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Sample records for alfalfa leaf meal

  1. Alfalfa leaf meal in beef steer receiving diets. Quarterly report, July 1, 1997--September 30, 1997

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zehnder, C.M.; DiCostanzo, A.; Smith, L.B.

    1998-06-01

    Two trials were conducted to study the effects of alfalfa leaf meal (ALM) in receiving diets of steers. In trial one, ninety-six medium frame, Angus and Angus cross steer calves (average initial weight 500 lb) were allotted to a heavy or light weight block and then randomly assigned to one of four dietary treatments for a 29-day receiving trial. In trial two, sixty medium frame, Angus and Angus cross steer calves (average initial weight 518 lb) were allotted to one of ten dietary treatments. Trial two was divided into two periods, defined as a receiving period, 29 days, and a step-up period, 33 days. In trial one, treatments were control (supplemental soybean meal), alfalfa leaf meal (ALM) providing 33%, 66%, or 100% of supplemental protein; the balance was soybean meal. Receiving diets were formulated to contain .54 Mcal NE{sub g} /lb dry matter, 14% crude protein, .6 % Ca and .3 % P. In study two, treatments were control (supplemental soybean meal), ALM providing 33%, 66%7 100% of supplemental protein, the balance was soybean meal and urea or a blend of ALM and blood meal (93 % ALM and 7 % blood meal) to provide supplemental protein. Each protein treatment was fed in diets consisting of cracked or whole corn. Trial two receiving diets were formulated to contain .54 Mcal NE{sub g} /lb dry matter, 14% crude protein, .6 % Ca and .3 % P, step-up diets were formulated to contain .58 Mcal NE9 /lb dry matter, 11.3% crude protein, .6 % Ca and .3 % P.

  2. Evaluation of alfalfa leaf meal for dairy cows. Quarterly report, July 1, 1997--September 30, 1997

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Akayezu, J.M.; Jorgensen, M.A.; Linn, J.G.; Jung, H.J.G. [USDA, St. Paul, MN (United States)

    1997-10-30

    A series of laboratory tests and two feeding experiments were conducted to determine the quality and evaluate the feeding value of alfalfa leaf meal (ALM) for dairy cows. An experiment was also conducted to enhance the protein value of ALM for ruminants. The fiber content of 6 different samples obtained from the processing plant from November 1996 to August 1997 were variable, ranging from 28.8 to 44.5% of DM for NDF, and from 16.0 to 28.6% of DM for ADF. Ash content ranged from 10.1 to 13.8% of the DM. The protein content of ALM was fairly constant and ranged from 21.8 to 23.6% of DM. Amino acids comprise at least 70% of the total CP in ALM, but essential amino acids comprise only about 35% of the total CP. The amino acid profile of ALM is similar to that of alfalfa hay, but markedly different from that of soybean meal. Overall, ALM produced to date is similar in nutrient content to prime alfalfa hay. In one of the feeding trials, ALM pellets were used to replace part of the hay in diets for early lactation cows. The results indicate that ALM pellets can make up as much as 16% of the diet DM in replacement of an equivalent amount of high quality chopped alfalfa hay without adverse effects on production or rumen health. In an other study, ALM replaced soybean meal to supply up to 3 3 % of the total CP in the diet without any detrimental effect on production. However, in each study, dry matter intake was reduced when ALM was included in the diet at or above 15 to 16% of the DM. Although this reduction in feed intake did not influence milk production over the short duration of these studies, it is not known what would happen if ALM was fed over long periods of time. Also, these results should not be interpreted to suggest either that ALM may used to replace all the hay in the diets or that ALM in meal form may be used to replace hay in the diets. Moreover, feed consumption by cows used in these experiments was rather high and somewhat atypical of most cows.

  3. Alfalfa leaf meal in wintering beef cow diets. Quarterly report, July 1, 1997--September 30, 1997

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zehnder, C.M.; Hall, J.M.; Brown, D.B.; DiCostanzo, A.

    1998-06-01

    One hundred dry pregnant cows (1389 lb) and twenty-four pregnant heifers (1034 lb) were assigned by calving date and body condition to one of four dietary treatments for a wintering period during their late gestation. Dietary treatments consisted of supplementing crude protein (CP) at 100 % or 120 % of the recommended intake using either soybean meal or alfalfa leaf meal (ALM) as the supplemental protein source. Cows were group fed (two replicate pens/treatment) while heifers were individually fed for the duration of the study. The study lasted 70 (early) or 85 (late) days for cows and ended when the first cow in each replicate calved. For heifers, the study lasted for 100 days and ended accordingly when each heifer calved. Heifers fed ALM had consumed less (P < .05) hay and corn dry matter (DM). Overall diet DM intakes were unaffected (P > .05) by protein source. Feeding 120 % of recommended protein (2.38 vs 2.07 lb/day) to heifers increased (P < .05) their rate of gain by almost .5 lb/head/day. Cows fed ALM had faster (P < .05) rates of gain when gain was measured 22 days before calving. Once cows calved, weight change was similar (P > .05) for each protein source. However, cows fed alfalfa leaf meal consumed more (P = .054) total dry matter (DM). Calving traits were not affected by protein source or intake. Wintering heifers or cows on ALM-based supplements had no detrimental effect on performance of heifers or cows or their calves at birth. Additional protein may be required by heifers to ensure that they continue gaining weight during late gestation.

  4. Effects of alfalfa meal on carcase quality and fat metabolism of Muscovy ducks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, J F; Song, X M; Huang, X; Wu, J L; Zhou, W D; Zheng, H C; Jiang, Y Q

    2012-01-01

    1. The effects of alfalfa meal on carcase quality and fat metabolism of Muscovy duck were evaluated. The objective of this research was to establish whether alfalfa meal can reduce fat content and improve carcase quality of Muscovy duck. Animal products with a high fat content present a risk factor for many diseases. Reducing fat content in poultry products is an important goal for the poultry industry. 2. A total of 240 14-d-old white Muscovy ducks were selected and randomly allocated to 1 of 4 dietary treatments containing 0, 3, 6, and 9% of alfalfa meal for 5 weeks. Growth performances were recorded and carcase characteristics and lipid parameters were analysed. 3. Results showed that 3, 6, and 9% alfalfa meal in diet had no significant effects on growth performance of Muscovy ducks from 14 to 49 d of age. Ducks given 3, 6, and 9% alfalfa meal had significantly higher dressing percentage and lower abdominal fat percentage compared with those given no alfalfa meal. Ducks given 9% alfalfa meal had higher breast meat percentage compared with those given no alfalfa meal. The concentrations of triglyceride, total cholesterol, low density lipoprotein (LDL), very low density lipoprotein (VLDL) and free fatty acid in serum of ducks fed on alfalfa meal decreased. Alfalfa meal in the diet decreased abdominal fat percentage and improved carcase traits of Muscovy duck. 4. The study showed that dietary alfalfa meal decreased abdominal fat percentage and improved carcase traits, without an adverse effect on performance.

  5. Effects of alfalfa meal on growth performance and gastrointestinal tract development of growing ducks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, J F; Song, X M; Huang, X; Zhou, W D; Wu, J L; Zhu, Z G; Zheng, H C; Jiang, Y Q

    2012-10-01

    A study was conducted to evaluate effects of alfalfa meal on growth performance and gastrointestinal tract development of growing layer ducks to provide evidence for application of alfalfa meal in the duck industry. Two hundred and fifty-six healthy Shaoxing 7-wk old growing layer ducks were selected and randomly allocated to 1 of 4 dietary treatments based on corn and soybean meal and containing 0, 3, 6, and 9% of alfalfa meal for 8 wks. Each treatment consisted of 4 replicates of 16 ducks each. Briefly, birds were raised in separate compartments, and each compartment consisted of three parts: indoor floor house, adjacent open area and a connecting water area. The results showed: i) Growing ducks fed alfalfa meal diet were not significantly different in average daily gain, feed intake and gain-to-feed ratio from those fed no alfalfa diet (p>0.05). ii) Alfalfa meal increased the ratio crop, gizzard to live weight, caecum to live weight, the caecum index of growing ducks (pducks increased significantly with the increase of alfalfa meal levels (pducks decreased significantly with the increase of alfalfa meal levels (pducks could improve gastrointestinal tract growth and small intestinal morphology without effect on performance. This experiment provides evidence that alfalfa meal is a very valuable feedstuff for growing layer ducks.

  6. Effects of alfalfa meal on the intestinal microbial diversity and immunity of growing ducks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, J F; Song, X M; Wu, J L; Jiang, Y Q

    2014-12-01

    This study was conducted to investigate the effects of alfalfa meal diets on the intestinal microbial diversity and immunity of growing egg-type ducks. A total of 128 healthy 7-week-old female egg-type Shaoxing ducks were selected and randomly assigned into four dietary treatments: 0%, 3%, 6% and 9% alfalfa meal for 8 weeks. Each treatment consisted of four replicates of eight ducks each. Polymerase chain reaction denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (PCR-DGGE) was used to characterize the microbiota. The results showed that the DGGE fingerprints of the V6-V8 fragments of the 16S rRNA from the caeca and faeces of ducks fed 3%, 6% and 9% alfalfa meal had significantly higher microbiota species richness than those fed 0% alfalfa meal (p ducks fed 3%, 6% and 9% alfalfa meal was significantly higher than those fed 0% alfalfa meal (p 0.05), and the 3-9% alfalfa meal did not affect the growth performance of the growing egg-type ducks. The proliferation of T and B lymphocytes was significantly greater (p ducks. Dietary alfalfa meal supplementation increases intestinal microbial community diversity and improves of the immune response growing egg-type ducks.

  7. Identification of Alfalfa Leaf Diseases Using Image Recognition Technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qin, Feng; Liu, Dongxia; Sun, Bingda; Ruan, Liu; Ma, Zhanhong; Wang, Haiguang

    2016-01-01

    Common leaf spot (caused by Pseudopeziza medicaginis), rust (caused by Uromyces striatus), Leptosphaerulina leaf spot (caused by Leptosphaerulina briosiana) and Cercospora leaf spot (caused by Cercospora medicaginis) are the four common types of alfalfa leaf diseases. Timely and accurate diagnoses of these diseases are critical for disease management, alfalfa quality control and the healthy development of the alfalfa industry. In this study, the identification and diagnosis of the four types of alfalfa leaf diseases were investigated using pattern recognition algorithms based on image-processing technology. A sub-image with one or multiple typical lesions was obtained by artificial cutting from each acquired digital disease image. Then the sub-images were segmented using twelve lesion segmentation methods integrated with clustering algorithms (including K_means clustering, fuzzy C-means clustering and K_median clustering) and supervised classification algorithms (including logistic regression analysis, Naive Bayes algorithm, classification and regression tree, and linear discriminant analysis). After a comprehensive comparison, the segmentation method integrating the K_median clustering algorithm and linear discriminant analysis was chosen to obtain lesion images. After the lesion segmentation using this method, a total of 129 texture, color and shape features were extracted from the lesion images. Based on the features selected using three methods (ReliefF, 1R and correlation-based feature selection), disease recognition models were built using three supervised learning methods, including the random forest, support vector machine (SVM) and K-nearest neighbor methods. A comparison of the recognition results of the models was conducted. The results showed that when the ReliefF method was used for feature selection, the SVM model built with the most important 45 features (selected from a total of 129 features) was the optimal model. For this SVM model, the

  8. Alfalfa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alfalfa is an herb. People use the leaves, sprouts, and seeds to make medicine. Alfalfa is used for kidney conditions, bladder and prostate ... bleeding disorder called thrombocytopenic purpura. People also take alfalfa as a source of vitamins A, C, E, ...

  9. Oxidative stability of chicken meat during storage influenced by the feeding of alfalfa meal

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    Jana Tkáčová

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The aim of our experiment was to determine the effect of the alfalfa meal component in feed mixtures of Ross broiler chickens on oxidative stability of meat. Proportion of alfalfa meal in feed mixtures was 4 and 6%. The results were compared to the control group without alfalfa meal in feed mixtures. At the end of the experiment (day 38, 6 pcs of broiler chickens from each group with an average live body weight over 1 800 g were randomly selected. The samples for chemical analysis consisted of identical proportion of breast and thigh muscle, and about 1 cm2 of skin with subcutaneous fat. Fat from the meat was obtained after the samples drying. A fat was determined by extraction by means of laboratory instrument Det N Gras Selecta P. The oxidative stability of meat on the basis of acid number of fat was determided by chemical analysis. Chicken meat was stored at -18 °C for 12 months and 18 months. The acid number of fat of stored meat for 12 months was 7.38 mg KOH per g in the control group, 7.42 mg KOH per g in the group with a proportion of 4% alfalfa meal, and 11.18 mg KOH per g in the group with proportion 6% alfalfa meal. An acid number of fat of stored meat for 18 months was 5.90 mg KOH per g in the control group, 4.65 mg KOH per g in the group with a proportion of 4% alfalfa meal, and 7.07 mg KOH per g in the group with a proportion of 6% alfalfa meal. Chicken meat is notably sensitive to lipid oxidation because of its high content of polyunsaturated fatty acids. Legislation in Title 5 of Part 3 of the Codex Alimentarius of the Slovak Republic and the Government Regulation No. 286/2003 Coll. in the Annex 4 in Part B provide the requirements for animal fats and meat products. Regulation of the European Parliament and Council (EC No. 853/2004 lays down specific hygiene rules for food of animal origin. In particular, determination of free fatty acids content of rendered animal fat (tallow, lard, other animal fat. Legislative regulation does

  10. Effect of Graded Levels of Fiber from Alfalfa Meal on Nutrient Digestibility and Flow of Fattening Pigs

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHEN Liang; GAO Li-xiang; ZHANG Hong-fu

    2014-01-01

    The ifber level and composition have an important effect on nutrient digestibility of swine diets. Little information is known about the effects of ifber level and composition from alfalfa meal on nutrient digestibility of fattening pigs fed a corn-soybean meal-based diet. The objective of this experiment was to determine the effects of alfalfa ifber on the growth performance, intestinal nutrient lfow and apparent total tract digestibility (ATTD) of nutrients in fattening pigs. 24 barrows (Duroc×(Large White×Landrace), body weight=(60.6±0.7) kg) were randomly allotted to 4 treatments with 6 replicates of 1 pig per replicate. The pigs were provided a control diet or a diet containing 5, 10 or 20%of alfalfa meal during a 14-d experiment period. Average daily gain (ADG) and the ATTD of dry matter (DM), organic matter (OM), crude protein (CP), neutral detergent ifber (NDF), acid detergent ifber (ADF) and gross energy (GE) reduced linearly as the level of alfalfa meal in the diet increased (P0.05). A multiple linear regression analysis, taking into account both soluble and insoluble ifber intake, explained approximately 70%of the variation in the ATTD of DM, OM, NDF, and GE (P<0.01). In conclusion, alfalfa meal should be limited to less than 5%of the diet in fattening pigs to maximize growth performance and nutrient digestion. Soluble and insoluble ifber from alfalfa meal has the differential roles in nutrient digestion, which may help explain the main variation observed in nutrient digestibility. These ifndings suggest that knowledge of speciifc ifber components is necessary to accurately predict the effects of dietary ifber on nutrient digestibility.

  11. Growth Performance of Clarias Gariepinus Fed Soaked Moringa Oleifera Leaf Meal

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    Ayegba, E. O

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The present study evaluates the nutritional potential of soaked-dried Moringa oleifera leaf meal in the diet of Clarias gariepinus. Four isonitrogenous (35% crude protein diets were formulated with Moringa leaf replacing soybean meal at 0%, 10%, 20% and 30%. Result obtained revealed declined in weight gain, specific growth rate, feed conversion efficiency, protein efficiency ratio and apparent net protein utilization as dietary replacement of Moringa leaf meal increased beyond 10%. It is concluded that Moringa oleifera leaf meal can replace soybeans meal up to 10% without affecting the growth performance of African catfish.

  12. Black Leaf and Stem of Alfalfa Caused by Phoma medicaginis Malbr & Roum. var. medicaginis Boerema

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    Latif R. Susuri

    2003-03-01

    Full Text Available Phoma medicaginis has recently been spreading on alfalfa causing black leaf and stem in irrigation fields near Prizren. The average number of lesions is from 18 up to 30 on leaves with an average diameter of 1-10 mm. The average size of pycnidia from diseased alfalfa leaves, stems and PDA is 325 x 338 μm, whereas the average size of pycnidiospores is 7.3 x 3.6 μm. Maximum spore production in average was on PDA 140.9 x 104/ml.

  13. Growth Performance of Clarias Gariepinus Fed Soaked Moringa Oleifera Leaf Meal

    OpenAIRE

    2016-01-01

    The present study evaluates the nutritional potential of soaked-dried Moringa oleifera leaf meal in the diet of Clarias gariepinus. Four isonitrogenous (35% crude protein) diets were formulated with Moringa leaf replacing soybean meal at 0%, 10%, 20% and 30%. Result obtained revealed declined in weight gain, specific growth rate, feed conversion efficiency, protein efficiency ratio and apparent net protein utilization as dietary replacement of Moringa leaf meal increased beyond 10%. It is con...

  14. Overexpressing Arabidopsis ABF3 increases tolerance to multiple abiotic stresses and reduces leaf size in alfalfa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Zhi; Su, Guoxia; Li, Min; Ke, Qingbo; Kim, Soo Young; Li, Hongbing; Huang, Jin; Xu, Bingcheng; Deng, Xi-Ping; Kwak, Sang-Soo

    2016-12-01

    Arabidopsis ABSCISIC ACID-RESPONSIVE ELEMENT-BINDING FACTOR 3 (ABF3), a bZIP transcription factor, plays an important role in regulating multiple stress responses in plants. Overexpressing AtABF3 increases tolerance to various stresses in several plant species. Alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.), one of the most important perennial forage crops worldwide, has high yields, high nutritional value, and good palatability and is widely distributed in irrigated and semi-arid regions throughout the world. However, drought and salt stress pose major constraints to alfalfa production. In this study, we developed transgenic alfalfa plants (cv. Xinjiang Daye) expressing AtABF3 under the control of the sweetpotato oxidative stress-inducible SWPA2 promoter (referred to as SAF plants) via Agrobacterium tumefaciens-mediated transformation. After drought stress treatment, we selected two transgenic lines with high expression of AtABF3, SAF5 and SAF6, for further characterization. Under normal conditions, SAF plants showed smaller leaf size compared to non-transgenic (NT) plants, while no other morphological changes were observed. Moreover, SAF plants exhibited enhanced drought stress tolerance and better growth under drought stress treatment, which was accompanied by a reduced transpiration rate and lower reactive oxygen species contents. In addition, SAF plants showed an increased tolerance to salt and oxidative stress. Therefore, these transgenic AtABF3 alfalfa plants might be useful for breeding forage crops with enhanced tolerance to environmental stress for use in sustainable agriculture on marginal lands.

  15. Implications of season and management protocol on the landscape of gene regulation during diapause development in the Alfalfa Leaf Cutting Bee

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    : The alfalfa leaf cutting bee, Megachile rotundata, is the world’s most intensively managed solitary bee for commercial pollination. It is the primary pollinator of seed alfalfa, a valuable crop for dairy cow feed. Overwintering bees emerge in the spring during alfalfa bloom to mate an...

  16. Low-fiber alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.) meal in the laying hen diet: effects on productive traits and egg quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laudadio, V; Ceci, E; Lastella, N M B; Introna, M; Tufarelli, V

    2014-07-01

    This study was designed to determine the effects on laying performance and egg quality resulting from partial substitution of soybean meal (SBM) with low-fiber alfalfa (LFA; Medicago sativa L.) meal in the diet of early-phase laying hens. ISA Brown layers, 18 wk of age, were randomly allocated to 2 dietary treatments and fed for 10 wk. The hens were fed 2 wheat middling-based diets: a control diet, which contained SBM (15% of diet), and a test diet containing LFA (15% of diet) as the main protein source. Low-fiber alfalfa meal was obtained by a combination of sieving and air-classification processes. Feed intake was recorded daily, and egg production was calculated on a hen-day basis; eggs from each group were weekly collected to evaluate egg components and quality. The partial substitution of SBM with LFA had no adverse effect on growth performance of early-phase laying hens. Egg production and none of the egg-quality traits examined were influenced by dietary treatment, except for yolk color (P hens fed the LFA diet. Including LFA increased serum β-carotene and reduced serum cholesterol concentrations (P laying-hen diet can positively influence yolk quality without adversely affecting productive traits.

  17. Effect of graded levels of ifber from alfalfa meal on apparent and standardized ileal digestibility of amino acids of growing pigs

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHEN Liang; GAO Li-xiang; LIU Li; DING Ze-ming; ZHANG Hong-fu

    2015-01-01

    Two experiments were conducted to determine the effects of ifber level from alfalfa meal and sampling time on the apparent ileal digestibility (AID) and standardized ileal digestibility (SID) of amino acids (AA) in growing pigs. A total of 24 ileal-can-nulated pigs (Duroc×(Large White×Landrace) with body weight (21.4±1.5) kg) were randomly alotted to 4 treatments. The pigs were provided a corn-soybean meal diet or a diet containing 5, 10 or 20% of alfalfa meal during two 10-d experimental periods. The AID of AA was measured. Six ileal-cannulated pigs were fed a protein-free diet in order to estimate the en-dogenous protein losses and SID of AA. Ileal AA digestibility was not affected by inclusion of 5 or 10% alfalfa meal in the diet (P>0.05). The AID of His, Lys, Met, Phe, Thr, Val, Ala, Asp, Cys, Gly, Pro, Ser and Tyr reduced by 2.0–6.8% with the addition level of alfalfa meal (linear,P0.05). A multiple linear regression analysis, taking into account both the soluble and insoluble ifber content in the diets, explained more than 36% of variation in SID of Ser and Thr (P<0.05). In conclusion, the corn-soybean meal diet containing 10% of alfalfa meal did not affect ileal AA digestion. The AID and SID of AA were similar between two sampling times. Increasing the concentration of total dietary ifber from 12.3 to 21.4% by adding graded levels of alfalfa meal (0–20%) to a corn-soybean meal control diet induced a linear reduction in AID and SID of most AA. Soluble and insoluble ifbers from alfalfa meal have differential roles in the AA digestion, which may help explain the variation observed in the SID of partial AA. These ifndings would provide important information for dietary ifber level and composition related to AA digestion.

  18. Substitution of Soybean Meal with Indigofera zollingeriana Top Leaf Meal on Egg Quality of Cortunix cortunix japonica

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    F. Faradillah

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available This research aimed to study the substitution of soybean meal (SBM with Indigofera zollingeriana top leaf meal (ILM in the diet on egg quality of Japanese quails. The experiment used a completely randomized design with five treatments and four replications (ten quails of each replication. The dietary treatment contained five combination of SBM and ILM, R0= diets contained 18% SBM without ILM, R1= diet contained 16.2% SBM and 2.66% ILM, R2= diet contained 14.4% SBM and 5.32% ILM, R3= diet contained 12.6% SBM and 7.98% ILM, R4= diet contained 9% SBM and 13.3% ILM. The results showed that the use of 13.3% ILM (R4 significantly (P<0.05 increased feed consumption, egg weight, yolk colour score, egg cholesterol, and reduced malondialdehyde level. The conclusion of this study was I. zollingeriana top leaf meal could be used as much as 13.3% in the diets. The use of I. zollingeriana top leaf meal could improve the quality of eggs physically and chemically.

  19. Enhancing pollination by attracting & retaining leaf cutting bees (Megachile rotundata) in alfalfa seed production fields

    Science.gov (United States)

    The alfalfa leafcutting bee, Megachile rotundata (F.), has become an important managed pollinator of alfalfa, Medicago sativa L. One problem when using alfalfa leafcutting bees as managed pollinator, is the dispersal of many females upon release, even when adequate nesting sites are present. While d...

  20. Cytotoxicity and apoptosis induced by alfalfa (Medicago sativa) leaf extracts in sensitive and multidrug-resistant tumor cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gatouillat, Grégory; Magid, Abdulmagid Alabdul; Bertin, Eric; Okiemy-Akeli, Marie-Genevieve; Morjani, Hamid; Lavaud, Catherine; Madoulet, Claudie

    2014-01-01

    Alfalfa (Medicago sativa) has been used to cure a wide variety of ailments. However, only a few studies have reported its anticancer effects. In this study, extracts were obtained from alfalfa leaves and their cytotoxic effects were assessed on several sensitive and multidrug-resistant tumor cells lines. Using the mouse leukaemia P388 cell line and its doxorubicin-resistant counterpart (P388/DOX), we showed that the inhibition of cell growth induced by alfalfa leaf extracts was mediated through the induction of apoptosis, as evidenced by DNA fragmentation analysis. The execution of programmed cell death was achieved via the activation of caspase-3, leading to PARP cleavage. Fractionation of toluene extract (To-1), the most active extract obtained from crude extract, led to the identification of 3 terpene derivatives and 5 flavonoids. Among them, (-)-medicarpin, (-)-melilotocarpan E, millepurpan, tricin, and chrysoeriol showed cytotoxic effects in P388 as well as P388/DOX cells. These results demonstrate that alfalfa leaf extract may have interesting potential in cancer chemoprevention and therapy.

  1. Extraction, composition, and functional properties of dried alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.) leaf protein

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    Alfalfa, traditionally used for animal feed, has attracted attention as a potential feedstock for biofuels and the viability of the process would be enhanced by co-products with value-added uses. This study describes extraction of protein from dried alfalfa leaves and the functional properties of th...

  2. De novo characterization of fall dormant and nondormant alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.) leaf transcriptome and identification of candidate genes related to fall dormancy.

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    Zhang, Senhao; Shi, Yinghua; Cheng, Ningning; Du, Hongqi; Fan, Wenna; Wang, Chengzhang

    2015-01-01

    Alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.) is one of the most widely cultivated perennial forage legumes worldwide. Fall dormancy is an adaptive character related to the biomass production and winter survival in alfalfa. The physiological, biochemical and molecular mechanisms causing fall dormancy and the related genes have not been well studied. In this study, we sequenced two standard varieties of alfalfa (dormant and non-dormant) at two time points and generated approximately 160 million high quality paired-end sequence reads using sequencing by synthesis (SBS) technology. The de novo transcriptome assembly generated a set of 192,875 transcripts with an average length of 856 bp representing about 165.1 Mb of the alfalfa leaf transcriptome. After assembly, 111,062 (57.6%) transcripts were annotated against the NCBI non-redundant database. A total of 30,165 (15.6%) transcripts were mapped to 323 Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes pathways. We also identified 41,973 simple sequence repeats, which can be used to generate markers for alfalfa, and 1,541 transcription factors were identified across 1,350 transcripts. Gene expression between dormant and non-dormant alfalfa at different time points were performed, and we identified several differentially expressed genes potentially related to fall dormancy. The Gene Ontology and pathways information were also identified. We sequenced and assembled the leaf transcriptome of alfalfa related to fall dormancy, and also identified some genes of interest involved in the fall dormancy mechanism. Thus, our research focused on studying fall dormancy in alfalfa through transcriptome sequencing. The sequencing and gene expression data generated in this study may be used further to elucidate the complete mechanisms governing fall dormancy in alfalfa.

  3. Crop mergers: Management of soil contamination and leaf loss in alfalfa

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    Maximizing the capacity and subsequent efficiency of the forage harvester necessitates consolidation (raking or merging) of alfalfa cuttings. Although rotary rakes are in wide use, the use of continuous pickup belt mergers is increasing in the Midwestern U.S. Previous work on crop consolidation is l...

  4. Centrosema (Centrosema pubescens leaf meal as a protein supplement for broiler chicks production

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    Friday Chima NWORGU

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Present study was conducted to find out the potential Centrosema (Centrosema pubescens leaf meal as a protein supplement for the broiler chicks production. For this, Ninety unsexed one week old Anak 2000 broiler chicks were used. These selected chicks were randomly allotted to 5 dietary treatments i.e. A (Centrosema free diet, B (3%, C (6%, D (9% and E (12% with different concentration of C. pubescens leaf meal (CLM. Each treatment was replicated 3 times with 6 birds per replicate. This CLM mainly used to replaced groundnut cake and soybean in the diets. Water and feeds were served adlibitum. The results of study revealed that dietary supplementation of CLM significantly (P<0.05 and progressively depressed final body weight, weight gain and feed conversion ratio unlike water and feed intakes. Dietary inclusion of 6-12% CLM for broiler chicks reduced weight gain averagely by 12.96% compared to control. The cost of feed per kg live weight gain was N91.86, N96.04 and NI07.59/kg for control, 3 and 12%, respectively. Profit margin was highest in control (N4.11 and birds placed on 3% CLM (N2.66 per bird compared to those fed 9.0-12.0% CLM dietary inclusion, in which average loss was N20.39 per bird. Hence results of study clearly advised that CLM can be add as protein supplements but it should not include more than 3% in the diet of broiler chicks

  5. TROPICAL VEGETABLE (AMARANTHUS CRUENTUS LEAF MEAL AS ALTERNATIVE PROTEIN SUPPLEMENT IN BROILER STARTER DIETS: BIONUTRITIONAL EVALUATION

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    A FASUYI

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Amaranthus cruentus is a tropical leaf vegetable grown in most tropical regions of the world for its vegetable protein. The fresh matured leaves of the plant were harvested and sun dried until a moisture content of between 12-13% was obtained. The sun dried leaves (Amaranthus cruentus leaf meal, ACLM were milled and analysed for their proximate composition. Crude protein was 23.0%+0.55; crude fat, 5.4%+0.01; crude fibre, 8.8%+0.02; ash, 19.3%+0.01 and gross energy, 3.3+0.01kcal/g all on dry matter basis. Methionine and to a lesser extent, lysine, arginine, leucine and aspartate were high. The ACLM was incorporated into five formulated broiler starter diets at varying inclusion levels. The control diet 1 had no ACLM inclusion. All the six diets including control diet 1 were formulated isocaloric and isonitrogenous and fed to the experimental chicks (n = 540. Birds kept on diet 2 (5% ACLM inclusion level had the best average weight gain (WG of 372.9+29.94g/chick. The feed efficiency (FE value and the protein efficiency ratio (PER for birds on diet 2 were similar (P > 0.05 to values obtained for the reference diet. The nitrogen retention (NR and apparent nitrogen digestibility (AND values obtained for diet 2 were highest at 1.48+0.24gN/chick/day and 63.12%+10.28, respectively. Except for dressed weight and the back of chicken all the organs weights taken were similar (P > 0.05. Haematological examinations were similar (P > 0.05. Results generally indicated that ACLM could be a useful dietary protein source for broiler starter chicks at 5% inclusion level.

  6. Performance and Haematological Characteristics of Broiler Finisher FedMoringa oleifera Leaf Meal Diets

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Obakanurhe Oghenebrorhie; Okpara Oghenesuvwe

    2016-01-01

    To investigate the effects ofMoringa oleifera leaf meal (MOLM) on the performance and haematology of broiler finisher using 120 Cobb chicks of 4 weeks old broiler chicks. The birds were assigned randomly into four dietary treatments containing MOLM at 0, 6%, 8%, and 10% (treatments 1, 2, 3 and 4) inclusion levels, respectively, in a complete randomized design experiment. The effect of the dietary treatments on the growth performance and blood parameters of the broiler finisher was determined. MOLM at a rate of 6% (T2), 8% (T3), and 10% (T4) of the diets (as fed basis) to replace 3.2%, 5.6% and 8.6% of the crude protein (CP) of the control diet. The daily feed, dry matter and CP intake of the chicks fed MOLM diets were higher (p0.05) among treatments. The results indicated that at 10% in the diets of broiler finisher chick, MOLM could be substituted with expensive conventional protein sources without any deleterious effects on performance and blood parameters of broiler finisher chicken.

  7. Effect of Alchornea cordifolia leaf meal inclusion and enzyme supplementation on performance and digestibility of rabbits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S.O. Ayodele

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available A feeding trial was conducted to study the performance, digestibility and health status of weaner rabbits fed diets including Alchornea cordifolia leaf meal (ALM: 18% crude protein [CP] and 12.9% crude fibre and supplemented with a multi-enzyme additive (cellulase, xylanase, β-glucanase, α-amylase, protease, lipase. Six experimental diets were arranged factorially: 3 levels of ALM (0, 5 and 10% substituting palm kernel cake: 16.3% CP and 39.1% neutral detergent fibre combined with 2 levels of enzyme supplementation (0 and 0.35 g/kg. One hundred and eighty healthy, 5-wk-old weaner rabbits of cross-breeds were randomly allotted to 6 dietary treatments (30 rabbits/treatment, 3 rabbits/replicate. Growth rate was not affected (P>0.05 by the main factors (exogenous enzyme and ALM inclusion and their interactions (13.5 g/d on av.. Daily feed intake and feed conversion ratio decreased (P=0.01 with the ALM inclusion by 8%, but did not affect faecal digestibility. However, enzyme supplementation improved crude protein and crude fibre digestibility (P<0.001 by 6%. In conclusion, ALM inclusion and enzyme supplementation had no adverse effect on the performance and digestibility of rabbits.

  8. Alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Chunxiang; Hernandez, Timothy; Zhou, Chuanen; Wang, Zeng-Yu

    2015-01-01

    Alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.) is a high-quality forage crop widely grown throughout the world. This chapter describes an efficient protocol that allows for the generation of large number of transgenic alfalfa plants by sonication-assisted Agrobacterium-mediated transformation. Binary vectors carrying different selectable marker genes that confer resistance to phosphinothricin (bar), kanamycin (npt II), or hygromycin (hph) were used to generate transgenic alfalfa plants. Intact trifoliates collected from clonally propagated plants in the greenhouse were sterilized with bleach and then inoculated with Agrobacterium strain EHA105. More than 80 % of infected leaf pieces could produce rooted transgenic plants in 4-5 months after Agrobacterium-mediated transformation.

  9. Overexpression of Medicago sativa TMT elevates the α-tocopherol content in Arabidopsis seeds, alfalfa leaves, and delays dark-induced leaf senescence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Jishan; Jia, Huili; Feng, Guangyan; Wang, Zan; Li, Jun; Gao, Hongwen; Wang, Xuemin

    2016-08-01

    Alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.) is a major forage legume for livestock and a target for improving their dietary quality. Vitamin E is an essential vitamin that animals must obtain from their diet for proper growth and development. γ-tocopherol methyltransferase (γ-TMT), which catalyzes the conversion of δ- and γ-tocopherols (or tocotrienols) to β- and α-tocopherols (or tocotrienols), respectively, is the final enzyme involved in the vitamin E biosynthetic pathway. The overexpression of M. sativa L.'s γ-TMT (MsTMT) increased the α-tocopherol content 10-15 fold above that of wild type Arabidopsis seeds without altering the total content of vitamin E. Additionally, in response to osmotic stress, the biomass and the expression levels of several osmotic marker genes were significantly higher in the transgenic lines compared with wild type. Overexpression of MsTMT in alfalfa led to a modest, albeit significant, increase in α-tocopherol in leaves and was also responsible for a delayed leaf senescence phenotype. Additionally, the crude protein content was increased, while the acid and neutral detergent fiber contents were unchanged in these transgenic lines. Thus, increased α-tocopherol content occurred in transgenic alfalfa without compromising the nutritional qualities. The targeted metabolic engineering of vitamin E biosynthesis through MsTMT overexpression provides a promising approach to improve the α-tocopherol content of forage crops.

  10. Possibilities of using MORINGA (Moringa oleifera LEAF MEAL AS A PARTIAL SUBSTITUTE FOR FISHMEAL IN BROILER CHICKENS DIETS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H.K. ZANU

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available A six-week feeding trial involving 180 2-week old Cobb broiler chicks was conducted to assess the effects of partial replacement of fishmeal with Moringa (Moringa oleifera leaf meal on broiler chickens. The birds were randomly assigned in equal numbers in a Completely Randomized Design (CRD to four dietary treatments containing 0, 5, 10, and 15% Moringa leaf meal (MLM. Each treatment was replicated three times giving 15 birds per replicate. Feed and water were supplied ad libitum. The parameters measured were feed intake, initial weight, final weight, weight gain, feed conversion efficiency, carcass traits, hematology, serum biochemistry and meat quality. Final weight, weight gain, feed conversion efficiency significantly (p<0.05 declined with increasing level of MLM. None of the carcass traits measured was significantly affected by addition of MLM. Mean Corpuscular Hemoglobin (MCH was the only hematological parameter that showed significance (P<0.05 difference in treatment groups. Triglycerides, Low Density Lipoprotein (LDL and Very Low Density Lipoprotein (VLDL differed significantly (P<0.05. Also incorporation of MLM significantly (P<0.05 affected the moisture, crude protein and crude fat of the meat of experimental birds. Cost benefit analysis showed that incorporation of MLM resulted in reduced feed cost. However, the net revenue from birds fed diets containing MLM reduced as a result of poor weight gain. Based on the data obtained in this study it is concluded that Moringa oleifera leaf meal when partially used to replace fishmeal may hamper growth rate of broiler chickens. Nonetheless, addition of MLM does not adversely affect mortality, carcass traits and blood variables.

  11. Effect of polyethylene glycol 4000 supplementation on the performance of indigenous Pedi goats fed different levels of Acacia nilotica leaf meal and ad libitum Buffalo grass hay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Motubatse, M R; Ng'ambi, J W; Norris, D; Malatje, M M

    2008-04-01

    In a first of two experiments, twenty yearling male Pedi goats weighing 21.3 +/- 0.5 kg live weight were used in a 37-day study in a 2 (levels of PEG 4000) x 2 (levels ofAcacia) Factorial arrangement in a Completely Randomised Design to determine the effect of the level of Acacia nilotica leaf meal supplementation plus 23 g polyethylene glycol 4000 on diet intake and digestibility, and growth rate of Pedi goats fed ad libitum Buffalo grass hay. Acacia nilotica leaf meal contained high amounts of total phenolics (2.04% DM) and low amounts of condensed tannins; both extracted (0.37% DM) and unextracted (1.83% DM). Supplementation with PEG 4000 increased (P diets similar to the actual ratios of the first experiment. Level of A. nilotica leaf meal supplementation plus 23 g PEG 4000 supplementation improved (P < 0.05) in vitro DM, OM and CP digestibilities where 120 g A. nilotica leaf meal was supplemented. Similarly, 23 g PEG 4000 supplementation also improved (P < 0.05) in vitro CP digestibility where 80 g A. nilotica leaf meal was supplemented. In vivo DM and OM digestibilities were best predicted from in vitro DM and OM digestibilities while in vivo CP was explained by in vitro OM and CP digestibilities. It is, therefore, concluded that in vitro DM and OM digestibilities have good capacity to predict in vivo DM and OM digestibilities while OM and CP digestibilities have good capacity to predict in vivo CP digestibility.

  12. Effects of substitution of soybean meal-alfalfa-maize by a combination of field bean or pea with hard wheat bran on digestion and growth performance in rabbits in Algeria

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    G. Lounaouci-Ouyed

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the trial was to study the effects of replacement of a soybean meal-alfalfa-maize based diet by a mixture of field bean (g/kg as fed: 257 crude protein [CP], 139 neutral detergent fibre [NDF] or pea (g/kg as fed: 203 CP, 122 NDF combined with hard wheat bran (g/kg as fed: 140 CP, 396 NDF and without supplementation of synthetic DL-methionine, on diet digestibility, growth and slaughter traits of growing rabbits. Three diets were formulated: a control diet mainly consisting of 15% of soybean meal, alfalfa and maize (SBM15 diet; g/kg as fed: 161 CP and 267 NDF and 2 experimental diets based on 26% of field bean (FB26 diet; g/kg as fed: 167 CP and 250 NDF or 30% of pea (P30 diet; g/kg as fed: 167 CP and 255 NDF as main protein source, and completed with hard wheat bran (34 and 40%, respectively for FB26 and P30 diets partly replacing alfalfa and maize. Diets were distributed ad libitum to 3 groups of 40 mixed-sex growing rabbits of Algerian white population, placed in collective cages (4 rabbits/cage from weaning (28 d, mean weight: 614±112 g until 77 d of age (slaughter. Faecal digestibility was measured between 42 and 46 d of age in 7 rabbits/group. Gross energy and crude protein digestibility coefficients were similar for SBM15 and FB26 diets (78.6 and 86.4%, respectively and lower for P30 diet (75.1 and 83.6%, respectively; P≤0.03. Treatments had no effect (P=0.12 on mortality rate, which was on av. 9.2%. Treatments did not affect growth performance from 28 to 77 d of age (30.8 g/d or feed intake (mean 94.6 g/d, but feed conversion ratio was higher for rabbits fed FB26 and P30 diets compared to those fed SBM15 diet (3.13 vs. 2.94; P=0.006. The dressing out percentages (mean 66.6% and the muscle/bone ratio (6.8 were similar for the 3 groups of rabbits. In conclusion, the substitution of soybean meal-alfalfa-maize by a combination of field bean or pea with hard wheat bran, without methionine supplementation, does not seem to affect

  13. Estimating Apparent Nutrient Digestibility of Diets Containing Leucaena leucocephala or Moringa oleifera Leaf Meals for Growing Rabbits by Two Methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Safwat, A M; Sarmiento-Franco, L; Santos-Ricalde, R H; Nieves, D; Sandoval-Castro, C A

    2015-08-01

    This study aimed to evaluate the nutrient digestibility of growing rabbits fed diets with different levels of either Leucaena leucocephala (LLM) or Moringa oleifera (MOLM) leaf meals and also to compare total collection and TiO2 marker methods for estimating digestibility. A total of 30 California growing rabbits (1.81±0.19 kg live weight on average) were randomly distributed into five experimental groups of six rabbits each and were housed in individual cages. The groups were control, 30% LLM, 40% LLM, 30% MOLM, and 40% MOLM. All groups received pelleted diets for two weeks; diets also contained 4 g/kg titanium dioxide as dietary marker. Daily feed intake was recorded during the whole experimental period and total feces were collected daily and weighed individually during four days. The results showed that there were no difference (p>0.05) in feed, dry matter (DM), organic matter (OM), crude protein (CP), digestible energy, and crude fiber (CF) intake between the control group and the other experimental groups. The apparent digestibility values of DM, OM, CP, CF, acid detergent fiber, and gross energy were the highest for control group (p = 0.001), meanwhile MOLM diets had generally higher nutrient digestibility coefficients than LLM diets. Increasing the inclusion level of leaf meal in the diet from 30% to 40% improved the digestibility of CF from 45.02% to 51.69% for LLM and from 48.11% to 55.89% for MOLM. Similar results for apparent nutrient digestibility coefficients were obtained when either total collection or indigestible marker method was used. In conclusion, the digestibility of MOLM containing diets were better than LLM diets, furthermore TiO2 as an external marker could be used as a simple, practical and reliable method to estimate nutrients digestibility in rabbit diets.

  14. Extraction Efficiency and Characterization of Alfalfa Leaf Protein by Different Methods%不同方法提取苜蓿叶蛋白效果的比较及表征

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    曲敏; 马永强; 杨大鹏; 张帅; 张月学

    2012-01-01

    A comparative investigation of the effectiveness of three extraction methods (heating in an acidic environment, alkalization and fermentation) for alfalfa leaf protein was studied based on extraction yield, nitrogen content, solubility, foaming capacity, foam stability, emulsifying capacity, emulsion stability, water-holding capacity, oil-binding capacity and scanning electron microscopic (SEM) observation. The results showed that the extraction rate and nitrogen content of alfalfa leaf protein from fermentation was 14.9% and 45.08%, respectively, which was significantly higher than those from other two methods. The foaming capacity, water-holding capacity and oil-binding capacity of alfalfa leaf protein obtained from alkalization were 200%, 5.40% and 5.31%, respectively, which were better than those obtained from other two methods. The alfalfa leaf protein obtained from fermentation showed better solubility, emulsifying capacity and emulsion stability, which were 80.53%, 78.60% and 20.65%, respectively. The alfalfa leaf protein prepared by alkalization displayed a loose damaged structure as observed under SEM. The surface structure of the alfalfa leaf protein prepared by other two methods was compact and consecutively intact. Furthermore, fermentation had degrading effect on alfalfa leaf protein. Therefore, different preparation processes can result in differences in the extraction rate, nitrogen content, functional properties of alfalfa leaf protein.%分别采用酸热法、碱化法和发酵法3种方法制备苜蓿叶蛋白,通过优化制备工艺并比较叶蛋白得率、氮含量、溶解性、起泡性与泡沫稳定性、乳化性及乳化稳定性、持水性、吸油性等功能性质,并进行电镜观察表征。结果表明,发酵法制备苜蓿叶蛋白的得率和氮含量最高分别为14.9%和45.08%,明显高于酸化法和碱化法;比较其功能性质,碱化法制备的苜蓿叶蛋白在起泡性、持水性和吸

  15. Leaf d15N as a physiological indicator of the responsiveness of N2-fixing alfalfa plants to elevated [CO2], temperature and low water availability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Idoia eAriz

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The natural 15N/14N isotope composition (δ15N of a tissue is a consequence of its N source and N physiological mechanisms in response to the environment. It could potentially be used as a tracer of N metabolism in plants under changing environmental conditions, where primary N metabolism may be complex, and losses and gains of N fluctuate over time. In order to test the utility of δ15N as an indicator of plant N status in N2-fixing plants grown under various environmental conditions, alfalfa (Medicago sativa L. plants were subjected to distinct conditions of [CO2] (400 versus 700 mol mol-1, temperature (ambient versus ambient + 4ºC and water availability (fully watered versus water deficiency - WD. As expected, increased [CO2] and temperature stimulated photosynthetic rates and plant growth, whereas these parameters were negatively affected by WD. The determination of δ15N in leaves, stems, roots and nodules showed that leaves were the most representative organs of the plant response to increased [CO2] and WD. Depletion of heavier N isotopes in plants grown under higher [CO2] and WD conditions reflected decreased transpiration rates, but could also be related to a higher N demand in leaves, as suggested by the decreased leaf N and total soluble protein (TSP contents detected at 700 mol mol-1 [CO2] and WD conditions. In summary, leaf δ15N provides relevant information integrating parameters which condition plant responsiveness (e.g. photosynthesis, TSP, N demand and water transpiration to environmental conditions.

  16. In Vitro Rumen Fermentation and Anti Mastitis Bacterial Activity of Diet Containing Betel Leaf Meal (Piper betle L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. A. Yamin

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available The aims of this experiment was to study the inhibition effect of betel leaf meal (BLM addition into concentrate diet on mastitis causing bacteria and on rumen fermentation condition. The study consisted of five dietary treatments of BLM level in concentrate feed, i.e., 0%, 2%, 4%, 6%, and 8% and four replicates of each treatment. The treatment diets together with napier grass in ratio of 40 : 60 were fermented using rumen liquor. All treatments were examined their antibacterial activity before and after fermentation. After four hours fermentation, supernatant of each samples were analyzed for VFA, NH3, number of bacteria and protozoa. Dry matter (DM and organic matter (OM digestibility were analyzed after 48 h fermentation. The results showed that before fermentation, 8% BLM addition caused the bigest (P<0.05 inhibition diameter of Staphylococcus spp. growth compared to other lower levels. However after fermentation there were no significant differences among the addition levels of BLM. Two per cent of BLM addition produced higher VFA (P<0.05 than the other addition levels. Ammonia concentration, dry matter (DM and organic matter (OM digestibility were not different among the treatments. Addition of BLM significantly (P<0.01 decreased protozoa number, but did not affect bacterial count. It is concluded that the addition of 2% BLM in concentrate feed can be used effectively to inhibit the growth of mastitis causing bacteria (Staphylococcus spp. and does not disturb rumen fermentation condition.

  17. Effect of dietary inclusion of Leucaena leucocephala or Moringa oleifera leaf meal on performance of growing rabbits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Safwat, Assem Mohamed; Sarmiento-Franco, Luis; Santos-Ricalde, Ronald; Nieves, Duilio

    2014-10-01

    This experiment was carried out to evaluate the effect of including either Leucaena leucocephala (LLM) or Moringa oleifera leaf meal (MOLM) as tropical feed resources at two levels (30 or 40 %) on growth performance, carcass traits, and economical efficiency of growing rabbits. A total of 60 California growing rabbits were randomly distributed into five experimental groups, each consisting of 12 rabbits and were allocated individually; the groups were control, 30 % LLM, 40 % LLM, 30 % MOLM, and 40 % MOLM. The experimental period lasted from 6 to 12 weeks of age. The results showed that rabbits fed control and 30 % MOLM diets had significantly the highest final body weight and daily weight gain being 2,040 and 2,000 g and 31.6 and 30.6 g/day, respectively. Similarly, the best feed conversion ratio was associated with 30 % MOLM and control groups (3.2 and 3.4), while the worst value was for 40 % LLM group (5.2). MOLM treatments recorded significantly the highest dressing percentage along with control group. The inclusion of MOLM by 30 and 40 % improved the economical efficiency (2 and 1.5) in comparison with the control group (1.1). The results suggest that MOLM can be included in growing rabbit diets up to 40 % without any adverse effect on growth performance or carcass traits with higher economical efficiency of growing rabbits.

  18. Effects of hirami lemon, Citrus depressa Hayata, leaf meal in diets on the immune response and disease resistance of juvenile barramundi, Lates calcarifer (bloch), against Aeromonas hydrophila.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shiu, Ya-Li; Lin, Hsueh-Li; Chi, Chia-Chun; Yeh, Shinn-Pyng; Liu, Chun-Hung

    2016-08-01

    The present study was conducted to evaluate the dietary supplementation of leaf meal from Citrus depressa Hayata on the growth, innate immune response, and disease resistance of juvenile barramundi, Lates calcarifer. Four diets were formulated to contain 0% (control), 1% (C1), 3% (C3), and 5% (C5) leaf meal, respectively. During a 56 d feeding trial, fish survival, growth performance, and feed efficiency were not significantly different among all groups. For immune response, respiratory burst, superoxide dismutase and lysozyme activities were not significantly different among all groups. However, fish fed the C5 diet for 56 d had significantly higher phagocytic activity. Also, fish fed C3 and C5 diets had significantly higher Mx gene expressions in spleens and head kidneys with nerve necrosis virus injections after 24 h. Disease resistance against Aeromonas hydrophila was increased by the C5 diet. In this study, barramundi fed on a diet containing 5% C. depressa Hayata leaf meal had significantly better innate immune response and disease resistance against A. hydrophila.

  19. Nitrogen balance of lactating West African dwarf ewe fed Mexican sunflower leaf meal based diets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. H. Ekeocha

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Fifteen days prior to weaning, sixteen West African dwarf (WAD ewes (Initial BW 19.13±1.53kg on a basal diet of Panicum maximum were allotted into 4 treatment groups A, B, C and D of 4 replicates each. The mexican sunflower leaf (MSL replaced wheat bran (WB gravimetrically at 0, 15, 30 and 45%. Treatment A served as control. The experiment lasted for one week. Digestibility was determined using a 6-d total fecal collection. The 16 ewes were previously lambed 10 weeks before the commencement of this study and tagged to their respective treatments. Parameters measured were nitrogen intake, nitrogen balance, nitrogen apparent digestibility and nitrogen retention. Data were analyzed using descriptive statistics and ANOVA. Animals on treatment B had the highest N-intake (18.1g/d, N faecal (1.7 g/d, N absorbed (16.4 g/d and N balance (16.3 g/d and this was significant (P. Urinary nitrogen g/d was significantly higher (P with increasing inclusion of MSLM in the ration while protein retention increased from treatment A (0% MSLM to treatment B (15% MSLM (89.8 – 90.3% and subsequently decreased from treatment B (15%MSLM to D (45% MSLM (90.3 - 84.4%. Nitrogen balance was positively related to DM intake and N intake. The overall regression were nitrogen balance (NB =2.50+0.067 DMI; R2 = 0.9372, (P=0.3937 and NB= 0.75+0.9066 NI; R2 = 0.9957, (P=0.1401. Inclusion of up to 30% MSLM in the diets of lactating ewe appeared most beneficial to sheep as it had no negative effects on nitrogen intake.

  20. Investigation of Antileishmanial Effect of Alcoholic Extract and Essential Oil of Medicinal Plant Leaf Black Alfalfa (Medicago Lupulina, on The Number of Clinical Isolates of Leishmania Major Promastigotes in Vitro

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    E Gharirvand Eskandari

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Leishmaniasis has created enormous global health problems. Side effects, drug resistance and the lack of effective vaccines had led to the new effective compounds effective of plants. The aim of this study was to introduce a traditional medicinal plant called Black alfalfa (Medicago Lupulina that can be used as a valuable resource against cutaneous leishmaniasis. Methods: In this experimental study, alcoholic extract was prepared by maceration and essential oil by distillation water method. Leishmania major promastigotes were cultured at 25 ± 2° C in N.N.N culturemedium, then in Schneider and next were cultured in RPMI- 1640. afterward, using MTT (Methyl Thiazole Tetrazolium, the IC50 (Inhibitory Concentrations 50% for extracts, essence and Glucantime were determined. The results using Tukey and t-test were analyzed and were presented by software SPSS16. MTT assay were repeated. 3 times for each sample. Results: IC50 for alfalfa leaf extract and essential oil of black alfalfa and Glucantime against L. major promastigotes was determined after 24, 48 and 72 hours, 240, 130 and 69 micrograms per ml, and 801, 340 and 190 micrograms per ml, also 26, 19 and 11 micrograms per ml , respectively. There was a significant differences between the IC50 plant extract and essential oil and Glucantime after 24, 48 and 72 hours. Conclusion: Alcoholic extracts and essential oil the plant had significant anti leishmaniasis effects in vitro. In this way, it can be considered as an anti-leishmaniasis among the herbs.

  1. Fatty acid composition and oxidative stability of breast meat from broiler chickens supplemented with Moringa oleifera leaf meal over a period of refrigeration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nkukwana, T T; Muchenje, V; Masika, P J; Hoffman, L C; Dzama, K; Descalzo, A M

    2014-01-01

    Effects of diets supplemented with or without Moringa oleifera leaf meal (MOLM) on fatty acid (FA) composition and oxidative stability of broiler breast meat during refrigerated storage was determined. Dietary treatments (T) were as follows: T1, positive control, 668g/ton Salinomycin and 500g/ton Albac; T2, T3 and T4 contained graded levels of MOLM at 1%, 3% and 5% of dry matter (DM) intake, respectively; and T5, a negative control (0% additives). Oxidative stability was evaluated by thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) on day (D) 1-8 of storage at 4°C; and FA analysis was done on samples obtained on D1 and D8. Significant effects on TBARS were noted on day (D) 1, 3, 4 and 7; increased with increasing storage time, and with increase in MOLM supplementation. Highest (P<0.05) C18:0 and C15:0 levels were noted on D1 in T2; C20:0 in T4 on D8; C20:2, C20:3n6 and C22:6n3 in T2; C18:3n6 and P/S ratio in T4 on D1; and n-3 in T3. Thus, despite the high SFA content, additive supplementation of M. oleifera leaf meal up to 5% of the bird's DMI improved the FA profile and reduced lipid oxidation in broiler breast meat.

  2. Effect of aflatoxin B1 on in vitro ruminal fermentation of rations high in alfalfa hay or ryegrass hay

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jiang, Y H; Yang, H J; Lund, Peter

    2012-01-01

    A 2 × 4 factorial experiment was conducted to determine the effect of aflatoxin B1 (AFB1) at dose rates of 0, 320, 640, 960 ng/ml on ruminal fermentation of substrates high in alfalfa hay (HA, alfalfa hay: maize meal = 4:1) and ryegrass hay (HR, ryegrass hay: maize meal = 4:1). In vitro dry matter...

  3. Alfalfa: bioenergy and more

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alfalfa (Medicago sativa) has the potential to be a significant contributor to America's renewable energy future. In an alfalfa biomass energy production system, alfalfa forage would be separated into stem and leave fractions. The stems would be processed to produce energy, and the leaves would be s...

  4. Influence of Dietary Supplementation of Condensed Tannins through Leaf Meal Mixture on Intake, Nutrient Utilization and Performance of Haemonchus contortus Infected Sheep.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pathak, A K; Dutta, Narayan; Banerjee, P S; Pattanaik, A K; Sharma, K

    2013-10-01

    The study assessed the effect of dietary supplementation of leaf meal mixture (LMM) containing condensed tannins (CT) on feed intake, nutrient utilization and performance of sheep infected with Haemonchus contortus. Eighteen adult sheep of similar age and body weight (25.03±1.52) were included in this study and out of these, 12 sheep were infected with single dose of infective third stage larvae of H. contortus at 2,000 larvae per sheep. The experimental sheep were allocated in three different groups' i.e. negative control (NC; no infection), control (C; H. contortus infected) and treatment (T; H. contortus infected+CT at 1.5% of the DM through LMM) and the experiment was conducted for a period of 90 d. The intake of dry matter (DM), organic matter (OM) and digestibility of DM, OM, neutral detergent fibre (NDF) and acid detergent fibre (ADF) were comparable among three animal groups. However, digestibility of crude protein (CP) and ether extract (EE) were significantly (pCT significantly (pCT through LMM significantly improved the N retention, and inhibited the different developmental stages of Haemonchus contortus in experimental sheep.

  5. Effect of condensed tannins supplementation through leaf meal mixture on voluntary feed intake, immune response and worm burden in Haemonchus contortus infected sheep.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pathak, A K; Dutta, Narayan; Banerjee, P S; Goswami, T K; Sharma, K

    2016-03-01

    The study was carried out to assess the effect of condensed tannins (CT) supplementation through leaf meal mixture (LMM) on feed intake, humoral [Immunoglobulin G (IgG)], cell mediated immune response (CMI) and faecal egg counts in Haemonchus contortus infected sheep. Eighteen sheep were randomly divided into three groups (negative control-NC, infected control-C and Infected treatment-T) of six animals in each group in a completely randomized block design for a period of 90 days. Twelve H. contortus infected adult sheep were allocated into two equal groups C and T, supplemented with 0 and 1.5 % of CT, respectively. Six non-infected sheep of similar age and body weight of NC group were included in this study to compare their immune response with H. contortus C and CT supplemented T groups. Intake of dry matter and organic matter (g day(-1) and % live weight) was statistically similar (P CT (1.5 %) through LMM improved humoral and CMI immune response and decreased worm load in H. contortus infected sheep.

  6. Replacing moringa leaf (Moringa oleifera partially by protein replacement in soybean meal of fancy carp (Cyprinus carpio

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bundit Yuangsoi

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Moringa oleifera Lam (Moringaceae is a highly valued plant, distributed in many countries of the tropics and subtropics.The leaves are the protein source with an adequate profile of amino acids. The present study was undertaken in orderto determine the effect of a dietary of moringa leaves on digestibility and growth performance of fancy carp. Fish were fedwith diets containing isonitrogenouse and isoenergetic formulated by 20 and 50 g kg-1 of moringa leaves to replace protein insoybean. Fish were distributed in 500-liter tanks with flow-through water. Every fish was weighed and after the terminalexperiment, all groups’ livers and distal intestines were sampled. All fish grew normally (p>0.05 but fish fed with proteinreplacingmoringa leaves at 50 g kg-1 were noted to exhibit slightly poor growth performance and feed utilization. The studyindicated that the tested moringa leaf diet contains ingredients that could be used for fancy carp diets with possibly notover up to 20 g kg-1 soybean protein replacement without negative effect on growth and digestibility.

  7. Nutrient and cell wall fraction digestibility of growing WAD ewe fed Mexican sunflower leaf meal (MSLM based diets

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    A.H. Ekeocha

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available After a previous 84-d performance phase on growing WAD ewe, Studies was conducted using sixteen West African dwarf (WAD ewe-lambs weighing between 17.50 and 17.88kg on a basal diet of Panicum maximum were allotted into 4 treatment groups A, B, C and D of 4 replicates each. The MSL replaced Wheat bran (WB gravimetrically at 0, 15, 30 and 45%. Treatment A served as control. The experiment lasted for one week. Digestibility was determined using a 6-d total fecal collection. Ewes were given ad libitum access to feed and water. Parameters measured were voluntary dry matter intake (VDMI, which comprised concentrate dry matter intake (CDMI and grass dry matter intake (GDMI, Apparent Digestibility Coefficients of DM, CP, NDF, ADF, ADL, Organic matter (OM and Energy . Data were analyzed using descriptive statistics and ANOVA .The VDMI (g/d varied from 392.30 - 695.00, CDMI (g/d varied from 181.80 - 536.80 and GDMI (g/d varied from 130.65 - 215.95 for ewe-lambs. Apparent Digestibility Coefficients of NDF, ADF, ADL, organic matter (OM and Energy were similar. Approximately 75.5 ±1.1% of the VDMI came from the supplement. Diets containing 15% MSLM was superior to others for CDMI (181.80 – 536.80 g/day, CP intake (17.72 – 32.40 g/day/kgW0.75, Digestible DMI (49.45 - 80.68 g/day/kgW0.75 and Digestible CPI (13.68 - 27.16 g/day/kgW0.75 while GDMI (130.65 – 215.95 g/day for diets containing 30% and 45% MSLM were significant (p Inclusion of up to 45% Mexican Sunflower Leaf in the diets of growing ewe to replace Wheat bran was adequate.

  8. Plant regeneration from proroplasts of alfalfa (Medicago sativa) via somatic embryogenesis

    OpenAIRE

    Monteiro, Mariza; Appezzato-da-Glória, Beatriz; Valarini,Maria José; Oliveira, Carlos Alberto; Vieira, Maria Lucia Carneiro

    2003-01-01

    Alfalfa is one of the most frequently studied species from the production of tissue culture-derived embryos point of view. In this study, five alfalfa cultivars were analyzed with reference to their ability to regenerate plants from protoplast cultures via somatic embryogenesis. Plant regeneration from leaf-derived protoplasts isolated from the cultivar Rangelander was achieved using a protocol defined for alfalfa cell suspension-derived embryogenesis. Because of its high efficiency, this pro...

  9. Effects of Artichoke (Cynara scolymus L. Leaf Meal and Vitamin E on Productive Performance, Intestinal Microflora and Morphology in Japanese Quail

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samadi F

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available A total of 240, one-day-old quail chicks (Coturnix coturnix japonica were used to study the effects of Artichoke leaf meal (ALM and vitamin E in diet on growth performance, ileal microbial populations and intestinal morphology in a 42-d trial. This experiment was performed as a completely randomized design with 4 replicates of 15 quails each, using a 4 × 2 factorial arrangement with diet and gender as the main effects. Four dietary treatments were formulated by addition of 2 levels (1.5 and 3 percent of ALM and 300 mg/Kg vitamin E to the basal diet. Supplementing basal diet with ALM did not improve growth performance at different rearing periods, whereas dietary vitamin E increased feed intake and body weight gain at day 21 of age (P. The ileal populations of lactobacillus and coliforms was not affected by dietary ALM treatments, whereas vitamin E increased the population of total aerobic bacteria (P≤0.04. The ileal villus height (P≤0.01 and crypt depth (P≤0.008 were reduced in quails fed on diets with ALM and vitamin E. The quails fed diets containing 3 percent ALM and 300 mg/Kg vitamin E had higher villus height:crypt depth ratio. The thickness of muscularies (P≤0.04 and mucosa (P≤0.0007 layers were decreased in birds fed diets containing ALM than control birds. Birds treated with ALM and vitamin E showed a shorter intestinal length (P≤0.02 and a lower pancereas relative weight. The results of this study showed that supplementing diet by ALM (1.5 and 3% and 300 mg/Kg vitamin E did not improve growth performance, ileal microbiota pupolations and intestinal morphometric indices in Japanese quail.

  10. Consumo e digestibilidade aparente de minerais em dietas para cães contendo polpa de citros e folha de alfafa Intake and apparent digestibility of the minerals in canine diets containing citrus pulp and alfalfa leaf

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Isabel Fonseca Rocha Malafaia

    2002-10-01

    Full Text Available O consumo diário e a digestibilidade aparente de macro e microminerais, foram determinados em cadelas que receberam uma dieta controle (R0, acrescida de 10 (R10 ou 20% (R20 de uma mistura contendo polpa de citros (PC e folhas de alfafa desidratadas. A digestibilidade aparente dos minerais foi estimada por meio da quantidade do elemento mineral ingerido, subtraída daquela eliminada nas fezes. A medida que a ingestão de fibra dietética aumentou, o consumo de MS (em g/kgPV diminuiu e as digestibilidades aparentes do Ca, P, Mg, Na, Zn, Fe e Cu foram maiores. A exceção foi para o Mn, cuja digestibilidade reduziu-se com o aumento da ingestão de fibra. Apenas para o K, não se verificou alteração na sua digestibilidade em função do nível de fibra na dieta.The daily intake and the apparent digestibility of macro and microminerals were determined in bitches fed either a control diet (R0 or the same diet but containing 10% (R10 or 20% (R20 of a mixture composed of citrus pulp and dehydrated alfalfa leaf. The apparent digestibility was estimated as being the amount of a mineral element ingested minus the amount of the element quantified in the feces. Once the dietary fiber intake increased, the intake of dry matter (in g/kgLW reduced and the Ca, P, Mg, Na, Zn, Fe and Cu apparent digestibility increased. Exception was the Mn digestibility reduction as the fiber intake increased. Only the K digestibility was not influenced by the diet fiber level.

  11. Alfalfa non-feed uses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Non-feed uses for alfalfa such as biomass energy and phytoremediation could increase alfalfa acreage and improve farm profitability. The new bio-energy alfalfa and production system increased forage yield and ethanol production. New alfalfas with enhanced nitrogen cycling capacities would protect wa...

  12. Effect of tanniferous leaf meal based multi-nutrient blocks on feed intake, hematological profile, immune response, and body weight changes in Haemonchus contortus infected goats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Surender Singh

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Aim: The aim was to assess the effect of multi nutrient block (MNB supplementation with and without tanniferous leaf meal mixture on feed intake, hematological profile, immune response, and body weight changes of goats that were experimentally infected with Haemonchus contortus. Materials and Methods: Total 12 adult male goats of similar age and body weight (26.49±0.87 were allocated in 3 groups in completely randomized design. MNB supplemented in first two groups i.e. in T1 (no infection and T2 (H. contortus infection @ 1500 L3/goat group, while, MNB-condensed tannin (CT supplemented in T3 (H. contortus infection @ 1500 L3/goat + CT source. All goats were fed concentrate mixture @ 100 g/day/goat, ad lib wheat straw and MNB or MNB-CT to meet their requirement for maintenance. Body weights were recorded and blood and fecal samples were collected at 0 day and thereafter at 15 days intervals for a period of 75 days for the assessment of body weight changes, hematological profile and H. contortus loads. Both humoral and cell-mediated immune (CMI response were assessed at the end of feeding trial. Results: Mean hemoglobin and packed cell volume (PCV levels were found to be highest (p<0.001, p<0.05 in T1 group followed by T3 group and lowest values were observed in T2 group. However, The PCV values between T1 and T3 groups were found to be statistically non-significant (p<0.05. The humoral and CMI response were significantly (p<0.036 higher in T3 group as compared to T2 group. MNB-CT supplementation significantly (p<0.001 reduced fecal egg counts in T3 group as compared to MNB supplemented T2 group. Conclusion: Supplementation of MNB-CT could be used as an alternative sustainable method to control H. contortus and maintained health status and performance of goats in face of parasitic challenge.

  13. Effect of graded levels of Mexican sunflower leaf (Tithonia diversifolia Hemsl. A. Gray meal on the feed intake of ewe during the entire gestation period of 150 days

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.H. Ekeocha

    2012-09-01

    statistically. The feed conversion trends observed in this study suggested that sheep gained weight in relation to their feed intake. At parturition mean weight of animals on diet B was highest (26.03kg while mean weight of animals on diet D was lowest (22.80kg (P>0.05. The results of this study suggest that Mexican Sunflower Leaf Meal could suitably replace Wheat bran in the diets of pregnant ewe up to 30% level of inclusion without eliciting any adverse effect.

  14. Effect of adding cellulase to alfalfa meal ration on production performance, egg quality and nutrient digestibility on layers%苜蓿草粉饲粮添加纤维素酶对蛋鸡生产性能、蛋品质及养分利用率的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    夏素银; 王成章; 詹发柏; 严学兵; 刘起栓; 陈艳荣; 李海艳

    2011-01-01

    .05)和4.17% (P>0.05).总的来说,在蛋鸡饲粮中添加苜蓿草粉后对生产性能、蛋品质无显著影响,但能在一定程度上改善蛋品质,蛋黄颜色得到极显著提高,高水平的苜蓿草粉组添加纤维素酶后,对粗蛋白质、钙和粗纤维的消化率有改进.%The objectives of this study were to evaluate production performance, egg quality and nutrient digest ibility of layers adding cellulase to alfalfa meal ration. An experiment was conducted using a total of 210 High land Brown Layers aged 40 weeks to study those of index. Layers were randomly divided into 7 groups, 3 repli cates for each group and 10 for each replicate. One of these groups was used as the control group, others were used as treatment groups including group I to group VI. The control group was fed the basic diet, group I to group VI were fed the diets containing alfalfa meal and cellulase in different levels (3%> 5% , 7%, 7%+0.1% cellulase, 7%+0. 2% cellulase, 7% + 0. 3% cellulase), respectively. By a series experiment of feeding and di gestion, the production performance, egg quality and nutrient digestibility of layers were measured in each group. The results showed that, 1) Layers fed diets added with alfalfa meal and cellulase had no significant difference for laying rate and egg weight (P>0. 05) than that of control group, however, average daily feed in take of the group III and feed/egg ratio of the group V were significantly decreased comparing with the control. 2)Addition of alfalfa meal and cellulase had no significant effects on egg white height, egg yolk pH, egg white pH, egg shape index, egg yolk index, and eggshell relative weight (P>0. 05), however, those of yolk color and eggshell strength, Haugh unit were significantly improved comparing with control, which egg yolk-color was significant higher (P0. 05) , but the apparent digestibility of crude protein, the crude fat, crude fiber and acid fiber in the group V increased by 14. 79% (P>0. 05), 8. 48

  15. NUTRITIONAL ENHANCEMENT OF ALFALFA THROUGH GENETIC ENGINEERING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Faragó

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Alfalfa (Medicago sativa L. is a pasture legume crop of primary importance to animal production throughout the world. The nutritional quality of alfalfa, as of other leguminous forage crops, is mainly determined by their content in selected essential amino acids (EAAs, such as methionine (Met and cysteine (Cys. In alfalfa, however, these S-containing amino acids constitute only about 1% or less of crude proteins (Frame et al., 1998. This is significantly less than the 3.5% Met+Cys content in the recommended FAO reference protein (FAO, 1973. Recent advances in genetic engineering allow to use the transgenic approach to increase the content of specific essential amino acids in target plant species. A number of different molecular approaches have been developed to address this issue, such as over-expression of a heterologous or homologous Met-rich protein, expression of a synthetic protein, modification of protein sequence, and metabolic engineering of the free amino acid pool and protein sink. To study the possibility of transgenic enhancement of nutritional quality of alfalfa, we used the approach of expression of a heterologous protein rich in Met+Cys in cells of alfalfa. The T-DNA introduced into the genome of alfalfa, using Agrobacterium tumefaciens-mediated genetic transformation, contained the selectable merker gene nptII for kanamycin (Kn resistance, and a cDNA of Ov gene from Japanese quail (Coturnix coturnix coding for a high Met+Cys containing ovalbumine (Mucha et al., 1991, both under constitutive promoters. After cocultivation of petiole segment- and leaf blade-explants of two highly embryogenic alfalfa genotypes Rg9/I-14-22 and Rg11/I-10-68 (Faragó et al., 1997 with cells of A. tumefaciens strain AGL1 carrying the nptII and Ov genes, and selection of transgenic cells on Kn containing selective media, more than one hundred putatively transgenic regenerants were obtained through somatic embryogenesis. Biological (Kn rooting assay

  16. Easy Meal

    Science.gov (United States)

    1978-01-01

    The woman pictured below is sitting down to a nutritious, easily-prepared meal similar to those consumed by Apollo astronauts. The appetizing dishes shown were created simply by adding water to the contents of a Mountain House* Easy Meal package of freeze dried food. The Easy Meal line is produced by Oregon Freeze Dry Foods, Inc., Albany, Oreaon, a pioneer in freeze drying technology and a company long associated with NASA in developing suitable preparations for use on manned spacecraft. Designed to provide nutritionally balanced, attractive hot meals for senior adults, Easy Meal is an offshoot of a 1975-77 demonstration project managed by Johnson Space Center and called Meal System for the Elderly. The project sought ways to help the estimated 3.5 million elderly Americans who are unable to take advantage of existing meal programs. Such services are provided by federal, state and local agencies, but they are not available to many who live in rural areas, or others who are handicapped, temporarily ill or homebound for other reasons. Oregon Freeze Dry Foods was a participant in that multi-agency cooperative project. With its Easy Meal assortment of convenience foods pictured above left, the company is making commercially available meal packages similar to those distributed in the Meal System for the Elderly program. In the freeze drying process, water is extracted from freshly-cooked foods by dehydration at very low temperatures, as low as 50 I degrees below zero. Flavor is locked in by packaging the dried food in pouches which block out moisture and oxygen, the principal causes of food deterioration; thus the food can be stored for long periods without refrigeration. Meals are reconstituted by adding hot or cold water, depending on the type of food, and they are table ready in five to 10 minutes. Oregon Freeze Dry Foods offers five different meal packages and plans to expand the line.

  17. Harinas de hojas de plantas aromáticas como fitoterapéuticos en pollos de engorda Leaf meals of aromatic plants as fitotherapeutics for broilers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pedro Enrique Lara y Lara

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available El objetivo del presente trabajo fue evaluar el comportamiento productivo y el rendimiento de la canal en pollos de engorda, con el uso de harina de hojas de plantas aromáticas como aditivo fitoterapéutico al 0,07% en la dieta. Fueron utilizados 280 pollitos machos de la estirpe Ross 308, de 1 a 42 días de edad, distribuidos de forma aleatoria en un diseño completamente al azar, en cuatro tratamientos y siete repeticiones con 10 pollos cada una. Las combinaciones fueron en proporción 50:50 de harina de Origanum vulgare y Piper auritum (OHS, O. vulgare y Ocimum basilicum (OA, O. basilicum y P. auritum (HSA, y un testigo con flavomicina al 4%. El grupo testigo obtuvo el mayor peso corporal (2.385 g, consumo de alimento (204 g por ave por día y mortalidad acumulada (21,87%, al final de la prueba. No hubo diferencias con la combinación de OA (2.198 g y HSA (2.023 g en peso corporal y consumo de alimento. La combinación OA registró la menor (1,96 y OHS la mayor (2,44 conversión de alimento. No se encontraron diferencias en el rendimiento de la canal. La combinación al 50% de O. vulgare y O. basilicum, incluida al 0,07% en la dieta para pollos de engorda, es una alternativa como promotora del crecimiento y no altera el rendimiento de la canal.The objective of this study was to determine the growth performance and carcass yield in broilers using leaf meals as an additive phytotherapy of herbs at 0.07% in the diet. Two hundred eighty male chicks of Ross 308 strain, with 1 to 42 days of age, were randomly assigned in a completely randomized design with four treatments and seven replicates of 10 chickens each. The blends were in the proportion of 50:50 of Origanum vulgare and Piper auritum (OHL, O. vulgare and Ocimum basilicum (OA, O. basilicum and P. auritum (AHL, and one control group with flavomicim at 4%. The control group showed the highest body weight (2,385 g, feed consumption (204 g per broiler per day and accumulative mortality (21

  18. 水分胁迫对紫花苜蓿叶水势、蒸腾速率和气孔导度的影响%Impact of Water Stress on Leaf Water Potential, Transpiration Rate(Tr)and Stomatal Conductance (Gs) of Alfalfa

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    罗永忠; 成自勇

    2011-01-01

    In order to reveal the stomatal response of Alfalfa under water stress, leaf water potential, transpiration rate (Tr), stomatal conductance (Gs) of alfalfa (Medicago sativa) and their relationship under water stress are studied by adopting pot-cultivation designs. Results show that the leaf water potential, Tr and Gs of alfalfa decreased with water stress increasing. The daily change of the leaf potential, Trand Gs display a bimodal curve pattern with the same mean value. The maximum is obtained under full water supply, followed by light water stress, moderate water stress and severe water stress. The lowest leaf water potential decreases with the decreasing of soil moisture, the peak appearing time of leaf potential and Trun der moderate and severe water stress is earlier than that of full water supply and light water stress. Under moderate and severe water stress, when the water potential was -4. 68 MPa, or Tr was 3.27 g · m-2 ·h-1 , the stomata begin to close. Under full water supply and light water stress, Tr increases with the decreasing water potential, and G, increases with the increasing of Tr. The leaf water potential changes not only related with the soil moisture, but also closely related with the leaf development.%采用盆栽水分试验,研究了不同土壤水分条件下紫花苜蓿(Medicago sativa)叶水势、蒸腾速率和气孔导度的变化规律及相互关系,以期揭示其对土壤水分胁迫的气孔响应机制.结果表明:苜蓿叶水势、蒸腾速率(Tr)、气孔导度(Gs)均随水分胁迫加剧而降低,三者日变化均呈双峰曲线特征,日平均值表现为充分供水>轻度胁迫>中度胁迫>重度胁迫.最低叶水势随土壤水分降低而降低;在中度和重度胁迫下,叶水势和蒸腾速率日变化峰值出现的时间提前,当叶水势为-4.68 MPa或Tr为3.27 g·m-2·h-1时,气孔开始关闭;在充分供水和轻度胁迫下,Tr越高,叶水势越低,且G随着Tr增加而增加.叶水势的变化

  19. 越冬期遮阴条件下3个不同秋眠型紫花苜蓿品种叶片解剖结构与其光生态适应性%Leaf anatomical structures and ecological adaptabilities to light of three alfalfa cultivars with different fall dormancies under shading during overwintering

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    覃凤飞; 李强; 崔棹茗; 李洪萍; 杨智然

    2012-01-01

    在我国南北气候过渡地区,采用遮阴试验和石蜡切片法,研究越冬期不同光强对3个不同秋眠型紫花苜蓿(Medicago sativa)品种(‘维多利亚’、‘巨人201’和‘游客’)叶片解剖结构的影响.结果表明:随着光强减弱,各紫花苜蓿品种表皮结构中上、下表皮角质层厚度,气孔密度和气孔开度明显下降;上、下表皮厚度呈上升趋势.随着遮阴强度增加,叶肉组织中海绵组织细胞宽度显著上升,栅栏组织厚度、栅栏组织细胞层数、栅栏组织厚度/海绵组织厚度显著下降;品种间海绵组织厚度和栅栏组织细胞宽度变化趋势不一致.叶片结构整体特征中叶片厚度、叶肉厚度、中脉厚度、组织结构紧密度随光强减弱而显著下降,组织结构疏松度明显上升,叶脉突起度变化不明显.品种间各叶片解剖性状变幅及可塑性指数具有明显的差异,表明其对弱光适应方式不同.Pearson相关分析表明,各紫花苜蓿品种叶片气孔密度、栅栏组织厚度、叶肉厚度、叶片厚度及栅栏组织厚度/海绵组织厚度与光强呈显著正相关,可能是紫花苜蓿叶片解剖结构光强敏感特征参数,其中,‘维多利亚’叶片敏感特征参数与光强相关程度较低,与光强相关的性状较少.综合各项分析结果,初步确定越冬期紫花苜蓿耐阴性与其秋眠性相关,半秋眠型品种‘维多利亚’>秋眠型品种‘巨人201’≥非秋眠型品种‘游客’.%Aims This research studied effects of light intensity on leaf anatomical characteristics of three alfalfa (Medicago sativa) cultivars ('Victoria', 'Ameristand 201'and 'Eureka') with different fall dormancy during overwintering in climatic transitional regions from north to south China. Our objective was to determine leaf anatomical characteristics sensitive to light intensity and correlate fall dormancy and shade tolerance of overwintering alfjalfa. Methods We cultured

  20. Establishing alfalfa in silage corn

    Science.gov (United States)

    According to recent agricultural statistics, alfalfa was planted on 0.44 million acres and harvested from 2.2 million acres and silage corn was planted and harvested from 1.0 million acres per year in Wisconsin. Because both crops are often grown in rotation, alfalfa could be interseeded at corn pla...

  1. FALSE YAM (Icacina Oliviformis LEAF MEAL AS AN INGREDIENT IN THE DIET OF WEANER RABBITS (Oryctolagus Cuniculus TO IMPROVE BLOOD PROFILE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. ANSAH

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available A 60 day feeding trial was conducted to determine the effect of Icacina oliviformis leaf (IOL as a feed ingredient on the hematology of weaner rabbits. There were arranged in three treatments with four replicates in a completely randomized design. The control diet (T0 contained 0% Icacina oliviformis leaf (IOL while the treatment diets (T1and T2 contained 5% and 10% IOL, respectively. An amount of 200 g of the experimental diet was given to the animals each day while water was given ad-libitum. Initial blood samples were collected two days earlier before experimental diet was fed. Data were analyzed using Genstat Discovery Edition 3. There were no significant differences (P>0.05 in (Haemoglobin Hb concentration, PCV, RBC however all the erythrocytes values increased from the initial low values to higher values. The margin of increase was higher for T1. There were no significant differences (P>0.05 among the treatment means for WBC, Neutrophiles, Eosinophiles, Monocytes counts in the final readings. The hematology values recorded for all the treatments fell within the normal ranges for rabbits. Feeding 5% and 10% IOL to a weaner rabbits led to an increase in erythrocytes values and could be used in feeding without any detrimental effect.

  2. Effects of supplementing Erythrina brucei leaf as a substitute for cotton seed meal on growth performance and carcass characteristics of Sidama goats fed basal diet of natural grass hay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yinnesu, Asmamaw; Nurfeta, Ajebu

    2012-03-01

    The replacement value of dried Erythrina brucei leaf for cotton seed meal (CSM) on growth performance and carcass characteristics was evaluated. Twenty-five yearling buck goats (15.8 ± 1.4 kg) were assigned into five treatments in a randomized complete block design: natural grass hay alone (T1) or supplemented with 100% CSM (T2), 67% CSM + 33% E. brucei (T3), 33% CSM + 67% E. brucei (T4), and 100% E. brucei (T5) on dry matter (DM) basis. Supplemented goats consumed more (P  0.05) by the proportion of the supplements. The highest (P goats supplemented with CSM alone, whereas the lowest intake was observed in the non-supplemented group. Total CP intake decreased (P goats gained more (P goats than in the non-supplemented ones, but similar (P > 0.05) among the supplemented group. The digestibility of CP was higher (P goats, except in those goats fed E. brucei alone, than the non-supplemented group. Slaughter weight, empty body weight, hot carcass weight, dressing percentage, rib eye muscle area, and total edible offals were higher (P goats than for the non-supplemented ones. It could be concluded that E. brucei could be used as a substitute to CSM under smallholder production systems.

  3. 紫外线辐射与土壤干旱胁迫对紫花苜蓿叶表皮蜡质晶体结构及含量的影响%Effect of soil water deficit and enhanced ultraviolet radiation on contents and crystal structure of cuticular waxes in alfalfa (Medicago sativa) leaf

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郭彦军; 郭芸江; 唐华; 李智燕; 韩龙

    2011-01-01

    Enhanced ultraviolet radiation induced by human activities widely influenced plant adaptation, which accompanied with drought stress severely reduced crop yields. In the current study, two alfalfa (Medicago sati-va) cultivars with different drought resistances, Aohan (high resistance) and Sanditi (low resistance), were used to analyze the responses of leaf cuticular wax content and crystal structure, leaf water potential (LWP) , and ultraviolet absorbing compounds under soil water deficit and enhanced ultraviolet radiation (UVR) stresses. The results showed that the leaf wax content in Aohan was significantly higher than that in Sanditi. Compared to well-watered plants, leaf wax content and LWP in Aohan with combined treatments of UVR and soil water deficit increased, while LWP in Sanditi changed insignificantly. This indicates that high-drought resistant cultivar might maintain higher level of LWP to control water loss by increasing wax deposition on leaf surface. Under the conditions of 0. 05 W/m2 UVR dose or combined treatments of UVR and soil water deficit, the platelet wax crystalloid on leaf surface of both alfalfa cultivars melted, which increased covering areas and UVR reflection rate, and thus would reduce cuticular water loss. Under 0. 1 W/m2 UVR dose, some crystal platelets paralleling leaf surface while vertically distributing above other crystalloid, appeared on leaf surface of Aohan, which efficiently reduced the effect of UVR on plant physiology, while the wax crystalloids of Sanditi further melted. The structure of wax crystalloids had no significant response to solely water deficit treatment. The contents of ultraviolet absorbing compounds had no significant response to enhanced UVR, indicating that the wax crystalloid structure on alfalfa leaf surface had direct defense mechanism to UVR, which partly might delay or replace the defense mechanisms from secondary metabolic compound such as ultraviolet absorbing compounds.%选用紫花苜蓿强抗旱

  4. [Alfalfa Planting as weed control

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This document is a letter to farming cooperators regarding the stipulations surrounding alfalfa plantings in lieu of small grain plantings to provide weed control,...

  5. Correlation of fermentation characteristics with intake and digestibility of alfalfa silage in gestating ewes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baled silage production provides benefits to farmers because it reduces leaf losses, and requires a shorter wilting time, thereby limiting risks of exposure to rain compared with making hay. Our objective was to investigate the correlation of alfalfa silage fermentation parameters with intake and di...

  6. Genetically engineered alfalfa and feral alfalfa plants: What should growers know?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alfalfa (Medicago sativa subsp. sativa L) is the world’s most important forage crop. The western United States is the most important production area for both alfalfa forage and alfalfa seed. Alfalfa was the first major perennial genetically-engineered (GE)crop and a GE trait for resistance to glypho...

  7. Plant regeneration from proroplasts of alfalfa (Medicago sativa) via somatic embryogenesis Regeneração de plantas a partir de protoplastos de alfafa (Medicago sativa) via embriogênese somática

    OpenAIRE

    Mariza Monteiro; Beatriz Appezzato-da-Glória; Maria José Valarini; Carlos Alberto de Oliveira; Maria Lucia Carneiro Vieira

    2003-01-01

    Alfalfa is one of the most frequently studied species from the production of tissue culture-derived embryos point of view. In this study, five alfalfa cultivars were analyzed with reference to their ability to regenerate plants from protoplast cultures via somatic embryogenesis. Plant regeneration from leaf-derived protoplasts isolated from the cultivar Rangelander was achieved using a protocol defined for alfalfa cell suspension-derived embryogenesis. Because of its high efficiency, this pro...

  8. AGROCHEMICALS GROWTH REGULATORS ON ALFALFA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Buldykova I. A.

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available One of the methods of increasing the productivity of alfalfa is the use of growth regulators, and the use of polymeric compositions of growth regulators, binders with synthesized growth regulators of sim-triazine series is promising with the possibility of creating environmentally friendly technologies for growing alfalfa. Studies have shown that the application of the test on alfalfa growth regulators has a positive effect on growth, physiological and morphogenetic processes, plant resistance to adverse environmental conditions. Intensity impact on plant growth regulators depends on the type of plant growth regulators, concentration and method of application. Processing alfalfa seed growth regulators on germination increases energy 3,0-14,0 % germination on 8,0-17,0 %. Processing plant growth regulators to enhance the growth of plants in height (on the 7th day – 2,6-11,9 % , on the 14th 41,9-48,0 % , the growth of aboveground biomass , expands on the number of productive branches of the 1st ( 24,1-41,3 % and 2nd order (21,7-55,0 %. Pre-sowing seed treatment and plant growth regulators alfalfa sim- triazine series contributed to the increase in seed yield of 15,5 %. On average, the yield of green mass increased by 0,8-2,4 t /ha or 5,2-15,5 % and seed yield at 0,19-0,42 h/ha or 8,7-19, 3 %. Growth regulators of sim-triazine series increase the protein content of the vegetative mass of alfalfa at 3,2-4,6 %

  9. Processed Methods of Alfalfa in Rainy Season%雨季苜蓿草加工的几种途径

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    向金城; 曹致中; 仇亨

    2014-01-01

    针对苜蓿草在雨季容易发霉腐烂的问题,笔者提出了青贮、烘干、榨汁后烘干及汁液提取叶蛋白等可行的加工贮存途径。青贮中不论是否添加玉米粉、乳酸、乙酸及乳酸菌接种剂,只要晾晒至半干(含水量50%~60%)铡碎、压紧、隔绝空气,进行半干青贮,都能获得优质青贮苜蓿。%Feasible approaches to preventing alfalfa from decaying during wet seasons were proposed. These approaches include making alfalfa silage, making alfalfa hay and making hay after the juice in alfalfa is extracted. The extracted juice from alfalfa is used to make leaf proteins. When making the alfalfa silage, it is not important whether corn lfour, lactic acid, acetic acid or lactic acid bacteria inoculant are added in the raw materials, as long as alfalfa foliage is pre-dried ( 50%~60%water content), ifnely chopped and ifrmly pressed (to remove air), the high quality foliage/semi-foliage can always be achieved.

  10. Assessing of the contributions of pod photosynthesis to carbon acquisition of seed in alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Wenxu; Mao, Peisheng; Li, Yuan; Wang, Mingya; Xia, Fangshan; Wang, Hui

    2017-01-01

    The distribution of carbon from a branch setting pod in alfalfa was investigated during the seed development of seeds to determine the relative contribution of pod and leaf photoassimilates to the total C balance and to investigate the partitioning of these photoassimilates to other plant organs. A 13Clabeling procedure was used to label C photoassimilates of pods and leaves in alfalfa, and the Δ13C values of a pod, leaves, a section of stem and roots were measured during seed development on day 10, 15, 20 and 25 after labeling of the pod. The results showed that the alfalfa pod had photosynthetic capacity early in the development of seeds, and that pod photosynthesis could provide carbon to alfalfa organs including seeds, pods, leaves, stems and roots, in addition to leaf photosynthesis. Photosynthesis in the pod affected the total C balance of the alfalfa branch with the redistribution of a portion of pod assimilates to other plant organs. The assimilated 13C of the pod was used for the growth requirements of plant seeds and pods. The requirements for assimilated C came primarily from the young pod in early seed development, with later requirements provided primarily from the leaf. PMID:28169330

  11. Assessing of the contributions of pod photosynthesis to carbon acquisition of seed in alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Wenxu; Mao, Peisheng; Li, Yuan; Wang, Mingya; Xia, Fangshan; Wang, Hui

    2017-02-07

    The distribution of carbon from a branch setting pod in alfalfa was investigated during the seed development of seeds to determine the relative contribution of pod and leaf photoassimilates to the total C balance and to investigate the partitioning of these photoassimilates to other plant organs. A (13)Clabeling procedure was used to label C photoassimilates of pods and leaves in alfalfa, and the Δ(13)C values of a pod, leaves, a section of stem and roots were measured during seed development on day 10, 15, 20 and 25 after labeling of the pod. The results showed that the alfalfa pod had photosynthetic capacity early in the development of seeds, and that pod photosynthesis could provide carbon to alfalfa organs including seeds, pods, leaves, stems and roots, in addition to leaf photosynthesis. Photosynthesis in the pod affected the total C balance of the alfalfa branch with the redistribution of a portion of pod assimilates to other plant organs. The assimilated (13)C of the pod was used for the growth requirements of plant seeds and pods. The requirements for assimilated C came primarily from the young pod in early seed development, with later requirements provided primarily from the leaf.

  12. Alfalfa stem tissues: Cell wall deposition, composition, and degradability

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jung, H.G.; Engels, F.M.

    2002-01-01

    Declining cell wall degradability of alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.) stems with maturation limits the nutritional value of alfalfa for ruminants. This study characterized changes in cell wall concentration, composition, and degradability by rumen microbes resulting from alfalfa stem tissue proliferatio

  13. 苜蓿假盘菌与苜蓿叶片亲和性互作的超微结构特征%Ultrastructural characteristics of compatible Pseudopeziza medicaginis interaction with alfalfa leaf

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    史娟; 王华荣; 钟少林

    2012-01-01

    Ultrastructural characteristics of the compatible interaction between Pseudopeziza medicaginis and alfalfa was studied using transmission electron microscopy (TEM). When P. medicaginis invaded host tissue, the hyphae directly penetrated the host cell wall and formed intracellular hyphae with growth in the cell and expansion into the adjacent cell. Hyphal penetration of host cell walls was assisted by greater vacuole pressure. Hyphae within host cells were wrapped by invagination of the host plasma membrane and mycelium and plasma membrane were always isolated and there was deposition of electron dense, dark material between host plasma membrane and cell wall. Pathogen hyphae continued to expand in the host plasma membrane region with a corresponding expansion in the host cell's, plasma membranes which separated the host protoplast and from the mycelium. The hyphae separated from the plasma membrane to form a hyphal sheath. With an increase in the amount of infection, the region of host plasma membrane that was not penetrated was gradually degraded as P. medicaginis infected chloroplasts and other organelles. First, the mycelial sheath connected to the chloroplast and other organelle membranes, then the degradation of grana lamellae structure and degraded organelle tissues were deposited along the mycelium and around the cell wall. At a later stage of infection, the mycelium expanded both intra and extracellularly, but the hyphae in degraded cells had thick cell walls and the host cells filled with a lot of black material and crystalline particulate matter.%从细胞角度揭示苜蓿假盘菌与苜蓿叶片亲和性互作机制.以两者亲和性互作系统为研究材料,利用透射电子显微镜技术研究了苜蓿假盘菌与苜蓿叶片亲和性互作的超微结构特征.结果表明,病菌侵入寄主组织后,菌丝直接穿透寄主细胞壁进入寄主细胞形成胞内菌丝,以胞内生长并向相邻细胞扩展.病菌菌丝穿透寄主细胞壁

  14. Transgenic alfalfa plants expressing the sweetpotato Orange gene exhibit enhanced abiotic stress tolerance.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhi Wang

    Full Text Available Alfalfa (Medicago sativa L., a perennial forage crop with high nutritional content, is widely distributed in various environments worldwide. We recently demonstrated that the sweetpotato Orange gene (IbOr is involved in increasing carotenoid accumulation and enhancing resistance to multiple abiotic stresses. In this study, in an effort to improve the nutritional quality and environmental stress tolerance of alfalfa, we transferred the IbOr gene into alfalfa (cv. Xinjiang Daye under the control of an oxidative stress-inducible peroxidase (SWPA2 promoter through Agrobacterium tumefaciens-mediated transformation. Among the 11 transgenic alfalfa lines (referred to as SOR plants, three lines (SOR2, SOR3, and SOR8 selected based on their IbOr transcript levels were examined for their tolerance to methyl viologen (MV-induced oxidative stress in a leaf disc assay. The SOR plants exhibited less damage in response to MV-mediated oxidative stress and salt stress than non-transgenic plants. The SOR plants also exhibited enhanced tolerance to drought stress, along with higher total carotenoid levels. The results suggest that SOR alfalfa plants would be useful as forage crops with improved nutritional value and increased tolerance to multiple abiotic stresses, which would enhance the development of sustainable agriculture on marginal lands.

  15. Genetic Engineering of Alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Dan; Khurshid, Muhammad; Sun, Zhan Min; Tang, Yi Xiong; Zhou, Mei Liang; Wu, Yan Min

    2016-01-01

    Alfalfa is excellent perennial legume forage for its extensive ecological adaptability, high nutrition value, palatability and biological nitrogen fixation. It plays a very important role in the agriculture, animal husbandry and ecological construction. It is cultivated in all continents. With the development of modern plant breeding and genetic engineering techniques, a large amount of work has been carried out on alfalfa. Here we summarize the recent research advances in genetic engineering of alfalfa breeding, including transformation, quality improvement, stress resistance and as a bioreactor. The review article can enables us to understand the research method, direction and achievements of genetic engineering technology of Alfalfa.

  16. Learning through school meals?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Benn, Jette; Carlsson, Monica Susanne

    2014-01-01

    individual and focus Group interviws were conducted with students in grade 5-7 and grades 8-9- Furthermor, students were obserede during lunch breaks, and interviews were conducted with the class teacher, headmaster and/or the person responsible for school meals. The pupose of the article is to explore...... the lelarning potentials of school meals. The corss-case analysis focuses on the involved actors' perceptions of the school meal project and the meals, including Places Places, times and contexts, and the pupils' concepts and competencies in relation to food, meals and Health, as well as their involvement...... of dilemmas, such as whether the lunch break should be a part of or a break from education, are school meals a common (school) or private (parent) responsibility, and questions about pupils' and teachers' roles and participation in school meals....

  17. Proximate And Phyto-Chemical Contents Of Selected Leave Meals As Alternative Feed Ingredients For Fish Feed Production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ayegba, E. O.

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The present study evaluates the nutritional potential of four different plant leaves as alternative to conventional feed ingredients for fish feed production. These leaves include; moringa leaf meal, leucaena leaf meal, sweet potato leaf meal, groundnut leaf meal, and cassava leaf. The crude protein content of the ingredients ranged from 21.88 to 36.05% and the crude lipid contents were recorded as 2.13 to 3.84% with moringa leave meal having the highest value. All the tested ingredients contained phytic acid (10.69 to 16.49 mg/100g, oxalate (494.00 to 879.50 mg/100g tannin (52.78 to 136.93 mg/100g and cyanide (4.36 to 10.53 mg/100g with moringa also having higher content of these antinutrients. It however expected that with appropriate processing methods this ingredients can be made more suitable for incorporation in fish feed.

  18. Applied Genetics and Genomics in Alfalfa Breeding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Charles Brummer

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Alfalfa (Medicago sativa L., a perennial and outcrossing species, is a widely planted forage legume for hay, pasture and silage throughout the world. Currently, alfalfa breeding relies on recurrent phenotypic selection, but alternatives incorporating molecular marker assisted breeding could enhance genetic gain per unit time and per unit cost, and accelerate alfalfa improvement. Many major quantitative trait loci (QTL related to agronomic traits have been identified by family-based QTL mapping, but in relatively large genomic regions. Candidate genes elucidated from model species have helped to identify some potential causal loci in alfalfa mapping and breeding population for specific traits. Recently, high throughput sequencing technologies, coupled with advanced bioinformatics tools, have been used to identify large numbers of single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNP in alfalfa, which are being developed into markers. These markers will facilitate fine mapping of quantitative traits and genome wide association mapping of agronomic traits and further advanced breeding strategies for alfalfa, such as marker-assisted selection and genomic selection. Based on ideas from the literature, we suggest several ways to improve selection in alfalfa including (1 diversity selection and paternity testing, (2 introgression of QTL and (3 genomic selection.

  19. Efficacy of a BVDV subunit vaccine produced in alfalfa transgenic plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peréz Aguirreburualde, María Sol; Gómez, María Cristina; Ostachuk, Agustín; Wolman, Federico; Albanesi, Guillermo; Pecora, Andrea; Odeon, Anselmo; Ardila, Fernando; Escribano, José M; Dus Santos, María José; Wigdorovitz, Andrés

    2013-02-15

    Bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV) is considered an important cause of economic loss within bovine herds worldwide. In Argentina, only the use of inactivated vaccines is allowed, however, the efficacy of inactivated BVDV vaccines is variable due to its low immunogenicity. The use of recombinant subunit vaccines has been proposed as an alternative to overcome this difficulty. Different studies on protection against BVDV infection have focused the E2 protein, supporting its putative use in subunit vaccines. Utilization of transgenic plants expressing recombinant antigens for the formulation of experimental vaccines represents an innovative and cost effective alternative to the classical fermentation systems. The aim of this work was to develop transgenic alfalfa plants (Medicago sativa, L.) expressing a truncated version of the structural protein E2 from BVDV fused to a molecule named APCH, that target to antigen presenting cells (APCH-tE2). The concentration of recombinant APCH-tE2 in alfalfa leaves was 1 μg/g at fresh weight and its expression remained stable after vegetative propagation. A methodology based an aqueous two phases system was standardized for concentration and partial purification of APCH-tE2 from alfalfa. Guinea pigs parentally immunized with leaf extracts developed high titers of neutralizing antibodies. In bovine, the APCH-tE2 subunit vaccine was able to induce BVDV-specific neutralizing antibodies. After challenge, bovines inoculated with 3 μg of APCH-tE2 produced in alfalfa transgenic plants showed complete virological protection.

  20. Prohexadione-calcium responsive alfalfa varieties ensure success of corn-interseeded alfalfa production systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Recent USDA-NASS data indicate alfalfa and corn were planted on about 0.8 and 1.9 million hectares per year, respectively, in the Northeast, Great Lakes, Upper Midwest, and Northern Mountain regions the USA. Because both crops are often grown in rotation, alfalfa could be interseeded at corn plantin...

  1. Summer Meal Capacity Builder

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Agriculture — Allows users to search for summer meal sites from the previous summer by zip code, adding “layers” of information, such as free and reduced-price lunch participation...

  2. Compression of fractionated sun-cured and dehydrated alfalfa chops into cubes--specific energy models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adapa, Phani; Schoenau, Greg; Tabil, Lope; Sokhansanj, Shahab; Singh, Asheesh

    2007-01-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the specific energy requirements for the compression of fractionated sun-cured and dehydrated alfalfa chops, when subjected to different pressures and holding times. The compression behavior of fractionated sun-cured and dehydrated alfalfa chops was studied using a single cubing unit capable of making one cube in a single stroke of the plunger. The cube die dimensions were 30 mm x 30 mm in cross-section and an effective depth of compression of 0.38 m. The initial moisture content of dehydrated and sun-cured chops were 6% and 7% (wb), respectively. A stack of two sieves (instead of five) was used along with a pan to achieve leaf and stem separation. The nominal opening sizes of two sieves with square holes were 3.96 and 1.17 mm, respectively. Leaf and stem fractions were combined later to obtain five different samples each for sun-cured and dehydrated alfalfa with leaf content ranging from 0% to 100% by mass in increments of 25%. The chop moisture content and preheat temperature before compaction was 10% (wb) and 75 degrees C, respectively. The cube die temperature was maintained at 90+/-5 degrees C. The mass of chops used for making each cube was 23+/-02 g. A hydraulic press was used to apply 9.0, 12.0 and 14.0 MPa of pressures through a plunger. After compression, the plunger was held in place for 10 and 30s, before the compacted forage was extracted. Empirical equations were fitted to the data relating specific energy for cube making to pressure, residence time, and leaf content.

  3. Identification and Selection for Salt Tolerance in Alfalfa (Medicago sativa L. Ecotypes via Physiological Traits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hassan MONIRIFAR

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Salt stress is a serious environmental problem throughout the world which may be partially relieved by breeding cultivars that can tolerate salt stress. Plant breeding may provide a relatively cost effective short-term solution to the salinity problem by producing cultivars able to remain productive at low to moderate levels of salinity. Five alfalfa cultivars, �Seyah-Roud�, �Ahar-Hourand�, �Oskou�, �Malekan� and �Sefida-Khan� were assessed for salt tolerance at mature plant stage. A greenhouse screening system was used to evaluate individual alfalfa plants grown in perlit medium, and irrigated with water containing different amounts of NaCl. Three salt levels were achieved by adding 0, 100 and 200 mM NaCl to Hoagland nutrient solution, respectively. Forage yield, sodium and potassium contents and K/Na ratio was determined. Also, leaf samples were analyzed for proline and chlorophyll contents. The ecotypes Seyha-Roud and �Sefida-Khan� had comparatively less sodium contents than �Oskou�, �Ahar-Hourand� and �Malekan� ecotypes, also potassium content increased under saline condition. Forage yield of different alfalfa ecotypes was significantly influenced by the salinity. The ecotypes �Malekan�, Ahar- Hourand and �Oskou� were successful in maintaining forage yield under salinity stress. Sodium contents increased due to salinity in all alfalfa ecotypes however ecotypes �Ahar-Hourand� and �Malekan� maintained the highest leaf Na concentration. They showed higher content of K than other ecotypes but had lower K/Na ratio. It was concluded that, two ecotypes �Malekan� and �Ahar-Hourand� were better.

  4. Comparative drought response in eleven diverse alfalfa accessions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.) production is often negatively affected by drought stress. This is particularly true for alfalfa that is cultivated on rangeland. Thus, the development of drought-tolerant alfalfa cultivars is of great significance. A greenhouse study was conducted to evaluate 11 alfa...

  5. Alfalfa -- a sustainable crop for biomass energy production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alfalfa (Medicago sativa) has the potential to be a significant contributor to America's renewable energy future. In an alfalfa biomass energy production system, alfalfa forage would be separated into stem and leave fractions. The stems would be processed to produce energy, and the leaves would be s...

  6. Meals in nursing homes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kofod, Jens Erik; Birkemose, A.

    2004-01-01

    Undernutrition is present among 33% of nursing home residents in Denmark. Hence, it is relevant to examine the meal situation at nursing homes to single out factors that may increase or reduce the residents' food intake. in the ongoing Danish nursing home debate it is claimed that a new type...... of nursing home improves the residents' meal situation with a positive effect on nutrition. The aim of this work is to test the general hypothesis that (i) residents appreciate the meal situation in these nursing homes and (ii) nutritional status of the residents is improved in this type of nursing home....... This study was carried out in four Danish nursing homes at various locations in Denmark. The methods used are qualitative interviews and observations at four nursing homes in combination with measurement of body mass index (BMI) at two of the four nursing homes. Undernutrition is defined as a BMI below 20...

  7. Experimental Study on Characteristics of High Water Plant Alfalfa%高水分植物苜蓿强化干燥特性的试验研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    车刚; 王鑫; 万霖

    2015-01-01

    针对苜蓿为非均一性物质的特性,亟待提高各组分干燥程度的一致性。通过紫花苜蓿的生理和物理特性的试验分析,建立叶片、茎秆和草段的干燥特性曲线。利用基本的物理方法,确定最长干燥存留时间与苜蓿含水率的关系,机械处理次数和草段长度对苜蓿干燥速率的影响规律。试验研究表明:用机械压裂茎秆的方式处理的苜蓿与未处理的相比,干燥速度提高1.5~2倍。选择光滑槽压扁一次和纵向槽重复压扁三次处理的干燥效果最好。%According to the characteristics of uniformity material on alfalfa,the drying consistency of alfalfa components would be improved. Drying characteristic curve of leaf,stem and grass were established by physiological and physical properties of alfalfa. Using the basic physical methods,the relationship of the longest drying time and moisture content of alfalfa was determined,and the effect law of mechanical processing times and grass length to alfalfa drying rate were studied. The experimental study showed the mechanical way of fracturing alfalfa was compared with untreated alfalfa,the drying rate was increased by 1.5-2 times. The best drying effect of squashed alfalfa stem was to use smooth slot one time and longitudinal slot three times.

  8. Virulence of Fusarium species to alfalfa seedlings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krnjaja Vesna

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available In in vitro conditions, virulence of 91 isolates of species Fusarium genus (F. oxysporum, F. solani, F. acuminatum, F. equiseti, F. arthrosporioides, F. proliferatum, F. avenaceum, F. semitectum, F. tricinctum, F. sporotrichioides and F. graminearum towards alfalfa seedlings was investigated. Isolates of investigated species originated from diseased alfalfa plants collected on four locations in Serbia based on symptoms of wilting caused by fusarium and root rotting. Pathogenicity and virulence of investigated isolates of Fusarium spp. were determined by visual evaluation of inoculated seedlings of cultivars K28 in laboratory conditions. All isolated of investigated species had pathogenic effect on alfalfa seedlings, which expressed symptoms such as necrosis of root, moist rotting and "melting of seedlings". Colour of necrotic root tissue varied from light brown, brown, lipstick red to explicit black, depending on the Fusarium species. Strong virulence was established in 48 isolates, medium virulence in 31 and weak virulence in 12 isolates.

  9. The Undergraduate ALFALFA Team: Collaborative Research Projects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cannon, John M.; Koopmann, Rebecca A.; Haynes, Martha P.; Undergraduate ALFALFA Team, ALFALFA Team

    2016-01-01

    The NSF-sponsored Undergraduate ALFALFA (Arecibo Legacy Fast ALFA) Team (UAT) has allowed faculty and students from a wide range of public and private colleges and especially those with small astronomy programs to learn how science is accomplished in a large collaboration while contributing to the scientific goals of a legacy radio astronomy survey. The UAT has achieved this through close collaboration with ALFALFA PIs to identify research areas accessible to undergraduates. In this talk we will summarize the main research efforts of the UAT, including multiwavelength followup observations of ALFALFA sources, the UAT Collaborative Groups Project, the Survey of HI in Extremely Low-mass Dwarfs (SHIELD), and the Arecibo Pisces-Perseus Supercluster Survey. This work has been supported by NSF grants AST-0724918/0902211, AST-075267/0903394, AST-0725380, and AST-1211005.

  10. Virulence of Fusarium species to alfalfa seedlings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krnjaja Vesna

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available In in vitro conditions, virulence of 91 isolates of species Fusarium genus (F. oxysporum, F. solani, F. acuminatum, F. equiseti, F. arthrosporioides, F. prolifera- tum, F. avenaceum, F. semitectum, F. tricinctum, F. sporotrichioides and F. graminearum towards alfalfa seedlings was investigated. Isolates of investigated species originated from diseased alfalfa plants collected at four locations in Serbia based on symptoms of wilting caused by Fusarium and root rotting. Pathogenicity and virulence of investigated isolates of Fusarium spp. were determined by visual evaluation of inoculated seedlings of cultivar K28 in laboratory conditions. All isolated of investigated species had pathogenic effect on alfalfa seedlings which expressed symptoms such as necrosis of root, moist rotting and "melting of seedlings". Colour of necrotic root tissue varied from light brown, brown lipstick red to explicit black, depending on the Fusarium species. Strong virulence was established in 48 isolates, medium virulence in 31 and weak virulence in 12 isolates.

  11. Comparative physiological and transcriptional analyses of two contrasting drought tolerant alfalfa varieties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wenli eQuan

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Drought is one of major environmental determinants of plant growth and productivity. Alfalfa (Medicago sativa is a legume perennial forage crop native to the arid and semi-arid environment, which is an ideal candidate to study the biochemical and molecular mechanisms conferring drought resistance in plants. In this study, drought stress responses of two alfalfa varieties, Longdong and Algonquin, were comparatively assayed at the physiological, morphological and transcriptional levels. Under control condition, the drought-tolerant Longdong with smaller leaf size and lower stomata density showed less water loss than the drought-sensitive Algonquin. After exposing to drought stress, Longdong showed less severe cell membrane damage, more proline and ascorbate (ASC contents and less accumulation of H2O2 than Algonquin. Moreover, significantly higher antioxidant enzymes activities after drought treatment were found in Longdong when compared with Algonquin. In addition, transcriptional expression analysis showed that Longdong exhibited significantly higher transcripts of drought-responsive genes in leaf and root under drought stress condition. Taken together, these results indicated that Longdong variety was more drought-tolerant than Algonquin variety as evidenced by less leaf firing, more lateral root number, higher relative aboveground/underground biomass per plant and survival rate.

  12. Diabetes type 2 - meal planning

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... ency/article/007429.htm Diabetes type 2 - meal planning To use the sharing features on this page, ... foods have carbohydrates. This will help with meal planning so that you can keep your blood sugar ...

  13. Nutrients in the cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz leaf meal at three ages of the plant Nutrientes na farinha de folhas de mandioca (Manihot esculenta Crantz em três idades da planta

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carmen Wobeto

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available The high number of cassava cultivars adapted to many different regions provides a wide variation in the chemical composition of cassava leaves meal (CLM. Therefore, the contents of some nutrients in CLM from five cultivars at three ages of the plant were investigated in order to select the cultivars and ages with superior levels of these nutrients. When the plants were 12 months old, the highest levels of crude protein (CP, beta-carotene, iron, magnesium, phosphorus and sulfur were observed. The IAC 289-70 cv. showed the highest levels of magnesium, as well as considerable contents of CP, beta-carotene, iron, zinc and sulfur, which did not differ statistically from the cultivars showing the highest levels of these nutrients.O número elevado de cultivares de mandioca adaptados às mais diversas regiões confere ampla variação na composição química da farinha de folhas de mandioca (FFM. Portanto, foram investigados os teores de alguns nutrientes nas FFM de cinco cultivares em três idades da planta, a fim de selecionar cultivares e idades com níveis superiores destes nutrientes. Aos 12 meses de idade da planta, observaram-se os maiores níveis de proteína bruta (PB, beta-caroteno, ferro, magnésio, fósforo e enxofre. O cultivar IAC 289-70 apresentou os maiores níveis de magnésio, assim como teores apreciáveis de PB, beta-caroteno, ferro, zinco e enxofre, pois não diferiu estatisticamente dos cultivares com os níveis mais elevados destes nutrientes.

  14. Short communication. Nitrogen content of residual alfalfa taproots under irrigation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Cela

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available The decomposition of alfalfa (Medicago sativa L. residues can provide significant amounts of N to subsequent crops, but most of the data on this subject has been obtained from 1-2 year old alfalfa stands. The objective of this study was to determine the biomass of alfalfa taproots and their N content in irrigated alfalfa stands that are more than 2 years old. Twenty-two commercial irrigated alfalfa fields were evaluated in the Ebro Valley (Northeast Spain from 2006 to 2010. The taproot biomass in the arable layer (0 to 30 cm depth ranged from 1.8 to 10.1 Mg ha-1 and averaged 4.8 Mg ha-1. In contrast, the N concentration in alfalfa taproots was constant among fields and averaged 24.6 g N kg-1. The total amount of N contained in alfalfa taproots (0-30 cm depth ranged from 47 to 96 kg N ha-1 in 55% of the fields, ranged from 97 to 200 kg N ha-1 in 22% of the fields, and exceeded 200 kg N ha-1 in 23% of the fields. The N content of the irrigated alfalfa taproots studied here is in the upper range previously reported in other areas, mainly with younger alfalfa stands. Based on the current finding, a classification of the quality of irrigated alfalfa stands is proposed to improve the estimates of the residual-N effects of alfalfa on subsequent crops.

  15. Glyphosate-tolerant alfalfa is compositionally equivalent to conventional alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCann, Melinda C; Rogan, Glennon J; Fitzpatrick, Sharie; Trujillo, William A; Sorbet, Roy; Hartnell, Gary F; Riodan, Susan G; Nemeth, Margaret A

    2006-09-20

    Glyphosate-tolerant alfalfa (GTA) was developed to withstand over-the-top applications of glyphosate, the active ingredient in Roundup agricultural herbicides. As a part of the safety assessment, GTA (designated J101 x J163) was grown under controlled field conditions at geographically diverse locations within the United States during the 2001 and 2003 field seasons along with control and other conventional alfalfa varieties for compositional assessment. Field trials were conducted using a randomized complete block design with four replication blocks at each site. Alfalfa forage was harvested at the late bud to early bloom stage from each plot at five field sites in 2001 (establishment year) and from four field sites in 2003 (third year of stand). The concentration of proximate constituents, fibers, amino acids, coumestrol, and minerals in the forage was measured. The results showed that the forage from GTA J101 x J163 is compositionally equivalent to forage from the control and conventional alfalfa varieties.

  16. ECONOMIC ANALYSIS OF ALFALFA INTEGRATED MANAGEMENT PRACTICES

    OpenAIRE

    Ward, Clement E.; Dowdy, Alan K.; Berberet, Richard C.; Stritzke, Jimmie F.

    1990-01-01

    Integrated pest management (IMP) initially focused on insect pest control. More recently, IPM encompasses a broader concept of management, one which crosses several disciplinary boundaries. This article reports results of research dealing with four integrated management decisions for alfalfa (cultivar selection, inset control, weed control, and end-of-season harvest options.

  17. Rapid phenotyping of alfalfa root system architecture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Root system architecture (RSA) influences the capacity of an alfalfa plant for symbiotic nitrogen fixation, nutrient uptake and water use efficiency, resistance to frost heaving, winterhardiness, and some pest and pathogen resistance. However, we currently lack a basic understanding of root system d...

  18. Oxygen Regulation of a Nodule-Located Carbonic Anhydrase in Alfalfa1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gálvez, Susana; Hirsch, Ann M.; Wycoff, Keith L.; Hunt, Stephen; Layzell, David B.; Kondorosi, Adam; Crespi, Martin

    2000-01-01

    Control of the permeability to oxygen is critical for the function of symbiotic nitrogen fixation in legume nodules. The inner cortex (IC) seems to be a primary site for this regulation. In alfalfa (Medicago sativa) nodules, expression of the Msca1 gene encoding a carbonic anhydrase (CA) was previously found to be restricted to the IC. We have now raised antibodies against recombinant Msca1 protein and used them, together with antibodies raised against potato leaf CA, to demonstrate the presence of two forms of CA in mature nodules. Each antibody recognizes a different CA isoform in nodule tissues. Immunolocalization revealed that leaf-related CAs were localized primarily in the nitrogen-fixing zone, whereas the Msca1 protein was restricted exclusively to the IC region, in indeterminate and determinate nodules. In alfalfa nodules grown at various O2 concentrations, an inverse correlation was observed between the external oxygen pressure and Msca1 protein content in the IC, the site of the putative diffusion barrier. Thus Msca1 is a molecular target of physiological processes occurring in the IC cells involved in gas exchange in the nodule. PMID:11080283

  19. Nutrient quality of fast food kids meals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Exposure of children to kids’ meals at fast food restaurants is high; however, the nutrient quality of such meals has not been systematically assessed. We assessed the nutrient quality of fast food meals marketed to young children, i.e., "kids meals". The nutrient quality of kids’ meals was assessed...

  20. Healthy meals on the menu

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thunström, Linda; Nordström, Leif Jonas; Shogren, Jason

    2016-01-01

    Menu labelling of meals prepared away from home is a policy designed to help consumers make healthier food choices. In this paper we use a field experiment in Sweden to examine if a restaurant benefits from introducing a meal labelled as healthy on its menu by experiencing an overall increase...... in sales. We cannot reject the hypothesis that sales are the same before and after the introduction of a meal labelled as healthy on the menu, i.e. our data does not support the idea that restaurants increase their sales from supplying a meal labelled as healthy....

  1. The elicitor-inducible alfalfa isoflavone reductase promoter confers different patterns of developmental expression in homologous and heterologous transgenic plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oommen, A; Dixon, R A; Paiva, N L

    1994-01-01

    In legumes, the synthesis of infection- and elicitor-inducible antimicrobial phytoalexins occurs via the isoflavonoid branch of the phenylpropanoid pathway. To study transcriptional regulation of isoflavonoid pathway-specific genes, we have isolated the gene encoding isoflavone reductase (IFR), which is the enzyme that catalyzes the penultimate step in the synthesis of the phytoalexin medicarpin in alfalfa. Chimeric gene fusions were constructed between 765- and 436-bp promoter fragments of the IFR gene and the beta-glucuronidase reporter gene and transferred to alfalfa and tobacco by Agrobacterium-mediated transformation. Both promoter fragments conferred elicitor-mediated expression in cell suspension cultures derived from transgenic plants of both species and fungal infection-mediated expression in leaves of transgenic alfalfa. Developmental expression directed by both promoter fragments in transgenic alfalfa was observed only in the root meristem, cortex, and nodules, which is consistent with the accumulation of endogenous IFR transcripts. However, in transgenic tobacco, expression from the 765-bp promoter was observed in vegetative tissues (root meristem and cortex, inner vascular tissue of stems and petioles, leaf tips, and stem peripheries adjacent to petioles) and in reproductive tissues (stigma, placenta, base of the ovary, receptacle, seed, tapetal layer, and pollen grains), whereas the 436-bp promoter was expressed only in fruits, seed, and pollen. These data indicate that infection/elicitor inducibility of the IFR promoter in both species and developmental expression in alfalfa are determined by sequences downstream of position -436, whereas sequences between -436 and -765 confer a complex pattern of strong ectopic developmental expression in the heterologous species that lacks the isoflavonoid pathway. PMID:7866024

  2. Meal Elements - a Way of optimising ready to eat Meals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Engelund, Eva Høy; Friis, Alan; Jacobsen, Peter

    The aim of this project is to develop a concept for improvement of the quality of food produced in large-scale kitchens. Using meal elements in large-scale kitchens in combination with production planning and over-all structuring of activities generally improves the quality of the meal prepared....

  3. Persistence and diversity of rhizobial bacteria nodulating alfalfa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Most alfalfa seed is treated with an inoculant consisting of several strains of the nitrogen fixing bacterium Sinorhizobium meliloti to enhance nodulation of seedlings. One strategy for increasing alfalfa forage yields, particularly in less fertile sites, is selection and use of highly competitive a...

  4. Broadening the U.S. alfalfa germplasm base

    Science.gov (United States)

    Over 4000 alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.) plant introductions (PIs) exist in the USDA-ARS National Plant Germplasm System (NPGS). NAAIC has discussed/proposed pre-breeding efforts to utilize this germplasm for creating pre-commercial alfalfa germplasm. Funding constraints have been one impediment to th...

  5. Complete genome sequence of the alfalfa latent virus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alfalfa latent virus (ALV) is a member of the carlavirus group and occurs symptomlessly in alfalfa (Medicago sativa). In the US it is prevalent in Nebraska and Wisconsin. The virus is recognized as a strain of Pea streak virus (PeSV) So far, no complete genomic sequence of PSV or ALV is availab...

  6. Alfalfa (Medicago Sativa L As A Promising Forage In Indonesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sajimin

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Alfalfa (Medicago sativa L or Lucerne is a perennial herbaceous legume with superior forage quality. It is the most important forage crop in the world and it was the first domesticated forage crop. Alfalfa is able to fix nitrogen from the air through a symbiotic relationship with Rhizobium bacteria with N production 7.85 – 10.37 g/m2. Its rooting system can reach 4.5 m that allows it to escape drought. Forage production can reach 15.48 tons of dry matter per ha/year and containing 18.0 – 29.1 % crude protein. Plants can live 3 to 12 years depending on climatic conditions and crop varieties. However, alfalfa is not a tropical plant, thus it has not been widely cultivated in Indonesia. The problem of alfalfa cultivation are high pest attacks and competition with weeds. Therefore, alfalfa cultivation requires attention and good management to obtain optimum yield.

  7. Effects of diets containing alfalfa hay or barley flour mixed alfalfa silage on feeding behavior, productivity, rumen fermentation and blood metabolites in lactating cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khadem, Ali-Akbar; Sharifi, Majid; Afzalzadeh, Ahmad; Rezaeian, Mohammad

    2009-08-01

    The effects of barley flour on the fermentation parameters of alfalfa silage and on the productivity of dairy cows were investigated. Alfalfa forage was ensiled either with or without barley flour. Barley flour was soaked in water for 24 h before being mixed with alfalfa (12 kg: 100 kg dry matter bases) at ensiling. Eighteen multi-parous cows were assigned to three equal treatment groups using a completely randomized design. Three isocaloric and isonitrogenous total mixed rations containing alfalfa hay, ordinary alfalfa silage or barley flour mixed alfalfa silage were then prepared. The concentrations of ammonia nitrogen, acetic acid and butyric acid were lower in barley flour mixed alfalfa silage compared to that in ordinary alfalfa silage but the concentration of lactic acid was lower in the ordinary alfalfa silage. Feeding behavior, milk yield and composition, ruminal fermentation and blood metabolites were measured. Although dry matter intake and milk production were not affected, the effect of preparation of alfalfa influenced feeding behavior and rumen fermentation parameters. Cows on alfalfa silage diets spent longer ruminating compared to those fed alfalfa hay. The ruminal ammonia nitrogen and blood urea were affected by ensiling (alfalfa hay versus alfalfa silages) while both parameters were lower in cows fed on barley flour mixed alfalfa silage than those fed on ordinary silage. Although similar blood glucose was recorded for cows fed on alfalfa silages, it was higher in cows fed on alfalfa hay. It is concluded that the addition of barely flour when making alfalfa silage may improve both the fermentation process during ensilage and the ruminal ammonia nitrogen utilization with no significant effects on productivity.

  8. Intended release and actual retention of alfalfa leafcutting bees (hymenoptera: megachilidae) for pollination in commercial alfalfa seed fields

    Science.gov (United States)

    Low, medium, and high stocking densities of Megachile rotundata, the alfalfa leafcutting bee, were released over four years in three research plots of Utah alfalfa planted at seed-production rates. A low number of bees (46-79% of released) survived the incubation and field emergence processes, and ...

  9. Co-expression of tonoplast Cation/H(+) antiporter and H(+)-pyrophosphatase from xerophyte Zygophyllum xanthoxylum improves alfalfa plant growth under salinity, drought and field conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bao, Ai-Ke; Du, Bao-Qiang; Touil, Leila; Kang, Peng; Wang, Qiang-Long; Wang, Suo-Min

    2016-03-01

    Salinity and drought are major environmental factors limiting the growth and productivity of alfalfa worldwide as this economically important legume forage is sensitive to these kinds of abiotic stress. In this study, transgenic alfalfa lines expressing both tonoplast NXH and H(+)-PPase genes, ZxNHX and ZxVP1-1 from the xerophyte Zygophyllum xanthoxylum L., were produced via Agrobacterium tumefaciens-mediated transformation. Compared with wild-type (WT) plants, transgenic alfalfa plants co-expressing ZxNHX and ZxVP1-1 grew better with greater plant height and dry mass under normal or stress conditions (NaCl or water-deficit) in the greenhouse. The growth performance of transgenic alfalfa plants was associated with more Na(+), K(+) and Ca(2+) accumulation in leaves and roots, as a result of co-expression of ZxNHX and ZxVP1-1. Cation accumulation contributed to maintaining intracellular ions homoeostasis and osmoregulation of plants and thus conferred higher leaf relative water content and greater photosynthesis capacity in transgenic plants compared to WT when subjected to NaCl or water-deficit stress. Furthermore, the transgenic alfalfa co-expressing ZxNHX and ZxVP1-1 also grew faster than WT plants under field conditions, and most importantly, exhibited enhanced photosynthesis capacity by maintaining higher net photosynthetic rate, stomatal conductance, and water-use efficiency than WT plants. Our results indicate that co-expression of tonoplast NHX and H(+)-PPase genes from a xerophyte significantly improved the growth of alfalfa, and enhanced its tolerance to high salinity and drought. This study laid a solid basis for reclaiming and restoring saline and arid marginal lands as well as improving forage yield in northern China.

  10. Identification of Loci Associated with Drought Resistance Traits in Heterozygous Autotetraploid Alfalfa (Medicago sativa L. Using Genome-Wide Association Studies with Genotyping by Sequencing.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tiejun Zhang

    Full Text Available Drought resistance is an important breeding target for enhancing alfalfa productivity in arid and semi-arid regions. Identification of genes involved in drought tolerance will facilitate breeding for improving drought resistance and water use efficiency in alfalfa. Our objective was to use a diversity panel of alfalfa accessions comprised of 198 cultivars and landraces to identify genes involved in drought tolerance. The panel was selected from the USDA-ARS National Plant Germplasm System alfalfa collection and genotyped using genotyping by sequencing. A greenhouse procedure was used for phenotyping two important traits associated with drought tolerance: drought resistance index (DRI and relative leaf water content (RWC. Marker-trait association identified nineteen and fifteen loci associated with DRI and RWC, respectively. Alignments of target sequences flanking to the resistance loci against the reference genome of M. truncatula revealed multiple chromosomal locations. Markers associated with DRI are located on all chromosomes while markers associated with RWC are located on chromosomes 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6 and 7. Co-localizations of significant markers between DRI and RWC were found on chromosomes 3, 5 and 7. Most loci associated with DRI in this work overlap with the reported QTLs associated with biomass under drought in alfalfa. Additional significant markers were targeted to several contigs with unknown chromosomal locations. BLAST search using their flanking sequences revealed homology to several annotated genes with functions in stress tolerance. With further validation, these markers may be used for marker-assisted breeding new alfalfa varieties with drought resistance and enhanced water use efficiency.

  11. Identification of Loci Associated with Drought Resistance Traits in Heterozygous Autotetraploid Alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.) Using Genome-Wide Association Studies with Genotyping by Sequencing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Tiejun; Yu, Long-Xi; Zheng, Ping; Li, Yajun; Rivera, Martha; Main, Dorrie; Greene, Stephanie L

    2015-01-01

    Drought resistance is an important breeding target for enhancing alfalfa productivity in arid and semi-arid regions. Identification of genes involved in drought tolerance will facilitate breeding for improving drought resistance and water use efficiency in alfalfa. Our objective was to use a diversity panel of alfalfa accessions comprised of 198 cultivars and landraces to identify genes involved in drought tolerance. The panel was selected from the USDA-ARS National Plant Germplasm System alfalfa collection and genotyped using genotyping by sequencing. A greenhouse procedure was used for phenotyping two important traits associated with drought tolerance: drought resistance index (DRI) and relative leaf water content (RWC). Marker-trait association identified nineteen and fifteen loci associated with DRI and RWC, respectively. Alignments of target sequences flanking to the resistance loci against the reference genome of M. truncatula revealed multiple chromosomal locations. Markers associated with DRI are located on all chromosomes while markers associated with RWC are located on chromosomes 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6 and 7. Co-localizations of significant markers between DRI and RWC were found on chromosomes 3, 5 and 7. Most loci associated with DRI in this work overlap with the reported QTLs associated with biomass under drought in alfalfa. Additional significant markers were targeted to several contigs with unknown chromosomal locations. BLAST search using their flanking sequences revealed homology to several annotated genes with functions in stress tolerance. With further validation, these markers may be used for marker-assisted breeding new alfalfa varieties with drought resistance and enhanced water use efficiency.

  12. Performance of broilers fed with snail (Pomacea caniculata meal as substitute to fish meal or meat and bone meal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ulep, LJL.

    1991-01-01

    Full Text Available Snail meal was used as a substitution to fish meat and bone meal in broiler rations. Final weightand feed conversion efficiency of the birds, profit and return on investment differed significantly among treatments. Feed consumption and production costs were comparable. Results show that snail meal can replace fish or meat and bone meal in broiler diets.

  13. The quality of meal elements for professional prepared meals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Løje, Hanne; Adler-Nissen, Jens

    Meal elements are convenience products which are partially prepared meal components to be used in professional kitchens. Examples are meat, vegetables or fish which are preprepared for example by heat-treatment before distribution to the professional kitchens. The pre-fried vegetables and meat can...... robust against freezing, thawing and reheating without excessive drip losses as observed from raw or blanched vegetables. The results show that the pre-fried vegetables have a potential to be used as meal elements for professional prepared meals....... for examples be used as ingredients in hot or cold dishes. We have evaluated the quality of several kinds of pre-fried vegetables. The vegetables were prepared in pilot plan using a continuous stir-frying process, frozen and analysis during the thawing period. The results show that the shelf life determined...

  14. Comparison of amino acid digestibility coefficients for soybean meal, canola meal, fish meal, and meat and bone meal among 3 different bioassays

    Science.gov (United States)

    The objective of this study was to determine amino acid digestibility of 4 feedstuffs [soybean meal (SBM), canola meal, fish meal, and meat and bone meal (MBM)] using the precision-fed cecectomized rooster assay (PFR), the standardized ileal assay (SIAAD), and a newly developed precision-fed ileal b...

  15. Assessment of heat shock protein 70 induction by heat in alfalfa varieties and constitutive overexpression in transgenic plants.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicoletta Ferradini

    Full Text Available Heat shock proteins (HSPs are molecular chaperones involved in many cellular functions. It has been shown that mammalian cytosolic HSP70 binds antigenic peptides mediating the activation of the immune system, and that it plays a determining role in tumour immunogenicity. This suggests that HSP70 may be used for the production of conjugated vaccines. Human and plant HSPs share high sequence similarity and some important biological functions in vitro. In addition, plant HSPs have no endotoxic side effects. Extraction of HSP70 from plants for use as vaccine adjuvant requires enhancing its concentration in plant tissues. In this work, we explored the possibility to produce HSP70 in both transgenic and non-transgenic plants, using alfalfa as a model species. First, a transcriptional analysis of a constitutive and an inducible HSP70 genes was conducted in Arabidopsis thaliana. Then the coding sequence of the inducible form was cloned and introduced into alfalfa by Agrobacterium-mediated transformation, and the accumulation of the protein in leaf tissue of transgenic plants was demonstrated. We also tested diverse alfalfa varieties for heat-inducible expression of endogenous HSP70, revealing variety-specific responses to heat shock.

  16. Floristic composition and weed biomass in organic alfalfa crop

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ilić Olivera M.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents the results of floristic composition and weed biomass in organic alfalfa crop in different years of alfalfa growing. The experiment was conducted in experimental plots in Futog, during the vegetation period of 2015. The presence of 60 weed species was noted, 49 of all weeds were noticed in the third, 48 in the fourth and 34 in the fifth year of organic alfalfa growing. Quantitative and qualitative structure of weed community depended on the age of alfalfa crop. By the analysis of cover values and the degree of the presence of weed species, it can be seen that species: Rumex obtusifolius L., Taraxacum officinale Web., Cynodon dactylon Pers. and Artemisia vulgaris L. had the greatest significance on weed infestation of alfalfa. The largest number of weed species belonged to the families Poaceae and Asteraceae. The biological spectrum of weeds species was defined by the terophyta dominance, whose number was reduced due to the age of the crop, while the share of hemicryptophytes and geophytes was more or less constant. Although we found a considerable level of infestation of alfalfa, alfalfa biomass reached acceptable values that were significantly higher than the weed biomass, which was statistically highly significant.

  17. System responses to long-term drought and re-watering of two contrasting alfalfa varieties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Yun; Han, Yuanhong; Torres-Jerez, Ivone; Wang, Mingyi; Tang, Yuhong; Monteros, Maria; Udvardi, Michael

    2011-12-01

    Systems analysis of two alfalfa varieties, Wisfal (Medicago sativa ssp. falcata var. Wisfal) and Chilean (M. sativa ssp. sativa var. Chilean), with contrasting tolerance/sensitivity to drought revealed common and divergent responses to drought stress. At a qualitative level, molecular, biochemical, and physiological responses to drought stress were similar in the two varieties, indicating that they employ the same strategies to cope with drought. However, quantitative differences in responses at all levels were revealed that may contribute to greater drought tolerance in Wisfal. These included lower stomatal density and conductance in Wisfal; delayed leaf senescence compared with Chilean; greater root growth following a drought episode, and greater accumulation of osmolytes, including raffinose and galactinol, and flavonoid antioxidants in roots and/or shoots of Wisfal. Genes encoding transcription factors and other regulatory proteins, and genes involved in the biosynthesis of osmolytes and (iso)flavonoids were differentially regulated between the two varieties and represent potential targets for improving drought tolerance in alfalfa in the future.

  18. Clustering of HI galaxies in HIPASS and ALFALFA

    CERN Document Server

    Passmoor, S S; Faltenbacher, A

    2011-01-01

    We investigate the clustering of HI-selected galaxies in the ALFALFA survey and compare results with those obtained for HIPASS. Measurements of the angular correlation function and the inferred 3D-clustering are compared with results from direct spatial-correlation measurements. We are able to measure clustering on smaller angular scales and for galaxies with lower HI masses than was previously possible. We calculate the expected clustering of dark matter using the redshift distributions of HIPASS and ALFALFA and show that the ALFALFA sample is somewhat more anti-biased with respect to dark matter than the HIPASS sample.

  19. VARIABILIDAD DEL ECOTIPO DE ALFALFA 'TIERRA DE CAMPOS'

    OpenAIRE

    Fombellida Villafruela, A.

    2011-01-01

    La alfalfa es el cultivo forrajero más extendido en la comarca de Tierra de Campos. Se cultiva habitualmente en secano, con aprovechamiento mediante siega para heno y mediante pastoreo de los rebrotes, destinándose parte de superficie a la producción de semilla para uso propio. Esta forma de manejo, en este ambiente, a lo largo de los años, ha originado un tipo de alfalfa conocido con el nombre de 'Tierra de Campos'. La introducción en la comarca de alfalfas flamencas para su multiplicación, ...

  20. Biological and Molecular Variability of Alfalfa mosaic virus Affecting Alfalfa Crop in Riyadh Region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammed A. AL-Saleh

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available In 2011–2012, sixty nine samples were collected from alfalfa plants showing viral infection symptoms in Riyadh region. Mechanical inoculation with sap prepared from two collected samples out of twenty five possitive for Alfalfa mosaic virus (AMV by ELISA were produced systemic mosaic on Vigna unguiculata and Nicotiana tabacum, local lesion on Chenopodium amaranticolor and C. quinoa. Vicia faba indicator plants that induce mosaic and mottle with AMV-Sagir isolate and no infection with AMV-Wadi aldawasser isolate. Approximately 700-bp was formed by RT-PCR using AMV coat protein specific primer. Samples from infected alfalfa gave positive results, while healthy plant gave negative result using dot blot hybridization assay. The nucleotide sequences of the Saudi isolates were compared with corresponding viral nucleotide sequences reported in GenBank. The obtained results showed that the AMV from Australia, Brazil, Puglia and China had the highest similarity with AMV-Sajer isolate. While, the AMV from Spain and New Zealaland had the lowest similarity with AMV-Sajer and Wadi aldawasser isolates. The data obtained in this study has been deposited in the GenBank under the accession numbers KC434083 and KC434084 for AMV-Sajer and AMV- Wadialdawasser respectively. This is the first report regarding the gnetic make up of AMV in Saudi Arabia.

  1. Observaciones sobre el Cultivo de la Alfalfa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mejía. Pedro Nel

    1947-09-01

    Full Text Available En 1940, la Secretaría de Agricultura de Caldas estableció en la fracción de la Enea del Municipio de Manizales un pequeño predio experimental o campo de observación para forrajes, destinado al fomento y divulgación de los mismos. Los datos que consignamos en el presente estudio se refiere a los retados experimentales del lote de alfalfa N° 3 de la granja, que está compuesto por una área de 1947 metros cuadrados. Sirve esto para que las personas interesadas hagan la reducción a la plaza (6.400 metros cuadrados y a la hectárea (10.000 metros cuadrados.

  2. EFFECT OF STORAGE TIME ON ALFALFA SEED QUALITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tihomir ČUPIĆ

    2005-07-01

    Full Text Available Alfalfa (Medicago sativa L. is a crop characterised by presence of hard (dormant seed that are viable but do not germinate in seed quality testing. In Republic of Croatia seed are frequently stored for three to four years due to low needs for seed of alfalfa and considerable import. The share of hard seed is decreased by storage time, temperature and air moisture changes and therefore directly keeps the level of seed germination in a longer period of storage.

  3. Multiwalled carbon nanotubes in alfalfa and wheat: toxicology and uptake

    OpenAIRE

    Miralles, Pola; Johnson, Errin; Tamara L. Church; Harris, Andrew T.

    2012-01-01

    Data on the bioavailability and toxicity of carbon nanotubes (CNTs) in the environment, and, in particular, on their interactions with vascular plants, are limited. We investigated the effects of industrial-grade multiwalled CNTs (75 wt% CNTs) and their impurities on alfalfa and wheat. Phytotoxicity assays were performed during both seed germination and seedling growth. The germinations of both species were tolerant of up to 2560 mg l−1 CNTs, and root elongation was enhanced in alfalfa and wh...

  4. Economic Comparison of Selected Processing Alternatives for Alfalfa

    OpenAIRE

    Bates, Dan J.

    1992-01-01

    Processing alfalfa for export is of significant interest to areas like Millard County, the largest hay-producing county in Utah. In the past year there have ix been significant reductions in the price of hay as a result of increased supplies in the central and western United States. This thesis analyzes the benefits and costs of processing alfalfa into cubes and recompressed bales in order to enter the export market. Costs of production were estimated through the use of enterprise budgets ...

  5. Características produtivas e digestibilidade da farinha de folhas de mandioca em dietas de frangos de corte com e sem adição de enzimas Productive traits and digestibility of cassava leaf meal in broiler diets with or without addition of enzymes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hunaldo Oliveira Silva

    2000-06-01

    Full Text Available Experimentos foram realizados a fim de determinar a digestibilidade (Experimento 1 e o efeito da inclusão de farinha de folhas de mandioca (FFM com e sem a adição de complexos multienzimáticos (CME em dietas de frangos de corte machos (Experimento 2, de linhagem Hubbard. Os CME utilizados foram compostos de Energex (beta-glucanase, pectinase, hemicelulase e Bio-Feed Alpha (beta-glucanase, amilase. No Experimento 1, utilizaram-se aves com 21 dias de idade, com o nível de inclusão 0-41,67% de FFM, para medir o coeficiente de digestibilidade da energia bruta e fibra bruta (CDEB/CDFB e determinar os valores de energia metabolizável aparente e corrigida (EMA/EMAn. No Experimento 2, utilizaram-se aves de 1-21 dias de idade, com níveis de inclusão de 0-10,34% de FFM, para avaliar o consumo médio de ração (CMR, o ganho de peso médio (GPM e a conversão alimentar média (CAM. No Experimento 1, houve diferença para os valores do CDEB, CDFB, EMA e EMAn, ocorrendo diminuição na digestibilidade, à medida que se elevaram os níveis de inclusão de FFM na dieta basal. Com a adição dos CME, evidenciou-se melhora nas características analisadas. A determinação dos valores de EMA e EMAn foram de 1697 e 1694 kcal/kg/MS FFM, respectivamente. No Experimento 2, o nível de maior inclusão de FFM foi o que apresentou o pior resultado para as características CMR, GPM e CAM, enquanto o nível 5,17% de FFM não prejudicou o desempenho dos animais. A adição do CME não melhorou o valor nutritivo da FFM.Experiments were carried out to determine the digestibility (Experiment 1 and the effect of the inclusion of cassava leaf meal (CLM with and without the addition of multi-enzyme complexes (MEC in male broiler diets (Experiment 2 of the Hubbard strain. The MECs used were made up of Energex (beta-glucanase, pectinase, hemicellulose and Bio-Feed Alpha (beta-glucanase, amylase. In Experiment 1, birds with 21 days of age were used, with the level of

  6. Changes of Proline Content,Activity,and Active Isoforms of Antioxidative Enzymes in Two Alfalfa Cultivars Under Salt Stress

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Xiao-shan; HAN Jian-guo

    2009-01-01

    The plants of two alfalfa(Medicago sativa L.)cultivars differing in salt tolerance were subjected to three salt treatments,70,140,and 210 mM NaCl for 7 days.Root,shoot,and leaf growths were inhibited by increased salt treatments in both cultivars,and at 140 and 210 mM salt treatments,Zhongmu 1 had significantly higher root,shoot,and leaf dry weights per plant than Defi.The malondialdehyde(MDA)accumulation in Defi was considerably greater than in Zhongmu 1,indicating a higher degree of lipid peroxidation at 140 and 210 mM salt treatments.The changes in the activity and active isoforms of antioxidant enzymes such as superoxide dismutase(SOD,EC 1.15.1.1),catalase(CAT,EC 1.11.1.6),peroxidase(POD,EC 1.11.1.7),and ascorbate peroxidase(APOX,EC 1.11.1.11),accumulation of free proline,and rate of lipid peroxidation in leaves of two alfalfa cultivars were also investigated.After stress,the activity and active isoforms of antioxidative enzymes were altered and the extent of alteration varied between the cultivar Deft and Zhongmu 1.The proline accumulation in Defi was considerably greater than in Zhongmu 1 at 210 mM salt treatment.This indicated that proline accumulation may be the result,instead of the cause,of salt tolerance.

  7. Hospitality within hospital meals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Justesen, Lise; Gyimóthy, Szilvia; Mikkelsen, Bent Egberg

    2016-01-01

    Hospital meals and their role in nutritional care have been studied primarily from a life and natural science perspective. This article takes a different approach and explores the idea of hospitality inspired by Jacques Derrida’s work on the ontology of hospitality. By drawing on ethnographic...... fieldwork in a Danish hospital, hospitality practices were studied using a socio-material assemblage approach. The study showed that rethinking the meal event could change the wards into temporary “pop-up-restaurants,” transcending the hospital context and providing a scene for shifting host...... and management involved in hospital food service and in nutritional care to work more systematically with the environment for improved hospital meal experiences in the future...

  8. Palatable meal anticipation in mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cynthia T Hsu

    Full Text Available The ability to sense time and anticipate events is a critical skill in nature. Most efforts to understand the neural and molecular mechanisms of anticipatory behavior in rodents rely on daily restricted food access, which induces a robust increase of locomotor activity in anticipation of daily meal time. Interestingly, rats also show increased activity in anticipation of a daily palatable meal even when they have an ample food supply, suggesting a role for brain reward systems in anticipatory behavior, and providing an alternate model by which to study the neurobiology of anticipation in species, such as mice, that are less well adapted to "stuff and starve" feeding schedules. To extend this model to mice, and exploit molecular genetic resources available for that species, we tested the ability of wild-type mice to anticipate a daily palatable meal. We observed that mice with free access to regular chow and limited access to highly palatable snacks of chocolate or "Fruit Crunchies" avidly consumed the snack but did not show anticipatory locomotor activity as measured by running wheels or video-based behavioral analysis. However, male mice receiving a snack of high fat chow did show increased food bin entry prior to access time and a modest increase in activity in the two hours preceding the scheduled meal. Interestingly, female mice did not show anticipation of a daily high fat meal but did show increased activity at scheduled mealtime when that meal was withdrawn. These results indicate that anticipation of a scheduled food reward in mice is behavior, diet, and gender specific.

  9. Cramble meal: evaluation, improvement and comparison with rapeseed meal.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Liu, Y.G.

    1994-01-01

    Crambe abyssinica has gradually been introduced in agriculture as a new oil-bearing crop. Its oil contains 55 to 60% erucic acid (C22:1, Δ13), desirable as lubricants, plastic additives or as a raw material for chemical synthesis. The defatted meal has high protein content which provides potential a

  10. Emotions associated to mealtimes: Memorable meals and typical evening meals

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Piqueras Fiszman, B.; Jaeger, S.R.

    2015-01-01

    This research contributes to the current interest in food-related emotions in eating occasions. Previous research has studied contextual influences on food-related emotions, but the food products used as stimuli were single food items (i.e., chocolate brownie, fruit, potato crisps) and not meals. In

  11. Complete nucleotide sequence of Alfalfa mosaic virus isolated from alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.) in Argentina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trucco, Verónica; de Breuil, Soledad; Bejerman, Nicolás; Lenardon, Sergio; Giolitti, Fabián

    2014-06-01

    The complete nucleotide sequence of an Alfalfa mosaic virus (AMV) isolate infecting alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.) in Argentina, AMV-Arg, was determined. The virus genome has the typical organization described for AMV, and comprises 3,643, 2,593, and 2,038 nucleotides for RNA1, 2 and 3, respectively. The whole genome sequence and each encoding region were compared with those of other four isolates that have been completely sequenced from China, Italy, Spain and USA. The nucleotide identity percentages ranged from 95.9 to 99.1 % for the three RNAs and from 93.7 to 99 % for the protein 1 (P1), protein 2 (P2), movement protein and coat protein (CP) encoding regions, whereas the amino acid identity percentages of these proteins ranged from 93.4 to 99.5 %, the lowest value corresponding to P2. CP sequences of AMV-Arg were compared with those of other 25 available isolates, and the phylogenetic analysis based on the CP gene was carried out. The highest percentage of nucleotide sequence identity of the CP gene was 98.3 % with a Chinese isolate and 98.6 % at the amino acid level with four isolates, two from Italy, one from Brazil and the remaining one from China. The phylogenetic analysis showed that AMV-Arg is closely related to subgroup I of AMV isolates. To our knowledge, this is the first report of a complete nucleotide sequence of AMV from South America and the first worldwide report of complete nucleotide sequence of AMV isolated from alfalfa as natural host.

  12. [Simulation alfalfa growth in Wulanbuhe sandy region].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bai, Wenming; Bao, Xuemei

    2002-12-01

    Based on the theories of accumulated temperature and on the physio-ecological characteristics of Medicago sativa, a simulation model for its growth under soil water stress in arid sandy region was developed. The model was mainly composed of four modules: the stage module of growth, the dynamic module of leaf area index, the accumulated module of dry matter, and the distributive module of dry matter. After simulating and calculating, the model could be used to predict the growing progress and dynamic changes of leaf area and yield for herbage in sandy region. The result shows that the application of the model to production is usually effective.

  13. The impact of meal attributes and nudging on healthy meal consumption

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thunström, Linda; Nordström, Leif Jonas

    2013-01-01

    We use a field experiment in a lunch restaurant to analyze how meal attributes and a “nudge” impact healthy labeled meal consumption. The nudge consists of increasing the salience of healthy labeled meals by placing them at the top of the menu. We find that certain meal attributes (e.g. poultry...... and red meat) greatly increase both sales and the market share of the healthy labeled meal. We conclude that a careful design of the healthy food supply may be efficient in encouraging healthier meal choices, e.g. supplying healthy labeled versions of popular conventional meals. We find no impact...

  14. 29 CFR 553.223 - Meal time.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Meal time. 553.223 Section 553.223 Labor Regulations... Enforcement Employees of Public Agencies Tour of Duty and Compensable Hours of Work Rules § 553.223 Meal time... personnel in accordance with section 7(a)(1) of the Act, the public agency may exclude meal time from...

  15. Genomic Analysis of Verticillium Wilt Resistance and Drought Tolerance in Alfalfa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.) is the fourth largest crop in the United States. Changing trends to multipurpose uses increases demand for alfalfa. However, the production of alfalfa is challenged by endemic and emerging diseases and adverse environmental factors. Identification of genes/loci controlli...

  16. Stand age affects fertilizer nitrogen response in first-year corn following alfalfa

    Science.gov (United States)

    The amount of N that alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.) provides to subsequent first-year corn (Zea mays L.) depends, in part, on the age of alfalfa at termination. Our objective was to determine how alfalfa stand age affects N availability and fertilizer N requirements for first-year corn. Fertilizer N w...

  17. Modeling feral alfalfa (Medicago sativa subsp. sativa L.) occurrence using topographical and environmental variables

    Science.gov (United States)

    Because alfalfa is a perennial species cross pollinated by bees and can establish along roadsides and ruderal areas, there is concern that feral plants can serve as reservoirs and conduits for transgenic genes. The objective of this study was to survey feral alfalfa in alfalfa seed production areas ...

  18. 75 FR 8299 - Draft Environmental Impact Statement; Determination of Regulated Status of Alfalfa Genetically...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-02-24

    ... Regulated Status of Alfalfa Genetically Engineered for Tolerance to the Herbicide Glyphosate AGENCY: Animal... and Forage Genetics International alfalfa lines designated as events J101 and J163 as regulated... determination on the status of the Monsanto Company and Forage Genetics International alfalfa lines...

  19. Pythium species causing damping-off of alfalfa in Minnesota: Identification, pathogenicity and fungicide sensitivity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Damping-off and seed rot is an important disease of alfalfa, severely affecting stand establishment when conditions favor the disease. Globally, 15 Pythium species are reported to cause damping-off and seed rot of alfalfa, although surveys of species causing disease on alfalfa in Minnesota are lacki...

  20. Do glyphosate resistant feral plants and hay fields spread the transgene to conventional alfalfa seed fields?

    Science.gov (United States)

    In addition to meeting domestic needs, large amounts of alfalfa seed and hay produced in the US are being exported overseas. Because alfalfa is an insect pollinated crop, gene flow is a concern. Adding to this alfalfa readily naturalizes along roadsides, irrigation ditches, and unmanaged habitats; a...

  1. Transgene movement in commercial alfalfa seed production: Implications for seed purity

    Science.gov (United States)

    The United States is a major exporter of alfalfa seed and hay and the organic dairy industry is one of the fastest growing agricultural sectors. With the advent of genetically-engineered (GE) alfalfa concerns have risen regarding the coexistence of GE and non GE alfalfa since the crop is largely ou...

  2. 76 FR 5780 - Determination of Regulated Status of Alfalfa Genetically Engineered for Tolerance to the...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-02-02

    ... Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service Determination of Regulated Status of Alfalfa Genetically... regulated status of alfalfa genetically engineered for tolerance to the herbicide glyphosate based on APHIS... decision and determination on the petition regarding the regulated status of alfalfa genetically...

  3. 75 FR 1585 - Draft Environmental Impact Statement; Determination of Regulated Status of Alfalfa Genetically...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-12

    ... Regulated Status of Alfalfa Genetically Engineered for Tolerance to the Herbicide Glyphosate AGENCY: Animal... determination on the status of the Monsanto Company and Forage Genetics International alfalfa lines designated... Monsanto/Forage Genetics International (FGI) alfalfa events J101 and J163 were no longer...

  4. Pollen and seed mediated gene flow in commercial alfalfa seed production fields

    Science.gov (United States)

    The potential for gene flow has been widely recognized since alfalfa is pollinated by bees. The Western US is a major exporter of alfalfa seed and hay and the organic dairy industry is one of the fastest growing agricultural sectors. Because of this, many alfalfa producers are impacted by market sen...

  5. Gas, Stars, and Star Formation in Alfalfa Dwarf Galaxies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Shan; Haynes, Martha P.; Giovanelli, Riccardo; Brinchmann, Jarle; Stierwalt, Sabrina; Neff, Susan G.

    2012-01-01

    We examine the global properties of the stellar and Hi components of 229 low H i mass dwarf galaxies extracted from the ALFALFA survey, including a complete sample of 176 galaxies with H i masses ALFALFA dwarfs are faint and of low surface brightness; only 56% of those within the SDSS footprint have a counterpart in the SDSS spectroscopic survey. A large fraction of the dwarfs have high specific star formation rates (SSFRs), and estimates of their SFRs and M* obtained by SED fitting are systematically smaller than ones derived via standard formulae assuming a constant SFR. The increased dispersion of the SSFR distribution at M* approximately less than10(exp 8)M(sub 0) is driven by a set of dwarf galaxies that have low gas fractions and SSFRs; some of these are dE/dSphs in the Virgo Cluster. The imposition of an upper Hi mass limit yields the selection of a sample with lower gas fractions for their M* than found for the overall ALFALFA population. Many of the ALFALFA dwarfs, particularly the Virgo members, have H i depletion timescales shorter than a Hubble time. An examination of the dwarf galaxies within the full ALFALFA population in the context of global star formation (SF) laws is consistent with the general assumptions that gas-rich galaxies have lower SF efficiencies than do optically selected populations and that Hi disks are more extended than stellar ones.

  6. Multiwalled carbon nanotubes in alfalfa and wheat: toxicology and uptake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miralles, Pola; Johnson, Errin; Church, Tamara L; Harris, Andrew T

    2012-12-07

    Data on the bioavailability and toxicity of carbon nanotubes (CNTs) in the environment, and, in particular, on their interactions with vascular plants, are limited. We investigated the effects of industrial-grade multiwalled CNTs (75 wt% CNTs) and their impurities on alfalfa and wheat. Phytotoxicity assays were performed during both seed germination and seedling growth. The germinations of both species were tolerant of up to 2560 mg l(-1) CNTs, and root elongation was enhanced in alfalfa and wheat seedlings exposed to CNTs. Remarkably, catalyst impurities also enhanced root elongation in alfalfa seedlings as well as wheat germination. Thus the impurities, not solely the CNTs, impacted the plants. CNT internalization by plants was investigated using electron microscopy and two-dimensional Raman mapping. The latter showed that CNTs were adsorbed onto the root surfaces of alfalfa and wheat without significant uptake or translocation. Electron microscopy investigations of internalization were inconclusive owing to poor contrast, so Fe(3)O(4)-functionalized CNTs were prepared and studied using energy-filter mapping of Fe(3)O(4). CNTs bearing Fe(3)O(4) nanoparticles were detected in the epidermis of one wheat root tip only, suggesting that internalization was possible but unusual. Thus, alfalfa and wheat tolerated high concentrations of industrial-grade multiwalled CNTs, which adsorbed onto their roots but were rarely taken up.

  7. INFLUENCES OF LIMING ON YIELDS OF ALFALFA HAY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Svetislav Popović

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Alfalfa is the most important forage legume on cultivated fields in Croatia (about 45000 ha of growing area – status 2003. The field experiment with application of four dolomite (Agrovapno MgO: 56% CaO and 40% MgO rates (0, 10, 20, 30 and 40 tha-1 were conducted in autumn of 2004. The experiment was conducted by randomized block design in four replicates. Alfalfa (cultivar Osječanka 88 of the Agricultural Institute Osijek, Croatia was sown on March 25, 2005. Four cuttings / year were made. Fresh mass of alfalfa (cutting area 0.25 m2 was oven-dried at 65 oC. Year was the most influencing factor of alfalfa hay yields (13.03, 28.63, 29.43 and 32.77 tha-1, for 2005, 2006, 2007 and 2008, respectively. Liming resulted in low increases of yields up to 5% only. We presume that possible high tolerance of Osječanka 88 cultivar to soil acidity could be the main reason of low effects of liming on alfalfa yields.

  8. Microwave Dielectric Properties of Alfalfa Leaves From 0.3 to 18 GHz

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sokhansanj, Shahabaddine [ORNL; Shrestha, Bijay [University of Saskatchewan; Wood, H.C. [University of Saskatchewan

    2011-01-01

    Dielectric properties (i.e., permittivity) are essential in designing, simulating, and modeling microwave applications. The permittivity of stacked leaves of alfalfa (Medicago sativa) were measured with a network analyzer and a coaxial probe, and the effect of moisture content (MC: 12% 73% wet basis), frequency (300 MHz to 18 GHz), bound water (Cole Cole dispersion equation), temperature ( 15 C and 30 C), leaf-orientation, and pressure (0 11 kPa) were investigated. The measured permittivity increased with MC. A critical moisture level (CML) of 23% was reported, below which the permittivity decreased with increasing frequency at 22 C. Above CML and up to 5 GHz, the dielectric constants followed the Cole Cole dispersion, and the dielectric loss factors consisted of ionic and bound water losses. Above 5 GHz, the behavior of the dielectric constant was similar to that of free water, and the polar losses became dominant. Above 0 C, the measured permittivity followed a trend similar to that of free saline water and was characterized by the Debye equation. Below 0 C, it was dominated by nonfreezing bound and unfrozen supercooled moistures. The relaxation parameters and the optimum pressure (9 kPa) for the leaf measurements were determined. The effects of variations among the samples, and their orientations had negligible effects on the measured permittivity.

  9. Cedar leaf oil poisoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cedar leaf oil is made from some types of cedar trees. Cedar leaf oil poisoning occurs when someone swallows this substance. ... The substance in cedar leaf oil that can be harmful is thujone (a hydrocarbon).

  10. Multiple centroid method to evaluate the adaptability of alfalfa genotypes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moysés Nascimento

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to evaluate the efficiency of multiple centroids to study the adaptability of alfalfa genotypes (Medicago sativa L.. In this method, the genotypes are compared with ideotypes defined by the bissegmented regression model, according to the researcher's interest. Thus, genotype classification is carried out as determined by the objective of the researcher and the proposed recommendation strategy. Despite the great potential of the method, it needs to be evaluated under the biological context (with real data. In this context, we used data on the evaluation of dry matter production of 92 alfalfa cultivars, with 20 cuttings, from an experiment in randomized blocks with two repetitions carried out from November 2004 to June 2006. The multiple centroid method proved efficient for classifying alfalfa genotypes. Moreover, it showed no unambiguous indications and provided that ideotypes were defined according to the researcher's interest, facilitating data interpretation.

  11. Adaptability of Alfalfa and Ryegrass to New Reclamation Materials

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG ZHAO-FENG; ZHANG Lei-na; FENG Yong-jun; KANG Jing-tao

    2006-01-01

    This paper discussed the adaptability of the alfalfa and ryegrass to the new artificial soil that was composed of fly ash and furfural residue. The potted experiments were taken to compare the growth conditions, yields, and qualities of both grasses. Some pots were covered with wheat stalks and others without. The medium Fluvo-aquic soil was taken as control. The results indicated that the growth of two grasses in the mixture were inferior to their growth in the control in initial period. With the leaching of rain and irrigation, the two grasses improved gradually. The alfalfa and ryegrass both could grow in the new mixture, and the ryegrass would be better to plant in no covered material and the alfalfa in covered. This will be a new way to reclaim subsided land and to improve the environment in mining area.

  12. Leaf Collection Posting Log

    Data.gov (United States)

    Montgomery County of Maryland — This dataset contains leaf collection dates for area and subarea where leaf collection service is provided by Montgomery County Department of Transportation. Update...

  13. Genome-Wide Association Mapping and Genomic Selection for Alfalfa (Medicago sativa) Forage Quality Traits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pecetti, Luciano; Brummer, E. Charles; Palmonari, Alberto; Tava, Aldo

    2017-01-01

    Genetic progress for forage quality has been poor in alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.), the most-grown forage legume worldwide. This study aimed at exploring opportunities for marker-assisted selection (MAS) and genomic selection of forage quality traits based on breeding values of parent plants. Some 154 genotypes from a broadly-based reference population were genotyped by genotyping-by-sequencing (GBS), and phenotyped for leaf-to-stem ratio, leaf and stem contents of protein, neutral detergent fiber (NDF) and acid detergent lignin (ADL), and leaf and stem NDF digestibility after 24 hours (NDFD), of their dense-planted half-sib progenies in three growing conditions (summer harvest, full irrigation; summer harvest, suspended irrigation; autumn harvest). Trait-marker analyses were performed on progeny values averaged over conditions, owing to modest germplasm × condition interaction. Genomic selection exploited 11,450 polymorphic SNP markers, whereas a subset of 8,494 M. truncatula-aligned markers were used for a genome-wide association study (GWAS). GWAS confirmed the polygenic control of quality traits and, in agreement with phenotypic correlations, indicated substantially different genetic control of a given trait in stems and leaves. It detected several SNPs in different annotated genes that were highly linked to stem protein content. Also, it identified a small genomic region on chromosome 8 with high concentration of annotated genes associated with leaf ADL, including one gene probably involved in the lignin pathway. Three genomic selection models, i.e., Ridge-regression BLUP, Bayes B and Bayesian Lasso, displayed similar prediction accuracy, whereas SVR-lin was less accurate. Accuracy values were moderate (0.3–0.4) for stem NDFD and leaf protein content, modest for leaf ADL and NDFD, and low to very low for the other traits. Along with previous results for the same germplasm set, this study indicates that GBS data can be exploited to improve both quality traits

  14. Transgenic alfalfa plants expressing AtNDPK2 exhibit increased growth and tolerance to abiotic stresses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Zhi; Li, Hongbing; Ke, Qingbo; Jeong, Jae Cheol; Lee, Haeng-Soon; Xu, Bingcheng; Deng, Xi-Ping; Lim, Yong Pyo; Kwak, Sang-Soo

    2014-11-01

    In this study, we generated and evaluated transgenic alfalfa plants (Medicago sativa L. cv. Xinjiang Daye) expressing the Arabidopsis nucleoside diphosphate kinase 2 (AtNDPK2) gene under the control of the oxidative stress-inducible SWPA2 promoter (referred to as SN plants) to develop plants with enhanced tolerance to various abiotic stresses. We selected two SN plants (SN4 and SN7) according to the expression levels of AtNDPK2 and the enzyme activity of NDPK in response to methyl viologen (MV)-mediated oxidative stress treatment using leaf discs for further characterization. SN plants showed enhanced tolerance to high temperature, NaCl, and drought stress on the whole-plant level. When the plants were subjected to high temperature treatment (42 °C for 24 h), the non-transgenic (NT) plants were severely wilted, whereas the SN plants were not affected because they maintained high relative water and chlorophyll contents. The SN plants also showed significantly higher tolerance to 250 mM NaCl and water stress treatment than the NT plants. In addition, the SN plants exhibited better plant growth through increased expression of auxin-related indole acetic acid (IAA) genes (MsIAA3, MsIAA5, MsIAA6, MsIAA7, and MsIAA16) under normal growth conditions compared to NT plants. The results suggest that induced overexpression of AtNDPK2 in alfalfa will be useful for increasing biomass production under various abiotic stress conditions.

  15. Evaluation of ensilage potential of alfalfa cultivars (Medicago sativa L.)

    OpenAIRE

    Monteiro, ALG; Costa,Ciniro; Arrigoni, M. D.

    1998-01-01

    The objective of this trial was to study the ensilage potential of alfalfa (Medicago sativa L,.). The material used in the evaluation was harvested from an experiment in a complete randomized blocks design with three replicates, with seventeen alfalfa cultivars, Criouil, Florida 77, P555, P581, Moapa, Gilboa, 34 Linea, C/W 8754, C/W 4468, C/W 86, C/W 8746, Hunter Field, Trifecta, Sequel, CUF 101, Aurora e Siriver, during three years. The harvest used for the determinations was collected at 30...

  16. Differential Pathogenicity of Four Pratylenchus neglectus Populations on Alfalfa

    OpenAIRE

    1991-01-01

    A Pratylenchus neglectus population from lltah (UT3) was more virulent to Lahontan alfalfa than other P. neglectus populations from Utah (UT1, UT2) and Wyoming (WY). All alfalfa plants survived at 24 ± 3 C when inoculated with WY, UT1, or UT2 at initial populations (Pi) of 500, 1,000, and 5,000 nematodes per plant. At Pi 10,000 with WY, UT1, or UT2, plant mortality was 15, 15, and 20%, respectively; at Pi 5,000 and 10,000 with UT3, plant mortality was 10 and 40%. The WY, UT1, and UT2 populati...

  17. Nutritive value of fish meal.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hossain M.E.

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The study was undertaken to find out the variations in the chemical composition of different types of fish meal available in the metropolitan areas of Chittagong, Bangladesh. Fifteen different types of fish meal samples were collected from study areas. Chemical analyses of the samples were carried out in triplicate for dry matter (DM, crude protein (CP, crude fiber (CF, nitrogen free extract (NFE, ether extract (EE and total ash (TA in the animal nutrition and poultry research and training centre (PRTC laboratory, Chittagong Veterinary and Animal Sciences University, Chittagong, Bangladesh. Metabolizable energy (ME was estimated mathematically for all samples by using standard formula. Results indicated that, DM, CP, NFE, EE, TA and ME content significantly differed (P0.05 variation was found in the CF contents of the samples. DM content varied from 86.7 to 96.7%, CP content varied from 31.3 to 61.2%, EE content varied from 0.8 to 23.5%, NFE content varied from 0.6 to 14.6%, Ash content varied from 13.3 to 36.7% and ME content varied from 1788.4 to 3478.8 kcal/kg. It could therefore be inferred that, the chemical composition of fish meal available in the local market are widely variable. Therefore, every sample needs to be analyzed before use for ration formulation.

  18. Occurrence of Transgenic Feral Alfalfa (Medicago sativa subsp. sativa L.) in Alfalfa Seed Production Areas in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greene, Stephanie L; Kesoju, Sandya R; Martin, Ruth C; Kramer, Matthew

    2015-01-01

    The potential environmental risks of transgene exposure are not clear for alfalfa (Medicago sativa subsp. sativa), a perennial crop that is cross-pollinated by insects. We gathered data on feral alfalfa in major alfalfa seed-production areas in the western United States to (1) evaluate evidence that feral transgenic plants spread transgenes and (2) determine environmental and agricultural production factors influencing the location of feral alfalfa, especially transgenic plants. Road verges in Fresno, California; Canyon, Idaho; and Walla Walla, Washington were surveyed in 2011 and 2012 for feral plants, and samples were tested for the CP4 EPSPS protein that conveys resistance to glyphosate. Of 4580 sites surveyed, feral plants were observed at 404 sites. Twenty-seven percent of these sites had transgenic plants. The frequency of sites having transgenic feral plants varied among our study areas. Transgenic plants were found in 32.7%, 21.4.7% and 8.3% of feral plant sites in Fresno, Canyon and Walla Walla, respectively. Spatial analysis suggested that feral populations started independently and tended to cluster in seed and hay production areas, places where seed tended to drop. Significant but low spatial auto correlation suggested that in some instances, plants colonized nearby locations. Neighboring feral plants were frequently within pollinator foraging range; however, further research is needed to confirm transgene flow. Locations of feral plant clusters were not well predicted by environmental and production variables. However, the likelihood of seed spillage during production and transport had predictive value in explaining the occurrence of transgenic feral populations. Our study confirms that genetically engineered alfalfa has dispersed into the environment, and suggests that minimizing seed spillage and eradicating feral alfalfa along road sides would be effective strategies to minimize transgene dispersal.

  19. Occurrence of Transgenic Feral Alfalfa (Medicago sativa subsp. sativa L. in Alfalfa Seed Production Areas in the United States.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephanie L Greene

    Full Text Available The potential environmental risks of transgene exposure are not clear for alfalfa (Medicago sativa subsp. sativa, a perennial crop that is cross-pollinated by insects. We gathered data on feral alfalfa in major alfalfa seed-production areas in the western United States to (1 evaluate evidence that feral transgenic plants spread transgenes and (2 determine environmental and agricultural production factors influencing the location of feral alfalfa, especially transgenic plants. Road verges in Fresno, California; Canyon, Idaho; and Walla Walla, Washington were surveyed in 2011 and 2012 for feral plants, and samples were tested for the CP4 EPSPS protein that conveys resistance to glyphosate. Of 4580 sites surveyed, feral plants were observed at 404 sites. Twenty-seven percent of these sites had transgenic plants. The frequency of sites having transgenic feral plants varied among our study areas. Transgenic plants were found in 32.7%, 21.4.7% and 8.3% of feral plant sites in Fresno, Canyon and Walla Walla, respectively. Spatial analysis suggested that feral populations started independently and tended to cluster in seed and hay production areas, places where seed tended to drop. Significant but low spatial auto correlation suggested that in some instances, plants colonized nearby locations. Neighboring feral plants were frequently within pollinator foraging range; however, further research is needed to confirm transgene flow. Locations of feral plant clusters were not well predicted by environmental and production variables. However, the likelihood of seed spillage during production and transport had predictive value in explaining the occurrence of transgenic feral populations. Our study confirms that genetically engineered alfalfa has dispersed into the environment, and suggests that minimizing seed spillage and eradicating feral alfalfa along road sides would be effective strategies to minimize transgene dispersal.

  20. CO2 Capture by Cement Raw Meal

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pathi, Sharat Kumar; Lin, Weigang; Illerup, Jytte Boll

    2013-01-01

    The cement industry is one of the major sources of CO2 emissions and is likely to contribute to further increases in the near future. The carbonate looping process has the potential to capture CO2 emissions from the cement industry, in which raw meal for cement production could be used...... as the sorbent. Cyclic experiments were carried out in a TGA apparatus using industrial cement raw meal and synthetic raw meal as sorbents, with limestone as the reference. The results show that the CO2 capture capacities of the cement raw meal and the synthetic raw meal are comparable to those of pure limestone...... that raw meal could be used as a sorbent for the easy integration of the carbonate looping process into the cement pyro process for reducing CO2 emissions from the cement production process....

  1. The Effect of Priming on Germination and Seedling Growth of Alfalfa (Medicago sativa L. under Salinity Stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorjandi M.

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Salinity stress is an abiotic stress which has harmful effects on germination, growth and yield of alfalfa (Medicago sativa L. in many parts of the world. Seed priming is a way of increasing salt tolerance of plants. In this study, the effect of seed priming on germination and growth of alfalfa seedlings, Bami cultivar, under salinity condition was investigated. According to germination percentage of seeds under In vitro conditions, salicylic acid, Vitamin B12 and distilled water were selected as primes under salinities of 0, 5 and 10 ds.m-2 NaCl solution for further studies. These studies were carried out in a factorial experiment based on Completely Randomized Design (CRD with three replications in greenhouse under controlled condition (25°C in day/night. Parameters like percentage and rate of germination, dry and fresh weight of seedling and leaf number were measured. Based on our research All of the treatments (priming, salinity and the interaction of priming with salinity significantly (p<0.01 affected Hypocotyl length and radicle length and in low level of salt (0 ds.m2 germination and seedling growth indexes enhanced and also with applying salicylic acid both hypocotyl and radicle lengths improved.

  2. Diversity of field isolates of sinorhizobium meliloti nodulating alfalfa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Most alfalfa seed is treated with a rhizobial inoculant consisting of one or more strains of Sinorhizobium meliloti before planting to enhance nodulation of seedlings. However, little is known about the persistence of inoculated strains later in the season. There is also a paucity of information on ...

  3. Oxidative burst in alfalfa-Sinorhizobium meliloti symbiotic interaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos, R; Hérouart, D; Sigaud, S; Touati, D; Puppo, A

    2001-01-01

    Reactive oxygen species are produced as an early event in plant defense response against avirulent pathogens. We show here that alfalfa responds to infection with Sinorhizobium meliloti by production of superoxide and hydrogen peroxide. This similarity in the early response to infection by pathogenic and symbiotic bacteria addresses the question of which mechanism rhizobia use to counteract the plant defense response.

  4. Impacts on potential ethanol and crude protein yield in alfalfa

    Science.gov (United States)

    An alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.) biomass energy production system would produce two products. Leaves would be separated from stems to produce a high protein feed for livestock while stems would be processed to produce ethanol. Therefore, maximum yields of both leaves and stems are essential for profi...

  5. Modeling of desorption of Alfalfa (Medicago sativa) stems and leaves.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    ArabHosseini, A.; Huisman, W.; Müller, J.

    2011-01-01

    The equilibrium moisture content of agricultural products is necessary to optimize drying process and helps to keep the quality of the product during the period of storage. The main aim of this research was to find the best model which could define well, the exchange of moisture between alfalfa (Med

  6. PHENOTYPIC DIVERSITY OF ALFALFA (MEDICAGO SATIVA L. GERMPLASM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marijana Tucak

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to evaluate phenotypic diversity in the alfalfa germplasm collections using multivariate analysis to examine the extent of genetic diversity and contribution of selected characters to the total diversity and finally to select the most promising clusters/populations for further breeding work. Forty alfalfa populations/cultivars of different geographical origin were evaluated for 12 agro-morphological characters during two consecutive years. The populations/ cultivars were grouped into six clusters. In most cases populations/cultivars within clusters were not associated with their geographical origin. Intercluster distances were larger than the intracluster ones. This research revealed a broad phenotypic diversity within and between the alfalfa germplasm collections. The following characters contributed most to the total phenotypic diversity: dry matter yield in the first production year, plant height and length of central leaflet. Based on the mean value of the evaluated characters and determined distances between clusters, the most promising populations/cultivars belong to the clusters IV and V. Selected populations/cultivars could be considered as a valuable genetic material for the yield and quality improvement of alfalfa in our breeding programme.

  7. Evaluation of alfalfa-tall fescue mixtures across multiple environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Binary grass-legume mixtures can benefit forage production systems in different ways helping growers cope both with increasing input costs (e.g., N fertilizer, herbicides) and potentially more variable weather. The main objective of this study was to evaluate alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.) and tall f...

  8. Lignin modification leads to increased nodule numbers in alfalfa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallego-Giraldo, Lina; Bhattarai, Kishor; Pislariu, Catalina I; Nakashima, Jin; Jikumaru, Yusuke; Kamiya, Yuji; Udvardi, Michael K; Monteros, Maria J; Dixon, Richard A

    2014-03-01

    Reduction of lignin levels in the forage legume alfalfa (Medicago sativa) by down-regulation of the monolignol biosynthetic enzyme hydroxycinnamoyl coenzyme A:shikimate hydroxycinnamoyl transferase (HCT) results in strongly increased digestibility and processing ability of lignocellulose. However, these modifications are often also associated with dwarfing and other changes in plant growth. Given the importance of nitrogen fixation for legume growth, we evaluated the impact of constitutively targeted lignin modification on the belowground organs (roots and nodules) of alfalfa plants. HCT down-regulated alfalfa plants exhibit a striking reduction in root growth accompanied by an unexpected increase in nodule numbers when grown in the greenhouse or in the field. This phenotype is associated with increased levels of gibberellins and certain flavonoid compounds in roots. Although HCT down-regulation reduced biomass yields in both the greenhouse and field experiments, the impact on the allocation of nitrogen to shoots or roots was minimal. It is unlikely, therefore, that the altered growth phenotype of reduced-lignin alfalfa is a direct result of changes in nodulation or nitrogen fixation efficiency. Furthermore, HCT down-regulation has no measurable effect on carbon allocation to roots in either greenhouse or 3-year field trials.

  9. Strategies for managing foliar and root rot diseases of alfalfa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diseases can be a major source of yield loss and stand decline in alfalfa. Surveys were conducted to determine the distribution of pathogens for which there is limited resistance in commercial varieties and tests were done with new crop chemicals to determine their effectiveness in controlling sever...

  10. Impact of preceding crop on alfalfa competitiveness with weeds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Organic producers would like to include no-till practices in their farming systems. We are seeking to develop a continuous no-till system for organic farming, based on a complex rotation that includes a 3-year sequence of alfalfa. In this study, we evaluated impact of preceding crop on weed infest...

  11. Screening for Salnity Tolerance Among Falcata Alfalfa PI's

    Science.gov (United States)

    Many western US rangelands high in salinity could benefit from a salt tolerant falcata type alfalfa. Our objective was to use a previously developed greenhouse screening protocol to characterize 32 PI's from the NPGS system for their relative ability to survive increasing levels of NaC1 relative to...

  12. Paternity testing in an autotetraploid alfalfa breeding polycross

    Science.gov (United States)

    Determining unknown parentage in autotetraploid alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.) (2n = 4x = 32) can improve breeding gains. Exclusion analysis based paternity testing SAS code is presented, amenable to genotyping errors, for autotetraploid species utilizing co-dominant molecular markers with ambiguous d...

  13. Managing puncturevine in alfalfa hay and along field edges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puncturevine (Tribulus terrestris) is a nuisance and difficult to control weed in alfalfa hay field edges and borders. Puncturevine contaminated hay can contain high levels of nitrates and burs can injure mouths of livestock, lowering the value and quality of the hay. Puncturevine is a summer annual...

  14. PERACETIC ACID PRETREATMENT OF ALFALFA STEM AND ASPEN BIOMASS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lei Xu,

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Alfalfa stems and ground aspen were exposed to peracetic acid (0.5 to 9% on biomass at temperatures ranging from 40 to 100° C and reaction times from 1 to 5 hours. Glucose release as a percentage of total cellulose content was determined using subsequent standard enzymatic hydrolysis. Statistical analysis confirmed that aspen showed a strong response to peracetic acid addition rate. 9% peracetic acid removed 14% of the original lignin and increased the rate of glucose release from 23% to 44%. Temperature and reaction time played a less significant role. For alfalfa stems, low levels of peractic acid (0.5% increased glucose release from 30 to 47%. The addition of larger doses of peracetic acid did not show any significant improvement; this effect appears to be closely related to rate of lignin removal. While peracetic acid effectively removed lignin from aspen, 98% of the original lignin was still present in alfalfa after higher level peracetic acid treatments; the yield loss observed during pretreatment of alfalfa stems originates from other biomass components.

  15. Characterization of alfalfa populations contrasting for root system architecture (RSA)

    Science.gov (United States)

    The root system architecture affects the capacity for nutrient and water uptake thus impacting biomass yield production and may contribute to the persistence of perennial plants. The objectives of this study were to phenotype the roots of three alfalfa populations and identify differences between di...

  16. Enzymatic detoxification of jojoba meal and effect of the resulting meal on food intake in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bouali, Abderrahime; Bellirou, Ahmed; Boukhatem, Noureddin; Hamal, Abdellah; Bouammali, Boufelja

    2008-05-10

    When defatted jojoba meal is used as animal food, it causes food-intake reduction and growth retardation. Detoxification procedures by chemical, microbiological, and solvent extraction methods are reported by several authors. Here we report a successful detoxification of jojoba meal using enzymes. We establish reaction conditions that yield new meal which has the same nutritional qualities in proteins as the original meal. The enzymatic reaction gives rise to one major compound to which the structure of an amide is assigned on the basis of IR, 1H and 13C NMR spectra. The effect of the resulting jojoba meal on the food intake in rats is checked. In contrast, the detoxified meal containing the amide derivatives shows no toxicological activity since rats receiving oral administration of the obtained meal show normal growth. Thus, it is expected that this meal could be used as an animal feed ingredient.

  17. Feeding protein supplements in alfalfa hay-based lactation diets improves nutrient utilization, lactational performance, and feed efficiency of dairy cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neal, K; Eun, J-S; Young, A J; Mjoun, K; Hall, J O

    2014-12-01

    Due to the increasing cost of soybean meal and concerns of excess N being excreted into the environment, new protein supplements have been developed. Two products that have shown potential in increasing N utilization efficiency are slow-release urea (SRU; Optigen; Alltech Inc., Nicholasville, KY) and ruminal-escape protein derived from yeast (YMP; DEMP; Alltech Inc.). The objective of this study was to assess the effects of feeding these 2 supplements in alfalfa hay-based [45.7% of forage dietary dry matter (DM)] dairy diets on nutrient utilization, feed efficiency, and lactational performance of dairy cows. Twelve multiparous dairy cows were used in a triple 4 × 4 Latin square design with one square consisting of ruminally cannulated cows. Treatments included (1) control, (2) SRU-supplemented total mixed ration (SRUT), (3) YMP-supplemented total mixed ration (YMPT), and (4) SRU- and YMP-supplemented total mixed ration (SYT). The control consisted only of a mixture of soybean meal and canola meal in a 50:50 ratio. The SRU and the YMP were supplemented at 0.49 and 1.15% DM, respectively. The experiment consisted of 4 periods lasting 28 d each (21 d of adaptation and 7 d of sampling). Cows fed YMPT and SYT had decreased intake of DM, and all supplemented treatments had lower crude protein intake compared with those fed the control. Milk yield tended to have the greatest increase in YMPT compared with the control (41.1 vs. 39.7 kg/d) as well as a tendency for increased milk fat and protein yields. Feed efficiencies based on yields of milk, 3.5% fat-corrected milk, and energy-corrected milk increased at 10 to 16% due to protein supplementation. Cows fed protein supplements partitioned less energy toward body weight gain, but tended to partition more energy toward milk production. Efficiency of use of feed N to milk N increased by feeding SRUT and YMPT, and milk N-to-manure N ratio increased with YMPT. Overall results from this experiment indicate that replacing the

  18. Perkiraan Pasokan Nitrogen Mikrob pada Domba Ekor Tipis yang Diberi Bungkil Kedelai Terproteksi Tanin (ESTIMATION OF MICROBIAL NITROGEN SUPPLY IN THIN-TAILED SHEEP FED WITH TANNIN PROTECTED SOYBEAN MEAL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Husnaeni .

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available This research was aimed to study the effect of soybean meal protection mangrove leaf tannin onpurine derivative (PD excretion, estimated microbial nitrogen (MN supply, and estimated efficiency MNsuplay based on DOMR in thin-tailed sheep. A total of 16 thin-tailed sheep aged eight months withaverage body weight of 11.81±1.65 kg, and were randomly fed with complete feed with tannin-protectedsoybean meal in different levels. The research was conducted according to completely randomized designwith four treatments and four replications. T0 (soybean meal without tannin, T1 (protected soybean meal0.5% tannin, T2 (protected soybean meal 1% tannin, and T3 (protected soybean meal 1.5% tannin.Research finding indicated that organic matter consumption (OMC, organic matter digestibility (OMD,and digestible organic matter in rumen (DOMR were not affected (P> 0.05 by the treatment, however thetreatment had significant effects (P<0.05 against PD, estimated MN supply, and estimatedMN supply based on DOMR. Purine derivative, estimated MN supply, and estimated MN supply basedDOMR markedly decreased in the treatment of soybean meal protection 1.5% tannins. It was concludedthat soybean meal protection with mangrove leaf tannins was not significant against OMC, OMD andDOMR thin-tailed sheep, but protected soybean meal with tannins 1.5% affected on decreasing purinederivative excretion, estimated MN supply and estimated MN supply based on DOMR.

  19. SEBAL Model Using to Estimate Irrigation Water Efficiency & Water Requirement of Alfalfa Crop

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeyliger, Anatoly; Ermolaeva, Olga

    2013-04-01

    The sustainability of irrigation is a complex and comprehensive undertaking, requiring an attention to much more than hydraulics, chemistry, and agronomy. A special combination of human, environmental, and economic factors exists in each irrigated region and must be recognized and evaluated. A way to evaluate the efficiency of irrigation water use for crop production is to consider the so-called crop-water production functions, which express the relation between the yield of a crop and the quantity of water applied to it or consumed by it. The term has been used in a somewhat ambiguous way. Some authors have defined the Crop-Water Production Functions between yield and the total amount of water applied, whereas others have defined it as a relation between yield and seasonal evapotranspiration (ET). In case of high efficiency of irrigation water use the volume of water applied is less than the potential evapotranspiration (PET), then - assuming no significant change of soil moisture storage from beginning of the growing season to its end-the volume of water may be roughly equal to ET. In other case of low efficiency of irrigation water use the volume of water applied exceeds PET, then the excess of volume of water applied over PET must go to either augmenting soil moisture storage (end-of-season moisture being greater than start-of-season soil moisture) or to runoff or/and deep percolation beyond the root zone. In presented contribution some results of a case study of estimation of biomass and leaf area index (LAI) for irrigated alfalfa by SEBAL algorithm will be discussed. The field study was conducted with aim to compare ground biomass of alfalfa at some irrigated fields (provided by agricultural farm) at Saratov and Volgograd Regions of Russia. The study was conducted during vegetation period of 2012 from April till September. All the operations from importing the data to calculation of the output data were carried by eLEAF company and uploaded in Fieldlook web

  20. Sunflower meal concentrations in Massai grass silage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Máikal S. Borja

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Objetive. This experiment was conducted to evaluate the best sunflower meal concentration in Massai grass silage. Materials and methods. The treatments were composed of 0, 8, 16, and 24% sunflower meal (natural matter basis during ensiling of Massai grass, with four repetitions. Results. The regression equation showed that the inclusion of sunflower meal between 2.14% and 13.91% obtained a silage dry matter between 25 and 35%, which are the values recommended for the production of high quality silage. The addition of sunflower meal showed a linear increase in crude protein, reaching 18% DM with the highest concentration of sunflower meal. The highest feed value index was obtained with the addition of 24% sunflower meal in the silage. The estimated total digestible nutrient of silage increased linearly with sunflower meal concentration. The silage pH values had a quadratic effect, reaching the lowest value (4.1 with 15% sunflower meal addition. Conclusions. Based on the chemical composition and forage quality, a concentration of 14% sunflower meal should be used for high-quality silage with good nutritional value.

  1. Plant regeneration from proroplasts of alfalfa (Medicago sativa via somatic embryogenesis Regeneração de plantas a partir de protoplastos de alfafa (Medicago sativa via embriogênese somática

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariza Monteiro

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available Alfalfa is one of the most frequently studied species from the production of tissue culture-derived embryos point of view. In this study, five alfalfa cultivars were analyzed with reference to their ability to regenerate plants from protoplast cultures via somatic embryogenesis. Plant regeneration from leaf-derived protoplasts isolated from the cultivar Rangelander was achieved using a protocol defined for alfalfa cell suspension-derived embryogenesis. Because of its high efficiency, this procedure is recommended for protoplast electroporation-mediated genetic transformation of alfalfa.A alfafa é uma das espécies mais freqüentemente estudadas do ponto de vista da produção de embriões somáticos derivados da cultura de tecidos. Neste trabalho, cinco cultivares de alfafa foram analisados com referência à capacidade de regenerar plantas a partir de culturas de protoplastos via embriogênese somática. Regeneração de plantas a partir de protoplastos isolados de folhas da cultivar Rangelander foi obtida usando-se um protocolo definido para embriogênese somática derivada de suspensões celulares de alfafa. Em função da sua alta eficiência, recomenda-se o uso deste procedimento para transformação genética de alfafa mediada por eletroporação de protoplastos.

  2. Meal frequencies in early adolescence predict meal frequencies in late adolescence and early adulthood

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Trine Pagh; Holstein, Bjørn E; Flachs, Esben Meulengracht

    2013-01-01

    Health and risk behaviours tend to be maintained from adolescence into adulthood. There is little knowledge on whether meal frequencies in adolescence are maintained into adulthood. We investigated whether breakfast, lunch and evening meal frequencies in early adolescence predicted meal frequencies...... in late adolescence and in early adulthood. Further, the modifying effect of gender and adolescent family structure were investigated....

  3. Factors Related to the Number of Fast Food Meals Obtained by College Meal Plan Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dingman, Deirdre A.; Schulz, Mark R.; Wyrick, David L.; Bibeau, Daniel L.; Gupta, Sat N.

    2014-01-01

    Objectives: This study tested whether days on campus, financial access through a meal plan, and health consciousness were associated with number of meals that college students obtained from fast food restaurants. Participants and Methods: In April 2013, all students currently enrolled in a meal plan were invited to participate in an online survey…

  4. Response of cotton, alfalfa, and cantaloupe to foliar-deposited salt in an arid environment. [Gossypium hirsumtum L. ; Medicago sativa L. ; Cucumis melo L

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hofmann, W.C.; Karpiscak, M.M.; Bartels, P.G.

    The cooling towers at the Palo Verde Nuclear Generating Station (PVNGS), located 80 km west of Phoenix, AZ, will release as estimated 2.1 Mg/d of particulates (primarily salts) into the atmosphere when the station is in full operation. The saline drift will disperse and settle onto agricultural fields surrounding the station. Field studies were conducted in 1983 to investigate the influence of foliar-applied saline aerosol on crop growth, foliar injury, and tissue elemental concentration on cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.), alfalfa (medicago sativa L.), and cantaloupe (Cucumis melo L.) in an arid environment. The treatment aerosol solutions simulated treated wastewater effluent and included all essential plant nutrients and other elements, including trace concentrations of heavy metals. The treatments included unsprayed plots, and plots sprayed with salt solutions at 0 (distilled water), 8, 83, and 415 kg/(ha yr). The alfalfa received an additional 829 kg/(ha yr) treatment. The species were evaluated in separate experiments on Mohave clay loam and Sonoita sandy loam soils (Typic Haplargid) near Marana, AZ. Cotton treated with 415 kg/(ha yr) had significantly less chlorosis and tended to be slightly taller than the cotton in the unsprayed plots. The alfalfa treated at a rate of 829 kg/(ha yr) showed significantly more leaf margin necrosis than did the unsprayed alfalfa. In the cantaloupe, there were no visually apparent differences among salt treatments. Hand-harvested cotton plots had a significant reduction is seed cotton yield at the 415 kg/(ha yr) treatment. A similar though nonsignificant, trend towards reduced yield with increased salt treatment was observed in machine-harvested cotton plots.

  5. Transcriptome Analyses Reveal Candidate Genes Potentially Involved in Al Stress Response in Alfalfa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Wenxian; Xiong, Conghui; Yan, Longfeng; Zhang, Zhengshe; Ma, Lichao; Wang, Yanrong; Liu, Yajie; Liu, Zhipeng

    2017-01-01

    Alfalfa is the most extensively cultivated forage legume, yet most alfalfa cultivars are not aluminum tolerant, and the molecular mechanisms underlying alfalfa responses to Al stress are largely unknown. In this study, we aimed to understand how alfalfa responds to Al stress by identifying and analyzing Al-stress-responsive genes in alfalfa roots at the whole-genome scale. The transcriptome changes in alfalfa roots under Al stress for 4, 8, or 24 h were analyzed using Illumina high-throughput sequencing platforms. A total of 2464 differentially expressed genes (DEGs) were identified, and most were up-regulated at early (4 h) and/or late (24 h) Al exposure time points rather than at the middle exposure time point (8 h). Metabolic pathway enrichment analysis demonstrated that the DEGs involved in ribosome, protein biosynthesis, and process, the citrate cycle, membrane transport, and hormonal regulation were preferentially enriched and regulated. Biosynthesis inhibition and signal transduction downstream of auxin- and ethylene-mediated signals occur during alfalfa responses to root growth inhibition. The internal Al detoxification mechanisms play important roles in alfalfa roots under Al stress. These findings provide valuable information for identifying and characterizing important components in the Al signaling network in alfalfa and enhance understanding of the molecular mechanisms underlying alfalfa responses to Al stress. PMID:28217130

  6. Effects of Saffron Corm and Leaf Extracts on Early Growth of Some Plants to Investigate the Possibility of Using Them as Associated Crop

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hamid-Reza FALLAHI

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Saffron intercropping with other plants needs to preliminary investigations about the possible negative interactions between saffron and associated crop. In this study, allelopathic effects of saffron leaf and corm extracts on germination and seedling growth indices of alfalfa (Medicago sativa, arugula (Eruca sativa and rapeseed (Brassica napus was investigated in six separate experiments based on completely randomized design. Experimental treatments were consisted of different levels of saffron leaf and corm extracts including 0, 0.75, 1.5, 3 and 6%. The maximum germination percentage of all selected crops was obtained at control treatment (on average 92% and then decreased with increasing extracts concentration. So that, the germination percentage of arugula, canola and alfalfa in highest concentration of extracts were 18, 10 and 8% for leaf extract and 72, 68 and 93% for corm extract, respectively. The relatively similar trend was observed about germination rate, root and plumule lengths and dry weights. Therefore, the inhibitory effect of saffron leaf extract was more than corm extract on initial growth indices of studied plants. The lowest inhibitory effect of saffron leaf extract and even relatively high stimulatory effect of corm extract were obtained on alfalfa initial growth criteria. Considering the differences in allelochemicals mode of action and concentrations in laboratory bioassays with natural condition, it is necessary to investigate the effects of saffron residues on growth of selected associated crops in greenhouse and field scales for the final decision.

  7. Complete mitochondrial genome of yellow meal worm (Tenebrio molitor).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Li-Na; Wang, Cheng-Ye

    2014-11-18

    The yellow meal worm (Tenebrio molitor L.) is an important resource insect typically used as animal feed additive. It is also widely used for biological research. The first complete mitochondrial genome of T. molitor was determined for the first time by long PCR and conserved primer walking approaches. The results showed that the entire mitogenome of T. molitor was 15 785 bp long, with 72.35% A+T content [deposited in GenBank with accession number KF418153]. The gene order and orientation were the same as the most common type suggested as ancestral for insects. Two protein-coding genes used atypical start codons (CTA in ND2 and AAT in COX1), and the remaining 11 protein-coding genes started with a typical insect initiation codon ATN. All tRNAs showed standard clover-leaf structure, except for tRNA(Ser) (AGN), which lacked a dihydrouridine (DHU) arm. The newly added T. molitor mitogenome could provide information for future studies on yellow meal worm.

  8. Assessment of Blood Chemistry, Weight Gain and Linear Body Measurements of Pre-Puberal Buck Rabbits Fed Different Levels of Neem (Azadirachta indica A. Juss. Leaf Meals Evaluación de Química Sanguínea, Ganancia de Peso y Mediciones Corporales Lineales de Conejos Pre-Púberes Alimentados con Diferentes Niveles de Harina de Hojas de Neem (Azadirachta indica A. Juss.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I.P Ogbuewu

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available A 16 week feeding trial was carried out to investigate the effect of dietary Neem (Azadirachta indica A. Juss. leaf meal (NLM on body weight gain, linear body measurements and blood chemistry of pre-puberal buck rabbits. Four treatment diets were formulated to contain the NLM at inclusion levels of 0 (control, 5, 10 and 15%. Thirty six crossbred New Zealand white × Chinchilla pre-puberal buck rabbits aged 5 to 6 mo were divided into four groups of nine rabbits and each group was further replicated into three of three rabbits each. The rabbits were randomly assigned to the four dietary treatments. Lymphocyte count of rabbits fed control diet (8.32 × 10(9 mm-3 was significantly higher than the group fed 15% NLM (4.60 × 10(9 mm-3. The mean cell hemoglobin (MCH and mean cell volume (MCV of the control bucks were significantly (p 0.05 among the treatment groups. The results suggest that buck rabbits could tolerate up to 15% dietary inclusion of NLM without deleterious effects on body weight gain, linear body measurements and some hematological parameters.Se realizó un ensayo de alimentación de 16 semanas para investigar el efecto de harina de hojas de neem Azadirachta indica A. Juss. (NML sobre ganancia de peso, mediciones corporales lineales y química sanguínea de conejos machos pre-púberes. Se formularon cuatro dietas con niveles de inclusión de NLM de 0 (control, 5, 10, y 15%. Treinta y seis conejos híbridos New Zealand white × Chinchilla, pre-púberes, de 5 a 6 meses, se distribuyeron en cuatro grupos de nueve conejos, y cada grupo fue repetido en tres grupos de tres conejos cada uno. Los conejos se asignaron aleatoriamente a las cuatro dietas tratamiento. El recuento de linfocitos de los conejos alimentados con la dieta control (8,32 × 10(9 mm-3 fue significativamente mayor que el grupo alimentado con 15% NLM (4,60 × 10(9 mm-3. La hemoglobina celular media (MCH y el volumen celular medio (MCV de los conejos control fueron

  9. Meal and Snacking Patterns of Students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singleton, Nan; Rhoads, Dianne S.

    1982-01-01

    A survey of the responses of 3,309 Louisiana students was used to determine students' meal and snacking habits at the elementary, junior high, and high school levels. Student responses concerned: (1) where and why food was consumed; (2) vitamin supplements; (3) reasons meals were omitted; and (4) reaction to school lunches. (PP)

  10. The family meal panacea: exploring how different aspects of family meal occurrence, meal habits and meal enjoyment relate to young children's diets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skafida, Valeria

    2013-07-01

    The general consensus in the research to date is that family meals are linked to healthier eating habits in children, compared to not eating with the family. Yet, few studies explore what it is about commensality which leads to better food choices among children. Using a representative Scottish sample of five-year-old children, this research explores the extent to which family meal occurrence, meal patterns regarding where, when and with whom children eat and perceived meal enjoyment predict the quality of children's diets after controlling for indicators of maternal capital that influence both meal rituals and taste preferences. Eating the same food as parents is the aspect of family meals most strongly linked to better diets in children, highlighting the detrimental effect in the rise of 'children's food'. Although theoretical and empirical work pointed to the important health advantage in children eating together with parents, the results suggested that eating together was a far less important aspect of family meals. In evaluating the importance of the family meal, this article redirects attention away from issues of form and function towards issues of food choice. Policy implications and the importance for public health to recognise the way eating habits are defined by and reproduce social and cultural capital are discussed.

  11. Revisiting the Economic Injury Level and Economic Threshold Model for Potato Leafhopper (Hemiptera: Cicadellidae) in Alfalfa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chasen, Elissa M; Undersander, Dan J; Cullen, Eileen M

    2015-08-01

    The economic injury level for potato leafhopper, Empoasca fabae (Harris), in alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.) was developed over 30 yr ago. In response to increasing market value of alfalfa, farmers and consultants are interested in reducing the economic threshold for potato leafhopper in alfalfa. To address this question, caged field trials were established on two consecutive potato leafhopper susceptible crops in 2013. Field cages were infested with a range of potato leafhopper densities to create a linear regression of alfalfa yield response. The slopes, or yield loss per insect, for the linear regressions of both trials were used to calculate an economic injury level for a range of current alfalfa market values and control costs. This yield-loss relationship is the first quantification that could be used to help assess whether the economic threshold should be lowered, given the increased market value of alfalfa.

  12. Growth With of Alfalfa Mutant in Different Nitrogen Fertilizer and Defoliation Intensity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Widyati Slamet

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available The research was conducted to evaluate growth  of alfalfa mutan (plant height increment, number of leaves and dry matter production in different  Nitrogen Fertilizer and defoliation intensity. The design used was randomized block design 4x2 factorial with 3 replications. The first was dosage of Nitrogen fertilizerNitrogen   (0, 30, 60 and 90 kg N / ha,  the second factor was defoliation intensity (5 and 10 cm. Variables observed alfalfa growth (plant height increment, number of leaves, the production of dry matter (DM forage. The results showed that different N fertilization did not affect the growth of alfalfa mutants. Defoliation intensity  affectedmnumber of leaves and   DM  production of alfalfa mutant. Fertilization to 90 kg N / ha has not affected the growth and   defoliation  intensity 10 cm gave better growth on alfalfa mutant.   [Keywords: alfalfa mutant; Nitrogen fertilizer; defoliation; growth

  13. School meal sociality or lunch pack individualism?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Sidse Schoubye; Holm, Lotte; Baarts, Charlotte

    2015-01-01

    The present article specifies and broadens our understanding of the concept of commensality by investigating what it means to ‘share a meal’. The study utilizes a school meal intervention carried out in Denmark in 2011/2012. It shows how different types of school meal arrangement influence...... to school. The study discusses commensality by examining and comparing lunchtime interactions within the same group of children in the two contrasting meal situations. The results fail to confirm the conventional view that shared meals have greater social impacts and benefits than eating individualized...... foods. The article argues that the social entrepreneurship involved in sharing individual lunch packs might even outweigh some of the benefits of shared meals where everyone is served the same food....

  14. Transcriptome Analysis of Resistant and Susceptible Alfalfa Cultivars Infected With Root-Knot Nematode Meloidogyne incognita

    OpenAIRE

    Postnikova, Olga A.; Maria Hult; Jonathan Shao; Andrea Skantar; Nemchinov, Lev G.

    2015-01-01

    Nematodes are one of the major limiting factors in alfalfa production. Root-knot nematodes (RKN, Meloidogyne spp.) are widely distributed and economically important sedentary endoparasites of agricultural crops and they may inflict significant damage to alfalfa fields. As of today, no studies have been published on global gene expression profiling in alfalfa infected with RKN or any other plant parasitic nematode. Very little information is available about molecular mechanisms that contribute...

  15. Animal feed compositions containing phytase derived from transgenic alfalfa and methods of use thereof

    Science.gov (United States)

    Austin-Phillips, Sandra; Koegel, Richard G.; Straub, Richard J.; Cook, Mark

    1999-01-01

    A value-added composition of matter containing plant matter from transgenic alfalfa which expresses exogenous phytase activity is disclosed. The phytase activity is a gene product of an exogenous gene encoding for phytase which has been stably incorporated into the genome of alfalfa plants. The transgenic alfalfa expresses phytase activity in nutritionally-significant amounts, thereby enabling its use in animal feeds to eliminate the need for phosphorous supplementation of livestock, poultry, and fish feed rations.

  16. Animal feed compositions containing phytase derived from transgenic alfalfa and methods of use thereof

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Austin-Phillips, Sandra (Madison, WI); Koegel, Richard G. (Madison, WI); Straub, Richard J. (Brooklyn, WI); Cook, Mark (Madison, WI)

    2001-01-01

    A value-added composition of matter containing plant matter from transgenic alfalfa which expresses exogenous phytase activity is disclosed. The phytase activity is a gene product of an exogenous gene encoding for phytase which has been stably incorporated into the genome of alfalfa plants. The transgenic alfalfa expresses phytase activity in nutritionally-significant amounts, thereby enabling its use in animal feeds to eliminate the need for phosphorous supplementation of livestock, poultry, and fish feed rations.

  17. Photosynthetic and Molecular Markers of CO2-mediated Photosynthetic Downregulation in Nodulated Alfalfa

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    (A)lvaro Sanz-Sáez; Gorka Erice; Iker Aranjuelo; Ricardo Aroca; Juan Manuel Ruíz-Lozano; Jone Aguirreolea; Juan José Irigoyen

    2013-01-01

    Elevated CO2 leads to a decrease in potential net photosynthesis in long-term experiments and thus to a reduction in potential growth.This process is known as photosynthetic downregulation.There is no agreement on the definition of which parameters are the most sensitive for detecting CO2 acclimation.In order to investigate the most sensitive photosynthetic and molecular markers of CO2 acclimation,the effects of elevated CO2,and associated elevated temperature were analyzed in alfalfa plants inoculated with different Sinorhizobium meliloti strains.Plants (Medicago sativa L.cv.Aragón) were grown in summer or autumn in temperature gradient greenhouses (TGG).At the end of the experiment,all plants showed acclimation in both seasons,especially under elevated summer temperatures.This was probably due to the lower nitrogen (N) availability caused by decreased N2-fixation under higher temperatures.Photosynthesis measured at growth CO2 concentration,rubisco in vitro activity and maximum rate of carboxylation were the most sensitive parameters for detecting downregulation.Severe acclimation was also related with decreases in leaf nitrogen content associated with declines in rubisco content (large and small subunits) and activity that resulted in a drop in photosynthesis.Despite the sensitivity of rubisco content as a marker of acclimation,it was not coordinated with gene expression,possibly due to a lag between gene transcription and protein translation.

  18. Bioinformatics Analysis of Zinc Transporter from Baoding Alfalfa

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Haibo WANG; Junyun GUO

    2012-01-01

    [Objective] This study aimed to perform the bioinformatics analysis of Zinc transporter (ZnT) from Baoding Alfalfa. [Method] Based on the amino acid sequence, the physical and chemical properties, hydrophilicity/hydrophobicity, secondary structure of ZnT from Baoding alfalfa were predicted by a series of bioinformatics software. And the transmembrane domains were predicted by using different online tools. [Result] ZnT is a hydrophobic protein containing 408 amino acids with the theoretical pl of 5.94, and it has 7 potential transmembrane hydrophobic regions. In the sec- ondary structure, co-helix (Hh) accounted for 48.04%, extended strand (Ee) for 9.56%, random coil (Cc) for 42.40%, which was accored with the characteristic of transmembrane protein. [Conclusion] mZnT is a member of CDF family, responsible for transporting Zn^2+ out of the cell membrane to reduce the concentration and toxicity of Zn^2+.

  19. Proteomics analysis of alfalfa response to heat stress.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Weimin Li

    Full Text Available The proteome responses to heat stress have not been well understood. In this study, alfalfa (Medicago sativa L. cv. Huaiyin seedlings were exposed to 25 °C (control and 40 °C (heat stress in growth chambers, and leaves were collected at 24, 48 and 72 h after treatment, respectively. The morphological, physiological and proteomic processes were negatively affected under heat stress. Proteins were extracted and separated by two-dimensional polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (2-DE, and differentially expressed protein spots were identified by mass spectrometry (MS. Totally, 81 differentially expressed proteins were identified successfully by MALDI-TOF/TOF. These proteins were categorized into nine classes: including metabolism, energy, protein synthesis, protein destination/storage, transporters, intracellular traffic, cell structure, signal transduction and disease/defence. Five proteins were further analyzed for mRNA levels. The results of the proteomics analyses provide a better understanding of the molecular basis of heat-stress responses in alfalfa.

  20. Developing PYTHON Codes for the Undergraduate ALFALFA Team

    Science.gov (United States)

    Troischt, Parker; Ryan, Nicholas; Alfalfa Team

    2016-03-01

    We describe here progress toward developing a number of new PYTHON routines to be used by members of the Undergraduate ALFALFA Team. The codes are designed to analyze HI spectra and assist in identifying and categorizing some of the intriguing sources found in the initial blind ALFALFA survey. Numerical integration is performed on extragalactic sources using 21cm line spectra produced with the L-Band Wide receiver at the National Astronomy and Ionosphere Center. Prior to the integration, polynomial fits are employed to obtain an appropriate baseline for each source. The codes developed here are part of a larger team effort to use new PYTHON routines in order to replace, upgrade, or supplement a wealth of existing IDL codes within the collaboration. This work has been supported by NSF Grant AST-1211005.

  1. The placemat protocol: Measuring preschoolers' healthy-meal schemas with pretend meals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harrison, Kristen; Peralta, Mericarmen; Jacobsohn, Gwen Costa; Grider, David T

    2016-01-01

    Nutrition instruction can lead to more healthful food choices among children, but little is known about preschoolers' healthy-meal schemas because there are few developmentally appropriate measures. This study validated the Placemat Protocol, a novel measure of preschooler healthy-meal schemas using realistic food models to assemble pretend meals. Preschoolers (N = 247, mean age 4 years 8 months) created 2 meals (preferred and healthy), completed measures of verbal nutrition knowledge and vocabulary, and were weighed and measured for BMI. Parents reported healthy eating guidance, child dietary intake, and family demographics. Children used an average of 5.1 energy-dense (ED) and 3.4 nutrient-dense (ND) foods for their preferred meal, but reversed the ratio to 3.1 ED and 5.1 ND foods for their healthy meal. Healthy meals contained fewer estimated kcal, less fat, less sugar, and more fiber than preferred meals. Meal differences held for younger children, children with lower verbal nutrition knowledge and vocabulary, and child subgroups at higher risk for obesity. Placemat Protocol data correlated with parent healthy eating guidance and child obesogenic dietary intake as expected. The Placemat Protocol shows promise for assessing developing healthy-meal schemas before children can fully articulate their knowledge on verbal measures.

  2. Identifying OH Imposters in the ALFALFA Neutral Hydrogen Survey

    CERN Document Server

    Suess, Katherine A; Haynes, Martha P; Giovanelli, Riccardo

    2016-01-01

    OH megamasers (OHMs) are rare, luminous molecular masers that are typically observed in (ultra) luminous infrared galaxies and serve as markers of major galaxy mergers. In blind emission line surveys such as the Arecibo Legacy Fast Arecibo L-Band Feed Array (ALFALFA) survey for neutral hydrogen (HI), OHMs at z~0.2 can mimic z~0.05 HI lines. We present the results of optical spectroscopy of ambiguous HI detections in the ALFALFA 40% data release detected by the Wide Field Infrared Survey Explorer (WISE) but with uncertain optical counterparts. The optical redshifts, obtained from observations at the Apache Point Observatory, revealed five new OHMs and identified 129 HI optical counterparts. Sixty candidates remain ambiguous. The new OHMs are the first detected in a blind spectral line survey. The number of OHMs in ALFALFA is consistent with predictions from the OH luminosity function. Additionally, the mid-infrared magnitudes and colors of the OHM host galaxies found in a blind survey do not seem to differ fro...

  3. Comparison of amino acid digestibility coefficients for soybean meal, canola meal, fish meal, and meat and bone meal among 3 different bioassays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, E J; Utterback, P L; Parsons, C M

    2012-06-01

    The objective of this study was to determine amino acid digestibility of 4 feedstuffs [soybean meal (SBM), canola meal, fish meal, and meat and bone meal (MBM)] using the precision-fed cecectomized rooster assay (PFR), the standardized ileal assay (SIAAD), and a newly developed precision-fed ileal broiler assay (PFC). For the PFR, cecectomized roosters were precision-fed approximately 30 g of feed sample, and excreta were collected 48 h postfeeding. For the SIAAD, 16-d-old broilers were fed a semipurified diet containing the feed samples as the only source of protein from 17 to 21 d, with ileal digesta collected at 21 d. For the PFC, 22-d-old broilers were precision-fed 10 g of feed sample mixed with chromic oxide, and ileal digesta were collected at 4 h postfeeding. Digestibility coefficients were standardized using a nitrogen-free diet for the SIAAD and PFC and using fasted roosters for the PFR. There were generally no consistent differences in standardized amino acid digestibility values among assays, and values were in general agreement among assays, particularly for SBM and MBM. Differences did occur among methods for amino acid digestibility in fish meal; however, these differences were not consistent among methods or amino acids. The results of the study indicated that all 3 bioassays are acceptable for determining the amino acid digestibility of SBM, canola meal, MBM, and fish meal for poultry.

  4. GROWTH PERFORMANCE AND FEED CONVERSION RATIO (FCR OF HYBRID FINGERLINGS (CATLA CATLA X LABEO ROHITA FED ON COTTONSEED MEAL, SUNFLOWER MEAL AND BONE MEAL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. SAHZADI, M. SALIM, UM-E-KALSOOM AND K. SHAHZAD

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available An experiment was conducted in six glass aquaria to study the growth performance and feed conversion ratio (FCR of hybrid fingerlings (Catla catla x Labeo rohita fed on sunflower meal, cottonseed meal and bone meal. Two replicates for each ingredient were followed. The feed was supplied at the rate of 4% of wet body weight of fingerlings twice a day. The hybrid (Catla catla x Labeo rohita fingerlings gained highest body weight (1.62 ± 0.0 g on sunflower meal, followed by cottonseed meal (1.61 ± 0.01 g and bone meal (1.52 ± 0.0 g. The total length obtained by hybrid fish was 6.35 ± 0.05 cm on sunflower meal, 6.12 ± 0.05 cm on cottonseed meal and 5.85 ± 0.05 cm on bone meal. The overall mean values of FCR were lower (better on sunflower meal (1.78 ± 0.05, followed by cottonseed meal (2.17 ± 0.01 and bone meal (2.46 ± 0.01. Thus, The sunflower meal and cottonseed meal, on the basis of growth performance and better FCR, can be included in the feed formulation for hybrid fingerlings.

  5. Diabetes-Friendly Meal Everyone Can Enjoy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... of this page please turn Javascript on. Feature: Diabetes A Diabetes-Friendly Meal Everyone Can Enjoy Past Issues / Fall 2009 Table of Contents From the National Diabetes Education Program (NDEP) Knowing what to serve and ...

  6. 苜蓿混合凋萎青贮技术对青贮品质的影响%Effects of Mixed Wilting Silage Technology on Alfalfa Silage Quality

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    贾纳提; 刘梦; 李莉; 董志国; 麦丽亚·伊尔斯比克

    2012-01-01

    对苜蓿+无芒雀麦+披碱草和苜蓿+无芒雀麦+冰草的混播草地牧草采用凋萎青贮技术进行混合青贮,以单独凋萎青贮新疆大叶苜蓿设为对照,分析各处理青贮材料的pH值、CP、NDF、ADF、乙酸、乳酸、丙酸和氨态氮的变化,比较其混合青贮技术对青贮品质的影响。试验结果表明,苜蓿混合凋萎青贮无论从青贮感官指标,还是从青贮料的营养成分及有机酸含量,其表现比单独凋萎青贮效果好。在混合凋萎青贮处理的两个组合中,苜蓿+无芒雀麦+冰草混合青贮效果最理想。%The mixed wilting silage technology was used on Xinjiang big leaf alfalfa-Medicago sativa L. + Bromus inermis Leyss + Agropyron cristatum and Xinjiang big leaf alfalfa-Medicago sativa L. + Bromus inermis Leyss + Elymus dahuricus Turcz, and set single- wilting silage as control. PH value,CP, NDF, ADF, Butyric acid, Acetic acid, Propionic acid and NH3-N content in each treatment changes were analysed to compare the effects of mixed wilting silage technology on alfalfa silage quality .The results showed that alfalfa mixed wilting silage ,whether from the sensory index of silage, or from the nutrients and organic acid contents of silage to consider ,the effect was better than single-wilting silage. In the two combinations of mixed wilting silage treatment, the treatment Xinjiang big leaf alfalfa- Medicago sativa L. + Bromus inermis Leyss + Agropyron cristatum silage effect was better..

  7. Change of digestive physiology in sea cucumber Apostichopus japonicus (Selenka) induced by corn kernels meal and soybean meal in diets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Haibo; Gao, Qinfeng; Dong, Shuanglin; Hou, Yiran; Wen, Bin

    2016-08-01

    The present study was conducted to determine the change of digestive physiology in sea cucumber Apostichopus japonicus (Selenka) induced by corn kernels meal and soybean meal in diets. Four experimental diets were tested, in which Sargassum thunbergii was proportionally replaced by the mixture of corn kernels meal and soybean meal. The growth performance, body composition and intestinal digestive enzyme activities in A. japonicus fed these 4 diets were examined. Results showed that the sea cucumber exhibited the maximum growth rate when 20% of S. thunbergii in the diet was replaced by corn kernels meal and soybean meal, while 40% of S. thunbergii in the diet can be replaced by the mixture of corn kernels meal and soybean meal without adversely affecting growth performance of A. japonicus. The activities of intestinal trypsin and amylase in A. japonicus can be significantly altered by corn kernels meal and soybean meal in diets. Trypsin activity in the intestine of A. japonicus significantly increased in the treatment groups compared to the control, suggesting that the supplement of corn kernels meal and soybean meal in the diets might increase the intestinal trypsin activity of A. japonicus. However, amylase activity in the intestine of A. japonicus remarkably decreased with the increasing replacement level of S. thunbergii by the mixture of corn kernels meal and soybean meal, suggesting that supplement of corn kernels meal and soybean meal in the diets might decrease the intestinal amylase activity of A. japonicus.

  8. Alfalfa interseeded into silage corn can serve as a cover crop and subsequent forage crop

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alfalfa (Medicago sativa) and corn (Zea mays) silage are commonly grown in rotation in dairy forage production systems throughout the northern regions of the USA. Alfalfa interseeded into silage corn could potentially serve two purposes: as a cover crop during the silage corn production year, and as...

  9. Selfing rate in an alfalfa seed production field pollinated with leafcutter bees

    Science.gov (United States)

    Self-pollination or “selfing” in autotetraploid alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.) (2n = 4x = 32) leads to severe inbreeding depression. Investigating selfing in alfalfa seed production may allow mitigation strategy development against potential negative impacts of selfing on varietal performance. Using m...

  10. Mechanisms of qualitative and quantitative resistance to Aphanomyces root rot in alfalfa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aphanomyces root rot (ARR), caused by Aphanomyces euteiches, is one of the most important diseases of alfalfa (Medicago sativa) in the United States. Two races of the pathogen are currently recognized. Most modern alfalfa cultivars have high levels of resistance to race 1 but few cultivars have resi...

  11. Mapping fall dormancy and winter injury in tetraploid alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alfalfa is a widely planted perennial forage crop. Dormancy in autumn (fall dormancy) is generally negatively correlated with winter injury in alfalfa. To understand the genetic basis of the two traits, we identified quantitative trait loci (QTL) controlling autumn growth and winter injury using a...

  12. Prohexadione-calcium improves stand density and yield of alfalfa interseeded into silage corn

    Science.gov (United States)

    Interseeded alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.) could serve as a dual-purpose crop to provide groundcover for silage corn (Zea mays L.) and forage during subsequent years of production, but interspecific competition often leads to poor stands of alfalfa and unsatisfactory yields of corn. Four experiments e...

  13. Roadside alfalfa: Innocent bystanders or conveyers of genetically-engineered traits?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clumps of alfalfa are a common sight along roads and vacant lots in areas that grow alfalfa for hay or seed. So what role do feral roadside plants play in dispersing transgenes? Is there a risk that transgenic feral plants serve as reservoirs or conduits that might facilitate the movement of transg...

  14. Alfalfa transgene dispersal and adventitious presence: understanding grower perception of risk

    Science.gov (United States)

    Recognizing the importance of coexistence, the alfalfa industry has developed a set of Best Management Practices (BMP) to maintain separation of GE and conventional production. But the success of BMP depends upon the degree that growers comply. Therefore we surveyed 530 alfalfa hay and seed producer...

  15. Interaction of bale size and preservative rate for large-round bales of alfalfa hay

    Science.gov (United States)

    Recently, two studies conducted at the US Dairy Forage Research Center have reported inconsistent storage responses following the application of propionic-acid-based preservatives to alfalfa or alfalfa-orchardgrass hays. One of these studies utilized 5-foot-diameter round bales, and produced disappo...

  16. A mineral seed coating for control of seedling diseases of alfalfa suitable for organic production systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Most alfalfa seed is treated with the systemic fungicide mefenoxam (Apron XL) for control of soilborne seedling diseases. However, Apron XL does not have activity against Aphanomyces euteiches, the causal agent of Aphanomyces root rot (ARR), which is an important component of the alfalfa root rot co...

  17. Effects of dairy slurry on the nutritive value and fermentation characteristics of alfalfa silages

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dairy producers frequently ask questions about the risks associated with applying dairy slurry onto growing alfalfa. Our objectives were to determine the effects of dairy-slurry application on the subsequent nutritive value and fermentation characteristics of alfalfa silages. Dairy slurry was applie...

  18. The Productivity and Quality of Alfalfa (Medicago sativa L. in Romanian Forest Steppe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mihai STAVARACHE

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Alternative use of alfalfa, for various purposes, including the production of biofuels or food supplement for human alimentation, is a study topic still in its early stages of research. Studying and understanding the biology of alfalfa and the factors with a major influence on it are very important activities. The productivity and quality of alfalfa are two indicators that help determine, in addition to economic value, the way in which alfalfa can be used. Evolution of alfalfa yield and quality depends on many factors, such as the growth stage of alfalfa plants at harvesting. It was observed over three years of vegetation the influence of alfalfa plant growth stage at harvest on plant height, leaves/stems ratio, production of leaves, stems and whole plant (DM - dry matter per hectare and on quality indicators (CP - crude protein, NDF - neutral detergent fiber and ADF - acid detergent fiber. The results showed that, with the advancement of phenological phases, from early bud stage to complete flowering, the total biomass output raised from 2.79 Mg·ha-1 to 4.60 Mg·ha-1, the neutral detergent fiber raised from 48.4-50.6% to 62.0-67.7%, while crude protein content decreased from 21.2-24.0% to 13.3-16.5%. The parameter values were correlated with alfalfa growth stage during the harvesting (significant at the 0.05 and 0.01 probability levels.

  19. Economics of growth regulator treatment of alfalfa seed for interseeding into silage corn

    Science.gov (United States)

    Previous studies have focused on interseeding of alfalfa into corn for use as a temporary cover crop rather than as a means of jump-starting alfalfa production after corn. In ongoing field studies, we are evaluating whether plant growth regulators (PGR) may be used to aid the establishment of inters...

  20. Cultivation and identification of the transgenic alfalfa containing Echinococcus granulosus Eg95 gene%细粒棘球绦虫转Eg95基因苜蓿疫苗的培育及鉴定

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    叶艳菊; 李文桂; 周辉

    2009-01-01

    Objective To cultivate and identify the transgenic affalfa containing Echinococcus granulosus Eg95 gene. Methods The alfalfa plants were transformed by co-cultivating alfalfa cotyledons via recombinant Agrobacterium tumefaciens LBA4404 harboring pBI-Eg95. The transgenic alfalfa explants were selected by kanamyein after calli formation, shoots and roots regeneration in the selective medium, the seedlings of transgenic plants were obtained which were finally transplanted into pots containing nutrient soil. After 2-3 months growth, the complete transgenic alfalfa plants containing Echinococcus granulosus Eg95 gene were obtained. To identify the transgenic alfalfa plants, the total DNA, RNA and leaf protein were extracted from fresh leaf tissue of the transgenic alfalfa plants and confirmed by PCR, RT-PCR, SDS-PAGE and Western blot assay. Results A specific band around 471 bp was amplified by PCR with total DNA, and the same band was obtained by RT-PCR with total RNA, which confirmed that the Eg95 gene was stably integrated into the transformed alfalfa genome. SDS-PAGE analysis showed that the relative molecular mass(Mr) of the expressed protein was about 16.5×103, consistent with the Eg95 protein, and the level of Eg95 expression was up to 0.06% of total soluble leaf protein by Bio-Rad Quantity one assay. Western blot verified the expressed protein was reactive with the sera of mice infected with Echinococcus granulosus. Conclusion The transgenic alfalfa plants containing Echinococcus granulosus Eg95 gene are successfully cultivated.%目的 培育并鉴定细粒棘球绦虫转Eg95基因苜蓿疫苗.方法 利用转pBI-Eg95质粒的根癌农杆菌LBA4404株介导的苜蓿子叶浸染法,将Eg95基因导人紫花苜蓿基因组,转Eg95基因苜蓿外植体在含有卡那霉素的选择培养基上经愈伤、出芽和生根阶段生长出小苗,最后移栽到装有营养土的花盆中,生长2~3个月,获得完整的转Eg95基因苜蓿疫苗.提取转Eg95基因苜

  1. quality of broiler fed diet supplemented by garlic meal and white turmeric meal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nanung Danar Dono

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available This research was done within 42 days to investigate the effect of diet supplemented by garlic (Allium sativum and white turmeric (Curcuma xanthorrhiza Roxb meals on physical and chemical quality of broiler meat. The number of 90 broiler DOC were used in this study. They were randomly allocated into 18 unit of cages. During the study, the chicken were given 6 feeding treatments, i.e.: R-0 (98.0% base diet + 2.0% filler; as control diet, RB-1 (98.0% base diet + 1.0% garlic meal + 1.0% filler, RB-2 (98.0% base diet + 2.0% garlic meal, RT-1 (98.0% base diet + 1.0% white turmeric meal + 1.0% filler, RT-2 (98.0% base diet + 2.0% white turmeric meal, and RB1T1 (98.0% base diet + 1.0% garlic meal + 1.0% white turmeric meal. The base diet was composed of: yellow corn, soybean meal, fish meal, rice polishing meal, sorghum, poultry meat meal, mineral mix, and was design to contain 17.5% crude protein and metabolizable energy 2,900 kcal/kg. Variables observed were: physical appearance (slaughter weight, non-feather weight, carcass weight, physical quality (pH, water holding capacity, cooking lose, tenderness, and cholesterol content (breast meat and blood cholesterol. All data were statistically analyzed by the Oneway of ANOVA and followed by the DMRT for significant results. Results showed that 1.0 - 2.0% garlic meal and 1.0 - 2.0% white turmeric meal supplementation reduced: breast meat cholesterol (P < 0.05, cooking lose (P < 0.05, and increased: pH (P < 0.01, and water holding capacity (P < 0.01 and improved tenderness (P < 0.05. Supplementation of 2% garlic meal and white turmeric meal didn’t affect slaughter weight, non-feather weight, carcass weight, nor blood cholesterol.

  2. Effect of partial replacement of alfalfa hay with Moringa species leaves on milk yield and composition of Najdi ewes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Babiker, Elfadıl E; Al Juhaimi, Fahad; Ghafoor, Kashif; Mohamed, H E; Abdoun, Khalid A

    2016-10-01

    The present study was carried out to investigate changes in milk yield and composition of Najdi ewes fed 25 % Moringa oleifera (MOD) or Moringa peregrina (MPD) leaf diets as a supplement to alfalfa hay diet (AHD). Thirty ewes (average 55 kg, 2 years old) were randomly sorted into three experimental groups with 10 animals each and were fed for a 6-week period with these diets (AHD, MOD, or MPD). Diets dry matter, crude protein, and crude fiber were comparable, while fat, nitrogen-free extract (NFE), neutral detergent fiber (NDF), acid detergent fiber (ADF), metabolizable energy (ME), total phenolic, and antioxidant activity varied (p ≤ 0.05) between the diets. Feeding ewes with MOD increased (p ≤ 0.05) the milk yield compared to those fed AHD while milk composition was similar (p ≤ 0.05) between treatments. The concentration of malondialdehyde (MDA) in the ewes' milk and serum was lower (p ≤ 0.05) for MOD, while the total antioxidant capacity, catalase activity, and vitamin C contents were increased (p ≤ 0.05). The serum cholesterol and glucose of the ewes were lower (p ≤ 0.05) for those fed MOD. Moringa diets increased (p ≤ 0.05) average daily weight gain of lambs compared to those fed alfalfa diets. The results obtained showed that the inclusion of Moringa, especially M. oleifera, in the diet of Najdi ewes can improve milk yield and quality.

  3. Modeling leaf venation morphogenesis

    CERN Document Server

    Laguna, M F; Jagla, E A

    2007-01-01

    We explore the possibility that the formation of leaf venation patterns is driven by mechanical instabilities in the growing leaf. In contrast to the prevalent canalization hypothesis based on polar auxin transport, mechanical instabilities lead very naturally to hierarchical patterns with an abundant number of closed loops as they exists in almost every leaf venation. We propose a continuum model where the vein formation is driven by a mechanical collapse of the mesophyll layer in the growing leaf, and present a numerical study of this model using a phase field approach. The results show the same qualitative features as real venation patterns and, furthermore, have the same statistical properties.

  4. 41 CFR 301-11.17 - If my agency authorizes per diem reimbursement, will it reduce my M&IE allowance for a meal(s...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... for a complimentary meal(s) provided by a hotel/motel? 301-11.17 Section 301-11.17 Public Contracts... complimentary meal(s) provided by a hotel/motel? No. A meal provided by a common carrier or a complimentary meal provided by a hotel/motel does not affect your per diem....

  5. [Population dynamics of ground carabid beetles and spiders in a wheat field along the wheat-alfalfa interface and their response to alfalfa mowing].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Wen-Hui; Hu, Yi-Jun; Hu, Wen-Chao; Hong, Bo; Guan, Xiao-Qing; Ma, Shi-Yu; He, Da-Han

    2014-09-01

    Taking the wheat-alfalfa and wheat-wheat interfaces as model systems, sampling points were set by the method of pitfall trapping in the wheat field at the distances of 3 m, 6 m, 9 m, 12 m, 15 m, 18 m, 21 m, 24 m, and 27 m from the interface. The species composition and abundance of ground carabid beetles and spiders captured in pitfalls were investigated. The results showed that, to some extent there was an edge effect on species diversity and abundance of ground carabid beetles and spiders along the two interfaces. A marked edge effect was observed between 15 m and 18 m along the alfalfa-wheat interface, while no edge effect was found at a distance over 20 m. The edge effect along the wheat-wheat interface was weaker in comparison to the alfalfa-wheat interface. Alfalfa mowing resulted in the migration of a large number of ground carabid beetles and spiders to the adjacent wheat filed. During ten days since mowing, both species and abundance of ground carabid beetles and spiders increased in wheat filed within the distance of 20 m along the alfalfa-wheat interface. The spatial distribution of species diversity of ground beetles and spiders, together with the population abundance of the dominant Chlaenius pallipes and Pardosa astrigera, were depicted, which could directly indicate the migrating process of natural enemy from alfalfa to wheat field.

  6. Beta-Amylases from Alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.) Roots.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doehlert, D C; Duke, S H; Anderson, L

    1982-05-01

    Amylase was found in high activity (193 international units per milligram protein) in the tap root of alfalfa (Medicago sativa L. cv. Sonora). The activity was separated by gel filtration chromatography into two fractions with molecular weights of 65,700 (heavy amylase) and 41,700 (light amylase). Activity staining of electrophoretic gels indicated the presence of one isozyme in the heavy amylase fraction and two in the light amylase fraction. Three amylase isozymes with electrophoretic mobilities identical to those in the heavy and the light amylase fractions were the only amylases identified in crude root preparations. Both heavy and light amylases hydrolyzed amylopectin, soluble starch, and amylose but did not hydrolyze pullulan or beta-limit dextrin. The ratio of viscosity change to reducing power production during starch hydrolysis was identical for both alfalfa amylase fractions and sweet potato beta-amylase, while that of bacterial alpha-amylase was considerably higher. The identification of maltose and beta-limit dextrin as hydrolytic end-products confirmed that these alfalfa root amylases are all beta-amylases.The pH optimum for both beta-amylase fractions was 6.0. Both light and heavy beta-amylases showed normal Michaelis-Menten kinetics, with soluble starch as substrate, and had respectively K(m) values of 5.9 and 6.8 milligrams starch per milliliter and V(max) of 640 and 130 international units per milligram protein. Arrhenius plots indicated that the energy of activation for the heavy beta-amylase remained relatively unchanged (12.7 to 13.0 kilocalories per mole) from 0 to 30 degrees C, whereas the energy of activation for the light amylase increased from 12.0 to about 28.0 kilocalories per mole at 8.7 degrees C as temperature was lowered. The light amylase was shown to be inhibited by maltose.

  7. Identifying OH Imposters in the ALFALFA Neutral Hydrogen Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suess, Katherine A.; Darling, Jeremy; Haynes, Martha P.; Giovanelli, Riccardo

    2016-06-01

    OH megamasers (OHMs) are rare, luminous molecular masers that are typically observed in (ultra) luminous infrared galaxies and serve as markers of major galaxy mergers. In blind emission line surveys such as the Arecibo Legacy Fast Arecibo L-Band Feed Array (ALFALFA) survey for neutral hydrogen (H I), OHMs at z ˜ 0.2 can mimic z ˜ 0.05 H I lines. We present the results of optical spectroscopy of ambiguous H I detections in the ALFALFA 40 per cent data release detected by the Wide Field Infrared Survey Explorer (WISE) but with uncertain optical counterparts. The optical redshifts, obtained from observations at the Apache Point Observatory, revealed five new OHMs and identified 129 H I optical counterparts. 60 candidates remain ambiguous. The new OHMs are the first detected in a blind spectral line survey. The number of OHMs in ALFALFA is consistent with predictions from the OH luminosity function. Additionally, the mid-infrared magnitudes and colours of the OHM host galaxies found in a blind survey do not seem to differ from those found in previous targeted surveys. This validates the methods used in previous IR-selected OHM surveys and indicates there is no previously unknown OHM-producing population at z ˜ 0.2. We also provide a method for future surveys to separate OH megamasers from 99 per cent of H I line emitters without optical spectroscopy by using WISE infrared colours and magnitudes. Since the fraction of OHMs found in flux-limited H I surveys is expected to increase with the survey's redshift, this selection method can be applied to future flux-limited high-redshift hydrogen surveys.

  8. Star Formation in Undergraduate ALFALFA Team Galaxy Groups and Clusters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koopmann, Rebecca A.; Durbala, Adriana; Finn, Rose; Haynes, Martha P.; Coble, Kimberly A.; Craig, David W.; Hoffman, G. Lyle; Miller, Brendan P.; Crone-Odekon, Mary; O'Donoghue, Aileen A.; Troischt, Parker; Undergraduate ALFALFA Team; ALFALFA Team

    2017-01-01

    The Undergraduate ALFALFA Team (UAT) Groups project is a coordinated study of gas and star formation properties of galaxies in and around 36 nearby (zwork undertaken by faculty and students at different institutions within the UAT. Here we present results from our wide area Hα and broadband R imaging project carried out with the WIYN 0.9m+MOSAIC/HDI at KPNO, including an analysis of radial star formation rates and extents of galaxies in the NGC 5846, Abell 779, NRGb331, and HCG 69 groups/clusters. This work has been supported by NSF grant AST-1211005 and AST-1637339.

  9. PERACETIC ACID PRETREATMENT OF ALFALFA STEM AND ASPEN BIOMASS

    OpenAIRE

    Lei Xu; Ulrike W. Tschirner

    2011-01-01

    Alfalfa stems and ground aspen were exposed to peracetic acid (0.5 to 9% on biomass) at temperatures ranging from 40 to 100° C and reaction times from 1 to 5 hours. Glucose release as a percentage of total cellulose content was determined using subsequent standard enzymatic hydrolysis. Statistical analysis confirmed that aspen showed a strong response to peracetic acid addition rate. 9% peracetic acid removed 14% of the original lignin and increased the rate of glucose release from 23% to 44%...

  10. Dehydration-anorexia derives from a reduction in meal size, but not meal number.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boyle, Christina N; Lorenzen, Sarah M; Compton, Douglas; Watts, Alan G

    2012-01-18

    The anorexia that results from extended periods of cellular dehydration is an important physiological adaptation that limits the intake of osmolytes from food and helps maintain the integrity of fluid compartments. The ability to experimentally control both the development and reversal of anorexia, together with the understanding of underlying hormonal and neuropeptidergic signals, makes dehydration (DE)-anorexia a powerful model for exploring the interactions of neural networks that stimulate and inhibit food intake. However, it is not known which meal parameters are affected by cellular dehydration to generate anorexia. Here we use continuous and high temporal resolution recording of food and fluid intake, together with a drinking-explicit method of meal pattern analysis to explore which meal parameters are modified during DE-anorexia. We find that the most important factor responsible for DE-anorexia is the failure to maintain feeding behavior once a meal has started, rather than the ability to initiate a meal, which remains virtually intact. This outcome is consistent with increased sensitivity to satiation signals and post-prandial satiety mechanisms. We also find that DE-anorexia significantly disrupts the temporal distribution of meals across the day so that the number of nocturnal meals gradually decreases while diurnal meal number increases. Surprisingly, once DE-anorexia is reversed this temporal redistribution is maintained for at least 4 days after normal food intake has resumed, which may allow increased daily food intake even after normal satiety mechanisms are reinstated. Therefore, DE-anorexia apparently develops from a selective targeting of those neural networks that control meal termination, whereas meal initiation mechanisms remain viable.

  11. IDENTIFICATION OF SOIL FUNGI ISOLATED FROM ALFALFA (Medicago sativa L TO FIND SPECIFIC FUNGI WHICH IMPROVED THE GROWTH OF ALFALFA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Yudiarti

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Objective of the study was to identify all kinds of fungi which can life in the alfalfa plantation inBaturaden Purwokerto-Central Java. Fungi used in this study was 38 isolates. All fungi have been takenfrom the isolation of soil and root of diseased plant. Macroscopic and microscopic methods were usedfor identification. Potato Dextrose Agar (PDA medium was used to grow the fungi. All fungi wereidentified using book identification of fungi. The results showed that from 38 isolates, six species wasdetermined and one was unidentifed. Those species identified were Cuninghammela sp, Trichoderma sp,Vertilicium sp, Eupenicillium sp, Pythium sp, Aspergillus sp.

  12. Chemical composition of lucerne leaf extract (EFL and its applications as a phytobiotic in human nutrition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eliza Gaweł

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available   Lucerne, a valuable plant grown mainly for animal feed, is rich in protein, minerals (Ca, Cu, Fe, Mg, Mn, P, Zn, Si, vitamins (A, B, C, D, E, K, U, phytochemical substances (carotene, chlorophyll, coumarins, isoflavones, alkaloids, saponins, contains secondary metabolites of plants (phytoestrogens: isoflavones and coumestrol, and antinutritional components (phytates, L-canavanine, saponins. It may be used as a dietary supplement in human nutrition. The proteins found in lucerne are comprised of numerous exogenous and semi-exogenous amino acids which are desirable for human body. Extract from the leaves of alfalfa (EFL – l’Extrait Foliaire de Luzerne practically does not contain mycotoxins and pesticide pollutants. It is a completely natural product, safe even in a long-term supplementation. Extract from the leaves of alfalfa has a positive, multidirectional impact on the human body. It increases the level of estrogen, prevents atherosclerosis, helps blood circulation and strenghtens immunity, protects against the development of dangerous diseases of the digestive tract, combats anemia and many other health ailments. The results of preclinical studies indicate that alfalfa leaf extract enriched with vitamin C (EFL can be a dietary supplement supporting the human body in fighting malnutrition, ischemic diseases, and various disorders of digestive tract. It also strengthens and enhances immunity.  

  13. Chemical composition of lucerne leaf extract (EFL) and its applications as a phytobiotic in human nutrition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaweł, Eliza

    2012-01-01

    Lucerne, a valuable plant grown mainly for animal feed, is rich in protein, minerals (Ca, Cu, Fe, Mg, Mn, P, Zn, Si), vitamins (A, B, C, D, E, K, U), phytochemical substances (carotene, chlorophyll, coumarins, isoflavones, alkaloids, saponins), contains secondary metabolites of plants (phytoestrogens: isoflavones and coumestrol), and antinutritional components (phytates, L-canavanine, saponins). It may be used as a dietary supplement in human nutrition. The proteins found in lucerne are comprised of numerous exogenous and semi-exogenous amino acids which are desirable for human body. Extract from the leaves of alfalfa (EFL - l'Extrait Foliaire de Luzerne) practically does not contain mycotoxins and pesticide pollutants. It is a completely natural product, safe even in a long-term supplementation. Extract from the leaves of alfalfa has a positive, multidirectional impact on the human body. It increases the level of estrogen, prevents atherosclerosis, helps blood circulation and strenghtens immunity, protects against the development of dangerous diseases of the digestive tract, combats anemia and many other health ailments. The results of preclinical studies indicate that alfalfa leaf extract enriched with vitamin C (EFL) can be a dietary supplement supporting the human body in fighting malnutrition, ischemic diseases, and various disorders of digestive tract. It also strengthens and enhances immunity.

  14. The Undergraduate ALFALFA Team: Outcomes for Over 250 Undergraduate Participants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Troischt, Parker; Koopmann, Rebecca A.; Haynes, Martha P.; ALFALFA Team

    2016-01-01

    The NSF-sponsored Undergraduate ALFALFA (Arecibo Legacy Fast ALFA) Team (UAT) is a consortium of 19 institutions founded to promote undergraduate research and faculty development within the extragalactic ALFALFA HI blind survey project and follow-up programs. In this talk we present outcomes for the more than 250 undergraduate students who have who have participated in the program during the 8 years of funding. 40% of these students have been women and members of underrepresented groups. To date 148 undergraduate students have attended annual workshops at Arecibo Observatory, interacting with faculty, graduate students, their peers, and Arecibo staff in lectures, group activities, tours, and observing runs. Team faculty have supervised 159 summer research projects and 120 academic year (e.g., senior thesis) projects. 68 students have traveled to Arecibo Observatory for observing runs and 55 have presented their results at national meetings such as the AAS. Through participation in the UAT, students are made aware of career paths they may not have previously considered. More than 90% of alumni are attending graduate school and/or pursuing a career in STEM. 42% of those pursuing graduate degrees in Physics or Astronomy are women. This work has been supported by NSF grants AST-0724918/0902211, AST-075267/0903394, AST-0725380, and AST-1211005

  15. Gas, Stars and Star Formation in ALFALFA Dwarf Galaxies

    CERN Document Server

    Huang, S; Giovanelli, R; Brinchmann, J; Stierwalt, S; Neff, S G

    2012-01-01

    We examine the global properties of the stellar and HI components of 229 low HI mass dwarf galaxies extracted from the ALFALFA survey, including a complete sample of 176 galaxies with HI masses < 10^{7.7} M_sun and HI line widths < 80 km s^{-1}. SDSS data are combined with photometric properties derived from GALEX to derive stellar masses (M_*) and star formation rates (SFRs) by fitting their UV-optical spectral energy distributions (SEDs). In optical images, many of the ALFALFA dwarfs are faint and of low surface brightness; only 56% of those within the SDSS footprint have a counterpart in the SDSS spectroscopic survey. A large fraction of the dwarfs have high specific star formation rates (SSFRs) and estimates of their SFRs and M_* obtained by SED fitting are systematically smaller than ones derived via standard formulae assuming a constant SFR. The increased dispersion of the SSFR distribution at M_* < 10^8 M_sun is driven by a set of dwarf galaxies that have low gas fractions and SSFRs; some of t...

  16. Modelling the dynamics of feral alfalfa populations and its management implications.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muthukumar V Bagavathiannan

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Feral populations of cultivated crops can pose challenges to novel trait confinement within agricultural landscapes. Simulation models can be helpful in investigating the underlying dynamics of feral populations and determining suitable management options. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We developed a stage-structured matrix population model for roadside feral alfalfa populations occurring in southern Manitoba, Canada. The model accounted for the existence of density-dependence and recruitment subsidy in feral populations. We used the model to investigate the long-term dynamics of feral alfalfa populations, and to evaluate the effectiveness of simulated management strategies such as herbicide application and mowing in controlling feral alfalfa. Results suggest that alfalfa populations occurring in roadside habitats can be persistent and less likely to go extinct under current roadverge management scenarios. Management attempts focused on controlling adult plants alone can be counterproductive due to the presence of density-dependent effects. Targeted herbicide application, which can achieve complete control of seedlings, rosettes and established plants, will be an effective strategy, but the seedbank population may contribute to new recruits. In regions where roadside mowing is regularly practiced, devising a timely mowing strategy (early- to mid-August for southern Manitoba, one that can totally prevent seed production, will be a feasible option for managing feral alfalfa populations. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Feral alfalfa populations can be persistent in roadside habitats. Timely mowing or regular targeted herbicide application will be effective in managing feral alfalfa populations and limit feral-population-mediated gene flow in alfalfa. However, in the context of novel trait confinement, the extent to which feral alfalfa populations need to be managed will be dictated by the tolerance levels established by specific production

  17. Meals and snacks from the child's perspective

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Husby, Ida; Heitmann, Berit L; O'Doherty Jensen, Katherine

    2009-01-01

    quality functioned as markers of a special social occasion. This was not the case among children with less healthy eating habits. All children described particular rules governing food consumption within their families. Although only some of them had participated in the development of these rules......OBJECTIVE: To explore the everyday consumption of meals and snacks from the child's perspective, among those with healthier v. less healthy dietary habits. DESIGN: The sample in this qualitative study comprised two groups of Danish schoolchildren aged 10 to 11 years, one with a healthier diet (n 9...... meals and two to four snacks. We found a connection between the nutritional quality of the diet and the social contexts of consumption, especially with regard to snacks. Among children with healthier eating habits, both snacks and meals tended to be shared social events and items of poor nutritional...

  18. Organic school meals in three Danish municipalities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    He, Chen; Mikkelsen, Bent Egberg

    . Copenhagen has established a large central kitchen, producing partly organic food that is heated and sold in tuck shops at the schools. Roskilde cooperates with an organic catering company, delivering food to be sold in school canteens. Gladsaxe has part-time employed staff preparing and selling food at each......In order to prevent children and young people from becoming obese, healthier eating patterns are urgent. Organic school meals may be an effective strategy to provide healthy food to children. The purpose of this study was to take a closer look into the current status of organic school meal systems...... in Denmark, by conducting a case study of three municipalities in the Zealand region that have the most developed models for school meals service in this country. These municipalities have for some years introduced organic food for sale in their primary schools, with three quite different approaches...

  19. Preparing meals under time stress. The experience of working mothers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beshara, Monica; Hutchinson, Amanda; Wilson, Carlene

    2010-12-01

    The present study quantitatively explored the effects of mothers' perceived time pressure, as well as meal-related variables including mothers' convenience orientation and meal preparation confidence, on the healthiness of evening meals served to school-aged children (5-18 years old) over a 7-day period. A sample of 120 employed mothers, who identified themselves as the chief meal-preparers in their households, completed a brief, self-report, meal-related questionnaire. Results revealed that mothers' perceived time pressure did not significantly predict meal healthiness. Mothers' confidence in their ability to prepare a healthy meal was the only unique, significant predictor of a healthy evening meal. Mothers who were more confident in their ability to prepare a healthy meal served healthier evening meals than those who were less confident. In addition, mothers' perceived time pressure and convenience orientation were negatively related to healthy meal preparation confidence. Results suggest that mothers' perceived time pressure and convenience orientation, may indirectly compromise meal healthiness, by decreasing mothers' meal preparation confidence. Practical and theoretical implications of the study's findings are discussed.

  20. Evaluation of salt content in school meals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cláudia Alexandra Colaço Lourenço Viegas

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: High blood pressure is a major rick factor for cardiovascular disease, and it is closely associated with salt intake. Schools are considered ideal environments to promote health and proper eating habits. Therefore the objective of this study was to evaluate the amount of salt in meals served in school canteens and consumers' perceptions about salt. METHODS: Meals, including all the components (bread, soup, and main dish were retrieved from school canteens. Salt was quantified by a portable salt meter. For food perception we constructed a questionnaire that was administered to high school students. RESULTS: A total of 798 food samples were analysed. Bread had the highest salt content with a mean of 1.35 g/100 g (SD=0.12. Salt in soups ranged from 0.72 g/100 g to 0.80 g/100 g (p=0.05 and, in main courses, from 0.71 g/100 to 0.97 g/100g (p=0.05. The salt content of school meals is high with a mean value of 2.83 to 3.82 g of salt per meal. Moreover, a high percentage of students consider meals neither salty nor bland, which shows they are used to the intensity/amount of salt consumed. CONCLUSION: The salt content of school meals is high, ranging from 2 to 5 times more than the Recommended Dietary Allowances for children, clearly exceeding the needs for this population, which may pose a health risk. Healthy choices are only possible in environments where such choices are possible. Therefore, salt reduction strategies aimed at the food industry and catering services should be implemented, with children and young people targeted as a major priority.

  1. Relationship of Resistance to Meloidogyne chitwoodi (race 2) and M. hapla in Alfalfa

    OpenAIRE

    Per H McCord

    2012-01-01

    In the Pacific Northwest, alfalfa (Medicago sativa) is host to two species of root-knot nematodes, including race 2 of the Columbia root-knot nematode (Meloidogyne chitwoodi) and the northern root-knot nematode (Meloidogyne hapla). In addition to the damage caused to alfalfa itself by M. hapla, alfalfa’s host status to both species leaves large numbers of nematodes available to damage rotation crops, of which potato is the most important. A nematode-resistant alfalfa germplasm release, W12SR2...

  2. Evaluación cuantitativa de diez variedades de alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.).

    OpenAIRE

    Álvarez Vázquez, Perpetuo

    2013-01-01

    En México, la alfalfa es la leguminosa más utilizada en la alimentación del ganado lechero, debido a su alto rendimiento y valor nutritivo. El objetivo del presente estudio fue evaluar las variables que determinan el crecimiento y rendimiento de diez variedades de alfalfa a intervalos de corte definidos estacionalmente. El estudio se realizó de septiembre de 2011 a septiembre de 2012 en el Colegio de Postgraduados, Campus Montecillo, Texcoco, México. Las variedades de alfalfa estudiadas fuero...

  3. Replacement of Forage Fiber Sources with Dried Distillers Grains with Solubles and Corn Germ Meal in Holstein Calf Diets

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XU Jun; HOU Yu-jie; ZHAO Guo-qi; YU Ai-bing; SU Yan-jing; HUO Yong-jiu; ZHU Jian-ming

    2014-01-01

    This study was carried out to determine the effect of replacement of forage ifber sources from alfalfa and Leymus chinensis with nonforage ifber sources (NFFS) from dried distillers grains with solubles and corn germ meal on calves growth, rumen development and blood parameters. 48 female and 12 male calves ((110.55±15.36) kg of body weight and 12 wk of age) were assigned randomly to four dietary treatments (15 calves/treatment) in a completely randomized design. Experimental diets were:0%NFFS (control), 9%NFFS (group 1), 18%NFFS (group 2), 27%NFFS (group 3), and contained equivalent neutral detergent ifber and total digestible nutrients, respectively. The dry matter intake was similar among diets, averaging 3.33 kg d-1, and no differences were detected for body weight, withers height, body length and heart girth. In addition, the development of rumen, reticulum, omasum and abomasum also were similar among diets. Dry matter, crude protein, and neutral detergent ifber digestibilities increased with the increasing levels of NFFS in the experimental diets, but had no signiifcant effect. Blood urea nitrogen, total protein and glubulin were not affected by the dietary treatment, but group 3 resulted in the highest (P<0.05) concentrations of glucose and the lowest (P<0.05) concentrations of triglycerides and albumin. In conclusion, dried distillers grains with solubles (DDGS) and corn germ meal (CGM) were available and alternative ifber sources for Holstein calf diets.

  4. Classification of specialty seed meals from NIR reflectance spectra

    Science.gov (United States)

    Near infrared reflectance spectroscopy was used to identify alternative seed meals proposed for food and feed formulations. Spectra were collected from cold pressed Camelina (Camelina sativa), Coriander (Coriandrum sativum), and Pennycress (Thlaspi arvense) meals. Additional spectra were collected ...

  5. First and second meal effects of pulses on blood glucose, appetite, and food intake at a later meal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mollard, Rebecca C; Wong, Christina L; Luhovyy, Bohdan L; Anderson, G Harvey

    2011-10-01

    Pulses are low-glycemic appetite-suppressing foods, but it is not known whether these properties persist after being consumed as part of a meal and after a second meal. The objective of this study was to determine the effects of a fixed-size pulse meal on appetite and blood glucose (BG) before and after an ad libitum test meal (pizza) and on food intake (FI) at the test meal. Males (n = 25; 21.3 ± 0.5 years; 21.6 ± 0.3 kg·m(-2)) randomly consumed 4 isocaloric meals: chickpea; lentil; yellow split pea; and macaroni and cheese (control). Commercially available canned pulses provided 250 kcal, and were consumed with macaroni and tomato sauce. FI was measured at a pizza meal 260 min after consumption of the isocaloric meal. BG and appetite were measured from 0 to 340 min. The lentil and yellow pea, but not chickpea, treatments led to lower appetite ratings during the 260 min prepizza meal period, and less FI at the pizza meal, compared with macaroni and cheese (p chickpea and lentil treatments, but not the yellow pea treatment (p chickpea and lentil treatments than in the yellow pea treatment (p < 0.05). The beneficial effects of consuming a pulse meal on appetite, FI at a later meal, and the BG response to a later meal are dependent on pulse type.

  6. Effect of dietary supplement of sugar beet, neem leaf, linseed and coriander on growth performance and carcass trait of Vanaraja chicken

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Punita Kumari

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Aim: This study was planned to investigate the effect of sugar beet, neem leaf, linseed and coriander on growth parameters such as feed intake, body weight gain, feed conversion ratio (FCR, performance index (PI, and carcass characteristics in broiler birds. Materials and Methods: The experiment was conducted for a period of 42 days on Vanaraja strain of broiler birds. Different dietary supplement such as sugar beet meal, neem leaf meal, linseed meal and coriander seed meal were used in the basal diet. All day-old 150 male chicks were individually weighed and distributed into five groups having 30 birds in each. Each group was further sub-divided into triplicates having 10 birds in each. Group T1served as control and rest groups T2, T3, T4 and T5 as treatment groups. Birds in T1 group were fed basal ration only, however, T2 , T3, T4 and T5 groups were fed basal ration mixed with 2.5% sugar beet meal, neem leaf meal, linseed meal, and coriander seed meal individually, respectively. Results: Broilers supplemented with herbs/spices showed improvement in growth attributes and carcass characteristics. Broilers fed with herbs at the rate of 2.5% had higher feed intake except sugar beet and coriander seed meal fed group. The body weight and weight gain was also significantly (p0.05 affected. Average giblet percentage of all supplemented groups were significantly (p<0.05 higher than control and was found to be highest in neem leaf meal fed group. Average by-product percentage was found to be highest in linseed fed group. Conclusion: Various herbs such as sugar beet, neem leaf, linseed and coriander seed meals affected the growth performance, and carcass trait showed positive inclination toward supplemented groups in broilers. The exact mode of action of these herbs/spices is still not clear, however, one or more numbers of active compounds present in these supplements may be responsible.

  7. Alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.) shoot saponins: identification and bio-activity by the assessment of aphid feeding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazahery-Laghab, H; Yazdi-Samadi, B; Bagheri, M; Bagheri, A R

    2011-01-01

    Biochemical components in alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.), such as saponins, can act as protecting factors against bio-stresses. Saponins are also antifeedants and show oral toxicity towards higher and lower animals. Changes in saponins, such as variation in the carbon skeleton, or hydrolysis of saponin glycosides and other conjugates, may change their biological effects. The aims of this research were to study saponin variation in different growth stages of alfalfa and to investigate the biological role of saponins in the spotted alfalfa aphid, Therioaphis maculata. Saponins from alfalfa shoots in different growth stages were extracted, chemically purified and analysed by TLC. Specific saponins such as soyasaponin1 from root and shoot and two bisdesmosides of medicagenic acid, one from shoot and another from root tissues, were identified using reference compounds allowing changes in saponin composition during plant development in different shoot tissues of alfalfa to be assessed. The response of the alfalfa aphid to feeding on alfalfa in different growth stages was studied. No significant difference in the survival of aphids, from neonate to adult, was observed, but due to the antibiotic effects of saponins, two differences were found in the onset of nymph production and cumulative nymph production. The results show that the saponin composition in alfalfa changes with plant development and this, in turn, can often negatively affect the development of specific insect pests such as the spotted alfalfa aphid, suggesting a possible biological role of alfalfa saponins.

  8. Leaf growth is conformal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alim, Karen; Armon, Shahaf; Shraiman, Boris I.; Boudaoud, Arezki

    2016-10-01

    Growth pattern dynamics lie at the heart of morphogenesis. Here, we investigate the growth of plant leaves. We compute the conformal transformation that maps the contour of a leaf at a given stage onto the contour of the same leaf at a later stage. Based on the mapping we predict the local displacement field in the leaf blade and find it to agree with the experimentally measured displacement field to 92%. This approach is applicable to any two-dimensional system with locally isotropic growth, enabling the deduction of the whole growth field just from observation of the tissue contour.

  9. Leaf growth is conformal

    CERN Document Server

    Alim, Karen; Shraiman, Boris I; Boudaoud, Arezki

    2016-01-01

    Growth pattern dynamics lie at the heart of morphogenesis. Here, we investigate the growth of plant leaves. We compute the conformal transformation that maps the contour of a leaf at a given stage onto the contour of the same leaf at a later stage. Based on the mapping we predict the local displacement field in the leaf blade and find it to agree with the experimentally measured displacement field to 92%. This approach is applicable to any two-dimensional system with locally isotropic growth, enabling the deduction of the whole growth field just from observation of the tissue contour.

  10. Alfalfa microsymbionts from different ITS and nodC lineages of Ensifer meliloti and Ensifer medicae symbiovar meliloti establish efficient symbiosis with alfalfa in Spanish acid soils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramírez-Bahena, Martha-Helena; Vargas, Margarita; Martín, María; Tejedor, Carmen; Velázquez, Encarna; Peix, Álvaro

    2015-06-01

    Alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.) is an important crop worldwide whose cropping in acid soils is hampered by the poor nodulation and yield commonly attributed to the sensitivity of its endosymbionts to acid pH. In this work, we isolated several acid-tolerant strains from alfalfa nodules in three acid soils in northwestern Spain. After grouping by RAPD fingerprinting, most strains were identified as Ensifer meliloti and only two strains as Ensifer medicae according to their 16S-23S intergenic spacer (ITS) sequences that allowed the differentiation of two groups within each one of these species. The two ITS groups of E. meliloti and the ITS group I of E. medicae have been previously found in Medicago nodules; however, the group II of E. medicae has been only found to date in Prosopis alba nodules. The analysis of the nodC gene showed that all strains isolated in this study belong to the symbiovar meliloti, grouping with the type strains of E. meliloti or E. medicae, but some harboured nodC gene alleles different from those found to date in alfalfa nodules. The strains of E. medicae belong to the symbiovar meliloti which should be also recognised in this species, although they harboured a nodC allele phylogenetically divergent to those from E. meliloti strains. Microcosm experiments showed that inoculation of alfalfa with selected acid-tolerant strains significantly increased yields in acid soils representing a suitable agricultural practice for alfalfa cropping in these soils.

  11. Studies on the Alfalfa Growing Effects of Alfalfa Rhizobium%苜蓿根瘤菌剂对紫花苜蓿生长影响研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    樊川; 杨旭升; 曹亚斌

    2015-01-01

    通过不同剂量苜蓿根瘤菌接种两种紫花苜蓿试验,比较了接种根瘤菌剂对紫花苜蓿生长的影响。试验结果表明:接种苜蓿根瘤菌剂能够提高紫花苜蓿结瘤数量和根瘤重,促进紫花苜蓿的生长发育,增加苜蓿草的产草量。在所试验的接种剂量中,以每 kg 苜蓿种子接种12mL 根瘤菌剂为最佳接种量。%This paper studied the alfalfa growing effects of alfalfa rhizobium by inoculated different amounts.The experimental results showed that inoculating rhizobium can raise the nodulating amount of alfalfa and the weight of nodulations,promoting the growth of alfalfas and augment the productions of alfalfas.Among the different inoculated amounts,the amount of 12ml is the best inoculated amount.

  12. PENINGKATAN PRODUKSI DAN KECERNAAN BAHAN KERING ALFALFA DENGAN PEMUPUKAN FOSFAT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    - Sunarni

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Alfalfa (Medicago    sativa    L. as one of legume forage crops for ruminant livestock is very sensitive to the phosphorus deficiency. Phosphorus fertilizers have been used widely to overcome those problem. However, the high cost of superphosphate (SP is now focusing attention on cheaper rock phosphate (RP fertilizer. A field experiment was conducted on a latosolic soil (low pH, and low available Bray II extractable P. The objective of the research is to evaluate the effect of phosphorus fertilizer from difference sources on dry matter production, and in    vitro dry matter digestibility of alfalfa. Completely randomized block design with 7 treatments in 3 replicates was used in this field experiment. The treatments were T0 (control, T1 (SP, 100 kg P2O5/ha, T2 (SP, 200 kg P2O5/ha, T3 (SP, 300 kg P2O5/ha, T4 (RP, 100 kg P2O5/ha, T5 (RP, 200 kg P2O5/ha, T6 (RP, 300 kg P2O5/ha. Size of each plot was 2 m x 2 m, and fertilized with P fertilizer (SP, RP according to the assigned treatment. All plot received basal fertilizer of urea (50 kg N/ha, KCl (100 kg K2O/ha and poultry manure (2 ton/ha. Medicago    sativa was defoliated on 12 weeks after planting and analyzed for dry matter (DM production and in    vitro DM digestibility. Result showed that DM production significantly influenced by the treatments. Superphosphate fertilization resulted DM production significantly higher compared to control and RP, except on RP 300 kg P2O5/ha was non-significant difference. In    vitro dry matter digestibility (IVDMD of alfalfa was not affected by the treatment. There was non-significant difference in IVDMD between the treatments. Therefore, RP (300 kg P2O5/ha could replace SP to increased DM production and not affected for IVDMD of Medicago    sativa in acid latosolic soil.

  13. Effects of chlorpyrifos and chlorantraniliprole on fermentation quality of alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.) silage inoculated with or without Lactobacillus plantarum LP.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Qing; Yu, Zhu; Wang, Xianguo; Na, Risu

    2017-03-01

    The effects of pesticides and Lactobacillus plantarum (LP) on fermentation quality of alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.) silage were investigated. Chlorpyrifos and chlorantraniliprole were sprayed on the surface of alfalfa plants at 658.6 and 45.0 g active ingredient/ha, respectively. Alfalfa plants were harvested on day 5 post-application and ensiled with or without LP. Chlorpyrifos and chlorantraniliprole decreased the yeast count of alfalfa material (P alfalfa silage (P alfalfa silage treated with pesticides (P alfalfa silage (P alfalfa silage and affected the fermentation process, whereas LP improved the fermentation quality of pesticides-contaminated alfalfa silage and slowed down the dissipation of chlorpyrifos.

  14. Enzyme assisted protein extraction from rapeseed, soybean, and microalgae meals

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sari, Y.W.; Bruins, M.E.; Sanders, J.P.M.

    2013-01-01

    Oilseed meals that are by-products from oil production are potential resources for protein. The aim of this work is to investigate the use of enzymes in assisting in the extraction of protein from different oilseed meals, namely rapeseed, soybean, and microalgae meals. In addition, microalgae withou

  15. Cafeteria Staff Perceptions of the New USDA School Meal Standards

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alcaraz, Brenda; Cullen, Karen Weber

    2014-01-01

    Purpose/Objectives: The new nutrition standards for the school meal programs implemented in 2012 align the school meal patterns with the US Dietary Guidelines for Americans, including more fruit, vegetable and whole grain offerings and minimum and maximum amount of calories per meal averaged over a week. The purpose of this study was to assess…

  16. 21 CFR 573.540 - Hydrolyzed leather meal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Hydrolyzed leather meal. 573.540 Section 573.540... Additive Listing § 573.540 Hydrolyzed leather meal. (a) Identity. Hydrolyzed leather meal is produced from leather scraps that are treated with steam for not less than 33 minutes at a pressure of not less than...

  17. 21 CFR 73.185 - Haematococcus algae meal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Haematococcus algae meal. 73.185 Section 73.185... COLOR ADDITIVES EXEMPT FROM CERTIFICATION Foods § 73.185 Haematococcus algae meal. (a) Identity. (1) The color additive haematococcus algae meal consists of the comminuted and dried cells of the...

  18. 21 CFR 73.275 - Dried algae meal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Dried algae meal. 73.275 Section 73.275 Food and... ADDITIVES EXEMPT FROM CERTIFICATION Foods § 73.275 Dried algae meal. (a) Identity. The color additive dried algae meal is a dried mixture of algae cells (genus Spongiococcum, separated from its culture...

  19. 49 CFR 173.218 - Fish meal or fish scrap.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Fish meal or fish scrap. 173.218 Section 173.218... Fish meal or fish scrap. (a) Except as provided in Column (7) of the HMT in § 172.101 of this subchapter, fish meal or fish scrap, containing at least 6%, but not more than 12% water, is authorized...

  20. Mezclas de Alfalfa y Gramíneas en la Serie Sabana de Bogotá Tipo Franco Arcilloso.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chaverra Gil. Hernán

    1960-06-01

    Full Text Available En el Centro Nacional de Investigaciones Agrícolas, Tibaitatá, y en la serie de suelos Sabana de Bogotá, tipo frnaco arcilloso, se llevaron a cabo dos experimentos con mezclas de alfalfa y gramíneas. En el primer ensayo, se sembraron simultáneamente con la alfalfa, ryegrass inglés, rygrass anual y orchoso. Los métodos de siembra utilizados fueron: a alfalfa y gramíneas sembradas al voleo, b alfalfa y gramíneas en el mismo surco, c alfalfa y gramíneas en surcos alternos, d alfalfa en surcos y gramíneas al voleo y e alfalfa en surcos y trébol blanco al voleo. En el segundo experimento se sembró la alfalfa en surcos separados 25 cm. Después de establecida la alfalfa e inmediatamente después del 4° corte se sembraron al voleo las siguientes gramíneas: ryegrass inglés, rygrass anual, orchoro, festuca media, pasto cinta y pasto rescate. Las finalidades del estudio fueron las de valorar el comportamiento de las gramíneas en mezcla con la alfalfa, mediante la determinación progresiva de la composición botánica y el rendimiento de forraje seco de las mezclas. La siembra simultánea de ryegrass inglés y ryegrass anual con la alfalfa dio como resultado una mala población de la leguminosa, especialmente en los dos primeros cortes. La competencia ejercida por estas dos gramíneas a la alfalfa, se redujo casi completamente, cuando se sembraron en surcos alternos o en la alfalfa establecida. Sea cual fuere el pasto sembrado, la siembra de gramíneas en alfalfa establecida, redujo la competencia entre los pastos asociados. En este ensayo el factor más importante en el establecimiento de las gramíneas, fue el agua disponible en el suelo. Bajo las condiciones del primer experimento el orchoro fue la gramínea que mejor creció en asocio de la alfalfa en todos los métodos de siembra estudiado. La producción promedia de la mezcla varió entre 2600 y 3145 Kg/hect. De forreje seco por corte y la proporción de orchoro entre

  1. Cost of New Nordic Diet school meals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Jørgen Dejgard; Thorsen, Anne Vibeke; Damsgaard, Camilla Trab

    2015-01-01

    Purpose - The purpose of this paper is to conduct economic evaluation of a school meal programme based on principles of a New Nordic Diet (NND) by assessing the costs of the NND lunch, compared with packed lunch from home, and investigating potential effects of adjusting the NND principles...

  2. Organic school meals in three Danish municipalities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    He, Chen

    In order to prevent children and young people from becoming overweight or obese, it is imperative to promote healthier eating patterns. So it is necessary to develop and implement effective strategies that can influence the eating and lifestyle habits of young people. Healthy school meal programme...

  3. Nutritional Risk among Oklahoma Congregate Meal Participants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quigley, Kimberly K.; Hermann, Janice R.; Warde, William D.

    2008-01-01

    Objective: To determine if there were differences by demographic variables in response rates to Nutrition Screening Initiative (NSI) Checklist statements reported by over 50% of Oklahoma Older Americans Act Nutrition Program (OAANP) congregate meal participants categorized at high nutritional risk based on cumulative NSI Checklist scores. Design:…

  4. Phosphate Rock Application on Alfalfa (Medicago sativa L. Production and Macronutrients in Latosol Soil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. Liani

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of phosphate rocks (PRs fertilizer compared to chemical P fertilizer for the best crop production and macronutrients of alfalfa. A completely randomized design under 3x3 factorial patterns was used in this research. The first factor was different sources of P fertilizer: Guizhou Phosphate Rock (GPR, Jingxiang Phosphate Rock (JPR, and Single Super Phosphate (SSP. The second factor was level of P fertilizer: 75, 100, and 125 mg P2O5/kg soil. A control treatment (without addition of P fertilizer, CK was added as a comparison with the treatments. The results showed that JPR was the best for alfalfa production, whereas GPR and SSP were better for nutrient content in the alfalfa tissue than JPR. On the whole, phosphate rocks had similar effect on alfalfa growth compared to SSP at the experimental conditions.

  5. HI Gas in Early Type Galaxies as Measured by ALFALFA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collins, Wendy; Morrison, Ryan; Green, Jarred; Raskin, Mark; Crawford, Connor; Bomer-Lawson, August; Hannan, Joshua; Crone-Odekon, Mary; ALFALFA Team

    2016-01-01

    We present the HI content of 1580 early type galaxies (ETGs) in a total sample of 7747 galaxies that have HI measurements or upper limits from the ALFALFA survey. We find a significant correlation between HI content and local density, with HI detections almost exclusively in low-density environments. Using optical line ratios, we split the population into galaxies with spectral lines dominated by active galactic nuclei (AGN) and dominated by star forming regions. Compared with HI-rich star forming ETGs, HI-rich ETGs with AGN tend to be brighter and redder and to exhibit a stronger correlation between stellar mass and HI mass. This work is supported by NSF grant AST-1211005.

  6. Role of Silicon Counteracting Cadmium Toxicity in Alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kabir, Ahmad H; Hossain, Mohammad M; Khatun, Most A; Mandal, Abul; Haider, Syed A

    2016-01-01

    Cadmium (Cd) is one of the most phytotoxic elements causing an agricultural problem and human health hazards. This work investigates whether and how silicon (Si) ameliorates Cd toxicity in Alfalfa. The addition of Si in Cd-stressed plants caused significant improvement in morpho-physiological features as well as total protein and membrane stability, indicating that Si does have critical roles in Cd detoxification in Alfalfa. Furthermore, Si supplementation in Cd-stressed plants showed a significant decrease in Cd and Fe concentrations in both roots and shoots compared with Cd-stressed plants, revealing that Si-mediated tolerance to Cd stress is associated with Cd inhibition in Alfalfa. Results also showed no significant changes in the expression of two metal chelators [MsPCS1 (phytochelatin synthase) and MsMT2 (metallothionein)] and PC (phytochelatin) accumulation, indicating that there may be no metal sequestration or change in metal sequestration following Si application under Cd stress in Alfalfa. We further performed a targeted study on the effect of Si on Fe uptake mechanisms. We observed the consistent reduction in Fe reductase activity, expression of Fe-related genes [MsIRT1 (Fe transporter), MsNramp1 (metal transporter) and OsFRO1 (ferric chelate reductase] and Fe chelators (citrate and malate) by Si application to Cd stress in roots of Alfalfa. These results support that limiting Fe uptake through the down-regulation of Fe acquisition mechanisms confers Si-mediated alleviation of Cd toxicity in Alfalfa. Finally, an increase of catalase, ascorbate peroxidase, and superoxide dismutase activities along with elevated methionine and proline subjected to Si application might play roles, at least in part, to reduce H2O2 and to provide antioxidant defense against Cd stress in Alfalfa. The study shows evidence of the effect of Si on alleviating Cd toxicity in Alfalfa and can be further extended for phytoremediation of Cd toxicity in plants.

  7. HI Gas in Large-Scale Filaments as Measured by ALFALFA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elliott, Skye; Phi, An; Shah, Ebrahim; Livecchi, Jack; Yu, Yang; Gengras, Graeme; Wolfe, Pierre-Francois; Crone-Odekon, Mary; Hyman, Mario; ALFALFA Team

    2016-01-01

    We assess the relationship between galaxy environment and HI content as measured by ALFALFA. In particular, we consider membership in large-scale filaments in order to provide clues to how star formation in galaxies is quenched in different environments. We use data from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey to define galaxy environments in terms of clusters, filaments, and voids for a sample of galaxies with z ALFALFA. This work is supported by NSF grant AST-1211005.

  8. Proteomic Identification of Differentially Expressed Proteins during Alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.) Flower Development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Lingling; Chen, Quanzhu; Zhu, Yanqiao; Hou, Longyu; Mao, Peisheng

    2016-01-01

    Flower development, pollination, and fertilization are important stages in the sexual reproduction process of plants; they are also critical steps in the control of seed formation and development. During alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.) seed production, some distinct phenomena such as a low seed setting ratio, serious flower falling, and seed abortion commonly occur. However, the causes of these phenomena are complicated and largely unknown. An understanding of the mechanisms that regulate alfalfa flowering is important in order to increase seed yield. Hence, proteomic technology was used to analyze changes in protein expression during the stages of alfalfa flower development. Flower samples were collected at pre-pollination (S1), pollination (S2), and the post-pollination senescence period (S3). Twenty-four differentially expressed proteins were successfully identified, including 17 down-regulated in pollinated flowers, one up-regulated in pollinated and senesced flowers, and six up-regulated in senesced flowers. The largest proportions of the identified proteins were involved in metabolism, signal transduction, defense response, oxidation reduction, cell death, and programmed cell death (PCD). Their expression profiles demonstrated that energy metabolism, carbohydrate metabolism, and amino acid metabolism provided the nutrient foundation for pollination in alfalfa. Furthermore, there were three proteins involved in multiple metabolic pathways: dual specificity kinase splA-like protein (kinase splALs), carbonic anhydrase, and NADPH: quinone oxidoreductase-like protein. Expression patterns of these proteins indicated that MAPK cascades regulated multiple processes, such as signal transduction, stress response, and cell death. PCD also played an important role in the alfalfa flower developmental process, and regulated both pollination and flower senescence. The current study sheds some light on protein expression profiles during alfalfa flower development and

  9. Role of Silicon Counteracting Cadmium Toxicity in Alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kabir, Ahmad H.; Hossain, Mohammad M.; Khatun, Most A.; Mandal, Abul; Haider, Syed A.

    2016-01-01

    Cadmium (Cd) is one of the most phytotoxic elements causing an agricultural problem and human health hazards. This work investigates whether and how silicon (Si) ameliorates Cd toxicity in Alfalfa. The addition of Si in Cd-stressed plants caused significant improvement in morpho-physiological features as well as total protein and membrane stability, indicating that Si does have critical roles in Cd detoxification in Alfalfa. Furthermore, Si supplementation in Cd-stressed plants showed a significant decrease in Cd and Fe concentrations in both roots and shoots compared with Cd-stressed plants, revealing that Si-mediated tolerance to Cd stress is associated with Cd inhibition in Alfalfa. Results also showed no significant changes in the expression of two metal chelators [MsPCS1 (phytochelatin synthase) and MsMT2 (metallothionein)] and PC (phytochelatin) accumulation, indicating that there may be no metal sequestration or change in metal sequestration following Si application under Cd stress in Alfalfa. We further performed a targeted study on the effect of Si on Fe uptake mechanisms. We observed the consistent reduction in Fe reductase activity, expression of Fe-related genes [MsIRT1 (Fe transporter), MsNramp1 (metal transporter) and OsFRO1 (ferric chelate reductase] and Fe chelators (citrate and malate) by Si application to Cd stress in roots of Alfalfa. These results support that limiting Fe uptake through the down-regulation of Fe acquisition mechanisms confers Si-mediated alleviation of Cd toxicity in Alfalfa. Finally, an increase of catalase, ascorbate peroxidase, and superoxide dismutase activities along with elevated methionine and proline subjected to Si application might play roles, at least in part, to reduce H2O2 and to provide antioxidant defense against Cd stress in Alfalfa. The study shows evidence of the effect of Si on alleviating Cd toxicity in Alfalfa and can be further extended for phytoremediation of Cd toxicity in plants. PMID:27512401

  10. Role of silicon counteracting cadmium toxicity in Alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmad H. Kabir

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Cadmium (Cd is one of the most phytotoxic elements causing an agricultural problem and human health hazards. This work investigates whether and how silicon (Si ameliorates Cd toxicity in Alfalfa. The addition of Si in Cd-stressed plants caused significant improvement in morpho-physiological features as well as total protein and membrane stability, indicating that Si does have critical roles in Cd detoxification in Alfalfa. Furthermore, Si supplementation in Cd-stressed plants showed a significant decrease in Cd and Fe concentrations in both roots and shoots compared with Cd-stressed plants, revealing that Si-mediated tolerance to Cd stress is associated with Cd inhibition in Alfalfa. Results also showed no significant changes in the expression of two metal chelators [MsPCS1 (phytochelatin synthase and MsMT2 (metallothionein] and PC (phytochelatin accumulation, indicating that there may be no metal sequestration or change in metal sequestration following Si application under Cd stress in Alfalfa. We further performed a targeted study on the effect of Si on Fe uptake mechanisms. We observed the consistent reduction in Fe reductase activity, expression of Fe-related genes [MsIRT1 (Fe transporter, MsNramp1 (metal transporter and OsFRO1 (ferric chelate reductase] and Fe chelators (citrate and malate by Si application to Cd stress in roots of Alfalfa. These results support that limiting Fe uptake through the down-regulation of Fe acquisition mechanisms confers Si-mediated alleviation of Cd toxicity in Alfalfa. Finally, an increase of catalase (CAT, ascorbate peroxidase (APX and superoxide dismutase (SOD activities along with elevated methionine and proline subjected to Si application might play roles, at least in part, to reduce H2O2 and to provide antioxidant defense against Cd stress in Alfalfa. The study shows evidence of the effect of Si on alleviating Cd toxicity in Alfalfa and can be further extended for phytoremediation of Cd toxicity in plants.

  11. Proteomic Identification of Differentially Expressed Proteins during Alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.) Flower Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Lingling; Chen, Quanzhu; Zhu, Yanqiao; Hou, Longyu; Mao, Peisheng

    2016-01-01

    Flower development, pollination, and fertilization are important stages in the sexual reproduction process of plants; they are also critical steps in the control of seed formation and development. During alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.) seed production, some distinct phenomena such as a low seed setting ratio, serious flower falling, and seed abortion commonly occur. However, the causes of these phenomena are complicated and largely unknown. An understanding of the mechanisms that regulate alfalfa flowering is important in order to increase seed yield. Hence, proteomic technology was used to analyze changes in protein expression during the stages of alfalfa flower development. Flower samples were collected at pre-pollination (S1), pollination (S2), and the post-pollination senescence period (S3). Twenty-four differentially expressed proteins were successfully identified, including 17 down-regulated in pollinated flowers, one up-regulated in pollinated and senesced flowers, and six up-regulated in senesced flowers. The largest proportions of the identified proteins were involved in metabolism, signal transduction, defense response, oxidation reduction, cell death, and programmed cell death (PCD). Their expression profiles demonstrated that energy metabolism, carbohydrate metabolism, and amino acid metabolism provided the nutrient foundation for pollination in alfalfa. Furthermore, there were three proteins involved in multiple metabolic pathways: dual specificity kinase splA-like protein (kinase splALs), carbonic anhydrase, and NADPH: quinone oxidoreductase-like protein. Expression patterns of these proteins indicated that MAPK cascades regulated multiple processes, such as signal transduction, stress response, and cell death. PCD also played an important role in the alfalfa flower developmental process, and regulated both pollination and flower senescence. The current study sheds some light on protein expression profiles during alfalfa flower development and

  12. Proteomic identification of differentially expressed proteins during alfalfa (Medicago sativa L. flower development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lingling Chen

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Flower development, pollination, and fertilization are important stages in the sexual reproduction process of plants; they are also critical steps in the control of seed formation and development. During alfalfa (Medicago sativa L. seed production, some distinct phenomena such as a low seed setting ratio, serious flower falling, and seed abortion commonly occur. However, the causes of these phenomena are complicated and largely unknown. An understanding of the mechanisms that regulate alfalfa flowering is important in order to increase seed yield. Hence, proteomic technology was used to analyze changes in protein expression during the stages of alfalfa flower development. Flower samples were collected at pre-pollination (S1, pollination (S2, and the post-pollination senescence period (S3. Twenty-four differentially expressed proteins were successfully identified, including 17 down-regulated in pollinated flowers, one up-regulated in pollinated and senesced flowers, and six up-regulated in senesced flowers. The largest proportions of the identified proteins were involved in metabolism, signal transduction, defense response, oxidation reduction, cell death, and programmed cell death (PCD. Their expression profiles demonstrated that energy metabolism, carbohydrate metabolism, and amino acid metabolism provided the nutrient foundation for pollination in alfalfa. Furthermore, there were three proteins involved in multiple metabolic pathways: dual specificity kinase splA-like protein (kinase splALs, carbonic anhydrase (CA, and NADPH: quinone oxidoreductase-like protein (NQOLs. Expression patterns of these proteins indicated that MAPK cascades regulated multiple processes, such as signal transduction, stress response, and cell death. PCD also played an important role in the alfalfa flower developmental process, and regulated both pollination and flower senescence. The current study sheds some light on protein expression profiles during alfalfa flower

  13. Phosphorus reduction by sifting fish waste meal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ronaldo Lima de Lima

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Fish meal is widely included in animal feed because it contains ideal essential amino acids profile, it is rich in energy, essential fatty acids, vitamins and minerals and with >80% apparent protein digestibility in peneid shrimp. In human nutrition, studies are investigating the inclusion of fish meal in snacks, cakes, breads and cookies, as an enrichment in calcium, phosphorus, iron, protein and, especially, omega-3 fatty acids. Omega-3 fatty acids reduces heart diseases and have antithrombotic and anti-inflammatory properties (eicosapentaenoic acid, and are essential to the formation of brain tissue and retina in infants and are important during pregnancy and lactation (docosahexaenoic acid. Fish meal produced from fish waste is rich in minerals (phosphorus, which may cause eutrophication and impair water quality in aquaculture. The aim of this study was to reduce phosphorus content from commercial fish meal produced from waste by sifting (0.60 - 1.00 - 1.18 - 1.40 - 2.36 and 3.35mm mesh sizes. Fish meal samples were collected monthly for 24 months. Proximate composition of subsamples per mesh size was compared to the unsieved sample. Results indicate that sifting through a 0.60mm sieve total phosphorus and ash contents were reduced up to 32% and 36%, respectively, further to increase protein content up to 20%. Average composition of the subsamples was 47.04% ash, 5.56% of total phosphorus and 39.45% protein, suggesting that the residue of the fractionation may be marketed as a mineral and protein supplement.

  14. The HI Content of Groups as Measured by ALFALFA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koopmann, Rebecca A.; Crone-Odekon, Mary; Haynes, Martha P.; Finn, Rose; Hallenbeck, Gregory L.; Giovanelli, Riccardo; ALFALFA Team

    2016-01-01

    We present the HI content of galaxies in nearby groups and clusters as measured by the 70% complete Arecibo Legacy Fast-ALFA (ALFALFA) survey, including constraints from ALFALFA detection limits. Our sample includes 22 groups at distances between 70-160 Mpc over the mass range 12.5 < log M/M⊙ < 15.0, for a total of 1986 late-type galaxies out to a projected group-centric distance of 4.0 Mpc. We find that late-type galaxies in the centers of groups lack HI at fixed stellar mass relative to the regions surrounding them. Larger groups show evidence of a stronger gradient in HI properties, despite a similar gradient in stellar mass, and in color at fixed stellar mass, over the same range in r/R200. We compare several environment variables to determine which is the best predictor of galaxy properties; group-centric distance r and r/R200 are similarly effective predictors, while local density is slightly more effective and group size and halo mass are slightly less effective. Finally, we see evidence that HI is deficient for blue cloud galaxies in denser environments even when both stellar mass and color are fixed. This is consistent with a picture where HI is removed or destroyed, followed by reddening within the blue cloud. Overall, our results support the existence of pre-processing in isolated groups, along with an additional rapid mechanism for gas removal within larger groups and clusters, perhaps by ram-pressure stripping. This work has been supported by NSF grants AST-0724918/0902211, AST-075267/0903394, AST-0725380, and AST-1211005.

  15. ALFALFA Hα Reveals How Galaxies Use Their Hi Fuel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaskot, Anne; Oey, Sally; Salzer, John; van Sistine, Angie; Bell, Eric; Haynes, Martha

    Atomic hydrogen traces the raw material from which molecular clouds and stars form. With 565 galaxies from the ALFALFA Hα survey, a statistically complete subset of the ALFALFA survey, we examine the processes that affect galaxies' abilities to access and consume their Hi gas. On galaxy-wide scales, Hi gas fractions correlate only weakly with instantaneous specific star formation rates (sSFRs) but tightly with galaxy color. We show that a connection between dust and Hi content, arising from the fundamental mass-metallicity-Hi relation, leads to this tight color correlation. We find that disk galaxies follow a relation between stellar surface density and Hi depletion time, consistent with a scenario in which higher mid-plane pressure leads to more efficient molecular cloud formation from Hi. In contrast, spheroids show no such trend. Starbursts, identified by Hα equivalent width, do not show enhanced Hi gas fractions relative to similar mass non-starburst galaxies. The starbursts' shorter Hi depletion times indicate more efficient consumption of Hi, and galaxy interactions drive this enhanced star formation efficiency in several starbursts. Interestingly, the most disturbed starbursts show greater enhancements in Hi gas fraction, which may indicate an excess of Hi at early merger stages. At low galaxy stellar masses, the triggering mechanism for starbursts is less clear; the high scatter in efficiency and sSFR among low-mass galaxies may result from periodic bursts. We find no evidence for depleted Hi reservoirs in starbursts, which suggests that galaxies may maintain sufficient Hi to fuel multiple starburst episodes.

  16. Alimentos funcionales, alfalfa y fitoestrógenos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alejandro De Jesús

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available El desarrollo de alimentos funcionales en los últimos años ha ido en aumento debido principalmente, al interés de la población por alimentos que no solo cumplan con la función nutricional sino también por que tengan un efecto benéfico en salud reduciendo así el riesgo a padecer diversas enfermedades. La alfalfa ha sido generalmente un alimento destinado para la alimentación del ganado, sin embargo, en diversas investigaciones alrededor del mundo se ha reportado que contiene compuestos bioactivos –fitoquímicos– y proteínas con efecto estrogénico, antimicrobiano y antioxidante, así como también protector contra enfermedades cardiovasculares, cáncer y diabetes, entre otras, clasificándola potencialmente como un alimento funcional. El presente documento tiene como objetivo dar un bosquejo general informativo a través de la búsqueda y revisión bibliográfica acerca de los alimentos funcionales y en especial de la alfalfa y constituyentes fitoquímicos (fitoestrógenos que la ubican dentro de este grupo de alimentos; así como los hallazgos que se han reportado como efectos adversos en animales experimentales específicamente en el aparato reproductivo debido al consumo de este tipo de fitocompuestos. Esta dicotomía entre los efectos adversos y benéficos no es más que la señalización de que aún falta mucha más información y estudios que realizar respecto al resultado que pueden tener los fitoestrógenos en el desarrollo y función reproductiva de animales, el agonismo y antagonismo de su efecto así como la concordancia en el riesgo-beneficio de su consumo.

  17. Salt stress alters DNA methylation levels in alfalfa (Medicago spp).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Lawati, A; Al-Bahry, S; Victor, R; Al-Lawati, A H; Yaish, M W

    2016-02-26

    Modification of DNA methylation status is one of the mechanisms used by plants to adjust gene expression at both the transcriptional and posttranscriptional levels when plants are exposed to suboptimal conditions. Under abiotic stress, different cultivars often show heritable phenotypic variation accompanied by epigenetic polymorphisms at the DNA methylation level. This variation may provide the raw materials for plant breeding programs that aim to enhance abiotic stress tolerance, including salt tolerance. In this study, methylation-sensitive amplified polymorphism (MSAP) analysis was used to assess cytosine methylation levels in alfalfa (Medicago spp) roots exposed to increasing NaCl concentrations (0.0, 8.0, 12.0, and 20.0 dS/m). Eleven indigenous landraces were analyzed, in addition to a salt-tolerant cultivar that was used as a control. There was a slight increase in DNA methylation upon exposure to high levels of soil salinity. Phylogenetic analysis using MSAP showed epigenetic variation within and between the alfalfa landraces when exposed to saline conditions. Based on MSAP and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay results, we found that salinity increased global DNA methylation status, particularly in plants exposed to the highest level of salinity (20 dS/m). Quantitative reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction indicated that this might be mediated by the overexpression of methyltransferase homolog genes after exposure to saline conditions. DNA demethylation using 5-azacytidine reduced seedling lengths and dry and fresh weights, indicating a possible decrease in salinity tolerance. These results suggest that salinity affects DNA methylation flexibility.

  18. [Determination of Hard Rate of Alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.) Seeds with Near Infrared Spectroscopy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xin-xun; Chen, Ling-ling; Zhang, Yun-wei; Mao, Pei-sheng

    2016-03-01

    Alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.) is the most commonly grown forage crop due to its better quality characteristics and high adaptability in China. However, there was 20%-80% hard seeds in alfalfa which could not be identified easily from non hard seeds which would cause the loss of seed utilization value and plant production. This experiment was designed for 121 samples of alfalfa. Seeds were collected according to different regions, harvested year and varieties. 31 samples were artificial matched as hard rates ranging from 20% to 80% to establish a model for hard seed rate by near infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) with Partial Least Square (PLS). The objective of this study was to establish a model and to estimate the efficiency of NIRS for determining hard rate of alfalfa seeds. The results showed that the correlation coefficient (R2(cal)) of calibration model was 0.981 6, root mean square error of cross validation (RMSECV) was 5.32, and the ratio of prediction to deviation (RPD) was 3.58. The forecast model in this experiment presented the satisfied precision. The proposed method using NIRS technology is feasible for identification and classification of hard seed in alfalfa. A new method, as nondestructive testing of hard seed rate, was provided to theoretical basis for fast nondestructive detection of hard seed rates in alfalfa.

  19. The Current Status, Problems, and Prospects of Alfalfa (Medicago sativa L. Breeding in China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shangli Shi

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper reviews the current status, methodology, achievements, and prospects of alfalfa (Medicago sativa L. breeding in China. There are 77 cultivars that have been registered in the country, these include 36 cultivars bred through breeding programs, 17 introduced from overseas, 5 domesticated from wild ecotypes, and 19 through regional collection/breeding programs. Cultivars have been selected for cold resistance, disease resistance, salt tolerance, grazing tolerance, high yield, and early maturity. Most of these cultivars have been developed through conventional breeding techniques, such as selective and cross breeding, and some are now being evaluated that have been developed through the application of transgenic technology. The major problems for alfalfa breeding in China include low success rate, slow progress to breed resistant varieties, lack of breeding materials and their systematic collection, storage and evaluation, lack of advanced breeding techniques, and low adoption rate of new cultivars. There are gaps in alfalfa breeding between China and the developed world. Improvement of alfalfa breeding techniques, development of cultivars with adaptations to different regions within China, and the protection and utilization of alfalfa germplasm resources have been identified as major strategies to improve the efficiency of alfalfa breeding in China.

  20. Company and meal choices considered by Nordic adolescents

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Janhonen, Kristiina; Benn, Jette; Fjellström, Christina

    2013-01-01

    This article examines the meal choices considered by Nordic adolescents in two social situations: for themselves and for the family. In addition, the frequency of family meals is compared between the countries studied. The survey data (n = 1539) were collected during 2006–2007 from 9th grade...... an effect on the frequency of family meals. Meals echoing or fully meeting the structural definition of a ‘proper meal’ were most common when describing meals for the family. The difference between the two social situations was most apparent for those who mentioned ‘Fast food dishes’ for themselves. Gender...... to their everyday choices in different social contexts....

  1. Nutritional Assessment of Free Meal Programs in San Francisco

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drago-Ferguson, Soledad; Lopez, Andrea; Seligman, Hilary K.

    2013-01-01

    Free meals often serve as a primary food source for adults living in poverty, particularly the homeless. We conducted a nutritional analysis of 22 meals from 6 free meal sites in San Francisco to determine macronutrient and micronutrient content. Meals provided too little fiber and too much fat but appropriate levels of cholesterol. They were also below target for potassium, calcium, and vitamins A and E. These findings may inform development of nutritional content standards for free meals, particularly for vulnerable patients who might have, or be at risk of developing, a chronic illness. PMID:23721791

  2. Nodule-enhanced expression of a sucrose phosphate synthase gene member (MsSPSA) has a role in carbon and nitrogen metabolism in the nodules of alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aleman, Lorenzo; Ortega, Jose Luis; Martinez-Grimes, Martha; Seger, Mark; Holguin, Francisco Omar; Uribe, Diana J; Garcia-Ibilcieta, David; Sengupta-Gopalan, Champa

    2010-01-01

    Sucrose phosphate synthase (SPS) catalyzes the first step in the synthesis of sucrose in photosynthetic tissues. We characterized the expression of three different isoforms of SPS belonging to two different SPS gene families in alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.), a previously identified SPS (MsSPSA) and two novel isoforms belonging to class B (MsSPSB and MsSPSB3). While MsSPSA showed nodule-enhanced expression, both MsSPSB genes exhibited leaf-enhanced expression. Alfalfa leaf and nodule SPS enzymes showed differences in chromatographic and electrophoretic migration and differences in V (max) and allosteric regulation. The root nodules in legume plants are a strong sink for photosynthates with its need for ATP, reducing power and carbon skeletons for dinitrogen fixation and ammonia assimilation. The expression of genes encoding SPS and other key enzymes in sucrose metabolism, sucrose phosphate phosphatase and sucrose synthase, was analyzed in the leaves and nodules of plants inoculated with Sinorhizobium meliloti. Based on the expression pattern of these genes, the properties of the SPS isoforms and the concentration of starch and soluble sugars in nodules induced by a wild type and a nitrogen fixation deficient strain, we propose that SPS has an important role in the control of carbon flux into different metabolic pathways in the symbiotic nodules.

  3. El cultivo de alfalfa utilizando agua de perforación, agua residual urbana y precipitaciones The cultivation of alfalfa using artesian well water, urban wastewater and rainfall

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José O. Plevich

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available El objetivo de este trabajo fue analizar la producción de biomasa aérea, la eficiencia del uso de agua y el valor nutritivo de alfalfa cultivada aplicando riego con agua residual urbana, agua de perforación y un testigo (precipitaciones, en el Campus de la Universidad Nacional de Rio Cuarto (Córdoba-Argentina. Los tratamientos de riego tuvieron un efecto positivo sobre la producción de biomasa aérea obteniéndose un 24% más de producción de biomasa que en la situación de secano (precipitaciones. Entre los tratamientos con riego también se manifestaron diferencias estadísticamente significativas. La alfalfa regada con aguas residuales urbana supero en un 19% a la cultivada con agua de perforación. La eficiencia del uso del agua por parte del cultivo se incrementó cuando el riego se realizó con aguas residuales urbanas. Además, se determinó que la alfalfa regada con agua residual, supera los valores nutritivos del cultivo que crece en condiciones sin riego; encontrándose 39% más de proteínas, 14% más de digestibilidad e igual porcentaje de energía metabólica. Se puede concluir que el agua residual urbana representa otra posible fuente de agua, factible de ingresar al suelo y estar a disposición para el cultivo de alfalfa.The objective of this study was to analyse the production of alfalfa biomass, the efficiency of water use and the nutritional value of forage, inside an irrigation structure of an experimental facility that uses treated urban wastewater, artesian well water and rainfall, at the campus of the Universidad National de Rio Cuarto (Córdoba-Argentina. The irrigation treatment had a positive effect on the production of biomass of alfalfa. On an average 24% increase in production was observed when compared to dry-land farming. Regarding the quality of the irrigation water, statistical differences in production were observed, the irrigation with urban wastewater produced 19% more than that of well water. The

  4. Germinación y crecimiento de alfalfa bajo condiciones salinas Germination and growth of alfalfa under saline conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sara Lucía González-Romero

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available En México, el cultivo de la alfalfa (Medicago sativa L. se emplea para la alimentación del ganado bovino, éste cuenta con investigaciones de respuestas a estrés salino en la etapa de germinación; sin embargo, sólo se han usado diferentes niveles de NaCl o de manitol y polietilenglicol; por lo anterior, los objetivos de esta investigación fue estudiar la respuesta a la salinidad, que se presenta en zonas áridas y semiáridas de México de la alfalfa en la etapa de germinación y evaluar su efecto sobre el crecimiento de la radícula y la parte aérea. Para cumplir lo anterior, en el laboratorio de salinidad del Colegio de Postgraduados en Ciencias Agrícolas durante el 2009, las semillas se sometieron a pruebas de germinación en un diseño factorial de 11 soluciones salinas a ocho dosis (0, 2, 4, 8, 11.7, 15, 19 y 28 dS m-1 y tres repeticiones. Se observó que las sales NaHCO3 y sulfático-sódica influyeron más sobre la germinación; y las sales CaCl2 2H2O y sulfática registraron el mayor porcentaje de germinación; para el crecimiento de radícula la sal que más afectó fue el NaHCO3 y la salinidad sulfática; las sales CaCl2 2H2O y sulfático-clorhídrica permitieron mayor desarrollo. El crecimiento de la parte aérea fue más afectado en comparación al desarrollo de la radícula. La mezcla de sales favoreció el porcentaje de germinación, el crecimiento de radícula y parte aérea.In Mexico, alfalfa (Medicago sativa L. is used for feeding cattle and has been studied for responses to salt stress in the germination phase; however, only NaCl or mannitol and polyethylene glycols have been used in different levels. Due to this, the aims of this research were to study the response of alfalfa in the germination stage to the salinity of the arid and semiarid areas in Mexico, and to evaluate its effect on the growth of the radicle and aerial section. In order to achieve this, in the salinity lab of the Colegio de Postgraduados en

  5. Relationship between photosynthetic capacity, nitrogen assimilation and nodule metabolism in alfalfa (Medicago sativa) grown with sewage sludge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antolín, M Carmen; Fiasconaro, M Laura; Sánchez-Díaz, Manuel

    2010-10-15

    Sewage sludge has been used as N fertilizer because it contains some of inorganic N, principally as nitrate and ammonium ions. However, sewage sludge addition to legumes could result in impaired nodule metabolism due to the presence of inorganic N from sludge. A greenhouse experiment was conducted to examine the effects of sewage sludge on growth, photosynthesis, nitrogen assimilation and nodule metabolism in alfalfa (Medicago sativa L. cv. Aragón). Plants were grown in pots with a mixture of perlite and vermiculite (2:1, v/v). The experiment included three treatments: (1) plants inoculated with rhizobia and amended with sewage sludge at rate of 10% (w/w) (RS); (2) plants inoculated with rhizobia without any amendment (R); and (3) non-inoculated plants fed with ammonium nitrate (N). N(2)-fixing plants had lower growth and sucrose phosphate synthase activity but higher photosynthesis than nitrate-fed plants because they compensated the carbon cost of the rhizobia. However, sewage sludge-treated plants evidenced a loss of carbon sink strength due to N(2) fixation by means of decreased photosynthetic capacity, leaf chlorophylls and N concentration in comparison to untreated plants. Sewage sludge did no affect nodulation but decreased nodule enzyme activities involved in carbon and N metabolisms that may lead to accumulation of toxic N-compounds.

  6. Effect of shoot removal on remobilization of carbon and nitrogen during regrowth of nitrogen-fixing alfalfa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aranjuelo, Iker; Molero, Gemma; Erice, Gorka; Aldasoro, Joseba; Arrese-Igor, Cesar; Nogués, Salvador

    2015-01-01

    The contribution of carbon and nitrogen reserves to regrowth following shoot removal has been studied in the past. However, important gaps remain in understanding the effect of shoot cutting on nodule performance and its relevance during regrowth. In this study, isotopic labelling was conducted at root and canopy levels with both (15) N2 and (13) C-depleted CO2 on exclusively nitrogen-fixing alfalfa plants. As expected, our results indicate that the roots were the main sink organs before shoots were removed. Seven days after regrowth the carbon and nitrogen stored in the roots was invested in shoot biomass formation and partitioned to the nodules. The large depletion in nodule carbohydrate availability suggests that root-derived carbon compounds were delivered towards nodules in order to sustain respiratory activity. In addition to the limited carbohydrate availability, the upregulation of nodule peroxidases showed that oxidative stress was also involved during poor nodule performance. Fourteen days after cutting, and as a consequence of the stimulated photosynthetic and N2 -fixing machinery, availability of Cnew and Nnew strongly diminished in the plants due to their replacement by C and N assimilated during the post-labelling period. In summary, our study indicated that during the first week of regrowth, root-derived C and N remobilization did not overcome C- and N-limitation in nodules and leaves. However, 14 days after cutting, leaf and nodule performance were re-established.

  7. Cloning and function analysis of an alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.) zinc finger protein promoter MsZPP.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yan; Sun, Yan; Yang, Qingchuan; Kang, Junmei; Zhang, Tiejun; Gruber, Margaret Yvonne; Fang, Feng

    2012-08-01

    A 1272 bp upstream sequence of MsZFN gene was cloned from alfalfa, which was designed as MsZPP (Genbank accession number: FJ 161979.2) using an adaptor-mediated genome walking method. A sole transcription start site was located 69 bp upstream of the translation start site. Its pattern of expression included roots, stem vascular tissues, floral reproductive organs, and leaves, but the promoter did not express in seeds, petals or sepals. Transcription levels can be stimulated by dark, MeJA, and IAA. However, GUS fusion activities had no change by treatments of GA, ABA, drought and high salt for 3 days. Deletion analysis revealed that all sections of the promoter can drive gus gene expression in the root, stem, leaves and floral reproductive organs; however, only fragments longer than the -460 bp promoter can stimulate strong gus gene expression in these organs. In addition, the -460 bp promoter fragment can drive gus expression not only in the vascular tissue, but also in leaf guard cells. The results suggest that the promoter MsZPP plays roles in the regulation of transgene expression, particularly due to its darkness, MeJA, and IAA responsiveness.

  8. Guangzhou’s Baozai Meal a Popular Fast Food

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1995-01-01

    IN Guangzhou, where restaurants are plentiful and food from many places is served, the baozai meal, a kind of traditional Chinese fast food, has retained its place in the hearts of Guangzhou’s caterers. The history of the baozai meal starts at least from the beginning of this century. By the end of the Qing Dynasty, Guangzhou was the largest trading port in south China with a developed, commodities-based economy. There were many dockworkers and porters living in the city at the time. They worked very hard and were often too busy to eat their meals at home. As a result, different kinds of meals were invented to meet their needs, such as the botou meal (bo is kind of earthen bowl), the dietou meal (die is small plate) and the baozai meal

  9. Iron dialyzability from hospital duplicate meals: daily intake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Velasco-Reynold, Carlos; Navarro-Alarcon, Miguel; Lopez-Ga de la Serrana, Herminia; Perez-Valero, Vidal; Lopez-Martinez, María C

    2009-09-01

    Both total and dialyzable iron levels and corresponding dialyzability were determined in 108 duplicate meals during 36 consecutive days. Total mean iron fraction of 5.90 +/- 4.97 mg was found in the meals. The iron supplied by the meals is directly and significantly (p < 0.05) correlated with macromicronutrient content (carbohydrates, fiber, and protein). The mean iron dialyzability (4.81 +/- 3.25%) was low and not significantly different among the three primary meals (breakfast, lunch, and dinner). Significant interactions of several minerals on iron levels were found (p < 0.05). Iron dialyzability was only statistically influenced by zinc dialyzability in meals (p < 0.05). The dialyzed iron fraction present in meals was significantly correlated with protein and ascorbic acid levels (p < 0.01). The mean iron daily dietary intake was 17.7 +/- 6.91 mg. The hospital meals provided enough iron. Foods of animal origin are primary sources of iron in diet.

  10. The influence of 'time since last blood meal' on the toxicity of essential oils to the poultry red mite (Dermanyssus gallinae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    George, D R; Smith, T J; Sparagano, O A E; Guy, J H

    2008-08-17

    The poultry red mite, Dermanyssus gallinae (De Geer) is a serious ectoparasitic pest of layer hens that can survive for long periods in the poultry house sub-structure without taking a blood meal from its host. The research undertaken in this study found that 'time since last blood meal' had a notable effect on how toxic a selection of plant essential oils were to D. gallinae under laboratory conditions. In general, the essential oils had a greater toxic effect on D. gallinae if mites had been starved of a blood meal for around 3 weeks, than if they had been more recently fed 3-13 days prior to tests. This result was consistent across the four essential oils used (thyme, palmarosa, caraway and juniper leaf). This suggests that plant essential oils may be of use in management schemes for D. gallinae, particularly if used to sanitise houses between flocks, when mites will have been starved.

  11. Minnesota Agri-Power Project. Quarterly report, January--March, 1998

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wilbur, D.

    1998-05-01

    The Minnesota Valley Alfalfa Producers propose to build an alfalfa processing plant integrated with an advanced power plant system at the Granite Falls, Minnesota industrial park to provide 75 MW of base load electric power and a competitively priced source of value added alfalfa based products. This project utilizes air blown fluidized bed gasification technology to process alfalfa stems and another biomass to produce a hot, clean, low heating value gas that will be used in a gas turbine. Exhaust heat from the gas turbine will be used to generate steam to power a steam turbine and provide steam for the processing of the alfalfa leaf into a wide range of products including alfalfa leaf meal, a protein source for livestock. This progress report describes feedstock testing, feedstock supply system, performance guarantees, sales contracts, environmental permits, education, environment, economy, and project coordination and control.

  12. Production of bioethanol from corn meal hydrolyzates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ljiljana Mojovic; Svetlana Nikolic; Marica Rakin; Maja Vukasinovic [University of Belgrade, Belgrade (Serbia and Montenegro). Faculty of Technology and Metallurgy, Department of Biochemical Engineering and Biotechnology

    2006-09-15

    The two-step enzymatic hydrolysis of corn meal by commercially available {alpha}-amylase and glucoamylase and further ethanol fermentation of the obtained hydrolyzates by Saccharomyces cerevisiae yeast was studied. The conditions of starch hydrolysis such as substrate and enzyme concentration and the time required for enzymatic action were optimized taking into account both the effects of hydrolysis and ethanol fermentation. The corn meal hydrolyzates obtained were good substrates for ethanol fermentation by S. cerevisiae. The yield of ethanol of more than 80% (w/w) of the theoretical was achieved with a satisfactory volumetric productivity P (g/l h). No shortage of fermentable sugars was observed during simultaneous hydrolysis and fermentation. In this process, the savings in energy by carrying out the saccharification step at lower temperature (32{sup o}C) could be realized, as well as a reduction of the process time for 4 h. 31 refs., 5 figs., 2 tabs.

  13. High temperature cement raw meal flowability

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Maarup, Claus; Hjuler, Klaus; Dam-Johansen, Kim

    2014-01-01

    The flowability of cement raw meal is investigated at temperatures up to 850°C in a specially designed monoaxial shear tester. Consolidation stresses of 0.94, 1.87 and 2.79kPa are applied. The results show that the flowability is reduced as temperature is increased above 550°C, indicated by incre......The flowability of cement raw meal is investigated at temperatures up to 850°C in a specially designed monoaxial shear tester. Consolidation stresses of 0.94, 1.87 and 2.79kPa are applied. The results show that the flowability is reduced as temperature is increased above 550°C, indicated...

  14. 苜蓿叶片水杨酸含量与其蓟马抗性的关系%Relationship between Alfalfa Salicylic Acid Content and Its Thrips Resistance

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘玉良; 米福贵; 特木尔布和; 王普昶; 马小廷

    2011-01-01

    采用不同抗蓟马特性的苜蓿品系,于不同蓟马虫口密度下测定苜蓿水杨酸含量和虫害程度,以明确苜蓿叶片水杨酸含量与其抗蓟马特性的关系.结果表明,苜蓿叶片游离态、结合态水杨酸含量均与苜蓿抗蓟马特性密切相关;高抗品系(抗蓟马品系)的水杨酸初始含量(0.539 mg·g-1)高于低抗品系(0.403 mg·g-1);与较低抗品系相比,高抗品系受害器官(叶)水杨酸含量随虫口密度和危害点面积的增大而增加相对缓慢,而随危害指数的增大而增加较快(3.84倍).可见,水杨酸主要是间接增强苜蓿对蓟马的抗性;高抗蓟马苜蓿品系能通过快速获得较高水杨酸含量来阻碍被危害伤口的扩大,降低其受危害程度,促使自身产量和品质提高.%The relationship between the content of salicylic acid in alfalfa and its anti-thrips property was investigated in detecting the content of salicylic acid and damage level of insect pest according to the different density of thrips in different anti-thrips alfalfa. The results showed that the anti-thrips property of alfalfa was closely related to the free salicylic acid, bound salicylic acid and the total content of salicylic acid. The initial content of salicylic acid in high-level (thrips resistant strains) resistant strains of alfalfa was higher (0.539 mg · g-1 ) than that of in low-level (0. 403 mg · g-1 ) resistant strains. Contrasting to the lower-level resistant strains of alfalfa ,the content of salicylic acid in the damage organ(leaf) of high-level resistant strains of alfalfa was slowly increased with the increasing of the thrips,as well as rapidly improved with the increasing of the damage index(3.84 times). Moreover, the results indicated that high-level resistant strains of alfalfa can reduce the damage of insect pest by obtaining quickly the high content salicylic acid to prevent the enlarge of the damage. Salicylic acid indirectly strengthened the resistance of alfalfa

  15. Designing new meals for an ageing population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costa, Ana I A; Jongen, Wim M F

    2010-06-01

    Today's ageing population is an ever-increasing, highly diverse group of people wanting to live a healthy and enjoyable life. Seniors increasingly see the importance of eating healthy and delicious food in a pleasant environment in achieving happiness and well-being. Up until now, the food industry has been rather slow in transforming the wealth of available knowledge regarding the nutritional needs and sensory perception of the ageing into new food products. Based on our own and the published research of others, we discuss here how the design of new meals for an ageing population can be tackled by a consumer-led approach to food product development. After a brief overview of the underlying concepts and practices, a detailed description is given of how this approach could be used in the design of Home Meal Replacements for senior households. This description includes also a comprehensive review of the major determinants of food preference and meal choice behavior in a later age. Finally, relevant implications are derived from the work presented and future trends in the technological development of foods for the ageing highlighted.

  16. Effectivenes of inoculation in alfalfa breeding in ecological conditions of the Bjelovar and Bilogora county

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Darko Uher

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Development and basic existence of animal production as well as production of high quality milk depends upon possibility of sufficient production of quality and protein sufficient forage. Forage crop that satisfies these demands is alfalfa which is one of the most important perennial forage crop legumes. The aim of this study was to enhance alfalfa production on acid soil by liming and alfalfa seed inoculation with efficient Sinorhizobium meliloti strains in order to reduce the use of mineral nitrogen fertilization and enable qualitative and cost effective production of forage on the dairy farms. Field trial was established at family farm in the area of Bjelovar and Bilogora county. During two years experimental period statistically significant influence of inoculation and liming on forage and dry matteryield was determined. Significantly the lowest yields were determined on untreated plots without liming material. In all untreated plots, significantly lower yields were determined, but significant differences in yields were also obtained by inoculation with different S. meliloti strains, emphasizing the importance of strains selection used for alfalfa inoculation. In both experimental years total forage yield were ranging from 34 t/ha (untreated plots without liming up to 60 t/ha on plots inoculated with strain 2011 and without liming. Values of total dry matter yield for both experimental years ranged from 6.5 t/ha (untreated plots without liming up to 15,7 t/ha on plots inoculated with strain 2011 without liming. Results of this study showed that application of liming materials for acidity removal had positive effect on alfalfa yields in both experimental years and significantly improved alfalfa production on acid soils. The results of this study clearly showed that inoculation with selected S. meliloti strains may improve alfalfa production on acid soils and may contribute to more efficient forage production for dairy farms under particular

  17. Screening of Cd tolerant genotypes and isolation of metallothionein genes in alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang Xiaojuan, E-mail: xiaojuanwang@lzu.edu.cn [School of Pastoral Agriculture Science and Technology, Lanzhou University, P.O. Box 61, Lanzhou 730020 (China); Song, Yu [School of Pastoral Agriculture Science and Technology, Lanzhou University, P.O. Box 61, Lanzhou 730020 (China); Environment Management College of China, Qinhuangdao 066004 (China); Ma Yanhua [Hebei Normal University of Science and Technology, Qinhuangdao 066004 (China); Zhuo Renying [Key Lab of Tree Genomics, Research Institute of Subtropical of Forest, Chinese Academy of Forest, Fuyang 311400 (China); Jin Liang [School of Pastoral Agriculture Science and Technology, Lanzhou University, P.O. Box 61, Lanzhou 730020 (China)

    2011-12-15

    In order to evaluate Cd tolerance in wide-ranging sources of alfalfa (Medicago sativa) and to identify Cd tolerant genotypes which may potentially be useful for restoring Cd-contaminated environments, thirty-six accessions of alfalfa were screened under hydroponic culture. Our results showed that the relative root growth rate varied from 0.48 to 1.0, which indicated that different alfalfa accessions had various responses to Cd stress. The candidate fragments derived from differentially expressed metallothionein (MT) genes were cloned from leaves of two Cd tolerant genotypes, YE and LZ. DNA sequence and the deduced protein sequence showed that MsMT2a and MsMT2b had high similarity to those in leguminous plants. DDRT-PCR analysis showed that MsMT2a expressed in both YE and LZ plants under control and Cd stress treatment, but MsMT2b only expressed under Cd stress treatment. This suggested that MsMT2a was universally expressed in leaves of alfalfa but expression of MsMT2b was Cadmium (Cd) inducible. - Highlights: > Evaluate Cd tolerance in wide sources of alfalfa accessions. > Identify Cd-hyperaccumulators potentially useful for restoring Cd-contaminated environments. > Cloned differentially expressed metallothionein (MT) genes. > Characteristics and deduced protein sequence of MsMT2a and MsMT2b were analyzed. > MsMT2a might be a universally gene of alfalfa but MsMT2b might be an inductive gene. - Two Cd tolerant alfalfa genotypes were screened and their metallothionein genes were cloned which showed that MsMT2a was universally expressed but MsMT2b was Cd inducible expression.

  18. Contribution of exopeptidases to formation of nonprotein nitrogen during ensiling of alfalfa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tao, L; Zhou, H; Guo, X S; Long, R J; Zhu, Y; Cheng, W

    2011-08-01

    The experiment was conducted to investigate the exopeptidase classes in alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.) leaves, and to determine their contribution to the formation of nonprotein nitrogen (NPN) components during ensiling. Six classes of inhibitors that included bestatin (aminopeptidase inhibitor), potato carboxypeptidase inhibitor (PCI, carboxypeptidase inhibitor), 1,10-phenanthroline (dipeptidase inhibitor), diprotin A (dipeptidyl-peptidase inhibitor), butabindide (tripeptidyl-peptidase inhibitor), and dipeptide Phe-Arg (peptidyl-dipeptidase inhibitor) were used. To determine the contribution of each exopeptidase to the formation of NPN products, aqueous extracts of fresh alfalfa were fermented to imitate the proteolytic process of ensiled alfalfa and to ensure that each class of exopeptidase inhibitor would have immediate contact with the proteases in the alfalfa extract. Five classes of exopeptidases; namely, aminopeptidase, carboxypeptidase, dipeptidase, dipeptidyl-peptidase, and tripeptidyl-peptidase, were shown to be present in alfalfa leaves, each playing a different role in alfalfa protein degradation. Aminopeptidase, carboxypeptidase, and dipeptidase were the main exopeptidases contributing to the formation of NH(3)-N. Among the 5 exopeptidases, tripeptidyl-peptidase appeared to be the principal exopeptidase in hydrolyzing forage protein into peptides, whereas carboxypeptidase and dipeptidase appeared to be more important in contributing to the formation of amino acid-N. Dipeptidyl-peptidase and tripeptidyl-peptidase did not play a role in the formation of NH(3)-N or amino acid-N. Dipeptidase, carboxypeptidase, and tripeptidyl-peptidase were the principal exopeptidases for hydrolyzing forage protein into NPN during ensilage, and treatment with a mixture of the 5 inhibitors reduced the total NPN concentration in the fermented alfalfa extract to about 45% of that in the control after 21 d of fermentation.

  19. Transcriptome analysis of resistant and susceptible alfalfa cultivars infected with root-knot nematode Meloidogyne incognita.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Postnikova, Olga A; Hult, Maria; Shao, Jonathan; Skantar, Andrea; Nemchinov, Lev G

    2015-01-01

    Nematodes are one of the major limiting factors in alfalfa production. Root-knot nematodes (RKN, Meloidogyne spp.) are widely distributed and economically important sedentary endoparasites of agricultural crops and they may inflict significant damage to alfalfa fields. As of today, no studies have been published on global gene expression profiling in alfalfa infected with RKN or any other plant parasitic nematode. Very little information is available about molecular mechanisms that contribute to pathogenesis and defense responses in alfalfa against these pests and specifically against RKN. In this work, we performed root transcriptome analysis of resistant (cv. Moapa 69) and susceptible (cv. Lahontan) alfalfa cultivars infected with RKN Meloidogyne incognita, widespread root-knot nematode species and a major pest worldwide. A total of 1,701,622,580 pair-end reads were generated on an Illumina Hi-Seq 2000 platform from the roots of both cultivars and assembled into 45,595 and 47,590 transcripts in cvs Moapa 69 and Lahontan, respectively. Bioinformatic analysis revealed a number of common and unique genes that were differentially expressed in susceptible and resistant lines as a result of nematode infection. Although the susceptible cultivar showed a more pronounced defense response to the infection, feeding sites were successfully established in its roots. Characteristically, basal gene expression levels under normal conditions differed between the two cultivars as well, which may confer advantage to one of the genotypes toward resistance to nematodes. Differentially expressed genes were subsequently assigned to known Gene Ontology categories to predict their functional roles and associated biological processes. Real-time PCR validated expression changes in genes arbitrarily selected for experimental confirmation. Candidate genes that contribute to protection against M. incognita in alfalfa were proposed and alfalfa-nematode interactions with respect to resistance

  20. Analysis of the alfalfa root transcriptome in response to salinity stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Postnikova, Olga A; Shao, Jonathan; Nemchinov, Lev G

    2013-07-01

    Salinity is one of the major abiotic factors affecting alfalfa productivity. Identifying genes that control this complex trait will provide critical insights for alfalfa breeding programs. To date, no studies have been published on a deep sequencing-based profiling of the alfalfa transcriptome in response to salinity stress. Observations gathered through research on reference genomes may not always be applicable to alfalfa. In this work, Illumina RNA-sequencing was performed in two alfalfa genotypes contrasting in salt tolerance, in order to estimate a broad spectrum of genes affected by salt stress. A total of 367,619,586 short reads were generated from cDNA libraries originated from roots of both lines. More than 60,000 tentative consensus sequences (TCs) were obtained and, among them, 74.5% had a significant similarity to proteins in the NCBI database. Mining of simple sequence repeats (SSRs) from all TCs revealed 6,496 SSRs belonging to 3,183 annotated unigenes. Bioinformatics analysis showed that the expression of 1,165 genes, including 86 transcription factors (TFs), was significantly altered under salt stress. About 40% of differentially expressed genes were assigned to known gene ontology (GO) categories using Arabidopsis GO. A random check of differentially expressed genes by quantitative real-time PCR confirmed the bioinformatic analysis of the RNA-seq data. A number of salt-responsive genes in both tested genotypes were identified and assigned to functional classes, and gene candidates with roles in the adaptation to salinity were proposed. Alfalfa-specific data on salt-responsive genes obtained in this work will be useful in understanding the molecular mechanisms of salinity tolerance in alfalfa.

  1. Transcriptome analysis of resistant and susceptible alfalfa cultivars infected with root-knot nematode Meloidogyne incognita.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olga A Postnikova

    Full Text Available Nematodes are one of the major limiting factors in alfalfa production. Root-knot nematodes (RKN, Meloidogyne spp. are widely distributed and economically important sedentary endoparasites of agricultural crops and they may inflict significant damage to alfalfa fields. As of today, no studies have been published on global gene expression profiling in alfalfa infected with RKN or any other plant parasitic nematode. Very little information is available about molecular mechanisms that contribute to pathogenesis and defense responses in alfalfa against these pests and specifically against RKN. In this work, we performed root transcriptome analysis of resistant (cv. Moapa 69 and susceptible (cv. Lahontan alfalfa cultivars infected with RKN Meloidogyne incognita, widespread root-knot nematode species and a major pest worldwide. A total of 1,701,622,580 pair-end reads were generated on an Illumina Hi-Seq 2000 platform from the roots of both cultivars and assembled into 45,595 and 47,590 transcripts in cvs Moapa 69 and Lahontan, respectively. Bioinformatic analysis revealed a number of common and unique genes that were differentially expressed in susceptible and resistant lines as a result of nematode infection. Although the susceptible cultivar showed a more pronounced defense response to the infection, feeding sites were successfully established in its roots. Characteristically, basal gene expression levels under normal conditions differed between the two cultivars as well, which may confer advantage to one of the genotypes toward resistance to nematodes. Differentially expressed genes were subsequently assigned to known Gene Ontology categories to predict their functional roles and associated biological processes. Real-time PCR validated expression changes in genes arbitrarily selected for experimental confirmation. Candidate genes that contribute to protection against M. incognita in alfalfa were proposed and alfalfa-nematode interactions with

  2. Do meal replacement drinks have a role in diabetes management?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ditschuneit, Herwig H

    2006-01-01

    The poor effectiveness of conventional dietary treatment for weight loss and weight maintenance in patients with type-2 diabetes may be improved by a meal replacement strategy that provides a strong structured meal plan with reasonable opportunity for dietary variety. Typical meal replacement programs fix the intake of one or two meals per day with a calorie-controlled, nutritionally balanced commercial formulation, and allow prudent additional meals and snacks. In obese subjects, diets with meal replacements have proven to be more efficient than conventional diets. Patients on the meal replacement regimen lost 7.3 and 8.4% of initial body weight after 12 weeks and 4 years, respectively, whereas the patients on the conventional diet had lost 1.4% and 3.2% of initial body weight after 12 weeks and 4 years, respectively. The meal replacement plan has also proven to be effective in patients with type-2 diabetes. After 6 and 12 months, patients in the meal replacement group achieved on average a weight loss of 5.24 and 4.35% of their initial body weight, respectively. In contrast, after 6 and 12 months, patients on the individualized diet plan achieved on average a weight loss of 2.85 and 2.36% of their initial body weight, respectively. Meal replacements offer a promising strategy for treating obese patients with type-2 diabetes.

  3. Effects of additive application upon ad libitum intake, in vivo digestibility and nitrogen balance of alfalfa haylage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mladen Knežević

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available The research objective was to determine the effect of the additive Sill-All application on ad libitum intake, in vivo digestibility and nitrogen balance of alfalfa haylage. About 40 % alfalfa plants was ensiled at the phonological flowering stage into plastic foil-wrapped bales without or with additive (2 L t-1 plant mass. No statistically significant differences were found between alfalfa ensiled without additive and alfalfa ensiled with additive for the content of dry matter (DM (632 g and 631 g DM kg-1 fresh sample, respectively. Alfalfa ensiled without additive contained 921 g organic matter (OM kg-1 DM, which was significantly higher (P<0.001 compared to alfalfa ensiled with additive (902 g OM kg-1 DM. Alfalfa ensiled without additive contained 141 g crude proteins (CP kg-1 DM, which was significantly higher (P<0.001 compared to alfalfa ensiled with additive (139 g CP kg-1 DM. Alfalfa ensiled with additive contained significantly less acid detergent fibers (ADF (P<0.001 compared to alfalfa ensiled without additive (445 g kg-1 DM and 456 g kg-1 DM, respectively and had a lower pH value (P<0.001 (5.29 and 5.56, respectively. No statistically significant differences were found between the studied feeding treatments for ad libitum intake of fresh ration and DM ration, for the measured parameters of digestibility and N balance. It was concluded that addition of the additive to alfalfa haylage led to significant changes in chemical composition; however, changes in chemical composition had no impact on measured biological parameters (ad libitum intake, in vivo digestibility and nitrogen balance.

  4. Energy values of canola meal, cottonseed meal, bakery meal, and peanut flour meal for broiler chickens determined using the regression method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, F; Adeola, O

    2017-02-01

    The energy values of canola meal (CM), cottonseed meal (CSM), bakery meal (BM), and peanut flour meal (PFM) for broiler chickens were determined in 2 experiments with Ross 708 broiler chickens from d 21 to 28 posthatch. The birds were fed a standard broiler starter diet from d 0 to 21 posthatch. In each experiment, 320 birds were grouped by weight into 8 blocks of 5 cages with 8 birds per cage and assigned to 5 diets. Each experiment used a corn-soybean meal reference diet and 4 test diets in which test ingredients partly replaced the energy sources in the reference diet. The test diets in Exp. 1 consisted of 125 g CM, 250 g CM, 100 g CSM, or 200 g CSM/kg. In Exp. 2, the test diets consisted of 200 g BM, 400 g BM, 100 g PFM, or 200 g PFM/kg. The ileal digestible energy (IDE), metabolizable energy (ME), and nitrogen-corrected metabolizable energy (MEn) of all the test ingredients were determined by the regression method. The DM of CM, CSM, BM and PFM were 883, 878, 878, and 964 g/kg, respectively and the respective gross energies (GE) were 4,143, 4,237, 4,060, and 5,783 kcal/kg DM. In Exp. 1, the IDE were 2,132 and 2,197 kcal/kg DM for CM and CSM, respectively. The ME were 2,286 and 2,568 kcal/kg DM for CM and CSM, respectively. The MEn were 1,931 kcal/kg DM for CM and 2,078 kcal/ kg DM for CSM. In Exp. 2, IDE values were 3,412 kcal/kg DM for BM and 4,801 kcal/kg DM for PFM; ME values were 3,176 and 4,601 kcal/kg DM for BM and PFM, respectively, and the MEn values were 3,093 kcal/kg DM for BM and 4,112 kcal/kg DM for PFM. In conclusion, the current study showed that chickens can utilize a considerable amount of energy from these 4 ingredients, and also provided the energy values of CM, CSM, BM and PFM for broiler chickens.

  5. Relationship of red and photographic infrared spectral radiances to alfalfa biomass, forage water content, percentage canopy cover, and severity of drought stress

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tucker, C. J.; Elgin, J. H., Jr.; Mcmurtrey, J. E., III

    1979-01-01

    Red and photographic infrared spectral data were collected using a handheld radiometer for two cuttings of alfalfa. Significant linear and non-linear correlation coefficients were found between the spectral variables and plant height, biomass, forage water content, and estimated canopy cover for the earlier alfalfa cutting. The alfalfa of later cutting experienced a period of severe drought stress which limited growth. The spectral variables were found to be highly correlated with the estimated drought scores for this alfalfa cutting.

  6. A study on the meat and bone meal and poultry by-product meal as protein substitutes of fish meal in practical diets for Litopenaeus vannamei juveniles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Wei; Mai, Kangsen; Zhang, Baigang; Wang, Fuzhen; Yu, Yu

    2004-10-01

    A study was conducted to evaluate the effects of meat and bone meal (MBM) and poultry by-product meal (PBM) as the replacement of fish meal in the diets on the growth performance, survival and apparent digestibility coefficients (ADC) of Litopenaeus vannamei. The basal diets were formulated with 22% fish meal and other ingredients which provided about 40% protein and 9% lipid in the diet. The experimental diets included MBM or PBM to replace 0, 20%, 40%, 60% and 80% of total fish meal respectively. All diets were iso-nitrogenous and isocaloric in gross terms. The results showed that there were no significant differences (Pτ;0.05) in growth performance and ADC among the treatments fed with the diets in which 0 60% fish meal had been replaced with MBM, while the percent weight gain (WG, %), body length gain (BLG, %) and ADC significantly decreased when the MBM was up to 80% of the fish meal. There were no significant differences (Pτ;0.05) in growth performance and ADC among all the treatments fed with the diets in which 0 80% fish meal had been replaced with PBM.

  7. A Study on the Meat and Bone Meal and Poultry By-product Meal as Protein Substitutes of Fish Meal in Practical Diets for Litopenaeus vannamei Juveniles

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHU Wei; MAI Kangsen; ZHANG Baigang; WANG Fuzhen; YU Yu

    2004-01-01

    A study was conducted to evaluate the effects of meat and bone meal(MBM)and poultry by-product meal(PBM)as the replacement of fish meal in the diets on the growth performance, survival and apparent digestibility coefficients(ADC)of Litopenaeus vannamei. The basal diets were formulated with 22% fish meal and other ingredients which provided about 40% protein and 9% lipid in the diet. The experimental diets included MBM or PBM to replace 0, 20%, 40%, 60% and 80% of total fish meal respectively. All diets were iso-nitrogenous and isocaloric in gross terms. The results showed that there were no significant differences(P>0.05)in growth performance and ADC among the treatments fed with the diets in which 0-60% fish meal had been replaced with MBM, while the percent weight gain(WG,%), body length gain(BLG,%)and ADC significantly decreased when the MBM was up to 80% of the fish meal. There were no significant differences(P>0.05)in growth performance and ADC among all the treatments fed with the diets in which 0-80% fish meal had been replaced with PBM.

  8. Replacement of soybean meal with babassu meal in rations for broilers from 22 to 42 days old

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mônica Calixto da Silva

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The objective this work was to evaluate the technical and economic viability of the substitution level of soybean meal by babassu meal in rations to broiler from 22 to 42 days old. It was used 80 male broiler chicks at one day of age, distributed into complete random designs with four treatments (0, 10, 20 e 30% substituition of soybean meal by babassu meal and five repetitions of four broilers each. Were evaluated the performance (weight dain, feed intake and feed conversion, carcass and cuts, organ biometry, feed cost per kilogram body weight and gross margin. To verify the relationship of cost of replacing soybean meal with pie babassu, inequalities were established. The substitution level of soybean meal by babassu meal had no influence (P>0,05 any of the performance characteristics, wich showed the technical viability of substituting up to 30%. Similarly, there was no affect on carcass yield, cuts weight and organ biometry. The cust less with feed per kg for chicken produced and the higher gross margin were obtained from chickens fed diets with 0% babassu meal. The increased of substitution level soybean meal by babassu meal in ration for broilers from 22 to 42 days old proved unviable economically, however, the inequalities produced can be useful in practical situations.

  9. Enteric methane emission, diet digestibility, and nitrogen excretion from beef heifers fed sainfoin or alfalfa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chung, Y-H; Mc Geough, E J; Acharya, S; McAllister, T A; McGinn, S M; Harstad, O M; Beauchemin, K A

    2013-10-01

    Effects of plant-bound condensed tannin (CT)-containing sainfoin vs. CT-free alfalfa (or low-CT alfalfa-sainfoin mixture), plant stage of maturity, and their interaction on enteric methane (CH4) emissions, diet digestibility, and N excretion were studied, using 8 ruminally cannulated beef heifers in 2 sequential short-term experiments (Exp. 1 and 2). In Exp. 1, first growth legumes were harvested daily and offered fresh to heifers. Heifers were assigned to 100% sainfoin or 80% alfalfa:20% sainfoin (as-fed basis). Responses were measured at early (late vegetative to early bud; stage 2 to 3) and late (early flower; stage 5) stage of maturity. In Exp. 2, the same legumes were harvested from second growth (late bud; stage 4) and offered to heifers as hay; 100% sainfoin or 100% alfalfa. In both experiments, heifers were fed once daily at 1× maintenance. When fed as fresh forage (Exp. 1), sainfoin, compared with the alfalfa-sainfoin blend, had greater digestibility of OM (74.7 vs. 70.9%; P = 0.02), yet tended to have lower CP digestibility (73.2 vs. 77.1%; P = 0.059). There was no difference between fresh legumes for CH4 emissions [25.9 g/kg DMI ± 4.02 SE; 8.5% of gross energy intake (GEI) ± 1.26 SE; or 36.8 g/kg digested OM ± 1.75 SE]. The fresh legumes were more digestible at early, rather than at late, maturity and, consequently, enteric CH4 (27.4 vs. 24.4 g/kg DMI; P emissions (22.4 g/kg DMI ± 1.29 SD and 7.1% GEI ± 0.40 SD). However, on the basis of OM digested, CH4 emissions were lower for sainfoin than alfalfa hay (44.3 vs. 59.0 g/kg; P = 0.008). Percentage of total N excretion in urine was less for sainfoin compared with alfalfa, both for fresh legumes in Exp. 1 (74 vs. 78%; P = 0.017) or hay in Exp. 2 (64 vs. 72%; P emissions from beef cattle fed at maintenance as compared with feeding either 80% alfalfa:20% sainfoin (fresh forages) or 100% alfalfa (hay). Feeding fresh legumes harvested between the late vegetative to early bud stage, compared with

  10. Effect of quantity, quality, and length of alfalfa hay on selective consumption by dairy cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leonardi, C; Armentano, L E

    2003-02-01

    Twenty-four lactating Holstein cows were used in a replicated 6 x 6 Latin square design. Experimental periods were 6 or 7 d. Cows were housed in tie-stalls, and diets were fed ad libitum twice daily at 1100 and 1600 h. Diets contained 60% concentrate and either 40% alfalfa hay or 20% alfalfa hay and 20% alfalfa silage (dry matter basis). The effect of quantity, quality, and length of hay on sorting behavior was determined. Treatments consisted of 20% lower or higher quality long alfalfa hay, 20% lower or higher quality chopped alfalfa hay, and 40% lower or higher quality chopped alfalfa hay. Variation of sorting among cows was also determined. Particle size distribution of samples of as-fed total mixed rations and orts were determined using the Wisconsin particle size separator. Screens have square holes with diagonals of 26.9, 18, 8.98, 5.61, and 1.65 mm (screens Y1 to Y5, respectively). Sorting was calculated as the actual intake of each fraction expressed as a percentage ofthe predicted intake. Increasing the proportion of dry hay increased sorting. Quality of alfalfa hays that were offered did not affect sorting activity. Feeding long alfalfa hay increased selective consumption of fine particles. However, feeding long alfalfa hay also increased intake of longer particles because a higher percentage of long particles was offered. Across treatments, animals consistently sorted against longer particles in favor of finer particles. In particular, intake of Y1 as a percentage of the predicted intake was the most variable. Average Y1 intake, across the six treatments for each cow, was between 60 and 70% of predicted intake for four cows, 71 to 80% for 11 cows, 81 to 90% for five cows, 91 to 100% for two cows, and 101 to 110% for two cows. On one diet a cow failed to consume any of the Y1 portion of the total mixed ration. This variation among animals in sorting of very long feed particles may have practical significance.

  11. Development and validation of a new simple Healthy Meal Index for canteen meals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lassen, Anne Dahl; Biltoft-Jensen, Anja Pia; L Hansen, Gitte

    2010-01-01

    categories according to the total index score and compared across categories. SETTING: A total of 180 meals from fifteen worksite canteens. RESULTS: Average energy density decreased significantly across categories (from 876 kJ/100 g to 537 kJ/100 g, P saturated fat...... of individual canteen meals. DESIGN: The development process included overall model selection, setting nutritional goals and defining scoring systems and thresholds. Three index components were included: (i) contents of fruit and vegetables, (ii) fat content and quality and (iii) contents of wholegrain products...

  12. 7 CFR 202.44 - Proceedings under section 305(b) to determine whether foreign alfalfa or red clover seed is not...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... foreign alfalfa or red clover seed is not adapted for general agricultural use in the United States. 202... Proceedings under section 305(b) to determine whether foreign alfalfa or red clover seed is not adapted for... for the purpose of determining whether seed of alfalfa or red clover from any foreign country...

  13. Occurrence of alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.) populations along roadsides in southern Manitoba, Canada and their potential role in intraspecific gene flow.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bagavathiannan, Muthukumar V; Gulden, Robert H; Van Acker, Rene C

    2011-04-01

    Alfalfa is a highly outcrossing perennial species that can be noticed in roadsides as feral populations. There remains little information available on the extent of feral alfalfa populations in western Canadian prairies and their role in gene flow. The main objectives of this study were (a) to document the occurrence of feral alfalfa populations, and (b) to estimate the levels of outcrossing facilitated by feral populations. A roadside survey confirmed widespread occurrence of feral alfalfa populations, particularly in alfalfa growing regions. The feral populations were dynamic and their frequency ranged from 0.2 to 1.7 populations km(-1). In many cases, the nearest feral alfalfa population from alfalfa production field was located within a distance sufficient for outcrossing in alfalfa. The gene flow study confirmed that genes can move back and forth between feral and cultivated alfalfa populations. In this study, the estimated outcrossing levels were 62% (seed fields to feral), 78% (feral to seed fields), 82% (hay fields to feral) and 85% (feral to feral). Overall, the results show that feral alfalfa plants are prevalent in alfalfa producing regions in western Canada and they can serve as bridges for gene flow at landscape level. Management of feral populations should be considered, if gene flow is a concern. Emphasis on preventing seed spill/escapes and intentional roadside planting of alfalfa cultivars will be particularly helpful. Further, realistic and pragmatic threshold levels should be established for markets sensitive to the presence of GE traits.

  14. The Role of Proanthocyanidins Complex in Structure and Nutrition Interaction in Alfalfa Forage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jonker, Arjan; Yu, Peiqiang

    2016-05-23

    Alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.) is one of the main forages grown in the world. Alfalfa is a winter hardy, drought tolerant, N-fixing legume with a good longevity, high yield, high nutrient levels, high digestibility, unique structural to non-structural components ratio, high dry matter intake, and high animal productivity per hectare. However, its main limitation is its excessively rapid initial rate of protein degradation in the rumen, which results in pasture bloat and inefficient use of protein with consequent excessive excretions of nitrogen into the environment. Proanthocyanidins are secondary plant metabolites that can bind with protein and thereby reduce the rate and extent of ruminal protein degradation. However, these secondary metabolites do not accumulate in alfalfa. This review aims to firstly describe the events involved in the rapid release of protein from alfalfa and its effect on ruminant nutrition, environmental pollution, and pasture bloat; secondly, to describe occurrence, structure, functions and benefits of moderate amounts of proanthocyanidin; and finally, to describe the development of alfalfa which accumulates moderate amounts of proanthocyanidins. The emphasis of this review focuses on the role of proanthocyanidins compounds in structure and nutrition interaction in ruminant livestock systems.

  15. The Role of Proanthocyanidins Complex in Structure and Nutrition Interaction in Alfalfa Forage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arjan Jonker

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Alfalfa (Medicago sativa L. is one of the main forages grown in the world. Alfalfa is a winter hardy, drought tolerant, N-fixing legume with a good longevity, high yield, high nutrient levels, high digestibility, unique structural to non-structural components ratio, high dry matter intake, and high animal productivity per hectare. However, its main limitation is its excessively rapid initial rate of protein degradation in the rumen, which results in pasture bloat and inefficient use of protein with consequent excessive excretions of nitrogen into the environment. Proanthocyanidins are secondary plant metabolites that can bind with protein and thereby reduce the rate and extent of ruminal protein degradation. However, these secondary metabolites do not accumulate in alfalfa. This review aims to firstly describe the events involved in the rapid release of protein from alfalfa and its effect on ruminant nutrition, environmental pollution, and pasture bloat; secondly, to describe occurrence, structure, functions and benefits of moderate amounts of proanthocyanidin; and finally, to describe the development of alfalfa which accumulates moderate amounts of proanthocyanidins. The emphasis of this review focuses on the role of proanthocyanidins compounds in structure and nutrition interaction in ruminant livestock systems.

  16. Accumulation and residue of napropamide in alfalfa (Medicago sativa) and soil involved in toxic response.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cui, Li E; Yang, Hong

    2011-06-15

    Napropamide belongs to the amide herbicide family and widely used to control weeds in farmland. Intensive use of the herbicide has resulted in widespread contamination to ecosystems. The present study demonstrated an analysis on accumulation of the toxic pesticide napropamide in six genotypes of alfalfa (Medicago sativa), along with biological parameters and its residues in soils. Soil was treated with napropamide at 3 mg kg(-1) dry soil and alfalfa plants were cultured for 10 or 30 d, respectively. The maximum value for napropamide accumulation is 0.426 mg kg(-1) in shoots and 2.444 mg kg(-1) in roots. The napropamide-contaminated soil with alfalfa cultivation had much lower napropamide concentrations than the control (soil without alfalfa cultivation). Also, the content of napropamide residue in the rhizosphere was significantly lower than that in the non-rhizosphere soil. M. sativa exposed to 3 mg kg(-1) napropamide showed inhibited growth. Further analysis revealed that plants treated with napropamide accumulated more reactive oxygen species (O(2)(-) and H(2)O(2)) and less amounts of chlorophyll. However, not all cultivars showed oxidative injury, suggesting that the alfalfa cultivars display different tolerance to napropamide.

  17. Yield, chemical composition and persistence of alfalfa on moderately acidic mountain soil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Josip Leto

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Due to its excellent nutritional characteristics and high yields, alfalfa is the most important forage crop in roughage production. The main limiting factor in global food production is soil acidification. At the moment, about 40% of world agricultural soils are acidic. It is difficult to grow alfalfa on acid soils (pH 0.05. Average DM yield of all cultivars in the year 2000 was 7.07 t/ha, in the year 2001 it was 10.94 t/ha, and finally in the year 2002 it was 12.78 t/ha. Significant differences in DM yields were recorded between cuttings (P0.05. Mean crude protein content was 28.2%, while contents of crude fat, crude fibers and non nitrogen free extract (NFE were 3.73%, 16.15%, 29.19%, respectively. No significant differences in alfalfa ground cover were recorded between cultivars in autumn or in spring in all experimental years (P>0.05. Significant differences in alfalfa ground cover in autumn (P<0.05 and in spring (P<0.01 were recorded between years. The lowest average ground cover was recorded in last experimental year: in the autumn of the year 2001(72.81% and in the spring of the year 2002 (64.37%. All investigated alfalfa cultivars are suitable for growing in similar agroecological conditions.

  18. Proteome analysis of alfalfa roots in response to water deifcit stress

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Rahman Md Atikur; Kim Yong-Goo; AlamIftekhar; LIU Gong-she; Lee Hyoshin; Lee Jeung Joo; Lee Byung-Hyun

    2016-01-01

    To evaluate the response of alfalfa to water deifcit (WD) stress, WD-induced candidates were investigated through a proteomic approach. Alfalfa seedlings were exposed to WD stress for 12 and 15 days respectively, folowed by 3 days re-watering. Water deifcit increased H2O2content, lipid peroxidation, DPPH (1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl)-radical scavenging activity, and the free proline level in alfalfa roots. Root proteins were extracted and separated by two-dimentional polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (2-DE). A total of 49 WD-responsive proteins were identiifed in alfalfa roots; 25 proteins were reproducibly found to be up-regulated and 24 were down-regulated. Two proteins, namely cytosolic ascorbate peroxidase (APx2) and putative F-box protein were newly detected on 2-DE maps of WD-treated plants. We identiifed several proteins including agamous-like 65, albumin b-32, inward rectifying potassium channel, and auxin-independent growth promoter. The identiifed proteins are involved in a variety of celular functions including calcium signaling, abacisic acid (ABA) biosynthesis, reactive oxygen species (ROS) regulation, transcription/ translation, antioxidant/detoxiifcation/stress defense, energy metabolism, signal transduction, and storage. These results indicate the potential candidates were responsible for adaptive response in alfalfa roots.

  19. Optimization of enzyme-assisted extraction of polysaccharides from alfalfa and its antioxidant activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Shaopu; Dong, Xiaofang; Tong, Jianming

    2013-11-01

    In this present study, an efficient complex enzyme-assisted extraction technology was developed and optimized to extract polysaccharides from alfalfa using four factors at five levels central composite rotatable response surface design (CCRD). The experimental data was fitted to a second order polynomial equation with high coefficient of determination values (R(2)>0.95). The results of statistical analysis showed that the linear and quadratic terms of these four variables had significant effects (Penzyme concentration of 2.5%, 2.0%, 3.0% (weight of alfalfa) of cellulase, papain and pectase, extraction temperature 52.7 °C, extraction pH 3.87, ratio of water to raw material 78.92 mL/g and extraction time 2.73 h. Under the optimal conditions, the experimental extraction yield of alfalfa polysaccharides was 5.05 ± 0.02%, which was well matched with the value (5.09%) predicted by the CCRD model. Moreover, evaluation of the antioxidant activity of polysaccharides from alfalfa in vitro suggested that the polysaccharides had good antioxidant effect, especially scavenging activity for hydroxyl radical and DPPH radical, which indicated that the polysaccharides from alfalfa may be explored as a novel natural antioxidant.

  20. Research Progress of Alfalfa Silage%苜蓿青贮研究进展

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘振宇; 玉柱; 智建飞; 谢楠; 秦文利; 冯伟; 刘忠宽

    2013-01-01

    As an important protein feed resources, alfalfa silage is of great significance for alfalfa industry and the healthy development of animal husbandry in China.In this paper, the research progress of development history and present situation of alfalfa silage, fermentation promotation, fermentation inhibiting and mixed silage were summarized, and the current main problems in alfalfa silage industry development and future research directions were put forward, in order to provide theoretical and practical references for the alfalfa silage research.%苜蓿作为一种重要的蛋白饲料资源,苜蓿青贮对我国苜蓿产业和畜牧业的健康发展具有重要意义。对苜蓿青贮发展历史与现状以及发酵促进、发酵抑制及混合青贮等研究进行了概述,提出了当前苜蓿青贮产业发展中存在的主要问题和今后的研究方向,以期为苜蓿青贮研究提供理论依据与实践参考。

  1. Leaf anatomy and photosynthesis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Berghuijs, H.N.C.

    2016-01-01

    Keywords: CO2 diffusion, C3 photosynthesis, mesophyll conductance, mesophyll resistance, re-assimilation, photorespiration, respiration, tomato Herman Nicolaas Cornelis Berghuijs (2016). Leaf anatomy and photosynthesis; unravelling the CO2 diffusion pathway in C3 leaves. PhD thesis. Wageningen Unive

  2. Determinants of meal satisfaction in a workplace environment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Haugaard, Pernille; Stancu, Catalin M.; Brockhoff, Per B.

    2016-01-01

    Workplace lunches are recurrent meal occasions that can contribute to the general well-being of employees. The objective of our research was to study which factors influence consumers' satisfaction with these meals by exploring the relative role of food-related, personal, situational factors. Using...... before lunch. Time available, mindful eating and eating with close colleagues were positively associated with perceived ambience. The results indicate that consumers' satisfaction with workplace meals can be increased by putting emphasis on the quality of food served, but equally important......-related variables. A mixed modelling approach was used to analyse the data. Meal satisfaction was directly associated with a positive ambience and a positive evaluation of both the quality of the food eaten and the buffet assortment, whereas the meal's energy content did not contribute to meal satisfaction...

  3. School meals in children’s social life

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Sidse Schoubye

    This dissertation explores the role of different school meal arrangements in children’s social life from a child’s perspective. The dissertation utilizes a school meal intervention carried out in Denmark in 2011-12 to compare the same group of children in different school meal arrangements, thereby......-reported evaluation of their school meals. Three themes guide the analyses: commensality, liking, and food education. Through these themes, the dissertation explores how school meals shape social positions, relations and interactions between adults and children. The dissertation shows that peers are important...... in children’s evaluation of new food initiatives in school; that children meet conflicting approaches to food education depending on the context; and that the social powers of sharing and exchanging individual lunch packs could outweigh some of the benefits of a collective meal system. Overall...

  4. Cod and rainbow trout as freeze-chilled meal elements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Louise Helene Søgaard; Nielsen, Jette; Jørgensen, Bo

    2010-01-01

    Meal elements' are elements of a meal, e.g. portions of pre-fried meat, sauces, frozen fish or pre-processed vegetables typically prepared industrially. The meal elements are distributed to professional satellite kitchens, where the staff can combine them into complete meals. Freeze...... and cod and rainbow trout seem potential candidates for freeze-chilled meal elements. (C) 2009 Society of Chemical Industry......-chilling is a process consisting of freezing and frozen storage followed by thawing and chilled storage. Combining the two would enable the manufacturer to produce large quantities of frozen meal elements to be released into the chill chain according to demand. We have studied the influence of freeze...

  5. Effects of supplementation level and particle size of alfalfa hay on growth characteristics and rumen development in dairy calves

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mirzaei, M.; Khorvash, M.; Ghorbani, G.R.; Kazemi-Bonchenari, M.; Riasi, A.; Nabipour, A.; Borne, van den J.J.G.C.

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the effects of particle size (PS) of alfalfa hay on growth characteristics and rumen development in dairy calves at two levels of alfalfa supplementation. Fifty newborn dairy calves (42.7 ± 2.2 kg BW) were used in a 2 × 2 factorial arrangement with the factors sup

  6. Alfalfa varieties differ markedly in seedling survival when interseeded into corn and treated with prohexadione-calcium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Interseeded alfalfa could serve as a dual purpose crop for providing groundcover during silage corn production and forage during subsequent years of production, but this system has been unworkable because competition between the co-planted crops often leads to stand failure of interseeded alfalfa. R...

  7. Effect of synthetic auxin herbicides on seed development and viability in genetically-engineered glyphosate-resistant alfalfa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feral populations of cultivated crops have the potential to function as bridges and reservoirs that contribute to the unwanted movement of novel genetically engineered (GE) traits. Recognizing that feral alfalfa has the potential to lower genetic purity in alfalfa seed production fields when it is g...

  8. In vitro ruminal fermentation of treated alfalfa silage using ruminal inocula from high and low feed-efficient lactating cows

    Science.gov (United States)

    The objective was to assess the effect of two additives on alfalfa silage and on in vitro ruminal fermentation when using ruminal inocula prepared from high feed-efficient (HE) and low feed-efficient (LE) lactating cows. Second and third cut alfalfa was harvested at 40% bloom stage, treated with con...

  9. The genetic components of extended life expectancy in chilled, post-diapause quiescent Alfalfa Leafcutting Bees, Megachile rotundata

    Science.gov (United States)

    The alfalfa leafcutting bee, Megachile rotundata, a solitary bee native to Eurasia, is the world’s most intensively managed solitary bee and has become the primary pollinator for alfalfa seed production. These bees, when commercially managed, are overwintered as diapausing prepupae under static ther...

  10. Screening of Highly Effective Sinorhizobium meliloti Strains for 'Vector' Alfalfa and Testing of Its Competitive Nodulation Ability in the Field

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZENG Zhao-Hai; CHEN Wen-Xin; HU Yue-Gao; SUI Xin-Hua; CHEN Dan-Ming

    2007-01-01

    Seventeen Sinorhizobium meliloti strains from seven provinces in China were used to screen highly effective strains for alfalfa cultivar in a greenhouse study and their symbiotic relationship and competitive ability were studied in the field.CCBAU30138 was the most effective strain,as evidenced by increase in dry weights.A field experiment showed that the inoculation of alfalfa with CCBAU30138 resulted in increases of 11.9%and 19.6%of dry matter production and crude protein production,respectively,in forage of monocultured plants.The total dry matter yields of alfalfa and tall fescue in binary culture were increased by 16.3%by inoculation of alfalfa with this strain.These results showed that S.Meliloti strain CCBAU30138 was an effective inoculant both in the greenhouse and in the field.The analysis of randomly amplified polymorphic DNA(RAPD)by polymerase chain reaction(PCR)from nodule extracts showed that the strain CCBAU30138 had high competitiveness in the field.It occupied 47.5%of nodules in alfalfa monoculture and 44.4% of nodules in alfalfa-tall fescue binary culture after 20 weeks of growth.In conclusion,a simple system to select highly effective and competitive symbiotic strains specific to alfalfa was established.Using this system.A strain suitable for the alfalfa cultivar'Vector’grown in Wuqiao County of Hebei Province was obtained.

  11. Can taste and nudging impact healthy meal consumption?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thunström, Linda; Nordström, Leif Jonas

    Previous research shows that taste is one of the most important factors in determining food choices, and that food choices may be affected by ”nudging”. We analyze how taste, as determined by meal attributes, and nudging affects consumption of a healthy labeled meal. Our analysis is based...... on a field experiment in a lunch restaurant and our results imply that sales of the healthy labelled meal, and its market share, is greatly impacted by its taste. Nudging, as in order of display on the menu, does not impact sales of the healthy labelled meal in our experiment. We conclude that supplying...

  12. Overexpression of a Cytosolic Ascorbate Peroxidase Gene, OsAPX2, Increases Salt Tolerance in Transgenic Alfalfa

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Qian; MA Cui; XUE Xin; XU Ming; LI Jing; WU Jin-xia

    2014-01-01

    Alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.) is an important forage crop in the world and it is of great signiifcance for the improvement of its salt tolerance. To improve salt tolerance in alfalfa, a rice ascorbate peroxidase gene (OsAPX2) was introduced into alfalfa using Agrobacterium tumefaciens-mediated transformation with marker gene bar. The different T-DNA insertions in T1 transgenic alfalfa were identiifed by Southern hybridization. Three independent T2 transgenic lines were selected for stress analysis and the results showed that all of them were salt tolerant compared with wild-type plants. The transgenic plants had low levels of H2O2, malondialdehyde and relative electrical conductivity under salt and drought stresses. Moreover, the contents of chlorophyll and proline, and APX activity were high in transgenic plants under salt and drought stresses. Taken together, the overexpression of OsAPX2 enhances salt tolerance in alfalfa through scavenging reactive oxygen species.

  13. Dose titration of sericea lespedeza leaf meal on Haemonchus contortus infection in lambs and kids

    Science.gov (United States)

    The objective of three experiments was to determine the impact of supplementing sericea lespedeza (Lespedeza cuneata; SL) in three concentrations in a loose or pelleted diet on gastrointestinal nematodes (GIN) in small ruminants. Experiments on lambs were conducted at the USDA, Agricultural Research...

  14. Effect of sericea lespedeza leaf meal pellets on adult female Haemonchus contortus in goats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sericea lespedeza (SL; Lespedeza cuneata) is a perennial warm-season forage rich in condensed tannins (CT) that has been reported to have anthelmintic activity against small ruminant gastrointestinal nematodes (GIN), particularly Haemonchus contortus, a highly pathogenic blood-feeder, but the mechan...

  15. UTILIZATION OF MEXICAN SUNFLOWER LEAF MEAL-BASED DIETS BY PRE WEANED WEST AFRICAN DWARF LAMBS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anthony Henry Ekeocha

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Studies were conducted using 16 West African Dwarf (WAD lambs selected from 16 ewes brought to heat (Oestrus by synchronization and served by 2 rams. The experimental animals were placed at 6 weeks of age and were fed with Panicum maximum plus concentrate diet mixture of Mexican Sunflower Leaves (MSL and Wheat Bran (WB such that 0, 15, 30 and 45% of wheat bran was replaced by weight with MSL gravimetrically in diets A, B, C and D respectively. The experiment lasted for seven weeks. Feed and water were provided ad libitum and routine vaccination and medication were administered. Parameters measured were weight gain, dry matter intake, weaning weight and Feed Conversion Ratio (FCR. The Dry Matter Intake - DMI (g/day was highest for lambs on diet C (156.94 followed by B (156.53, A (154.29 and D (152.04 g/day respectively. This increase was numerically higher than observed values for animals on treatments A and B but statistically significant (P0.05. Results from this study showed that 30% MSLM-based diet was acceptable to the pre-weaned lambs as it supported dry matter intake, optimum weight gain, weaning weight and feed conversion ratio before diminishing return sets in.

  16. The Undergraduate ALFALFA Team: A Model for Involving Undergraduates in Large Astronomy Collaborations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Craig, David W.; Koopmann, Rebecca A.; Haynes, Martha P.; Undergraduate ALFALFA Team, ALFALFA Team

    2016-01-01

    The NSF-sponsored Undergraduate ALFALFA (Arecibo Legacy Fast ALFA) Team (UAT) has allowed faculty and students from a wide range of public and private colleges and especially those with small astronomy programs to learn how science is accomplished in a large collaboration while contributing to the scientific goals of a legacy radio astronomy survey. This effort has been made possible through the collaboration of the ALFALFA PIs and graduate students, Arecibo Observatory staff, and the faculty at 19 undergraduate-focussed institutions. In this talk, we will discuss how the UAT model works for the ALFALFA project and lessons learned from our efforts over the 8 years of grant funding. We will provide suggestions on how the model could be applied to other legacy projects, particularly in such areas as online collaboration and software usage by undergraduates. This work has been supported by NSF grants AST-0724918/0902211, AST-075267/0903394, AST-0725380, and AST-1211005.

  17. The Properties of Galaxies in Low Density Regions from the ALFALFA Survey

    CERN Document Server

    Toribio, M C

    2009-01-01

    Galaxies detected in the 21-cm line of neutral hydrogen (HI) from the on-going Arecibo Legacy Fast ALFA (ALFALFA) blind extragalactic HI survey have been cross-correlated with Sloan Digital Sky Survey Data Release 7 (Abazajian et al. 2009) in order to define a reference sample of HI content in regions of low galactic density. This observational sample will be used in the future to derive new standards of normal atomic gas content that allow a statistical investigation of the HI properties of galaxies in differing environments of the local universe. As a previous step, we compare here morphological indicators, like color or light concentration index, of ALFALFA detections and non-detections in low density regions. Our examination is extended also to a small data set of isolated galaxies. This kind of analysis is necessary in order to characterize as accurately as possible the type of galaxies that ALFALFA is detecting.

  18. The Properties of Galaxies in Low Density Regions from the ALFALFA Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toribio, M. C.; Solanes, J. M.; Alfalfa Collaboration

    2010-10-01

    Galaxies detected in the 21-cm line of neutral hydrogen (H I) from the on-going Arecibo Legacy Fast ALFA (ALFALFA) blind extragalactic H I survey have been cross-correlated with Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) Data Release 7 (Abazajian et al. 2009) in order to define a reference sample of H I content in regions of low galactic density. This observational sample will be used in the future to derive new standards of normal atomic gas content that allow a statistical investigation of the H I properties of galaxies in differing environments of the local universe. As a previous step, we compare here morphological indicators, like color or light concentration index, of ALFALFA detections and non-detections in low density regions. Our examination is extended also to a small data set of isolated galaxies. This kind of analysis is necessary in order to characterize as accurately as possible the type of galaxies that ALFALFA is detecting.

  19. Effect of undigested neutral detergent fiber content of alfalfa hay on lactating dairy cows: Feeding behavior, fiber digestibility, and lactation performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fustini, M; Palmonari, A; Canestrari, G; Bonfante, E; Mammi, L; Pacchioli, M T; Sniffen, G C J; Grant, R J; Cotanch, K W; Formigoni, A

    2017-03-22

    The objective of this study was to investigate the effects of 2 alfalfa hays differing in undigested neutral detergent fiber content and digestibility used as the main forage source in diets fed to high producing cows for Parmigiano-Reggiano cheese production. Diets were designed to have 2 different amounts of undigestible NDF [high (Hu) and low (Lu)], as determined by 240-h in vitro analysis (uNDF240). Alfalfa hay in vitro digestibility [% of amylase- and sodium sulfite-treated NDF with ash correction (aNDFom)] at 24 and 240 h was 40.2 and 31.2% and 53.6 and 45.7% for low- (LD) and high-digestibility (HD) hays, respectively. The 4 experimental diets (Hu-HD, Lu-HD, Hu-LD, and Lu-LD) contained 46.8, 36.8, 38.8, and 30.1% of alfalfa hay, respectively, 8.6% wheat straw, and 35.3% corn (50% flake and 50% meal; DM basis). Soy hulls and soybean meal were used to replace hay to balance protein and energy among diets. Eight multiparous Holstein cows (average milk production = 46.0 ± 5.2 kg/d, 101 ± 38 d in milk, and 662 ± 42 kg of average body weight) were assigned to a 4 × 4 Latin square design, with 2 wk of adaptation and a 1-wk collection period. Dry matter and water intake, rumination time, ruminal pH, and milk production and composition were measured. Diets and feces were analyzed for NDF on an organic matter basis (aNDFom), acid detergent fiber, acid detergent lignin, and uNDF240 to estimate total-tract fiber digestibility. Dry matter intake and rumination times were higher in HD diets compared with LD diets, regardless of forage amount. Rumination time was constant per unit of dry matter intake but differed when expressed as a function of uNDF240, aNDFom, or physically effective NDF intake. No differences were found among treatments on average ruminal pH, but the amount of time with pH <5.8 was lower in Hu-HD diets. Milk production and components were not different among diets. Total-tract aNDFom and potentially digestible neutral detergent fiber fraction

  20. Environmental impact of replacing soybean meal with rapeseed meal in diets of finishing pigs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zanten, Van H.H.E.; Bikker, P.; Mollenhorst, H.; Meerburg, B.G.; Boer, De I.J.M.

    2015-01-01

    The major impact of the livestock sector on the environment may be reduced by feeding agricultural co-products to animals. Since the last decade, co-products from biodiesel production, such as rapeseed meal (RSM), became increasingly available in Europe. Consequently, an increase in RSM content i

  1. Comparison of the adhesive performances of soy meal, water washed meal fractions, and protein isolates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adhesive bonding of wood plays an increasing role in the forest products industry and is a key factor for efficiently utilizing timber and other lignocellulosic resources. In this work, we obtained five soy meal products through commercial sources or in-house preparations. The protein content was 49...

  2. Everyday meal preparation for people with dementia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Iversen, Mette Kathrine Friis; Nejsum, Hanne Lindberg; Bendtsen, Trine Vase

    2016-01-01

    in everyday life. Furthermore getting the appropriate and nutritious food will be a step in the right direction regarding prevention of malnutrition. The aim of this project is to develop a guide to increase the possibility for people with dementia to continue everyday life through participating in meal...... and/or refining their actions as they are the experts in their own life. Therefore, we have cooperated with people with dementia and professionals in several public settings in Jutland, Denmark, during the development and during tests of the guide. The guide can be used in professional settings...

  3. Effects of a dietary mixture of meat and bone meal, feather meal, blood meal, and fish meal on nitrogen utilization in finishing Holstein steers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knaus, W F; Beermann, D H; Robinson, T F; Fox, D G; Finnerty, K D

    1998-05-01

    Our objective was to determine to what extent rate and efficiency of protein gain in finishing cattle can be enhanced by feeding an amino acid-balanced mixture of undegraded intake proteins. The Cornell Net Carbohydrate and Protein System (CNCPS) model was used to formulate a corn-based diet that would meet the rumen requirements for 410-kg large-framed steers with an estrogen implant and fed an ionophore. The CNCPS model was also used to formulate a highly undegradable intake protein (UIP) mixture from meat and bone meal, blood meal, fish meal, and hydrolyzed feather meal to provide the amino acids needed to supplement those derived from microbial protein to better meet amino acid requirements for growth. Four Holstein steers weighing 407 kg were offered a 90:10 concentrate-forage diet at hourly intervals at 95% of ad libitum intake. The steers were injected with 500 microg of estradiol-17beta at 12-h intervals to mimic the effects of an estrogenic implant. Treatments planned consisted of inclusion of the UIP mixture at 0, 2.5, 5, and 7.5% of the diet DM. Dry matter intake was fixed at 6.4 kg/d, and DM digestibility was not significantly affected by varying the amount of UIP addition. Apparent digestibility of N increased (P = .011) from 63.8 to 65.8, 70.7, and 71.5%, the amount of N absorbed increased (P = .001) from 73 to 84, 100, and 106 g/d, and N balance increased (P = .003) from 20 to 30, 33, and 39 g/d when UIP was fed at 0, 2.6, 5.2, and 7.8% of diet DM, respectively. The efficiency of N use increased 39.7%, and biological value increased 31.6% when the UIP mixture was added to the diet. Circulating concentrations of plasma urea N (PUN) were increased (P = .017) from 4.5 for the control diet to 5.7, 6.2, and 6.1 mg/dL when the UIP mixture was added at 2.6, 5.2, and 7.8%, respectively. Corresponding IGF-I concentrations were also increased from 491 to 558 and 624 ng/mL with 2.6 and 5.2% levels of UIP addition. Plasma glucose, NEFA, and insulin

  4. Effect of replacement of fish meal by meat and bone meal and poultry by-product meal in diets on the growth and immune response of Macrobrachium nipponense.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Yong; Xie, Shouqi; Lei, Wu; Zhu, Xiaoming; Yang, Yunxia

    2004-08-01

    The potential use of poultry by-product meal (PBM) and meat and bone meal (MBM) as alternative dietary protein sources for juvenile Macrobrachium nipponense was studied by a 70-day growth trial. Triplicate groups of M. nipponense (initial body weight: 0.37 g) were fed at 20.7-22.4 degrees C on each of the five isoenergetic and isonitrogenous diets (protein content about 38%) with different replacement of fish meal by MBM or PBM. The control diet used white fish meal as the sole protein source, the other four diets were prepared with 15% or 50% fish meal protein substituted by either MBM (MBM(15), MBM(50)) or PBM (PBM(15), PBM(50)). The results showed that replacement of fish meal by MBM in diets did not affect growth performance of M. nipponense (P > 0.05), while specific growth rate in PBM(15) was significantly higher than that in other groups (P meal protein in diets for M. nipponense.

  5. Effects of plant enzyme inactivation or sterilization on lipolysis and proteolysis in alfalfa silage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, W R; Long, R J; Guo, X S

    2013-04-01

    This experiment studied the contribution of plant enzymes and microbial activity on lipolysis and proteolysis in ensiled alfalfa. Before ensiling, the wilted alfalfa was treated with plant enzyme inactivation by autoclaving or with sterilization by γ-ray irradiation. The treated alfalfa was then inoculated with commercial lactic acid bacteria inoculants and ensiled for 40 d. Alfalfa without treatment was ensiled as the control. The content of total fatty acid (FA) after ensiling decreased 43% in the control silage and 28% in the γ-ray-treated silage, but did not change in the autoclave-treated silage. Among the major FA (C16:0, C18:2n-6, C18:3n-3), a considerable increase was observed in proportion of C16:0 in the control silage as compared with fresh alfalfa; conversely, decreases in proportions of C18:2n-6 and C18:3n-3 occurred during ensilage. Silage treated with γ-ray radiation at ensiling had a smaller proportion of C16:0 and greater proportions of C18:2n-6 and C18:3n-3 than control silage. Autoclave treatment further decreased proportions of C16:0 and most of the other FA, and increased C18:2n-6 and C18:3n-3 proportions in comparison with γ-ray treatment. Proportions of C16:0, C18:2n-6, C18:3n-3 and other detected FA (except for the proportion of C15:0) did not differ between fresh forage and autoclave-treated silage. Remarkably, smaller nonprotein nitrogen content was observed in the autoclave-treated silage compared with the γ ray-treated silage or the control silage. These results indicated that an extensive lipolysis occurred during ensiling of alfalfa, and plant enzymes played a major role in lipolysis and proteolysis.

  6. Assessing the Spatial Variability of Alfalfa Yield Using Satellite Imagery and Ground-Based Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kayad, Ahmed G.; Al-Gaadi, Khalid A.; Tola, ElKamil; Madugundu, Rangaswamy; Zeyada, Ahmed M.; Kalaitzidis, Chariton

    2016-01-01

    Understanding the temporal and spatial variability in a crop yield is viewed as one of the key steps in the implementation of precision agriculture practices. Therefore, a study on a center pivot irrigated 23.5 ha field in Saudi Arabia was conducted to assess the variability in alfalfa yield using Landsat-8 imagery and a hay yield monitor data. In addition, the study was designed to also explore the potential of predicting the alfalfa yield using vegetation indices. A calibrated yield monitor mounted on a large rectangular hay baler was used to measure the actual alfalfa yield for four alfalfa harvests performed in the period from October 2013 to May 2014. A total of 18 Landsat-8 images, representing different crop growth stages, were used to derive different vegetation indices (VIs). Data from the yield monitor was used to generate yield maps, which illustrated a definite spatial variation in alfalfa yield across the experimental field for the four studied harvests as indicated by the high spatial correlation values (0.75 to 0.97) and the low P-values (4.7E-103 to 8.9E-27). The yield monitor-measured alfalfa actual yield was compared to the predicted yield form the Vis. Results of the study showed that there was a correlation between actual and predicted yield. The highest correlations were observed between actual yield and the predicted using NIR reflectance, SAVI and NDVI with maximum correlation coefficients of 0.69, 0.68 and 0.63, respectively. PMID:27281189

  7. Effects of Cutting Time, Ensiling Duration and Microbial Additives on Chemical Composition of Alfalfa Silage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.H. Delavar

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available This experiment was conducted to assess the effects of daytime cutting management (p.m. vs. a.m. cut, ensiling duration and adding microbial inoculants on chemical composition of alfalfa silage. For this, Second growth Alfalfa harvested at the early bud stage of development after a sunny day at sundown (about 1900 h; PM alfalfa, whereas the second half was cut next day at sunup (about 0800 h; AM alfalfa. After cutting, alfalfa Forage was chopped by using a chopper to a length of 8 to10 cm, and then ensiled without or with microbial additive as factorial experiment (2×2 with repeated measurement design. Silages were provided in laboratory silos (6 repeats in every treatment lined with two layers of plastic, after air exclusion. Silos were opened at 3, 10 and 30 day for determination of pH and other chemical analysis. The numerically lower pH of PM vs. AM silages indicates that the former forage was more extensively fermented possibly because of its increased total non structural carbohydrate (TNC concentration. Shifting alfalfa harvesting from sun up to sundown significantly decreased NDF% and ADF%, because of the dilution effect associated with increased concentrations of TNC in the former forage. The NPN content and N-NH3 concentration of the silages treated in the afternoon was lower compared with AM group. CP content decreased, but NDF, ADF, NPN and N-NH3 concentration increased during ensiling time. Silage pH decreased by using of microbial additive and ensiling time. Dry matter and nitrogen losses were lower in silages treated by microbial inoculants, and, increased with increasing fermentation time. It can be concluded that microbial additives and time of cutting can be used as proper way to improve fermentation situation and silage quality.

  8. Objective measures of meal variety lacking association with consumers' perception of variety with self-selected buffet meals at work

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Haugaard, Pernille; Brockhoff, Per B.; Lahteenmaki, Liisa

    2016-01-01

    Food variety has been linked to higher diet quality and increased food intake, but what constitutes variety for consumers is underexposed. The aim of the study was twofold: first to explore the relationship between objective measures of meal variety and subjective post-meal ratings of perceived...... to perceive their meals less varied than those with lower scores. Moreover, the rule of having many dishes was positively associated with uncontrolled eating and negatively associated with cognitive restraint. Consumers' perception of within-meal variety seems to be more linked to their idea of how to compose...

  9. Effect of Pseudocereal-Based Breakfast Meals on the First and Second Meal Glucose Tolerance in Healthy and Diabetic Subjects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gabrial, Shreef G. N.; Shakib, Marie-Christine R.; Gabrial, Gamal N.

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Many studies have indicated that the incidence of serious diabetic complications may be reduced through strict glycemic control. A low glycemic index diet is one tool to improve insulin resistance and improve glycemic control in type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). AIM: The objective was to study the effect of pseudocereals-based breakfasts (quinoa and buckwheat) on glucose variations at first meal (breakfast) and second meal (standardised lunch) in healthy and diabetic subjects. SUBJECTS AND METHODS: Twelve healthy subjects and 12 patients with Type 2 DM (not- insulin dependent) were recruited in the study. Subjects were provided with quinoa and buckwheat breakfast meals. A standardised lunch was provided 4 h after breakfast. Postprandial blood glucose response after breakfast and the second meal effect was measured in healthy and diabetic subjects. Incremental area under the curve (IAUC) values for glucose was measured in response to the breakfast and lunch. The glycemic index of the 2 pseudocereals-based test breakfasts was determined. A white wheat bread (WWB) was served as a reference breakfast meal. RESULTS: In post-breakfast analyses, healthy subjects showed that buckwheat meal had significantly lower IAUC values for blood glucose compared to WWB reference meal (P quinoa meal showed no significance. In diabetic subjects, buckwheat and quinoa meals had significantly lower IAUC values for blood glucose compared to WWB reference meal (P quinoa and buckwheat but not for WWB in all healthy and diabetic subjects and returned to near-fasting baseline levels by 210 min. Post-lunch analyses indicated higher IAUC for the two breakfast types in healthy and diabetic subjects. In addition, the quinoa and buckwheat breakfast meals were followed by a significantly flatter blood glucose response to the second meal for the period between 270 and 330 min. At the end of the second meal period, values were below or near-fasting baseline levels in the breakfast period

  10. Evaluación de 14 variedades de alfalfa con fertirriego en la Mixteca de Oaxaca

    OpenAIRE

    Joel Morales Ayala; José Luis Jiménez Victoria; Vicente Arturo Velasco Velasco; Yuri Villegas Aparicio; José Raymundo Enríquez del Valle; Alfonso Hernández Garay

    2006-01-01

    Se evaluaron 14 variedades de alfalfa con el sistema de fertirriego por goteo, con la finalidad de determinar la variedad de mayor rendimiento en materia seca, relación hoja:tallo y altura de planta, y la comparación de dos variedades de alfalfa mediante el sistema de riego por gravedad para evaluar el consumo de agua y energía eléctrica. El estudio se estableció en el Campo Experimental Mixteca Oaxaqueña, perteneciente al INIFAP, Yanhuitlán, Nochixtlán, Oaxaca. La siembra se realizó con una ...

  11. Evolutionary relationship of alfalfa mosaic virus with cucumber mosaic virus and brome mosaic virus

    OpenAIRE

    Savithri, HS; Murthy, MRN

    1983-01-01

    The amino acid sequences of the non-structural protein (molecular weight 35,000; 3a protein) from three plant viruses - cucumber mosaic, brome mosaic and alfalfa mosaic have been systematically compared using the partial genomic sequences for these three viruses already available. The 3a protein of cucumber mosaic virus has an amino acid sequence homology of 33.7% with the corresponding protein of brome mosaic virus. A similar protein from alfalfa mosaic virus has a homology of 18.2% and 14.2...

  12. Gas chromatographic analysis of simmondsins and simmondsin ferulates in jojoba meal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Boven, M; Holser, R; Cokelaere, M; Flo, G; Decuypere, E

    2000-09-01

    A capillary gas chromatographic method was developed for the simultaneous determination of simmondsins and simmondsin ferulates in jojoba meal, in detoxified jojoba meal, in jojoba meal extracts, and in animal food mixtures.

  13. Leaf absorbance and photosynthesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schurer, Kees

    1994-01-01

    The absorption spectrum of a leaf is often thought to contain some clues to the photosynthetic action spectrum of chlorophyll. Of course, absorption of photons is needed for photosynthesis, but the reverse, photosynthesis when there is absorption, is not necessarily true. As a check on the existence of absorption limits we measured spectra for a few different leaves. Two techniques for measuring absorption have been used, viz. the separate determination of the diffuse reflectance and the diffuse transmittance with the leaf at a port of an integrating sphere and the direct determination of the non-absorbed fraction with the leaf in the sphere. In a cross-check both methods yielded the same results for the absorption spectrum. The spectrum of a Fuchsia leaf, covering the short-wave region from 350 to 2500 nm, shows a high absorption in UV, blue and red, the well known dip in the green and a steep fall-off at 700 nm. Absorption drops to virtually zero in the near infrared, with subsequent absorptions, corresponding to the water absorption bands. In more detailed spectra, taken at 5 nm intervals with a 5 nm bandwidth, differences in chlorophyll content show in the different depths of the dip around 550 nm and in a small shift of the absorption edge at 700 nm. Spectra for Geranium (Pelargonium zonale) and Hibiscus (with a higher chlorophyll content) show that the upper limit for photosynthesis can not be much above 700 nm. No evidence, however, is to be seen of a lower limit for photosynthesis and, in fact, some experiments down to 300 nm still did not show a decrease of the absorption although it is well recognized that no photosynthesis results with 300 nm wavelengths.

  14. Evaluation of Selection Indices for Alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hassan MONIRIFAR

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available In order to evaluate the efficiency of selection indices in alfalfa improvement, an experiment was conducted from 2000 to 2007 at East Azarbaijan Agricultural and Natural Resources Research Center, Iran. A set of 29 native ecotypes, which were collected in 2000 and 2001 from Azerbaijan (Iran, together with one improved variety were used to conduct a polycross nursery. For the purpose of random mating, a randomized complete block design was used with 12 replications arranged in this nursery. The resulting 30 half-sib families were planted individually in pots and the 30 days old seedlings were transplanted to the field in May, 2004. Each 3-row plot consisted of 45 HS plants. Several traits, such as individual plants� fresh weight and individual plants� dry weight (IPFW, IPDW, number of shoots per plant (NS and plant height (PH in each harvest and also, days until 10% flowering, the ratio of fresh and dry weight of leaves/plant and size of trifoliate leaves were measured for three cropping seasons. The results of analysis of variance showed large variation among polycross progenies. Six selection indices (Ii with different number of traits at adult plant stage were evaluated. Based on the result of this investigation, if number of shoots and height of adult plant, excluding yield, are recorded, I2 is suggested. If, in addition to fresh yield, height of adult plant is measured, I6 is recommended. I4 is useful when number of shoots and plant height with dry yield are included in the index. In conclusion, the importance of mature plant traits in selection indices was in the order of yield > plant height > number of shoots. The results provided more evidence that selection indices incorporating the component of dry yield are more advantageous. The most efficient selection index consisted of NS, IPDW and PH, having a relative efficiency of 280%.

  15. Shrimp cephalothorax meal in laying hen diets.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Catalina Salas-Durán

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to meassure the effect of shrimp meal (SM in commercial laying hen diets. From April to September 2013, in Costa Rica, Pleuroncodes planipes was used to obtain a meal (SM with a yield of 15%, particle size of 256 μg and negative for Salmonella sp. Proximate analysis was performed to the SM: crude protein (40.67%, ether extract (11.05%, crude fiber (7.12%, ash (27.48%, calcium (9.03%, phosphorus (2.66%, amino acid profile, pepsin digestibility (84% and acidity (8.34. Subsequently, a trial was performed with 140 40-week-old Hy-Line Brown laying hens, fed with four different diets containing increasing levels of inclusion of SM (0%, 5%, 10%, and 15% during four weeks; and formulated according to the ideal protein and digestible amino acids concepts; being isocaloric and isoproteic. The variables experimentally evaluated were: production percentage, feed intake, body weight, mortality, egg weight and feed conversion ratio. Only egg weight changed significantly between treatments in the third week (p<0.05. The hens fed with 5% SM laid heavier eggs. It is suggested to evaluate a level of SM inclusion up to 15% in laying hens diets.

  16. Crambe meal in supplements for culling cows: animal performance and carcass characteristics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kennyson Alves de Souza

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available The influence of the replacement of soybean meal by crambe crushed in concentrated supplement at proportions 0, 5, 10, 15%, on the performance and carcass traits of grazing cows is assessed. Within a completely randomized design, twenty Nellore cows, fed on Brachiaria humidicola, were supplemented during the rain-drought transition period and monitored with regard to weight and body conditions every 28 days. Total forage mass and percentages of leaf, stem and senescent material were quantified in loco. The estimation of forage quality consumed by animals was performed by the simulated grazing method. There were no significant differences between the levels of inclusion of crambe crushed on animal performance or carcass characteristics. Replacement did not affect weight, carcass yield, Brazilian commercial cuts, morphometric measures of carcass, characteristics of loins, thickness of carcass fat, perirenal-pelvic fat and total meat. Replacement of soybean meal by crambe crushed up to 15% in the concentrated supplement does not affect performance and carcass characteristics of cows finished on pasture.

  17. Minimizing the time and cost of production of transgenic alfalfa libraries using the highly efficient completely sequenced vector pPZP200BAR.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jozefkowicz, Cintia; Bottero, Emilia; Pascuan, Cecilia; Pagano, Elba; Ayub, Nicolás Daniel; Soto, Gabriela

    2016-09-01

    Alfalfa is the most important forage legume worldwide. However, similar to other minor forage crops, it is usually harvested along with weeds, which decrease its nutrient quality and thus reduce its high value in the market. In addition, weeds reduce alfalfa yield by about 50 %. Although weeds are the limiting factor for alfalfa production, little progress has been made in the incorporation of herbicide-tolerant traits into commercial alfalfa. This is partially due to the high times and costs needed for the production of vast numbers of transgenic alfalfa events as an empirical approach to bypass the random transgenic silencing and for the identification of an event with optimal transgene expression. In this focus article, we report the complete sequence of pPZP200BAR and the extremely high efficiency of this binary vector in alfalfa transformation, opening the way for rapid and inexpensive production of transgenic events for alfalfa improvement public programs.

  18. Comparative phytotoxicity of ZnO NPs, bulk ZnO, and ionic zinc onto the alfalfa plants symbiotically associated with Sinorhizobium meliloti in soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bandyopadhyay, Susmita; Plascencia-Villa, Germán; Mukherjee, Arnab; Rico, Cyren M; José-Yacamán, Miguel; Peralta-Videa, Jose R; Gardea-Torresdey, Jorge L

    2015-05-15

    ZnO nanoparticles (NPs) are reported as potentially phytotoxic in hydroponic and soil media. However, studies on ZnO NPs toxicity in a plant inoculated with bacterium in soil are limited. In this study, ZnO NPs, bulk ZnO, and ZnCl₂ were exposed to the symbiotic alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.)-Sinorhizobium meliloti association at concentrations ranging from 0 to 750 mg/kg soil. Plant growth, Zn bioaccumulation, dry biomass, leaf area, total protein, and catalase (CAT) activity were measured in 30 day-old plants. Results showed 50% germination reduction by bulk ZnO at 500 and 750 mg/kg and all ZnCl₂ concentrations. ZnO NPs and ionic Zn reduced root and shoot biomass by 80% and 25%, respectively. Conversely, bulk ZnO at 750 mg/kg increased shoot and root biomass by 225% and 10%, respectively, compared to control. At 500 and 750 mg/kg, ZnCl₂ reduced CAT activity in stems and leaves. Total leaf protein significantly decreased as external ZnCl₂ concentration increased. STEM-EDX imaging revealed the presence of ZnO particles in the root, stem, leaf, and nodule tissues. ZnO NPs showed less toxicity compared to ZnCl₂ and bulk ZnO found to be growth enhancing on measured traits. These findings are significant to reveal the toxicity effects of different Zn species (NPs, bulk, and ionic Zn) into environmentally important plant-bacterial system in soil.

  19. Soybean meal, distillers grains replace fishmeal in experimental shrimp diets

    Science.gov (United States)

    The objective of this study was to evaluate inclusion of distiller’s dried grains with solubles (DDGS) as partial replacement of commercial, solvent-extracted soybean meal (SBM) in fish meal-free diets for Pacific white shrimp, Litopenaeus vannamei. Aquaria connected to a recirculating biofiltratio...

  20. Incineration of animal meal; Verbrandingsovens enige uitweg voor diermeelberg

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Veering, A. (ed.)

    2001-04-01

    The recent BSE and foot and mouth disease in the Netherlands caused problems in the processing of animal wastes. An alternative is the use of animal meal in coal-fired power plants, while such meal has a high calorific value.

  1. Using of Bangun-Bangun Leafs (Coleus Amboinicus, L on Red Sugar Block to Upgrading Milk Production of Frisian Holstein

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nelzi Fati

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Science and technology for the Community Activities Program (IBM granting wake leaf meal in urea red sugar  block has been implemented in a herd prosperous green valley village Kampung Manggis, Western District of Padang Panjang, Municipality of Leopold. This activity aims to increase the milk production of dairy cows through the application of technology utilization wake leaf meal in urea  red sugar block. The benefits of this activity is to assist farmers in improving milk production per day, so that milk production can increase the impact on increasing revenue. To achieve the goal of service to the community mentioned above, it has been conducted lectures, live demonstrations on the making lick candy made from leaf shapes. Six cows used as a demonstration, two dairy cows with urea red sugar block containing 2.5% leaf shapes, two dairy cows with urea red sugar block containing leaf shapes 5% and two cows with urea red sugar block containing leaves wake up 7.5%. Wake up dried leaves with the help of sunlight and then made ready for use in the flour mixture forming urea red sugar block which serves as a feed supplement in dairy cattle. Evaluation activities indicate that the application of urea  red sugar block starchy wake leaves 5% can increase the production of milk 2 liters / day / head (average increase 10%.Of this service activities can be concluded that the use of leaf meal wake up in 5% urea red sugar  block can increase milk production of dairy cows 2 liters / day / head compared with 2.5%, 7.5%.

  2. Protein fractionation byproduct from canola meal for dairy cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heendeniya, R G; Christensen, D A; Maenz, D D; McKinnon, J J; Yu, P

    2012-08-01

    Fiber-protein is a byproduct arising from a process for fractionating high-quality protein from canola meal. The objective of this study was to evaluate the fiber-protein fraction by examining the chemical profiles, rumen degradation, and intestinal digestive characteristics and determining the nutritive value of the fiber-protein fraction as dietary components for dairy cattle in comparison with commercial canola meal and soybean meal. Available energy values were estimated based on National Research Council guidelines, whereas total true protein content potentially absorbable in the small intestine (DVE) were predicted using the predicted DVE/degraded protein balance (OEB) model. The results show that fiber-protein was a highly fibrous material [neutral detergent fiber (NDF): 556; acid detergent fiber (ADF): 463; acid detergent lignin: 241 g/kg of dry matter (DM)] compared with canola meal (NDF: 254; ADF: 212; acid detergent lignin: 90 g/kg of DM) due to the presence of a higher level of seed hulls in fiber-protein. Compared with canola meal, fiber-protein contained 90 g/kg of DM less crude protein (CP), 25% of which consisted of undegradable acid detergent-insoluble CP. Most of the ruminally undegradable nutrient components present in canola meal appeared to be concentrated into fiber-protein during the manufacturing process and, as a result, fiber-protein showed a consistently lower effective degradability of DM, organic matter, CP, NDF, and ADF compared with both canola meal and soybean meal. Available energy content in fiber-protein contained two-thirds of that of canola meal. The DVE was one-third that of soybean meal and one-fifth that of canola meal [DVE value: 58 vs. 180 (soybean) and 291 g/kg of DM (canola meal)]. The OEB value of fiber protein was positive and about half of that of soybean and canola meal [OEB value: 74 vs. 162 (soybean) and 137 g/kg of DM (canola meal)]. Fiber-protein can be considered as a secondary source of protein in ruminant feed.

  3. Carob pod (Ceratonia siliqua) meal in geese diets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sahle, M; Coleou, J; Haas, C

    1992-07-01

    1. The apparent and true metabolisable energy values of carob pods meal for geese were measured to be 6.1 MJ/kg and 6.6 MJ/kg respectively. 2. Performance from 5 to 12 weeks was examined in geese fed on four diets containing 0, 100, 200 and 300 g/kg of carob pods meal. 3. The inclusion of carob pods meal up to 200 g/kg in geese diets did not affect the performance. 4. At 300 g/kg performance was highly depressed. 5. The digestibility of protein in the diets decreased linearly with an increase in the level of inclusion of carob pods meal. 6. The length of small intestine, large intestine and caeca and the weight of gizzard expressed per kg of body weight increased with an increase in the level of carob pods meal, which is rich in fibre, in the diets.

  4. Children's body mass index, participation in school meals, and observed energy intake at school meals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mackelprang Alyssa J

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Data from a dietary-reporting validation study with fourth-grade children were analyzed to investigate a possible relationship of body mass index (BMI with daily participation in school meals and observed energy intake at school meals, and whether the relationships differed by breakfast location (classroom; cafeteria. Methods Data were collected in 17, 17, and 8 schools during three school years. For the three years, six, six, and seven of the schools had breakfast in the classroom; all other schools had breakfast in the cafeteria. Information about 180 days of school breakfast and school lunch participation during fourth grade for each of 1,571 children (90% Black; 53% girls was available in electronic administrative records from the school district. Children were weighed and measured, and BMI was calculated. Each of a subset of 465 children (95% Black; 49% girls was observed eating school breakfast and school lunch on the same day. Mixed-effects regression was conducted with BMI as the dependent variable and school as the random effect; independent variables were breakfast participation, lunch participation, combined participation (breakfast and lunch on the same day, average observed energy intake for breakfast, average observed energy intake for lunch, sex, age, breakfast location, and school year. Analyses were repeated for BMI category (underweight/healthy weight; overweight; obese; severely obese using pooled ordered logistic regression models that excluded sex and age. Results Breakfast participation, lunch participation, and combined participation were not significantly associated with BMI or BMI category irrespective of whether the model included observed energy intake at school meals. Observed energy intake at school meals was significantly and positively associated with BMI and BMI category. For the total sample and subset, breakfast location was significantly associated with BMI; average BMI was larger for

  5. Increase phosphorus availability from the use of alfalfa (Medicago sativa L) green manure in rice (Oryza sativa L.) agroecosystem.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Xiaoye; Shi, Dongyan; Lv, Aimin; Wang, Shengyin; Yuan, Shili; Zhou, Peng; An, Yuan

    2016-11-11

    Alfalfa is a good green manure source, but its effect on rice growth has not been fully elucidated. Two green manure species, alfalfa and broad bean (Vicia faba L.), and two N fertilizer levels, alone or combination, were applied to a rice field. The results indicated that alfalfa had more pronounced effects on increasing soil labile phosphorus (P) fractions (including NaHCO3-Pi, NaOH-Pi), P uptake and soil enzyme activities (dehydrogenase, urease, acid phosphatase and β-glucosidase) than broad bean and N fertilizer. The transformation of NaHCO3-Po to labile P regulated by alfalfa played a significant direct and indirect effect on grain yield. Although a much lower N input from alfalfa addition, a similar grain yield with N fertilizer treatment was achieved, and the integration of alfalfa with N fertilizer produced the highest grain yield and P availability, which was associated with the highest urease, acid phosphatase and β-glucosidase activity in soil. These results indicate that alfalfa green manure had a great ability of increasing grain yield through enhancing P availability in rice paddy, which could give us a way to reduce N fertilizer application by enhancing P availability.

  6. Increase phosphorus availability from the use of alfalfa (Medicago sativa L) green manure in rice (Oryza sativa L.) agroecosystem

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Xiaoye; Shi, Dongyan; Lv, Aimin; Wang, Shengyin; Yuan, Shili; Zhou, Peng; An, Yuan

    2016-01-01

    Alfalfa is a good green manure source, but its effect on rice growth has not been fully elucidated. Two green manure species, alfalfa and broad bean (Vicia faba L.), and two N fertilizer levels, alone or combination, were applied to a rice field. The results indicated that alfalfa had more pronounced effects on increasing soil labile phosphorus (P) fractions (including NaHCO3-Pi, NaOH-Pi), P uptake and soil enzyme activities (dehydrogenase, urease, acid phosphatase and β-glucosidase) than broad bean and N fertilizer. The transformation of NaHCO3-Po to labile P regulated by alfalfa played a significant direct and indirect effect on grain yield. Although a much lower N input from alfalfa addition, a similar grain yield with N fertilizer treatment was achieved, and the integration of alfalfa with N fertilizer produced the highest grain yield and P availability, which was associated with the highest urease, acid phosphatase and β-glucosidase activity in soil. These results indicate that alfalfa green manure had a great ability of increasing grain yield through enhancing P availability in rice paddy, which could give us a way to reduce N fertilizer application by enhancing P availability. PMID:27833163

  7. Effect of plant growth promoting micro organisms on increasing water use efficiency of alfalfa in water-stress conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Zafari

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available In order to study the effect of bacterial growth on water use efficiency of alfalfa, a greenhouse experiment, as factorial based on completely randomized blocks design with three replications, was conducted at Faculty of Agriculture, University of Mohaghegh Ardabili, Ardabil, Iran, in 2012. Treatments consisted of 3 levels of water stress (75, 55 and 35% of field capacity and seed inoculation at 4 levels (no inoculation (control, inoculation with mycorhhiza G. mosseae, inoculation with rhyzobium S. meliloti, and inoculation with combination of mycorhhiza and rhyzobium. Results showed that water stress and seed inoculation have significant effect (P&le0.01 on leaf nutrients content. Water stress reduced absorption of phosphorus (23%, potassium (8%, iron (4% and increased sodium absorption (14% in non-inoculated seeds. Inoculation of seeds reduced stress effects and combined inoculation had the highest effect. Stomatal conductance and water use efficiency were affected (P&le0.01 by inoculation and water stress. Stomatal conductance was decreased during the stress period and seed inoculation with mycorhhiza G. mosseae was most effective on increasing stomatal conductance (47% at the highest level of stress. Water use efficiency increased as a result of water stress and inoculation. The highest value of water use efficiency (0.166 mg/kg was obtained in the combined inoculation with 35% field capacity treatment. Results of regression equations showed that during the inoculation, contribution of phosphorus and potassium in regulation of stomatal conductance was increased and contribution of sodium was decreased.  However, during the stress period, the share of potassium and sodium was increased in stomatal conductance and the share of phosphorus was reduced. Also, stress increased the role of stomatal conductance in water use efficiency. However, inoculation reduced the role of stomatal conductance in water use efficiency.

  8. Determinants of meal satisfaction in a workplace environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haugaard, Pernille; Stancu, Catalin M; Brockhoff, Per B; Thorsdottir, Inga; Lähteenmäki, Liisa

    2016-10-01

    Workplace lunches are recurrent meal occasions that can contribute to the general well-being of employees. The objective of our research was to study which factors influence consumers' satisfaction with these meals by exploring the relative role of food-related, personal, situational factors. Using a longitudinal approach, we monitored a total of 71 participants compiled and experienced 519 meals from their workplace canteen buffet during a three-month period; in addition the composed lunches were photographed. Before and after the lunch choice period respondents filled in a questionnaire on several meal-related variables. A mixed modelling approach was used to analyse the data. Meal satisfaction was directly associated with a positive ambience and a positive evaluation of both the quality of the food eaten and the buffet assortment, whereas the meal's energy content did not contribute to meal satisfaction. Additionally, meal satisfaction was associated with a more positive mood, lower hunger level as well as feeling less busy and stressed after lunch. The buffet assortment, a more positive mood before lunch and mindful eating contributed to the perceived food quality, but not associated with the hunger level before lunch. Time available, mindful eating and eating with close colleagues were positively associated with perceived ambience. The results indicate that consumers' satisfaction with workplace meals can be increased by putting emphasis on the quality of food served, but equally important is the ambience in the lunch situation. Most of the ambience factors were related to available time and mental resources of the participants and the possibility to share the meal with close colleagues. These are factors that can be facilitated by the service provider, but not directly influenced.

  9. Fixed-precision sequential sampling plans for estimating alfalfa caterpillar, Colias lesbia, egg density in alfalfa, Medicago sativa, fields in Córdoba, Argentina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serra, Gerardo V; Porta, Norma C La; Avalos, Susana; Mazzuferi, Vilma

    2013-01-01

    The alfalfa caterpillar, Colias lesbia (Fabricius) (Lepidoptera: Pieridae), is a major pest of alfalfa, Medicago sativa L. (Fabales: Fabaceae), crops in Argentina. Its management is based mainly on chemical control of larvae whenever the larvae exceed the action threshold. To develop and validate fixed-precision sequential sampling plans, an intensive sampling programme for C. lesbia eggs was carried out in two alfalfa plots located in the Province of Córdoba, Argentina, from 1999 to 2002. Using Resampling for Validation of Sampling Plans software, 12 additional independent data sets were used to validate the sequential sampling plan with precision levels of 0.10 and 0.25 (SE/mean), respectively. For a range of mean densities of 0.10 to 8.35 eggs/sample, an average sample size of only 27 and 26 sample units was required to achieve a desired precision level of 0.25 for the sampling plans of Green and Kuno, respectively. As the precision level was increased to 0.10, average sample size increased to 161 and 157 sample units for the sampling plans of Green and Kuno, respectively. We recommend using Green's sequential sampling plan because it is less sensitive to changes in egg density. These sampling plans are a valuable tool for researchers to study population dynamics and to evaluate integrated pest management strategies.

  10. Meals served in Danish nursing homes and to meals-on-wheels clients may not offer nutritionally adequate choices

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Beck, Anne Marie; Hansen, Kirsten S.

    2010-01-01

    ), extra portions of different menus were made (3 days in a row). The meal samples (total n = 389) were analyzed for content of energy, protein, fat and carbohydrate. The findings were compared with recommendations regarding the foods to be served in Danish institutions. The nutrient content of the meals...

  11. The Association between Family Meals, TV Viewing during Meals, and Fruit, Vegetables, Soda, and Chips Intake among Latino Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andaya, Abegail A.; Arredondo, Elva M.; Alcaraz, John E.; Lindsay, Suzanne P.; Elder, John P.

    2011-01-01

    Objective: Examine the relationship of family meals to children's consumption of fruit and vegetables as well as soda and chips. Additionally, to assess the relationship between viewing TV during family meals and children's diet. Design: Cross-sectional study that used a questionnaire completed by parents. Setting: Thirteen schools in San Diego,…

  12. A Pilot Survey of Food Frequencies, Meal Frequencies and Meal Patterns of Preschool Children in East Los Angeles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, Jane S.; And Others

    The food frequency, meal frequency, and meal patterns of a group of Mexican American children attending Head Start in East Los Angeles and their siblings were studied. Fifty dietary questionnaires in English and in Spanish with written instructions were distributed to parents. Parents were asked to record for a 3 day period the eating time, type…

  13. Evaluate the effect of mutans Aspergillus niger to the nutritive value of fermentation at coconut meal and karnel palm meal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    TRESNAWATI PURWADARIA

    2004-07-01

    Full Text Available Agricultural wastes, such as coconut meal and kernel palm meal can be used to fulfill the need of feed for ruminants or monogastrics. Fermentation technology using Aspergillus niger has been reported allow to increase their nutritive value. Isolation of the asporogenous strain which could spored at room temperature but could not spored at 37oC is expected to sole the fermentation of spores in the fermentation product. The spore formation of mutants at the fourth day incubation time (10% was less than the wild type (100%. The variance analysis of protein content in vitro Dry Matter Digestibility (IVDMD and in vitro Protein Digestibility (IVPD showed that the kind of mutants were interacted with the incubation time (P<0,01. The highest protein content of coconut meal was obtained from E27 mutant (33.0%, kernel palm meal was obtained from E14 mutant (31.4% at the fourth day of incubation time. The highest IVDMD of coconut meal (62.1%, kernel palms meal (61.8% at the fourth day incubation time and from all E27 mutant. The highest IVPD of coconut meal was obtained from E27 mutant (20.49% at the fourth day incubation time, kernel palm meal was obtained from E27 mutant (18.66% at the fourth days incubation time.

  14. Replacement of Soybean Meal with Animal Origin Protein Meals Improved Ramoplanin A2 Production by Actinoplanes sp. ATCC 33076.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erkan, Deniz; Kayali, Hulya Ayar

    2016-09-01

    Ramoplanin A2 is the last resort antibiotic for treatment of many high morbidity- and mortality-rated hospital infections, and it is expected to be marketed in the forthcoming years. Therefore, high-yield production of ramoplanin A2 gains importance. In this study, meat-bone meal, poultry meal, and fish meal were used instead of soybean meal for ramoplanin A2 production by Actinoplanes sp. ATCC 33076. All animal origin nitrogen sources stimulated specific productivity. Ramoplanin A2 levels were determined as 406.805 mg L(-1) in fish meal medium and 374.218 mg L(-1) in poultry meal medium. These levels were 4.25- and 4.09-fold of basal medium, respectively. However, the total yield of poultry meal was higher than that of fish meal, which is also low-priced. In addition, the variations in pH levels, protein levels, reducing sugar levels, extracellular protease, amylase and lipase activities, and intracellular free amino acid levels were monitored during the incubation period. The correlations between ramoplanin production and these variables with respect to the incubation period were determined. The intracellular levels of L-Phe, D-Orn, and L-Leu were found critical for ramoplanin A2 production. The strategy of using animal origin nitrogen sources can be applied for large-scale ramoplanin A2 production.

  15. Development and validation of a Meal Index of dietary Quality (Meal IQ) to assess the dietary quality of school lunches

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sabinsky, Marianne; Toft, Ulla; Andersen, Klaus K.

    2012-01-01

    of school lunches for children aged 7–13 years. Design A Meal Index of dietary Quality (Meal IQ) was developed to consist of seven components (nutrients and food groups) based on dietary issues for children aged 7–13 years, which were identified in a national dietary survey. The Meal IQ was validated...... of a school food programme. In addition thirty-two lunches provided at eighteen other public schools were included. Subjects A total of 254 school lunches. Results A higher Meal IQ score was associated with a higher overall dietary quality, including lower contents of fat, saturated fat and added sugars......, higher contents of fibre, various vitamins and minerals, and more fruits, vegetables and fish. Conclusions The Meal IQ is a valid and useful evaluation tool for assessing the dietary quality of lunches provided by schools or brought to school from home....

  16. Proteomic analysis of salt and osmotic-drought stress in alfalfa seedlings

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    MA Qiao-li; KANG Jun-mei; LONG Rui-cai; CUI Yan-jun; ZHANG Tie-jun; XIONG Jun-bo; YANG Qing-chuan; SUN Yan

    2016-01-01

    Alfalfa is widely grown and is one of the most important forage crops in the world, but its growth and biomass production are markedly reduced under salt and drought stress, particularly during the early seedling stage. To identify the mecha-nisms behind salt and drought responsiveness at the alfalfa seedling stage, the proteins expressed were analyzed under no-treatment, 200 mol L–1 NaCl and 180 g L–1 PEG treatment conditions during the seedling stage. Out of more than 800 protein spots detected on two-dimensional electrophoresis (2-DE) gels, 35 proteins showed statisticaly signiifcant responses (P<0.05) to NaCl and PEG stress, which were selected for tandem mass spectrometric identiifcation, owing to their good resolution and abundance levels, and 32 proteins were positively identiifed. The identiifed proteins were divided into seven functional categories: photosynthetic metabolism, protein biosynthesis, folding and assembly, carbohydrate metabolism-associated proteins, stress defense related protein, metabolism of nucleic acid, other function categories and unknown proteins. Our results suggested that these proteins may play roles in alfalfa adaptation to salt and drought stress. Further study of these proteins wil provide insights into the molecular mechanisms of abiotic stress and the discovery of new candidate markers in alfalfa.

  17. Potato leafhopper (Hemiptera: Cicadellidae) ecology and integrated pest management focused on alfalfa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knowledge to date on biology of the potato leafhopper, Empoasca fabae (Harris), is summarized, including geographic distribution, development, migration, agricultural host plants, and the mechanism of injury to host plants. Damage to alfalfa, potato, soybean and snap bean, as well as treatment guide...

  18. Population Dynamics of Empoasca fabae (Hemiptera: Cicadellidae) in Central Iowa Alfalfa Fields.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weiser Erlandson, L A; Obrycki, J J

    2015-01-01

    Adults and nymphs of Empoasca fabae Harris (Hemiptera: Cicadellidae) and adults of predatory species in the families Coccinellidae, Anthocoridae, Nabidae, Chrysopidae, and Hemerobiidae were sampled in Iowa alfalfa fields from June to September in 1999 and 2000. The relationship between each predatory taxa and E. fabae was examined using regression analysis. In 2000, all predators were found to be positively correlated with the presence of E. fabae during all periods sampled and most likely contributed to mortality. Orius insidiosus (Say) (Hemiptera: Anthoridae) was the most numerous insect predatory species; population numbers ranged from 0 to 1 and 0.1 to 3.7 adults per 0.25 m(2) in 1999 and 2000, respectively. Partial life tables were constructed for E. fabae nymphs for two alfalfa-growing periods. Nymphs were grouped into three age intervals: first and second, third and fourth, and fifth instars. For the first alfalfa growing period examined, E. fabae nymphal mortality was 70% in 1999 and 49% in 2000. During the last growing period of each season (August-September), total nymphal mortality was relatively low (<25%). Adult E. fabae density ranged from 5.4 to 25.6 and 1.4-9.2 per 0.25 m(2) in 1999 and 2000, respectively. E. fabae population peaks were similar for each age interval in all growing periods. This study provides further information on the population dynamics of E. fabae and its relationship with select predatory species in Iowa alfalfa fields.

  19. Growth environment, harvest management and germplasm impacts on potential ethanol and crude protein yield in alfalfa

    Science.gov (United States)

    An alfalfa (Medicago sativa L) biomass energy production system would produce two products. Leaves would be separated from stems to produce a high protein feed for livestock and stems would be processed to produce ethanol. Therefore, maximum yields of both leaves and stems are essential for profitab...

  20. Draft Genome Sequence of Pseudomonas syringae pv. syringae ALF3 Isolated from Alfalfa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harrison, James; Dornbusch, Melinda R; Samac, Deborah; Studholme, David J

    2016-02-11

    We report here the annotated draft genome sequence of Pseudomonas syringae pv. syringae strain ALF3, isolated in Wyoming. A comparison of this genome sequence with those of closely related strains of P. syringae adapted to other hosts will facilitate research into interactions between this pathogen and alfalfa.

  1. USDA-ARS Plant Science Research Unit, St. Paul Alfalfa/Forage Research Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Plant Science Research Unit (PSRU) located at the University of Minnesota in St. Paul receives approximately $1.5 million to fund the research of six scientists who direct their research efforts toward developing new uses and improved traits for alfalfa. Our overarching goal is to develop alfalf...

  2. Uptake of oxytetracycline and its phytotoxicity to alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kong, W.D. [Research Center for Eco-Environmental Sciences, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100085 (China); Zhu, Y.G. [Research Center for Eco-Environmental Sciences, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100085 (China)]. E-mail: ygzhu@rcees.ac.cn; Liang, Y.C. [Ministry of Agriculture Key Laboratory of Plant Nutrition and Nutrient Cycling, Institute of Soils and Fertilizers, Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences, Beijing 100081 (China); Zhang, J. [Research Center for Eco-Environmental Sciences, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100085 (China); Smith, F.A. [Soil and Land Systems, School of Earth and Environmental Sciences, University of Adelaide, DP 636, Adelaide, SA 5005 (Australia); Yang, M. [Research Center for Eco-Environmental Sciences, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100085 (China)

    2007-05-15

    A series of experiments were conducted in a hydroponic system to investigate the uptake of oxytetracycline (OTC) and its toxicity to alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.). OTC inhibited alfalfa shoot and root growth by up to 61% and 85%, respectively. The kinetics of OTC uptake could be well described by Michaelis-Menten equation with V {sub max} of 2.25 {mu}mol g{sup -1} fresh weight h{sup -1}, and K {sub m} of 0.036 mM. The uptake of OTC by alfalfa was strongly inhibited by the metabolic inhibitor, 2,4-DNP (2,4-dinitrophenol), at pH 3.5 and 6.0, but not by the aquaporin competitors, glycerol and Ag{sup +}. OTC uptake, however, was significantly inhibited by Hg{sup 2+}, suggesting that the inhibition of influx was due to general cellular stress rather than the specific action of Hg{sup 2+} on aquaporins. Results from the present study suggested that OTC uptake into alfalfa is an energy-dependent process. - Plant uptake of antibiotic oxytetracycline is energy-dependent.

  3. Selective lignin downregulation leads to constitutive defense response expression in alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallego-Giraldo, Lina; Jikumaru, Yusuke; Kamiya, Yuji; Tang, Yuhong; Dixon, Richard A

    2011-05-01

    • Downregulation of hydroxycinnamoyl CoA: shikimate hydroxycinnamoyl transferase (HCT) in alfalfa (Medicago sativa) reduces lignin levels and improves forage quality and saccharification efficiency for bioethanol production. However, the plants have reduced stature. It was previously reported that HCT-down-regulated Arabidopsis have impaired auxin transport, but this has recently been disproved. • To address the basis for the phenotypes of lignin-modified alfalfa, we measured auxin transport, profiled a range of metabolites including flavonoids and hormones, and performed in depth transcriptome analyses. • Auxin transport is unaffected in HCT antisense alfalfa despite increased flavonoid biosynthesis. The plants show increased cytokinin and reduced auxin levels, and gibberellin levels and sensitivity are both reduced. Levels of salicylic, jasmonic and abscisic acids are elevated, associated with massive upregulation of pathogenesis and abiotic stress-related genes and enhanced tolerance to fungal infection and drought. • We suggest that HCT downregulated alfalfa plants exhibit constitutive activation of defense responses, triggered by release of bioactive cell wall fragments and production of hydrogen peroxide as a result of impaired secondary cell wall integrity.

  4. Incorporation of p-coumarates into the cell walls of alfalfa changes the lignin composition

    Science.gov (United States)

    In general, monocots can contain a significant amount of an ester-linked p-coumarate (pCA) in their cell walls, but its function is unclear. One hypothesis is that pCA aids in the formation of syringyl-rich regions during lignification. Alfalfa (Medicago sativa), a dicot, is a cultivated perennial f...

  5. Canopy visible and near-infrared reflectance data to estimate alfalfa nutritive attributes before harvest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Proximal sensing could help improve profit margins by timing the cutting or harvesting of alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.), in rapid assessment of nutritive values, such as total nitrogen (N), neutral detergent fiber (NDF), and acid detergent fiber (ADF) as well as nutritive quality indicators such as r...

  6. Best Phd thesis Prize: Statistical analysis of ALFALFA galaxies: insights in galaxy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Papastergis, E.

    2013-01-01

    We use the rich dataset of local universe galaxies detected by the ALFALFA 21cm survey to study the statistical properties of gas-bearing galaxies. In particular, we measure the number density of galaxies as a function of their baryonic mass ("baryonic mass function") and rotational velocity ("veloc

  7. Development of simple sequence repeat markers and diversity analysis in alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Zan; Yan, Hongwei; Fu, Xinnian; Li, Xuehui; Gao, Hongwen

    2013-04-01

    Efficient and robust molecular markers are essential for molecular breeding in plant. Compared to dominant and bi-allelic markers, multiple alleles of simple sequence repeat (SSR) markers are particularly informative and superior in genetic linkage map and QTL mapping in autotetraploid species like alfalfa. The objective of this study was to enrich SSR markers directly from alfalfa expressed sequence tags (ESTs). A total of 12,371 alfalfa ESTs were retrieved from the National Center for Biotechnology Information. Total 774 SSR-containing ESTs were identified from 716 ESTs. On average, one SSR was found per 7.7 kb of EST sequences. Tri-nucleotide repeats (48.8 %) was the most abundant motif type, followed by di-(26.1 %), tetra-(11.5 %), penta-(9.7 %), and hexanucleotide (3.9 %). One hundred EST-SSR primer pairs were successfully designed and 29 exhibited polymorphism among 28 alfalfa accessions. The allele number per marker ranged from two to 21 with an average of 6.8. The PIC values ranged from 0.195 to 0.896 with an average of 0.608, indicating a high level of polymorphism of the EST-SSR markers. Based on the 29 EST-SSR markers, assessment of genetic diversity was conducted and found that Medicago sativa ssp. sativa was clearly different from the other subspecies. The high transferability of those EST-SSR markers was also found for relative species.

  8. Enhancing forage yields and soil conservation by interseeding alfalfa into silage corn

    Science.gov (United States)

    Recent field studies have identified prohexadione-calcium (PHD) as an effective plant growth regulator for enhancing the establishment of alfalfa interseeded into corn as a dual-purpose cover and forage crop. Foliar applications of PHD on seedlings doubled or tripled stand survival of interseeded al...

  9. Pythium and Fusarium species causing seed rot and damping-off of alfalfa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seed rot and damping-off is an important disease of alfalfa, severely affecting stand establishment when conditions favor the disease. This disease may have been overlooked as a cause of poor stand establishment and reduced vigor of adult plants. Globally, 15 Pythium species have been found to cause...

  10. Alfalfa contains substantial 9-hydroperoxide lyase activity and a 3Z:2E-enal isomerase

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vliegenthart, J.F.G.; Noordermeer, M.A.; Veldink, G.A.

    1999-01-01

    Fatty acid hydroperoxides formed by lipoxygenase can be cleaved by hydroperoxide lyase resulting in the formation of short-chain aldehydes and omega-oxo acids. Plant hydroperoxide lyases use 13- or 9-hydroperoxy linoleic and linolenic acid as substrates. Alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.) has been reporte

  11. The qualitative identification of different alfalfa breed in same forage series by the terahertz spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Fang; Guo, Shuai

    2016-01-01

    In order to enriching the means of discriminating alfalfa and achieving the goal of nondestructive testing, terahertz time-domain spectroscopy (THz-TDS) was applied to explore and reveal the property characteristic of different alfalfa varieties in the same series. Six kinds of alfalfa were prepared for experiment and analysis, and these samples are classed as two series, namely caoyuan series and gannong series. In the result, the time-domain spectra were tested, and then the refractive indices and absorption coefficients was calculated, respectively. These spectrums showed an apparent difference between these two series, and to verify this classification, two statistical methods, partial least squares (PLS) and cluster analysis (CA), were performed to investigate. Finally, these methods yielded a classification result, and we found it classified gannong series and caoyuan series. All these result showed THz technology combined with statistical method can be an effective method for nondestructive identification of alfalfa breed with tiny different properties, and lay a foundation for establishing a forage database.

  12. (Almost) Dark Galaxies in the ALFALFA Survey: HI-bearing Ultra-Diffuse Galaxies, and Beyond

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leisman, Luke; Haynes, Martha P.; Giovanelli, Riccardo; ALFALFA Almost Darks Team

    2017-01-01

    Scaling relations between HI and stars in galaxies suggest strong ties between their atomic gas content and star formation laws. The Arecibo Legacy Fast ALFA (ALFALFA) blind extragalactic HI survey is well positioned to locate very low surface brightness sources that lie off these relations, the most extreme of which may fall below optical detection limits. Thus, the ALFALFA (Almost) Darks Project has been investigating extreme outliers from these relations by studying the ~1% of ALFALFA sources without apparent stellar counterparts in major optical surveys. We have obtained deep HI and optical imaging of 25 of these candidate "dark" sources. We find that most "dark" sources are not extreme "(almost) dark" galaxies. A few are rare OH Megamasers, redshifted into the ALFALFA bandpass, and many are part of large galactic plumes, stretching as far as 600 kpc from their host galaxy. However, a small handful of sources appear to be galaxies with extreme stellar systems. We find multiple systems with HI mass to stellar mass ratios an order of magnitude larger than typical gas rich dwarfs. Further, we find an isolated population of HI-bearing "ultra diffuse" galaxies (UDGs), with stellar masses of dwarfs, but HI and optical radii of L* galaxies. We suggest that these sources may be related to recently reported gas poor, quiescent UDGs.

  13. Screening of Cd tolerant genotypes and isolation of metallothionein genes in alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xiaojuan; Song, Yu; Ma, Yanhua; Zhuo, Renying; Jin, Liang

    2011-12-01

    In order to evaluate Cd tolerance in wide-ranging sources of alfalfa (Medicago sativa) and to identify Cd tolerant genotypes which may potentially be useful for restoring Cd-contaminated environments, thirty-six accessions of alfalfa were screened under hydroponic culture. Our results showed that the relative root growth rate varied from 0.48 to 1.0, which indicated that different alfalfa accessions had various responses to Cd stress. The candidate fragments derived from differentially expressed metallothionein (MT) genes were cloned from leaves of two Cd tolerant genotypes, YE and LZ. DNA sequence and the deduced protein sequence showed that MsMT2a and MsMT2b had high similarity to those in leguminous plants. DDRT-PCR analysis showed that MsMT2a expressed in both YE and LZ plants under control and Cd stress treatment, but MsMT2b only expressed under Cd stress treatment. This suggested that MsMT2a was universally expressed in leaves of alfalfa but expression of MsMT2b was Cadmium (Cd) inducible.

  14. Molybdate in Rhizobial Seed-Coat Formulations Improves the Production and Nodulation of Alfalfa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Jiqiong; Deng, Bo; Zhang, Yingjun; Cobb, Adam B; Zhang, Zhao

    2017-01-01

    Rhizobia-legume symbiosis is the most well researched biological nitrogen fixation system. Coating legume seeds with rhizobia is now a recognized practical measure for improving the production of legume corp. However, the efficacy of some commercial rhizobia inoculants cannot be guaranteed in China due to the low rate of live rhizobia in these products. A greenhouse experiment was conducted to assess the effects of different rhizobial inoculant formulations on alfalfa productivity and nitrogen fixation. Two rhizobia strains, (ACCC17631 and ACCC17676), that are effective partners with alfalfa variety Zhongmu No. 1 were assessed with different concentrations of ammonium molybdate in seed-coat formulations with two different coating adhesives. Our study showed that the growth, nodulation, and nitrogen fixation ability of the plants inoculated with the ACCC17631 rhizobial strain were greatest when the ammonium molybdate application was0.2% of the formulation. An ammonium molybdate concentration of 0.1% was most beneficial to the growth of the plants inoculated with the ACCC17676 rhizobial strain. The sodium carboxymethyl cellulose and sodium alginate, used as coating adhesives, did not have a significant effect on alfalfa biomass and nitrogen fixation. However, the addition of skimmed milk to the adhesive improved nitrogenase activity. These results demonstrate that a new rhizobial seed-coat formulation benefitted alfalfa nodulation and yield.

  15. Soil factors exhibit greater influence than bacterial inoculation on alfalfa growth and nitrogen fixation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neumann, Ute; Kosier, Bob; Jahnke, Joachim; Priefer, Ursula B; Al-Halbouni, Djamila

    2011-09-01

    In order to study the effects of soil factors and bacterial inoculation on alfalfa (Medicago sativa), plants were inoculated with Ensifer meliloti L33 and Azospirillum brasilense Sp7 in pot experiments using two different soils separately as well as in a mixture. One soil was contaminated with chemical waste products; the other was an arable soil. Soil factors, including the availability of macro- and micronutrients as well as carbon and nitrogen contents, were found to exhibit a much greater influence on the growth of alfalfa than any of the inoculations. In contaminated soil, the shoot and root growth of alfalfa was decreased and nodules were diminished and ineffective. Bacterial inoculations did not significantly improve this hostile growth environment. However, in a mixture (44% arable, 22% contaminated soil, 34% vermiculite), growth conditions for alfalfa were improved so that shoot dry weight and nodule numbers increased up to 100- and 20-fold, respectively, compared with the contaminated soil. For the strain L33, its persistence in the rhizosphere was correlated to the presence of its host plant, but its dynamics were influenced by competition with indigenous rhizobia. The strain Sp7, once provided with a suitable soil, was not dependent on the plant's rhizosphere, but it enhanced the performance of L33 and native rhizobia.

  16. Evaluation of subsurface drip irrigation design and management parameters for alfalfa

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kandelous, M.M.; Kamai, T.; Vrugt, J.A.; Šimůnek, J.; Hanson, B.; Hopmans, J.W.

    2012-01-01

    Alfalfa is one of the most cultivated crops in the US, and is being used as livestock feed for the dairy, beef, and horse industries. About nine percent of that is grown in California, yet there is an increasing concern about the large amounts of irrigation water required to attain maximum yield. We

  17. Effects of wrapping time delays on the nutritive value of baled alfalfa silages

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baled silages are an attractive forage conservation option, especially for small and mid-sized beef and dairy producers. Our objectives were to test the effects of delayed wrapping on the nutritive value of baled alfalfa silages on a pre- and post-storage basis. A secondary objective was to evaluate...

  18. Milk production response to feeding alfalfa silage inoculated with Lactobacillus plantarum

    Science.gov (United States)

    In mini-silo trials, silages treated with a Lactobacillus plantarum silage inoculant (Ecosyl, Yorkshire, UK) had increased in vitro rumen microbial biomass production compared to untreated. Our objective was to determine if alfalfa silage treated with this inoculant could produce a milk production r...

  19. Managing foliar and root rot diseases of alfalfa for improving yield and persistance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Resistance to the six most common diseases across the United States is available in modern alfalfa cultivars. However, several diseases are becoming increasing problems in many parts of the country. Recognizing these problems is the first step in using crop management strategies to minimize diseases...

  20. Application of grain baits to control common vole Microtus arvalis (Pallas, 1778 in alfalfa crops, Serbia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jokić G.

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available In order to compare the efficacies of conventional (cholecalciferol and bromadiolone and new (sodium selenite rodenticides, applied in the grain bait formulation on the whole-grain of wheat (Triticum aestivum and triticale (Triticasecale in alfalfa crops, experiments were conducted at two sites near Belgrade, Serbia, in the spring of 2009, using a standard EPPO method. The presence of rodent populations, their spatial distribution and density indices were evaluated by pretreatment census and rodenticide efficacy by counting active holes, 14 and 28 days after treatment. The average Microtus arvalis numbers of 158/ha and 184/ha were found to cause 7.4% and 9.6% alfalfa green biomass yield decreases, respectively. Twenty-eight days after treatment, the average efficacy of grain bait formulation (on wheat and triticale grains of sodium selenite and cholecalciferol was 81%, while bromadiolone which had a higher efficiency, 85%, in the control of the common vole in alfalfa crops. The analysis of variance (ANOVA showed that the origin of active substances, bases and associated interactions a.s x based on the efficacy-investigated grain baits did not have a statistically significant impact on the expression efficiency of the tested baits. Triticale grains can be used as carriers of active substances, sodium selenite, cholecalciferol or bromadiolone in preparation baits. Control of M. arvalis with the new rodenticide, sodium selenite, gave efficacy results about equal to that of cholecalciferol and bromadiolone and, therefore, provided a possible alternative rodenticide for vole control in alfalfa.

  1. Emergence, forage production, and ion relations of alfalfa in response to saline waters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alfalfa (Medicago sativa L) is an important crop utilized in regions under irrigation commonly impacted by salinity. In this study we evaluate the effect of salinity, as a continual process, from emergence to mature plant growth in successive harvests. We studied emergence, biomass production, salt ...

  2. Estimation of the genetic diversity in tetraploid alfalfa populations based on RAPD markers for breeding purposes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagl, Nevena; Taski-Ajdukovic, Ksenija; Barac, Goran; Baburski, Aleksandar; Seccareccia, Ivana; Milic, Dragan; Katic, Slobodan

    2011-01-01

    Alfalfa is an autotetraploid, allogamous and heterozygous forage legume, whose varieties are synthetic populations. Due to the complex nature of the species, information about genetic diversity of germplasm used in any alfalfa breeding program is most beneficial. The genetic diversity of five alfalfa varieties, involved in progeny tests at Institute of Field and Vegetable Crops, was characterized based on RAPD markers. A total of 60 primers were screened, out of which 17 were selected for the analysis of genetic diversity. A total of 156 polymorphic bands were generated, with 10.6 bands per primer. Number and percentage of polymorphic loci, effective number of alleles, expected heterozygosity and Shannon's information index were used to estimate genetic variation. Variety Zuzana had the highest values for all tested parameters, exhibiting the highest level of variation, whereas variety RSI 20 exhibited the lowest. Analysis of molecular variance (AMOVA) showed that 88.39% of the total genetic variation was attributed to intra-varietal variance. The cluster analysis for individual samples and varieties revealed differences in their population structures: variety Zuzana showed a very high level of genetic variation, Banat and Ghareh were divided in subpopulations, while Pecy and RSI 20 were relatively uniform. Ways of exploiting the investigated germplasm in the breeding programs are suggested in this paper, depending on their population structure and diversity. The RAPD analysis shows potential to be applied in analysis of parental populations in semi-hybrid alfalfa breeding program in both, development of new homogenous germplasm, and identification of promising, complementary germplasm.

  3. Fungi isolated from the initial industrial soil planted with a mixture of alfalfa and grasses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Kowalik

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Research were conducted during the years 1988-1990 on the "Machów" industrial waste dump. It was determined, that a mixture of alfalfa with grasses. introduced as first culture on the raw substrate of industrial wastes. was helpful for the development of soil fungi communities.

  4. First report of Alfalfa mosaic virus infecting basil (Ocimum basilicum L.) in California.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basil (Ocimum basilicum L.) plants collected from a field in Imperial County, CA in May, 2011 were found to exhibit yellowing, chlorotic sectors and spots on leaves, resulting in plants being unmarketable. Total nucleic acid was extracted from plants and tested by RT-PCR for the presence of Alfalfa...

  5. Photosynthate partitioning and nitrogen fixation of alfalfa and birdsfoot trefoil. [Lotus corniculatus L. ; Medicago sativa L

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shieh, W.J.

    1985-01-01

    Nodule mass and number are usually correlated with rates of nitrogen fixation in legumes. Birdsfoot trefoil (Lotus corniculatus L.) with more than twice the nodule number and mass, however, fixes far less nitrogen than alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.) at the same age. In this research, photosynthesis and photosynthate partitioning and utilization in relation to nitrogen fixation of alfalfa and birdsfoot trefoil were examined in order to determine their relationship to nitrogen fixation potential. Photosynthate to nodules was studied using /sup 14/CO/sub 2/ labeling techniques. Partitioning patterns were altered by shading and dark depletion treatments. Efficiency of photosynthate utilization was examined by determining turnover of /sup 14/C photosynthate in nodule metabolites and by studying rates of cyanide-resistant and cyanide-sensitive O/sub 2/ uptake. Alfalfa nodule activity was greater than trefoil expressed on a hole pot or nodule dry weight basis. Both shading and dark treatments significantly reduced nodule activity as estimated by the acetylene reduction assay. Shoots of both species were found to be the dominant sinks for photosynthate. Percentage /sup 14/C recovered in alfalfa roots was more than twice that of trefoil at 1,2,3,4 and 24 h after labeling. Greater relative specific radioactivity (RSA) in nodules of both species suggests that they were stronger sinks for current photosynthate than roots.

  6. Variable salinity responses of 12 alfalfa genotypes and comparative expression analyses of salt-response genes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Twelve alfalfa genotypes that were selected for biomass under salinity, differences in Na and Cl concentrations in shoots and K/Na ratio were evaluated in this long-term salinity experiment. The selected plants were cloned to reduce genetic variability within each genotype. Salt tolerance (ST) index...

  7. Evaluation of alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.) populations' response to salinity stress

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alfalfa is a moderately salt tolerant crop with high economic return, therefore more suitable for production with lower quality water than most high value crops. This study was conducted to examine the effects of the irrigation water salt type (ST=Cl- or SO4 2-) and five salinity levels (ECiw= 0.85,...

  8. Molybdate in Rhizobial Seed-Coat Formulations Improves the Production and Nodulation of Alfalfa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Jiqiong; Deng, Bo; Zhang, Yingjun; Cobb, Adam B.; Zhang, Zhao

    2017-01-01

    Rhizobia-legume symbiosis is the most well researched biological nitrogen fixation system. Coating legume seeds with rhizobia is now a recognized practical measure for improving the production of legume corp. However, the efficacy of some commercial rhizobia inoculants cannot be guaranteed in China due to the low rate of live rhizobia in these products. A greenhouse experiment was conducted to assess the effects of different rhizobial inoculant formulations on alfalfa productivity and nitrogen fixation. Two rhizobia strains, (ACCC17631 and ACCC17676), that are effective partners with alfalfa variety Zhongmu No. 1 were assessed with different concentrations of ammonium molybdate in seed-coat formulations with two different coating adhesives. Our study showed that the growth, nodulation, and nitrogen fixation ability of the plants inoculated with the ACCC17631 rhizobial strain were greatest when the ammonium molybdate application was0.2% of the formulation. An ammonium molybdate concentration of 0.1% was most beneficial to the growth of the plants inoculated with the ACCC17676 rhizobial strain. The sodium carboxymethyl cellulose and sodium alginate, used as coating adhesives, did not have a significant effect on alfalfa biomass and nitrogen fixation. However, the addition of skimmed milk to the adhesive improved nitrogenase activity. These results demonstrate that a new rhizobial seed-coat formulation benefitted alfalfa nodulation and yield. PMID:28099471

  9. Identification of Molecular Marker Linked to Salt Tolerance Gene in Alfalfa

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2005-01-01

    The study has established the F2 offspring obtained by crossing salt-tolerant with salt-sensitive alfalfa, and appraised the salt-tolerant F2 offspring seedling was evaluated in pot culture. With the F2 segregated population, the research has obtained a molecular marker linked with salt-tolerant genes of alfalfa using the improved BSA combined with RAPD. The RAPD PCR products were excised from the agarose gel and purified using a kit, then were mixed with pMD-18T vector and sequenced. Sequencing result indicated the RAPD marker was 1 438 bp in length. Similarity researches using blast in Genbank indicated that the nucleotide sequence of the RAPD marker showed 93% and 91% similarity with mth2-6el8 gene fragment (347 bp) and mth2-33122 gene fragment (334 bp) of Medicago truncatula respectively. Medicago truncatula is a close relative of alfalfa and Mth2-6e18 is a molecular marker of the gene coding for a cysteine protease which was salt inducible in some plants. These results indicated the RAPD marker was possibly related to cysteine protease genes in alfalfa.

  10. Induction of peroxidases and superoxide dismutases in transformed embryogenic calli of alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Activities of peroxidase (POD) and superoxide dismutase (SOD) enzymes were analyzed in non-regenerative transformed embryogenic lines of alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.) carrying wound-inducible oryzacystatin I (OC-I), wound-inducible oryzacystatin I antisense (OC-Ias) or hygromycin phosphotransferase (...

  11. Comparing Leaf and Root Insertion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaco Geldenhuys

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available We consider two ways of inserting a key into a binary search tree: leaf insertion which is the standard method, and root insertion which involves additional rotations. Although the respective cost of constructing leaf and root insertion binary search trees trees, in terms of comparisons, are the same in the average case, we show that in the worst case the construction of a root insertion binary search tree needs approximately 50% of the number of comparisons required by leaf insertion.

  12. [Natural nucleotide polymorphism of the Srlk gene that determines salt stress tolerance in alfalfa (Medicago sativa L)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vishnevskaia, M S; Pavlov, A V; Dziubenko, E A; Dziubenko, N I; Potokina, E K

    2014-04-01

    Based on legume genome syntheny, the nucleotide sequence of Srlk gene, key role of which in response to salt stress was demonstrated for the model species Medicago truncatula, was identified in the major forage and siderate crop alfalfa (Medicago sativa). In twelve alfalfa samples originating from regions with contrasting growing conditions, 19 SNPs were revealed in the Srlk gene. For two nonsynonymous SNPs, molecular markers were designed that could be further used to analyze the association between Srlk gene nucleotide polymorphism and the variability in salt stress tolerance among alfalfa cultivars.

  13. Homestyle quick-cooking rice meal products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azanza, Ma Patricia V; Basman, Irenei Camila V; Tinsay, Cathrina B; Tasarra, Christy G

    2002-01-01

    The study developed processes for quick-cooking rice meal products (QCRMP) paella and bringhe originally based on homestyle recipes. These QCRMPs consisted of basal quick-cooking waxy Malagkit Sungsong and non-waxy irrigated rice (IR) 42 Philippine rice cultivars, dehydrated vegetables, textured vegetable proteins (TVPs) as meat analogs, and seasonings. The rehydrated QCRMP paella and bringhe were found to be more acceptable than their conventionally prepared counterparts at 5% level of significance based on results of sensory acceptability evaluation by 50 consumer panelists. Improvement of the sensory attributes of the QCRMPs was ascribed to the use of alternate concentrates and powdered ingredients which imparted more intense flavors to the developed products than their fresh counterparts.

  14. 7 CFR 29.2528 - Leaf.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Leaf. 29.2528 Section 29.2528 Agriculture Regulations...-Cured Tobacco (u.s. Types 22, 23, and Foreign Type 96) § 29.2528 Leaf. Whole, unstemmed leaf. Leaf, when applied to tobacco in strip form, shall describe the divided unit of a whole leaf....

  15. 7 CFR 29.3033 - Leaf.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Leaf. 29.3033 Section 29.3033 Agriculture Regulations... Leaf. Whole, unstemmed leaf. Leaf, when applied to tobacco in strip form, shall describe the divided unit of a whole leaf....

  16. 7 CFR 29.3525 - Leaf.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Leaf. 29.3525 Section 29.3525 Agriculture Regulations... Type 95) § 29.3525 Leaf. Whole, unstemmed leaf. Leaf, when applied to tobacco in strip form, shall describe the divided unit of a whole leaf....

  17. Leaf growth of contrasting Poa species

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fiorani, Fabio

    2002-01-01

    In the grass genus Poa a wide variation in final leaf size and leaf growth rate exists. In this thesis leaf growth was analyzed at different levels. At the cellular level, inherent variation in leaf elongation rate and final leaf size was correlated to the length of the elongation zone and to merist

  18. 7 CFR 29.1028 - Leaf.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Leaf. 29.1028 Section 29.1028 Agriculture Regulations... Type 92) § 29.1028 Leaf. Whole, unstemmed leaf. Leaf, when applied to tobacco in strip form, shall describe the divided unit of a whole leaf....

  19. “青大一号”紫花苜蓿叶蛋白提取研究%Study on Extraction Technology of Leaf Protein from Medicago sativa L.cv.Qingda No.1

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘晓峰; 达哇卓玛; 杨国柱

    2013-01-01

    [目的]探究“青大一号”紫花苜蓿叶蛋白的提取工艺.[方法]采用酸化加热法配合加盐法提取“青大一号”紫花苜蓿叶蛋白;以单因素试验设计考察料水比、加盐量、pH、预浸时间、絮凝时间、絮凝温度6因素对苜蓿叶蛋白粗蛋白质提取率的影响;同时设计L9(34)正交试验来确定“青大一号”紫花苜蓿的苜蓿叶蛋白最佳提取条件.[结果]“青大一号”紫花苜蓿叶蛋白的最佳提取条件:絮凝温度为70℃,料液比为1∶10,加盐量为1%,絮凝时间为5min,pH为4.[结论]为紫花苜蓿的工业化生产提供了理论依据.%[Objective] The aim was to explore the extraction technology of leaf protein from Medicago sativa L.cv.Qingda No.1.[Method] With Medicago sativa L.cv.Qingda No.1 as raw material,alfalfa LPC was extracted by acid-heating with salt method.The effects of six single factors like the rate of meal to water,salt concentration,pH,immersion time,flocculation time and flocculation temperature on the extraction rate of LPC crude protein were studied by using single experiment.Based on the results of single factor experiment,L9 (34) orthogonal experiment was conducted to study the impact of LPC extraction process and the optimum condition of extracting LPC from Medicago sativa var.Qingda No.1.[Result] The optimum conditions for LPC extraction were as followed:the flocculation temperature was 70 ℃ ; the flocculation time was 5 min; the solid-liquid ratio was 1∶10; the content of salt was 1%,and the pH was 4.[Conclusion] The research result provides theoretical basis for the industrial production of Medicago sativa.

  20. Weed control in dormant alfalfa (Medicago sativa L. with active ingredients’ metribuzin, imazetapyr and pronamide

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zvonko Pacanoski

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Field trials were conducted during 2008 – 2010 to evaluate weed control in dormant alfalfa (Medicago sativa L. with metribuzin, imazetapyr and pronamide. The weed population in all experimental years was consisted mainly of annual winter and spring grass and broadleaf weeds, and some perennial weeds. The number of weed species and weed density increased with the years of alfalfa growing, from second to the fourth year. Weed density in the untreated control plots was 201.0, 217.2 and 240.5 plants per m2 in 2008, 2009 and 2010, respectively. The most dominant weeds were Anthemis cotula, Capsell bursa-pastoris and Taraxacum officinale in 2008, Alopecurus myosuroides and Poa pratensis in 2009 and Millium vernale and Arabidopsis thaliana in 2010. Efficacy of herbicides in control of weeds was ranged of 91.8% (pronamide to 98.4% (metribuzin 1.0 kg*ha-1 in 2008, 93.1% (imazetapyr to 97.3% (metribuzin 1.0 kg*ha-1 in 2009 and 92.1% (imazetapyr to 97.3% (metribuzin 1.0 kg*ha-1 in 2010, respectively. Efficacy of herbicides in control of prevailing weeds during the 3 years field trial period was ranged of 48.5% to 100.0%. No visual alfalfa injured was determined by any rates during the experimental period, and consequently, none of the applied herbicides reduced first-harvest alfalfa yields. Alfalfa yield was markedly affected by herbicide efficacy in all experimental years, particularly in the second year, where yields of herbicide treatments were similar to that of the weed free control.

  1. Flue gas desulfurization products as sulfur sources for alfalfa and soybean

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, L.M.; Dick, W.A.; Nelson, S. [Ohio State University, Wooster, OH (US). School of Natural Resources

    2005-02-01

    Sulfur deficiencies in soil are expected to increase due to growth of high-yielding crop varieties, use of S-free fertilizers, and removal of S from industrial emissions. Flue gas desulfurization (FGD) products, created when coal is burned and SO{sub 2} is removed from the flue gases, may serve as efficient S sources. However, there are few reports on their use for the enhancement of crop growth. Agricultural gypsum and two types of FGD products, that contain either vermiculite or perlite, were applied at 0, 16, and 67 kg S ha{sup -1} to an agricultural soil (Wooster silt loam, Typic Fragiudalf). Dry weight of a new planting of alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.) was increased up to 40% by the treatments of FGD products or gypsum compared with the untreated control. Gypsum and FGD products were also applied at 0, 8,16, and 24 kg S ha{sup -1} to five established alfalfa stands in different Ohio regions. Mean alfalfa yield was significantly (P {le} 0.05) increased by approximately 5.0% in 2001 and 6.0% in 2002 with the S treatments of FGD products or gypsum compared with the untreated control. Alfalfa yields for FGD products and gypsum treatments were similar. A slight positive yield response was observed for soybean (Glycine max L.) when soils were treated with S-containing materials. Soil and plant analyses were made to assess potential adverse environmental impacts and none were observed. Thus, these FGD products can be safely applied to agricultural soils as S sources and can improve alfalfa yields in S-deficient soils.

  2. Effectiveness of calcium hypochlorite on viral and bacterial contamination of alfalfa seeds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Qing; Kniel, Kalmia E

    2014-10-01

    Alfalfa sprouts have been involved in numerous foodborne outbreaks, which has increased the awareness for seed and sprout safety. This study compared the effectiveness of calcium hypochlorite (Ca(OCl)2) on the inactivation of bacteria and viruses on alfalfa seeds and in the presence of a simulated organic load. Alfalfa seeds were inoculated with human norovirus (huNoV) genogroup II (GII), murine norovirus (MNV), Tulane virus (TV), Escherichia coli O104:H4, and Salmonella enterica serovar Agona. Seeds were treated with Ca(OCl)2 (2000 ppm or 20,000 ppm with the average of free chlorine 1388 ± 117 mg/L and 11,472 ± 1500 mg/L, respectively, pH adjusted to 7.00). The reduction of huNoV genomic copies indicated that huNoV was relatively resistant to Ca(OCl)2 regardless of concentrations. Significant reductions were observed in the order of TV OCl)2. A similar trend was found at 2000 ppm Ca(OCl)2 in the order of TV, Salmonella Agona, MNV OCl)2 at 20,000 ppm was more effective than 2000 ppm for all the organisms tested. This trend was also observed in samples containing an artificial organic material load. Ca(OCl)2 activity on virus inactivation decreased as the organic load increased. Reduction was greater in fetal bovine serum-containing samples compared to alfalfa seeds, indicating a close relationship between the organisms and alfalfa seeds. Ca(OCl)2 could not completely inactivate bacteria or viruses inoculated on seeds, and high levels of E. coli O104:H4 and Salmonella Agona were present on sprouts from sanitized seed samples following a 7-day germination period.

  3. Evaluation of energy input and greenhouse gases emissions from alfalfa production in the Sistan region, Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Reza Asgharipour

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available The recognition of forage production methods that maximize energy efficiency and minimize Greenhouse Gases (GHGs emissions is essential. The aims of this survey were to assess the energy consumption, emissions of GHGs and global warming potential (GWP of alfalfa production systems in Sistan region, Sistan and Baluchestan province in the South–east of Iran. Data were collected randomly from 110 alfalfa farm using face-to-face questionnaire survey. Energy inputs included chemical fertilizers, diesel fuel, pesticides, seed, machinery and human labor. The results indicated that average total input and output energies in alfalfa production during the entire lifetime of the farm were 313.52GJha−1 and 962.85GJha−1, respectively. The most important energy inputs belonged to electricity (72.5%, followed by diesel fuel (12.3% and N fertilizer (6.0%. Energy use efficiency and energy productivity were 3.07 and 0.209kgMJ−1, respectively. Share of direct and indirect energy were 85% and 15%, respectively. Total emissions of CO2, N2O and CH4 in alfalfa farms were 8262.67kgha−1, 557.31kgha−1 and 7.65kgha−1, respectively. Hence, total GWP was 181190 kg CO2eha−1 and 2.77 kg of CO2ekg−1 of dry hay produced. In terms of CO2e, 95.3% of the GWP originate from N2O, 4.6% from CO2 and 0.1% from CH4. Accordingly, efficient use of energy is essential to reduce the greenhouse gas emissions and environmental impact in alfalfa agroecosystems.

  4. Digestibility and rate of passage by lambs of water-stressed alfalfa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Undersander, D J; Cole, N A; Naylor, C H

    1987-06-01

    Two lamb digestion experiments were conducted to evaluate the effect of alfalfa [Medicago sativa (L.)] grown under varying levels of water deficiency (stress) on the rate of passage and digestibility of various fibrous components. Experiment 1 consisted of a randomized complete block design in which 12 Suffolk X Hampshire crossbred wethers averaging 40 kg were fed alfalfa hay grown at three (10, 15 or 20 cm water/ha) levels of water per harvest. Experiment 2 consisted of a switchback design in which four Hampshire wethers averaging 45 kg were fed alfalfa hay grown at two (5 or 20 cm/ha) levels of water per harvest. Forage yields ranged from 1,420 (10 cm/ha in Exp. 1) to 4,200 (20 cm/ha in Exp. 2) kg/ha. In both experiments, water stress reduced cell wall constituents (neutral detergent fiber), acid detergent fiber, lignin and cellulose content of the alfalfa hay. Organic matter digestibility was decreased when the percentage of leaves fell below 60% at the highest yield. Digestibility of N and the rate of NDF digestibility were not affected by water stress. The second experiment additionally included nutrient balance and rate of passage measurements. Greater (P less than .10) amounts of N and P were absorbed from water-stressed than nonstressed hay. Ruminal retention time of particulate markers tended (P less than .10) to increase with greater water stress. The results of this study are interpreted to indicate that while moderate water stress may have little effect on in vivo digestibility of alfalfa, severe stress may reduce digestibility of fibrous fractions and total organic matter.

  5. Combined effects of ozone and water stress on alfalfa growth and yield. [Medicago sativa L

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Temple, P.J.; Benoit, L.F.; Lennox, R.W.; Reagan, C.A.; Taylor, O.C.

    A 2-yr study (1984 and 1985) designed to determine the interactive effects of ozone (O/sub 3/) and water stress on alfalfa (Medicago sativa L. cv. WL-514) was conducted in Shafter, CA. The objectives of this study were to develop O/sub 3/ dose-yield response functions for alfalfa, to determine how water stress could alter these functions, and to describe the cumulative effects of multiple-year exposures to O/sub 3/ on this perennial crop. Field-grown alfalfa, raised under normally irrigated (NI) or water-stressed (WS) conditions in open-top chambers, was exposed to five O/sub 3/ treatments including charcoal-filtered (CF), nonfiltered (NF), and NF plus an additional 33, 67, or 100% of ambient O/sub 3/ concentrations. Ambient O/sub 3/ concentrations averaged 0.049 ..mu..L L/sup -1/ in 1984 and 0.042 ..mu..L L/sup -1/ in 1985 for the seasonal 12-h (0900-2100) means from April to October. Water stress reduced total seasonal yield about 10% in 1984 and 27% in 1985. Ozone significantly reduced yields in both years, and the interactions between O/sub 3/ and water stress was statistically significant in 1985 and for combined 1984 and 1985 years. Ozone dose-alfalfa yield loss functions were homogeneous between 1984 and 1985 and no evidence of a cumulative effect of multiple-year exposure to O/sub 3/ was found on top growth. However, crown (underground stem) weights were significantly reduced by O/sub 3/, suggesting that continued exposure to O/sub 3/ could shorten the productive life of alfalfa stands, in addition to its effect on yield.

  6. Eating together and eating alone: meal arrangements in British households.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yates, Luke; Warde, Alan

    2017-03-01

    Sociology traditionally accounts for eating in terms of the social organization of meals, their provision and consumption. A recurrent public concern is that the meal is being subverted. This paper examines meal arrangements in British households in 2012, drawing on an online survey in the format of a food diary administered to 2784 members of a supermarket consumer panel. It charts the organization of contemporary eating occasions, paying attention to socio-demographic variation in practice. Especially, it explores companionless meals, putting them in contexts of food provisioning and temporal rhythms. Findings show that eating alone is associated with simpler, quicker meals, and that it takes place most commonly in the morning and midday. Those living alone eat alone more often, but at similar meal times, and they take longer over their lone meals. Comparison with a similar study in 1955-6 suggests some fragmentation or relaxation in collective schedules. The implications are not straightforward, and the causes probably lie more in institutional shifts than personal preferences. Declining levels of commensality are, however, associated with a reduction in household size and, especially in households with children, difficulties of coordinating family members' schedules.

  7. Sensory neurobiological analysis of neuropeptide modulation of meal size.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwartz, Gary J; Azzara, Anthony V

    2004-08-01

    Gerry Smith's emphasis on the meal as the functional unit of ingestion spurred experiments designed to (1) identify oral and postoral stimuli that affect meal size, and (2) identify peripheral and central neural mechanisms involved in the processing of sensory signals generated by these stimuli. His observations that gut-brain peptides can limit meal size were important in formulating the idea that neuropeptides involved in the control of food intake modulate the peripheral and central neural processing of meal-stimulated sensory signals. This focus on meal size continues to foster the development of hypotheses and the design of experiments that characterize the sites and modes of action of feeding modulatory neuropeptides. These investigations have focused attention on the gut-brain neuraxis as a critical sensory pathway in the control of ingestive behavior, and have revealed important integrative properties of peripheral and central neurons along this axis. The neuromodulatory function of peptides that alter food intake is supported by their ability to recruit the activation of neurons at multiple central nodes of the gut-brain axis and to affect the neural processing and behavioral potency of meal-related gastrointestinal signals important in the negative feedback control of meal size. This sensory neurobiological perspective may also be applied to determine whether feeding modulatory neuropeptides affect the neural and behavioral potency of oral positive feedback signals that promote ingestion.

  8. International Society of Sports Nutrition position stand: meal frequency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stout Jeffrey R

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Position Statement: Admittedly, research to date examining the physiological effects of meal frequency in humans is somewhat limited. More specifically, data that has specifically examined the impact of meal frequency on body composition, training adaptations, and performance in physically active individuals and athletes is scant. Until more research is available in the physically active and athletic populations, definitive conclusions cannot be made. However, within the confines of the current scientific literature, we assert that: 1. Increasing meal frequency does not appear to favorably change body composition in sedentary populations. 2. If protein levels are adequate, increasing meal frequency during periods of hypoenergetic dieting may preserve lean body mass in athletic populations. 3. Increased meal frequency appears to have a positive effect on various blood markers of health, particularly LDL cholesterol, total cholesterol, and insulin. 4. Increased meal frequency does not appear to significantly enhance diet induced thermogenesis, total energy expenditure or resting metabolic rate. 5. Increasing meal frequency appears to help decrease hunger and improve appetite control. The following literature review has been prepared by the authors in support of the aforementioned position statement.

  9. Performance of lambs fed alternative protein sources to soybean meal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Felipe José Lins Alves

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of alternative protein sources (castor bean cake, sunflower cake, and sunflower seed to soybean meal on the intake and performance of 40 lambs, initially weighing 19.8±1.84 kg, fed diets based on Tifton grass hay. The experimental design was completely randomized blocks. There were no differences in the nutrient intake of castor bean diets compared with soybean meal. The intake of nutrients in the sunflower cake and sunflower seed diets was decreased compared with soybean meal. The apparent digestibility coefficients of dry matter, organic matter, crude protein, and neutral detergent fiber of sunflower cake and sunflower seed diets were decreased compared with soybean meal. The average daily weight gain of animals fed the castor bean diet (0.190 kg was not different from that of the animals fed the soybean meal diet (0.217 kg. The sunflower cake and sunflower seed diets provided less weight gain (0.171 and 0.135 kg d-1, respectively than soybean meal due to the lower nutrient intake. The hot carcass yield and true yield were not affected by the protein sources. The neck, ribs, and ham weights were similar in lambs fed soybean meal and castor bean cake diets. It is recommended to use castor bean as an alternative protein source in the diet of lambs.

  10. (TECTONA GRANDIS LEAF POWDER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yash Mishra

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In this study, the adsorption potential of Teak (Tectona grandis leaf powder (TLP toremove Methylene blue (MB and Malachite Green (MG dye molecules from aqueoussolution was investigated. Batch experiments were conducted to evaluate the influenceof operational parameters such as, pH (2−9, adsorbent dosage (1−7 g/L, contact time(15−150 minutes and initial dye concentration (20−120 mg/L at stirring speed of 150rpm for the adsorption of MB and MG on TLP. Maximum removal efficiency of 98.4%and 95.1% was achieved for MB and MG dye, respectively. The experimentalequilibrium data were analysed using Langmuir, Freundlich and Temkin isothermmodels and it was found that, it fitted well to the Freundlich isotherm model. Thesurface structure and morphology of the adsorbent was characterized using scanningelectron microscopy (SEM and the presence of functional groups and its interactionwith the dye molecules were analysed using Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy(FTIR. Based on the investigation, it has been demonstrated that the teak leaf powderhas good potential for effective adsorption of methylene blue and malachite green dye.

  11. Replacing alfalfa silage with corn silage in dairy cow diets: Effects on enteric methane production, ruminal fermentation, digestion, N balance, and milk production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hassanat, F; Gervais, R; Julien, C; Massé, D I; Lettat, A; Chouinard, P Y; Petit, H V; Benchaar, C

    2013-07-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the effects of replacing alfalfa silage (AS) with corn silage (CS) in dairy cow total mixed rations (TMR) on enteric CH4 emissions, ruminal fermentation characteristics, apparent total-tract digestibility, N balance, and milk production. Nine ruminally cannulated lactating cows were used in a replicated 3×3 Latin square design (32-d period) and fed (ad libitum) a TMR [forage:concentrate ratio of 60:40; dry matter (DM) basis], with the forage portion consisting of either alfalfa silage (0% CS; 56.4% AS in the TMR), a 50:50 mixture of both silages (50% CS; 28.2% AS and 28.2% CS in the TMR), or corn silage (100% CS; 56.4% CS in the TMR). Increasing the CS proportion (i.e., at the expense of AS) in the diet was achieved by decreasing the corn grain proportion and increasing that of soybean meal. Intake of DM and milk yield increased quadratically, whereas DM digestibility increased linearly as the proportion of CS increased in the diet. Increasing the dietary CS proportion resulted in changes (i.e., lower ruminal pH and acetate:propionate ratio, reduced fiber digestibility, decreased protozoa numbers, and lower milk fat and higher milk protein contents) typical of those observed when cows are fed high-starch diets. A quadratic response in daily CH4 emissions was observed in response to increasing the proportion of CS in the diet (440, 483, and 434 g/d for 0% CS, 50% CS, and 100% CS, respectively). Methane production adjusted for intake of DM, and gross or digestible energy was unaffected in cows fed the 50% CS diet, but decreased in cows fed the 100% CS diet (i.e., quadratic effect). Increasing the CS proportion in the diet at the expense of AS improved N utilization, as reflected by the decreases in ruminal NH3 concentration and manure N excretion, suggesting low potential NH3 and N2O emissions. Results from this study, suggest that total replacement of AS with CS in dairy cow diets offers a means of decreasing CH4 output

  12. Death Row Confessions and the Last Meal Test of Innocence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kevin M. Kniffin

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Post hoc analyses of Rector v. Arkansas have regularly highlighted that the defendant requested that part of his last meal be saved so that he could it eat later. While the observation is typically raised as part of arguments that Rector was incompetent and unfit for execution, the more basic fact is that commentators have drawn important inferences about Rector’s mental state from how he treated his last meal. In this essay, we draw upon multiple disciplines in order to apply the same inferential logic to a much broader sample and explore the question of whether traditionally customized last meals might offer signals of defendants’ guilt or innocence. To investigate this, the content of last-meal requests and last words reported for people executed in the United States during a recent five-year period were examined. Consistent with the idea that declination of the last meal is equivalent to a signal of (self-perceived innocence, those who denied guilt were 2.7 times as likely to decline a last meal than people who admitted guilt (29% versus 8%. Consistent with the complementary theory that people who admit guilt are relatively more “at peace” with their sentence, these individuals requested 34% more calories of food than the rest of the sample (2786 versus 2085 calories. A third finding is that those who denied guilt also tended to eat significantly fewer brand-name food items. Previous discussions of last meals have often lacked quantitative measurements; however, this systematic analysis shows that last meal requests offer windows into self-perceived or self-proclaimed innocence. Knowing one’s last meal request and one’s last words can provide valuable new variables for retrospectively assessing the processes that led to past executions.

  13. Salt content in canteen and fast food meals in Denmark

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sisse Fagt

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: A high salt (=NaCl intake is associated with high blood pressure, and knowledge of salt content in food and meals is important, if the salt intake has to be decreased in the general population. Objective: To determine the salt content in worksite canteen meals and fast food. Design: For the first part of this study, 180 canteen meals were collected from a total of 15 worksites with in-house catering facilities. Duplicate portions of a lunch meal were collected from 12 randomly selected employees at each canteen on two non-consecutive days. For the second part of the study, a total of 250 fast food samples were collected from 52 retail places representing both city (Aarhus and provincial towns. The canteen meals and fast food samples were analyzed for chloride by potentiometric titration with silver nitrate solution, and the salt content was estimated. Results: The salt content in lunch meals in worksite canteens were 3.8±1.8 g per meal and 14.7±5.1 g per 10 MJ for men (n=109, and 2.8±1.2 g per meal and 14.4±6.2 g per 10 MJ for women (n=71. Salt content in fast food ranged from 11.8±2.5 g per 10 MJ (burgers to 16.3±4.4 g per 10 MJ (sausages with a mean content of 13.8±3.8 g per 10 MJ. Conclusion: Salt content in both fast food and in worksite canteen meals is high and should be decreased.

  14. Antidiarrhoeal activity of leaf methanolic extract of Rauwolfia serpentina

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ezeigbo II; Ezeja MI; Madubuike KG; Ifenkwe DC; Ukweni IA; Udeh NE; Akomas SC

    2012-01-01

    Objective:To evaluate the antidiarrhoeal property of methanol extract of the leaves of Rauwolfia serpentina (R. serpentina) in experimental diarrhoea induced by castor oil in mice. Methods:Doses of 100, 200 and 400 mg/kg R. serpentina leaf methanol extracts were administered to castor oil induced diarrhoea mice to determine its antidiarrhoeal activity. Results: All doses of the extract and the reference drug atropine sulphate (3 mg/kg, i.p.) produced a dose-dependent reduction in intestinal weight and fluid volume. The extracts also significantly reduced the intestinal transit in charcoal meal test when compared to diphenoxylate Hcl (5 mg/kg, p.o.). Conclusions: The results show that the extract of R. serpentina leaves has a significant antidiarrhoeal activity and supports its traditional uses in herbal medicine.

  15. The artificial leaf.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nocera, Daniel G

    2012-05-15

    To convert the energy of sunlight into chemical energy, the leaf splits water via the photosynthetic process to produce molecular oxygen and hydrogen, which is in a form of separated protons and electrons. The primary steps of natural photosynthesis involve the absorption of sunlight and its conversion into spatially separated electron-hole pairs. The holes of this wireless current are captured by the oxygen evolving complex (OEC) of photosystem II (PSII) to oxidize water to oxygen. The electrons and protons produced as a byproduct of the OEC reaction are captured by ferrodoxin of photosystem I. With the aid of ferrodoxin-NADP(+) reductase, they are used to produce hydrogen in the form of NADPH. For a synthetic material to realize the solar energy conversion function of the leaf, the light-absorbing material must capture a solar photon to generate a wireless current that is harnessed by catalysts, which drive the four electron/hole fuel-forming water-splitting reaction under benign conditions and under 1 sun (100 mW/cm(2)) illumination. This Account describes the construction of an artificial leaf comprising earth-abundant elements by interfacing a triple junction, amorphous silicon photovoltaic with hydrogen- and oxygen-evolving catalysts made from a ternary alloy (NiMoZn) and a cobalt-phosphate cluster (Co-OEC), respectively. The latter captures the structural and functional attributes of the PSII-OEC. Similar to the PSII-OEC, the Co-OEC self-assembles upon oxidation of an earth-abundant metal ion from 2+ to 3+, may operate in natural water at room temperature, and is self-healing. The Co-OEC also activates H(2)O by a proton-coupled electron transfer mechanism in which the Co-OEC is increased by four hole equivalents akin to the S-state pumping of the Kok cycle of PSII. X-ray absorption spectroscopy studies have established that the Co-OEC is a structural relative of Mn(3)CaO(4)-Mn cubane of the PSII-OEC, where Co replaces Mn and the cubane is extended in a

  16. Effects of Fractionation Methods on the Isolation of Fiber-rich Cake from Alfalfa and Ethanol Production from the Cake

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shuangning Xiu

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Freshly harvested alfalfa was fractionated using centrifugation and filtration, whereby alfalfa was separated into a fiber-rich cake and a nutrient-rich juice. The solid cakes from the above separation processes were used as the feedstock for ethanol production using separate hydrolysis and fermentation. The filtration process proved to be more efficient at reducing the solids mass transfer to the juice than the centrifuge process. Glucose from filtered alfalfa solid cake can be efficiently fermented to ethanol with 75% of the theoretical yield. In conclusion, centrifugation was not as effective as filtration in removing particulates and colloidal matter from alfalfa. The filtration process resulted in a solid cake with a higher cellulose digestibility, which leads to a higher ethanol production.

  17. Salivary secretion during meals in lactating dairy cattle

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Beauchemin, K.A.; Eriksen, L.; Nørgaard, Peder;

    2008-01-01

    , the forage sources differed in eating rate (g og DM/min), which led to differences in ensalivation of forages (g of saliva/g of DM and g of saliva/g of NDF). On the basis of DM, ensalivation (g of saliva/g of DM) was greatest for straw (7.23) and similar for barley sialge, alfalfa silage, and alfalfa hay (4...... consumed concentrate about 3 to 12 times faster than the various forages (DM basis), and ensalivation of concentrate was much lower (1.12 g of saliva/g of DM) than for forages. Feed characteristics such as particle size, DM, and NDF content affect salivary output during eating by affecting the eating rate...

  18. Substitution of soybean meal for cottonseed meal in multiple supplements for grazing beef heifers in the dry season

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Román Maza Ortega

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of substituting soybean meal for cottonseed meal in multiple supplements on the nutritional characteristics and performance of beef heifers in their postweaning phase on Brachiaria decumbens pastures during the dry season. Twenty-four Nellore beef heifers (average initial age and weight of 8 mo and 210±6 kg, respectively were used. The design was completely randomized, with four treatments and six replicates. Supplements contained approximately 30% crude protein (CP and a progressive substitution of soybean meal for cottonseed meal (0, 50 and 100%. The control animals received only a mineral mixture ad libitum, and those on the other treatments received supplementation at 1.0 kg/animal/day. No differences were found in ADG between supplemented and control animals (P>0.10. Supplementation increased crude protein (CP intake only (P<0.10. The level of substitution of soybean meal for cottonseed meal did not affect (P>0.10 the intake of supplemented animals. Supplementation elevated the apparent digestibility coefficients (P<0.10 of OM, CP, NFC and TDN, but not EE or NDFap (P>0.10. A positive linear effect (P<0.10 of the level of substitution of soybean meal for cottonseed cake was observed on the digestibility of OM, NFC and TDN. Supplementation and the level of substitution had an effect (P<0.10 on the serum urea nitrogen and urine urea nitrogen contents. Supplementation or substitution level had no effect on the flow of microbial nitrogen to the intestine (MICN or efficiency of microbial protein synthesis (EMPS (P>0.10. Substitution caused a decreasing linear effect (P<0.10 on microbial nitrogen/nitrogen intake ratio (MICNR. In conclusion, substitution of soybean meal for cottonseed meal in multiple supplements during the dry season does not impair the productive performance of beef heifers.

  19. THE EFFECT OF PRIMING ON GERMINATION AND SEEDLING GROWTH OF ALFALFA (MEDICAGO SATIVA L.) UNDER SALINITY STRESS

    OpenAIRE

    Jorjandi M.; SHARIFI SIRCHI G.R.

    2012-01-01

    Salinity stress is an abiotic stress which has harmful effects on germination, growth and yield of alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.) in many parts of the world. Seed priming is a way of increasing salt tolerance of plants. In this study, the effect of seed priming on germination and growth of alfalfa seedlings, Bami cultivar, under salinity condition was investigated. According to germination percentage of seeds under In vitro conditions, salicylic acid, Vitamin B12 and distilled water were select...

  20. Soybean meal substitution with a yeast-derived microbial protein source in dairy cow diets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sabbia, J A; Kalscheur, K F; Garcia, A D; Gehman, A M; Tricarico, J M

    2012-10-01

    The objective of this study was to examine the effects substituting soybean meal with a yeast-derived microbial protein (YMP) on rumen and blood metabolites, dry matter intake, and milk production of high-producing dairy cows. Sixteen Holstein cows (12 multiparous and 4 primiparous), 93 ± 37 DIM (mean ± SD) at the beginning of the experiment, were used in a 4×4 Latin square design with four 28-d periods. Cows were blocked by parity and production, with 1 square consisting of 4 animals fitted with rumen cannulas. Basal diets, formulated for 16.1% crude protein and 1.56 Mcal/kg of net energy for lactation, contained 40% corn silage, 20% alfalfa hay, and 40% concentrate mix. During each period, cows were fed 1 of 4 treatment diets corresponding to YMP (DEMP; Alltech Inc., Nicholasville, KY) concentrations of 0, 1.14, 2.28, and 3.41% DM. Soybean meal (44% CP) was replaced by YMP to attain isonitrogenous and isoenergetic diets. Dietary treatments had no effect on pH and on most ruminal volatile fatty acid concentrations, with the exception of isovalerate, which decreased linearly with the addition of YMP. Rumen ammonia concentration decreased linearly, whereas free amino acids, total amino acid nitrogen, and soluble proteins weighing more than 10 kDa showed a cubic response on rumen N fractionation. A quadratic response was observed in oligopeptides that weighed between 3 and 10 kDa and peptides under 3kDa when expressed as percentages of total amino acids and total nitrogen. Although nonesterified fatty acid concentration in blood did not differ between treatments, β-hydroxybutyrate and plasma glucose increased linearly as YMP increased. Dry matter intake showed a cubic effect, where cows fed 1.14, and 3.41% YMP had the highest intake. Milk production was not affected by YMP, whereas a trend was observed for a quadratic increase for 4% fat-corrected milk and energy-corrected milk. Medium- and long-chain fatty acid concentrations in milk increased quadratically

  1. Effect of Arbuscular Mycorrhizal Fungi Glomus spp. Inoculation on Alfalfa Growth in Soils with Copper Efecto de la Inoculación con Hongos Micorrízicos Arbusculares Glomus spp. sobre el Crecimiento de Alfalfa en Suelos con Cobre

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniela Novoa M

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Soils near mining centers usually have high heavy metal (HM levels. It has been found that some plants associated with arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF improve growth and tolerance to HM in soils. This symbiosis is a biological resource for degraded soil recovery. The objective of this study was to determine the effect of inoculating AMF (Glomus spp. on alfalfa (Medicago sativa L. growth in agricultural soils with different copper (Cu levels for degraded soil recovery. To this effect, alfalfa seeds were grown in soils from the Catemu and Casablanca valleys and inoculated with AMF. Plant height, stem diameter, and number of leaves were measured weekly. Dry matter, mycorrhizal colonization, and Cu concentration in alfalfa plant tissues were measured after 81 days. Inoculation increased plant height by 24%, stem diameter by 11%, and number of leaves by 34%. Inoculation had a significant effect (p ≤ 0.05 on alfalfa plants that were grown in soil with the highest Cu concentration, but had no effect on Cu accumulation in alfalfa plant tissues. A direct relationship was observed between Cu accumulation in alfalfa and Cu concentration in soils. It was concluded that alfalfa inoculated with Glomus spp. is applicable to the soil recovery process whenever soil properties can ensure inoculum effectiveness on alfalfa growth, and avoid toxicity by excessive Cu in alfalfa plant tissues.Los suelos cercanos a centros de actividad minera suelen presentar altos niveles de metales pesados (HM. Se ha encontrado que algunas plantas asociadas a hongos micorrízicos arbusculares (AMF mejoran su crecimiento y tolerancia a los HM presentes en los suelos. Esta simbiosis constituye un recurso biológico para la recuperación de suelos degradados. El objetivo de este estudio fue determinar el efecto de la inoculación con AMF (Glomus spp. sobre el crecimiento de alfalfa (Medicago sativa L. en suelos agrícolas con distintos niveles de cobre (Cu para la recuperación de

  2. Fermentation of soybean meal with Aspergillus usamii improves zinc availability in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirabayashi, M; Matsui, T; Yano, H

    1998-02-01

    Soybean meal was fermented with Aspergillus usamii to improve zinc availability through the degradation of phytic acid. Rats fed a diet containing fermented soybean meal showed greater femoral zinc than did animals fed a diet containing regular soybean meal. Zinc solubility in the small intestine was higher in the rats fed fermented soybean meal than in the rats fed regular soybean meal. These results suggested that fermentation with Aspergillus usamii improved zinc availability in dietary soybean meal, which was induced by the increase of zinc solubility in the small intestine. Adding the same amount of phytate that was contained in the regular soybean meal-based diet did not affect the amount of zinc present in rats fed a fermented soybean meal-based diet with sodium phytate. Phytase activity was found in fermented soybean meal, and this activity may degrade added phytate in fermented soybean meal-based diet.

  3. Dielectric properties of wheat flour mixed with oat meal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Łuczycka, D.; Czubaszek, A.; Fujarczuk, M.; Pruski, K.

    2013-03-01

    Possibilities of using electric methods for determining admixtures of oat meal to wheat flour, type 650 are presented. In wheat flour, oat meal and mixtures containing 10, 20 and 30% of the oat meal, moisture, protein, starch and ash content, sedimentation value, yield and softening of wet gluten were determined. In samples containing 0, 5, 10, 15, 20, 25, 30 and 100% of oat meal, the dielectric loss factor and conductivity were determined using an impedance analyzer for electromagnetic field frequency ranging from 0.1-20 kHz. It was found that the dielectric loss factor varied for tested material. The best distinguishing between tested mixtures was obtained at the measuring electromagnetic field frequency of 20 kHz. The loss factor was significantly correlated with the yield of wet gluten and the sedimentation value, parameters indicating the amount and quality of gluten proteins in flour.

  4. 21 CFR 573.310 - Crambe meal, heat toasted.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... solvent extraction or by solvent extraction alone. The resulting seed meal is heat toasted. (b) The... of the nitrogen shall be soluble in 0.5 M sodium chloride. Myrosinase enzyme activity shall be...

  5. Consumers' convenience orientation towards meal preparation: conceptualization and measurement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Candel, M

    2001-02-01

    Consumer researchers consider convenience orientation towards meal preparation to be a relevant construct for understanding consumer behavior towards foods. This study set out to conceptualize this construct and to develop a scale that measures it. As examined in two different samples of meal preparers, the resulting scale is reliable, satisfies a unifactorial structure and has satisfactory convergent validity. The scale's nomological validity is supported in that it conforms to expectations regarding various psychographic constructs and various food-related behaviors. Convenience orientation was found to be negatively related to cooking enjoyment, involvement with food products and variety seeking, and to be positively related to role overload. The analyses also suggest that the lack of relation between the meal preparer's working status and convenience food consumption, as found in many studies, is due to convenience food not offering enough preparation convenience. Consuming take-away meals and eating in restaurants appear to satisfy the consumer's need for convenience more adequately.

  6. At the Table with Family and Making Family Meals Manageable

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... behaviors measured included substance use, sexual activity, depression/suicide, violence, antisocial behaviors, school problems, and binge eating/purging (7). For younger kids ( middle school age) family meals were also a protective factor that supported ...

  7. The effects of aqueous extract of alfalfa on blood glucose and lipids in alloxan-induced diabetic rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amraie, Esmaiel; Farsani, Masome Khosravi; Sadeghi, Leila; Khan, Tayaba Naim; Adavi, Zohrab

    2015-01-01

    Diabetes is a common metabolic disorder that is specified by hyperglycemia resulting from defects in insulin secretion, insulin action, or both. The use of nonpharmacological treatments (herbal agents) is a new approach in the management of diabetes. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of aqueous extract of alfalfa on blood glucose and serum lipids in alloxan-induced diabetic rats. In this study, 32 female rats (210–250 g) were used which were divided randomly into 4 groups including intact control group, diabetic control group, and 2 diabetic groups which received 250 and 500 mg/kg doses of aqueous extract of alfalfa, respectively. In the diabetic groups, alloxan-monohydrate was injected peritoneally to create diabetic condition. The two last groups orally received aqueous extract of alfalfa for 21 days. At the end of experiment, sugar, cholesterol, triglycerides, high-density and low-density lipoprotein, and aspartate aminotransferase (ALT) and alanine aminotransferase (AST) levels were measured in the samples. Consumption of aqueous alfalfa extract significantly reduced glucose, cholesterol, triglycerides, and low-density lipoprotein (LDL) levels in the diabetic rats but enhanced high-density lipoprotein (HDL) levels. ALT and AST liver enzyme levels were also reduced in blood. Histological examination showed that the aqueous alfalfa extract caused reconstruction of damaged liver and enhanced Langerhans islets’ diameter in pancreas. Therefore, all signs of diabetes were improved by oral administration of alfalfa in defined dose. PMID:26525173

  8. Alfalfa nutritive quality for ruminant livestock as influenced by ambient air quality in west-central Alberta

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lin, J.C. [Department of Animal Sciences, Auburn University, Auburn, AL 36849 (United States); Nosal, M. [Department of Mathematics and Statistics, University of Calgary, Calgary, AB T2N 1N4 (Canada); Muntifering, R.B. [Department of Animal Sciences, Auburn University, Auburn, AL 36849 (United States)]. E-mail: muntirb@auburn.edu; Krupa, S.V. [Department of Plant Pathology, University of Minnesota, St. Paul, MN 55108 (United States)

    2007-09-15

    Alfalfa (Medicago sativa) nutritive quality response to ambient ozone (O{sub 3}), sulfur dioxide (SO{sub 2}) and oxides of nitrogen (NO {sub x} ) were assessed at three locations in west-central Alberta, Canada (1998-2002). Yield data were segregated into high and low relative to overall median yield. Ozone concentrations (hourly median and 95th-percentile) and precipitation (P) contributed 69 and 29%, respectively, to the variability in crude protein (CP) concentration in low-yielding alfalfa, whereas mean temperature (T) and relative humidity (RH) collectively influenced 98% of the variation in CP in high-yielding alfalfa. Three-fourths of the accounted variation in relative feed value (RFV) of low-yielding alfalfa was attributable to P, T and RH, whereas median and 95th-percentile hourly O{sub 3} concentrations and SO{sub 2} and NO {sub x} exposure integrals contributed 25%. In contrast, air quality, (mainly O{sub 3}) influenced 86% of the accounted variation in RFV of high-yielding alfalfa, and T and P collectively contributed 14%. - Exposure to ambient concentrations of phytotoxic air pollutants affected nutritive quality of alfalfa for ruminant livestock in a yield-dependent manner.

  9. Preliminary Study on Effect of Herbicides on Alfalfa Yield and Weed Community Characteristics in Yellow River Delta, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    WANG Guo-liang

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Alfalfa(Medicago sativa is one of important legume forages worldwide. However, weed is the main factor limiting alfalfa production. Biomass quality and yield and stability of dry matter production during cultivation are directly associated with the interference of weeds which compete with alfalfa for water, light and nutrients. The use of herbicides is a good alternative for weed control. In order to control weed in alfalfa field with suitable herbicide in Yellow River delta, the effect of four herbicides(imazethapyr, quizalofop-p-ethyl, haloxyfop-r-methyl and oxyfluorfen with different concentration on afalfal yield and weed community characteristics were studied. The results showed that both imazethapyr and haloxyfop-r-methyl treatments could increase alfalfa yield, and the best herbicide application concentration was imazethapyr with 2 000 mL·hm-2 and haloxyfop-r-methyl with 700 mL·hm-2, but oxyfluorfen treatment would limit alfalfa growth significantly. Weed species numbers in the treatments of imazethapyr, quizalofop-p-ethyl and oxyfluorfen decreased significantly. Digitariasanguinalis, Portulacaoleracea and Echinochloacrusgalli were more difficult to control from specie important value in all treatments. Species diversity index decreased with higher herbicide concentration in all treatments. From this study, herbicide imazethapyr with 2 000 mL·hm-2 application concentration was the best weed control method, and the second one was haloxyfop-r-methyl with 700 mL·hm-2 application concentration.

  10. In vitro and in vivo antioxidant activity of alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.) on carbon tetrachloride intoxicated rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Dosari, Mohammed S

    2012-01-01

    The present study was conducted to determine whether lyophilized aqueous extract of alfalfa, or Medicago sativa L. could exert antioxidant activity against carbon tetrachloride-induced oxidative stress and liver injury in rats. The hepatoprotective activity of alfalfa extract was determined by assessing the levels of serum transaminases, ALP, bilirubin and lipid profile. Further, the effect of the test substance on malondialdehyde (MDA), an end product of lipid peroxidation; antioxidant liver enzyme non-protein sulfhydryl (NP-SH); and total protein (TP) were also studied. Serum transaminase, ALP, bilirubin level, lipid profile and liver MDA were significantly elevated and the antioxidant status in liver NP-SH and TP contents were declined in animals treated with CCl (4) alone. Pretreatment with alfalfa and silymarin for three weeks prior to the administration of CCl (4) significantly prevented the increase in the serum levels of hepatic marker, LDL, VLDL levels enzymes and reduced oxidative stress indicated by elevated NP-SH and TP concentration. The histopathological examination of the livers also showed that the alfalfa extract reduced the incidence of liver lesions induced by CCl (4). The in vitro antioxidant assessment of alfalfa extract on DPPH and carotene-linoleic assays demonstrated a moderate antioxidant potential. Results suggest that the alfalfa extract possesses hepatoprotective and antioxidative stress properties possibly through its antioxidant phytochemical constituents and substantiates its use in various liver disorders as a hepatoprotector.

  11. Paenibacillus medicaginis sp. nov. a chitinolytic endophyte isolated from the root nodule of alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lai, Wei-An; Hameed, Asif; Lin, Shih-Yao; Hung, Mei-Hua; Hsu, Yi-Han; Liu, You-Cheng; Shahina, Mariyan; Shen, Fo-Ting; Young, Chiu-Chung

    2015-08-04

    A Gram-stain-variable, short-rod-shaped, endospore-forming, strictly aerobic, non-motile, chitinolytic and endophytic bacterium, designated strain CC-Alfalfa-19T, exhibiting unusual bipolar appendages was isolated from the root nodule of alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.) in Taiwan and subjected to a polyphasic taxonomy. Based on 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis, strain CC-Alfalfa-19T was found to be most closely related to Paenibacillus puldeungensis CAU 9324T (95.2 %), whereas other Paenibacillus species shared ≤95.0 % sequence similarity. The phylogenetic analysis revealed a distinct phyletic lineage established by strain CC-Alfalfa-19T with respect to other Paenibacillus species. Fatty acids comprised predominantly anteiso-C15:0, C16:0, anteiso-C17:0 and iso-C16. Menaquinone 7 (MK-7) was identified as the sole respiratory quinone and the genomic DNA G+C content was 42.7 mol%. Polar lipids included diphosphatidylglycerol, phosphatidylglycerol, phosphatidylmonomethylethanolamine, phosphatidylethanolamine, an unidentified glycolipid and an unidentified lipid. The diagnostic diamino acid found in the cell-wall peptidoglycan was meso-diaminopimelic acid. Based on the polyphasic taxonomic evidences that were in line with the genus Paenibacillus and additional distinguishing characteristics, strain CC-Alfalfa-19T is considered to represent a novel species, for which the name Paenibacillus medicaginis sp. nov. (type strain CC-Alfalfa-19T = BCRC 80441T = JCM 18446T) is proposed.

  12. Snacking behaviours of adolescents and their association with skipping meals

    OpenAIRE

    Worsley Anthony; Ball Kylie; MacFarlane Abbie; Savige Gayle; Crawford David

    2007-01-01

    Abstract Background Snacking is likely to play an important role in the development of overweight and obesity, yet little is known about the contexts of snacking in adolescents or how snacking may influence other dietary habits, like meal skipping. This study examines the contexts in which adolescents snack and whether these contexts are associated with demographic characteristics of adolescents and with meal skipping. Methods A cross-sectional, self-reported online food habits survey was adm...

  13. Salt content in canteen and fast food meals in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Lone Banke; Lassen, Anne Dahl; Hansen, Kirsten;

    2010-01-01

    Background: A high salt (NaCl) intake is associated with high blood pressure, and knowledge of salt content in food and meals is important, if the salt intake has to be decreased in the general population. Objective: To determine the salt content in worksite canteen meals and fast food. Design...... fast food samples were collected from 52 retail places representing both city (Aarhus) and provincial towns. The canteen meals and fast food samples were analyzed for chloride by potentiometric titration with silver nitrate solution, and the salt content was estimated. Results: The salt content...... in lunch meals in worksite canteens were 3.891.8 g per meal and 14.795.1 g per 10 MJ for men (n 109), and 2.891.2 g per meal and 14.496.2 g per 10 MJ for women (n 71). Salt content in fast food ranged from 11.892.5 g per 10 MJ (burgers) to 16.394.4 g per 10 MJ (sausages) with a mean content of 13.893.8 g...

  14. Poultry offal meal in broiler chicken feed

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edney Pereira da Silva

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available An outstanding feature of poultry production that provides animal protein yield for human feeding is its short production cycle. This characteristic has a linear relationship with waste production. Increasing the inclusion of this residue in diets in the near future is desirable in step with the growth of poultry production since it offers a better environmental and nutritional alternative to current methods. We evaluated the effects on the performance and carcass characteristics of broiler chickens produced by the inclusion of poultry offal meal (POM in their feed. Treatments consisted of a control diet (corn, Zea mays and soybean, Glycine max and four diets with inclusion of 30, 60, 90 and 120 g kg-1 of POM. The diets were formulated based on the level of digestible amino acid once categorized as isocalcic, isophosphoric, isosodic, isoenergetic and isonutritive for protein, methionine+cystine, lysine and threonine. The feed's electrolytes were corrected so that each diet had the same electrolytic balance. The variables analyzed were feed intake, weight gain, feed conversion ratio, body weight, carcass yield, chicken cut yield and abdominal fat. Feed intake was not affected by the quantities of POM added. The weight gain, feed conversion, carcass yield and noble cuts presented quadratic responses to the treatments. Abdominal fat increased linearly. The performance of the poultry, and carcass characteristics were maximized by the inclusion of 53 and 65 g kg-1, respectively, of POM in the diet, and the inclusion of 120 g kg-1 of POM provided greater disposition of abdominal fat.

  15. Meal box schemes a convenient way to avoid convenience food? Uses and understandings of meal box schemes among Danish consumers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hertz, Frej Daniel; Halkier, Bente

    2017-03-15

    The term convenience food is subject to diversification, lack of clarity and moral ambiguity. In this paper we address these issues and critically discuss convenience food by using empirical findings from a Danish study that deals with practitioners' uses of meal box schemes. The methodological design consists of thirteen individual interviews, four focus groups and some observations of cooking practices. We combine the empirical findings with a particular definition of convenience food by Brunner et al. (2010) and selected practice theoretical concepts. This particular combination enables us to categorize meal box schemes as a new form of convenience food called convenient food. In addition, results suggest that meal box schemes reduce leftovers from dinner. Meal boxes also influence dinner related activities such as planning ahead in time and grocery shopping, which require less physical and mental effort.

  16. Low vapour pressure deficit reduces the beneficial effect of elevated CO{sub 2} on growth of N{sub 2}-fixing alfalfa plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Luis, I. De; Irigoyen, J.J.; Sanchez-Diaz, M. [Univ. de Navarra, Dept. de Fisioligia Vegetal, Pamplona (Spain)

    2002-11-01

    Plant responses to elevated CO{sub 2} can be modified by many environmental factors, but very little attention has been paid to the interaction between CO{sub 2} and changes in vapour pressure deficit (VPD). Thirty-day-old alfalfa plants (Medicago sativa L. cv. Aragon), which were inoculated with Sinorhizobium meliloti 102F78 strain, were grown for 1 month in controlled environment chambers at 25/15 deg C, 14 h photoperiod, and 600 mol m{sup -2} s{sup -1} photosynthetic photon flux (PPF), using a factorial combination of CO{sub 2} concentration (400 mol mol{sup -1} or 700 mol mol{sup -1}) and vapour pressure deficit (0.48 kPa or 1.74 kPa, which corresponded to relative humidities of 85% and 45% at 25 deg C, respectively). Elevated CO{sub 2} strongly stimulated plant growth under high VPD conditions, but this beneficial effect was not observed under low VPD. Under low VPD, elevated CO{sub 2} also did not enhance plant photosynthesis, and plant water stress was greatest for plants grown at elevated CO{sub 2} and low VPD. Moreover, plants grown under elevated CO{sub 2} and low VPD had a lower leaf soluble protein and photosynthetic activity (photosynthetic rate and carboxylation efficiency) than plants grown under elevated CO{sub 2} and high VPD. Elevated CO{sub 2} significantly increased leaf adaxial and abaxial temperatures. Because the effects of elevated CO{sub 2} were dependent on vapour pressure deficit, VPD needs to be controlled in experiments studying the effect of elevated CO{sub 2} as well as considered in the extrapolations of results to a warmer, high-CO{sub 2} world. (au)

  17. Relative excretion of nitrogen from alfalfa silage, corn silage, corn grain, and soybean meal in urine and feces by lactating dairy cows

    Science.gov (United States)

    The main objective of this trial is to determine the partitioning of nitrogen (N) from different feed ingredients in milk, feces, and urine. This abstract focuses on relative excretion of N in feces and urine. Twelve multiparous late-lactation Holstein cows (means±SD; 264±18 days in milk) were fed a...

  18. Leaf Relative Water Content Estimated from Leaf Reflectance and Transmittance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vanderbilt, Vern; Daughtry, Craig; Dahlgren, Robert

    2016-01-01

    Remotely sensing the water status of plants and the water content of canopies remain long term goals of remote sensing research. In the research we report here, we used optical polarization techniques to monitor the light reflected from the leaf interior, R, as well as the leaf transmittance, T, as the relative water content (RWC) of corn (Zea mays) leaves decreased. Our results show that R and T both change nonlinearly. The result show that the nonlinearities cancel in the ratio R/T, which appears linearly related to RWC for RWC less than 90%. The results suggest that potentially leaf water status and perhaps even canopy water status could be monitored starting from leaf and canopy optical measurements.

  19. On rapeseed meals. Part XXVI. Some remarks on the biological value of rapeseed meal proteins after silage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borowska, J; Cichon, R; Kozłowska, H; Rutkowski

    1978-01-01

    The influence of propionic bacteria on the biological value of potato-rapeseed meal protein ensilage was investigated. The inoculation of the ensilage with Propionibacterium Petersoni T 112 led to the reduction of the content of goitrogenous compounds (isothiocyanates and oxazolidinethiones) and to an increase of the nutritive value (NPU, PER) of the rapeseed protein. The increase of the protein value is greater by the application of propionic bacteria than by toasting of rapeseed meal.

  20. Fermentation of rapeseed meal, sunflower meal and faba beans in combination with wheat bran increases solubility of protein and phosphorus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Poulsen, Hanne Damgaard; Blaabjerg, Karoline

    2017-01-01

    and solubilizing protein and phytate. Herein, solubilization of protein, N and P was investigated when increasing ratios of wheat bran were fermented with rapeseed meal (RSM), sunflower meal (SFM), faba beans (FB) or a combination of these (RSM/SFM/FB). RESULTS Protein, N and P solubility was greater, for all...... or with wheat bran uncovers a potential for increased protein and P digestibility and thereby reduced N and P excretion from pigs and poultry. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry...

  1. Resistance and susceptibility of alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.) cultivars to the aphid Therioaphis maculata (Homoptera:Aphididae): insect biology and cultivar evaluation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ALEXANDRE DE ALMEIDA E SILVA; ELENICE MOURO VARANDA; JOS(E) RICARDO BAROSELA

    2006-01-01

    Biology of the aphid Therioaphis maculata was studied on alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.), including four resistant (Mesa-Sirsa, CUF101, Baker and Lahontan) and two susceptible (ARC and Caliverde) alfalfa cultivars, and one of the most cropped Brazilian cultivars, Crioula. Under controlled conditions, antibiosis (i.e., reduced longevity, fecundity and increased mortality of the aphid) was observed mainly on the resistant alfalfa cultivars,except on Lahontan. Crioula seemed to be tolerant to aphids. Present data support geographic limitation usage of cultivars, and we suggest Baker and Mesa-Sirsa as sources of antibiosis,and provide biological information of a tropical T. maculata biotype on alfalfa.

  2. [Efficiency of alfalfa and reed in the phytoremediation of hydrocarbon polluted soil].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muratova, A Iu; Turkovskaia, O V; Hubner, T; Kuschk, P

    2003-01-01

    The efficacy of plants as means of decontaminating hydrocarbon-polluted soil has been studied. Ditch reed (Phragmites australis) and alfalfa (Medicago sativa) markedly intensified processes of pollutant destruction, the effect being particularly pronounced in the case of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). Comparative analysis of microflora in soils (including those devoid of plants and rhizosphere) demonstrated that, in addition to preventing the pollutant-induced decrease in the amount of heterotrophic microorganisms, the plants stimulated their development, significantly increasing the population of destructors. Effects of plants on major physiological groups of soil microorganisms under conditions of pollution were ambiguous. The rhizosphere consortium of alfalfa was less susceptible to effects of pollutants than that of reed.

  3. Genetic diversity of alfalfa domesticated varietal populations from Libyan genbank revealed by RAPD markers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahsyee Salem R.

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Alfalfa (Medicago sativa L. is an important forage legume in Libya. The genetic diversity of nine alfalfa domesticated varietal populations was studied using thirteen RAPD primer combinations. The number of polymorphic fragments detected per primer combination ranged from 8 to 46 bands with an average of 24 bands. The number of polymorphic bands detected was from 6 (Atalia population to 37 (Gabsia population. The lowest genetic distance was 0.058 and the highest was 0.655. The average genetic distance was (0.356. The dendrogram based on Ward’s minimum variance clustering method grouped the nine populations into the two main clusters. The first group included Fazania, Atalia, Masratia, Zawia, Denamo Ferade and Arezona. The second group was composed of Tagoria, Gabsia and Wade Alrabeh. The simplicity of RAPD assays for detection of genetic polymorphisms is confirmed in our study, and results can be utilized in breeding practice.

  4. Variation of directional reflectance factors with structural changes of a developing alfalfa canopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirchner, J. A.; Kimes, D. S.; Mcmurtrey, J. E., III

    1982-01-01

    Directional reflectance factors of an alfalfa canopy were determined and related to canopy structure, agronomic variables, and irradiance conditions at four periods during a cutting cycle. Nadir and off-nadir reflectance factors decreased with increasing biomass in Thematic Mapper band 3(0.63-0.69 micrometer) and increased with increasing biomass in band 4(0.76-0.90 micrometer). The sensor view angle had less impact on perceived reflectance as the alfalfa progressed from an erectophile canopy of stems after harvest to a near planophile canopy of leaves at maturity. Studies of directional reflectance are needed for testing and upgrading vegetation canopy models and to aid in the complex interpretation problems presented by aircraft scanners and pointable satellites where illumination and viewing geometries may vary widely. Distinct changes in the patterns of radiance observed by a sensor as structural and biomass changes occur are keys to monitoring the growth and condition of crops.

  5. Best Phd thesis Prize: Statistical analysis of ALFALFA galaxies: insights in galaxy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papastergis, E.

    2013-09-01

    We use the rich dataset of local universe galaxies detected by the ALFALFA 21cm survey to study the statistical properties of gas-bearing galaxies. In particular, we measure the number density of galaxies as a function of their baryonic mass ("baryonic mass function") and rotational velocity ("velocity width function"), and we characterize their clustering properties ("two-point correlation function"). These statistical distributions are determined by both the properties of dark matter on small scales, as well as by the complex baryonic processes through which galaxies form over cosmic time. We interpret the ALFALFA measurements with the aid of publicly available cosmological N-body simulations and we present some key results related to galaxy formation and small-scale cosmology.

  6. ALFALFA HI Content and Star Formation in Virgo Cluster Early-Type Dwarfs

    CERN Document Server

    Koopmann, R A; Haynes, M P; Brosch, N

    2009-01-01

    The ALFALFA (Arecibo Legacy Fast ALFA) blind survey is providing a census of HI in galaxies of all types in a range of environments. Here we report on ALFALFA results for Virgo Cluster early-type dwarfs between declinations of 4 and 16 degrees. Less than 2% of the Virgo early-type dwarf population is detected, compared to 70-80% of the Im/BCD dwarf population. Most of the dwarfs detected in HI show evidence for ongoing or recent star formation. Early-type galaxies with HI tend to be located in the outer regions of the cluster and to be brighter. Early-type dwarfs with HI may be undergoing morphological transition due to cluster environmental effects.

  7. Meals based on vegetable protein sources (beans and peas) are more satiating than meals based on animal protein sources (veal and pork) - a randomized cross-over meal test study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristensen, Marlene Dahlwad; Bendsen, Nathalie Tommerup; Christensen, Sheena M

    2016-01-01

    on appetite regulation. OBJECTIVE: To examine whether meals based on vegetable protein sources (beans/peas) are comparable to meals based on animal protein sources (veal/pork) regarding meal-induced appetite sensations. DESIGN: In total, 43 healthy, normal-weight, young men completed this randomized, double......-blind, placebo-controlled, three-way, cross-over meal test. The meals (all 3.5 MJ, 28 energy-% (E%) fat) were either high protein based on veal and pork meat, HP-Meat (19 E% protein, 53 E% carbohydrate, 6 g fiber/100 g); high protein based on legumes (beans and peas), HP-Legume (19 E% protein, 53 E% carbohydrate...

  8. Effect of phytase supplementation to barley-canola meal and barley-soybean meal diets on phosphorus and calcium balance in growing pigs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sauer, W.C.; Cervantes, M.; He, J.M.M.; Schulze, H.

    2003-01-01

    Two metabolism experiments were carried out, to determine the effect of microbial phytase addition to barley-canola meal and barley-soybean meal diets on P and Ca balance in growing. pigs; In experiment 1, six barrows (29.6kg: initial LW) were fed a barley-canola meal diet, without or. with phytase

  9. A CLIPS expert system for maximizing alfalfa (Medicago Sativa L.) production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Engel, B. A.; Jones, D. D.; Rhykerd, R. L.; Rhykerd, L. M.; Rhykerd, C. L., Jr.; Rhykerd, C. L.

    1990-01-01

    An alfalfa management expert system originally developed by Purdue University agricultural scientists on the PC Plus expert system shell from Texas Instrument has been updated and successfully converted to CLIPS (C Language Integrated Production System). This reduces the cost and legal restrictions associated with making the expert system available to agribusiness industries, extension personnel and farm managers and operators. The expert system includes recommendations concerning soil drainage, liming, P and K fertilization, weed control, variety selection and seeding rate including pure live seeds.

  10. The Arecibo Pisces-Perseus Survey: An Undergraduate ALFALFA Team Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Donoghue, Aileen A.; Koopmann, Rebecca A.; Haynes, Martha P.; Jones, Michael; Craig, David; Hallenbeck, Gregory L.; Rosenberg, Jessica L.; Venkatesan, Aparna; Undergraduate ALFALFA Team

    2016-01-01

    The Milky Way's position in an outer filament of Lanieakea affords us a striking view of the Pisces-Perseus Supercluster (PPS) arcing roughly from 22h to 4h and 0° to +50° concentrated between cz = 4,000 km/s and cz = 8,000 km/s as a "wall" parallel to the plane of the sky. It is bounded by voids both between Laniakea and PPS and beyond PPS. Within this box, the 70% ALFALFA survey has detected 4,800 galaxies within cz = 8,000 km/s. Of these, 80% have masses greater than 108 M⊙. At the distance of the PPS, galaxies with MHI ≤ 108 M⊙ are below the ALFALFA detection limit. Thus to further explore this rich diversity of galaxy environments and the adjoining voids, the Undergraduate ALFALFA Team is in the process of using the L-band Wide receiver at Arecibo Observatory for the Arecibo Pisces-Perseus Supercluster Survey (APPSS). We will observe galaxies with 108 M⊙ ≤ MHI ≤ 109 M⊙ chosen from the SDSS DR12 and GALEX catalogs. We are limiting our observations to the PPS ridge in 21h 30m to 3h 15m and 23° to 35°. Since this region lacks SDSS spectroscopy, targets have been selected using photometric criteria derived from SDSS and GALEX observations for galaxies detected by ALFALFA. The results of these observations will allow us to constrain the HI mass function along the PPS ridge. Application of the Tully-Fisher relation will allow a robust measure of the infall velocities of galaxies into the filament. This work has been supported by NSF grant AST-1211005.

  11. Micromonospora from nitrogen fixing nodules of alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.). A new promising Plant Probiotic Bacteria.

    OpenAIRE

    Pilar Martínez-Hidalgo; Purificación Galindo-Villardón; Trujillo, Martha E.; Igual, José M.; Eustoquio Martínez-Molina

    2014-01-01

    Biotic interactions can improve agricultural productivity without costly and environmentally challenging inputs. Micromonospora strains have recently been reported as natural endophytes of legume nodules but their significance for plant development and productivity has not yet been established. The aim of this study was to determine the diversity and function of Micromonospora isolated from Medicago sativa root nodules. Micromonospora-like strains from field alfalfa nodules were characteri...

  12. Requirement of succinate dehydrogenase activity for symbiotic bacteroid differentiation of Rhizobium meliloti in alfalfa nodules.

    OpenAIRE

    Gardiol, A E; Truchet, G L; Dazzo, F. B.

    1987-01-01

    Transmission electron microscopy was used to study the cellular morphologies of a wild-type Rhizobium meliloti strain (L5-30), a nitrogen fixation-ineffective (Fix-) succinate dehydrogenase mutant (Sdh-) strain, and a Fix+ Sdh+ revertant strain within alfalfa nodules and after free-living growth in a minimal medium containing 27 mM mannitol plus 20 mM succinate. The results showed a requirement of succinate dehydrogenase activity for symbiotic differentiation and maintenance of R. meliloti ba...

  13. Estimation of the Genetic Diversity in Tetraploid Alfalfa Populations Based on RAPD Markers for Breeding Purposes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Slobodan Katic

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Alfalfa is an autotetraploid, allogamous and heterozygous forage legume, whose varieties are synthetic populations. Due to the complex nature of the species, information about genetic diversity of germplasm used in any alfalfa breeding program is most beneficial. The genetic diversity of five alfalfa varieties, involved in progeny tests at Institute of Field and Vegetable Crops, was characterized based on RAPD markers. A total of 60 primers were screened, out of which 17 were selected for the analysis of genetic diversity. A total of 156 polymorphic bands were generated, with 10.6 bands per primer. Number and percentage of polymorphic loci, effective number of alleles, expected heterozygosity and Shannon’s information index were used to estimate genetic variation. Variety Zuzana had the highest values for all tested parameters, exhibiting the highest level of variation, whereas variety RSI 20 exhibited the lowest. Analysis of molecular variance (AMOVA showed that 88.39% of the total genetic variation was attributed to intra-varietal variance. The cluster analysis for individual samples and varieties revealed differences in their population structures: variety Zuzana showed a very high level of genetic variation, Banat and Ghareh were divided in subpopulations, while Pecy and RSI 20 were relatively uniform. Ways of exploiting the investigated germplasm in the breeding programs are suggested in this paper, depending on their population structure and diversity. The RAPD analysis shows potential to be applied in analysis of parental populations in semi-hybrid alfalfa breeding program in both, development of new homogenous germplasm, and identification of promising, complementary germplasm.

  14. Changes in fatty acid composition of sulfolipid and phospholipids during maturation of alfalfa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klopfenstein, W E; Shigley, J W

    1967-07-01

    Lipids were extracted from alfalfa samples collected at intervals over the growing season and were fractionated to yield pure sulfolipid. In the sulfolipid and in a phospholipid fraction the major fatty acids were palmitic, linolenic, and linoleic, of which the palmitic acid increased in proportion during the season while the proportion of linolenic acid dropped. The sulfolipid contained more linolenic acid and less palmitic and linoleic acids than the phospholipids, and had a greater rate of change of fatty acid composition.

  15. Expression of a fungal ferulic acid esterase in alfalfa modifies cell wall digestibility

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Background Alfalfa (Medicago sativa) is an important forage crop in North America owing to its high biomass production, perennial nature and ability to fix nitrogen. Feruloyl esterase (EC 3.1.1.73) hydrolyzes ester linkages in plant cell walls and has the potential to further improve alfalfa as biomass for biofuel production. Results In this study, faeB [GenBank:AJ309807] was synthesized at GenScript and sub-cloned into a novel pEACH vector containing different signaling peptides to target type B ferulic acid esterase (FAEB) proteins to the apoplast, chloroplast, endoplasmic reticulum and vacuole. Four constructs harboring faeB were transiently expressed in Nicotiana leaves, with FAEB accumulating at high levels in all target sites, except chloroplast. Stable transformed lines of alfalfa were subsequently obtained using Agrobacterium tumefaciens (LBA4404). Out of 136 transgenic plants regenerated, 18 independent lines exhibited FAEB activity. Subsequent in vitro digestibility and Fourier transformed infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) analysis of FAEB-expressing lines showed that they possessed modified cell wall morphology and composition with a reduction in ester linkages and elevated lignin content. Consequently, they were more recalcitrant to digestion by mixed ruminal microorganisms. Interestingly, delignification by alkaline peroxide treatment followed by exposure to a commercial cellulase mixture resulted in higher glucose release from transgenic lines as compared to the control line. Conclusion Modifying cell wall crosslinking has the potential to lower recalcitrance of holocellulose, but also exhibited unintended consequences on alfalfa cell wall digestibility due to elevated lignin content. The combination of efficient delignification treatment (alkaline peroxide) and transgenic esterase activity complement each other towards efficient and effective digestion of transgenic lines. PMID:24650274

  16. Chemical characterization of ash from gasification of alfalfa stems: Implications for ash management

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mozaffari, M.; Rosen, C.J.; Russelle, M.P.; Nater, E.A.

    2000-06-01

    Electricity generation from biomass is an attractive option from an environmental perspective. Pilot studies have indicated that alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.) stems are suitable feedstock for energy generation via gasification. Detailed information on chemical characteristics of the ash generated from gasification of alfalfa stem is required to develop environmentally and economically sound ash management strategies. Alfalfa fly and bottom ashes were characterized with respect to chemical properties that are important in developing ash management practices with emphasis on beneficial utilization as a soil amendment. Mean concentrations of total C, K, Ca, and Cl were 424, 120, 85, and 26 g kg{sup {minus}1}, respectively, in fly ash. In bottom ash, the mean concentrations of C, K, and Ca, were 63, 61, and 193 g kg{sup {minus}1}. Concentrations of total Pb, As, Cd, Co, and Se were below detection limits in both ash types. Naphthalene ranged from 6.2 to 74 mg kg{sup {minus}1}, but concentrations of many other polyaromatic hydrocarbons were low or below mg kg{sup {minus}1} detection limits. Available K and P in fly ash were 90 to 120 and 8 to 10 g kg{sup {minus}1}, respectively. Mean CaCO{sub 3} equivalent value of fly ash was 400 g kg{sup {minus}1}, its electrical conductivity (EC) and pH were 127 dS m{sup {minus}1} and 11.5, respectively. These results suggest that when managed properly, gasified alfalfa ash could potentially be utilized as a beneficial soil amendment with few potential environmental concerns.

  17. Genome-wide SNP discovery in tetraploid alfalfa using 454 sequencing and high resolution melting analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhao Patrick X

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs are the most common type of sequence variation among plants and are often functionally important. We describe the use of 454 technology and high resolution melting analysis (HRM for high throughput SNP discovery in tetraploid alfalfa (Medicago sativa L., a species with high economic value but limited genomic resources. Results The alfalfa genotypes selected from M. sativa subsp. sativa var. 'Chilean' and M. sativa subsp. falcata var. 'Wisfal', which differ in water stress sensitivity, were used to prepare cDNA from tissue of clonally-propagated plants grown under either well-watered or water-stressed conditions, and then pooled for 454 sequencing. Based on 125.2 Mb of raw sequence, a total of 54,216 unique sequences were obtained including 24,144 tentative consensus (TCs sequences and 30,072 singletons, ranging from 100 bp to 6,662 bp in length, with an average length of 541 bp. We identified 40,661 candidate SNPs distributed throughout the genome. A sample of candidate SNPs were evaluated and validated using high resolution melting (HRM analysis. A total of 3,491 TCs harboring 20,270 candidate SNPs were located on the M. truncatula (MT 3.5.1 chromosomes. Gene Ontology assignments indicate that sequences obtained cover a broad range of GO categories. Conclusions We describe an efficient method to identify thousands of SNPs distributed throughout the alfalfa genome covering a broad range of GO categories. Validated SNPs represent valuable molecular marker resources that can be used to enhance marker density in linkage maps, identify potential factors involved in heterosis and genetic variation, and as tools for association mapping and genomic selection in alfalfa.

  18. Concerted changes in N and C primary metabolism in alfalfa (Medicago sativa) under water restriction

    OpenAIRE

    Aranjuelo, Iker; Tcherkez, Guillaume,; Molero, Gemma; Gilard, Françoise; AVICE, JEAN-CHRISTOPHE; Nogués, Salvador

    2013-01-01

    Although the mechanisms of nodule N2 fixation in legumes are now well documented, some uncertainty remains on the metabolic consequences of water deficit. In most cases, little consideration is given to other organs and, therefore, the coordinated changes in metabolism in leaves, roots, and nodules are not well known. Here, the effect of water restriction on exclusively N2-fixing alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.) plants was investigated, and proteomic, metabolomic, and physiological analyses were ...

  19. Effect of feeding selenium-fertilized alfalfa hay on performance of weaned beef calves.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jean A Hall

    Full Text Available Selenium (Se is an essential micronutrient in cattle, and Se-deficiency can affect morbidity and mortality. Calves may have greater Se requirements during periods of stress, such as during the transitional period between weaning and movement to a feedlot. Previously, we showed that feeding Se-fertilized forage increases whole-blood (WB Se concentrations in mature beef cows. Our current objective was to test whether feeding Se-fertilized forage increases WB-Se concentrations and performance in weaned beef calves. Recently weaned beef calves (n = 60 were blocked by body weight, randomly assigned to 4 groups, and fed an alfalfa hay based diet for 7 wk, which was harvested from fields fertilized with sodium-selenate at a rate of 0, 22.5, 45.0, or 89.9 g Se/ha. Blood samples were collected weekly and analyzed for WB-Se concentrations. Body weight and health status of calves were monitored during the 7-wk feeding trial. Increasing application rates of Se fertilizer resulted in increased alfalfa hay Se content for that cutting of alfalfa (0.07, 0.95, 1.55, 3.26 mg Se/kg dry matter for Se application rates of 0, 22.5, 45.0, or 89.9 g Se/ha, respectively. Feeding Se-fertilized alfalfa hay during the 7-wk preconditioning period increased WB-Se concentrations (P Linear<0.001 and body weights (P Linear = 0.002 depending upon the Se-application rate. Based upon our results we suggest that soil-Se fertilization is a potential management tool to improve Se-status and performance in weaned calves in areas with low soil-Se concentrations.

  20. Effect of Plant Growth Regulators on Leaf Number, Leaf Area and Leaf Dry Matter in Grape

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zahoor Ahmad BHAT

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Influence of phenylureas (CPPU and brassinosteriod (BR along with GA (gibberellic acid were studied on seedless grape vegetative characteristics like leaf number, leaf area and leaf dry matter. Growth regulators were sprayed on the vines either once (7 days after fruit set or 15 days after fruit set or twice (7+15 days after fruit set. CPPU 2 ppm+BR 0.4 ppm+GA 25 ppm produced maximum number of leaves (18.78 while as untreated vines produced least leaf number (16.22 per shoot. Maximum leaf area (129.70 cm2 and dry matter content (26.51% was obtained with higher CPPU (3 ppm and BR (0.4 ppm combination along with GA 25 ppm. Plant growth regulators whether naturally derived or synthetic are used to improve the productivity and quality of grapes. The relatively high value of grapes justifies more expensive inputs. A relatively small improvement in yield or fruit quality can justify the field application of a very costly product. Application of new generation growth regulators like brassinosteroids and phenylureas like CPPU have been reported to increase the leaf number as well as leaf area and dry matter thereby indirectly influencing the fruit yield and quality in grapes.

  1. Characterization of Feeding Injuries Caused by Ceresa nigripectus Remes Lenicov (Hemiptera: Membracidae) on Alfalfa Stems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grosso, T P; Mercado, M I; Ponessa, G I; Conci, L R; Virla, E G

    2016-04-01

    Piercing-sucking insects cause mechanical and physiological injury to plants. Ceresa nigripectus Remes Lenicov is a pest of alfalfa in subtropical regions of South America and a carrier of the ArAWB phytoplasma. The aim of this study was to determine the feeding habits of this treehopper and to describe the effects of the feeding injuries on stem vascular tissues in alfalfa. Adults and nymphs of C. nigripectus inserted their stylets repeatedly girdling the stem. One week after feeding, alfalfa stems exhibited numerous feeding canals with salivary deposits, most of which reached the phloem. Two weeks after feeding, cortex and phloem cells next to the salivary sheath collapsed, mature tracheal elements became sparse and appeared with an increased cross-section area, and phenolic compounds increased in cells and cell walls compared to undamaged plants. Three weeks after feeding, an annular callus, formed by abnormal cell division and hypertrophy of preexisting cortex and vascular cambium cells, appeared immediately above the stem girdle. Parenchyma cells from the outer layers of the callus differentiated to form secondary anomalous amphicribal bundles in the wound. The aerial parts above the stem girdle eventually withered and died.

  2. Micromonospora from nitrogen fixing nodules of alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.). A new promising Plant Probiotic Bacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez-Hidalgo, Pilar; Galindo-Villardón, Purificación; Trujillo, Martha E; Igual, José M; Martínez-Molina, Eustoquio

    2014-09-17

    Biotic interactions can improve agricultural productivity without costly and environmentally challenging inputs. Micromonospora strains have recently been reported as natural endophytes of legume nodules but their significance for plant development and productivity has not yet been established. The aim of this study was to determine the diversity and function of Micromonospora isolated from Medicago sativa root nodules. Micromonospora-like strains from field alfalfa nodules were characterized by BOX-PCR fingerprinting and 16S rRNA gene sequencing. The ecological role of the interaction of the 15 selected representative Micromonospora strains was tested in M. sativa. Nodulation, plant growth and nutrition parameters were analyzed. Alfalfa nodules naturally contain abundant and highly diverse populations of Micromonospora, both at the intra- and at interspecific level. Selected Micromonospora isolates significantly increase the nodulation of alfalfa by Ensifer meliloti 1021 and also the efficiency of the plant for nitrogen nutrition. Moreover, they promote aerial growth, the shoot-to-root ratio, and raise the level of essential nutrients. Our results indicate that Micromonospora acts as a Rhizobia Helper Bacteria (RHB) agent and has probiotic effects, promoting plant growth and increasing nutrition efficiency. Its ecological role, biotechnological potential and advantages as a plant probiotic bacterium (PPB) are also discussed.

  3. Application limestone forms and doses for alfalfa in no-tillage system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Letícia Cristina Bertusso Toffolli

    Full Text Available Alfalfa (Medicago sativa L. requires good soil fertility. Brazil is characterized by acidic soils which reduce the potential of the crop. Generally, liming is incorporated into the soil, but in tillage systems it is inadvisable. This study aimed to evaluate the effects of the lime application method and dose on pH, Al+3, V % and Ca+Mg in the soil and on dry matter yield of alfalfa cultivated under a consolidated no-tillage system. The experiment was conducted at the Experimental Station of Paraná Agronomic Institute, located in Pato Branco city, in Paraná state. The plots consisted of the types of lime application (plowing+harrowing, subsoil and surface, the sub-plots was the lime dose (0, 2, 4, 6 and 8 Mg ha-1 and the sub-sub-plots were the sampled soil depth (0-5; 5-10; 10-20 and 20-30 cm. The results show the application of lime, even superficially, caused increases in pH, concentration of Ca and Mg and base saturation of the soil, while also reducing the concentration of Al, especially in the surface layers of the soil. The practice of plowing and harrowing or of subsoiling, with the aim of lime incorporation in a consolidated no-tillage system is unnecessary. If it is required, the application of lime to the soil should be done superficially for alfalfa cultivated in this system.

  4. Enhanced salt tolerance of alfalfa (Medicago sativa) by rstB gene transformation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Wan-Jun; Wang, Tao

    2015-05-01

    Generating salt tolerance forage plant is essential for use of the land affected by high salinity. A salt tolerance gene rstB was used as a selectable marker gene in Agrobacterium-mediated transformation of tobacco under a selective regime of 170mM NaCl. The transgenic plants showed clear improvement in salt tolerance. To improve salt tolerance of alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.), rstB gene was introduced into alfalfa genome by Agrobacterium-mediated transformation. No abnormal phenotype was observed among the transgenic plants when compared with wild type (wt) plants. Significant enhancement of resistance to salt-shock treatment was noted on the rstB transgenic (T0) plants. Transgenic second-generation (T1) seeds showed improved germination rate and seedling growth under salt-stress condition. Hindered Na(+) accumulation, but enhanced Ca(2+) accumulation was observed on the rstB T1 plants when subjected to salt-stresses. Enhanced calcium accumulation in transgenic plants was also verified by cytohistochemical localization of calcium. Under salt-stress of 50mM NaCl, about 15% of the transgenic plants finished their life-cycle but the wt plants had no flower formation. The results demonstrated that the expression of rstB gene improved salt tolerance in transgenic alfalfa.

  5. Association of AFLP and SCAR markers with common leafspot resistance in autotetraploid alfalfa (Medicago sativa).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Y; Bi, B; Yuan, Q H; Li, X L; Gao, J M

    2012-03-14

    To identify amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP) markers associated with resistance or susceptibility of alfalfa to common leafspot (CLS) caused by the fungus Pseudopeziza medicaginis (Dermateaceae), bulked segregant analysis was conducted based on an F(1(M × M)) population of 93 plants and a BC(1)S population of 91 plants. Three AFLP markers, ACTCAA(R206), TAGCAC(R185), and GGACTA(S264), were found to be associated with CLS resistance or susceptibility. All three markers were found at significantly different frequencies (71.9, 80.3 and 91.8%) compared to resistant or susceptible plants in the original population. Subsequently, these three AFLP markers were converted into three SCAR markers, ACTCAA(R136), TAGCAC(R128) and GGACTA(S254), which are easier to employ in breeding programs. The three SCAR markers were used in a randomly selected population with 50% resistance; the probability of finding one resistant plant was increased to 67.3, 66.7 and 90.0% with markers ACTCAA(R136), TAGCAC(R128) and GGACTA(S254), independently. If two of the SCAR markers were used simultaneously, the probability would be higher than 89%. The three SCAR markers identified in this study would be applicable for selection for CLS resistance in alfalfa breeding programs. Moreover, the genetic analysis indicated that CLS resistance in alfalfa is conferred by a single dominant gene.

  6. The Undergraduate ALFALFA Team: A Collaboration for Undergraduate Research Opportunities and Faculty Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koopmann, Rebecca A.; Balonek, Thomas J.; Cannon, John M.; Coble, Kimberly A.; Craig, David W.; Durbala, Adriana; Finn, Rose; Hallenbeck, Gregory L.; Haynes, Martha P.; Higdon, Sarah; Hoffman, G. Lyle; Kornreich, David A.; Lebron, Mayra E.; Crone-Odekon, Mary; O'Donoghue, Aileen A.; Olowin, Ronald Paul; Pantoja, Carmen; Rosenberg, Jessica L.; Troischt, Parker; Venkatesan, Aparna; Wilcots, Eric M.; ALFALFA Team

    2016-01-01

    Legacy astronomy surveys involve large collaborations over long time periods, making it challenging to involve undergraduates in meaningful projects. Collaborating with faculty at 19 undergraduate-focused institutions across the US and Puerto Rico and with US-NSF funding, the ALFALFA (Arecibo Legacy Fast ALFA) Team has developed the Undergraduate ALFALFA Team, an effective model to promote undergraduate research and faculty development within the ALFALFA HI blind survey project and follow-up programs. This talk will summarize the main components of the program, which include an annual undergraduate workshop at Arecibo Observatory, observing runs at Arecibo, computer infrastructure, summer and academic year research projects, and dissemination at national meetings (e.g., Cannon et al., Collins, Elliott et al, Craig et al., Hansen et al., Johnson et al., Morrison et al., O'Donoghue et al., Smith et al., Sylvia et al., Troischt et al., this meeting). This work has been supported by NSF grants AST-0724918/0902211, AST-075267/0903394, AST-0725380, and AST-1211005.

  7. Stem formation at alfalfa varieties and correlative dependences with some main parameters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natalya Georgieva

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available During the period 2006-2009 in IFC-Pleven were studied 9 alfalfa varieties: Europe, Prista 2, Prista 3, Prista 4, Obnova 10, Pleven 6, Dara, Multifoliate and Dama. In the first year of its development alfalfa formed on average 1.42 number of stems per plant. During second and third year their quantity increased to 2.14 and 3.83 number whereafter during fourth year they decreased to 3.28. In all years (except the first year was found a trend of increase in stem number from spring to autumn regrowth with average values 2.11, 2.85 and 3.05 respectively. Average for the four-year period the greatest number of stems (over the average for the nine studied varieties – 2.67 formed the Multifoliate variety followed by Europe, Prista 4, Obnova 10 and Dama. The varieties which are characterized by less density of stand (number of plants per unit area had a greater number of stems per plant (r = -0.530. Correlations with mean and high positive value were found between stem formation and amount and distributions of rainfall during vegetation period (r = 0.989, year of alfalfa development (r = 0.861, nodulation (r = 0.763, weight of root mass (r = 0.411 as well as correlations with mean negative value between number of stems and percentage of damaged stems by Apion seniculus (r = -0.456.

  8. Isolation, chemical characterization and biological activity of alfalfa (Medicago media Pers. root saponins

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wiesław Oleszek

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Saponins from alfalfa (Medicago media Pers. roots were isolated and their acid hydrolysis revealed several aglycones that were obtained in crystalline form and characterized. Medicagenic acid, hederagenin and soyasapogenols A. B, C. D, E and F were found. Crude saponins were separated into cholesterol-precipitable and nonprecipitable fractions. The precipitable fraction consisted of medicagenic acid glycosides: glucose, arabinose, xylose and rhamnose were found as their sugar chain components. The nonprecipitable fraction was a mixture of hederagenine and soyasapogenol glycosides, and glucose arthinose. xylose. galactose and glucuronic acid were found in the sugar component,. 7 he medicagenic acid glycosides made up 6% of root dry matter and showed high biological activity. They cuased red blood cells lysis (haemolytic index 3000, completely inhibited Trichoderma viride growth at the concentration of 2.5 Mg. 100 cm-3 of growth medium and retarded wheat seedling growth at concentrations as low as 100 ppm. The cholesterol-nonprecipitable fraction caused no blood cell lysis and fungus growth inhibition, although it did inhibit seedling growth, but to a much lesser extent than medicagenic acrd glycosides. The detrimental effect of alfalfa root saponins on winter wheat crop after alfalfa is discussed.

  9. [Composition diversity of lactic acid bacteria (LAB) community Al2 used for alfalfa silage].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xiao-Fen; Gao, Li-Juan; Yang, Hong-Yan; Wang, Wei-Dong; Cui, Zong-Jun

    2006-10-01

    Alfalfa is the most important forage grass that is difficult to ensile for good quality. Using silage inoculants are the important way for preservation of alfalfa silage. Through continuous restricted subcultivation, a lactic acid bacteria (LAB) community Al2 was selected from well-fermented alfalfa silage. Plate isolation and Denaturing Gradient Gel Electrophoresis (DGGE), construction of 16S rDNA clone library were used to identify the composition diversity of Al2 community, with 7 strains detected, and they were all belonged to Lactobacillus. The composition ratios of the 7 strains were 55.21%, 19.79%, 14.58%, 3.13%, 3.13%, 3.13%, 1.03% according to 16S rDNA clone library. Al2-1i, Al2-2i, Al2-3i, corresponding to L. plantarum (99.9%), L. kimchii (99.4%), L. farciminis (100%) were detected by plate isolation. Among 3 isolates, Al2-1i had the highest ability of dropping pH and producing lactic acid, and the amount of lactic acid was reach to 18g/L at 24h cultivated in MRS media. The ability of dropping pH and producing lactic acid of Al2-3i was the lowest. From DGGE profiles, the dominant strains in Al2 community were L. plantarum and L. kimchii. L. plantarum was detected during the whole process, and L. kimchii was detected in the later phase.

  10. Inactivation of Human Norovirus and Its Surrogates on Alfalfa Seeds by Aqueous Ozone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Qing; Markland, Sarah; Kniel, Kalmia E

    2015-08-01

    Alfalfa sprouts have been associated with numerous foodborne outbreaks. Previous studies investigated the effectiveness of aqueous ozone on bacterially contaminated seeds, yet little is known about the response of human norovirus (huNoV). This study assessed aqueous ozone for the disinfection of alfalfa seeds contaminated with huNoV and its surrogates. The inactivation of viruses without a food matrix was also investigated. Alfalfa seeds were inoculated with huNoV genogroup II, Tulane virus (TV), and murine norovirus (MNV); viruses alone or inoculated on seeds were treated in deionized water containing 6.25 ppm of aqueous ozone with agitation at 22°C for 0.5, 1, 5, 15, or 30 min. The data showed that aqueous ozone resulted in reductions of MNV and TV infectivity from 1.66 ± 1.11 to 5.60 ± 1.11 log PFU/g seeds; for all treatment times, significantly higher reductions were observed for MNV (P water was similar to that of huNoV, whereas MNV had significantly greater reductions in genomic copies (P ozone-treated viruses alone, with significantly higher levels of inactivation (P ozone indicates that ozone may be a plausible substitute for chlorine as an alternative treatment for seeds. The behavior of TV was similar to that of huNoV, which makes it a promising surrogate for these types of scenarios.

  11. Partitioning and mobilization of photoassimilate in alfalfa subjected to water deficits. [Medicago sativa L

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hall, M.H. (Univ. of Idaho, Moscow (USA)); Sheaffer, C.C.; Heichel, G.H. (Univ. of Minnesota, St. Paul (USA))

    Faster regrowth of a stressed alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.) crop compared to an unstressed crop after rewatering has been reported. The bases of this compensatory response are unknown, but they may be important to understanding adaptation to water stress and to developing crop water management strategies. The authors objectives was to determine the effect of stress induced by water deficit on photoassimilate partitioning and the utilization of stored assimilates during regrowth of alfalfa. Field and greenhouse experiments were conducted using cultivars differing in winterhardiness. Plants were subjected to water stress, pulse-labeled with {sup 14}CO{sub 2}, and sampled following 0, 1, 14, 21, and 28-d translocation periods. Following the 14-d sampling, herbage was harvested and water stress was removed. Cultivars contrasting in winterhardiness responded similarly to water stress. Stressed plant roots contained 73 and 114% more total plant radioactivity (TPR) than the control at the 1 and 14-d translocation periods, respectively. Water stress significantly increased root starch and TPR percentage in the starch fraction, but had much smaller effects on root soluble-sugar concentration and TPR percentage of the root sugar fraction. Herbage regrowth mass following harvest and rewatering of the water-stressed plants was similar to that of the control. Compared to the control, water-stressed alfalfa has greater total nonstructural carbohydrates in the roots, apparently due to increased photoassimilate partitioning to the roots. However, the greater root carbohydrate concentrations did not result in compensatory herbage regrowth following rewatering.

  12. 7 CFR 29.3528 - Leaf surface.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Leaf surface. 29.3528 Section 29.3528 Agriculture... Type 95) § 29.3528 Leaf surface. The roughness or smoothness of the web or lamina of a tobacco leaf. Leaf surface is affected to some extent by the size and shrinkage of the veins or fibers (See...

  13. 7 CFR 29.3036 - Leaf surface.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Leaf surface. 29.3036 Section 29.3036 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing... Leaf surface. The smoothness or roughness of the web or lamina of a tobacco leaf. Leaf surface...

  14. Genetics of Ophraella leaf beetles

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This proposal is to collect samples of each species of Ophraella leaf beetle encountered, not to exceed 50 specimens per species, for genetic analysis using DNA...

  15. Circadian adaptations to meal timing: Neuroendocrine mechanisms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Danica F Patton

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Circadian rhythms of behavior and physiology are generated by central and peripheral circadian oscillators entrained by periodic environmental or physiological stimuli. A master circadian pacemaker in the hypothalamic suprachiasmatic nucleus is directly entrained by daily light-dark cycles, and coordinates the timing of other oscillators by direct and indirect neural, hormonal and behavioral outputs. The daily rhythm of food intake provides stimuli that entrain most peripheral and central oscillators, some of which can drive a daily rhythm of food anticipatory activity if food is restricted to one daily mealtime. The location of food-entrainable oscillators (FEOs that drive food anticipatory rhythms, and the food-related stimuli that entrain these oscillators, remain to be clarified. Here, we critically examine the role of peripheral metabolic hormones as potential internal entrainment stimuli or outputs for FEOs controlling food anticipatory rhythms in rats and mice. Hormones for which data are available include corticosterone, ghrelin, leptin, insulin, glucagon, and glucagon-like peptide 1. All of these hormones exhibit daily rhythms of synthesis and secretion that are synchronized by meal timing. There is some evidence that ghrelin and leptin modulate the expression of food anticipatory rhythms, but none of the hormones examined so far are necessary for entrainment. Ghrelin and leptin likely modulate food-entrained rhythms by actions in hypothalamic circuits utilizing melanocortin and orexin signaling, although again food-entrained behavioral rhythms can persist in lesion and gene knockout models in which these systems are disabled. Actions of these hormones on circadian oscillators in central reward circuits remain to be evaluated. Food-entrained activity rhythms are likely mediated by a distributed system of circadian oscillators sensitive to multiple feeding related inputs. Metabolic hormones appear to play a modulatory role within this

  16. Agave Americana Leaf Fibers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ashish Hulle

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available The growing environmental problems, the problem of waste disposal and the depletion of non-renewable resources have stimulated the use of green materials compatible with the environment to reduce environmental impacts. Therefore, there is a need to design products by using natural resources. Natural fibers seem to be a good alternative since they are abundantly available and there are a number of possibilities to use all the components of a fiber-yielding crop; one such fiber-yielding plant is Agave Americana. The leaves of this plant yield fibers and all the parts of this plant can be utilized in many applications. The “zero-waste” utilization of the plant would enable its production and processing to be translated into a viable and sustainable industry. Agave Americana fibers are characterized by low density, high tenacity and high moisture absorbency in comparison with other leaf fibers. These fibers are long and biodegradable. Therefore, we can look this fiber as a sustainable resource for manufacturing and technical applications. Detailed discussion is carried out on extraction, characterization and applications of Agave Americana fiber in this paper.

  17. Why do leaf-tying caterpillars abandon their leaf ties?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michelle Sliwinski

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Leaf-tying caterpillars act as ecosystem engineers by building shelters between overlapping leaves, which are inhabited by other arthropods. Leaf-tiers have been observed to leave their ties and create new shelters (and thus additional microhabitats, but the ecological factors affecting shelter fidelity are poorly known. For this study, we explored the effects of resource limitation and occupant density on shelter fidelity and assessed the consequences of shelter abandonment. We first quantified the area of leaf material required for a caterpillar to fully develop for two of the most common leaf-tiers that feed on white oak, Quercus alba. On average, Psilocorsis spp. caterpillars consumed 21.65 ± 0.67 cm2 leaf material to complete development. We also measured the area of natural leaf ties found in a Maryland forest, to determine the distribution of resources available to caterpillars in situ. Of 158 natural leaf ties examined, 47% were too small to sustain an average Psilocorsis spp. caterpillar for the entirety of its development. We also manipulated caterpillar densities within experimental ties on potted trees to determine the effects of cohabitants on the likelihood of a caterpillar to leave its tie. We placed 1, 2, or 4 caterpillars in ties of a standard size and monitored the caterpillars twice daily to track their movement. In ties with more than one occupant, caterpillars showed a significantly greater propensity to leave their tie, and left sooner and at a faster rate than those in ties as single occupants. To understand the consequences of leaf tie abandonment, we observed caterpillars searching a tree for a site to build a shelter in the field. This is a risky behavior, as 17% of the caterpillars observed died while searching for a shelter site. Caterpillars that successfully built a shelter traveled 110 ± 20 cm and took 28 ± 7 min to find a suitable site to build a shelter. In conclusion, leaf-tying caterpillars must frequently

  18. A review of canola meal as an alternative feed ingredient for ducks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wickramasuriya, Samiru Sudharaka; Yi, Young-Joo; Yoo, Jaehong; Kang, Nam Kyu; Heo, Jung Min

    2015-01-01

    This review provides an overview of the published data on the canola meal and its suitability for duck as an alternative plant-origin protein source to soybean meal. Canola meal is a legume origin protein source containing comparable amino acid profile to soybean meal and rich in essential minerals and vitamins. Nonetheless, it is known to contain less in energy content than soybean meal. Factors like field conditions and processing methods creates compositional variations among canola meal. Presence of anti-nutritional factors such as phenolic substances, phytate and glucosinolates which are known to reduce growth performance in livestock animals, are the major drawbacks for canola meal to be a competitive plant-origin protein source in the feed industry. This review is focused to address i) nutritional characteristics and feeding value of canola meal for ducks and ii) impacts of feeding canola meal on performances of ducks.

  19. [Chemical and biological characterization of meal and protein isolates from pumpkin seed (Cucurbita moschata)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salgado, J M; Takashima, M K

    1992-12-01

    The present study was carried out in order to check through chemical and biological analyses the nutritional characteristics of pumpkin seed, its delipidized meal and its proteic concentrate, considering its availability, nutritional potential, facility for production in poor soils and the need for new food resources. Another objective was to complement the amino acid pattern of pumpkin with others protein sources for human consumption. The results obtained indicate that: Raw pumpkin seed meal has a proteic values of 37.6% and the delipidized meal 68.8%; The PER values for raw seed meal and delipidized meal were 2.26 and 1.65, respectively; The chemical composition revealed that the delipized pumpkin seed meal was limited in threonine (66.8%); The isolate and seed meal proteins were both complemented with lysine and with cowpea bean meal; Whole pumpkin seed meal obtained from variety Caravelle is a good caloric material (approximately 568 cal/100 g).

  20. Effect of supplemental tallow on performance of dairy cows fed diets with different corn silage:alfalfa silage ratios.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Onetti, S G; Shaver, R D; McGuire, M A; Palmquist, D L; Grummer, R R

    2002-03-01

    A study was conducted to investigate the response to supplemental tallow of lactating cows fed basal diets with different alfalfa silage:corn silage ratios. We postulated that supplemental tallow will have decreasing negative effects on rumen fermentation, dry matter intake (DMI), and milk fat percentage as the dietary ratio of alfalfa silage:corn silage is increased. Eighteen Holstein cows averaging 134 +/- 14 d in milk were used in a replicated 6 x 6 Latin square design with 21-d periods. Treatments were arranged as a 2 x 3 factorial with 0 or 2% tallow (DM basis) and three forage treatments: 1) 50% of diet DM as corn silage, 2) 37.5% corn silage and 12.5% alfalfa silage, and 3) 25% corn silage and 25% alfalfa silage. Cows were allowed ad libitum consumption of a total mixed ration. Diets were formulated to contain 18% crude protein and 32% neutral detergent fiber. No fat x forage treatment interactions were observed. Fat supplemented cows had lower DMI and produced more milk with less milk fat content relative to non-supplemented cows. Concentration of trans-octadecenoic acids was higher in milk fat of tallow-supplemented cows. Tallow supplementation had no effect on ruminal pH and acetate:propionate ratio, but tended to decrease total volatile fatty acid (VFA) concentration in the rumen. Increasing the proportion of alfalfa silage increased DMI, milk fat percentage, and milk fat yield regardless of the fat content of the diet. Total VFA concentration and acetate:propionate ratio in the rumen were increased in response to higher levels of alfalfa in the diets. These results suggest that replacing corn silage with alfalfa silage did not alleviate the negative response of dairy cows to tallow supplementation at 2% of diet DM.