de Zamora tratan de un trabajo de copia del Targum a los Profetas por encargo de la Universidad de Salamanca.

  20. Vejamen de Alfonso de Batres para la Academia de 1638 (Manuscrito inédito. Estudio y edición crítica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julio, Teresa

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available During February 1638 the Fiestas de Carnestolendas were celebrated at the Buen Retiro Palace, Madrid. Among the programmed activities, a literary gathering was held, open to numerous poets and courtiers. From this gathering three vejamenes have been preserved: those of Alfonso de Batres, Antonio Coello and Francisco de Rojas Zorrilla. In this paper we analyze and annotate the vejamen that Batres read before His Majesties in the Royal Salon of the Retiro Palace on February 11, 1638.Durante el mes de febrero de 1638 se celebraron en el palacio del Buen Retiro las fiestas de Carnestolendas. Entre las actividades programadas, se realizó una academia literaria en la que participaron poetas y cortesanos. De ella se conservan tres vejámenes: el de Alfonso de Batres, el de Antonio Coello y el de Francisco de Rojas Zorrilla. En el presente artículo se analiza y edita críticamente el vejamen que Batres defendió ante sus majestades en el Salón Real del Retiro el 11 de febrero de 1638.

  1. Tiered collaborative strategies for reducing hypoxia and restoring the Gulf of Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Gulf of Mexico is more than just a water body south of the United States. It is an international marine ecosystem, the ninth largest water body in the world (USEPA 2007), and it receives drainage from the Mississippi River Basin (MRB), the third largest drainage basin in the world. The combine...

  2. Rings dominate western Gulf

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vidal L., Francisco V.; Vidal L., Victor M. V.; Molero, José María Pérez

    Surface and deep circulation of the central and western Gulf of Mexico is controlled by interactions of rings of water pinched from the gulf's Loop Current. The discovery was made by Mexican oceanographers who are preparing a full-color, 8-volume oceanographic atlas of the gulf.Anticyclonic warm-core rings pinch off the Loop Current at a rate of about one to two per year, the scientists of the Grupo de Estudios Oceanográficos of the Instituto de Investigaciones Eléctricas (GEO-IIE) found. The rings migrate west until they collide with the continental shelf break of the western gulf, almost always between 22° and 23°N latitude. On their westward travel they transfer angular momentum and vorticity to the surrounding water, generating cyclonic circulations and vortex pairs that completely dominate the entire surface and deep circulation of the central and western gulf.

  3. La concesión del titulo de (I conde de Buendía por el rey Alfonso XII de Castilla (1465 como expresión del poder del linaje Acuña

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    Dolores Carmen Morales Muñiz

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available La concesión del título de I conde de Buendía por el rey Alfonso XII de Castilla permite analizar una doble realidad en un contexto de dualidad monárquica (1465- 68. Primerante remite a la importancia del linaje Acuña beneficiario de la merced en la persona de Pedro de Acuña. La concesión demuestra la condición de monarca del joven Alfonso: sólo el rey puede expedir títulos nobiliarios. El hecho de que más adelante, la reina Isabel confirme el acto, ratifica la condición de su hermano como legítimo rey.The granting, on the part of the king of Castille Alfonso XII of the title of count of Buendía allows for an analysis of the double reality that from 1465 to 1468 existed in the context of a dual monarchy. The grant stressed the relevance of the Acuña lineage favored in the person of Pedro de Acuña. But of far larger relevance, the title likewise evidences the condition of king that young Alfonso had at the time as only the monarch could grant nobility titles. The ratification of that concession later on by queen Isabella I further santioned her brother’s legitimacy as king.

  4. Prólogo arameo y anotaciones hebreas de Alfonso de Zamora para una copia manuscrita del Targum a los Profetas encargada por la Universidad de Salamanca

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    Fontela, Carlos Alonso

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available University Library Ms. Or. 645, f. 110r (ol. Warner 65 F contains, besides a draft for an Aramaic prologue to the work on Targum written by Alonso de Zamora ca. 1532, additional notes written by himself dealing with the comission he received to copying Targumic texts. The present article improves the edition of the Aramaic prologue, previously published by Neubauer (1895, offering a Spanish translation and the edition of the marginal notes, that contain a draft of the prayers (תפלותופיהספדים for the partial colophons of the books of Ezekiel, Hosea and Joel’s Targums. These pa - tial colophons in the Leiden Ms. coincide with the clean drafts by Zamora preserved in an autograph manuscript, Salamanca University Library Ms. M-3 (Est.-1, Cajón I-Núm. 2. An explanation concerning additional annotations (the incipit of Isaiah 57, that spoiled the folio, and led it to its being re-used by Alonso de Zamora as a draft.

    El ms. Or. 645, f.º 110r (ol. Warner 65 F de la Leiden University Library, además del borrador de un prólogo arameo a la obra de Targum escrito por Alfonso de Zamora hacia el año 1532 por encargo de la Universidad de Salamanca, contiene otras anotaciones del mismo autor que aquí se publican por primera vez y que también formaban parte del mismo encargo de copia de textos targúmicos. En el presente artículo, además de mejorar el texto arameo del prólogo ya publicado por Neubauer en 1895, se ofrece su traducción española por primera vez. Asimismo, se publica y traduce una anotación marginal que consiste en un borrador de las jaculatorias o doxologías (תפלותופיהספדים para los colofones parciales de los libros del Targum de Ezequiel, Oseas y Joel. Estos colofones parciales del ms. de Leiden coinciden con los pasados a limpio que se conservan en el manuscrito autógrafo de Alfonso de Zamora ms. M-3 (Est.-1, Cajón I-Núm. 2 de la Biblioteca Universitaria de Salamanca. Se

  5. Gulf Sturgeon Facts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sulak, Kenneth J.; Randall, Michael

    2008-01-01

    Sturgeon: An ancient type of fish, with 5 rows of armor scutes, a cartilaginous skeleton, long snout, suction mouth, no teeth, and 4 barbels. Photograph of a Gulf sturgeon. The total length of a 5-month old is 313 mm.

  6. Gulf Shrimp System

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Gulf of Mexico Shrimp Landings - This data set contains catch (landed catch) and effort for fishing trips made by the larger vessels that fish near and offshore for...

  7. Informe que el auxiliar encargado del puesto de "electrocardiografia" del laboratorio de fisiología presenta al profesor del curso, doctor alfonso esguerra gómez

    OpenAIRE

    2011-01-01

    En este informe sólo quiero hacer un recuento de las actividades desarrolladas por mí durante las seis semanas de trabajos prácticos que se cumplieron en el Laboratorio de Fisiología bajo la certera y por más desinteresada dirección del doctor Alfonso Esguerra Gómez. Pero no puedo dejar pasar la oportunidad de dar a mi distinguido Profesor las mejores gracias por haber despertado enmi la afición y el amor a la investigación fisiológica. Porque, como todos sabemos, jamás había ocupado esta cie...

  8. Gulf stream separation dynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schoonover, Joseph

    Climate models currently struggle with the more traditional, coarse ( O(100 km) ) representation of the ocean. In these coarse ocean simulations, western boundary currents are notoriously difficult to model accurately. The modeled Gulf Stream is typically seen exhibiting a mean pathway that is north of observations, and is linked to a warm sea-surface temperature bias in the Mid-Atlantic Bight. Although increased resolution ( O(10 km) ) improves the modeled Gulf Stream position, there is no clean recipe for obtaining the proper pathway. The 70 year history of literature on the Gulf Stream separation suggests that we have not reached a resolution on the dynamics that control the current's pathway just south of the Mid-Atlantic Bight. Without a concrete knowledge on the separation dynamics, we cannot provide a clean recipe for accurately modeling the Gulf Stream at increased resolutions. Further, any reliable parameterization that yields a realistic Gulf Stream path must express the proper physics of separation. The goal of this dissertation is to determine what controls the Gulf Stream separation. To do so, we examine the results of a model intercomparison study and a set of numerical regional terraforming experiments. It is argued that the separation is governed by local dynamics that are most sensitive to the steepening of the continental shelf, consistent with the topographic wave arrest hypothesis of Stern (1998). A linear extension of Stern's theory is provided, which illustrates that wave arrest is possible for a continuously stratified fluid.

  9. Muerte, religiosidad e ideología: el significado del ajuar en los sepulcros de Alfonso X y Sancho IV de Castilla

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Parra Aguilar, Leonor

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The burials of monarchs of the kingdom of Castile show us how the kings expected to leave signs of their power even in death. Through careful study and comparison of funerary objects of Alfonso X and Sancho IV of Castile, we will raise a hypothesis, which confirms the existence of the same ideological model in both monarchs. To achieve this, will pay attention to the elements of power with that they demand to entomb themselves that are intended to be symbols of royal ideology. It will be seen how in the funerary areas of the powerful, the monarchical aspirations tend to increase his fortitude as a weapon and as political propaganda, always relying on religiosity for argue their power.Los enterramientos de los monarcas del reino de Castilla nos muestran como los reyes pretendían dejar señales de su poder aún en la muerte. A través del estudio detallado y la comparación de los ajuares de Alfonso X y Sancho IV de Castilla, plantearemos una hipótesis que advierte la existencia de un mismo modelo ideológico en ambos monarcas. Para llegar a ello, se prestará atención a los elementos de poder con los que se entierran, que pretenden ser símbolos de la ideología regia. Se verá cómo en los ámbitos funerarios de los poderosos, las pretensiones monárquicas tienden a multiplicar su fortaleza como arma y como propaganda política, siempre apoyándose en la religiosidad para argumentar su poder.

  10. Dissolved oxygen - A target indicator in determining use of the Gulf of Kachchh waters

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Desa, E.; Zingde, M.D.; Vethamony, P.; Babu, M.T.; DeSousa, S.N.; Verlecar, X.N.

    211 2004 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved. Keywords: Coastal zone; Marine park; Water quality; DO modelling; Water use criteria; Gulf of Kachchh 1. Introduction The uncontrolled discharge of organic matter in coastal regions causes anoxic conditions...-enclosed basin: a model study. Marine Environmental Research, in press. Wang, P., Martin, J., Morrison, G., 1999. Water quality and eutrophication in Tamba Bay, Florida. Estuarine, Coastal and Fig. 5. DO content in the Gulf and the DO available for various water...

  11. Cost-effective reduction of eutrophication in the Gulf of Kalloni (Island of Lesvos, Greece

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. ZANOU

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available This study presents a cost-effective analysis by comparing the costs of measures (options to improve the quality of bathing waters in the Gulf of Kalloni (island of Lesvos, Greece in order to reduce the anthropogenic eutrophication in the coastal water of the Kalloni Gulf.The Gulf of Kalloni is a semi-enclosed gulf (115 km2 which receives municipal wastewater, agricultural activity drainage, and at times sewage from olive oil plants processing the local olives harvest. The area of study consists of the coastal waters and the river basin of which water run-off drains into the gulf. Four options are comparable in their environmental effectiveness to reduce eurtophication damages which are: municipal wastewater treatment plant, construction of dams, organic farming plus training and olive oil wastewater treatment plant.

  12. Gulf Island National Wildlife Refuges

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This document provides a brief history and describes physical features of the Gulf Island National Wildlife Refuges. The Gulf Island National Wildlife Refuges...

  13. Gulf ring algae

    Science.gov (United States)

    Although they rank among the tiniest of the microspcopic phytoplankton, coccolithophore algae aid oceanographers studying the Gulf Stream rings and the ring boundaries. The algal group could help to identify more precisely the boundary of the warm rings of water that spin off from the Gulf Stream and become independent pools of warm water in the colder waters along the northeastern U.S. coast.Coccolithophore populations in the Gulf Stream rings intrigue oceanographers for two reasons: The phytoplankton are subjected to an environment that changes every few days, and population explosions within one coccolithophore species seem to be associated with changes in the characteristics of ocean water, said Pat Blackwelder, an associate professor at the Nova Oceanographic Center in Dania, Fla. She is one of many studying the physics, chemistry, and biology of warm core rings. A special oceanography session on these rings was held at the recent AGU Fall Meeting/ASLO Winter Meeting.

  14. Vides de Simón de Rojas Clemente (1777-1827 en el herbario del Real Colegio Alfonso XII de San Lorenzo de El Escorial (Madrid, España

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Perea, Domingo

    1997-12-01

    Full Text Available In the present paper, the discovery of grape-vine mounted sheets from the Simón de Rojas Clemente herbarium, which were found in the Herbarium of the Real Colegio Alfonso XH in San Lorenzo de El Escorial, is reported. This material completes the collection of Clemente's vines which makes up one of the historical collections deposited in the MA herbarium.Damos a conocer unos pliegos de vides procedentes del herbario de Simón de Rojas Clemente que han aparecido en el Gabinete de Ciencias Naturales del Real Colegio Alfonso XII de San Lorenzo de El Escorial. Estos materiales completan la colección de vides de Clemente que constituye uno de los herbarios históricos depositados en MA.

  15. Underway Doppler current profiles in the Gulf of California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Badan-Dangon, Antoine; Lavin, Miguel F.; Hendershott, Myrl C.

    The circulation of the Gulf of California has long been of scientific interest. The first hydrographic expedition there was in 1889 [Roden and Groves, 1959], followed half a century later by Sverdrup's cruise on the R/V E.W. Scripps [Suerdrup, 1941] in February and March of 1939. Since then, the Gulfs circulation has been the subject of active research [Alvarez-Boirego, 1983]. During the 1980s, scientists at CICESE and at the Scripps Institution of Oceanography designed a cooperative effort, the Pichicuco project, to investigate some of the notable physical oceanographic features of the Gulf.The Gulf of California is a marginal sea close to 1500 km long and about 200 km wide, oriented northwest to southeast, between the peninsula of Baja California and western continental Mexico. It consists of a succession of basins that shoal progressively from about 3500 m at the mouth, where the Gulf connects with the Pacific Ocean, to just over 2000 m in the central Guaymas Basin. In contrast, the far northern Gulf is a continental shelf sea whose depth exceeds 200 m only in a few small basins. The Gulf's circulation is profoundly influenced by processes taking place at the narrows that connect Guaymas Basin to the northern Gulf between 28°N and 29°N (see Figure 1). These are a sequence of channels, each about 15 km wide, between San Lorenzo, San Esteban, and Tiburón islands, which reduce the effective cross section of the Gulf to about 2.25×106m2. The westernmost connection, close to Baja California, is the Ballenas-Salsipuedes (hereafter Ballenas) channel, whose depth exceeds 1600 m in its central part. It is bounded partially to the north by a lateral constriction with a maximum depth of 600 m, near the northern extreme of Angel de la Guarda island, and to the east by a ridge from which rise Angel de la Guarda, San Lorenzo, and other smaller islands. This ridge extends underwater about 20 km to the southeast from San Lorenzo into Guaymas Basin, where it forms the

  16. Structural framework of the Gulf of Elat (AQABA), Northern Red Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ben-Avraham, Zvi

    1985-01-01

    The Gulf of Elat (Aqaba) occupies the southern part of the Dead Sea rift. The rift is considered to be a plate boundary of the transform type (partially leaky) which connects seafloor spreading in the Red Sea with the Sagros-Taurus zone of continental collision. The deep water in the Gulf of Elat, up to 1850 m, provides a rare opportunity to examine the process of continental rifting by marine geophysical techniques. The bathymetry alone provides much information about fault patterns in this area. The fragmentation of the once continuous Arabian-African platform is a complicated process. It shapes the structure of the gulf which has developed through continuing tectonism, primarily consisting of faulting. Recent geophysical and geological studies of the Gulf of Elat including bathymetry, bottom photographs, continuous seismic profiles, seismic refraction, gravity, magnetics, heat flow, and coring provide new information about the shallow and deep crustal structure of this important segment of the world rift system. The shallow structure of the gulf is dominated by three elongated en echelon basins, which strike N20°-25°E. Undulations in the floors of the basins produce several distinct deeps. These basins are interpreted as pullaparts. The new data from the gulf suggest that classical models for the formation of these structures should be modified. Only one of the longitudinal faults of each depression is a strike-slip fault, while the other is predominantly a normal fault. The situation with the other two sides of the basin which are supposed to be composed of normal faults may also be more complex than previously thought. At least in one case, one such boundary is composed of a strike-slip fault while the other has no significant fault. Crustal models of the Gulf of Elat based on gravity data indicate that the basins are rather shallow and do not extend into the lower crust. The fill of the basins extends to about 5 km below the seafloor in. the northern and

  17. Comunicar para el cambio social: una comunicación ética y política. Entrevista con Alfonso Gumucio Dagron

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriel Jaime Pérez S.J.

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available En este artículo, a partir de sus experiencias académicas y laborales, Alfonso Gumucio Dagron define el concepto comunicación para el cambio social como el planteamiento más reciente de las teorías de la dependencia y de los enfoques de la comunicación. Él sostiene que se centra en la sistematización de experiencias, porque facilita recuperar el conocimiento producido en el diálogo social, a partir de lecciones narradas y aprendidas por las comunidades. Así mismo, sostiene que la metodología más adecuada para dinamizar experiencias de comunicación para el cambio social es la investigación acción-participativa (iap, porque permite investigar y acompañar procesos desde el conocimiento académico y profesional en dinámicas de participación, diálogo y construcción colectiva.

  18. La emergencia del intelectual en América Latina y el espacio público: el caso de Alfonso Reyes, 1927-1939

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aimer Granados

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Este artículo estudia la emergencia del ‘intelectual’ en Hispanoamérica a través de un estudio de caso: la trayectoria de Alfonso Reyes. En América Latina la modernidad finisecular y de principios del siglo XX aportó circunstancias y procesos históricos que permitieron que el letrado decimonónico se transformase progresivamente en un ‘intelectual’; más exactamente en un ‘intelectual de transición’. También se estudian algunas de las dinámicas que permitieron que el ‘intelectual’ se posicionase como un nuevo actor social durante el período en estudio. La visibilidad pública que, como nunca antes, habían tenido los hombres de pensamiento y el uso que hicieron de los medios de comunicación de la época y de artefactos culturales como el libro y las revistas, les permitió convertirse en figuras públicas y alcanzar algunos de sus objetivos.

  19. Deglacial climatic oscillations in the Gulf of California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keigwin, L. D.; Jones, G. A.

    1990-12-01

    A high-resolution, accelerator radiocarbon dated climate record of the interval 8,000-18,000 years B.P. from Deep Sea Drilling Project site 480 (Guaymas Basin, Gulf of California) shows geochemical and lithological oscillations of oceanographic and climatic significance during deglaciation. Nonlaminated sediments are associated with cooler climatic conditions during the late glacial (up to 13,000 years B.P.), and from 10,300 to 10,800 years B.P., equivalent to the Younger Dryas event of the North Atlantic region. We propose that the changes from laminated (varved) to nonlaminated sediments resulted from increased oxygen content in Pacific intermediate waters during the glacial and the Younger Dryas episodes, and that the forcing for the latter event was global in scope. Prominent events of low δ18O are recorded in benthic foraminifera from 8,000 to 10,000 and at 12,000 years B.P.; evidence for an earlier event between 13,500 and 15,000 years B.P. is weaker. Maximum δ18O is found to have occurred 10,500, 13,500, and 15,000 years ago (and beyond). Oxygen isotopic variability most likely reflects changing temperature and salinity characteristics of Pacific waters of intermediate depth during deglaciation or environmental changes within the Gulf of California region. Several lines of evidence suggest that during deglaciation the climate of the American southwest was marked by increased precipitation that could have lowered salinity in the Gulf of California. Recent modelling studies show that cooling of the Gulf of Mexico due to glacial meltwater injection, which is believed to have occurred at least twice during deglaciation, would have resulted in increased precipitation with respect to evaporation in the American southwest during summertime. The timing of deglacial events in the Gulf of Mexico and the Gulf of California supports such an atmospheric teleconnection.

  20. Beyond the Gulf Metropolises

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wippel, Steffen

    2013-01-01

    The extended studies on urbanisation in the Gulf region that came up in the early 2000s concentrated on the main centres with their worldwide-admired mega-projects and branding strategies. Only rather recently did a more general interest arise in the second-tier range of Gulf cities, which also......, which started in the late 1990s. After a short review of the city‘s development until the 1980s, this paper will also present its current urban and economic evolution. Then it will turn to the globalisation of Salalah in the context of national post-oil strategies, and study the physical fragmentation...... of the urban landscape. Finally, it will point to the shift from overall structural planning to individual master plans, and discuss the marketing of the new Salalah versus the selective conservation of the old....

  1. Thermocline Regulated Seasonal Evolution of Surface Chlorophyll in the Gulf of Aden

    KAUST Repository

    Hoteit, Ibrahim

    2015-04-01

    The Gulf of Aden, although subject to seasonally reversing monsoonal winds, has been previously reported as an oligotrophic basin during summer, with elevated chlorophyll concentrations only occurring during winter due to convective mixing. However, the Sea-Viewing Wide Field-of-View Sensor (SeaWiFS) ocean color data reveal that the Gulf of Aden also exhibits a prominent summer chlorophyll bloom and sustains elevated chlorophyll concentrations throughout the fall, and is a biophysical province distinct from the adjacent Arabian Sea. Climatological hydrographic data suggest that the thermocline, hence the nutricline, in the entire gulf is markedly shoaled by the southwest monsoon during summer and fall. Under this condition, cyclonic eddies in the gulf can effectively pump deep nutrients to the surface layer and lead to the chlorophyll bloom in late summer, and, after the transition to the northeast monsoon in fall, coastal upwelling driven by the northeasterly winds produces a pronounced increase in surface chlorophyll concentrations along the Somali coast.

  2. Thermocline regulated seasonal evolution of surface chlorophyll in the Gulf of Aden.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yao, Fengchao; Hoteit, Ibrahim

    2015-01-01

    The Gulf of Aden, although subject to seasonally reversing monsoonal winds, has been previously reported as an oligotrophic basin during summer, with elevated chlorophyll concentrations only occurring during winter due to convective mixing. However, the Sea-Viewing Wide Field-of-View Sensor (SeaWiFS) ocean color data reveal that the Gulf of Aden also exhibits a prominent summer chlorophyll bloom and sustains elevated chlorophyll concentrations throughout the fall, and is a biophysical province distinct from the adjacent Arabian Sea. Climatological hydrographic data suggest that the thermocline, hence the nutricline, in the entire gulf is markedly shoaled by the southwest monsoon during summer and fall. Under this condition, cyclonic eddies in the gulf can effectively pump deep nutrients to the surface layer and lead to the chlorophyll bloom in late summer, and, after the transition to the northeast monsoon in fall, coastal upwelling driven by the northeasterly winds produces a pronounced increase in surface chlorophyll concentrations along the Somali coast.

  3. Exploring Linkages Between Gulf of Mexico Sea Surface Conditions and North American Hydroclimate during the Holocene

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richey, J. N.; Thirumalai, K.; Quinn, T. M.; Poore, R. Z.

    2015-12-01

    The Gulf of Mexico is part of the Atlantic Warm Pool, a feature that drives oceanic moisture flux to the surrounding continent. It is connected to the North Atlantic Ocean via the loop current, which transports salt and heat from the Caribbean and Gulf of Mexico poleward via the Gulf Stream. As such, variations in Gulf of Mexico sea surface temperature (SST) and salinity (SSS) are linked to changes in North Atlantic Ocean circulation and North American hydroclimate. Although SST and SSS variability in the Gulf of Mexico are well understood on inter-annual and glacial-interglacial timescales, little is known about centennial scale variability in these sea surface parameters through the Holocene. We present here the first continuous multi-decadal resolution time series of SST and SSS spanning the entire Holocene from the Gulf of Mexico. This proxy reconstruction is based on paired measurements of Mg/Ca and δ18O in the planktic foraminifer, Globigerinoides ruber (white variety) in the Garrison Basin. Using these data, in combination with additional Gulf of Mexico SST and SSS records from the late Holocene, we explore linkages between North American precipitation patterns and ocean circulation on centennial timescales.

  4. 墨西哥湾盆地陆棚区油气田数量与储量规模的分形分析%Fractals of Oil and Gas Field Reserve Distribution in Outer Continental Shelf (OCS), Gulf of Mexico Basin

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    鞠玮; 侯贵廷; 肖芳锋

    2011-01-01

    On the basis of dividing the size of proved oil and gas fields in the outer continental shelf (OCS) of Gulf of Mexico Basin, the authors applied the fractal theory to the study of the relationship between the number of oil and gas fields and their sizes, and discussed the meaning of fractal dimension D. The fractal dimension D is a reflection of the exploratory development level, the larger the fractal dimension D is, the more mature the exploration is. The fractal method is a good way to analyze the size-distribution of oil and gas fields, to decide the exploration degree and to predict the reserve distribution of oil and gas fields.%在对墨西哥湾盆地陆棚区已探明油气田储量规模划分的基础上,应用分形理论对油气田数量与储量规模之间的分形关系进行了研究,讨论了油气田储量规模分布的分数维值D的含义。油气田储量规模分布的分数维值D反映了油气田的勘探开发程度,勘探开发程度越高,分数维值D越大;勘探开发程度越低,分数维值D越小。利用分形方法可以较好地分析油气田储量规模与数量之间的关系,评判油气田勘探开发的程度。预测未来发现油气田的数量及其储量规模。

  5. Hypoxia in the Northern Gulf of Mexico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dale, Virginia H [ORNL

    2010-01-01

    panel to evaluate the state-of-the-science regarding hypoxia in the Northern Gulf of Mexico and potential nutrient mitigation and control options in the Mississippi-Atchafalaya River basin (MARB). The Task Force was particularly interested in scientific advances since the Integrated Assessment and posed questions in three areas: characterization of hypoxia; nutrient fate, transport and sources; and the scientific basis for goals and management options. The Hypoxia Study Group began its deliberations in September of 2006 and completed its report in August of 2007 while operating under the 'sunshine' requirements of the Federal Advisory Committee Act, which include providing public access to advisory meetings and opportunities for public comment. This Executive Summary summarizes the Hypoxia Study Group's major findings and recommendations.

  6. Gulf of Maine intermediate water

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hopkins, T.S. (Brookhaven National Lab., Upton, NY); Garfield, N. III

    1979-01-01

    The thermohaline dynamics of the Gulf of Maine are analyzed from the two year, eight cruise, data set of Colton, Marak, Nickerson, and Stoddard (1968). Six water masses are described: the Maine Surface Water, Maine Intermediate Water, and the Maine Bottom Water as interior water masses; and the Scotian Shelf Water, the Slope Water, and the Georges Bank Water as exterior water masses. Particular attention is given to the formation and disposition of the Maine Intermediate Water. Salt balance, T-S volume, and T-S drift analyses are used to provide transport and mixing estimates for the year 1966. The Slope Water entered at depth through the Northeast Channel at a rate of 2600 km/sup 3//yr; while the Scotian Shelf Water entered the surface and intermediate layers, mostly during winter intrusions, at a rate of 5200 km/sup 3//yr. The surface and intermediate layers exported a total of 7900 km/sup 3//yr in a 3:5 ratio, respectively. The Maine Intermediate Water tends to collect over the Wilkinson Basin during the stratified season, to exit via the Great South Channel during early spring, and to exit via the Northeast Channel during spring and summer. Comparisons are made between the estimated winter heat loss of 280 Ly/d and the observed heat losses of 230 Ly/d (surface layers) and 360 Ly/d (surface and intermediate layers). A limit for the Scotian Shelf Water contribution is about -70 Ly/d. It is concluded that the Maine Intermediate Water is produced locally and that it is exported in significant quantities.

  7. Clay Mineral Distribution Patterns of Tertiary Continental Oil-bearing Basins in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhao Xingyuan

    1996-01-01

    @@ Induction This paper studies the clay mineral distribution patterns of Tertiary continental oil-bearing basins in China. More than 9 000 shale samples from Paleogene (E) to Neogene (N) Series distributed in Bohai Gulf, Subei, Jianghan,Nanxiang, Zhoukou, Sanshui, Beibu Bay, East China Sea,Hetao, Juiquan, Qaidam and Tarim basins, and so on.

  8. Alfonso López Pumarejo y la última Corte Suprema de Justicia de la hegemonía conservadora, 1934-1935

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mario Alberto Cajas Sarria

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Este artículo analiza las relaciones entre el Ejecutivo y la Corte Suprema de Justicia de Colombia durante el primer año de gobierno del presidente liberal Alfonso López Pumarejo, entre 1934 y 1935, cuando este lidió con un tribunal integrado por una mayoría de magistrados pertenecientes al Partido Conservador, que era percibido como el último bastión de la hegemonía conservadora. Este trabajo pone en evidencia el comportamiento estratégico de una Corte Suprema dominada por magistrados de origen conservador, que parecía intentar una relación institucional de colaboración con el nuevo gobierno hacia el año 1934. Reconstruye el juicio de constitucionalidad a la reforma tributaria impuesta por decreto de estado de sitio del Ejecutivo liberal que la Corte declaró inexequible en 1935, cuya decisión generó que la corporación fuera percibida como un órgano que actuaba movido por intereses partidistas. Por último, ofrece un análisis en conjunto sobre el rol político del tribunal en esta coyuntura del régimen político colombiano. Este análisis busca contribuir a una mejor comprensión del control constitucional colombiano y del rol que jugó la Corte Suprema de Justicia como juez constitucional –y por tanto, actor del régimen político–, en una perspectiva histórica, en este caso en el contexto de la transición de la hegemonía conservadora a la Segunda República Liberal que se consolidó con el gobierno de la Revolución en Marcha.

  9. WATER TEMPERATURE, SALINITY, and HYDROSTATIC PRESSURE collected from R/V Point Sur in Entrance to the Gulf of California from 2013-04-19 to 2013-05-02 (NCEI Accession 0131072)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Hydrographic data were collected in Pescadero Basin (at the entrance to the Gulf of California) and subsequently along the West Coast of Baja California and Southern...

  10. Tra corti e campi di battaglia: Alfonso d’Avalos, Luigi Tansillo e le affinità elettive tra petrarchisti napoletani e spagnoli

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tobia R. Toscano

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Tra tutte le capitali che entrarono a far parte del grande impero di Carlo V, Napoli appare, fin dal soggiorno di Garcilaso, il luogo ideale per l’esercizio della poesia lirica: qui era già molto sviluppato quel processo di compenetrazione tra armas y letras che costituisce la divisa di una nuova pleiade di petrarchisti, che, accanto alla occupazione prevalente del servizio militare, avevano sviluppato già sul declinare del sec. XV un interesse e una pratica costanti della poesia, anticipando nella prassi il modello del perfetto cortegiano, assunto poi a modello dalle élites spagnole. Figure di grande rilievo in questo processo di modellizzazione possono essere considerati Alfonso d’Avalos, marchese del Vasto, e Luigi Tansillo, i cui manoscritti di rime per il III Duca di Sessa ebbero grande diffusione in Spagna, incrociandosi con l'esperienza lirica di Gutierre de Cetina, che sulla scorta di Tansillo introdurrà nella poesia spagnola la forma metrica del madrigale, non trattata né da Garcilaso né da Boscàn.Parmi toutes les capitales qui firent partie du grand Empire de Charles-Quint, Naples semble, à partir du séjour de Garcilaso, le lieu idéal pour l’exercice de la poésie lyrique. Le mariage des armes et des lettres (armas y letras y était déjà très avancé et était devenu la devise d’une nouvelle pléiade de pétrarquistes. Leur intérêt pour la poésie leur avait fait développer dès la fin du XVe siècle, en marge de leur occupation principale, le service militaire, une constante pratique de la poésie, anticipant le modèle du parfait courtisan, que les élites espagnoles allaient imiter. Dans ce processus de modélisation, une place particulière revient à Alfonso d’Ávalos, marquis del Vasto, et à Luigi Tansillo, dont les manuscrits de poésies pour le IIIe duc de Sessa connurent une importante diffusion en Espagne, où ils croisèrent l’expérience lyrique de Gutierre de Cetina. Celui-ci, à la suite de

  11. Bibliography, geophysical data locations, and well core listings for the Mississippi Interior Salt Basin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-05-01

    To date, comprehensive basin analysis and petroleum system modeling studies have not been performed on any of the basins in the northeastern Gulf of Mexico. Of these basins, the Mississippi Interior Salt Basin has been selected for study because it is the most petroliferous basin in the northeastern Gulf of Mexico, small- and medium-size companies are drilling the majority of the exploration wells. These companies do not have the resources to perform basin analysis or petroleum system modeling research studies nor do they have the resources to undertake elaborate information searches through the volumes of publicly available data at the universities, geological surveys, and regulatory agencies in the region. The Advanced Geologic Basin Analysis Program of the US Department of Energy provides an avenue for studying and evaluating sedimentary basins. This program is designed to improve the efficiency of the discovery of the nation`s remaining undiscovered oil resources by providing improved access to information available in the public domain and by increasing the amount of public information on domestic basins. This report provides the information obtained from Year 1 of this study of the Mississippi Interior Salt Basin. The work during Year 1 focused on inventorying the data files and records of the major information repositories in the northeastern Gulf of Mexico and making these inventories easily accessible in an electronic format.

  12. Quantitative basin evaluation, a tool for reducing exploration risks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2001-07-01

    Over the last decade, the evaluation of the petroleum potential of sedimentary basins has shifted from a qualitative to a quantitative approach. This new perspective has led to the elaboration of basin simulators and a new discipline emerged: the basin modeling which is nowadays massively used by the oil industry. This methodology is an integration platform including geology, geochemistry and physics. Combined with uncertainty assessments, it is a powerful tool for reducing exploration risks. In this respect, IFP dedicates one of its IFP Sessions to 'Quantitative Basin Evaluation, a Tool for Reducing Exploration Risks'. This session was held on 18 June, 2001. The purpose of this workshop is to review the most modern advances used by professionals in the oil industry to improve the rate of hydrocarbon discovery and to lower exploration costs in frontier areas. IFP Sessions are conferences held for decision-makers and technical leaders to promote exchanges among involved parties: oil and gas companies, petroleum services and supply industries, engineering firms and research centers. Program: quantitative basin evaluation: the Berkine basin and its results; application of 2-D and 3-D basin modelling in the Gulf of Mexico; 2-D modelling in Brazilian sedimentary basins: lessons from recent case histories; quantitative modelling in the North Sea: towards a more confident assessment of the critical risks (*); uncertainties evaluation in petroleum system modelling (*); prediction of hydrocarbon type in the deep-water, Gulf of Mexico (*); constraining source and charge risk in deep-water areas - the Gulf of Mexico and offshore Angola (*); an overview of basin modelling and geochemistry activities in PDO; quantitative basin evaluation: how does it affect decision in exploration (*); panel discussion: evolution of the modelling tools. Abstracts are available only for 5 presentations (marked with (*)). (J.S.)

  13. La colección Himenopterológica (Insecta) del Museo de Zoología “Alfonso L. Herrera” de la Facultad de Ciencias, UNAM, México

    OpenAIRE

    Olivia Yáñez Ordóñez; Ismael Hinojosa Díaz

    2004-01-01

    La colección Himenopterológica del Museo de Zoología “Alfonso L. Herrera” de la Facultad de Ciencias de la UNAM, cuenta con una base de datos que incluye 22,015 ejemplares de abejas correspondientes a seis familias, 115 géneros y 819 especies y subespecies provenientes de 22 entidades federativas del país y áreas con 21 tipos de vegetación, lo que la coloca como la segunda colección en importancia para este grupo de insectos en México.

  14. Organic carbon budget for the Gulf of Bothnia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Algesten, Grete; Brydsten, Lars; Jonsson, Per; Kortelainen, Pirkko; Löfgren, Stefan; Rahm, Lars; Räike, Antti; Sobek, Sebastian; Tranvik, Lars; Wikner, Johan; Jansson, Mats

    2006-12-01

    We calculated input of organic carbon to the unproductive, brackish water basin of the Gulf of Bothnia from rivers, point sources and the atmosphere. We also calculated the net exchange of organic carbon between the Gulf of Bothnia and the adjacent marine system, the Baltic Proper. We compared the input with sinks for organic carbon; permanent incorporation in sediments and mineralization and subsequent evasion of CO 2 to the atmosphere. The major fluxes were riverine input (1500 Gg C year - 1 ), exchange with the Baltic Proper (depending on which of several possible DOC concentration differences between the basins that was used in the calculation, the flux varied between an outflow of 466 and an input of 950 Gg C year - 1), sediment burial (1100 Gg C year - 1 ) and evasion to the atmosphere (3610 Gg C year - 1 ). The largest single net flux was the emission of CO 2 to the atmosphere, mainly caused by bacterial mineralization of organic carbon. Input and output did not match in our budget which we ascribe uncertainties in the calculation of the exchange of organic carbon between the Gulf of Bothnia and the Baltic Proper, and the fact that CO 2 emission, which in our calculation represented 1 year (2002) may have been overestimated in comparison with long-term means. We conclude that net heterotrophy of the Gulf of Bothnia was due to input of organic carbon from both the catchment and from the Baltic Proper and that the future degree of net heterotrophy will be sensible to both catchment export of organic carbon and to the ongoing eutrophication of the Baltic Proper.

  15. Hydroacoustic estimation of fish biomass in the Gulf of Nicoya, Costa Rica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hedgepeth, J; Gallucci, V F; Campos, J; Mug, M

    2000-01-01

    A stratified sampling design was used for a hydroacoustic survey of the inner parts of the Gulf of Nicoya in 1987 and 1988. The bottom topography of the inner Gulf was modeled by introducing the concept of a topographical basin model, as the basis for the projection of the sample survey estimates to the entire inner gulf. The bottom depth contours and volumes for the basin model were constructed from nautical charts. The estimates of sample abundance were made for the fish in the inner Gulf using the acoustic methods, EMS (Expectation Maximization and Smoothing) and echo integration. The estimates of population were made by the multiplication of the topographic model's estimate of water volume and a model of fish density dependent on bottom depth. The results showed a general decrease in fish density biomass with bottom depth, and a simultaneous tendency for maximum concentrations over bottom depths of about four meters. The four meter bottom depth includes a broad expanse of the inner Gulf located south of Isla Chira. Overall estimates of volumetric density (0.269 fish/m3) and of areal densities (1.88 fish/m2) are comparable to other estuarine shallow water environments.

  16. Danish Gulf War Veterans Revisited

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nissen, Lars Ravnborg; Stoltenberg, Christian; Nielsen, Anni B Sternhagen

    2016-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To examine the assumption that postdeployment incidence of sickness and other absence from work are higher among Gulf War Veterans compared with nonveterans. METHODS: A prospective registry study including a cohort of 721 Danish Gulf War Veterans and a control cohort of 3,629 nonveterans...... and nonveterans in the incidence rate of long-term sickness absence. After an initial short period (3 months) with elevated incidence rate of long-term absence from work among veterans, there was no difference between the cohorts. CONCLUSION: Among Danish Gulf War Veterans, no postdeployment increased risk...

  17. Distribution and ecology of deep-water benthic foraminifera in the Gulf of Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poag, C.W.

    1984-01-01

    Bathyal and abyssal foraminifera in the Gulf of Mexico are distributed among thirteen generic predominance facies. Five predominance facies nearly encircle the Gulf basin along the slope and rise; a sixth predominance facies blankets the Sigsbee Plain, and a seventh is restricted to the Mississippi Fan. The remaining eight predominance facies have more restricted distributions. The areal patterns of these predominance facies can be related chiefly to water mass and substrate characteristics; modifications are brought about by calcite dissolution, upwelling, and sill depth. Analysis of ancient generic predominance facies is useful in predicting relative paleobathymetry and other paleoenvironmental properties. ?? 1984.

  18. Seasonal Variation of CO2 in the Gulf of Bothnia: Indications for Net Heterotrophy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Algesten, G.; Wikner, J.; Sobek, S.; Tranvik, L. J.; Jansson, M.

    2004-05-01

    Marine systems have been considered to be in carbon balance with the atmosphere, which means that primary production equals total respiration within the system. However, recent studies indicate that large parts of the ocean, especially oligotrophic marine systems, are net heterotrophic and, thus, a source of CO2 to the atmosphere. Net heterotrophy implies that organic carbon is transported to low-productive areas, either by redistribution of organic carbon (OC) from more productive marine zones or by input of terrestrial OC via rivers. This study was conducted in the Gulf of Bothnia, which is situated between Sweden and Finland in northern Europe. It is a brackish water body with two major basins (Bothnian Bay and Bothnian Sea). The Gulf receives a high input of OC from Swedish and Finnish rivers, but also from the adjacent more productive water body of the Baltic Proper. Previous studies on carbon balance in the Gulf of Bothnia have indicated that the system is net heterotrophic. We therefore employed, for the first time, direct estimates of CO2 saturation to assess the net ecosystem exchange in the two major basins of the Gulf of Bothnia during one year. Primary and bacterial production (PP and BP) was also measured in order to calculate the respiration-production balance in the Gulf of Bothnia. On an annual basis the surface water was supersaturated with CO2, indicating net heterotrophy. The Gulf of Bothnia oscillated between being a sink and a source of CO2 over the studied period, largely decided by the temporal variation in bacterial respiration (BR) and primary production in the water column above the pycnocline. Calculated annual respiration-production balance (BR-PP) was very similar to the estimated CO2 emission from the Gulf of Bothnia, indicating that these processes were the major determinants of the exchange of CO2 between water and atmosphere. The southern basin (Bothnian Sea) had a lower net release of CO2 to the atmosphere than the northern

  19. Late Holocene Hurricane Activity in the Gulf of Mexico from a Bayou Sediment Archive

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodysill, J. R.; Donnelly, J. P.; Toomey, M.; Sullivan, R.; MacDonald, D.; Evans, R. L.; Ashton, A. D.

    2012-12-01

    Hurricanes pose a considerable threat to coastal communities along the Atlantic seaboard and in the Gulf of Mexico. The complex role of ocean and atmospheric dynamics in controlling storm frequency and intensity, and how these relationships could be affected by climate change, remains uncertain. To better predict how storms will impact coastal communities, it is vital to constrain their past behavior, in particular how storm frequency and intensity and the pattern of storm tracks have been influenced by past climate conditions. In an effort to characterize past storm behavior, our work contributes to the growing network of storm records along the Atlantic and Gulf coasts by reconstructing storm-induced deposits in the northern Gulf of Mexico during the Late Holocene. Previous work on the northern Gulf coast has shown considerable centennial-scale variability in the occurrence of intense hurricanes, much like the northern Atlantic coast and in the Caribbean Sea. The timing of active and quiet intervals during the last 1000 years amongst the Gulf Coast records appears to be anti-phased with stormy intervals along the North American east coast. The sparse spatial coverage of the existing intense hurricane reconstructions provides a limited view of the natural variability of intense hurricanes. A new, high resolution reconstruction of storms along the northern Gulf Coast would be beneficial in assembling the picture of the patterns of storminess during the Late Holocene. Our study site, Basin Bayou, is situated on the north side of Choctawhatchee Bay in northwest Florida. From 1851 to 2011, 68 storms have struck the coast within 75 miles of Basin Bayou, of which 10 were Category 3 or greater, making it a prime location to reconstruct intense hurricanes. Basin Bayou openly exchanges water with Choctawhatchee Bay through a narrow channel, which acts as a conduit for propagating storm surges, and potentially coarse-grained bay sediments, into the bayou. Our record is

  20. Geological evaluation of Gulf Coast salt domes: overall assessment of the Gulf Interior Region

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1981-10-01

    The three major phases in site characterization and selection are regional studies, area studies, and location studies. This report characterizes regional geologic aspects of the Gulf Coast salt dome basins. It includes general information from published sources on the regional geology; the tectonic, domal, and hydrologic stability; and a brief description the salt domes to be investigated. After a screening exercise, eight domes were chosen for further characterization: Keechi, Oakwood, and Palestine Domes in Texas; Vacherie and Rayburn's domes in North Louisiana; and Cypress Creek and Richton domes in Mississippi. A general description of each, maps of the location, property ownership, and surface geology, and a geologic cross section were presented for each dome.

  1. Improved Hypoxia Modeling for Nutrient Control Decisions in the Gulf of Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Habib, Shaid; Pickering, Ken; Tzortziou, Maria; Maninio, Antonio; Policelli, Fritz

    2010-01-01

    As required by the Harmful Algal Bloom and Hypoxia Research Control Act of 1998, the Mississippi River/Gulf of Mexico Watershed Nutrient Task Force issued the 2001 Gulf Hypoxia Action Plan (updated in 2008). In response to the Gulf Hypoxia Action Plan of 2001 (updated in 2008), the EPA Gulf of Mexico Hypoxia Modeling and Monitoring Project has established a detailed model for the Mississippi-Attchafalaya River Basin which provides a capability to forecast the multi-source nutrient loading to the Gulf and the subsequent bio-geochemical processes leading to hypoxic conditions and subsequent effects on Gulf habitats and fisheries. The primary purpose of the EPA model is to characterize the impacts of nutrient management actions, or proposed actions on the spatial and temporal characteristics of the Gulf hypoxic zone. The model is expected to play a significant role in determining best practices and improved strategies for incentivizing nutrient reduction strategies, including installation of on-farm structures to reduce sediment and nutrient runoff, use of cover crops and other agricultural practices, restoration of wetlands and riparian buffers, improved waste water treatment and decreased industrial nitrogen emissions. These decisions are currently made in a fragmented way by federal, state, and local agencies, using a variety of small scale models and limited data. During the past three years, EPA has collected an enormous amount of in-situ data to be used in the model. We believe that the use of NASA satellite data products in the model and for long term validation of the model has the potential to significantly increase the accuracy and therefore the utility of the model for the decision making described above. This proposal addresses the Gulf of Mexico Alliance (GOMA) priority issue of reductions in nutrient inputs to coastal ecosystem. It further directly relates to water quality for healthy beaches and shellfish beds and wetland and coastal conservation

  2. Gulf of Mexico Deepwater Bathymetry with Hillshade

    Data.gov (United States)

    Bureau of Ocean Energy Management, Department of the Interior — Gulf of Mexico Depth Grid Cells derived from BOEM's seismic grid compilation. BOEM's deepwater Gulf of Mexico bathymetry grid. Created by mosaicing over 100 3D...

  3. Chronic Fatigue Syndrome in Gulf War Veterans

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Enter ZIP code here Enter ZIP code here Chronic Fatigue Syndrome in Gulf War Veterans Gulf War ... and be at least 10 percent disabling. About Chronic Fatigue Syndrome CFS is an unexplained, severe and ...

  4. The Sediment Sequence in the Southern Gulf of California — Distribution, Thickness, Sedimentlogical and Rock Magnetic Properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fucugauchi, J. U.; Perez-Cruz, L.

    2008-05-01

    The Gulf of California is a young tectonic ocean basin formed by sea-floor spreading and transform faulting along the Pacific-North America plate boundary. The Gulf of California is an elongated narrow basin oriented almost N- S, and bordered by the Baja California peninsula and mainland Mexico. To the north, it limits with the basins and transform fault of the San Andreas, and in the south with the East Pacific Rise and transform faults of the Rivera and Cocos plates. Here we focus on the sediment sequence in the southern sector at the mouth of the Gulf and the margin and central basins, which constitute a rich archive of the Gulf tectonic opening, plate boundary reorganizations and the paleoclimatic and paleoenvironmental evolution. Marine magnetic anomalies can be traced to approximately 3.6 Ma ago in the area of the mouth of the Gulf. There are relatively few studies of magnetic mineralogy, rock magnetism, magnetostratigraphy and paleomagnetism in these marine sediments. Here we present initial results of a study on the distribution and relative thickness of the sediment sequences in the mouth of the Gulf from geophysical surveys. Relative distribution and thicknes of sediments correlate with the bathymetry and location with respect to spreading center, transform faults and margins of the peninsula and mainland Mexico. Main sediment sources are silicic rocks from the Comondu Formation in the Baja California peninsula and the intrusive and volcanic rocks in Jalisco and Nayarit, including the Puerto Vallarta batholith. Pluvial terrigenous, fine-grained eolian and biogenic sediments are present in the sediment cores with less frequent turbiditic and tephra deposits. Core analyses of rock magnetic properties and mineralogy at few locations are summarized and discussed in terms of sediment sources, transport and deposition processes, diagenesis, paleoceanographic and paleoclimatic evolution during the Late Quaternary.

  5. Coastal change and hypoxia in the northern Gulf of Mexico: Part I

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The Committee on Environment and Natural Resources (CENR has identified the input of nutrient-rich water from the Mississippi/Atchafalaya River Basin (MARB as the prime cause of hypoxia in the northern Gulf of Mexico and the prime means for its control. A Watershed Nutrient Task Force was formed to solve the hypoxia problem by managing the MARB catchment. However, the hypoxic zone is also experiencing massive physical, hydrological, chemical and biological changes associated with an immense river-switching and delta-building event that occurs here about once a millennium. Coastal change induced hypoxia in the northern Gulf of Mexico prior to European settlement. It is recommended that for further understanding and control of Gulf hypoxia the Watershed Nutrient Task Force adopt a truly holistic environmental approach which includes the full effects of this highly dynamic coastal area.

  6. Gulf of California biogeographic regions based on coastal zone color scanner imagery

    Science.gov (United States)

    SantamaríA-Del-Angel, Eduardo; Alvarez-Borrego, Saúl; Müller-Karger, Frank E.

    1994-04-01

    Topographically, the Gulf of California is divided into a series of basins and trenches that deepen to the south. Maximum depth at the mouth is greater than 3000 m. Most of the northern gulf is less than 200 m deep. The gulf has hydrographic features conducive to high primary productivity. Upwelling events have been described on the basis of temperature distributions at the eastern coast during winter and spring and at the western coast during summer. Tidal amplitude may be as high as 9 m in the upper gulf. On the basis of discrete phytoplankton sampling, the gulf was previously divided into four geographic regions. This division took into consideration only the space distribution, taxonomic composition, and abundance of microphytoplankton. With the availability of the coastal zone color scanner (CZCS) imagery, we were able to include the time variability of pigments to make a more detailed biogeographic division of the gulf. With weekly composites of the imagery, we generated time series of pigment concentrations for 33 locations throughout the gulf and for the whole life span of the CZCS. The time series show a clear seasonal variation, with maxima in winter and spring and minima in summer. The effect of upwelling at the eastern coast is clearly evident, with high pigment concentrations. The effect of the summer upwelling off the Baja California coast is not evident in these time series. Time series from locations on the western side of the gulf also show maxima in winter and spring that are due to the eddy circulation that brings upwelled water from the eastern side. Principal-component analysis was applied to define 14 regions. Ballenas Channel, between Angel de la Guarda and Baja California, and the upper gulf always appeared as very distinct regions. Some of these 14 regions relate to the geographic distributions of important faunal groups, including the benthos, or their life cycles. For example, the upper gulf is a place for reproduction and the nursery of

  7. Too many eggs in one basket? US Gulf coast and Gulf of Mexico risks not just technical

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Skinner, R. [Oxford Inst. of Energy Studies, Oxford (United Kingdom)

    2006-07-01

    The reasons behind the waning gas supply in North America were discussed. Gas prices in North America are currently 3 times higher than they were in 1990. Although there are twice as many rigs, drilling twice as many wells, 5 to 20 per cent deeper, they are finding one third less recoverable gas than in 1990. It was emphasized that the continental gas supply system is vulnerable to upsets in much the same way that the global surplus oil production capacity was affected by upsets. North America has relied on 2 major basins to supply two thirds of its gas. These include the Western Canada Sedimentary Basin as well as the region encompassing the Gulf of Mexico, southern Texas and Louisiana. Both major basins are in rapid decline. In addition, hurricanes in the Gulf of Mexico have increased in both intensity and frequency, ensuing damage to oil and gas infrastructure and dislocating the continent's gas system. This trend is expected to continue and the periodic advisory reports from the National Petroleum Council indicate an austere future for gas supply and demand, with a reliance on difficult, remote, uncertain and costly supplies. The economy, energy consumption, storage, supply and weather are all factors that contribute to the rising gas prices in North America. The author claimed that North American gas supply has been and continues to be constrained by misguided policies. Given the decline in the main supply basins, gas supply is expected to remain tight barring weaker gross domestic product (GDP). It was emphasized that weather-dominated North American gas markets will increasingly affect the rest of the world, including Europe which has its own gas supply concerns and which is increasingly linked to North America's gas supply problem. figs.

  8. Temperature of the Gulf Stream

    Science.gov (United States)

    2002-01-01

    The Gulf Stream is one of the strong ocean currents that carries warm water from the sunny tropics to higher latitudes. The current stretches from the Gulf of Mexico up the East Coast of the United States, departs from North America south of the Chesapeake Bay, and heads across the Atlantic to the British Isles. The water within the Gulf Stream moves at the stately pace of 4 miles per hour. Even though the current cools as the water travels thousands of miles, it remains strong enough to moderate the Northern European climate. The image above was derived from the infrared measurements of the Moderate-resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) on a nearly cloud-free day over the east coast of the United States. The coldest waters are shown as purple, with blue, green, yellow, and red representing progressively warmer water. Temperatures range from about 7 to 22 degrees Celsius. The core of the Gulf Stream is very apparent as the warmest water, dark red. It departs from the coast at Cape Hatteras, North Carolina. The cool, shelf water from the north entrains the warmer outflows from the Chesapeake and Delaware Bays. The north wall of the Gulf Stream reveals very complex structure associated with frontal instabilities that lead to exchanges between the Gulf Stream and inshore waters. Several clockwise-rotating warm core eddies are evident north of the core of the Gulf Stream, which enhance the exchange of heat and water between the coastal and deep ocean. Cold core eddies, which rotate counter clockwise, are seen south of the Gulf Stream. The one closest to Cape Hatteras is entraining very warm Gulf Stream waters on its northwest circumference. Near the coast, shallower waters have warmed due to solar heating, while the deeper waters offshore are markedly cooler (dark blue). MODIS made this observation on May 8, 2000, at 11:45 a.m. EDT. For more information, see the MODIS-Ocean web page. The sea surface temperature image was created at the University of Miami using

  9. Gulf Petro Initiative

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fathi Boukadi

    2011-02-05

    In this report, technologies for petroleum production and exploration enhancement in deepwater and mature fields are developed through basic and applied research by: (1) Designing new fluids to efficiently drill deepwater wells that can not be cost-effectively drilled with current technologies. The new fluids will be heavy liquid foams that have low-density at shallow dept to avoid formation breakdown and high density at drilling depth to control formation pressure. The goal of this project is to provide industry with formulations of new fluids for reducing casing programs and thus well construction cost in deepwater development. (2) Studying the effects of flue gas/CO{sub 2} huff n puff on incremental oil recovery in Louisiana oilfields bearing light oil. An artificial neural network (ANN) model will be developed and used to map recovery efficiencies for candidate reservoirs in Louisiana. (3) Arriving at a quantitative understanding for the three-dimensional controlled-source electromagnetic (CSEM) geophysical response of typical Gulf of Mexico hydrocarbon reservoirs. We will seek to make available tools for the qualitative, rapid interpretation of marine CSEM signatures, and tools for efficient, three-dimensional subsurface conductivity modeling.

  10. The Role of Rift Obliquity in Formation of the Gulf of California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bennett, Scott Edmund Kelsey

    The Gulf of California illustrates how highly oblique rift geometries, where transform faults are kinematically linked to large-offset normal faults in adjacent pull-apart basins, enhance the ability of continental lithosphere to rupture and, ultimately, hasten the formation of new oceanic basins. The Gulf of California rift has accommodated oblique divergence of the Pacific and North America tectonic plates in northwestern Mexico since Miocene time. Due to its infancy, the rifted margins of the Gulf of California preserve a rare onshore record of early continental break-up processes from which to investigate the role of rift obliquity in strain localization. Using new high-precision paleomagnetic vectors from tectonically stable sites in north-central Baja California, I compile a paleomagnetic transect of Miocene ignimbrites across northern Baja California and Sonora that reveals the timing and distribution of dextral shear associated with inception of this oblique rift. I integrate detailed geologic mapping, basin analysis, and geochronology of pre-rift and syn-rift volcanic units to determine the timing of fault activity on Isla Tiburon, a proximal onshore exposure of the rifted North America margin, adjacent to the axis of the Gulf of California. The onset of strike-slip faulting on Isla Tiburon, ca. 8 - 7 Ma, was synchronous with the onset of transform faulting along a significant length of the nascent plate boundary within the rift. This tectonic transition coincides with a clockwise azimuthal shift in Pacific-North America relative motion that increased rift obliquity. I constrain the earliest marine conditions on southwest Isla Tiburon to ca. 6.4 - 6.0 Ma, coincident with a regional latest Miocene marine incursion in the northern proto-Gulf of California. This event likely flooded a narrow, incipient topographic depression along a ˜650 km-long portion of the latest Miocene plate boundary and corresponds in time and space with formation of a newly

  11. Maps showing distribution of the Middle Cretaceous unconformity in the eastern Gulf of Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Massingill, L.M.; Wells, R.H.

    1987-01-01

    Several theories on the origin of the Gulf of Mexico basin have been introduced by various researchers (Beloussov, 1970; Freeland and Dietz, 1971; Malfait and Dinkelman, 1972; Wood and Walper, 1974; Pilger, 1978; Buffler and others, 1980; Dickinson and Coney, 1980; Gose and others, 1980; Schmidt-Effing, 1980; Walper, 1980; Schlager and others, 1984). Although no final agreement has been reached, one prominent geologic feature is generally recognized. The early evolution of the basin ended with a major middle Cretaceous event resulting in a Gulf-wide unconformity referred to as the middle Cretaceous unconformity (MCU). This event represents a major shift from Early Cretaceous shallow-water bank sedimentation to Late Cretaceous deeper water carbonates (Worzel and others, 1973; Mitchum, 1978).

  12. Elementos sociohistóricos intervinientes en la construcción de los estadios Alfonso López y El Campín para los primeros Juegos Bolivarianos: Bogotá, 1938

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrés Felipe Hernández Acosta

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available La introducción de los deportes en las sociedades que entran en procesos de modernización es un fenómeno complejo, en el que intervienen muchos factores sociales, históricos y culturales. La necesidad de investigar el deporte científicamente viene tomando fuerza en Colombia en los años recientes. Este texto aspira a contribuir en esa dirección, tomando como objeto dos hitos arquitectónicos de construcción simultánea, que fueron importantes, no solo para nuestro desarrollo deportivo, sino para el rediseño urbanístico de la capital: el Estadio Nemesio Camacho, “El Campín” y el Estadio Alfonso López, de la Universidad Nacional de Colombia, en el año de 1938.

  13. Aurora Díez-Canedo F. (ed.), Enrique Díez-Canedo y Alfonso Reyes, Correspondencia 1915-1943 : México D. F.: Fondo Editorial de Nuevo León, 2010, 302 pp.

    OpenAIRE

    Haramboure, Julieta

    2012-01-01

    Enrique Díez-Canedo y Alfonso Reyes se conocieron en 1914, cuando el mexicano abandonó Francia, que había entrado en guerra, y se trasladó a Madrid. A partir de allí, iniciaron una estrecha relación hasta los últimos días de vida del español. Durante todo ese período, Díez-Canedo y Reyes intercambiaron numerosas cartas, las cuales permitieron el contacto entre ambos a pesar de los constantes movimientos geográficos que requerían sus respectivas funciones públicas. El libro aquí reseñado recop...

  14. Larval Fish Assemblages, Environment and Circulation in a Semienclosed Sea (Gulf Of California).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peguero, M.; Sánchez-Velasco, L.; Lavín, M.; Marinone, G.

    2007-05-01

    Fish larvae and hydrographic data collected in the Gulf of California in December 2002 are used to describe the larval fish assemblages and to explore their relationships with environmental variables. The Bray-Curtis dissimilarity index defined three larval fish assemblages, whose goeographical distribution coincided with three areas defined by Principal Component Analysis of the environmental variables. The affinity of most of the species with the environmental characteristics of their areas of distribution could be interpreted as an indication that spawning occurred inside those areas. However, it is not known when the spawning took place, and the fast currents in the Gulf could rapidly disperse eggs and larvae. Since transport and retention is best studied from a Lagrangian point of view, the currents from a 3D numerical model were used to track large numbers of particles released in the different larval fish assemblage areas. Particle-tracking and connectivity matrices can help in assessing larval fish retention in seas that, like the Gulf of California, have well defined circulation patterns. On time scales around 30 days, retention occurred for the North assemblage in the Upper Gulf, for the Channel- Central assemblage in the anticyclone over the Norhern Gulf and in Ballenas Channel, and for the South assemblage in the eddy over San Pedro Mártir basin and in the shallow zone off the peninsula. Therefore, the Lagrangian analysis revealed that the observed larval fish assemblages have a permanency long enough to allow the larve to remain in a favorable environment until they develop motility.

  15. Rayleigh wave dispersion measurements reveal low-velocity zones beneath the new crust in the Gulf of California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Persaud, Patricia; Di Luccio, Francesca; Clayton, Robert W.

    2015-03-01

    Rayleigh wave tomography provides images of the shallow mantle shear wave velocity structure beneath the Gulf of California. Low-velocity zones (LVZs) are found on axis between 26 and 50 km depth beneath the Guaymas Basin but mostly off axis under the other rift basins, with the largest feature underlying the Ballenas Transform Fault. We interpret the broadly distributed LVZs as regions of partial melting in a solid mantle matrix. The pathway for melt migration and focusing is more complex than an axis-centered source aligned above a deeper region of mantle melt and likely reflects the magmatic evolution of rift segments. We also consider the existence of solid lower continental crust in the Gulf north of the Guaymas Basin, where the association of the LVZs with asthenospheric upwelling suggests lateral flow assisted by a heat source. These results provide key constraints for numerical models of mantle upwelling and melt focusing in this young oblique rift.

  16. Gulf War Illness Research Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    neurofibromato- sis; autism ; and other areas with military health interests including psychological health, traumatic brain injury, and Gulf War Illness (GWI...the national news headlines, it has not dimmed our hope that treatments and cures for GWI are waiting to be discovered and brought to bear against

  17. Gulf and Dilmun Type seals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Laursen, Steffen

    2011-01-01

    these Gulf Type‘ seals drew heavily on Indus Valley iconography and Indus script was occasionally employed in a pidgin-like manner. While the earliest circular seals incorporate features from Mesopotamian glyptic only to a lesser extent, this becomes a more important source of inspiration for later Dilmun...

  18. Structural geometry in the eastern Pyrenees and western Gulf of Lion (Western Mediterranean)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mauffret, Alain; Durand de Grossouvre, Bernard; Tadeu Dos Reis, Antonio; Gorini, Christian; Nercessian, Alex

    2001-11-01

    We present new seismic data from the Gulf of Lion located east of the Pyrenees on the continental shelf of the Mediterranean Sea. The deep penetration LISA (Ligurian-Sardinia Sea) seismic lines, the shots of the LISA cruise recorded on land, and the high definition ELF seismic sections allow us to present a complete picture of the tectonics in this area from the surface to the Moho level, and also to document late Miocene-early Pliocene extensional tectonics in the area. Previous studies show a prominent thinning of the crust observed from the Pyrenees towards the Gulf of Lion. The Moho depth varies from 48 km beneath the Axial Range crust (thickened during the Pyrenean Eocene Orogeny) to 21 km below the Catalan Basin in the Gulf of Lion. This crustal thinning occurred mainly during the early Miocene extension of the Mediterranean Sea. Balanced reconstructed geological sections derived from reflection and refraction seismic data allow us to evaluate the stretching factors at the crustal level. A maximum extension of 25 km is computed for the Catalan Basin area. This extension is related to detachments that penetrate the crust as deep as 11 km to the base of the brittle crust. These intra basement detachments have been confused in the past with the Paleozoic acoustic basement. The detachments show a clear listric shape and the geometry of horst and grabens can be explained by a hanging wall and footwall configuration with isostatic rebound of the footwall. The uplift in the Eastern Pyrenees (Albères and Canigou Massifs), on the other hand, is related to the late Miocene-early Pliocene extension we mapped in the area. These elevated features, probably formed by isostatic rebound, are surrounded by deep basins such as the Roussillon and El Empordà depressions. A 1.7 km uplift during the late Miocene-early Pliocene is computed in the offshore part of the Albères Massif. The cause of this Late Miocene-early Pliocene extension is not well explained although an uplift

  19. Seismic characterization of hydrates in faulted, fine-grained sediments of Krishna-Godavari basin: Unified imaging

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Jaiswal, P.; Dewangan, P.; Ramprasad, T.; Zelt, C.A.

    (Clennell et al., 1999). However, in basins affected by structural deformation, local fluid and heat flow, and spatially variable sedimentation, e.g., Gulf of Mexico (Ding et al., 2008) and Krishna-Godavari (Dewangan et al., 2011), the BSR profile may..., northern Gulf of Mexico: Part I. A seismic approach based on geologic model, inversion, and rock physics principles. Marine and Petroleum Geology 25, 830-844. Daigle, H., Dugan, B., 2011. Capillary controls on methane hydrate distribution and fracturing...

  20. Thermal Evolution of the North-Central Gulf Coast

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nunn, Jeffrey A.; Scardina, Allan D.; Pilger, Rex H., Jr.

    1984-12-01

    The subsidence history of the North Louisiana Salt Basin, determined from well data, indicates that the region underwent extension during rifting and has since passively subsided due to conductive cooling of the lithosphere. Timing of the rifting event is consistent with opening of the Gulf of Mexico during Late Triassic to Early Jurassic time. Crustal extension by a factor of 1.5 to 2 was computed from "tectonic" subsidence curves. However, data from the early subsidence history are insufficient to distinguish between uniform and nonuniform extension of the lithosphere. The magnitude of extension is in good agreement with total sediment and crustal thicknesses from seismic refraction data in the adjacent Central Mississippi Salt Basin. The temperature distribution within the sediments is calculated using a simple heat conduction model. Temperature and subsidence effects of thermal insulation by overlying sediments are included. The computed temperature distribution is in good agreement with bottom hole temperatures measured in deep wells. Temperature histories predicted for selected stratigraphic horizons within the North Louisiana Salt Basin suggest that thermal conditions have been favorable for hydrocarbon generation in the older stata. Results from a two-dimensional heat conduction model suggest that a probable cause for the early formation of the adjacent uplifts is lateral heat conduction from the basin. Rapid extension of the lithosphere underneath areas with horizontal dimensions of 50-100 km produces extremely rapid early subsidence due to lateral heat conduction. The moderate subsidence rate observed in the North Louisiana Salt Basin during the Jurassic and Early Cretaceous suggests slow extension over a long period of time.

  1. Why does the Ballenas Channel have the coldest SST in the Gulf of California?

    Science.gov (United States)

    López, Manuel; Candela, Julio; Argote, María L.

    2006-06-01

    Moored and hydrographic observations at the three most important sills in the northern Gulf of California (NGC) are used to describe the circulation. At the deepest San Esteban (SE) sill (600 m), the mean along-gulf flow is weak and outward (toward the mouth of the gulf) in the entire water column, whereas the mean deep flow is inward and bottom-intensified at the San Lorenzo (SL) sill (400 m), which controls the southern entrance to the Ballenas Channel (BC). However, large tidal currents (>1 m/s during spring tides) in the SE sill drive a net inward bottom transport of 0.09 Sv (1 Sv = 1 × 106 m3/s), due to a tidal pumping process. At the SL sill the net transport is also about 0.09 Sv, but here the mean flow contributes more than the tides and both are into the gulf. At the northern BC sill, which controls the northward entrance to the BC, the mean near-bottom flow is southward, implying that the bottom water of this deep basin is renewed at both of its ends. Moreover, the mean surface flow at both ends of the BC is out of the channel and, hence, the convergence at the bottom is compensated by a divergence at the surface, generating a persistent upwelling (~5 m/day) within the channel. This circulation pattern primarily explains why the BC has the coldest SST and is one of the most biologically productive basins in the Gulf of California.

  2. A retrospective view of the development of the Gulf of Bothnia ecosystem

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuosa, Harri; Fleming-Lehtinen, Vivi; Lehtinen, Sirpa; Lehtiniemi, Maiju; Nygård, Henrik; Raateoja, Mika; Raitaniemi, Jari; Tuimala, Jarno; Uusitalo, Laura; Suikkanen, Sanna

    2017-03-01

    We analysed long-term monitoring data from 1979 to 2012 in the Gulf of Bothnia, the northernmost extension of the Baltic Sea, to examine changes in the summer food web structure, and to reveal the factors causing the observed changes. Of the two sub-basins in the Gulf of Bothnia, the Bothnian Sea is more dynamic in its hydrography and food web structure than the Bothnian Bay, due to the variable influence of the more eutrophic and more saline Baltic Proper. Variation in deep-water intrusion from the main Baltic Proper, and its effect on salinity and stratification, had a clear effect on the phyto- and zooplankton communities in the Bothnian Sea. Probably due to this intrusion, the nutrient status in this basin has also changed in terms of nitrogen limitation, with subsequent class- and genus-level changes in phytoplankton community composition. The migration of cod to the Bothnian Sea during the 1980s had profound effects on the herring population, but cascading effects affecting the basis of the food web were not obvious. In contrast to a more pronounced interplay of both top-down control and bottom-up nutrient limitation of the Bothnian Sea, the Bothnian Bay food web was mostly driven by hydrography and climate, and major changes were observed in the basis of the food web. Community changes were observed in both basins in the Gulf of Bothnia throughout the entire time period. Human influence considerably affects both the basis of the food web and its very top, where man has replaced the natural top predators. Though the eutrophication status of the Gulf has been rather stable, the results indicate that the potential symptoms should be surveyed specifically in the Bothnian Sea, and that management of Baltic herring stocks requires an understanding, and thus monitoring, of the entire food web.

  3. Deep-sea coral record of human impact on watershed quality in the Mississippi River Basin

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Prouty, N.G.; Roark, E.B.; Koenig, A.E.; Demopoulos, A.W.J.; Batista, F.C.; Kocar, B.D.; Selby, D.; McCarthy, M.D.; Mienis, F.

    2014-01-01

    One of the greatest drivers of historical nutrient and sediment transport into the Gulf of Mexico is the unprecedented scale and intensity of land use change in the Mississippi River Basin. These landscape changes are linked to enhanced fluxes of carbon and nitrogen pollution from the Mississippi Ri

  4. Agriculture in the Mississippi River Basin; effects on water quality, aquatic biota, and watershed conservation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agriculture has been identified as a potential leading source of nutrients (nitrogen and phosphorus) and sediment enrichment of water bodies within the Mississippi River basin (MRB) and contributes to impaired water quality and biological resources in the MRB and the northern Gulf of Mexico (GOM). T...

  5. The outer Gulf of Mexico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Henery, D. [Shell Internationale Petroleum Maatschappij BV, Den Haag (Netherlands)

    1996-12-31

    This paper deals with the offshore activity in the Gulf of Mexico. Up to the end of 1995 there have been close to 300 exploratory wells drilled in water depths beyond 450 metres, and over 50 development wells. In addition approximately 1.500 leases have been awarded in the deep water. Themes discussed are deep water discoveries, average well rates, and key learnings points

  6. Estimation of carrying capacity of the Gulf of Kachchh, west coast of India in relation to petroleum hydrocarbon through oil spill modeling

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Vethamony, P.; Babu, M.T.; Reddy, G.S.; Sudheesh, K.; Desa, E.; Zingde, M.D.

    The Gulf of Kachchh (GoK) is a semi-enclosed basin located in the northern part of the west coast of India, and opens to the Arabian Sea. GoK is about 170 km long and 75 km wide at the mouth, and encompasses several ecosystems. Besides major...

  7. La financiación de las empresas mediterráneas de Alfonso el Magnánimo. Bailía General, Subsidios de Cortes y Crédito Institucional en Valencia (1419-1455

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mira Jódar, Antonio José

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available This article studies the role of the General Bailía of Valencia—the office for the management of the royal domain resources of the kingdom of Valencia- in the political and military projects of Alfonso V the Magnanimous in the Mediterranean. In this way its also analysed the role of the Parliament, a class representation of the kingdom, and the city of Valencia, main urban centre The incomes from the royal domain, the donations from the Parliaments as a representative assemblies, and the loans provided by the city of Valencia contributed in a decisive way to the guarantee of the economic viability of Alfonso Vs military expansion. It is right that the main instruments that the king had to apply his aggressive policy was, on the one hand, the centralized and complex organization around the General Treasure of the Crown of Aragon and, later on, to the Treasure of the Kingdom of Naples; on the other hand, to the solid banking infrastructure built around the Mediterranean. Therefore, both of them were based on the confidence and guaranties offered by the powerful ordinary and non ordinary tax structures of the kingdom, and the solid financial support given by the institutions of the kingdom.

    En este trabajo se pretende determinar la funciones respectivas que la bailía general de Valencia, como oficina administradora de los recursos patrimoniales de la corona, las Cortes, en su calidad de representación estamental del reino, y la ciudad de Valencia, el principal centro urbano del país, desempeñaron en la financiación de los ambiciosos proyectos político-militares de Alfonso V en el Mediterráneo. De hecho, las rentas derivadas del Real Patrimonio, los donativos proporcionados por las asambleas representativas y los préstamos facilitados por el municipio contribuyeron decisivamente a garantizar la viabilidad económica de las empresas bélicas del Magnánimo. Es cierto que los principales instrumentos con los que contaba el monarca

  8. La dialéctica texto-imagen. A propósito de la representación del judío en las “Cantigas de Santa María” de Alfonso X

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodríguez Barral, Paulino

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available The treatment of the image of Jews in the Cantigas by Alfonso X fluctuates between their total condemnation and the perspective of salvation. The condemnation of Judaism embodies some classic topics of medieval anti-Semitism such as alliance with the devil, infanticide, ritual murder, or sacrilegious desecration. This negative vision is tempered in some cantigas in which their jewish protagonists embrace the Christian faith as a result of Virgin Mary's intervention.

    This ambiguity may be a reflection of the monarch's attitude towards Judaism. On the one hand his reign is marked by prejudice both in certain proceedings and in the regulations of the Partidas, but on the other some Jews cooperate actively with the king's cultural and and scientific undertakings and even hold important public positions.



    El tratamiento de la imagen del judío en las Cantigas de Alfonso X oscila entre la condena sin paliativos y la perspectiva de la salvación. La primera toma cuerpo en algunos de los motivos clásicos del antisemitismo medieval como la alianza con el diablo, el infanticidio, el crimen ritual, o la profanación sacrílega. Una visión extremadamente negativa que se matiza en aquéllas cantigas en las que sus protagonistas, a instancias de la intervención mariana, acaban abrazando la fe cristiana.

    Probablemente haya que ver en todo ello un reflejo de la ambigüedad que, en relación al judaísmo, caracteriza el

  9. La infanta Doña María, monja de Sijena, y su política castellana durante la minoría de Alfonso XI (1312-1325

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    García Fernández, Manuel

    1998-12-01

    Full Text Available The Infanta Doña María, the eldest daughter of James II of Aragon, was a decisive and influential personality in Castilian politics during Alfonso XI's minority years (1312-1325. Married to the Infante Don Pedro, uncle and tutor of the king of Castile, she would perform her duties consistently following the political guidelines of her husband until his death in 1319. Thenceforward, her relationships with the circles of royal power were not in good terms. Questions such as the government and administration of her feudal patrimonies, inherited from Don Pedro, and the birth of her daughter Blanca, as well as her education and residence in either Aragon or Castille, were all tackled by the Infanta from Aragon, from the Monastery of Sijena opposing the longing tor power of both the Infante Don Felipe and García Lasso de la Vega, and even of king Alfonso XI himself. This essay aims at the analysis of these relationships from a Castilian perspective, making use of the excellent documentation kept in the ACA and edited from old.[fr] L'infante Marie, fille aînée du roi Jacques II d'Aragon, fut un personnage décisif et influent de la société politique castillane pendant la minorité d'Alphonse XI (1312-1325. Mariée à l'infant Pierre, oncle et tuteur du roi de Castille, elle se conforma aux directives poliques de son époux jusqu'à la mort de ce dernier en 1319. À partir de cette date, ses relations avec les milieux proches du pouvoir royal ne furent pas bonnes. L'administration de ses domaines seigneuriaux, hérités de l'infant Pierre, la naissance et l'éducation de sa fille Blanche ainsi que sa résidence aragonaise ou castillane constituèrent autant d'affaires que l'infante dut défendre de l'Aragon, du Monastère de Sijena, contre les convoitises de l'infant Philippe, de Garcia Lasso de la Vega et du roi Alphonse XI lui-même. Cette étude a pour but l'analyse de toutes ces relations du point de vue castillan, en prenant comme base l

  10. Gramíneas uruguayas de D. José Arechavaleta (1838-1912, en el Real Colegio Alfonso XII de San Lorenzo de El Escorial (Madrid, España

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carrasco, María A.

    2001-12-01

    Full Text Available The Royal Monastery of El Escorial was built in the xvi century by king Felipe U. In the part intended to be a college and seminary, the Real Colegio Alfonso XII was established in 1885. In this place, the treasures that had been accumulated for fíve hundred years, that carne from acquisitions, collections and donations, are stored. In this paper we present a small collection, of undeniable historical valué. It contains 186 Gramineae that were sent as a present to María Cristina, the Regent Queen of Spain, by the President of Uruguay on the occasion of the World Exhibition of Barcelona in 1888. The plants are part of the herbarium of the Flora Uruguaya of José Arechavaleta y Balparda [Santurce (España, 1838-Montevideo (Uruguay, 1912]. Some of the plants are annotated by Arechavaleta as new species, and some belong from the loc. clas. All this material is identified by Arechavaleta and J. Hackel.El Real Monasterio de El Escorial fue fundado en el siglo XVI por el rey Felipe n. En la parte dedicada a colegio-seminario se estableció en 1885 el Real Colegio Alfonso XII, donde están depositados todos los fondos que se han ido acumulando a lo largo de quinientos años, procedentes de adquisiciones, recolecciones y donaciones. En este trabajo presentamos una colección, pequeña pero de indudable valor histórico, de 186 Gramineae que fueron enviadas por el presidente del Uruguay a la reina regente de España con motivo de la Exposición Universal de Barcelona celebrada en 1888. Estos materiales son parte del herbario de la Flora Uruguaya de D. José Arechavaleta y Balparda [Santurce (España, 1838-Montevideo (Uruguay, 1912]. Algunas plantas están anotadas por Arechavaleta como especies nuevas -unas cuantas proceden de la localidad clásica- y todas ellas están identificadas por Arechavaleta o J. Hackel.

  11. Seasonal variation of CO2 saturation in the Gulf of Bothnia: Indications of marine net heterotrophy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Algesten, Grete; Wikner, Johan; Sobek, Sebastian; Tranvik, Lars J.; Jansson, Mats

    2004-12-01

    Seasonal variation of pCO2 and primary and bacterioplankton production were measured in the Gulf of Bothnia during an annual cycle. Surface water was supersaturated with CO2 on an annual basis, indicating net heterotrophy and a source of CO2 to the atmosphere. However, the Gulf of Bothnia oscillated between being a sink and a source of CO2 over the studied period, largely decided by temporal variation in bacterial respiration (BR) and primary production (PP) in the water column above the pycnocline. The calculated annual respiration-production balance (BR-PP) was very similar to the estimated CO2 emission from the Gulf of Bothnia, which indicates that these processes were major determinants of the exchange of CO2 between water and atmosphere. The southern basin (the Bothnian Sea) had a lower net release of CO2 to the atmosphere than the northern Bothnian Bay (7.1 and 9.7 mmol C m-2 d-1, respectively), due to higher primary production, which to a larger extent balanced respiration in this basin.

  12. Distribution of surficial sediments in the Southern Evoikos and Petalioi Gulfs, Greece

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.P. KARAGEORGIS

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available A series of 123 surficial sediment samples from the Southern Evoikos and Petalioi Gulfs was studied for grain-size properties, carbonate content and mineralogical composition. Distribution of the sediments revealed two sedimentary provinces. The first concerns the Southern Evoikos Gulf, characterised by silty sediments with relatively low carbonate content. Quartz, feldspars, micas, clay and carbonate minerals are the major mineralogical components of the sediments. These sediments are the result of the Asopos River supply during Holocene and they contribute to the formation of smooth bottom morphology. The second province concerns the Petalioi Gulf (Northern and Southern, where the surficial sediments are mainly sandy and characterised by very high carbonate content. Their mineralogical composition reflects the lithology of the drainage basin. Since the modern terrigenous solid supply is limited, these sediments are not considered as products of recent sedimentation, but older deposits (relict sands. Their presence at such depths is justified by sea-level fluctuations and their preservation is due to the low sedimentation rate in the Petalioi Gulf, in combination with the strong hydrodynamic status of the area.

  13. Correlation of Gulf of Mexico Nutrient Availability and Foraminiferan Body Size

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernandez, J.; Payne, J.; Keating-Bitonti, C.

    2012-12-01

    The Island Rule states that organisms converge on an optimal body size through time. The Gulf of Mexico is surrounded by land, which allows the organisms to retain similar amounts of nutrients. We hypothesis that organisms living in the Gulf of Mexico will not show size difference. This study focuses on nutrient availability and benthic foraminiferal body size distributions. Foraminifera are single-celled marine organisms that are an excellent recorder of the environment. An ANOVA statistical test was done to see if foram body size varied with our different independent variables. We did not observe a significant difference in the body size of benthic foraminifera between those living in the shallow water and those in the deep basin in the Gulf of Mexico. Our results suggest that benthic foraminifera in the Gulf of Mexico receive a greater amount of nutrients because it is surrounded by land. Overall, our prediction to this study tested out to be true because the organisms showed no significant change on the body size.

  14. Thermocline Regulated Seasonal Evolution of Surface Chlorophyll in the Gulf of Aden

    KAUST Repository

    Yao, Fengchao

    2015-03-19

    The Gulf of Aden, although subject to seasonally reversing monsoonal winds, has been previously reported as an oligotrophic basin during summer, with elevated chlorophyll concentrations only occurring during winter due to convective mixing. However, the Sea-Viewing Wide Field-of-View Sensor (SeaWiFS) ocean color data reveal that the Gulf of Aden also exhibits a prominent summer chlorophyll bloom and sustains elevated chlorophyll concentrations throughout the fall, and is a biophysical province distinct from the adjacent Arabian Sea. Climatological hydrographic data suggest that the thermocline, hence the nutricline, in the entire gulf is markedly shoaled by the southwest monsoon during summer and fall. Under this condition, cyclonic eddies in the gulf can effectively pump deep nutrients to the surface layer and lead to the chlorophyll bloom in late summer, and, after the transition to the northeast monsoon in fall, coastal upwelling driven by the northeasterly winds produces a pronounced increase in surface chlorophyll concentrations along the Somali coast. © 2015 Yao, Hoteit.

  15. Regional Geophysical Surveys and Crustal Structure of the Gulf of Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez-Chavez, F.; Fucugauchi, J. U.

    2007-05-01

    Results of processing and modeling of anomaly data from regional geophysical surveys in the southern sector of the Gulf of Mexico are presented. The Gulf of Mexico has been intensively studied for several years, mainly because of the economic potential of the oil and gas resources. The basin may have formed by sea-floor spreading, rifting and lateral translation/rotation of continental slivers ssociated with major break-up and drifting apart of North and South America continental plates in the mid Mesozoic. Major structural features and crustal structure, including the continent-ocean transition and Gulf coastal passive margin are relatively poorly understood. Aerogeophysical gravity and magnetic surveys have been conducted and data are processed and modeled to investigate on the Gulf crustal structure. Spectral statistical estimates of regional basement depths derived from aeromagnetics give mean depths of 8000 m. Estimates derived from gravity anomalies are in the order of 10000 m. Depths derived from 2D and 3D seismic reflection surveys conducted for oil exploration purposes in selected areas indicate average depths to basement from 6000 m to values grater than those derived from potential field data.

  16. OCEANOGRAPHY IN THE GULF OF MEXICO.

    Science.gov (United States)

    The report gives a summary of oceanographic research in the Gulf of Mexico supported by the Office of Naval Research during the period 1 May 1961...15 December 1969. This research involved theoretical studies in ocean dynamics; currents in the Gulf of Mexico , Cayman Sea, western tropical Atlantic

  17. Fishery potential of the Gulf of Kachchh

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Nair, V.R.; Govindan, K.; Ramaiah, Neelam; Gajbhiye, S.N.

    Fishery potential of the interior Gulf of Kachchh and adjacent creek regions was reported for the first time as baseline data for future ecological assessment. The experimental trawling and gill netting indicated that the inner Gulf (av. 7.8 kg...

  18. CEOs: Gulf crisis hits hospitals' bottom line.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnsson, J

    1990-12-01

    Hospital CEOs say the Persian Gulf crisis could hit them hard where it counts. In fact, hospitals are already seeing some adverse impact from events in the Middle East. From fundraising to plant management to strategic planning, the confrontations in the Gulf are having an impact on the hospital's bottom line.

  19. Probiotic (VSL#3) for Gulf War Illness

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-01

    Changes in Fecal Microbiota of Gulf War Veterans with Irritable Bowel Syndrome. I was invited to write an editorial in the journal of Digestive...8 Appendices Abstract (Presented at the Digestive Disease Week Changes in Fecal Microbiota of Gulf...diarrhea-predominant IBS had fewer detectable bacterial groups (average of 270 subfamilies) than mixed IBS (average of 360 subfamilies) and healthy

  20. Israel : Gulf of Aqaba Environmental Action Plan

    OpenAIRE

    World Bank; European Union

    2000-01-01

    The Gulf of Aqaba Environmental Action Plan (GAEAP) represents for the Government of Israel a step towards achieving the national environmental objectives outlined in its legislation. The proposed actions, both curative and preventive, will protect the Gulf's land and water interface and ensure conservation of natural resources within a framework in which economic development can take plac...

  1. Characterization of the major aroma-active compounds in mango (Mangifera indica L.) cultivars Haden, White Alfonso, Praya Sowoy, Royal Special, and Malindi by application of a comparative aroma extract dilution analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munafo, John P; Didzbalis, John; Schnell, Raymond J; Schieberle, Peter; Steinhaus, Martin

    2014-05-21

    The aroma-active compounds present in tree-ripened fruits of the five mango (Mangifera indica L.) cultivars Haden, White Alfonso, Praya Sowoy, Royal Special, and Malindi were isolated by solvent extraction followed by solvent-assisted flavor evaporation (SAFE) and analyzed by gas chromatography-olfactometery (GC-O). Application of a comparative aroma extract dilution analysis (cAEDA) afforded 54 aroma-active compounds in the flavor dilution (FD) factor range from 4 to ≥2048, 16 of which are reported for the first time in mango. The results of the identification experiments in combination with the FD factors revealed 4-hydroxy-2,5-dimethyl-3(2H)-furanone as an important aroma compound in all cultivars analyzed. Twenty-seven aroma-active compounds were present in at least one mango cultivar at an FD factor ≥128. Clear differences in the FD factors of these odorants between each of the mango cultivars suggested that they contributed to the unique sensory profiles of the individual cultivars.

  2. Se nas pedras faz feguras parecer... Consideraciones sobre iconografía mariana y figuras poéticas en las Cantigas de Santa María de Alfonso X

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Santiago Disalvo

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Marian iconography has been reflected in medieval Hispanic poetry in many ways, ranging from verses that describe the Virgin and her attributes to theological and mariological concepts expressed plastically by means of rhetorical forms. For example, the garden and the flowers as Holy Mary’s personal ornaments and symbols, or the image of light through a crystal or a glass window in the scenes of the Annunciation –with rich pictorial evidence throughout medieval art–, are present in poetry as symbolic descriptions of various extensions and genre, and, on the other hand, as Marian advocations or mariological tópoi as well (Ave/Eva, Flos, Hortus, Radix-Virga, Regina, Stella. Therefore, this paper proposes a general survey and a comparitive study on some of these procedures, focusing on King Alfonso X’s Cantigas de Santa Maria. In this sense, rhetorical figures, as tools that bridge the gap between the pictorial and the poetic, lead the reading towards a symbolic interpretation provided by the figuration or typologia, as postulated by Erich Auerbach for medieval textuality. Ultimately, the sacred value of Marian images (an inheritance of Byzantine iconic art is represented also in the miracles of the Cantigas de Santa Maria, a masterpiece that shows a strong influence of the iconodulic doctrine.

  3. Desde el lado de la muerte: ficción y finitud en la poesía de Jaime Gil de Biedma, Alfonso Costafreda y José Ángel Valente

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Luis Fernández Castillo

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available In his famous work The Rhetoric of temporality, Paul de Man alluded to William Wordsworth as «one of the few poets who can write prolectically about his own death and speak, as it were, from beyond their own graves». My paper explores this kind of prolectic writing about death: cases in which authors write about themselves as if they were already dead. I analyze texts of three major poets of the second half of the 20th Century: Jaime Gil de Biedma, José Ángel Valente and Alfonso Costafreda -members of the so called Generación del 50 in Spanish Poetry. My aim is to think about the philosophical implications of these fictional attempts of writing about death confronted to Heidegger's remark about the impossibility of experiencing one's death. This article contributes to clarify how experience of death in Late Modern Poetry is related to a more lucid approach to finitude once all kind of eschatological or metaphysical projections have entered a deep crisis. 

  4. First occurrence of the Indo-Pacific polychaete species Glycinde bonhourei Gravier, 1904 in the Hellenic seas (Northern Evvoikos Gulf

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. SIMBOURA

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available A specimen of Glycinde bonhourei Gravier, 1904, an Indo-Pacific species, was found at a station near the metalliferous waste disposal in the Northern Evvoikos Gulf (Aegean Sea, eastern Mediterranean. This is the second report of this species in the Mediterranean Sea after its first finding in the Levantine basin (Israel and Egypt. This paper provides new information on its distributional range in the Mediterranean Sea.

  5. Benthic foraminifera show some resilience to ocean acidification in the northern Gulf of California, Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pettit, L R; Hart, M B; Medina-Sánchez, A N; Smart, C W; Rodolfo-Metalpa, R; Hall-Spencer, J M; Prol-Ledesma, R M

    2013-08-30

    Extensive CO2 vents have been discovered in the Wagner Basin, northern Gulf of California, where they create large areas with lowered seawater pH. Such areas are suitable for investigations of long-term biological effects of ocean acidification and effects of CO2 leakage from subsea carbon capture storage. Here, we show responses of benthic foraminifera to seawater pH gradients at 74-207m water depth. Living (rose Bengal stained) benthic foraminifera included Nonionella basispinata, Epistominella bradyana and Bulimina marginata. Studies on foraminifera at CO2 vents in the Mediterranean and off Papua New Guinea have shown dramatic long-term effects of acidified seawater. We found living calcareous benthic foraminifera in low pH conditions in the northern Gulf of California, although there was an impoverished species assemblage and evidence of post-mortem test dissolution.

  6. Radionuclide activities, geochemistry, and accumulation rates of sediments in the Gulf of Thailand

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srisuksawad, Kanitha; Porntepkasemsan, Boonsom; Nouchpramool, Sunun; Yamkate, Pathom; Carpenter, Roy; Peterson, Michael L.; Hamilton, Terry

    1997-07-01

    and between 64 and 190 mg/cm 2 per year in the central basin. They indicate that suspended sediments and sediment-associated contaminants from the Bangkok area delivered to the upper Gulf are not efficiently transported south into the central Gulf. Al, Ti, Sc, Mn, and Fe sediment concentrations are generally lower than those observed in average shales and crustal materials. This is attributed to greater solubility of these metals during chemical weathering in the hot, humid, organic carbon rich drainage basins of the Gulf. Enrichment factors show that Fe is less and Mn is more efficiently mobilized from the drainage basin than Al, Ti, or Sc. The strong covariance of Al, Ti, and Sc concentrations suggests that they should be equivalently useful normalizing elements to correct for effects of changing grain size and mineralogy on concentrations of other metals with possible anthropogenic inputs. 1997 Elsevier Science Ltd

  7. Effect of stream channel size on the delivery of nitrogen to the Gulf of Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alexander; Smith; Schwarz

    2000-02-17

    An increase in the flux of nitrogen from the Mississippi river during the latter half of the twentieth century has caused eutrophication and chronic seasonal hypoxia in the shallow waters of the Louisiana shelf in the northern Gulf of Mexico. This has led to reductions in species diversity, mortality of benthic communities and stress in fishery resources. There is evidence for a predominantly anthropogenic origin of the increased nitrogen flux, but the location of the most significant sources in the Mississippi basin responsible for the delivery of nitrogen to the Gulf of Mexico have not been clearly identified, because the parameters influencing nitrogen-loss rates in rivers are not well known. Here we present an analysis of data from 374 US monitor ing stations, including 123 along the six largest tributaries to the Mississippi, that shows a rapid decline in the average first-order rate of nitrogen loss with channel size--from 0.45 day (-1) in small streams to 0.005 day (-1) in the Mississippi river. Using stream depth as an explanatory variable, our estimates of nitrogen-loss rates agreed with values from earlier studies. We conclude that the proximity of sources to large streams and rivers is an important determinant of nitrogen delivery to the estuary in the Mississippi basin, and possibly also in other large river basins.

  8. Effect of stream channel size on the delivery of nitrogen to the Gulf of Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alexander, R.B.; Smith, R.A.; Schwarz, G.E.

    2000-01-01

    An increase in the flux of nitrogen from the Mississippi river during the latter half of the twentieth century has caused eutrophication and chronic seasonal hypoxia in the shallow waters of the Louisiana shelf in the northern Gulf of Mexico. This has led to reductions in species diversity, mortality of benthic communities and stress in fishery resources. There is evidence for a predominantly anthropogenic origin of the increased nitrogen flux, but the location of the most significant sources in the Mississippi basin responsible for the delivery of nitrogen to the Gulf of Mexico have not been clearly identified, because the parameters influencing nitrogen-loss rates in rivers are not well known. Here we present an analysis of data from 374 US monitoring stations, including 123 along the six largest tributaries to the Mississippi, that shows a rapid decline in the average first-order rate of nitrogen loss with channel size-from 0.45 day-1 in small streams to 0.005 day-1 in the Mississippi river. Using stream depth as an explanatory variable, our estimates of nitrogen-loss rates agreed with values from earlier studies. We conclude that the proximity of sources to large streams and rivers is an important determinant of nitrogen delivery to the estuary in the Mississippi basin, and possibly also in other large river basins.

  9. High heat flow and ocean acidification at a nascent rift in the northern Gulf of California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prol-Ledesma, Rosa Ma; Torres-Vera, Marco-Antonio; Rodolfo-Metalpa, Riccardo; Ángeles, Catalina; Lechuga Deveze, Carlos H.; Villanueva-Estrada, Ruth Esther; Shumilin, Evgueni; Robinson, Carlos

    2013-01-01

    The prevailing tectonic setting in the Gulf California suggests the presence of an undetermined number of short spreading centres with associated hydrothermal systems. However, to date, active seafloor spreading phenomena have been documented in only three of the eight tectonically active basins. Here we report heat flow values as high as 15,436 mW m−2 in two of the northernmost basins of the Gulf of California, providing evidence of intense hydrothermal activity associated with the transition from continental rifting to seafloor spreading. The mean heat flow for the Wagner and Consag basins area is 1,875 mW m−2, more than 15 times higher than the mean value for oceanic crust (105.4 mW m−2). Additional evidence for vigorous hydrothermal circulation and a shallow heat source includes intense gas discharge (CO2 and CH4), widespread low pH (average 7.7), locally high 222Rn concentrations in the bottom water and a high extent of organic matter maturation in the sediments. PMID:23340428

  10. Two Overflows in the Northern Gulf of California

    Science.gov (United States)

    López, M.; Candela, J.; García, J.

    2007-05-01

    Two overflows in the Northern Gulf of California are marked by strong average slopes of 15 and 5%. The long term (~ a year) average current at both sills is bottom intensified with average speeds of about 30 and 15 cm/s, respectively. At both sills there are strong tidal currents, but the low-frequency currents are quite persistent with very few flow reversals. Near-bottom stratification upstream (with respect to the overflows) of both sills is relatively strong, but downstream of the sills the near-bottom water is very well mixed and the bottom density is essentially the same as the one found at the sills, despite the almost two-fold (~ 600 m) and more than three-fold (~ 1500 m) increase in depth at the downstream basins. The homogenization of a thick bottom layer downstream, albeit close to the sills, is indicative of very strong mixing. These hydrographic patterns were observed during three different seasons. These results indicate that the deep water in Ballenas Channel is renewed by these overflows which enter at sill depths of ≤ 400 m and which are capable of reaching the deepest part of the basin at ~ 1500 m.

  11. Crustal structure in Gulf of Mexico from OBS refraction and multichannel reflection data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ibrahim, A.K.; Carye, J.; Latham, G.; Buffler, R.T.

    1981-07-01

    Results from 12 reversed refraction profiles each 110 km long have been combined with multichannel reflection data to produce a series of crustal structure sections across the Gulf of Mexico. The refraction data were collected using ocean bottom seismographs (OBS) and explosive charges ranging in size from 1 to 120 lb (0.45 to 54.42 kg). These data show as many as three layers of sedimentary rocks with total thickness between 5 and 9 km and layer velocities between 1.7 and 3.5 km/sec. Beneath most of the Gulf, this sedimentary section is underlain by a layer with velocity between 4.5 and 5.4 km/sec. The acoustic basement as defined by reflection data is confined within this layer. This basement layer, which may be the top of volcanic layer 2, is too thin to be detected in the refraction results. Beneath this layer in most of the deep Gulf is an oceanic crustal layer (layer 3), 3 to 6 km thick which thickens to about 12 km under the Mississippi fan and 10 km in the southeastern Gulf where it is interpreted to be transitional crust. Oceanic layer 3 has a velocity between 6.4 and 7.0 km/sec and overlies a mantle with velocity between 7.6 and 8.2 km/sec. The top of oceanic layer 3 was not observed on regional multichannel seismic profiles. These data confirm earlier refraction interpretation that most of the deep Gulf basin is underlain by an oceanic crustal layer flanked by transitional crust. This layer may have been formed by a mantle thermal event accompanied by a period of rapid sea-floor spreading. 16 figures, 1 table.

  12. Shallow Water Dynamics in the Arabian Gulf and Gulf of Oman

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-06-07

    Shallow Water Dynamics in the Arabian Gulf and Gulf of Oman Dr. Cheryl Ann Blain Naval Research Laboratory, Ocean Dynamics and Prediction Branch...of a circulation model for the Arabian Gulf and connecting waters that realistically predicts the complex, 3-D circulation and mixing patterns in the...forcings in the region, a strong evaporative flux, seasonal wind forcing, and freshwater river discharge. Not only are realistic current fields sought but

  13. Leviathan moving to expand Gulf gas system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1992-06-15

    This paper reports that Leviathan Gas Pipeline Co., Houston, has advanced plans for a large deepwater pipeline gathering system in the Gulf of Mexico. Under an agreement between Deep-Tech International Inc. and Transco Energy Co., Leviathan will pay $65 million for Transco interests in several gulf gas gathering pipelines and related facilities. Leviathan is a Deep Tech subsidiary. Gulf pipeline assets Leviathan acquired from Transco include Louisiana Offshore Pipeline Systems (LOPS), Green Canyon Pipeline Co., and companies owning at 40% interest in High Island Offshore System (HIOS) and a 33 1/1% interest in United Texas Offshore System (UTOS).

  14. Sea Level Changes And Depositional Environments In The Izmit Gulf, Eastern Marmara Sea, During The Late Glacial-Holocene Period

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cagatay, M. N.; Görür, N.; Polonia, A.; Demirbag, E.; Sakinc, M.; Cormier, M. H.; Capotondi, L.; McHugh, C.; Emre, O.; Eris, K.

    2003-04-01

    Offshore and onshore stratigraphic studies, together with high-resolution shallow seismic reflection profiling and multibeam bathymetric mapping, were carried out in the western and central part of the Izmit Gulf. These studies indicate that the western Gulf Izmit was a fresh water environment as part of the Marmara "lake" during the late glaciation and early deglaciation until ~12 kyr BP, when the Marmara basin was inundated by the Mediterranean waters. Correlation of 14C-dated onshore and offshore stratigraphic units in the western Izmit Gulf indicates that generally coarse late glacial sediments overlie a marked erosion surface formed during the low water level of the Marmara "Lake". These coarse sediments are followed upwards by 10.4-7 kyr BP old transgressive and the late Holocene post-transgression mud units. The bathymetry and subbottom chirp profiles clearly show that the palaeoshoreline of this lake was located at -85 m, having been controlled by the bedrock sill depth of the Çanakkale Strait. Another palaeoshoreline observed -65 m on northern margin of the Western Izmit and Karamürsel basins was probably formed during the Younger Dryas sea-level still stand. The shelf areas during about this time were colonized by bioherms, which were drowned and disappeared after further rise of the sea level. The presence of a -65 m marine paleoshoreline in the Karamürsel basin indicate that the sill restricting this basin to the west was much deeper than its present -55 m level and placed further south. The Gölcük basin restricted by a -38 m sill to its west was not probably flooded by the marine waters until ~10 kyr BP. Onshore alluvial fan deposits include a 10-15 cm. thick layer at 18 m containing a mixture of bones, charcoal, marine shells and brick tiles. This layer, dated at 2875 +-85 yr BP (1049 +-82 BC), is believed to be a possible tsunami deposit.

  15. The composition and the source of hydrocarbons in sediments taken from the tectonically active Andaman Backarc Basin, Indian Ocean

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Chernova, T.G.; Rao, P.S.; Pikovskii, Yu.I.; Alekseeva, T.A.; Nath, B.N.; Rao, B.R.; Rao, Ch.M.

    . Hydrothermal petroleum genesis, migra- tion and deposition in Guaymas Basin, Gulf of California. Can. J. Earth Sci. 22, 1919–1929. Simoneit, B.R.T., 1990. Petroleum generation an easy and widespread process in hydrothermal systems, an overview. Appl. Geochem. 5...

  16. Campano-Maastrichtian foraminifera from onshore sediments in the Rio del Rey Basin, Southwest Cameroon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Njoh, Oliver Anoh; Victor, Obiosio; Christopher, Agyingi

    2013-03-01

    Campanian-Maastrichtian marine sediments outcrop in five genetically linked sedimentary basins along the West African coast in the Gulf of Guinea, from the Douala Basin in Cameroon to the Anambra Basin in Nigeria. These sediments in the more centrally located Rio del Rey Basin have been the least studied. Therefore, the geologic history of this region has merely been speculative. The Rio del Rey Basin like the adjacent Niger Delta is producing hydrocarbon from the offshore Tertiary sedimentary interval in which all studies have been focused, neglecting the onshore Cretaceous sediments. Outcrops in the basin are rare, small and highly weathered. Samples from some of these sediments have yielded a few Planktonic and dominantly benthonic foraminiferal assemblages. The long-ranging heterohelix and hedbergellids characterized the planktics while the species Afrobolivina afra which is a well known diagnostic taxon for Campanian-Maastrichtian sediments in West African basins clearly dominate the benthic assemblage. Its occurrence in association with other Upper Cretaceous forms such as Bolivina explicata, Praebulimina exiqua, Gabonita lata, Ammobaculites coprolithiformis amongst others, formed the basis on which this age was assigned to the sediments sampled from the Rio del Rey Basin. Hence, this work has undoubtedly established the much needed link in this regional geologic history and correlates these sediments with the Logbaba and Nkporo Formations in the Douala Basin in Cameroon and the southeastern Nigerian Sedimentary Basins. Thus, these units were all deposited during this same geologic period and probably controlled by the same geologic event.

  17. Southeast Gulf of Mexico Sperm Whale Study

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Large vessel surveys were conducted during the summers of 2012 and 2014 in the southeastern Gulf of Mexico north of the Dry Tortugas. Data were collected on the...

  18. 2013 Gulf of Mexico SPCE angler survey

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This survey provides economic data related to marine recreational fishing in the Gulf of Mexico. The data collected include preference and opinion information...

  19. Central Gulf of Alaska Rockfish Permit Program

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The North Pacific Fishery Management Council adopted the Central Gulf of Alaska Rockfish Program (Rockfish Program) on June 14, 2010, to replace the expiring Pilot...

  20. Gulf of Mexico Ecosystem Status Report

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Gulf of Mexico is one of the most ecologically and economically valuable marine ecosystems in the world and is affected by a variety of natural and anthropogenic...

  1. Northern Gulf Coast Digital Elevation Model

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NOAA's National Geophysical Data Center (NGDC) is building high-resolution digital elevation models (DEMs) for select U.S. coastal regions in the Gulf of Mexico....

  2. Gulf of Mexico Nutrient, carbon, CTD data

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Gulf of Mexico cruise, nearshore and CTD data collected by the USEPA during 2002 - 2008. This dataset is associated with the following publications: Pauer , J., T....

  3. ROE Gulf of Mexico Hypoxia Sample Locations

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — This dataset describes dissolved oxygen levels in the Gulf of Mexico. Individual sampling sites are represented by point data. The background polygon shows areas...

  4. Gulf Coast Vulnerability Assessment and Conservation Framework

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The proposed partnership to support a Gulf Coast Landscape Conservation Liaison will provide much needed coordination across multiple programs and partnerships to...

  5. Anticlines in the US Gulf Coast [anticlineg

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This dataset of anticlines is intended primarily for reference; it includes major structures such as those shown on Plate 2, Principal structural features, Gulf of...

  6. Influence of Sedimentation on Rift Architecture, Crustal Composition, and Lithospheric Rupture in the Gulf of California and Salton Trough (Invited)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dorsey, R. J.; Umhoefer, P. J.; Martin, A.; Oskin, M. E.; Fletcher, J. M.

    2013-12-01

    The Gulf of California and Salton Trough (GCaST) offer a superb natural laboratory with which to study controls on rift architecture and lithospheric rupture along an evolving oblique rift. Basins in the GCaST are short spreading centers linked by long transform faults that make up the boundary between the Pacific and North America plates. Deformation started ~12.5 Ma as regionally distributed transtension, and accelerated at 7-9 Ma when plate-boundary strain became localized into a narrow belt in the GCaST. Input of sediment from the Colorado River (CR) in the north exerts a primary control on bathymetry, crustal composition, rift architecture, and deformation processes. Basins vary from the overfilled nonmarine Salton Trough in the north to underfilled deep marine basins in the south. In the sediment-starved southern Gulf, basins have completed the transition from continental rifting to seafloor spreading centers with normal mafic ocean crust and magnetic lineations. In contrast, filled and overfilled basins in the northern Gulf and Salton Trough contain thick new transitional crust formed by input and modification of CR sediment as it fills the space created by plate divergence and lithospheric rupture. Thus it appears that rate of sediment input may determine whether or not continental rifting progresses to formation of a new ocean basin floored by mafic crust. Low-angle normal faults (detachment faults) are present only in the northern Gulf and Salton Trough, and are absent in the central to southern Gulf. This may be due to pre-existing differences in thermal conditions between north and south, or perhaps a higher rift angle in the north (33-35°) compared to lower rift angle in the south (17-18°). Although detachment faulting pre-dates introduction of CR sediment, its persistence as the plate boundary localized may have been favored by the thick sedimentary cover that insulated the crust, and overpressure conditions induced by rapid sedimentation and

  7. Qatar Peninsula, United Arab Emirates, Persian Gulf

    Science.gov (United States)

    1983-01-01

    In this view of the Qatar Peninsula, United Arab Emirates, Persian Gulf, (25.0N, 51.0E) a large oil spill, seen as a large dark toned mass in the water covers much of the surface of the western Persian Gulf. Qatar is one of several of the oil rich United Arab Emirate states. Oil spills and oil pollution of the environment are common occurrances associated with oil tanker loading operations.

  8. Gulf War Illness Inflammation Reduction Trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-10-01

    1 AWARD NUMBER: W81XWH-14-1-0477 TITLE: Gulf War Illness Inflammation Reduction Trial PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR: Ronald R. Bach, Ph.D...5a. CONTRACT NUMBER Gulf War Illness Inflammation Reduction Trial 5b. GRANT NUMBER W81XWH-14-1-0477 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6. AUTHOR(S) 5d...GWI). Elevated biomarkers of inflammation were observed in our pilot observational study of GWI. Thus, chronic inflammation appears to be part of

  9. Reseña Bibliográfica: Alfonso Álvarez Mora, Paesistica - Paisaje / Vittoria Calzolari, Instituto Universitario de Urbanística de Valladolid. Secretariado de Publicaciones e Intercambio Editorial de la Universidad de Valladolid, 2012

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Federico Camerin

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available El libro “Paesistica – Paisaje / Vittoria Calzolari” relata la obra de Vittoria Calzolari (Roma, 1924, profesora, investigadora y urbanista cuyo trabajo a lo largo de su trayectoria se ha centrado en el conocimiento y proyecto del paisaje. Este trabajo se ha realizado al cuidado del profesor Alfonso Álvarez Mora (1945, Doctor Arquitecto y actualmente director del Instituto Universitario de Urbanística de la Universidad de Valladolid (España . El libro se divide en cuatros capítulos escritos en castellano y en italiano, e incluye también la participación del profesor Juan Luis de las Rivas Sanz (1960, compañero de Mora en Valladolid, quien se ha encargado de la reseña biográfica de Calzolari. En el análisis del libro, donde parece imprescindible no mencionar la carrera universitaria y de investigación urbanística de Vittoria Calzolari , el lector puede entender bien como su figura haya influenciado la cultura urbanística y el desarrollo del concepto de paisaje en Italia. De hecho, sus investigaciones y trabajos han sido fundamentales en algunas etapas culturales del siglo XX. Una de las más importantes fue la traducción de sus principios en normas urbanísticas de carácter nacional y local mediante la formulación de los estándares urbanísticos de los planes urbanísticos municipales (que comprende una cantidad mínima de verde público por Decreto Ministerial del Gobierno italiano de 2 abril de 1978.

  10. Major reproductive health characteristics in male Gulf War Veterans. The Danish Gulf War Study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ishøy, T; Andersson, A M; Suadicani, Poul Vilhelm

    2001-01-01

    The male reproductive system could have been affected by various hazardous agents and exposures during and in the aftermath of the Persian Gulf War scenario. We tested the hypothesis that, compared to controls, male Danish Gulf War Veterans would have adverse sex hormone levels, decreased fertility...

  11. Modeling of circulation in the Arabian Gulf and the Sea of Oman: Skill assessment and seasonal thermohaline structure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al Azhar, Muchamad; Temimi, Marouane; Zhao, Jun; Ghedira, Hosni

    2016-03-01

    Hindcast simulations of the Arabian Gulf and the Sea of Oman using the Regional Ocean Modeling System (ROMS) are quantitatively evaluated with basin-wide hydrographic data and time series measurements. The model shows comparable skill in reproducing moored observations of current velocities structure in upper and bottom depths. The skill in simulating observed temperature is higher of 0.93 (scale 0-1) in upper depths compared to 0.52 in bottom depths. Model results are sensitive to parameterization of water clarity. A lower sensitivity was noticed to KPP, GLS, and MY2.5 turbulence closures. When coastal turbid water parameterization is used, accuracy of the model in reproducing seasonal and spatial variations of temperature and salinity increased by 25% compared to the clear water case whereas only 10% increase was noticed when applying KPP turbulent closure. The model reproduces well anticlockwise circulation in the Gulf. A stronger surface inflow of fresher water to the Arabian Gulf through the Strait of Hormuz is simulated in summer compared to winter conditions, mainly due to upper layer horizontal gradient of density between the Arabian Gulf and the Sea of Oman. Less seasonal variability of outflow between 0.15 and 0.20 m s-1 at 50 m to bottom depth around the Strait of Hormuz was noticed in the model results. Modeled surface layer stratification is stronger in summer than winter and varies spatially in the Arabian Gulf with highest stratification near the Strait of Hormuz. Overall, the stratification in shallow water area of the Arabian Gulf remains low throughout the year.

  12. Contamination from gold and platinum-group metals mining in the Gulf of Darién, Colombia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vasquez-Bedoya, L.; Palacio Baena, J.

    2013-12-01

    Gulf of Darién, triangular southernmost extension of the Caribbean Sea, bounded by Panama on the southwest and by Colombia on the southeast and east. The Gulf is made up of 17 municipalities in the department of Choco and Antioquia. The Gulf of Darién is a geostrategic region, rich in biodiversity, known for its natural resources of minerals, oil, lumber as well as its water and fertile land. The Darién also acts as the bridge between South America and Central America and has access to the Pacific Ocean and the Caribbean Sea. The economy in the region is based mainly on agribusinesses, tourism and mining activities, mainly the 'mining of gold and platinum-group metals'. In our study we determined the degree of trace element contamination in estuarine sediment samples originated from mining activities and municipal waste water discharges of effluents on the gulf of Darién. . Surface samples were taken from 17 locations through the entire Gulf. Grain size, Corg, Ag, Al, Ca , Cr, Cu, Fe, Mg, Mn, Na, Ni, Pb and Zn concentrations were analyzed, and enrichment factors (EF) as well as geo-accumulation indices (Igeo) were calculated. Concentrations of Pb, Zn, Ni, Cu and Cr show levels that are consistent with those typically found in urbanized marine environments. EF and Igeo values revealed that the Gulf is extremely contaminated with Ag and moderately contaminated with Cr and Zn. The sources of Cr, Ag, Hg and Zn are associated with the development of mining activities in the Atrato River basin. The observed enrichment of Ag may be explained as a residue of the extraction of gold and platinum-group metals.

  13. Comparación del protocolo oficial: precedencias, simbología y tratamientos, en la etapa de la monarquía de Alfonso XIII, la Segunda República, la Dictadura, la monarquía de Juan Carlos I y la monarquía de Felipe VI

    OpenAIRE

    Benavides Lara, María

    2015-01-01

    En este trabajo se hace un recorrido por la historia del protocolo oficial de España desde el siglo XX hasta la actualidad. Esta investigación se centra en las precedencias, las simbologías y los tratamientos oficiales del reinado de Alfonso XIII, de la Segunda República, de la dictadura del General Franco, de la monarquía de Juan Carlos I y Felipe VI. Con ello relacionaremos los cambios o las igualdades de cada transito histórico, para determinar en que se diferencian o que ti...

  14. MEASURED AND PREFORMED PHOSPHATE IN THE GULF OF MEXICO REGION.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Measured and preformed phosphate-phosphorous versus depth are presented for three recent cruises to the Gulf of Mexico region. Phosphate...are discussed for a hypothetical idealized station in the Gulf of Mexico . (Author)

  15. Sea-level and environmental changes since the last interglacial in the Gulf of Carpentaria, Australia: an overview

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chivas, Allan R.; Garcı́a, Adriana; van der Kaars, Sander; Couapel, Martine; Holt, Sabine; Reeves, Jessica M.; Wheeler, David J.; Switzer, Adam D.; Murray-Wallace, Colin V.; Banerjee, Debabrata; Price, David M.; Wang, Sue X.; Pearson, Grant; Edgar, N. Terry; Beaufort, Luc; de Deckker, Patrick; Lawson, Ewan; Cecil, C. Blaine

    2001-01-01

    The Gulf of Carpentaria is an epicontinental sea (maximum depth 70 m) between Australia and New Guinea, bordered to the east by Torres Strait (currently 12 m deep) and to the west by the Arafura Sill (53 m below present sea level). Throughout the Quaternary, during times of low sea-level, the Gulf was separated from the open waters of the Indian and Pacific Oceans, forming Lake Carpentaria, an isolation basin, perched above contemporaneous sea-level with outlet channels to the Arafura Sea. A preliminary interpretation is presented of the palaeoenvironments recorded in six sediment cores collected by the IMAGES program in the Gulf of Carpentaria. The longest core (approx. 15 m) spans the past 130 ka and includes a record of sea-level/lake-level changes, with particular complexity between 80 and 40 ka when sea-level repeatedly breached and withdrew from Gulf/Lake Carpentaria. Evidence from biotic remains (foraminifers, ostracods, pollen), sedimentology and geochemistry clearly identifies a final marine transgression at about 9.7 ka (radiocarbon years). Before this transgression, Lake Carpentaria was surrounded by grassland, was near full, and may have had a surface area approaching 600 km×300 km and a depth of about 15 m. The earlier rise in sea-level which accompanied the Marine Isotopic Stage 6/5 transgression at about 130 ka is constrained by sedimentological and biotic evidence and dated by optical- and thermoluminescence and amino acid racemisation methods.

  16. Coastal vulnerability assessment of the Northern Gulf of Mexico to sea-level rise and coastal change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pendleton, E.A.; Barras, J.A.; Williams, S.J.; Twichell, D.C.

    2010-01-01

    A coastal vulnerability index (CVI) was used to map the relative vulnerability of the coast to future sea-level rise along the Northern Gulf of Mexico from Galveston, TX, to Panama City, FL. The CVI ranks the following in terms of their physical contribution to sea-level rise-related coastal change: geomorphology, regional coastal slope, rate of relative sea-level rise, historical shoreline change rate, mean tidal range, and mean significant wave height. The rankings for each variable are combined and an index value is calculated for 1-kilometer grid cells along the coast. The CVI highlights those regions where the physical effects of sea-level rise might be the greatest. The CVI assessment presented here builds on an earlier assessment conducted for the Gulf of Mexico. Recent higher resolution shoreline change, land loss, elevation, and subsidence data provide the foundation for a better assessment for the Northern Gulf of Mexico. The areas along the Northern Gulf of Mexico that are likely to be most vulnerable to sea-level rise are parts of the Louisiana Chenier Plain, Teche-Vermillion Basin, and the Mississippi barrier islands, as well as most of the Terrebonne and Barataria Bay region and the Chandeleur Islands. These very high vulnerability areas have the highest rates of relative sea-level rise and the highest rates of shoreline change or land area loss. The information provided by coastal vulnerability assessments can be used in long-term coastal management and policy decision making.

  17. Major and trace elements in zooplankton from the Northern Gulf of California during summer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rentería-Cano, Margarita Elena; Sánchez-Velasco, Laura; Shumilin, Evgueni; Lavín, Miguel F; Gómez-Gutiérrez, Jaime

    2011-09-01

    We report the distribution of major and trace element concentrations in epipelagic zooplankton collected in the Northern Gulf of California in August 2003. The Bray-Curtis index defined three element assemblages in zooplankton: (1) major metals, which included only two elements, Na (3.6-17.0%) and Ca (1.0-4.8%). Na had its highest concentrations in the shallow tidally mixed Upper Gulf, where high salinity, temperature, and zooplankton biomass (dominated by copepods) prevailed. Ca showed its highest concentrations south of Ballenas Channel, characterized by tidal mixing and convergence-induced upwelling, indicated by low sea-surface temperature, salinity, and zooplankton biomass; (2) Six biological essential elements, like Fe (80-9,100 mg kg(-1)) and Zn (20-2,570 mg kg(-1)), were detected in high concentrations in zooplankton collected near Guaymas Basin, which had high surface temperature and chlorophyll a concentrations. (3) Metals of terrigenous origin, such as Sc (0.01-1.4 mg kg(-1)) and Th (0.03-2.3 mg kg(-1)), and redox-sensitive metals, like Co (3-23.8 mg kg(-1)); this was the assemblage with the largest number of elements (15). Both types of elements of assemblage 3 had maximum concentrations in the cyclonic eddy that dominates the summer circulation in the Northern region. We concluded that sediment resuspension by tidal mixing in the Upper Gulf, upwelling south of Ballenas Channel, and the cyclonic eddy were key oceanographic features that affected the element concentrations of epipelagic zooplankton in the Northern Gulf of California. Oceanographic mechanisms such as these may contribute to element incorporation in marine organisms in other seas.

  18. Ressenya a Delle Donne, Fulvio & Torró, Jaume (eds. L’immagine di Alfonso il Magnanimo tra letteratura e storia, tra Corona d’Aragona e Italia - La imatge d’Algons el Magnànim en la literatura i la Historiografia entre la Corona d’Aragó i Itàlia, Florència, SISMEL -Edizioni del Galluzzo , 2016, XII + 300 p. ISBN: 978-88-8450-691-7

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marta Marfany Simó

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Review to Delle Donne, Fulvio & Torró, Jaume (eds. L’immagine di Alfonso il Magnanimo tra letteratura e storia, tra Corona d’Aragona e Italia - La imatge d’Algons el Magnànim en la literatura i la Historiografia entre la Corona d’Aragó i Itàlia, Firenze, SISMEL -Edizioni del Galluzzo , 2016, XII + 300 p. ISBN: 978-88-8450-691-7

  19. 76 FR 54727 - Fisheries of the Caribbean, Gulf of Mexico, and South Atlantic; Spiny Lobster Fishery of the Gulf...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-02

    ... Caribbean, Gulf of Mexico, and South Atlantic; Spiny Lobster Fishery of the Gulf of Mexico and South... Fishery Management Plan for the Spiny Lobster Fishery of the Gulf of Mexico and South Atlantic (FMP) for review, approval, and implementation by NMFS. Amendment 10 proposes actions to revise the lobster...

  20. 75 FR 64171 - Fisheries of the Caribbean, Gulf of Mexico, and South Atlantic; Reef Fish Fishery of the Gulf of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-19

    ... reached by October 28, 2010. This closure is necessary to prevent overfishing of Gulf greater amberjack... legal requirements to prevent and end overfishing and rebuild greater amberjack in the Gulf. On August 4... prevent overfishing of Gulf greater amberjack and increase the likelihood that the 2010 quota will not...

  1. Symptom Patterns Among Gulf War Registry Veterans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hallman, William K.; Kipen, Howard M.; Diefenbach, Michael; Boyd, Kendal; Kang, Han; Leventhal, Howard; Wartenberg, Daniel

    2003-01-01

    Objectives. We identify symptom patterns among veterans who believe they suffer from Gulf War–related illnesses and characterize groups of individuals with similar patterns. Methods. A mail survey was completed by 1161 veterans drawn from the Gulf War Health Registry. Results. An exploratory factor analysis revealed 4 symptom factors. A K-means cluster analysis revealed 2 groups: (1) veterans reporting good health and few moderate/severe symptoms, and (2) veterans reporting fair/poor health and endorsing an average of 37 symptoms, 75% as moderate/severe. Those in Cluster 2 were more likely to report having 1 or more of 24 medical conditions. Conclusions. These findings are consistent with previous investigations of symptom patterns in Gulf War veterans. This multisymptom illness may be more fully characterized by the extent, breadth, and severity of symptoms reported. PMID:12660208

  2. The Mimallonidae (Lepidoptera, Mimallonoidea) of the Caribbean Basin, with the descriptions of two new species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laurent, Ryan A St; Mccabe, Timothy L

    2016-02-29

    Mimallonidae of the Caribbean Basin are discussed, with attention primarily given to species endemic to the Caribbean islands and the northern coast of Venezuela. The Caribbean Basin is a political term for tropical regions circumscribed by the Gulf of Mexico. Cicinnus bahamensis sp. n. is described from the Bahamas, the first species of Mimallonidae from this country. The Cuban species Cicinnus packardii (Grote, 1865), the closest relative of C. bahamensis sp. n., is figured and compared. A third, similar, species from northern coastal Venezuela, C. falcoargenteus sp. n., is described and compared to the previous two species.

  3. The structures, stratigraphy and evolution of the Gulf of Corinth rift, Greece

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Brian; Weiss, Jonathan R.; Goodliffe, Andrew M.; Sachpazi, Maria; Laigle, Mireille; Hirn, Alfred

    2011-06-01

    A multichannel seismic and bathymetry survey of the central and eastern Gulf of Corinth (GoC), Greece, reveals the offshore fault geometry, seismic stratigraphy and basin evolution of one of Earths most active continental rift systems. Active, right-stepping, en-echelon, north-dipping border faults trend ESE along the southern Gulf margin, significantly overlapping along strike. The basement offsets of three (Akrata-Derveni, Sithas and Xylocastro) are linked. The faults are biplanar to listric: typically intermediate angle (˜35° in the centre and 45-48° in the east) near the surface but decreasing in dip and/or intersecting a low- or shallow-angle (15-20° in the centre and 19-30° in the east) curvi-planar reflector in the basement. Major S-dipping border faults were active along the northern margin of the central Gulf early in the rift history, and remain active in the western Gulf and in the subsidiary Gulf of Lechaio, but unlike the southern border faults, are without major footwall uplift. Much of the eastern rift has a classic half-graben architecture whereas the central rift has a more symmetric w- or u-shape. The narrower and shallower western Gulf that transects the >40-km-thick crust of the Hellenides is associated with a wider distribution of overlapping high-angle normal faults that were formerly active on the Peloponnesus Peninsula. The easternmost sector includes the subsidiary Gulfs of Lechaio and Alkyonides, with major faults and basement structures trending NE, E-W and NW. The basement faults that control the rift architecture formed early in the rift history, with little evidence (other than the Vrachonisida fault along the northern margin) in the marine data for plan view evolution by subsequent fault linkage. Several have maximum offsets near one end. Crestal collapse graben formed where the hanging wall has pulled off the steeper onto the shallower downdip segment of the Derveni Fault. The dominant strikes of the Corinth rift faults

  4. Slip history of the La Cruz fault: Development of a late Miocene transform in response to increased rift obliquity in the northern Gulf of California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bennett, Scott E. K.; Oskin, Michael E.; Iriondo, Alexander; Kunk, Michael J.

    2016-12-01

    The Gulf of California rift has accommodated oblique divergence of the Pacific and North America plates in northwestern México since Miocene time. Due to its infancy, its rifted margins preserve a rare onshore record of early continental break-up processes and an opportunity to investigate the role of rift obliquity in strain localization. We map rift-related structures and syn-tectonic basins on southern Isla Tiburón, a proximal onshore exposure of the rifted North America margin. We integrate analysis and geochronology of syn-tectonic sedimentary basins and mapping of crosscutting relationships to characterize the style and timing of fault activity. On southern Isla Tiburón, an early phase of extension initiated between 19-17 Ma and 12.2 Ma. Subsequently, these normal faults and related basins were cut by the La Cruz strike-slip fault and buried by deposits of the La Cruz basin, an elongate, fault-controlled trough coextensive with the La Cruz fault. Crosscutting relationships show that the NW-striking La Cruz fault accrued 5 ± 2 km of dextral slip 8-4 Ma. The La Cruz fault and parallel Tiburón transform were kinematically linked to detachment faulting that accommodated latest Miocene to Pliocene oblique opening of the offshore Upper Tiburón pull-apart basin. The onset of strike-slip faulting on Isla Tiburón was synchronous with the 8-6 Ma onset of transform faulting and basin formation along > 1000 km of the reconstructed Pacific-North America plate boundary. This transition coincides with the commencement of a clockwise azimuthal shift in Pacific-North America relative plate motion that increased the obliquity of the Gulf of California rift and formed the Gulf of California shear zone. The record from the proto-Gulf of California illustrates how highly oblique rift geometries, where transform faults are kinematically linked to pull-apart basins, enhance the ability of continental lithosphere to rupture and, ultimately, hasten the formation of new oceanic

  5. Gulf International Conference on Applied Mathematics 2013

    CERN Document Server

    Advances in Applied Mathematics

    2014-01-01

    This volume contains contributions from the Gulf International Conference in Applied Mathematics, held at the Gulf University for Science & Technology. The proceedings reflects the three major themes of the conference. The first of these was mathematical biology, including a keynote address by Professor Philip Maini. The second theme was computational science/numerical analysis, including a keynote address by Professor Grigorii Shishkin. The conference also addressed more general applications topics, with papers in business applications, fluid mechanics, optimization, scheduling problems, and engineering applications, as well as a keynote by Professor Ali Nayfeh.

  6. Shelf Circulation in the Gulf of Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-11-02

    Gulf of Mexico between 1990 and 1993, are used to describe the seasonal fluctuations in patterns of atmospheric variables from a contemporary set of measurements. Seasonal maps of wind stress based on these measurements resemble wind stress maps based on ship observations, as published by Elliot (1979), rather than maps based on analyses of numerical weather forecasts, as published by Rhodes et a. (1989), particularly near the western boundary of the Gulf. Seasonal maps of wind stress curl are characterized by positive curls over the western and southwestern

  7. Star Formation in the Gulf of Mexico

    CERN Document Server

    Armond, Tina; Bally, John; Aspin, Colin

    2011-01-01

    We present an optical/infrared study of the dense molecular cloud, L935, dubbed "The Gulf of Mexico", which separates the North America and the Pelican nebulae, and we demonstrate that this area is a very active star forming region. A wide-field imaging study with interference filters has revealed 35 new Herbig-Haro objects in the Gulf of Mexico. A grism survey has identified 41 Halpha emission-line stars, 30 of them new. A small cluster of partly embedded pre-main sequence stars is located around the known LkHalpha 185-189 group of stars, which includes the recently erupting FUor HBC 722.

  8. Star Formation in the Gulf of Mexico

    OpenAIRE

    Armond, Tina; Reipurth, Bo; Bally, John; Aspin, Colin

    2011-01-01

    We present an optical/infrared study of the dense molecular cloud, L935, dubbed "The Gulf of Mexico", which separates the North America and the Pelican nebulae, and we demonstrate that this area is a very active star forming region. A wide-field imaging study with interference filters has revealed 35 new Herbig-Haro objects in the Gulf of Mexico. A grism survey has identified 41 Halpha emission-line stars, 30 of them new. A small cluster of partly embedded pre-main sequence stars is located a...

  9. Probiotic (VSL 3) for Gulf War Illness

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-10-01

    AD_________________ Award Number: W81XWH-10-1-0593 TITLE: Probiotic (VSL#3) for Gulf War Illness PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR: Ashok Tuteja, M.D...2015 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER Probiotic (VSL#3) for Gulf War Illness 5b. GRANT NUMBER W81XWH-10-1-0593 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6 . AUTHOR(S) 5d...ABSTRACT The overall objective of the study is to determine whether probiotic VSL#3® will improve 1) intestinal symptoms of Irritable Bowel Syndrome

  10. Probiotic (VSL#3) for Gulf War Illness

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-10-01

    AD_________________ Award Number: W81XWH-10-1-0593 TITLE: Probiotic (VSL#3) for Gulf War Illness. PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR: Ashok Tuteja, M.D...5a. CONTRACT NUMBER Probiotic (VSL#3) for Gulf War Illness 5b. GRANT NUMBER W81XWH-10-1-0593 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6 . AUTHOR(S) 5d. PROJECT...ABSTRACT The overall objective of the study is to determine whether probiotic VSL#3® will improve 1) intestinal symptoms of Irritable Bowel Syndrome and 2

  11. Gulf Coast Clean Energy Application Center

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dillingham, Gavin

    2013-09-30

    The Gulf Coast Clean Energy Application Center was initiated to significantly improve market and regulatory conditions for the implementation of combined heat and power technologies. The GC CEAC was responsible for the development of CHP in Texas, Louisiana and Oklahoma. Through this program we employed a variety of outreach and education techniques, developed and deployed assessment tools and conducted market assessments. These efforts resulted in the growth of the combined heat and power market in the Gulf Coast region with a realization of more efficient energy generation, reduced emissions and a more resilient infrastructure. Specific t research, we did not formally investigate any techniques with any formal research design or methodology.

  12. EXPORTACIÓN DE SEDIMENTOS DESDE CUENCAS HIDROGRÁFICAS DE LA VERTIENTE ORIENTAL DEL GOLFO DE URABÁ: INFLUENCIAS CLIMÁTICAS Y ANTRÓPICAS SEDIMENT EXPORTS FROM THE EASTERN BASIN IN THE GULF OF URABA: CLIMATIC AND ANTHROPOGENIC INFLUENCES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea Arroyave-Rincón

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available En este artículo se analizaron series de tiempo mensuales de precipitación (mm, caudal (m³/s y exportación de sedimentos (kton/día en cuencas de la vertiente oriental del golfo de Urabá. Se analizó la dinámica de la exportación de sedimentos, la relación caudal-exportación y caudal-precipitación. Se infirió el papel de fenómenos atmosféricos estacionales y multianuales (El Niño-Oscilación Sureña, ENOS, y factores antrópicos. Se encontraron variabilidades intra-anuales significativas (ANOVA: pThis article reports on a time-series analysis of monthly precipitation (mm, river discharge (m³/s and sediment export (kton/day in Urabá Gulf. We analyzed the dynamics of sediment exports relative to river discharge, and the dynamics of this latter variable relative to precipitation. We inferred the role of seasonal and multi-annual atmospheric drivers, and anthropogenic factors. We found significant intra-annual variability (ANOVA: p<0.001 consistent with the movement of the Inter-Tropical Convergence Zone. The Pearson correlation between variables showed direct and significant relationships (p<0.001. The ENSO did not influence precipitation. Using aerial-photographs, we analyzed anthropogenic factors in the municipalities of Apartadó (1961-2005 and Chigorodó (1961-2007, finding up to a 90% forest-cover loss. Using double-mass graphs, it was observed an increase in slope steepness (during mid 90’s, consistent with an increase in sediment export rate relative to discharge, thus suggesting that there was a significant effect of human factors, such as deforestation.

  13. Multidisciplinary investigations exploring indicators of gas hydrate occurrence in the Krishna–Godavari Basin offshore, east coast of India

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Ramana, M.V.; Ramprasad, T.; Paropkari, A.L.; Borole, D.V.; Rao, B.R.; Karisiddaiah, S.M.; Desa, M.; Kocherla, M.; Joao, H.M.; LokaBharathi, P.A.; DeSouza, M.J.B.D.; Pattan, J.N.; Khadge, N.H.; PrakashBabu, C.; Sathe, A.V.; Kumar, P.; Sethi, A.K.

    , in the Gulf of Mexico, the Norwegian Sea, and along the northern Cascadian margin— are long known not only for their conventional hydrocarbon potential but also for their gas hydrate accumulation fields (e.g. Brooks et al. 1986; Kennicutt et al. 1988... in future studies attempting to collect long cores and extract methane gas for exploration purposes in the Krishna–Godavari Basin. Hardage and Roberts (2006) have summarized the mechanism of hydrate formation in the Gulf of Mexico by adopting the concept...

  14. The Gulf Stream pathway and the impacts of the eddy-driven abyssal circulation and the Deep Western Boundary Current

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hurlburt, Harley E.; Hogan, Patrick J.

    2008-08-01

    A hydrodynamic model of the subtropical Atlantic basin and the Intra-Americas Sea (9-47°N) is used to investigate the dynamics of Gulf Stream separation from the western boundary at Cape Hatteras and its mean pathway to the Grand Banks. The model has five isopycnal Lagrangian layers in the vertical and allows realistic boundary geometry, bathymetry, wind forcing, and a meridional overturning circulation (MOC), the latter specified via ports in the northern and southern boundaries. The northward upper ocean branch of the MOC (14 Sv) was always included but the southward Deep Western Boundary Current (DWBC) was excluded in some simulations, allowing investigation of the impacts of the DWBC and the eddy-driven mean abyssal circulation on Gulf Stream separation from the western boundary. The result is resolution dependent with the DWBC playing a crucial role in Gulf Stream separation at 1/16° resolution but with the eddy-driven abyssal circulation alone sufficient to obtain accurate separation at 1/32° resolution and a realistic pathway from Cape Hatteras to the Grand Banks with minimal DWBC impact except southeast of the Grand Banks. The separation from the western boundary is particularly sensitive to the strength of the eddy-driven abyssal circulation. Farther to the east, between 68°W and the Grand Banks, all of the 1/16° and 1/32° simulations with realistic topography (with or without a DWBC) gave similar generally realistic mean pathways with clear impacts of the topographically constrained eddy-driven abyssal circulation versus very unrealistic Gulf Stream pathways between Cape Hatteras and the Grand Banks from otherwise identical simulations run with a flat bottom, in reduced-gravity mode, or with 1/8° resolution and realistic topography. The model is realistic enough to allow detailed model-data comparisons and a detailed investigation of Gulf Stream dynamics. The corresponding linear solution with a Sverdrup interior and Munk viscous western boundary

  15. Intrinsic low-frequency variability of the Gulf Stream

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quattrocchi, G.; Pierini, S.; Dijkstra, H. A.

    2012-03-01

    In this paper a process study aimed at analyzing the low-frequency variability of intrinsically oceanic origin of the Gulf Stream (GS) and GS extension (GSE) is presented. An eddy-permitting reduced-gravity nonlinear shallow water model is implemented in an idealized North Atlantic Ocean, with schematic boundaries including the essential geometric features of the coastline and a realistic zonal basin width at all latitudes. The forcing is provided by a time-independent climatological surface wind stress obtained from 41 years of monthly ECMWF fields. The model response yields strong intrinsic low-frequency fluctuations on the interannual to decadal time scales. The modelled time-averaged GS/GSE flows are found to exhibit several features that can also be deduced from satellite altimeter data, such as the Florida Current seaward deflection, the GS separation at Cape Hatteras, and the overall structure of the GSE. The intrinsic low-frequency variability yields two preferred states of the GSE differing in latitudinal location that also have their counterpart in the altimeter data. A preliminary analysis of the variability in terms of dynamical systems theory is carried out by using the lateral eddy viscosity as the control parameter. A complex transition sequence from a steady state to irregular low-frequency variability emerges, in which Hopf and global bifurcations can be identified.

  16. Intrinsic low-frequency variability of the Gulf Stream

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Quattrocchi

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available In this paper a process study aimed at analyzing the low-frequency variability of intrinsically oceanic origin of the Gulf Stream (GS and GS extension (GSE is presented. An eddy-permitting reduced-gravity nonlinear shallow water model is implemented in an idealized North Atlantic Ocean, with schematic boundaries including the essential geometric features of the coastline and a realistic zonal basin width at all latitudes. The forcing is provided by a time-independent climatological surface wind stress obtained from 41 years of monthly ECMWF fields. The model response yields strong intrinsic low-frequency fluctuations on the interannual to decadal time scales. The modelled time-averaged GS/GSE flows are found to exhibit several features that can also be deduced from satellite altimeter data, such as the Florida Current seaward deflection, the GS separation at Cape Hatteras, and the overall structure of the GSE. The intrinsic low-frequency variability yields two preferred states of the GSE differing in latitudinal location that also have their counterpart in the altimeter data. A preliminary analysis of the variability in terms of dynamical systems theory is carried out by using the lateral eddy viscosity as the control parameter. A complex transition sequence from a steady state to irregular low-frequency variability emerges, in which Hopf and global bifurcations can be identified.

  17. Residual circulation and tidal stress in the Gulf of California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salas-De-León, David Alberto; Carbajal-PéRez, Noel; Monreal-Gómez, Maria Adela; Barrientos-MacGregor, Gerardo

    2003-10-01

    Results of a three-dimensional nonlinear barotropic shelf model are used to study the effect of the M2 tidal stress on the residual current in the Gulf of California. The tidal stress summarizes the nonlinear interactions and forces the residual circulation. It is calculated following the method developed by [1975]. The vertical structure of the tidal stress reveals clearly the zones where the interaction between tidal currents and the basin geometry is strong. The highest values of tidal stress were found over the Salsipuedes sill and in the Ballenas Channel in the central archipelago and in the Colorado River Delta. Relatively high values of tidal stress were also found in deeper layers in the southern part. The high tidal stress values coincide well with the anomalous cold-water patches observed in the archipelago area, attributed to tidal mixing. The calculated residual currents show a maximum of about 15 cm s-1 in the upper layers in the archipelago area. At subsurface layers an anticyclonic circulation is observed. Divergence patterns in the upper layers suggest that M2 tide residuals contribute, to significant upward movements of water, on the west side of Tiburón island. This barotropic process may contribute to the generation of the observed cold patches.

  18. Formation of Continental Fragments: The Tamayo Bank, Gulf of California

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Wijk, J.; Abera, R.; Axen, G. J.

    2015-12-01

    Potential field data are used to construct a two-dimensional crustal model along a profile through the Tamayo Trough and Bank in the Gulf of California. The model is constrained by seismic reflection and refraction data, and field observations. The potential field data do not fit a model where the crust of the Tamayo trough is continental, but they fit well with a model where the Tamayo trough crust is oceanic. This implies that the Tamayo Bank is entirely bounded by oceanic crust and is a microcontinent. The oceanic crust of the Tamayo trough that separates the Tamayo Bank from the mainland of Mexico is thin (~4 km), so oceanic spreading was probably magma-starved before it ceased. This led us to come up with a model that explains the formation of microcontinents that are smaller in size and are not found in the proximity of hotspots. At first, seafloor spreading commences following continental breakup. When the magma supply to the ridge slows down, the plate boundary strengthens. Hence, the ridge may be abandoned while tectonic extension begins elsewhere, or slow spreading may continue while a new ridge starts to develop. The old spreading ridge becomes extinct. An asymmetric ocean basin forms if the ridge jumps within oceanic lithosphere; a microcontinent forms if the ridge jumps into a continental margin. This model for formation of continental fragments is applicable to other regions as well, eliminating the need of mantle plume impingement to facilitate rifting of a young continental margin and microcontinent formation.

  19. Gulf Islands Wilderness study area : Gulf Island National Wildlife Refuges : Wilderness study report

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This document is a brief report on a wilderness study area located in the Gulf Island National Wildlife Refuges. It discusses the history of the study area, its...

  20. Integration of numerical modeling and observations for the Gulf of Naples monitoring network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iermano, I.; Uttieri, M.; Zambianchi, E.; Buonocore, B.; Cianelli, D.; Falco, P.; Zambardino, G.

    2012-04-01

    Lethal effects of mineral oils on fragile marine and coastal ecosystems are now well known. Risks and damages caused by a maritime accident can be reduced with the help of better forecasts and efficient monitoring systems. The MED project TOSCA (Tracking Oil Spills and Coastal Awareness Network), which gathers 13 partners from 4 Mediterranean countries, has been designed to help create a better response system to maritime accidents. Through the construction of an observational network, based on state of the art technology (HF radars and drifters), TOSCA provides real-time observations and forecasts of the Mediterranean coastal marine environmental conditions. The system is installed and assessed in five test sites on the coastal areas of oil spill outlets (Eastern Mediterranean) and on high traffic areas (Western Mediterranean). The Gulf of Naples, a small semi-closed basin opening to the Tyrrhenian Sea is one of the five test-sites. It is of particular interest from both the environmental point of view, due to peculiar ecosystem properties in the area, and because it sustains important touristic and commercial activities. Currently the Gulf of Naples monitoring network is represented by five automatic weather stations distributed along the coasts of the Gulf, one weather radar, two tide gauges, one waverider buoy, and moored physical, chemical and bio-optical instrumentation. In addition, a CODAR-SeaSonde HF coastal radar system composed of three antennas is located in Portici, Massa Lubrense and Castellammare. The system provides hourly data of surface currents over the entire Gulf with a 1km spatial resolution. A numerical modeling implementation based on Regional Ocean Modeling System (ROMS) is actually integrated in the Gulf of Naples monitoring network. ROMS is a 3-D, free-surface, hydrostatic, primitive equation, finite difference ocean model. In our configuration, the model has high horizontal resolution (250m), and 30 sigma levels in the vertical. Thanks

  1. 78 FR 42021 - Atlantic Highly Migratory Species; Commercial Gulf of Mexico Aggregated Large Coastal Shark and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-15

    ... Species; Commercial Gulf of Mexico Aggregated Large Coastal Shark and Gulf of Mexico Hammerhead Shark... management groups for aggregated large coastal sharks (LCS) and hammerhead sharks in the Gulf of Mexico...: The commercial Gulf of Mexico aggregated LCS and Gulf of Mexico hammerhead shark management groups...

  2. Signatures of ice flow, retreat and meltwater delivery in the Gulf of Bothnia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenwood, Sarah; Clason, Caroline; Nyberg, Johan; Hell, Benjamin; Öiås, Hans; Holmlund, Per; Jakobsson, Martin

    2014-05-01

    The Gulf of Bothnia has variably played host to the main ice divide of the Fennoscandian ice sheet, ice stream onset, trunk and retreat zones, marine ice sheet decay into the large proglacial Baltic Ice Lake, and the subsequent development of an 'inland' marine basin. It is likely to have acted as both source and depocentre for the delivery of ice, water and sediment in both subglacial and ice-marginal domains. These domains and dynamics have been largely inferred from terrestrial, peripheral evidence. The submerged terrain has been little investigated and its glacial geological archives are virtually unknown. In recent years large swathes of high resolution multibeam echo-sounding data (5-10 metre grid cells) from the Baltic Sea and Gulf of Bothnia have been collected for the Swedish Maritime Administration. These data reveal, with unprecedented clarity, glacial landforms associated with the flow and retreat of ice in these basins. Multiple generations of glacial lineations associated with Baltic and Finnish ice streams are resolved, and indicate their shifting geometry and evolving dynamics. Grounding line deposits at a variety of scales allow us to characterise the style and possible rates of retreat. Our data further offer a detailed view of a dynamic subglacial hydrological system on a sediment substrate: its locally varying patterns of incision and sediment deposition, the extent and connectivity of channelised networks, and the intimate relationship between meltwater landforms, ice-marginal deposits and subglacial bedforms. Here we present these data and explore some of their implications for processes of landform creation, large-scale sediment redistribution in the Bothnian and Baltic basins, the coupling between the glacial hydrological system and ice flow/retreat dynamics, and the regional palaeo-ice sheet history.

  3. Ocean Carbon and Biogeochemistry Scoping Workshop on Terrestrial and Coastal Carbon Fluxes in the Gulf of Mexico, St. Petersburg, FL

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robbins, L. L.; Coble, P. G.; Clayton, T. D.; Cai, W. J.

    2008-01-01

    Despite their relatively small surface area, ocean margins may have a significant impact on global biogeochemical cycles and, potentially, the global air-sea fluxes of carbon dioxide. Margins are characterized by intense geochemical and biological processing of carbon and other elements and exchange large amounts of matter and energy with the open ocean. The area-specific rates of productivity, biogeochemical cycling, and organic/inorganic matter sequestration are high in coastal margins, with as much as half of the global integrated new production occurring over the continental shelves and slopes (Walsh, 1991; Doney and Hood, 2002; Jahnke, in press). However, the current lack of knowledge and understanding of biogeochemical processes occurring at the ocean margins has left them largely ignored in most of the previous global assessments of the oceanic carbon cycle (Doney and Hood, 2002). A major source of North American and global uncertainty is the Gulf of Mexico, a large semi-enclosed subtropical basin bordered by the United States, Mexico, and Cuba. Like many of the marginal oceans worldwide, the Gulf of Mexico remains largely unsampled and poorly characterized in terms of its air-sea exchange of carbon dioxide and other carbon fluxes. The goal of the workshop was to bring together researchers from multiple disciplines studying terrestrial, aquatic, and marine ecosystems to discuss the state of knowledge in carbon fluxes in the Gulf of Mexico, data gaps, and overarching questions in the Gulf of Mexico system. The discussions at the workshop were intended to stimulate integrated studies of marine and terrestrial biogeochemical cycles and associated ecosystems that will help to establish the role of the Gulf of Mexico in the carbon cycle and how it might evolve in the face of environmental change.

  4. The Gulf Stream and Density of Fluids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Landstrom, Erich

    2006-01-01

    A few kilometers from the shores of Palm Beach County, Florida, is the Gulf Stream current--a remarkable "river" within an ocean. The current's journey across the Atlantic Ocean connects southeast Florida and southwest Great Britain as it streams steadily north at speeds of 97 km a day; moving 100 times as much water as all the rivers on Earth.…

  5. Multiple Currents in the Gulf Stream System

    OpenAIRE

    Fuglister, F. C.

    2011-01-01

    A new interpretation of the accumulated temperature and salinity data from the Gulf Stream Area indicates that the System is made up of a series of overlapping currents. These currents are separated by relatively weak countercurrents. Data from a recent survey are presented as supporting this hypothesis.DOI: 10.1111/j.2153-3490.1951.tb00804.x

  6. The Gulf Stream: Inertia and friction

    OpenAIRE

    ASSAF, GAD

    2011-01-01

    The inertial theory of the Gulf Stream (Charney, 1955) is extended to include vertical friction in the cyclonic shear zone (the western side) of the stream. The vertical friction is assumed to be controlled by local Froude conditions.DOI: 10.1111/j.2153-3490.1977.tb00717.x

  7. Fishery potential of the Gulf of Kachchh

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Nair, V.R.; Govindan, K.; Ramaiah, Neelam; Gajbhiye, S.N.

    /h) was three times more productive than the creek (av. 2.3 kg/h). The number of species found in the Gulf and creek were respectively 34 and 20 suggesting good biodiversity of the living resources of the area....

  8. Physical Oceanography of the Gulf of Aden

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Al Saafani, M.A.

    .2 Climatology of surface Ekman drifts (cm s −1 ) in the Gulf of Aden and north- western Arabian Sea. The Ekman drift was estimated using the QuikSCAT wind clima- tology for the period 1999-2006. dot dot dot dotdotdot dot dot dot dot dot dot dot dot dot dot dot...

  9. Prospects for Gulf Region with closed greenhouse

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Campen, J.B.

    2009-01-01

    In countries such as Saudi Arabia and the United Arab Emirates, water is scarce as rainfall is minimal. Growers in the Gulf Region rely on groundwater for evaporative cooling and irrigation. This source of water is running out and growers are deciding to end production. The governments of the Kingdo

  10. Arab-Americans and the Gulf Crisis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noor Al-Deen, Hana S.

    A study examined the sentiment and impact of different types, channels, and forms of aggression against the Arab-American community during the Gulf Crisis. Data were selected from entries in the 1990 Anti-Arab Discrimination and Hate Crimes Log of the American-Arab Anti-Discrimination (ADC) National Office. Results show that there were 129 acts of…

  11. New offshore platform in the Mexican Gulf

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beisel, T.

    1982-04-01

    After a construction period of only 10 months, the second steel Offshore platform was recently completed in the Mexican Gulf. The pattern for this structure was the Cognac platform. The erection of the new platform, called the 'Cerveza' platform, is described in the article.

  12. Tidal and atmospheric forcing of the upper ocean in the Gulf of California. 2: Surface heat flux

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paden, Cynthia A.; Winant, Clinton D.; Abbott, Mark R.

    1993-01-01

    Satellite infrared imagery and coastal meteorological data for March 1984 through February 1985 are used to estimate the net annual surface heat flux for the northern Gulf of California. The average annual surface heat flux for the area north of Guaymas and Santa Rosalia is estimated to be +74 W/sq m for the 1984-1985 time period. This is comparable to the +20-50 W/sq m previously obtained from heat and freshwater transport estimates made with hydrographic surveys from different years and months. The spatial distribution of the net surface heat flux shows a net gain of heat over the whole northern gulf. Except for a local maximum near San Esteban Island, the largest heat gain (+110-120 W/sq m) occurs in the Ballenas and Salsipuedes channels, where strong tidal mixing produces anomalously cold sea surface temperatures (SSTs) over much of the year. The lowest heat gain occurs in the Guayamas Basin (+40-50 W/sq m), where SSTs are consistently warmer. In the relatively shallow northern basin the net surface heat flux is farily uniform, with a net annual gain of approxmately +70 W/sq m. A local minimum in heat gain (approximately +60 W/sq m) is observed over the shelf in the northwest, where spring and summer surface temperatures are particularly high. A similar minimum in heat gain over the shelf was observed in a separate study in which historical SSTs and 7 years (1979-1986) of meteorological data from Puerto Penasco were used to estimate the net surface heat flux for the northern basin. In that study, however, the heat fluxes were higher, with a gain of +100 W/sq m over the shelf and +114 W/sq m in the northern basin. These larger values are directly attributable to the higher humidities in the 1979-1986 study compared to the 1984-1985 satellite study. High humidities reduce evaporation and the associated latent heat loss, promoting a net annual heat gain. In the norther Gulf of California, however, tidal mixing appears to play a key role in the observed gain of

  13. Predicted impacts from offshore produced water discharges on hypoxia in the Gulf of Mexico.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bierman, V. J.; Hinz, S.C.; Justic, D.; Scavia, D.; Veil, J. A.; Satterlee, K.; Parker, M. E.; Wilson, S.; Environmental Science Division; LimnoTech.; Louisiana State Univ.; Univ of Michigan; Shell E& P Co.; Exxon Mobil Production Co.; U.S. EPA

    2008-06-01

    Summer hypoxia (dissolved oxygen < 2 mg/L) in the bottom waters of the northern Gulf of Mexico has received considerable scientific and policy attention because of potential ecological and economic impacts. This hypoxic zone forms off the Louisiana coast each summer and has increased from an average of 8,300 km{sup 2} in 1985-1992 to over 16,000 km{sup 2} in 1993-2001, reaching a record 22,000 km{sup 2} in 2002. The almost threefold increase in nitrogen load from the Mississippi River Basin (MRB) to the Gulf since the middle of the last century is the primary external driver for hypoxia. A goal of the 2001 Federal Action Plan is to reduce the 5-year running average size of the hypoxic zone to below 5,000 km{sup 2} by 2015. After the Action Plan was developed, a new question arose as to whether sources other than the MRB may also contribute significant quantities of oxygen-demanding substances. One very visible potential source is the hundreds of offshore oil and gas platforms located within or near the hypoxic zone, many of which discharge varying volumes of produced water. The objectives of this study were to assess the incremental impacts of produced water discharges on dissolved oxygen in the northern Gulf of Mexico, and to evaluate the significance of these discharges relative to loadings from the MRB. Predictive simulations were conducted with three existing models of Gulf hypoxia using produced water loads from an industry study. Scenarios were designed that addressed loading uncertainties, settleability of suspended constituents, and different assumptions on delivery locations for the produced water loads. Model results correspond to the incremental impacts of produced water loads, relative to the original model results, which included only loads from the MRB. The predicted incremental impacts of produced water loads on dissolved oxygen in the northern Gulf of Mexico from all three models were small. Even considering the predicted ranges between lower- and

  14. Gulf of Mexico circulation within a high-resolution numerical simulation of the North Atlantic Ocean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romanou, Anastasia; Chassignet, Eric P.; Sturges, Wilton

    2004-01-01

    The Gulf of Mexico circulation is examined from the results of a high-resolution (1/12°) North Atlantic simulation using the Miami Isopycnic Coordinate Ocean Model. The motivation for this paper is twofold: first, we validate the model's performance in the Gulf of Mexico by comparing the model fields to past and recent observations, and second, given the good agreement with the observed Gulf of Mexico surface circulation and Loop Current variability, we expand the discussion and analysis of the model circulation to areas that have not been extensively observed/analyzed, such as the vertical structure of the Loop Current and associated eddies, especially the deep circulation below 1500 m. The interval between successive model eddy sheddings is 3 to 15 months, the eddy diameters range between 140 and 500 km, the life span is about 1 year, and the translational speeds are 2-3 km d-1, in good agreement with observations. Areas of high cyclonic eddy occurrence in the model are southwest of Florida, the Loop Current boundary, and the western Campeche Bay area. The cyclonic eddy diameters range between 50 and 375 km, the orbital speeds range between 1 and 55 cm s-1, the translational speeds range between 0.5 and 14 km d-1, and the eddy life spans range between 1 and 3 months. The vertical structure of the temperature and salinity of each modeled eddy, from the moment it is shed until it disintegrates in the western Gulf of Mexico, is in agreement with the few available observations. Below 1500 m, deep cyclonic eddies are associated with the surface Loop Current anticyclones. The eddy variability is consistent with Rossby waves propagating westward, and there is bottom intensification of the flow close to steep topography. Overall, we show that this very high horizontal resolution isopycnic coordinate ocean model, which is able to produce a quite realistic surface circulation for the North and equatorial Atlantic, is also able to reproduce well the smaller-scale, basin

  15. Rationale, design, methodology and hospital characteristics of the first gulf acute heart failure registry (gulf care

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kadhim J Sulaiman

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: There is paucity of data on heart failure (HF in the Gulf Middle East. The present paper describes the rationale, design, methodology and hospital characteristics of the first Gulf acute heart failure registry (Gulf CARE. Materials and Methods: Gulf CARE is a prospective, multicenter, multinational registry of patients >18 year of age admitted with diagnosis of acute HF (AHF. The data collected included demographics, clinical characteristics, etiology, precipitating factors, management and outcomes of patients admitted with AHF. In addition, data about hospital readmission rates, procedures and mortality at 3 months and 1-year follow-up were recorded. Hospital characteristics and care provider details were collected. Data were entered in a dedicated website using an electronic case record form. Results: A total of 5005 consecutive patients were enrolled from February 14, 2012 to November 13, 2012. Forty-seven hospitals in 7 Gulf States (Oman, Saudi Arabia, Yemen, Kuwait, United Gulf Emirates, Qatar and Bahrain participated in the project. The majority of hospitals were community hospitals (46%; 22/47 followed by non-University teaching (32%; 15/47 and University hospitals (17%. Most of the hospitals had intensive or coronary care unit facilities (93%; 44/47 with 59% (28/47 having catheterization laboratory facilities. However, only 29% (14/47 had a dedicated HF clinic facility. Most patients (71% were cared for by a cardiologist. Conclusions: Gulf CARE is the first prospective registry of AHF in the Middle East, intending to provide a unique insight into the demographics, etiology, management and outcomes of AHF in the Middle East. HF management in the Middle East is predominantly provided by cardiologists. The data obtained from this registry will help the local clinicians to identify the deficiencies in HF management as well as provide a platform to implement evidence based preventive and treatment strategies to reduce the burden

  16. A high-resolution hydrodynamic-biogeochemical coupled model of the Gulf of Cadiz – Alboran Sea region.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. M. MACIAS

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The southern Iberia regional seas comprise the Gulf of Cadiz and the Alboran Sea sub-basins connected by the narrow Strait of Gibraltar. Both basins are very different in their hydrological and biological characteristics but are, also, tightly connected to each other. Integrative studies of the whole regional oceanic system are scarce and difficult to perform due to the relative large area to cover and the different relevant time-scales of the main forcings in each sub-basin. Here we propose, for the first time, a fully coupled, 3D, hydrodynamic-biogeochemical model that covers, in a single domain (~2km resolution both marine basins for a 20 years simulation (1989-2008. Model performance is assessed against available data in terms of spatial and temporal distributions of biological variables. In general, the proposed model is able to represent the climatological distributions of primary and secondary producers and also the main seasonality of primary production in the different sub-regions of the analyzed basins. Potential causes of the observed mismatches between model and data are identified and some solutions are proposed for future model development. We conclude that most of these mismatches could be attributed to the missing tidal forcing in the actual model configuration. This model is a first step to obtain a meaningful tool to study past and future oceanographic conditions in this important marine region constituting the unique connection of the Mediterranean Sea with the open world’s ocean.

  17. Mesozoic (Upper Jurassic-Lower Cretaceous) deep gas reservoir play, central and eastern Gulf coastal plain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mancini, E.A.; Li, P.; Goddard, D.A.; Ramirez, V.O.; Talukdar, S.C.

    2008-01-01

    The Mesozoic (Upper Jurassic-Lower Cretaceous) deeply buried gas reservoir play in the central and eastern Gulf coastal plain of the United States has high potential for significant gas resources. Sequence-stratigraphic study, petroleum system analysis, and resource assessment were used to characterize this developing play and to identify areas in the North Louisiana and Mississippi Interior salt basins with potential for deeply buried gas reservoirs. These reservoir facies accumulated in Upper Jurassic to Lower Cretaceous Norphlet, Haynesville, Cotton Valley, and Hosston continental, coastal, and marine siliciclastic environments and Smackover and Sligo nearshore marine shelf, ramp, and reef carbonate environments. These Mesozoic strata are associated with transgressive and regressive systems tracts. In the North Louisiana salt basin, the estimate of secondary, nonassociated thermogenic gas generated from thermal cracking of oil to gas in the Upper Jurassic Smackover source rocks from depths below 3658 m (12,000 ft) is 4800 tcf of gas as determined using software applications. Assuming a gas expulsion, migration, and trapping efficiency of 2-3%, 96-144 tcf of gas is potentially available in this basin. With some 29 tcf of gas being produced from the North Louisiana salt basin, 67-115 tcf of in-place gas remains. Assuming a gas recovery factor of 65%, 44-75 tcf of gas is potentially recoverable. The expelled thermogenic gas migrated laterally and vertically from the southern part of this basin to the updip northern part into shallower reservoirs to depths of up to 610 m (2000 ft). Copyright ?? 2008. The American Association of Petroleum Geologists. All rights reserved.

  18. Recent Rift Volcanism in the Northern Gulf of California and the Salton Through: Why a Preponderance of Evolved Magmas?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martín, A.; Weber, B.; Schmitt, A. K.; Lonsdale, P.

    2008-12-01

    Quaternary volcanoes and shallow intrusions throughout the northern Gulf Extensional Province provide a unique opportunity to characterize active crustal accretion associated with extreme continental rifting. In the Lower Delfin basin and Isla San Luis volcanic rocks have compositional continuity from basaltic andesite (>54 % SiO2) to sub-alkaline rhyolite, whereas Roca Consag in the Wagner basin, and Cerro Prieto are homogeneous, low-K, lithoidal, microlithic dacites. Salton Buttes surface lavas and a seamount in the Upper Delfin basin are dominantly rhyolitic. Basaltic xenoliths, intrusive basaltic sills and altered subsurface rhyolites are known from the Salton Trough and Cerro Prieto. All Quaternary volcanic rocks in the region have depleted (relative to CHUR) Nd isotopic compositions with ɛNd of +8.5 and +6.3 in the Salton Buttes and marginally lower values (+6.5 to +4.1) for Roca Consag, Lower Delfin basin and Isla San Luis. Rhyolite from the Upper Delfin basin yielded ɛNd of +2.2. These values are consistent with overall depleted 87Sr/86/Sr ratios (0.70353-0.70382). Only rhyolites from Lower and Upper Delfin basin have higher 87Sr/86Sr (0.70492 -0.70661) compared to coexisting andesites, which implies hydrothermal alteration and/or minor contamination by continental crust and/or sediments. Volcanic rocks within individual basins thus represent variably differentiated and, to a smaller degree, contaminated, co- genetic suites, as indicated by negative Eu anomalies that reflect plagioclase fractionation in rhyolites. Ion microprobe ages of zircons from Roca Consag are heterogeneous. The youngest ages are ~120 ka and several pre-Quaternary xenocrysts were observed, but the data define a dominant peak at ~1 Ma. The isotope data suggest recent differentiation of dominantly mantle-derived young crust. The preponderance of intermediate to felsic volcanism in the northern Gulf of California suggests that only low- density magmas can reach shallow levels where they

  19. No evidence for altered cellular immune functions in personnel deployed in the Persian Gulf during and after the Gulf War--The Danish Gulf War study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bregenholt, S; Ishøy, T; Skovgaard, L T;

    2001-01-01

    Veterans who have participated in the Gulf War suffer from a number of symptoms, collectively referred to as the Gulf War Syndrome. It has been hypothesized that a change in the systemic cytokine balance or other changes in immunological parameters could be responsible for some of the symptoms. We...

  20. Evolution and hydrocarbon potential of offshore Pinar Del Rio area, Southern Gulf of Mexico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tenreyro-Perez, R.; Lopez-Rivera, J.G.; Fernandez-Carmona, J.; Lopez-Quintero, J.O.

    1996-09-01

    The evolution of Southeast Gulf of Mexico comprises three main periods: pre-orogenic, syn-orogenic and post-orogenic. During pre-orogenic time, from Lower Jurassic to Campanian, the stages are the rift of Pangaea and the thermal subsidence (or drift). In drift stage two domains interacted in the space; the carbonate platforms (Bahamas, Yucatan, Organos and others), and the deepwater basins. These fluctuations were dictated by the differential subsidence and horizontal displacements of basement blocks as well as by the eustatic movements of the ocean. The Organos platform, for example, was entirely drowned since Upper Jurassic and the sedimentation continued in deepwater environment. The collision between Great Antilles Volcanic Arc and the continental margins since Upper Cretaceous modeled the Cuban orogen. Here, the southern facies thrusted over the northern section with simultaneous strike-slip movements. The interaction suddenly ceased in Eocene. The source rock levels are considerably more frequent in the deepwater domain than in the platforms. The Lower and Upper Jurassic as well as Lower and Middle Cretaceous horizons contain very high levels of organic matter. The offshore seismic shows the transition from the thrusted belt to the foreland basin with a typical triangle zone configuration. Reservoirs are expected in the Cretaceous section covered by seals conformed by early foreland basin sediments of Upper Cretaceous-Paleocene age. Foothill structures has a great potential for hydrocarbon exploration.

  1. Prey consumption and energy transfer by marine birds in the Gulf of Alaska

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunt, G.L.; Drew, G.S.; Jahncke, J.; Piatt, J.F.

    2005-01-01

    We investigated prey consumption by marine birds and their contribution to cross-shelf fluxes in the northern Gulf of Alaska. We utilized data from the North Pacific Pelagic Seabird Database for modeling energy demand and prey consumption. We found that prey consumption by marine birds was much greater over the continental shelf than it was over the basin. Over the shelf, subsurface-foraging marine birds dominated food consumption, whereas over the basin, surface-foraging birds took the most prey biomass. Daily consumption by marine birds during the non-breeding season ("winter") from September through April was greater than daily consumption during the breeding season, between May and August. Over the shelf, shearwaters, murres and, in winter, sea ducks, were the most important consumers. Over the basin, northern fulmars, gulls and kittiwakes predominated in winter and storm-petrels dominated in May to August. Our results suggest that marine birds contribute little to cross-shelf fluxes of energy or matter, but they do remove energy from the marine system through consumption, respiration and migration. ?? 2005 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. 77 FR 39998 - Gulf of Mexico Fishery Management Council; Public Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-06

    ...The Gulf of Mexico Fishery Management Council (Council) will convene its Law Enforcement Advisory Panel (LEAP) in conjunction with the Gulf States Marine Fisheries Commission's Law Enforcement Committee...

  3. The influence of the Gulf Stream on wintertime European blocking

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Reilly, Christopher H.; Minobe, Shoshiro; Kuwano-Yoshida, Akira

    2016-09-01

    Wintertime blocking is responsible for extended periods of anomalously cold and dry weather over Europe. In this study, the influence of the Gulf Stream sea surface temperature (SST) front on wintertime European blocking is investigated using a reanalysis dataset and a pair of atmospheric general circulation model (AGCM) simulations. The AGCM is forced with realistic and smoothed Gulf Stream SST, and blocking frequency over Europe is found to depend crucially on the Gulf Stream SST front. In the absence of the sharp SST gradient European blocking is significantly reduced and occurs further downstream. The Gulf Stream is found to significantly influence the surface temperature anomalies during blocking periods and the occurrence of associated cold spells. In particular the cold spell peak, located in central Europe, disappears in the absence of the Gulf Stream SST front. The nature of the Gulf Stream influence on European blocking development is then investigated using composite analysis. The presence of the Gulf Stream SST front is important in capturing the observed quasi-stationary development of European blocking. The development is characterised by increased lower-tropospheric meridional eddy heat transport in the Gulf Stream region and increased eddy kinetic energy at upper-levels, which acts to reinforce the quasi-stationary jet. When the Gulf Stream SST is smoothed the storm track activity is weaker, the development is less consistent and European blocking occurs less frequently.

  4. Mercury in the Gulf of Mexico: sources to receptors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, Reed; Pollman, Curtis; Landing, William; Evans, David; Axelrad, Donald; Hutchinson, David; Morey, Steven L; Rumbold, Darren; Dukhovskoy, Dmitry; Adams, Douglas H; Vijayaraghavan, Krish; Holmes, Christopher; Atkinson, R Dwight; Myers, Tom; Sunderland, Elsie

    2012-11-01

    Gulf of Mexico (Gulf) fisheries account for 41% of the U.S. marine recreational fish catch and 16% of the nation's marine commercial fish landings. Mercury (Hg) concentrations are elevated in some fish species in the Gulf, including king mackerel, sharks, and tilefish. All five Gulf states have fish consumption advisories based on Hg. Per-capita fish consumption in the Gulf region is elevated compared to the U.S. national average, and recreational fishers in the region have a potential for greater MeHg exposure due to higher levels of fish consumption. Atmospheric wet Hg deposition is estimated to be higher in the Gulf region compared to most other areas in the U.S., but the largest source of Hg to the Gulf as a whole is the Atlantic Ocean (>90%) via large flows associated with the Loop Current. Redistribution of atmospheric, Atlantic and terrestrial Hg inputs to the Gulf occurs via large scale water circulation patterns, and further work is needed to refine estimates of the relative importance of these Hg sources in terms of contributing to fish Hg levels in different regions of the Gulf. Measurements are needed to better quantify external loads, in-situ concentrations, and fluxes of total Hg and methylmercury in the water column, sediments, and food web.

  5. Reserves in western basins

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Caldwell, R.H.; Cotton, B.W. [Scotia Group, Dallas, TX (United States)

    1995-04-01

    The objective of this project is to investigate the reserves potential of tight gas reservoirs in three Rocky Mountain basins: the Greater Green River (GGRB), Uinta and Piceance basins. The basins contain vast gas resources that have been estimated in the thousands of Tcf hosted in low permeability clastic reservoirs. This study documents the productive characteristics of these tight reservoirs, requantifies gas in place resources, and characterizes the reserves potential of each basin. The purpose of this work is to promote understanding of the resource and to encourage its exploitation by private industry. At this point in time, the GGRB work has been completed and a final report published. Work is well underway in the Uinta and Piceance basins which are being handled concurrently, with reports on these basins being scheduled for the middle of this year. Since the GGRB portion of the project has been completed, this presentation win focus upon that basin. A key conclusion of this study was the subdivision of the resource, based upon economic and technological considerations, into groupings that have distinct properties with regard to potential for future producibility, economics and risk profile.

  6. Gulf of Mexico Regional Collaborative Final Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Judd, Kathleen S. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Judd, Chaeli [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Engel-Cox, Jill A. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Gulbransen, Thomas [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Anderson, Michael G. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Woodruff, Dana L. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Thom, Ronald M. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Guzy, Michael [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Hardin, Danny [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Estes, Maury [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2007-12-01

    This report presents the results of the Gulf of Mexico Regional Collaborative (GoMRC), a year-long project funded by NASA. The GoMRC project was organized around end user outreach activities, a science applications team, and a team for information technology (IT) development. Key outcomes are summarized below for each of these areas. End User Outreach; Successfully engaged federal and state end users in project planning and feedback; With end user input, defined needs and system functional requirements; Conducted demonstration to End User Advisory Committee on July 9, 2007 and presented at Gulf of Mexico Alliance (GOMA) meeting of Habitat Identification committee; Conducted significant engagement of other end user groups, such as the National Estuary Programs (NEP), in the Fall of 2007; Established partnership with SERVIR and Harmful Algal Blooms Observing System (HABSOS) programs and initiated plan to extend HABs monitoring and prediction capabilities to the southern Gulf; Established a science and technology working group with Mexican institutions centered in the State of Veracruz. Key team members include the Federal Commission for the Protection Against Sanitary Risks (COFEPRIS), the Ecological Institute (INECOL) a unit of the National Council for science and technology (CONACYT), the Veracruz Aquarium (NOAA’s first international Coastal Ecology Learning Center) and the State of Veracruz. The Mexican Navy (critical to coastal studies in the Southern Gulf) and other national and regional entities have also been engaged; and Training on use of SERVIR portal planned for Fall 2007 in Veracruz, Mexico Science Applications; Worked with regional scientists to produce conceptual models of submerged aquatic vegetation (SAV) ecosystems; Built a logical framework and tool for ontological modeling of SAV and HABs; Created online guidance for SAV restoration planning; Created model runs which link potential future land use trends, runoff and SAV viability; Analyzed SAV

  7. The Gulf: A young sea in decline

    OpenAIRE

    Sheppard, Charles (Charles R. C.); Al-Husiani, Mohsen; Al-Jamali, F.; Al-yamani, Faiza; Baldwin, Rob; Bishop, James; Benzoni, Francesca; Dutrieux, Eric; Dulvy, Nicholas K.; Durvasulah, Subba Rao V.; Jonesi, David A.; Loughland, Ron; Mediok, David; Nithyanandan, M.; Pilling, Graham M.

    2009-01-01

    This review examines the substantial changes that have taken place in marine habitats and resources of the Gulf over the past decade. The habitats are especially interesting because of the naturally high levels of temperature and salinity stress they experience, which is important in a changing world climate. However, the extent of all natural habitats is changing and their condition deteriorating because of the rapid development of the region and, in some cases from severe, episodic warming ...

  8. Florida, Bahamas, Cuba and Gulf Stream, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    1992-01-01

    This unique photo offers a view of the Florida peninsula, western Bahamas, north central Cuba and the deep blue waters of the Gulf Stream, that hugs the east coast of Florida (27.0N, 82.0W). In addition to being an excellent photograph for showing the geographical relationships between the variety of landforms in this scene, the typical effect of the land-sea breeze is very much in evidence as few clouds over water, cumulus build up over landmass.

  9. Probiotic (VSL#3) for Gulf War Illness

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-01

    are relevant to GW Veterans. Altered gut flora may be the etiological factor for IBS and GW Illness. Probiotics are living organisms that improve... health by re-establishing a normal gut flora. The overall objective of the study was to determine whether Bifidobacterium infantis 35624 (Align...W81XWH-10-1-0593 TITLE: Probiotic (VSL#3) for Gulf War Illness. PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR: Ashok Tuteja, M.D. M.P.H

  10. Gulf of Mexico mud toxicity limitations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dunn, H.E.; Beardmore, D.H. (Phillips Petroleum Co., Bartlesville, OK (USA)); Stewart, W.S. (Drilling Specialties Co. (US))

    1989-10-01

    Because of the Environmental Protection Agency's recent toxicity limits on drilling mud discharges for offshore Gulf of Mexico, Phillips Petroleum conducted a mud toxicity study based on both field and lab tests. The study, discussed in this article, found the polyanionic cellulose-sulfomethylated quebracho-chrome lignosulfonate mud Phillips had been using would comfortably pass the toxicity limitations. The study also found barite and thinners were of low toxicity, and hydrocarbons and surfactants were highly toxic.

  11. Q&A on Beibu Gulf

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Alice

    2010-01-01

    China-ASEAN FTA, the world's largest free trade area in terms of population took effect on January 1, 2010, covering 13 million square kilometers and 1.9 billion people. Over 90 percent of the commodities traded between China and the six original ASEAN countries, including Brunei, Indonesia, Malaysia, the Philippines, Singapore and Thailand, now enjoy no tariffs from 2010. As a window to ASEAN countries, Beibu Gulf Economic Zone is in more limelight since the new year.

  12. Time series current meter data from buoys in the North Atlantic as part of the Deep Circulation in the Gulf of Maine Field Program from platforms GYRE and MARY LOUISE between July 25th, 1985 and August 2nd, 1987 (NODC Accession 0053940)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — A two-year field study to investigate the deep flow between the major basins in the Gulf of Maine. This deep flow of warm-salty Slope water is an important driving...

  13. Processes in Environmental Depositional Systems and Deformation in Sedimentary Basins: Goals for Exoloration in Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sandoval-Ochoa, J.

    2005-05-01

    Among the recent needs to establish new goals in the mexican energy industry to increase the petroleum reserves, has been necessary to recapitulate on some academic an operative concepts and definitions applied to the Petroliferous Basins Exploration; first of all, in order to understand the Petroleum System in given tectonophysical framework. The tectonophysical environment experienced by the petroliferous basin in the southwestern Gulf of Mexico, merely in the Campeche Sound and adjacent terrestrial regions (Figure 1); has been the result of interaction among the tectonic plates, the Coco's Plate with impingement and subduction beneath the Northamerican Plate and the Yucatán Microplate and even in very deep connection with the oceanic crust of southwesternmost portion of the Gulf of Mexico and the one of the Caribbean sea beneath the gulf of Belize-Honduras. The tectonosedimentary effects in the Campeche Bay starting with the skeleton formed for the Cenozoic Era, kept simultaneous conditions in depositions and deformations because of strain, stress and collapse fields, acted through this Era up to the present day, as observed in the surface Aguayo et al, 1999 and Sandoval, 2000. The involved portions of the crust and its boundaries have also been performing the relative sinking of the mere southwestern centre of the Gulf of Mexico, and the rising of the southeastern lands of Mexico. In the middle contiguity are found the productive Tertiary basins of: Comalcalco, Macuspana, Salina del Itsmo, Campeche-Champoton and other in deep waters; all of them, in an arrangement of basins among distensive faulted blocks in echelon, falling down to the deep centre of the Gulf Sandoval, op cit. With this scenario and that ones of other basins, a recapitulation on concepts and definitions, has been made on the regional natural processes of the environmental depositional systems and on the basins analysis in the tectonophysical framework, in order to reflect on the

  14. Environmental Assessment: Geothermal Energy Geopressure Subprogram. Gulf Coast Well Testing Activity, Frio Formation, Texas and Louisiana

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1978-02-01

    This Environmental Assessment (EA) has been prepared to provide the environmental input into the Division of Geothermal Energy's decisions to expand the geothermal well testing activities to include sites in the Frio Formation of Texas and Louisiana. It is proposed that drilling rigs be leased before they are removed from sites in the formation where drilling for gas or oil exploration has been unsuccessful and that the rigs be used to complete the drilling into the geopressured zone for resource exploration. This EA addresses, on a regional basis, the expected activities, affected environment, and the possible impacts in a broad sense as they apply to the Gulf Coast well testing activity of the Geothermal Energy Geopressure Subprogram of the Department of Energy. Along the Texas and Louisiana Gulf Coast (Plate 1 and Overlay, Atlas) water at high temperatures and high pressures is trapped within Gulf basin sediments. The water is confined within or below essentially impermeable shale sequences and carries most or all of the overburden pressure. Such zones are referred to as geopressured strata. These fluids and sediments are heated to abnormally high temperatures (up to 260 C) and may provide potential reservoirs for economical production of geothermal energy. The obvious need in resource development is to assess the resource. Ongoing studies to define large-sand-volume reservoirs will ultimately define optimum sites for drilling special large diameter wells to perform large volume flow production tests. in the interim, existing well tests need to be made to help define and assess the resource.

  15. Estimating tsunami inundation from hurricane storm surge predictions along the U.S. gulf coast

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pampell-Manis, Alyssa; Horrillo, Juan; Figlus, Jens

    2016-08-01

    Gulf of Mexico (GOM) coasts have been included in the U.S. Tsunami Warning System since 2005. While the tsunami risk for the GOM is low, tsunamis generated by local submarine landslides pose the greatest potential threat, as evidenced by several large ancient submarine mass failures identified in the northern GOM basin. Given the lack of significant historical tsunami evidence in the GOM, the potential threat of landslide tsunamis in this region is assessed from a worst-case scenario perspective based on a set of events including the large ancient failures and most likely extreme events determined by a probabilistic approach. Since tsunamis are not well-understood along the Gulf Coast, we investigate tsunami inundation referenced to category-specific hurricane storm surge levels, which are relatively well established along the Gulf Coast, in order to provide information for assessing the potential threat of tsunamis which is more understandable and accessible to emergency managers. Based on tsunami inundation studies prepared for the communities of South Padre Island, TX, Galveston, TX, Mobile, AL, Panama City, FL, and Tampa, FL, we identify regional trends of tsunami inundation in terms of modeled storm surge inundation. The general trends indicate that tsunami inundation can well exceed the level of storm surge from major hurricanes in open beachfront and barrier island regions, while more interior areas are less threatened. Such information can be used to better prepare for tsunami events as well as provide a preliminary estimate of tsunami hazard in locations where detailed tsunami inundation studies have not been completed.

  16. Sediment Sources in the Persian Gulf

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahoutian, Mehrab

    2014-05-01

    Sediment Constituent Analysis is an effective tool for identifying sediment sources. Based on several sediment samples taken from different sites all over the Iranian coastlines, we have been able to show that an important portion of sediment on the beaches in the Persian Gulf is bio-clastic; that is, biologically created from the coral environment as well as other marine habitats. Unlike mineral (clastic) sediments, carbonate sediments are born not made. Furthermore, carbonate sand constituents are generally less durable than their quartz and mineral counterparts, and break down relatively quickly. Therefore, destruction of reefs and degradation of marine habitat are certain to reduce the sand supply to the shoreline in the Persian Gulf that is necessary to maintain beaches. Carbonate sands are also found on the coastline of the Oman Sea. One of the striking things about the sediments along the coastline of Iran is the high percentage of carbonate material. Molluscan debris is common, even ubiquitous. This reflects the populations living in the offshore waters. Some molluscs thrive in high-energy sandy environments, others like finer sediments. Some live at the surface, while some burrow down as much as a half-metre. A great deal of information can be gained from the study of the species of mollusk and their distribution in the sediments. This paper introduces a few case studies done in different parts of the Persian Gulf by using this method as a general assessment toolbox.

  17. Status of hepatocellular carcinoma in Gulf region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rasul, Kakil Ibrahim; Al-Azawi, Safaa H; Chandra, Prem; Abou-Alfa, Ghassan K; Knuth, Alexander

    2013-12-01

    Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) has a unique geographic distribution that is likely to be determined by specific etiologic factors. There is a distinctive difference in sex and age related occurrence of disease. In the Gulf region, there are contradicting data on the prevalence and death rates due to HCC. In this review we highlight some aspects of HCC specific to the Gulf region. A retrospective analysis of 150 patient's data is presented, including demographic, epidemiological, aetiological disease status assessment with child Pugh criteria, modes of treatment and treatment related outcome. Hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection was the most common (45%) documented etiology, similar to Western European countries, followed by hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection in 27% of cases, alcoholic liver disease only in six patients (4%). Child-Pugh assessment was A in 33%, B in 37% and C in 30% of observed patients. Surgery (liver resection or transplantation) was performed in 12% and local ablation in 5% of cases. The others were treated by chemo-embolization in 17% and by systemic therapy with sorafenib in 13% of patients. Nearly half of the patients (53%) were in advanced stages and received palliative treatment. To improve the outcome of treatment in HCC patients in the Gulf region, an effective and strategic screening program must be implemented for early diagnosis and treatment to improve the outcome of this mostly fatal disease.

  18. An overview of the Gulf of Batabanó (Cuba): Environmental features as revealed by surface sediment characterisation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alonso-Hernández, Carlos M.; Conte, Fabio; Misic, Cristina; Barsanti, Mattia; Gómez-Batista, Miguel; Díaz-Asencio, Misael; Covazzi-Harriague, Anabella; Pannacciulli, Federica G.

    2011-05-01

    The main environmental features of the Gulf of Batabanó, Cuba, Caribbean, were investigated through the analyses of surface sediments collected at 23 sites. In order to highlight the potential threats affecting the sedimentary compartment of this area, samples were analysed for: granulometry, mineralogy, heavy metals concentration (As, Cd, Cu, Mn, Ni, Pb, Zn), organic carbon, total nitrogen and radionuclides. Findings were compared with published data and "grey" literature. Results showed: granulometric homogeneity and a widespread carbonatic condition all over the gulf, probably due to stable bathymetry and lack of terrigenous input (except for the La Coloma basin); a rather pristine environment for what concerns heavy metals pollution, except for La Coloma where a large arsenic input was recorded; very low levels of natural and artificial radioactivity; a relevant quantity of sedimentary organic matter, providing biota with useful substrate for feeding and enhancing the food-web development while indirectly supplying lobster fisheries. Combined data highlighted the impact of the Dique Sur in reducing terrigenous input in the coastal area. Future studies should focus on dating of sediment cores for identifying and quantifying the changes acting in the gulf and on investigating the origins of the large arsenic input to La Coloma.

  19. Structural settings of the carbonatic "basament" and its relationship with magma uprising in the gulf of Naples (Southern Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Fusi

    1996-06-01

    Full Text Available The carbonatic "basement" of the Gulf of Naples, a peri-tyrrhenian basin located on the western side of the Southern Apenninic chain, was studied in detail by means of seismic reflection profiles both on the mainland and in the sea. The carbonatic "basement" dips toward the north-west with an angle of 100 and is affected by brittle extensional tectonics. This structural setting is related to the extension of the Tyrrhenian Sea, which caused the development of horst and graben-like structure along the western margin of the Apennines. Some normal faults with a regional relevance were recognised: 1 a N 110° trending fault responsible for the sinking of the carbonic "basement" below Mount Somma-Vesuvius; 2 a N 1O° trending fault, along which five sub- marine volcanoes are aligned; 3 a N70° fault, which separates the Gulf of Naples from the Gulf of Salerno. The first two faults, arranged radially with respect to the shallow magmatic chamber of Phlegraean Fields, are interpreted as the main uprising route for magma in this area. The carbonatic "basement"cannot be recognized in seismic profiles in the Phlegraean area; a tectonic feature responsible for this is hypothesised.

  20. Seasonal variability of nitrate supply and potential new production in the Gulf of Maine and Georges Bank regions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bisagni, J. J.

    2003-11-01

    The mean annual cycle of new primary production is determined for each of five hydrographic provinces contained within the combined Gulf of Maine and Georges Bank region using potential new production (PNP) as a proxy for new primary production. PNP is computed using in situ data and defined as the difference between the time rate-of-change of vertically integrated nitrate (NO3) in the euphotic zone and vertical flux of NO3 into the euphotic zone assuming Fickian diffusion, after conversion of nitrogen to carbon using the Redfield ratio. Maximum recharge rate of NO3 in the euphotic zone occurs primarily during fall, between yeardays 300 and 330 (late October to late November), in agreement with the timing of fall turnover of the water column. Maximum utilization rate of NO3 in the euphotic zone occurs between yeardays 60 and 120 (March to April), in agreement with the timing of the spring bloom, with little phase difference between provinces. Peak-to-peak amplitude (maximum recharge rate to maximum utilization rate) is largest for Jordan Basin, Northeast Channel, and the western Gulf of Maine province. Wintertime NO3 recharge into the euphotic zone within the Gulf of Maine is largely the result of vertical NO3 flux, except for eastern Gulf of Maine waters where advective NO3 flux into surface waters is important. However, there still exists a significant deficit for fall NO3 recharge for eastern Gulf of Maine which cannot be accounted for by either vertical diffusive or horizontal advective NO3 fluxes. Annual totals of integrated total primary production (ITPP) and PNP summed over the full study region (including the southern New England shelf) are 44.33 tg C yr-1 and 9.96 tg C yr-1, respectively, for an annual mean potential f-ratio of 0.22. Exclusion of the southern New England shelf increases the annual mean potential f-ratio value for the remaining Gulf of Maine and Georges Bank region to 0.25. Inclusion of a time-varying horizontal advective flux of NO3 into

  1. Association of oil seeps and chemosynthetic communities with oil discoveries, upper continental slope, Gulf of Mexico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sassen, R.; Brooks, J.M.; MacDonald, I.R.; Kennicutt, M.C. II; Guinasso, N.L. Jr. (Texas A M Univ., College Station, TX (United States))

    1993-09-01

    A belt of sea-floor oil seeps and chemosynthetic communities has been mapped across the upper continental slope, offshore Louisiana, at depths ranging from 2000 to 1000 m. Visibly oil-stained sediments and thelmogenic gas hydrates have been recovered using piston cores and research submarines. Biomarker fingerprinting of seep oils suggests an origin from deeply buried Cretaceous or Jurassic source rocks characterized by marine kerogen. The abundance of seeps provides a unique opportunity to define their relationship to oil discoveries including Auger, Cooper, Jolliet, Marquette, Vancouver, Popeye, and Mars. Seeps are preferentially distributed over shallow salt ridges that rim intrasalt basin cooking pots, over salt diapirs, and along shallow fault traces near discoveries. Diagnostic seep-related features on the sea floor include gas hydrate mounds and outcrops, pockmarks and craters, mud volcanoes, and carbonate buildups. Many of the 50 chemosynthetic communities including tube worms, mussels, or clams thus far documented in the gulf occur near discoveries. Recent imagery from orbital platforms, including the space shuttle, shows that natural oil slicks are common on the sea surface in this area. Additional mapping of seep distributions should contribute to better defining of the limits of the deep Gulf play fairway.

  2. Earthquake cycle on the Ballenas Fault, Central Gulf of California, MX

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malservisi, R.; Plattner, C.; Hackl, M.; Gonzalez-Garcia, J. J.; Suarez Vidal, F.; Amelung, F.; Dixon, T. H.

    2009-12-01

    South of the San Andreas Fault system, ~90% of the North America/Pacific plate motion is accommodate along the Gulf of California. Here the plate boundary deformation is partitioned in deep basins, often resulting in formation of new oceanic crust, connected by long transform faults. In the central part of the Gulf, one of these transform fault, the Ballenas fault, is localized in the Canales de Ballenas, a ~30 km wide channel between Isla Angel de la Garda and mainland Baja California. The presence of land on both the sides of this marine transform fault give the unique opportunity to perform geodetic study across its trace. On August 3rd 2009, a series of seismic strike slip events (including a M6.9) happened along this segment of plate boundary allowing a combined study of co- and inter- seismic deformation. Here we present the results from 5 years of EGPS along two transects perpendicular to the plate motion direction at 29 and 28 degrees North. These surveys include at least 3 occupations before the seismic event and at least 1 occupation after the earthquake. The analysis of the inter-seismic data shows that ~46 mm/yr is accommodated within the Canales de Ballenas. Co-seismic data are being collected at the time of the deadline for this abstract and will be presented at the meeting in combination with InSar signal.

  3. Application of Thermal Modelling for Geochemical Characterization of Gadvan Formation, Persian Gulf, Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmad Vaezian

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available In the this research, the hydrocarbon generation potential of the Gadvan Formation as a probable source rock was investigated in the central part of the Persian Gulf at the borders of Iran. Type and maturity level of kerogen were investigated in six wells using the results of Rock-Eval pyrolysis and compared with results yielded by the modelling software program known as Pars Basin Modeler (PBM. The cross-plot of hydrogen index (HI versus maximum temperature suggests that the Gadvan Formation reached early to mid-maturity stages in the studied area, which means that it could act as a gas prone source rock. Furthermore, the burial and thermal history of the Gadvan Formation was determined in one well. Two methods, Easy %Ro and time-temperature index (TTI were used for the reconstruction of thermal modelling and studying the thermal maturity level in all of the drilled wells reaching the Gadvan Formation. The results of the TTI and Easy %Ro methods were in good agreement and both of confirmed the results of Rock Eval analysis. An integrated approach using different techniques showed that the Gadvan Formation can be classified as a poor gas bearing source rock in the studied area, while its maturity increases towards the southern parts of the Persian Gulf.

  4. Chemical aspects of a brine pool at the East Flower Garden bank, northwestern Gulf of Mexico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brooks, J.M.; Bright, T.J.; Bernard, B.B.; Schwab, C.R.

    1979-07-01

    A small pool on the flank of the East Flower Garden bank at a depth of 72 m in the Gulf of Mexico contains anoxic, hypersaline (approx. 200 g.kg/sup -1/) water. The flux of brine into and out of the pool contributes to erosional processes on the bank. The bulk ionic composition of the brine is similar to that of the Orca Basin brine, but differences between the two in gaseous hydrocarbon and carbon isotope content indicate different modes of origin. High levels of bacterial activity in the brine are indicated by ATP (> 80 ng.liter/sup -1/), hydrogen sulfide (> 2000 ..mu..mol.liter/sup -1/), isotopically light ..sigma..CO/sub 2/ (delta/sup 13/C =-23/sup 0///sub 00/ and the apparent generaton of elemental sulfur.

  5. Tulare Basin protection plan

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The Tulare Basin Protection Plan has been initiated by The Nature Conservancy to elucidate the problems and opportunities of natural diversity protection....

  6. Mitigation : Closed Basin Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The upcoming meeting on waterfowl mitigation for the Closed Basin Project will have several people talk about possible changes to the waterfowl mitigation program. A...

  7. California Air Basins

    Data.gov (United States)

    California Department of Resources — Air ResourcesCalifornia Air Resources BoardThe following datasets are from the California Air Resources Board: * arb_california_airbasins - California Air BasinsThe...

  8. Watershed Planning Basins

    Data.gov (United States)

    Vermont Center for Geographic Information — The Watershed Planning Basin layer is part of a larger dataset contains administrative boundaries for Vermont's Agency of Natural Resources. The dataset includes...

  9. The Gulf of Cádiz pelagic ecosystem: A review

    Science.gov (United States)

    García Lafuente, Jesús; Ruiz, Javier

    2007-08-01

    The Gulf of Cádiz, strategically situated between the North Atlantic Ocean and the Mediterranean Sea, has been the focus of attention of a few oceanographic studies dealing with the deep circulation in order to understand the dynamics of the dense plume of Mediterranean water. Much less attention has been paid to the surface pelagic layer which holds important living resources of commercial and ecological interest. This overview summarizes the recent advances that have been made concerning the regional oceanography of the northern half of this important basin from an interdisciplinary point of view. Probably the most relevant oceanographic feature of the basin is its strong seasonality, which is linked to the meteorologically-induced seasonality of the eastern boundary current system of the North Atlantic. The prominent cape Santa Maria divides the continental shelf off the southern Iberian Peninsula in two shelves of different shape that hold different oceanographic processes, which in turn determine the characteristics of the pelagic ecosystem. Mass and energy inputs from land as well as tidally-driven processes makes the wider eastern shelf be more productive while the narrower western shelf, cut by a sharp submarine canyon, is under the influence of the almost-permanent upwelling spot off cape San Vicente. Under easterlies, the west-going, warm coastal countercurrent that is observed in the eastern shelf may invade the western shelf thus connecting biologically both shelves in an east-to-west direction. Westerlies induce generalised upwelling off the southern Iberia Peninsula, which adds to the almost-permanent one off cape San Vicente and generates an upwelling jet that moves eastwards. Cape Santa Maria may deflect this flow by generating a cold filament that extends southward and diverts water from the western shelf to the open ocean. This pattern of circulation hampers the biological connection between shelves in the west-to-east direction, which is

  10. Shallow seismic study of the geothermal areas in the Gülbahçe Bay and İzmir Gulf (Aegean Sea, Western Turkey)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Altan, Zehra; Ocakoğlu, Neslihan

    2016-12-01

    The two seismic units, i.e., the basement and the basin sediments are interpreted as Miocene and Plio-Quaternary deposits, respectively. The basin sediments of approximately 255 m thickness are risen and compressed through the active strike-slip faults, GF1-GF3 extending in N-S direction towards the outer Gülbahçe Bay. These compressed sediments are interpreted as upwelling zones with weak reflection character and internal frequency attenuation. The most significant one is marked as a possible mud diaper zone with a 320 m width and the approximately 500 m. A synthetic model of the field data gathered from the diaper indicates that the top of the diapir is characterised by a strong positive reflection character while the internal diaper is represented by polarity reversals and weak reflections due to a velocity decrease with depth. Moreover, phase changes are observed at the border of the diapiric structure. A relatively thicker basin sediment unit of approximately 700 m was observed on the pro-delta sediments of the Gediz River and the sediments below in the İzmir Gulf. The active strike-slip faults, İF1-İF5 deform the basement and basin deposits. Moreover, two active normal faults, İF6 and İF7 are marked from inner to outer part of the gulf. The seismic attribute sections indicate weak reflection zones and frequency attenuation particularly both inside the pro-delta sediments and the sediments below. Observations suggest to us the existence of possible fluid and/or gas discharges and saturations in the Gülbahçe Bay and İzmir Gulf.

  11. Shallow seismic study of the geothermal areas in the Gülbahçe Bay and İzmir Gulf (Aegean Sea, Western Turkey)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Altan, Zehra; Ocakoǧlu, Neslihan

    2016-09-01

    The two seismic units, i.e., the basement and the basin sediments are interpreted as Miocene and Plio-Quaternary deposits, respectively. The basin sediments of approximately 255 m thickness are risen and compressed through the active strike-slip faults, GF1-GF3 extending in N-S direction towards the outer Gülbahçe Bay. These compressed sediments are interpreted as upwelling zones with weak reflection character and internal frequency attenuation. The most significant one is marked as a possible mud diaper zone with a ~320 m width and the approximately 500 m. A synthetic model of the field data gathered from the diaper indicates that the top of the diapir is characterised by a strong positive reflection character while the internal diaper is represented by polarity reversals and weak reflections due to a velocity decrease with depth. Moreover, phase changes are observed at the border of the diapiric structure. A relatively thicker basin sediment unit of approximately 700 m was observed on the pro-delta sediments of the Gediz River and the sediments below in the İzmir Gulf. The active strike-slip faults, İF1-İF5 deform the basement and basin deposits. Moreover, two active normal faults, İF6 and İF7 are marked from inner to outer part of the gulf. The seismic attribute sections indicate weak reflection zones and frequency attenuation particularly both inside the pro-delta sediments and the sediments below. Observations suggest to us the existence of possible fluid and/or gas discharges and saturations in the Gülbahçe Bay and İzmir Gulf.

  12. K Basin Hazard Analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    PECH, S.H.

    2000-08-23

    This report describes the methodology used in conducting the K Basins Hazard Analysis, which provides the foundation for the K Basins Final Safety Analysis Report. This hazard analysis was performed in accordance with guidance provided by DOE-STD-3009-94, Preparation Guide for U. S. Department of Energy Nonreactor Nuclear Facility Safety Analysis Reports and implements the requirements of DOE Order 5480.23, Nuclear Safety Analysis Report.

  13. K Basins Hazard Analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    WEBB, R.H.

    1999-12-29

    This report describes the methodology used in conducting the K Basins Hazard Analysis, which provides the foundation for the K Basins Safety Analysis Report (HNF-SD-WM-SAR-062, Rev.4). This hazard analysis was performed in accordance with guidance provided by DOE-STD-3009-94, Preparation Guide for U. S. Department of Energy Nonreactor Nuclear Facility Safety Analysis Reports and implements the requirements of DOE Order 5480.23, Nuclear Safety Analysis Report.

  14. Distribution, diet, and energetic condition of age-0 walleye pollock (Gadus chalcogrammus) and pacific cod (Gadus macrocephalus) inhabiting the Gulf of Alaska

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moss, Jamal H.; Zaleski, Marilyn F.; Heintz, Ron A.

    2016-10-01

    Walleye pollock (Gadus chalcogrammus) and Pacific cod (Gadus macrocephalus) are commercially and ecologically important species in Alaska waters. Little is known about their ecology after transitioning from larvae to free swimming fish until settlement to nursery habitats in the eastern Gulf of Alaska. Differences in the distribution, diet, body size, and energetic status between the eastern and central Gulf of Alaska were investigated during summer months to better understand regional and interspecific differences in life history and ecology. The composition of zooplankton prey in the diets of walleye pollock and Pacific cod inhabiting shelf waters was more varied relative to those inhabiting the slope and basin. Body condition and total energy content of Pacific cod was greater than walleye pollock, however total energy content increased with length at a similar rate for both species. Walleye pollock inhabiting continental slope waters had higher energy stores relative to those inhabiting the continental shelf and basin, indicating an energetic advantage for individuals remaining off the shelf during summer months or potentially the advection of fish with higher energy reserves off of the shelf. Previous studies have documented the importance of energy stores for surviving winter and future studies should focus on understanding the mechanisms influencing lipid storage and somatic growth for walleye pollock and Pacific cod inhabiting the eastern and central Gulf of Alaska.

  15. Tidal and atmospheric forcing of the upper ocean in the Gulf of California. 2. Surface heat flux

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paden, Cynthia A.; Winant, Clinton D.; Abbott, Mark R.

    1993-01-01

    Satellite infrared imagery and coastal meteorological data for March 1984 through February 1985 are used to estimate the net annual surface heat flux for the northern Gulf of California. The average annual surface heat flux for the area north of Guaymas and Santa Rosalia is estimated to be +74 W m-2 for the 1984-1985 time period. This is comparable to the +20-50 W m-2 previously obtained from heat and freshwater transport estimates made with hydrographic surveys from different years and months. The spatial distribution of the net surface heat flux shows a net gain of heat over the whole northern gulf. Except for a local maximum near San Esteban Island, the largest heat gain (+110-120 W m-2) occurs in the Ballenas and Salsipuedes channels, where strong tidal mixing produces anomalously cold sea surface temperatures (SSTs) over much of the year. The lowest heat gain occurs in the Guaymas Basin (+40-50 W m-2), where SSTs are consistently warmer. In the relatively shallow northern basin the net surface heat flux is fairly uniform, with a net annual gain of approximately +70 W m-2. A local minimum in heat gain (approximately +60 W m-2) is observed over the shelf in the northwest, where spring and summer surface temperatures are particularly high. A similar minimum in heat gain over the shelf was observed in a separate study in which historical SSTs and 7 years (1979-1986) of meteorological data from Puerto Peñasco were used to estimate the net surface heat flux for the northern basin. In that study, however, the heat fluxes were higher, with a gain of +100 W m-2 over the shelf and +114 W m-2 in the northern basin. These larger values are directly attributable to the higher humidities in the 1979-1986 study compared to the 1984-1985 satellite study. Significant interannual variations in humidity appear to occur in the northern gulf, with relatively high humidities during El Niño years and low humidities during anti-El Niño years. High humidities reduce evaporation and

  16. Seabed morphology and gas venting features in the continental slope region of KrishnaeGodavari basin, Bay of Bengal: Implications in gas–hydrate exploration

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Dewangan, P.; Ramprasad, T.; Ramana, M.V.; Mazumdar, A.; Desa, M.; Badesab, F.K.

    by the tectonic settings of the region. For example, structures formed due to salt or shale tectonics govern the occurrence of gas hydrate in northwestern Gulf of Mexico slope and Niger Delta front (Hovland et al., 1997; Milkov and Sassen, 2001). The seismic.... confirms that paleo-cold seeps in KG offshore basin (Mazumdar et al., 2009). Similar cold seep locations and high methane flux are reported from Gulf of Mexico where the salt diapir creates numerous faults which act as pathways for the fluid...

  17. Controls, budgets and variability of riverine sediment fluxes to the Gulf of Lions (NW Mediterranean Sea)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadaoui, Mahrez; Ludwig, Wolfgang; Bourrin, François; Raimbault, Patrick

    2016-09-01

    The present study investigates the spatio-temporal variability of riverine sediment fluxes to the Gulf of Lions, one of the most extensive shelf regions in the Mediterranean Sea. Small coastal rivers compete here with the Rhone River, nowadays the largest Mediterranean river in terms of water discharge. Our scientific objectives were to investigate the major controls of riverine sediment yields (SY) in this area and to quantify the role of the small coastal rivers, largely ignored in previous studies, in the total sediment budgets. Another objective concerned the source identification of the Rhone sediments with regard to the major tributary contributions, and to test whether the sediment fluxes are in equilibrium in the basin. For the calculation of representative long-term fluxes, we used a Simplified Rating Curve Approach (SiRCA) which could be validated by high resolution monitoring and existing literature data. An overall of 13 drainage basins could be distinguished, covering about 86% of the study area (6 coastal rivers, the Rhone River, and 6 of its tributaries). Representative SY range from 19 to 151 t km-2 yr-1 in the investigated drainage basins. Despite their smaller basin areas and more torrential discharge regimes, SY of the coastal rivers were generally lower compared to SY of the Rhone River and its tributaries. Confrontation with the lithological, morphological and hydroclimatic basin characteristics indicate that lithology exerts the dominant control on SY in the study region. In particular, the existence of erodible sedimentary rocks in the headwater regions yields high SY. Peak values of 135 and 151 t km-2 yr-1 were observed for the Isere and Durance tributaries of the Rhone River, where badlands exist. The coastal rivers contribute on average only to slightly more than 5% of the long-term sediment inputs to the Gulf of Lions. During individual years however, their contribution can strongly increase (up to 27% in 2011). Their contribution is

  18. Seismic architecture and lithofacies of turbidites in Lake Mead (Arizona and Nevada, U.S.A.), an analogue for topographically complex basins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Twichell, D.C.; Cross, V.A.; Hanson, A.D.; Buck, B.J.; Zybala, J.G.; Rudin, M.J.

    2005-01-01

    Turbidites, which have accumulated in Lake Mead since completion of the Hoover Dam in 1935, have been mapped using high-resolution seismic and coring techniques. This lake is an exceptional natural laboratory for studying fine-grained turbidite systems in complex topographic settings. The lake comprises four relatively broad basins separated by narrow canyons, and turbidity currents run the full length of the lake. The mean grain size of turbidites is mostly coarse silt, and the sand content decreases from 11-30% in beds in the easternmost basin nearest the source to 3-14% in the central basins to 1-2% in the most distal basin. Regionally, the seismic amplitude mimics the core results and decreases away from the source. The facies and morphology of the sediment surface varies between basins and suggests a regional progression from higher-energy and possibly channelized flows in the easternmost basin to unchannelized flows in the central two basins to unchannelized flows that are ponded by the Hoover Dam in the westernmost basin. At the local scale, turbidites are nearly flat-lying in the central two basins, but here the morphology of the basin walls strongly affects the distribution of facies. One of the two basins is relatively narrow, and in sinuous sections reflection amplitude increases toward the outsides of meanders. Where a narrow canyon debouches into a broad basin, reflection amplitude decreases radially away from the canyon mouth and forms a fan-like deposit. The fine-grained nature of the turbidites in the most distal basin and the fact that reflections drape the underlying pre-impoundment surface suggest ponding here. The progression from ponding in the most distal basin to possibly channelized flows in the most proximal basin shows in plan view a progression similar to the stratigraphic progression documented in several minibasins in the Gulf of Mexico. Copyright ?? 2005, SEPM (Society for Sedimentary Geology).

  19. The Aquitaine basin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Biteau, J.-J.; Le Marrec, A.; Le Vot, M.; Masset, J.-M.

    2006-07-01

    The Aquitaine Basin is located in the southwest of France, between the Gironde Arch in the north and the Pyrenean Mountain Chain in the south. It is a triangular-shaped domain, extending over 35000km{sup 2}. From north to south, six main geological provinces can be identified: (1) the Medoc Platform located south of the Gironde Arch; (2) the Parentis sub-basin; (3) the Landes Saddle; (4) the North Aquitaine Platform; (5) the foreland of the Pyrenees (also known as the Adour, Arzacq and Comminges sub-basins); and (6) the Pyrenean fold-and-thrust belt. Only the Parentis sub-basin, the foreland of the Pyrenean Chain and a minor part of the fold-and-thrust belt itself are proven hydrocarbon provinces. The Aquitaine Basin, in turn, is subdivided into four sub-basins - the Parentis, Adour-Arzacq, Tarbes and Comminges areas. The lozenge shape of these depocentres is related to the Hercynian tectonic framework of the Palaeozoic basement, reactivated during Early Cretaceous rifting. This rift phase aborted at the end of the Albian (prior to the development of an oceanic crust) in response to the beginning of the subduction of the Iberian plate under the European plate. During the Upper Cretaceous, continued subduction led to the creation of northwards-migrating flexural basins. In the Eocene, a paroxysmal phase of compression was responsible for the uplift of the Pyrenean Mountain Chain and for the thin-skinned deformation of the foreland basin. The resulting structuration is limited to the south by the internal core of the chain and to the north by the leading edge of the fold-and-thrust belt, where the Lacq and Meillon gas fields are located. Four main petroleum provinces have been exploited since the Second World War: (1) the oil-prone Parentis sub-basin and (2) salt ridges surrounding the Arzacq and Tarbes sub-basins; and (3) the gas-prone southern Arzacq sub-basin (including the external Pyrenean fold-and-thrust belt and the proximal foreland sub-basin) and (4

  20. Rapid evolution of a Gulf Stream warm-core ring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joyce, T.; Backus, R.; Cowles, T.; Baker, K.; Blackwelder, P.; Brown, O.; Evans, R.; Olson, D.; Fryxell, G.; Mountain, D.

    1984-01-01

    Satellite images are used to show that major alterations in the structure of Gulf Stream warm-core rings can occur during very short periods of two to five days when an interaction with the Gulf Stream is particularly intense. The role of these interactions in the evolution of a ring are discussed.

  1. An American Honors Program in the Arab Gulf

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yyelland, Byrad

    2012-01-01

    The first Western honors program to be established in the Arab Gulf is offered in Doha, Qatar, on a small satellite campus of an American university. Doha is the capital city of Qatar, a sovereign Arab state physically located on a small peninsula bordering Saudi Arabia in the south and jutting into the Persian Gulf. With a population of only 1.7…

  2. 78 FR 28292 - Gulf War Veterans' Illnesses Task Force

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-14

    ... AFFAIRS Gulf War Veterans' Illnesses Task Force AGENCY: Department of Veterans Affairs (VA). ACTION... the Gulf War Veterans' Illnesses Task Force (GWVI-TF) in August 2009 to conduct a comprehensive review... War Veterans' Illnesses Task Force Draft Written Report is now complete. VA is inviting...

  3. 76 FR 65321 - Gulf War Veterans' Illnesses Task Force

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-20

    ... AFFAIRS Gulf War Veterans' Illnesses Task Force AGENCY: Department of Veterans Affairs (VA). ACTION... the Gulf War Veterans' Illnesses Task Force (GWVI-TF) in August 2009 to conduct a comprehensive review... War Veterans' Illnesses Task Force Draft Written Report is now complete. VA is inviting...

  4. 75 FR 16577 - Gulf War Veterans' Illnesses Task Force

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... AFFAIRS Gulf War Veterans' Illnesses Task Force AGENCY: Department of Veterans Affairs (VA). ACTION... the Gulf War Veterans' Illnesses Task Force (GWVI-TF) in August 2009 to conduct a comprehensive review... Veterans' Illnesses Task Force Draft Written Report is now complete. The VA is inviting public comments...

  5. Sediment dispersal in the macro tidal Gulf of Kachchh, India

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Chauhan, O.S

    of the inner gulf is marked with U and V shaped cuttings extending in the parallel clays, deposited in an earlier phase of deposition. In the outer gulf, there exists a palaeo-channel, buried under 18 m thick sediments (in the central region). Existence...

  6. Good Order at Sea in the Gulf of Guinea

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jacobsen, Katja Lindskov; Nordby, Johannes

    2015-01-01

    and Central African states decided to establish six maritime zones along their coastline in order to improve the maritime security in the Gulf of Guinea. A process heavily supported by UN’s International Maritime Organisation (IMO). Finally, the chapter suggests that maritime security issues in the Gulf...

  7. 50 CFR Appendix B to Part 622 - Gulf Areas

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 8 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Gulf Areas B Appendix B to Part 622... Part 622—Gulf Areas Table 1 of Appendix B to Part 622—Seaward Coordinates of the Longline and Buoy Gear Restricted Area Point No. and reference location 1 North lat. West long. 1Seaward limit of Florida's...

  8. Behavior and trends for Zn in Saronikos Gulf

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chalkiadakis O.

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available The study of Zn in the water column of Saronikos Gulf in Greece during a two year period between 2008 and 2010 added data to the available time series of metal data for this marine area since 1985. The Saronikos Gulf, is directly influenced by the Athens metropolitan area. The operation of the Wastewater Treatment Plant of Athens situated on the small island of Psitalia, in 1995, was considered to be the turning point in the efforts of de-pollution of the gulf. Major sources of pollution for the gulf include also the port of Piraeus, with intensive navigation and shipping activities and the significant industrial activity occurring along the coast of Attica. This study of dissolved and particulate Zn gave results consistent with previous studies of the area such as the prevalence of the dissolved form of Zn and the most affected areas being the smaller most enclosed Gulf of Elefsina and Psitalia Island near the wastewater outfall. However, the concentrations of Zn were below toxic levels for marine aquatic organisms. Furthermore, a clear decrease in the Eastern part of the gulf was exhibited as well as a more subtle decrease in the gulf of Elefsina. The levels of Zn in Saronikos Gulf were found comparable to those of other Greek coastal areas.

  9. Physical processes in the Gulf of Kachchh: A review

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Vethamony, P; Babu, M.T.

    A brief review of various physical processes acting in the Gulf of Kachchh (GoK), which have prominent roles in Gulf dynamics, is presented in this article. The eddies present in the GoK confirm that they are permanent features of the Go...

  10. Geodynamics of the Gulf of California from surface wave tomography

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zhang, X.; Paulssen, H.

    2012-01-01

    The Gulf of California, which forms part of the Pacific–North American plate boundary, is an ideal place to investigate upper mantle dynamics in a continental rifting area. With 19 seismic stations located around the gulf, the NARS-Baja experiment (2002–2008) was designed to image its crustal and ma

  11. Geodynamics of the Gulf of California from surface wave tomography

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zhang, X.; Paulssen, H.

    2012-01-01

    The Gulf of California, which forms part of the Pacific-North American plate boundary, is an ideal place to investigate upper mantle dynamics in a continental rifting area. With 19 seismic stations located around the gulf, the NARS-Baja experiment (2002-2008) was designed to image its crustal and ma

  12. Abundance and size of Gulf shrimp in Louisiana's coastal estuaries following the Deepwater Horizon oil spill.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joris L van der Ham

    Full Text Available The Deepwater Horizon oil spill impacted Louisiana's coastal estuaries physically, chemically, and biologically. To better understand the ecological consequences of this oil spill on Louisiana estuaries, we compared the abundance and size of two Gulf shrimp species (Farfantepeneus aztecus and Litopeneus setiferus in heavily affected and relatively unaffected estuaries, before and after the oil spill. Two datasets were used to conduct this study: data on shrimp abundance and size before the spill were available from Louisiana Department of Wildlife and Fisheries (LDWF. Data on shrimp abundance and size from after the spill were independently collected by the authors and by LDWF. Using a Before-After-Control-Impact with Paired sampling (BACIP design with monthly samples of two selected basins, we found brown shrimp to become more abundant and the mean size of white shrimp to become smaller. Using a BACIP with data on successive shrimp year-classes of multiple basins, we found both species to become more abundant in basins that were affected by the spill, while mean shrimp size either not change after the spill, or increased in both affected and unaffected basins. We conclude that following the oil spill abundances of both species increased within affected estuaries, whereas mean size may have been unaffected. We propose two factors that may have caused these results: 1 exposure to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs may have reduced the growth rate of shrimp, resulting in a delayed movement of shrimp to offshore habitats, and an increase of within-estuary shrimp abundance, and 2 fishing closures established immediately after the spill, may have resulted in decreased fishing effort and an increase in shrimp abundance. This study accentuates the complexities in determining ecological effects of oil spills, and the need of studies on the organismal level to reveal cause-and-effect relationships of such events.

  13. Abundance and size of Gulf shrimp in Louisiana's coastal estuaries following the Deepwater Horizon oil spill.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Ham, Joris L; de Mutsert, Kim

    2014-01-01

    The Deepwater Horizon oil spill impacted Louisiana's coastal estuaries physically, chemically, and biologically. To better understand the ecological consequences of this oil spill on Louisiana estuaries, we compared the abundance and size of two Gulf shrimp species (Farfantepeneus aztecus and Litopeneus setiferus) in heavily affected and relatively unaffected estuaries, before and after the oil spill. Two datasets were used to conduct this study: data on shrimp abundance and size before the spill were available from Louisiana Department of Wildlife and Fisheries (LDWF). Data on shrimp abundance and size from after the spill were independently collected by the authors and by LDWF. Using a Before-After-Control-Impact with Paired sampling (BACIP) design with monthly samples of two selected basins, we found brown shrimp to become more abundant and the mean size of white shrimp to become smaller. Using a BACIP with data on successive shrimp year-classes of multiple basins, we found both species to become more abundant in basins that were affected by the spill, while mean shrimp size either not change after the spill, or increased in both affected and unaffected basins. We conclude that following the oil spill abundances of both species increased within affected estuaries, whereas mean size may have been unaffected. We propose two factors that may have caused these results: 1) exposure to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) may have reduced the growth rate of shrimp, resulting in a delayed movement of shrimp to offshore habitats, and an increase of within-estuary shrimp abundance, and 2) fishing closures established immediately after the spill, may have resulted in decreased fishing effort and an increase in shrimp abundance. This study accentuates the complexities in determining ecological effects of oil spills, and the need of studies on the organismal level to reveal cause-and-effect relationships of such events.

  14. Petroleum prospectivity of the Canada Basin, Arctic Ocean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grantz, A.; Hart, P.E.

    2011-01-01

    Reconnaissance seismic reflection data indicate that Canada Basin is a remnant of the Amerasia Basin of the Arctic Ocean that lies south of the Alpha-Mendeleev Large Igneous Province, which was constructed on the northern part of the Amerasia Basin between about 127 and 89-75 Ma. Canada Basin is filled with Early Jurassic to Holocene detritus from the Mackenzie River system, which drains the northern third of interior North America, with sizable contributions from Alaska and Northwest Canada. Except for the absence of a salt- and shale-bearing mobile substrate Canada Basin is analogous to the Mississippi Delta and the western Gulf of Mexico. Canada Basin contains about 7 to >14 km of sediment beneath the Mackenzie Prodelta on the southeast, 6 to 7 km of sediment beneath the abyssal plain on the west, and roughly 5 or 6 million cubic km of sediment. About three fourths of the basin fill generates low amplitude seismic reflections, interpreted to represent hemiplegic deposits, and a fourth of the fill generates interbedded lenses to extensive layers of moderate to high amplitude reflections interpreted to represent unconfined turbidite and amalgamated channel deposits. Extrapolation from Arctic Alaska and Northwest Canada suggests that three fourths of the section in Canada Basin may contain intervals of hydrocarbon source rocks and the apparent age of the basin suggests that it contains three of the six stratigraphic intervals that together provided >90?? of the World's discovered reserves of oil and gas.. Worldwide heat flow averages suggest that about two thirds of Canada Basin lies in the oil or gas window. At least five types of structural or stratigraphic features of local to regional occurrence offer exploration targets in Canada Basin. These consist of 1) a belt of late Eocene to Miocene shale-cored detachment folds containing with at least two anticlines that are capped by beds with bright spots, 2) numerous moderate to high amplitude reflection packets

  15. Gulf Stream Ring Coalescence with the Gulf Stream off Cape Hatteras.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watts, D R; Olson, D B

    1978-12-01

    A cyclonic ring, which had separated from the Gulf Stream 7 months earlier and traveled 500 kilometers westward, collided with the stream in September 1977. Within 3 days the ring and stream joined to form a sharp S-shaped meander. Shipboard expendable temperature probes and four bottom-moored inverted echo sounders were used to obtain synoptic descriptions of the rejoining process.

  16. NASA Earth Observations Track the Gulf Oil Spill

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Jason B.; Childs, Lauren

    2010-01-01

    The NASA Applied Sciences Program created the Gulf of Mexico Initiative (GOMI) in 2007 "to enhance the region s ability to recover from the devastating hurricanes of 2005 and to address its coastal management issues going into the future." The GOMI utilizes NASA Earth science assets to address regional priorities defined by the Gulf of Mexico Alliance, a partnership formed by the states of Alabama, Florida, Louisiana, Mississippi, and Texas, along with 13 federal agencies and 4 regional organizations to promote regional collaboration and enhance the ecological and economic health of the Gulf of Mexico. NASA's GOMI is managed by the Applied Science and Technology Project Office at Stennis Space Center and has awarded over $18 million in Gulf of Mexico research since 2008. After the Deepwater Horizon oil spill, GOMI personnel assisted members of the Gulf of Mexico Alliance with obtaining NASA remote sensing data for use in their oil spill response efforts.

  17. Petroleum systems of the Malay Basin Province, Malaysia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bishop, Michele G.

    2002-01-01

    The offshore Malay Basin province is a Tertiary oil and gas province composed of a complex of half grabens that were filled by lacustrine shales and continental clastics.These deposits were overlain by clastics of a large delta system that covered the basin.Delta progradation was interupted by transgressions of the South China Sea to the southeast, which finally flooded the basin to form the Gulf of Thailand.Oil and gas from the Oligocene to Miocene lacustrine shales and Miocene deltaic coals is trapped primarily in anticlines formed by inversion of the half grabens during the late Miocene.Hydrocarbon reserves that have been discovered amount to 12 billion barrels of oil equivalent.The U.S. Geological Survey assessment of the estimated quantities of conventional oil, gas and condensate that have the potential to be added to reserves by the year 2025 for this province is 6.3 billion barrels of oil equivalent (BBOE) (U. S. Geological Survey World Energy Assessment Team, 2000).

  18. 78 FR 14983 - Fisheries of the Gulf of Mexico; Gulf of Mexico Fishery Management Council; Public Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-08

    ...Independent peer review of Gulf of Mexico Spanish Mackerel and Cobia stocks will be accomplished through written reviews because delays in completing the assessments prevented their consideration at the SEDAR 28 Review Workshop. This workshop is being held by the Gulf of Mexico Fishery Management Council to consider recommendations from the written reviews and develop recommendations for the......

  19. 76 FR 78245 - Fisheries of the Caribbean, Gulf of Mexico, and South Atlantic; Gulf of Mexico Reef Fish Fishery...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-16

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration RIN 0648-XA727 Fisheries of the Caribbean, Gulf of Mexico, and South Atlantic; Gulf of Mexico Reef Fish Fishery; South Atlantic Snapper-Grouper Fishery...

  20. 76 FR 64327 - Fisheries of the Caribbean, Gulf of Mexico, and South Atlantic; Gulf of Mexico Reef Fish Fishery...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-18

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration RIN 0648-XA727 Fisheries of the Caribbean, Gulf of Mexico, and South Atlantic; Gulf of Mexico Reef Fish Fishery; South Atlantic Snapper-Grouper Fishery...

  1. 75 FR 63786 - Fisheries of the Caribbean, Gulf of Mexico, and South Atlantic; Reef Fish Fishery of the Gulf of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-18

    ... proposed temporary rule that would implement interim measures to reduce overfishing of gag in the Gulf of... this proposed rule is to reduce overfishing of the gag resource in the Gulf. DATES: Written comments... prevent overfishing and achieve, on a continuing basis, the optimum yield (OY) from Federally managed...

  2. 76 FR 69136 - Fisheries of the Caribbean, Gulf of Mexico, and South Atlantic; Reef Fish Fishery of the Gulf of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-11-08

    ... rule to extend the effective date of interim measures to reduce overfishing of gag in the Gulf of... extends the interim measures implemented to reduce overfishing of gag in the Gulf by reducing the... Management Council (Council). The intended effect of this rule is to reduce overfishing of the gag...

  3. Offshore and onshore stratigraphic constraints to rebuild the evolution of the two conjugate margins (Gulf of Lion and West Sardinia) over the last 30 Myr

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leroux, Estelle; Gorini, Christian; Rubino, Jean-Loup; Rabineau, Marina; Aslanian, Daniel; Blanpied, Christian; Taillepierre, Rachel; Haq, Bilal

    2016-04-01

    Principles of seismic and sequential stratigraphy [Vail et al., 1977] are applied onto an extensive set of seismic reflection and drilling data in the Provençal Basin to correlate post-rift Miocene and Plio-Quaternary chronostratigraphic markers at the basin-wide scale. Stratigraphic, sedimentological and micropaleontological studies [Cravatte et al., 1974] for some of the boreholes provide additional information on the depositional environments and the chronostratigraphy of the drilled series. Synthesis of previous onshore studies on the both conjugate margins (Gulf of Lion and West Sardinia), and new fieldwork [Rueda, 2014] enable us to establish the stratigraphical link between onshore and offshore syn-rift and post-rift sequences. Miocene peri-Alpine foreland basin is particularly connected toward the south with the Gulf of Lion passive margin and is predominantly filled by marine shallow water siliciclastic deposits ranging from lower Miocene to Pliocene in age. Nine to ten depositional onshore sequences are identified [Besson et al., 2005, Rubino et al., 2015] and can be traced into the post rift part of the Gulf of Lion. The recognition of these sequences on the distal part of the shelf from the Burdigalian to the Messinian with a good well calibration is fully consistent and integrated in a chronostratigraphic history of the Provençal Basin over the last 30 Myr. We quantify, model and discuss the evolution of vertical movements and sediment budgets since the rifting. This study also allows us to construct a complete sea-level change curve for the western Mediterranean Neogene. Besson, D. (2005). Architecture du bassin rhodano-provençal miocène (Alpes, SE France). Relations entre déformation, physiographie et sédimentation dans un bassin molassique d'avant-pays (Doctoral dissertation, Paris, ENMP). Rueda, T. (2014). Analyse sédimentologique et stratigraphique du remplissage Oligo-Aquitanien du fossé du Campidano - Comparaison avec le remplissage

  4. Satellite views of the massive algal bloom in the Persian Gulf and the Gulf of Oman during 2008-2009

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Shujie; Gong, Fang; He, Xianqiang; Bai, Yan; Zhu, Qiankun; Wang, Difeng; Chen, Peng

    2016-10-01

    The Persian Gulf and the Gulf of Oman locate at the northwest of the Arabian Sea, with the total area more than 50,0000 km2. The Persian Gulf is a semi-enclosed subtropical sea with high water temperature, extremely high salinity, and an average depth of 50 meters. By the Strait of Hormuz, the Persian Gulf is connected to the Gulf of Oman which is significantly affected by the monsoonal winds and by water exchange between the Arabian Sea and the Persian Gulf. Algal blooms occurred frequently in the Persian Gulf and the Gulf of Oman, and some of them are harmful algal blooms which may lead to massive fish death and thereby serious economic loss. Due to the widely spatial coverage and temporal variation, it is difficult to monitoring the dynamic of the algal bloom based on in situ measurement. In this study, we used the remote sensing data from the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) onboard the Aqua satellite to investigate a massive algal bloom event in the Persian Gulf and the Gulf of Oman during 2008-2009. The time series of MODIS-derived chlorophyll concentration (Chl-a) indicated that the bloom event with high Chl-a concentration ( 60 percent higher than corresponding climatological data) appeared to lasting more than 8 months from autumn of 2008 to spring of 2009. In addition, the bloom was widespread from the Persian Gulf to the Gulf of Oman and neighboring open ocean. The MODIS-derived net primary production (NPP) collected from MODIS showed the same trend with Chl-a. Multiple forces including upwelling, dust deposition was taken into account to elucidate the mechanisms for the long-lasting algal bloom. The time series chlorophyll concentration of the Persian Gulf emerges a significant seasonal pattern with maximum concentrations seen during the winter time and lowest during the summer. It also indicated slight disturbances occurred in June (May/July) and December (November/ January) in some years. The sea surface temperature and water

  5. Migrant workers: victims of war in Gulf.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1992-01-01

    The Persian Gulf War forced millions of migrant workers in the region to return home, causing hardship not only on the workers but also on their home countries. Prior to the war, the region's oil wealth had attracted migrants from around the world. By 1990, some 3 million resided in Iraq and Kuwait alone. Many more worked in other Gulf countries. But only 2 months after the Iraqi invasion of Kuwait, over 2 million workers had fled the region or had been returned home. Yemenis and Egyptians alone accounted for 750,000 and 1/2 million workers, respectively. There were also an estimated 600,000 Asians. Although many of the migrants were unskilled laborers, many also were skilled laborers and professionals. Jordanians and Palestinians made up much of the Kuwaiti civil service. As the war unfolded, it became clear that the migrant workers lacked any of the legal rights and protection granted to other citizens. Many workers were not allowed to return home because of their importance to the economy. Others, like some 35,000 Sri Lankan housemaids in Kuwait, were stranded in the war zone, lacking the money and means to return home. In most cases, the workers also suffered from frozen bank accounts, unpaid wages and benefits, and property loss. Their return home also created problems for their countries. Jordan's population increased by 10% in 1990 due to the returning population. Yemen's unemployment increased from 10% to 25%. As a result of the Gulf war experience, the UN General Assembly adopted the International Convention on the Rights of Migrant Workers and their Families, which must now be ratified by 20 nations before implementation begins.

  6. Basin Analysis and Petroleum System Characterization and Modeling, Interior Salt Basins, Central and Eastern Gulf of Mexico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ernest A. Mancini

    2006-07-31

    The principal research effort for Year 1 of Phase 2 (Concept Demonstration) of the project is Smackover petroleum system characterization and modeling. The necessary software applications are in the process of being acquired to accomplish this work. No major problems have been encountered to date, and the project is on schedule.

  7. Basin Analysis and Petroleum System Characterization and Modeling, Interior Salt Basins, Central and Eastern Gulf of Mexico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ernest A. Mancini

    2007-06-30

    The principal research effort for Year 2 of Phase 2 (Concept Demonstration) of the project is Mesozoic (Bossier) petroleum system characterization and modeling and refined resource assessment. The necessary software applications have been acquired to accomplish this work. No major problems have been encountered to date, and the project is on schedule.

  8. Basin Analysis and Petroleum System Characterization and Modelling, Interior Salt Basins, Central and Eastern Gulf of Mexico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ernest A. Mancini

    2006-09-30

    The principal research effort for Year 1 of Phase 2 (Concept Demonstration) of the project is Smackover petroleum system characterization and modeling. The necessary software applications have been acquired to accomplish this work. No major problems have been encountered to date, and the project is on schedule.

  9. Basin Analysis and Petroleum System Characterization and Modeling, Interior Salt Basins, Central and Eastern Gulf of Mexico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ernest A. Mancini

    2006-12-31

    The principal research effort for Year 1 of Phase 2 (Concept Demonstration) of the project is Smackover petroleum system characterization and modeling. The necessary software applications have been acquired to accomplish this work. No major problems have been encountered to date, and the project is on schedule.

  10. The July 1990 Gulf Stream Experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valenzuela, G. R.; Mied, R. P.; Ochadlick, A. R.; Kobrick, M.; Smith, P. M.; Askari, F.; Lai, R. J.; Sheres, D.; Morrison, J. M.; Beal, R. C.

    1991-01-01

    The specific scientific tasks addressed in the July 1990 Gulf Stream (GS) experiment were the following: (1) Kelvin wake behavior across fronts at various ship speeds, (2) the physics of temperature front/radar cross section (RCS) mismatch, (3) wave-current interactions in curvature fronts, and (4) the hydrodynamic structure and origin of synthetic-aperture-radar (SAR) slick-like features. Overall, the GS Experiment was most successful, and about 60 percent of the planned data was collected. On-going efforts concentrate on the analysis and interpretation of the data. An overview of the experiment and preliminary results of the data analysis are given.

  11. Steerable system adds precision to Gulf drilling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bierschwale, H.; Ridley, R.

    1988-05-02

    A well bore intersection was achieved ahead of schedule with a steerable drilling system in the Gulf of Mexico. A computer-generated proximity survey comparing the directional surveys of the initial and replacement wells, confirmed that the wells were within 1 ft. of each other near the planned intersection depth of 8,890 ft. All objectives for the 9,050-ft. replacement well were accomplished 4 days ahead of schedule. This operation illustrates the effectiveness of the steerable drilling system for obtaining better directional control, increased drilling efficiently, and reduced overall drilling time. This article explains how the project was completed.

  12. Plate boundary deformation at the latitude of the Salton Trough - northern Gulf of California (Invited)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stock, J. M.

    2013-12-01

    Along the Pacific-North America plate boundary zone, the segment including the southern San Andreas fault to Salton Trough and northern Gulf of California basins has been transtensional throughout its evolution, based on Pacific-North America displacement vectors calculated from the global plate circuit (900 × 20 km at N54°W since 20 Ma; 460 × 20 km at N48°W since 11 Ma). Nevertheless, active seismicity and focal mechanisms show a broad zone of plate boundary deformation within which the inferred stress regime varies locally (Yang & Hauksson 2013 GJI), and fault patterns in some regions suggest ongoing tectonic rotation. Similar behavior is inferred to have occurred in this zone over most of its history. Crustal structure in this region is constrained by surface geology, geophysical experiments (e.g., the 2011 Salton Seismic Imaging Project (SSIP), USGS Imperial Valley 1979, PACE), and interdisciplinary marine and onland studies in Mexico (e.g., NARS-Baja, Cortes, and surveys by PEMEX). Magnetic data (e.g., EMAG-2) aids in the recognition of large-scale crustal provinces and fault boundaries in regions lacking detailed geophysical surveys. Consideration of existing constraints on crustal thickness and architecture, and fault and basin evolution suggests that to reconcile geological deformation with plate motion history, the following additional factors need to be taken into account. 1) Plate boundary displacement via interacting systems of rotating blocks, coeval with slip on steep strike slip faults, and possibly related to slip on low angle extensional faults (e.g, Axen & Fletcher 1998 IGR) may be typical prior to the onset of seafloor spreading. This fault style may have accommodated up to 150 km of plate motion in the Mexican Continental Borderland and north of the Vizcaino Peninsula, likely between 12 and 15 Ma, as well as explaining younger rotations adjacent to the Gulf of California and current deformation southwest of the Salton Sea. 2) Geophysical

  13. Strong impacts of the Gulf Stream anomalies on the large-scale atmospheric state

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakamura, Mototaka; Yamane, Shozo

    2010-05-01

    Geological data and climate simulation models suggest that the North Atlantic Deep Water (NADW) that plays a critical role in the global thermohaline circulation may have gone through major fluctuations in the past, bringing with them major climatic anomalies around the basin. A future collapse of the NADW formation has been a concern, as theories and climate simulation models suggest freshening of the North Atlantic as a result of the carbon dioxide increase in the atmosphere. Meanwhile, attempts to find strong impacts of SST anomalies in the North Atlantic on the large-scale atmospheric state in the data and simulation experiments had not been very successful, casting some doubt on the extent to which the thermohaline circulation fluctuations affect the Northern Hemispheric climate. In an attempt to find evidence of strong impacts of the SST anomalies along the Gulf Stream on the regional and Northern Hemispheric climates, we analyzed the ERA40 reanalysis data and Hadley Centre SST data with the near-surface baroclinicity as the key parameter that connects the extra-tropical SST anomalies with the large-scale atmospheric anomalies. We first calculated EOFs of the near-surface baroclinicity for the domain that covers the North Atlantic storm track for each month. We then compiled anomaly composites of the SST, net surface heat flux, and various atmospheric fields for the positive and negative phases of the first two EOFs for each month. We also compiled composites of the anomalies for the preceding and following months for the first two EOFs. From the above diagnoses, we identified strong impacts of the SST anomalies in the vicinity of the Gulf Stream on the large-scale atmospheric state, mostly in cold months. The scale of the atmospheric anomalies generated is very large, on the order of 1000km to 10000km, spanning the entire hemisphere. Roughly speaking, there are two patterns of atmospheric anomalies. One is characterized by a meridional shift in the

  14. Modifed Great Basin Extent (Buffered)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — Two different great basin perimeter files were intersected and dissolved using ArcGIS 10.2.2 to create the outer perimeter of the great basin for use modeling...

  15. Basin Hopping Graph

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kucharik, Marcel; Hofacker, Ivo; Stadler, Peter

    2014-01-01

    Motivation RNA folding is a complicated kinetic process. The minimum free energy structure provides only a static view of the most stable conformational state of the system. It is insufficient to give detailed insights into the dynamic behavior of RNAs. A sufficiently sophisticated analysis...... of the folding free energy landscape, however, can provide the relevant information. Results We introduce the basin hopping graph (BHG) as a novel coarse-grained model of folding landscapes. Each vertex of the BHG is a local minimum, which represents the corresponding basin in the landscape. Its edges connect...

  16. Gulf States and the Conflict between India and Pakistan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zahid Shahab Ahmed

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Traditional cultural and economic ties between the Indian subcontinent and the Gulf region have existed for several centuries now. Strengthened further, both India and Pakistan continue to have important economic and strategic ties with the countries of the Gulf. While the Gulf region offers substantial economic advantages to both, they also have the potential to make positive interventions in the bilateral conflict between India and Pakistan. The following chapter analyses the role and position of the Gulf Arab States - in particular the member states of the Gulf Cooperation Council (GCC, and their potential in acting as a buffer for the Indo-Pak conflict. It will evaluate the official positions of the Gulf region towards various aspects of the Indo-Pak conflict. The Gulfcountries have often voiced their positions at regional and internationalforums. An additional aspect of this relationship is that the Gulf States are also members of the Organization of Islamic Conference (OIC, a pan- Islamic body which has often addressed issues of contention between India and Pakistan, particularly with respect to Kashmir. Through an academic understanding of the issues and incorporating viewpoints of experts in the area, the chapter seeks to provide fresh insights into an aspect which has the possibility of becoming a crucial incentive for peace between India and Pakistan.

  17. The origin of islands in the Kandalaksha Gulf of the White Sea: joint work of internal and external geodynamic processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kosevich, Natalia; Romanovskaya, Maria

    2016-04-01

    The modern White Sea basin is a part of the encounter zone between the East European Platform and of the Fennoscandian Shield. The Kandalaksha Gulf in its northwest lies on the Mesoarchean-Paleoproterozoic structure known as the White Sea Shift Belt. In the Oligocene, it entered its neotectonic stage. Geologically, there are two structural storeys beneath the seafloor of the Kandalaksha Gulf: 1) crystalline bedrock of the Archean White Sea complex; 2) a cover of sediment consisting of three layers: Riphean sandstones, terrigenous Vendian deposits; a cloak of Pleistocene and Holocene deposits and sediments - glacial drifts, transitional glaciomarine sediments and purely marine sediments. The modern White Sea is a young basin formed just 10 to 12 ka. The geological and geomorphic history of the White Sea region was very complicated, with various and often conflicting tectonic movements. Besides the postglacial isostatic rise of Scandinavia amounted to some 100 meters in the White Sea area. The White Sea has numerous islands that are very different in the geological-geomorphological and genetic senses because their origin is the result of interactions between various endogenous and exogenous processes. Large and detailed scale geological and morphological researches of the islands at the southern and northern coast of the Kandalaksha Gulf have been carried out. Landforms of the islands were produced by the joint effects of such processes as (1) glacial-tectonic effects and marine wave action, (2) tidal and surge effects; (3) glacial-tectonic, marine, and gravity effects, and (4) glacial-tectonic, marine, lake, and biogenic effects (Kosevich, 2015). The relief structure of the islands has the following regularities: 1) structures of the northern coast islands are more often landforms that are composed of loose deposits with small sites of structural denudation residual outcrops; 2) the structures of the southern coast islands are typically combinations of loose

  18. Mesoscale eddies in the Gulf of Aden and their impact on the spreading of Red Sea Outflow Water

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bower, Amy S.; Furey, Heather H.

    2012-04-01

    The Gulf of Aden (GOA) in the northwestern Indian Ocean is the receiving basin for Red Sea Outflow Water (RSOW), one of the World’s few high-salinity dense overflows, but relatively little is known about spreading pathways and transformation of RSOW through the gulf. Here we combine historical data, satellite altimetry, new synoptic hydrographic surveys and the first in situ direct observations of subsurface currents in the GOA to identify the most important processes in the spreading of RSOW. The new in situ data sets were collected in 2001-2003 as part of the Red Sea Outflow Experiment (REDSOX) and consist of two CTD/LADCP Surveys and 49 one-year trajectories from acoustically tracked floats released at the depth of RSOW. The results indicate that the prominent positive and negative sea level anomalies frequently observed in the GOA with satellite altimetry are associated with anticyclonic and cyclonic eddies that often reach to at least 1000 m depth, i.e., through the depth range of equilibrated RSOW. The eddies dominate RSOW spreading pathways and help to rapidly mix the outflow water with the background. Eddies in the central and eastern gulf are basin-scale (∼250-km diameter) and have maximum azimuthal speeds of about 30 cm/s at the RSOW level. In the western gulf, smaller eddies not detectable with satellite altimetry appear to form as the larger westward-propagating eddies impale themselves on the high ridges flanking the Tadjura Rift. Both the hydrographic and Lagrangian observations show that eddies originating outside the gulf often transport a core of much cooler, fresher water from the Arabian Sea all the way to the western end of the GOA, where the highest-salinity outflow water is found. This generates large vertical and horizontal gradients of temperature and salinity, setting up favorable conditions for salt fingering and diffusive convection. Both of these mixing processes were observed to be active in the gulf. Two new annually appearing

  19. A note on cross-shelf exchange in the northern Gulf of Alaska

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ladd, C.; Stabeno, P.; Cokelet, E. D.

    2005-03-01

    The continental shelf of the Gulf of Alaska (GOA) is a complex system characterized by large freshwater runoff and strong winds. The GOA supports one of the world's richest ecosystems, including numerous species of fishes, marine mammals and sea birds. The mechanisms that provide nutrients to support this ecosystem are not well understood. The rivers and streams that provide freshwater to the shelf are low in nitrate, and the regional winds favor downwelling. High concentrations of nitrate are available in the deep basin of the GOA, but these must be introduced to the shelf in order to support the high productivity. We present evidence for cross-shelf exchange due to three different mechanisms. Episodes of downwelling relaxation result in a flux of saline, nutrient-rich water onto the shelf at depth. Eddies, formed in the northeastern GOA, propagate along the shelf-break influencing cross-shelf exchange by carrying shelf-origin water from the formation region into the basin and by interacting with the shelf-break circulation. Bathymetric steering in the many canyons that incise the GOA shelf results in flow into the canyons where strong tidal mixing results in cross-isobath movement of water properties.

  20. Holocene record of slip-predictable earthquakes on the Kenchreai Fault, Gulf of Corinth, Greece

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koukouvelas, Ioannis K.; Zygouri, Vasiliki; Papadopoulos, Gerasimos A.; Verroios, Sotiris

    2017-01-01

    We present the Quaternary slip history of the Kenchreai Fault, Gulf of Corinth, based on geomorphological, palaeoseismological, geo-archaeological data and literally determined events. We also applied a series of geomorphic indices such as the hypsometric curve, asymmetry factor, the stream length-gradient index (SL), the valley floor width to valley height ratio (Vf), the drainage basin shape (Bs) and the mountain-front sinuosity (Smf), in drainage basins flowing perpendicular to the fault. These indices are representative for longer time period and are analyzed as follows. Values of SL are relatively high close to the fault trace. Smf values range from 1.01 to 1.85. Vf mean values range between 0.29 and 1.07. Bs values range from 1.16 to 4.78. Lateral fault growth was likely achieved by propagation primarily towards east while its western end appears to act as persistent barrier. The Holocene palaeoseismic history of the fault investigated by a palaeoseismological trench and 14C dating of ten samples suggest four linear morphogenic earthquakes in the last 10 ka. The Kenchreai Fault displays a Holocene slip rate in the order of 0.15 mm a-1 and a recurrence interval ranging between 1300 and 4700 years. Thus the fault is classified as a fault of moderate activity with moderate to well-developed geomorphic evidence of activity and an overall slip-predictable earthquake model.

  1. Pliocene-Quaternary contourites along the northern Gulf of Cadiz margin: sedimentary stacking pattern and regional distribution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Llave, Estefanía; Matias, Hugo; Hernández-Molina, F. Javier; Ercilla, Gemma; Stow, Dorrik A. V.; Medialdea, Teresa

    2011-12-01

    This study reports novel findings on the Pliocene-Quaternary history of the northern Gulf of Cadiz margin and the spatiotemporal evolution of the associated contourite depositional system. Four major seismic units (P1, P2, QI and QII) were identified in the Pliocene-Quaternary sedimentary record based on multichannel seismic profiles. These are bounded by five major discontinuities which, from older to younger, are the M (Messinian), LPR (lower Pliocene revolution), BQD (base Quaternary discontinuity), MPR (mid-Pleistocene revolution) and the actual seafloor. Unit P1 represents pre-contourite hemipelagic/pelagic deposition along the northern Gulf of Cadiz margin. Unit P2 reflects a significant change in margin sedimentation when contourite deposition started after the Early Pliocene. Mounded elongated and separated drifts were generated during unit QI deposition, accompanied by a general upslope progradation of drifts and the migration of main depocentres towards the north and northwest during both the Pliocene and Quaternary. This progradation became particularly marked during QII deposition after the mid-Pleistocene (MPR). Based on the spatial distribution of the main contourite depocentres and their thickness, three structural zones have been identified: (1) an eastern zone, where NE-SW diapiric ridges have controlled the development of two internal sedimentary basins; (2) a central zone, which shows important direct control by the Guadalquivir Bank in the south and an E-W Miocene palaeorelief structure in the north, both of which have significantly conditioned the basin-infill geometry; and (3) a western zone, affected in the north by the Miocene palaeorelief which favours deposition in the southern part of the basin. Pliocene tectonic activity has been an important factor in controlling slope morphology and, hence, influencing Mediterranean Outflow Water pathways. Since the mid-Pleistocene (MPR), the sedimentary stacking pattern of contourite drifts has been

  2. Phytoplankton and sediments in Gulf of Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    2002-01-01

    Affected both by terrestrial factors like agriculture, deforestation, and erosion, and by marine factors like salinity levels, ocean temperature and water pollution, coastal environments are the dynamic interface between land and sea. In this MODIS image from January 15, 2002, the Gulf of Mexico is awash in a mixture of phytoplankton and sediment. Tan-colored sediment is flowing out into the Gulf from the Mississippi River, whose floodplain cuts a pale, wide swath to the right of center in the image, and also from numerous smaller rivers along the Louisiana coast (center). Mixing with the sediment are the multi-colored blue and green swirls that reveal the presence of large populations of marine plants called phytoplankton. Phytoplankton populations bloom and then fade, and these cycles affect fish and mammals-including humans-higher up the food chain. Certain phytoplankton are toxic to both fish and humans, and coastal health departments must monitor ecosystems carefully, often restricting fishing or harvesting of shellfish until the blooms have subsided.

  3. Continental Rupture Controlled by Low-Angle Normal Faults in the Northern Gulf of California: Analysis of Seismic Reflection Profiles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin-Barajas, A.; González-Escobar, M.; Fletcher, J. M.; Pacheco, M.; Mar-Hernández, E.

    2010-12-01

    The transition from focused continental extension to the rupture of continental lithosphere is imaged in the northern Gulf of California rift system across the obliquely conjugated Tiburon-Delfin basins. Structural mapping on a 5-20 km grid of seismic reflection lines (48 channels, 6s TWTT) of Petroleos Mexicanos indicates that a large amount of extension and subsidence in the Tiburon basin was accommodated on a NNE-striking pattern of normal faults merging at depth into a detachment fault (here named Angel de la Guarda Detachment or AGD). The main AGD break-away fault is a ~70 km-long, listric fault concave to the southeast, which flattens below 3 seconds (TWTT). This detachment fault juxtaposes the late-Neogene marine sequence over thinned, mostly Mesozoic continental crust. The AGD is bounded at both ends by two major NW-striking, dextral-oblique faults, the Tiburon and De Mar faults that shear the continental crust parallel to the tectonic transport on both margins of the Tiburon basin. Additional, yet undetermined, amount of dextral shear was accommodated in a ~30 to 50 km wide belt adjacent to mainland Sonora along the now inactive eastern margin of the rift. The AGD break-away fault is cut by an array of NE-striking, northwest dipping active normal faults that accommodate oblique extension to the northwest into the Lower and Upper Delfin basins. Both Delfin basins form a broad, tectonically active rombochasm that also contains a ˜7 km-thick late Neogene sedimentary fill largely derived from the Colorado river delta. Intermediate to felsic magmatic intrusions with MORB-type geochemical and isotopic signatures along the western margin of the rift strongly indicate the rupture of the continental lithosphere and formation of an hybrid crust formed by thick sedimentary sequences and magmatic intrusions. We speculate that thermal anomaly caused by the rupture of continental lithosphere in Delfin basins caused footwall uplift of the detachment fault and the intra-basinal

  4. Water masses in the Gulf of Aden

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Al Saafani, M.A.; Shenoi, S.S.C.

    the passage between Socotra and the Horn of Africa (Schott and McCreary, 2001). Fischer et al. (1996) estimated the total transport, west of Socotra, into the GA during summer as 13-14 Sv. Figures 5, 6 and 10 also indicate the east- to-west spread of GAIW... that this water penetrates as far as 10? N off East Africa and is partially responsible for the low salinity in the intermediate layer of the northern Somali basin. In the Somali basin, in the density range from ??? = 26.5 to 27.0, its core...

  5. Northern Gulf Littoral Initiative (NGLI), Geology and Physical Properties of Marine Sediments in the N.E. Gulf of Mexico: Data Report

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Northern Gulf Littoral Initiative (NGLI), Geology and Physical Properties of Marine Sediments in the N.E. gulf of Mexico: Data Report, was produced by the U.S....

  6. Report A, chemical oceanographic data from the Persian Gulf and Gulf of Oman from 17 April 1972 to 17 March 1978 (NODC Accession 7900091)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Temperature profile and chemical data were collected using bottle casts from NOAA Ship DELAWARE and other platforms in the Persian Gulf and Gulf of Oman from 17...

  7. Late Glacial to Holocene evolution and sea-level history of Gulf of Gemlik, Sea of Marmara, Turkey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sabuncu, Asen; Kadir Eriş, K.; Kaslilar, Ayse; Namık Çaǧatay, M.; Gasperini, Luca; Filikçi, Betül

    2016-04-01

    The Gulf of Gemlik is an E-W elongated trans-tensional basin with a maximum depth of 113 m, located on the middle strand of the North Anatolian Fault (NAF) in the south eastern part of the Sea of Marmara (SoM). While during the Holocene the sea level in the Gulf of Gemlik changed in tandem with the water level changes in the SoM, it may have been different in the late glacial when the Sea of Marmara was lacustrine. Beside the tectonic activity related to the NAFZ, eustatic sea level changes would have controlled the basin evolution and consequent sedimentary history during the different paleocanographic phases of the SoM. Considering the limited studies on the late glacial-Holocene stratigraph of the Gulf of Gemlik, this study aims to investigate the depositional units and their environments with respect to different allogenic and autogenic controls. For these purposes, we analyzed over 300 2 - 7 kHz bandwidth high-resolution gridded seismic sub-bottom CHIRP profiles together with 70 kHz high resolution multibeam bathymetry with backscatter data. Four seismic stratigraphic units were defined and correlated with chronstratigraphic units in five piston cores covering the last 15.8 ka BP according to radiocarbon ages (14C). The depth-scale accuracy of chronostratigraphic units in cores is of key importance for the precise calculation of sedimentation rates. Correlation between the seismic profiles and cores were made by matching Multi-Sensor Core-Logger (MSCL) data and seismic reflection coefficients and amplitudes for different stratigraphic units. The impedance data derived from the logger were used to generate a synthetic seismogram. We used an approach to display, estimate, and correct the depth-scale discrepancies due to oversampling affecting the upper part of sedimentary series during piston coring. The method is based on the resynchronization of synthetic seismograms computed from high-quality physical property logs to the corresponding CHIRP profiles. Each

  8. Evolution of Surface Water Conditions in the Gulf of California During the Past 2000 years: Implications for the North American Monsoon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barron, J. A.; Bukry, D.; Addison, J. A.; McGann, M.; Schwartz, V.; McGeehin, J. P.; McClymont, E.

    2015-12-01

    High-resolution analyses of diatoms, silicoflagellates, biogenic silica, and alkenones in laminated sediment cores from the Guaymas Basin (central Gulf of California) reveal pronounced changes in surface water conditions over the past 2000 years. Prior to ~AD 1200, surface waters in the western Guaymas Basin (boxcore MD02-2517c2 at 27.4850° N, 112.0743°W, water depth 887 m) were characterized by high biologic productivity with alternating assemblages of productive diatoms (Thalassionema nitzschioides, Fragilariopsis doliolus) and silicoflagellates (Octactis pulchra, Dictyocha stapedia). Beginning at ~ AD 1200 productivity declined abruptly in two steps (at ~AD 1200 and ~1500) that were marked by increases in the relative abundance of tropical diatoms and silicoflagellates. In contrast, eastern Guaymas Basin Kasten Core BAM80 E-17 (27.920° N, 111.610°W, 620 m of water depth), was dominated by high biosiliceous productivity during the past 2000 years with increases corresponding to solar minima, arguing that an intensification of winter northwest winds drove coastal upwelling. In both Guaymas Basin records silicoflagellate assemblages suggest surface-water cooling during Medieval Climate Anomaly (MCA; ~AD 800-1200) relative to the intervals before and after. Together, these records support a cooler La Niña-like MCA followed by a warmer El Niño-like Little Ice Age, similar to results obtained from the Santa Barbara Basin to the north. During La Niñas, the Intertropical Convergence Zone (ITCZ) occupies a more northerly position in the eastern tropical Pacific, facilitating summertime surges of Pacific tropical moisture up the Gulf and higher monsoonal precipitation in the southwestern US. A modeling study by Song Feng et al. (2008, JGR) of the broader MCA (AD 800-1300) utilizes La Niña-like Pacific sea surface temperatures to argues for an intensified North American Monsoon during the MCA. Limited terrestrial proxy records from Arizona and New Mexico are

  9. Evidence for atmospheric carbon dioxide variability over the Gulf Stream

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bufton, J. L.

    1984-01-01

    Two airborne surveys of atmospheric carbon dioxide concentration have been conducted over the Gulf Stream off the east coast of Virginia and North Carolina on September 7-8, 1983. In situ CO2 data were acquired at an aircraft altitude of 300 m on trajectories that transcected the Gulf Stream near 36 deg N 73 deg W. Data show evidence of a CO2 concentration increase by 4 ppm to 15 ppm above the nominal atmospheric background value of 345 ppm. These enhanced values were associated with the physical location of the Gulf Stream prior to the passage of a weak cold front.

  10. SAR observations of the Gulf Stream during SWADE

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vachon, Paris W.; Liu, Antony K.; Mollo-Christensen, Erik

    1992-01-01

    The Surface Wave Dynamics Experiment (SWADE) has gathered SAR observations of the Gulf Stream that show a change in ocean surface brightness; this may be due to the effects of a change in air-sea temperature difference across the observed edge, where the boundary is defined by warm, quickly flowing Gulf Stream water and cooler, relatively stationary shelf water. The two images discussed indicate the possibility of deepening understanding of Gulf Stream front dynamics by using the abundant spatial data of SAR imagery, in conjunction with more conventional (point-like) data on hydrography and currents.

  11. Gulf Stream density structure and transport during the past millennium

    OpenAIRE

    Lund, David C.; Lynch-Stieglitz, Jean; Curry, William B.

    2006-01-01

    The Gulf Stream transports approximately 31 Sv (1 Sv = 10^6 m^3 s^(-1)) of water and 1.3 10^(15) W of heat into the North Atlantic ocean. The possibility of abrupt changes in Gulf Stream heat transport is one of the key uncertainties in predictions of climate change for the coming centuries. Given the limited length of the instrumental record, our knowledge of Gulf Stream behaviour on long timescales must rely heavily on information from geologic archives. Here we use foraminifera from a su...

  12. Ecologic Atlas of Benthic Foraminifera of the Gulf of Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tietjen, John H.

    Because of their importance as indicators of petroleum deposits, the benthic foraminifera of the Gulf of Mexico are one of the most intensely studied groups of animals in the world. This is especially true of the foraminifera inhabiting the shallow shelf region of the northern and eastern Gulf; much less is known about the animals of the southern shelf, continental slope, and abyssal plains. The author spent 10 years examining collections from various not well-known areas of the Gulf; this atlas is a synthesis of distributional data from approximately 4500 previously known stations, plus new information from 400 additional stations.

  13. Population Structure, Abundance and Movement of Whale Sharks in the Arabian Gulf and the Gulf of Oman

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, David P.; Jaidah, Mohammed Y.; Bach, Steffen; Lee, Katie; Jabado, Rima W.; Rohner, Christoph A.; March, Abi; Caprodossi, Simone; Henderson, Aaron C.; Mair, James M.; Ormond, Rupert; Pierce, Simon J.

    2016-01-01

    Data on the occurrence of whale sharks, Rhincodon typus, in the Arabian Gulf and Gulf of Oman were collected by dedicated boat surveys and via a public-sightings scheme during the period from 2011 to 2014. A total of 422 individual whale sharks were photo-identified from the Arabian Gulf and the northern Gulf of Oman during that period. The majority of sharks (81%, n = 341) were encountered at the Al Shaheen area of Qatar, 90 km off the coast, with the Musandam region of Oman a secondary area of interest. At Al Shaheen, there were significantly more male sharks (n = 171) than females (n = 78; X2 = 17.52, P 9 m individuals were visually assessed as pregnant. Connectivity among sharks sighted in Qatari, Omani and UAE waters was confirmed by individual spot pattern matches. A total of 13 identified sharks were re-sighted at locations other than that at which they were first sighted, including movements into and out of the Arabian Gulf through the Strait of Hormuz. Maximum likelihood techniques were used to model an estimated combined population for the Arabian Gulf and Gulf of Oman of 2837 sharks ± 1243.91 S.E. (95% C.I. 1720–6295). The Al Shaheen aggregation is thus the first site described as being dominated by mature males while the free-swimming pregnant females are the first reported from the Indian Ocean. PMID:27362839

  14. Single-basined choice

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bossert, W.; Peters, H.J.M.

    2013-01-01

    Single-basined preferences generalize single-dipped preferences by allowing for multiple worst elements. These preferences have played an important role in areas such as voting, strategy-proofness and matching problems. We examine the notion of single-basinedness in a choice-theoretic setting. In co

  15. Hydrocarbons in surface sediments from a Guaymas Basin hydrothermal vent site. Technical report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bazylinski, D.A.; Farrington, J.W.; Jannasch, H.W.

    1988-01-01

    Petroleum-like materials found at the Guaymas Basin hydrothermal vent site (Gulf of California) are derived from pyrolysis of organic matter. Two characteristics surface sediment cores differing in temperature profiles and other parameters were collected by DSV ALVIN, sectioned, and analyzed for hydrocarbons. The quantitative and qualitative composition of alkanes, steranes, diasteranes, and triterpanes differed between these cores as well as within sections of the same core. These differences, apparent for scales of tens of centimeters, are related to interactive physical, chemical, and microbial processes as well as the influence of multiple sources for the petroleum.

  16. Hydrocarbons in surface sediments from a Guaymas Basin hydrothermal vent site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bazylinski, D.A.; Farrington, J.W.; Jannasch, H.W. (Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution, Woods Hole, MA (USA))

    1988-01-01

    Petroleum-like materials found at the Guaymas Basin hydrothermal vent site (Gulf of California) are derived from pyrolysis of organic matter. Two characteristic surface sediment cores differing in temperature profiles and other parameters were collected by DSV ALVIN, sectioned and analyzed for hydrocarbons. The quantitative and qualitative composition of alkanes, steranes, diasteranes, and triterpanes differed between these cores as well as within sections of the same core. These differences, apparent for scales of tens of centimeters, are related to interactive physical, chemical, and microbial processes as well as the influence of multiple sources for the petroleum.

  17. Chronology and dynamics of the Amundsen Gulf Ice Stream in Arctic Canada during the last glacial-interglacial transition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lakeman, T. R.; MacLean, B.; Blasco, S.; Bennett, R.; Hughes Clarke, J. E.

    2012-04-01

    influence of the Mackenzie and other fluvial sediment discharge on the seabed over the last 13,000 cal yr BP. The deglacial history of Amundsen Gulf under ameliorating climate conditions of the last ~19,000 cal yr BP provides important constraints on the variables that occasioned the demise of the northwest Laurentide Ice Sheet, such as sea level change, paleoclimate, and regional ice sheet dynamics. Understanding the complex interplay among these variables during the last deglaciation will bear on current model projections of the dynamics of the Greenland and Antarctic ice sheets. In addition, quantifying past iceberg fluxes to the Arctic Ocean has implications for assessing the origin of deep ice scours in the Arctic Ocean Basin and the nature of rapid climate changes at the last glacial-interglacial transition.

  18. Evolution and timing of salt diapirism in the Iranian sector of the Persian Gulf

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perotti, Cesare; Chiariotti, Luca; Bresciani, Ilenia; Cattaneo, Luciano; Toscani, Giovanni

    2016-06-01

    The Iranian sector of the Persian Gulf is affected by more than 30 large diapiric structures triggered by the mobilization of the Infracambrian Hormuz Complex, an evaporite-rich unit that overlies Precambrian basement at the base of the sedimentary succession. Nineteen non-piercing diapirs, without any appreciable salt intrusion into the upper succession, were studied in detail and retro-deformed by the decompaction and unfolding of 13 seismic horizons that were identified by the interpretation of a dense grid of 2D seismic lines and calibrated by well data. Salt uplift had begun by the Early Palaeozoic and persists to the present day, with major pulses of intensity during the Middle Triassic, Cenomanian, Late Oligocene, and post-Middle Miocene. The structural reconstructions and the analysis of the progressive deformation of the study diapirs do not show any link between diapiric uplift and local tectonic structures, and no clear correlation with the regional geodynamic events acting at the boundary of the Arabian plate. On the contrary, the salt uplift seems strongly influenced by the differential rate of sedimentation that affected the whole study basin (more than 40,000 km2), with a coefficient of correlation between the salt uplift rate and the differential rate of sedimentation (expressed by the standard deviation of the sedimentation rate calculated over the entire basin) of 0.95. This downbuilding mechanism of diapiric growth is apparently induced by differential sedimentation over long distances (several tens of kilometers), showing that the flow of salt affected the whole basin and not just the areas around the single diapiric structures.

  19. Frontier petroleum basins of Colombia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Keith, J.F. Jr.; Perez, V.E.

    1989-03-01

    The frontier basins of Colombia with hydrocarbon potential are numerous, have varying geological histories, and are in different stages of exploration development. In this paper, sedimentary or structural basins are classified as frontier petroleum basins if commercial discoveries of hydrocarbons are lacking, if the basin has not attained a high degree of exploration development, or if a new play concept has been perceived or developed for a portion of a mature exploration basin. Using these criteria for classification, the authors discuss the Cauca-Patia Choco-Pacifico, and Lower Magdalena basin complexes; the Cordillera Oriental foreland basin; and the Cesar-Rancheria, Sabana, and Amazonas basins. A comprehensive geological and structural setting of each of these frontier basins will be presented. The depositional and tectonic evolution of the basins will be highlighted, and the play concepts for each will be inventoried, catalogued, and categorized as to whether they are theoretical or established. The discussion of the available plays in each of these basins will include the main play concept elements of reservoirs traps, seals, source rocks, maturation, and timing. When detailed data permit, the reservoir and trap geometry will be presented.

  20. Rapid ventilation of the Mexico City basin and regional fate of the urban plume

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. de Foy

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Urban areas can be large emitters of air pollutants leading to negative health effects and environmental degradation. The rate of venting of these airsheds determines the pollutant loading for given emission levels, and also determines the regional impacts of the urban plume. Mexico City has approximately 20 million people living in a high altitude basin with air pollutant concentrations above the health limits most days of the year. A mesoscale meteorological model (MM5 and a particle trajectory model (FLEXPART are used to simulate air flow within the Mexico City basin and the fate of the urban plume during the MCMA-2003 field campaign. The simulated trajectories are validated against pilot balloon and radiosonde trajectories. The residence time of air within the basin and the impacted areas are identified by episode type. Three specific cases are analysed to identify the meteorological processes involved. For most days, residence times in the basin are less than 12 h with little carry-over from day to day and little recirculation of air back into the basin. Very efficient vertical mixing leads to a vertically diluted plume which, in April, is transported predominantly towards the Gulf of Mexico. Regional accumulation was found to take place for some days however, with urban emissions sometimes staying over Mexico for more than 6 days. Knowledge of the residence times, recirculation patterns and venting mechanisms will be useful in guiding policies for improving the air quality of the MCMA.

  1. Grain size distribution, clay mineralogy and chemistry of bottom sediments from the outer Thermaikos Gulf, Aegean Sea, Greece

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K.G. PEHLIVANOGLOU

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The Thermaikos Gulf constitutes the NW part of the North Aegean Sea and is limited eastward from the Chalkidiki Peninsula and westward from the Pieria Prefecture. Its plateau covers an area of 3,500 km2. The mechanisms responsible for the grain size distribution into the Gulf, the clay mineralogy and the chemistry of some bottom sediments from the outer Thermaikos Gulf, are examined. Source mixing during transportation, flocculation, differential settling processes and organic matter appear to be the main mechanisms for the distribution of clay minerals in shallow waters. All grain size fractions studied present a wide range of values confirming the extreme variations of the discharged load and the variability in marine processes. Plagioclases predominate over K-feldspars, while quartz is the most abundant mineral present. In addition, micas, chlorites, amphiboles and pyroxenes exist as primary and/or accessory minerals in all samples. Among clay minerals, illite predominates over smectite and smectite over chlorite (+ kaolinite. The ordered interstratified phase of I/S, with 30-35% S layers, is present in the 2-0.25µm fraction. The randomly interstratified phase of I/S, with 50% S layers, is present in the <0.25& micro; m fraction. On average the clay mineral content of the studied samples is: 48% I, 23% S, 17% Ch (+K and 12% others for the 2-0.25µm fraction and 50% I, 30% S and 20% Ch (+K for the <0.25 µm fraction. All these minerals are the weathering products of the rocks from the drainage basins of the rivers flowing into the Gulf, as well as of the Neogene and Quaternary unconsolidated sediments of the surrounding coasts. The terrigenous input, the water mass circulation and, to a lesser extent, the quality of the discharged material and the differential settling of grains, control the grain size distribution within the outer Thermaikos Gulf. The chemical composition of the analysed samples is generally in agreement with their mineral

  2. Natural frequency of regular basins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tjandra, Sugih S.; Pudjaprasetya, S. R.

    2014-03-01

    Similar to the vibration of a guitar string or an elastic membrane, water waves in an enclosed basin undergo standing oscillatory waves, also known as seiches. The resonant (eigen) periods of seiches are determined by water depth and geometry of the basin. For regular basins, explicit formulas are available. Resonance occurs when the dominant frequency of external force matches the eigen frequency of the basin. In this paper, we implement the conservative finite volume scheme to 2D shallow water equation to simulate resonance in closed basins. Further, we would like to use this scheme and utilizing energy spectra of the recorded signal to extract resonant periods of arbitrary basins. But here we first test the procedure for getting resonant periods of a square closed basin. The numerical resonant periods that we obtain are comparable with those from analytical formulas.

  3. Gulf of Mexico Protected Species Assessment Aerial Surveys

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — These data sets include a compilation of aerial line-transect surveys conducted over continental shelf waters of the Gulf of Mexico since 1992. The majority of these...

  4. Gulf sturgeon Critical Habitat Units 8-14

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — These data represent the critical habitat for Gulf Sturgeon as designated by Federal Register Vol. 68, No. 53, Wednesday, March 19, 2003, Rules and Regulations.

  5. Gulf of Mexico killer whale photo-ID catalog

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Photo-identification data on killer whales occupying the northern Gulf of Mexico have been collected in association with large vessel surveys since 1991. Photographs...

  6. Gulf of Mexico Sperm Whale Acoustic Prey Study

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Large vessel surveys were conducted during the summer of 2009 and the winter of 2010 in the north-central Gulf of Mexico to examine the spatial distribution of sperm...

  7. Gulf of Mexico sperm whale photo-ID catalog

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Photo-identification data on sperm whales occupying the north central Gulf of Mexico have been collected during vessel surveys. Photographs of sperm whales are taken...

  8. EAARL Coastal Topography - Northern Gulf of Mexico, 2007: First surface

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — A first surface elevation map (also known as a Digital Elevation Model, or DEM) of the northern Gulf of Mexico barrier islands and Naval Live Oaks was produced from...

  9. Gulf of Mexico Marine Mammal Vessel Surveys - NRDA

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Large vessel surveys were conducted during June-August and Oct-Nov, 2010 in the north central Gulf of Mexico to collect data on marine mammal spatial distribution...

  10. The role of the Gulf Stream in European climate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palter, Jaime B

    2015-01-01

    The Gulf Stream carries the warm, poleward return flow of the wind-driven North Atlantic subtropical gyre and the Atlantic Meridional Overturning Circulation. This northward flow drives a significant meridional heat transport. Various lines of evidence suggest that Gulf Stream heat transport profoundly influences the climate of the entire Northern Hemisphere and, thus, Europe's climate on timescales of decades and longer. The Gulf Stream's influence is mediated through feedback processes between the ocean, atmosphere, and cryosphere. This review synthesizes paleoclimate archives, model simulations, and the instrumental record, which collectively suggest that decadal and longer-scale variability of the Gulf Stream's heat transport manifests in changes in European temperature, precipitation, and storminess. Given that anthropogenic climate change is projected to weaken the Atlantic Meridional Overturning Circulation, associated changes in European climate are expected. However, large uncertainty in the magnitude of the anticipated weakening undermines the predictability of the future climate in Europe.

  11. Gulf of Mexico Marine Mammal Assessment Vessel Surveys

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — These data sets are a compilation of large vessel surveys for marine mammal stock assessments in the Gulf of Mexico from 1991 to the present. These are designed as...

  12. Gulf of Maine Contaminated Sediments Database (GOMCSDB shapefile)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The Contaminated Sediments Database for the Gulf of Maine provides a compilation and synthesis of existing data to help establish the environmental status of our...

  13. 2009 Survey of Gulf of Mexico Dockside Seafood Processors

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This survey gathered and analyze economic data from seafood processors throughout the states in the Gulf region. The survey sought to collect financial variables...

  14. Gulf sturgeon Critical Habitat Units 1-7

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — These data represent the critical habitat for Gulf Sturgeon as designated by Federal Register Vol. 68, No. 53, Wednesday, March 19, 2003, Rules and Regulations.

  15. Gulf of Mexico Regional Climatology (NCEI Accession 0123320)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Gulf of Mexico Regional Climatology is a set of objectively analyzed climatological fields of temperature, salinity, oxygen, phosphate, silicate, and nitrate at...

  16. [Variation of thermohaline properties in the Nicoya Gulf, Costa Rica].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brenes, C L; Léon, S; Chaves, J

    2001-12-01

    The time-space behavior of thermohaline properties of the water masses in the Gulf of Nicoya, a tropical estuary in the Costa Rican Pacific coast, was studied by sampling monthly from April 1992 to April 1993. The saline field has a seasonal maximum during April, a month before the maximum temperature is observed. Minimun values were observed during October and November, in the rainy season. A defined surface saline front is located towards the east of Negritos Islands; it is produced by the interaction of freshwater from the Tarcoles River and the oceanic waters that enter through the occidental coast of the gulf. The vertical distribution of temperature and salinity indicates a gulf whose internal area is highly stratified in the rainy season, and much less stratified, or even well mixed in the dry season. The outer area of the Gulf is stratified throughout the year.

  17. Northern Gulf of Mexico Marine Mammal Unusual Mortality Event Database

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Tissues and samples collected from marine mammals during investigation of the Northern Gulf of Mexico Marine Mammal Unusual Mortality Event are tracked within this...

  18. EAARL Coastal Topography - Northern Gulf of Mexico, 2007: Bare earth

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — A bare earth elevation map (also known as a Digital Elevation Model, or DEM) of the northern Gulf of Mexico barrier islands and Naval Live Oaks was produced from...

  19. Mercury levels in seabirds in the Gulf of Maine

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — We conducted a pilot study to screen mercury (Hg) levels in Gulf of Maine seabirds in an effort to determine which species are most at risk, are the most appropriate...

  20. Water Stratification Raster Images for the Gulf of Maine

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This geodatabase contains seasonal water stratification raster images for the Gulf of Maine. They were created by interpolating water density (sigma t) values at 0...

  1. Water Density Raster Images for the Gulf of Maine

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This geodatabase contains water density raster images for the Gulf of Maine that were interpolated from water density (sigma t or kilograms/ meters cubed) point data...

  2. Narrative report: Gulf Island National Wildlife Refuges: 1965

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This annual narrative report for Gulf Island National Wildlife Refuges (Petit Bois National Wildlife Refuge, Horn Island National Wildlife Refuge, and Breton...

  3. Narrative report: Gulf Island National Wildlife Refuges: 1967

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This annual narrative report for Gulf Island National Wildlife Refuges (Petit Bois National Wildlife Refuge, Horn Island National Wildlife Refuge, and Breton...

  4. Shipping Fairways in the Gulf of Mexico, from BOEM

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Polygon data for all major shipping lanes associated with all ports in the Gulf of Mexico are presented. These layers were modified from GIS data acquired from the...

  5. EAARL Topography-Gulf Islands National Seashore-Florida

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — Elevation maps (also known as Digital Elevation Models or DEMs) of Gulf Islands National Seashore were produced from remotely-sensed, geographically-referenced...

  6. EAARL Topography-Gulf Islands National Seashore-Mississippi

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — Abstract: Elevation maps (also known as Digital Elevation Models or DEMs) of Gulf Islands National Seashore were produced from remotely-sensed,...

  7. Narrative report: Gulf Island National Wildlife Refuges: 1966

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This annual narrative report for Gulf Island National Wildlife Refuges (Petit Bois National Wildlife Refuge, Horn Island National Wildlife Refuge, and Breton...

  8. Narrative report: Gulf Island National Wildlife Refuges: 1968

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This annual narrative report for Gulf Island National Wildlife Refuges (Petit Bois National Wildlife Refuge, Horn Island National Wildlife Refuge, and Breton...

  9. Narrative report: Gulf Island National Wildlife Refuges: 1964

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This annual narrative report for Gulf Island National Wildlife Refuges (Petit Bois National Wildlife Refuge, Horn Island National Wildlife Refuge, and Breton...

  10. 2012 Economic Survey of Gulf State Shrimp License Holders

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This mail survey collected economic data on inshore commercial shrimp fishermen who held licenses to commercially harvest shrimp in state waters of the U.S. Gulf of...

  11. Gulf of Maine Cooperative Bottom Longline Survey Database

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This database is for a bottom longline (fixed gear) survey executed in the western and central Gulf of Maine targeting complex rocky habitats. The survey is operated...

  12. Gulf of Mexico Kemps ridley sea turtle age and growth

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This study involves analysis of skeletal growth marks in humerus bones of 340 Kemps ridley sea turtles stranded dead along the Gulf of Mexico US coast (hatchling to...

  13. Hurricane Risk Variability along the Gulf of Mexico Coastline

    OpenAIRE

    Jill C Trepanier; Ellis, Kelsey N.; Clay S Tucker

    2015-01-01

    Hurricane risk characteristics are examined across the U. S. Gulf of Mexico coastline using a hexagonal tessellation. Using an extreme value model, parameters are collected representing the rate or λ (frequency), the scale or σ (range), and the shape or ξ (intensity) of the extreme wind distribution. These latent parameters and the 30-year return level are visualized across the grid. The greatest 30-year return levels are located toward the center of the Gulf of Mexico, and for inland locatio...

  14. Sperm whales (Physeter catodon) in the Gulf of Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collum, L.A.; Fritts, T.H.

    1985-01-01

    The distribution of the sperm whale, Physeter catodon, was documented in the Gulf of Mexico during 1979 to 1981 using regular aerial surveys and opportunistic sightings from ships. Most sightings were in the western Gulf of Mexico in deep waters near the edge of the continental shelf. A total of 47 adults and 12 young animals was sighted in groups containing from one to 14 animals.

  15. Intranasal Insulin: A Novel Treatment for Gulf War Multisymptom Illness

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-10-01

    pump twice daily through the nose . The placebo group will administer saline through a nasal infusion pump twice daily as well. The primary outcome...level sarin and cyclosarin exposure and Gulf War Illness on Brain Structure and Function: A study at 4T. Neurotoxicology. Chao LL, Rothlind JC...Cardenas VA, Meyerhoff DJ, Weiner MW. (2010). Effects of low-level exposure to sarin and cyclosarin during the 1991 Gulf War on brain function and brain

  16. The Neolithic origins of seafaring in the Arabian Gulf

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert Carter

    2002-10-01

    Full Text Available The inhabitants of the Arabian Gulf were among the world’s earliest maritime traders. Their ships sailed regularly between the Bronze Age civilizations of Mesopotamia, Bahrain and the Indus Valley, and they reached China by sea in the eighth century AD, thus bypassing the long and perilous overland Silk Road route across Central Asia. Now excavations at a coastal site in Kuwait by a team from the Institute have revealed even earlier evidence of maritime activity in the Gulf.

  17. Environmental Assessment: Gulf Power Company Military Point Transmission Line Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-05-12

    medium-sized mammals , a variety of reptilian and amphibian species, and a large diversity of water and terrestrial bird species (Tyndall AFB 1999...John Dingwall Project Manager 325th Civil Engineer Squadron 119 Alabama Avenue People Serving Peopfeu Re: Gulf Power Company Military Point...Force 3251h Civil Engineer Squadron 119 Alabama Avenue Tyndall AFB, FL 32403-5014 Dear Mr. Dingwall: I have revieweKI the proposal for Gulf Power

  18. Wind Simulations for the Gulf of Suez with KAMM

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frank, Helmut Paul

    In order to get a better overview of the spatial distribution of the wind resource in the Gulf of Suez, numerical simulations to determine the wind climate have been carried out with the Karlsruhe Atmospheric Mesoscale Model KAMM. The method and the results are described here. The simulations of ...... of the wind climate of the Gulf of Suez with KAMM capture the main features of the observed wind climate. The mean wind speed and energy flux density are somewhat underpredicted....

  19. Potential Contribution of Particulate Organic Matter in the Mississippi River to Hypoxia in the Gulf of Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kendall, C.; Silva, S. R.

    2005-05-01

    Episodic hypoxia in the Gulf of Mexico has drawn attention to high levels of nitrate in the Mississippi Basin that may be fueling algal productivity in the Gulf and resulting in low levels of dissolved oxygen. However, about half the N being transported in the Mississippi River is in the form of dissolved organic matter, and if much of it is bioavailable, it may be an important contributor to hypoxia in the Gulf. Since autochthonous organic matter is probably more bioavailable than terrestrial detritus, determination of (1) the relative contributions of different sources of particulate organic matter (POM) and (2) how controls on POM sources, characteristics, and lability vary both temporally and spatially, may provide critical information about other factors contributing to hypoxia. Therefore, riverine POM samples were collected bi-weekly to monthly from 30 USGS NASQAN sites in the Mississippi River Basin from 1996-2004, and analyzed for d13C, d15N, and C:N. These samples demonstrate that there is considerable temporal and spatial variation in the composition of fine-sized POM. A four-source mixing model (plankton, fresh terrestrial plant material, macrophytes, and soil organic material) is used to differentiate general sources of POM using d13C, d15N, and C:N ratios. Average values of d13C and C:N indicate that plankton and heterotrophic bacteria account for approximately half of the POM in the Basin, with higher percentages of plankton downstream of reservoirs and lower percentages in the mainstem of the river. Temporal patterns of d13C are complex but low d13C and C:N values in spring and summer suggest the occurrence of plankton blooms, whereas relatively elevated values in fall and winter are consistent with greater proportions of decaying macrophytes and/or terrestrial material. Many sites also show seasonal trends in d15N. Although soil and macrophyte detritus have overlapping d13C and C:N values, their relative contributions can be distinguished at many

  20. Citizenship and migration in Arab Gulf monarchies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sater, J.

    2014-01-01

    In many industrialized countries, the issue of migration has traditionally raised the question of whether migrant groups fully enjoy citizenship rights. Political debates about models of migration emphasize either the values of cultural diversity or the value of integration into 'host' societies...... to migrants, but also with regard to local populations. In addition to the contested nature of citizenship, migrants' lack of citizenship rights fulfils distinctive functions in what Saskia Sassen calls 'global cities'. This concept links the Arab world with a new phenomenon of globalized migration in which...... the lack of both integration and citizenship is a defining principle. Using these two perspectives, this article examines the relationship between citizenship rights and migration in the Gulf region, drawing on data from the UAE along with Bahrain, Kuwait, and Qatar....

  1. Combating Piracy in the Gulf of Guinea

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-02-01

    AFRICA SECURITY BRIEF A P u b l i c At i o n o f t h e A f r i c A c e n t e r f o r S t r At e g i c S t u d i e S n o . 3 0 / f e b r u...traffic in West Af- rican ports has grown 14 percent an- nually since 1995, the fastest of any region in Sub-Saharan Africa .1 The wider Gulf of Guinea...22202-4302. Respondents should be aware that notwithstanding any other provision of law , no person shall be subject to a penalty for failing to comply

  2. The Gulf: a young sea in decline.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheppard, Charles; Al-Husiani, Mohsen; Al-Jamali, F; Al-Yamani, Faiza; Baldwin, Rob; Bishop, James; Benzoni, Francesca; Dutrieux, Eric; Dulvy, Nicholas K; Durvasula, Subba Rao V; Jones, David A; Loughland, Ron; Medio, David; Nithyanandan, M; Pilling, Graham M; Polikarpov, Igor; Price, Andrew R G; Purkis, Sam; Riegl, Bernhard; Saburova, Maria; Namin, Kaveh Samimi; Taylor, Oliver; Wilson, Simon; Zainal, Khadija

    2010-01-01

    This review examines the substantial changes that have taken place in marine habitats and resources of the Gulf over the past decade. The habitats are especially interesting because of the naturally high levels of temperature and salinity stress they experience, which is important in a changing world climate. However, the extent of all natural habitats is changing and their condition deteriorating because of the rapid development of the region and, in some cases from severe, episodic warming episodes. Major impacts come from numerous industrial, infrastructure-based, and residential and tourism development activities, which together combine, synergistically in some cases, to cause the observed deterioration in most benthic habitats. Substantial sea bottom dredging for material and its deposition in shallow water to extend land or to form a basis for huge developments, directly removes large areas of shallow, productive habitat, though in some cases the most important effect is the accompanying sedimentation or changes to water flows and conditions. The large scale of the activities compared to the relatively shallow and small size of the water body is a particularly important issue. Important from the perspective of controlling damaging effects is the limited cross-border collaboration and even intra-country collaboration among government agencies and large projects. Along with the accumulative nature of impacts that occur, even where each project receives environmental assessment or attention, each is treated more or less alone, rarely in combination. However, their combination in such a small, biologically interacting sea exacerbates the overall deterioration. Very few similar areas exist which face such a high concentration of disturbance, and the prognosis for the Gulf continuing to provide abundant natural resources is poor.

  3. Oil spill in the Gulf of Mexico and spiral vortex

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHENG Quanan; ZHAO Qing; Nan Walker; LI Chunyan

    2010-01-01

    @@ Drilling rig Decpwater Horizon in the Gulf of Mexico, leased by BP PLC from Transocean Ltd., ex-ploded and caught on fire on April 20, 2010. The drilling location is at some 50 miles (80 kilometers) off the coast of Louisiana, USA. The rig sank on April 22. Since then, oil has been pouring into the Gulf from the blown-out undersea well. As reported by US Today and Calgary Herald on July 3, an estimated 35 000 to 60 000 barrels of oil per day has been gush-ing out of the ruptured well into the Gulf. That means amounts to a total of 1.9 to 3.6 million barrels of oil so far have gushed into the Gulf. Using the high end of that estimate, the spill has now surpassed the 1979 Ixtoc blowout, which took nine months to cap and dumped estimated 3.3 million barrels (140 000 million gallons) into the Gulf of Mexico. It is topped only by the deliberate release of six to eight million barrels of crude oil by Iraqi troops who destroyed tankers and oil terminals and set wells ablaze in Kuwait during the 1991 Gulf War.

  4. Influence of the Gulf Stream on the troposphere.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minobe, Shoshiro; Kuwano-Yoshida, Akira; Komori, Nobumasa; Xie, Shang-Ping; Small, Richard Justin

    2008-03-13

    The Gulf Stream transports large amounts of heat from the tropics to middle and high latitudes, and thereby affects weather phenomena such as cyclogenesis and low cloud formation. But its climatic influence, on monthly and longer timescales, remains poorly understood. In particular, it is unclear how the warm current affects the free atmosphere above the marine atmospheric boundary layer. Here we consider the Gulf Stream's influence on the troposphere, using a combination of operational weather analyses, satellite observations and an atmospheric general circulation model. Our results reveal that the Gulf Stream affects the entire troposphere. In the marine boundary layer, atmospheric pressure adjustments to sharp sea surface temperature gradients lead to surface wind convergence, which anchors a narrow band of precipitation along the Gulf Stream. In this rain band, upward motion and cloud formation extend into the upper troposphere, as corroborated by the frequent occurrence of very low cloud-top temperatures. These mechanisms provide a pathway by which the Gulf Stream can affect the atmosphere locally, and possibly also in remote regions by forcing planetary waves. The identification of this pathway may have implications for our understanding of the processes involved in climate change, because the Gulf Stream is the upper limb of the Atlantic meridional overturning circulation, which has varied in strength in the past and is predicted to weaken in response to human-induced global warming in the future.

  5. Structural style and tectonic evolution of the easternmost Gulf of Aden conjugate margins (Socotra - Southern Oman)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nonn, Chloe; Leroy, Sylvie; Castilla, Raymi; de Clarens, Philippe; Lescanne, Marc

    2016-04-01

    Observations from distal rifted margins in present day magma-poor rifted margins led to the discovery of hyperextended crust and exhumed sub-continental mantle. This finding allowed to better figure out how thinning process are accommodate by tectonic structures, forming various crustal domains, as the deformation localized towards the future area of breakup. However, some of the current challenges are about clarifying how factors as oblique kinematic, pre-existing structures and volcanism can control the 3D geometry and crustal architecture of the passive margins? A key to better understand the rifting evolution in its entirety is to study conjugate margins. The gulf of Aden is a young oceanic basin (with a global trend about N75°E) oblique to the divergence (about 30°N), separating Arabia from Somalia of less than 800 km. Thanks to its immerged margins and its thin post-rift sediment cover, the gulf of Aden basin is a natural laboratory to investigate conjugate margins and strain localisation throughout the rift history. In this contribution, we focus our interest on offshore Socotra Island (Yemen) and its conjugate in Southeastern Oman. This area extends from Socotra-Hadbeen (SHFZ) and the eastern Gulf of Aden fault zones (EGAFZ). In the easternmost part of the gulf of Aden, we provide new insights into crustal deformation and emplacement of the new oceanic crust thanks to bathymetric, magnetic, gravimetric data and single-, multi-channel, high speed seismic reflection data collected during Encens-Sheba (2000), Encens (2006) and the more recent Marges-Aden (2012) cruises respectively. The results obtained after compilation of these data, previous geological (field works) and geophysical (receiver functions, Pn-tomography, magnetic anomalies, heat flow) studies on the focused area, allowed us to provide new structural mapping and stratigraphic correlation between onshore and offshore parts of Socotra and Oman margins. We precisely defined and map crustal

  6. Geology Arc Export Layer From Coal Bearing Geology of the Gulf Coast Coal Region (gulf_geol_dd.e00)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This dataset is a polygon vector coverage of coal bearing geologic units that occur in states which comprise the Gulf Coast Coal Assessment Region as defined by the...

  7. A Novel Approach to River Basin Management that Utilizes a Multi-Day Forum to Educate Stakeholders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langston, M. A.

    2015-12-01

    Large scale river basin management has long been a challenging task. Stakeholder involvement has often been posited as a means to provide a broad base of input and support for management decisions. This has been successful in some situations and not in others. The Desert Landscape Conservation Cooperative (LCC) has proposed a novel approach to large scale watershed management for conservation purposes by stakeholders. This approach involves conducting a multi-day stakeholder forum to gather interested parties, provide them science-based information about the watershed, and solicit their input regarding the research and management needs within the basin. Included within this forum is a Water Tournament patterned after those being developed by the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers' Institute for Water Resources. These tournaments bring stakeholders (such as the various water users, agencies, conservation organizations, and others) in small teams that develop watershed management scenarios (within appropriate constraints) that are then judged based on their merit for addressing the various issues within the basin. These tournaments serve to educate participants and to sensitize them to the perspectives of other participants. Another goal of the forum is to recruit a representative group of stakeholders who will provide guidance for further research to meet the basins management needs. The South Central Climate Science Center (SC CSC) has partnered with the Desert, Southern Rockies, Gulf Coast Prairie, Great Plains, and Gulf Coastal Plains and Ozarks LCCs to implement this approach in the Rio Grande and the Red River Basins. The LCCs are well positioned to convene stakeholders from across political boundaries and throughout these basins. The SC CSC's roles will be providing leadership, funding climate science for the effort, and evaluating the effectiveness of the forum-centered approach.

  8. Site selection for DOE/JIP gas hydrates drilling in the northern Gulf of Mexico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hutchinson, D.R.; Ruppel, C. [United States Geological Survey, Woods Hole, MA (United States); Shelander, D.; Dai, J. [Schlumberger, Houston, TX (United States); McConnell, D. [AOA Geophysics Inc., Houston, TX (United States); Shedd, W. [Minerals Management Service, New Orleans, LA (United States); Frye, M. [Minerals Management Service, Herndon, VA (United States); Boswell, R.; Rose, K. [United States Dept. of Energy, Morgantown, WV (United States). National Energy Technology Lab; Jones, E.; Latham, T. [Chevron Energy Technology Corp., Houston, TX (United States); Collett, T. [United States Geological Survey, Denver, CO (United States); Dugan, B. [Rice Univ., Houston, TX (United States). Dept. of Earth Science; Wood, W. [United States Naval Research Lab, Stennis Space Center, MS (United States)

    2008-07-01

    As drilling operations in the Gulf of Mexico shift from shallow water to deeper water targets, operators are encountering sediments with pressure-temperature regimes for gas hydrate stability. The Chevron-led Joint Industry Project (JIP) on methane hydrates was formed in 2001 to study the hazards associated with drilling these types of hydrate-bearing sediments and to assess the capacity of geological and geophysical tools to predict gas hydrate distributions and concentrations. Selected reservoirs units with high concentrations of gas hydrate were sampled to obtain physical data on hydrate bearing sediments. The JIP work validates methods devised to estimate gas hydrate distribution and concentrations in order to analyze the resource potential of these hydrate-bearing sediments. This paper described the geologic and geophysical setting of 3 sites in the northern Gulf of Mexico that contain hydrate-bearing reservoir sands. The three sites that will undergo exploratory drilling and a logging campaign in late spring 2008 include the Alaminos Canyon (AC) lease block 818, Green Canyon (GC) 955, and Walker Ridge (WR) 313. At the AC818 site, gas hydrate is interpreted to occur within the Oligocene Frio volcaniclastic sand at the crest of a fold that is shallow enough to be in the hydrate stability zone. Drilling at GC955 will sample a faulted, buried Pleistocene channel-levee system characterized with seafloor fluid expulsion features, structural closure associated with uplifted salt, and seismic evidence for upward migration of fluids and gas into the sand-rich parts of the sedimentary section. Drilling at WR313 targets sheet sands and associated channel deposits within a small basin. The potential for gas hydrate occurrence at WR313 is supported by shingled phase reversals consistent with the transition from gas-charged sand to overlying gas-hydrate saturated sand. 39 refs., 1 tab., 4 figs.

  9. Gulf Coast Programmatic Environmental Assessment Geothermal Well Testing: The Frio Formation of Texas and Louisiana

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1977-10-01

    In accordance with the requirements of 10 CFR Part 711, environmental assessments are being prepared for significant activities and individual projects of the Division of Geothermal Energy (DGE) of the Energy Research and Development Administration (ERDA). This environmental assessment of geopressure well testing addresses, on a regional basis, the expected activities, affected environments, and possible impacts in a broad sense. The specific part of the program addressed by this environmental assessment is geothermal well testing by the take-over of one or more unsuccessful oil wells before the drilling rig is removed and completion of drilling into the geopressured zone. Along the Texas and Louisiana Gulf Coast (Plate 1 and Overlay) water at high temperatures and high pressures is trapped within Gulf basin sediments. The water is confined within or below essentially impermeable shale sequences and carries most or all of the overburden pressure. Such zones are referred to as geopressured strata. These fluids and sediments are heated to abnormally high temperatures (up to 260 C) and may provide potential reservoirs for economical production of geothermal energy. The obvious need in resource development is to assess the resource. Ongoing studies to define large-sand-volume reservoirs will ultimately define optimum sites for drilling special large diameter wells to perform large volume flow production tests. In the interim, existing well tests need to be made to help define and assess the resource. The project addressed by this environmental assessment is the performance of a geothermal well test in high potential geothermal areas. Well tests involve four major actions each of which may or may not be required for each of the well tests. The four major actions are: site preparation, drilling a salt-water disposal well, actual flow testing, and abandonment of the well.

  10. Benthic Foraminiferal Census Data from Louisiana Continental Shelf Cores, Gulf of Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osterman, Lisa E.; Kelly, Wendy S.; Ricardo, John P.

    2009-01-01

    An area of oxygen-depleted bottom- and subsurface-water (hypoxia = dissolved oxygen restore normal oxygen conditions (Rabalais and others, 1994, 1996; Rabalais, 2002). Since systematic measurement of the extent of the dead zone began in 1985, the overall pattern indicates that the area of the dead zone is increasing (Rabalais and Turner, 2001; Turner and others, 2005). Several studies have concluded that the expansion of the Louisiana Shelf dead zone is related to increased nutrients (primarily nitrogen, but possibly also phosphorous) in the Mississippi River drainage basin and is responsible for the degradation of Gulf of Mexico marine habitats (Goolsby and others, 2001). This paper presents the benthic foraminiferal data from 10 sediment cores collected from the Continental Shelf of Louisiana (table 1), obtained as part of an initiative to investigate the geographic and temporal extent of hypoxia prior to 1985 in the Gulf of Mexico. Benthic foraminifers provide a method to track the development of hypoxia prior to 1985 (Blackwelder and others, 1996; Sen Gupta and others, 1996). Previous work (Osterman, 2003) has shown statistically that the relative occurrence of three low-oxygen-tolerant species represents the modern seasonal Louisiana hypoxia zone. The cumulative percentage of these three species (% Pseudononion atlanticum + % Epistominella vitrea, + % Buliminella morgani = PEB index of hypoxia) provides a way to investigate fluctuation in paleohypoxia. Interpretation of some of these cores is provided in Osterman and others (2005), Osterman and others (2008a,b), and Swarzenski and others (2008). Our hypothesis is that the increased relative abundance of PEB species in dated sediment cores accurately tracks past seasonal low-oxygen conditions on the Louisiana Shelf.

  11. Earthquake cycle on a transform fault in the Gulf of California, Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malservisi, Rocco; Hackl, Matthias; Plattner, Christina; Suarez Vidal, Francisco; Gonzales Garcia, Javier; Amelung, Falk

    2010-05-01

    South of the San Andreas Fault system, ~90% of the North America/Pacific plate motion is accommodated along the Gulf of California. Here the plate boundary deformation is partitioned in deep basins formation, often resulting in production of new oceanic crust, connected by long transform faults. In the central part of the Gulf, one of these transform faults, the Ballenas fault, is localized in the Canal de Ballenas, a ~30 km wide channel between Isla Angel de la Garda and mainland Baja California in an area where full oceanic crust is still not generated. The presence of land on both the sides of this "quasi marine" transform fault give the unique opportunity to perform geodetic studies across its trace. On August 3rd 2009, a series of seismic strike slip events (including a M6.9) happened along this segment of plate boundary allowing a combined study of co- and inter-seismic deformation. Here we present the results from 5 years of EGPS along a transect perpendicular to the plate motion direction at approximately 29 degrees North. These surveys include at least 3 occupations before the seismic event and at least 2 occupations after the earthquake. The analysis of the inter-seismic data shows that ~46 mm/yr of relative motion is accommodated within the Canal de Ballenas. Co-seismic data show displacements up to 25 cm on the two sites closest to the event and a pattern compatible with the finite fault model computed by USGS (although the USGS location of the hypocenter is probably 100 km too much to the East). The geodetically estimated fault location is also compatible with multibeam bathymetry. The data collected after the earthquake show also the possibility to identify postseismic displacement from the campaign data. They also show the possibility that the postseismic behavior of the "marine" side is different from the one of the on land side.

  12. An Updated View of the Microbial Diversity in Deep Hypersaline Anoxic Basins

    KAUST Repository

    Mapelli, Francesca

    2017-03-02

    Deep hypersaline anoxic basins (DHABs) are marine extreme habitats, firstly discovered in the 1970s of the last century, located in several oceanographic regions, including the Mediterranean and Red Sea and the Gulf of Mexico. These basins are filled with brines that do not mix with the overlying seawater, due to a density difference. Brine and seawater result separated by a thick interface acting as a trap for particulate and cells. Some microbiological studies focused on seawater-brine interfaces of DHABs, showing that microbial populations are differentially distributed according to the gradient of salinity, oxygen, and nutrients occurring in such transition zones. Moreover, DHABs’ brines were intensively studied showing that specific bacterial, archaeal, and eukaryotic populations thrive there. In the last few years, cultivation and “omics”-based approaches have been used with samples collected from DHABs around the world, allowing clarifying metabolic processes of paramount ecological importance and pointing out the high biotechnological potential of the inhabiting extremophiles.

  13. Chemical quality of surface waters in the Brazos River basin in Texas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Irelan, Burdge; Mendieta, H.B.

    1964-01-01

    The Brazos River basin, which makes up 15 percent of the land area of Texas, extends from the High Plains, where altitudes reach 4,200 feet and the average precipitation ranges from 15 to 20 inches a year, to the Gulf of Mexico where the annual rainfall is 45-^50 inches. Large reservoirs have been built in the Brazos River basin, but the use of the stored water has been limited because the salinity often makes the water undesirable for municipal and industrial use. However, the water is generally satisfactory for irrigation. Records for the Brazos River show that the salinity of the water was a problem even as early as 1906 and that the water more often than not failed to meet today's chemical-quality standards for a municipal supply.

  14. Analysis Of Zapotec Ceramics Of The Caxonos River Basin, Oaxaca, Mexico By Thermoluminescence (Tl)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramirez, A.; Schaaf, P.; Ortiz, E.

    One of the most common materials that appear in archaeological excavations is the ceramics. Ceramic is an evidence for different activities and cultural periods. Thermoluminescence (TL) has been shown to be a very effective method for dating of archaeological ceramics. In this paper, we present the results of 18 Zapotec ceramics from different archaeological sites of the Caxonos River Basin, Northern Sierra of Oaxaca, Mexico, analyzed by TL. Based on these results, we established the first chronological data set of this important Mesoamerica site. Our new data give evidence for the existence of a trade route through the Caxonos River Basin used since 500 AD between the central valley of Oaxaca and the Gulf of Mexico. Methodologically we used the fine grain technique (4-11μm) and for the determination of the paleodose the additive method was applied.

  15. Stratigraphy of two conjugate margins (Gulf of Lion and West Sardinia): modeling of vertical movements and sediment budgets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leroux, Estelle; Gorini, Christian; Aslanian, Daniel; Rabineau, Marina; Blanpied, Christian; Rubino, Jean-Loup; Robin, Cécile; Granjeon, Didier; Taillepierre, Rachel

    2016-04-01

    The post-rift (~20-0 Ma) vertical movements of the Provence Basin (West Mediterranean) are quantified on its both conjugate (the Gulf of Lion and the West Sardinia) margins. This work is based on the stratigraphic study of sedimentary markers using a large 3D grid of seismic data, correlations with existing drillings and refraction data. The post-rift subsidence is measured by the direct use of sedimentary geometries analysed in 3D [Gorini et al., 2015; Rabineau et al., 2014] and validated by numerical stratigraphic modelling. Three domains were found: on the platform (1) and slope (2), the subsidence takes the form of a seaward tilting with different amplitudes, whereas the deep basin (3) subsides purely vertically [Leroux et al., 2015a]. These domains correspond to the deeper crustal domains respectively highlighted by wide angle seismic data. The continental crust (1) and the thinned continental crust (2) are tilted, whereas the intermediate crust, identified as lower continental exhumed crust [Moulin et al., 2015, Afhilado et al., 2015] (3) sagged. The post-break-up subsidence re-uses the initial hinge lines of the rifting phase. This striking correlation between surface geologic processes and deep earth dynamic processes emphasizes that the sedimentary record and sedimentary markers is a window into deep geodynamic processes and dynamic topography. Pliocene-Pleistocene seismic markers enabled high resolution quantification of sediment budgets over the past 6 Myr [Leroux et al., in press]. Sediment budget history is here completed on the Miocene interval. Thus, the controlling factors (climate, tectonics and eustasy) are discussed. Afilhado, A., Moulin, M., Aslanian, D., Schnürle, P., Klingelhoefer, F., Nouzé, H., Rabineau, M., Leroux, E. & Beslier, M.-O. (2015). Deep crustal structure across a young 1 passive margin from wide-angle and reflection seismic data (The SARDINIA Experiment) - II. Sardinia's margin. Bull. Soc. géol. France, 186, ILP Spec. issue, 4

  16. Facies architecture within a regional glaciolacustrine basin: Copper River, Alaska

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bennett, Matthew R.; Huddart, David; Thomas, Geoffrey S. P.

    2002-11-01

    This paper defines the principal architectural elements present within the Pleistocene, glaciolacustrine basin-fill of the Copper River Basin in Alaska. The Copper River drains an intermontane basin via a single deeply incised trench through the Chugach Mountains to the Gulf of Alaska. This trench was blocked by ice during the last glacial cycle and a large ice-dammed lake, referred to as Lake Atna, filled much of the Copper Basin. Facies analysis within the basin floor allows a series of associations to be defined consistent with the basinward transport of sediment deposited along calving ice margins and at the basin edge. Basinward transport involves a continuum of gravity driven processes, including slumping, cohesive debris flow, hyperconcentrated/concentrated density flows, and turbidity currents. This basinward transport results in the deposition of a series of subaqueous fans, of which two main types are recognised. (1) Large, stratified, basin floor fans, which extend over at least 5 km and are exposed in the basin centre. These fans are composed of multiple lobes, incised by large mega-channels, giving fan architectures that are dominated by horizontal strata and large, cross-cutting channel-fills. Individual lobes and channel-fills consist of combinations of: diamict derived from iceberg rainout and the ice-marginal release of subglacial sediment; multiple units of fining upward gravels which grade vertically into parallel laminated and rippled fine sands and silts, deposited by a range of density flows and currents derived from the subaqueous discharge of meltwater; and rhythmites grading vertically into diamicts deposited from a range of sediment-density flows re-mobilising sediment deposited by either iceberg rainout or the ice-marginal release of sediment. (2) Small, complex, proximal fans, which extend over less than 2 km, and are exposed in the southern part of the basin. These fans are composed of coalescing and prograding lobes of diamict and

  17. Carbon isotope variations in surface waters of the Gulf of Mexico on time scales of 10,000, 30,000, 150,000 and 2 million years

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Douglas F.

    Detailed carbon isotope records from surface-dwelling planktonic foraminifera appear to represent δ13C variations in the surface ocean mixed layer of the Gulf of Mexico on different time scales. Correlation of late Pleistocene planktonic δ13C records from the Gulf of Mexico, Panama Basin and southeast Indian Ocean suggests that the surface water δ13C record monitors global changes in the carbon cycle, perhaps changes in atmospheric CO2 levels, and not local effects due to variations in productivity or water temperature. Variations in δ13C of 0.5°/oo occur with a frequency of benthic δ13C record may lead those in the planktonic δ13C record by as much as 10,000 years, but more work is needed to fully explore this observation. A small but significant offset of -0.3°/oo occurs at 900 ky B.P. in the δ13C records of the Gulf of Mexico (E67-135) and Caribbean (DSDP Site 502B (Prell, 1982)), in good agreement with the positive 18O stepwise shift observed in globally distributed DSDP records.

  18. Subtidal micro and meiobenthic community structure in the Gulf of Kachchh

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Ingole, B.S.; Goltekar, R.

    Community structure of the micro- and meiobenthos of subtidal sediment from the Gulf of Kachchh were investigated during April 2002 (premonsoon season). Sediment samples were collected from 23 stations representing the entire Gulf area. A total...

  19. Gulf of Mexico dissolved oxygen model (GoMDOM) research and quality assurance project plan

    Science.gov (United States)

    An integrated high resolution mathematical modeling framework is being developed that will link hydrodynamic, atmospheric, and water quality models for the northern Gulf of Mexico. This Research and Quality Assurance Project Plan primarily focuses on the deterministic Gulf of Me...

  20. Lithospheric velocity model of Texas and implications for the Ouachita orogeny and the opening of the Gulf of Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yao, Yao; Li, Aibing

    2016-12-01

    A 3-D shear wave velocity model of Texas has been developed from Rayleigh wave phase velocities by using ambient noise data recorded at the USArray stations. In the upper crust, the Ouachita front separates high velocity in the Laurentia to its west from low velocity in the east and south Texas basins. The Ouachita belt is characterized as a high-velocity zone with local maximums coinciding with known uplifts, which we interpret as accreted island arcs during the Ouachita orogeny. Our model evidences a strong Ouachita lithosphere that helped to buffer crust thinning from the Mesozoic rifting. A significantly low-velocity anomaly is present in southeast Texas in the lower crust and upper mantle. We associate this anomaly with a past asthenosphere upwelling that likely originated from the edge of the subducted slab during the Ouachita collision and was potentially responsible for the opening of the Gulf of Mexico.

  1. Tectonic forcing of shelf-ramp depositional architecture, Laguna Madre-Tuxpan Shelf, western Gulf of Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wawrzyniec, Tim F.; Ambrose, W.; Aranda-Garcia, M.; Romano, U. H.

    2004-07-01

    Analysis of seismic reflection data reveals the existence of a major listric fault that accommodates most of the Neogene extension of the Laguna Madre-Tuxpan shelf of the western Gulf of Mexico. The variation of related growth strata, the profile of the modern shelf-slope transition, the linear gradient of shelf extension (as well as basin accommodation) along the trace of the fault support a hypothesis that sediment loading along the northern part of the fault drives fault motion and influences sediment distribution along the southern end of the fault. In particular, where kinematic accommodation appears to outpace sediment supply, sedimentation is maximized along a shelf-ramp system and not the shelf-slope transition.

  2. Intracontinental basins and strong earthquakes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邓起东; 高孟潭; 赵新平; 吴建春

    2004-01-01

    The September 17, 1303 Hongtong M=8 earthquake occurred in Linfen basin of Shanxi down-faulted basin zone. It is the first recorded M=8 earthquake since the Chinese historical seismic records had started and is a great earthquake occurring in the active intracontinental basin. We had held a Meeting of the 700th Anniversary of the 1303 Hongtong M=8 Earthquake in Shanxi and a Symposium on Intracontinental Basins and Strong Earthquakes in Taiyuan City of Shanxi Province on September 17~18, 2003. The articles presented on the symposium discussed the relationships between active intracontinental basins of different properties, developed in different regions, including tensional graben and semi-graben basins in tensile tectonic regions, compression-depression basins and foreland basins in compressive tectonic regions and pull-apart basins in strike-slip tectonic zones, and strong earthquakes in China. In this article we make a brief summary of some problems. The articles published in this special issue are a part of the articles presented on the symposium.

  3. Plio-Quaternary kinematic development and paleostress pattern of the Edremit Basin, western Turkey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gürer, Ömer Feyzi; Sangu, Ercan; Özburan, Muzaffer; Gürbüz, Alper; Gürer, Aysan; Sinir, Hasan

    2016-06-01

    The Edremit Basin and Kazdağ High are the most prominent morphological features of the Biga Peninsula in northwest Anatolia. There is still no consensus on the formation of Edremit Basin and debates are on whether the basin evolved through a normal, a right-lateral or a left-lateral strike-slip faulting. In this study, the geometric, structural and kinematic characteristics of the Edremit Basin are investigated to make an analytical approach to this problem. The structural and kinematic features of the faults in the region are described according to field observations. These fault-slip data derived from the fault planes were analyzed to determine the paleostress pattern of faulting in the region. According to the performed analysis, the southern end of the Biga Peninsula is under the influence of the ENE-WSW-trending faults of the region, such as the Yenice-Gönen, the Edremit, the Pazarköy and the Havran-Balıkesir Fault Zones. The right step-over geometry and related extension caused to the development of the Edremit Basin as a transtensional pull-apart basin between the Havran-Balıkesir Fault Zone and the Edremit Fault Zone. Field observations showed that the Plio-Quaternary faults at the Edremit Gulf and adjacent areas are prominently right-lateral strike-slip faults. Our paleostress analyses suggest a dominant NE-SW extension in the study area, as well as NW-SE direction. This pattern indicates the major effects of the North Anatolian Fault System and the component of Aegean Extensional System in the region. However, our kinematic analysis represents the dominant signature of the North Anatolian Fault System in basin bounding faults. The field observations and kinematic findings of this study are also consistent with the regional GPS, paleomagnetic and seismological data. This study concludes that the North Anatolian Fault System is the prominent structure in the current morphotectonic framework of the Edremit Gulf and adjacent areas.

  4. Water Level and Current Simulation for LOTS Operations - Persian Gulf and Gulf of Oman

    Science.gov (United States)

    1994-07-01

    equations are solved by a finite element approach. However the equations are reformulated mathematically to a form with much improved numerical solution...longer than the tidal cycle, since tidal ebb and flood currents tend to cancel each other. 23Chqpwr 3 Ceibraga wnd Vedication 30 25 (Z 20 M2 "W 15 0 10Q...circulation in the Arabian Gulf," Applied Mathematical Modeling, 14, 410-419. Bogdanov, K. T. (1987). "T’idal wave propagation and tidal level oscillations

  5. Salinity Measurements During the Gulf Stream Experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    LeVine, D. M.; Koblinsky, C.; Howden, S.; Goodberlet, M.

    2000-01-01

    The salinity of the open ocean is important for understanding ocean circulation, for understanding energy exchange with the atmosphere and for improving models to predict weather and climate. Passive microwave sensors at L-band (1.4 GHz) operating from aircraft have demonstrated that salinity can be measured with sufficient accuracy (1 psu) to be scientifically meaningful in coastal waters. However, measuring salinity in the open ocean presents unresolved issues largely because of the much greater accuracy (approx. 0.1 psu) required to be scientifically viable. In the summer of 1999 a series of measurements called, The Gulf Stream Experiment, were conducted as part of research at the Goddard Space Flight Center to test the potential for passive microwave remote sensing of salinity in the open ocean. The measurements consisted of a compliment of airborne microwave instruments (radiometers and scatterometer) and ships and drifters for surface truth. The study area was a 200 km by 100 km rectangle about 250 km east of Delaware Bay between the continental shelf waters and north wall of the Gulf Stream. The primary passive instruments were the ESTAR radiometer (L-band, H-pol) and the SLFMR radiometer (L-band, V-pol). In addition, the compliment of instruments on the aircraft included a C-band radiometer (ACMR), an ocean wave scatterometer (ROWS) and an infrared radiometer. A GPS backscatter experiment was also part of the package. These instruments were mounted on the NASA P-3 Orion aircraft. Surface salinity measurements were provided by the RN Cape Henlopen and MN Oleander (thermosalinographs) plus salinity and temperature sensors on three surface drifters deployed from the RN Cape Henopen. The primary experiment period was August 26-September 2, 1999. During this period the salinity field within the study area consisted of a gradient on the order of 2-3 psu in the vicinity of the shelf break and a warm core ring with a gradient of 1-2 psu. Detailed maps were made

  6. Gulf of Mexico Loop Current path variability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donohue, K. A.; Watts, D. R.; Hamilton, P.; Leben, R.; Kennelly, M.; Lugo-Fernández, A.

    2016-12-01

    Loop Current, LC, path variability exhibits a continuum of spatial and temporal scales, all are called meanders in this work. They arise from a variety of processes, including short and long waves, frontal eddies with or without closed cores and developing baroclinic instability. They have been extensively studied with satellite sea surface temperature SST, and height, SSH. Yet, these systems provide an incomplete view into LC meandering: SST measurements are hampered by cloud coverage and low thermal contrast in summer months and SSH measurements by altimeter temporal and spatial resolution. In an effort to resolve LC meander temporal and spatial scales, they are investigated using a mesoscale resolving in situ array deployed in the Gulf of Mexico. The array, which consisted of twenty-five inverted echo sounders with pressure gauges, PIES, and current meter moorings, was deployed April 2009 and recovered in October-November 2011. The broad extent of the array, nominally 89° W to 85° W, 25° N to 27° N, enabled quantitative mapping of the regional circulation. LC meander properties are characterized as a function of spatial distribution of energy, frequency, wavenumber, and phase speed. Dispersion characteristics and meander scales are comparable to those found in the Gulf Stream. Phase speeds increase with frequency and range from 8 to 50 km d-1. Wavelengths associated with each band are as follows: 460 km for the 100 to 40 d band, 350 km for the 40 to 20 d band, 270 km for the 20 to 10 d band and 230 km for the 10 to 3 d band. The strongest variability is in the 100 to 40 d band. Spatially the 100 to 40 d variability is concentrated to east of the Mississippi Fan, growing and propagating downstream along the eastern portion of the LC. Meanders between 40 and 20 d propagate along the full encompassed length of the LC. Their temporal amplitudes peak at the time of LC eddy detachment and separation. Meanders with shorter periods than 20 d do not always propagate

  7. Beyond SHARP-- Primary Formaldehyde from Oil and Gas Exploration and Production in the Gulf of Mexico Region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olaguer, E. P.

    2010-12-01

    Formaldehyde has been named by the EPA as a hazardous air pollutant that may be carcinogenic and also cause irritation to the eyes, nose, throat and lung. Moreover, it is a powerful radical and ozone precursor. The 2009 Study of Houston Atmospheric Radical Precursors (SHARP) was conceived by the Houston Advanced Research Center (HARC) on behalf of the Texas Environmental Research Consortium (TERC) to examine the relative importance of primary and secondary formaldehyde (HCHO) and nitrous acid (HONO) in ozone formation. SHARP confirmed that primary combustion sources of HCHO, such as flares end engines, may be underestimated (by an order of magnitude or more) in official emission inventories used for the purpose of air quality modeling in highly industrialized areas such as Houston. This presentation provides recently generated modeling and observational evidence that the same may be true in both rural and urban areas with oil and gas exploration and production (E&P) activities, such as the Upper Green River Basin of Wyoming and the Barnett Shale of Texas. Oil and gas E&P is increasing in the Gulf of Mexico region, particularly in the Barnett, Haynesville, Eagle Ford, Cana-Woodford, and Fayetteville shale basins. In the Barnett Shale, E&P activities are moving into urban neighborhoods, and may affect the ability to bring the Dallas-Ft. Worth region into attainment of the federal ozone standard. Data concerning formaldehyde emissions from drill rig and pipeline compressor engines, flares, and glycol or amine reboilers, should be obtained in order to more accurately model air quality in the Gulf of Mexico region.

  8. Large Scale Moisture Fluxes that are related to dry and wet conditions over Mediterranean Basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sahin, Sinan; Luterbacher, Juerg; Xoplaki, Elena; Turkes, Murat

    2016-04-01

    Large scale moisture flux analysis was carried out for the Mediterranean Basin in order to investigate the large scale atmospheric controls on moisture flux convergence that are related to dry and wet conditions. The seasonal moisture budget (precipitation minus evaporation) was calculated using the National Centers for Environmental Prediction - National Center for Atmospheric Research reanalysis data for the period 1949-2014. We focus on winter and summer circulation patterns for explaining the changes in dry and wet conditions rather than spring and autumn, as the transitional nature and characterization of these seasons are more uncertain in the Mediterranean basin. The driest and wettest years were chosen according to Standardized Precipitation Index (SPI) and the differences between those years and average conditions were compared statistically and graphically. According to results, large scale climate changes over Mediterranean Region are linked to significant changes of the moisture fluxes in the Gulf of Mexico region and partially in the US East coast especially for wet years. Therefore the climatic role of the Gulf Stream for extreme climate conditions over Mediterranean region should be investigated.

  9. Habitat and behaviour of yellowfin tuna Thunnus albacares in the Gulf of Mexico determined using pop-up satellite archival tags.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weng, K C; Stokesbury, M J W; Boustany, A M; Seitz, A C; Teo, S L H; Miller, S K; Block, B A

    2009-05-01

    This study presents the first data on movement, habitat use and behaviour for yellowfin tuna Thunnus albacares in the Atlantic Basin. Six individuals were tracked in the Gulf of Mexico using pop-up satellite archival tags. Records up to 80 days in length were obtained, providing information on depth and temperature preferences as well as horizontal movements. Thunnus albacares in the Gulf of Mexico showed a strong preference for the mixed layer and thermocline, consistent with findings for this species in other ocean basins. Fish showed a diel pattern in depth distribution, remaining in surface and mixed layer waters at night and diving to deeper waters during the day. The vertical extent of T. albacares habitat appeared to be temperature limited, with fish generally avoiding waters that were >6 degrees C cooler than surface waters. The vertical and thermal habitat usage of T. albacares differs from that of bigeye Thunnus obesus and bluefin Thunnus thynnus, Thunnus orientalis and Thunnus maccoyii tunas. These results are consistent with the results of earlier studies conducted on T. albacares in other oceans.

  10. Using Acoustic Tomography to Monitor Deep Ocean Currents in the Eastern Gulf of Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-01

    Toward the improved prediction and monitoring of deep-water currents and eddies in the Gulf of Mexico , the Gulf Eddy Monitoring System group (GEMS...proposes that a network of acoustic transmitter receiver pairs be deployed in the northeastern Gulf of Mexico . Acoustic travel times are inverted to

  11. The gulf implantable cardioverter-defibrillator registry: Rationale, methodology, and implementation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alawi A Alsheikh-Ali

    2015-01-01

    Conclusions: Gulf ICD is the first prospective, observational, multi-center, and multinational study of the characteristics and, the outcomes of patients receiving ICDs in the Arab Gulf region. The study will provide valuable insights into the utilization of and outcomes related to ICD therapy in the Gulf region.

  12. 78 FR 5403 - Fisheries of the Caribbean, Gulf, and South Atlantic; Aquaculture

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-25

    ..., Gulf, and South Atlantic; Aquaculture AGENCY: National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS), National... the Fishery Management Plan for Regulating Offshore Marine Aquaculture in the ] Gulf of Mexico (FMP; formerly the Draft Generic Amendment to Gulf of Mexico Fishery Management Plans for Offshore...

  13. 76 FR 2447 - Gulf War and Health, Volume 6, Physiologic, Psychologic, and Psychosocial Effects of Deployment...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-13

    ... AFFAIRS Gulf War and Health, Volume 6, Physiologic, Psychologic, and Psychosocial Effects of Deployment... authority granted by the Persian Gulf War Veterans Act of 1998, Public Law 105-277, title XVI, 112 Stat..., ``Gulf War and Health, Volume 6, Physiologic, Psychologic, and Psychosocial Effects of...

  14. 76 FR 21099 - Determinations Concerning Illnesses Discussed In National Academy of Sciences Reports on Gulf War...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-14

    ... AFFAIRS Determinations Concerning Illnesses Discussed In National Academy of Sciences Reports on Gulf War... Affairs, under the authority granted by the Persian Gulf War Veterans Act of 1998, has determined that... the Institute of Medicine of the National Academy of Sciences (NAS), respectively titled Gulf War...

  15. 78 FR 36309 - Research Advisory Committee on Gulf War Veterans' Illnesses, Notice of Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-17

    ... diagnosing and treating Gulf War Veterans, and a drug treatment trial which is underway. On June 18, the... AFFAIRS Research Advisory Committee on Gulf War Veterans' Illnesses, Notice of Meeting The Department of... Research Advisory Committee on Gulf War Veterans' Illnesses will meet on June 17 and 18, 2013, in room...

  16. Observing environmental change in of the Gulf of Maine: ICUC smartphone app

    Science.gov (United States)

    Want to help collect data on environmental change in the Gulf of Maine with your smartphone? The Gulf of Maine Council’s EcoSystem Indicator Partnership (ESIP) is growing the community of citizen scientists in the Gulf of Maine region through its new smartphone app: ICUC (...

  17. 76 FR 31326 - Gulf LNG Pipeline, LLC; Notice of Request Under Blanket Authorization

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-31

    ... Energy Regulatory Commission Gulf LNG Pipeline, LLC; Notice of Request Under Blanket Authorization Take notice that on May 18, 2011, Gulf LNG Pipeline, LLC (GLNG Pipeline), Colonial Brookwood Center, 569... to Margaret G. Coffman, Counsel, Gulf LNG Pipeline Company, LLC, Colonial Brookwood Center,...

  18. Gulf Stream density structure and transport during the past millennium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lund, David C; Lynch-Stieglitz, Jean; Curry, William B

    2006-11-30

    The Gulf Stream transports approximately 31 Sv (1 Sv = 10(6) m(3) s(-1)) of water and 1.3 x 10(15) W of heat into the North Atlantic ocean. The possibility of abrupt changes in Gulf Stream heat transport is one of the key uncertainties in predictions of climate change for the coming centuries. Given the limited length of the instrumental record, our knowledge of Gulf Stream behaviour on long timescales must rely heavily on information from geologic archives. Here we use foraminifera from a suite of high-resolution sediment cores in the Florida Straits to show that the cross-current density gradient and vertical current shear of the Gulf Stream were systematically lower during the Little Ice Age (ad approximately 1200 to 1850). We also estimate that Little Ice Age volume transport was ten per cent weaker than today's. The timing of reduced flow is consistent with temperature minima in several palaeoclimate records, implying that diminished oceanic heat transport may have contributed to Little Ice Age cooling in the North Atlantic. The interval of low flow also coincides with anomalously high Gulf Stream surface salinity, suggesting a tight linkage between the Atlantic Ocean circulation and hydrologic cycle during the past millennium.

  19. Is Gulf War Syndrome actually chronic Lyme disease?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Owen, David C

    2005-01-01

    Symptoms of Gulf War Syndrome and chronic Lyme disease are very similar. Lyme disease is a condition which can be difficult to diagnose since one of the main features of the condition, the erythema migrans rash, may be absent or overlooked and serological testing for Lyme disease may be falsely negative. Symptoms of Lyme disease may not became apparent until years after exposure to the causative organism. Military personnel during training in the field are at risk of tick bites and it may be that those who developed Gulf War Syndrome entered the conflict with latent Lyme disease. There has been no systematic examination of Gulf War Syndrome sufferers for chronic Lyme disease and it is hypothesized that chronic Lyme disease has been overlooked as a cause of Gulf War Syndrome. To address this it is suggested that sufferers of Gulf War Syndrome or similar illnesses should be examined by physicians who have experience diagnosing and treating large numbers of patients with Lyme disease.

  20. Attributes for MRB_E2RF1 Catchments by Major River Basins in the Conterminous United States: Surficial Geology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wieczorek, Michael E.; LaMotte, Andrew E.

    2010-01-01

    This tabular data set represents the area of surficial geology types in square meters compiled for every MRB_E2RF1 catchment of selected Major River Basins (MRBs, Crawford and others, 2006). The source data set is the "Digital data set describing surficial geology in the conterminous US" (Clawges and Price, 1999).The MRB_E2RF1 catchments are based on a modified version of the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's (USEPA) ERF1_2 and include enhancements to support national and regional-scale surface-water quality modeling (Nolan and others, 2002; Brakebill and others, 2008). Data were compiled for every MRB_E2RF1 catchment for the conterminous United States covering New England and Mid-Atlantic (MRB1), South Atlantic-Gulf and Tennessee (MRB2), the Great Lakes, Ohio, Upper Mississippi, and Souris-Red-Rainy (MRB3), the Missouri (MRB4), the Lower Mississippi, Arkansas-White-Red, and Texas-Gulf (MRB5), the Rio Grande, Colorado, and the Great basin (MRB6), the Pacific Northwest (MRB7) river basins, and California (MRB8).