WorldWideScience

Sample records for alface lactuca sativa

  1. Freqüência de enteroparasitas em amostras de alface (Lactuca sativa) comercializadas em Lavras, Minas Gerais Frequency of intestinal parasites in samples of lettuce (Lactuca sativa) commercialized in Lavras, Minas Gerais State

    OpenAIRE

    Antônio Marcos Guimarães; Endrigo Gabellini Leonel Alves; Henrique César Pereira Figueiredo; Geraldo Márcio da Costa; Luciano dos Santos Rodrigues

    2003-01-01

    O objetivo deste trabalho foi realizar uma avaliação parasitológica em amostras de alface (Lactuca sativa) comercializadas em Lavras, MG. As amostras de alfaces apresentaram baixos padrões higiênicos, indicados pela presença de formas parasitológicas de origem animal ou humana e alta concentração de coliformes fecais.The aim of this study was to evaluate the parasitological contamination in samples of lettuce (Lactuca sativa) commercialized in Lavras city, Minas Gerais. The samples of lettuce...

  2. Parasitos em alfaces (Lactuca sativa de mercados e feiras livres de Lages - Santa Catarina = Lettuces (Lactuca sativa parasites in markets and free fairs from Lages - Santa Catarina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Quadros, Rosiléia Marinho de

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Objetivo: avaliar a contaminação por parasitos de interesse em Saúde Pública em alfaces (Lactuca sativa comercializadas no município de Lages, Santa Catarina. Materiais e Métodos: Foi utilizado um processo de amostragem intencional, selecionando-se oito supermercados e duas feiras, de acordo com a abrangência e volume de vendas desses estabelecimentos para a cidade. Foram processadas 122 amostras de alfaces, pelas técnicas de sedimentação espontânea (Lutz, centrífugo-flutuação em sulfato de zinco (Faust, centrífugo-flutuação em solução de sacarose (Sheather e coloração de Ziehl Neelsen modificada. Resultados: O índice de parasitismo foi de 88,5% (108/122 com 77% (94/122 e 11,5% (14/122 para as amostras de supermercados e de feiras livres, respectivamente. A técnica de Lutz detectou 46,7% (57/122 de alfaces parasitadas; Sheather e Faust evidenciaram 31,1% (38/122 e 10,6% (13/122 de alfaces com ovos e/ou oocistos de parasitos, respectivamente. Predominaram os gêneros Eimeria, Giardia e Entamoeba. Conclusões: As amostras analisadas apresentaram baixos padrões higiênicos, necessitando de vigilância sanitária mais atuante na fiscalização de todas as etapas do processo produtivo de hortaliças.

  3. Enteroparasitas em alfaces (Lactuca sativa comercializadas na cidade de Guarapuava (PR / Enteroparasites on commercial lettuce (Lactuca sativa in Guarapuava City, Paraná State

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvia Cristina Osaki

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available O consumo de hortaliças cruas constitui importante meio de transmissão de enteroparasitoses. O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar a contaminação parasitária em alfaces (Lactuca sativa comercializadas na cidade de Guarapuava (PR. No período de julho/2005 a junho/2006, 52 supermercados foram visitados, com colheita de um pé de alface. A análise parasitológica foi realizada após duas lavagens, filtragem em gaze e sedimentação. O sedimento, corado pelo lugol, foi analisado microscopicamente por exame direto e após centrífugo-flutuação em sulfato de zinco. Das 52 amostras de alface avaliadas, 18 (34,6% apresentaram uma ou mais estruturas parasitárias como cistos de Giardia spp. (7,7%, de Entamoeba spp. (11,5% e de Balantidium coli (3,8%, oocistos de coccídios (7,7% e ovos de Capillaria spp. (3,8%. Esse alto número de amostras contaminadas aponta deficiências na cadeia produtiva dessas hortaliças, indicando a necessidade de adequada higienização antes de seu consumo. AbstractThe ingestion of raw vegetables is an important mode of enteroparasites transmission. The aim of this study was to evaluate the parasitological contamination of lettuce (Lactuca sativa commercialized in Guarapuava City, Parana State. Fifty-two samples of lettuce were collected from supermarkets during the period of July 2005 and June 2006. Parasitological analysis was realized by the sedimentation technique. Lugol-stained sediments were microscopically analyzed by direct exam and after centrifugation-fluctuation in zinc sulfate. A total of 18 out of 52 lettuce samples analyzed (34.6% were positive for one or more parasitic structures. The parasites found in the analysis were Giardia spp. (7.7%, Entamoeba spp. (11.5%, Balantidium coli (3.8%, coccidian oocysts (7.7% and Capillaria spp. eggs (3.8%. Such high occurrence of contaminated samples revealed deficiencies in the chain of lettuce cultivation, which suggests a need for improvement in the current

  4. Qualidade física, microbiológica e parasitológica de alfaces (Lactuca sativa) de diferentes sistemas de cultivo Physical, microbiological and parasitological quality of lettuce (Lactuca sativa) from different growing processes

    OpenAIRE

    Ligia Regina R. de Santana; Rosemary D.S. Carvalho; Clicia Capibaribe Leite; Leda Maria Alcântara; Tchana Weyll S. de Oliveira; Breno da M. Rodrigues

    2006-01-01

    A alface (Lactuca sativa) é a hortaliça folhosa mais comercializada no Brasil. Seu baixo valor calórico a qualifica para diversas dietas, o que favorece o seu consumo sob a forma crua, possibilitando a ocorrência de enfermidades intestinais. O objetivo deste trabalho foi realizar uma avaliação física, microbiológica e parasitológica de amostras de alfaces, variedade crespa, provenientes dos sistemas de cultivo orgânico, tradicional e hidropônico, comercializadas nos principais supermercados d...

  5. Freqüência de enteroparasitas em amostras de alface (Lactuca sativa comercializadas em Lavras, Minas Gerais Frequency of intestinal parasites in samples of lettuce (Lactuca sativa commercialized in Lavras, Minas Gerais State

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antônio Marcos Guimarães

    2003-10-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi realizar uma avaliação parasitológica em amostras de alface (Lactuca sativa comercializadas em Lavras, MG. As amostras de alfaces apresentaram baixos padrões higiênicos, indicados pela presença de formas parasitológicas de origem animal ou humana e alta concentração de coliformes fecais.The aim of this study was to evaluate the parasitological contamination in samples of lettuce (Lactuca sativa commercialized in Lavras city, Minas Gerais. The samples of lettuce showed low hygienic conditions, indicated by the presence of parasites of animal or human origin and high concentration of fecal coliforms.

  6. Lettuces (Lactuca sativa parasites in markets and free fairs from Lages - Santa Catarina Parasitos em alfaces (Lactuca sativa de mercados e feiras livres de Lages - Santa Catarina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andréia Aparecida Ribeiro Arruda

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To evaluate the contamination of lettuces (Lactuca saliva with parasites of Public Health peculiar interest sold in Lages, Santa Catarina. Materials and Methods: A nonprobabilitic intentional sampling method was used, in which eight supermarkets and two public markets were selected according to their scope of activity and sales volume for the town. The 122 samples obtained from eight supermarkets and from two open-air markets were analyzed by the techniques of spontaneous sedimentation (Lutz, centrifugation and fluctuation in zinc sulphate (Faust, centrifugation and fluctuation in sucrose solution (Sheather and modified Ziehl Neelsen coloration. Results: The total parasitism rate was 88.5% (108/122, 77% (94/122 in the supermarkets samples and 11.5% (14/122 in the open-air markets samples. The Lutz technique has detected 46.7% (57/122 infected lettuces; Sheather and Faust technique identified 31.1% (38/122 and 10.6% (13/122 of lettuces infected with eggs and/or oocysts of parasites, respectively. The Eimeria, Giardia e Entamoeba were the most prevalent genders. Conclusions: The analyzed samples presented low hygienic standards, showing that more intense sanitary inspection is needed during all stages of vegetable productive process.Objetivo: avaliar a contaminação por parasitos de interesse em Saúde Pública em alfaces (Lactuca sativa comercializadas no município de Lages, Santa Catarina. Materiais e Métodos: Foi utilizado um processo de amostragem intencional, selecionando-se oito supermercados e duas feiras, de acordo com a abrangência e volume de vendas desses estabelecimentos para a cidade. Foram processadas 122 amostras de alfaces, pelas técnicas de sedimentação espontânea (Lutz, centrífugo-flutuação em sulfato de zinco (Faust, centrífugo-flutuação em solução de sacarose (Sheather e coloração de Ziehl Neelsen modificada. Resultados: O índice de parasitismo foi de 88,5% (108/122 com 77% (94/122 e 11,5% (14

  7. Active packaging for fresh-cut iceberg lettuce (Lactuca sativa L. / Embalagem ativa para alface americana (Lactuca sativa L. minimamente processada

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fábio Yamashita

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available The minimal processing of horticultural products endears the raw material and is convenient to the consumer due to the facility for preparing and consuming. The objective of this work was to develop an active packaging for fresh-cut iceberg lettuce (Lactuca sativa L. to increase its shelf life. Minimally processing methodology was defined and the product quality was determined by sensorial, physico-chemical and microbiological analysis. The lettuce tree was selected, trimmed, pre-washed, soaked in sanitized water (100ppm of active chlorine for 15 minutes and centrifuged. The lettuce leafs were packed in polypropylene pots with a sachet containing 1-methylcyclopropene (1-MCP and sealed with biodegradable starch film. Soon after the processing, the product was stored at 4oC for 12 days. Periodically samples were evaluated in terms of appearance and purchase intention, soluble solids and vitamin C contents, pH, texture, color, weight loss and total count of mesophilic and psicotrofic microorganisms, lactic bacteria, mould and yeast. Using 1-MCP in sachet format did not increase the lettuce shelf life but the minimal processing combined with packaging sealed with biodegradable film is practicable as the product showed good sensorial acceptance, low microbiological counts and shelf life of 5 days at 4oC.O processamento mínimo de produtos hortícolas agrega valor à matéria-prima e são convenientes ao consumidor, devido à facilidade de preparo e consumo. O objetivo do trabalho foi desenvolver uma embalagem ativa para alface americana (Lactuca sativa L. minimamente processada visando o aumento da vida útil. Foi definida uma metodologia de processamento mínimo e a qualidade do produto foi acompanhada através de avaliação sensorial, físico-química e microbiológica. As cabeças de alface foram desfolhadas, selecionadas, pré-lavadas, sanificadas (100 ppm de cloro ativo por 15 minutos e centrifugadas. As folhas foram acondicionadas em potes de

  8. Qualidade física, microbiológica e parasitológica de alfaces (Lactuca sativa de diferentes sistemas de cultivo Physical, microbiological and parasitological quality of lettuce (Lactuca sativa from different growing processes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ligia Regina R. de Santana

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available A alface (Lactuca sativa é a hortaliça folhosa mais comercializada no Brasil. Seu baixo valor calórico a qualifica para diversas dietas, o que favorece o seu consumo sob a forma crua, possibilitando a ocorrência de enfermidades intestinais. O objetivo deste trabalho foi realizar uma avaliação física, microbiológica e parasitológica de amostras de alfaces, variedade crespa, provenientes dos sistemas de cultivo orgânico, tradicional e hidropônico, comercializadas nos principais supermercados da cidade de Salvador (BA, no período de setembro de 2003 a junho de 2004. As amostras do cultivo hidropônico apresentaram o menor peso total e da parte bio-comestível, diferindo significativamente (pThe lettuce (Lactuca sativa has economic importance to the people in Brazil. The aim of this study was to carry out a physical, microbiological and parasitological evaluations in the lettuce samples - crisp variety, according to organic, traditional and hydroponics growing processes, commercialized at the supermarkets of the City of Salvador, Bahia, Brazil, collected from September/2003 until June/2004. The hydroponics lettuce samples showed the lowest total and edible part weight; they were inserted into Extra rate quality standard, according to the current legislation, whereas the organic and traditional lettuce samples were inserted into First and Second rate quality standard, respectively. The lettuce samples, independently of the growing process, showed low hygienic conditions, indicated by the presence of parasites of animal or human origin, and high concentration of fecal coliforms; the organic lettuce samples showed the highest frequencies of enteroparasities and fecal coliforms concentration, followed by the traditional and hydroponics lettuce samples. Considering the obtained results, the importance of this kind of food in the transmission of enteroparasities is stressed, as well as the need of actions which improve the sanitary conditions

  9. PERIGOS ASSOCIADOS AO CONSUMO DA ALFACE, (Lactuca sativa, IN NATURA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. D. I. MOGHARBEL

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available

    A prevenção de riscos de contaminação por agentes patogênicos em folhas de alface passa pelas boas práticas agrícolas que vai desde a semeadura até a colheita além de outros importantes aspectos, ainda no processo do cultivar, como qualidade da água usada para irrigação, emprego de práticas sanitárias adequadas pelos produtores na manipulação das plantas e higiene do agricultor no campo. Manter a segurança de contaminação bacteriana de frutas e de vegetais frescos requer um conhecimento de sistemas que abranja todos os aspectos da produção, do processamento, da distribuição e do uso. A orientação aos consumidores quanto aos cuidados no armazenamento e na manipulação apropriados do produto fresco, deve ser incentivada pelas autoridades sanitárias, como forma de se evitar doenças veiculadas pelos alimentos. Desta forma, a proteção de contaminantes patológicos em vegetais frescos, visando a proteção tanto do produtor como do consumidor, vão de encontro a algumas práticas similares do sistema APPCC, onde se projetam atributos de limitação, controle, e monitoramento das fontes de contato na produção dos vegetais.

  10. Lettuce (Lactuca sativa L. seedling production with different sources of phosphate and phosphate solubilizing microorganisms / Produção de mudas de alface (Lactuca sativa L. em presença de diferentes fontes fosfatadas e microrganismos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Germano Nunes Silva Filho

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this work was to evaluate the behaviour of phosphate solubilizing microorganisms (fungus: 310A, 061, 062 e 251, bacterias 163, 160 e 161 in promoting nutrition and growth of lettuce(Lactuca sativa L. seedlings cultivated in trays with sterilized substrate fertilized and phosphates source. A randomized completely design was used, with a factorial 4x8 scheme (four treatments with phosphate nutrition and inoculated with eight phosphate solubilizing microorganisms and four replications. Each replication was made of 10 cells. The experiment was evaluated 35 days after planting for dry matter, P percentage and total phosphorus of above ground parts. The triple super phosphate (SFT had better results than the others, including the control treatment, in all analyzed parameters. On the dry matter production, it was observed negative effect from inoculation in five treatments fertilized with SFT. There was no effect of isolates on the phosphorus content values. In the values of total phosphorus, the isolates 061, 062 e 163 increased the parameter values on the fertilized treatment with SFT. The natural phosphates presented low efficiency when compared to dissolvable fertilizer on the availability of phosphorus to the plants.O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar o comportamento de microrganismos solubilizadores de fosfatos (fungos: 310A, 061, 062 e 251; bactérias: 163, 160 e 161 na promoção da nutrição e crescimento de mudas de alface (Lactuca sativa L., cultivadas em bandejas com substrato esterilizado e adubadas com fontes fosfatadas. Foi utilizado um delineamento inteiramente casualizado, arranjo fatorial 4 x 8 (quatro tratamentos de adubação fosfatada e oito tratamentos de inoculação microrganismos solubilizadores de fosfatos com quatro repetições por isolado. Cada repetição foi constituída de 10 células. Aos 35 dias de cultivo, as plantas foram colhidas avaliando-se a matéria seca, porcentagem de P e P total da parte a

  11. Influência da borra de café no crescimento e nas propriedades químicas e biológicas de plantas de alface (Lactuca sativa L.)

    OpenAIRE

    Ferreira, Anabela Dias

    2011-01-01

    O presente trabalho pretendeu avaliar as potencialidades do uso da borra de café como fertilizante agrícola. Para tal cultivaram-se plantas de alface (Lactuca sativa L.), em substrato composto por uma mistura de terra vegetal e borra de café, no estado fresco e compostado, em cinco concentrações diferentes [2,5; 5; 10; 15 e 20% (v/v)]. Como controlo utilizou-se substrato composto só com terra vegetal. Os efeitos da aplicação da borra de café foram avaliados por análise do crescimento, concent...

  12. Aspectos sanitários do cultivo da alface americana, irrigada com águas recptoras de efluentes urbanos Sanitary aspects of lectucce (Lactuca sativa L.) culture irrigated with receiving waters of urban effluent

    OpenAIRE

    Guilherme Augusto Biscaro; Andréa Bogatti Guimarães-Tomazela; Raimundo Leite Cruz; Marcelo Domingos Chamma Lopes

    2008-01-01

    Avaliou-se a influência da disposição de mangueiras gotejadoras nos canteiros e a injeção ou não de cloro na água de irrigação, nas condições sanitárias do solo e da alface americana irrigada (Lactuca sativa L.) com águas receptoras de efluentes urbanos. Foram realizadas análises microbiológicas de amostras de água do solo e da alface, no decorrer de todo o ciclo de cultivo. Objetivou-se determinar a possível existência de Salmonella spp. e de formas evolutivas de parasitos humanos e a quanti...

  13. ÍNDICES MORFO-FISIOLÓGICOS E RENDIMENTO DA ALFACE (Lactuca sativa L.) EM AMBIENTES NATURAL E PROTEGIDO

    OpenAIRE

    Renilson Targino Dantas; João Francisco Escobedo

    1998-01-01

    RESUMO Dois experimentos foram conduzidos para se avaliar e comparar o crescimento e rendimento da alface na área experimental do Departamento de Física e Biofísica do Instituto de Biociências da Universidade Estadual Paulista, Campus de Botucatu (22º54'S; 48º27'W; 850 m), no verão de 1995/96 e no inverno de 1996, consistindo de três parcelas com dimensões de 7m x 5m, sendo duas situadas em ambientes protegidos, tipo túnel, nas direções Leste-Oeste e Norte-Sul, e a outra parcela em condições ...

  14. MANEJO DA IRRIGAÇÃO DA CULTURA DA ALFACE (Lactuca sativa L. ATRAVÉS DO TANQUE CLASSE A

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ANDRADE JÚNIOR A.S. de

    1997-01-01

    Full Text Available Com o objetivo de avaliar o efeito de diferentes níveis de irrigação, baseados em frações da evaporação do Tanque Classe A (ECA (0,25; 0,50; 0,75 e 1,00 sobre o comportamento produtivo da cultura da alface, variedade "Mesa 659" (tipo americana, cultivada em uma estufa plástica e irrigada por gotejamento, foi conduzido um experimento durante o período de julho a setembro de 1993. O comportamento produtivo foi avaliado através da determinação da matéria fresca (MFP, produtividade (PROD e eficiência do uso de água (EUA. Os resultados de MFP e PROD mostraram resposta quadrática, indicando acréscimo em ambos à medida que aumentaram as lâminas de irrigação aplicadas até o nível 0,75 da ECA, apresentando valores máximos de 818,72 g e 90,97 t.ha-1, respectivamente. Os dados relativos à EUA revelaram resposta linear decrescente, significando que à medida que os níveis de irrigação aumentam ocorre uma diminuição na EUA.

  15. Influência alelopática de hortelã (Mentha x villosa Huds. sobre emergência de plântulas de alface (Lactuca sativa L. Allelopathic influence of mint (Mentha x villosa Huds. on the emergence of lettuce (Lactuca sativa L. seedlings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J.T.L.S. Maia

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Objetivou-se com esse trabalho avaliar a interferência de possíveis efeitos alelopáticos de Mentha x villosa Huds. sobre a emergência de Lactuca sativa L. As atividades foram conduzidas em laboratório, no Instituto de Ciências Agrárias (ICA da Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais, em Montes Claros/MG. Foram propostos três tratamentos, sendo esses: solo A, coletado em área cultivada com hortelã no horto medicinal do ICA/UFMG; solo B, coletado em áreas adjacentes e, testemunha (papel germiteste.O delineamento experimental foi inteiramente casualizado (DIC, com sete repetições. As variáveis avaliadas foram: porcentagem e índice de velocidade de emergência. Observou-se que a emergência de plântulas de Lactuca sativa foi significativamente afetada pelo solo A (6,95% se comparada com o solo B (21,71%, representando assim, uma inibição da emergência, ou seja, efeito alelopático da hortelã sobre a emergência de alface. Já o índice de velocidade de emergência (IVE não diferiu significativamente entre os solos testados.This study aimed to assess the interference of possible allelopathic effects of Mentha x villosa Huds. on the germination of Lactuca sativa L. The activities were carried out in laboratory, at the Institute of Agricultural Sciences (ICA of the Federal University of Minas Gerais, Montes Claros, Minas Gerais State, Brazil. The following three treatments were proposed: soil A, collected in area cultivated with mint at the garden of ICA; soil B, collected in adjacent areas; and control (germitest paper. Experimental design was completely randomized (CR, with seven replicates. The evaluated variables were: germination percentage and speed index. The emergence of Lactuca sativa seedlings was significantly affected by soil A (6.95% when compared to soil B (21.71%, indicating thus emergence inhibition, i.e. an allelopathic effect of mint on lettuce emergence. On the other hand, the germination speed index (GSI did not

  16. Aspectos sanitários do cultivo da alface americana, irrigada com águas recptoras de efluentes urbanos Sanitary aspects of lectucce (Lactuca sativa L. culture irrigated with receiving waters of urban effluent

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guilherme Augusto Biscaro

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available Avaliou-se a influência da disposição de mangueiras gotejadoras nos canteiros e a injeção ou não de cloro na água de irrigação, nas condições sanitárias do solo e da alface americana irrigada (Lactuca sativa L. com águas receptoras de efluentes urbanos. Foram realizadas análises microbiológicas de amostras de água do solo e da alface, no decorrer de todo o ciclo de cultivo. Objetivou-se determinar a possível existência de Salmonella spp. e de formas evolutivas de parasitos humanos e a quantidade de coliformes fecais, em pontos e épocas diferentes do experimento, impedindo assim o consumo da alface. Os resultados não indicaram a presença dos dois primeiros em nenhuma das amostras, mas sim de parasitos não humanos (nematóides de vida livre no solo. Em relação à quantidade de coliformes fecais (NMP ml-1, o valor encontrado na cultura atende às exigências da Secretaria de Vigilância Sanitária do Ministério da Saúde brasileiro, porém a presença dos nematóides em quantidades superiores ao permitido pela Organização Mundial de Saúde (OMS inviabiliza o seu consumo.One evaluated the influence of drip tape arrangement and the use of chloride in the irrigation water, on soil sanitary conditions and growing lettuce (Lactuca sativa L., irrigated with receiving urban waters. Water, soil and lettuce microbiological analyses were performed during crop cycle. The objective was to determine the presence of Salmonella spp., evolutive forms of human parasites and the amount of fecal coliforms in different locations and time, avoiding the lettuce consumption. Although results did not indicate the presence of Salmonella spp. and evolutive forms of human parasites in none of the samples but non human parasites (nematodes of free life in soil. Total fecal coliforms count (NMP ml-1 met is according to the Brazilian Ministry of Health, Secretary of Health Surveillance requirements. Yet, the lettuce was not good for human consumption

  17. DESEMPENHO DE CULTURAS DE ALFACE (LACTUCA SATIVA L NO PERIODO DE VERAO EM CASAS DE VEGETAÇÃO COM DIFERENTES COBERTURAS PERFORMANCE OF THE LETTUCE (LACTUCA SATIVA L ON SUMMER CONDITIONS IN GREENHOUSES WITH DIFFERENT COVERINGS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernando da Costa Baêta

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available O presente estudo teve como objetivo avaliar as condições térmicas ambientais no interior de quatro protótipos, iguais em concepção e geometria arquitetônicas e diferentes nas soluções dos componentes de fechamento da cobertura, e avaliar o desempenho deles na produção de alface em períodos de verão. Para fins de avaliação de desempenho ambiental, foram considerados quatro tratamentos de cobertura: (T testemunha, somente com lona plástica; (L lona plástica e componente de ventilação (lanternim; (LS lona plástica sob tela de sombreamento, associado a componente de ventilação (lanternim; e, (S lona plástica sob tela de sombreamento. Como pressupostamente esperado, pode-se afirmar que as casas de vegetação sombreadas apresentaram melhor desempenho ambiental, comparativamente às não-sombreadas, e proporcionaram um ambiente mais confortável ao desenvolvimento da cultura da alface no verão.The aim of this work had concentrated in the study of solutions for the closing of the covering for greenhouses under summer conditions, experimented with the lettuce. Four covering treatments were considerate for the evaluation of the environmental performance: (T testifier, with only plastic canvas; (C plastic canvas and ventilation compound (an overture on the roof; (CS plastic canvas under shading screen, with a ventilation compound(an overture on the roof associated; and (S plastic canvas under shading screen. It can be declared, as expected, that shaded greenhouses presented a best environment performance than the unshaded greenhouses, and provided a more comfortable environment for the growth of lettuce culture on Summer.

  18. Potenciação alelopática de extratos vegetais na germinação e no crescimento inicial de picão-preto e alface Allelopathy of plant extracts on germination and initial growth of beggartick (Bidens pilosa L.) and lettuce (Lactuca sativa L.)

    OpenAIRE

    Magda Cristiani Ferreira; José Roberto Pinto de Souza; Terezinha de Jesus Faria

    2007-01-01

    O picão-preto (Bidens pilosa L.) é uma planta daninha muito agressiva, que está presente em quase todo Brasil. O principal método de controle é o químico, porém apresenta elevado impacto ambiental, risco de intoxicação humana e possibilidade de causar fitotoxicidade as culturas. O objetivo do trabalho foi avaliar o efeito alelopático de extratos etanólicos de Eucalyptus citriodora Hook. e Pinus elliottii L. na germinação e no crescimento inicial de picão-preto e alface (Lactuca sativa L.). Fo...

  19. Stratification periods in seeds germination of lettuce (Lactuca sativa L. under different conditions of light and temperaturePeríodos de estratificação na germinação de sementes de alface (Lactuca sativa L. sob diferentes condições de luz e temperatura

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gisela Ferreira

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Lettuce seeds have a high sensitivity to variations in humidity and temperature of the environment where they germinate, therefore, studies with the aim of improve the germination and physiological performance of these have been conducted. Thus, the study aimed to evaluate the efficiency of pre-germination treatment stratification (5 °C for different periods, and increase the uniformity of germination of lettuce seeds submitted to different conditions of light and germination temperatures. In the pre-germinative treatment, the seeds of lettuce (Lactuca sativa L. var. American Great Lakes were placed in plastic boxes dark of the type “gerbox” and subjected to temperature stratification of 5 °C and the dark for 4, 8, 12 and 16 hours. After periods of stratification the seeds were submitted to germination tests which were transferred to plastic boxes type “gerbox” transparent (constant light and dark (no light and were maintained in a germination chamber B.O.D with light constant at temperatures of 20, 25, 30 and 35°C. The design used was the entirely randomized with four repetitions, in a factorial outline 5x4x2, five pre-germinative treatments, four germination temperatures and two light conditions. Stratification for 16 hours and temperatures of 20 and 25 °C stimulated the germination of lettuce seeds, providing a higher germination percentage, germination speed index and minor mean germination time. The presence of light resulted in increased germination at 0, 4, 8 and 12 hours of stratification.As sementes de alface apresentam grande sensibilidade às variações na umidade e temperatura do meio onde germinam e, por isso, estudos com o intuito de melhorar a porcentagem de germinação e o desempenho fisiológico dessas têm sido realizados. Dessa maneira, o trabalho teve como objetivo avaliar a eficiência do tratamento pré-germinativo de estratificação (5°C por diferentes períodos, na uniformização e incremento da germina

  20. Avaliação parasitológica em alfaces (Lactuca sativa L. comercializadas em Serra Talhada, Pernambuco, Brasil / Parasitological evaluation in lettuces (Lactuca sativa L. marketed in Serra Talhada, Pernambuco, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rebeca Gonçalves de Oliveira

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available A prevalência de parasitoses intestinais cresce de forma expansiva no Brasil e em muitos países. A ocorrência de enteroparasitoses advém de várias maneiras, inclusive por con-sumo de vegetais contaminados, representando um grande problema em nível mundial. O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar a contaminação por parasitas intestinais em horta-liças comercializadas em Serra Talhada-PE. As amostras das hortaliças foram coletadas nas unidades de produção (hortas, na unidade de recepção do Programa de Aquisição de Alimentos (PAA e em diversos estabelecimentos comerciais localizadas no município. As amostras foram colocadas em sacos plásticos e mantidas em caixa isotérmica; em seguida, foram encaminhadas ao laboratório de Biologia da Unidade Acadêmica de Serra Talhada-UFRPE. Para a identificação dos parasitas foi utilizado o método de sedimenta-ção espontânea. Observou-se que das 80 amostras de alface analisadas 97,5% estavam positivas para formas parasitárias e outros organismos microscópicos, incluindo ovos e larvas de nematoides, cistos de protozoários, ovos de cestódeos e alguns artrópodes (insetos e ácaros. É de suma importância o conhecimento dos produtores e manipu-ladores em geral a respeito da contaminação, bem como o conhecimento das técnicas sanitizantes desenvolvidas para hortaliças, com intuito de diminuir a contaminação em todas as etapas ocorrentes desde o cultivo até ao consumo. ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- Prevalence of intestinal parasites growing in Brazil and in many countries so expansive. The intestinal parasites comes in several ways, including by consumption of contami-nated vegetables, which represents a significant worldwide problem. The objective of this study is to assess the contamination by intestinal parasites in vegetables commer-cialized in Serra Talhada, in Pernambuco state. Samples of vegetables were collected at the

  1. Avaliação bacteriológica e físico-química de águas de irrigação, solo e alface (Lactuca sativa L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karine Scherer

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available A contaminação de hortaliças por micro-organismos patogênicos está diretamente relacionada com a qualidade das águas de irrigação utilizadas na agricultura e com o solo onde se encontram. Com o objetivo de se verificar as condições empregadas na produção de alface (Lactuca sativa L. em três pequenas propriedades do interior do Rio Grande do Sul (Brasil, foram avaliadas a condição físico-química das águas de irrigação, e a condição microbiológica das águas, solo e folhas de alface. As análises bacteriológicas das águas de irrigação, hortaliças e do solo foram realizadas usando a técnica dos tubos múltiplos ou por contagem em placa, e levou em conta os coliformes totais, coliformes termotolerantes, e presença ou ausência de Escherichia coli, Salmonella sp. e Listeria sp.. As análises físico-químicas realizadas nas águas de irrigação foram pH, turbidez, oxigênio dissolvido, demanda bioquímica de oxigênio, carbono orgânico total e nitrogênio total. As análises bacteriológicas nas águas de irrigação indicaram a ausência de Salmonella sp. e Listeria sp.. Entretanto, foi detectada a presença de E. coli e valores acima do permitido pela legislação para coliformes termotolerantes. Desta forma, estas águas se encontram fora dos padrões estabelecidos pela Resolução CONAMA n° 357. A pesquisa também mostrou a presença de E. coli, Salmonella sp. e Listeria sp. nas hortaliças irrigadas, sugerindo que a fonte de contaminação por Salmonella sp. e Listeria sp. deve ser a partir do solo, e não a partir da água de irrigação. Os dados físico-químicos mostraram que apenas uma das propriedades analisadas apresentou todos os parâmetros adequados, segundo a legislação vigente para águas doces de classe 1. Portanto, apenas uma das propriedades apresentou condições físico-químicas para ser utilizada na irrigação de alface, embora nenhuma tenha apresentado condições higi

  2. Bioatividade de extratos hidroalcoólicos de Cymbopogon citratus (DC. Stapf. sobre picão-preto (Bidens pilosa L. e alface (Lactuca sativa L. Bioactivity of hydroalcoholic extracts of Cymbopogon citratus (DC. Stapf. on germination and early growth of beggartick (Bidens pilosa L. and lettuce (Lactuca sativa L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L.L. Lousada

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho visou avaliar a bioatividade de extratos hidroalcoólicos de capim-limão sobre germinação e crescimento inicial da planta daninha picão-preto (Bidens pilosa L. e da planta teste alface (Lactuca sativa L.. A partir de maceração hidroalcoólica de folhas secas e rasuradas (127,46 g de capim-limão em 1L de álcool de cereais (70%, foram preparados os tratamentos como extratos hidroalcoólicos (HA pela diluição (v/v do macerado filtrado em água deionizada na proporção 1:1 (HA1:1 e 1:2 (HA1:2; dos quais foram obtidos os respectivos extratos secos (ES, a partir da evaporação da fase líquida de duas alíquotas de 50 mL de cada extrato HA, que após re-suspendidas em igual volume de água, sendo uma autoclavada (1 atm por 15 minutos, resultando nos extratos secos de HA1:1 e HA1:2 autoclavados (ES1:1A e ES1:2A e nos extratos secos não autoclavados (ES1:1 e ES1:2; e água (AG como controle. No primeiro dia dos bioensaios, foram aplicados 2 mL dos tratamentos, em DIC, com cinco repetições. Avaliou-se a porcentagem de germinação (G%, Índice de Velocidade de Germinação (IVG, altura da parte aérea (AA e comprimento de radícula (CR de aquênios (25 de picão-preto e de alface distribuídos em placas de Petri e mantidos em câmara de germinação (B.O.D. por duas semanas. Os extratos HA1:1 e HA1:2 inibiram a G%, AA e CR das duas espécies. Todos os extratos secos reduziram a G%, IVG e o CR da alface. Para o picão preto, apenas o extrato ES1:1 reduziu a G% e o IVG foi reduzido por todos os extratos, a exceção do ES1:1A, mas nenhum extrato influenciou o crescimento inicial desta espécie.This study aimed to evaluate the bioactivity of hydroalcoholic extract of lemongrass on the germination and early growth of the weed plant beggartick (Bidens pilosa L. and the test plant lettuce (Lactuca sativa L.. From the hydroalcoholic maceration of dried and cut leaves of lemon grass (127.46 g in 1 L grain alcohol (70%, the following

  3. RESÍDUOS DE AGROTÓXICOS NO SOLO SOBRE A GERMINAÇÃO E CRESCIMENTO DE ALFACE (Lactuca sativa E RABANETE (Raphanus sativus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SOUSA, Danilo Teixeira de

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The objective was to evaluate the presence of pesticide residues in soil where it was previously cultivated maize by evaluating the germination, development and weight test of the plants. The experiment was conducted at Faculdade Dr. Francisco Maeda "FAFRAM" lab . It was collected soil in a layer two inches deep in three growing areas. The treatments were two areas and the witness was washed sand, with three treatments. Placed in 300g of soil per container, eight replicates for each treatment. Crops sown as test plants were lettuce and radish, with 10 seeds per plastic container at a depth of one centimeter. The tests were conducted in a climatic chamber with temperature of 27 ± 2 º C, relative humidity of 70 % and illumination of approximately 1000 lux. For the evaluation of plant tests, It was considered the following: germination ( % , length of the root system - SR ( cm , length of the aerial part of the plant - PA ( cm , total height ( cm , wet weight ( g and dry weight ( g . Plants were evaluated 21 days after sowing. It was concluded that the soil of the Salopao farm is most likely to have pesticide residue , therefore negatively affect plant growth test. O objetivo foi avaliar a presença de resíduo de agrotóxicos em solo onde anteriormente cultivou-se a cultura do milho através da avaliação da germinação, desenvolvimento e peso das plantas teste. O experimento foi desenvolvido no laboratório da Faculdade Dr. Francisco Maeda “FAFRAM”. Coletaram-se os solos em uma camada de cinco centímetros de profundidade em três áreas de cultivo. Os tratamentos foram as duas áreas e a testemunha foi areia lavada, totalizando três tratamentos. Colocou-se 300g de solo por recipiente, sendo oito replicas para cada tratamento. As culturas semeadas como plantas testes foram o alface e o rabanete, sendo 10 sementes por recipiente plástico em uma profundidade de um centímetro. Os ensaios foram conduzidos em sala climatizada com

  4. Uso do rejeito da dessalinização de água salobra no cultivo da alface (Lactuca sativa L. em sistema hidropônico NFT Use of the desalted wastewater for lettuce (Lactuca sativa L. production in NFT hydroponic system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafaelly Suzanye da Silva Santos

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available A dessalinização por osmose reversa tem sido bastante utilizada para o tratamento de água salobra, possibilitando a sua utilização para o consumo humano, especialmente em regiões semiáridas. Esse processo tem um fator limitante que é a produção de um rejeito de água com alta salinidade. Com o objetivo de avaliar os efeitos da utilização de água de rejeito da dessalinização no cultivo de alface cultivar Vera (Lactuca sativa L. em sistema hidropônico NFT foi conduzido um experimento em casa de vegetação no departamento de ciências ambientais da UFERSA, em delineamento em blocos casualizados, com seis tratamentos e quatro repetições. Os níveis de salinidade da água entre os tratamentos foram obtidos com, ou sem a necessidade de diluição da água de rejeito da dessalinização acrescido da solução nutritiva com salinidade de 1 dS m-1 (100% de água potável de abastecimento - 1,4 dS m-1; 85% abastecimento e 15% água de rejeito - 1,9 dS m-1; 75 % água de rejeito + 25 % água de abastecimento - 2,7 dS m-1; 50% água de rejeito e 50% água de abastecimento - 3,8 dS m-1; 25 % água de rejeito e 75 % água de abastecimento - 4,9 dS m-1 e água de rejeito coletada no dessalinizador - 5,5 dS m-1. Os parâmetros analisados foram área foliar, diâmetro do caule, número de folhas, peso de matéria fresca e o peso de matéria seca. Todas as variáveis estudadas foram influenciadas negativamente de forma linear pelo efeito da concentração de sais na água de irrigação, sendo que a área foliar e a matéria fresca da parte aérea são as que melhor representam a sensibilidade ao estresse salino na cultivar estudada, tendo a produção em termos de matéria fresca uma redução de 94,83%, ao se elevar a CEa de 1,4 a 5,5 dS m-1.The desalination process by reverse osmosis was used for the treatment of brackish water, making possible the usage human consume in semiarid zones. This process has a limiting factor: it produces

  5. Potenciação alelopática de extratos vegetais na germinação e no crescimento inicial de picão-preto e alface Allelopathy of plant extracts on germination and initial growth of beggartick (Bidens pilosa L. and lettuce (Lactuca sativa L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Magda Cristiani Ferreira

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available O picão-preto (Bidens pilosa L. é uma planta daninha muito agressiva, que está presente em quase todo Brasil. O principal método de controle é o químico, porém apresenta elevado impacto ambiental, risco de intoxicação humana e possibilidade de causar fitotoxicidade as culturas. O objetivo do trabalho foi avaliar o efeito alelopático de extratos etanólicos de Eucalyptus citriodora Hook. e Pinus elliottii L. na germinação e no crescimento inicial de picão-preto e alface (Lactuca sativa L.. Foram testadas quatro concentrações de cada extrato (0,25; 0,50; 1,0 e 2,0 % além do controle (0,0 % água destilada com Tween 20 a 0,08 %. O delineamento experimental foi o inteiramente casualizado, com quatro repetições em condições de laboratório. O extrato de P. elliottii não causou efeito alelopático sobre o picão-preto e o alface. O extrato de E. citriodora reduziu significativamente o índice de velocidade de germinação (IVG do picão-preto em todas as concentrações testadas quando comparadas com o controle (0,0%, porém para a alface o IVG foi significativo apenas na concentração de 2,0 %. Para o comprimento da raiz não foi possível observar diferença significativa entre os tratamentos para os dois extratos testados tanto para o alface como para o picão preto.Bidens pilosa L. is an aggressive weed found all over Brazil. The main control method for this species is chemical treatment however, causes strong environmental impact, and it has great human contamination risks, and may cause phytotoxity to crops. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of ethanolic extracts of Eucalyptus citriodora Hook. and Pinus elliottii L. on seed germination and initial growth of B. pilosa and lettuce (Lactuca sativa L.. Five concentrations of each extract (0.0; 0.25; 0.50; 1.0; 2.0% were tested in laboratory conditions using a randomized complete block design with four replicates. P. elliottii extract had no effect on B

  6. Avaliação parasitológica de alfaces (Lactuca sativa comercializadas em feiras livres e supermercados do município de Campo Mourão, Estado do Paraná - DOI: 10.4025/actascibiolsci.v26i4.1514 Occurence of parasites in lettuce (Lactuca sativa commercializaed in the street markets and supermarkets of Campo Mourão, state of Paraná, Brazil - DOI: 10.4025/actascibiolsci.v26i4.1514

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandra Maria Simonelli

    2004-04-01

    Full Text Available Este estudo investigou e comparou a contaminação por enteroparasitas em alfaces (Lactuca sativa comercializadas em supermercados e feiras livres do município de Campo Mourão, Estado do Paraná. Foram analisadas 150 amostras de alfaces, pelo método de sedimentação espontânea (Hoffmann, sendo 75 amostras provenientes de supermercados e 75 amostras de feiras livres. O sedimento foi analisado em microscópio óptico. Das amostras analisadas, 56% (42/75 e 58,7% (44/75 apresentaram contaminação por parasitas, dos supermercados e feiras livres, respectivamente. Os principais parasitas encontrados em supermercados foram: Ascaris spp 54,7%, Toxocara spp 2,4%, Strongyloides spp 4,8%, Entamoeba spp 35,7% e Taenia spp 2,4%; e em feiras livres foram: Ascaris spp 13,6%, Strongyloides spp 11,4%, Entamoeba spp 47,7%, Ancylostoma spp 9,1%, /em>Taenia spp 2,3%, Fasciola hepatica 6,8% e Trichuris spp 9,1%. Esses resultados indicam que as amostras de alfaces estão em desacordo com a legislação vigente e salientam a necessidade de aplicação de um programa de educação sanitária direcionado a horticultores e manipuladores de hortaliçasThis work researched and compared the contamination by enteroparasites in lettuce (Lactuca sativa commercialized in the supermarkets and street markets of Campo Mourão, State of Paraná. 150 samples of lettuce were analyzed through sedimentation method (Hoffmam, being 75 samples from supermarkets and 75 from street markets. The sediment was analyzed in optic microscope. The supermarkets samples showed contamination by parasites of 56% (42/75; while contamination of street markets samples showed 58.7% (44/75. The principal parasites observed in supermarkets samples were: Ascaris spp 54.7%, Toxocara spp 2.4%, Strongyloides spp 4.8%, Entamoeba spp 35.7% and Taenia spp 2.4%. Important parasites observed in street markets were: Ascaris spp 13.6%, Strongyloides spp 11.4%, Entamoeba spp 47.7%, Ancylostoma spp 9.1%, Taenia

  7. Mudanças nas características físico-químicas de um latossolo vermelho-amarelo distrófico após a irrigação com água de reúso na cultura da alface-crespa (Lactuca sativa, L. Physical and chemical characteristics changes of a red-yellow latosol after implementation of water reuse in the culture of curly lettuce (Lactuca sativa, L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio C. T. Varallo

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available A utilização do efluente de esgoto tratado para poupar os corpos d'água utilizados para irrigação tem sido de grande interesse na agricultura, e o uso não regulamentado desta prática pode acarretar mudanças no comportamento físico-químico do solo. Sua prática tem sido de grande interesse em vista da redução da quantidade de água retirada dos mananciais, preservando-os. Objetivou-se, neste trabalho, a avaliação dos atributos físico-químicos de um Latossolo Vermelho-Amarelo após aplicação de água de reúso. O experimento foi realizado em uma condição de casa de vegetação onde foram cultivados dois ciclos da alface-crespa (Lactuca sativa, L com dois tratamentos, com três repetições cada: testemunhas (água de abastecimento proveniente de poço e reúso (proveniente de esgoto local. Os resultados mostraram que não ocorreram aumentos em alguns atributos químicos de fertilidade, como ferro, magnésio, zinco, boro, potássio, nitrato, sódio e cálcio; decréscimo nos valores de matéria orgânica e manganês, além de diminuição da condutividade hidráulica e aumento na condutividade elétrica do solo. Observou-se, ainda, redução do pH no solo, além do aumento da RAS e PST. Desta forma, concluiu-se que a utilização de água de reúso para fins agronômicos deve ser de forma racional, monitorando-se, principalmente, a elevação do teor de sais no solo.The use of treated sewage effluent to save the ponds used for irrigation has been of great interest in agriculture, and the unregulated use of this practice can cause changes in physical and chemical behavior of the soil. This practice has been of great interest in view of reducing the quantity of water withdrawal from the springs and its preservation. The objective of this study is to evaluate the physical and chemical attributes of a Red-yellow Dystrophic Latosol after the implementation of water reuse. The experiment was conducted in a condition of greenhouse

  8. Photosynthetic measurements in lettuce submitted to different agroindustrial residue composting Actividad fotosintética de la lechuga (Lactuca sativa L. en diferente compostaje de residuos agroindustriales Atividade fotossintética em alface (Lactuca sativa L. submetidas a diferentes compostagens de resíduos agroindustriais

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudiana Moura dos Santos

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available

    This work was developed with the objective of evaluate effects of different organic composts on the photosynthesis, gas exchange, chlorophyll fluorescence in lettuce grown under nursery conditions. The experiment was accomplished following a randomized design, with 14 treatments and four replications. Using the following treatments: T1 to T6 (sugarcane based substrates, T7 to T12 (coconut based substrates, T13 (manure and T14 (mineral fertilization. The following parameters were evaluated: photosynthesis rate, respiration, stomata conductance, the ratio of internal to external CO2 concentrations (Ci /Ca, the efficiency of water use (A/E and carboxylation efficiency (A/Ci, chlorophyll concentrations, maximum quantum yield of photosystem II (Fv/Fm. The plants of lettuce grewn with mineral fertilization and manure showed higher values of stomatal conductance. The treatments with sugarcane based substrates showed higher rates of photosynthesis, transpiration, carboxylation efficiency and chlorophyll content, indicating that the better photosynthetic capacity when grown on these substrates.

    O presente trabalho foi desenvolvido com o objetivo avaliar os efeitos de doses de compostos orgânicos obtidos a partir de resíduos agroindustriais sobre as trocas gasosas e fluorescência da clorofila a em plantas de alface. O experimento foi conduzido em condições de viveiro, com delineamento inteiramente casualizado, com 14 tratamentos e quatro repetições. Utilizando os seguintes tratamentos T1 a T6 (tratamentos com mistura básica de cana, T7 a T12 (tratamentos com mistura básica de coco, T13 (esterco e T14 (fertilizantes minerais. Foram avaliados os seguintes parâmetros: fotossíntese, transpiração, condutância estomática, razão entre concentrações de CO2 intra/extracelular (Ci /Ca, eficiência instantânea do uso da água (A/E, eficiência de carboxilação (A

  9. Allelopathic effect of medicinal plant Cannabis sativa L. on Lactuca sativa L. seed germination

    OpenAIRE

    Mahmoodzadeh, Homa; Ghasemi, Mohsen; Hasan ZANGANEH

    2015-01-01

    In order to examine allelopathic effect of Cannabis sativa L. on germination capability and seedling growth of Lactuca sativa L., a study was performed in laboratory conditions. Treatments were set up in randomised block design in four replications for each of four concentration ranges of 25, 50, 75 and 100 % of aqueous extract made of shoot parts and 4 identical extract concentrations made of root of cannabis. Control variant was lettuce seed treated by distilled water. During the studies sh...

  10. Isolation and culture of protoplast from leaves of Lactuca sativa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Witool Chaipakdee

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available Protoplasts were isolated from leaves of lettuce (Lactuca sativa L. seedlings after in vitro germination for 25, 30, 40 and 50 days. The leaves were stripped and incubated in various combinations of cellulase and pectinase. Protoplasts were cultured on MS medium containing various kinds and concentrations of plant growth regulators in different culture systems including liquid media, hanging, drop culture and solid media. Results revealed that the highest number of viable protoplasts, 14.1x105 cells per gram of fresh weight, was obtained from 30 day-old leaves of lettuce seedlings and isolated by using 2% cellulase in combination with 1% pectinase. Liquid MS medium supplemented with 0.5 mg/l NAA and 0.5 mg/l BA promoted the highest cell division up to 17.67%. First division of protoplasts was observed at 4 days after culture and microcolony formation occurred at the 4th week after culturing. Unfortunately, neither callus formation nor plantlet regeneration were obtained.

  11. Efecto de rizobacterias promotoras de crecimiento vegetal solubilizadoras de fosfato en lactuca sativa cultivar white boston

    OpenAIRE

    Diana Beatriz Sanchez López; Ana María García Hoyos; Felipe Andrés Romero Perdomo; Ruth Rebeca Bonilla Buitrago

    2014-01-01

    Título en español: Efecto de rizobacterias promotoras de crecimiento vegetal solubilizadoras de fosfato en Lactuca sativa cultivar White BostonTítulo en ingles: Effect of plant growth promoting rhizobacteria phosate solubilizing  Lactuca sativa cultivar White BostonResumen:  En las últimas décadas, la agricultura colombiana se ha visto afectada por la reducción de la productividad en las zonas hortícolas, el incremento de los costos de producción y la dependencia del uso de productos químicos...

  12. TOXICITY OF METHYL-TERT BYTYL ETHER (MTBE) TO PLANTS (AVENA SATIVA, ZEA MAYS, TRITICUM AESTIVUM, AND LACTUCA SATIVA)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Effects of Methyl tert-butyl ether (MTBE) on the germination of seeds and growth of the plant were studied in some laboratory experiments. Test plants were wild oat (Avena sative), sweet corn (Zea mays), wheat (Triticum aestivum), and lettuce (Lactuca sativa). Seed germination,...

  13. Allelopathic effect of medicinal plant Cannabis sativa L. on Lactuca sativa L. seed germination

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Homa MAHMOODZADEH

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available In order to examine allelopathic effect of Cannabis sativa L. on germination capability and seedling growth of Lactuca sativa L., a study was performed in laboratory conditions. Treatments were set up in randomised block design in four replications for each of four concentration ranges of 25, 50, 75 and 100 % of aqueous extract made of shoot parts and 4 identical extract concentrations made of root of cannabis. Control variant was lettuce seed treated by distilled water. During the studies shoot and seminal root length of lettuce seedlings were measured after treatments with different concentrations of extracts made of root and shoot parts of cannabis, and the obtained values were compared with the control. The obtained results suggest that the extract from the shoot parts of cannabis in high concentrations of 75 and 100 % had inhibiting effect to the germination indices while the extract from the root had no statistically significant effect on germination of lettuce seeds. Extract made of root part of cannabis showed also stimulatory effect to shoot and seminal root length of lettuce seedlings in extract concentrations of 50, 75 and 100 %.

  14. Delineamento experimental e tamanho de amostra para alface cultivada em hidroponia Experimental design and sample size for hydroponic lettuce crop

    OpenAIRE

    Valéria Schimitz Marodim; Lindolfo Storck; Sidinei José Lopes; Osmar Souza dos Santos; Denise Schimidt

    2000-01-01

    Este estudo visa a estabelecer o delineamento experimental e o tamanho de amostra para a cultura da alface (Lactuca sativa) em hidroponia, pelo sistema NFT (Nutrient film technique). O experimento foi conduzido no Laboratório de Cultivos Sem Solo/Hidroponia, no Departamento de Fitotecnia da Universidade Federal de Santa Maria e baseou-se em dados de massa de plantas. Os resultados obtidos mostraram que, usando estrutura de cultivo de alface em hidroponia sobre bancadas de fibrocimento com sei...

  15. Potencial alelopático de espécies nativas na germinação e crescimento inicial de Lactuca sativa L. (Asteraceae Allelopathic potential of native species in Lactuca sativa L. (Asteraceae germination and initial growth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabiana Maraschin-Silva

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available A alelopatia caracteriza-se pelos efeitos danosos ou benéficos sobre o desenvolvimento da vegetação, causados por substâncias químicas produzidas e liberadas para o ambiente por uma planta. Com o objetivo de avaliar o potencial alelopático de espécies brasileiras, foram testados extratos foliares de Cecropia pachystachya Trec. (Urticaceae, Peltophorum dubium (Spreng. Taub. (Fabaceae, Psychotria leiocarpa Cham. & Schltdl (Rubiaceae, Sapium glandulatum (Vell. Pax (Euphorbiaceae e Sorocea bonplandii (Baill. Burg., Lanj. & Boer (Moraceae, utilizando-se bioensaios de germinação e crescimento e alface (Lactuca sativa L. como planta alvo. Nesses bioensaios, foram usados extratos foliares aquosos nas concentrações de 2 e 4%, preparados por maceração estática com água fria e quente. Os extratos das cinco espécies causaram atraso na germinação dos aquênios da alface, bem como efeitos tóxicos no crescimento das plântulas, com redução e enfraquecimento das raízes. Os resultados obtidos mostraram a presença de substâncias químicas inibidoras nos extratos, revelando potencial alelopático para as cinco espécies avaliadas.Allelopathy is characterized by harmful or beneficial effects on vegetation development, caused by chemical substances produced and released into the environment by the plant. Aiming to assess the allelopathic potential of Brazilian species, aqueous leaf extracts of Cecropia pachystachya Trec. (Urticaceae, Peltophorum dubium (Spreng. Taub. (Fabaceae, Psychotria leiocarpa Cham. & Schltdl (Rubiaceae, Sapium glandulatum (Vell. Pax (Euphorbiaceae, and Sorocea bonplandii (Baill. Burger, Lanj. & Boer (Moraceae were tested on lettuce using germination and growth bioassays. In these bioassays, aqueous leaf extracts were used at concentrations of 2 and 4%, prepared by static maceration with cold and hot water. The five species extracts delayed lettuce germination and produced toxic effects on seedling growth, with root

  16. Inhibitory effect of marine green algal extracts on germination of Lactuca sativa seeds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Jae-Suk; Choi, In Soon

    2016-03-01

    The allelopathic potential of nine green seaweed species was examined based on germination and seedling growth of lettuce (Lactuca sativa L.). Out of nine methanol extracts, Capsosiphon fulvescens and Monostroma nitidum extracts completely inhibited germination of L. sativa at 4 mg/filter paper after 24 hr of treatment. Water extracts of these seaweeds generally showed low anti-germination activities than methanol extracts. Of the nine water extracts, Enteromorpha linza extract completely inhibited L. sativa germination at 16 mg/filter paper after 24 hrs. To identify the primary active compounds, C. fulvescens. powder was successively fractionated according to polarity, and the main active agents against L. sativa were determined to be lipids (0.0% germination at 0.5 mg of lipids/paper disc). According to these results, extracts of C. fulvescens can be used to develop natural herbicidal agents and manage terrestrial weeds. PMID:27097439

  17. Carotenoids of Lettuce (Lactuca sativa L.) Grown on Soil Enriched with Spent Coffee Grounds

    OpenAIRE

    Susana Casal; Sara Cunha; José Alberto Pereira; Rebeca Cruz; Paula Baptista

    2012-01-01

    The impact of spent coffee grounds on carotenoid and chlorophyll content in lettuce (Lactuca sativa L. var. capitata) was evaluated. A greenhouse pot experiment was conducted with spent coffee amounts ranging from 0% to 20% (v/v). All evaluated pigments increased proportionally to spent coffee amounts. Lutein and β-carotene levels increased up to 90% and 72%, respectively, while chlorophylls increased up to 61%. Biomass was also improved in the presence of 2.5% to 10% spent coffee, decreasing...

  18. [Effect of outer space factors on lettuce seeds (Lactuca sativa) flown on "Kosmos" biosatellites].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nevzgodina, L V; Maksimova, E N; Akatov, Iu A; Kaminskaia, E V; Marennyĭ, A M

    1990-01-01

    The effect of cosmic radiation on air-dry lettuce (Lactuca sativa) seeds was investigated. It was attempted to discriminate the effects of cosmic ionizing radiation per se and its combination with solar light radiation. It was found that the number of aberrant cells in the seeds exposed to solar light was smaller than that of cells chielded with 0.0008 to 0.0035 g/cm2 foil which could be attributed to photoreactivity. PMID:2329764

  19. Produtividade das culturas de alface e rabanete em função da época de estabelecimento do consórcio

    OpenAIRE

    Cecilio Filho Arthur Bernardes; May André

    2002-01-01

    Avaliou-se a produtividade das culturas de rabanete e alface, e a qualidade de seus produtos, em função da época de estabelecimento do consórcio, na UNESP em Jaboticabal, de março a maio de 1999. Os tratamentos foram constituídos por consórcios estabelecidos aos 0; 7 e 14 dias após o transplantio (DAT) da alface e monocultivos implantados nestas mesmas épocas. As cultivares de rabanete (Raphanus sativus L.) e alface (Lactuca sativa L.) utilizadas foram, respectivamente, Crimson Gigante e Caro...

  20. EVALUACIÓN DE Lactuca sativa Y Selenastrum capricornutum COMO INDICADORES DE TOXICIDAD EN AGUAS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Bohórquez-Echeverry

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available The use of Selenastrum capricornutum in acute toxicity assessment is a potentially useful toolin water monitoring. The main objective of this study was to compare the sensitivity of S.capricornutum with the extensively used Lactuca sativa bioassay in water and to select the bestindicator. For this purpose, inhibition or stimulation effects of algae cell growth and seed growthwere determined as end points. Sensitivity of both organisms was determined with Zn (II asreference toxicant to homologate the results between S. capricornutum and L. sativa. However,when Selenastrum was exposed to Zn (II there was a strong variation in results. Therefore, Cr(VI was used as a reference toxicant. The CE50-120h value for Zn (II for L. sativa was 24.48 mg/Land the CE50-96h value for Cr (VI for S. capricornutum was 0.29 mg/L. Two environmentalsamples were collected from the Bogotá River and other from the Salitre wastewater treatmentplant, to evaluate sensitivity of indicators. Results showed similar responses on both organisms,possibly due to the organic matter concentration in evaluated samples.

  1. Phytohormone profile in Lactuca sativa and Brassica oleracea plants grown under Zn deficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Navarro-León, Eloy; Albacete, Alfonso; Torre-González, Alejandro de la; Ruiz, Juan M; Blasco, Begoña

    2016-10-01

    Phytohormones, structurally diverse compounds, are involved in multiple processes within plants, such as controlling plant growth and stress response. Zn is an essential micronutrient for plants and its deficiency causes large economic losses in crops. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to analyse the role of phytohormones in the Zn-deficiency response of two economically important species, i.e. Lactuca sativa and Brassica oleracea. For this, these two species were grown hydroponically with different Zn-application rates: 10 μM Zn as control and 0.1 μM Zn as deficiency treatment and phytohormone concentration was determined by U-HPLC-MS. Zn deficiency resulted in a substantial loss of biomass in L. sativa plants that was correlated with a decline in growth-promoting hormones such as indole-3-acetic acid (IAA), cytokinins (CKs), and gibberellins (GAs). However these hormones increased or stabilized their concentrations in B. oleracea and could help to maintain the biomass in this species. A lower concentration of stress-signaling hormones such as ethylene precursor aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid (ACC), abscisic acid (ABA), salicylic acid (SA) and jasmonic acid (JA) and also CKs might be involved in Zn uptake in L. sativa while a rise in GA4, isopentenyl adenine (iP), and ACC and a fall in JA and SA might contribute to a better Zn-utilization efficiency (ZnUtE), as observed in B. oleracea plants. PMID:27543253

  2. Foliar exposure of the crop Lactuca sativa to silver nanoparticles: evidence for internalization and changes in Ag speciation

    OpenAIRE

    Larue, Camille; CASTILLO-MICHEL, H.; Sobanska, S.; CECILLON, Lauric; Bureau, Sarah; Barthes, V.; Ouerdane, L; Carriere, M.; Sarret, G.

    2014-01-01

    The impact of engineered nanomaterials on plants, which act as a major point of entry of contaminants into trophic chains, is little documented. The foliar pathway is even less known than the soil-root pathway. However, significant inputs of nanoparticles (NPs) on plant foliage may be expected due to deposition of atmospheric particles or application of NP-containing pesticides. The uptake of Ag-NPs in the crop species Lactuca sativa after foliar exposure and their possible biotransformation ...

  3. EFEITO DO CLORO NA ÁGUA DE LAVAGEM PARA DESINFECÇÃO DE ALFACE MINIMAMENTE PROCESSADA

    OpenAIRE

    BERBARI Shirley Aparecida Garcia; PASCHOALINO José Eduardo; SILVEIRA Neliane F. Arruda

    2001-01-01

    Este trabalho de pesquisa foi desenvolvido com o objetivo de verificar a eficácia de diferentes concentrações de cloro utilizadas como agente sanitizante na água de lavagem de alface(Lactuca sativa L.), do tipo americana, minimamente processada. Na matéria-prima foram realizadas contagens de bolores, leveduras e coliformes totais. No produto final foram realizadas contagens de bolores e leveduras, coliformes totais e avaliação sensorial. O processamento mínimo da alface compreendeu as seguint...

  4. Elucidating the genetic basis of antioxidant status in lettuce (Lactuca sativa).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Damerum, Annabelle; Selmes, Stacey L; Biggi, Gaia F; Clarkson, Graham Jj; Rothwell, Steve D; Truco, Maria José; Michelmore, Richard W; Hancock, Robert D; Shellcock, Connie; Chapman, Mark A; Taylor, Gail

    2015-01-01

    A diet rich in phytonutrients from fruit and vegetables has been acknowledged to afford protection against a range of human diseases, but many of the most popular vegetables are low in phytonutrients. Wild relatives of crops may contain allelic variation for genes determining the concentrations of these beneficial phytonutrients, and therefore understanding the genetic basis of this variation is important for breeding efforts to enhance nutritional quality. In this study, lettuce recombinant inbred lines, generated from a cross between wild and cultivated lettuce (Lactuca serriola and Lactuca sativa, respectively), were analysed for antioxidant (AO) potential and important phytonutrients including carotenoids, chlorophyll and phenolic compounds. When grown in two environments, 96 quantitative trait loci (QTL) were identified for these nutritional traits: 4 for AO potential, 2 for carotenoid content, 3 for total chlorophyll content and 87 for individual phenolic compounds (two per compound on average). Most often, the L. serriola alleles conferred an increase in total AOs and metabolites. Candidate genes underlying these QTL were identified by BLASTn searches; in several cases, these had functions suggesting involvement in phytonutrient biosynthetic pathways. Analysis of a QTL on linkage group 3, which accounted for >30% of the variation in AO potential, revealed several candidate genes encoding multiple MYB transcription factors which regulate flavonoid biosynthesis and flavanone 3-hydroxylase, an enzyme involved in the biosynthesis of the flavonoids quercetin and kaempferol, which are known to have powerful AO activity. Follow-up quantitative RT-PCR of these candidates revealed that 5 out of 10 genes investigated were significantly differentially expressed between the wild and cultivated parents, providing further evidence of their potential involvement in determining the contrasting phenotypes. These results offer exciting opportunities to improve the nutritional

  5. Ecotoxicological impact of two soil remediation treatments in Lactuca sativa seeds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rede, Diana; Santos, Lúcia H M L M; Ramos, Sandra; Oliva-Teles, Filipe; Antão, Cristina; Sousa, Susana R; Delerue-Matos, Cristina

    2016-09-01

    Pharmaceuticals have been identified as environmental emerging pollutants and are present in different compartments, including soils. Chemical remediation showed to be a good and suitable approach for soil remediation, though the knowledge in their impact for terrestrial organisms is still limited. Therefore, in this work, two different chemical remediation treatments (Fenton oxidation and nanoremediation) were applied to a soil contaminated with an environmental representative concentration of ibuprofen (3 ng g(-1)). The phytotoxic impact of a traditional soil remediation treatment (Fenton oxidation) and of a new and more sustainable approach for soil remediation (nanoremediation using green nano-scale zero-valent iron nanoparticles (nZVIs)) was evaluated in Lactuca sativa seeds. Percentage of seed germination, root elongation, shoot length and leaf length were considered as endpoints to assess the possible acute phytotoxicity of the soil remediation treatments as well as of the ibuprofen contaminated soil. Both chemical remediation treatments showed to have a negative impact in the germination and development of lettuce seeds, exhibiting a reduction up to 45% in the percentage of seed germination and a decrease around 80% in root elongation comparatively to the contaminated soil. These results indicate that chemical soil remediation treatments could be more prejudicial for terrestrial organisms than contaminated soils. PMID:27289206

  6. Combination of minimal processing and irradiation to improve the microbiological safety of lettuce ( Lactuca sativa, L.)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goularte, L.; Martins, C. G.; Morales-Aizpurúa, I. C.; Destro, M. T.; Franco, B. D. G. M.; Vizeu, D. M.; Hutzler, B. W.; Landgraf, M.

    2004-09-01

    The feasibility of gamma radiation in combination with minimal processing (MP) to reduce the number of Salmonella spp. and Escherichia coli O157:H7 in iceberg lettuce ( Lactuca sativa, L.) (shredded) was studied in order to increase the safety of the product. The reduction of the microbial population during the processing, the D10-values for Salmonella spp. and E. coli O157:H7 inoculated on shredded iceberg lettuce as well as the sensory evaluation of the irradiated product were evaluated. The immersion in chlorine (200 ppm) reduced coliform and aerobic mesophilic microorganisms by 0.9 and 2.7 log, respectively. D-values varied from 0.16 to 0.23 kGy for Salmonella spp. and from 0.11 to 0.12 kGy for E. coli O157:H7. Minimally processed iceberg lettuce exposed to 0.9 kGy does not show any change in sensory attributes. However, the texture of the vegetable was affected during the exposition to 1.1 kGy. The exposition of MP iceberg lettuce to 0.7 kGy reduced the population of Salmonella spp. by 4.0 log and E. coli by 6.8 log without impairing the sensory attributes. The combination of minimal process and gamma radiation to improve the safety of iceberg lettuce is feasible if good hygiene practices begins at farm stage.

  7. Combination of minimal processing and irradiation to improve the microbiological safety of lettuce (Lactuca sativa, L.)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The feasibility of gamma radiation in combination with minimal processing (MP) to reduce the number of Salmonella spp. and Escherichia coli O157:H7 in iceberg lettuce (Lactuca sativa, L.) (shredded) was studied in order to increase the safety of the product. The reduction of the microbial population during the processing, the D10-values for Salmonella spp. and E. coli O157:H7 inoculated on shredded iceberg lettuce as well as the sensory evaluation of the irradiated product were evaluated. The immersion in chlorine (200 ppm) reduced coliform and aerobic mesophilic microorganisms by 0.9 and 2.7 log, respectively. D-values varied from 0.16 to 0.23 kGy for Salmonella spp. and from 0.11 to 0.12 kGy for E. coli O157:H7. Minimally processed iceberg lettuce exposed to 0.9 kGy does not show any change in sensory attributes. However, the texture of the vegetable was affected during the exposition to 1.1 kGy. The exposition of MP iceberg lettuce to 0.7 kGy reduced the population of Salmonella spp. by 4.0 log and E. coli by 6.8 log without impairing the sensory attributes. The combination of minimal process and gamma radiation to improve the safety of iceberg lettuce is feasible if good hygiene practices begins at farm stage

  8. Toxicity of polyfluorinated and perfluorinated compounds to lettuce (Lactuca sativa) and green algae (Pseudokirchneriella subcapitata).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, Guanghui; Wouterse, Marja; Baerselman, Rob; Peijnenburg, Willie J G M

    2012-01-01

    Recently, polyfluorinated and perfluorinated compounds (PFCs) have been detected in most surface waters around the world. Because some PFCs are persistent and tend to accumulate in surface waters, their potential adverse effects to aquatic organisms have received increasing attention. Nevertheless, currently available toxicity information is limited. The aim of this study was to evaluate the toxicity effects of seven PFCs on root elongation of lettuce (Lactuca sativa) and photosynthesis of green algae (Pseudokirchneriella subcapitata). It was found that the toxicity profiles of both species tested were similar and had good relations with the fluorinated carbon-chain length of the PFCs investigated. One of the compounds tested, perfluorobutanoic acid, was found to be more toxic than expected in the algae test, which may be related with acidification of the test solution. It was concluded that because short-chained PFCs are becoming the predominant PFC pollutants in surface waters, their long-term toxicity and mixture toxicity with other PFCs should be studied in greater detail. PMID:21626016

  9. Evaluation of response of lettuce (Lactuca sativa L. to temperature and light stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nidal Tabit Shaban

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the study was to assess the effect of irrigation water temperature and shading on the rate of photosynthesis and transpiration in four varieties of lettuce (Lactuca sativa L. – green foliage (‘Salakis’ and ‘Estony’ and red foliage (‘Lollo Rossa’ and ‘Nika’. During the production of seedlings in the greenhouse, two irrigation water temperature regimes (12 and 20°C were applied. After transplanting in the field plants were grown under three lighting systems (100, 70, and 50% of lighting in the open. The rates of photosynthesis and transpiration were measured at the end of the greenhouse period and 14 days after shading in the field using a Li 6400 infrared gas analyzer. In most varieties, cooling of the irrigation water was not found to have an effect on the rate of photosynthesis. Plants of all the varieties responded to the decrease in irrigation water temperature and to strong shading by reducing transpiration and increasing the water use efficiency. The ‘Salakis’ and ‘Estony’ plants have shown the best adaptability to the changing conditions and therefore they could be used successfully in the practice of extending vegetative growth.

  10. Effects of Jatropha curcas oil in Lactuca sativa root tip bioassays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrade-Vieira, Larissa F; Botelho, Carolina M; Laviola, Bruno G; Palmieri, Marcel J; Praça-Fontes, Milene M

    2014-03-01

    Jatropha curcas L. (Euphorbiaceae) is important for biofuel production and as a feed ingredient for animal. However, the presence of phorbol esters in the oil and cake renders the seeds toxic. The toxicity of J. curcas oil is currently assessed by testing in animals, leading to their death. The identification of toxic and nontoxic improved varieties is important for the safe use of J. curcas seeds and byproducts to avoid their environmental toxicity. Hence, the aim of this study was to propose a short-term bioassay using a plant as a model to screen the toxicity of J. curcas oil without the need to sacrifice any animals. The toxicity of J. curcas oil was evident in germination, root elongation and chromosomal aberration tests in Lactuca sativa. It was demonstrated that J. curcas seeds contain natural compounds that exert phyto-, cyto- and genotoxic effects on lettuce, and that phorbol esters act as aneugenic agents, leading to the formation of sticky chromosomes and c-metaphase cells. In conclusion, the tests applied have shown reproducibility, which is important to verify the extent of detoxification and to determine toxic doses, thus reducing the numbers of animals that would be used for toxicity tests. PMID:24676174

  11. Efecto de rizobacterias promotoras de crecimiento vegetal solubilizadoras de fosfato en Lactuca sativa cultivar White Boston

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diana Beatriz Sanchez López

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available In the last decades, Colombian agriculture has been affected by the reduction in productivity in horticultural areas, increase in production costs and the dependence of chemical products usage, causing and irreversible damage to environment and producers and consumers life quality. The aim of this research was to evaluate the effect of plant growth promoting rhizobacteria of the genus Pseudomonas sp. under Lactuca sativa cultivar White Boston as phosphate rock solubilizing bacteria. The study took place in the Research Centre Tibaitatá-Corpoica, located in Mosquera (Cundinamarca-Colombia. Results demonstrated that the strains have an intrinsic capacity to solubilize low solubility phosphorus sources as phosphate rock. Inoculants application based on: Pseudomonas fluorescens FR1, Pseudomonas sp., UVLO27 and Pseudomonas sp. LEAV18 strains displayed the best results. The strains Pseudomonas sp. FR2, UVLO27 and K35, are capable of producing indoles and siderophores. The green house experiment showd that strain Pseudomonas fluorescens FR1, Pseudomonas sp. FR2 of phosphate rocks represents a viable economic and ecological alternative in sustainable agriculture systems.

  12. Effects of Priming in Combination with Fungicides on Germination and Infestation of Lettuce (Lactuca sativa L.)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HU Jin; Tylkowska K

    2005-01-01

    Two seed lots of lettuce (Lactuca sativa L.) cv. Krolowa Majowych were primed in polyethylene glycol (PEG) 8000 at -1.25MPa for 7 days in dark at 20℃. Two fungicide treatments combined with PEG were used to control fungi: 1) Funaben T (0.1%) and Apron 35 SD (0.02%) were added to -1.25 MPa PEG solution (PEG+F); 2) After seed priming and drying,Funaben T was mixed at 5 g kg-1 and Apron 35 SD at 1 g kg-1 of seeds (PEG then F dust). PEG, PEG+F and PEG then F dust treatments reduced significantly thermodormancy and increased the seed germination at 35℃ in both lots. PEG then F dust treatment had the best effect on reducing seed thermodormancy at 35℃, and increased seed germination to 64.5% in lot 1 and 72.0% in lot 2 compared to 0 in untreated. PEG and PEG then F dust treatments have accelerated germination speed at 20 and 15℃ in both lots. There was a significant reduction in seed infestation in which the seeds were treated with PEG+F and PEG then F dust compared to untreated seeds and PEG primed seeds. PEG priming enhanced seed infestation considerably by Alternaria alternata, Penicillium spp., Rhizopus spp. and Ulocladium spp. Mycological analysis showed higher frequency of Alternaria alternata and Ulocladium spp. in untreated seeds at 20℃. Priming in combination with fungicides significantly alleviated the infestation of fungi, especially Alternaria alternata infestation.

  13. Germination and growth of lettuce (Lactuca sativa) at low atmospheric pressure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spanarkel, Robert; Drew, Malcolm C.

    2002-01-01

    The response of lettuce (Lactuca sativa L. cv. Waldmann's Green) to low atmospheric pressure was examined during the initial 5 days of germination and emergence, and also during subsequent growth to vegetative maturity at 30 days. Growth took place inside a 66-l-volume low pressure chamber maintained at 70 kPa, and plant response was compared to that of plants in a second, matching chamber that was at ambient pressure (approximately 101 kPa) as a control. In other experiments, to determine short-term effects of low pressure transients, plants were grown at ambient pressure until maturity and then subjected to alternating periods of 24 h of low and ambient atmospheric pressures. In all treatments the partial pressure of O2 was maintained at 21 kPa (approximately the partial pressure in air at normal pressure), and the partial pressure of CO2 was in the range 66.5-73.5 Pa (about twice that in normal air) in both chambers, with the addition of CO2 during the light phase. With continuous exposure to low pressure, shoot and root growth was at least as rapid as at ambient pressure, with an overall trend towards slightly greater performance at the lower pressure. Dark respiration rates were greater at low pressure. Transient periods at low pressure decreased transpiration and increased dark respiration but only during the period of exposure to low pressure. We conclude that long-term or short-term exposure to subambient pressure (70 kPa) was without detectable detriment to vegetative growth and development.

  14. The nitrogen and nitrate economy of butterhead lettuce (Lactuca sativa var capitata L).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Broadley, Martin R; Seginer, Ido; Burns, Amanda; Escobar-Gutiérrez, Abraham J; Burns, Ian G; White, Philip J

    2003-09-01

    Quantifying and simulating the relationships between crop growth, total-nitrogen (total-N) and nitrate-N (NO3--N) concentration can improve crop nutritional husbandry. In this study, the relationship between shoot relative growth rate (RGR) and shoot total-N, organic-N and NO3--N concentration of hydroponically-grown lettuce (Lactuca sativa var. capitata L. cv. Kennedy) was described and simulated. Plants were grown hydroponically for up to 74 d. Nitrogen was supplied throughout (control; T1), or removed at 35 d (T2) and 54 d (T3), respectively, after sowing. The organic-N and NO3--N concentration declined in the shoots of control plants with growth, until commercial maturity approached when organic-N and NO3--N concentration increased. There were sub-linear relationships between both total-N and organic-N concentration, and shoot RGR, in the N-limited treatments, i.e. shoot RGR approached an asymptote at high shoot N concentration. The proportional effects of total-N and organic-N concentration on shoot RGR were independent of plant age. A dynamic simulation model ('Nicolet'), derived previously under different conditions, was used to simulate the growth, dry matter content, organic-N, and NO3--N concentration of lettuce grown under the extreme N-stress conditions experienced by the plants. In view of the largely successful fitting of the model to experimental data, the model was used to interpret the results. Suggestions for model improvement are made. PMID:12885858

  15. Effect of low dose irradiation of 60Co γ-rays on seed germination, seedling growth and enzymes activity of Lactuca sativa

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The seeds of Lactuca sativa were irradiated by different doses (10, 20, 30, 40, 50 Gy) of 60Co γ-rays. The effects of low dose irradiation on seed germination, seedling growth and enzymes activity were investigated. The results indicated that low dose irradiation could promote germination rate, germinating viability, germination rate in the field, root length and height of seedling. The suitable dosage for low dose irradiation for Lactuca sativa was 30 Gy. POD activity after irradiation treatment in the range of 10 to 50 Gy and CAT activity after irradiation treatment in the range of 20 Gy to 40 Gy was lower than that of control. (authors)

  16. Irradiation of lettuce (Lactuca sativa. L.): microbiological and sensory aspects;Irradiacao de alface (Lactuca sativa. L.): aspectos microbiologicos e sensoriais

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tsuhako, Vanessa Provenzano

    2005-07-01

    The increasing demand for fresh foods have stimulated the marketing of minimally processed vegetables. However, these products maintain most of their natural microbiota even after being sanitized, including pathogenic microorganisms. Refrigerated storage allows the growth of psychotropic microorganisms and among them the pathogen Listeria monocytogenes. The ingestion of food contaminated with L. monocytogenes may represent a risk to pregnant women and their fetuses and to immunocompromised people. Non-thermal alternative processes for food preservation, such as irradiation, can reduce pathogenic and spoilage microorganism populations without impairing substantial changes in sensory, physical or chemical attributes. The aims of this research were to evaluate the effect of gamma radiation on L. monocytogenes artificially inoculated on minimally processed lettuce, to evaluate its effect on lettuce leaves through acceptance sensory test and to determine the irradiated vegetable shelf life through sensory and microbiological tests. A mixture of 4 types of lettuce (Iceberg, Boston, Loose-leaf and Red loose-leaf) were artificially inoculated with L. monocytogenes (7 log UFC/g lettuce) and then exposed to 0.3; 0.6; 0.9 and 1.2 kGy, under refrigeration. The DlO values for L. monocytogenes varied fram 0.18 to 0.21 kGy. Sensory and microbiological tests indicated that the shelf life of Iceberg lettuce stored at 7 deg C was 5 and 7 days for the irradiated and non-irradiated samples, respectively, and for the irradiated and non-irradiated Loose-leaf lettuce samples were 10 days. For the non-irradiated Boston sample, the shelf life was 3 days and for the Irradiated 7 days. Red loose-leaf showed 5 and 4 days of shelf lives for the irradiated and non-irradiated, respectively. Irradiated samples presented better microbiological quality than non-irradiated ones. The irradiation is feasible process to improve quality and safety of lettuce leaves. (author)

  17. Molecular aspects of the antagonistic interaction of smoke-derived butenolides on the germination process of Grand Rapids lettuce (Lactuca sativa) achenes

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Soós, V.; Sebestyén, E.; Pošta, Martin; Kohout, Ladislav; Light, M. E.; van Staden, J.; Balázs, E.

    2012-01-01

    Roč. 196, č. 4 (2012), s. 1060-1073. ISSN 0028-646X Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40550506 Keywords : abscisic acid * fire * germination * karrikinolide * Lactuca sativa * smoke Subject RIV: CE - Biochemistry Impact factor: 6.736, year: 2012

  18. Differential Scanning Calorimetry as a Tool for Nondestructive Measurements of Seed Deterioration in Lettuce (Lactuca sativa, CV “Black Seeded Simpson”)

    Science.gov (United States)

    This study was undertaken to determine if changes in lipid phase behavior could be used to detect lost viability in lettuce (Lactuca sativa) seeds. We used seeds from the cultivar ‘Black Seeded Simpson’ that were purchased every 2-3 years since 1989 and stored in resealable plastic bags at constan...

  19. Expression of the mouse metallothionein mutant ββ-cDNA in the lettuces (Lactuca sativa L.)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    Mouse metallothionein (MT) domain mutant ββ-cDNA gene has been inserted into the plant expression vector pGPTVd35S which has herbicide (PPT)-resistance gene bar as a selective marker. The chimeric gene was introduced into the lettuce (Lactuca sativa L. cv Salinas 88) by Agrobacterium-mediated transformation. PCR and Southern blot analysis of some putative transformants indicated that the introduced ββ-cDNA was integrated into lettuce genome and inheritted by sexual reproduction. The expression of ββ gene in lettuce plants was demonstrated by Northern and Western blot analysis. Meanwhile, the zinc content of the transformed lettuce plants is up to 400 μg/g dry weight, remarkably higher than the control plants.

  20. Heavy metals deposited in the culture of lettuce (Lactuca sativa L.) by the influence of vehicular traffic in Pernambuco, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    França, Fernanda C S S; Albuuerque, Adriana M A; Almeida, Amanda C; Silveira, Patrícia B; Filho, Crescêncio A; Hazin, Clovis A; Honorato, Eliane V

    2017-01-15

    Currently one of the main sources of atmospheric pollution identified in urban centers is derived from both industrial and motor vehicle emissions. These pollutants can be adsorbed to particulate matter which is present in the air or deposited in the soil and plants, eventually reaching the human food chain. In this context, the present study aimed to determine the concentration of metals such as Cu, Pb, Cd, Ni and Zn in two subspecies of Lactuca sativa L. and in the soil from were lettuce samples were collected. The results for the soil samples analyzed show a possible contamination by Pb with concentration values as high as 140mg.kg(-1), which are above the Brazilian standards defined by Resolution CONAMA 420/2009 (Brazilian Environmental Council). However, the values found in the lettuce itself reveal that it is still suitable for consumption. PMID:27542464

  1. EFFECTS OF SIMULATED ACIDIC RAIN ON YIELDS OF 'RAPHANUS SATIVUS', 'LACTUCA SATIVA', 'TRITICUM AESTIVUM' AND 'MEDICAGO SATIVA'

    Science.gov (United States)

    Experiments were performed to determine effects of simulated acidic rain on radishes (Raphanus sativus), wheat(Triticum aestivum) and alfalfa (Medicago sativa) grown under greenhouse conditions. Experimental designs allowed the detection of statistically significant differences a...

  2. Analysis of bacteria, parasites, and heavy metals in lettuce (Lactuca sativa) and rocket salad (Eruca sativa L.) irrigated with treated effluent from a biological wastewater treatment plant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nikaido, Meire; Tonani, Karina A A; Julião, Fabiana C; Trevilato, Tânia M B; Takayanagui, Angela M M; Sanches, Sérgio M; Domingo, José L; Segura-Muñoz, Susana I

    2010-06-01

    This study aimed to evaluate the viability of using treated residuary water from the Biological Wastewater Treatment Plant of Ribeirão Preto to grow vegetables, through the characterization and quantification of parasites, coliforms, and heavy metals. Three equal cultivation areas were prepared. The first was irrigated with treated/chlorinated (0.2 mg L(-1)) wastewater, the second one with treated wastewater without chlorination, and the third site with potable water, which was the control group. The presence of Hymenolepis nana, Enterobius vermicularis, nematode larvae, and Entamoeba coli was verified in lettuce (Lactuca sativa) samples. Although nematode larvae were observed in rocket salad (Eruca sativa L.), no significant differences were found between the number of parasites and type of irrigation water used. No significant differences were found between the number of fecal coliforms in vegetables and the different types of irrigation. However, the vegetables irrigated with treated effluent without chlorination showed higher levels of fecal coliforms. The risk of pathogens is reduced with bleach addition to the treated effluent at 0.2 mg/L. Concentration of heavy metals in vegetables does not mean significant risks to human health, according with the parameters recommended by the World Health Organization. PMID:19639268

  3. Analisis Emitter Alternatif dalam Sistem Irigasi Tetes pada Budidaya Tanaman Selada (Lactuca sativa)

    OpenAIRE

    Harahap, Ummi Kalsum

    2011-01-01

    Water utilization effectively and efficiently is very important conducted in plants conducting at difficult area water range and dry area, until plants amount of water required still can be fulfilled. Drip irrigation is considered as one of alternative in fulfilling plants amount of water required in correct time, volume and quality. In concequence, conducted research about utilization of drip irrigation using alternative emitter at conducting of lettuce plants (Lactuca sati...

  4. Effect of nutrient solution, effective microorganisms (EM-A), and assimilation illumination of plants on the induction of the growth of lettuce (Lactuca sativa L.) in hydroponic cultivation

    OpenAIRE

    Tomasz Kleiber; Justyna Starzyk; Maciej Bosiacki

    2013-01-01

    The main aim of the present study was to evaluate the influence of the chemical composition of a nutrient solution (NS I, NS II), seed inoculation with Effective Microorganisms (EM), and assimilation illumination (AI) of plants on the growth, development and nutritional status of lettuce (Lactuca sativa L.) in hydroponic cultivation and microbiological changes in the medium. The measurements were as follows: quantity of leaves per plant (LQ), surface area of the biggest leaves of plants (SBL)...

  5. Uptake of uranium by lettuce (Lactuca sativa L.) in natural uranium contaminated soils in order to assess chemical risk for consumers

    OpenAIRE

    Neves, O.; M.M. Abreu; Vicente, E.M.

    2008-01-01

    Uranium mining activity in Cunha Baixa (Portugal) village has left a legacy of polluted soils and irrigation water. A controlled field experiment was conducted with lettuce (Lactuca sativa L.) in an agricultural area nearby the abandoned mine in order to evaluate uranium uptake and distribution in roots and leaves as well as ascertain levels of uranium intake by the local inhabitants from plant consuming. Two soils with different average uranium content (38 and 106 ...

  6. Produtividade das culturas de alface e rabanete em função da época de estabelecimento do consórcio

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cecilio Filho Arthur Bernardes

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Avaliou-se a produtividade das culturas de rabanete e alface, e a qualidade de seus produtos, em função da época de estabelecimento do consórcio, na UNESP em Jaboticabal, de março a maio de 1999. Os tratamentos foram constituídos por consórcios estabelecidos aos 0; 7 e 14 dias após o transplantio (DAT da alface e monocultivos implantados nestas mesmas épocas. As cultivares de rabanete (Raphanus sativus L. e alface (Lactuca sativa L. utilizadas foram, respectivamente, Crimson Gigante e Carolina. Maior altura das plantas de rabanete foi observada quando consorciada com alface. As plantas de rabanete em monocultivo apresentaram acúmulo de massa seca da parte aérea (MSPA 29,4% menor do que em consorciação, independente da época de semeadura. Para massa seca de raízes tuberosas, maior acúmulo foi obtido na presença de alface, independentemente da época de instalação do consórcio. Quanto a MSPA de alface, maior acúmulo ocorreu em consórcio, quando a semeadura do rabanete foi realizada até 7 DAT. Além de menor acúmulo de MSPA, quando a semeadura do rabanete foi realizada aos 14 DAT, a alface apresentou perda na qualidade comercial. O maior valor da razão de área equivalente (1,6 no sistema de consórcio, foi obtido quando o rabanete foi semeado aos 7 dias após o transplantio da alface.

  7. The effects of cover crop on weed control in collard (Brassica olerecea var acephala) and lettuce (Lactuca sativa L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mennan, H; Ngouajio, M; Isik, D; Kose, B; Kaya, E

    2006-01-01

    Leafy vegetables are not very competitive and weed interference can cause considerable yield losses in collard (Brassica olerecea var acephala) and lettuce (Lactuca sativa L.). Currently there are no pre or post emergence herbicides registered for weed control in these vegetables in Turkey. For this reason, alternative weed control strategies need to be developed. Cover crop residue could represent an alternative method of weed management in these crops. Field studies were conducted in 2004 at the Black Sea Agricultural Research Institute experimental field in Samsun, Turkey. The cover crop treatments consisted of Sorghum bicolor (L.) Moench, Sorghum vulgare Pers., Vicia villosa L., Amaranthus cruentus L., Pisum sativum L. and the bare ground with no cover crop. All cover crops were seeded by hand and incorporated into the soil on 11 May, 2004. Each plot was 10 m2 (2 x 5 m) and arranged in a randomized complete block design with four replications. All cover crops were incorporated into the soil by discing on 1 September 2004 at flowering stage of the cover crops. Broadleaved weed species were dominant in the experimental area. Most cover crops established well and S. bicolor biomass was the highest. The number of weed species emerging in all treatments was different at 14 DAD (days after desiccation). Similar results were observed at 28 and 56 DAD. Treatments with Vicia villosa residues had fewer weed species and lower total weed densities than other treatments. PMID:17390812

  8. Bioavailability of silver and silver sulfide nanoparticles to lettuce (Lactuca sativa): Effect of agricultural amendments on plant uptake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doolette, Casey L; McLaughlin, Michael J; Kirby, Jason K; Navarro, Divina A

    2015-12-30

    Silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) can enter terrestrial systems as sulfidised AgNPs (Ag2S-NPs) through the application of biosolids to soil. However, the bioavailability of Ag2S-NPs in soils is unknown. The two aims of this study were to investigate (1) the bioavailability of Ag to lettuce (Lactuca sativa) using a soil amended with biosolids containing Ag2S-NPs and (2) the effect of commonly used agricultural fertilisers/amendments on the bioavailability of Ag, AgNPs and Ag2S-NPs to lettuce. The study used realistic AgNP exposure pathways and exposure concentrations. The plant uptake of Ag from biosolids-amended soil containing Ag2S-NPs was very low for all Ag treatments (0.02%). Ammonium thiosulfate and potassium chloride fertilisation significantly increased the Ag concentrations of plant roots and shoots. The extent of the effect varied depending on the type of Ag. Ag2S-NPs, the realistic form of AgNPs in soil, had the lowest bioavailability. The potential risk of AgNPs in soils is low; even in the plants that had the highest Ag concentrations (Ag(+)+thiosulfate), only 0.06% of added Ag was found in edible plant parts (shoots). Results from the study suggest that agricultural practises must be considered when carrying out risk assessments of AgNPs in terrestrial systems; such practises can affect AgNP bioavailability. PMID:26322966

  9. Evaluation of the phytotoxicity of polycontaminated industrial effluents using the lettuce plant (Lactuca sativa) as a bioindicator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charles, Jérémie; Sancey, Bertrand; Morin-Crini, Nadia; Badot, Pierre-Marie; Degiorgi, François; Trunfio, Giuseppe; Crini, Grégorio

    2011-10-01

    Industrial wastewater containing heavy metals is generally decontaminated by physicochemical treatment consisting in insolublizing the contaminants and separating the two phases, water and sludge, by a physical process (filtration, settling or flotation). However, chemical precipitation does not usually remove the whole pollution load and the effluent discharged into the environment can be toxic even if it comes up to regulatory standards. To assess the impact of industrial effluent from 4 different surface treatment companies, we performed standardized bioassays using seeds of the lettuce Lactuca sativa. We measured the rate of germination, and the length and mass of the lettuce plantlet. The results were used to compare the overall toxicity of the different effluents: effluents containing copper and nickel had a much higher impact than those containing zinc or aluminum. In addition, germination tests conducted using synthetic solutions confirmed that mixtures of metals have higher toxicity than the sum of their separate constituents. These biological tests are cheap, easy to implement, reproducible and highlight the effects caused by effluent treated with the methods commonly applied in industry today. They could be routinely used to check the impact of industrial discharges, even when they meet regulatory requirements for the individual metals. PMID:21835466

  10. Foliar exposure of the crop Lactuca sativa to silver nanoparticles: evidence for internalization and changes in Ag speciation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larue, Camille; Castillo-Michel, Hiram; Sobanska, Sophie; Cécillon, Lauric; Bureau, Sarah; Barthès, Véronique; Ouerdane, Laurent; Carrière, Marie; Sarret, Géraldine

    2014-01-15

    The impact of engineered nanomaterials on plants, which act as a major point of entry of contaminants into trophic chains, is little documented. The foliar pathway is even less known than the soil-root pathway. However, significant inputs of nanoparticles (NPs) on plant foliage may be expected due to deposition of atmospheric particles or application of NP-containing pesticides. The uptake of Ag-NPs in the crop species Lactuca sativa after foliar exposure and their possible biotransformation and phytotoxic effects were studied. In addition to chemical analyses and ecotoxicological tests, micro X-ray fluorescence, micro X-ray absorption spectroscopy, time of flight secondary ion mass spectrometry and electron microscopy were used to localize and determine the speciation of Ag at sub-micrometer resolution. Although no sign of phytotoxicity was observed, Ag was effectively trapped on lettuce leaves and a thorough washing did not decrease Ag content significantly. We provide first evidence for the entrapment of Ag-NPs by the cuticle and penetration in the leaf tissue through stomata, for the diffusion of Ag in leaf tissues, and oxidation of Ag-NPs and complexation of Ag(+) by thiol-containing molecules. Such type of information is crucial for better assessing the risk associated to Ag-NP containing products. PMID:24275476

  11. Effect of salicylhydroxamic acid on endosperm strength and embryo growth of Lactuca sativa L. cv Waldmann's Green seeds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brooks, C. A.; Mitchell, C. A.

    1988-01-01

    Salicylhydroxamic acid (SHAM) stimulated germination of photosensitive lettuce (Lactuca sativa L. cv Waldmann's Green) seeds in darkness. To determine whether SHAM acts on the embryo or the endosperm, we investigated separately effects of SHAM on growth potential of isolated embryos as well as on endosperm strength. Embryo growth potential was quantified by incubating decoated embryos in various concentrations of osmoticum and measuring subsequent radicle elongation. Growth potential of embryos isolated from seeds pretreated with 4 millimolar SHAM was equal to that of untreated controls. Rupture strength of endosperm tissue excised from seeds pretreated with SHAM was 33% less than that of controls in the micropylar region. To determine if the embryo must be in contact with the endosperm of SHAM to weaken the endosperm, some endosperms were incubated with SHAM only after dissection from seeds. Rupture strength of SHAM-treated, isolated endosperms in the micropylar region was 25% less than that of untreated controls. There was no difference in rupture strength in the cotyledonary region of endosperm isolated from seeds treated with SHAM in buffer or buffer alone. SHAM therefore stimulates germination not by enhancing embryo growth potential, but by weakening the micropylar region of the endosperm enclosing the embryo.

  12. Preliminary studies on growth and fresh weight of lettuce (Lactuca sativa) as affected by clay pot irrigation and spacing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abubakari, Abdul-Halim; Nyarko, George; Maalinyuur, Sheila

    2011-07-15

    An experiment (Completely Randomized Design) was set up to determine the effects of Clay Pot Sub-surface Irrigation (CPSI) and spacing on the growth and fresh weight of lettuce (Lactuca sativa). The treatments were: CPSI with spacing; 15 x 15 cm, 20 x 20 cm and 30 x 30 cm. Control treatments were Watering Can Irrigation (WCI) with the same spacing as above. Treatments were replicated three times given a total of 18 experimental units. Eighteen large enamel basins of 50/20 cm (diameter/height) were filled with good topsoil and a clay pot buried neck deep in each of the basins. Seedlings were planted in all the eighteen basins. Five Hundred mL of wastewater was applied daily to plants in each container having either clay pot or watering can treatment. Plant height increased from 2.50 to 4.25 cm within 6 Weeks after Transplanting (WAT) under CPSI and only increased from 2.14 to 2.99 cm under WCI. The CPSI also supported better leave growth and fresh weight. The fresh weight of lettuce increased almost two fold under 15 x 15 cm spacing compared to 20 x 20 and 30 x 30 cm. PMID:22308659

  13. Evaluation of the toxic potential of coffee wastewater on seeds, roots and meristematic cells of Lactuca sativa L.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aguiar, Luara Louzada; Andrade-Vieira, Larissa Fonseca; de Oliveira David, José Augusto

    2016-11-01

    Coffee wastewater (CWW) is an effluent produced through wet processing of coffee containing high concentration of organic matter, nutrients, salts and also agrochemicals. It is released directly into the argillaceous soil or into decantation tanks for later disposal into soils, by fertigation, subsurface infiltration or superficial draining. However, this practice is not followed by the monitoring the toxicity potential of this effluent. In this sense, the present work aimed to evaluate the phytotoxic, cytogenotoxic and mutagenic potential of CWW on seed germination, root elongation and cell cycle alterations in the plant model Lactuca sativa L. The effluent (CWW) collected was diluted in distilled water into six concentrations solutions (1.25%, 1.66%, 2.5%, 5.0%, 10%, 20%). A solution of raw CWW (100%) was also applied. Distilled water was used as negative control), and the DNA alkylating agent, metilmetano sulfonate (4×10(-4)M) as positive control. Physico-chemical parameters of the CWW was accessed and it was found that the effluent contained total phenols and inorganic matter in amounts within the limits established by the National Environment Council (CONAMA). Nevertheless, the biologicals assays performed demonstrated the phytotoxicity and cytogenotoxicty of CWW. Seed germination was totally inhibited after exposure of raw CWW. In addition, a decrease in seed germination speed as well as in root growth dose-dependently manner was noticed. Moreover, nuclear and chromosomal alterations were observed in the cell cycle, mostly arising from aneugenic action. PMID:27497783

  14. 生菜(Lactuca sativa L.)多酚氧化酶特性研究%Characteristics of Polyphenol Oxidase from Romaine Lettuce(Lactuca sativa L.)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    胡金强; 詹丽娟

    2014-01-01

    以散叶生菜为原料,研究提取液用量、底物浓度、反应体系pH值和温度、抑制剂对生菜多酚氧化酶(PPO)活性的影响。结果表明:以邻苯二酚为底物,生菜PPO在420 nm波长下吸光度最大;磷酸缓冲液(mL)与生菜质量(g)比为1.5∶1时,提取液中PPO活性较强;最适pH值为8.0、最适温度为30℃、最适底物浓度为0.3 mol/L。抑制剂对PPO酶抑制效果依次为抗坏血酸﹥柠檬酸﹥NaCl;此外,生菜叶脉中PPO活性为叶片中PPO活性的5.72倍。%Effects of extract amount, substrate concentration, pH value, temperature and inhibitors on PPO activity from romaine lettuce (Lactuca sativa L.) were evaluated. Results showed that PPO displayed hightest absorbance at 420 nm wavelength with catechol as substrate. The optimum ratio of phosphate buffer solution (mL) to lettuce amount (g) was 1.5∶1;The optimal catechol concentration, pH, and temperature of PPO were 0.3 mol/L, 8.0 and 30℃, respectively. Efficiency of inhibitors on PPO was followed by L-ascorbic acid﹥citric acid﹥NaCl. In addition, PPO activity in vein was 5.72-fold higher than that in leaves.

  15. PENGARUH PEMBERIAN EKSTRAK Ascophyllum nodosum SERBUK DAN CAIR TERHADAP PERTUMBUHAN TANAMAN SELADA BERDAUN MERAH (Lactuca sativa var. crispa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Asfia Falasifa

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available [ENGLISH] This Study was aimed to determine the effect of Ascophyllum nodosum extract with powder and liquid form on the growth of red lettuce in the field. The experiment is conducted on field trials area of Kyungpook National University, Sangju, Gyeongsangbuk-do, South Korea from . The treatments that used are extract powder and liquid form with concentration 0g / l and 4g / l for each treatment . There are four combinations of treatments and each treatment combination was repeated 45 times. The results showed that the extract of seaweed with the concentratio  4g/l proved to provide significant results for most parameters. A. nodosum seaweed extract powder gives the best results on the growth of red lettuce plants compared to extract liquid. Keywords: Ascophyllum nodosum; Extract; Foliar Feeding; Red Lettuce; Seaweed [INDONESIAN] Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk mempelajari pengaruh pemberian ekstrak Ascophyllum nodosum dengan bentuk serbuk dan cair terhadap pertumbuhan selada merah di lapangan. Penelitian dilakukan pada lahan uji coba Kyungpook National University, Sangju, Gyeongsangbuk-do, Korea Selatan. Perlakuan yang digunakan yaitu ekstrak berbentuk serbuk dan berbentuk cair dengan konsentrasi 0g/l dan 4g/l untuk masing-masing perlakuan. Terdapat 4 kombinasi perlakuan dan masing-masing kombinasi perlakuan diulang sebanyak 45 kali. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa pemberian ekstrak rumput laut dengan konsentrasi 4g/l terbukti memberikan hasil yang signifikan pada sebagian besar parameter. Ekstrak rumput laut A. nodosum berbentuk serbuk memberikan hasil terbaik terhadap pertumbuhan tanaman selada merah dibandingkan ekstrak berbentuk cair. Kata Kunci: Ascophyllum nodosum; Pupuk Daun; Rumput Laut; Selada Merah How to citate: Falasifa A, Slameto, K Hariyono. 2014. Pengaruh pemberian ekstrak Ascophyllum nodosum serbuk dan cair terhadap pertumbuhan tanaman selada berdaun merah (Lactuca sativa var. crispa. Berkala Ilmiah Pertanian 1(3: 62-64

  16. Foliar exposure of the crop Lactuca sativa to silver nanoparticles: Evidence for internalization and changes in Ag speciation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Larue, Camille, E-mail: camille.larue@rub.de [ISTerre, Université Grenoble 1, CNRS, F-38041 Grenoble (France); Castillo-Michel, Hiram, E-mail: castillo@esrf.fr [ESRF, Beamline ID21, Grenoble (France); Sobanska, Sophie, E-mail: sophie.sobanska@univ-lille1.fr [LASIR, UMR CNRS 8516, Université Lille 1, Bât C5, 59655 Villeneuve d’Ascq Cedex (France); Cécillon, Lauric, E-mail: lauric.cecillon@irstea.fr [ISTerre, Université Grenoble 1, CNRS, F-38041 Grenoble (France); Bureau, Sarah, E-mail: sarah.bureau@ujf-grenoble.fr [ISTerre, Université Grenoble 1, CNRS, F-38041 Grenoble (France); Barthès, Véronique, E-mail: veronique.barthes@cea.fr [CEA/LITEN/DTNM/L2T, CEA Grenoble, 38054 Grenoble Cedex 9 (France); Ouerdane, Laurent, E-mail: laurent.ouerdane@univ-pau.fr [LCABIE/IPREM-UMR 5254, Université de Pau et des Pays de l‘Adour, 64053 Pau Cedex 9 (France); Carrière, Marie, E-mail: marie.carriere@cea.fr [UMR E3 CEA-UJF/LAN, 38054 Grenoble Cedex 9 (France); Sarret, Géraldine, E-mail: geraldine.sarret@ujf-grenoble.fr [ISTerre, Université Grenoble 1, CNRS, F-38041 Grenoble (France)

    2014-01-15

    Highlights: • Ag-NPs are internalized inside lettuce leaves after foliar exposure to a suspension of Ag-NPs. • A classical washing process is inefficient at decreasing significantly Ag content. • Ag-NPs in plants undergo oxidation, and resulting ionic Ag are complexed with organic compounds including thiol-containing molecules. • Foliar exposure to Ag-NPs does not lead to detectable phytotoxicity symptoms. -- Abstract: The impact of engineered nanomaterials on plants, which act as a major point of entry of contaminants into trophic chains, is little documented. The foliar pathway is even less known than the soil-root pathway. However, significant inputs of nanoparticles (NPs) on plant foliage may be expected due to deposition of atmospheric particles or application of NP-containing pesticides. The uptake of Ag-NPs in the crop species Lactuca sativa after foliar exposure and their possible biotransformation and phytotoxic effects were studied. In addition to chemical analyses and ecotoxicological tests, micro X-ray fluorescence, micro X-ray absorption spectroscopy, time of flight secondary ion mass spectrometry and electron microscopy were used to localize and determine the speciation of Ag at sub-micrometer resolution. Although no sign of phytotoxicity was observed, Ag was effectively trapped on lettuce leaves and a thorough washing did not decrease Ag content significantly. We provide first evidence for the entrapment of Ag-NPs by the cuticle and penetration in the leaf tissue through stomata, for the diffusion of Ag in leaf tissues, and oxidation of Ag-NPs and complexation of Ag{sup +} by thiol-containing molecules. Such type of information is crucial for better assessing the risk associated to Ag-NP containing products.

  17. Root exudation and root development of lettuce (Lactuca sativa L.cv. Tizian as affected by different soils

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    GünterNeumann

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Development and activity of plant roots exhibits high adaptive variability. Although it is well-documented, that physicochemical soil properties can strongly influence root morphology and root exudation, particularly under field conditions, a comparative assessment is complicated by the impact of additional factors, such as climate and cropping history. To overcome these limitations, in this study, field soils originating from an unique experimental plot system with three different soil types, which were stored at the same field site for ten years and exposed to the same agricultural management practice, were used for an investigation on effects of soil type on root development and root exudation. Lettuce (Lactuca sativa L. cv. Tizian was used as a model plant, grown under controlled environmental conditions in a minirhizotrone system equipped with root observation windows (rhizoboxes. Root exudates were collected by placing sorption filters onto the root surface followed by subsequent extraction and GC-MS profiling of the trapped compounds. Surprisingly, even in absence of external stress factors with known impact on root exudation, such as pH extremes, water and nutrient limitations/toxicities or soil structure effects (use of sieved soils, root growth characteristics (root length, fine root development as well as profiles of root exudates were strongly influenced by the soil type used for plant cultivation. The results coincided well with differences in rhizosphere bacterial communities, detected in field-grown lettuce plants cultivated on the same soils (Schreiter et al., this issue. The findings suggest that the observed differences may be the result of plant interactions with the soil-specific microbiomes.

  18. Use of hairy roots extracts for 2,4-DCP removal and toxicity evaluation by Lactuca sativa test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Angelini, Vanina A; Agostini, Elizabeth; Medina, María I; González, Paola S

    2014-02-01

    2,4-Dichlorophenol (2,4-DCP) is widely distributed in wastewaters discharged from several industries, and it is considered as a priority pollutant due to its high toxicity. In this study, the use of different peroxidase extracts for 2,4-DCP removal from aqueous solutions was investigated. Tobacco hairy roots (HRs), wild-type (WT), and double-transgenic (DT) for tomato basic peroxidases (TPX1 and TPX2) were used to obtain different peroxidase extracts: total peroxidases (TPx), soluble peroxidases (SPx), and peroxidases ionically bound to the cell wall (IBPx). All extracts derived from DT HRs exhibited higher peroxidase activity than those obtained from WT HRs. TPx and IBPx DT extracts showed the highest catalytic efficiency values. The optimal conditions for 2,4-DCP oxidation were pH 6.5, H2O2 0.5 mM, and 200 U mL(-1) of enzyme, for all extracts analyzed. Although both TPx extracts were able to oxidize different 2,4-DCP concentrations, the removal efficiency was higher for TPx DT. Polyethylene glycol addition slightly improved 2,4-DCP removal efficiency, and it showed some protective effect on TPx WT after 2,4-DCP oxidation. In addition, using Lactuca sativa test, a reduction of the toxicity of post removal solutions was observed, for both TPx extracts. The results demonstrate that TPx extracts from both tobacco HRs appear to be promising candidate for future applications in removing 2,4-DCP from wastewaters. This is particularly true considering that these peroxidase sources are associated with low costs and are readily available. However, TPx DT has increased peroxidase activity, catalytic efficiency, and higher removal efficiency than TPx WT, probably due to the expression of TPX1 and TPX2 isoenzymes. PMID:24085515

  19. Yield and nutritional quality of greenhouse lettuce (Lactuca sativa L. as affected by genotype and production methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Govedarica-Lučić Aleksandra

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Greenhouse experiments were conducted in winter growing seasons in order to evaluate the effects of genotype and production methods on yield and nutritional quality of lettuce (Lactuca sativa L.. A three-year (2009-2011 study was conducted by randomized block system in a greenhouse without additional heating. The trial included three genotypes of lettuce (Archimedes RZ, Santoro RZ, Kibou RZ. Each row with these genotypes was exposed to the following variants of covering: control-planting on bare soil, mulching before sowing with PE-black foil, agro textile-covering plants after planting with agro textile (17 g, a combination of mulching + agro textile. Throughout of all the three years of the trial, it was continuously evidenced that the genotype “Santoro RZ” had the biggest heads and the highest yield (15.33 kg 10 m-2, which leads to conclusion that the yield of lettuce is a genotype characteristics. Moreover, the nutritional value (ascorbic acid concentration has shown that, depending on the method of production, in average, the combination of mulching + agro textile (26.77 mg 100 g-1 had the highest content while the control variant had significantly lower vitamin C content (21.10 mg 100 g-1. The three-year researches have shown that the production method and genotype significantly affect the nitrate content. An average nitrate content was 2196.33 mg kg-1 on the control variant, and 2526.24 mg kg-1 on agro textile. Leafy lettuce of genotyp „Kibou RZ“ had lower nitrate content (2176.85 mg kg-1 compared to „Archimedes RZ“ (2843.05 mg kg-1 and „Santoro RZ“ (2221.37 mg kg-1. However nitrate concentration in all treatments remained within the European Union’s permissible levels.

  20. Effect of foliar calcium chloride treatment on the level of chlorogenic acid, β-carotene, lutein and tocopherols in lettuce (Lactuca sativa L.)

    OpenAIRE

    Irena Perucka; Katarzyna Olszówka

    2012-01-01

    The aim of the presented study was to determine the effect of foliar application of CaCl2 on the level of β-carotene, lutein, tocopherols and phenolic compounds in the leaves of lettuce cv. Omega (Lactuca sativa L.). The experiments were conducted in the greenhouse of the Faculty of Cultivation and Fertilisation of Horticultural Plants, University of Life Sciences in Lublin. During the growing period, 7 and 14 days before harvest, the plants were treated with a solution of CaCl2 with concentr...

  1. Produção de mudas de alface em substrato alternativo com adubação Production of lettuce seedlings using alternative substrates and fertilizer

    OpenAIRE

    Luiz Antonio Augusto Gomes; Artenisa C Rodrigues; Leonardo S. Collier; Selma dos S Feitosa

    2008-01-01

    Substratos alternativos, além de permitirem a produção de mudas de qualidade, reduzem os custos de produção. Neste trabalho avaliou-se a produção de mudas de alface (Lactuca sativa L.) utilizando misturas de casca de arroz carbonizada e húmus de minhoca com diferentes doses de SulPoMag®. O trabalho foi desenvolvido nas instalações da HortiAgro Sementes Ltda, em Ijaci (MG). Utilizou-se o delineamento de blocos casualizados, com cinco tratamentos e quatro repetições, sendo os tratamentos 1: 70%...

  2. Health risks resulting from contaminants transfers in soil-plants systems: case study of Atrazine in Lactuca sativa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mathieu, Camoin

    2015-04-01

    Food safety is presently at the center of great part of scientific and political debates. This represents a field of study in its own right of health risks, including ingestion by humans of hazardous biological, physical, chemical or radiological substances, from contaminated foods during different stages of production. Plant cultivation step is often one of the main sources of contamination, whether of voluntary (pesticide application) or accidental (nuclear, industrial waste, etc.) origin. As a result, the plants growth in an contaminated environment may increase the risk of transfer within the plant, and finally the exposure of humans. Furthermore, pesticides are among the main contaminants investigated in the frame of human health risks resulting from food intakes. However, most of these scientific works focus mainly on their occurrence and persistence in water bodies, and few of them are interested in soil/plants transfer. In this context, the understanding of the processes governing transfers of pesticides in plants is become a necessity, in particular to prevent human risks linked the ingestion of food produced in contaminated environments. This objective can be reached by studying the pollutants behavior in soils/plants transfers, and using various substances/plants couples. In our study, we selected a salad/pesticide couple as our experimental model. Atrazine was chosen as model contaminant because of its problematic presence in a large amount of environmental compartments, its physico-chemical properties and because of its long-term toxicity. Lactuca sativa has been selected as model plant because of its importance in French agriculture, and specifically in Languedoc-Roussillon. Salad has been cultivated in peats and irrigated with an atrazine spiked water solution (concentrations from 10 to 100 μg/L). Plant growth in such conditions has been compared to a growth in clean condition (irrigation with non spiked water). Measurements of atrazine contents in

  3. The allelopathic effects of invasive plant Solidago canadensis on seed germination and growth of Lactuca sativa enhanced by different types of acid deposition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Congyan; Xiao, Hongguang; Zhao, Lulu; Liu, Jun; Wang, Lei; Zhang, Fei; Shi, Yanchun; Du, Daolin

    2016-04-01

    Invasive species can exhibit allelopathic effects on native species. Meanwhile, the types of acid deposition are gradually changing. Thus, the allelopathic effects of invasive species on seed germination and growth of native species may be altered or even enhanced under conditions with diversified acid deposition. This study aims to assess the allelopathic effects (using leaves extracts) of invasive plant Solidago canadensis on seed germination and growth of native species Lactuca sativa treated with five types of acid deposition with different SO4 (2-) to NO3 (-) ratios (1:0, sulfuric acid; 5:1, sulfuric-rich acid; 1:1, mixed acid; 1:5, nitric-rich acid; 0:1, nitric acid). Solidago canadensis leaf extracts exhibited significantly allelopathic effects on germination index, vigor index, and germination rate index of L. sativa. High concentration of S. canadensis leaf extracts also similarly exhibited significantly allelopathic effects on root length of L. sativa. This may be due to that S. canadensis could release allelochemicals and then trigger allelopathic effects on seed germination and growth of L. sativa. Acid deposition exhibited significantly negative effects on seedling biomass, root length, seedling height, germination index, vigor index, and germination rate index of L. sativa. This may be ascribed to the decreased soil pH values mediated by acid deposition which could produce toxic effects on seedling growth. Sulfuric acid deposition triggered more toxic effects on seedling biomass and vigor index of L. sativa than nitric acid deposition. This may be attributing to the difference in exchange capacity with hydroxyl groups (OH(-)) between SO4 (2-) and NO3 (-) as well as the fertilizing effects mediated by nitric deposition. All types of acid deposition significantly enhanced the allelopathic effects of S. canadensis on root length, germination index, vigor index, and germination rate index of L. sativa. This may be due to the negatively synergistic effects

  4. ASPECTOS BIOLOGICOS Y POBLACIONALES DE Nasonovia ribisnigri (Mosley) (HOMOPTERA: APHIDOIDEA) EN TRES VARIEDADES COMERCIALES DE LECHUGA (Lactuca sativa L.) EN CONDICIONES DE LABORATORIO Biological and populational aspects of Nasonovia ribisnigri (Mosley) (Homoptera: Aphidoidea) on three commercial varieties of lettuce (Lactuca sativa L.) under laboratory conditions

    OpenAIRE

    Araceli Vasicek; Francisco La Rossa; Andrea Paglioni

    2000-01-01

    En el presente trabajo se determinaron y compararon los principales parámetros biológicos y poblacionales del áfido Nasonovia ribisnigri sobre las variedades de lechuga (Lactuca sativa L.) Divina, Criolla Blanca y Cuatro Estaciones. Las cohortes fueron criadas a 10± 1ºC; 14:10 horas (fotofase: escotofase) y aproximadamente 90 % de humedad relativa. El período ninfal fue más largo sobre Criolla Blanca, oscilando entre 31 y 34 días, mientras que en las restantes duró entre 22 y 25 días. La dura...

  5. Estiércol de vacuno estabilizado y daño por boro en lechuga (Lactuca sativa L.) cv. del río, en el valle de Lluta, Chile Stabilized cow manure and boron damages on lettuce (Lactuca sativa L.) cv. del rio, at the Valley of Lluta, Chile

    OpenAIRE

    María E Osorio B; Jorge M Mesías M; Rodrigo Araya M

    2013-01-01

    RESUMEN En el valle de Lluta, XV Región de Arica y Parinacota, Chile, el cultivo de lechuga (Lactuca sativa L.) cv. del río, evidencia diferencias significativas en varios factores: rendimientos, peso de las plantas, diámetros polar y ecuatorial, contenidos de nitrato y boro en las hojas; así como el daño inducido por la interacción de sales y boro, naturalmente presentes en altas concentraciones en el agua y suelos de este valle. A continuación, se informan los resultados de un estudio de mi...

  6. Accumulation of heavy metals by lettuce (lactuca sativa l.) irrigated with different levels of wastewater of Quetta City

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heavy metal contamination of soils resulting from irrigation by wastewater is causing major concern due to the potential health risk involved. This study was therefore designed to investigate the heavy metal ions viz., Cu/sup 2/sup +/, Fe/sup 2+/, Mn/sup 2+/, Zn/sup 2+/, Pb/sup 2+/, Ni/sup 2+ and Cd/sup 2+/ concentrations by lettuce (Lactuca sativa L.) grown in pots. This leafy vegetable was irrigated with 5 different concentrations of wastewater collected from 3 different localities viz., Chiltan town, Chiltan Ghee Mill (oil industry) and Zarghoon town of Quetta city. Tap water was used as background water. Plant samples were analyzed for their heavy metal contents using Atomic Absorption Spectroscopy (AAS). Results showed that localities, treatments and their interactions (except Cu/sup 2+/ and Pb/sup 2+/) generally exhibited highly significant (P=0.01) influence on the accumulation of heavy metals. The maximum values of 9.71; 509.06; 32.47; 94.38; 8.58; 5.05 and 7.45 mg kg/sup -1/ for Cu/sup 2+/, total Fe/sup 2+/, Mn/sup 2+/, Zn/sup 2+/, Ni/sup 2+/,Pb/sup 2+/, and Cd/sup 2+/ respectively, were generally obtained in highest concentration of effluents. While maximum values of 9.02; 4.47 and 7.90 mg kg-1 of Cu/sup 2+/, Ni/sup 2+/ and Cd/sup 2+/ were obtained for Chiltan ghee mill effluents. However, maximum values i.e., 435.96 and 80.47 mg kg-1 of total Fe and Zn/sup 2+/ were recorded for Chiltan town. The highest values of 30.09 and 6.32 mg kg-1 for Mn/sup 2+/ and Pb/sup 2+/ were noted in Zarghoon town, respectively. On the basis of grand mean values,the magnitude of heavy metals detected for various metals is in order: Fe > Zn >Mn> Cu >Pb> Cd > Ni. Results further demonstrated that the total concentrations of Cu/sup 2+/, Fe/sup 2+/, Mn/sup 2+/, Zn/sup 2+/ and Ni/sup 2+/ are within the recommended international standards set by WHO/FAO, but could be reached to toxic level either by the consecutive use of effluents or by increased dietary pattern of the consumers

  7. 4,4,4-trifluoro-3-(indole-3-)butyric acid promotes root elongation in Lactuca sativa independent of ethylene synthesis and pH

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Nenggang; Hasenstein, Karl H.

    2002-01-01

    We studied the mode of action of 4,4,4-trifluoro-3- (indole-3-) butyric acid (TFIBA), a recently described root growth stimulator, on primary root growth of Lactuca sativa L. seedlings. TFIBA (100 micromoles) promoted elongation of primary roots by 40% in 72 h but inhibited hypocotyl growth by 35%. TFIBA induced root growth was independent of pH. TFIBA did not affect ethylene production, but reduced the inhibitory effect of ethylene on root elongation. TFIBA promoted root growth even in the presence of the ethylene biosynthesis inhibitor L-alpha-(2-aminoethoxyvinyl)glycine. TFIBA and the ethylene-binding inhibitor silver thiosulphate (STS) had a similar effect on root elongation. The results indicate that TFIBA-stimulated root elongation was neither pH-dependent nor related to inhibition of ethylene synthesis, but was possibly related to ethylene action.

  8. Avaliação do efeito das condições experimentais sobre a capacidade redutora total de extratos de alface através de um desenho experimental

    OpenAIRE

    Delgado, Teresa; Ferreira, Anabela; Pereira, J. A.; Baptista, Paula; Casal, Susana; Ramalhosa, Elsa

    2013-01-01

    É do conhecimento geral que o consumo elevado de frutas e vegetais diminui o risco de desenvolver doenças, nomeadamente doenças cardíacas e cancerígenas. Estas propriedades estão relacionadas com o facto das frutas e vegetais possuírem compostos com atividade biológica, tais como antioxidantes. A alface (Lactuca sativa) é um dos vegetais mais consumidos no mundo, atingindo a produção mundial de 21 milhões de toneladas, segundo dados da FAO. Atualmente a procura por produtos prontos a consumir...

  9. Enzymologic properties of polyphenol oxidase of Lactuca sativa var.angustata%苔干多酚氧化酶的酶学特性研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张莉; 陈乃富

    2011-01-01

    The kinetic property of polyphenol oxidase(PPO)in Lactuca sativa var. angustata was analyzed. The result showed that,by using the catechol as the substrate,the most suitable pH and temperature for this enzyme was at 7. 4 and 30℃,respectively,and it would be rapid inactivated if the temperature went above 70℃. The kinetic equation was v=518. 96[S]/(0. 0166+[S]),and VC,sodium D-isoascorbate,NaHSO3,L-Cys could completely inhibit PPO activity. Saturated NaCl,sugar(10%),SDS and EDTA-Na2 could remarkably inhibite PPO activity. This enzyme could catalyze the oxidization of catechol and pyrogallic acid,and had higher affinity to catechol.%研究了苔干(Lactuca sativa var.angustata)多酚氧化酶的酶学性质。结果表明:以邻苯二酚为底物,该酶的最适pH为7.4,最适温度30℃,70℃以上温度使酶迅速失活,动力学方程v=518.96[S]/(0.0166+[S]),VC、异VC钠、NaHSO3、L-Cys可完全抑制酶活性,饱和NaCl、10%蔗糖、SDS、EDTA-Na2均可显著抑制酶活性。该酶能催化邻苯二酚、焦性没食子酸氧化,但对邻苯二酚的亲和力更强。

  10. Estudo do potencial fitotóxico de extratos de Bauhinia ungulata L. sobre a divisão celular e atividade enzimática em plântulas de alface

    OpenAIRE

    Paula, C.S.; V. C. D. CANTELI; C.B. Silva; O.G. Miguel; M. D. MIGUEL

    2015-01-01

    RESUMOEste trabalho visou avaliar a ação fitotóxica de extrato e frações obtidas das folhas de Bauhinia ungulata L sobre a divisão celular e atividade das enzimas α-amilase, catalase, peroxidase e polifenoloxidase em plântulas de alface (Lactuca sativa, var Grand rapis). Sementes de alface foram expostas às concentrações de 250, 500 e 1000 µg.mL-1 do extrato de Bauhinia ungulata e frações do mesmo, em condições ambientais controladas. Após três dias de protusão radicular, as raízes das plântu...

  11. EFEITO DO CLORO NA ÁGUA DE LAVAGEM PARA DESINFECÇÃO DE ALFACE MINIMAMENTE PROCESSADA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    BERBARI Shirley Aparecida Garcia

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho de pesquisa foi desenvolvido com o objetivo de verificar a eficácia de diferentes concentrações de cloro utilizadas como agente sanitizante na água de lavagem de alface(Lactuca sativa L., do tipo americana, minimamente processada. Na matéria-prima foram realizadas contagens de bolores, leveduras e coliformes totais. No produto final foram realizadas contagens de bolores e leveduras, coliformes totais e avaliação sensorial. O processamento mínimo da alface compreendeu as seguintes etapas: corte do talo, desfolhamento da cabeça, primeira seleção, primeira lavagem, segunda seleção, corte em tiras, segunda lavagem, tratamento de imersão em soluções contendo 70, 100 e 130mg/L de cloro, centrifugação, acondicionamento em sacos plásticos e armazenamento a 2°C e a 20°C. Os resultados mostraram que a imersão em solução contendo 70mg/L de cloro confere a alface minimamente processada uma vida-útil de seis dias e em solução contendo 100 e 130mg/L, nove dias e que o seu aroma, textura e gosto não foram afetados por estes tratamentos.

  12. Effect of SPL (Spent Pot Liner) and its main components on root growth, mitotic activity and phosphorylation of Histone H3 in Lactuca sativa L.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freitas, Aline Silva; Fontes Cunha, Isabela Martinez; Andrade-Vieira, Larissa Fonseca; Techio, Vânia Helena

    2016-02-01

    Spent Pot Liner (SPL) is a solid waste from the aluminum industry frequently disposed of in industrial landfills; it can be leached and contaminate the soil, sources of drinking water and plantations, and thus may pose a risk to human health and to ecosystems. Its composition is high variable, including cyanide, fluoride and aluminum salts, which are highly toxic and environmental pollutants. This study evaluated the effect of SPL and its main components on root growth and the mitosis of Lactuca sativa, by investigating the mechanisms of cellular and chromosomal alterations with the aid of immunolocalization. To this end, newly emerged roots of L. sativa were exposed to SPL and its main components (solutions of cyanide, fluoride and aluminum) and to calcium chloride (control) for 48h. After this, root length was measured and cell cycle was examined by means of conventional cytogenetics and immunolocalization. Root growth was inhibited in the treatments with SPL and aluminum; chromosomal and nuclear alterations were observed in all treatments. The immunolocalization evidenced normal dividing cells with regular temporal and spatial distribution of histone H3 phosphorylation at serine 10 (H3S10ph). However, SPL and its main components inhibited the phosphorylation of histone H3 at serine 10, inactivated pericentromeric regions and affected the cohesion of sister chromatids, thus affecting the arrangement of chromosomes in the metaphase plate and separation of chromatids in anaphase. In addition, these substances induced breaks in pericentromeric regions, characterized as fragile sites. PMID:26615478

  13. Phytotoxicity of three plant-based biodiesels, unmodified castor oil, and Diesel fuel to alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.), lettuce (Lactuca sativa L.), radish (Raphanus sativus), and wheatgrass (Triticum aestivum).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bamgbose, Ifeoluwa; Anderson, Todd A

    2015-12-01

    The wide use of plant-based oils and their derivatives, in particular biodiesel, have increased extensively over the past decade to help alleviate demand for petroleum products and improve the greenhouse gas emissions profile of the transportation sector. Biodiesel is regarded as a clean burning alternative fuel produced from livestock feeds and various vegetable oils. Although in theory these animal and/or plant derived fuels should have less environmental impact in soil based on their simplified composition relative to Diesel, they pose an environmental risk like Diesel at high concentrations when disposed. The aim of the present study was to ascertain the phytotoxicity of three different plant-derived biodiesels relative to conventional Diesel. For phytotoxicological analysis, we used seeds of four crop plants, Medicago sativa, Lactuca sativa, Raphanus sativus, and Triticum aestivum to analyze the germination of seeds in contaminated soil samples. The toxicological experiment was conducted with two different soil textures: sandy loam soil and silt loam soil. The studied plant-based biodiesels were safflower methyl-ester, castor methyl ester, and castor ethyl-ester. Biodiesel toxicity was more evident at high concentrations, affecting the germination and survival of small-seeded plants to a greater extent. Tolerance of plants to the biodiesels varied between plant species and soil textures. With the exception of R. sativus, all plant species were affected and exhibited some sensitivity to the fuels, such as delayed seedling emergence and slow germination (average=10 days) at high soil concentrations (0.85% for Diesel and 1.76% for the biodiesels). Tolerance of plants to soil contamination had a species-specific nature, and on average, decreased in the following order: Raphanus sativus (0-20%)>Triticum aestivum (10-40%) ≥ Medicago sativa> Lactuca sativa (80-100%). Thus, we conclude that there is some phytotoxicity associated with plant-based biodiesels. Further

  14. Root Zone Cooling and Exogenous Spermidine Root-Pretreatment Promoting Lactuca sativa L. Growth and Photosynthesis in the High-Temperature Season

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jin eSun

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Root zone high-temperature stress is a major factor limiting hydroponic plant growth during the high-temperature season. The effects of root zone cooling (RZC; at 25°C and exogenous spermidine (Spd root-pretreatment (SRP, 0.1 mM on growth, leaf photosynthetic traits, and chlorophyll fluorescence characteristics of hydroponic Lactuca sativa L. grown in a high-temperature season (average temperature > 30°C were examined. Both treatments significantly promoted plant growth and photosynthesis in the high-temperature season, but the mechanisms of photosynthesis improvement in the hydroponic grown lettuce plants were different between the RZC and SRP treatments. The former improved plant photosynthesis by increasing stoma conductance (Gs to enhance CO2 supply, thus promoting photosynthetic electron transport activity and phosphorylation, which improved the level of the photochemical efficiency of photosystem II (PSII, rather than enhancing CO2 assimilation efficiency. The latter improved plant photosynthesis by enhancing CO2 assimilation efficiency, rather than stomatal regulation. Combination of RZC and SRP significantly improved PN of lettuce plants in a high-temperature season by both improvement of Gs to enhance CO2 supply and enhancement of CO2 assimilation. The enhancement of photosynthetic efficiency in both treatments was independent of altering light-harvesting or excessive energy dissipation.

  15. Production characteristics of lettuce Lactuca sativa L. in the frame of the first crop tests in the Higher Plant Chamber integrated into the MELiSSA Pilot Plant

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tikhomirova, Natalia; Lawson, Jamie; Stasiak, Michael; Dixon, Mike; Paille, Christel; Peiro, Enrique; Fossen, Arnaud; Godia, Francesc

    Micro-Ecological Life Support System Alternative (MELiSSA) is an artificial closed ecosystem that is considered a tool for the development of a bioregenerative life support system for manned space missions. One of the five compartments of MELiSSA loop -Higher Plant Chamber was recently integrated into the MELiSSA Pilot Plant facility at Universitat Aut`noma deo Barcelona. The main contributions expected by integration of this photosynthetic compartment are oxygen, water, vegetable food production and CO2 consumption. Production characteristics of Lactuca sativa L., as a MELiSSA candidate crop, were investigated in this work in the first crop experiments in the MELiSSA Pilot Plant facility. The plants were grown in batch culture and totaled 100 plants with a growing area 5 m long and 1 m wide in a sealed controlled environment. Several replicates of the experiments were carried out with varying duration. It was shown that after 46 days of lettuce cultivation dry edible biomass averaged 27, 2 g per plant. However accumulation of oxygen in the chamber, which required purging of the chamber, and decrease in the food value of the plants was observed. Reducing the duration of the tests allowed uninterrupted test without opening the system and also allowed estimation of the crop's carbon balance. Results of productivity, tissue composition, nutrient uptake and canopy photosynthesis of lettuce regardless of test duration are discussed in the paper.

  16. Humic substances can modulate the allelopathic potential of caffeic, ferulic, and salicylic acids for seedlings of lettuce (Lactuca sativa L.) and tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loffredo, Elisabetta; Monaci, Linda; Senesi, Nicola

    2005-11-30

    The capacity of a leonardite humic acid (LHA), a soil humic acid (SHA), and a soil fulvic acid (SFA) in modulating the allelopathic potential of caffeic acid (CA), ferulic acid (FA), and salicylic acid (SA) on seedlings of lettuce (Lactuca sativa L.) and tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill.) was investigated. Lettuce showed a sensitivity greater than that of tomato to CA, FA, and SA phytotoxicity, which was significantly reduced or even suppressed in the presence of SHA or SFA, especially at the highest dose, but not LHA. In general, SFA was slightly more active than SHA, and the efficiency of the action depended on their concentration, the plant species and the organ examined, and the allelochemical. The daily measured residual concentration of CA and FA decreased drastically and that of SA slightly in the presence of germinating seeds of lettuce, which were thus able to absorb and/or enhance the degradation of CA and FA. The adsorption capacity of SHA for the three allelochemicals was small and decreased in the order FA > CA > SA, thus suggesting that adsorption could be a relevant mechanism, but not the only one, involved in the "antiallelopathic" action. PMID:16302757

  17. Effect of abscisic acid on biochemical constituents, enzymatic and non enzymatic antioxidant status of lettuce (Lactuca sativa L. under varied irrigation regimes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamed A. Al Muhairi

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Economically important vegetable crop lettuce (Lactuca sativa L. of family Asteraceae was selected for the present investigation. It is being cultivated in UAE due to its commercial importance. In lettuce cultivation, the major problem is the requirement of large quantities of irrigation water. The present study was aimed to reduce the water consumption of lettuce cultivation; for that, a varied irrigation regime was used with the application of abscisic acid (ABA. The parameters studied were biochemical constituents, antioxidant potential and antioxidant enzymes’ activities in lettuce plants under drought stress and its response to ABA under stress. Drought stress caused an increase in the biochemical constituents like proline and amino acid contents when compared with control and also increased under individual ABA treatments and treatments under drought stress. The non-enzymatic antioxidant molecules like ascorbate and α-tocopherol showed significant increase under drought condition in lettuce. ABA slightly reduced these contents. The antioxidant enzymes like superoxide dismutase, catalase and peroxidase showed significant increase under drought condition and ABA caused significant enhancement in these antioxidant enzymes under drought stress and also in unstressed conditions, thereby protecting the plants from the deleterious effects of drought stress. From the results of this investigation, it can be concluded that ABA in 10 mg g−1 can be used as a potential tool to minimise the drought stress effects in lettuce cultivation.

  18. The Impact of Biochar Application on Soil Properties and Plant Growth of Pot Grown Lettuce (Lactuca sativa and Cabbage (Brassica chinensis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephan Haefele

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available The effect of rice-husk char (potentially biochar application on the growth of transplanted lettuce (Lactuca sativa and Chinese cabbage (Brassica chinensis was assessed in a pot experiment over a three crop (lettuce-cabbage-lettuce cycle in Cambodia. The biochar was the by-product of a rice-husk gasification unit and consisted of 28.7% carbon (C by mass. Biochar application rates to potting medium of 25, 50 and 150 g kg−1 were used with and without locally available fertilizers (a mixture of compost, liquid compost and lake sediment. The rice-husk biochar used was slightly alkaline (pH 7.79, increased the pH of the soil, and contained elevated levels of some trace metals and exchangeable cations (K, Ca and Mg in comparison to the soil. The biochar treatments were found to increase the final biomass, root biomass, plant height and number of leaves in all the cropping cycles in comparison to no biochar treatments. The greatest biomass increase due to biochar additions (903% was found in the soils without fertilization, rather than fertilized soils (483% with the same biochar application as in the “without fertilization” case. Over the cropping cycles the impact was reduced; a 363% increase in biomass was observed in the third lettuce cycle.

  19. Are uranium-contaminated soil and irrigation water a risk for human vegetables consumers? A study case with Solanum tuberosum L., Phaseolus vulgaris L. and Lactuca sativa L.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neves, O; Abreu, M M

    2009-11-01

    The knowledge of uranium concentration, in the products entering the human diet is of extreme importance because of their chemical hazard to health. Controlled field experiments with potatoes, beans and lettuce (Solanum tuberosum L., Phaseolus vulgaris L. and Lactuca sativa L.) were carried out in a contaminated soil used by local farmers located near a closed Portuguese uranium mine (Cunha Baixa, Mangualde). The soil with high average uranium levels (64-252 mg/kg) was divided in two plots, and irrigated with non-contaminated and uranium-contaminated water (900 microg/L). Uranium maximum average concentration in the edible vegetables parts (mg/kg fresh weight) ranged in the following order: lettuce (234 microg/kg) > green bean (30 microg/kg) > potatoes without peel (4 microg/kg). Although uranium in soil, irrigation water and vegetables was high, the assessment of the health risk based on hazard quotient indicates that consumption of these vegetables does not represent potential adverse (no carcinogenic) effects for a local inhabitant during lifetime. PMID:19590953

  20. Proximate nutrient analyses of four species of submerged aquatic vegetation consumed by Florida manatee (Trichechus manatus latirostris) compared to romaine lettuce (Lactuca sativa var. longifolia).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siegal-Willott, Jessica L; Harr, Kendal; Hayek, Lee-Ann C; Scott, Karen C; Gerlach, Trevor; Sirois, Paul; Reuter, Mike; Crewz, David W; Hill, Richard C

    2010-12-01

    Free-ranging Florida manatees (Trichechus manatus latirostris) consume a variety of sea grasses and algae. This study compared the dry matter (DM) content, proximate nutrients (crude protein [CP], ether-extracted crude fat [EE], nonfiber carbohydrate [NFC], and ash), and the calculated digestible energy (DE) of sea grasses (Thalassia testudinum, Halodule wrightii, and Syringodium filiforme) collected in spring, summer, and winter, and an alga (Chara sp.) with those of romaine lettuce (Lactuca sativa var. longifolia). Neutral-detergent fiber (NDF), acid-detergent fiber (ADF), and lignin (L) measured after ash-extraction were also compared. Results of statistical tests (C = 0.01) revealed DM content was higher in aquatic vegetation than in lettuce (P = 0.0001), but NDF and ADF were up to threefold greater, EE (P = 0.00001) and CP (P = 0.00001) were 2-9 times less, and NFC (P = 0.0001) was 2-6 times lower in sea grass than in lettuce, on a DM basis. Chara was lower in NDF, ADF, L, EE, CP, and NFC relative to lettuce on a DM basis. Ash content (DM basis) was higher (P = 0.0001), and DE was 2-6 times lower in aquatic vegetation than in lettuce. Sea grass rhizomes had lower L and higher ash contents (DM basis) than sea grass leaves. Based on the nutrient analyses, romaine lettuce and sea grasses are not equivalent forages, which suggests that the current diet of captive Florida manatees should be reassessed. PMID:21370638

  1. Evaluation of anti-inflammatory activity and fast UHPLC-DAD-IT-TOF profiling of polyphenolic compounds extracted from green lettuce (Lactuca sativa L.; var. Maravilla de Verano).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pepe, Giacomo; Sommella, Eduardo; Manfra, Michele; De Nisco, Mauro; Tenore, Gian Carlo; Scopa, Antonio; Sofo, Adriano; Marzocco, Stefania; Adesso, Simona; Novellino, Tiziana; Campiglia, Pietro

    2015-01-15

    Fresh cut vegetables represent a widely consumed food worldwide. Among these, lettuce (Lactuca sativa L.) is one of the most popular on the market. The growing interest for this "healthy" food is related to the content of bioactive compounds, especially polyphenols, that show many beneficial effects. In this study, we report the anti-inflammatory and antioxidant potential of polyphenols extracted from lettuce (var. Maravilla de Verano), in J774A.1 macrophages stimulated with Escherichia coli lipopolysaccharide (LPS). Lettuce extract significantly decreased reactive oxygen species, nitric oxide release, inducible nitric oxide synthase and cycloxygenase-2 expression. A detailed quali/quantitative profiling of the polyphenolic content was carried out, obtaining fast separation (10 min), good retention time and peak area repeatability, (RSD% 0.80 and 8.68, respectively) as well as linearity (R(2)⩾ 0.999) and mass accuracy (⩽ 5 ppm). Our results show the importance in the diet of this cheap and popular food for his healthy properties. PMID:25148972

  2. Delineamento experimental e tamanho de amostra para alface cultivada em hidroponia Experimental design and sample size for hydroponic lettuce crop

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valéria Schimitz Marodim

    2000-10-01

    Full Text Available Este estudo visa a estabelecer o delineamento experimental e o tamanho de amostra para a cultura da alface (Lactuca sativa em hidroponia, pelo sistema NFT (Nutrient film technique. O experimento foi conduzido no Laboratório de Cultivos Sem Solo/Hidroponia, no Departamento de Fitotecnia da Universidade Federal de Santa Maria e baseou-se em dados de massa de plantas. Os resultados obtidos mostraram que, usando estrutura de cultivo de alface em hidroponia sobre bancadas de fibrocimento com seis canais, o delineamento experimental adequado é blocos ao acaso se a unidade experimental for constituída de faixas transversais aos canais das bancadas, e deve ser inteiramente casualizado se a bancada for a unidade experimental; para a variável massa de plantas, o tamanho da amostra é de 40 plantas para uma semi-amplitude do intervalo de confiança em percentagem da média (d igual a 5% e de 7 plantas para um d igual a 20%.This study was carried out to establish the experimental design and sample size for hydroponic lettuce (Lactuca sativa crop under nutrient film technique. The experiment was conducted in the Laboratory of Hydroponic Crops of the Horticulture Department of the Federal University of Santa Maria. The evaluated traits were plant weight. Under hydroponic conditions on concrete bench with six ducts, the most indicated experimental design for lettuce is randomised blocks for duct transversal plots or completely randomised for bench plot. The sample size for plant weight should be 40 and 7 plants, respectively, for a confidence interval of mean percentage (d equal to 5% and 20%.

  3. The use of nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) cultivation wastewater for the production of romaine lettuce (Lactuca sativa L. var. longifolia) in water recirculation system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Effendi, Hefni; Wahyuningsih, Sri; Wardiatno, Yusli

    2016-05-01

    In the recirculation aquaponic system (RAS), fish farming waste was utilized as a nutrient for plant, minimizing the water need, reducing the waste disposal into the environment, and producing the fish and plant as well. The study aimed to examine the growth of romaine lettuce (Lactuca sativa L. var. Longifolia) in aquaponic system without the addition of artificial nutrient. The nutrient relies solely on wastewater of nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) cultivation circulated continuously on the aquaponic system. The results showed that tilapia weight reached 48.49 ± 3.92 g of T3 (tilapia, romaine lettuce, and inoculated bacteria), followed by T2 (tilapia and romaine lettuce) and T1 (tilapia) of 47.80 ± 1.97 and 45.89 ± 1.10 g after 35 days of experiment. Tilapia best performance in terms of growth and production occurred at T3 of 3.96 ± 0.44 g/day, 12.10 ± 0.63 %/day, 96.11 ± 1.44 % and 1.60 ± 0.07 for GR, SGR, SR, and FCR, respectively. It is also indicated by better water quality characteristic in this treatment. Romaine lettuce harvests of T2 and T3 showed no significant difference, with the final weight of 61.87 ± 5.59 and 57.74 ± 4.35 g. Overall, the integration of tilapia fish farming and romaine lettuce is potentially a promising aquaponic system for sustainable fish and horticulture plant production.

  4. Selective toxin effects on faster and slower growing individuals in the formation of hormesis at the population level - A case study with Lactuca sativa and PCIB.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belz, Regina G; Sinkkonen, Aki

    2016-10-01

    Natural plant populations have large phenotypic plasticity that enhances acclimation to local stress factors such as toxin exposures. While consequences of high toxin exposures are well addressed, effects of low-dose toxin exposures on plant populations are seldom investigated. In particular, the importance of 'selective low-dose toxicity' and hormesis, i.e. stimulatory effects, has not been studied simultaneously. Since selective toxicity can change the size distribution of populations, we assumed that hormesis alters the size distribution at the population level, and investigated whether and how these two low-dose phenomena coexist. The study was conducted with Lactuca sativa L. exposed to the auxin-inhibitor 2-(p-chlorophenoxy)-2-methylpropionic acid (PCIB) in vitro. In two separate experiments, L. sativa was exposed to 12 PCIB doses in 24 replicates (50 plants/replicate). Shoot/root growth responses at the population level were compared to the fast-growing (≥90% percentile) and the slow-growing subpopulations (≤10% percentile) by Mann-Whitney U testing and dose-response modelling. In the formation of pronounced PCIB hormesis at the population level, low-dose effects proved selective, but widely stimulatory which seems to counteract low-dose selective toxicity. The selectivity of hormesis was dose- and growth rate-dependent. Stimulation occurred at lower concentrations and stimulation percentage was higher among slow-growing individuals, but partly or entirely masked at the population level by moderate or negligible stimulation among the faster growing individuals. We conclude that the hormetic effect up to the maximum stimulation may be primarily facilitated by an increase in size of the most slow-growing individuals, while thereafter it seems that mainly the fast-growing individuals contributed to the observed hormesis at the population level. As size distribution within a population is related to survival, our study hints that selective effects on slow

  5. 麦冬水提液对莴苣等3种植物化感作用的初步研究%Preliminary Study on the Allelopathy of Ophiopogon japonicus Extracts on Lactuca sativa and 2 Other Plants

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐莹梅; 田胜尼

    2011-01-01

    In this paper the experiments were carried out to study the allelopathy of Ophiopogon japonicus extracts on Lactuca sativa,Cucumis sativus and Raphanus sativus.The results showed that the water extracts of underground and aboveground parts of Ophiopogon japonicus had significant inhibiting effects on the seed germination rate of Cucumis sativus and Raphanus sativus,but no obvious inhibiting effects on that of Lactuca sativa.The extracts also had inhibiting effects on the growth of the main roots of the tested plants,while accelerating the stem growth of Cucumis sativus.%通过麦冬水提液对莴苣、黄瓜、萝卜3种不同植物的化感作用试验研究,结果表明:麦冬地下和地上部分水提液对供试种子黄瓜、萝卜的萌发表现显著的抑制作用,但对莴苣的抑制作用不明显;麦冬水提液对供试植物主根的生长产生抑制作用,而对黄瓜茎的生长表现促进作用。

  6. Influence of season growth, soils and irrigation water composition on the concentration of uranium in two lettuce (Lactuca sativa L.) varieties. Field experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abreu, M. M.; Neves, O.; Marcelino, M.

    2012-04-01

    Former uranium mines areas are frequently the sources of environmental radionuclides problems even many years after the closure of mining operations. A concern for inhabitants from mining areas is the use of contaminated land or irrigation water for agriculture, and the potential transfer of metals from soils to vegetables, and to humans through the food chain. The main aim of this study was to compare the uranium concentration in lettuce (Lactuca sativa L. varieties Marady and Romana) grown in different seasons (autumn and summer) and exposed to high and low uranium concentrations both in irrigation water and agricultural soil. The content of uranium in irrigation water, soil (total and available fraction) and in lettuce leaf samples was analyzed in a certified laboratory. In the field experiments, two agricultural soils were divided into two plots (four replicates each); one of them was irrigated with uranium contaminated water (0.94 to 1.14 mg/L) and the other with uncontaminated water (lettuce varieties, namely yield reduction (up to 53% and 87% in autumn and summer experiments, respectively) and increase of uranium leaf concentration (up to 1.4 and 7 fold in autumn and summer, respectively). Effect on lettuce yield was mainly due to the high soil salinity (1.01 to 6.31 mS/cm) as a consequence of high irrigation water electrical conductivity (up to 1.82 mS/cm) and low lettuce soil salinity tolerance (1 to 3 mS/cm). The highest lettuce uranium concentration (dry weight) observed was 2.13 and 5.37 mg/kg for Marady and Romana variety, respectively. The highest uranium lettuce concentration in Romana variety was also the effect of its growing in summer season when it was subject to greatest frequency and amount of water irrigation. The consumption by an adult of the lettuce that concentrate more uranium, represents only 16.7% of the tolerable daily limit intake set by World Health Organisation for this element (0.6 mg/kg body weight daily), suggesting that lettuce

  7. Effect of nutrient solution, effective microorganisms (EM-A, and assimilation illumination of plants on the induction of the growth of lettuce (Lactuca sativa L. in hydroponic cultivation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomasz Kleiber

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available The main aim of the present study was to evaluate the influence of the chemical composition of a nutrient solution (NS I, NS II, seed inoculation with Effective Microorganisms (EM, and assimilation illumination (AI of plants on the growth, development and nutritional status of lettuce (Lactuca sativa L. in hydroponic cultivation and microbiological changes in the medium. The measurements were as follows: quantity of leaves per plant (LQ, surface area of the biggest leaves of plants (SBL, relative chlorophyll content (SPAD units, total fresh weight (TFW, total dry weight (TDW, percentage (% of dry matter (% DM, chemical composition of leaves, nutrient uptake (N, P, K, Ca, Mg, Na of the aboveground parts of the plant. It was shown that the simultaneous inoculation of seeds with EM and application of NS II had an effect on improving seed germination (1st–5th day after sowing, but a significantly positive influence of NS I on seed germination was found from the 5th to 9th day. The application of NS II and EM-A had a positive influence on the development of leaves on the plant. The chemical composition of the nutrient solution was found to have a significant effect on the biometrical parameters of plants. The use of supplemental lighting in cultivation of lettuce affected positively both the growth and development of plants. The chemical composition of the nutrient solution significantly modified the macronutrient nutrition status of plants, while the illumination of plants only in case of phosphorus – but at the same time it had a significant influence on the uptake of all nutrients by the plant. The influence of EM was not proved. The microbiological analysis showed a significant influence of the chemical composition of nutrient solutions on the changes in the numbers of the analyzed groups of microorganisms, showing an increase in their numbers in nutrient solutions with higher contents of chemical elements. However, there were no significant

  8. Influence of composted tobacco waste and farmyard manure applications on the yield and nutrient composition of lettuce (Lactuca sativa L. var. capitata

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sezai Delibacak

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The use of organic wastes in agriculture, forestry and land reclamation has been increasingly identified as an important issue for soil fertility, soil conservation and residue disposal. Using organic wastes in agriculture helps not only to dispose these materials economi¬cally, but also reduces negative effects on the envi¬ronment. In the present study, composted tobacco waste (CTW combined with farmyard manure (FM at different ratios was applied to Typic Xerofluvent soil, and the influence of these amendments on the yield and nutrient composition of butter head letttuce (Lactuca sativa L. var. capitata were investigated. The experiment was conducted in 18 parcels in a randomized-block design with three replications at the Agriculture Faculty’s Research Farm of Ege University in Menemen plain, in the Western Anatolia Region of Turkey (38°58′35.51″-38°58′36.03″N; 27°03′84.56″-27°03′89.81″E. Organic materials were applied to the soil after composting. The treatments were (1 control, (2 12.5 t ha-1 FM + 37.5 t ha-1 CTW, (3 25 t ha-1 FM + 25 t ha-1 CTW, (4 50 t ha-1 FM, (5 50 t ha-1 CTW, and (6 37.5 t ha-1 FM + 12.5 t ha-1 CTW. The maximum yield was obtained during the 1st vegetation period (62,7 t ha-1 in the 100 % CTW application. On account of the 2nd vegetation period’s coinciding with winter and the coldness of the months December, January and February, there happened a slowdown in the lettuce yield. The highest total yield of lettuce in both vegetation periods (102.7 t ha-1 was determined in 100% CTW application parcels. The lower lettuce yields were determined in the control parcels. CTW and FM applications raised N, P, K Ca, Mg, Na, Fe, Zn and Mn contents of the lettuce. According to the results obtained, it can be said that CTW can be used in agricultural fields just like FM.

  9. Crescimento de alface hidropônica sob diferentes intervalos de irrigação Hydroponic lettuce growth under differents irrigation intervals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fábio Zanella

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available O intervalo entre irrigações é um importante critério a ser observado durante o cultivo hidropônico de hortaliças. Nesse contexto, objetivou-se com este trabalho avaliar a produtividade de duas cultivares de alface (Lactuca sativa L., Regina 2000 e Lucy Brown sob três intervalos de irrigação. O experimento foi conduzido no Centro Universitário Luterano de Ji-Paraná (CEULJI/ULBRA, entre setembro e dezembro de 2006. Foram testados três intevalos entre irrigações: 5; 15 e 30 minutos. Cada tratamento constou de quatro repetições de cada cultivar, em delineamento inteiramente casualisado. Analisou-se o número de folhas.planta-1, a massa fresca e massa seca total de cada planta. O aumento no intervalo entre irrigações levou a uma menor produção da alface. Assim, o intervalo de 5 minutos entre irrigações promoveu o maior ganho de massa para as duas cultivares avaliadas.The interval among irrigations is an important criterion taken into account during the hidroponic cultivation of vegetables. Thus, the present work aimed to evaluate the productivity of two lettuce (Lactuca sativa L. cultivars, Regina 2000 and Lucy Brown, in three irrigations intervals. The experiment was carried out at the Centro Universitário Luterano de Ji-Paraná (CEULJ/ULBRA, from September to December 2006. Three intervals between irrigations were used: 5; 15 and 30 minutes. Each treatment had four replications of both cultivars, in a complete randomized outline. The number of leaves.plant-1, total fresh mass and total dry mass were analyzed. There was an increase of the lettuce production according to the increase of the irrigation interval. Thus, 5 minutes among irrigations promoted the greater gain of mass for both cultivars evaluated.

  10. ASPECTOS BIOLOGICOS Y POBLACIONALES DE Nasonovia ribisnigri (Mosley (HOMOPTERA: APHIDOIDEA EN TRES VARIEDADES COMERCIALES DE LECHUGA (Lactuca sativa L. EN CONDICIONES DE LABORATORIO Biological and populational aspects of Nasonovia ribisnigri (Mosley (Homoptera: Aphidoidea on three commercial varieties of lettuce (Lactuca sativa L. under laboratory conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Araceli Vasicek

    2000-10-01

    Full Text Available En el presente trabajo se determinaron y compararon los principales parámetros biológicos y poblacionales del áfido Nasonovia ribisnigri sobre las variedades de lechuga (Lactuca sativa L. Divina, Criolla Blanca y Cuatro Estaciones. Las cohortes fueron criadas a 10± 1ºC; 14:10 horas (fotofase: escotofase y aproximadamente 90 % de humedad relativa. El período ninfal fue más largo sobre Criolla Blanca, oscilando entre 31 y 34 días, mientras que en las restantes duró entre 22 y 25 días. La duración del período reproductivo y la fecundidad fueron también mayores en Criolla Blanca. Los valores de la tasa de reemplazo (Ro variaron entre 12,70 y 22,35 hembra/hembra para Criolla Blanca. En las variedades Cuatro Estaciones y Divina, dicho parámetro fue de 6,85 a 9,95 y 5,80 a 8,56, respectivamente. Se observaron diferencias significativas entre los valores de la tasa intrínseca de crecimiento (r m y otros parámetros relacionados calculados para cada variedad. Las cohortes criadas sobre Criolla Blanca mostraron los más altos valores de r m con 0,066 a 0,081, seguidas por aquellas en Cuatro Estaciones (0,041-0,049 y Divina (0,046-0,055. Se analizaron también las curvas de supervivencia (l x y fecundidad (m x. Los resultados indican que el cultivar Cuatro Estaciones y Divina podrían tener algún efecto negativo sobre el incremento poblacional de N. ribisnigri en comparación con Criolla BlancaIn the present work, biological and population parameters of aphid Nasonovia ribisnigri on lettuce (Lactuca sativa L. varieties Divina, Criolla Blanca and Cuatro Estaciones, were obtained and compared. Cohorts were reared at 10± 1ºC; 14:10 L:D cycle and 90% of relative humidity. Nimphal period was longest on Criolla Blanca varying between 31 and 34 days, while on the rest of cultivars the length of this period was 22 to 25 days. Reproductive period and fecundity were also higher on Criolla Blanca. Net reproductive rate (Ro values were 12.70 to 22

  11. The influence of the combined effects of acute gamma-radiation, sodium bromate and sodium nitrate on lettuce (Lactuca sativa) seedling root growth

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pryakhin, E.; Osipov, D. [Urals Research Center for Radiation Medicine - URCRM (Russian Federation)

    2014-07-01

    Among special industrial reservoirs used for the storage of liquid radioactive waste of Mayak PA, Russia, one of the most radioactively contaminated is the R-17 reservoir, so-called 'Staroye Boloto' (the total β-activity of water ranged in the observation period from 0.4 MBq/l to 4.5 MBq/l, the total a-activity ranged from 43 to 420 Bq/l). Also this reservoir is characterized by high level of chemical contamination, in particular, the concentration of nitrates in water is 2.5-4,4 g/l, sodium bromate - up to 35 mg/l. One of the interesting questions is interaction of radiation and chemical contamination in their effect on living organisms in this reservoir. In laboratory experiments seeds of Lactuca sativa were used; the effect of the studied factor on the length of the sprout's root was estimated. To assess the effect of chemical toxicants the solutions of each salt in 7 different concentrations were used, distilled water was used as a control. For evaluation of acute effects of external gamma irradiation the seeds after exposure for 24 hours in distilled water, were irradiated at 7 different doses using gamma-unit on the basis of Cs-137 with the dose rate of 0.62 Gy/min. To assess the combined effects of acute external gamma irradiation, of nitrates and bromates, seeds after 24 hour exposure at each test concentration of the salts solutions were irradiated using gamma-unit. To calculate the effective concentrations or doses was used drc package for R software. To calculate the dose rate to aquatic organisms in the R-17 was used ERICA Assessment Tool 2012. It was found out that the EC50 of sodium nitrate for lettuce was 2.69 g/l, which is comparable to the concentration of nitrates in the 'Staroye Boloto'. This indicates that nitrate can have significant toxic effect on aquatic higher plants of the reservoir. The EC50 of sodium bromate was 14.6 mg/l. This is less than the maximum concentration of the substance in the R-17, which suggests

  12. The influence of the combined effects of acute gamma-radiation, sodium bromate and sodium nitrate on lettuce (Lactuca sativa) seedling root growth

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Among special industrial reservoirs used for the storage of liquid radioactive waste of Mayak PA, Russia, one of the most radioactively contaminated is the R-17 reservoir, so-called 'Staroye Boloto' (the total β-activity of water ranged in the observation period from 0.4 MBq/l to 4.5 MBq/l, the total a-activity ranged from 43 to 420 Bq/l). Also this reservoir is characterized by high level of chemical contamination, in particular, the concentration of nitrates in water is 2.5-4,4 g/l, sodium bromate - up to 35 mg/l. One of the interesting questions is interaction of radiation and chemical contamination in their effect on living organisms in this reservoir. In laboratory experiments seeds of Lactuca sativa were used; the effect of the studied factor on the length of the sprout's root was estimated. To assess the effect of chemical toxicants the solutions of each salt in 7 different concentrations were used, distilled water was used as a control. For evaluation of acute effects of external gamma irradiation the seeds after exposure for 24 hours in distilled water, were irradiated at 7 different doses using gamma-unit on the basis of Cs-137 with the dose rate of 0.62 Gy/min. To assess the combined effects of acute external gamma irradiation, of nitrates and bromates, seeds after 24 hour exposure at each test concentration of the salts solutions were irradiated using gamma-unit. To calculate the effective concentrations or doses was used drc package for R software. To calculate the dose rate to aquatic organisms in the R-17 was used ERICA Assessment Tool 2012. It was found out that the EC50 of sodium nitrate for lettuce was 2.69 g/l, which is comparable to the concentration of nitrates in the 'Staroye Boloto'. This indicates that nitrate can have significant toxic effect on aquatic higher plants of the reservoir. The EC50 of sodium bromate was 14.6 mg/l. This is less than the maximum concentration of the substance in the R-17, which suggests that sodium bromate has a

  13. Di-and tri-hydroxylated Kaurane derivatives from microbial transformation of Ent-Kaur-16-En-19-Ol by Cephalosporium aphidicola and their allelopathic activity on Lactuca sativa (lettuce)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The use of microorganisms to induce chemical modifications in organic molecules is a very useful tool in organic synthesis, to obtain biologically active substances. The fungus Cephalosporium aphidicola is known by its ability to hydroxylate several skeleton positions of many classes of organic compounds. In this work, the microbial transformation of ent-kaur-16-en-19-01 (1) by C. aphidicola, afforded two hydroxylated compounds, ent-kauran-16β,19-diol (2) and ent-kauran-16β,17,19-triol (3). Their structures were established by 1D and 2D-NMR studies. Both compounds were tested for their action on the growth of radical and shoot of Lactuca sativa. (author)

  14. Mancha de Septoria da alface: isolamento, inoculação e avaliação de cultivares em condições de campo e casa de vegetação

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sousa Cristina S.

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho teve como objetivo estabelecer metodologias adequadas para o isolamento e inoculação de Septoria lactucae e avaliação de nove cultivares de alface (Lactuca sativa, Vitória-de-Santo-Antão, Uberlândia 10.000, Maioba, Elba, Aurélia, Black Seeded Simpson, Grand Rapids, Salad Bowl-Mimosa e Babá de Verão, quanto aos níveis de resistência à septoriose, em condições de casa de vegetação e campo. Os melhores resultados obtidos foram: a para isolamento: transferência dos cirros de conídios diretamente para o meio de BDA com os antibióticos estreptomicina, cloranfenicol, ampicilina e rifampicilina; b para inoculação: aspersão das plantas no estádio de seis a oito folhas com a suspensão de inóculo na concentração de 1 x 10(4conídios/ml, e manutenção em câmara úmida por 48 h. Houve diferenças significativas entre as cultivares testadas em casa de vegetação e em campo. Tanto em casa de vegetação quanto em teste de campo as cultivares Maioba e Vitória de Santo Antão foram avaliadas como a mais susceptível e a mais resistente, respectivamente. Diante desses resultados, a metodologia de casa de vegetação pode ser considerada como altamente promissora para a avaliação rápida de grande número de variedades ou materiais genéticos, nos trabalhos de melhoramento de alface para a resistência à S. lactucae.

  15. Potencial fitotóxico com enfoque alelopático de Bauhinia ungulata L. sobre sementes e plântulas de alface e cebola

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristiane Silva Paula

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available O presente trabalho avaliou o efeito do extrato etanólico e diferentes frações das folhas de Bauhinia ungulata L. sobre a germinação, crescimento, respiração e conteúdo de clorofila de plântulas de Lactuca sativa (alface e Allium cepa (cebola. Sementes de alface e cebola foram mantidas em contato com solução das amostras e colocadas em câmara de germinação. Realizaram-se contagens diárias para avaliar a interferência sobre a germinação e crescimento, e verificou-se possíveis interferências sobre a respiração radicular e o conteúdo de clorofila total das folhas das plântulas. Não foi observada nenhuma interferência das amostras sobre a porcentagem de germinação e massa seca das duas espécies. Com relação ao IVG, houve um atraso da germinação das sementes de alface quando em contato com o EB. O crescimento radicular das duas espécies foi inibido principalmente pelas frações EB e FR, sem nenhuma interferência sobre o crescimento do hipocótilo da alface e estímulo do crescimento do coleóptilo da cebola. Redução nos teores de clorofila total da alface e aumento na cebola, assim como estímulo da respiração das raízes. Conclui-se que o extrato e as frações de Bauhinia ungulata L. apresentam compostos químicos com atividade fitotóxica sobre o desenvolvimento de plântulas de alface interferindo principalmente no crescimento radicular, teor de clorofila e respiração radicular das espécies avaliadas.Palavras-chave: Fabaceae. Germinação. Clorofila. Sementes. Pata de Vaca. ABSTRACTPhytotoxic potential with allelopathic focus of Bauhinia ungulata L. on seeds and seedlings of lettuce and onionThis study evaluated the effect of ethanol extract and different fractions of leaves of Bauhinia ungulata L. on germination, growth, respiration and chlorophyll content of seedlings of Lactuca sativa (lettuce and Allium cepa (onion. Seeds of lettuce and onions were put in contact with the sample solution and placed

  16. Cobertura morta do solo no cultivo de alface cv. Regina 2000, em Ji-Paraná/RO Mulching in lettuce cv. Regina 2000, in Ji-Paraná/RO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jimmy Elizio de Carvalho

    2005-10-01

    Full Text Available Conduziu-se este estudo com o objetivo de avaliar o efeito de diferentes materiais de cobertura do solo na produtividade da alface (Lactuca sativa L. cv. Regina 2000. O delineamento experimental utilizado foi o de blocos casualizados, utilizando-se cinco tratamentos (palha de arroz, palha de café, Brachiaria brizantha L., serragem, testemunha sem cobertura morta e quatro repetições. A produtividade foi avaliada pelo número de folhas por planta, acúmulo de massa fresca e massa seca. Verificou-se que todos os materiais empregados como cobertura, controlaram a infestação de plantas invasoras. Entretanto, verificou-se uma grande infestação na testemunha promovendo redução de produtividade.The purpose of this research was to evaluate the effect of different mulching materials on lettuce (Lactuca sativa L. cv. Regina 2000 yield. The experimental design was randomized blocks, with five treatments (rice straw, coffee husk, Brachiaria brizantha L., sawing and control without mulching and four repetitions. The number of leaves per plant and the dry and fresh matter accumulation were evaluated. All materials used as mulching, controlled the weed infestation. However, weed population was greater in the control whit reduction yield in comparison to the others treatments.

  17. Chemical composition of essential oils and in vitro antioxidant activity of fresh and dry leaves crude extracts of medicinal plant of Lactuca Sativa L. native to Sultanate of Oman

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Rahma Said Salim Al Nomaani; Mohammad Amzad Hossain; Afaf Mohammed Weli; Qasim Al-Riyami; Jamal Nasser Al-Sabahi

    2013-01-01

    Objective: To isolate and analyse the chemical composition in the essential oils and free radical scavenging activity of different crude extracts from the fresh and dry leaves of vegetable plants of Lactuca sativa L. (L. sativa). Methods: The essential oils and volatile chemical constituents were isolated from the fresh and dry leaves of L. sativa (lettuce) grown in Sultanate of Oman by hydro distillation method. The antioxidant activity of the crude extracts was carried out by well established free radical scavenging activity (DPPH) method. Results: About 20 chemical compounds of different concentration representing 83.07% and 79.88% respectively were isolated and identified by gas chromatography-mass spectroscopy in the essential oils isolated from the fresh and dry leaves as α-pinene (5.11% and 4.05%), γ-cymene (2.07% and 1.92%), thymol (11.55%and 10.73%), durenol (52.00% and 49.79%), α-terpinene (1.66% and 1.34%), thymol acetate (0.99%and 0.67%), caryophyllene (2.11% and 1.98%), spathulenol (3.09% and 2.98%), camphene (4.11% and 3.65%), limonene (1.28% and 1.11%) representing these major chemical compounds. However, some other minor chemical constituents were also isolated and identified from the essential oil of lettuce including β-pinene, α-terpinolene, linalool, 4-terpineol, α-terpineol, o-methylthymol, L-alloaromadendrene and viridiflorene. Conclusions: The chemical constituents in the essential oils from the locally grown lettuce were identified in the following classes or groups of chemical compounds such as monoterpenes, sesquiterpenes volatile organic compounds and their oxygenated hydrocarbons. Therefore, the essential oils and the crude extracts from Omani vegetable species of lettuce are active candidates which would be used as antioxidant, antifungal or antimicrobial agents in new drugs preparation for therapy of infectious diseases.

  18. Toxicity assessment using Lactuca sativa L. bioassay of the metal(loid)s As, Cu, Mn, Pb and Zn in soluble-in-water saturated soil extracts from an abandoned mining site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bagur-Gonzalez, Maria Gracia [Univ. of Granada, Faculty of Sciences, Dept. of Analytical Chemistry, Granada (Spain); Univ. of Granada-CSIC, Inst. Andaluz de Ciencias de la Tierra, Faculty of Sciences, Granada (Spain); Estepa-Molina, Carmen [Univ. of Granada, Faculty of Sciences, Dept. of Mineralogy and Petrology, Granada (Spain); Martin-Peinado, Francisco [Univ. of Granada, Faculty of Sciences, Dept. of Soil Science, Granada (Spain); Morales-Ruano, Salvador [Univ. of Granada-CSIC, Inst. Andaluz de Ciencias de la Tierra, Faculty of Sciences, Granada (Spain); Univ. of Granada, Faculty of Sciences, Dept. of Mineralogy and Petrology, Granada (Spain)

    2011-02-15

    We used the different soluble-in-water concentrations of As, Cu, Mn, Pb and Zn from contaminated soils in an abandoned mining area (anthropogenic origin) to assess the phytotoxicity of the abandoned site using the results obtained with a Lactuca sativa L. bioassay. Material and methods The study has been carried out on potentially polluted samples from the Rodalquilar mining district (southern Spain). The area was sampled according to the different metallurgical treatments for gold extraction used in each one: dynamic cyanidation and heap leaching. The saturation extracts were obtained by filtering each saturated paste with a vacuum-extraction pump, in which measurements of metal(loid) concentrations, pH and electrical conductivity were made. The variables evaluated in the bioassay, defined as toxicity indices ranging from -1 (maximum phytotoxicity) to >0 (hormesis), were seed germination (SG) and root elongation (RE) of lettuce seeds. Results and discussion In areas with a low degree of contamination, the most sensitive toxicity index is RE, whereas in highly contaminated areas, both RE and SG are good estimators of soil toxicity. According to these results, samples from the western area showed moderate to low toxicity, which was closely related to water-soluble As concentrations. Samples from the eastern area had a high degree of toxicity in 40% of the soils. Conclusions The comparison of the two indices (SG and RE) defined using the L. sativa L. bioassay indicates that, for areas with a low degree of contamination, the most sensitive toxicity index is RE, whereas in highly contaminated areas, both RE and SG are good estimators of soil phytotoxicity. Unsupervised pattern recognition methods such as HCA and PCA enabled us to conclude that the low/moderate phytotoxicity of the soils is related to the extraction process used for the recovery of gold (mainly dynamic cyanidation in tanks located in the eastern area) and to the As and Pb contents. (orig.)

  19. Variação sazonal na alelopatia de extratos aquosos de Coleus barbatus (A. Benth. sobre a germinação e o desenvolvimento de Lactuca sativa L. Seasonal variation in the allelopathy of aqueous extracts from Coleus barbatus (A. Benth. on the germination and development of Lactuca sativa L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L.L. Pelegrini

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar o efeito alelopático de extratos de Coleus barbatus sobre a germinação e desenvolvimento de plântulas de alface. Os experimentos foram conduzidos em laboratório, em diferentes concentrações de extratos obtidos de folhas de falso-boldo (0; 7,5; 15; 22,5; 30%, coletadas nas quatro estações do ano, obtidos por trituração, maceração, infusão e decocção. As sementes de alface foram distribuídas sobre placas de petri umidecidas com 10 mL de solução. Os resultados mostraram que os extratos de folhas afetaram a germinabilidade de sementes de alface apenas na concentração de 30% do extrato preparado por decocção de folhas coletadas no inverno. O índice de velocidade de germinação apresentou redução significativa nos extratos triturados preparados no outono e inverno; na maceração de folhas coletadas no verão e outono e no extrato de decocção preparado no inverno. Os extratos estimularam o crescimento da parte aérea das plântulas de alface, ao passo que, o comprimento das raízes foi afetado pelos extratos, ora inibindo, ora estimulando o crescimento das mesmas. Os extratos de folhas de falso-boldo coletadas nas quatro estações do ano apresentaram efeito alelopático sobre a germinação e o desenvolvimento da alface, sendo que estes variaram em função da sazonalidade da coleta, da forma de obtenção dos extratos e das concentrações testadas.The aim of this study was to evaluate the allelopathic effects of extracts from Coleus barbatus on germination and seedling growth of lettuce. The experiments were conducted in the laboratory using different concentrations (0, 7.5, 15, 22.5, 30% of aqueous extracts from "falso-boldo" leaves harvested in all four seasons; extracts were obtained by grinding, maceration, infusion and decoction. Seeds were distributed on Petri dishes moistened with 10 mL solution. Results showed that the leaf extracts affected the germination of lettuce seeds

  20. A Bayesian analysis of gene flow from crops to their wild relatives: cultivated (Lactuca sativa L.) and prickly lettuce (L. serriola L.) and the recent expansion of L. serriola in Europe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uwimana, Brigitte; D'Andrea, Luigi; Felber, François; Hooftman, Danny A P; Den Nijs, Hans C M; Smulders, Marinus J M; Visser, Richard G F; Van De Wiel, Clemens C M

    2012-06-01

    Interspecific gene flow can lead to the formation of hybrid populations that have a competitive advantage over the parental populations, even for hybrids from a cross between crops and wild relatives. Wild prickly lettuce (Lactuca serriola) has recently expanded in Europe and hybridization with the related crop species (cultivated lettuce, L. sativa) has been hypothesized as one of the mechanisms behind this expansion. In a basically selfing species, such as lettuce, assessing hybridization in natural populations may not be straightforward. Therefore, we analysed a uniquely large data set of plants genotyped with SSR (simple sequence repeat) markers with two programs for Bayesian population genetic analysis, STRUCTURE and NewHybrids. The data set comprised 7738 plants, including a complete genebank collection, which provided a wide coverage of cultivated germplasm and a fair coverage of wild accessions, and a set of wild populations recently sampled across Europe. STRUCTURE analysis inferred the occurrence of hybrids at a level of 7% across Europe. NewHybrids indicated these hybrids to be advanced selfed generations of a hybridization event or of one backcross after such an event, which is according to expectations for a basically selfing species. These advanced selfed generations could not be detected effectively with crop-specific alleles. In the northern part of Europe, where the expansion of L. serriola took place, the fewest putative hybrids were found. Therefore, we conclude that other mechanisms than crop/wild gene flow, such as an increase in disturbed habitats and/or climate warming, are more likely explanations for this expansion. PMID:22512715

  1. Interferência alelopática de Raphanus raphanistrum L. sobre a germinação de Lactuca sativa L. e Solanum lycopersicon L. Allelopathic interference of Raphanus raphanistrum L. on the germination of Lactuca sativa L. and Solanum lycopersicon L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alana Cristina Dorneles Wandscheer

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available O presente trabalho teve como objetivo verificar os possíveis efeitos alelopáticos de Raphanus raphanistrum L. sobre a germinação de sementes de alface e tomate. Para isso, prepararam-se extratos aquosos de folhas e raízes de nabiça, após serem trituradas em liquidificador industrial e o extrato bruto diluído em água destilada até as concentrações de 5 e 10% (m/v. Os testes de germinação foram realizados colocando-se 25 sementes de alface e tomate em placas de Petri, umedecidas com os extratos obtidos, com quatro repetições em cada tratamento. O tratamento controle foi regado somente com água destilada. As sementes foram mantidas em câmara de germinação a 25°C por cinco dias. Após este período, observou-se que todas as concentrações de extrato de nabiça reduziram a porcentagem, a velocidade, o índice de velocidade de germinação e o comprimento radicular de sementes de alface, sendo maior o efeito nos tratamentos com folhas. Em sementes de tomate, somente o extrato de folha 10% reduziu a porcentagem de germinação e o comprimento radicular e do epicótilo. No entanto, extratos de folhas e raiz 10% causaram atraso no processo germinativo e no número de plântulas germinadas por dia, sendo o extrato de folha 10% mais ativo.This article aims at verifying the possible allelopathic effects of Raphanus raphanistrum L. on the germination of lettuce and tomato seeds. For that, we prepare aqueous extracts of nabiça leaves and roots. After the leaves and roots were triturated in industrial blender, we diluted the raw extract in distilled water, until the concentrations of five and ten percent (m/v. The germination tests were accomplished by putting twenty-five lettuce and tomato seeds in Petri plates, which were humidified with the obtained extracts, accomplishing four repetitions in each treatment. The control treatment was only watered with distilled water. The seeds were kept in germination camera at twenty-five degrees

  2. Crescimento, consumo hídrico e composição mineral de alface cultivada em hidroponia com águas salinas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dalva Paulus

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Objetivou-se, com este trabalho, avaliar o crescimento, o consumo hídrico e a extração de nutrientes, por alface (Lactuca sativa L. em sistema hidropônico NFT (fluxo laminar de nutrientes, com a utilização de águas salinas no preparo da solução nutritiva e reposição da lâmina diária evapotranspirada. Foram conduzidos dois experimentos, em ambiente protegido. O delineamento experimental foi em blocos ao acaso, sendo estudados os efeitos de cinco níveis de salinidade da água, utilizando-se NaCl. O aumento da salinidade da água reduziu, de forma linear, o crescimento e o consumo hídrico da alface. A salinidade reduziu a concentração de macronutrientes na parte aérea, mas não se observaram sintomas de deficiência nutricional. O rendimento (massa de matéria fresca da parte aérea foi reduzido entre 6 e 6,5% por dS m-1, no primeiro e segundo cultivo, respectivamente. Os resultados obtidos em sistema de cultivo NFT podem indicar a possibilidade do uso da água salina como alternativa para produção de hortaliças, para produtores que têm disponibilidade restrita de água doce, porém, com redução de produtividade.

  3. Efeito de extratos orgânicos, associados ao surfactante tween 80, na germinação e crescimento de plântulas de alface Effect of organic extracts associated with surfactant Tween 80 on seed germination and seedling growth of lettuce

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cláudio Costa dos Santos

    2004-04-01

    Full Text Available Com este trabalho, visou-se a identificar, por meio de bioensaio, o efeito dos extratos de caruru (Amaranthus retroflexus L., capim-marmelada (Brachiaria plantaginea (Link. Hitchc., mentrasto (Ageratum conyzoides L. e de três cultivares de milho (AG1051, C333 e C435 sobre a germinação e crescimento de alface (Lactuca sativa L. cv. Marisa AG216. Os extratos metanólicos foram concentrados sob vácuo e solubilizados em surfactante Tween 80 a 1% (v/v em água. A seguir, aplicaram-se as soluções obtidas em papel de filtro sobre placa de Petri, onde foi semeada alface. Utilizaram-se água destilada como testemunha e surfactante Tween 80 a 1% como tratamento branco. O extrato de mentrasto, o de caruru e da cultivar de milho AG1051 promoveram redução no índice de velocidade de germinação em relação à testemunha com água destilada. O percentual de germinação foi afetado apenas pelo extrato de mentrasto (82,5% de redução. Todos os extratos e o surfactante Tween 80 provocaram inibição do crescimento de radículas de plântulas de alface, com redução de comprimento de raiz entre 9,53 e 14,83 mm, e de hipocótilo, entre 21,6 a 30,95 mm.This work aimed at identifying, through bioassay, the effect of organic extracts of pigweed (Amaranthus retroflexus L., signal grass (Brachiaria plantaginea (Link. Hitchc., ageratum (Ageratum conyzoides L. and three corn cultivars (AG1051, C333 and C435 on lettuce (Lactuca sativa L. cv. Marisa AG216 germination and seedling. Thus, the methanolic extracts of their straws were concentrated under vacuum and dissolved in 1% (v/v aqueous surfactant Tween 80. Then, the resulting solutions were applied to filter papers contained in Petri dishes, where lettuce was sowed. Distilled water and 1% Tween 80 were used as controls treatment. The corn cultivar extracts AG1051, pigweed and ageratum promoted reduction of the germination index in relation to the control with distilled water. The germination percentage was

  4. Photosynthetic measurements in lettuce submitted to different agroindustrial residue composting Actividad fotosintética de la lechuga (Lactuca sativa L.) en diferente compostaje de residuos agroindustriales Atividade fotossintética em alface (Lactuca sativa L.) submetidas a diferentes compostagens de resíduos agroindustriais

    OpenAIRE

    Claudiana Moura dos Santos; Laurício Endres; Tâmara Claudia de Araújo Gomes; Cleber Júnior Jadoski; Luis Antonio do Nascimento; Emanuelle Dias dos Santos

    2011-01-01

    This work was developed with the objective of evaluate effects of different organic composts on the photosynthesis, gas exchange, chlorophyll fluorescence in lettuce grown under nursery conditions. The experiment was accomplished following a randomized design, with 14 treatments and four replications. Using the following treatments: T1 to T6 (sugarcane based substrates), T7 to T12 (coconut based substrates), T13 (manure) and T14 (mineral fertilization). The following ...

  5. Avaliação ecotoxicológica de lixiviados de lamas provenientes de estações de tratamento de águas. Capacidade de germinação de sementes de alface (lactuca sativa)

    OpenAIRE

    Vieira, Carla Alexandra Moreira

    2009-01-01

    A água superficial para posterior consumo humano, tem de passar por diversas etapas de tratamento, de forma a dar cumprimento aos requisitos da legislação vigente, decreto-Lei n.º 306/2007 de 27 de Agosto. Como resultado do referido tratamento produzem-se resíduos, nomeadamente, as lamas de clarificação de água. De acordo com a estratégia da União Europeia, a deposição em aterro destas lamas apenas deverá ser efectuada em situações excepcionais ou temporárias. A procura de uma ...

  6. Anita: cultivar de alface de verão para cultivo protegido no solo e em hidroponia 'Anita': a new summer lettuce cultivar suitable for protected cultivation in soil and hydroponics systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ernani Clarete da Silva

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available 'Anita' é uma cultivar de alface (Lactuca sativa L. do grupo lisa, de cor verde-clara intensa, cujo desenvolvimento se deu a partir de 1994 no município de Campos dos Goytacazes, RJ. Foi selecionada pelo método genealógico a partir do cruzamento entre as cultivares comerciais Vitória e Brasil 303. As plantas contêm diâmetro médio de cabeça de 55 cm, massa fresca de 700 g e número médio de 55 folhas, conforme resultados de ensaios conduzidos nas quatro estações do ano. Possui resistência ao LMV e ao pendoamento precoce em cultivos de verão. As folhas são grandes, macias, crocrantes e adocicadas, sendo estas características mantidas tanto no cultivo protegido no solo quanto em hidroponia.'Anita' is a lettuce cultivar (Lactuca sativa L. of the loose-leaf group whose leaves are of intense green color. This cv. was developed in Campos dos Goytacazes, Rio de Janeiro State, Brazil, since 1994. "Anita" was selected by the pedigree method through crossings between commercial cultivars Vitória and Brasil 303. After evaluations done during four seasons, there were detected a head mean diameter around 55 cm, average fresh plant weight of 700 g and 55 leaves in average. Plants present resistance to Lettuce Mosaic Virus (LMV and high resistance to bolting in the summer. In both cultivation systems, protected environment or hydroponics, plants present leaves of great size, soft and sweet.

  7. Seedling formation and field production of beetroot and lettuce in Aquidauana, Mato Grosso do Sul, Brazil Formação de mudas e produção a campo de beterraba e alface em Aquidauana-MS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulo AM Leal

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available In horticulture, the proper use of containers and substrates for the production of seedlings are important factors that affect crop productivity in the field. This study aimed to evaluate the effect of different containers and substrates in the production of lettuce (Lactuca sativa, cv Veneranda and beetroot (Beta vulgaris, cv Top Tall Early Wonder seedlings in nursery with monofilament screen, 50% of shading, and the productivity of these species when transplanted to field plots. In protected cultivation, a completely randomized experimental design, in a 3 x 3 factorial scheme (three polystyrene trays, R1= 72, R2= 128 and R3= 200 cells and three substrates, S1= 93% of soil + 7% of organic compost, S2= 86% of soil + 14% of organic compost and S3= 79% of soil + 21% of organic compost was used, with 15 replications, where one plantlet was a replication. In the field, the nine treatments were evaluated in a completely randomized experimental design. The 72 cells tray with 7% commercial organic compost substrate promoted the best beetroot and lettuce seedlings. In the field, the plants from the 72 cell tray produced greater plants, independent of substrates type.Na olericultura o uso adequado de recipientes e substratos para a produção de mudas são fatores importantes e que afetam a produtividade das culturas a campo. No presente trabalho objetivou-se avaliar, em viveiro de tela de monofilamento com 50% de sombreamento, o efeito de diferentes recipientes e substratos na produção de mudas de alface (Lactuca sativa, cv Veneranda e beterraba (Beta vulgaris, cv Top Tall Early Wonder, bem como a produtividade dessas espécies quando transplantadas em canteiros a campo. No ambiente protegido utilizou-se o delineamento experimental inteiramente casualizado, em esquema fatorial 3 x 3, sendo os fatores 3 recipientes (R1= 72, R2= 128 e R3= 200 células de poliestireno e 3 substratos (S1= 93% de solo + 7% de composto orgânico, S2= 86% de solo + 14% de

  8. Estudo do potencial fitotóxico de extratos de Bauhinia ungulata L. sobre a divisão celular e atividade enzimática em plântulas de alface

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. S. PAULA

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available RESUMOEste trabalho visou avaliar a ação fitotóxica de extrato e frações obtidas das folhas de Bauhinia ungulata L sobre a divisão celular e atividade das enzimas α-amilase, catalase, peroxidase e polifenoloxidase em plântulas de alface (Lactuca sativa, var Grand rapis. Sementes de alface foram expostas às concentrações de 250, 500 e 1000 µg.mL-1 do extrato de Bauhinia ungulata e frações do mesmo, em condições ambientais controladas. Após três dias de protusão radicular, as raízes das plântulas foram cortadas e submetidas a preparo específico para visualização e contagem do número de células em cada fase mitótica. No sétimo dia, as amostras foram submetidas à avaliação da atividade enzimática utilizando técnica específica para cada enzima e leitura espectrofotométrica. Na análise da divisão celular observou-se que houve redução no número de células em mitose nas raízes das plântulas testadas, e a fração acetato de etila apresentou maior efeito inibitório sobre a divisão celular. O efeito sobre as enzimas que demonstram alterações no sistema de defesa antioxidante de L. sativa mostram que o extrato bruto e frações alteraram a produção das enzimas α- amilase, peroxidase, catalase e polifenol oxidase em, ao menos, uma das concentrações testadas, sendo um indicativo de estresse que interfere na divisão celular. Os resultados obtidos apontam para a presença de compostos com atividade inibidora ou estimulatória nas folhas de B. ungulata revelando potencial fitotóxico sobre as plântulas de alface.

  9. Efeitos na fotossíntese e área foliar de cultivares de alface inoculadas mecanicamente com patótipos do Lettuce mosaic virus e Lettuce mottle virus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jadão Adriana S

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Levantamentos realizados no estado de São Paulo indicaram a ocorrência isolada e em infecções mistas do Lettuce mosaic virus (LMV e do Lettuce mottle virus (LeMoV em plantas de alface (Lactuca sativa. O presente trabalho teve como objetivo estudar os efeitos da infecção isolada e mista entre o LMV (patótipos II e IV e o LeMoV, em cultivares de alface suscetível (White Boston e tolerante (Elisa - gene mol¹ ao LMV patótipo II. As plantas foram inoculadas via extrato vegetal tamponado com isolados de LMV-II, LMV-IV e LeMoV separadamente e em diferentes combinações, com intervalo de 24 h ou simultaneamente com os dois vírus. As plantas infetadas foram analisadas utilizando-se hospedeiras diferenciais para o LMV e o LeMoV, e no caso do LMV pelo teste sorológico de PTA-ELISA. Nas avaliações de peso fresco e seco, área foliar e teor de clorofila, observou-se que a cultivar White Boston foi a mais afetada por ambos os vírus. As infecções mistas e isoladas na cultivar Elisa causaram efeitos semelhantes, provavelmente devido a presença do gene mo1¹ de tolerância ao LMV-II. O isolado LMV-IV foi considerado o mais agressivo nestas cultivares quando comparado ao LMV-II e o LeMoV.

  10. 有机物料及其用量对生菜生长与Pb含量的影响%Effect of Organic Materials on the Growth and Pb Concentration of Lactuca sativa

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    唐明灯; 艾绍英; 李盟军; 罗英健; 姚建武; 王艳红; 曾招兵; 余丹妮

    2011-01-01

    为了降低叶菜中重金属Pb的含量,选择有机肥、猪粪、牛粪、鸡粪和花生麸5种有机物料为材料,分别以0.5%、1%、2%、4%4个水平的用量施入重金属污染土壤,通过种植3茬生菜(Lactuca sativa L.)的盆栽试验研究有机物料对重金属污染土壤上生菜生长及其Pb含量的影响.结果表明,与对照相比,有机物料利于生菜生长,有提高生菜生物量的趋势;大部分有机物料处理没有显著影响生菜地上部分的Pb含量;5种有机物料中,仅牛粪有提高生菜地上部Pb含量的趋势;生菜Pb含量平均值高低的顺序为牛粪>鸡粪>花生麸>有机肥>猪粪,但不同有机物料之间没有显著差异.与对照相比,大部分处理没有显著影响土壤的DTPA-Pb含量,初步揭示了供试有机物料没有显著影响生菜地上部Pb含量的原因.%There is increasing concern about vegetable safety and environmental heavy metal pollution in the rapidly developing suburb in China, especially in the Pearl River Delta Region, South China. The bioavailability of heavy metals can decrease due to their immobilization by adsorption or binding to organic matter with high molecule weight in soils. Therefore, addition of organic materials to soils may reduce the uptake of heavy metals by crops. Three continuous rounds of pot experiment were conducted to investigated the effect of five organic materials (manure, pig shit, cattle shit, hen shit, earthnut residue, and their application of 0.5%, 1%, 2%, 4% per kg soil, respectively) on the growth and Pb concentrations of lettuce(Lactuca saliva). The results showed that compared with the control, organic materials were beneficial for the growth of lettuce and increased the fresh biomass of lettuce; The growth response of lettuce growing in the soil to five organic material wasn't unanimous, which were in the order of hen shit >earthnut residue >pig shit>cattle shit>manure. Most of treatments affected

  11. Effect of Sludge on the Seed Germination Rate of Chinese Lettuce( Lactuca sativa var.ramose), Cabbage(Brassica pekinensis ) and Tomato(Lycopersicon esculentum )%污泥对白菜·生菜和番茄种子发芽率的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王开强

    2012-01-01

    [ Objective ] To explore the effect of urban sewage sludge on the germination rate of Lactuca sativa var. ramose, Brassica pekinensis and Lycopersicon esculenium. [ Method] A pot experiment is conducted to measure the effect of sludge application quantity on germination rate of Chinese lettuce, cabbage and tomato. [ Result] With the increase of sludge application quantity, the seed germination rate of Chinese lettuce , cabbage and tomato decreased. [ Conclusion] Germination rate of Chinese lettuce, cabbage and tomato is obviously inhibited by sludge.%[目的]研究城市生活污水厂污泥对生菜(Lactuca satuva car.ramose)、白菜(Brassica pekinensis)和番茄(Lycopersicon esculentum)种子发芽率的影响.[方法]通过盆栽试验,测量污泥施用量对生菜、白菜和番茄的种子发芽率的影响.[结果]随着污泥施用量的增加,生菜、白菜和番茄种子发芽率降低.[结论]污泥对生菜、白菜和番茄的发芽率有明显的抑制作用.

  12. Influência de leguminosas no controle de fitonematóides no cultivo orgânico de alface americana e de repolho Influence of legumes in the control of nematodes in organic crisphead lettuce and cabbage crops

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sylvia R. G. Moraes

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available A demanda por produtos orgânicos é crescente devido às restrições ao uso dos agroquímicos sintéticos. Para verificar o efeito das plantas antagonistas no controle de fitonematóides na cultura da alface americana (Lactuca sativa e do repolho (Brassica oleracea var. capitata, em cultivo orgânico, instalou-se um experimento na Universidade Federal de Lavras, no período de dezembro de 2001 a agosto de 2002. O delineamento experimental utilizado foi o de blocos casualizados em esquema fatorial 4 x 2, com três repetições. O primeiro fator foi constituído pelas leguminosas mucuna-preta (Stizolobium aterrimum, feijão-de-porco (Canavalia ensiformis, crotalária (Crotalaria juncea em cultivo orgânico e por uma testemunha (vegetação espontânea em cultivo convencional. O segundo, pelas culturas de alface americana cultivar Raider e repolho, cultivar Kenzan. Os tratamentos foram constituídos por todos em cultivo orgânico e testemunha (vegetação espontânea em cultivo convencional. As populações de Meloidogyne spp. e de Helicothylenchus dihystera foram avaliadas empregando-se a técnica de Jenkins. As amostras de solo utilizadas para quantificar os nematóides foram retiradas aos 45 dias após o plantio das leguminosas; aos 30 e 60 dias após o plantio da alface americana e aos 30, 60 e 90 dias após o plantio do repolho. A incorporação das leguminosas mucuna-preta e crotalária, em cultivo orgânico, reduziu a população de Meloidogyne spp. em 42 e 51%, respectivamente, nessas hortaliças. A leguminosa feijão-de-porco causou redução da população de nematóide apenas nas parcelas com repolho apos 90 dias.The demand for organic products is increasing because of restrictions on the use of synthetic agrochemicals. In order to verify the effect of antagonistic plants on the control of phytonematodes in the culture of crisphead lettuce (Lactuca sativa and cabbage (Brassica oleracea var. capitata, an experiment was installed at the

  13. Produção da alface em função do uso de diferentes fontes de fósforo em solo de Cerrado Lettuce yield under different phosphorus sources use in the cerrado soil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Regina Maria Q. Lana

    2004-09-01

    Full Text Available A alface (Lactuca sativa L. é uma hortaliça bastante exigente em fósforo, sendo pouco tolerante à acidez do solo. O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar a resposta da cultura da alface a diferentes fontes de fertilizantes fosfatados solúveis e reativos de lenta solubilidade, na presença de calagem, visando aumento da produtividade. Utilizou-se o delineamento em blocos casualizados, com seis tratamentos (superfosfato simples, termofosfato magnesiano, superfosfato triplo, Fosmag, fosfato reativo de Arad e testemunha na ausência de fósforo, em quatro repetições, conduzido em um latossolo vermelho Distrófico. Na ausência de fósforo obtiveram-se menores produções e diâmetro de plantas, bem como todas as demais variáveis de crescimento, indicando elevada resposta de fósforo pela cultura da alface. Houve resposta significativa às diferentes fontes de fósforo, no que diz respeito à massa fresca e seca da parte aérea, massa fresca de raízes e teor de P no solo, em ordem decrescente com as fontes Fosmag, superfosfato triplo, superfosfato simples, termofosfato magnesiano e fosfato reativo de Arad. Com relação à massa seca de raízes e diâmetro das plantas, as fontes Fosmag e superfosfato triplo foram equivalentes. Os teores de P acumulados nas folhas foram superiores para as fontes Fosmag, superfosfato triplo e superfosfato simples, quando comparados com o termofosfato magnesiano e Arad, em condições em que a acidez foi corrigida.The lettuce (Lactuca sativa L. is a very demanding crop for phosphorus, being little tolerant to the soil acidity. The response of the lettuce crop to sources of soluble and reactive phosphorus fertilizer of slow solubility was evaluated in the presence of liming. . The experimental design consisted of a randomizing complete block design with six treatments (single superphosphate, thermalphosphate magnesium, triple superphosphate, Fosmag, Arad phosphate rock and control without phosphorus, in four

  14. A questão do nitrato em alface hidropônica e a saúde humana The nitrate issue in hydroponic lettuce and the human health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gean Lopes da Luz

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available A alface (Lactuca sativa L. destaca-se como a espécie mais produzida em sistema hidropônico. Nesse tipo de cultivo, a maior parte do nitrogênio é fornecida na forma de nitrato, o que pode acarretar acúmulo deste íon nos vacúolos celulares. O teor de nitrato nas plantas depende de fatores genéticos, da disponibilidade desse nutriente no sistema radicular e de fatores ambientais. Diversos estudos indicam que o consumo de nitrato pode ser nocivo à saúde humana, causando metahemoglobinemia e câncer gástrico. Porém, pesquisas recentes discorrem que não há ligação entre nitrato e as doenças citadas, destacando ainda o papel benéfico do nitrato à saúde humana, como protetor contra gastrenterites. Existem indícios de que a presença de certas vitaminas em vegetais inibe uma possível ação negativa do nitrato. Altas concentrações de nitrato em alface cultivada sob hidroponia em países do norte europeu causaram apreensão da comunidade científica e de consumidores brasileiros. Porém, as pesquisas realizadas no Brasil demonstram que, por haver maior disponibilidade de radiação solar, devido às menores latitudes, os teores de nitrato encontrados em alface produzida em hidroponia são bastante inferiores aos limites máximos preconizados pela união européia, indicando não haver risco à saúde humana.Lettuce (Lactuca sativa L. is the main vegetable crop produced hydroponically. In this kind of cropping, the majority of nitrogen is provided as nitrate, which may lead to the accumulation of this ion in cells. Nitrate amount in plants depends upon genetic factors, the availability of this nutrient in roots and environmental factors. Several studies have indicated that the consumption of nitrate may be harmful to human health, causing methaemoglobinaemia and gastric cancer. However, recent studies have proposed that there is no link between nitrate and these diseases, and that nitrate may be even good for human health as a

  15. Relação entre coeficientes de cultura e graus-dia de desenvolvimento da alface Relationship between lettuce crop coeficient and growing degree days

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elio L. da Silva

    1999-07-01

    Full Text Available Este estudo foi conduzido na Fazenda Campbell da Universidade do Arizona , no período de junho de 1994 a fevereiro de 1995, com objetivo de determinar a equação do coeficiente de cultura (Kc como função de graus-dia de desenvolvimento (GDD usando a série de senos Fourier, para alface (Lactuca sativa, L., do tipo folhosa. Foram usadas dez parcelas casualizadas, irrigadas de maneira a manter o potencial matricial da água no solo acima ou igual a -20kPa, que constituiram as repetições na determinação dos valores de evapotranspiração máxima da cultura (ETm. Cada parcela foi constituida por seis canteiros de 1,0 m x 7,3 m, com duas linhas de plantas (cultivar Waldmann's Green em cada, com população, após desbaste, de 48 plantas por canteiro. A época de desbaste ocorreu com GDD de 228ºC e Kc médio de 0,4 e a colheita com GDD igual a 742ºC e Kc médio de 1,2. Os valores de Kc como função de GDD, em diferentes estádios do ciclo da cultura, permitiram gerar uma equação que pode ser inserida em programa de computador para manejo de irrigação, considerando um GDD final (GDD de ajuste de 900ºC.This research was carried out at the Campbell Farm of The University of Arizona, from June 1994 to February 1995, with the aim of determining a growing-degree-days-based crop coefficient (Kc equation for leaf lettuce (Lactuca sativa L., using the Fourier sine series model. Ten randomized experimental plots were irrigated, in order to maintain a soil matric potential greater or equal to -20 kPa, as replications for the determination of crop maximum evapotranspiration (ETm. Each plot consisted of six raised beds, 7.3 m long and 1.0 m wide, with two rows of lettuce (Lactuca sativa L., cv. Waldmann's Green thinned to a final population of 48 plants per bed. The thinning time occurred with a GDD of 228ºC and average Kc of 0.4. The harvest time occurred with GDD of 742ºC and average Kc of 1.2. The values of Kc as function of GDD, during the

  16. Alelopatia do extrato aquoso e do óleo essencial de folhas do manjericão "Maria Bonita" na germinação de alface, tomate e melissa Allelopathy of aqueous extract and essential oil of leaves from basil "Maria Bonita" on lettuce, tomato and melissa germination

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L.D.S. Rosado

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi estudar o efeito alelopático do extrato aquoso e do óleo essencial de folhas frescas de Ocimum basilicum L. 'Maria Bonita' no índice de velocidade de germinação, comprimento de raízes e porcentagem de germinação da alface (Lactuca sativa L., de tomate (Lycopersicum esculentum Mill., e de melissa (Melissa officinalis L.. Os extratos foram obtidos pela trituração das folhas frescas e o óleo essencial extraído por hidrodestilação das folhas durante 90 min. Foram utilizadas duas formas de aplicação, extrato aquoso e óleo essencial, cinco concentrações (0,0; 0,001; 0,01; 0,1 e 1,0% v/v, em delineamento inteiramente casualizado, com cinco repetições, com 25 sementes de cada espécie por placa, totalizando 25 parcelas para cada espécie. Através dos resultados obtidos pode-se concluir que os extratos aquosos de manjericão apresentaram efeito significativo apenas para o índice de velocidade de germinação das sementes de tomate e para comprimento de raízes da alface e da melissa. O óleo essencial do manjericão apresentou potencialidades alelopáticas inibitórias em sementes de alface, de tomate e de melissa afetando o índice de velocidade de germinação, o comprimento das raízes e a porcentagem de germinação.The aim of this work was to study the allelopathic effect of aqueous extract and essential oil of fresh leaves from Ocimum basilicum L. 'Maria Bonita' on germination velocity index, root length and germination percentage of lettuce (Lactuca sativa L., tomato (Lycopersicum esculentum Mill., and melissa (Melissa officinalis L.. The extracts were obtained by grounding fresh leaves and the essential oil was extracted through hydrodistillation of the leaves during 90 min. Two application forms were used, aqueous extract and essential oil, five concentrations (0.0; 0.001; 0.01; 0.1 and 1.0% v/v, in completely randomized design, with five replicates including 25 seeds of each species per plot

  17. The roles of hydrogen peroxide generated by polyamine degradation in lettuce (Lactuca sativa L.) seed germination%多胺降解产生H2O2在莴苣种子萌发过程中的作用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张凤芝; 胡文婷; 苏国兴

    2011-01-01

    Normal lettuce seeds (Lactuca sativa L.)were used to study effects of the H2O2 produced from polyamine degradation in the process of lettuce seed germination after treatments with cyclohexylamine ( CHA, a specific inhibitor of Spd synthase) , aminoguanidine ( AG, an inhibitor of polyamine oxidases) and N, N' -dimethylthiourea ( DMTU, a scavenger of H2O2 ).The results showed that three exogenous polyamines especially 0.5 mmol/L Spd could significantly promote the germination of lettuce seeds.Consistent with the result, CHA had an inhibitory effect on the germination of lettuce seeds.Spd induced germination of lettuce may be relevant to the H2O2 production from polyamine degradation.Because Spd could significantly promote the activity of polyamine oxidases and increased H2O2content of imbibed seeds.DMTU could diminish the promotive effects of Spd on seed germination as it could low Spd induced increase of H2O2.AG also alleviated the Spd promotive effects on seed germination due to its inhibitory role in PAO activity.These results suggest that H2O2 produced from polyamine degradation may be involved in the process of lettuce seed germination.%以正常莴苣(Lactuca sativa L.)"挂丝红"种子为材料,采用外源多胺(Put,Spd,Spm)、亚精胺合酶抑制剂-环已胺(CHA)、多胺氧化酶抑制剂-氨基胍(AG)、H2O2清除剂N,N-二甲基硫脲(DMTU)处理,研究多胺降解产物H2O2在莴苣种子萌发过程中的作用.结果表明,三种外源多胺都可以显著促进莴苣种子的萌发,0.5 mmol/L的Spd作用效果最为显著;与此相对应的是CHA对莴苣种子的萌发有抑制作用;Spd对莴苣种子萌发的促进作用可能与多胺氧化降解产生的H2O2有关.因为(1)Spd可显著促进多胺氧化酶活性和增加吸胀种子的H2O2含量.(2)DMTU可降低Spd对H2O2含量的促进作用而抑制Spd对莴苣种子萌发的促进作用.(3)AG显著抑制Spd对莴苣种子萌发过程中PAO活性,而降低Spd对莴苣种子萌发的促进作

  18. Produção de mudas de alface com o uso de substrato preparado com coprólitos de minhoca Prodution of seedlings of lettuce with the use of prepared substrate with earthworm casting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suzana Rodrigues de Souza

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available Com o objetivo de avaliar o efeito de coprólitos de minhoca (Chibui bari Righi & Guerra, 1985 na produção de mudas de alface (Lactuca sativa L. cv. Simpson, realizaram-se dois experimentos em casa de vegetação na Universidade Federal do Acre, ambos no delineamento experimental inteiramente casualizado, com seis tratamentos e seis repetições, totalizando 36 unidades experimentais, representadas por copos plásticos de 180 cm³. Os tratamentos foram definidos a partir da mistura de seis concentrações (0, 20, 40, 60, 80 e 100% de solo e coprólitos. Utilizaram-se dois tipos de solo, eutrófico no experimento 1 e distrófico no experimento 2. Aos 34 dias após a semeadura avaliaram-se a matéria seca da parte aérea, da raiz e total da planta. Os resultados do experimento 1 indicam que o acréscimo de coprólitos a solos eutróficos promove máximo incremento de massa seca da parte aérea e total da planta com concentrações de coprólitos de 13,49% e 17,88%, respectivamente. Entretanto, os resultados do experimento 2 indicam que a adição de coprólitos a solos distróficos, responde a uma função cúbica, com máximo incremento de massa seca da raiz e total da planta com concentrações de coprólitos de 17,49% e 21,40%, respectivamente, com decréscimo em 68,23% e 67,48%, e incremento máximo novamente com 100% de coprólitos para ambas características. O uso de substratos preparados com solo e coprólitos de minhoca somente contribui para o crescimento de mudas de alface se a condição química dos coprólitos for mais adequada que a do solo em atender as necessidades nutricionais das plantas.With the aim of evaluating the effect of earthworm casting (Chibui bari Righi & Guerra, 1985 in the production of lettuce seedlings (Lactuca sativa L. cv. Simpson, two experiments ware carried out in greenhouse in the Federal University of the Acre, both in a completely randomized outline with six treatments and six repetitions, totalizing 36

  19. Resposta de cultivares de alface à salinidade da solução nutritiva com rejeito salino em hidroponia Response of lettuce cultivars to nutrient solution salinity with saline rejects in hydropony

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nildo da S Dias

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available No processo de dessalinização se gera, além da água potável, um rejeito altamente salino e de poder poluente elevado, o qual pode ser utilizado na produção agrícola rentável dependendo da adoção de práticas culturais adequadas e da tolerância das plantas às condições salinas. Nos últimos anos a tendência tem sido a substituição da agricultura convencional por sistemas hidropônicos de cultivos, considerados um dos mais eficientes no uso de água. O objetivo desta pesquisa foi analisar a resposta de duas cultivares de alface sob sistema hidropônico de cultivo (Lactuca sativa L., cvs. Verônica e Babá de verão em diferentes níveis de salinidade da solução nutritiva preparadas com água de abastecimento, água de rejeito coletada no dessalinizador e da sua diluição com água de abastecimento a 75, 50 e 25%, resultando em condutividades elétricas da solução nutritiva (CEs de 1,1; 2,4; 3,6; 4,7 e 5,7 dS m-1 após as diluições e adição de fertilizantes. Ocorreu variação genotípica sob as variáveis de crescimento e produção da alface, exceto para o número de folhas, sendo a cultivar Babá de verão a que produziu maior rendimento, independentemente do nível de salinidade e, portanto, a cultivar mais tolerante à salinidade da água com rejeito salino.In desalination process, besides the potable water, highly salty and polluted water (brine is generated, which can be used for producing profitable crops depending on the adequate cultural practices as well as on the plant ability of reacting to saline conditions. The trend in recent years has been towards conversion of conventional agriculture to soilless agriculture which is considered to be a more efficient use of water system. The aim of this research was to examine the response of two lettuce cultivars (Lactuca sativa L. cvs. Veronica, Babá de verão under hydroponic system to different levels of salinity of the nutrient solutions prepared with tap water

  20. Economic analysis of organic greenhouse lettuce production in Turkey Análise econômica da produção orgânica de alface em estufas na Turquia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sait Engindeniz

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Health issues and environmental concerns have drawn the attention to organic agriculture aiming to protect the natural balance and to produce without damaging the environment. This study aims determining economic feasibility of organic greenhouse lettuce (Lactuca sativa L. in an on farm trial, to foster organic greenhouse vegetable production in the preservation area of Tahtali Dam, projected as the sole water resource of Izmir, Turkey's third largest. A 384 m² greenhouse, constructed of galvanized metal tubing anchored and covered with a polyethylene was analyzed to identify typical operation procedures, and to determine unitary construction and operation cost. Organic lettuces were produced during autumn season of 2001-2002, testing different organic fertilizer applications, including two rates of farmyard and poultry manure (30 and 50 t ha-1 with and without two organic fertilizers based on either bacteria or algae. Economical analysis was performed according to different organic fertilizer applications. Cost, yield, and price data were analyzed to determine the profitability of a typical operation. Net return obtained from organic lettuce growing ranged between us $ 0.376 and us $ 0.901 m-2, as a result of different fertilizer applications.Preocupações sanitárias e ambientais têm atraído a atenção para a prática da agricultura orgânica como meio de proteger o balanço ambiental e produzir sem danificar o ambiente. Este estudo objetiva determinar a viabilidade econômica da produção em estufa da alface (Latuca sativa L. em um ensaio de campo, a fim de incentivar a produção orgânica de vegetais na área de preservação do Reservatório Tahtali, projetado como o único recurso hídrico de Izmir, a terceira maior cidade da Turquia. Uma estufa de tubos galvanizados (384 m², ancorados e cobertos com polietileno, foi analisada para identificar procedimentos operacionais padronizados e determinar custos unitários de construção e

  1. Models to estimate phytomass accumulation of hydroponic lettuce Modelos para estimar o acúmulo de fitomassa de alface em hidroponia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sidinei José Lopes

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available The protected and hydroponics cultivation are increasing in Brazil, demanding a better knowledge of crop performance in this environment. Plant dry matter accumulation as a function of solar radiation, temperature, relative humidity and other weather parameters in greenhouse is different when compared with field cultivation. With the purpose of proposing models to characterize the temporal variation of leaf and total dry matter production of hydroponics-grown lettuce (Lactuca sativa L. and to determine the flowering period and the maximum dry matter accumulation rate as a function of plant relative development (relative degree-days, solar radiation and effective thermal index, two experiments (Spring and Autumn were carried out in the greenhouse, at Santa Maria, Rio Grande do Sul State, Brazil. Growth and development models are useful in obtaining basic information on the plant ´ environment interactions, maximizing the use of resources in greenhouse, as well as, to define the best form of crop management. The cultivar Vera was chosen as function of its earliness. Models were proposed to estimate the temporal variation of dry matter accumulation, where the best results for relative development were obtained using effective degree-days, characterizing the importance of the air temperature for the vegetative phase and the solar radiation for the reproductive. The yield and quality of the lettuce seeds evidenced a high potential of hydroponics technique.O cultivo protegido e o cultivo hidropônico de plantas estão sendo cada vez mais utilizados no Brasil, exigindo maior conhecimento sobre as respostas das plantas nesses ambientes. O acúmulo de massa seca de plantas em cultivo protegido é função da radiação solar, temperatura, umidade e outros elementos climáticos, e é diferente quando comparado com o cultivo a campo. Com o objetivo de propor modelos para caracterizar a variação temporal na massa seca de folhas e total da cultura de

  2. Teor de nitrato em alface hidropônica em função de vazões e períodos de pós-colheita Nitrate content in hydroponic lettuce in function of flow rate and post-harvest periods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio Aprígio

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo do trabalho foi determinar o teor de nitrato (NO3- presente em plantas de alface (Lactuca sativa L. da cultivar Vera, conduzida por hidroponia, em função de vazões e períodos de pós-colheita. O experimento foi realizado no município de Cascavel, PR, em casa de vegetação da Universidade Estadual do Oeste do Paraná (UNIOESTE. As plantas foram nutridas mediante utilização de uma solução nutritiva caracterizada por possuir condutividade elétrica média de 1,2 dS m-1 e que, ao percorrer toda a bancada de cultivo, retornava ao tanque de irrigação e reiniciava o processo, constituindo, desta forma, um sistema fechado. No experimento, utilizou-se o delineamento inteiramente casualizado com oito repetições que foram representadas, individualmente, por duas plantas de alface, no esquema fatorial (3 x 4. Os tratamentos resultaram da combinação entre três vazões (0,5; 1,0 e 1,5 L min-1 e quatro períodos de armazenamento pós-colheita (0; 24; 48 e 72 h. A determinação do teor de nitrato foi realizada por meio do método colorimétrico e os valores obtidos foram inferiores ao limite máximo exigido pela Comunidade Europeia. Os fatores investigados influenciaram significativamente os teores médios de nitrato.The objective of this study was to determine the nitrate (NO3- content present in lettuce plants (Lactuca sativa L. of the Vera cultivar, produced under hydroponic system, in function of different flow rates and post-harvest periods. The experiment was conducted in the city of Cascavel-PR, in a greenhouse of the Universidade Estadual do Oeste do Paraná (UNIOESTE. The plants were nourished by the use of a nutrient solution, characterized by mean electrical conductivity of 1.2 dS m-1 which after passing the entire growing bench, returned to the irrigation tank and restarted the process, forming a closed system. The experiment was conducted in completely randomized design with eight replications, which were represented

  3. Irradiation of lettuce (Lactuca sativa. L.): microbiological and sensory aspects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The increasing demand for fresh foods have stimulated the marketing of minimally processed vegetables. However, these products maintain most of their natural microbiota even after being sanitized, including pathogenic microorganisms. Refrigerated storage allows the growth of psychotropic microorganisms and among them the pathogen Listeria monocytogenes. The ingestion of food contaminated with L. monocytogenes may represent a risk to pregnant women and their fetuses and to immunocompromised people. Non-thermal alternative processes for food preservation, such as irradiation, can reduce pathogenic and spoilage microorganism populations without impairing substantial changes in sensory, physical or chemical attributes. The aims of this research were to evaluate the effect of gamma radiation on L. monocytogenes artificially inoculated on minimally processed lettuce, to evaluate its effect on lettuce leaves through acceptance sensory test and to determine the irradiated vegetable shelf life through sensory and microbiological tests. A mixture of 4 types of lettuce (Iceberg, Boston, Loose-leaf and Red loose-leaf) were artificially inoculated with L. monocytogenes (7 log UFC/g lettuce) and then exposed to 0.3; 0.6; 0.9 and 1.2 kGy, under refrigeration. The DlO values for L. monocytogenes varied fram 0.18 to 0.21 kGy. Sensory and microbiological tests indicated that the shelf life of Iceberg lettuce stored at 7 deg C was 5 and 7 days for the irradiated and non-irradiated samples, respectively, and for the irradiated and non-irradiated Loose-leaf lettuce samples were 10 days. For the non-irradiated Boston sample, the shelf life was 3 days and for the Irradiated 7 days. Red loose-leaf showed 5 and 4 days of shelf lives for the irradiated and non-irradiated, respectively. Irradiated samples presented better microbiological quality than non-irradiated ones. The irradiation is feasible process to improve quality and safety of lettuce leaves. (author)

  4. Produção de mudas de alface em substrato alternativo com adubação Production of lettuce seedlings using alternative substrates and fertilizer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luiz Antonio Augusto Gomes

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Substratos alternativos, além de permitirem a produção de mudas de qualidade, reduzem os custos de produção. Neste trabalho avaliou-se a produção de mudas de alface (Lactuca sativa L. utilizando misturas de casca de arroz carbonizada e húmus de minhoca com diferentes doses de SulPoMag®. O trabalho foi desenvolvido nas instalações da HortiAgro Sementes Ltda, em Ijaci (MG. Utilizou-se o delineamento de blocos casualizados, com cinco tratamentos e quatro repetições, sendo os tratamentos 1: 70% de húmus de minhoca (HM e 30% de casca de arroz carbonizada (CAC, adicionados de 12,2 g de fosfato de Arad (FA por litro da mistura, e tratamentos 2, 3 e 4: com as mesmas quantidades de HM, CAC, e FA, adicionadas, respectivamente, de 2,0; 4,0 e 8,0 g de SulPoMag®. Como testemunha utilizou-se o substrato comercial Bioplant®. Avaliaram-se as características de massa fresca de parte aérea (MFPA e raiz (MFRZ; massa seca de parte aérea (MSPA e raiz (MSRZ; teor de matéria seca de parte aérea (TMSPA e raiz (TMSRZ e condutividade elétrica (CE em dS m-1 dos substratos. O substrato comercial e o tratamento 1 apresentaram maiores valores de MFPA e MSPA. Os outros tratamentos, independentemente das doses de SulPoMag®, não diferiram entre si para MFPA. Para MSPA, o comportamento foi o mesmo, à exceção do tratamento 3, que foi semelhante ao tratamento 1 e ao substrato comercial. O aumento das doses de SulPoMag® resultou em uma elevação da condutividade elétrica para todos os tratamentos de forma linear. A produção de mudas de alface semelhante àquela obtida com o substrato comercial é viável, utilizando-se matéria prima obtida na propriedade. A produção de MFPA foi afetada negativamente pela adição de SulPoMag® ao substrato.Alternative substrates, besides allowing the production of quality seedlings, reduce the production costs. In this work we evaluated the production of lettuce seedlings (Lactuca sativa L. using mixtures of

  5. Doses de nitrogênio e molibdênio no rendimento e teor de micronutrientes em alface americana Doses of nitrogen and molybdenum effects on yield and micronutrient content of crisphead lettuce plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Geraldo M de Resende

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available O trabalho foi conduzido no município de Três Pontas, Sul de Minas Gerais, de outubro a dezembro de 2002, com o objetivo de avaliar a influência de doses de nitrogênio (N e molibdênio (Mo no rendimento e teor de micronutrientes da alface americana. Utilizou-se o delineamento de blocos casualizados em arranjo fatorial 4 x 5, compreendendo quatro doses de N (0, 60, 120 e 180 kg ha-1 em cobertura adicionais à dose aplicada pelo produtor de 60 kg ha-1 e cinco doses de Mo via foliar (0,0; 35,1; 70,2; 105,3 e 140,4 g ha-1 com três repetições. O maior rendimento de massa fresca comercial foi obtido com a dose de 89,1 kg ha-1 de N em cobertura e 94,2 g ha-1 de Mo. Os resultados indicaram incremento nos teores de boro, zinco, ferro e manganês com o aumento das doses de N e Mo. Em relação ao teor de cobre verificou-se efeito significativo da interação N x Mo, evidenciando para a maior dose de Mo (140,4 g ha-1 uma redução linear com o aumento das doses de N.The trial was carried out in Três Pontas, Minas Gerais State, Brazil, from October to December, 2002, to evaluate the influence of doses of nitrogen and molybdenum on yield and macronutrient uptake of crisphead lettuce (Lactuca sativa L.. A randomized complete block design scheme with three replications was used, in which the treatments were a factorial combination of nitrogen rates (0, 60, 120 and 180 kg ha-1 of N in top dressing in addition to the dose used by farmers (60 kg ha-1 of N and five foliar molybdenum rates (0.0; 35.1; 70.2; 105.3 and 140.4 g ha-1. The highest yield of commercial fresh mass was obtained using the dose of 89.1 kg ha-1 of nitrogen in top dressing and 94.2 g ha-1 of molybdenum. The results indicated an increase in the levels of Ca, Zn, Fe and Mn as a consequence of the application of higher doses of nitrogen and molybdenum. Significant effect of the interaction N x Mo on the Cu level was verified and it was evidenced, for the highest molybdenum level (140.4 g

  6. Crescimento e acúmulo de crômio em alface cultivada em dois latossolos tratados com CrCl3 e resíduos de curtume

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Aquino Neto

    2000-03-01

    Full Text Available Resíduos sólidos de curtume e CrCl3 foram aplicados em dois solos, Latossolo Roxo eutrófico (LRe unidade Ribeirão Preto e Latossolo Vermelho-Amarelo (LVA unidade Laranja Azeda, que se diferenciaram, dentre outros atributos, pelo teor de manganês facilmente redutível. Os resíduos utilizados foram lodo do efluente de caleiro com concentração 0,06 g kg-1 de crômio (LCL e um lodo do decantador primário (LCR, contendo 17,4 g kg-1 de crômio, ambos na matéria seca, aplicados em doses correspondentes a 10, 20 e 30 Mg ha-1 e 19, 38 e 57 Mg ha-1 (base seca, respectivamente, de acordo com o teor de nitrogênio total de cada um. O CrCl3 foi aplicado nas doses de 330, 660 e 990 kg ha-1 de Cr, equivalentes às doses do metal aplicadas na forma de lodo (LCR. Realizou-se o experimento em vasos alocados em casa de vegetação (blocos ao acaso, que foram monitorados quanto à formação de Cr6+, aos 1, 6, 14, 28, 54 e 86 dias da instalação. Após o 56° dia de incubação, foi transplantada uma muda de alface (Lactuca sativa L. para cada vaso, cultivada por um período de trinta dias. A oxidação do Cr3+ a Cr6+ foi verificada apenas para o LRe nos tratamentos que receberam doses crescentes de CrCl3. A formação de Cr6+ teve máximo entre 0,72 e 1,16% do Cr3+ aplicado, após um dia de incubação, decrescendo com o tempo, não sendo detectada a sua presença, para nenhuma das doses, após o 54° dia. A aplicação dos resíduos elevou a condutividade elétrica do extrato de saturação (2:1 de 1,40 a 5,07 Ds m-1 e a RAS de 3,05 a 14,12, afetando o desenvolvimento da alface e causando a morte das plantas nas doses mais altas, sendo tais efeitos mais pronunciados no LVA. A concentração de crômio na parte aérea das plantas aumentou, nem sempre de forma proporcional, com o aumento das doses aplicadas na forma de lodo ou sal, com efeito mais acentuado para o LVA do que para o LRe. A aplicação de resíduos de curtume no experimento, para ambos os

  7. Screening for resistance to lettuce downy mildew (Bremia lactucae)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Screening methods of Lactuca spp. for resistance to Bremia lactucae (lettuce downy mildew) are described in this chapter. Procedures of isolation, cultivation and maintenance of B. lactucae isolates are summarised. Resistance screening can be carried out either on lettuce seedlings, detached cotyledon leaves, leaf disks or parts of true leaves from adult plants. Methodology of inoculum preparation, inoculation and incubation conditions is described. For the assessment infection degree, a qualitative or quantitative approach is used. A basic differential set of Lactuca spp: used for testing B. lactucae isolates and virulence phenotypes of the most important B. lactucae races was established, including the denomination of races by the sextet code. The methods described have a broad application both in practice and research. They are useful for resistance screening of new breeding material, for searching for new sources of resistance in Lactuca spp. germplasm, for investigating plant resistance mechanisms and also for the study of virulence variation in B. lactucae isolates and populations. (author)

  8. Optical properties of Lactuca and Taraxacum seed and fruit coats: Their role as light filters [phytochrome, photoblasty, fiber optics, transmission, spectra

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The optical properties of seed and fruit coats were examined from several varieties of light-sensitive achenes. Taraxacum vulgare L. and Lactuca sativa L. cv. Grand Rapids achenes with dark fruit coats and L. sativa cvs Huvudsallat and Issallat with white fruit coats were examined. Transmission spectra varied among the different achenes: white fruit coats of Lactuca acted as neutral density filters between 450 and 780 nm, whereas Taraxacum transmitted 2–36% in this region. The ribbed fruit coat structure greatly affected transmission so that at different locations in the same coat, transmission varied between 20 to 80% at 660 and 730 nm. Fruit coats of Grand Rapids lettuce and Taraxacum transmitted more far-red than red light with T660/T730 ratios of 0.8 and 0.4, respectively. The relationship between the optical properties of fruit coats and light-stimulated germination is discussed. (author)

  9. Efeitos da cobertura do solo com filme de polietileno azul no consumo de água da cultura da alface cultivada em estufa Effects of the soil covering with blue colored polyethylene film on lettuce crop consumptive water-use in a gree

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandre O. Gonçalves

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available A cobertura do solo é uma prática agrícola que visa, principalmente, a controlar as plantas invasoras, a diminuir as perdas de água por evaporação do solo e a facilitar a colheita e a comercialização, uma vez que o produto se torna mais limpo e sadio. Porém, ao se cobrir o solo, também são alterados parâmetros importantes do microclima e, conseqüentemente, a germinação das sementes, o crescimento das raízes, a absorção de água e nutrientes, a atividade metabólica das plantas e o armazenamento de carboidratos. O objetivo do presente trabalho foi avaliar o efeito da cobertura do solo com filme de polietileno azul no consumo de água da cultura da alface (Lactuca sativa L.. O experimento foi instalado em uma estufa convencional, no município de Araras - SP, e conduzido durante o período de 22-3-2001 a 1º-5-2001. O consumo de água foi medido em dois lisímetros de pesagem instalados no interior da estufa. O espaçamento da cultura foi de 0,25 m x 0,25 m. Também foi avaliado o índice de área foliar (IAF em seis épocas distintas e determinada a eficiência do uso de água (EU ao final do ciclo da cultura. O delineamento estatístico foi o de blocos inteiramente casualizados, com dois tratamentos, "solo descoberto" e "solo coberto". O consumo médio de água foi de 4,17 mm dia-1 para o tratamento "solo descoberto" e de 3,11 mm dia-1 para o tratamento "solo coberto". O índice médio de área foliar não diferiu estatisticamente entre os tratamentos.The covering of the soil is an agricultural practice that intends to control the harmful herbs, to reduce the losses of water by evaporation of the soil, and to facilitate the harvest and the commercialization, once the product is cleaner and healthier. However, when the soil is covered important microclimatic parameters are also altered, and consequently the germination of seeds, the growth of roots, the absorption of water and nutrients, the metabolic activity of the plants and

  10. Influência da condutividade elétrica, concentração iônica e vazão de soluções nutritivas na produção de alface hidropônica Effect of electric conductivity, ionic concentration and flow of nutrient solutions in the production of hidroponic lettuce

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Celso Helbel Junior

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available Objetivou-se, neste trabalho, estudar os efeitos de diferentes soluções nutritivas aplicadas em duas vazões na produção hidropônica da alface (Lactuca sativa, cultivada pelo sistema NFT (Nutritive Film Technique. O experimento foi conduzido em casa de vegetação, na unidade de pesquisa em agricultura irrigada da Universidade Estadual de Maringá. Os tratamentos constaram de três soluções nutritivas com concentrações diferentes (S1=0,8 dS/m, S2=1,2 dS/m e S3=2,5 dS/m, combinadas com duas vazões de aplicação (V1=0,8 L.min-1 e V2=1,2 L.min-1 nos canais de cultivo em esquema fatorial 3 x 2. Para avaliar o efeito dos tratamentos no desenvolvimento da cultura os dados foram submetidos à análise de variância (teste F, e os resultados avaliados através de teste de média de Tukey (5%. A análise dos resultados permitiu concluir que os fatores solução e vazão não apresentaram interação significativa e que os maiores valores avaliados de biomassa fresca e diâmetro do caule foram obtidos no tratamento solução 2 (CE= 1,2 dS/m.The porpose of this work was to study the effect of different nutrient solutions applied in two outflow in the hidroponic yeld of lettuce (Lactuca sativa. This research was accomplished at greenhouse through hydroponic system NFT in Maringá State University. The treatments consisted of three nutrient solutions (S1=0,8 dS/m, S2=1,2 dS/m e S3=2,5 dS/m combined with two flows of application (V1=0,8 L.min-1 e V2=1,2 L.min-1 in the growing channels of cultivation. The flows of application of the solutions were 0,8 L.min-1 (V1 and 1,2 L.min-1 (V2, placed alternately in the growing channels in a 3 x 2 factorial scheme. To evaluate the effect of treatments on the culture development the data were submitted to the variance analysis (Test F, and the results were evaluated through Tukey (5% average test. The analysis of the results allowed to conclude that the factories nutrient solution and flow did not show

  11. Efeito da concentração da solução nutritiva no crescimento da alface em cultivo hidropônico-sistema NFT Effects of the concentration of nutrient solution on lettuce growth in hydroponics-NFT system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nilton Nélio Cometti

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Foi avaliado o crescimento da alface (Lactuca sativa L. cv 'Vera' em um sistema hidropônico NFT com diferentes concentrações da solução nutritiva. O experimento foi realizado em casa de vegetação de abril a maio de 2000, na UFRRJ, Seropédica (RJ. Os tratamentos constaram de quatro soluções nutritivas, diferentes quanto à concentração de macronutrientes: 100; 50; 25 e 12,5% da concentração original proposta por Furlani (1997. A produção de massa seca (parte comercial em solução nutritiva a 50% da concentração original, e condutividade elétrica em torno de 0,98 dS m-1, foi semelhante à solução a 100% da força iônica. As produções obtidas com 100 e 50% da força iônica estiveram dentro da faixa de 90% da produção máxima, calculada em 75±1% da força iônica da solução nutritiva, simulada por equação de regressão. Entretanto, o uso de concentrações menores resultou em redução no crescimento de 50% com a solução a 25% e 80% com a solução a 12,5% da força iônica, nas condições de luz e temperatura em que o experimento foi conduzido. A redução da concentração da solução nutritiva permite uma economia de pelo menos 50% no custo da solução nutritiva básica, reduzindo-se a solução inicial para 1,00 dS m-1, sem comprometer a produtividade.The growth of lettuce (Lactuca sativa L. cv 'Vera' was evaluated in a NFT hydroponic system with different nutrient solution concentrations. An experiment was carried out in a greenhouse from April to May, 2000 in Rio de Janeiro State, Brazil. Four treatments were used differing in macro nutrient concentration: 100; 50; 25 and 12.5% of the original concentration of the solution proposed by Furlani (1997. Using 50% of the original concentration with electric conductivity around 0,98 dS m-1, plants produced the same shoot dry mass as using 100% of the ionic strength. In this trial, the phytomass yield using 100 and 50% of the ionic strength was within the range

  12. Energy production from marine biomass (Ulva lactuca)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nikolaisen, L.; Daugbjerg Jensen, P.; Svane Bech, K. [Danish Technological Institute (DTI), Taastrup (Denmark)] [and others

    2011-11-15

    In this project, methods for producing liquid, gaseous and solid biofuel from the marine macroalgae Ulva lactuca has been studied. To get an understanding of the growth conditions of Ulva lactuca, laboratory scale growth experiments describing N, P, and CO{sub 2} uptake and possible N{sub 2}O and CH{sub 4} production are carried out. The macroalgae have been converted to bioethanol and methane (biogas) in laboratory processes. Further the potential of using the algae as a solid combustible biofuel is studied. Harvest and conditioning procedures are described together with the potential of integrating macroalgae production at a power plant. The overall conclusions are: 1. Annual yield of Ulva lactuca is 4-5 times land-based energy crops. 2. Potential for increased growth rate when bubbling with flue gas is up to 20%. 3. Ethanol/butanol can be produced from pretreated Ulva of C6 and - for butanol - also C5 sugars. Fermentation inhibitors can possibly be removed by mechanical pressing. The ethanol production is 0,14 gram pr gram dry Ulva lactuca. The butanol production is lower. 4. Methane yields of Ulva are at a level between cow manure and energy crops. 5. Fast pyrolysis produces algae oil which contains 78 % of the energy content of the biomass. 6. Catalytic supercritical water gasification of Ulva lactuca is feasible and a methane rich gas can be obtained. 7. Thermal conversion of Ulva is possible with special equipment as low temperature gasification and grate firing. 8. Co-firing of Ulva with coal in power plants is limited due to high ash content. 9. Production of Ulva only for energy purposes at power plants is too costly. 10. N{sub 2}O emission has been observed in lab scale, but not in pilot scale production. 11. Analyses of ash from Ulva lactuca indicates it as a source for high value fertilizers. 12. Co-digestion of Ulva lactuca together with cattle manure did not alter the overall fertilization value of the digested cattle manure alone. (LN)

  13. Produção de sementes de alface em cultivo hidropônico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Menezes Nilson Lemos de

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available Sementes de alface das cultivares Deyse e Regina foram produzidas em estufa, no sistema hidropônico, com elevados rendimentos por planta e boa qualidade de sementes, quando comparados a resultados de sistema convencional, de canteiros em campo. Esses dados sugerem estudos de produção de sementes de alface em cultivo protegido.

  14. Nutritional value of green seaweed (Ulva lactuca for broiler chickens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alaeldein M. Abudabos

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available The current work aimed to assess the potential of the green seaweed Ulva lactuca (U. lactuca as an alternative ingredient in broiler chicken diets. The effect of substituting 1.0 or 3.0% of corn with U. lactuca on performance, carcass characteristics, serum constituents and nutrients retention of broilers from 12 to 33 d of age was evaluated. Three treatments were distributed in a RCBD design: T1 = control diet (0% U. lactuca; T2 = 1.0 % U. lactuca; T3 = 3.0 % U. lactuca. Cumulative feed intake (FI, body weight gain (BWG, feed conversion ratio (FCR and nutrients retention from 12 to 33 d of age were not affected by treatment (P>0.05. Birds which had received T3 had a higher dressing percentage and breast muscle yield compared to those which had received T1 or T2. Serum total lipid, cholesterol and uric acid concentrations were significantly lower in birds which had received T2 and T3 (P<0.05. Serum enzymes and electrolytes were not influenced by any dietary treatment except for alanine transaminase (ALT which was significantly lower for the treated groups. Based on presented evidences, it is recommended to substitute 3.0% of corn with green seaweed (U. lactuca.

  15. Effects of Nitrogen Fertilizers on the Growth and Nitrate Content of Lettuce (Lactuca sativa L.)

    OpenAIRE

    Cheng-Wei Liu; Yu Sung; Bo-Ching Chen; Hung-Yu Lai

    2014-01-01

    Nitrogen is an essential element for plant growth and development; however, due to environmental pollution, high nitrate concentrations accumulate in the edible parts of these leafy vegetables, particularly if excessive nitrogen fertilizer has been applied. Consuming these crops can harm human health; thus, developing a suitable strategy for the agricultural application of nitrogen fertilizer is important. Organic, inorganic, and liquid fertilizers were utilized in this study to investigate...

  16. Improving Water Use Efficiency of Lettuce (Lactuca sativa L.) Using Phosphorous Fertilizers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alkhader, Asad M F; Abu Rayyan, Azmi M

    2013-01-01

    A greenhouse pot experiment was conducted to evaluate the effect of phosphorous (P) fertilizers application to an alkaline calcareous soil on the water use efficiency (WUE) of lettuce cultivar "robinson" of iceberg type. Head fresh and dry weights, total water applied and WUE were affected significantly by the P fertilizer type and rate. P fertilizers addition induced a significant enhancement in the WUE and fresh and dry weights of the crop. A local phosphate rock (PR) applied directly was found to be inferior to the other types of P fertilizers (Mono ammonium phosphate (MAP), Single superphosphate (SSP), and Di ammonium phosphate ((DAP)). MAP fertilizer at 375 and 500 kg P2O5/ha application rates recorded the highest significant values of head fresh weight and WUE, respectively. PMID:24255857

  17. NUTRIENTS DYNIMIC IN AN AQUAPONIC RECIRCULATING SYSTEM FOR STURGEON AND LETTUCE (LACTUCA SATIVA PRODUCTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    LORENA SFETCU

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Aquaponics are modern production systems, which integrate the aquaculture technology with hydroponic systems (vegetable production without soil with a goal of fructification of residual nutrients resulted from metabolic activity of fish biomass as high quality vegetable biomass sealable as ecological products. In the present study, as a first step in aquaponic recirculating systems evaluation, the authors aim to compare two types of recirculating systems: classical (hereby noted with RAS and integrated/aquaponic (RAS_A regarding water quality parameters generally, and TAN (total ammonia nitrogen production and transformation, particularly.

  18. Nutritional value, bioactive compounds, and health benefits of lettuce (Lactuca sativa L.)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lettuce is one of the most popularly consumed vegetables worldwide but its nutritional value has been underestimated. Lettuce is low in calories and fat but high in fiber. Moreover, lettuce is high in potassium but low in sodium. Lettuce is also a good source of health-beneficial bioactive compounds...

  19. Quantitative detection of Salmonella enterica and the specific interaction with Lactuca sativa

    OpenAIRE

    Klerks, M.M.

    2007-01-01

    Salmonella is among the most commonly known bacterial pathogens to cause human illness. Often Salmonellosis is associated with the consumption of contaminated foods like meat, eggs or egg products. However, during the last decades an increase of outbreaks is recognized to be caused by human pathogenic bacteria in association with fresh produce. The use of manure for production of vegetables, e.g. lettuce, contributes significantly to the risk of contamination of fresh produce. Enteric pathoge...

  20. Genetic Control of Water and Nitrate Capture and Their Use Efficiency in Lettuce (Lactuca sativa L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kerbiriou, Pauline J; Maliepaard, Chris A; Stomph, Tjeerd Jan; Koper, Martin; Froissart, Dorothee; Roobeek, Ilja; Lammerts Van Bueren, Edith T; Struik, Paul C

    2016-01-01

    Robustness in lettuce, defined as the ability to produce stable yields across a wide range of environments, may be associated with below-ground traits such as water and nitrate capture. In lettuce, research on the role of root traits in resource acquisition has been rather limited. Exploring genetic variation for such traits and shoot performance in lettuce across environments can contribute to breeding for robustness. A population of 142 lettuce cultivars was evaluated during two seasons (spring and summer) in two different locations under organic cropping conditions, and water and nitrate capture below-ground and accumulation in the shoots were assessed at two sampling dates. Resource capture in each soil layer was measured using a volumetric method based on fresh and dry weight difference in the soil for soil moisture, and using an ion-specific electrode for nitrate. We used these results to carry out an association mapping study based on 1170 single nucleotide polymorphism markers. We demonstrated that our indirect, high-throughput phenotyping methodology was reliable and capable of quantifying genetic variation in resource capture. QTLs for below-ground traits were not detected at early sampling. Significant marker-trait associations were detected across trials for below-ground and shoot traits, in number and position varying with trial, highlighting the importance of the growing environment on the expression of the traits measured. The difficulty of identifying general patterns in the expression of the QTLs for below-ground traits across different environments calls for a more in-depth analysis of the physiological mechanisms at root level allowing sustained shoot growth. PMID:27064203

  1. Non-destructive monitoring of agricultural product (lettuce [Lactuca sativa]) based on laser-induced fluorescence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Quality control of agricultural products in process of cultivation and distribution has become an important problem. This paper describes a field measuring method of lettuce based on laser induced fluorescence (LIF) spectroscopy for growth monitoring. Intensity at 460nm of LIF spectra showed characteristic variations of near harvest time. The results of chemical analysis confirmed that sucrose and chlorogenic acid are origins of the 460nm fluorescence. The prediction of harvest time and the possibility of quality monitoring are discussed based on the experimental data

  2. Physiological and Molecular Responses of Lactuca sativa to Colonization by Salmonella enterica Serovar Dublin▿

    OpenAIRE

    Klerks, M.M.; Gent-Pelzer, van, M.P.E.; Franz, E; Zijlstra, C.; Bruggen, van, A.C.

    2007-01-01

    This paper describes the physiological and molecular interactions between the human-pathogenic organism Salmonella enterica serovar Dublin and the commercially available mini Roman lettuce cv. Tamburo. The association of S. enterica serovar Dublin with lettuce plants was first determined, which indicated the presence of significant populations outside and inside the plants. The latter was evidenced from significant residual concentrations after highly efficient surface disinfection (99.81%) a...

  3. Phytochemical relationship of Euphorbia helioscopia and Euphorbia pulcherrima with Lactuca sativa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rehman, Hafiza Ayesha; Yousaf, Zubaida; Rashid, Madiha; Younas, Afifa; Arif, Ayesha; Afzal, Ismah; Akram, Waheed

    2014-01-01

    Allelopathy is an important phenomenon that modifies the ecosystem. A plant can enhance or reduce the growth of other plant due to the presence of a number of allelochemicals in its different parts. Euphorbia helioscopia and Euphorbia pulcherrima are medicinal plant species. Both these species are collected from wild resources for various purposes. To reduce the pressure on wild population, it is important to bring them into cultivation. Therefore, the allelopathic effects of E. helioscopia and E. pulcherrima on the growth of lettuce seeds were studied. Three different concentrations (2%, 4% and 6%) of five different solvents (methanol, acetone, ethyl acetate, n-hexane and distilled water) were used to estimate the allelopathic potential of the above-mentioned Euphorbia species. Results indicated a non-significant growth inhibitory effect of both plants on lettuce seeds. Different extracts reduced the growth of test plant to some extent but this inhibition was not significant. From the observed results, it was concluded that the studied Euphorbia species, being medicinally important crops, can be introduced as intercrop with other cash crops. PMID:25075544

  4. Effects of Nitrogen Fertilizers on the Growth and Nitrate Content of Lettuce (Lactuca sativa L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cheng-Wei Liu

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Nitrogen is an essential element for plant growth and development; however, due to environmental pollution, high nitrate concentrations accumulate in the edible parts of these leafy vegetables, particularly if excessive nitrogen fertilizer has been applied. Consuming these crops can harm human health; thus, developing a suitable strategy for the agricultural application of nitrogen fertilizer is important. Organic, inorganic, and liquid fertilizers were utilized in this study to investigate their effect on nitrate concentrations and lettuce growth. The results of this pot experiment show that the total nitrogen concentration in soil and the nitrate concentration in lettuce increased as the amount of nitrogen fertilizer increased. If the recommended amount of inorganic fertilizer (200 kg·N·ha−1 is used as a standard of comparison, lettuce augmented with organic fertilizers (200 kg·N·ha−1 have significantly longer and wider leaves, higher shoot, and lower concentrations of nitrate.

  5. NUTRIENTS DYNIMIC IN AN AQUAPONIC RECIRCULATING SYSTEM FOR STURGEON AND LETTUCE (LACTUCA SATIVA) PRODUCTION

    OpenAIRE

    LORENA SFETCU; Cristea, V.; L. OPREA

    2013-01-01

    Aquaponics are modern production systems, which integrate the aquaculture technology with hydroponic systems (vegetable production without soil) with a goal of fructification of residual nutrients resulted from metabolic activity of fish biomass as high quality vegetable biomass sealable as ecological products. In the present study, as a first step in aquaponic recirculating systems evaluation, the authors aim to compare two types of recirculating systems: classical (hereby noted with RAS) an...

  6. Effect of fresh and composted espresso spent coffee on soil and Lactuca sativa L. mineral composition

    OpenAIRE

    Gomes, Teresa; Cruz, Rebeca; Pereira, J. A.; Ramalhosa, Elsa; Casal, Susana; Baptista, Paula

    2013-01-01

    Espresso spent coffee grounds (ESC) comprises solid residues obtained after espresso coffee preparation, which are massively generated worldwide, being unfortunately disposed together with common garbage. Still, there are several references about its application as organic fertilizer in domestic cultivation, due to their richness on mineral compounds, especially potassium. However, their effect or safety on agriculture remains unknown. In this study, a greenhouse experiment was undertaken...

  7. Quantitative detection of Salmonella enterica and the specific interaction with Lactuca sativa

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Klerks, M.M.

    2007-01-01

    Salmonella is among the most commonly known bacterial pathogens to cause human illness. Often Salmonellosis is associated with the consumption of contaminated foods like meat, eggs or egg products. However, during the last decades an increase of outbreaks is recognized to be caused by human pathogen

  8. Improving Water Use Efficiency of Lettuce (Lactuca sativa L.) Using Phosphorous Fertilizers

    OpenAIRE

    AlKhader, Asad M F; Abu Rayyan, Azmi M

    2013-01-01

    A greenhouse pot experiment was conducted to evaluate the effect of phosphorous (P) fertilizers application to an alkaline calcareous soil on the water use efficiency (WUE) of lettuce cultivar “robinson” of iceberg type. Head fresh and dry weights, total water applied and WUE were affected significantly by the P fertilizer type and rate. P fertilizers addition induced a significant enhancement in the WUE and fresh and dry weights of the crop. A local phosphate rock (PR) applied directly was f...

  9. Respon Pertumbuhan dan Produksi Tanaman Selada (Lactuca sativa, L) Terhadap Pupuk Kandang Ayam dan Konsentrasi Nitrogen

    OpenAIRE

    Hairany, Desy

    2012-01-01

    Parameter yang diamati adalah tinggi tanaman (cm) , keliling kanopi (cm), umur panen (hari), jumlah daun segar (helai), total luas daun (cm2), produksi biomassa/tanaman (g), produksi jual/tanaman (g), produksi, biomassa/plot (g), dan produksi jual/plot (g). Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa tingkat dosis pupuk kandang ayam memberi pengaruh yang nyata terhadap tinggi tanaman, keliling kanopi, produksi biomassa/tanaman, produksi jua...

  10. Anxiolytic property of Lactuca sativa, effect on anxiety behaviour induced by novel food and height

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SN Harsha; KR Anilakumar

    2013-01-01

    Objective: To study anxiolytic property of hydro alchohol extract and to estimate polyphenols present in the extract by HPLC. Methods: To evaluate anxiolytic property two animal models were used viz. Elevated T maze and hyponeophagia. Diazepam (1 mg/kg body wt.) served as the standard anxiolytic agent for all the tests. The dried extract of the plant leaf in doses of 100, 200 and 400 mg/kg body weight was administered orally to mice for duration of 15 or 30 days and locomotor and anxiolytic activities were performed. Polyphenols was estimated using HPLC.Results:The HPLC analysis of the polyphenols revealed the presence chlorogenic acid, vanillin, epicatechin, caffeic acid, rutin hydrate, sinapic acid, quercetin-3-rhamnoside, p-coumeric acid and quercitin. Time spent and number of entries into the open arm was improved in 30 days treated animals than that of 15 days treated groups, 200 and 400 mg/kg body weight treated group showed significant results when comparing with the control group. Conclusions: The hydro alcohol extract rich in Polyphenols and other secondary metabolites is a potent anxiolytic agent.

  11. Foliar fertilizations with boron and growth regulators on lettuce (Lactuca sativa L.) cv floresta culture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The experiment was realized to verify the possibility of applying Boron as foliar fertilization with growth regulators: indol acetic acid, giberellic acid, ethephon and cycocel. The other objective was to compare the foliar and soil fertilization, with Boron, on the lettuce culture. The results showed that there wasn't difference of production between the treatments. Meanwhile the application of growth regulator modified the Boron grade in the leaves. (author)

  12. Teor de nitrato em alface cultivada em sistemas hidropônico e convencional

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beninni Elisabete R. Yonamini

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available O monitoramento do teor de nitrato nos alimentos é importante, uma vez que poderão ser formados compostos prejudiciais à saúde humana e animal após sua ingestão. Com o objetivo de avaliar o teor de nitrato presente em alface, foram coletadas e analisadas as folhas de alface crespa comercializada no Município de Londrina, cultivada em sistemas hidropônico e convencional. Os valores encontrados variaram entre 26 e 2.568 mg.kg-1 de peso fresco, sendo que as plantas cultivadas em sistema hidropônico apresentaram teores superiores em relação às cultivadas em sistema convencional, porém abaixo do limite máximo de nitrato permitido para alface, na Europa.

  13. Efeito da urina de vaca no estado nutricional da alface

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nelson Licínio C. de Oliveira

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Existem diversos relatos da utilização da urina de vaca em hortaliças, todavia sua eficácia carece de comprovação. Objetivou-se avaliar o efeito da urina de vaca no estado nutricional da alface. O experimento foi constituído de 12 tratamentos, esquema de parcelas subdivididas, em blocos ao acaso, com quatro repetições. Nas parcelas foram alocadas as vias de aplicação (solo ou foliar e nas subparcelas as concentrações das soluções (0,00; 0,25; 0,50; 0,75; 1,00 e 1,25% v/v. Aplicou-se 60 mL de solução/planta, divididos em cinco aplicações de 5; 5; 10; 20 e 20 mL/planta, aos 7, 14, 21, 28 e 35 após o transplante, respectivamente. Durante o ciclo avaliou-se o índice SPAD e na colheita a massa da matéria seca de cabeça (MSCA e os teores de N, P, K, Ca, Mg, S, Na, Zn, Fe, Mn, Cu e B na matéria seca das folhas (MSF, caule (MSC e raízes (MSR. Em ambas as vias de aplicação o índice SPAD apresentou incremento linear às concentrações e resposta quadrática ao longo do tempo. A MSCA teve comportamento linear às concentrações, com aumento de 25,9 e 35,4% nas aplicações via foliar e solo, respectivamente. Não houve efeito de concentrações sobre teores de nutrientes na MSF e MSC. Na MSR, via solo, os teores de P e K apresentaram pontos de máximo enquanto Fe e Mn de mínimo; o Na apresentou incremento linear às concentrações via foliar. Os efeitos da urina sobre o crescimento da alface provavelmente são devidos a fatores outros que não somente a quantidade de nutrientes veiculados nas soluções.

  14. Qualidade de alface crespa cultivada em sistema orgânico, convencional e hidropônico.

    OpenAIRE

    Silva, Eliana Mara NCP da; Ferreira, Regina Lúcia F.; Neto, Sebastião Elviro de Araújo; Leonardo B Tavella; Solino, Antônio JS

    2011-01-01

    O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar a qualidade da alface do grupo crespa, cv. Vera, em sistemas de cultivo orgânico, convencional e hidropônico em Rio Branco-AC. O experimento foi conduzido em julho de 2009. As amostras dos sistemas, convencional e hidropônico (3 marcas comerciais), foram escolhidas aleatoriamente nos supermercados do município de Rio Branco, no mesmo dia de coleta da alface produzida em sistema orgânico. A alface orgânica, produzida na área experimental do Setor de Agricu...

  15. ALLELOPATHIC POTENTIAL OF Portulaca oleracea L. SEED EXTRACTS ON GERMINATION AND SEEDLING GROWTH OF Cichorium endivia L., Lactua sativa L., Echinochloa crus-galli L., AND Brassica tournefortii Gouan

    OpenAIRE

    Hanaa Fahmy Shehata

    2014-01-01

    Present study was formulated to find out the phytotoxic effects of different concentrations of water, ethyl acetate, petroleum ether and methanol extracts of Portulaca oleracea seeds on germination, germination index and seedlings growth of Cichorium endivia, Lactuca sativa Echinochoa crus-galli, and Brassica tournefortii. Also the total phenolics and flavonoids were determined. Results indicated that the responses of allelopathic effects were depends on extract type and conce...

  16. Factors affecting the survival of Bremia lactucae sporangia deposited on lettuce leaves

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wu, B.M.; Subbarao, K.V.; Bruggen, van A.H.C.

    2000-01-01

    Experiments to identify the factors affecting survival of Bremia lactucae sporangia after deposition on lettuce leaves were conducted in growth chambers and outdoors under ambient conditions. Lettuce seedlings at the four-leaf stage were inoculated with B. lactucae sporangia under dry conditions. Sp

  17. Yield and postharvest quality of winter growing crisphead lettuce as affected by doses of nitrogen and molybdenum Rendimento e qualidade pós-colheita de alface americana em função de doses de nitrogênio e molibdênio

    OpenAIRE

    Geraldo M de Resende; Marco Antônio R Alvarenga; Jony E Yuri; Rovilson José de Souza

    2010-01-01

    The trial was carried out at Três Pontas, Minas Gerais State, Brazil, from April to July 2003, to evaluate the influence of nitrogen and molybdenum rates on productive characteristics and postharvest quality of crisphead lettuce (Lactuca sativa L.). A randomized complete block design with three replications was used. Treatments were a factorial combination of four nitrogen rates (0.0; 60.0; 120.0 and 180.0 kg ha-1) applied in additional the dose commonly used by growers (60 kg ha-1 of N) and ...

  18. Comparative study of Zn deficiency in L. sativa and B. oleracea plants: NH4(+) assimilation and nitrogen derived protective compounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Navarro-León, Eloy; Barrameda-Medina, Yurena; Lentini, Marco; Esposito, Sergio; Ruiz, Juan M; Blasco, Begoña

    2016-07-01

    Zinc (Zn) deficiency is a major problem in agricultural crops of many world regions. N metabolism plays an essential role in plants and changes in their availability and their metabolism could seriously affect crop productivity. The main objective of the present work was to perform a comparative analysis of different strategies against Zn deficiency between two plant species of great agronomic interest such as Lactuca sativa cv. Phillipus and Brassica oleracea cv. Bronco. For this, both species were grown in hydroponic culture with different Zn doses: 10μM Zn as control and 0.01μM Zn as deficiency treatment. Zn deficiency treatment decreased foliar Zn concentration, although in greater extent in B. oleracea plants, and caused similar biomass reduction in both species. Zn deficiency negatively affected NO3(-) reduction and NH4(+) assimilation and enhanced photorespiration in both species. Pro and GB concentrations were reduced in L. sativa but they were increased in B. oleracea. Finally, the AAs profile changed in both species, highlighting a great increase in glycine (Gly) concentration in L. sativa plants. We conclude that L. sativa would be more suitable than B. oleracea for growing in soils with low availability of Zn since it is able to accumulate a higher Zn concentration in leaves with similar biomass reduction. However, B. oleracea is able to accumulate N derived protective compounds to cope with Zn deficiency stress. PMID:27181942

  19. Manejo do cálcio em alface de cultivo hidropônico Calcium management in hydroponic lettuce

    OpenAIRE

    Elisabete R. Y. Beninni; Hideaki Wilson Takahashi; Carmen Silvia V.J. Neves

    2003-01-01

    "Tipburn" ou "queima dos bordos" é um distúrbio fisiológico da alface ocasionado pelo suprimento inadequado de cálcio, principalmente nas folhas novas. Neste experimento foram avaliadas alternativas de manejo do fornecimento de cálcio, visando propiciar maior fluxo deste nutriente para as folhas internas de alface, cv. Vera, e consequentemente, reduzir a incidência de "tipburn". Foram testados cinco tratamentos dispostos em blocos, com cinco repetições: Água; Solução com 100 mg Ca.L-1; Soluçã...

  20. Suficiência amostral para alface cultivada em diferentes ambientes Sample sufficiency for lettuce grown in different environments

    OpenAIRE

    Daniel Santos; Fernando Machado Haesbaert; Odair José Puhl; Jorge Roque Alves dos Santos; Alessandro Dal’Col Lúcio

    2010-01-01

    Com o objetivo de estimar o tamanho de amostra para alface cultivada em diferentes ambientes, foram conduzidos quatro cultivos com alface, dois deles foram realizados no ano de 2007, com a cultivar 'Vera', e dois foram realizados no ano de 2008, com a cultivar 'Amanda'. Os ambientes em 2007 foram estufa e a campo, e em 2008 foram estufa e túnel. Em ambos os anos de cultivo, foram avaliadas a fitomassa fresca e fitomassa seca. Para cada variável, em cada linha de cultivo, foram estimadas a méd...

  1. Bioenergy potential of Ulva lactuca: Biomass yield, methane production and combustion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bruhn, Annette; Dahl, Jonas; Bangsø Nielsen, Henrik;

    2011-01-01

    The biomass production potential at temperate latitudes (56°N), and the quality of the biomass for energy production (anaerobic digestion to methane and direct combustion) were investigated for the green macroalgae, Ulva lactuca. The algae were cultivated in a land based facility demonstrating a...... production potential of 45 T (TS) ha−1 y−1. Biogas production from fresh and macerated U. lactuca yielded up to 271 ml CH4 g−1 VS, which is in the range of the methane production from cattle manure and land based energy crops, such as grass-clover. Drying of the biomass resulted in a 5–9-fold increase in...... weight specific methane production compared to wet biomass. Ash and alkali contents are the main challenges in the use of U. lactuca for direct combustion. Application of a bio-refinery concept could increase the economical value of the U. lactuca biomass as well as improve its suitability for production...

  2. GC-MS analysis of bio-active compounds in methanolic extract of Lactuca runcinata DC

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lakshmi Kanta Kanthal

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: The presence of phytochemical constitutes has been reported from species of the Compositae (Asteraceae. Hitherto no reports exist on the phytochemical components and biological activity of Lactuca runcinata DC. Objective: The present study was designed to determine the bioactive compounds in the whole plant methanol extract of Lactuca runcinata. Materials and Methods: Phytochemical screening of the entire herb of Lactuca runcinata DC revealed the presence of some bio-active components. Gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS analysis of the whole plant methanol extract of Lactuca runcinata was performed on a GC-MS equipment (Thermo Scientific Co. Thermo GC-TRACE ultra ver.: 5.0, Thermo MS DSQ II. Results: The phytochemical tests showed the presence of alkaloids, cardiac glycosides, flavonoids, phenols, phlobatannin, reducing sugars, saponins, steroids, tannins, terpenoids, volatile oils, carbohydrates, and protein/amino acids in methanolic extract of L. runcinata. The GC-MS analysis has shown the presence of different phytochemical compounds in the methanolic extract of Lactuca runcinata. A total of 21 compounds were identified representing 84.49% of total methanolic extract composition. Conclusion: From the results, it is evident that Lactuca runcinata contains various phytocomponents and is recommended as a plant of phytopharmaceutical importance.

  3. Qualidade de cultivares de alface produzidos em hidroponia Quality of lettuce cultivars grown in hydroponic solution

    OpenAIRE

    Silvana Ohse; Durval Dourado-Neto; Paulo Augusto Manfron; Osmar Souza dos Santos

    2001-01-01

    O objetivo do presente trabalho foi determinar a composição centesimal de seis cultivares de alface (Aurora, Brisa, Lívia, Mimosa, Regina e Verônica) utilizando quatro soluções nutritivas em Santa Maria, RS. Foi utilizado o delineamento experimental inteiramente casualizado com parcelas subdivididas. O experimento constou de oito bancadas, duas para cada solução nutritiva, sendo que cada bancada continha seis canais, um para cada cultivar. O espaçamento utilizado foi 0,18 m entre canais e 0,2...

  4. Contêiner refrigerado: uma alternativa para a conservação pós-colheita de alface tipo americano Refrigerated container: an alternative for postharvest conservation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bárbara J. Teruel

    2000-07-01

    Full Text Available A refrigeração é um excelente método para o armazenamento prolongado de produtos frescos. O uso de contêineres na agricultura é uma tecnologia simples e de fácil utilização que permite a manutenção da qualidade de produtos frescos, como frutas e hortaliças e a diminuição das perdas pós-colheita. Neste trabalho foram desenvolvidos uma série de experimentos com um contêiner frigorífico submetido a dois regimes de operação: vazio e com produto. Foram avaliadas as seguintes variáveis: temperatura, velocidade e umidade relativa do ar, além da pressão do sistema de refrigeração. Foi determinado o tempo de meio resfriamento de alface tipo americano (Latuca sativa L., submetido a uma temperatura de 1ºC. Nas superfícies que recebem maior radiação solar o desvio da temperatura é de 1,5 ± 1ºC, com respeito às paredes que recebem menor radiação. A velocidade do ar variou de 2,1; 1,7 e 0,3 m/s, nos três planos estudados. O tempo de meio resfriamento da carga de alface variou entre 530 min (» 8 h, e 1.080 min (» 18 h, dependendo da posição das cabeças de alface no interior do contêiner. A umidade relativa do ar foi de 81-86% ± 1% e de 90-91 ± 1%, para o contêiner vazio e com carga, respectivamente.Refrigeration is an excellent method for storing horticultural fresh products such as fruits and vegetables. The use of refrigerated containers is a simple and ready-to-use technology allowing better quality and decreasing postharvest losses. In this work some experiments were conducted with a refrigerated container in two operating conditions: with and without load. The following variables were evaluated: air temperature, air velocity, air relative humidity, and pressure of the refrigeration system. The lettuce (Latuca sativa L. half-cooling time was also determined when this product was stored at 1ºC. It was observed that the container surfaces receiving more radiation presented temperature increases of 1,5 ± 1ºC in

  5. Comportamento produtivo e econômico da alface americana em função de diferentes lâminas de água Economic and productive behavior of production of crisphead lettuce under different irrigation depths

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joaquim A. de Lima Júnior

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Visando às dificuldades encontradas pelo produtor no cultivo da alface (Lactuta sativa L. americana, cv. Laureau, especificamente quanto à falta de informações técnicas sobre quantidade de água a aplicar, objetivou-se estudar o efeito de diferentes lâminas de água sobre o comportamento produtivo e econômico da alface americana. O experimento foi realizado na Universidade Federal de Lavras, no período de outubro a dezembro de 2008, em casa de vegetação. O delineamento experimental foi em blocos casualizados, com cinco tratamentos e quatro repetições. Os tratamentos foram constituídos de cinco fatores de evaporação, correspondentes a 0,30, 0,60, 0,90, 1,20 e 1,50 EVm, baseados na lâmina evaporada de um minitanque. Os resultados permitiram concluir que a máxima produtividade total e comercial, 65.918 kg ha-1 e 35.544 kg ha-1, foram estimadas com a aplicação de lâminas equivalentes a 152,1 e 155 mm, respectivamente, correspondentes ao fator de reposição de 92%; considerando o preço do fator água (R$ 0,67 mm-1 e o preço da alface americana (R$ 0,90 kg-1, a lâmina economicamente ótima foi 154 mm, identificando que a eficiência técnica do experimento foi significativamente igual à máxima eficiência econômica.With the aim of minimizing the difficulties faced by the producers on cultivating the crisphead lettuce (Lactuta sativa L., specifically those related to the lack of technical information about the quantity of water to be applied, a study was conducted to determine the economic and productive behavior of crisphead lettuce yielding characteristics. The experiment was carried out at the Universidade Federal de Lavras, from October to December 2008 in greenhouse. A randomized block design with five treatments and four repetitions was adopted. The treatments, consisting of the five respective evaporation factors: 0.30, 0.60, 0.90, 1.20 and 1.50 EVm, were done according to an evaporated depth of a reduced pan. The

  6. High-Throughput Growth Prediction for Lactuca sativa L. Seedlings Using Chlorophyll Fluorescence in a Plant Factory with Artificial Lighting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moriyuki, Shogo; Fukuda, Hirokazu

    2016-01-01

    Poorly grown plants that result from differences in individuals lead to large profit losses for plant factories that use large electric power sources for cultivation. Thus, identifying and culling the low-grade plants at an early stage, using so-called seedlings diagnosis technology, plays an important role in avoiding large losses in plant factories. In this study, we developed a high-throughput diagnosis system using the measurement of chlorophyll fluorescence (CF) in a commercial large-scale plant factory, which produces about 5000 lettuce plants every day. At an early stage (6 days after sowing), a CF image of 7200 seedlings was captured every 4 h on the final greening day by a high-sensitivity CCD camera and an automatic transferring machine, and biological indices were extracted. Using machine learning, plant growth can be predicted with a high degree of accuracy based on biological indices including leaf size, amount of CF, and circadian rhythms in CF. Growth prediction was improved by addition of temporal information on CF. The present data also provide new insights into the relationships between growth and temporal information regulated by the inherent biological clock.

  7. ANÁLISIS DE SENSIBLIDAD GLOBAL DE UN MODELO DE LECHUGAS (Lactuca sativa L.) CULTIVADAS EN INVERNADERO

    OpenAIRE

    López-Cruz, Irineo L.; Raquel Salazar-Moreno; Abraham Rojano-Aguilar; Agustín Ruiz-García

    2012-01-01

    El análisis de sensibilidad de un modelo matemático es relevante ya que permite determinar como la incertidumbre de las salidas del modelo puede ser asignada a sus variables de entrada. Hasta ahora se aplican métodos locales basados en el cálculo de derivadas parciales para modelos de cultivos en invernadero. Sin embargo, la limitante principal del análisis de sensibilidad local es que proporciona información únicamente en el punto base donde las derivadas son calculadas, sin tomar en c...

  8. Metabolomics to Detect Response of Lettuce (Lactuca sativa) to Cu(OH)2 Nanopesticides: Oxidative Stress Response and Detoxification Mechanisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Lijuan; Ortiz, Cruz; Adeleye, Adeyemi S; Hu, Qirui; Zhou, Hongjun; Huang, Yuxiong; Keller, Arturo A

    2016-09-01

    There has been an increasing influx of nanopesticides into agriculture in recent years. Understanding the interaction between nanopesticides and edible plants is crucial in evaluating the potential impact of nanotechnology on the environment and agriculture. Here we exposed lettuce plants to Cu(OH)2 nanopesticides (1050-2100 mg/L) through foliar spray for one month. Inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) results indicate that 97-99% (1353-2501 mg/kg) of copper was sequestered in the leaves and only a small percentage (1-3%) (17.5-56.9 mg/kg) was translocated to root tissues through phloem loading. Gas chromatography-time-of-flight mass spectrometry (GC-TOF-MS) based metabolomics combined with partial least squares-discriminant analysis (PLS-DA) multivariate analysis revealed that Cu(OH)2 nanopesticides altered metabolite levels of lettuce leaves. Tricarboxylic (TCA) cycle and a number of amino acid-related biological pathways were disturbed. Some antioxidant levels (cis-caffeic acid, chlorogenic acid, 3,4-dihydroxycinnamic acid, dehydroascorbic acid) were significantly decreased compared to the control, indicating that oxidative stress and a defense response occurred. Nicotianamine, a copper chelator, increased by 12-27 fold compared to the control, which may represent a detoxification mechanism. The up-regulation of polyamines (spermidine and putrescine) and potassium may mitigate oxidative stress and enhance tolerance. The data presented here provide a molecular-scale perspective on the response of plants to copper nanopesticides. PMID:27483188

  9. Transcriptome Profiling of Caco-2 Cancer Cell Line following Treatment with Extracts from Iodine-Biofortified Lettuce (Lactuca sativa L..

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aneta A Koronowicz

    Full Text Available Although iodization of salt is the most common method used to obtain iodine-enriched food, iodine deficiency disorders are still a global health problem and profoundly affect the quality of human life. Iodine is required for the synthesis of thyroid hormones, which are crucial regulators of human metabolism, cell growth, proliferation, apoptosis and have been reported to be involved in carcinogenesis. In this study, for the first time, we evaluated the effect of iodine-biofortified lettuce on transcriptomic profile of Caco-2 cancer cell line by applying the Whole Human Genome Microarray assay. We showed 1326 differentially expressed Caco-2 transcripts after treatment with iodine-biofortified (BFL and non-fortified (NFL lettuce extracts. We analysed pathways, molecular functions, biological processes and protein classes based on comparison between BFL and NFL specific genes. Iodine, which was expected to act as a free ion (KI-NFL or at least in part to be incorporated into lettuce macromolecules (BFL, differently regulated pathways of numerous transcription factors leading to different cellular effects. In this study we showed the inhibition of Caco-2 cells proliferation after treatment with BFL, but not potassium iodide (KI, and BFL-mediated induction of mitochondrial apoptosis and/or cell differentiation. Our results showed that iodine-biofortified plants can be effectively used by cells as an alternative source of this trace element. Moreover, the observed differences in action of both iodine sources may suggest a potential of BFL in cancer treatment.

  10. RESPUESTA DEL CULTIVO DE LA LECHUGA(Lactuca sativa L. A LA APLICACIÓN DE DIFERENTES PRODUCTOS BIOACTIVOS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elein Terry Alfonso

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available El presente trabajo se desarrolló en el área experimentaldel Instituto Nacional de Ciencias Agrícolas (INCA, con elobjetivo de evaluar la respuesta del cultivo de la lechuga a laaplicación de diferentes productos bioactivos. Para darcumplimiento a los objetivos propuestos, se estudiaron distintostratamientos, que consistieron en la aplicación de los siguientesproductos: Pectimorf® (344 mg.ha-1, Liplant® (1 L.ha-1 yBiobras-16® (20 mg.ha-1, comparados con un tratamiento controlsin aplicación. Se realizaron varias evaluaciones referidas aalgunas variables del crecimiento y desarrollo del cultivo, comoel largo y ancho de las hojas así como el contenido de NPKfoliar; igualmente se determinó el rendimiento agrícola al finaldel ciclo vegetativo. Los resultados mostraron la efectividadde los productos bioactivos en el crecimiento, desarrollo yrendimiento, destacándose los tratamientos donde las plantas recibieron las aplicaciones foliares del Pectimorf® y el Biobras-16®,con diferencias significativas respecto al tratamiento dondese aplicó el Liplant® y el control, lo que además conllevó a obtener rendimientos superiores, demostrándose de esta manerael aporte que realizan a la producción agrícola de este cultivo.

  11. An intra-specific linkage map of lettuce (Lactuca sativa) and genetic analysis of postharvest discolouration traits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atkinson, Laura D; McHale, Leah K; Truco, María José; Hilton, Howard W; Lynn, James; Schut, Johan W; Michelmore, Richard W; Hand, Paul; Pink, David A C

    2013-11-01

    Minimally processed salad packs often suffer from discolouration on cut leaf edges within a few days after harvest. This limits shelf life of the product and results in high wastage. Recombinant inbred lines (RILs) derived from a cross between lettuce cvs. Saladin and Iceberg were shown to be suitable for genetic analysis of postharvest discolouration traits in lettuce. An intra-specific linkage map based on this population was generated to enable genetic analysis. A total of 424 markers were assigned to 18 linkage groups covering all nine chromosomes. The linkage map has a total length of 1,040 cM with an average marker distance of 2.4 cM within the linkage groups and was anchored to the ultra-dense, transcript-based consensus map. Significant genetic variation in the postharvest traits ‘pinking’, ‘browning’ and ‘overall discolouration’ was detected among the RILs. Seven significant quantitative trait loci (QTL) were identified for postharvest discolouration traits providing markers linked to the QTL that can be used for marker-assisted selection. Phenotypic stability was confirmed for extreme lines possessing the corresponding QTL parental alleles and which had shown transgressive segregation. This study indicates that a desired phenotype with reduced levels of postharvest discolouration can be achieved by breeding using natural variation. PMID:23959526

  12. Efectividad del agua electrolizada oxidadora (EO) en la inactivación de Listeria monocytogenes en lechuga (Lactuca sativa L.)

    OpenAIRE

    Casadiego P; Cuartas R; Mercado M; J Carrascal AK

    2004-01-01

    Se evaluó la efectividad del agua electrolizada oxidadora (EO) en la inactivación de Listeria monocytogenes en lechuga; para ello se construyó una celda electrolítica para la producción de agua EO a partir de una solución de NaCl al 5%, con una concentración de cloro residual de 29 partes por millón (ppm) y pH 2.83. Cinco de las 10 cepas de Listeria monocytogenes mas resistentes a la acción del hipoclorito de sodio , fueron obtenidas a partir de muestras de pollo procesado e inoculadas en 9 ...

  13. Assessment of the impact of Aluminum on germination, early growth and free proline content in Lactuca sativa L.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, Patrícia; Matos, Manuela

    2016-09-01

    Aluminum (Al) toxicity is a major problem in crop production on acid soils. The use of industrial or municipal wastewaters, which may be contaminated with metals, for irrigation in agriculture is common over the world. This action can increase the concentration of these agents in the soil and decrease crops yields. In order to evaluate the toxicological effects of recommended Al levels in irrigation water, under acidic conditions, on lettuce, seeds of two cultivars ("cv Reine de Mai" and "cv White Boston") were exposed to five different Al concentrations (0, 0.05, 0.5, 5 and 20mg/L) and germination percentage, root and shoot lengths were measured. Also, the germination rate and the vigor index were calculated, and the proline content was estimated for all concentrations. Results showed that seed germination was not negatively affected by Al, but the germination rate decreased in both cultivars. For the other factors analyzed, with the exception of 20mg/L concentration for "cv White Boston", Al induced, in general, negative effects including the content of proline that increased in the seeds that were exposed to this metal. The "cv Reine de Mai" was more sensitive for the analyzed concentrations than the other cultivar.. The results indicated that even recommended Al concentrations for irrigation, under acidic conditions, can interfere negatively in seed germination and seedling establishment and possibly with crop production. PMID:27229755

  14. Control age - and irradiation-induced seed deterioration in lettuce (Lactuca sativa L.) by hydration-dehydration treatments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hydration-dehydration treatment of stored lettuce seed (1-year-old, medium-vigour), greatly slowed down their deterioration during subsequent storage under accelerated and natural ageing conditions. Hydration-dehydration of seeds, before or soon after X- and γ-irradiation, considerably minimized the adverse effect of irradiation on the development of biological after-effects responsible for the fall in germinibility, especially the large reduction of root growth of seedlings. Pre- and post-irradiation treatments gave broadly similar effects. The results have been discussed in terms of a possible involvement of a cellular (biochemical) repair mechanism in the hydration phase and also on the basis of a physico-chemical control of free radical pathology in the aged and irradiated seed. (author)

  15. Experimental determinations of soil copper toxicity to lettuce (Lactuca sativa) growth in highly different copper spiked and aged soils

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christiansen, Karen Søgaard; Borggaard, Ole K.; Holm, Peter Engelund;

    2015-01-01

    H (ECEC), and at pH 7 (CEC7), soil organic carbon, clay content, and electric conductivity as well as the distribution coefficient (Kd) calculated as the ratio between total soil Cu and water-extractable Cu did not correlate significantly with pEC50(Cu2+). Consequently, Cu toxicity, expressed...

  16. Efectividad del agua electrolizada oxidadora (EO en la inactivación de Listeria monocytogenes en lechuga (Lactuca sativa L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Casadiego P

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available Se evaluó la efectividad del agua electrolizada oxidadora (EO en la inactivación de Listeria monocytogenes enlechuga; para ello se construyó una celda electrolítica para la producción de agua EO a partir de una soluciónde NaCl al 5%, con una concentración de cloro residual de 29 partes por millón (ppm y pH 2.83. Cinco de las10 cepas de Listeria monocytogenes mas resistentes a la acción del hipoclorito de sodio, fueron obtenidas apartir de muestras de pollo procesado e inoculadas en 9 ml de agua EO o 9 ml de agua desionizada estéril(control e incubadas a 15°C durante 5, 10, 15 y 20 minutos. La población se determinó por recuento en placaen agar Columbia, obteniéndose una reducción de 6.6 UL a los 5 minutos de exposición. Las cepas seleccionadasfueron utilizadas como suspensión mixta (9.56 UL, 109 UFC/ml para inocular 35 lechugas por el método deinmersión. Se sumergieron 6.25 g de cada lechuga en 375 ml de agua EO o agua destilada (control a 15 °Cdurante 5 minutos. La población promedio de Listeria monocytogenes después del tratamiento con agua EO ycon agua destilada, se redujo en 3.92 y 2.46 UL respectivamente. Se demostró que el agua EO tiene un efectobactericida estadísticamente significativo (p=0.00001. Para mejorar el efecto del agua EO sobre L .monocytogenes en lechuga, se evaluó su efectividad en combinación con ácido acético al 6% (vinagre.Reducción de la población en 5.49 UL demuestran que hay un efecto sinergista de ambos agentes antimicrobianossobre la viabilidad de las células de L. monocytogenes.

  17. Studi Kandungan Mineral Kalium, Natrium, Magnesium Pada Selada (Lactuca sativa L.) Hidroponik Dan Non-Hidroponik Secara Spektrofotometri Serapan Atom

    OpenAIRE

    Novin, Sondang

    2013-01-01

    Lettuce is one of the many cultivated plants in hydroponics. The method of hydroponics is cultivate method plants without the use of soil as a growing medium, but using water. The lettuce has a high mineral content to the needs of human beings is like minerals potassium, sodium, magnesium, calcium, phosphorus, iron, vitamin A, vitamin B, and vitamin C. In the extracellular fluid potassium and sodium is an essential cations play a role in pH balance and osmolarity. While magnesium plays an imp...

  18. Sensitivity of salad greens (Lactuca sativa L. and Eruca sativa Mill.) exposed to crude extracts of toxic and non-toxic cyanobacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bittencourt-Oliveira, M C; Hereman, T C; Macedo-Silva, I; Cordeiro-Araújo, M K; Sasaki, F F C; Dias, C T S

    2015-05-01

    We evaluated the effect of crude extracts of the microcystin-producing (MC+) cyanobacteria Microcystis aeruginosa on seed germination and initial development of lettuce and arugula, at concentrations between 0.5 μg.L(-1) and 100 μg.L(-1) of MC-LR equivalent, and compared it to crude extracts of the same species without the toxin (MC-). Crude extracts of the cyanobacteria with MC (+) and without MC (-) caused different effects on seed germination and initial development of the salad green seedlings, lettuce being more sensitive to both extracts when compared to arugula. Crude extracts of M. aeruginosa (MC+) caused more evident effects on seed germination and initial development of both species of salad greens than MC-. Concentrations of 75 μg.L(-1) and 100 μg.L(-1) of MC-LR equivalent induced a greater occurrence of abnormal seedlings in lettuce, due to necrosis of the radicle and shortening of this organ in normal seedlings, as well as the reduction in total chlorophyll content and increase in the activity of the antioxidant enzyme peroxidase (POD). The MC- extract caused no harmful effects to seed germination and initial development of seedlings of arugula. However, in lettuce, it caused elevation of POD enzyme activity, decrease in seed germination at concentrations of 75 μg.L(-1) (MC-75) and 100 μg.L(-1) (MC-100), and shortening of the radicle length, suggesting that other compounds present in the cyanobacteria extracts contributed to this result. Crude extracts of M. aeruginosa (MC-) may contain other compounds, besides the cyanotoxins, capable of causing inhibitory or stimulatory effects on seed germination and initial development of salad green seedlings. Arugula was more sensitive to the crude extracts of M. aeruginosa (MC+) and (MC-) and to other possible compounds produced by the cyanobacteria. PMID:26132007

  19. Produção de sementes de alface em cultivo hidropônico Lettuce seeds production in hydroponic system

    OpenAIRE

    Nilson de Lemos Menezes; Osmar Souza dos Santos; Denise Schmidt

    2001-01-01

    Sementes de alface das cultivares Deyse e Regina foram produzidas em estufa, no sistema hidropônico, com elevados rendimentos por planta e boa qualidade de sementes, quando comparados a resultados de sistema convencional, de canteiros em campo. Esses dados sugerem estudos de produção de sementes de alface em cultivo protegido.Lettuce seeds of Deyse and Regina cultivars were produced in greenhouse, in hydroponic system, with excelents rendiments per plant and seed quality, when compared to con...

  20. Pharmacology of Marihuana (Cannabis sativa)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maickel, Roger P.

    1973-01-01

    A detailed discussion of marihuana (Cannabis sativa) providing the modes of use, history, chemistry, and physiologic properties of the drug. Cites research results relating to the pharmacologic effects of marihuana. These effects are categorized into five areas: behavioral, cardiovascular-respiratory, central nervous system, toxicity-toxicology,…

  1. A taxonomic revision of the genus lactuca L. (cicihorieae- asteraceae) from Pakistan and Kashmir

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The genus Lactuca L. of the tribe Cichorieae-Asteraceae is taxonomically revised from Pakistan and Kashmir. The revision is based on study of large number of herbarium specimens. In few cases plants have also been studied in their natural habitat. A total of 13 species are recognized from Pakistan and Kashmir including 1 new species i.e. Lactuca erostrata Roohi Bano and Qaiser. A new combination Lactuca orientalis subsp. nuristanica (Podlech) Roohi Bano and Qaiser is also proposed. All the taxa valid or synonyms have been typified with the help of type specimens and literature. Key to the species along with detailed morphological description and ecological notes of each taxon are also given. (author)

  2. Removal of toxic chromium from wastewater using green alga Ulva lactuca and its activated carbon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Biosorption of heavy metals can be an effective process for the removal of toxic chromium ions from wastewater. In this study, the batch removal of toxic hexavalent chromium ions from aqueous solution, saline water and wastewater using marine dried green alga Ulva lactuca was investigated. Activated carbon prepared from U. lactuca by acid decomposition was also used for the removal of chromium from aqueous solution, saline water and wastewater. The chromium uptake was dependent on the initial pH and the initial chromium concentration, with pH ∼1.0, being the optimum pH value. Langmuir, Freundlich, Redlich-Peterson and Koble-Corrigan isotherm models were fitted well the equilibrium data for both sorbents. The maximum efficiencies of chromium removal were 92 and 98% for U. lactuca and its activated carbon, respectively. The maximum adsorption capacity was found to be 10.61 and 112.36 mg g-1 for dried green alga and activated carbon developed from it, respectively. The adsorption capacities of U. lactuca and its activated carbon were independent on the type of solution containing toxic chromium and the efficiency of removal was not affected by the replacing of aqueous solution by saline water or wastewater containing the same chromium concentration. Two hours were necessary to reach the sorption equilibrium. The chromium uptake by U. lactuca and its activated carbon form were best described by pseudo second-order rate model. This study verifies the possibility of using inactivated marine green alga U. lactuca and its activated carbon as valuable material for the removal of chromium from aqueous solutions, saline water or wastewater

  3. Coeficiente de cultura da alface hidropônica baseado no conceito de graus-dia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Roberto Weide Moura

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo principal deste trabalho foi propor a adoção de um coeficiente de cultura térmico, com a aplicação do conceito de graus-dia acumulados após o transplantio, para estimativa da evapotranspiração diária (ETc dos cultivares de alface Grand Rapids, Regina e Great Lakes em sistema hidropônico do tipo NFT ("nutrient film technique", em ambiente protegido. Posteriormente, o modelo matemático ajustado ãos valores observados de Kc (coeficiente de cultura foi utilizado para a estimativa de ETc no período pós-transplantio por meio dos métodos: Penman-Monteith parametrizado pela FÃO, em 1998 (PMF; Penman-Monteith modificado para condições aerodinâmicas, características de ambientes protegidos (PMAP; Penman-Monteith para ambiente protegido simplificado (PMAPS; Priestley-Taylor (PT; Radiação solar (RS; e Radiação solar simplificado (RSS. Verificou-se que o modelo sigmoidal com quatro parâmetros ajustou-se bem aos valores observados de Kc, proporcionando coeficientes de determinação ajustados de 0,99, 0,98 e 0,98 para os cultivares Grand Rapids, Regina e Great Lakes, respectivamente. No que se refere às estimativas diárias de ETc, os métodos PMF, PMAP e RS apresentaram melhor desempenho estatístico em relagão aos métodos PMAPS, PT e RSS, independentemente do cultivar avaliado. No entanto, o método PMF subestimou sistematicamente a ETc no período inicial de crescimento da alface.

  4. Older leaves of lettuce (Lactuca spp.) support higher levels of Salmonella enterica ser. Senftenberg attachment and show greater variation between plant accessions than do younger leaves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunter, Paul J; Shaw, Robert K; Berger, Cedric N; Frankel, Gad; Pink, David; Hand, Paul

    2015-06-01

    Salmonella can bind to the leaves of salad crops including lettuce and survive for commercially relevant periods. Previous studies have shown that younger leaves are more susceptible to colonization than older leaves and that colonization levels are dependent on both the bacterial serovar and the lettuce cultivar. In this study, we investigated the ability of two Lactuca sativa cultivars (Saladin and Iceberg) and an accession of wild lettuce (L. serriola) to support attachment of Salmonella enterica serovar Senftenberg, to the first and fifth to sixth true leaves and the associations between cultivar-dependent variation in plant leaf surface characteristics and bacterial attachment. Attachment levels were higher on older leaves than on the younger ones and these differences were associated with leaf vein and stomatal densities, leaf surface hydrophobicity and leaf surface soluble protein concentrations. Vein density and leaf surface hydrophobicity were also associated with cultivar-specific differences in Salmonella attachment, although the latter was only observed in the older leaves and was also associated with level of epicuticular wax. PMID:25953858

  5. Qualidade pós-colheita da alface hidropônica em ambiente protegido sob malhas termorefletoras e negra

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrícia Lígia Dantas de Morais

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Considerando que a duração da exposição, a qualidade e intensidade de luz afetam as características de qualidade das hortaliças folhosas, conduziu-se um experimento, em ambiente protegido, com o objetivo de avaliar a qualidade pós-colheita da alface hidropônica, sob os efeitos das malhas de sombreamento, com diferentes percentagens de atenuação da radiação solar. O delineamento experimental foi o de blocos casualizados, no esquema fatorial 2 x 5, com três repetições, sendo os tratamentos constituídos por quatro malhas termorefletoras (40; 50; 60 e 70% de sombreamento e uma testemunha, com malha negra 50%. Em cada parcela, representada por um sistema hidropônico individual, foi cultivada a alface (cv. Olinda, Crespa, sendo avaliada sua qualidade por ocasião da colheita e após quatro dias de armazenamento refrigerado (7,6 ± 1ºC e 27 ± 5 % UR. Observou-se que o excesso de sombreamento, ocasionado pelas malhas termorefletoras 60 e 70% e malha negra 50%, comprometeram a aparência da alface. As plantas submetidas ao sombreamento com a malha termorefletora 40% apresentaram menor perda de massa, ao final de quatro dias de armazenamento. Os graus de sombreamento ocasionados pelas malhas termorefletoras e pela malha negra não influenciaram nos teores de ácido cítrico, sólidos solúveis, vitamina C e clorofila total da alface.

  6. Development of an assay for rapid detection of the lettuce downy mildew pathogen, Bremia lactucae

    Science.gov (United States)

    Downy mildew of lettuce, caused by Bremia lactucae, causes chlorosis on leaves and adversely affects marketability. Though downy mildew on lettuce can be controlled by fungicide applications, it is costly to routinely apply fungicides to prevent the establishment of downy mildew. Repeated use of the...

  7. Differential growth response of Ulva lactuca to ammonium and nitrate assimilation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ale, Marcel Tutor; Mikkelsen, Jørn Dalgaard; Meyer, Anne S

    2011-01-01

    Controlled cultivation of marine macroalgal biomass such as Ulva species, notably Ulva lactuca, is currently studied for production of biofuels or functional food ingredients. In a eutrophic environment, this macrophyte is exposed to varying types of nutrient supply, including different and fluct...

  8. Robustness and accuracy of Maxent niche modelling for Lactuca species distributions in light of collecting expeditions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cobben, M.M.P.; Treuren, van R.; Castaneda-Alvarez, N.P.; Khoury, C.K.; Kik, C.; Hintum, van T.J.L.

    2015-01-01

    Niche modelling software can be used to assess the probability of detecting a population of a plant species at a certain location. In this study, we used the distribution of the wild relatives of lettuce (Lactuca spp.) to investigate the applicability of Maxent species distribution models for collec

  9. Produção de biomassa e do rendimento do óleo essencial de melissa em cultivo solteiro e consorciado com mil-folhas e alface

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Débora Soares Brandão

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available O trabalho teve como objetivo avaliar a produção da biomassa e o rendimento de óleo essencial da melissa, quando em cultivo solteiro e consorciada com mil-folhas e alface. Os tratamentos consistiram em melissa em cultivo solteiro, melissa em consórcio com mil-folhas, melissa consorciada com alface, mil-folhas e alface em cultivo solteiro. O delineamento experimental utilizado foi o inteiramente casualizado com cinco tratamentos e seis repetições. Foram avaliados o teor e o rendimento do óleo essencial da melissa e a matéria fresca e a matéria seca da parte aérea de todas as espécies. Notou-se, a partir dos valores das médias, que o cultivo consorciado de melissa com alface proporcionou maior rendimento de óleo essencial, matéria fresca e matéria seca. Os menores valores de todas as variáveis foram observados no cultivo solteiro da melissa. Considerando o Uso Eficiente da Terra (UET, o cultivo consorciado da mil-folhas e da alface com a melissa gerou bons rendimentos de biomassa das plantas, pois os valores calculados para as espécies foram superiores a 1,0. O cultivo consorciado das espécies não interferiu significativamente no teor do óleo essencial da melissa.

  10. Agronomic and economic viability of intercropping onion and lettuce Viabilidade agroeconômica do cultivo consorciado de cebola e alface

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wagner F da Mota

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The study aimed to evaluate the agronomic and economic performance of intercropping onion and lettuce on four plant densities of each species. The experiment was set up in completely randomized blocks, with four replications and treatments arranged in a 4 x 4 factorial. Treatments resulted from a combination of four (100, 80, 60, and 40% of recommended plant densities in monoculture plant densities for both lettuce and onion. Intercropping did not affect the agronomic performance of onion or lettuce. Higher plant densities (100% for both vegetables resulted in higher lettuce and onion yields. The best economic results were observed using (a onion at 80% of plant density combined with lettuce at 40 and 100% and (b onion at 100% and lettuce at all densities (40 to 100%.O trabalho teve como objetivos avaliar o desempenho agroeconômico do consórcio de cebola e alface em quatro densidades populacionais de cada espécie. O delineamento experimental foi blocos casualizados, com quatro repetições, sendo os tratamentos arranjados em esquema fatorial 4 x 4. Os tratamentos resultaram da combinação de quatro populações (100, 80, 60 e 40% das populações recomendadas nos cultivos solteiros tanto de alface, quanto de cebola. O consórcio não afetou o desempenho agronômico da cebola, tampouco o da alface, e a densidade populacional de 100% para ambas as hortaliças propiciou maior produtividade de cebola e de alface. Do ponto de vista econômico, os melhores resultados foram observados nos consórcios (a cebola a 80% da densidade de plantas em consórcio com alface a 40 e 100% e (b cebola a 100% com alface em qualquer densidade (40 a 100%.

  11. Cobertura morta e adubação orgânica na produção de alface e supressão de plantas daninhas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Izabel Cristina Pereira Vaz Ferreira

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Objetivou-se, neste trabalho, avaliar os efeitos da cobertura do solo e da adubação orgânica sobre a temperatura e a umidade do solo, a incidência de plantas daninhas e a produtividade da alface. O delineamento experimental utilizado foi de blocos casualizados, em esquema fatorial (3 x 3, em que o primeiro fator corresponde aos tipos de cobertura morta (capim tifton, capim napier e ausência de cobertura e, o segundo, aos adubos (esterco bovino, esterco de galinhas e ausência de adubação. Analisaram-se as variáveis temperatura e umidade do solo, o número de folhas produzidas pela alface, as massas de matéria fresca e seca da parte aérea, das plantas de alface e daninhas, e o levantamento fitossociológico das plantas infestantes. As plantas adubadas com esterco de galinhas apresentaram massas de matéria fresca e seca superiores às das plantas não adubadas. A cobertura morta com capim tifton proporcionou aumento da massa de matéria seca das plantas de alface, o que pode estar relacionado com a menor temperatura dos canteiros que receberam esse material como cobertura. Commelina benghalensis foi a planta infestante mais importante no cultivo orgânico de alface. A aplicação de adubos orgânicos e a cobertura morta com capins não foram capazes de suprimir plantas daninhas e manter a umidade do solo, em áreas de cultivo de alface.

  12. Qualidade de cultivares de alface produzidos em hidroponia Quality of lettuce cultivars grown in hydroponic solution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvana Ohse

    2001-03-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo do presente trabalho foi determinar a composição centesimal de seis cultivares de alface (Aurora, Brisa, Lívia, Mimosa, Regina e Verônica utilizando quatro soluções nutritivas em Santa Maria, RS. Foi utilizado o delineamento experimental inteiramente casualizado com parcelas subdivididas. O experimento constou de oito bancadas, duas para cada solução nutritiva, sendo que cada bancada continha seis canais, um para cada cultivar. O espaçamento utilizado foi 0,18 m entre canais e 0,25 m entre plantas no canal. A solução Ueda, por ter concentração de nutrientes inicial baixa e por essa não ter sido mantida, apresentou maior produção de massa de matéria seca, valor calórico, teores de extrato etéreo e de fibras, depreciando a qualidade do produto final. A alface sob hidroponia (soluções Castellane-Araújo, Furlani e Bernardes é um alimento altamente saudável por manter ou melhorar sua composição centesimal (teores de proteína, extrato etéreo, fibra e resíduo mineral quando comparada com a cultivada no solo, e por ser um produto de baixo valor calórico.The purpose of this research was to define the centesimal composition of six lettuce cultivars (Aurora, Brisa, Lívia, Mimosa, Regina and Verônica using four nutrient solutions. The experimental design was carried out in Santa Maria, RS, Brazil, consisting of entirely randomized subdivided parcels. The used spacing was 0.18 m between array and 0.25 m among plants. It was observed that the Ueda solution should not be used for the lettuce production in NFT system, due to the high dry mass production and, consequently, high caloric value, content of lipids and fibers, depreciating the quality of the final product, in spite of its low nitrate content. The lettuce production in the NFT system using the Castellane-Araújo, Furlani and Bernardes solutions maintained the nutricional quality (protein, ethereal extract and fiber, mineral residue contents equivalent to the

  13. Reposição de nutrientes durante três cultivos de alface em hidroponia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Backes Fernanda Alice A.L.

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available O experimento foi realizado em estufa plástica na UFSM, de agosto a novembro/99. Avaliou-se cinco formas de reposição de nutrientes na solução nutritiva com base na condutividade elétrica (CE, no sistema 'NFT' (Nutrient Film Technique e duas cultivares de alface: Regina e Deisy, cultivadas em bancadas de sustentação formadas por telhas de fibro-cimento revestidas com tinta betuminosa Neutrolâ. Foram dispostas 14 plantas por canal para cada repetição e uma cultivar em cada três canais, totalizando 84 plantas por bancada de produção. Comparou-se a eficiência de métodos de reposição de nutrientes na produção de alface, assim como a utilização da mesma solução, com reposição de nutrientes, durante três cultivos consecutivos. O delineamento experimental foi de blocos casualizados, com três repetições, em esquema fatorial 5x2. Os resultados demonstraram que o desempenho das cultivares avaliadas não foi influenciado pelos métodos de reposição de nutrientes. A ausência de reposição de nutrientes na solução nutritiva, durante um cultivo, permitiu maior produtividade da cultura, não se recomendando a reposição quando o objetivo for renovar a solução ao final do cultivo. As formas de reposição de nutrientes na solução nutritiva, durante o primeiro e segundo cultivos, não alteraram a produtividade da cultura em relação à renovação completa da solução nutritiva ao final do cultivo hidropônico. Para a reutilização de solução nutritiva, recomenda-se a reposição de nutrientes sempre que a CE diminuir 50% da inicial, possibilitando a produção por pelo menos três cultivos.

  14. Teor de nitrato em alface cultivada em sistemas hidropônico e convencional Level of nitrate in lettuce cultivated in hydroponic and conventional systems

    OpenAIRE

    Elisabete R. Yonamini Beninni; Hideaki Wilson Takahashi; Carmen S.V.J. Neves; Inês Cristina de B. Fonseca

    2002-01-01

    O monitoramento do teor de nitrato nos alimentos é importante, uma vez que poderão ser formados compostos prejudiciais à saúde humana e animal após sua ingestão. Com o objetivo de avaliar o teor de nitrato presente em alface, foram coletadas e analisadas as folhas de alface crespa comercializada no Município de Londrina, cultivada em sistemas hidropônico e convencional. Os valores encontrados variaram entre 26 e 2.568 mg.kg-1 de peso fresco, sendo que as plantas cultivadas em sistema hidropôn...

  15. Comparison of protocols for DNA extraction from Cannabis sativa seeds

    OpenAIRE

    Soler Aleixandre, Salvador; Sifres Cuerda, Alicia Gemma; Llosa, E.; Llamas, M.; Vilanova Navarro, Santiago; Prohens Tomás, Jaime

    2013-01-01

    Cannabis sativa is an important crop cultivated both for industrial (var. sativa) and medicinal and recreational (var. indica) purposes. Cultivation of var. indica plants is generally forbidden and this difficults genetic studies. An alternative is the extraction of DNA from seed embryos. In order to develop an efficient protocol for DNA extraction of C. sativa seeds we have tested six DNA extraction methods in seeds and leaves of a C. sativa var. sativa accession. We found that the best prot...

  16. Milk powder induced lipid peroxidation reduction using Ku Ding tea (Lactuca taiwaniana Maxim) in rats

    OpenAIRE

    Xiao, W. J.; Han, X. F.; Tan, Z. L.; Tang, S. X.; Gong, Z. H.; Bamikole, M. A.; Ren, G.P.

    2010-01-01

    The effects of Ku Ding tea (Lactuca taiwaniana Maxim) and milk powder on biochemical and immunological parameters of Sprague-Dawley rats were investigated and the possibility of use of Ku Ding tea to reduce physiological discomfort of drinking milk powder was assessed. Eighty rats were randomly assigned to four treatments: basal diet (control), basal diet plus whole milk powder (WM), basal diet plus Ku Ding tea (KD) and basal diet plus whole milk powder and Ku Ding tea (MK). Data was collecte...

  17. In vitro exposure of Ulva lactuca Linnaeus (Chlorophyta) to gasoline - Biochemical and morphological alterations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pilatti, Fernanda Kokowicz; Ramlov, Fernanda; Schmidt, Eder Carlos; Kreusch, Marianne; Pereira, Débora Tomazi; Costa, Christopher; de Oliveira, Eva Regina; Bauer, Cláudia M; Rocha, Miguel; Bouzon, Zenilda Laurita; Maraschin, Marcelo

    2016-08-01

    Refined fuels have considerable share of pollution of marine ecosystems. Gasoline is one of the most consumed fuel worldwide, but its effects on marine benthic primary producers are poorly investigated. In this study, Ulva lactuca was chosen as a biological model due to its cosmopolitan nature and tolerance to high levels and wide range of xenobiotics and our goal was to evaluate the effects of gasoline on ultrastructure and metabolism of that seaweed. The experimental design consisted of in vitro exposure of U. lactuca to four concentrations of gasoline (0.001%, 0.01%, 0.1%, and 1.0%, v/v) over 30 min, 1 h, 12 h, and 24 h, followed by cytochemical, SEM, and biochemical analysis. Increase in the number of cytoplasmic granules, loss of cell turgor, cytoplasmic shrinkage, and alterations in the mucilage were some of the ultrastructural alterations observed in thalli exposed to gasoline. Decrease in carotenoid and polyphenol contents, as well as increase of soluble sugars and starch contents were associated with the time of exposure to the xenobiotic. In combination, the results revealed important morphological and biochemical alterations in the phenotype of U. lactuca upon acute exposure to gasoline. This seaweed contain certain metabolites assigned as candidates to biomarkers of the environmental stress investigated and it is thought to be a promise species for usage in coastal ecosystems perturbation monitoring system. In addition, the findings suggest that U. lactuca is able to metabolize gasoline hydrocarbons and use them as energy source, acting as bioremediator of marine waters contaminated by petroleum derivatives. PMID:27192480

  18. Limpets and Their Algal Epibionts: Costs and Benefits of Acrosiphonia spp and Ulva lactuca Growth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Travis Seaborn

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Epibiont and basibiont relationships can have positive and negative effects on both organisms involved, ranging in intensity from minor to major effects. Limpets of species Lottia pelta are commonly found with two algal species growing on their backs, Ulva lactuca and Acrosiphonia spp. Previous research has shown that basibionts (substrate organism and epibionts (organism growing on the surface have complex interactions that can be positive, negative, or neutral. A force transducer and flume were used to measure the drag forces experienced by a limpet at various water velocities. Presence of either epiphyte significantly increased limpet drag. Acrosiphonia produced a greater drag effect than U. lactuca, increasing the force substantially. When dropped in a tank, limpets with algal growth landed foot-down significantly more often than limpets without algal growth. Acrosiphonia spp. had a greater effect than Ulva lactuca. Lastly, limpets in a wind tunnel with algal growth (especially Acrosiphonia had cooler body temperatures than limpets without algal growth. In conclusion, the effects on the basibiont of this relationship were found to be both positive and negative.

  19. Toxicity of tire wear particle leachate to the marine macroalga, Ulva lactuca

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tire wear particles filed from the treads of end-of-life vehicle tires have been added to sea water to examine the release of Zn and the toxicity of the resulting leachate and dilutions thereof to the marine macroalga, Ulva lactuca. Zinc release appeared to be diffusion-controlled, with a conditional rate constant of 5.4 μg[L(h)1/2]-1, and about 1.6% of total Zn was released after 120 h incubation. Exposure to increasing concentrations of leachate resulted in a non-linear reduction in the efficiency of photochemical energy conversion of U. lactuca and, with the exception of the undiluted leachate, increasing accumulation of Zn. Phototoxicity was significantly lower on exposure to equivalent concentrations of Zn added as Zn(NO3)2, suggesting that organic components of leachate are largely responsible for the overall toxicity to the alga. Given the ubiquity and abundance of TWP in urban coastal sediments, the generation, biogeochemistry and toxicity of tire leachate in the marine setting merit further attention. - Tire wear leachate is toxic to Ulva lactuca and zinc is a potential bioindicator of leachate contamination in urban marine systems.

  20. Neuropharmacological effects of Nigella sativa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beheshti, Farimah; Khazaei, Majid; Hosseini, Mahmoud

    2016-01-01

    Nigella sativa (NS) (Ranunculaceae family) is generally utilized as a therapeutic plant all over the world. The seeds of the plant have a long history of use in different frameworks of medicines and food. In Islamic literature, it is considered as one of the greatest forms of therapeutics. It has been widely used to treat nervous system diseases such as memory impairment, epilepsy, neurotoxicity, pain, etc. Additionally, this is uncovered that the majority of therapeutic properties of this plant are due to the presence of thymoquinone (TQ) which is a major bioactive component of the essential oil. Pharmacological studies have been done to evaluate the effects of NS on the central nervous system (CNS). The present review is an effort to provide a detailed scientific literature survey about pharmacological activities of the plant on nervous system. Our literature review showed that NS and its components can be considered as promising agents in the treatment of nervous system disorders. PMID:27247928

  1. Neuropharmacological effects of Nigella sativa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farimah Beheshti

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Nigella sativa (NS (Ranunculaceae family is generally utilized as a therapeutic plant all over the world. The seeds of the plant have a long history of use in different frameworks of medicines and food. In Islamic literature, it is considered as one of the greatest forms of therapeutics. It has been widely used to treat nervous system diseases such as memory impairment, epilepsy, neurotoxicity, pain, etc. Additionally, this is uncovered that the majority of therapeutic properties of this plant are due to the presence of thymoquinone (TQ which is a major bioactive component of the essential oil. Pharmacological studies have been done to evaluate the effects of NS on the central nervous system (CNS. The present review is an effort to provide a detailed scientific literature survey about pharmacological activities of the plant on nervous system. Our literature review showed that NS and its components can be considered as promising agents in the treatment of nervous system disorders.

  2. Thymoquinone: The Bioactive Component of Nigella Sativa

    OpenAIRE

    GÜLLÜ, Elif BACAK; AVCI, Gülcan

    2013-01-01

    Thymoquinone (TQ) which was isolated from Nigella Sativa (NS), particularly has the beneficial effects such as antioxidant, anticancerogenic, antihyperlipidemic, hepatoprotective. The biochemical and physiological properties of TQ was summarized in this review

  3. Aspectos fisiológicos e bioquímicos da germinação de sementes de alface em diferentes temperaturas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hugo Cesar Rodrigues Moreira Catão

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar os padrões eletroforéticos das proteínas resistentes ao calor e a atividade da enzima endo-β-mananase durante a germinação de sementes de alface, em alta temperatura. Sementes de oito cultivares de alface foram submetidas aos testes de germinação, primeira contagem e emergência em duas temperaturas, 20 e 35ºC. Foram calculados o índice de velocidade de germinação (IVG e o índice de velocidade de emergência (IVE. Avaliou-se, também, a expressão das proteínas resistentes ao calor e da enzima endo-β-mananase, para todos os tratamentos. Utilizou-se o delineamento experimental inteiramente casualizado, em arranjo fatorial 2x8, com duas temperaturas e oito cultivares. A maior germinação é observada a 35ºC na cultivar Everglades, considerada termotolerante. Os padrões de proteínas resistentes ao calor em sementes de alface apresentam bandas específicas na cultivar Everglades, a 35ºC. A atividade da enzima endo-β-mananase é maior na cultivar Everglades, nessa temperatura. Essa cultivar tem potencial para utilização em programas de melhoramento de alface com vistas à tolerância a altas temperaturas durante a germinação.

  4. ANTI-CANCER ACTIVITY OF NIGELLA SATIVA

    OpenAIRE

    Salomi, M.J.; Panikkar, K.R.; Kesavan, M.; Donata, K.; Rajagopalan, K.

    1989-01-01

    An extract of Smilax china, Hemidesmus indicus and Nigella Sativa on the ratio 3:2:1, prepared by boiling in water and concentrated could completely cure cases of oral canger diagnosed by modern methods. Cytotoxic studies with the three components showed activity in Nigella sativa at a concentration of 25 microgram equivalent of the dry powder against Dalton's lymphoma ascites cells. Animal experiments indicated the retarded growth of ascites as compared to the controls with a longivity of 90%.

  5. Amphipods fail to suppress the accumulation ofUlva lactuca biomass in eutrophic Yundang Lagoon

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHENG Xinqing; HUANG Lingfeng; WANG Qian; LIN Rongcheng

    2014-01-01

    The Gross growth efficiency (GGE) is defined as the amount of consumer carbon produced relative to the amount of prey ingested in a given time interval. In population ecology, it can be considered as an index for the ability of a consumer to convert the biomass of food into its population production. In this study, it was firstly applied to estimate the role of amphipods grazing in the biomass dynamics of macroalgae (Ulva lactuca) in Yundang Lagoon (a subtropical eutrophic coastal lagoon, Xiamen City, China). It was found that amphipods were the dominant group (82.2%–98.7%) in the benthic assemblage, in which five amphipod species (Corophium uenoi, Ampithoe valida, Grandidierella japonica, Grammaropsis laevipalmata andCa-prella panantis) were observed in the lagoon. However, onlyA. valida significantly consumedU. lactuca among these amphipod species. A series of experiments were conducted to estimate the consumption of U. lactuca byA. valida. It was suggested that the monthly secondary production (P) ofA. valida using size frequency method ranged from 2.39 to 13.68 g/m2.GGEofA. valida exponentially reduced with body size and was closely associated with water temperature. Therefore,GGE equation for different months using the temperature recorded during the field investigation was fitted. The monthly consumption ofU. lactuca was figured out to be 86.7–1 549.0 g/m2 by the sum of consumption (P/GGE) byA. valida at different size, ac-counting for 2.0%–37.5% ofU. lactucaproduction. It indicates that the grazing effect ofA. valida did play a role in reducingthe accumulation ofU. lactucabiomass whenA. valida was abundant, but it finally fails to limit the U. lactucagrowth in Yundang Lagoon. Low abundance of A. valida and high nutrient loading may be two major reasons for the outbreak ofU. lactuca bloom in the lagoon.

  6. Reúso de águas residuárias da piscicultura e da suinocultura na irrigação da cultura da alface Reuse of wastewater from swine and fish activities in the lettuce culture

    OpenAIRE

    Dirceu Baumgartner; Silvio C. Sampaio; Tatiana R. da Silva; Carla R. P. A. Teo; Márcio A. Vilas Boas

    2007-01-01

    Este trabalho teve o objetivo de avaliar o desenvolvimento, a produção e a qualidade sanitária da cultura da alface irrigada com águas residuárias originadas da suinocultura e da piscicultura. Os tratamentos avaliados foram: T1 - alface irrigada com água de origem subterrânea e adubação suplementar; T2 - alface irrigada com água residuária de viveiro de peixes alimentados com ração; T3 - alface irrigada com água residuária originária de lagoa de estabilização de dejetos de suínos, e T4 - água...

  7. Resíduo da produção de Pochonia chlamydosporia no desenvolvimento de mudas e plantas de alface

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Ricardo Viggiano

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar o efeito de subproduto do processo de produção de Pochonia chlamydosporia var. chlamydosporia no desenvolvimento de mudas e plantas de alface. Esse subproduto, um resíduo constituído de arroz que continha propágulos do fungo, foi adicionado em diferentes concentrações (0, 2 e 4% volume de resíduo:volume de substrato a três tipos de substratos para mudas (formulado, comercial e fibra de coco. Sementes de alface foram semeadas em bandejas de isopor que continham os diferentes substratos enriquecidos com o resíduo. As mudas de alface foram transplantadas para vasos com o substrato solo e areia na proporção 1:1 (v:v, 28 dias após a semeadura. Todos os tipos de substratos e doses do resíduo apresentaram interação significativa para todas as variáveis relacionadas ao desenvolvimento das mudas e das plantas de alface. O maior desenvolvimento das mudas ocorreu na testemunha (sem o resíduo dos substratos. Entretanto, após o transplantio das mudas para os vasos, as doses de resíduo até 4 e 2% v:v - nos substratos formulado e comercial, respectivamente - foram as que promoveram o maior desenvolvimento das plantas. A utilização de até 2% v:v do resíduo nos substratos formulado e comercial é viável e não prejudica o desenvolvimento de plantas de alface.

  8. Potencial fitotóxico de Dicranopteris flexuosa (Schrad.) Underw. (Gleicheniaceae) Phytotoxic potential of Dicranopteris flexuosa (Schrad.) Underw. (Gleicheniaceae)

    OpenAIRE

    Valerí Schmidt da Silva; Ana Carina da Silva Cândido; Caroline Muller; Valdemir Antônio Laura; Odival Faccenda; Euclésio Simionatto; Sonia Corina Hess; Marize Terezinha Lopes Pereira Peres

    2011-01-01

    O objetivo deste trabalho foi determinar o potencial fitotóxico do extrato etanólico bruto e das frações semipurificadas de Dicranopteris flexuosa por meio de bioensaios de germinação e crescimento de Lactuca sativa L. (alface), Lycopersicon esculentum L. (tomate), Allium cepa L. (cebola) e Triticum aestivum L. (trigo) em laboratório e casa de vegetação e quantificar o teor total de fenóis e flavonóides dos extratos e frações. Nos bioensaios realizados em laboratório foram utilizadas quatro c...

  9. ADUBAÇÃO FOSFATADA EM CULTIVARES DE ALFACE CULTIVADA EM SOLOS DEFICIENTES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    FRANCO, Henrique Coutinho Junqueira

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available A greenhouse experiment was carried out with the objective to evaluate the response of threelettuce types (cultivars: Regina, Verônica, and Lucy Brown grown on two soils (Paleudult and Hapludox, tophosphorus fertilization. It was used a complete randomized design with three replications of treatments in afactorial arrangement 5 x 3 x 2 (five rates of P, three cultivars, and two soils. The rates of phosphorus were: 0,25, 50, 100, and 150 mg kg-1. Dry matter and phosphorus contents were determined in soil and on plant shoots48 days after emergency plants. A significant yield response to phosphorus fertilization was observed. The LucyBrown cultivar was more productive than ‘Regina’ and ‘Verônica’. The letucce grown on Hapludox tended tohave higher yield of dry matter. Among the cultivars, it was not verified significant differences in the Pconcentrations in plant shoots. The appearing of phosphorus deficiency symptoms in lettuce were associatedwith P contents on plant shoots lower than 2.3 g kg-1.Não obstante a carência de pesquisa com a cultura da alface no estado de São Paulo, sãorecomendadas doses extremamente elevadas de fósforo (P, sem levar em consideração o tipo ou cultivar. Sendoassim, conduziu-se em casa de vegetação, um experimento com o objetivo de verificar os efeitos da adubaçãofosfatada nas concentrações de P no solo e na planta, assim como, na produção de massa seca da parte aérea daalface. Empregou-se o delineamento experimental inteiramente casualizado, com três repetições, segundo umarranjo fatorial 5x2x3 (cinco doses de P, dois solos e três cultivares. As doses 0, 25, 50, 100 e 150 mg kg-1 de Pforam aplicadas na forma de fosfato monoamônio (MAP. Os cultivares Regina (tipo lisa, Verônica (tipocrespa e Lucy Brown (tipo americana foram cultivados, por 48 dias, em amostras dos solos: LatossoloVermelho-Amarelo (LVA e Argissolo Vermelho-Amarelo (PVA. Verificou-se que a adubação fosfatadaaumentou

  10. Achene Wall Anatomy and Surface Sculpturing of Lactuca L. And Related Genera (Compositae: Lactuceae) with Notes on Their Systematic Significance

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    The achene wall anatomy and surface sculpturing of 14 species representing Lactuca L. and related genera were investigated to evaluate inter- and intrageneric relationships. The achene wall anatomy of the studied species can be divided into two types: winged and ribbed. The winged type is present in Lactuca L., Pterocypsela Shih, Cicerbita Wallr., Chaetoseris Shih and Stenoseris Shih, and is characterized by protruding wings and costae in transverse section. Winged type achene mesocarps are composed of parenchymatous cells and fiber cells,and the distinct fibrous strands are confined to the costae or wings of the achenes. The ribbed type is present in Notoseris Shih and Paraprenanthes Chang ex Shih, and is characterized by only having costae in transverse section. Fiber cells are continuous in the costae and intercostae. In surface sculpturing, the ornamentation and the shape of epidermal cells are different among these genera. The results indicate that L. altaica and L.serriola should be conspecific, and that L. dolichophylla is probably an intermediate taxon between Lactuca and Chaetoseris. The results also support the separation of Pterocypsela, Paraprenanthes, Notoseris, Chaetoseris and Stenoseris from Lactuca and Cicerbita as independent entities. Close affinities between Pterocypsela and Lactuca, Paraprenanthes and Notoseris, and Chaetoseris and Stenoseris are also proposed.

  11. Calagem em cultivos sucessivos de cenoura e alface Liming on crop rotation system of carrot and lettuce

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulo E Trani

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available A quantidade de calcário indicada de forma rotineira para hortaliças tem pouca experimentação de campo para dar suporte a níveis de aplicação. Neste trabalho procurou-se estabelecer valores para a saturação por bases (V e pH (CaCl2 para melhor produtividade e qualidade de cenoura (de inverno e alface (de verão, cultivadas sucessivamente por três anos agrícolas em um Argissolo Vermelho Amarelo em Monte Alegre do Sul (SP. Avaliou-se a calagem aplicada no ano, bem como o efeito residual da calagem no segundo e terceiro anos subseqüentes. Os tratamentos utilizados foram: 0; 2; 4; 6 e 8 t ha-1 de calcário no primeiro ano, e 4 e 8 t ha-1 de calcário no segundo e terceiro anos. Constatou-se efeito positivo da calagem sobre a produção e qualidade comercial da cenoura e da alface nos três anos agrícolas e efeito residual da calagem aplicada no primeiro ano do experimento sobre as produções de cenoura e alface nos anos seguintes. No primeiro ano, a produtividade de cenoura comercial foi de 24% a 39% maior do que a testemunha sem calcário, enquanto o peso médio da cabeça de alface aumentou de 79% a 199%. As maiores produtividades de cenoura foram de 46 t ha-1 obtidas com V=73% e pH (CaCl2= 5,7. As melhores produções de alface foram atingidas com V entre 72% e 80% e o pH (CaCl2 entre 5,5 e 5,6. A omissão de B, Cu, Mn e Zn em um dos tratamentos com calagem acarretou na queda de produtividade e qualidade da cenoura nos três anos agrícolas.Amounts of lime recommended for carrots and lettuce have little experimental support for the amounts indicated. This research was developed to determine the adequate value of soil bases saturation (V and pH (CaCl2 to obtain the best yield and commercial quality of carrot (winter and lettuce (summer cultivated on crop rotation system during three years. The experiment was carried out in Monte Alegre do Sul, São Paulo State, Brazil, on a Typic Kandaudult soil. The residual effect of liming, at the

  12. A Quantitative Dynamic Simulation of Bremia lactucae Airborne Conidia Concentration above a Lettuce Canopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fall, Mamadou Lamine; Van der Heyden, Hervé; Carisse, Odile

    2016-01-01

    Lettuce downy mildew, caused by the oomycete Bremia lactucae Regel, is a major threat to lettuce production worldwide. Lettuce downy mildew is a polycyclic disease driven by airborne spores. A weather-based dynamic simulation model for B. lactucae airborne spores was developed to simulate the aerobiological characteristics of the pathogen. The model was built using the STELLA platform by following the system dynamics methodology. The model was developed using published equations describing disease subprocesses (e.g., sporulation) and assembled knowledge of the interactions among pathogen, host, and weather. The model was evaluated with four years of independent data by comparing model simulations with observations of hourly and daily airborne spore concentrations. The results show an accurate simulation of the trend and shape of B. lactucae temporal dynamics of airborne spore concentration. The model simulated hourly and daily peaks in airborne spore concentrations. More than 95% of the simulation runs, the daily-simulated airborne conidia concentration was 0 when airborne conidia were not observed. Also, the relationship between the simulated and the observed airborne spores was linear. In more than 94% of the simulation runs, the proportion of the linear variation in the hourly-observed values explained by the variation in the hourly-simulated values was greater than 0.7 in all years except one. Most of the errors came from the deviation from the 1:1 line, and the proportion of errors due to the model bias was low. This model is the only dynamic model developed to mimic the dynamics of airborne inoculum and represents an initial step towards improved lettuce downy mildew understanding, forecasting and management. PMID:26953691

  13. Emerging clinical and therapeutic applications of Nigella sativa in gastroenterology

    OpenAIRE

    2009-01-01

    Nigella sativa (N. sativa) decreases DNA damage and thereby prevents initiation of carcinogenesis in colonic tissue secondary to exposure to toxic agents such as azoxymethane. N. sativa is of immense therapeutic benefit in diabetic individuals and those with glucose intolerance as it accentuates glucose-induced secretion of insulin besides having a negative impact on glucose absorption from the intestinal mucosa. N. sativa administration protects hepatic tissue from deleterious effects of tox...

  14. Cypsela morphology of lactuca L. and its allied genera (cichoreae-asteraceae) from pakistan and kashmir

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The systematic significance of the cypsela morphology of more 30 taxa (25 species, 1 subspecies and 4 varieties) belonging to 3 genera viz. Lactuca L. Cicerbita Wallr. and Prenanthes L. from Pakistan and Kashmir has been studied by using Light Microscope (LM) and Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM) and discussed. The morphological characters of cypsela such as size, number of ribs, number of cypsela per capitula, presence or absence of beak, number of series of pappus, color and size of pappus and carpopodium were quite useful for the delimitation of different taxa both at the generic and species level. (author)

  15. Nitrous oxide emission from Ulva lactuca incubated in batch cultures is stimulated by nitrite, nitrate and light

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Albert, Kristian Rost; Bruhn, Annette; Ambus, Per

    2013-01-01

    oxide (N2O) may be produced by green algae. We investigated the N2O emissions in the green alga Ulva lactuca. Significant N2O emissions, along with CO2 uptake, were demonstrated from vital U. lactuca material from different natural populations incubated in the laboratory with nitrite (NO2−) and nitrate......Biomass yields from some species of macroalgae exceed the yields in traditional terrestrial production systems. This renewable carbon source possesses a potential for energy purposes and thus reduction in fossil fuel carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions. Previous experiments have indicated that nitrous...

  16. INDUSTRIJSKA KONOPLJA (Cannabis sativa L. ssp. sativa) V SLOVENIJI IN PO SVETU

    OpenAIRE

    Medved, Meta

    2012-01-01

    Gojenje industrijske konoplje (Cannabis sativa L. ssp. sativa) ima v Sloveniji in po svetu še vedno negativen prizvok. Razlog za to je sorodnost te rastline z indijsko konopljo (Cannabis sativa L. ssp. indica), ki se vzgaja za pridobivanje droge. To se odraža tudi v zakonodaji, ki nekaterim državam prepoveduje, drugim pa omejuje gojenje konoplje. Namen te raziskave je predstaviti uporabnost in dobičkonosnost pri pridelavi konoplje, ter preveriti vpliv pojavnosti droge, indijske konoplje na ...

  17. EFEITO DE DIFERENTES NÍVEIS DE NITRATO DE CÁLCIO EM ALFACE NO SISTEMA HIDROPÔNICO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    TEIXEIRA, Antonio Nascimento Silva

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this was of verifying the effect the concentration of nitrate of calciumin the solution to cultivate lettuce in system hydroponic the area of Uberaba. The methodology usedconsisted of a group of buckets linked to an aeration system that promotes the oxygenation of thesolution, being the experiment mounted in homogeneous portion . The treatments were based on theinitial concentration of nitrate of calcium of 750 g 1000 L-1 of water corresponding to 100%, the othertreatments were of 75%, 50%, 25% and 0%. The treatments of 100% the 25% were the ones obtained thebest production results in the weighing of the fresh heads of lettuce, the other treatment didn't have significant difference of those but visually they were very smaller. In the analyzes of matter dries the treatment 100% and 75% obtained better results differing of the witness. Matter dries of the heads of lettuce just had difference when the amount of nitrate of calcium placed was zero.O objetivo deste trabalho foi de verificar o efeito de concentrações de nitrato de cálcio nasolução nutritiva para cultivo de alface em sistema hidropônico na região de Uberaba. A metodologiautilizada constou de conjunto de baldes ligados a um sistema de aeração que promove a oxigenação dasolução, sendo o experimento montado no Delineamento Inteiramente Casualizado (DIC em casa devegetação. Os tratamentos foram baseados na concentração inicial de nitrato de cálcio de 750 g 1000 L-1de água correspondendo a 100%, sendo que os demais tratamentos foram de 75%, 50%, 25% e 0% destaconcentração com cinco repetições. Os tratamentos de 100% a 25% foram o que obtiveram os melhoresresultados de produção na massa dos pés de alface frescos, enquanto que os demais tratamentos nãodiferiram, porém, visualmente foram bem menores. Na análise de matéria seca os tratamentos 100% e75% obtiveram os melhores resultados, diferindo da testemunha. Matéria seca dos pés de alface

  18. Detection of Genetic Variations in Marine Algae Ulva lactuca (Chlorophyta Induced by Heavy Metal Pollutants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Basel Saleh

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Ulva lactuca (Chlorophyta green macroalgae has been successfully used as bioindicator for heavy metals pollution in ecosystems. Random amplified microsatellite polymorphism (RAMP marker was employed to investigate genetic DNA pattern variability in green U. lactuca 5 days after exposure to Cu, Pb, Cd and Zn heavy metals stress. Genomic template stability (GTS% value was employed as a qualitative DNA changes measurement based on RAMP technique. In this respect, estimated GTS% value was recorded to be 65.215, 64.630, 59.835 and 59.250% for Pb, Cu, Cd and Zn treatment, respectively. Moreover, genetic similarity (GS induced by the above heavy metals was also evaluated to measure genetic distance between algae treated plants and their respective control. In this respect, estimated GS values generated by RAMP marker ranged between 0.576 (between control and Zn treatment - 0.969 (for both case; between Pb and Cu and between Cd and Zn treatment with an average of 0.842. Based upon data presented herein based on variant bands number (VB, GTS% and GS values; the present study could be suggested that Pb and Cu followed similar tendency at genomic DNA changes. Similar finding was also observed with Cd and Zn ions. Thereby, RAMP marker successfully highlighted DNA change patterns induced by heavy metals stress.

  19. Crescimento de cultivares de alface conduzidas em estufa e a campo Growth of lettuce cultivars in greenhouse and the field

    OpenAIRE

    Bernadete Radin; Carlos Reisser Júnior; Ronaldo Matzenauer; Homero Bergamaschi

    2004-01-01

    Alguns indicadores de crescimento das cultivares de alface Verônica, Marisa e Regina foram analisados, através de um experimento em estufa de plástico e a campo, de 15/04 a 03/06/99, na FEPAGRO, em Eldorado do Sul (RS). As amostragens das plantas iniciaram-se uma semana após o transplante e prosseguiram (semanalmente) até o final do ciclo da cultura. As plantas cultivadas em estufa, apresentaram aumento na massa de matéria fresca e seca foliar, na área foliar e área foliar específica e no núm...

  20. Desempenho de cultivares de alface na região de Manaus Performance of lettuce cultivars in Manaus region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isac N Rodrigues

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Na avaliação de cultivares de hortaliças, os rendimentos médios mais elevados nos ensaios de competição, associados a fatores de qualidade, são utilizados como critérios de recomendação para plantio. O presente trabalho teve como objetivo avaliar as cultivares de alface Frisella, Deisy, Tender Green, Lollo Bionda, Itapuã 401, Marisa, Verônica, Banchu New Red Fire e Hortência nas condições climáticas da região de Manaus, sob cultivo protegido e a campo. Foram avaliadas as características: massa fresca total, massa fresca comercial, diâmetro da cabeça e altura. As cultivares de alface Marisa, Itapuã 401 e Hortência são opções mais adequadas para o cultivo protegido e a campo na região, incluindo-se para o cultivo a campo a cultivar Verônica, a qual apresentou a melhor produção na avaliação realizada neste ambiente.In the evaluation of vegetable cultivars, the high average yield in the competition assays associated to quality factors are utilized as criteria to recommend cultivars. In the present work we evaluated the lettuce cultivars Frisella, Deisy, Tender Green, Lollo Bionda, Itapuã 401, Marisa, Verônica, Banchu New Red Fire and Hortência under the climatic conditions of the region of Manaus, under protected and conventional cultivation. The evaluated characteristics were: total and commercial weight, plant diameter and height. The lettuce cultivars Marisa, Itapuã 401 and Hortência presented higher production in both environments adding Verônica with best production under conventional cultivation.

  1. Produção e tolerância ao pendoamento de alface-romana em diferentes ambientes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cárita Rodrigues de Aquino

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available O experimento foi conduzido na área experimental da Universidade do Estado de Mato Grosso, localizada no município de Cáceres-MT, no período de maio a agosto de 2011, com o objetivo de avaliar a influência de diferentes ambientes e espaçamentos na produção e tolerância ao pendoamento de alface-romana cultivar Sophia. O delineamento experimental foi em blocos casualizados, arranjados em esquema fatorial 2 x 5, composto por dois espaçamentos (30 x 30 cm e 25 x 25 cm e cinco ambientes de cultivo (tela de sombreamento 30 e 50% , tela termorrefletora de 30 e 50% e ambiente aberto, perfazendo 10 tratamentos com quatro repetições cada. As parcelas experimentais foram constituídas por quatro linhas, com cinco plantas cada, totalizando 20 plantas por parcela. Consideraram-se como área útil para avaliação da produção as seis plantas centrais. As parcelas em que foi utilizado o espaçamento 30 x 30 cm apresentavam 1,8 m² cada, e as com o espaçamento 25 x 25 cm, 1,5 m² cada. As mudas foram transplantadas com 26 dias e a colheita realizada aos 46 dias após o transplantio. Observou-se que o espaçamento de 25 x 25 cm entre plantas e o ambiente aberto proporcionaram maior produtividade da alface-romana. Porém, o tempo para pendoamento das plantas no ambiente aberto foi menor que nos ambientes com as telas de sombreamento ou termorrefletora.

  2. Aspectos fisiológicos e bioquímicos da germinação de sementes de alface em diferentes temperaturas

    OpenAIRE

    2014-01-01

    O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar os padrões eletroforéticos das proteínas resistentes ao calor e a atividade da enzima endo-β-mananase durante a germinação de sementes de alface, em alta temperatura. Sementes de oito cultivares de alface foram submetidas aos testes de germinação, primeira contagem e emergência em duas temperaturas, 20 e 35ºC. Foram calculados o índice de velocidade de germinação (IVG) e o índice de velocidade de emergência (IVE). Avaliou-se, também, a expressão das prote...

  3. Biosorption of Pb(II) and Cd(II) from aqueous solution using green alga (Ulva lactuca) biomass

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The biosorption characteristics of Pb(II) and Cd(II) ions from aqueous solution using the green alga (Ulva lactuca) biomass were investigated as a function of pH, biomass dosage, contact time, and temperature. Langmuir, Freundlich and Dubinin-Radushkevich (D-R) models were applied to describe the biosorption isotherm of the metal ions by U. lactuca biomass. Langmuir model fitted the equilibrium data better than the Freundlich isotherm. The monolayer biosorption capacity of U. lactuca biomass for Pb(II) and Cd(II) ions was found to be 34.7 mg/g and 29.2 mg/g, respectively. From the D-R isotherm model, the mean free energy was calculated as 10.4 kJ/mol for Pb(II) biosorption and 9.6 kJ/mol for Cd(II) biosorption, indicating that the biosorption of both metal ions was taken place by chemisorption. The calculated thermodynamic parameters (ΔGo, ΔHo and ΔSo) showed that the biosorption of Pb(II) and Cd(II) ions onto U. lactuca biomass was feasible, spontaneous and exothermic under examined conditions. Experimental data were also tested in terms of biosorption kinetics using pseudo-first-order and pseudo-second-order kinetic models. The results showed that the biosorption processes of both metal ions followed well pseudo-second-order kinetics

  4. Purification of glucosinolates from Camelina sativa seeds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Camelina sativa L. Crantz defatted seed press cake contains a number of phytochemicals, including the flavonoid rutin (quercetin 3-O-rutinoside), an acylated quercetin glycoside, and three glucosinolates: glucoarabin (9-(methylsulfinyl)nonyl-glucosinolate) glucocamelinin (10-(methylsulfinyl)decyl-gl...

  5. Purification of glucosinolates from Camelina sativa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Camelina sativa (Gold-of-pleasure or false flax) has been cultivated as an oilseed crop for centuries, and has been used as both a fuel oil and an edible oil. Current research efforts centers on its exceptionally high levels of omega-3 fatty acids which is uncommon in vegetable oils, as well as ric...

  6. Desempenho agronômico de alface orgânica influenciado pelo sombreamento, época de plantio e preparo do solo no Acre

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eliana Mara Napoli Correia de Paula da Silva

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar o desempenho agronômico do cultivo de alface orgânica sob diferentes níveis de sombreamento, épocas de plantio e preparo do solo, no Acre. Para cada cultivar de alface avaliada, lisa (Baba de Verão e crespa (Vera, foram instalados quatro experimentos em ambientes com níveis distintos de sombreamento (casa de vegetação, 35%; tela, 50%; latada de maracujazeiro, 52%; e a pleno sol, em duas épocas de plantio (estiagem e chuvosa. Utilizou-se o delineamento de blocos ao acaso, com três métodos de preparo do solo (plantio direto, cultivo mínimo e preparo convencional e quatro repetições. O cultivo em casa de vegetação proporciona maior massa de matéria fresca e produtividade de alface 'Vera', e desempenho similar ao observado sob tela de sombreamento, com preparo mínimo do solo, para as duas épocas de plantio avaliadas. O cultivo a pleno sol, em plantio direto, proporciona maior massa de matéria fresca e produtividade de alface 'Vera', para o período de estiagem. A massa de matéria seca da parte aérea das cultivares Baba de Verão e Vera é maior em cultivo em casa de vegetação, seguida do cultivo sob tela de sombreamento.

  7. Podridão de raízes causada por Pythium aphanidermatum, em cultivares de alface produzidas em sistema hidropônico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zayame Vegette Pinto

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available A podridão de raízes, causada por Pythium aphanidermatum e outras espécies de Pythium, é a principal doença da alface cultivada em sistemas hidropônicos no Brasil. O presente trabalho teve como objetivo avaliar quatro cultivares comerciais de alface em relação à sensibilidade a podridão de raízes, causada por P. aphanidermatum. Os estudos foram realizados em placas de Petri contendo ágar-água com plântulas de alface das cultivares crespa (Vera e Verônica e lisa (Regina e Elisa, infestadas ou não com o patógeno. Com as mesmas cultivares foram realizados quatro experimentos em sistemas hidropônicos (Nutrient Film Technique, sendo dois em estufa coberta com plástico e sombrite e dois em estufa coberta apenas com plástico. As plântulas, infectadas ou não com P. aphanidermatum, foram transplantadas para os sistemas infestados ou não. Foi avaliada a severidade da doença e o desenvolvimento das plantas. Todas as cultivares foram suscetíveis à podridão de raízes nos experimentos realizados in vitro e in vivo. A presença do sombrite não reduziu a podridão de raízes em cultivares de alface produzidas no sistema hidropônico. A cultivar Regina apresentou maior massa de matéria seca da parte aérea e das raízes, na presença ou ausência do patógeno, sendo a mais indicada para o cultivo hidropônico na época mais quente do ano.

  8. Nutrient uptake efficiency of Gracilaria chilensis and Ulva lactuca in an IMTA system with the red abalone Haliotis rufescens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Macchiavello

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The current study examined the nutrient uptake efficiency of Ulva lactuca and Gracilaria chilensis cultivated in tanks associated with the wastewater of a land-based abalone culture. The experiments evaluated different seaweed stocking densities (1200, 1900, 2600, and 3200 g m-2 and water exchange rates (60, 80, 125, and 250 L h-1. The results show that both U. lactuca and G. chilensis were efficient in capturing and removing all of the inorganic nutrients originating from the abalone cultivation for all of the tested conditions. Furthermore, an annual experiment was performed with U. lactuca, cultivated at a stocking density of 1900 g m-2 and at a water exchanged rate of 125 L h-1, in order to evaluate seasonal changes in the nutrient uptake efficiency, productivity, and growth rate associated with the wastewater of a land-based abalone culture. The results confirmed high uptake efficiency during the entire year, equivalent to a 100% removal of the NH4, NO3, and PO4 produced by the land-based abalone culture. The growth rate and productivity of U. lactuca presented a marked seasonality, increasing from fall until summer and varying from 0.5 ± 0.2% to 2.6 ± 0.2% d-1 and 10 ± 6.1% to 73.6 ± 8.4% g m-2 d-1 for sustainable growth rate and productivity, respectively. We conclude that there is sufficient evidence that demonstrates the high possibility of changing the traditional monoculture system of abalone in Chile, to a sustainable integrated multi-trophic aquaculture system, generating positive environmental externalities, including the use of U. lactuca as a biofiltration unit.

  9. Study on Development of Non-Destructive Measurement Technique for Viability of Lettuce Seed (Lactuca sativa L) Using Hyperspectral Reflectance Imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this study, the feasibility of hyperspectral reflectance imaging technique was investigated for the discrimination of viable and non-viable lettuce seeds. The spectral data of hyperspectral reflectance images with the spectral range between 750 nm and 1000 nm were used to develop PLS-DA model for the classification of viable and non-viable lettuce seeds. The discrimination accuracy of the calibration set was 81.6% and that of the test set was 81.2%. The image analysis method was developed to construct the discriminant images of non-viable seeds with the developed PLS-DA model. The discrimination accuracy obtained from the resultant image were 91%, which showed the feasibility of hyperspectral reflectance imaging technique for the mass discrimination of non-viable lettuce seeds from viable ones.

  10. Study on Development of Non-Destructive Measurement Technique for Viability of Lettuce Seed (Lactuca sativa L) Using Hyperspectral Reflectance Imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ahn, Chi Kook; Cho, Byoung Kwan [College of Agriculture and Life Science, Chungnam National University, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Mo, Chang Yeon [National Acadamy of Agricultural Science, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Moon S. [Environmental Microbial and Food Safety Laboratory, Animal and Natural Resources Institute, Agricultural Research Service, United States Department of Agriculture, Washington (United States)

    2012-10-15

    In this study, the feasibility of hyperspectral reflectance imaging technique was investigated for the discrimination of viable and non-viable lettuce seeds. The spectral data of hyperspectral reflectance images with the spectral range between 750 nm and 1000 nm were used to develop PLS-DA model for the classification of viable and non-viable lettuce seeds. The discrimination accuracy of the calibration set was 81.6% and that of the test set was 81.2%. The image analysis method was developed to construct the discriminant images of non-viable seeds with the developed PLS-DA model. The discrimination accuracy obtained from the resultant image were 91%, which showed the feasibility of hyperspectral reflectance imaging technique for the mass discrimination of non-viable lettuce seeds from viable ones.

  11. PENGARUH KONSENTRASI PUPUK HAYATI MAJEMUK DAN BATUAN FOSFAT ALAM TERHADAP SERAPAN P OLEH TANAMAN SELADA (Lactuca sativa L.) DI TANAH ANDISOLS

    OpenAIRE

    Joko Maryanto; - Abubakar

    2010-01-01

    The aims of the experiment were to study the effect of Compound Biofertilizer (CB) and Rock Phosphate (RP) on the several soil chemistry properties of Andisols as well as the P-uptake by lettuce. The research had been conducted in the greenhouse of Agriculture Faculty, Unsoed at Karangreja, Purbalingga, since May up to August, 2009. The experiment was arranged in factorial 4 x 4 based on Completely Block Randomyzed Design with three replications. The firsrt factor was the concentration of CB ...

  12. Raw and fungal-treated olive-mill wastewater effects on selected parameters of lettuce (Lactuca sativa L.) growth--the role of proline.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ouzounidou, Georgia; Ntougias, Spyridon; Asfi, Maria; Gaitis, Fragiskos; Zervakis, Georgios I

    2012-01-01

    Olive-mill wastewater (OMW) constitutes a major agricultural waste stream for which disposal is associated with significant environmental repercussions. No data are available on the effects of biotreated OMW and of the protective role of exogenously provided proline on plant physiology. In the present study, OMW was administered, either raw or previously treated by the white-rot fungus Pleurotus ostreatus, with or without proline amendment, to lettuce plants growing in sterilized sand. Biotreated OMW and proline addition resulted in significant moderation of OMW adverse effects on plant biomass production and ascorbic acid content, while their synergistic action alleviated the severe negative impact on net photosynthetic rate, water use efficiency and photosynthetic activity (Fv/Fo) invoked by the effluent. Moreover, biotreated OMW supplemented with proline, moderated the decrease in chlorophylls exerted by raw OMW, but it did not contribute at restoring carotenoids content. Restoration of plant transpiration was complete when biotreated OMW was used (with or without proline); proline alone mitigated the negative impact of OMW on photosynthetic efficiency (Fv/Fm and Fv'/Fm'). It seems that key photosynthetic parameters could be exploited as suitable evaluators of wastewater-induced plant toxicity, while plant fertigation with biotreated and/or supplemented OMW could be an interesting prospect in valorizing this effluent. PMID:22560036

  13. Shoot growth, root growth and resource capture under limiting water and N supply for two cultivars of lettuce (Lactuca sativa L.)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kerbiriou, P.J.; Stomph, T.J.; Putten, van der P.E.L.; Lammerts Van Bueren, E.; Struik, P.C.

    2013-01-01

    Background and aims - To improve vegetable crops adapted to low input and variable resource availability, better understanding is needed of root system functioning, including nitrogen and water capture. Methods - This study quantified shoot and root development and patterns of water and nitrate capt

  14. Effects of co-cropping Bidens pilosa (L.) and Tagetes minuta (L.) on bioaccumulation of Pb in Lactuca sativa (L.) growing in polluted agricultural soils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cid, Carolina Vergara; Rodriguez, Judith Hebelen; Salazar, María Julieta; Blanco, Andrés; Pignata, María Luisa

    2016-09-01

    Polluted agricultural soils are a serious problem for food safety, with phytoremediation being the most favorable alternative from the environmental perspective. However, this methodology is generally time-consuming and requires the cessation of agriculture. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to evaluate two potential phytoextractor plants (the native species Bidens pilosa and Tagetes minuta) co-cropped with lettuce growing on agricultural lead-polluted soils. The concentrations of Pb, as well as of other metals, were investigated in the phytoextractors, crop species, and in soils, with the potential risk to the health of consumers being estimated. The soil parameters pH, EC, organic matter percentage and bioavailable lead showed a direct relationship with the accumulation of Pb in roots. In addition, the concentration of Pb in roots of native species was closely related to Fe (B. pilosa, r = 0.81; T. minuta r = 0.75), Cu (T. minuta, r = 0.93), Mn (B. pilosa, r = 0.89) and Zn (B. pilosa, r = 0.91; T. minuta, r = 0.91). Our results indicate that the interaction between rhizospheres increased the phytoextraction of lead, which was accompanied by an increase in the biomass of the phytoextractor species. However, the consumption of lettuce still revealed a toxicological risk from Pb in all treatments. PMID:26940382

  15. Effect of nitrogen nutrition on growth and nitrate accumulation in lettuce (Lactuca sativa L.), under various conditions of radiation and temperature

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A better understanding of the effect of environmental factors on growth and nitrate accumulation in plants is necessary to develop cultivation practices, and in particular for providing lettuces with a low nitrate content. This study was conducted to analyse the effect of nitrogen supply on the interception and conversion of the PAR in dry matter, and on the nitrate and water accumulations in fresh tissues of the lettuce, for various conditions of temperature and radiation. The growth, and water and nitrate concentrations of two soilless cultures of lettuce (summer and autumn) were measured for two levels of radiation and two levels of nitrogen supply. RUE ranged from 2.12 to 3.50 gMJ-1, being higher for a low radiation level and for a high nitrogen supply. There was a positive correlation between the lettuce nitrate and water contents. The slope of this relationship was not affected by environmental conditions, indicating a strong interdependance between nitrate and water accumulation in lettuce. (author)

  16. Biosurfactant Produced by Salmonella Enteritidis SE86 Can Increase Adherence and Resistance to Sanitizers on Lettuce Leaves (Lactuca sativa L., cichoraceae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rossi, Eliandra M.; Beilke, Luniele; Kochhann, Marília; Sarzi, Diana H.; Tondo, Eduardo C.

    2016-01-01

    Salmonella Enteritidis SE86 is an important foodborne pathogen in Southern Brazil and it is able to produce a biosurfactant. However, the importance of this compound for the microorganism is still unknown. This study aimed to investigate the influence of the biosurfactant produced by S. Enteritidis SE86 on adherence to slices of lettuce leaves and on resistance to sanitizers. First, lettuce leaves were inoculated with S. Enteritidis SE86 in order to determine the amount of biosurfactant produced. Subsequently, lettuce leaves were inoculated with S. Enteritidis SE86 with and without the biosurfactant, and the adherence and bacterial resistance to different sanitization methods were evaluated. S. Enteritidis SE86 produced biosurfactant after 16 h (emulsification index of 11 to 52.15 percent, P < 0.05) and showed greater adherence capability and resistance to sanitization methods when the compound was present. The scanning electron microscopy demonstrated that S. Enteritidis was able to adhere, form lumps, and invade the lettuce leaves’ stomata in the presence of the biosurfactant. Results indicated that the biosurfactant produced by S. Enteritidis SE86 contributed to adherence and increased resistance to sanitizers when the microorganism was present on lettuce leaves. PMID:26834727

  17. Distribusi Frekuensi Soil Transmitted Helminth pada Sayuran Selada (Lactuca sativa yang Dijual di Pasar Tradisional dan Pasar Modern di Kota Padang

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Verdira Asihka

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available AbstrakPenyakit kecacingan sampai saat ini masih merupakan masalah kesehatan di daerah tropis, termasuk Indonesia. Banyak faktor yang menyebabkan tingginya angka kejadian penyakit ini, salah satunya yaitu memakan sayuran mentah yang tidak dicuci bersih seperti selada atau kol yang sering dijadikan lalapan. Daun selada berposisi duduk sehingga dapat kontak langsung dengan tanah. Keadaan ini memungkinkan STH (Soil Transmitted Helminth yang berada ditanah akan mudah menempel pada daun selada. Tujuan peneliti melakukan penelitian ini adalah untuk mengetahui ada atau tidaknya STH pada selada yang dijual di pasar tradisional dan modern di Kota Padang. Penelitian ini dilakukan di Laboratorium Parasitologi Fakultas Kedokteran Universitas Andalas sejak Bulan September-Desember 2013. Penelitian ini berjenis deskriptif menggunakan metode sedimentasi. Hasil yang peneliti dapatkan dari penelitian ini adalah ditemukan STH positif pada 32 dari 44 sayuran selada dari pasar tradisional di Kota Padang dengan persentase 73%. Tiga dari 5 sayuran selada dari pasar modern di Kota Padang dinyatakan positif dengan persentase 40%. Jenis STH terbanyak yang peneliti temukan pada penelitian ini adalah telur Ascaris sp (79%, larva Trichostrongylus orientalis (16% dan telur cacing tambang (5%. Jadi, Terdapat kontaminasi STH pada selada yang dijual di pasar tradisional maupun pasar modern di Kota Padang.Kata kunci: Soil Transmitted Helminth, sayuran selada, pasar tradisional, pasar modernAbstractWorm disease is still a health problem in the tropics, including Indonesia. Many factors contribute to the high incidence of this disease, one of which is eating unwashed raw vegetables such as lettuce or cabbage cleaner is often used as vegetables. Lettuce sitting position so that it can direct contact with the ground. This situation allows STH ( Soil Transmitted Helminths that are ground will easily stick to the leaves selada. Purposes of researchers conducted this study was to determine the presence or absence of STH on lettuce sold in traditional markets and modern in the city of Padang. This research was conducted in the Laboratory of Parasitology, Faculty of Medicine, University of Andalas since Month from September to December 2013. This study was descriptive using sedimentation method. Researchers get results of this study were found positive on STH 32 of 44 lettuce from traditional markets in the city of Padang with a percentage of 73%. Three of 5 lettuce of the modern market in Padang tested positive with a percentage of 40%. Most types of STH that researchers have found in this study are the eggs of Ascaris sp (79%, Trichostrongylus orientalis larvae (16% and hookworm eggs (5%. So, There STH contamination on lettuce sold in traditional markets and modern markets in Padang.Keywords: Soil Transmitted helminths, lettuce, traditional markets, modern market

  18. PENGARUH KONSENTRASI PUPUK HAYATI MAJEMUK DAN BATUAN FOSFAT ALAM TERHADAP SERAPAN P OLEH TANAMAN SELADA (Lactuca sativa L. DI TANAH ANDISOLS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joko Maryanto

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available The aims of the experiment were to study the effect of Compound Biofertilizer (CB and Rock Phosphate (RP on the several soil chemistry properties of Andisols as well as the P-uptake by lettuce. The research had been conducted in the greenhouse of Agriculture Faculty, Unsoed at Karangreja, Purbalingga, since May up to August, 2009. The experiment was arranged in factorial 4 x 4 based on Completely Block Randomyzed Design with three replications. The firsrt factor was the concentration of CB consists of 4 levels, i.e. 0, 1, 2 and 3 %; and the second factor was the dosage of RP consists of 4 levels, i.e. 0; 25, 50 and 75 kg P2O5 per hectare.  The variables observed were the soil pH, exchangeable aluminium, the availability of P, P-uptake by plant, plant height, number of leaf, fresh weight of plant and dry weight of plant. The data collected was analyzed using Fisher and DMR-test. The results indicated that the application of 75 kg P2O5 of RP could increase soil pH, reduce exchangeable-Al, increase the availability of P in the soil, P-uptake by plant, the fresh weight and dry weight of plant. The application of 2% concentration of CB could reduce exchangeable-Al, increase the availability of P in the soil, P-uptake by plant, the fresh weight and dry weight of plant.

  19. Ulva Lactuca

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristina Peri Rossi

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available She looked loathingly at the spoon. It was a metal spoon, dark, with a small engraving on its handle – a sharp taste. “Open your mouth, slowly, eaaaasy, like a little birdie in its nest,” he said, bringing the spoon to her mouth. He hated spoons; they had seemed despicable little things since he was small. Why did he now find himself having to wield it, full of soup, having to usher it now into this young child’s mouth, as his parents had done to him, as surely as his parents’ parents had also done? If they even had spoons then, if some fool had already invented them. He had to find himself an encyclopedia and figure out when the first spoon had been forged; he had to get his hands on an encyclopedia, a source of infinite knowledge by which he might survive. Spoon: A piece of silverware with a concave scoop at its end; typically used for carrying liquids to the mouth.

  20. Genetic and biochemical evaluation of natural rubber from Eastern Washington prickly lettuce (Lactuca serriola L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bell, Jared L; Burke, Ian C; Neff, Michael M

    2015-01-21

    Alternative sources of natural rubber are of importance due to economic, biological, and political threats that could diminish supplies of this resource. Prickly lettuce (Lactuca serriola L.) synthesizes long-chain natural rubber and was studied to determine underlying genetic and phenotypic characteristics of rubber biosynthesis. Genotypic and phenotypic analysis of an F2 segregating population using EST-SSR markers led to the discovery of genetic regions linked to natural rubber production. Interval mapping (IM) and multiple QTL mapping (MQM) identified several QTL in the mapping population that had significance based on LOD score thresholds. The discovered QTL and the corresponding local markers are genetic resources for understanding rubber biosynthesis in prickly lettuce and could be used in marker-assisted selection (MAS) breeding. Prickly lettuce is an excellent candidate for elucidating the rubber synthesis mechanism and has potential as a crop plant for rubber production. PMID:25513853

  1. Development and application of a 6.5 million feature Affymetrix Genechip® for massively parallel discovery of single position polymorphisms in lettuce (Lactuca spp.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stoffel Kevin

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background High-resolution genetic maps are needed in many crops to help characterize the genetic diversity that determines agriculturally important traits. Hybridization to microarrays to detect single feature polymorphisms is a powerful technique for marker discovery and genotyping because of its highly parallel nature. However, microarrays designed for gene expression analysis rarely provide sufficient gene coverage for optimal detection of nucleotide polymorphisms, which limits utility in species with low rates of polymorphism such as lettuce (Lactuca sativa. Results We developed a 6.5 million feature Affymetrix GeneChip® for efficient polymorphism discovery and genotyping, as well as for analysis of gene expression in lettuce. Probes on the microarray were designed from 26,809 unigenes from cultivated lettuce and an additional 8,819 unigenes from four related species (L. serriola, L. saligna, L. virosa and L. perennis. Where possible, probes were tiled with a 2 bp stagger, alternating on each DNA strand; providing an average of 187 probes covering approximately 600 bp for each of over 35,000 unigenes; resulting in up to 13 fold redundancy in coverage per nucleotide. We developed protocols for hybridization of genomic DNA to the GeneChip® and refined custom algorithms that utilized coverage from multiple, high quality probes to detect single position polymorphisms in 2 bp sliding windows across each unigene. This allowed us to detect greater than 18,000 polymorphisms between the parental lines of our core mapping population, as well as numerous polymorphisms between cultivated lettuce and wild species in the lettuce genepool. Using marker data from our diversity panel comprised of 52 accessions from the five species listed above, we were able to separate accessions by species using both phylogenetic and principal component analyses. Additionally, we estimated the diversity between different types of cultivated lettuce and

  2. Produtividade de cenoura e alface em sistema de consorciação Production of lettuce and carrot in an intercropping system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luiz Carlos S. Caetano

    1999-07-01

    Full Text Available Com o objetivo de avaliar as culturas de cenoura e alface no sistema de consórcio, foram conduzidos dois experimentos na estação experimental da Pesagro-Rio em Campos dos Goytacazes, RJ, em cultivo de inverno nos anos de 1995 e 1996. As alfaces foram cultivadas em monocultivo e em consórcio com a cultura de cenoura. Utilizou-se delineamento experimental de blocos ao acaso com quatro repetições. Para cenoura foram analisados seis tratamentos (cenoura em monocultivo e em consórcio com cinco cultivares de alface. Para a alface foi utilizado esquema fatorial com dois sistemas de cultivo e cinco cultivares. As parcelas experimentais possuíam dimensões de 1 m x 1,5 m. No primeiro experimento, foram utilizadas as cultivares de alface Babá-de-verão, Regina-71, Vitória, Brasil-303 e Carolina e no segundo experimento, as cultivares Carolina, Elisa, Regina-71, Vitória e Marisa. A cultivar de cenoura utilizada foi a Brasília. A eficiência do consórcio foi avaliada pelo cálculo da Razão de Área Equivalente (RAE. Em ambos experimentos, tanto para monocultivo quanto para consórcio, as culturas apresentaram produção adequada para comercialização. Apenas houve prejuízo à cenoura no sistema de consórcio quando esta foi cultivada com a alface cv. Marisa. Os valores da RAE, 1,74 e 1,76, evidenciaram que a utilização do consórcio foi vantajosa nos dois ensaios, ou seja, para obter-se a mesma produção de alface ou cenoura em monocultivo seria necessário um acréscimo em área de 74% e 76%, considerando o primeiro e segundo ano de experimentação, respectivamente.Two experiments were conducted at the Campos Experiment Station - Pesagro-Rio, during the winter season of 1995 and 1996, to evaluate the performance of carrot and lettuce in an intercropping system. For the first experiment the lettuce cultivars comprised Babá-de Verão, Regina-71, Vitória, Brasil-303 and Carolina, whilst for the second experiment comprised Carolina, Elisa

  3. ALLELOPATHIC POTENTIAL OF Portulaca oleracea L. SEED EXTRACTS ON GERMINATION AND SEEDLING GROWTH OF Cichorium endivia L., Lactua sativa L., Echinochloa crus-galli L., AND Brassica tournefortii Gouan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hanaa Fahmy Shehata

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Present study was formulated to find out the phytotoxic effects of different concentrations of water, ethyl acetate, petroleum ether and methanol extracts of Portulaca oleracea seeds on germination, germination index and seedlings growth of Cichorium endivia, Lactuca sativa Echinochoa crus-galli, and Brassica tournefortii. Also the total phenolics and flavonoids were determined. Results indicated that the responses of allelopathic effects were depends on extract type and concentration. Furthermore, the higher concentration had a stronger inhibitory effect on seed germination whereas in some cases the lower concentration showed a stimulatory effect. Hence, it is suggested that Portulaca oleracea seeds has strong allelopathic potential and might be use for biological control of weeds.

  4. The complete chloroplast genomes of Cannabis sativa and Humulus lupulus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vergara, Daniela; White, Kristin H; Keepers, Kyle G; Kane, Nolan C

    2016-09-01

    Cannabis and Humulus are sister genera comprising the entirety of the Cannabaceae sensu stricto, including C. sativa L. (marijuana, hemp), and H. lupulus L. (hops) as two economically important crops. These two plants have been used by humans for many purposes including as a fiber, food, medicine, or inebriant in the case of C. sativa, and as a flavoring component in beer brewing in the case of H. lupulus. In this study, we report the complete chloroplast genomes for two distinct hemp varieties of C. sativa, Italian "Carmagnola" and Russian "Dagestani", and one Czech variety of H. lupulus "Saazer". Both C. sativa genomes are 153 871 bp in length, while the H. lupulus genome is 153 751 bp. The genomes from the two C. sativa varieties differ in 16 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs), while the H. lupulus genome differs in 1722 SNPs from both C. sativa cultivars. PMID:26329384

  5. Anticancer activities of Nigella sativa (black cumin).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Md Asaduzzaman; Chen, Han-chun; Tania, Mousumi; Zhang, Dian-zheng

    2011-01-01

    Nigella sativa has been used as traditional medicine for centuries. The crude oil and thymoquinone (TQ) extracted from its seeds and oil are effective against many diseases like cancer, cardiovascular complications, diabetes, asthma, kidney disease etc. It is effective against cancer in blood system, lung, kidney, liver, prostate, breast, cervix, skin with much safety. The molecular mechanisms behind its anticancer role is still not clearly understood, however, some studies showed that TQ has antioxidant role and improves body's defense system, induces apoptosis and controls Akt pathway. Although the anti-cancer activity of N. sativa components was recognized thousands of years ago but proper scientific research with this important traditional medicine is a history of last 2∼3 decades. There are not so many research works done with this important traditional medicine and very few reports exist in the scientific database. In this article, we have summarized the actions of TQ and crude oil of N. sativa against different cancers with their molecular mechanisms. PMID:22754079

  6. Tamanho de amostras para quantificação da podridão-mole da alface e da couve-chinesa Sample size for assessment of soft rot in lettuce and Chinese cabbage

    OpenAIRE

    Adriano Márcio Freire Silva; Sami Jorge Michereff; Rosa de Lima Ramos Mariano; Alessandro José da Silva

    2008-01-01

    Os cultivos de alface e couve-chinesa podem ter a produção reduzida devido à ocorrência da podridão-mole, causada por Pectobacterium carotovorum subsp. carotovorum. O objetivo deste estudo foi determinar os tamanhos ideais das amostras para quantificação da incidência dessa doença em levantamentos no campo. Foram realizadas amostragens da incidência da podridão-mole em oito áreas de plantio de alface e cinco de couve-chinesa, situadas nos principais municípios produtores do Estado de Pernambu...

  7. Biosorption of bovine serum albumin by Ulva lactuca biomass from industrial wastewater: Equilibrium, kinetic and thermodynamic study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Batch biosorption experiments have been carried out for the removal of bovine serum albumin (BSA) from simulated industrial wastewater onto Ulva lactuca seaweed. Various vital parameters influencing the biosorption process such as initial concentration of BSA, pH of the solution, adsorbent dosage and temperature have been determined. The biosorption kinetics follows a pseudo-second order kinetic model. Equilibrium isotherm studies demonstrate that the biosorption followed the Freundlich isotherm model, which implies a heterogeneous sorption phenomenon. Various thermodynamic parameters such as changes in enthalpy, free energy and entropy have been calculated. The positive value of ΔHo and the negative value of ΔGo show that the sorption process is endothermic and spontaneous. The positive value of change in entropy ΔSo shows increased randomness at the solid-liquid interface during the biosorption of BSA onto U. lactuca seaweed.

  8. Biosorption of bovine serum albumin by Ulva lactuca biomass from industrial wastewater: Equilibrium, kinetic and thermodynamic study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rathinam, Aravindhan [Chemical Laboratory, Central Leather Research Institute, Adyar, Chennai 600020 (India); Zou, Linda, E-mail: linda.zou@unisa.edu.au [SA Water Centre for Water Management and Reuse, University of South Australia, Mawson Lakes Campus, Adelaide, SA 5095 (Australia)

    2010-12-15

    Batch biosorption experiments have been carried out for the removal of bovine serum albumin (BSA) from simulated industrial wastewater onto Ulva lactuca seaweed. Various vital parameters influencing the biosorption process such as initial concentration of BSA, pH of the solution, adsorbent dosage and temperature have been determined. The biosorption kinetics follows a pseudo-second order kinetic model. Equilibrium isotherm studies demonstrate that the biosorption followed the Freundlich isotherm model, which implies a heterogeneous sorption phenomenon. Various thermodynamic parameters such as changes in enthalpy, free energy and entropy have been calculated. The positive value of {Delta}H{sup o} and the negative value of {Delta}G{sup o} show that the sorption process is endothermic and spontaneous. The positive value of change in entropy {Delta}S{sup o} shows increased randomness at the solid-liquid interface during the biosorption of BSA onto U. lactuca seaweed.

  9. Effect of pectinase on the production of sesquiterpene lactones in the hairy root culture of Lactuca virosa L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janusz Malarz

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Direct addition of pectinase as an elicitor to the hairy root culture of Lactuca virosa L. transformed with Agrobacterium rhizogenes stimulates the accumulation of constitutive sesquiterpene lactones - lactuside A and crepidiaside B. The highest amounts of lactuside A (80% above the control level and crepidiaside B (39% above the control level have been found 24 and 48 hours, respectively, after pectinase treatment.

  10. Genetic mapping of agronomic traits in false flax (Camelina sativa subsp. sativa).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gehringer, A; Friedt, W; Lühs, W; Snowdon, R J

    2006-12-01

    The crucifer oilseed plant false flax (Camelina sativa subsp. sativa) possesses numerous valuable agronomic attributes that make it attractive as an alternative spring-sown crop for tight crop rotations. The oil of false flax is particularly rich in polyunsaturated C18-fatty acids, making it a valuable renewable feedstock for the oleochemical industry. Because of the minimal interest in the crop throughout the 20th century, breeding efforts have been limited. In this study, a genetic map for C. sativa was constructed, using amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP) markers, in a population of recombinant inbred lines that were developed, through single-seed descent, from a cross between 'Lindo' and 'Licalla', 2 phenotypically distinct parental varieties. Three Brassica simple sequence repeat (SSR) markers were also integrated into the map, and 1 of these shows linkage to oil-content loci in both C. sativa and Brassica napus. Fifty-five other SSR primer combinations showed monomorphic amplification products, indicating partial genome homoeology with the Brassica species. Using data from field trials with different fertilization treatments (0 and 80 kg N/ha) at multiple locations over 3 years, the map was used to localize quantitative trait loci (QTLs) for seed yield, oil content, 1000-seed mass, and plant height. Some yield QTLs were found only with the N0 treatment, and might represent loci contributing to the competitiveness of false flax in low-nutrient soils. The results represent a starting point for future marker-assisted breeding. PMID:17426770

  11. Efeito de solo previamente cultivado com plantas aromáticas na germinação e no desenvolvimento inicial de alface

    OpenAIRE

    Pereira, T.S.; Vidal, M. C.; F. V. Resende

    2015-01-01

    RESUMOO objetivo desse trabalho foi verificar o efeito do solo pré-cultivado com plantas aromáticas na germinação e no desenvolvimento inicial de plântulas de alface cv. Simpson. A pesquisa foi realizada na Embrapa Hortaliças, Brasília, em bandejas mantidas em casa de vegetação. O experimento foi conduzido em delineamento experimental inteiramente casualizado, com três repetições e onze tratamentos: solo pré-cultivado com hortelã-comum (Mentha x villosa), hortelã-brava (Mentha arvensis), hort...

  12. Desempenho agroeconômico do bicultivo de alface em sistema solteiro e consorciado com cenoura Agrieconomic performance of lettuce under bicropping, sole crop and intercropped with carrot

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eliane Q. de Oliveira

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available Dois experimentos foram implantados de setembro a dezembro/2002, na ESAM (RN, para avaliar o desempenho agroeconômico do bicultivo de dois grupos de alface em sistema solteiro e consorciado com duas cultivares de cenoura em faixas. O delineamento experimental foi de blocos balanceados em grupos, com quatro repetições. Foram avaliadas as cultivares pertencentes aos grupos crespa (Lucy Brown, Tainá, Laurel e Verônica e lisa (Babá de Verão, Maravilha das Quatro Estações, Elisa e Carolina. No experimento consorciado foi utilizado o esquema de parcelas sub-divididas, onde os tratamentos designados às parcelas foram as cvs. de cenoura Alvorada e Brasília e os designados às sub-parcelas foram as cvs. de alface do grupo crespa e as do grupo lisa. Na alface foi avaliado o rendimento de folhas e na cenoura o rendimento total, comercial e a classe das raízes. Foram usados índices agroeconômicos para medir a eficiência do sistema consorciado: Índice de Uso Eficiente da Terra, Renda Bruta, Renda Líquida, Vantagem Monetária, Vantagem Monetária Corrigida, Taxa de Retorno e Índice de Lucratividade. Não houve interação significativa entre os fatores cvs. de cenoura e cvs. de alface sobre os rendimentos das culturas. As cvs. de cenoura não influenciaram os rendimentos das culturas. As cvs. de alface não afetaram os rendimentos da cenoura. No bicultivo da alface consorciada com cenoura, recomenda-se o emprego das cvs Lucy Brown e Tainá do grupo crespa ou da 'Babá de Verão' e 'Maravilha das Quatro Estações' do grupo lisa no primeiro plantio. No segundo plantio, apenas a cv. do grupo lisa Maravilha das Quatro Estações se sobressaiu das demais no desempenho produtivo em cultivo consorciado.As cultivares de alface do grupo crespa consorciadas com cenoura se sobressaíram daquelas do grupo lisa no desempenho produtivo. Os consórcios cenoura 'Alvorada' x alface 'Lucy Brown'; e cenoura 'Brasília' x alface 'Maravilha das Quatro Esta

  13. Cultivo hidropônico da alface empregando substratos: uma alternativa a NFT? Growing lettuce plants in hydroponics using substrates: an alternative for the NFT?

    OpenAIRE

    Jerônimo L. Andriolo; Gean L da Luz; Caroline Giraldi; Rodrigo dos S Godoi; Gisele Teixeira Barros

    2004-01-01

    Foi desenvolvido um dispositivo experimental para o cultivo da alface em sistema hidropônico fechado empregando substratos. As bancadas foram constituídas por telhas de cimento amianto, cujos canais foram preenchidos com brita basáltica. Sobre a brita foram dispostos os substratos, formando uma camada de 0,05 m de altura, com a superfície revestida com filme de polietileno opaco branco. As mudas foram produzidas em bandejas de poliestireno e plantadas em orifícios feitos sobre a superfície do...

  14. Triterpene Saponins from Nigella sativa L.

    OpenAIRE

    TAŞKIN, Mustafa Kemal; ÇALIŞKAN, Özgen ALANKUŞ; ANIL, Hüseyin

    2005-01-01

    Three known triterpene glycosides were isolated from the MeOH extract of dried and powdered seeds of Nigella sativa. The structures of the compounds were established as 3-O-[b-D-xylopyranosyl- (1 \\to 3)-a-L-rhamnopyranosyl-(1 \\to 2)-a -L-arabinopyranosyl]- 28-O-[a-L-rhamnopyranosyl-(1 \\to 4)-b-D-glucopyranosyl-(1 \\to 6)- b-D-glucopyranosyl]-hederagenin (1), 3-O-[a -L-rhamnopyranosyl- (1 \\to 2)-a-L-arabinopyranosyl]-28-O-[a -L-rhamnopyranosyl-(1 \\to 4)- b-D-glucopyranosyl-(1\\to 6)-b-D-...

  15. Effect of Sea Lettuce (Ulva lactuca on Soil Water Holding Capacity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ömer Hulusi Dede

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available In this study, the effect of sea lettuce (Ulva lactuca on soil water-holding capacity and the variation by over time were investigated. Sea lettuce (algae was collected from the Black Sea coast, rinsed with rain water and dried to constant weight. Dried algae were added to soil at rate of 0%, 2.5%, 5%, 10% and 20%. Mixtures were filling the pots and incubated for 0, 20, 40, 60 days at 25 ºC. At the end of the incubation, soil organic matter and water holding capacity were determined. Adding of algae to soil was increased the porosity and water holding capacity. The amount of the organic matter was decreased by the incubation progress. At the 20 and 40 days, micro-porosity was increased, air capacity decreased and water-holding capacity has not changed. At the 60th incubation days, reduction of organic matter content was slowed, air capacity was reached to normal values and water holding capacity was decreased. Total porosity was not changed. At the beginning (0th and the 60th incubation days, the distinctive dose was obtained at 5% for porosity and water holding capacity increases. Increased doses of the above have been limited. The optimum dose of 5% as determined by the addition of algae was increased soil water holding capacity by 48% on average.

  16. δ15N variation in Ulva lactuca as a proxy for anthropogenic nitrogen inputs in coastal areas of Gulf of Gaeta (Mediterranean Sea)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • Ulva lactuca and Cystoseira amentacea δ15N values were assessed in the Gulf of Gaeta. • U. lactuca was more responsive than C. amentacea to environmental pollution. • Comparison of fragments from the same frond overcomes natural isotopic variability. • Spatial analysis indicated areas in the Gulf differently affected by N inputs. - Abstract: We tested the capacity of Ulva lactuca to mark N sources across large marine areas by measuring variation in its δ15N at several sites in the Gulf of Gaeta. Comparisons were made with the macroalga Cystoseira amentacea. Variation of δ15N values was assessed also in the coastal waters off the Circeo Natural Park, where U. lactuca and C. amentacea were harvested, as these waters are barely influenced by human activities and were used as reference site. A small fragment from each frond was preserved before deployment in order to characterize the initial isotopic values. After 48 h of submersion, U. lactuca was more responsive than C. amentacea to environmental variation and δ15N enrichment in the Gulf of Gaeta was observed. The spatial distribution of δ15N enrichment indicated that different macro-areas in the Gulf were affected by N inputs from different origins. Comparison of the δ15N values of fragments taken from the same transplanted frond avoided bias arising from natural isotopic variability

  17. Viabilidade agronômica do consórcio de alface e rúcula, em duas épocas de cultivo Agronomic viability of lettuce-roquette intercropping in two growing periods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caciana Cavalcanti Costa

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available Avaliou-se a produtividade de grupos de alface e da rúcula, em consórcio, em relação aos seus cultivos solteiros, na UNESP Jaboticabal, em condições de campo, em duas épocas de cultivo, maio a agosto e setembro a novembro de 2001, sob delineamento de blocos casualizados, com quatro repetições. Os tratamentos constaram de combinações dos fatores grupos de alface (crespa, cv. Vera; lisa, cv. Elisa e americana, cv. Tainá, sistemas de cultivo (consórcio e cultivo solteiro e épocas de semeadura da rúcula para o estabelecimento do consórcio [0; 7 e 14 dias após o transplante (DAT da alface]. As maiores matérias fresca e seca de alface foram obtidas na primavera, com destaque para a alface americana. As alfaces não foram afetadas pelo sistema de cultivo. A maior matéria fresca de rúcula, no outono-inverno, foi obtida em consórcio, a 0 DAT, com as alfaces crespa e lisa e, aos 7 DAT com americana, enquanto na primavera, quando foi consorciada aos 7 DAT com alface crespa e a 0 DAT com alfaces do grupo lisa e americana. A rúcula teve sua matéria seca reduzida nos consórcios estabelecidos tardiamente, aos 14 DAT. Os cultivos consorciados apresentaram-se superiores aos cultivos solteiros entre 5 e 93%, segundo o índice de uso eficiente da terra. Os maiores índices de uso eficiente da terra foram obtidos com os consórcios de rúcula e alface crespa a 0 DAT (1,93, no outono-inverno e pelas mesmas hortaliças aos 7 DAT (1,84, na primavera.The productivity of different lettuce groups and roquette was evaluated when sown in two different periods and cultivated either singly or intercropped. Theses experiments were carried out in Jaboticabal, São Paulo State, Brazil. The first growing period was from May to August (Autumn-Winter and the second from September to November (Spring of 2001. The experimental design was a randomized complete block with four replications. The treatments consisted of the combination of the following factors

  18. Estimativa do tamanho de parcela para experimentos com alface Estimate of plot size for experiments with lettuce

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alessandro Dal'Col Lúcio

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo desse trabalho foi estimar o tamanho de parcela para a cultura da alface, cultivada em estufa, em túnel e a campo. Para tanto, foram conduzidos os seguintes experimentos com esta cultura: 1 em estufa no verão; 2 a campo no verão; 3 em estufa no inverno; 4 a campo no inverno; 5 em estufa no outono; 6 em túneis no outono; 7 em estufa na primavera e 8 em túneis na primavera. Foi avaliada a fitomassa fresca e seca da parte aérea das plantas. A partir das parcelas simuladas de diferentes tamanhos, foram estimados os parâmetros necessários para calcular o tamanho de parcela. Foi utilizado o método da máxima curvatura modificado para estimar o tamanho ótimo da parcela, e as diferenças mínimas significativas entre médias foram obtidas pelo método de Hatheway. Para testar a homogeneidade de variâncias entre as linhas de cultivo foi aplicado o teste de Bartlett. As parcelas devem estar dispostas no sentido da linha de cultivo. Os resultados mostraram que o tamanho ótimo de parcela para alface, independente de a variável ser a fitomassa fresca ou seca, ou da estação sazonal de cultivo, é de oito plantas para experimentos em estufa e em túneis e de nove plantas para experimentos a campo.The aim of this study was to estimate the plot size for the lettuce crop grown in greenhouses, tunnel and field. The following experiments were carried out with this crop: 1 in greenhouse in summer; 2 in the field in summer; 3 in greenhouse in winter; 4 in the field in winter; 5 in greenhouse in autumn; 6 in tunnels in autumn; 7 in greenhouse in spring and; 8 in tunnels in spring. We evaluated the fresh and dry biomass of the shoots. We simulated plots of different sizes, from which we estimated the parameters necessary to estimate the plot size. We used the modified maximum curvature method to estimate the optimum plot size, and the least significant difference between means was obtained by the method of Hatheway. In order to test the

  19. Análise genética em um dialelo de alface Genetic analysis in a lettuce diallel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco José da Silva Lédo

    2001-03-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho teve por objetivo estimar parâmetros genéticos em um dialelo de alface, segundo o método de Jinks & Hayman. O experimento foi conduzido em casa de vegetação, na Universidade Federal de Viçosa, no período de 20/10 a 12/12/96. O delineamento experimental adotado foi o de blocos casualizados, com três repetições. Utilizaram-se vasos com 4,5 dm3 de substrato e uma planta por vaso (parcela. Foram avaliadas seis cultivares de alface (Vitória de Verão, Nativa, Regina de Verão, Maravilha de Verão, Grand Rapids e Mimosa e seus respectivos híbridos F1. Avaliaram-se os seguintes caracteres: matéria fresca da parte aérea (MFPA; matéria seca da parte aérea (MSPA, folhas (MSF e raiz (MSR; número de folhas/planta (NUF; e comprimento do caule (CC. Foram detectadas evidências de epistasia nos caracteres MSPA, NUF e CC. Na MFPA a variação de natureza aditiva contribuiu predominantemente para a variabilidade genética observada entre pais e seus híbridos F1. Evidenciou-se a predominância de efeitos gênicos de dominância no controle gênico dos caracteres MSF e MSR. As estimativas do coeficiente de determinação genotípico no sentido amplo ( sobre MFPA, MSF e MSR foram de 0,84, 0,85 e 0,90, respectivamente, e restrito ( 0,66, 0,45 e 0,49.This work aimed to estimate genetic parameters in a lettuce diallel, according to the Jinks & Hayman's method. The experiment was carried out in a greenhouse, at the Universidade Federal de Viçosa, from October 20 to December 12, 1996. The experimental design used was a randomized complete blocks, with three replications. Pots with 4,5 dm³ of substrate and one plant/pot (plot were used. Six lettuce cultivars and their respective F1 hybrids were evaluated. The following characters were evaluated: fresh matter of aerial part (FMAP; dry matter of aerial part (DMAP, leaves (DML and roots (DMR; number of leaves/plant (NUL; and stem height (SH. Some evidences of epistasis were detected for

  20. Manejo do cálcio em alface de cultivo hidropônico Calcium management in hydroponic lettuce

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elisabete R. Y. Beninni

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available "Tipburn" ou "queima dos bordos" é um distúrbio fisiológico da alface ocasionado pelo suprimento inadequado de cálcio, principalmente nas folhas novas. Neste experimento foram avaliadas alternativas de manejo do fornecimento de cálcio, visando propiciar maior fluxo deste nutriente para as folhas internas de alface, cv. Vera, e consequentemente, reduzir a incidência de "tipburn". Foram testados cinco tratamentos dispostos em blocos, com cinco repetições: Água; Solução com 100 mg Ca.L-1; Solução com 200 mg Ca.L-1; Aplicação foliar de cálcio (3 g.L-1 e Completa (solução nutritiva completa. Os três primeiros tratamentos foram aplicados à noite para promover o desenvolvimento da pressão radicular e translocação do cálcio para as folhas internas; durante o dia circulava solução nutritiva completa em todos os tratamentos. Constatou-se que as plantas com maior desenvolvimento foram as mais suscetíveis ao aparecimento de "tipburn". O tratamento Solução com 200 mg Ca.L-1 apresentou plantas com teor de cálcio superior aos demais tratamentos, porém a baixa incidência de "tipburn" durante o experimento dificultou a avaliação da eficiência dos tratamentos no seu controle. Mesmo os tratamentos que não receberam todos os nutrientes essenciais durante à noite não apresentaram deficiência nutricional e produziram plantas de peso adequado aos padrões de comercialização.Tipburn is a physiological disorder in lettuce caused an by inadequate supply of calcium, mainly in young leaves. In this trial different management systems were evaluated in order to provide calcium and to increase the stream of calcium and reduce tipburn. Five treatments were studied in block design with five replications: Water; Solution with 100 mg Ca.L-1; Solution with 200 mg Ca.L-1; Spray calcium (3 g.L-1 and Complete (complete nutrient solution. The three first treatments were applied at night to promote the root pressure and translocation of calcium

  1. Suficiência amostral para alface cultivada em diferentes ambientes Sample sufficiency for lettuce grown in different environments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Santos

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Com o objetivo de estimar o tamanho de amostra para alface cultivada em diferentes ambientes, foram conduzidos quatro cultivos com alface, dois deles foram realizados no ano de 2007, com a cultivar 'Vera', e dois foram realizados no ano de 2008, com a cultivar 'Amanda'. Os ambientes em 2007 foram estufa e a campo, e em 2008 foram estufa e túnel. Em ambos os anos de cultivo, foram avaliadas a fitomassa fresca e fitomassa seca. Para cada variável, em cada linha de cultivo, foram estimadas a média, a variância e o coeficiente de variação. Para testar a homogeneidade das variâncias entre as linhas, aplicou-se o teste de Bartlett, a 5% de significância. Nos casos em que as variâncias das linhas foram homogêneas, calculou-se um CV% médio para cada ambiente e este foi utilizado para o cálculo do tamanho de amostra. Nos casos em que as variâncias foram heterogêneas, utilizou-se o maior CV% do ambiente para o cálculo do tamanho da amostra. Os resultados mostraram que, em 40% dos experimentos, quando a variável foi a fitomassa fresca, e em 60%, quando foi a seca, os diferentes ambientes de produção proporcionaram variabilidades significativamente diferentes entre as linhas de cultivo. Foi possível determinar que, com a semiamplitude do intervalo de confiança de 10%, devem ser amostradas 30, 40 e 33 plantas na linha de cultivo, na estufa, no túnel e a campo respectivamente, para a fitomassa fresca das plantas. Já para a fitomassa seca das plantas devem ser amostradas 27, 29 e 32 plantas, respectivamente, para estufa, túnel e campo.The aim of this study was to estimate the sample size for lettuce cultivated in different environments, and for this four lettuce crops were cultivated. Two of them were conducted in 2007, with the cultivar Vera and two in 2008 with the cultivar 'Amanda'. The environments in 2007 were greenhouse and field and in 2008, greenhouse and tunnel. In both years of cultivation the fresh biomass and dry weight were

  2. Acúmulo de nutrientes por cultivares de alface em cultivo hidropônico no inverno

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lopes Mário César

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Avaliou-se o desempenho de seis cultivares de alface do grupo americana, em sistema hidropônico "NFT". O experimento foi conduzido na UNIOESTE, de junho a agosto de 2001 em delineamento de blocos ao acaso, com quatro repetições e seis tratamentos, constituídos pelos cultivares Lorca, Tainá, Havem, Empire 2000, Lucy Brown e Kaesar. Avaliaram-se a produção de matéria fresca e seca da parte aérea, concentração e absorção de macro e micronutrientes. As cultivares Lorca e Havem obtiveram maior produção de matéria fresca, não diferindo estatisticamente entre si, estas apenas apresentaram concentração menor dos nutrientes Ca e Cu em relação às demais cultivares. Em termos de concentração de nutrientes na parte aérea, não houve diferença estatística entre as cultivares para os nutrientes N, P, K e Mn. Nos nutrientes Ca, Mg, Cu e Zn, ocorreu grande variação na concentração. No acúmulo de nutrientes (kg.ha-1, não observou-se diferença estatística entre as cultivares para N e P, enquanto para os outros nutrientes avaliados, as cultivares Lorca, Havem e Empire 2000 foram superiores, sendo também as que apresentaram maior produção de matéria fresca e seca.

  3. Cross-Amplification of Vicia sativa subsp. sativa Microsatellites across 22 Other Vicia Species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sebastin Raveendar

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The temperate and herbaceous genus Vicia L. is a member of the legume tribe Fabeae of the subfamily Papilionoideae. The genus Vicia comprises 166 annual or perennial species distributed mainly in Europe, Asia, and North America, but also extending to the temperate regions of South America and tropical Africa. The use of simple sequence repeat (SSR markers for Vicia species has not been investigated as extensively as for other crop species. In this study, we assessed the potential for cross-species amplification of cDNA microsatellite markers developed from common vetch (Vicia sativa subsp. sativa. For cross-species amplification of the SSRs, amplification was carried out with genomic DNA isolated from two to eight accessions of 22 different Vicia species. For individual species or subspecies, the transferability rates ranged from 33% for V. ervilia to 82% for V. sativa subsp. nigra with an average rate of 52.0%. Because the rate of successful SSR marker amplification generally correlates with genetic distance, these SSR markers are potentially useful for analyzing genetic relationships between or within Vicia species.

  4. Cross-amplification of Vicia sativa subsp. sativa microsatellites across 22 other Vicia species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raveendar, Sebastin; Lee, Gi-An; Jeon, Young-Ah; Lee, Yun Jeong; Lee, Jung-Ro; Cho, Gyu-Taek; Cho, Joon-Hyeong; Park, Jong-Hyun; Ma, Kyung-Ho; Chung, Jong-Wook

    2015-01-01

    The temperate and herbaceous genus Vicia L. is a member of the legume tribe Fabeae of the subfamily Papilionoideae. The genus Vicia comprises 166 annual or perennial species distributed mainly in Europe, Asia, and North America, but also extending to the temperate regions of South America and tropical Africa. The use of simple sequence repeat (SSR) markers for Vicia species has not been investigated as extensively as for other crop species. In this study, we assessed the potential for cross-species amplification of cDNA microsatellite markers developed from common vetch (Vicia sativa subsp. sativa). For cross-species amplification of the SSRs, amplification was carried out with genomic DNA isolated from two to eight accessions of 22 different Vicia species. For individual species or subspecies, the transferability rates ranged from 33% for V. ervilia to 82% for V. sativa subsp. nigra with an average rate of 52.0%. Because the rate of successful SSR marker amplification generally correlates with genetic distance, these SSR markers are potentially useful for analyzing genetic relationships between or within Vicia species. PMID:25608853

  5. An evaluation of the toxicity and bioaccumulation of cisplatin in the marine environment using the macroalga, Ulva lactuca

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The cytotoxic drug, cisplatin (cis-PtCl2(NH3)2), has been added to cultures of the marine macroalga, Ulva lactuca, under various experimental conditions. Both accumulation and internalisation over a 48 h period was greater when cisplatin was added to coastal sea water (salinity = 33) from a distilled water solution than when added to either sea water or estuarine water (salinity = 16.5) from a saline solution. This effect is attributed to the greater abundance of the more reactive monoaqua complex (cis-PtCl(OH2)(NH3)2+) in the distilled water solution and kinetic constraints on its conversion back to cis-PtCl2(NH3)2 in sea water. Despite its mode of action at the cellular level, cisplatin added up to concentrations of 150 nM did not incur a measurable reduction in the efficiency of photochemical energy conversion under any of experimental conditions tested. - Highlights: → This study is the first to examine the biogeochemistry and toxicity of a cytotoxic drug in the marine environment. → Cisplatin is accumulated and internalised by the marine macroalga, Ulva lactuca. → Accumulation is greater when the drug is administered from a distilled water solution than from a saline solution. → Results are consistent with the greater abundance of the more reactive aquated complexes in pure water. → Cisplatin is not phytotoxic to the alga over the concentration range (<150 nM) studied. - The cytotoxic drug, cisplatin, is accumulated and internalised by the marine macroalga, Ulva lactuca, but is not phytotoxic up to concentrations of 150 nM

  6. Isolation, structure, and surfactant properties of polysaccharides from Ulva lactuca L. from South China Sea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, Hua; Yin, Xueqiong; Zeng, Qinghuan; Zhu, Li; Chen, Junhua

    2015-08-01

    Two polysaccharides (ULP1 and ULP2) were isolated through ultrasonic-assisted extraction from green seaweed Ulva lactuca L. which was collected from the South China Sea. The highest yield of 17.57% was obtained under the conditions of 2% NaOH, 90 °C, material/water mass ratio 1:80, liquid extraction 5h and subsequent ultrasound-assisted extraction 1h. The structure of ULPs were characterized with periodate oxidation followed by Smith degradation, (1)H NMR, (13)C NMR spectroscopy, FTIR, and GPC. The molecular weights of ULP1 and ULP2 were 189 kDa and 230 kDa, respectively. The structural characteristics of ULP1 and ULP2 were quite similar. They were composed of rhamnose, xylose, glucose, and glucuronic acid. The content of rhamnose, xylose, glucose, glucuronic acid, sulfate was 51.2%, 12.3%, 20.1%, 16.4%, 12.0% for ULP1, respectively, and 60.8%, 14.2%, 8.2%, 16.8%, 26.8%, respectively, for ULP2. Both ULP1 and ULP2 showed good surface activity. 5 mg/mL ULP1 (2.62×10(-2) mmol/L) decreased the water surface tension to 51.63 mN/m. The critical micellar concentration of ULP1 and ULP2 was 1.01 mg/mL (5.3×10(-3) mmol/L) and 1.14 mg/mL (5.0×10(-3) mmol/L), respectively. PMID:26026981

  7. Effect of dietary seaweed (Ulva lactuca) supplementation on growth performance of sheep and on in vitro gas production kinetics

    OpenAIRE

    EL-WAZIRY, Ahmed; AL-HAIDARY, Ahmed; OKAB, Aly; SAMARA, Emad; ABDOUN, Khalid

    2015-01-01

    This study was carried out to determine the effect of dietary seaweed (Ulva lactuca) supplementation on growth performance of sheep, in vitro gas production, estimated energy, and microbial protein synthesis. A total of 18 Naimey male sheep with average live weight of 22.78 ± 0.24 kg were randomly allocated to 3 groups. Sheep in group 1 were fed a diet containing commercial feed without seaweed as a control diet, sheep in group 2 were fed the control diet with 3% seaweed, and sheep in group 3...

  8. Gamma radiation sensitivity in Nigella sativa L

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gamma irradiation induced mutagenic sensitivity of Nigella sativa L. (black cummin) was assessed from R1 attributes like frequency of seed germination, rate of seedling growth, chromosomal anomalies and sterility types, following exposures of dry dormant seed samples (1.8 % moisture content) to 5 KR, 10 KR, 20 KR, 30 KR, 40 KR, 50 KR and 60 KR of γ-irradiations. Results indicated that gamma radiations have induced both physiological and chromosomal disturbances. LD50 was found to lie between 20 KR and 30 KR of γ-ray. Treatments beyond 30 KR of irradiation were found to be lethal due to complete failure of emergence of seedlings in the field conditions; although 5 KR has shown stimulation in mitotic index. Sterility types have possibly appeared as an outcome of meiotic disturbances. (author)

  9. Chemical composition of Nigella sativa Linn: Part 2 Recent advances.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akram Khan, M; Afzal, M

    2016-06-01

    The black cumin or Nigella sativa L. seeds have many acclaimed medicinal properties such as bronchodilatory, hypotensive, antibacterial, antifungal, analgesic, anti-inflammatory and immunopotentiating. This review article is an update on the previous article published on Nigella sativa L. in this journal in 1999. It covers the medicinal properties and chemical syntheses of the alkaloids isolated from the seeds of the herb. PMID:27068721

  10. Nigella Sativa Concoction Induced Sustained Seroreversion in HIV Patient

    OpenAIRE

    Onifade, Abdulfatah Adekunle; Jewell, Andrew Paul; Adedeji, Waheed Adeola

    2013-01-01

    Nigella sativa had been documented to possess many therapeutic functions in medicine but the least expected is sero-reversion in HIV infection which is very rare despite extensive therapy with highly active anti-retroviral therapy (HAART). This case presentation is to highlight the complete recovery and sero-reversion of adult HIV patient after treatment with Nigella sativa concoction for the period of six months. The patient presented to the herbal therapist with history of chronic fever, di...

  11. Single-nucleotide polymorphism identification and genotyping in Camelina sativa

    OpenAIRE

    Singh, Ravinder; Bollina, Venkatesh; Higgins, Erin E.; Clarke, Wayne E.; Eynck, Christina; Sidebottom, Christine; Gugel, Richard; Snowdon, Rod; Parkin, Isobel A. P.

    2015-01-01

    Camelina sativa, a largely relict crop, has recently returned to interest due to its potential as an industrial oilseed. Molecular markers are key tools that will allow C. sativa to benefit from modern breeding approaches. Two complementary methodologies, capture of 3′ cDNA tags and genomic reduced-representation libraries, both of which exploited second generation sequencing platforms, were used to develop a low density (768) Illumina GoldenGate single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) array. Th...

  12. Viabilidade agronômica de consórcios entre cebola e alface no sistema orgânico de produção Agronomic viability of onion and lettuce intercropped in the organic cultivation system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrícia D de Paula

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Foram comparados três consórcios de cebola (cv. Alfa Tropical e alface (cv. Regina 2000, variando o intervalo de tempo entre transplantios de cada espécie para o campo. O experimento, no delineamento de blocos casualizados, constou dos tratamentos monocultivos de cebola e de alface e três consórcios entre as olerícolas, em seis repetições, mantendo-se o espaçamento da cebola e transplantando- se a alface no mesmo dia, 15 dias e 30 dias depois da cebola. A alface ocupou as entrelinhas alternadas da cebola, representando, em todos os consórcios, metade da densidade populacional do respectivo monocultivo. Com exceção do último tratamento (alface 30 dias após a cebola, os consórcios mostraram-se vantajosos em termos de elevação de renda por unidade de área cultivada. A introdução da alface não reduziu a produtividade da cebola, em bulbos de padrão comercial e o crescimento da folhosa foi comparável ao do seu monocultivo. Os índices de equivalência de área confirmaram a viabilidade do cultivo consorciado, o qual, a par do adequado desempenho agronômico, possibilita um melhor aproveitamento de insumos e serviços no manejo orgânico adotado.Three intercrops of onion (cv. Alfa Tropical and lettuce (cv. Regina 2000 were compared, varying the time intervals between transplants of each one in the field. The experiment was made in a complete randomized block design with the treatments (replicated six times: monocrops of onion and of lettuce, and intercrops of the two vegetables keeping the same onion spacing arrangement, with lettuce transplanted on the same day, 15 days, and 30 days after onion. Lettuce seedlings were placed between onion rows in an alternating manner, thus corresponding to half of its monocrop population density. Except for the last treatment (lettuce 30 days after onion planting the intercropping system was advantageous in terms of increased income by cultivated area unit. Introducing lettuce into the system

  13. Qualidade sensorial da alface crespa minimamente processada embalada em diferentes filmes plásticos sob atmosfera modificada Packaging evaluation to conditioning of minimally processed lettuce

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosana Mendes Roversi

    2005-08-01

    Full Text Available A alface crespa minimamente processada foi acondicionada em cinco tipos de sacos plásticos confeccionados com diferentes filmes (PEBD-50, PEBD-60, PEBD-100, BOPP - PEBD e Conservax, sob atmosfera ativamente modificada com 5% de O2 e 10% de CO2. Monitorou-se a atmosfera durante o armazenamento por meio da determinação das concentrações de O2 e CO2 no interior das embalagens. A determinação da vida útil baseou-se na avaliação da qualidade sensorial realizada por meio de Análise Descritiva Quantitativa ADQ, aplicando-se escala hedônica de nove pontos para aparência e cinco pontos para sabor, aroma e textura. Determinaram-se as taxas de permeabilidade ao O2 e CO2 e a espessura dos filmes. Nos filmes com baixas taxas de permeabilidade (BOPP-PEBD e Conservax ocorreu rápida degeneração dos tecidos celulares e perda da qualidade da alface. Os filmes com maiores taxas de permeabilidade (PEBD-50 e 60 propiciaram a rápida redução do CO2. Entretanto, todas as embalagens com atmosfera modificada proporcionaram os melhores resultados permitindo que a alface mantivesse características adequadas de consumo em até dez dias de armazenamento.The lettuce was packaged in five different plastic films in bags forms (LDPE-50, LDPE -60, LDPE -100, BOPP-LDPE and Conservax-trade mark, under active modified atmosphere of 5% O2 and 10% CO2. It was accompanied the atmosphere changes with the determination of the O2 and CO2 concentration inside the package during the storage. The shelf life was determined through sensorial evaluation whit Descriptive Quantitative Analyses using a nine points hedonic scale to visual quality and five points hedonic scale to taste, flavor, and texture. Permeability and thickness films characteristics were analyzed. In the films with lowers permeability rates (BOPP- LDPE and Conservax it was favored quickly cellular tissues degeneration and lettuce quality loss. The films with higher permeability rates (LDPE -50 and LDPE -60

  14. Performance of lettuce cultivars to protect environmental and soil cover effects Desempenho de cultivares de alface em condições de ambiente protegido e cobertura do solo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Júlio César DoVale

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The objective this study was to evaluate protected environment and soil cover effects on the performance of lettuce cultivars in the conditions of semi-arid northeastern Brazil. We used a randomized blocks experimental design with three factors (2 x 2 x 2 with four repetitions, totaling eight treatment combinations of two lettuce cultivars (Babá de verão and Primavera de verão, with two conditions of protected environment (with and without agro-textile and two conditions of soil cover (with and without carnauba straw. The Maravilha de verão cultivar produced three more leaves than the Babá de verão cultivar. In the presence of agro-textile the production cultivars did not differ with or without carnauba straw. However, without agro-textile the cultivars showed differences in production when grown without carnauba straw. This indicates that only one control condition (with agro-textile or with carnauba straw is sufficient to control weeds and maintain the productive potential of lettuce cultivars.O objetivo desse estudo foi avaliar os efeitos do ambiente protegido e da cobertura do solo no desempenho de cultivares de alface em condições do semi-árido nordestino do Brasil. Para isso, foi usado o delineamento em blocos casualizados no esquema fatorial triplo 2 x 2 x 2 com quatro repetições, totalizando 8 tratamentos combinados entre os dois cultivares de alface (Babá de verão e primavera de verão duas condições de ambiente protegido (com e sem agrotêxtil e duas condições de cobertura do solo (com e sem palha de carnaúba. O cultivar Maravilha de verão produziu três folhas a mais que o cultivar Babá de verão. Na presença de agrotêxtil, a produção dos cultivares não diferiu com ou sem palha de carnaúba. No entanto, sem agrotêxtil, os cultivares apresentaram diferença na produção quando cultivadas sem o estrato da carnaúba. Isso indica que somente uma condição de controle (com agrotêxtil ou com palha de carnaúba

  15. Cronograma de amostragem de alface cultivada em hidroponia para ajuste de curvas de crescimento vegetativo Sampling chronology of hydroponics lettuce plants for adjusting vegetative growth curves

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sidinei José Lopes

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi determinar o cronograma de amostragem de plantas de alface hidropônica, para ajuste de curvas de crescimento durante o período vegetativo. Foram realizados dois cultivos de alface, variedade Regina, de 8/9/2004 a 19/11/2004 (primavera/verão e 22/2/2005 a 24/5/2005 (verão/outono, em estufas de plástico do Dep. de Fitotecnia, da UFSM, Santa Maria, RS. A partir do ajuste do modelo co-seno com amostragem diária, registrada como padrão, diferentes intervalos entre as amostragens foram simulados para o ajuste do mesmo modelo. A fim de se encontrar o intervalo adequado, foi comparada a variância de falta de ajuste do modelo de amostragem diária com as variâncias de falta de ajuste dos modelos com diferentes intervalos de amostragens pelo teste F. Os cronogramas de amostragens para ajuste de curvas de crescimento de plantas de alface sob hidroponia, para experimentos de primavera/verão e verão/outono, possuem intervalos iguais a dois dias, para fitomassa seca total da planta e da folha; intervalos de quatro dias, para fitomassa de raiz; e, diariamente, para área foliar.The objective of this work was to determinate a sampling chronology to adjust lettuce hidroponic growth curves during its vegetative development. The variety Regina was grown from September 8, 2004 until November 19, 2004 (spring/summer and February 22, 2005 until May 24, 2005 (summer/fall. Plants were placed inside a plastic covered greenhouse in Santa Maria, RS, Brazil. Based on the adjusted cosine model, daily samples were taken as standard and different sampling intervals were simulated in order to better adjust the same model. To estimate de adequate sampling interval a comparison was conducted between the variance of lack of adjustment of the daily sampling with the variance of lack of adjustment of different samplings intervals using an F test. Sampling chronograms for adjusting crop growth curves of hydroponics lettuce plants for both

  16. Potential use of green macroalgae Ulva lactuca as a feed supplement in diets on growth performance, feed utilization and body composition of the African catfish, Clarias gariepinus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdel-Warith, Abdel-Wahab A; Younis, El-Sayed M I; Al-Asgah, Nasser A

    2016-05-01

    This study aimed to evaluate the effects of diet containing the green macroalgae, Ulva lactuca, on the growth performance, feed utilization and body composition of African catfish Clarias gariepinus. Four experimental diets were formulated: D1 as a control group and D2, D3 and D4 which included 10%, 20% and 30% U. lactuca meal, respectively. 180 African catfish, weighing 9.59 ± 0.43 g, and with an average length of 11.26 ± 0.21, (mean ± SE) were divided into four groups corresponding to the different feeding regimes. The final body weight of the fish showed insignificant differences (P > 0.05) between the control and fish fed D2, whereas, there was a significant difference (P catfish fed a diet with U. lactuca included at 20% and 30% levels showed poorer growth and feed utilization than the control group and fish fed diets containing 10% of U. lactuca. PMID:27081367

  17. Effects of different drying conditions on the rehydration ratio and water holding capacity properties in three different species of algae Ulva lactuca, Codium vermilara and Codium tomentosum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulo Marques Nunes

    2014-06-01

    In this work, it was concluded that higher drying temperature conditions originate lower rehydration ratio and consequent lower water holding capacity possibly due to a higher physical damage in the algae tissues. It was also observed that both Codium species have higher values for these two parameters than Ulva lactuca, under the same rehydration conditions.

  18. Caracterização de um isolado de Bidens mosaic virus proveniente de alface Characterization of an isolate of Bidens mosaic virus (BiMV from lettuce

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gerson Shinia Suzuki

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Em 2004, plantas de alface com sintomas de mosaico coletadas em São Manuel - SP foram analisadas por microscopia eletrônica, constatando-se presença de partículas típicas de potyvirus com 730 nm de comprimento. Após purificação biológica por monolesionais em Chenopodium quinoa, o extrato vegetal foi inoculado em uma série de plantas diferenciadoras, verificando-se que o isolado testado foi capaz de infectar C. quinoa e C. amaranticolor induzindo lesões locais seguidas de mosaico sistêmico. Ervilha (Pisum sativum mostrou-se assintomática, e em diferentes cultivares de alface como Trocadero, White Boston, Regina, Verônica, Lucy Brown, Rafaela, Tainá, Vera e Laurel foi observado o mosaico. A cultivar Gizele foi tolerante ao vírus. O sequenciamento da região codificadora da proteína capsidial revelou maior identidade de aminoácidos (97% deste isolado com o Bidens mosaic virus - BiMV (nº de acesso AY960151. Diferentemente dos isolados de BiMV já descritos, este proveniente de alface não foi capaz de infectar Bidens pilosa, Helianthus annuus, Nicotiana tabacum TNN e N. glutinosa. A ocorrência natural do BiMV em alface, causando sintomas semelhantes aos do LMV e a suscetibilidade de várias das cultivares hoje plantadas, servem como um alerta para a correta diagnose do vírus a campo.In 2004 lettuce plants showing mosaic symptoms collected in São Manuel, SP were analyzed by electron microscopy, and particles with 730 nm typically from potyvirus were observed. After biological purification by monolesionals on Chenopodium quinoa, this isolate was sap inoculated on a host range assay. The virus infected C. quinoa and C. amaranticolor, causing local lesions and systemic mosaic. The virus did not induce symptoms on pea (Pisum sativum, but induced mosaic on the leaves of some lettuce cultivars such as Trocadero, White Boston, Regina, Verônica, Lucy Brown, Rafaela, Tainá, Vera and Laurel. The lettuce cultivar Gizele was tolerant to

  19. Produção de alface hidropônica em três ambientes de cultivo Production of hydroponic lettuce in three environments

    OpenAIRE

    Edílson Costa; Paulo A. M. Leal

    2009-01-01

    Propôs-se avaliar a produção hidropônica de alface-crespa, variedade "Vera", em bancadas inclinadas com canais de 100 mm, utilizando a técnica de filme de solução nutritiva, em resposta à aplicação de dióxido de carbono e ao resfriamento evaporativo. Realizaram-se cinco ciclos de cultivo nos períodos de 20-3 a 17-4-2000 (C1); 25-5 a 29-6-2000 (C2); 13-7 a 21-8-2000 (C3); 27-8 a 2-10-2000 (C4) e 12-12-2000 a 10-1-2001 (C5). Avaliaram-se três casas de vegetação, sendo casa de vegetação sem sist...

  20. Filme plástico perfurado em túneis baixos cultivados com alface Perforated plastic film for low tunnels cultivated with lettuce

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José E. B. A. Monteiro

    2002-12-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar as condições micrometeorológicas no interior de túneis baixos cultivados com alface, através da perfuração do filme plástico, técnica utilizada para melhorar a ventilação no interior dos túneis, porém ainda pouco conhecida. Assim, foram testados túneis sem e com cultura de alface, com 0, 5, 10, 15 e 20% de área de filme perfurada e, também, um canteiro sem túnel, durante a primavera. As variáveis meteorológicas utilizadas para a avaliação dos tratamentos foram temperatura e umidade relativa do ar, verificando-se que, quanto maior o percentual de perfuração, menor a elevação da temperatura no interior do ambiente protegido e maior a perda de umidade para o ambiente exterior. A produção obtida nos ambientes protegidos foi maior e de melhor qualidade.The present work was carried out with the objective to evaluate the micrometeorological conditions inside low tunnels cultivated with lettuce. A technique used to improve the ventilation inside the tunnels is the perforation of the plastic film, though still not very well known. Therefore, tunnels were tested without and with lettuce crop, with 0, 5, 10, 15 and 20% of perforated film area and in soil without tunnel, during spring. The meteorological variables used for the evaluation of the treatments were temperature and relative humidity of air. It was verified that the elevation of the temperature inside the protected atmosphere was inversely related to percentage of perforation contrary to the humidity loss for the external atmosphere. The production obtained under protected conditions was higher and of better quality.

  1. Avaliação de características agronômicas de cultivares de alface sob diferentes doses de nitrogênio

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kellen Kiara Barros Milhomens

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available A alface é uma hortaliça consumida principalmente na forma in natura, contem boas quantidades de vitaminas A, B1, B2, B6 e C. O fornecimento adequado de nutrientes é fundamental, sendo que o N para a alface está diretamente associado as características vegetativas, reprodutivas e morfológicas. O experimento foi conduzido no setor de Olericultura da Universidade Federal do Tocantins (UFT, na cidade de Gurupi. Foram utilizadas duas cultivares, Elba e Verônica. As mudas foram produzidas em bandejas de isopor de 128 células. Aos 27 dias após o transplantio, foram avaliadas as seguintes características: Massa fresca aérea (MFA - Obtida com a pesagem das plantas coletadas; Número de folhas totais (NFT - Através da contagem das folhas das planta; Diâmetro da cabeça (DC - Obtido com auxilio de uma régua; Massa seca aérea (MSA – Obtida através da secagem da massa verde em estufa a 60° C, ate atingir peso constante, quando as amostras foram pesadas novamente. Podemos destacar que a cv. Elba apresentou bom desenvolvimento para as características de diâmetro de cabeça. Já a cv. Verônica obteve destaque em massa fresca e massa seca aérea, a medida que se aumentava as doses de N. Fica evidenciada a queda na produção a partir de determinada dose.Os resultados das variáveis estudadas neste trabalho demonstraram resposta quadrática em relação à aplicação de doses de adubação nitrogenada na forma de ureia.

  2. Stress responses in alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The isoflavonoid conjugates medicarpin-3-O-glucoside-6 double-prime-O-malonate (MGM), afrormosin-7-O-glucoside (AG), and afrormosin-7-O-glucoside-6 double-prime-O-malonate (AGM) were isolated and characterized from cell suspension cultures of alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.), where they were the major constitutive secondary metabolites. They were also found in alfalfa roots but not in other parts of the plant. The phytoalexin medicarpin accumulated rapidly in suspension cultured cells treated with elicitor from Colletotrichum lindemuthianum, and this was subsequently accompanied by an increase in the levels of MGM. In contrast, net accumulation of afrormosin conjugates was not affected by elicitor treatment. Labeling studies with [14C]phenylalanine indicated that afrormosin conjugates were the major de novo synthesized isoflavonoid products in unelicited cells. During elicitation, [14C]phenylalanine was incorporated predominantly into medicarpin, although a significant proportion of the newly synthesized medicarpin was also conjugated. Treatment of 14C-labeled, elicited cells with L-α-aminooxy-β-phenylpropionic acid, a potent inhibitor of PAL activity in vivo, resulted in the initial appearance of labeled medicarpin of very low specific activity, suggesting that the phytoalexin could be released from a preformed conjugate under these conditions. Our data draw attention to the involvement of isoflavone hydroxylases during the constitutive and elicitor-induced accumulation of isoflavonoids and their conjugates in alfalfa cell cultures

  3. Stress responses in alfalfa (Medicago sativa L. )

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kessmann, H.; Edwards, R.; Dixon, R.A. (Samuel Roberts Noble Foundation, Ardmore, OK (USA)); Geno, P.W. (Oklahoma State Univ., Stillwater (USA))

    1990-09-01

    The isoflavonoid conjugates medicarpin-3-O-glucoside-6{double prime}-O-malonate (MGM), afrormosin-7-O-glucoside (AG), and afrormosin-7-O-glucoside-6{double prime}-O-malonate (AGM) were isolated and characterized from cell suspension cultures of alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.), where they were the major constitutive secondary metabolites. They were also found in alfalfa roots but not in other parts of the plant. The phytoalexin medicarpin accumulated rapidly in suspension cultured cells treated with elicitor from Colletotrichum lindemuthianum, and this was subsequently accompanied by an increase in the levels of MGM. In contrast, net accumulation of afrormosin conjugates was not affected by elicitor treatment. Labeling studies with ({sup 14}C)phenylalanine indicated that afrormosin conjugates were the major de novo synthesized isoflavonoid products in unelicited cells. During elicitation, ({sup 14}C)phenylalanine was incorporated predominantly into medicarpin, although a significant proportion of the newly synthesized medicarpin was also conjugated. Treatment of {sup 14}C-labeled, elicited cells with L-{alpha}-aminooxy-{beta}-phenylpropionic acid, a potent inhibitor of PAL activity in vivo, resulted in the initial appearance of labeled medicarpin of very low specific activity, suggesting that the phytoalexin could be released from a preformed conjugate under these conditions. Our data draw attention to the involvement of isoflavone hydroxylases during the constitutive and elicitor-induced accumulation of isoflavonoids and their conjugates in alfalfa cell cultures.

  4. Determination of essential elements in milk and urine of camel and in nigella sativa Seeds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Studies on milk and urine of camel and Nigella sativa seeds, either with respect to concentration or bioavailability of major and trace essential elements of these materials are limited and warrant further investigation. The objective of this study was to analyze urine, milk of camel and Nigella sativa for some element using neutron activation analysis. Camel milk and urine have higher concentration of Na than Nigella sativa seeds but K concentration in camel urine and Nigella sativa is higher than that of milk. The Ca and Mg concentration in Nigella sativa seeds are higher than that in milk and urine. The concentration of iron and Zn in Nigella sativa is high. The concentration of Co and Cr in urine is higher than in Nigella sativa and camel milk Se is detected only in urine's camel. Nigella sativa seeds contain more trace elements as Sr, Al, Rb, Ba and La.

  5. Effect of Nigella sativa on the kidney function in rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Aziz Dollah

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: Nigella sativa (N. sativa is an amazing herb which is used in traditional medicine for a wide range of illnesses including bronchial asthma, dysentery, gastrointestinal problems, as well as beneficial effect on blood lipids, lowering blood pressure, serum cholesterol, and triglycerides level. This study aimed to determine the toxic effect of N. sativa powder on the kidney function which was evaluated by serum urea and creatinine and through histopathological examination of kidney tissue. Methods and Materials: In this study, 24 male Sprague Dawley rats were randomly divided into four groups (six each. The rats were kept in the separate cage with three rats per cage. The treatment groups were given rat pellet containing N. sativa dose at 0.01, 0.10, and 1.00 g/kg body weight which were considered as low, normal, and high dose for five weeks while control group fed with rat chow pellet without supplementation. At the end of 35 days, the rats were sacrificed to take the blood sample and to remove the kidney organ for toxicity evaluation. Statistical analyses were done through one-way ANOVA using SPSS. Results: The finding revealed that there was no significant difference in serum urea of treatment groups compared with the control group. The results showed a significant decline in serum creatinine of high dose of Nigella sativa  treated  compared with low dose treated and control groups (p

  6. Renal injury, nephrolithiasis and Nigella sativa: A mini review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Parichehr Hayatdavoudi

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The incidence and prevalence of kidney stone is increasing worldwide. After the first recurrence the risk of subsequent relapses is higher and the time period between relapses is shortened. Urinary stones can be severely painful and make a huge economic burden. The stone disease may increase the vulnerability of patients to other diseases such as renal failure. Medicinal herbs are rich sources of antioxidants which are increasingly consumed globally for their safety, efficacy and low price. Nigella sativa is a spice plant that is widely used for prevention and treatment of many ailments in Muslim countries and worldwide. This review aims at investigation of the effects of Nigella sativa on renal injury and stone formation. Materials and Method: The scientific resources including PubMed, Scopus, and Google scholar were searched using key words such as: nephrolithiasis, urolithiasis, kidney/renal stone, renal injury, renal failure, urinary retention and black seed, black cumin, Nigella sativa and thymoquinone.    Results: N. sativa and its main component, thymoquinone showed positive effects in prevention or curing kidney stones and renal failure through various mechanism such as antioxidative, anti-inflammatory, anti-eicosanoid and immunomodulatory effects. The putative candidate in many cases has been claimed to be thymoquinone but it seems that at least in part, particularly in kidney stones, the herbal melanin plays a role which requires further investigation to prove. Conclusion: N. sativa and its components are beneficial in prevention and curing of renal diseases including nephrolithiasis and renal damages.

  7. Complete mitochondrial genome of Eruca sativa Mill. (Garden rocket.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yankun Wang

    Full Text Available Eruca sativa (Cruciferae family is an ancient crop of great economic and agronomic importance. Here, the complete mitochondrial genome of Eruca sativa was sequenced and annotated. The circular molecule is 247,696 bp long, with a G+C content of 45.07%, containing 33 protein-coding genes, three rRNA genes, and 18 tRNA genes. The Eruca sativa mitochondrial genome may be divided into six master circles and four subgenomic molecules via three pairwise large repeats, resulting in a more dynamic structure of the Eruca sativa mtDNA compared with other cruciferous mitotypes. Comparison with the Brassica napus MtDNA revealed that most of the genes with known function are conserved between these two mitotypes except for the ccmFN2 and rrn18 genes, and 27 point mutations were scattered in the 14 protein-coding genes. Evolutionary relationships analysis suggested that Eruca sativa is more closely related to the Brassica species and to Raphanus sativus than to Arabidopsis thaliana.

  8. Two complete chloroplast genome sequences of Cannabis sativa varieties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oh, Hyehyun; Seo, Boyoung; Lee, Seunghwan; Ahn, Dong-Ha; Jo, Euna; Park, Jin-Kyoung; Min, Gi-Sik

    2016-07-01

    In this study, we determined the complete chloroplast (cp) genomes from two varieties of Cannabis sativa. The genome sizes were 153,848 bp (the Korean non-drug variety, Cheungsam) and 153,854 bp (the African variety, Yoruba Nigeria). The genome structures were identical with 131 individual genes [86 protein-coding genes (PCGs), eight rRNA, and 37 tRNA genes]. Further, except for the presence of an intron in the rps3 genes of two C. sativa varieties, the cp genomes of C. sativa had conservative features similar to that of all known species in the order Rosales. To verify the position of C. sativa within the order Rosales, we conducted phylogenetic analysis by using concatenated sequences of all PCGs from 17 complete cp genomes. The resulting tree strongly supported monophyly of Rosales. Further, the family Cannabaceae, represented by C. sativa, showed close relationship with the family Moraceae. The phylogenetic relationship outlined in our study is well congruent with those previously shown for the order Rosales. PMID:26104156

  9. The Protective Effects of Nigella sativa and Its Constituents on Induced Neurotoxicity

    OpenAIRE

    Mohammad Reza Khazdair

    2015-01-01

    Nigella sativa (N. sativa) is an annual plant and widely used as medicinal plant throughout the world. The seeds of the plant have been used traditionally in various disorders and as a spice to ranges of Persian foods. N. sativa has therapeutic effects on tracheal responsiveness (TR) and lung inflammation on induced toxicity by Sulfur mustard. N. sativa has been widely used in treatment of various nervous system disorders such as Alzheimer disease, epilepsy, and neurotoxicity. Most of the the...

  10. The relaxant effect of Nigella sativa on smooth muscles, its possible mechanisms and clinical applications

    OpenAIRE

    Rana Keyhanmanesh; Zahra Gholamnezhad; Mohammad Hossien Boskabady

    2014-01-01

    Nigella sativa (N. sativa) is a spice plant which has been traditionally used for culinary and medicinal purposes. Different therapeutic properties including the beneficial effects on asthma and dyspnea, digestive and gynecology disorders have been described for the seeds of N. sativa. There is evidence of the relaxant effects of this plant and some of its constituents on different types of smooth muscle including rabbit aorta, rabbit jejunum and trachea. The relaxant effect of N. sativa coul...

  11. Polyploid genome of Camelina sativa revealed by isolation of fatty acid synthesis genes

    OpenAIRE

    Shewmaker Christine K; Goldstein Elianna; Schroeder Jesara; Comai Luca; Beilstein Mark; Ditt Renata F; Hutcheon Carolyn; Nguyen Van Thu; De Rocher Jay; Kiser Jack

    2010-01-01

    Abstract Background Camelina sativa, an oilseed crop in the Brassicaceae family, has inspired renewed interest due to its potential for biofuels applications. Little is understood of the nature of the C. sativa genome, however. A study was undertaken to characterize two genes in the fatty acid biosynthesis pathway, fatty acid desaturase (FAD) 2 and fatty acid elongase (FAE) 1, which revealed unexpected complexity in the C. sativa genome. Results In C. sativa, Southern analysis indicates the p...

  12. Germinação de sementes de alface e de duas ervas invasoras com a aplicação de um novo análogo do estrigol, sintetizado a partir do safrol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriel André José A.

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available O estrigol é um sesquiterpeno natural que possui elevada atividade como estimulante da germinação, principalmente de sementes de espécies invasoras, pertencentes aos gêneros Striga e Orobanche. Soluções contendo 0,01; 0,1; 10 e 1000 mg/L de um novo análogo de estrigol, sintetizado a partir de um alilbenzeno natural, o safrol (isolado do óleo de sassafraz, foram aplicadas em sementes de alface e de Ipomoea grandifolia e Bidens pilosa. Observou-se que houve efeito estimulador na germinação das sementes das ervas invasoras, sem afetar a germinação da alface. Os resultados indicam que essa substância apresenta potencial de uso para estimular a germinação de sementes de ervas invasoras, que poderiam ser eliminadas do solo, antes do plantio de hortaliças como a alface.

  13. A link between lead and cadmium kinetic speciation in seawater and accumulation by the green alga Ulva lactuca

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this work, studies on the bioaccumulation of Cd and Pb by Ulva lactuca at different sites of Gulf San Jorge (Patagonia, Argentina) are presented. Higher values of bioaccumulated Cd were found in Punta Maqueda - a site believed to serve as a control - in comparison to those in Punta Borja, a place highly exposed to urban and industrial activities. Consequently; the labile fractions of Cd and Pb in seawater were determined with a flow injection-preconcentration manifold interfaced to a graphite furnace-atomic absorption spectrometer (FI-GFAAS). The results obtained by kinetic speciation showed that the variable that correctly explains heavy metals accumulation in the alga, is the labile metal fraction in seawater. We propose to use an enhancement ratio - on the basis of the kinetically labile metal fraction - for calculation of the metal accumulated by the alga relative to its environment. - Metal kinetic speciation can overcome CF limitations for the evaluation of marine pollution

  14. A link between lead and cadmium kinetic speciation in seawater and accumulation by the green alga Ulva lactuca

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Muse, J.O. [Departamento de Quimica Analitica y Fisicoquimica, Facultad de Farmacia y Bioquimica, Universidad de Buenos Aires, Qulmica Analitica, 3er. Piso, Junin 956-1113, Buenos Aires (Argentina)]. E-mail: jmuse@ffyb.uba.ar; Carducci, C.N. [Departamento de Quimica Analitica y Fisicoquimica, Facultad de Farmacia y Bioquimica, Universidad de Buenos Aires, Qulmica Analitica, 3er. Piso, Junin 956-1113, Buenos Aires (Argentina); Stripeikis, J.D. [Departamento de Quimica Inorganica, Analitica y Quimica Fisica/INQUIMAE, Facultad de Ciencias Exactas y Naturales, Universidad de Buenos Aires, Buenos Aires, 3er. Piso, Pabellon 2, Ciudad Universitavia, Buenos Aires (Argentina); Tudino, M.B. [Departamento de Quimica Inorganica, Analitica y Quimica Fisica/INQUIMAE, Facultad de Ciencias Exactas y Naturales, Universidad de Buenos Aires, Buenos Aires, 3er. Piso, Pabellon 2, Ciudad Universitavia, Buenos Aires (Argentina); Fernandez, F.M. [Departamento de Quimica Inorganica, Analitica y Quimica Fisica/INQUIMAE, Facultad de Ciencias Exactas y Naturales, Universidad de Buenos Aires, Buenos Aires, 3er. Piso, Pabellon 2, Ciudad Universitavia, Buenos Aires (Argentina)

    2006-05-15

    In this work, studies on the bioaccumulation of Cd and Pb by Ulva lactuca at different sites of Gulf San Jorge (Patagonia, Argentina) are presented. Higher values of bioaccumulated Cd were found in Punta Maqueda - a site believed to serve as a control - in comparison to those in Punta Borja, a place highly exposed to urban and industrial activities. Consequently; the labile fractions of Cd and Pb in seawater were determined with a flow injection-preconcentration manifold interfaced to a graphite furnace-atomic absorption spectrometer (FI-GFAAS). The results obtained by kinetic speciation showed that the variable that correctly explains heavy metals accumulation in the alga, is the labile metal fraction in seawater. We propose to use an enhancement ratio - on the basis of the kinetically labile metal fraction - for calculation of the metal accumulated by the alga relative to its environment. - Metal kinetic speciation can overcome CF limitations for the evaluation of marine pollution.

  15. Effects of Nigella sativa and Lepidium sativum on Cyclosporine Pharmacokinetics

    OpenAIRE

    Abdul Ahad; Mohd Raish; Al-Mohizea, Abdullah M.; Hesham M. Korashy; Al-Kharfy, Khalid M.; Mohd Aftab Alam; Al-Suwayeh, S. A.; Iqbal Muzaffar; Al-Jenoobi, F. I.

    2013-01-01

    The present study was conducted to investigate the effects of Nigella sativa and Lepidium sativum on the pharmacokinetics of cyclosporine in rabbits. Two groups of animals were treated separately with Nigella sativa (200 mg/kg p.o.) or Lepidium sativum (150 mg/kg p.o.) for eight consecutive days. On the 8th day, cyclosporine (30 mg/kg p.o.) was administered to each group one hour after herbal treatment. Blood samples were withdrawn at different time intervals (0.0, 0.5, 1.0, 1.5, 2.0, 3.0, 4....

  16. Primary human monocyte differentiation regulated by Nigella sativa pressed oil

    OpenAIRE

    Mat Mahaya C; Mohamed Azman S; Hamid Shahrul S

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Background Oxidized low density lipoprotein plays an important role in development of foam cells in atherosclerosis. The study was focused on regulation of primary human monocyte growth and CD11b expression in presence of Nigella sativa oil. Methods Primary human monocytes were isolated from whole blood and grown at 37°C and 5% CO2 saturation for five days prior to treatment with Nigella sativa oil. The cells were plated and washed before treatment with ox-LDL (10 μg/ml) as positive ...

  17. ANTIBACTERIAL STUDIES ON BENINCASA HISPIDA AND NIGELLA SATIVA OIL

    OpenAIRE

    Lubna Tahir; Benazir Chand; Salma Rahman

    2013-01-01

    Fixed oil of seeds of Benincasa hispida and Nigella sativa was found active against various resistant pathogens of both gram positive and gram negative bacteria. The maximum zone of inhibition was observed against S.aureus (24mm) for Nigella sativa but when 1:1 combination of both the plants was used, good activity against all the tested pathogens i.e., M. luteus, E. coli, S. aureus, P. multocida, P. aeruginosa and B. subtilis (20.31 to 18.61mm) was observed proving seeds as a strong candidat...

  18. Competition between Medicago sativa and Dactylis glomerata in mixed culture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ioan ROTAR

    1991-08-01

    Full Text Available The higs yield obtained from mixte culture of Medicago sativa and Dactylis glomerata in favourable cultivating conditions, show the superiority of this mixture in obtaining rich and constant yields. Our experiment has in view the relations established between the two species sown at different intervals on land gradually fertilized by nitrogen. The intraspecific competition for the nourishing space manifests itself with stronger intensity in the case of small distances and decreases as they increase. The presence of mineral nitrogen in the soil, for long periods, increases the competitive capacity of cocksfoot, its absence favours Medicago sativa.

  19. Aspectos terapêuticos de compostos da planta Cannabis sativa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Honório Káthia Maria

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Several cannabinoid compounds present therapeutic properties, but also have psychotropic effects, limiting their use as medicine. Nowadays, many important discoveries on the compounds extracted from the plant Cannabis sativa (cannabinoids have contributed to understand the therapeutic properties of these compounds. The main discoveries in the last years on the cannabinoid compounds were: the cannabinoid receptors CB1 and CB2, the endogenous cannabinoids and the possible mechanisms of action involved in the interaction between cannabinoid compounds and the biological receptors. So, from the therapeutical aspects presented in this work, we intended to show the evolution of the Cannabis sativa research and the possible medicinal use of cannabinoid compounds.

  20. Uso de diferentes doses de manipueira na cultura da alface em substituição à adubação mineral Use of different doses of cassava wastewater in lettuce crop in substitution of mineral fertilizer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anamaria de S. Duarte

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Objetivou-se, neste trabalho, verificar o efeito ocasionado pelo uso de diferentes doses de manipueira nas características agronômicas da alface em substituição à adubação mineral. O referido estudo foi desenvolvido em uma área pertencente ao Departamento de Tecnologia Rural da Universidade Federal Rural de Pernambuco, Recife, PE, no período de maio a agosto de 2010. O experimento foi conduzido em ambiente protegido em delineamento inteiramente casualizado, com seis tratamentos compostos das seguintes doses: 0, 5, 15, 25, 45, 65 m³ ha-1 e cinco repetições. Utilizou-se a cultivar de alface Regina 2000, dispondo-se uma planta por vaso de 4 L. Foram avaliadas, em função das doses aplicadas, as seguintes características agronômicas da alface: área foliar, altura de planta, número de folhas, matéria fresca e matéria seca da alface. Ao final do experimento constatou-se que a dose de 45 m³ ha-1 foi a que propiciou maior ganho de altura de planta, área foliar e, consequentemente, também maior produção de matéria fresca e seca. Assim sendo, o uso da manipueira serviu como fonte de adubação para a cultura da alface, dependendo da dose aplicada.The main goal of this work was to evaluate the effect on agronomic characteristics of the lettuce when using different doses of cassava wastewater instead of mineral fertilizer. This study was conducted at the Departamento de Tecnologia Rural da Universidade Rural de Pernambuco, Recife, PE, from May to August 2010. The experiment was carried out under greenhouse conditions in a completely randomized blocks, with six treatments and five repetitions. Following doses were used: 0, 5, 15, 25, 45 and 65 m³ ha-1. The lettuce cultivar Regina 2000 was used (one plant per pot and leaf area, plant height, number of leaves, fresh leaf mass and dry leaf mass were evaluated for each dose of cassava wastewater. At the end of the experiment, the dose of 45 m³ ha-1 provided the best results by

  1. Viabilidade da consorciação de pimentão com repolho, rúcula, alface e rabanete Feasibility of intercropping pepper with cabbage, rocket, lettuce and radish

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bráulio Luciano A Rezende

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available O trabalho foi conduzido na UNESP, Jaboticabal-SP, de setembro/2003 a janeiro/2004, com objetivo de avaliar a viabilidade da consorciação de pimentão com as culturas de repolho, rúcula, alface e rabanete. O experimento constou de 15 tratamentos, correspondentes a 10 cultivos consorciados (combinações das cinco hortaliças e cinco monocultivos. Utilizou-se o delineamento experimental em blocos casualizados, com seis repetições. Foram utilizados os híbridos Magali R e Kenzan, respectivamente, para pimentão e repolho; e as cultivares Vera, Cultivada e Crimson Gigante, respectivamente, para alface, rúcula e rabanete. As produtividades de pimentão e repolho em cultivo consorciado não diferiram significativamente das obtidas em monocultivo. Maior massa fresca de parte aérea de plantas de alface (438,86 g/planta foi observada quando a alface foi consorciada com pimentão, diferindo estatisticamente dos demais cultivos que obtiveram em média 323,05 g/planta de alface. Aumento na produtividade de raízes comerciais de rabanete foi observado quando consorciado com pimentão, porém, foi significativamente superior apenas ao cultivo consorciado de pimentão+repolho+rabanete. A massa fresca da parte aérea da rúcula mostrou diferença estatística apenas entre os consórcios de pimentão+rúcula+alface e pimentão+repolho+rúcula. Exceto o consórcio pimentão+repolho que obteve índice de uso eficiente da terra (UET de 1,92; todos os outros consórcios apresentaram UET superior a 2,0, com maior UET (2,64 obtido no consórcio pimentão+alface. A superioridade de 92 a 164% na produção de alimento por área dos consórcios sobre os monocultivos, demonstra a viabilidade dos policultivos e maior eficiência do uso da terra.This work was carried out in Jaboticabal, São Paulo State, Brazil, from September 2003 to January 2004, to evaluate the feasibility of an intercropping system of pepper with cabbage, rocket, lettuce and radish, in relation

  2. Avaliação do potencial alelopático de folhas de Passiflora cincinnata Mast. (Passifloraceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Oliveria

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available A alelopatia é um fenômeno pouco estudado no Cerrado. Assim, o objetivo deste trabalho foi verificar o potencial alelopático de extratos foliares de Passiflora cincinnata sobre o desenvolvimento inicial de espécies modelos. Para isso, o extrato etanólico bruto e frações hexânica, acetato de etila e metanólica, em diferentes concentrações (0, 250, 500, 1000, 2000 e 4000mgL-1 foram utilizadas em bioensaios de germinação e crescimento de alface (Lactuca sativa var. Grand rapids e milho (Zea mays var. Havaí.. Diariamente, avaliou-se o percentual de germinação e o Índice de Velocidade de Germinação (IVG. O crescimento da radícula/raiz primária e do hipocótilo/coleóptilo foram medidos três dias após a protusão radicular. O experimento foi em fatorial (4x6, utilizando delineamento inteiramente casualizado, com cinco repetições. Os resultados demonstraram que não houve efeito significativo dos tratamentos sobre a germinação e IVG de alface, enquanto que o extrato etanólico bruto inibiu o comprimento do hipocótilo de alface, em 16,5%, comparado à frações hexânica e, em 16,8%, em relação às frações acetato de etila e metanólica. Não verificou-se efeito significativo dos tratamentos sobre milho. Assim, conclui-se que folhas de P. cincinnata apresentam atividade alelopática sobre o comprimento de alface, não promovendo efeito sobre milho.

  3. ESTUDOS NUTRICIONAIS COM ARROZ (Oryza sativa, L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alfredo LAM-SÁNCHEZ

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available

    RESUMO: Estudos com arroz (Oryza sativa, L. foram realizados a fim de determinar a variabilidade do teor de proteína em coleções de cultivares e a possibilidade de utilizar as camadas periféricas do grão na alimentação humana. Foram analisadas 626 linhagens e cultivares de arroz que mostraram uma variação quanto ao teor de proteína de 4.00 a 14.31 g/100 g de amostra. Para se extrair as camadas periféricas do grão, foi desenvolvida uma máquina experimental, que removia as camadas superficiais dos grãos de arroz integral (inteiros somente com a casca removida. Verificou-se que a quantidade de proteína do grão diminui de fora para dentro. O resíduo, que era constituído de grande parte de restos de endosperma com um teor protéico menor mas incluía o embrião, que é a primeira estrutura a se deslocar de grão no beneficiamento e contém proteínas, vitaminas, sais minerais e lípides, tinha um bom valor nutritivo. Desenvolveu-se também uma fórmula para alimentação infantil a partir da mistura de leite de vaca com arroz, com composição semelhante à do leite materno, a ser utilizada sob a forma de bebida ou mingau. Formulações com 40%-20% arroz + 60%-80% leite de vaca proporcionaram valores de Coeficiente de Eficiência Protéica (2,39 e 2,38, respectivamente que não diferiam estatisticamente do valor de 2,43 obtido na fórmula com 100% de leite de vaca. Seus preços foram 59% e 65% do obtido para o leite de vaca integral. PALAVRAS-CHAVE: Arroz; qualidade do grão; proteína; camadas periféricas; misturas arroz-leite; nutrição humana.

  4. Genetic Isolation, Divergence And Gene Flow In O. sativa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knowledge about the structure and evolutionary history of naturally occurring variation in crops and their wild relatives provides insights into the complex process of domestication and new opportunities for utilizing novel alleles in crop improvement. Domesticated Asian rice (Oryza sativa L.) is co...

  5. Crop physiology of fibre hemp (Cannabis sativa L.).

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Werf, van der H.

    1994-01-01

    Fibre hemp ( Cannabis sativa L.) may be an alternative to wood as a raw material for the production of paper pulp. The effects of enviromnental factors and cultural measures on the functioning, yield and quality of fibre hemp crops in the Netherlands were investigated.Until flowering (generally in

  6. New developments in fiber hemp (Cannabis sativa L.) breeding

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Salentijn, E.M.J.; Zhang, Qingying; Amaducci, Stefano; Yang, Ming; Trindade, L.M.

    2015-01-01

    Fiber hemp (Cannabis sativa L.) is a sustainable and high yielding industrial crop that can help to meet the high global demand for fibers. Hemp can be grown for fiber, seeds, and/or for dual purpose in a wide range of geographic zones and climates. Currently the main hemp producing regions in th

  7. Nigella sativa: reduces the risk of various maladies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butt, Masood Sadiq; Sultan, Muhammad Tauseef

    2010-08-01

    Coinage of terms like nutraceuticals, functional, and pharma foods has diverted the attention of human beings to where they are seeking more natural cures. Though pharmaceutical drugs have been beneficial for human health and have cured various diseases but they also impart some side effects. Numerous plants have been tested for their therapeutic potential; Nigella sativa, commonly known as black cumin, is one of them. It possesses a nutritional dense profile as its fixed oil (lipid fraction), is rich in unsaturated fatty acids while essential oil contains thymoquinone and carvacrol as antioxidants. N. sativa seeds also contain proteins, alkaloids (nigellicines and nigelledine), and saponins (alpha-hederin) in substantial amounts. Recent pharmacological investigations suggested its potential role, especially for the amelioration of oxidative stress through free radical scavenging activity, the induction of apoptosis to cure various cancer lines, the reduction of blood glucose, and the prevention of complications from diabetes. It regulates hematological and serological aspects and can be effective in dyslipidemia and respiratory disorders. Moreover, its immunopotentiating and immunomodulating role brings balance in the immune system. Evidence is available supporting the utilization of Nigella sativa and its bioactive components in a daily diet for health improvement. This review is intended to focus on the composition of Nigella sativa and to elaborate its possible therapeutic roles as a functional food to prevent an array of maladies. PMID:20694927

  8. Hemp (Cannabis sativa L.) seeds after plasma treatment

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Šerá, Božena; Gajdová, Iveta; Gavril, B.; Hnatiuc, E.; Šerý, M.; Špatenka, P.

    Brasov: Universitatea Transilvania din Brasov, 2012 - (Clotea, L.; Cernat, M.). s. 251-251 ISBN 978-1-4673-1650-7. [International Conference on Optimization of Electrical and Electronic Equipment /13./ OPTIM 2012. 24.05.-26.05.2012, Brasov] Institutional support: RVO:67179843 Keywords : Cannabis sativa L. * plasma treatment Subject RIV: EI - Biotechnology ; Bionics

  9. Complete sequence of a cryptic virus from hemp (Cannabis sativa)

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Ziegler, A.; Matoušek, Jaroslav; Steger, G.; Schubert, J.

    2012-01-01

    Roč. 157, č. 2 (2012), s. 383-385. ISSN 0304-8608 R&D Projects: GA ČR GCP501/10/J018 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50510513 Keywords : Cannabis sativa * Partitivirus * cryptic virus Subject RIV: EE - Microbiology, Virology Impact factor: 2.030, year: 2012

  10. WATER USE AND EVAPOTRANSPIRATION COEFFICIENTS FOR CAMELINA SATIVA

    Science.gov (United States)

    The water use characteristics of Camelina sativa, an oilseed crop, were evaluated in an irrigation experiment in Maricopa, Arizona. Camelina (cv. Robinson) was grown between November 2006 and April 2007 in plots, each 10 by 17 m. Thirty-two of the field plots were replicated in a randomized block de...

  11. Potencial alelopático da parte aérea de Senna occidentalis (L.) Link (Fabaceae, Caesalpinioideae): bioensaios em laboratório Allelopathic potential of aerial parts of Senna occidentalis (L.) Link (Fabaceae, Caesalpinioideae): Laboratory bioassays

    OpenAIRE

    Ana Carina da Silva Cândido; Valerí Schmidt; Valdemir Antônio Laura; Odival Faccenda; Sônia Corina Hess; Euclésio Simionatto; Marize Terezinha Lopes Pereira Peres

    2010-01-01

    A bioatividade das frações semipurificadas (hexânica, acetato de etila e etanol-água) do extrato etanólico das partes aérea de S. occidentalis foi avaliada através de ensaios de germinação e de crescimento de Lactuca sativa (alface), Lycopersicon esculentum (tomate), Allium cepa (cebola) e Triticum aestivum (trigo), em laboratório. Foram utilizadas três concentrações (250, 500, 1000 mg L-1) de cada fração e um controle não tratado, com quatro repetições de 50 sementes. Os bioensaios de germin...

  12. Divergência genética entre genótipos de alface por meio de marcadores AFLP Genetics divergence among lettuce genotypes by AFLP markers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristina Soares de Sousa

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Considerando a restrita diversidade de espécies disponíveis para nutrir a carência de vitaminas no Brasil, Kerr e colaboradores, desde 1981, vêm desenvolvendo pesquisas para melhoramento genético de hortaliças ricas em vitamina A. Dentre elas, obtiveram uma cultivar de alface, denominada Uberlândia 10.000 com 10.200 UI de vitamina A em 100 gramas de folha fresca. Este trabalho objetivou comparar o grau de divergência genética entre a cultivar Uberlândia 10.000 e seus parentais para avaliar a eficiência da seleção utilizada, por meio da técnica AFLP. Foram utilizados os seguintes genótipos de alface: Maioba, Salad Bowl-Mimosa, Moreninha-de-Uberlândia, Vitória de Santo Antão, Uberlândia 10.000 lisa 8.ª e 9.ª geração e Uberlândia 10.000 crespa 8.ª e 9.ª geração. A técnica AFLP foi eficiente para identificar genótipos muito próximos e para estudos de progênies em alface. O primer PR15 permitiu a separação da forma lisa e crespa com 1,8% de divergência genética e a oitava da nona geração com apenas 0,71%. Com o estudo da filogenia da cultivar pode-se observar que o programa de melhoramento foi desenvolvido com sucesso, pois a cultivar obtida Uberlândia 10.000 possui alto teor de vitamina A e 92% de similaridade com o parental Vitória de Santo Antão. O primer PR11 conseguiu identificar polimorfismo entre cultivares de alta e baixa resistência à septoriose, sugerindo a possibilidade destas bandas estarem relacionadas à resistência.Considering the restricted diversity of species available to counteract vitamin deficiencies in Brazil, Kerr and coworkers have been engaged since 1981, in developing genetic improved garden vegetables rich in vitamin A. One of these vegetables is the lettuce cultivar Uberlândia 10,000, which contains 10,200 UI of vitamin A per 100 grams of fresh leaves. This study compares the genetic diversity between Uberlândia 10,000 and its parental, evaluating selection efficiency through

  13. Lettuce growth and productivity under different types of soil covering = Crescimento e produtividade de alface sob diferentes tipos de cobertura do solo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natalia Barreto Meneses

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available In Brazil, the lettuce is the main vegetable produced and marketed, however, the crop is deficient in technology to optimize production and to ensure environmental sustainability in agricultural areas. This study aimed to verify the effect of different soil covering on soil temperature, and lettuce growth and yield. The experiment was settled adopting a randomized block design with six treatments consisted by different types of soil covering: cover with organic matter (CVe, black polyethylene (0.020 mm (PPt, silver polyethylene (0.020 mm (PPr, white polyethylene (0.020 mm (PBr, transparent polyethylene (0.100 mm (PTr and bare soil (control - T; and with five repetitions per each treatment. The variables analyzed were: total fresh weight, number and fresh weight of commercial leaves, root fresh weight, lettuce head diameter and yield. The soil temperature was monitored during the crop growth. The silver, white and black polyethylene coverings showed similar results. However, they were superior for all the evaluated characteristics compared to other coverings. The soil temperature was influenced by the different types of covering. There was increases of soil temperature for all the plastic coverings. However, the organic material reduced the soil temperature in comparison to the control treatment. = No Brasil, a alface é a principal hortaliça produzida e comercializada, carecendo, contudo, de tecnologias para otimizar a produção e garantir a sustentabilidade ambiental em áreas agrícolas. Objetivou-se com este trabalho verificar o efeito de diferentes coberturas do solo no crescimento, produtividade de plantas de alface e na temperatura do solo. O delineamento experimental utilizado foi em blocos casualizados, com seis tratamentos e cinco repetições. Os tratamentos estudados consistiram de tipos de cobertura do solo, sendo: cobertura com material vegetal (CVe, polietileno preto (0,020 mm (PPt, polietileno prata (0,020 mm (PPr, polietileno

  14. Fungo Metarhizium anisopliae e o controle de Frankliniella occidentalis em alface hidropônico Control of Frankliniella occidentalis in hidroponic lettuce by Metarhizium anisopliae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rogério Biaggioni Lopes

    2000-06-01

    Full Text Available O tripes Frankliniella occidentalis (Pergande provoca grandes prejuízos em cultivos comerciais de alface, através do dano direto, durante a alimentação no tecido vegetal, e pela transmissão de virose. O desenvolvimento de novas estratégias de controle da praga em cultivos protegidos vem se tornando necessária em função dos problemas acarretados pelo uso constante de inseticidas químicos. Foi avaliada a eficiência de pulverizações do fungo Metarhizium anisopliae (Metsch. Sorokin (isolado 1104 nas concentrações 5x10(6 e 1x10(8 conídios ml-1, visando o controle da praga em cultivos de alface hidropônico. A eficiência de controle do fungo nas duas concentrações chegou a 60%, seis dias após a primeira pulverização. Nas parcelas que não receberam o tratamento com o patógeno, observou-se um aumento populacional de 46,5%. Contudo, o número de adultos capturados em armadilhas adesivas foi semelhante para áreas tratadas e não tratadas, devido à alta mobilidade da praga na cultura. Constatou-se também um número crescente de adultos mortos com estruturas do patógeno, nas parcelas pulverizadas com o fungo. A ausência de toxicidade e de período de carência dos fungos entomopatogênicos torna estes microrganismos importantes na substituição de alguns inseticidas químicos na cultura do alface. Estudos mais detalhados sobre a utilização de M. anisopliae em cultivos protegidos são necessários para aplicações em grande escala.The thrips Frankliniella occidentalis causes significant losses in areas of lettuce production, damaging leaf tissue during feeding and vectoring pathogenic viruses. The development of new strategies for the control of thrips in greenhouses is essential to reduce problems caused by the constant use of chemical insecticides. The efficiency of applications of Metarhizium anisopliae (strain 1104, at the concentrations of 5x10(6 and 1x10(8 conidia ml-1, was evaluated for the control of thrips in areas

  15. Patogenicidade de Pythium aphanidermatum a alface cultivada em hidroponia e seu biocontrole com Trichoderma Pythium aphanidermatum pathogenicity to hydroponics lettuce and its biocontrol with Trichoderma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katya da Silva Patekoski

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar a patogenicidade de Pythium aphanidermatum a variedades de alface, e a ação do produto Biotrich, formulado com Trichoderma, no controle deste patógeno e na promoção do crescimento das plantas. Em experimento in vitro, plântulas recém-germinadas das variedades de alface Vera e Elisa foram colocadas em placas de Petri com ágar-água e 1 mL de suspensão do produto Biotrich (0,2 mL L-1 e, após 24 horas, em discos com micélio do isolado de Pythium. As avaliações foram realizadas após dez dias de incubação a 20 e 31ºC. Os testes in vivo foram realizados na primavera e verão, em sistema hidropônico "Nutrient Film Technique" (NFT, em delineamento inteiramente casualizado, em esquema fatorial 2x2x2, como segue: duas variedades; presença ou ausência do patógeno; e presença ou ausência de Biotrich. Ao final do cultivo, foram avaliadas as massas de matéria fresca e seca das plantas. No experimento in vitro, P. aphanidermatum apresentou maior agressividade a 31ºC. Contudo, não foi verificada patogenicidade nos testes in vivo. De modo geral, o Biotrich não promoveu o crescimento das plantas, mas foi efetivo no controle do patógeno in vitro. Pythium aphanidermatum é patogênico às variedades de alface Vera e Elisa, a 20 e 31ºC, e o Biotrich é efetivo para o controle desse patógeno nessas temperaturas.The objective of this work was to evaluate the pathogenicity of Pythium aphanidermatum to lettuce varieties, and the action of the product Biotrich, formulated with Trichoderma, in the control of this pathogen and its effect on plant growth promotion. In a in vitro experiment, germinated seedlings of Vera and Elisa lettuce varieties were placed in Petri dishes with water-agar and 1mL Biotrich suspension (0.2 mL L-1, and after 24 hours, on plugs with the Pythium isolate mycelium. The evaluations were done ten days after the incubation at 20 and 31ºC. In vivo experiments were carried out during

  16. Equações de estimativa da fitomassa da parte aérea da alface Equations to estimate shoot phytomass of lettuce

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Braulio Otomar Caron

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi identificar equações de regressão que expressem o acúmulo de fitomassa a partir de variáveis meteorológicas e índices de crescimento da cultura, com a finalidade de avaliar o crescimento da alface cultivada em estufa plástica e a campo, em diferentes épocas do ano. No estudo, foi utilizada a cultivar "Regina". As variáveis meteorológicas determinadas foram a temperatura, a umidade relativa média do ar e a radiação solar fotossinteticamente ativa acumulada. Os índices de crescimento da alface utilizados foram a fitomassa seca e o índice de área foliar. Independentemente da época do ano, os resultados evidenciaram que as equações de regressão simples, utilizando as variáveis índice de área foliar ou radiação solar fotossinteticamente ativa acumulada, apresentaram melhor desempenho na estimativa da fitomassa (R²>0,88 nos dois ambientes. As equações de regressão múltipla, apesar de englobarem mais variáveis, apresentaram pequeno acréscimo no valor do R².The aim of this paper was to propose regression equations that express the dry matter accumulation in lettuce using meteorological parameters and growth index, to modeling the lettuce growth in greenhouse and in the field, in different growth season. The "Regina" cultivar was utilized. The meteorological variables determined were air temperature and relative humidity average and accumulated photosynthetically active radiation. The growth indexes of lettuce used were dry mass and leaf area index. Independent of the growth season, the results shown that linear regressions utilizing variables leaf area index and accumulated photosynthetically active radiation provided a good estimate of the dry mass (R²>0.88 for both seasons. The multiple regressions need more data, but shown a little increase in R² value.

  17. Hydroponic lettuce yield in differents electrical conductivity/ Produção de alface hidropônico em diferentes condutividades elétricas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elisabete Rumiko Yonamini Beninni

    2002-05-01

    Full Text Available In hydroponic culture is common to evaluate the concentration of nutrient solution through electrical conductivity (EC. The aim of this work was to evaluate the best electrical conductivity of nutrient solution to lettuce crop, cv. Verônica. Four treatments were studied in differents electrical conductivity of nutrient solution. The Hoagland & Arnon (1950 nutrient solution was used as pattern, which to make several dilution until to get ideal quantities of each nutrient to reach the differents electrical conductivity: 1,0; 1,5; 2,0; 3,0 mS cm-1. The statistic design were blocks, with four treatments and six replications. In the treatment EC = 1,0 mS cm-1 was obtained good yield, with apropriate concentration of N, P, K, Ca, Mg and S and low level of nitrate, lower than the maximum allowed by the Comission of the European Communities.Em cultivos hidropônicos é usual avaliar o teor de nutrientes da solução nutritiva através da condutividade elétrica. Este trabalho teve como objetivo determinar a melhor condutividade elétrica da solução nutritiva para o cultivo de alface tipo crespa cultivar Verônica. Testaram-se 4 tratamentos que consistiram em diferentes condutividades elétricas da solução nutritiva. A solução nutritiva de Hoagland & Arnon (1950 foi utilizada como padrão, da qual realizou-se várias diluições até a obtenção de quantidades ideais de cada nutriente para atingir as diferentes condutividades elétricas: 1,0; 1,5; 2,0; e 3,0 mS cm-1. O delineamento estatístico utilizado foi blocos, com quatro tratamentos e seis repetições. A partir dos resultados obtidos pôde-se concluir que o tratamento CE = 1,0 mS cm-1 proporcionou boa produção, com concentrações adequadas de N, P, K, Ca, Mg, S e baixo teor de nitrato, estando abaixo do limite máximo de nitrato permitido para alface, na Europa.

  18. Manejo de irrigação para cultivo de alface em ambiente protegido Irrigation management for growing lettuce in greenhouse

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    George RL Bandeira

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available A determinação do consumo de água de irrigação é fundamental para o manejo correto dos cultivos irrigados. Este trabalho teve o objetivo de estudar o desenvolvimento de duas cultivares da alface (AF 1743 e OGR 326, em ambiente protegido, no município de Juazeiro-BA, sob dois métodos de manejos de irrigação: reposição de água de irrigação determinada por tensiometria (M1 e reposição de água determinada na evaporação de água de tanque reduzido (M2, instalados em ambiente protegido. Observou-se efeito de interação entre os tratamentos impostos e as cultivares de alface estudadas, para a massa fresca das raízes das plantas. O uso da tensiometria promoveu desempenho superior para as variáveis de produção analisadas, como observado na massa fresca da parte aérea, apresentando média geral de 145,0 g, enquanto no manejo M2 tal valor foi de 59,4 g. Dentre as cultivares analisadas para referida variável, observou-se um resultado superior para a cultivar OGR 326 quando comparada à AF 1743.The determination of the water consumption is fundamental for the correct management of irrigated crops. The development of two lettuce cultivars (AF 1743 and OGR 326 was determined, when cultivated in a protected environment under two irrigation management methods: water consumption determined by the tensiometry (M1 and water consumption determined by evaporation of water in the reduced pan (M2, which were installed inside the protected environment. There was significant interaction among the imposed treatment and the cultivars of lettuce studied, for the fresh weight of the roots of the plants. The use of tensiometry promoted superior performance for the analyzed production variables as observed in the fresh weight of the aboveground part, with an overall average of 145.0 g, whereas for the management M2 the overall average was 59.4 g. For this variable, among the cultivars a superior result was obtained for the cultivar OGR 326 in

  19. Efeito de solo previamente cultivado com plantas aromáticas na germinação e no desenvolvimento inicial de alface

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. S. PEREIRA

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available RESUMOO objetivo desse trabalho foi verificar o efeito do solo pré-cultivado com plantas aromáticas na germinação e no desenvolvimento inicial de plântulas de alface cv. Simpson. A pesquisa foi realizada na Embrapa Hortaliças, Brasília, em bandejas mantidas em casa de vegetação. O experimento foi conduzido em delineamento experimental inteiramente casualizado, com três repetições e onze tratamentos: solo pré-cultivado com hortelã-comum (Mentha x villosa, hortelã-brava (Mentha arvensis, hortelã-pimenta (Mentha piperita, Mentha spp., capim-citronela (Cymbopogon winterianus, capim-limão (Cymbopogon citratus, manjericão de folha larga (Ocimum basilicum, manjericão de folha roxa (Ocimum gratissimun, tomilho (Thymus vulgaris, sálvia (Salvia officinalis e solo da mesma área sem cultivo prévio de planta aromática (controle. Aos 30 dias após o semeio, foram avaliadas: índice de velocidade de emergência (IVE, taxa de sobrevivência (TS, número de folhas (NF, comprimento da raiz principal (CRP e da parte aérea (CPA, massa fresca da raiz (MFR e da parte aérea (MFPA e massa seca da raiz (MSR e da parte aérea (MSPA. Os dados foram submetidos à análise de variância e teste de Tukey a 5% de probabilidade. Houve diferença significativa em relação ao IVE, sendo que o tratamento com C. citratus afetou negativamente a emergência das plântulas. O tratamento com M. arvensis apresentou uma TS de apenas 16% das plantas aos 30 dias após a semeadura. O NF foi menor no tratamento com M. arvensis, diferentemente de todos os demais, exceto S. officinalis. A MRF e MFF foram estimuladas pelo tratamento com T. vulgaris sendo superior a todos os outros tratamentos. Os resultados obtidos permitem concluir que houve efeito negativo de M. arvensis e positivo de T. vulgaris no desenvolvimento inicial de plântulas de alface.

  20. Qualidade nutricional de cenoura e alface cultivadas em Mossoró-RN em função da densidade populacional Nutritional quality of carrot and lettuce grown in Mossoró-RN, Brazil, as affected by plant densities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco Bezerra Neto

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available O experimento foi realizado durante o período de junho a setembro de 2003, na área experimental do departamento de Ciências Vegetais da Universidade Federal Rural do Semi-Árido (UFERSA, em Mossoró-RN, com o objetivo de avaliar o efeito de densidades populacionais de cenoura e de alface, em segundo, cultivo na qualidade nutricional desses cultivos em sistema de consorciação em faixa. O delineamento experimental utilizado foi o de blocos casualizados, com os tratamentos arranjados em esquema fatorial 4 x 4, com três repetições. As populações de referência para o cultivo solteiro (PRCS foram de 500.000 plantas.ha-1 para a cenoura e de 250.000 plantas.ha-1 para a alface, que corresponderam à densidade populacional de 100%. Os tratamentos foram resultantes da combinação de quatro populações de cenoura (40%, 60%, 80% e 100% da PRCS com quatro populações de alface (40%, 60%, 80% e 100% da PRCS. As características avaliadas nas raízes da cenoura foram firmeza, conteúdo de vitamina C, carotenóides totais e beta-caroteno, e nas folhas da alface firmeza, conteúdo de vitamina C, carotenóides totais e clorofila total. Foram utilizadas a cv Brasília (cenoura e a cv. Tainá (alface. As associações de densidades populacionais de cenoura e alface não afetaram qualquer característica de ambas as culturas. Porém, as densidades populacionais da cenoura influenciaram as características da cenoura, e as densidades de alface afetaram as características da folha de alface. A firmeza, conteúdo de vitamina C e de beta-caroteno nas raízes da cenoura diminuíram com o aumento da densidade deste cultivo, enquanto que o conteúdo de carotenóides totais aumentou com o incremento na densidade populacional desta cultura. Mesmo comportamento decrescente também foi observado no conteúdo de vitamina C, carotenóides totais e de clorofila total nas folhas de alface com o aumento da densidade populacional de alface.The experiment was carried

  1. Tratamento químico de hortaliças poluídas Chemical treatment of polluted vegetables

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renato Baruffaldi

    1984-06-01

    Full Text Available Das amostras de hortaliças em folhas coletadas no período de abril a agosto de 1981, no Entreposto Comercial da Cidade de São Paulo, SP (Brasil, 75% e 57% apresentaram contagens de coliformes fecais e de Escherichia coli, por grama de produto, superiores a 2 x 10² respectivamente; e em 85% constatou-se a presença de parasitas protozoários ou/e helmintos. O tratamento químico das folhas de alface (Lactuca sativa, com solução de hipoclorito de sódio, por um período de exposição de 10 min à concentração de 40 ppm de cloro livre, mostrou-se eficaz do ponto de vista parasitológico.The effectiveness of chemicals as desinfectants for reducing the parasite contamination of lettuce leaves (Lactuca sativa, L. was investigated. Potassium permanganate at 1: 5000 and 1: 10000 was employed, while sodium hypochlorite compound was used in con centrations of 10, 15, 20, 25, 30 and 40 ppm. In all experiments the contact time was 5,10, 20 and 40 minutes. The expousure of lettuce leaves to sodium hypochlorite 40 ppm of free cloro for 10 minutes was found to be highly effective.

  2. Desempenho de cultivares de alface no Estado do Acre Performance of lettuce cultivars in the State of Acre, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco J. da S. Lédo

    2000-11-01

    Full Text Available Devido às condições ambientais verificadas no estado do Acre, caracterizado pela ocorrência de temperaturas elevadas e alta precipitação, as cultivares tradicionalmente utilizadas pelos produtores apresentam baixo rendimento e qualidade. O objetivo do presente trabalho foi avaliar o comportamento das novas cultivares de alface disponíveis no mercado, em termos de características agronômicas e rendimento, nas condições edafoclimáticas de Rio Branco, Acre. Para isso foram realizados dois ensaios no campo experimental da Embrapa Acre, em um solo do tipo Argissolo Vermelho-Escuro, textura argilosa. O primeiro de maio a julho de 1996 (período seco e o segundo de dezembro de 1996 a fevereiro de 1997 (período chuvoso. Foram avaliadas as cultivares Babá de Verão, Brisa, Carolina AG-576, Elisa, Lucy Brown, Marisa AG-216, Piracicaba 65, Regina 71, Tainá, Simpson, Vanessa e Verônica, sendo que 'Regina 71' e 'Elisa' foram incluídas apenas no ensaio do período seco. O delineamento experimental foi o de blocos casualizados, com três repetições. No período seco, as cultivares Simpson, Lucy Brown e Regina 71 apresentaram os maiores pesos médios (373; 362 e 341 g, respectivamente e produções comerciais de 49,8; 48,3 e 45,5 t/ha, respectivamente. Em geral, as cultivares dos tipos lisa sem cabeça e lisa com cabeça apresentaram maior índice de ataque de nematóide (Meloidogyne javanica quando comparadas às do tipo crespa. No ensaio realizado no período chuvoso, as cultivares Marisa AG-216, Verônica, Lucy Brown, Brisa, Tainá e Piracicaba-65 apresentaram os maiores pesos médios e produções comerciais. Entretanto, as médias obtidas foram bem inferiores às verificadas no ensaio do período seco, variando de 164 a 198 g para o peso médio, e 21,9 a 25,9 t/ha para produção comercial. Dentre as cultivares avaliadas no período seco, Regina 71 (lisa, sem cabeça e Carolina AG-576 (lisa, com cabeça destacaram-se entre as do tipo

  3. Qualidade de raízes de cenoura em sistemas consorciados com alface sob diferentes densidades populacionais Quality of carrot roots in intercropped systems with lettuce under different planting densities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aurélio P. Barros Júnior

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available O experimento foi realizado de junho a setembro de 2003, em campo da ESAM, com o objetivo de avaliar a qualidade de raízes de cenoura (Brasília em sistemas consorciados com alface (Tainá sob diferentes densidades populacionais. O delineamento experimental utilizado foi de blocos casualizados, em esquema fatorial 4 x 4, com três repetições. Os tratamentos foram resultantes da combinação de quatro populações de cenoura [(40%, 60%, 80% e 100% da população recomendada no cultivo solteiro (PRCS] com quatro populações de alface (40%, 60%, 80% e 100% da PRCS. As características avaliadas nas raízes da cenoura foram acidez total titulável (ATT, sólidos solúveis totais (SST, açúcares totais (ACT pH, relação sólidos solúveis totais e acidez total titulável, além da produtividade comercial da cenoura e da alface. Ocorreu interação significativa entre as densidades populacionais das culturas componentes na ATT das raízes da cenoura. Houve aumento no conteúdo de SST e no pH à medida que se aumentou a densidade populacional de cenoura. Houve também um aumento na produtividade comercial de raízes de cenoura e na produtividade da alface com o aumento de suas densidades populacionais, respectivamente. A variação na população de cenoura não afetou a produtividade da alface, mas a variação na população da alface afetou negativamente a produtividade comercial da cenoura. Entre as características avaliadas, as que se correlacionaram de maneira significativa com a produtividade comercial de cenoura, foram as concentrações de sólidos solúveis totais e açucares totais, evidenciando assim, que estes atributos podem ser considerados representativos da qualidade de raízes da cenoura.The experiment was carried out from June to September 2003, in Mossoró, Rio Grande do Norte State, Brazil, to evaluate the quality of carrot roots (cv. Brasília in intercropped systems with lettuce (cv. Tainá under different planting

  4. Avaliação de coberturas mortas em cultura de alface sob manejo orgânico Evaluation of mulches on organically grown lettuce

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabio F de Oliveira

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available A cobertura morta do solo com leguminosas e gramíneas é uma prática cultural que traz benefícios aos sistemas de produção. Foi conduzido um experimento no município de Seropédica, estado do Rio de Janeiro, com o objetivo de avaliar o efeito de diferentes tipos de cobertura morta sobre a reinfestação de ervas espontâneas e sobre o desempenho agronômico de alface, em cultivo orgânico. O delineamento experimental adotado foi blocos casualizados com quatro repetições e parcelas de oito plantas na área útil. Os tratamentos foram: bagaço de cana-de-açúcar (Saccharum sp., bambu (Bambuza sp., capim Cameroon (Penisetum purpureum, crotalária (Crotalaria juncea, eritrina (Erythrina poeppigiana, gliricídia (Gliricidia sepium, guandu (Cajanus cajan, mucuna cinza (Mucuna pruriens e controle (sem cobertura dos canteiros. Estimou-se a decomposição in situ e a liberação de nitrogênio de cada cobertura morta. Foram avaliados dois ciclos consecutivos de alface, cultivar Regina, na mesma área, visando a comparar o efeito residual das coberturas mortas. Observou-se maior acúmulo de N nos resíduos vegetais das leguminosas (máximo de 1.010 kg ha-1 com mucuna-cinza. Em relação à decomposição da cobertura morta, avaliada na colheita do primeiro ciclo de alface (35 dias após o transplante, as leguminosas apresentaram percentuais inferiores aos das gramíneas de massa seca e N remanescentes. A reinfestação dos canteiros pelas ervas espontâneas não diferiu significativamente entre coberturas mortas, variando entre 31 e 58 plantas m-2, mas a redução da densidade populacional da vegetação reinfestante chegou a 83% em comparação ao tratamento controle. Em ambos os ciclos de cultivo da alface, a massa fresca (de 315,8 a 366,0 e de 202,9 a 225,0 g planta-1, respectivamente nos primeiro e segundo ciclos, o diâmetro da cabeça (de 30,8 a 31,7 e de 25,5 a 28,5 cm e o teor de N (de 32,3 a 38,8 e de 28,0 a 30,3 g kg-1 foram superiores

  5. The emerging biofuel crop Camelina sativa retains a highly undifferentiated hexaploid genome structure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kagale, Sateesh; Koh, Chushin; Nixon, John; Bollina, Venkatesh; Clarke, Wayne E; Tuteja, Reetu; Spillane, Charles; Robinson, Stephen J; Links, Matthew G; Clarke, Carling; Higgins, Erin E; Huebert, Terry; Sharpe, Andrew G; Parkin, Isobel A P

    2014-01-01

    Camelina sativa is an oilseed with desirable agronomic and oil-quality attributes for a viable industrial oil platform crop. Here we generate the first chromosome-scale high-quality reference genome sequence for C. sativa and annotated 89,418 protein-coding genes, representing a whole-genome triplication event relative to the crucifer model Arabidopsis thaliana. C. sativa represents the first crop species to be sequenced from lineage I of the Brassicaceae. The well-preserved hexaploid genome structure of C. sativa surprisingly mirrors those of economically important amphidiploid Brassica crop species from lineage II as well as wheat and cotton. The three genomes of C. sativa show no evidence of fractionation bias and limited expression-level bias, both characteristics commonly associated with polyploid evolution. The highly undifferentiated polyploid genome of C. sativa presents significant consequences for breeding and genetic manipulation of this industrial oil crop. PMID:24759634

  6. Produção de alface americana em solo e em hidroponia, no inverno e verão, em Jaboticabal, SP Yield of american lettuce cultivated in soil and hydropony during winter and summer seasons, in Jaboticabal, SP

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anderson L. Feltrim

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available Embora seja reconhecida como planta típica de clima temperado, a alface possui cultivares melhoradas geneticamente com maior tolerância às temperaturas elevadas, o que possibilita seu cultivo todo o ano. Objetivou-se, com o presente trabalho, avaliar a produção de seis cultivares de alface do grupo americana, cultivadas no solo e em hidroponia, nas estações de inverno e verão. Os experimentos foram conduzidos em casa de vegetação, na UNESP, Jaboticabal, SP. O delineamento experimental utilizado foi o de blocos casualizados, com três repetições. A produção de massa fresca e seca da parte aérea das cultivares estudadas foi influenciada pela época (inverno ou verão mas não o foi pelo sistema de cultivo (solo ou hidroponia. O cultivo de verão determinou redução de 28% no acúmulo de massa fresca, constituindo-se em época marginal à produção de alface em Jaboticabal, SP, considerando-se os sistemas de cultivo empregados.Lettuce as known a typical plant of temperate climate-Some genetically improved lettuce cultivars have tolerance to high temperature and make its cultivation possible through out the year. The present work had the aim to evaluate the yield of six cultivars from creasp head group, produced in soil and in hydroponics system in winter and summer seasons. The experiments were conducted under protected ambient, at UNESP, Jaboticabal, SP. The experimental design was a randomized blocks with three replications. The fresh and dry mass of aerial part were influenced by planting time (winter or summer but not by crop system (soil and hydropony. Summer season reduced yield by 28% on fresh mass.

  7. Genetic Variation of Host Populations of Liriomyza sativae Blanchard

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Li-ping; DU Yu-zhou; HE Ya-ting; ZHENG Fu-shan; LU Zi-qiang

    2008-01-01

    In this study, partial sequences of the mitochondrial cytochrome oxidase subunit Ⅰ (mtDNA-COI) gene and the ribosomal internal transcribed spacer 1 (rDNA-ITS1) gene, isolated from five artificial populations of Liriomyza sativae (Diptera:Agromyzidae), were sequenced and compared, to analyze their genetic variation. Analysis of the mtDNA-CO1 gene showed that a low genetic variation was detected among the five populations and only five variable sites were found in the nucleotide sequences. Most of the observed variations that occurred within the populations were because of nucleotide transitions, whereas, the interpopulation variation was because of the differences in haplotype frequencies occurring among the host populations. Analysis of the rDNA-ITS1 gene revealed a small diversity in the five host populations. The trend of genetic differentiation in the host populations was consistent with the preference of L. sativae to the plant hosts.

  8. Biofunctional properties of Eruca sativa Miller (rocket salad) hydroalcoholic extract.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sultan, Khushbakht; Zakir, Muhammad; Khan, Haroon; Rauf, Abdur; Akber, Noor Ul; Khan, Murad Ali

    2016-05-01

    Eruca sativa Miller is a worldwide common alimentary plant (rocket leaves). The aim of this study was to correlate the potential in vitro scavenging activity of the E. sativa hydroalcoholic extract (HAE) with its in vivo hypoglycaemic effect. In DDPH free radical (DFR) and ferric-reducing antioxidant power assays, HAE in a concentration dependent manner (25-100 μg/mL) displayed a strong scavenging activity with maximum effect of 88% and 75% at 100 μg/mL, respectively. Daily administration of HAE (50 mg/kg; p.o.) in the in vivo model of alloxan-induced diabetic rabbits for 28 days showed significant reduction in glycaemia, also supported by recovery of body weight. In conclusion, our results give preliminary information on the potential use of this plant as a nutraceutical, useful to control and/or prevent a hyperglycaemic status. PMID:26156861

  9. Toxicity Effect of Nigella Sativa on the Liver Function of Rats

    OpenAIRE

    Mohamad Hafanizam Bin Hassan; Latiffah Abdul Latiff; Saadat Parhizkar; Mohammad Aziz Dollah

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: The aim of this study was to determine the toxic effect of Nigella sativa powder on the liver function which was evaluated by measuring liver enzymes and through histopathological examination of liver tissue. Methods: Twenty four male Sprague Dawley rats were allotted randomly to four groups including: control (taking normal diet); low dose (supplemented with 0.01 g/kg/day Nigella sativa); normal dose (supplemented with 0.1 g/kg/day Nigella sativa) and high dose (supplemente...

  10. Effect of Nigella sativa on reproductive system in experimental menopause rat model

    OpenAIRE

    Saadat Parhizkar; Latiffah Latiff; Ali Parsa

    2016-01-01

    Objective: Menopause is the condition when regular menstrual periods cease and may be accompanied by psychological and physical symptoms. The purpose of current study was to determine Nigella sativa effects on reproductive system in experimental menopause animal models. Materials and Methods: A series of experiments was conducted to investigate the effects of different dosages of N. sativa (first experiment), various extracts of N. sativa (second experiment) and some of its ingredients (third...

  11. The emerging biofuel crop Camelina sativa retains a highly undifferentiated hexaploid genome structure

    OpenAIRE

    Kagale, Sateesh; Koh, Chushin; Nixon, John; Bollina, Venkatesh; Clarke, Wayne E.; Tuteja, Reetu; Spillane, Charles; Robinson, Stephen J.; Links, Matthew G; Clarke, Carling; Higgins, Erin E.; Huebert, Terry; Sharpe, Andrew G; Parkin, Isobel A. P.

    2014-01-01

    Camelina sativa is an oilseed with desirable agronomic and oil-quality attributes for a viable industrial oil platform crop. Here we generate the first chromosome-scale high-quality reference genome sequence for C. sativa and annotated 89,418 protein-coding genes, representing a whole-genome triplication event relative to the crucifer model Arabidopsis thaliana. C. sativa represents the first crop species to be sequenced from lineage I of the Brassicaceae. The well-preserved hexaploid genome ...

  12. EXTRACTION AND ANALYSIS OF CONDENSED TANNINS IN CASTANEA SATIVA MILL.

    OpenAIRE

    Živković, J.; Mujić, I.; Nikolić, G.; S Vidović; A Mujić

    2010-01-01

    Proanthocyanidins, also known as condensed tannins are widespread in woody plants, but are also found in certain forages. Castanea sativa Mill. are exploited for various purposes, but a little is known about potential of this species and possible application in diet and therapy. The parts of chestnut such as: seed, peeled seed, brown seed shell, red internal seed shell, leaves, catkin, spiny bur, as well as the new and old chestnut bark were extracted with 50% ethanol as an extragents. Conten...

  13. Cannabis sativa: The Plant of the Thousand and One Molecules

    OpenAIRE

    Andre, Christelle M.; Hausman, Jean-Francois; Guerriero, Gea

    2016-01-01

    Cannabis sativa L. is an important herbaceous species originating from Central Asia, which has been used in folk medicine and as a source of textile fiber since the dawn of times. This fast-growing plant has recently seen a resurgence of interest because of its multi-purpose applications: it is indeed a treasure trove of phytochemicals and a rich source of both cellulosic and woody fibers. Equally highly interested in this plant are the pharmaceutical and construction sectors, since its metab...

  14. Cannabis sativa: the plant of the thousand and one molecules

    OpenAIRE

    Andre, Christelle M.; Jean-Francois eHausman; Gea eGuerriero

    2016-01-01

    Cannabis sativa L. is an important herbaceous species originating from Central Asia, which has been used in folk medicine and as a source of textile fibre since the dawn of times. This fast-growing plant has recently seen a resurgence of interest because of its multi-purpose applications: it is indeed a treasure trove of phytochemicals and a rich source of both cellulosic and woody fibres. Equally highly interested in this plant are the pharmaceutical and construction sectors, since its metab...

  15. Cannabidiol, a Cannabis sativa constituent, as an antipsychotic drug

    OpenAIRE

    Zuardi A.W.; Crippa J.A.S.; Hallak J.E.C.; Moreira F.A.; Guimarães F.S.

    2006-01-01

    A high dose of delta9-tetrahydrocannabinol, the main Cannabis sativa (cannabis) component, induces anxiety and psychotic-like symptoms in healthy volunteers. These effects of delta9-tetrahydrocannabinol are significantly reduced by cannabidiol (CBD), a cannabis constituent which is devoid of the typical effects of the plant. This observation led us to suspect that CBD could have anxiolytic and/or antipsychotic actions. Studies in animal models and in healthy volunteers clearly suggest an anxi...

  16. THE EFFECT OF NIGELLA SATIVA L. ON INTRACTABLE PEDIATRIC SEIZURES

    OpenAIRE

    J Akhondian; Parsa, A; H. RAKHSHANDE

    2009-01-01

    Background:Despite availability and administration of numerous antiepileptic drugs (AEDs) nearly 15% of childhood epilepsy cases are resistant to treatment; in traditional medicine however Nigella sativa L. (Black seed) has been known for its anticonvulsant effects.Materials and Methods:In this double-blind clinical trial conducted on children with refractory epilepsy we administered the aqueous extract of black seed as an adjunct therapy and compared the effects with those of a placebo. The ...

  17. Nigella sativa and its active constituent thymoquinone in oral health

    OpenAIRE

    2016-01-01

    In this review, we summarized published reports that investigated the role of Nigella sativa (NS) and its active constituent, thymoquinone (TQ) in oral health and disease management. The literature studies were preliminary and scanty, but the results revealed that black seed plants have a potential therapeutic effect for oral and dental diseases. Such results are encouraging for the incorporation of these plants in dental therapeutics and hygiene products. However, further detailed preclinica...

  18. PHARMACOGNOSY AND PHARMACOLOGY OF NIGELLA SATIVA - A REVIEW

    OpenAIRE

    Saha Rajsekhar; Bhupendar Kuldeep

    2011-01-01

    The importance of natural flora is well known by the scientific community. The medicinal plant gifted by nature have by explored by the humans to find out there respective values in the medical field. Times to time there have been report regarding the medicinal plants having huge possibilities for use. In the above article a similar kind of plant have been described, which have been reported of having many medicinal uses. The plant Nigella sativa have been reported to have significant activit...

  19. The draft genome and transcriptome of Cannabis sativa

    OpenAIRE

    van Bakel, Harm; Stout, Jake M.; Cote, Atina G; Tallon, Carling M; Sharpe, Andrew G; Hughes, Timothy R.; Page, Jonathan E.

    2011-01-01

    Background Cannabis sativa has been cultivated throughout human history as a source of fiber, oil and food, and for its medicinal and intoxicating properties. Selective breeding has produced cannabis plants for specific uses, including high-potency marijuana strains and hemp cultivars for fiber and seed production. The molecular biology underlying cannabinoid biosynthesis and other traits of interest is largely unexplored. Results We sequenced genomic DNA and RNA from the marijuana strain Pur...

  20. Cannabinoids act as necrosis-inducing factors in Cannabis sativa

    OpenAIRE

    Shoyama, Yoshinari; Sugawa, Chitomi; Tanaka, Hiroyuki; Morimoto, Satoshi

    2008-01-01

    Cannabis sativa is well known to produce unique secondary metabolites called cannabinoids. We recently discovered that Cannabis leaves induce cell death by secreting tetrahydrocannabinolic acid (THCA) into leaf tissues. Examinations using isolated Cannabis mitochondria demonstrated that THCA causes mitochondrial permeability transition (MPT) though opening of MPT pores, resulting in mitochondrial dysfunction (the important feature of necrosis). Although Ca2+ is known to cause opening of anima...

  1. Aspectos terapêuticos de compostos da planta Cannabis sativa

    OpenAIRE

    Honório Káthia Maria; Arroio Agnaldo; Silva Albérico Borges Ferreira da

    2006-01-01

    Several cannabinoid compounds present therapeutic properties, but also have psychotropic effects, limiting their use as medicine. Nowadays, many important discoveries on the compounds extracted from the plant Cannabis sativa (cannabinoids) have contributed to understand the therapeutic properties of these compounds. The main discoveries in the last years on the cannabinoid compounds were: the cannabinoid receptors CB1 and CB2, the endogenous cannabinoids and the possible mechanisms of action ...

  2. Selectivity of herbicides in Camelina (Camelina sativa (L.) Crtz.)

    OpenAIRE

    Scheliga, Maria; Petersen, Jan

    2016-01-01

    Camelina (Camelina sativa (L.) Crtz.) is a cruciferous plant. As an oilseed crop camelina is mainly grown for oil production. After the 1960s, however, the cultivation has become less important. Only in recent years, interest in this culture was awakened in the search for new sources of omega 3 fatty acids, natural antioxidants and a potential crop for the production of biofuels. The use of camelina oil for different purposes within the framework of the material use of renewable raw materials...

  3. Qualidade de mudas de alface formadas em bandejas de isopor com diferentes números de células Lettuce seedling quality using polystirene trays with different cell numbers

    OpenAIRE

    Patrícia Angélica A. Marques; Pedro Veridiano Baldotto; Ana Cláudia P. Santos; Leandro De Oliveira

    2003-01-01

    Avaliaram-se os efeitos de três tipos de bandejas de isopor sobre a produção de mudas de alface cultivar Vera, e o posterior desempenho das plantas no campo. Para os experimentos de avaliação de mudas e de plantas adultas, os delineamentos foram o de blocos e inteiramente casualizado, respectivamente. Aos 26 dias após a semeadura foram avaliados o comprimento de raiz e o número de folhas das mudas. Após o transplante para os canteiros, mediram-se o comprimento da raiz e pesos da matéria fresc...

  4. Composição centesimal e teor de nitrato em cinco cultivares de alface produzidas sob cultivo hidropônico Centesimal composition and nitrate content in five cultivars of lettuce produced in hydroponic system

    OpenAIRE

    Silvana Ohse; Diva Maria Ramos Ramos; Sabrina Matos de Carvalho; Roseane Fett; Jorge Luiz Barcelos Oliveira

    2009-01-01

    Com o objetivo de avaliar a qualidade nutricional de cinco cultivares de alface (Mimosa Verde, Mimosa Vermelha, Vera, Regina e Lucy Brown) produzidas em cultivo hidropônico sob sistema NFT, determinou-se sua composição centesimal e seu teor de nitrato. O delineamento experimental utilizado foi o inteiramente casualizado com quatro repetições. O experimento foi desenvolvido no Departamento de Engenharia Rural da Universidade Federal de Santa Catarina, Florianópolis (SC), de maio a julho de 200...

  5. Alelopatia de extratos voláteis na germinação de sementes e no comprimento da raiz de alface Allelopathy of plant volatile extracts on seed germination and radicle length of lettuce

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria da Conceição Sampaio Alves

    2004-11-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi identificar possíveis efeitos alelopáticos de extratos voláteis de óleos essenciais na germinação e no comprimento da raiz de plântulas de alface. Foram utilizadas cinco concentrações de cada óleo (0,0, 0,001, 0,01, 0,1 e 1,0%, v/v, em delineamento inteiramente casualizado, com quatro repetições de 25 sementes de alface. Os extratos voláteis de óleos essenciais de canela, alecrim-pimenta, capim-citronela e alfavaca-cravo evidenciaram potencialidades alelopáticas na germinação e comprimento das raízes de plântulas de alface, efeitos que variaram de acordo com a concentração do óleo. O extrato volátil de óleo de jaborandi estimula o crescimento da radícula e não provoca inibição da germinação de sementes de alface, caracterizando-se como de efeito alelopático benéfico.The objective of this work was to identify allelopathic effects of volatile extracts of essential oils on germination and radicle length of lettuce seedlings. Five concentrations were utilized for each oil (0.0, 0.001, 0.01, 0.1 and 1.0%, v/v arranged into a completely randomized design with four replicates of 25 seeds. The volatile extracts of essential oils of cinnamon, alecrim-pimenta, capim-citronela and alfavaca-cravo revealed allelopathic potentialities on lettuce seed germination and radicle growth, effect which varied according to the oil concentration. The volatile extract of Jaborandi essential oil stimulates radicle growth and does not inhibit lettuce seeds germination, which is characterized as a beneficial allelopathic effect.

  6. Desempenho de cultivares de alface crespa em dois ambientes de cultivo em sistema hidropônico Performance of lettuce cultivars grown in two environments, in the NFT hydroponic system

    OpenAIRE

    SF Blat; SV Sanchez; JAC Araújo; D Bolonhezi

    2011-01-01

    Este trabalho foi desenvolvido em Ribeirão Preto-SP, de 06/02 a 07/04 de 2006. O objetivo foi avaliar o desempenho de cinco cultivares de alface (Pira Roxa, Belíssima, Locarno, Crespona Gigante e Verônica) em dois ambientes de cultivo (casa de vegetação climatizada e não climatizada) em sistema hidropônico NFT. O delineamento experimental foi em blocos casualizados para cada ambiente com três repetições sendo cinco cultivares. Os ambientes foram comparados por meio de análise conjunta. Avalia...

  7. THE EFFECT OF NIGELLA SATIVA L. ON INTRACTABLE PEDIATRIC SEIZURES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. AKHONDIAN MD

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available Background:Despite availability and administration of numerous antiepileptic drugs (AEDs nearly 15% of childhood epilepsy cases are resistant to treatment; in traditional medicine however Nigella sativa L. (Black seed has been known for its anticonvulsant effects.Materials and Methods:In this double-blind clinical trial conducted on children with refractory epilepsy we administered the aqueous extract of black seed as an adjunct therapy and compared the effects with those of a placebo. The study was performed between Sep 2003 and Nov 2004. The subjects received either extract or placebo for a period of four weeks and between these two periods for two weeks they received only their pre-existing anti-epileptic drugs (AEDs.Results:The mean frequency of seizures decreased significantly during treatment with extract, (p-value =0/007.Conclusion:It can be concluded that the water extract of Nigella sativa L. has antiepileptic effects in children with refractory seizures that do not respond to known AEDS.keywords:Nigella sativa, Intractable seizures, Children

  8. Tracking alien chromosome in sativa background by genomic in situ hybridization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Genomic in situ hybridization (GISH) was used to look into the genomic constitution of monosomic alien -addition line derived from O. sativa x O. brachyantha. Biotin label genomic DNA from O. brachyantha was used as probe. The probe hybridized to the brachyantha chromosome. No detectable hybridization signal was observed on sativa chromosomes. This differential painting of chromosome enables us to unequivocally discriminate brachyantha chromosome from those of sativa. Results showed the usefulness of GISH in the identification of a single alien chromosome in the sativa background. (author)

  9. Aspectos terapêuticos de compostos da planta Cannabis sativa Therapeutical aspects of compounds of the plant Cannabis sativa

    OpenAIRE

    Káthia Maria Honório; Agnaldo Arroio; Albérico Borges Ferreira da Silva

    2006-01-01

    Several cannabinoid compounds present therapeutic properties, but also have psychotropic effects, limiting their use as medicine. Nowadays, many important discoveries on the compounds extracted from the plant Cannabis sativa (cannabinoids) have contributed to understand the therapeutic properties of these compounds. The main discoveries in the last years on the cannabinoid compounds were: the cannabinoid receptors CB1 and CB2, the endogenous cannabinoids and the possible mechanisms of action ...

  10. TOXICOLOGICAL TESTS WITH SEEDS FOR LEACHATE TREATMENT EVALUATION BY SLOW FILTRATION AND PHOTOCATALYSIS = ENSAIOS TOXICOLÓGICOS COM SEMENTES PARA AVALIAÇÃO DE TRATAMENTO DO CHORUME POR FILTRAÇÃO LENTA E FOTOCATÁLISE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Núbia Natália Brito

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available This work had as objective to study the techniques of Slow Filtration followed by heterogeneous photocatalysis (TiO2/UV in the leachate’ treatment originating from the sanitary landfill of Limeira-SP, City. Toxicological testes were used with seeds of Abelmoschus esculentus L.; Lactuca sativa L.; Impatiens balsamina and Celosia cristata to evaluate the treatment efficiency. The toxicological testes demonstrated the possibility of use larger concentration of leachate treated in the seeds germination, and it was possible to add 96% of leachate for the Abelmoschus esculentus L seeds germination, 30% for the Lactuca sativa L, 54% for Impatiens balsamina and 40% for Celosia cristata. Also were observed parameter values reductions of the environmental importance great, such as, coloration that presented reductions approximated 76,42%, total organic carbon (TOC 67,88%, total phenols 77,13% and amoniacal nitrogen 34,63%. The treatment methodology using Slow Filtration and Photocataysis demonstrated to be an excellent option of leachate remediation. = Este trabalho teve como objetivo estudar as técnicas de Filtração Lenta seguida de Fotocatálise heterogênea (TiO2/UV no tratamento de chorume proveniente do aterro sanitário da cidade de Limeira-SP. Foram empregados ensaios toxicológicos utilizando sementes de Abelmoschus esculentus L. (Quiabo; Lactuca sativa L. (Alface; Impatiens balsamina (Balsamina e Celosia cristata (Crista-de-galo, para avaliar a eficiência do tratamento. Os ensaios toxicológicos demonstraram a possibilidade de utilização de maior concentração do chorume tratado na germinação das sementes, sendo que foi possível adicionar 96% de chorume para a germinação das sementes de quiabo, 30% para a alface, 54% para a dobrada sortida e 40% para germinação das sementes de flores crista de galo. Também foram observadas reduções dos valores de parâmetros de grande importância ambiental, tais como, coloração que

  11. Methanosarcina Play an Important Role in Anaerobic Co-Digestion of the Seaweed Ulva lactuca: Taxonomy and Predicted Metabolism of Functional Microbial Communities.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jamie A FitzGerald

    Full Text Available Macro-algae represent an ideal resource of third generation biofuels, but their use necessitates a refinement of commonly used anaerobic digestion processes. In a previous study, contrasting mixes of dairy slurry and the macro-alga Ulva lactuca were anaerobically digested in mesophilic continuously stirred tank reactors for 40 weeks. Higher proportions of U. lactuca in the feedstock led to inhibited digestion and rapid accumulation of volatile fatty acids, requiring a reduced organic loading rate. In this study, 16S pyrosequencing was employed to characterise the microbial communities of both the weakest (R1 and strongest (R6 performing reactors from the previous work as they developed over a 39 and 27-week period respectively. Comparing the reactor communities revealed clear differences in taxonomy, predicted metabolic orientation and mechanisms of inhibition, while constrained canonical analysis (CCA showed ammonia and biogas yield to be the strongest factors differentiating the two reactor communities. Significant biomarker taxa and predicted metabolic activities were identified for viable and failing anaerobic digestion of U. lactuca. Acetoclastic methanogens were inhibited early in R1 operation, followed by a gradual decline of hydrogenotrophic methanogens. Near-total loss of methanogens led to an accumulation of acetic acid that reduced performance of R1, while a slow decline in biogas yield in R6 could be attributed to inhibition of acetogenic rather than methanogenic activity. The improved performance of R6 is likely to have been as a result of the large Methanosarcina population, which enabled rapid removal of acetic acid, providing favourable conditions for substrate degradation.

  12. Produção de alface hidropônica em três ambientes de cultivo Production of hydroponic lettuce in three environments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edílson Costa

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Propôs-se avaliar a produção hidropônica de alface-crespa, variedade "Vera", em bancadas inclinadas com canais de 100 mm, utilizando a técnica de filme de solução nutritiva, em resposta à aplicação de dióxido de carbono e ao resfriamento evaporativo. Realizaram-se cinco ciclos de cultivo nos períodos de 20-3 a 17-4-2000 (C1; 25-5 a 29-6-2000 (C2; 13-7 a 21-8-2000 (C3; 27-8 a 2-10-2000 (C4 e 12-12-2000 a 10-1-2001 (C5. Avaliaram-se três casas de vegetação, sendo casa de vegetação sem sistema de resfriamento evaporativo do ar e sem injeção aérea de CO2 (A1; casa de vegetação com injeção aérea de CO2 e sem sistema de resfriamento evaporativo do ar (A2, e casa de vegetação com injeção aérea de CO2 e com sistema de resfriamento evaporativo do ar do tipo meio poroso-exaustor (A3. Avaliaram-se as massas frescas e secas em gramas, o número de folhas e a área foliar em mm². Utilizou-se do delineamento inteiramente casualizado, em que, no ciclo C1, utilizaram-se 48 repetições por ambiente; para os ciclos C2, C3 e C5, foram 64 repetições, e para o ciclo C4, foram 24 repetições. O ambiente climatizado com incremento de dióxido de carbono promoveu melhor desenvolvimento das plantas, com maior número de folhas comercializáveis. Em ambientes não climatizados, o incremento de CO2 não resultou em aumento de produtividade da alface para a maioria dos ciclos. Em épocas de temperaturas mais elevadas, obtiveram-se plantas maiores, com maior número de folhas.It was proposed to evaluate the hydroponic lettuce production, variety "Vera", on inclined benches with channels of 100 mm, and Nutrient Film Technique, as answer to carbon dioxide application and evaporative cooling. There were five cycles of cultivation from March, 20th to April, 17th (C1; from May, 25th to June, 29th (C2; from July, 13th to August, 20th (C3; from August, 27th to October, 10th (C4; from December, 12th to January, 10th (C5. In three greenhouses were

  13. Aplicação foliar de fertilizantes organominerais em cultura de alface Foliar application of organic mineral fertilizer in lettuce

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Magno Q Luz

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available A aplicação de fertilizantes organominerais tem permitido respostas positivas em diversas olerícolas. No presente trabalho avaliou-se a produção de mudas e produção comercial de alface, cultivar Vera, em função da aplicação foliar de fertilizantes organominerais líquidos, de outubro de 2005 a janeiro de 2006. A etapa de produção de mudas foi realizada em viveiro especializado na produção de mudas de hortaliças em Uberlândia e a condução da fase de campo foi realizada em área da Universidade Federal de Uberlândia. Analisou-se altura e número de folhas, massa fresca da parte aérea e diâmetro de raízes das mudas, massas fresca da parte aérea e de raízes das plantas na fase de campo. Foram empregados os fertilizantes organominerais Aminoagro Raiz, Aminoagro Folha Top, Aminoagro Mol, Nobrico Star, Aminolom Foliar e Lombrico Mol 75. O primeiro experimento utilizando mudas foi instalado em delineamento inteiramente casualizado com 15 repetições. O segundo experimento instalado a campo, foi feito em blocos ao acaso com 4 repetições. O uso exclusivo dos produtos organominerais líquidos, via aplicação foliar foi superior à testemunha para a maioria das variáveis avaliadas nas fases de muda e campo na alface, cultivar Vera.Biofertilizer application provides positive responses of several vegetable crops. The effect of foliar application of liquid biofertilizers on seedling and on commercial production of lettuce cultivar Vera were evaluated from October 2005 to January 2006. Seedling production was carried out in a nursery specialized in the production of vegetable seedlings, in Uberlandia, Minas Gerais State, Brazil, and the crop growing was carried out at a field of the Universidade Federal de Uberlandia. Plant height, number of leaves, aboveground part fresh weight and root diameter were evaluated on seedlings and fresh weight of the aboveground part and roots were evaluated on plants in the field. Aminoagro Raiz

  14. Desempenho de sistemas consorciados de cenoura e alface avaliados através de métodos uni e multivariados Biological performance of carrot and lettuce intercropping systems as assessed through uni- and multivariate methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco Bezerra Neto

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available A análise de dados provenientes de experimentos de consorciação geralmente é mais complexa do que as advindas de experimentos em cultivo solteiro. Nesta situação, vários tipos de análises são recomendados, como análise univariada de variância do rendimento das culturas componentes separadamente; dos rendimentos combinados dos sistemas consorciados; da eficiência produtiva por modelos de análise de envoltória de dados (DEA ou de métodos de análise multivariada dos rendimentos das culturas associadas. Neste trabalho, o objetivo foi avaliar o desempenho biológico de sistemas consorciados de cenoura e alface crespa através de métodos uni e multivariados. Dois experimentos (um consorciado e outro solteiro foram conduzidos em blocos casualizados completos, com quatro repetições. O experimento consorciado foi conduzido em esquema fatorial 2 x 4 + 2, com os tratamentos provenientes da combinação de duas cultivares de cenoura (Alvorada e Brasília com quatro cultivares de alface crespas (Lucy Brown, Tainá, Laurel e Verônica e as duas cvs. de cenoura sem consorciação. Os tratamentos do experimento solteiro consistiram das quatros cvs. de alface testadas. As características avaliadas na alface e cenoura foram massa fresca da parte aérea e rendimento de raízes comerciais, respectivamente. Análises uni e multivariadas de variância foram realizadas nas características avaliadas tanto na alface como na cenoura em função dos fatores tratamentos testados. O método multivariado mostrou-se bastante informativo, em função da maior capacidade discriminante, além da descrição da superioridade relativa dos tratamentos por meio da técnica das variáveis canônicas. Os índices combinados de medida de eficiência dos sistemas consorciados tiveram comportamento similar na discriminação dos melhores sistemas de cultivo consorciados quando avaliados pelo método univariado. Na avaliação de todos os sistemas consorciados

  15. Controle biológico da podridão radicular (Pythium aphanidermatum e promoção de crescimento por Pseudomonas chlororaphis 63-28 e Bacillus subtilis GB03 em alface hidropônica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Élida Barbosa Corrêa

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Podridões radiculares causadas por espécies de Pythium são um importante problema em cultivos hidropônicos. Sintomas de subdesenvolvimento são observados nas plantas parasitadas pelo patógeno, sendo muitas vezes não diagnosticados pelo produtor. O objetivo do trabalho foi avaliar o controle biológico da podridão radicular causada por Pythium aphanidermatum e a promoção de crescimento por Pseudomonas chlororaphis 63-28 e Bacillus subtilis GB03, reconhecidos agentes de controle biológico de doenças de plantas. A inoculação das plantas com P. aphanidermatum ocasionou o subdesenvolvimento, sendo essa diminuição de 20%. A adição dos agentes de biocontrole na solução nutritiva teve um efeito positivo no aumento da massa (6% a 13%, no número de folhas (4% a 7% e no teor de clorofila (3% das plantas de alface. Entretanto, maiores estudos devem ser realizados para melhorar a capacidade de controle da doença e de promoção de crescimento pelos agentes de biocontrole estudados no cultivo de alface hidropônica.

  16. Biofortification of lettuce (Lactuca sativa L.) with iodine: The effect of iodine form and concentration in the nutrient solution on growth, development and iodine uptake of lettuce grown in water culture

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Voogt, W.; Holwerda, H.T.; Khodabaks, M.R.

    2010-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Iodine is an essential trace element for humans. Two billion individuals have insufficient iodine intake. Biofortification of vegetables with iodine offers an excellent opportunity to increase iodine intake by humans. The main aim was to study the effect of iodine form and concentration

  17. Efectos de abonos orgánicos foliares: té de compost, té de lombricompuesto y supermagro en la productividad en cultivo de lechuga (Lactuca sativa L.)

    OpenAIRE

    Bonillo, Mario César; Filippini, María Flavia; Lipinski, Victor

    2015-01-01

    La productividad y la calidad de un cultivo de lechuga son influenciadas por diferentes factores, englobados en el ambiente, el manejo y la genética. En el presente trabajo se evalúo el efecto de tres abonos foliares orgánicos. Se realizó un ensayo en primavera con diferentes aplicaciones foliares de abonos orgánicos líquidos: té compost 0,1% (TC), té de lombricompuesto 1% (TLC), supermagro 0,1% (SM) y agua como testigo (T). Los abonos se aplicaron 3 veces a la semana, realizando 13 pulveriza...

  18. Hygienic-sanitary quality of vegetables and evaluation of treatments for the elimination of indigenous E. coli and E. coli O157:H7 from the surface of leaves of lettuce (Lactuca sativa L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ytana oliveira Santos

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study is to evaluate the hygienic-sanitary quality of vegetables and irrigation water and assess the effectiveness of lemon juice and vinegar in reducing E. coli strains inoculated on lettuce. One hundred and forty samples of vegetables and 45 samples of irrigation water were investigated for thermotolerant coliforms and Salmonella spp. In order to verify the effectiveness of natural household sanitizers in reducing E. coli in inoculated lettuce, four treatment solutions were tested: fresh lemon juice, alcohol vinegar, lemon juice-vinegar mixture, and lemon juice-vinegar-water mixture. The microbiological analysis revealed high rates of contamination by thermotolerant coliforms and identified the presence of E. coli in 32% of the tested vegetable samples and 56% of the water samples. While no significant statistical difference (p < 0, 05 was identified in the tested solutions, the treatment with a combination of lemon juice and vinegar resulted in the highest Decimal Reductions (DR of E. coli O157: H7 while the treatment with vinegar alone was the most effective against the indigenous E. coli strain

  19. Manejo básico y resultados preliminares de crecimiento y supervivencia de tencas (Tinca tinca L.) y lechugas (Lactuca sativa L.) en un prototipo acuapónico

    OpenAIRE

    Fernández Cabanás, Víctor Manuel; Lobillo, J.R.; Carmona Chiara, Eusebio; Candón L, F.J.

    2014-01-01

    Este trabajo presenta el manejo básico de un prototipo acuapónico así como resultados preliminares sobre el crecimiento de tencas y lechugas en dicho prototipo. El sistema consta de una instalación de recirculación de agua con cuatro elementos en el siguiente orden de dirección del agua: depósito de peces, del que parten dos ramas: una de ellas hacia un biofiltro, zona de hidropónicos en NFT (“Nutrient Film Technique”) y colector; y la otra hacia la zona de hidropónicos en raíz fl...

  20. Comportamento de variedades de alface na região de Campinas - Parte II Behavior of lettuce varieties in the Campinas area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Botter Bernardi

    1969-01-01

    Full Text Available São apresentados os resultados de um ensaio de variedades de alface de cabeça. A variedade "Great Lakes'", do tipo de cabeça com fôlhas crêspas e verdes, mostrou-se mais produtiva e de melhor fechamento das cabeças. As variedades de fôlhas lisas situaram-se em segundo plano. Destas destacaram-se: "Shimabukuro", "Piracicaba" e "Gigante". As variedades menos produtivas foram "Maravilla de Ias Cuatro Estaciones" e "White Boston".The authors present the results of a trial of lettuce varieties, nearly all of them belonging to the butter-head type. In addition to productivity and quality of product, the trial was performed with a view to verify the behavior of the varieties under high-temperature conditions prevailing from September to November, this being the end of the period of cultivating, acceptable in conditions as of the Paulista Plateau. The variety "Great Lakes", of the crisp-head type, excelled the others in productivity and formation of heads. The following varieties placed themselves second in order: "Shimabukuro", "Piracicaba", "Gigante", "Bautzener Dauerkopf" and "La Chaume", all of them of the butter-head type. The less productive varieties, also of the same type as the before mentioned, were: "Maravilla de las Cuatro Estaciones" and "White Boston", the former presents, however, the external leaves consistent and of brownish tint, this causing depreciation of its commercial value. Of all varieties, the "White Boston'' is the most tender one and is mostly given preference by the Paulista consumer.

  1. ALTERAÇÕES MICROMETEOROLÓGICAS CAUSADAS POR TÚNEIS BAIXOS DE TELA PLÁSTICA PRETA CULTIVADOS COM ALFACE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Galileo Adeli Buriot

    1994-01-01

    Full Text Available RESUMO Foram determinadas alterações micrometeorológicas causadas por tela plástica preta com 18, 30 e 50% de atenuação da radiação solar incidente, durante os meses de verão, em Santa Maria, RS. O experimento foi conduzido no Campo Experimental do Departamento de Fitotecnia da UFSM, onde foram cultivados quatro canteiros com alface, três deles cobertos com túneis de tela plástica. O estudo foi realizado em 3 períodos: de 30/11/90 a 17/01/91, de 06/02/91 a 25/03/91 e de 10/12/91 a 01/03/92. Mediu-se a radiação solar global, radiação solar na faixa de comprimento de onda do infravermelho e a luminosidade, temperatura diurna do solo, temperatura mínima e diurna do ar e umidade do solo e do ar. Os resultados mostraram que a temperatura do solo e do ar e a perda de água do solo são menores sob os túneis do que no exterior. As diferenças cresceram com o aumento da atenuação e a temperatura mínima do ar e a umidade relativa do ar são semelhantes no interior e exterior dos túneis e entre os túneis com diferentes percentagens de atenuação.

  2. Produção de mudas de cultivares de alface utilizando duas espumas fenólicas em Altamira, Pará

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alzirio Lino Couto

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available O sucesso de qualquer produção comercial de hortaliças inicia-se com a produção de mudas. A espuma fenólica tem se mostrado um interessante e prático substrato para este processo. A utilização deste produto depende de uma lavagem precedente para reduzir a acidez. Porém, já é possível encontrar à venda espumas fenólicas com pH próximo. Por isso o objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar a produção de mudas de cultivares de alface utilizando duas espumas fenólicas em Altamira, Pará. O delineamento constou de um esquema fatorial 2 (substratos x 6 (cultivares. Os dois substratos foram as espumas fenólicas Green Up®, com pH 6.0 (± 0.5., e a outra com pH 2.6 (± 0.5. As cultivares avaliadas foram: Alcione, Amanda, Lucy Brown, Caipira, Multiblond 3 e Solaris. Foi avaliada porcentagem de germinação, índice de velocidade de emergência, altura da planta e número de folhas. Houve diferença significativa para altura da planta em função dos substratos testados. A porcentagem de germinação mais elevada foi obtida com a espuma fenólica sem tratamento. A cultivar Caipira foi a que teve o menor desempenho na germinação. Para todas as variáveis analisadas, a cultivar Lucy Brown apresentou os melhores resultados em ambos os substratos.

  3. Doses de nitrogênio no acúmulo de nitrato e na produção da alface em hidroponia Nitrogen rates on nitrate accumulation and lettuce production in hydroponic system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mônica LA Pôrto

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available A produção da alface em hidroponia apresenta crescente expansão no Brasil, mas ainda ocorrem problemas de qualidade e risco de acúmulo de nitrato. O objetivo desse trabalho foi avaliar a produção da alface (cv. Elba e acúmulo de nitrato em hidroponia em função de níveis crescentes de N na solução nutritiva. Plantas de alface foram cultivadas em estufa telada da UFPB em Areia (PB, em solução nutritiva que continha níveis crescentes de N (11, 13, 15, 17, 19 e 21 mmol L-1 por 25 dias. O delineamento utilizado foi inteiramente casualizado com quatro repetições. Foram avaliadas a produção total (PTT, produção comercial (PCM e os teores de nitrato na matéria fresca da raiz, caule e folhas da alface. Não foram verificados efeitos significativos do incremento dos níveis de N na solução sobre a PTT e PCM, sendo obtidos valores médios de 357,3 e 352,5 g/planta, respectivamente. A elevação dos níveis de N em solução resultou em incrementos nos teores de nitrato em todas as partes da alface, obtendo-se na dose máxima teores de 659, 623 e 615 mg kg-1 de matéria fresca, para raiz, caule e folhas, respectivamente. Os máximos teores foliares de nitrato obtidos se encontraram abaixo do limite de risco para saúde humana.Lettuce production in hydroponic system presents growing expansion in Brazil, but still there are problems of quality and risk of nitrate accumulation. This work was carried out to evaluate the lettuce production and nitrate accumulation in hydroponic system depending on the increasing levels of nitrogen in the nutrient solution. The experiment was conducted in greenhouse of the Universidade Federal da Paraíba, Brazil. The lettuce plants were grown in nutrient solution containing increasing levels of N (11, 13, 15, 17, 19 and 21 mmol L-1 during a 25-day period. An entirely randomized design with four replications was used. Plant total yield (PTT, plant commercial yield (PCM and nitrate contents in the fresh

  4. Reúso de águas residuárias da piscicultura e da suinocultura na irrigação da cultura da alface Reuse of wastewater from swine and fish activities in the lettuce culture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dirceu Baumgartner

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho teve o objetivo de avaliar o desenvolvimento, a produção e a qualidade sanitária da cultura da alface irrigada com águas residuárias originadas da suinocultura e da piscicultura. Os tratamentos avaliados foram: T1 - alface irrigada com água de origem subterrânea e adubação suplementar; T2 - alface irrigada com água residuária de viveiro de peixes alimentados com ração; T3 - alface irrigada com água residuária originária de lagoa de estabilização de dejetos de suínos, e T4 - água de lagoa de cultivo de algas, alimentada com resíduo de biodigestor de dejeto de suíno. Os tratamentos não apresentaram diferenças significativas para altura da alface, diâmetro da cabeça, comprimento da raiz, massa da raiz, massa total da planta, massa fresca e massa seca; os tratamentos T4 e T2 apresentaram os maiores valores para comprimento da maior folha e número de folhas, respectivamente; em geral, as análises foliares e a extração de macro e micronutrientes pela cultura não apresentaram diferenças significativas; ocorreu contaminação de coliformes fecais e totais em todos os tratamentos; não ocorreu contaminação de Escherichia coli em todos os tratamentos; todos os Coeficientes de Uniformidade de Christiansen (CUC encontrados foram acima de 85%, exceto para o tratamento T3 que foi de 74,05%; ocorreram alterações químicas no solo proporcionais às características das águas utilizadas nos respectivos tratamentos.The objective of this work was to evaluate development, production and sanitary quality of the irrigated lettuce with wastewater from fish and swine activities. The evaluated treatments was: T1 - lettuce irrigated with water from underground origin and supplemental fertilization; T2 - lettuce irrigated with wastewater from fish activities and fish fed with ration; T3 - lettuce irrigated with wastewater from swine treated in stabilization lagoon; and T4 - lettuce irrigated with effluent from seaweed

  5. Avaliação de cultivares de alface adubadas com silicato de cálcio em casa-de-vegetação Evaluation of lettuce cultivars fertilized with calcium silicate in greenhouse

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Regina Lúcia Félix Ferreira

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available O experimento foi conduzido no Departamento de Ciência do Solo da Universidade Federal de Lavras - UFLA, no período de junho a agosto de 2002. Objetivou-se avaliar a produtividade, o estado nutricional e a qualidade (classe de tamanho de cultivares de alface cultivadas com doses de silicato de cálcio em vasos sob casa-de-vegetação. O delineamento experimental foi em blocos casualizados, com quatro repetições, com 1 planta/vaso, em esquema fatorial 3 x 4 + 3, sendo três cultivares de alface (Raider, Regina e Vera e quatro doses de silicato de cálcio (0, 410, 1,000 e 2,000 mg dm-3; os tratamentos adicionais foram compostos pela aplicação de 820 mg dm-3 de carbonato de cálcio, para as três cultivares. O estado nutricional das plantas de alface foi avaliado pelo Sistema Integrado de Diagnose e Recomendação (DRIS. A aplicação da fonte silicato de cálcio não aumentou o crescimento das plantas e não aumentou o teor dos nutrientes nas plantas de alface, mas melhorou a nutrição das plantas para Si e aumentou a porcentagem de plantas sadias. A aplicação também aumentou a concentração de Mn, devido ao alto conteúdo de Mn no fertilizante aplicado (Silifértil®. As três variedades de alface comportaram-se como plantas não acumuladoras de Si.The experiment was carried out at the Department of Soil Sciences of the Universidade Federal de Lavras - UFLA, from June to August 2002, with the objective to evaluate the productivity, the nutritional state and the quality (size class of lettuce cultivars grown with calcium silicate in greenhouse. The experimental design was disposed in blocks with four replicates, in factorial arrangement with additional treatments: 3 x 4 +3, composed by three lettuce cultivars: Raider (group crisphead lettuce; Regina (group butterhead lettuce and Vera (group looseleaf lettuce and four calcium silicate rates (0, 410, 1.000 and 2.000 mg dm-3, additional treatments were composed of the application of

  6. Qualidade de alface crespa cultivada em sistema orgânico, convencional e hidropônico Quality of looseleaf lettuce in organic, conventional and hydroponic crop in Rio Branco State, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eliana Mara NCP da Silva

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar a qualidade da alface do grupo crespa, cv. Vera, em sistemas de cultivo orgânico, convencional e hidropônico em Rio Branco-AC. O experimento foi conduzido em julho de 2009. As amostras dos sistemas, convencional e hidropônico (3 marcas comerciais, foram escolhidas aleatoriamente nos supermercados do município de Rio Branco, no mesmo dia de coleta da alface produzida em sistema orgânico. A alface orgânica, produzida na área experimental do Setor de Agricultura Ecológica da Universidade Federal do Acre (UFAC, em Rio Branco, foi cultivada em estufa, sob plantio direto utilizando folhas de bambu como cobertura do solo, e adubada com composto orgânico (17 t ha-1 em base seca. O delineamento utilizado foi o inteiramente casualizado, com cinco tratamentos e quatro repetições compostas por três plantas. As amostras foram lavadas, cortadas e processadas com folha e caule, para obter o suco. Logo após foram determinados os teores de sólidos solúveis e a concentração de nitrato e ácido ascórbico. As três marcas de alface hidropônica apresentaram maior teor de nitrato e menor concentração de sólidos solúveis e ácidos ascórbico, enquanto a alface orgânica apresentou qualidade superior, com baixa concentração de nitrato e maior teor de ácido ascórbico.The aim of this work was to evaluate the quality of the looseleaf lettuce group, cv. Vera, in organic, conventional and hydroponic crop in Rio Branco, Acre State, North Brazil. The experiment was carried out in July 2009, at the Universidade Federal do Acre. The samples of the conventional and hydroponic (three trademarks systems were obtained randomly in supermarkets in Rio Branco, in the same day of harvest of the lettuce produced in the organic system. The organic lettuce grown in the experimental area was cultivated in a greenhouse, under no-tillage and mulching of bamboo leaves, and fertilized with organic compost (17 t/ha on a dry base

  7. Estratégias de uso de água salobra na produção de alface em hidroponia NFT Strategies for use of brackish water in NFT hydroponic lettuce production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Márcio S. Alves

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Plantas de alface crespa 'Verônica' foram cultivadas em condições hidropônicas, objetivando avaliar três diferentes estratégias de emprego de águas salobras: 1 águas salobras para reposição das perdas por evapotranspiração (ETc e água doce para o preparo da solução nutritiva (SN; 2 águas salobras para o preparo da SN e água doce para reposição da ETc; 3 águas salobras para o preparo da SN e reposição da ETc. Os níveis de salinidade da água foram obtidos pela adição de NaCl à água doce (0,27 dS m-1: 1,45; 2,51; 3,6; 5,41 e 7,5 dS m-1. O experimento foi conduzido em quatro blocos aleatorizados, com quatro repetições por tratamento. Uma estrutura de pesquisa foi construída com 72 parcelas que simulam a técnica do fluxo laminar de nutrientes (NFT. O uso de água salobra apenas para repor a ETc não produziu efeito sobre a produção da alface. Por outro lado, o uso de águas salobras para o preparo da SN e água doce para reposição da ETc, reduziu o rendimento da alface (massa de matéria fresca da parte aérea em 4,99% por (dS m-1. O rendimento foi reduzido em 7% por dS m-1 quando águas salobras foram usadas tanto para o preparo da SN quanto para reposição da ETc. Apesar da redução linear da produção da alface com o aumento da salinidade da água, sintomas depreciativos para a qualidade da alface hidropônica não foram registrados.Plants of crisphead lettuce cv. 'Verônica' were grown under hydroponic conditions aiming to evaluate three different strategies of brackish waters utilization: 1 brackish waters to replace the evapotranspiration loss (ETc and fresh water to prepare nutrient solution (NS; 2 brackish waters to prepare NS and fresh water to replace the ETc; 3 brackish waters to prepare NS and replace ETc. The levels of water salinity were obtained by addition of NaCl to fresh water (0.27 dS m-1: 1.45; 2.51; 3.6; 5.41 and 7.5 dS m-1. The experiment was conducted in randomized blocks with four

  8. Plantio direto de alface adubada com cama de aviário sobre coberturas vivas de grama e amendoim forrageiro Lettuce cultivated directly in poultry manure beds using grass and perennial peanut as living mulch

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nelson Geraldo de Oliveira

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available A viabilidade agronômica do plantio direto de alface cv. Vera foi avaliada sobre coberturas vivas perenes de gramínea e leguminosa em sistema de manejo orgânico. Empregou-se o delineamento de blocos casualizados, dispostos em parcelas sub-divididas. Os tratamentos nas parcelas constaram de plantio em sistema de preparo convencional do solo (controle, plantio direto sobre cobertura viva de grama batatais e plantio direto sobre cobertura viva de amendoim forrageiro. Os tratamentos nas subparcelas constaram de adubação com doses de cama de aviário aplicada em cobertura (0; 7; 14 e 28 t ha-1, parceladas em três épocas. Observou-se que a produção de cabeça de alface não foi influenciada pelo modo de plantio e nem pela espécie de cobertura viva sobre a qual foi realizado o plantio direto. Modelo quadrático mostrou-se adequado para descrever a variação observada dos valores de produção de cabeça de alface em relação a doses. O rendimento máximo estimado pelo modelo de regressão para a massa fresca média de alface foi de 348 g planta-1 para a dose de 23 t ha-1 de cama de aviário. O plantio direto de alface sobre cobertura viva de grama batatais e amendoim forrageiro acarretou desempenho semelhante ao desta hortaliça, em sistema de preparo convencional do solo, com nível máximo de produtividade de 55,99 t ha-1 de massa fresca estimado pelo modelo de regressão.The agronomic viability of no-tillage system for lettuce was evaluated, using grass and legume as cover crop under organic management. A randomized complete block design with split plot arrangement was used. Plot treatments were conventional soil tillage (control, bahia grass and perennial peanut cultivated for living cover crops on no-tillage system. Split-plot treatments were doses of poultry manure (0; 7; 14 and 28 t ha-1 in three application periods. Lettuce cv. Vera yield was not affected by tillage system neither by cover crop. The quadratic model was the most

  9. Effect of dietary inclusion of alfalfa (Medicago sativa) and black cumin (Nigella sativa) on performance and some blood metabolites of Japanese quail

    OpenAIRE

    Navid Hosseini Mansoub; Mahmoud Pooryousef Myandoab

    2012-01-01

    This study was conducted to investigate the effect of dietary inclusion of alfalfa (Medicago sativa) and black cumin (Nigella sativa) powder on performance and serum composition of Japanese quails. One week old three hundreds Japanese quails were divided into 4 groups (of three replicates each) in a randomized design. G1 is the control group that did not receive any herbal planet, G2 group was fed the control diet + 2% of Alfalfa powder, G3 group was fed the cont...

  10. Sensory acceptability evaluation of irradiated rice, oryza sativa indica

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The non-glutinous and glutinous types of polished rice, Oryza sativa indica were subjected to gamma rays at ambient temperature and stored at 27+-10C for one week. The irradiated rice was cooked and tasted by members of trained panel. Using Hedonic scale and Triangle test, the acceptability of irradiated rice was justified. Gamma irradiation up to 100 krads did not significantly cause off-color, off-odor and off flavor in irradiated non-glutino rice. Glutinous rice irradiated at 60 krads could not be significantly differentiated from non-irradiated sample

  11. POLLINATION EVENTS IN NIGELLA SATIVA L. (BLACK CUMIN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suchetana Mukherjee

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The pollination events in Nigella sativa Family: Ranunculaceae; common name: black cumin; significant plant species for therapeutic uses and possessing spice yielding property has been studied in relation to floral morphology, consequences of pollination types on reproductive parameters, types of visitors (Apis dorsata Fabr. – honeybees; Coccinella transversalis Fabr. - lady bug, Danaux plexippus L. - butterfly and Colletes succinctus L. - wasp and flower color changes from bud to blooming stage. Honeybees are the predominant pollinators. Pollination is of ‘generalized type’. The study has provided insight on the effective mode of pollination in the species maximizing seed yield.

  12. Nigella sativa and its active constituent thymoquinone in oral health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Attass, Safia A; Zahran, Fat'heya M; Turkistany, Shereen A

    2016-03-01

    In this review, we summarized published reports that investigated the role of Nigella sativa (NS) and its active constituent, thymoquinone (TQ) in oral health and disease management. The literature studies were preliminary and scanty, but the results revealed that black seed plants have a potential therapeutic effect for oral and dental diseases. Such results are encouraging for the incorporation of these plants in dental therapeutics and hygiene products. However, further detailed preclinical and clinical studies at the cellular and molecular levels are required to investigate the mechanisms of action of NS and its constituents, particularly TQ. PMID:26905343

  13. EKSTRAKCIJA I ANALIZA KONDENZIRANIH TANINA CASTANEA SATIVA MIIL.

    OpenAIRE

    J Živković; I Mujić; Nikolić, G.; S Vidović; Mujić, A.

    2009-01-01

    Proantocijanidini, poznati kao kondenzirani tanini su jako rasprostranjeni u drvenastim biljkama, a pronađeni su i u hrani. Castanea sativa Mill. se dosta koristi za različite namjene, međutim malo je poznat njegov potencijal i moguća primjena u dijeti i terapiji. Dijelovi kestena kao što su; cijeli plod, srž ploda, vanjska smeđa kora ploda, crvena unutrašnja kora ploda, list, resa, ježura, kao i nova i stara kora drveta su ekstrahirani primjenom 50% etanola kao ekstragensa. Sadržaj ukupni...

  14. Novel lipid constituents identified in seeds of Nigella sativa (Linn)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Novel lipids were isolated from the unsaponifiable matter extracted from seeds of Nigella sativa Linn by using n-hexane. The new dienoate and two monoesters were the new lipids identified by spectral (IR, 1H- and 13C-NMR spectra, mass spectrum, elemental analysis) and chemical analysis. The dienoate (1) was identified as methylnonadeca-15,17-dienoate and two monoesters were identified as pentyl hexadec-12-enoate (2) and pentyl pentadec-11-enoate (3). Linoleic acid, oleic acid, β-sitosterol and stigmasterol were identified as part of the lipid structures. All compounds exhibited moderate activity against Staphylococcus aureus and poor activity against shigella spp, and Klebsiella pneumoniae. (author)

  15. Wpływ szczepów bakterii wyizolowanych z hydroponicznej uprawy sałaty (Lactuca sativa L. na wzrost siewek sałaty, rosnących w obecnosci rożnych form pożywienia azotowego [Influence of bacterial strains isolated from hydroponic cultures of lettuce (Lactuca sativa L. on the growth of lettuce seedlings growing in the presence of various forms of nitrogen nutrition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Z. Kobierzyńska-Gołąb

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available 320 bacterial strains isolated from the surface of cultivated plants, as well as from other parts of hydroponic cultures showed stimulating (49 bacterial strains or inhibitory (9 bacterial strains properties in respect to the investigated plant. The following bacteria were isolated: Pseudomonas, Flavobacterium, Agrobacterium, Achromobacter and Chromobacterium. The effects of active bacterial strains on the growth of seedlings were investigated in dependence on the kind of inorganic form of nitrogen present in the nutrient solutions. The same bacterial strains exerted a stimulating effect on seedlings growing on nitrates, weaker stimulation was observed in cultures with ammonium nitrate; the growth of lettuce seedlings on nutrient solution with ammonium only, was, as a rule, inhibited by the bacteria.

  16. Porównawcze badania nad występowaniem bakterii w hydroponicznych uprawach sałaty (Lactuca sativa L. z azotanowaą i amonową formą azotu w pożywce [Comparative studies on the occurrence of bacteria in hydroponic cultures of lettuce (Lactuca sativa L. enriched with nitrate or ammonia forms of nitrogen in the nutrient medium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Z. Kobierzyńska-Gołąb

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The experiment demonstrated the greatest number of bacteria on the surface of roots immersed in nutrient solution, next on the epidermis of the parts of roots remaining in the air space above the nutrient solution and on the roots growing in the seed-bed; a smaller number in the seed-bed itself and the smallest number in the nutrient solution. The population of bacteria consisted of up to 90% short rod of bacilli. The total number of bacteria in hydroponic culture with ammonium was higher than in that with nitrate. As a rule the bacteria belonging to the separate physiological groups, participating in nitrogen metabolism (ammonifying, proteolytic, proteinizing, denitrifying and oligonitrophilic bacteria appeared to be more numerus in the culture with ammonium than in that with nitrate. The growth of plants in hydroponic culture with ammonium was weaker than in that with nitrate.

  17. Porównawcze badania nad występowaniem bakterii w hydroponicznych uprawach sałaty (Lactuca sativa L.) z azotanowaą i amonową formą azotu w pożywce [Comparative studies on the occurrence of bacteria in hydroponic cultures of lettuce (Lactuca sativa L.) enriched with nitrate or ammonia forms of nitrogen in the nutrient medium

    OpenAIRE

    Z. Kobierzyńska-Gołąb

    2015-01-01

    The experiment demonstrated the greatest number of bacteria on the surface of roots immersed in nutrient solution, next on the epidermis of the parts of roots remaining in the air space above the nutrient solution and on the roots growing in the seed-bed; a smaller number in the seed-bed itself and the smallest number in the nutrient solution. The population of bacteria consisted of up to 90% short rod of bacilli. The total number of bacteria in hydroponic culture with ammonium was higher tha...

  18. Ocorrência de Cryptosporidium spp. e outros parasitas em hortaliças consumidas in natura, no Recife Occurrence of Cryptosporidium spp. and others parasites in vegetables consumed in natura, Recife, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Celiane Gomes Maia da Silva

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste estudo foi verificar a ocorrência de enteroparasitas em hortaliças comercializadas e consumidas em Pernambuco. Foram utilizadas 100 amostras de hortaliças: 40 amostras de alface lisa (Lactuca sativa, 40 de agrião (Nasturtium officinale e 20 de acelga (Beta vulgaris, provenientes de feiras livres e supermercados. A detecção de Cryptosporidium spp. foi realizada conforme Monge e Arias sendo utilizado dois métodos de coloração, Koster modificado e Ziehl-Nielsen. Foi usada a técnica de sedimentação espontânea de Gelli et al. para a análise parasitológica. As análises de coliformes totais e Escherichia coli foram realizadas de acordo com Andrews. Os resultados obtidos mostraram um percentual de contaminação parasitária em 60% de alface, 30% de agrião e 20% de acelga, destacando-se o Ascaris lumbricoides, Strongyloides stercoralis e Ancylostoma duodenale dentre os helmintos, e o Cryptosporidium spp., Entamoeba coli e o complexo Entamoeba histolytica/Entamoeba díspar, dentre os protozoários com maior freqüência. As hortaliças mais contaminadas por coliformes totais e Escherichia coli foram alface nas amostras de supermercado e agrião em feira livre. Esses dados sugerem a necessidade da adoção de medidas educativas aos produtores, e do monitoramento das águas destinadas à irrigação das hortas.The study was carried with the aim to evaluate the occurrence of enteroparasites in vegetables commercialized and consumed in natural form in the state of Pernambuco, Brazil. Horticultural samples purchased from supermarket and free market: 40 from lettuce (Lactuca sativa, 40 from watercress (Nasturtium officinale and 20 from chard (Beta vulgaris were analyzed. Cryptosporidium spp. detection was realized following Monge and Arias methodology, using two staining processes (Koster modified and Ziehl-Nielsen. Parasitological analysis was determined by the spontaneous sedimentation technique (Gelli et al., and total

  19. Alelopatia em extratos de frutos de juazeiro (Ziziphus joazeiro Mart. - Rhamnaceae Allelopathy caused by fruit extract of juazeiro (Ziziphus joazeiro Mart. - Rhamnaceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andreya Kalyana de Oliveira

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar o potencial alelopático do extrato de frutos de juazeiro (Ziziphus joazeiro Mart. sobre as sementes de alface (Lactuca sativa. O experimento foi conduzido em delineamento inteiramente casualizado com 4 repetições e cinco tratamentos (0%, 25%, 50%, 75% e 100% de concentração do extrato bruto. O extrato bruto foi obtido após a extração manual da polpa do fruto e agitação com água em liquidificador utilizando-se 50g de polpa para 500ml de água, e o mesmo foi feito com a casca do fruto. Os resultados mostraram efeito do extrato dependendo da concentração. As maiores concentrações do extrato (100%, 75% e 50% da polpa dos frutos Z. joazeiro apresentaram efeito alelopático desfavorável sobre a germinação de alface, reduzindo-a em 100%, 98,75% e 82,5% respectivamente. O extrato das cascas dos frutos nas concentrações de 75% e 100% reduziu a germinação da alface em 28,75% e 78,75%.This study aimed to identify the allelopathic activity of extracts obtained from Ziziphus joazeiro fruits on the germination of Lactuca sativa L. A randomized design was used with four replications and five treatments (0%, 25%, 50%, 75% and 100% concentration of the crude extract. The crude extract was obtained after manual extration of the fruit pulp and agitation with water in a blender using 50g of pulp in 500ml of water. The same was done with the fruit rind. The results showed the effect of the extract depending on concentration. The greatest extract concentrations (100%, 75% and 50% of Z. joazeiro fruit pulp had an unfavorable allelopathic effect on lettuce germination, having reduced it by 100%, 98.75% and 82.5% respectively. The extract of the fruits rinds in concentrations of 75% and 100% reduced lettuce germination by 28.75% and 78.75%.

  20. Atividade fitotóxica de Croton doctoris S. Moore Phytotoxic activity of Croton doctoris S. Moore

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Carina da Silva Cândido

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi caracterizar o efeito fitotóxico do extrato etanólico bruto e frações semipurificadas do caule e folhas de C. doctoris na germinação, crescimento inicial e divisão celular das células radiculares de alface (Lactuca sativa e cebola (Allium cepa, em laboratório. O experimento foi realizado em delineamento inteiramente casualizado, sendo utilizadas quatro concentrações dos tratamentos (0, 250, 500, 1.000mg L-1, com quatro repetições. O extrato bruto e as frações do caule e folhas inibiram a germinação e crescimento de alface e cebola, sendo o maior efeito fitotóxico promovido pela fração acetato de etila (FAE do caule e folhas que afetou significativamente o crescimento e índice mitótico das células radiculares de alface e cebola. Com os resultados obtidos, verifica-se que a espécie C. doctoris apresenta substâncias capazes de influenciar no crescimento e divisão celular das espécies avaliadas.The aim of this study was to verify the phytotoxic effect of the crude ethanol extract and semipurified fractions from the stem and leaves of Croton doctoris on the germination, growth and cell division of roots cells of lettuce (Lactuca sativa and onion (Allium cepa, in the laboratory. The bioassays was conducted in using completely randomized design, with four concentrations (0, 250, 500, 1.000mg L-1 and four replications. The crude extract and the fractions from the stem and leaves inhibited germination and seedling growth of lettuce and onion, with greater phytotoxic effect observed in the ethyl acetate fraction (EAF from the stems and leaves that significantly affected the growth and mitotic index of root cells of lettuce and onions. With these results it appears that C. doctoris contains substances capable of influencing the germination, growth and cell division of the species studied.

  1. GC-MS study of Nigella sativa (seeds fatty oil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehta, B. K.

    2002-06-01

    Full Text Available The GC-MS study of N. sativa (seeds fatty oil revealed the presence of 26 compounds which were identified as methyl hept-6-enoate,1-phenylhepta-2,4-dione, pentadecane, hexadec-1-ene, 1-phenyldecan-2-one, octadec-1-ene, octadecane, methyl pentadecanoate, bis(3-chlorophenyl ketone, diethyl phthalate, ethyl octadec-7-enoate, methyl octadecanoate, tricos-9-ene, octadeca-9,12-dienoic acid, hexadecanoic acid, methyl hexadecanoate, methyl octadec-15-enoate, henicosan-10-one, 2-methyl octadecanoic acid, docos-1-ene, ethyl octadecanoate, methyl octadecanoate, pentacos-5-ene,12-methyltricosane, dibutyl phthalate and 2-methyltetracosane.El estudio por GC-MS del aceite de la semilla de Nigella sativa reveló la presencia de 26 compuestos los cuales fueron identificados como: hept-6-enoato de metilo, 1-fenilhepta-2,4-diona, pentadecano, hexadec-1-eno, 1-fenildecan-2-ona, octadec-1-eno, octadecano, pentadecanoato de metilo, bis(3-clorofenil cetona, ftalato de dietilo, octadec-7-enoato de etilo, octadecanoato de metilo, tricos-9-eno, ácido octadeca-9,12-dienoico, ácido hexadecanoico, hexadecanoato de metilo, octadec-15-enoato de metilo, henicosan-10-ona, ácido 2-metil octadecanoico, docos-1-eno, octadecanoato de etilo, octadecanoato de metilo, pentacos-5-eno, 12-metiltricosano, ftalato de dibutilo y 2-metiltetracosano.

  2. Construction of Oryza Sativa genome contigs by fingerprint strategy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    TAOQUAZHOU; GUOFANHONG; 等

    1995-01-01

    We described the construction of BAC contigs of the genome of a indica variety of Oryza sativa.Guang Lu Ai 4. An entire representative(Sixfold coverage of rice chromosomes)and genetically stable BAC library of rice genome constructed in this lab has been systematically analysed by restriction enzyme fragmentation and polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis.And all the images thus obtained were subject to image-processing,which consisted of preliminary location of bands,cooperative tracking of lanes by correlation of adjacent bads.a precise densitometric pass,alignment at the marker bands with the standard,optional interactive editing,and normalization of the accepted bands.The contigs were generated based on the Computer Software specially designed for genome mapping.The number of contigs with 600 kb in length on average was 464.of contigs with 1000kb in length on average was 107; of contigs with 1500 kb in length on average was Construction of Oryza Sativa genome contigs.23.Therefor,all the contigs we have obtained ampunted up to 420 megabases in length.Considering the size of rice genome(430 megabased),the contigs generated in this lab have covered nearly 98% of the rice genome.We are now in the process of mapping the contigs to chromosomes.

  3. Compostos nitrogenados e açúcares solúveis em tecidos de alface orgânica, hidropônica e convencional Nitrogen compounds and soluble sugars in tissues of organic, hydroponic, and conventional lettuce

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nilton Nélio Cometti

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available O presente trabalho foi realizado na UFRRJ e teve como objetivo verificar as variações de alguns componentes metabólicos nos tecidos da alface. Plantas de alface do tipo crespa, da cultivar Verônica, provenientes de três sistemas de cultivo, orgânico, hidropônico e convencional, foram separadas em oito partes (limbo das folhas basais, medianas e apicais, nervura central das folhas basais, medianas e apicais, caule e raiz. Foram analisados nitrato, N-amino, açúcares livres e distribuição da massa seca nos vários tecidos. Considerando a parte aérea e raízes, os teores encontrados assemelham-se aos da literatura. Porém, quando as análises são realizadas nos tecidos que compõem a parte aérea, há diferenças significativas em todas as variáveis. Isso permite escolher partes da planta para analisar, dependendo do que se deseja observar. Em estudos fisiológicos, principalmente de metabolismo do nitrogênio, a segmentação das partes pode ser fundamental na interpretação dos resultados. Na análise de nitrato, N-amino e açúcares livres na alface, é recomendada a separação de folhas e caule da parte aérea por terem apresentado grandes diferenças. A alface em cultura hidropônica mostrou teores de nitrato bem superiores aos outros sistemas de cultivo, chegando ao máximo de 1000 mg kg-1 massa fresca do caule, valor esse, entretanto, bem abaixo do máximo permitido pela legislação européia para acúmulo de nitrato em alface. Pode-se sugerir que o caule da alface funcione como o principal órgão de reserva temporário de compostos nitrogenados livres, principalmente nitrato e N-amino, além de açúcares solúveis. Maiores estudos são necessários para confirmar se o caule teria efeito tampão caso as plantas da alface absorvessem grandes quantidades de nitrogênio na forma nítrica e amoniacal.The distribution of some physiologic metabolites was evaluated in lettuce plants. Crest leaf lettuce plants were grown in the

  4. Solar ultraviolet radiation affects the activity of ribulose-1, 5-bisphosphate carboxylase-oxygenase and the composition of photosynthetic and xanthophyll cycle pigments in the intertidal green alga Ulva lactuca L.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bischof, K; Krabs, G; Wiencke, C; Hanelt, D

    2002-01-01

    The effect of solar UV radiation on the physiology of the intertidal green macroalga Ulva lactuca L. was investigated. A natural Ulm community at the shore of Helgoland was covered with screening foils, excluding UV-B or UV-B + UV-A from the solar spectrum. In the sampled material, changes in the ac

  5. Essential oils of Nigella sativa protects Artemia from the pathogenic effect of Vibrio parahaemolyticus Dahv2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manju, Sivalingam; Malaikozhundan, Balasubramanian; Withyachumnarnkul, Boonsirm; Vaseeharan, Baskaralingam

    2016-05-01

    The anti-Vibrio activity of essential oils (EOs) of nine medicinal plants was tested against 28 Vibrio spp. isolated from diseased Fenneropenaeus indicus. EO of Nigella sativa exhibited anti-Vibrio activity against all Vibrio spp. and greater inhibition was noted for the isolate V2 which was identified as Vibrio parahaemolyticus Dahv2. Further, EO of N. sativa effectively inhibited V. parahaemolyticus Dahv2 with an inhibition zone of 23.9mm at 101.2μgml(-1). Moreover, EO of N. sativa revealed anti-biofilm activity at 101.2μgml(-1) against V. parahaemolyticus Dahv2 and inhibited the growth of V. parahaemolyticus Dahv2 at 100μgml(-1).In vivo experimental infection studies showed that the survival of Artemia spp. infected with V. parahaemolyticus Dahv2 at 1×10(3)cfuml(-1) was only 40%. However, the survival of Artemia spp. was significantly increased after challenge with 100μgml(-1) of EO of N. sativa. EO of N. sativa showed higher anti-oxidant potential and total phenol content than other EOs tested. The anti-oxidant activity of EO of N. sativa was highly correlated to their total phenolic contents (r=0.836, P<0.05). This observation suggests that EO of N. sativa protected the Artemia spp. after experimental infection of V. parahaemolyticus Dahv2. PMID:26945773

  6. Effect of Nigella sativa on reproductive system in experimental menopause rat model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saadat Parhizkar

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Menopause is the condition when regular menstrual periods cease and may be accompanied by psychological and physical symptoms. The purpose of current study was to determine Nigella sativa effects on reproductive system in experimental menopause animal models. Materials and Methods: A series of experiments wasconducted to investigate the effects of different dosages of N. sativa (first experiment, various extracts of N. sativa (second experimentand some of its ingredients (third experiment on selected menopausal parameters of ovariectomized (OVX rats. Forty different OVX rats were equally divided into 5 groups and administered with one of the following treatments for 21 days: conjugated equine estrogen (positive control, distilled water or olive oil (negative control, treatment groups  (N. sativa300, 600 and 1200 mg/kg in the first experiment, (300mg/kg methanol, hexane and SFE extracts of N. sativa in the second experiment and (linoleic acid 50 mg/kg, gamma linolenic acid 10mg/kg, and thymoquinone 15mg/kg in the third experiment. Results: The results demonstrated that N.sativa exert estrogenic effect were exhibited through uterotrophic assay and vaginal cell cornification as well as blood estrogen level. Furthermore, low dose N. sativa, methanol extract and linoleic acid had prominent estrogenic like effects which were significantly different from those of control group (p

  7. Controle de Rhizoctonia solani e Fusarium oxysporum f.sp. phaseoli por biopreparados de isolados de Trichoderma spp.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pedro Paulo Dias

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Os experimentos objetivaram avaliar em condições de casa de vegetação o biocontrole dos fitopatógenos Rhizoctonia solani (RS e Fusarium oxysporum f.sp. phaseoli (FOP em alface (Lactuca sativa L. cultivar Regina, e feijão-vagem (Phaseolus vulgaris L. cultivar Alessa, respectivamente, utilizando como agentes antagonistas, 10 isolados de Trichoderma spp. selecionados em testes in vitro. Foram feitos biopreparados à base de arroz previamente colonizado por isolados de Trichoderma spp. e posteriormente triturados. Para a realização dos testes, os biopreparados foram inoculados previamente na proporção de 10(9 conídios.mL-1, em substrato comercial para produção de mudas. Após sete dias, os patógenos foram introduzidos separadamente em duas concentrações distintas: R. solani na proporção de 144 mg de meio de arroz por kg de substrato e F. oxysporum f.sp. phaseoli inoculado na forma de suspensão contendo 4,75 x 10(6 conídios.mL-1. Avaliou-se a influência dos biopreparados na % de damping-off de pós-emergência em plantas de alface e a severidade de murcha em plantas de feijão-vagem. O biopreparado referente ao isolado T-03 foi o mais eficiente no controle de R. solani em plantas de alface cultivar Regina, por ter reduzido a incidência de damping-off de pós-emergência nessa cultura. Por outro lado, nenhum dos biopreparados apresentou efeito antagonista satisfatório à F. oxysporum f.sp. phaseoli em plantas de feijão-vagem.

  8. Análise multidimensional de consórcios cenoura-alface sob diferentes combinações de densidades populacionais Multidimensional analysis of carrot-lettuce intercroppings under different combinations of population densities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco Bezerra Neto

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho teve como objetivo avaliar o desempenho biológico de sistemas consorciados de cenoura e alface, sob diferentes combinações de densidades populacionais, com uso das análises bivariada de variância e envoltória de dados (DEA. O delineamento experimental usado foi o de blocos ao acaso completos, com cinco repetições, com os tratamentos arranjados em esquema fatorial 4x4. Os tratamentos resultaram da combinação de quatro populações de plantas de cenoura (40, 60, 80 e 100% da população recomendada no cultivo solteiro - PRCS com quatro populações de plantas de alface (40, 60, 80 e 100% da PRCS. As populações recomendadas para os cultivos solteiros da cenoura e alface foram 500 mil e 250 mil plantas por hectare, respectivamente. Tanto o método bivariado como o método de análise de envoltória de dados são bastante eficazes na discriminação dos melhores sistemas de cultivo consorciados, por meio dos rendimentos das culturas. Os resultados da eficiência produtiva, medidos por modelos DEA, permitem uma análise estatística simples do ensaio consorciado. A robustez do método de análise bivariada de variância assegura a validade dos resultados.The objective of this paper was to evaluate the biological performance of carrot and lettuce intercropping systems under different combinations of population densities, using the bivariate analysis of variance and data envelopment analysis (DEA. The experimental design was the randomized complete blocks, in a 4x4 factorial scheme (carrot densities: 40, 60, 80 and 100% of the recommended sole crop density (RSCD; lettuce densities: 40, 60, 80 and 100% of the RSCD, with five replications. The recommended population density for carrot in sole crop is 500 thousand plants per hectare and for lettuce in sole crop is 250 thousand plants per hectare. Both bivariate method of variance and data envelopment analysis are quite effective in discriminating the best intercropping systems as

  9. Tamanho de amostras para quantificação da podridão-mole da alface e da couve-chinesa Sample size for assessment of soft rot in lettuce and Chinese cabbage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriano Márcio Freire Silva

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available Os cultivos de alface e couve-chinesa podem ter a produção reduzida devido à ocorrência da podridão-mole, causada por Pectobacterium carotovorum subsp. carotovorum. O objetivo deste estudo foi determinar os tamanhos ideais das amostras para quantificação da incidência dessa doença em levantamentos no campo. Foram realizadas amostragens da incidência da podridão-mole em oito áreas de plantio de alface e cinco de couve-chinesa, situadas nos principais municípios produtores do Estado de Pernambuco. Considerando os resultados obtidos e um erro aceitável de 20%, em futuros levantamentos da incidência da podridão-mole em alface recomenda-se a amostragem de 32 parcelas de 4,5 m²/ha e 20 plantas/parcela, enquanto em couve-chinesa a amostragem de 22 parcelas de 10,5 m²/ha e 20 plantas/parcela. Para ambas as culturas não houve correlação significativa (P=0,05 entre os níveis de incidência da doença e os tamanhos das amostras.Lettuce and Chinese cabbage may present yield reduction due to the occurrence of soft rot caused by Pectobacterium carotovorum subsp. carotovorum. This study aimed to determine the ideal sample size for assessing disease incidence in field surveys. Samples of soft rot incidence were conducted in eight lettuce growing areas and five Chinese cabbage growing areas, located in the main production cities around Pernambuco State. Considering 20% of acceptable error, the results pointed out that future surveys of the soft rot incidence on lettuce should analyze 32 plots with 4.5 m²/ha and 20 plants/plot, while for Chinese cabbage the sample should include 32 plots with 10.5 m²/ha and 20 plants/plot. No significant correlation (P=0.05 was found between disease incidence levels and sample sizes for both crops.

  10. Cobertura do solo, produção de biomassa e teores de Mn e Zn de alface no sistema orgânico = Soil covering, biomass production, and Mn and Zn content of lettuce in organic system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Átila Francisco Mógor

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar o efeito da cobertura do solo com aveia preta e manutenção da palha sobre o terreno, bem como cobertura do solo com filme de polietileno preto, sobre a produção de biomassa e teores de Mn e Zn em alface cultivada no sistema orgânico, por dois anos consecutivos. Utilizaram-se cinco tratamentos: solo sem cobertura, coberto com filme de polietileno preto, coberto com aveia acamada, coberto com aveia ceifada e solo coberto com aveia na sua forma natural,para o cultivo de três cultivares de alface. O experimento seguiu delineamento experimental de blocos ao acaso, com quatro repetições e análise estatística com parcelas subdivididas. Concluiu-se que o cultivo de alface em sucessão à aveia preta,sobre a palha, promoveu produção satisfatória e apresentou adequados teores demanganês e zinco, equivalentes àqueles encontrados na literatura em diferentes sistemas de cultivo, e a cobertura do solo com plástico preto promoveu produção satisfatória com maior acúmulo de Zn no primeiro ano e menor de Mn no segundo.The goal of this research was to evaluate the effect of soil covering with black oat straw, as well as soil covered with black plastic, on the production of biomass and levels of Mn and Zn in lettuce produced in an organic system, over two consecutive years. Five treatments were used: soil without cover, covered with black plastic,covered with laying oats, covered with harvested oats, and covered with oat straw in natural form, for growing three cultivars of lettuce. A randomized blocks design was used in a splitplot system, with four replications. It was concluded that soil covered with oat straw promoted satisfactory lettuce production, as well as adequate Mn and Zn content in plants,equivalent to those found in studies conducted under different growing systems; the soil covered with black plastic promoted satisfactory production and higher Zn content after thefirst year, and lower Mn

  11. Calagem e adubação com vermicomposto de lixo urbano na produção e nos teores de metais pesados em alface Liming and urban waste vermicompost effects on production and heavy metals concentration of lettuce

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Ricardo Mantovani

    2003-09-01

    Full Text Available Foram realizados dois experimentos em casa de vegetação para avaliar o efeito da adição de um vermicomposto oriundo de lixo urbano e da calagem na matéria seca e na concentração de metais pesados na parte aérea de plantas de alface cv. Mesa 659. Em um dos ensaios, foi usado um Latossolo Vermelho distroférrico e, em outro, um Argissolo Vermelho-Amarelo eutrófico. O delineamento experimental de cada experimento foi em blocos ao acaso, em esquema fatorial 5 x 5, com quatro repetições, combinando-se calagem para elevar a saturação por bases a 40; 50; 60; 70 e 80%, e o equivalente a 0; 25; 50; 75 e 100 t ha-1 de vermicomposto. Uma única aplicação de vermicomposto de lixo urbano, em doses acima de 50 t ha-1, limitou a produção de alface nos dois tipos de solos. Mesmo estas doses que restringiram a produção da alface, não a tornaram imprópria para consumo humano do ponto de vista da concentração de metais pesados.The effect of urban waste vermicompost over dry matter and heavy metal concentration in lettuce tops, was evaluated in two greenhouse experiments, one with an Oxissol and another an Alfissol. The experiments followed a completely randomized design combining five liming levels, to elevate the degree of base saturation to 40; 50; 60; 70 and 80%, with five vermicompost rates of 0; 25; 50; 75 and 100 t ha-1, with four replicates. The use of urban waste vermicompost in higher rates than 50 t ha-1 limited the lettuce yield in both soils. Even at these rates, however, the lettuce did not become inappropriate as food from the point of view of heavy metal contamination.

  12. Effect of Nigella sativa on reproductive system in experimental menopause rat model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parhizkar, Saadat; Latiff, Latiffah Abdul; Parsa, Ali

    2016-01-01

    Objective: Menopause is the condition when regular menstrual periods cease and may be accompanied by psychological and physical symptoms. The purpose of current study was to determine Nigella sativa effects on reproductive system in experimental menopause animal models. Materials and Methods: A series of experiments was conducted to investigate the effects of different dosages of N. sativa (first experiment), various extracts of N. sativa (second experiment) and some of its ingredients (third experiment) on selected menopausal parameters of ovariectomized (OVX) rats. Forty different OVX rats were equally divided into 5 groups and administered with one of the following treatments for 21 days: conjugated equine estrogen (positive control), distilled water or olive oil (negative control), treatment groups (N. sativa300, 600 and 1200 mg/kg in the first experiment), (300mg/kg methanol, hexane and SFE extracts of N. sativa in the second experiment) and (linoleic acid 50 mg/kg, gamma linolenic acid 10mg/kg, and thymoquinone 15mg/kg in the third experiment). Results: The results demonstrated that N.sativa exert estrogenic effect were exhibited through uterotrophic assay and vaginal cell cornification as well as blood estrogen level. Furthermore, low dose N. sativa, methanol extract and linoleic acid had prominent estrogenic like effects which were significantly different from those of control group (p<0.05) in different experiments. Conclusion: The finding indicated the probable beneficial role for N. sativa in the treatment of postmenopausal symptoms and possibility of using N. sativa as an alternative to hormone replacement therapy (HRT) for post menopause in human. PMID:27247926

  13. Effect of Fixed Oil of Nigella Sativa on Male Fertility in Normal and Hyperlipidemic Rats

    OpenAIRE

    A.E. Samir Bashandy

    2007-01-01

    High plasma level of cholesterol or triglycerides was associated with poor semen quality and direct adverse effects on testicular function that may lead to male infertility. The effect of fixed oil of Nigella sativa (N. sativa) on male fertility in normal and hyperlipidemic rats was studied. Induction of hyperlipidemia was done by feeding rats on a diet containing 1% cholesterol, 2% sheep fat and 0.5% cholic acid for 2 months. Oil of N. sativa was orally given (0.5mL/rat) for 2 months daily t...

  14. Nigella sativa Oil Enhances the Spatial Working Memory Performance of Rats on a Radial Arm Maze

    OpenAIRE

    Mohamad Khairul Azali Sahak; Abdul Majid Mohamed; Noor Hashida Hashim; Durriyyah Sharifah Hasan Adli

    2013-01-01

    Nigella sativa, an established historical and religion-based remedy for a wide range of health problems, is a herbal medicine known to have antioxidant and neuroprotective effects. This present study investigated the effect of Nigella sativa oil (NSO) administration on the spatial memory performance (SMP) of male adult rats using eight-arm radial arm maze (RAM). Twelve Sprague Dawley rats (7–9 weeks old) were force-fed daily with 6.0  μ L/100 g body weight of Nigella sativa oil (NSO group; n ...

  15. Gestão estratégica dos relacionamentos na cadeia de suprimentos da alface Strategic management of relationships in lettuce supply chain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karine Lima de Carvalho

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Dentro da atual conjuntura delineada pelo deslocamento da fronteira tecnológica, notou-se a necessidade de reavaliar as formas organizacionais operantes na cadeia de suprimentos de produtos perecíveis, visando obter maior qualidade no produto através de uma melhor coordenação entre os agentes dessa cadeia. Sendo assim, este artigo se propõe a identificar os desafios a serem superados pelos produtores através do mapeamento dos seus gargalos por meio da análise das transações ao longo da cadeia de suprimentos de alface. A opção por este produto ocorreu em função da alta complexidade de gestão dessa cadeia, cuja produção pulverizada, com grande quantidade de produtores de perfis diferenciados, sofre com a dificuldade na elaboração de ações conjuntas que permitam o aprimoramento da sua gestão. Nesse contexto, as associações de produtores ganham importância e integram o processo estratégico que visa maior coordenação da cadeia.Considering the current scenario, outlined by the technological changes, there is a necessity to reassess the organizational structures, specially the supply chain of perishable products, in order to achieve quality through a closer involvement between stakeholders and also to identify the main bottlenecks that hinder the coordination of the chain. The aim is to map and analyze the transactions along the lettuce supply chain to identify the challenges to be overcome by the producers to verify which the main bottlenecks to the coordination of this chain are. The choice of the lettuce chain occurred for its being a relatively complex chain. The various types of products transacted, the level of raw material processing and the institutional environment are some of the variables that make the coordination of this chain difficult, and it is regarded as one of the least developed in Brazil. In this context, producers associations gain importance and become an integral part of a strategic process aimed at a

  16. Produção de mudas de alface com biofertilizantes e substratos Production of lettuce plantlets using biofertilizer and substrates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Damiana Cleuma de Medeiros

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available Com o objetivo de avaliar o desenvolvimento de mudas de alface que foram desenvolvidas em diferentes substratos e sob efeito de adubação foliar usando biofertilizantes, foi realizado o experimento em casa de vegetação da UFERSA. Utilizou-se o delineamento de blocos ao acaso com 4 repetições. Os tratamentos foram resultados de um fatorial 4 x 5 envolvendo tipos de substrato (composto orgânico, Gold Mix 11, areia lavada e húmus + areia lavada 1:1 e fertilizante foliar (organo-mineral comercial Fertamin, testemunha e três tipos de biofertilizantes. Foram feitas adubações foliares nas mudas, aos oito e aos 15 dias após a semeadura. O fertilizante organo-mineral comercial Fertamin apresentou os melhores resultados para massa seca da parte aérea, massa seca da raiz e número de folhas. Dentre os biofertilizantes, aquele à base de esterco de curral fresco, cinzas, leite e caldo de cana apresentou os menores valores para essas mesmas características avaliadas. O composto orgânico foi o que apresentou os maiores valores para todas as características avaliadas, exceto para comprimento da raiz.The development of lettuce plantlets was evaluated, employing different substrate types and applying foliar biofertilization. The research was done in a green house in Mossoró, Rio Grande do Norte State, Brazil. The experimental design was of randomized blocks with four replications. The treatments were composed of the interaction substract type (composed organic, Golden Mix 11, washed sand and humus + washed sand 1:1 and fertilizer (the commercial organo-mineral Fertamin, the witness and tree biofertilizer types. Plantlets were foliar fertilized 8 and 15 days after sowing date. Plantlets treated with Fertamim presented the best results in the dry matter of the aerial part, dry matter of roots and number of leaves. Among the biofertilizers, the one based on cattle manure, leached ash, milk and broth of sugar cane presented the lesser values for the

  17. AVALIAÇÃO DE CULTIVARES DE ALFACE CRESPAS E LISAS, EM DIFERENTES ÉPOCAS DE CULTIVOS NO SISTEMA HIDROPÔNICO ‘NFT’

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    GUALBERTO, Ronan

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was evaluate behavior of ten lettuce cultivars, 6 ofthe crisp group (Deisy, Elba, Sabrina, Summer Green, Vera e Verônica and 4 of the buttergroup (Áurea, Elisa, Lívia e Regina, on hydroponic ‘NFT’. Nine experiments were carriedout at three seasons (autumn, winter and spring , in completely randomized desing with fourreplications, in Marília, São Paulo, Brazil. In crisp group, fresh mass of aerial part andleaves/plant number were influenced by cultivation environment (P<0,01. In the same groupcultivars influenced the first characteristic (P<0,05. Interaction between cultivars andcultivation environment were significant only for leaves/vegetable numbers. There were alsoObjetivou-se estudar o desempenho de cultivares de alface, seis do grupo crespa (Deisy, Elba,Sabrina, Summer Green, Vera e Verônica e quatro do grupo lisa (Áurélia, Elisa, Lívia e Regina, no sistema‘NFT’. Foram conduzidos nove ensaios em três épocas (outono, inverno e primavera, em delineamentointeiramente casualizado, com quatro repetições. Para o grupo crespa, todas características foram influenciadas(P<0,01 pelo ambiente de cultivo e pelas cultivares (P<0,05 para massa fresca da parte aérea e (P<0,01 para onúmero de folhas por planta. A interação cultivares x épocas de cultivo só foi significativa para número de folhaspor planta. Para o grupo lisa, também ocorreram diferenças significativas entre épocas para ambascaracterísticas, porém entre cultivares só ocorreram diferenças significativas para o número de folhas por planta.‘Summer Green’ foi a única a apresentar massa fresca da parte aérea inferior a de melhor desempenho. Comrelação ao número de folhas, ‘Summer Green’ e ‘Vera’ apresentaram valores inferiores às demais cultivares,porém a cultivar ‘Vera’ se destacou na produção. Para o grupo crespa, há uma maior variação de comportamentodas cultivares em relação ao ambiente que s

  18. Enzymatic regulation of photosynthetic and light-independent carbon fixation in Laminaria setchellii (Phaeophyta, Ulva lactuca (Chlorophyta and Iridaea cordata (Rhodophyta Regulación enzimática de la fotosíntesis y la fijación de carbono en obscuridad por Laminaria setchellii (Phaeophyta, Ulva lactuca (Chlorophyta e Iridaea cordata (Rhodophyta

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ALEJANDRO CABELLO-PASINI

    2001-06-01

    Full Text Available Carbon is acquired through photosynthetic and non-photosynthetic processes in marine algae. However, little is known about the biochemical regulation of these metabolic pathways along the thallus of seaweeds. Consequently, the objective of this study was to assess the distribution of in vivo carboxylation pathways and to relate them to the in vitro activity of ribulose 1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase/oxygenase (RUBISCO, phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase (PEPCK, and phosphoenolpyruvate carboxylase (PEPC in the Phaeophyte Laminaria setchellii, the Chlorophyte Ulva lactuca, and the Rhodophyte Iridaea cordata. Chlorophyll-a levels did not vary in U. lactuca and I. cordata. However, pigment levels were significantly lower in the meristematic region of L. setchellii probably as a result of a lack of differentiation of the chloroplasts in this region. Similarly, net photosynthesis did not vary in the thallus of U. lactuca and I. cordata, while it increased from the stipe and meristem towards the lamina of L. setchellii. In contrast to photosynthesis, light-independent carbon fixation rates were significantly greater in the meristematic region of L. setchellii suggesting a compensating mechanism for carbon incorporation in photosynthetically limited tissue. The activity of RUBISCO and PEPCK followed a pattern similar to that of in vivo carboxylation processes indicating that in vivo carbon assimilation is regulated by the activity of the carboxylating enzymes throughout the thallus of L. setchelliiLa incorporación de carbono en algas marinas se lleva a cabo mediante procesos fotosintéticos y no-fotosintéticos. Sin embargo, poco se sabe sobre la regulación bioquímica de estas rutas metabólicas en el tejido de algas marinas. En consecuencia, el objetivo de este estudio fue el de evaluar la distribución de la carboxilación in vivo y relacionarlas a la actividad in vitro de ribulosa 1,5-bisfosfato carboxilasa/oxigenasa (RUBISCO, fosfoenolpiruvato

  19. Assessment of lettuce quality during storage at low relative humidity using Global Stability Index methodology Avaliação da qualidade da alface durante o armazenamento em baixa umidade relativa usando o Índice Global da Estabilidade

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Roberta Ansorena

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available During postharvest, lettuce is usually exposed to adverse conditions (e.g. low relative humidity that reduce the vegetable quality. In order to evaluate its shelf life, a great number of quality attributes must be analyzed, which requires careful experimental design, and it is time consuming. In this study, the modified Global Stability Index method was applied to estimate the quality of butter lettuce at low relative humidity during storage discriminating three lettuce zones (internal, middle, and external. The results indicated that the most relevant attributes were: the external zone - relative water content, water content , ascorbic acid, and total mesophilic counts; middle zone - relative water content, water content, total chlorophyll, and ascorbic acid; internal zone - relative water content, bound water, water content, and total mesophilic counts. A mathematical model that takes into account the Global Stability Index and overall visual quality for each lettuce zone was proposed. Moreover, the Weibull distribution was applied to estimate the maximum vegetable storage time which was 5, 4, and 3 days for the internal, middle, and external zone, respectively. When analyzing the effect of storage time for each lettuce zone, all the indices evaluated in the external zone of lettuce presented significant differences (p Durante a pós-colheita a alface é exposta a condições adversas (baixa umidade relativa que reduzem a qualidade do vegetal. A fim de avaliar sua vida útil, um grande número de índices de qualidade tem que ser analisado, requerendo um cuidadoso delineamento experimental e um longo consumo de tempo. Neste trabalho, o método modificado do Índice Global da Estabilidade foi aplicado para estimar a qualidade da alface manteiga a uma baixa umidade relativa durante o armazenamento diferenciando três zonas (interna, média e externa. Os resultados indicaram que, para a zona externa, os índices mais relevantes foram o conte

  20. Qualidade química da água residual da criação de peixes para cultivo de alface em hidroponia Chemical quality of residual water from fish breeding tanks for cultivation of hydroponic lettuce

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Glauco E. P. Cortez

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Com o objetivo de avaliar a associação do cultivo de alface em hidroponia com utilização dos resíduos do sistema de criação intensiva de peixe, desenvolveu-se um trabalho no Centro de Aqüicultura, na FCAV-UNESP, Campus de Jaboticabal, SP. A integração foi projetada para que a água circulasse de maneira fechada entre os sistemas, passando pelos tanques de criação de peixes, por um decantador, para remo��ão dos resíduos por um reservatório para conversão biológica da amônia em nitrato e pelo sistema hidropônico, retornando aos tanques de criação dos peixes. Foram avaliadas três cultivares de alface, que constituíram os tratamentos com quatro repetições. Os resultados da análise química da água residual da criação indicaram a presença da maioria dos nutrientes minerais necessários ao desenvolvimento vegetal, em concentração próxima aos valores encontrados em soluções nutritivas utilizadas para o cultivo da alface em hidroponia, exceto potássio e magnésio. A baixa concentração de magnésio na água não impediu o desenvolvimento da alface; entretanto, as plantas indicaram sintomas visuais de deficiência deste nutriente. Não houve diferenças entre as cultivares quanto à produtividade e ao peso fresco de plantas.Aiming to evaluate the association of hydroponic lettuce cultivation with residues from a fish intensive breeding system, a project was carried out in the Aquaculture Center in the FCAV-UNESP at Jaboticabal, SP, Brazil. A closed system was designed in order to allow the water to circulate through the fish tanks, a clarifier tank for removal of residues, a reservoir for biological conversion of ammonia into nitrate, and the hydroponic system. After this process, water returned back to the fish tanks. Three varieties of lettuce, constituting the treatments with four repetitions were evaluated. The results of the chemical analysis of the residual water from the fish tanks indicated the presence of

  1. Óleos essenciais e extratos vegetais no controle da podridão mole em alface crespa Essential oils and plant extracts on the control of soft rot of crispy lettuce

    OpenAIRE

    Cristiane L Silva; Souza, Elineide B; Kátia CS Felix; Alice MG Santos; Márcia V Silva; Rosa de LR Mariano

    2012-01-01

    Avaliou-se o efeito de óleos essenciais e extratos vegetais no controle da podridão mole em alface, bem como, a influência desses produtos nas características físico-químicas desta hortaliça. Nos testes in vitro, discos de papel de filtro foram embebidos em 11 óleos essenciais e 20 extratos vegetais nas concentrações 0,0; 0,25; 0,50; 0,75 e 1% e 0,0; 10, 40, 70 e 100%, respectivamente, e depositados sobre meio de cultura contendo Pectobacterium carotovorum subsp. carotovorum (Pcc A1). Os halo...

  2. Produtividade, acúmulo de nitrato e estado nutricional de cultivares de alface, em hidroponia, em função de fontes de nutrientes Nutrient sources affecting yield, nitrate concentration and nutritional status of lettuce cultivars, in hydroponics

    OpenAIRE

    Adriano Alves Fernandes; Herminia Emilia Prieto Martinez; Paulo Roberto Gomes Pereira; Maira Christina Marques Fonseca

    2002-01-01

    Foram avaliados a produtividade, acúmulo de nitrato e estado nutricional das cultivares de alface Regina, Babá de Verão e Grandes Lagos em cultivo hidropônico. O experimento foi conduzido no outono, de 25/03 a 20/05/99 em estufa da UFV. Foram avaliados dois conjuntos de fontes de nutrientes para compor as soluções nutritivas de crescimento vegetativo, que continham: 13,6; 1,0; 7,0; 4,48; e 2,5 mmol L-1 de N, P, K, Ca e Mg, respectivamente. O enxofre foi fornecido na concentração de 3,5 ou 2,5...

  3. Produção de alface em NFT e Floating aproveitando água salobra e o rejeito da dessalinização Lettuce production under NFT and Floating using brackish groundwater and the reject from its desalination

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandre Nascimento dos Santos

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Plantas de alface cv. Elba foram cultivadas em dois sistemas hidropônicos, Floating e NFT, com o objetivo de avaliar três tipos de água: a água salobra natural (2,47 dS m-1 obtida a partir de um poço profundo; água doce (0,11 dS m-1 produzido por dessalinização por osmose inversa, e o rejeito salino (5,15 dS m-1, um efluente do processo de dessalinização. Estas águas foram combinadas em seis tratamentos resultantes da sua utilização alternada para preparar a solução nutritiva (SN e/ou substituir as perdas por evapotranspiração (ETc. O experimento foi conduzido em casa de vegetação na região semiárida de Pernambuco, utilizando 48 unidades experimentais em blocos casualizados em esquema fatorial 6x2 com quatro repetições. O rendimento da alface (massa de matéria fresca foi maior nas condições do Floating. O uso exclusivo da água do poço profundo e do rejeito de dessalinizadores diminuiu 22,7 e 39,6% a produção de alface, respectivamente. Para uma melhor combinação de águas doces e salobras, o uso de água salobra para repor a perda por ETc pode aumentar a produção de alface em relação ao uso dessas águas para preparar a SN, estes resultados foram registrados para a água do poço profundo e o rejeito.Plants of lettuce cv. Elba were grown under two hydroponic systems, Floating and NFT, aiming to evaluate three water resources: natural brackish water (2,47 dS m-1 obtained from a deep well; fresh water (0,11 dS m-1 produced by reverse osmosis desalination; and reject brine (5,15 dS m-1, a wastewater from desalination process. These waters were combined in six treatments resulted from their alternated use to prepare nutrient solution (NS and/or replace the evapotranspiration loss (ETc. The experiment was carried out under a greenhouse condition in the semiarid region of Pernambuco State, Brazil; 48 experimental units were used for both hydroponic systems. The lettuce yield (shoot fresh matter was higher under

  4. Teores de nutrientes na alface irrigada com água residuária aplicada por sistemas de irrigação Nutrients levels in lettuce irrigated with wastewater applied by irrigation systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Delvio Sandri

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available Desenvolveu-se este trabalho para avaliar a composição química da parte aérea da alface, cv. Elisa, irrigada com água residuária tratada com leitos cultivados com macrófitas e água de um depósito de fonte hídrica superficial, cultivada em Latossolo Vermelho Distroférrico, utilizando-se dos sistemas de irrigação por aspersão convencional, gotejamento subterrâneo e superficial. O experimento compreendeu o período de 17-8 a 3-10-2001, e as análises químicas da alface foram realizadas aos 47 dias após o transplantio das mudas em campo. A parte aérea da alface foi analisada quanto ao teor de nitrogênio total, nitrato, fósforo, potássio, cálcio, magnésio, enxofre, ferro, manganês, cobre, zinco, sódio, boro, cobalto e molibdênio. O sódio e o enxofre apresentaram teores maiores que o máximo adequado na parte aérea da alface e o magnésio menor, enquanto para os demais elementos químicos foram normais e adequados, considerando os padrões para plantas bem nutridas, não sendo influenciados pelo tipo de água. O sódio foi o elemento químico que apresentou a maior elevação na parte aérea nos tratamentos irrigados com água residuária, apresentando diferença significativa em relação à água do depósito superficial nos três sistemas de irrigação. A utilização dos diferentes sistemas de irrigação para aplicação de água residuária tratada com leitos cultivados com macrófitas não interferiu no teor de nutrientes na parte aérea.A trial was carried out to evaluate the chemical composition in the aerial part of lettuce, cv. 'Elisa', irrigated with wastewater treated with constructed wetland and source deposit water, grown on a Rhodic Hapludox Soil, using the irrigation systems sprinkle, subsurface drip and surface drip irrigation. The experiment was carried out from August 17th to October 3rd of 2001 and the chemical analyses of the lettuce were accomplished to 47 days after transplanting of the seedling

  5. Qualidade de mudas de alface em função de substratos com e sem biofertilizante Quality of lettuce seedlings depending on substrates with and without biofertilizer addition

    OpenAIRE

    Damiana Cleuma de Medeiros; Karla Cristiane de Sousa Freitas; Francinaldo de Sousa Veras; Regina Sheila Barros dos Anjos; Rafaela Duarte Borges; José Galdino Cavalcante Neto; Glauber Henrique de Sousa Nunes; Hailson Alves Ferreira

    2008-01-01

    Avaliou-se a qualidade de mudas de alface em função de substratos com e sem biofertilizante (aplicado aos 6; 12 e 18 dias após germinação) em condições de casa-de-vegetação. O experimento foi conduzido em esquema fatorial inteiramente casualizado: 3 cultivares (Babá-de-Verão, Grand Rapids e Grandes Lagos) x 3 tipos de substratos (areia lavada, composto orgânico e substrato comercial Plantmax®) x 2 (com e sem biofertilizante), com quatro repetições. A avaliação foi feita aos 24 dias da germina...

  6. Antibacterial Activity of Nigella sativa L. Seed Extracts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T.V. Suresh Kumar

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Most of the bacterial pathogens are resistant to existing synthetic antibacterial agents demanding an increasing effort to seek effective phytochemicals as antibacterial agents against such pathogens. Nigella sativa L. (black cumin seeds play an important role in folk medicine and some of its major constituents are reported to be pharmacologically active. In this present work, black cumin seed extracts were obtained using supercritical carbon dioxide (SCCO2 and conventional soxtec extraction using various organic solvents. The antibacterial activities of the extracts were investigated by the agar dilution method against Gram-positive bacteria (Bacillus cereus F 4810 and Staphylococcus aureus FRI 722 and Gram-negative bacteria (Escherichia coli MTCC 108 and Yersinia enterocolitica MTCC 859. SCCO2-1 (120 bar/40ºC extract showed effective growth inhibition than conventional solvent extracts against all the tested bacteria. Further the antibacterial principle present in the extract was isolated and characterized found to be thymoquinone.

  7. Alfalfa (Medicago Sativa L As A Promising Forage In Indonesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sajimin

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Alfalfa (Medicago sativa L or Lucerne is a perennial herbaceous legume with superior forage quality. It is the most important forage crop in the world and it was the first domesticated forage crop. Alfalfa is able to fix nitrogen from the air through a symbiotic relationship with Rhizobium bacteria with N production 7.85 – 10.37 g/m2. Its rooting system can reach 4.5 m that allows it to escape drought. Forage production can reach 15.48 tons of dry matter per ha/year and containing 18.0 – 29.1 % crude protein. Plants can live 3 to 12 years depending on climatic conditions and crop varieties. However, alfalfa is not a tropical plant, thus it has not been widely cultivated in Indonesia. The problem of alfalfa cultivation are high pest attacks and competition with weeds. Therefore, alfalfa cultivation requires attention and good management to obtain optimum yield.

  8. Trichomes of Cannabis sativa as viewed with scanning electron microscope

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ledbetter, M.C.; Krikorian, A.D.

    1975-06-01

    Direct examination of fresh, unfixed and uncoated specimens from vegetative and floral parts of Cannabis sativa with the scanning electron microscope enables one to obtain a faithful representation of their surface morphology. The presence of two major types of trichomes has been confirmed: a glandular type comprising or terminating in a globoid structure, and a conically-shaped nonglandular type. Moreover, three or possibly four distinct glandular types can be distinguished: sessile globoid, small-stalked and large-stalked globoid, and a peltate type. The nonglandular trichomes can be distinguished by the nature of their surfaces: those with a warty surface, and those which are relatively smooth. The range of size and distribution, and the special features of all these types of trichomes are also provided.

  9. Hemp (Cannabis sativa L.) as an Environmentally Friendly Energyplant

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poisa, Liena; Adamovics, Aleksandrs

    2010-01-01

    Hemp is suitable as a renewable energy resource. The aim of this study was to clarify local hemp's (Cannabis sativa L.) possibilities for energy use. Arsenic (As), cadmium (Cd), lead (Pb) and titanium (Ti) presence in hemp was determined using an inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometer Optima 2100 DV. If there were increased N fertilizer rates, there were increased hemp `Pūriņi' seeds and shive yield increases, but the oil content was reduced. Arsenic content was higher in the shives than in the stems with fibre. The ash content depends on non-organic substances which the plants absorb during the vegetation season. The lignin content depends on several factors: plant parts, and the N fertilizer rate. The unexplored factors have a great effect on the ash and lignin content. Hemp is suitable for cultivation and for bio-energy production in the agro-climatic conditions in Latvia.

  10. [Co-crystallization of cucumber concentrate (Cucumis sativa L.)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vázquez, A; Beristain, C I

    1998-09-01

    A sucrose syrup of 70 degrees Brix was concentrated until a concentration greater than 95 degrees Brix was attained. It was studied the effect of concentration (20, 25 and 35 degrees Brix) on the physical properties of the cucumber (Cucumis sativa L.) granules. Moisture content, solubility, and density were determined. The best results were found for the concentrated at 30 degrees Brix. Lemon juice was added to the concentrated to decrease pH from 5.5 to 4.0 to improve flavor and to avoid growth of molds and yeast. No significant differences in the higroscopicity were found between both pH (s). Sensory evaluation shows that 30 judges of 45 preferred the sample made with the co-crystallizate containing lemon juice. PMID:9951539

  11. Crystal structure of isoflavone reductase from alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xiaoqiang; He, Xianzhi; Lin, Jianqiao; Shao, Hui; Chang, Zhenzhan; Dixon, Richard A

    2006-05-19

    Isoflavonoids play important roles in plant defense and exhibit a range of mammalian health-promoting activities. Isoflavone reductase (IFR) specifically recognizes isoflavones and catalyzes a stereospecific NADPH-dependent reduction to (3R)-isoflavanone. The crystal structure of Medicago sativa IFR with deletion of residues 39-47 has been determined at 1.6A resolution. Structural analysis, molecular modeling and docking, and comparison with the structures of other NADPH-dependent enzymes, defined the putative binding sites for co-factor and substrate and potential key residues for enzyme activity and substrate specificity. Further mutagenesis has confirmed the role of Lys144 as a catalytic residue. This study provides a structural basis for understanding the enzymatic mechanism and substrate specificity of IFRs as well as the functions of IFR-like proteins. PMID:16600295

  12. Novel lipid constituents identified in seeds of Nigella sativa (Linn)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mehta, B.K.; Verma, Manjul; Gupta, Meenal [Vikram University (India). School of Studies in Chemistry and Biochemistry]. E-mail: bkmehta11@yahoo.com

    2008-07-01

    Novel lipids were isolated from the unsaponifiable matter extracted from seeds of Nigella sativa Linn by using n-hexane. The new dienoate and two monoesters were the new lipids identified by spectral (IR, {sup 1}H- and {sup 13}C-NMR spectra, mass spectrum, elemental analysis) and chemical analysis. The dienoate (1) was identified as methylnonadeca-15,17-dienoate and two monoesters were identified as pentyl hexadec-12-enoate (2) and pentyl pentadec-11-enoate (3). Linoleic acid, oleic acid, {beta}-sitosterol and stigmasterol were identified as part of the lipid structures. All compounds exhibited moderate activity against Staphylococcus aureus and poor activity against shigella spp, and Klebsiella pneumoniae. (author)

  13. Ultrasound-assisted biodiesel production from Camelina sativa oil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sáez-Bastante, J; Ortega-Román, C; Pinzi, S; Lara-Raya, F R; Leiva-Candia, D E; Dorado, M P

    2015-06-01

    The main drawbacks of biodiesel production are high reaction temperatures, stirring and time. These could be alleviated by aiding transesterification with alternative energy sources, i.e. ultrasound (US). In this study, biodiesel was obtained from Camelina sativa oil, aided with an ultrasonic probe (20kHz, 70% duty cycle, 50% amplitude). Design of experiments included the combination of sonication and agitation cycles, w/wo heating (50°C). To gain knowledge about the implications of the proposed methodology, conventional transesterification was optimized, resulting in higher needs on catalyst concentration and reaction time, compared to the proposed reaction. Although FAME content met EN 14103 standard, FAME yields were lower than those provided by US-assisted transesterification. Energy consumption measurements showed that ultrasound assisted transesterification required lower energy, temperature, catalyst and reaction time. PMID:25768413

  14. Furanocoumarins in Pastinaca sativa L. in vitro culture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ekiert, H; Gomółka, E

    2000-08-01

    Callus cultures of Pastinaca sativa L. (parsnip), Apiaceae, were cultivated on variants of Linsmaier-Skoog's medium, containing varying quantities (0.1-10.0 mg/l) of phytohormones: NAA-BAP and IBA-BAP which allowed to obtain 1.5-3-fold fresh biomass growth during 6-week subcultures. HPLC analyses showed that tissues cultured in vitro produced psoralen, bergapten, xanthotoxin, isopimpinellin and umbelliferone which are well known metabolites in plants growing under natural conditions. Total content of coumarins depended on the nature and quantity of phytohormones present in the medium, and ranged from 115.7 to 408.5 mg/100 g of the dry weight, isopimpinellin being the metabolite which dominated quantitatively (maximum content of 238.9 mg/100 g). Psoralen was also accumulated in callus tissues at considerable amounts (maximum content of 108.8 mg/100 g). This metabolite dominated in vegetative plant parts that have been analysed in our study (leaves, stems, roots) but its contents were lower than in the material from in vitro culture (48.9 mg/100 g 10.6 mg/100 g and 14.9 mg/100 g, respectively). Imperatorin was not detected in callus tissues although it dominated in the analysed fruits of the studied plant (200.0 mg/100 g). The best of the tested media in respect of promoting tissue biosynthetic capabilities was that which contained 3 mg/l NAA and 1 mg/l BAP. The studies showed that in vitro cultures of Pastinaca sativa L. can be a convenient model to study the biosynthesis of furanocoumarins and also a potential rich source of these compounds, particularly isopimpinellin. PMID:10989843

  15. Alterações fenotípicas em cultivares de alface selecionadas para calor Phenotypical alterations in lettuce genotypes selected for heat tolerance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Henrique Conti

    2000-11-01

    Full Text Available Cultivares de alface selecionadas para o pendoamento lento e as mesmas que lhes deram origem foram analisadas quanto a variações morfológicas, com o objetivo de quantificar possíveis modificações adaptativas para as condições de cultivo em épocas de calor. Cultivares dos grupos "manteiga" (Regina, Glória, IAC 303, IAC 202, Sem Rival e Luciana "folha crespa" (Grand Rapids e Brisa e "americana" (Great Lakes e Mesa 659, foram avaliadas em dois plantios de verão, em Piracicaba, em delineamento de blocos casualizados. No primeiro experimento, (novembro/90, foram avaliadas as características de número de estômatos, espessura de folha e quantidade de clorofila total. No segundo, (setembro/91, foram avaliados o peso seco, peso fresco, porcentagem de matéria seca, tempo para pendoamento e número de folhas. As cultivares selecionadas para calor no grupo "manteiga" (Glória e Regina, apresentaram maior número de estômatos (respectivamente 9487/cm² e 7973/cm² e folhas mais grossas (respectivamente 556 mm e 439 mm e também, acumularam maior quantidade de matéria seca (respectivamente 24,55 g e 25,50 g. A cultivar selecionada para calor do grupo "folha crespa" (Brisa acumulou maior quantidade de matéria verde (446,77g e seca (22,40 g, da mesma forma que apresentou maior quantidade de estômatos (7.279/cm². Para as cultivares do grupo "americana", observou-se diferença significativa apenas para espessura de folha, sendo que a cultivar Mesa 659 apresentou folhas mais grossas (589 mm. Constataram-se aumentos significativos da biomassa vegetal nas cultivares selecionadas para calor em relação àquelas não selecionadas. As cultivares que atingiram maior produtividade de matéria seca por planta foram Mesa 659 (28,74 g, Great Lakes (27,17 g e Regina. Os resultados comprovaram que a seleção para o pendoamento lento indiretamente produziu variações adaptativas nas plantas de alface.Lettuce cultivars selected for slow bolting and

  16. Soil and leaf fertilization of lettuce crop with cow urine Fertilização com urina de vaca em alface via solo e foliar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nelson Licínio C de Oliveira

    2009-12-01

    urina de vaca sobre o crescimento e produção da alface em experimento conduzido de 13 de janeiro de 2006 a 22 de março de 2006, com a cv. Regina 2000. O experimento foi constituído de 12 tratamentos, em esquema de parcelas subdivididas, delineamento de blocos ao acaso, com quatro repetições. Nas parcelas foram alocadas as aplicações das soluções de urina (solo e foliar e, nas subparcelas, as concentrações (0,00; 0,25; 0,50; 0,75; 1,00 e 1,25%. A subparcela foi constituída por quatro fileiras de 1,75 m, espaçamento de 0,25 x 0,25 m e consideraram-se, como úteis, as seis plantas centrais das duas fileiras centrais. Na colheita foram avaliados a massa da matéria fresca (MFF e seca de folhas (MSF; massa da matéria fresca (MFC e seca de caule (MSC; comprimento de caule (CC; massa da matéria fresca (MFR e seca de raízes (MSR; massa da matéria fresca (MFCA e seca da cabeça (MSCA e produtividade comercial (PROD. Exceto a MSR, que diminuiu e MSC e MFR que não foram alteradas na aplicação via foliar, as demais características avaliadas apresentaram incremento às concentrações aplicadas. Maior produtividade de cabeça foi obtida com concentrações de 1,25% (17,0 t ha-1 aplicada via foliar e de 1,01% (14,9 t ha-1 aplicada via solo correspondendo, respectivamente, a aumentos em produtividade de 28,1% e de 47,3%, comparados à testemunha. A aplicação foliar, comparada via solo, proporcionou maior MFF (0,50 e 1,25%, CC (0,50; 0,75 e 1,25%, MFC e MFR (0,5%, MFCA e PROD (0,50 e 1,25% e menores MSC e MFR (1,25% e MSR (1,0 e 1,25%. Sugere-se, no cultivo da alface, a aplicação das doses de solução de urina às concentrações de 1,25% via foliar ou de 1,0%, via solos.

  17. The Protective Effects of Nigella sativa and Its Constituents on Induced Neurotoxicity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Reza Khazdair

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Nigella sativa (N. sativa is an annual plant and widely used as medicinal plant throughout the world. The seeds of the plant have been used traditionally in various disorders and as a spice to ranges of Persian foods. N. sativa has therapeutic effects on tracheal responsiveness (TR and lung inflammation on induced toxicity by Sulfur mustard. N. sativa has been widely used in treatment of various nervous system disorders such as Alzheimer disease, epilepsy, and neurotoxicity. Most of the therapeutic properties of this plant are due to the presence of some phenolic compounds especially thymoquinone (TQ, which is major bioactive component of the essential oil. The present review is an effort to provide a comprehensive study of the literature on scientific researches of pharmacological activities of the seeds of this plant on induced neurotoxicity.

  18. Optimized analysis and quantification of glucosinolates from Camelina sativa seeds by reverse-phase liquid chromatography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gold-of-pleasure or false flax (Camelina sativa L. Crantz) presscake contains three relatively unique glucosinolates: glucoarabin (9-(methylsulfinyl) nonylglucosinolate)glucocamelinin (10-(methylsulfinyl)decylglucosinolate), and 11-(methylsulfinyl)undecylglucosinolate. Using defatted seed material...

  19. Análise sensorial, teores de nitrato e de nutrientes de alface cultivada em hidroponia sob águas salinas Sensory analysis, nitrate and nutrient concentration of lettuce grown in hydroponics under saline water

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dalva Paulus

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available O presente trabalho teve como objetivos determinar os teores de nutrientes e de nitrato e realizar análise sensorial de alface cultivada em sistema hidropônico sob água salina. O experimento foi conduzido em ambiente protegido no período de dezembro de 2007 a janeiro de 2008, em Piracicaba (SP. O delineamento experimental foi de blocos ao acaso, sendo estudados cinco níveis de salinidade da água de irrigação, utilizando-se NaCl (Condutividade elétrica da água (CEa: 0,42, 1,53, 3,52, 5,55 e 7,43 dS m-1 em duas cultivares de alface (Verônica e Pira Roxa, em esquema fatorial. Foram avaliados a análise sensorial aplicando escala hedônica e através dessa, o que os provadores mais apreciaram e o que menos gostaram de cada amostra, intenção de compra e consumo, teor de nitrato, absorção de nutrientes pela folhas e determinação dos nutrientes presentes na solução nutritiva. Para o atributo sabor a cultivar Verônica recebeu as melhores notas no nível de salinidade 1,53 e 5,55 dS m-1. Para a cultivar Pira Roxa a melhor nota foi atribuída para a alface produzida na água não salina. Para os demais atributos não houve diferença significativa nos diferentes níveis de salinidade. Com relação à intenção de compra, constatou-se que as alfaces cv. Verônica e Pira Roxa apresentaram boa aceitação de mercado. Os menores níveis de nitrato (1960 mg kg-1 e 2620 mg kg-1 de massa de matéria fresca, da Verônica e Pira Roxa, respectivamente, foram relacionados à condutividade elétrica de 0,42 dS m-1, aumentando a salinidade da água para 7,43 dS m-1, o teor foliar de nitrato aumentou para 2500 mg kg-1 e 3420 mg kg-1 para as cultivares Verônica e Pira Roxa. Como o tempo de exposição da alface à salinidade em sistema hidropônico foi curto, em torno de 25 dias, não se verificou sintomas de deficiência nutricional e toda alface foi classificada como apropriada para consumo humano.This study aimed to evaluate the content of

  20. Combination of lettuce and rocket cultivars in two cultures intercropped with carrots Combinação de cultivares de alface e rúcula em dois cultivos em consórcio com cenoura

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vânia CN Porto

    2011-09-01

    produção de hortaliças e o sucesso da associação entre as culturas será tanto maior quanto maior a complementaridade entre elas. O presente trabalho foi realizado de junho a novembro de 2006, na Universidade Federal Rural do Semi-Árido, Mossoró, Brasil, para avaliar o desempenho produtivo de duas cultivares de alface e duas de rúcula consorciadas em faixas com cenoura em dois cultivos. O delineamento experimental foi em blocos completos casualizados com cinco repetições, com os tratamentos arranjados em esquema fatorial 2 x 2 + 2. Os tratamentos consistiram da combinação de duas cultivares de alface (Babá de Verão e Tainá e duas de rúcula (Cultivada e Folha Larga consorciadas com cenoura 'Brasília', mais dois tratamentos adicionais (duas cultivares de alface ou duas cultivares de rúcula cultivadas em cultivo solteiro. Em cada bloco foi inserida uma parcela com a cenoura em cultivo solteiro. As características avaliadas na alface foram altura e diâmetro de plantas, número de folhas por planta, produtividade e massa da matéria seca da parte aérea; na rúcula: altura de plantas, número de folhas por planta, rendimento de massa verde e massa da matéria seca da parte aérea, e na cenoura: altura de plantas, produtividade total e comercial, percentual de raízes longas e médias, de raízes curtas e de refugo. A cultivar de alface Tainá teve melhor desempenho, tanto em cultivo solteiro como consorciado. As rúculas 'Cultivada' e 'Folha Larga' tiveram desempenho produtivo semelhante em ambos os sistemas de cultivo. As culturas de alface e rúcula tiveram melhor desempenho produtivo no segundo cultivo. A produção de raízes comerciais de cenoura nos sistemas consorciados foi de 68,3%, dos quais 48,6% foram de raízes longas e médias e 19,7% de raízes curtas. A produção de raízes comerciais de cenoura no sistema solteiro foi de 75,0%, dos quais 51,7% foram de raízes longas e médias e 23,3% de raízes curtas.

  1. Anti-microbial effect of Nigella sativa seed extract against staphylococcal skin Infection

    OpenAIRE

    Rafati, Shiva; Niakan, Mohammad; Naseri, Mohsen

    2014-01-01

    Background: The development of microbial resistance to the existing anti-microbial agents has become a real challenge and a serious problem facing patients suffering from skin infections. Seeds of Nigella sativa have been used for a long time in folk medicine for the treatment of skin infections. Production of new potent agents is urgently needed, especially for hospitals and health care centers. This study is designed to explore anti-microbial effect of extract from the Nigella sativa seeds ...

  2. Antipsoriatic activity and cytotoxicity of ethanolic extract of Nigella sativa seeds

    OpenAIRE

    Lalitha Priyanka Dwarampudi; Dhanabal Palaniswamy; Muruganantham Nithyanantham; Raghu, P. S.

    2012-01-01

    Background: Nigella sativa Linn (Ranunculaceae) is popularly known as black cumin with a wide spectrum of pharmacological activities including anti-inflammatory, antibacterial, antifungal and antihelmenthic. The seeds are externally applied for eruptions of skin. The seeds are used traditionally for psoriasis tropicus with general pain and eruption of patches. Objective: The ethanolic extract of Nigella sativa seeds were evaluated for antipsoriatic activity. Materials and Methods: The screeni...

  3. Gastroprotective effects of Nigella Sativa oil on the formation of stress gastritis in hypothyroidal rats

    OpenAIRE

    Abdel-Sater, Khaled A

    2009-01-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the effects of hypothyroidism on the development of acute cold restraint stress gastritis in rats and protective effect of Nigella sativa at the beginning of the acute cold restraint stress. 60 rats were randomly divided into six groups; the control (groups I), surgically thyroidectomized group (group II), acute cold restraint stressed group (group III), surgically thyroidectomized plus stressed group (group IV), Nigella sativa oil group (group V) and surgi...

  4. Accumulation of heavy metals in Medicago sativa L. and Trifolium pratense L. at the contaminated fluvisol

    OpenAIRE

    Jakšić Snežana P.; Vučković Savo M.; Vasiljević Sanja; Grahovac Nada; Popović Vera; Šunjka Dragana B.; Dozet Gordana K.

    2013-01-01

    Recently, heavy metals concentrations increased in some agricultural areas due to the consequences of anthropogenic impacts. The aim of this study was to determine the level of heavy metals (As, Cr, Ni and Pb) in Medicago sativa L. and Trifolium pratense L. grown on fluvisol, in order to obtain information on safety of these nutrients. The total content of Pb, As, Cr and Ni in the samples of fluvisol was above the maximum allowable amount. The content of heavy metals in Medicago sativa ...

  5. Effects of Cannabis sativa extract on haloperidol-induced catalepsy and oxidative stress in the mice

    OpenAIRE

    Abdel-Salam, Omar M.E.; El-Din M. Gaafar, Alaa; El Sayed El-Shamarka, Marawa; Salem, Neveen A

    2012-01-01

    Haloperidol is a classic antipsychotic drug known for its propensity to cause extrapyramidal symptoms due to blockade of dopamine D2 receptors in the striatum. Interest in medicinal uses of cannabis is growing. Cannabis sativa has been suggested as a possible adjunctive in treatment of Parkinson's disease. The present study aimed to investigate the effect of repeated administration of an extract of Cannabis sativa on catalepsy and brain oxidative stress induced by haloperidol administration i...

  6. Cold Pressing and Supercritical CO2 Extraction of Hemp (Cannabis sativa) Seed Oil

    OpenAIRE

    Aladić, K.; S. Jokić; Moslavac, T.; Tomas, S.; S Vidović; Vladić, J.; Šubarić, D.

    2015-01-01

    In the past few decades, the Cannabis sativa L. hemp variety has been unfairly neglected because of its similarity to the illegal kind Cannabis indica used as a narcotic. The objective of this study was to evaluate the process of oil extraction from Cannabis sativa seeds by cold pressing, followed by extraction with supercritical CO2. In the pressing experiments, the response surface methodology was conducted in order to study the effects of temperature, frequency, and nozzle size on oil reco...

  7. De novo assembly and characterization of Camelina sativa transcriptome by paired-end sequencing

    OpenAIRE

    Liang, Chao; Liu, Xuan; Yiu, Siu-Ming; Lim, Boon Leong

    2013-01-01

    Background Biofuels extracted from the seeds of Camelina sativa have recently been used successfully as environmentally friendly jet-fuel to reduce greenhouse gas emissions. Camelina sativa is genetically very close to Arabidopsis thaliana, and both are members of the Brassicaceae. Although public databases are currently available for some members of the Brassicaceae, such as A. thaliana, A. lyrata, Brassica napus, B. juncea and B. rapa, there are no public Expressed Sequence Tags (EST) or ge...

  8. Toxicity Effect of Nigella Sativa on the Liver Function of Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamad Hafanizam Bin Hassan

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: The aim of this study was to determine the toxic effect of Nigella sativa powder on the liver function which was evaluated by measuring liver enzymes and through histopathological examination of liver tissue. Methods: Twenty four male Sprague Dawley rats were allotted randomly to four groups including: control (taking normal diet; low dose (supplemented with 0.01 g/kg/day Nigella sativa; normal dose (supplemented with 0.1 g/kg/day Nigella sativa and high dose (supplemented with 1 g/kg/day Nigella sativa. All of supplements administered in powder form mixed with rats’ pellet for 28 days. To assess liver toxicity, liver enzymes measurement and histological study were done at the end of supplementation. Results: The finding revealed that there was no significant change in serum alanine aminotransferase (ALT and aspartate aminotransferase (AST between treatment groups. Histopathological study showed very minimal and mild changes in fatty degeneration in normal and high doses of Nigella sativa treated group. Inflammation and necrosis were absent. Conclusion: The study showed that supplementation of Nigella sativa up to the dose of 1 g/kg supplemented for a period of 28 days resulted no changes in liver enzymes level and did not cause any toxicity effect on the liver function.

  9. Immunomodulatory and cytotoxic effects of Nigella sativa and thymoquinone on rat splenocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gholamnezhad, Zahra; Rafatpanah, Houshang; Sadeghnia, Hamid Reza; Boskabady, Mohammad Hossein

    2015-12-01

    Three different concentrations of Nigella sativa (N. sativa) ethanolic extract, thymoquinone (TQ), dexamethasone, and saline were examined to see whether they had any effects on cell viability, proliferation, and interleukin 4 (IL-4) and interferon-γ (IFN-γ) secretion in non-stimulated, phytohemagglutinin (PHA) and concavaline A (Con A)-stimulated splenocytes. In PHA and Con A-stimulated splenocytes, cell viability and proliferation were increased and Con A shifted cytokine profile towards Th2 balance. Dexamethasone treatment showed a suppression in viability, IFNγ and IL-4 secretion in non-stimulated and stimulated splenocytes. Extract and TQ reduced the viability and inhibited the proliferation of stimulated and non-stimulated splenocytes concentration-dependently. Higher concentrations of N. sativa (1000 mg/ml) and TQ (5 and 10 mg/ml) reduced the secretion of IL-4 in stimulated cells. Two higher concentrations of N. sativa had decreased IFNγ secretion in both stimulated and non-stimulated cells. In non-stimulated cells, only the highest and in Con A-stimulated cells, all TQ concentrations had inhibited IFNγ secretion. The highest concentration of N. sativa increased IFNγ/IL-4 ratio in both stimulated and non-stimulated cells while higher concentrations of TQ only had the same effect on stimulated cells. N. sativa and TQ showed cytotoxic inhibitory effect on rat splenocytes and on Th1/Th2 cytokines concentration-dependently. Higher concentrations of extract and TQ increased cytokines balance in Th1/Th2. PMID:26342766

  10. Immunomodulatory and anti-inflammatory action of Nigella sativa and thymoquinone: A comprehensive review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Majdalawieh, Amin F; Fayyad, Muneera W

    2015-09-01

    Many herbal products are now used as remedies to treat various infectious and non-infectious conditions. Even though the use of herbs and natural products is much more evident in the Eastern world, their use in Western cultures is continuously increasing. Although the immunomodulatory effects of some herbs have been extensively studied, research related to possible immunomodulatory effects of many herbs and various spices is relatively scarce. Here, we provide a comprehensive review of the immunomodulatory and anti-inflammatory properties of Nigella sativa, also known as black seed or black cumin, and its major active ingredient, thymoquinone (TQ). This review article focuses on analyzing in vitro and in vivo experimental findings that were reported with regard to the ability of N. sativa and TQ to modulate inflammation, cellular and humoral adaptive immune responses, and Th1/Th2 paradigm. The reported capability of N. sativa to augment the cytotoxic activity of natural killer (NK) cells against cancer cells is also emphasized. The molecular and cellular mechanisms underlying such immunomodulatory and anti-inflammatory effects of N. sativa and TQ are highlighted. Moreover, the signal transduction pathways implicated in the immunoregulatory functions of N. sativa and TQ are underscored. Experimental evidence suggests that N. sativa extracts and TQ can potentially be employed in the development of effective therapeutic agents towards the regulation of immune reactions implicated in various infectious and non-infectious conditions including different types of allergy, autoimmunity, and cancer. PMID:26117430

  11. A review on the inhibitory potential of Nigella sativa against pathogenic and toxigenic fungi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shokri, Hojjatollah

    2016-01-01

    Nigella sativa (N. sativa) grows in various parts of the world, particularly in Iran. It has been traditionally used as a folk remedy to treat a number of diseases. The seeds of this plant contain moisture, proteins, carbohydrates, crude fiber, alkaloids, saponins, ash, fixed oils and essential oil. The major components of the essential oil are thymoquinone, p-cymene, trans-anethole, 2-methyl-5(1-methyl ethyl)-Bicyclo[3.1.0]hex-2-en and γ-terpinene. So far, several pharmacological effects such as anti-oxidant, anti-inflammatory, anti-cancer and anti-microbial have been reported for N. sativa or its active compounds. Thymoquinone, thymohydroquinone and thymol are the most active constituents which have different beneficial properties. The oil, extracts and some of N. sativa active components possessed moderate in vitro and in vivo inhibitory activity against pathogenic yeasts, dermatophytes, non-dermatophytic filamentous fungi and aflatoxin-producing fungi. The main morphological changes of pathogenic and toxigenic fungi treated with N. sativa oil were observed in the cell wall, plasma membrane and membranous organelles, particularly in the nuclei and mitochondria. Although this review represents first step in the search for a new anti-fungal drug, the full potential of N. sativa as a fungitoxic agent has not been exploited and necessitates further investigations. PMID:27247919

  12. Performance and emission of CI engine fuelled with camelina sativa oil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: ► Camelina sativa as a potential source of alternative fuel. ► Neat camelina sativa oil as a fuel for CI engine. ► The engine performance and emissions of CI engine fuelled with neat camelina sativa oil. ► Comparison of rate of heat release for camelina sativa oil and diesel oil. - Abstract: The paper describes the results of the tests of CI Perkins 1104C-44 engine fuelled with camelina sativa oil. The engine was not especially calibrated for fuelling with the vegetable fuel. During the test the engine performance and emissions were analysed. For comparison the same speed characteristic was examined for standard fuelling of the engine with diesel oil. In order to understand the engine performance and emission the mass fraction burnt and the rate of heat release was calculated and compared for the same energy provided to the engine cylinder with the injected fuels. The results show that there is possible to receive relatively good engine performance for fuelling the engine with camelina sativa oil but there is a need to change the calibration parameters of the engine fuel system when the engine is fuelled with this fuel.

  13. Effects of nigella sativa supplementation on blood parameters and anthropometric indices in adults: A systematic review on clinical trials

    OpenAIRE

    Alireza Mohtashami; Mohammad Hasan Entezari

    2016-01-01

    Background: Nigella sativa (N. sativa) has been used in traditional medicine and several studies have been performed in the last decades to reveal the effects of it on different medical disorders such as diabetes, dyslipidemia, hypertension, and obesity. We evaluated the effects of N. sativa supplementation on lipid profiles, glycemic control, blood pressure (BP), and some anthropometric indices in humans. Materials and Methods: A search on published studies was done by using databases includ...

  14. Origin of samples of Cannabis sativa through insect fragments associated with compacted hemp drug in South America

    OpenAIRE

    Marcos Patrício Macedo; Cecília Kosmann; José Roberto Pujol-Luz

    2013-01-01

    Origin of samples of Cannabis sativa through insect fragments associated with compacted hemp drug in South America. Insects associated with a seizure of Cannabis sativa L. may indicate the origin of the illicit drug. Nevertheless, no work regarding this subject has been previously published for South America. In the present investigation, seven kilograms of vegetal material (C. sativa) were inspected for insect fragments. Three species were identified and used to test the origin of the seizur...

  15. Antibacterial effect of Turkish black cumin ( Nigella sativa L. oils

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gecgel, Umit

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available A series of five different oils from Turkish black cumin ( Nigella sativa used in foods mainly for their flavour, preservation and natural therapies were screened for their antibacterial effects at 0.5 %, 1.0 % and 2.0 % concentrations using the agar diffusion method against twenty four pathogenic, spoilage and lactic acid bacteria (LAB. All tested oils showed antibacterial activity against all the bacteria used in the assay. The oils at 2.0 % concentration were more effective than of the other concentrations. The most sensitive bacterium against all of the oil concentrations was Aeromonas hydrophila, while the most resistant was Yersinia enterocolitica. Generally, lactic acid bacteria had more resistance than pathogenic and spoilage bacteria against black cumin oils. Consequently, black cumin oil may be used as an antimicrobial agent in food products to prevent spoilage.Se ensayaron un total de cinco aceites diferentes de comino negro turco ( Nigella sativa L., que se utilizan habitualmente en alimentos para darles sabor, ayudar a la conservación o por sus efectos terapéuticos, para estudiar sus propiedades antimicrobianas a concentraciones de 0.5 %, 1.0 %, y 2 %. Para ello se utilizó el método de difusión en agar, frente a veinticuatro microorganismos patógenos, causantes de alteraciones o bacterias ácido lácticas (LAB. Todos los aceites ensayados mostraron actividad antimicrobiana contra todos los microorganismos ensayados, siendo las concentraciones del 2 % las concentraciones más eficaces. Aeromonas hydrophyla fue el microorganismo mas sensible a todas las concentraciones mientras que Yersinia enterocolitica fue la más resistente. Generalmente las bacterias acido lácticas tuvieron más resistencia que los gérmenes patógenos y las bacterias que causan alteraciones. En consecuencia, el aceite de comino negro turco se puede utilizar como agente antimicrobiano en productos alimenticios para evitar su alteración.

  16. Neuroprotective effects of Nigella sativa extracts during germination on central nervous system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Islam, Mohammad Hayatul; Ahmad, Iffat Zareen; Salman, Mohammad Tariq

    2015-01-01

    Background: Nigella sativa Linn. which has many acclaimed medicinal properties is an indigenous herbaceous plant and belongs to the Ranunculaceae family, which grows in countries bordering the Mediterranean Sea, Pakistan and India. Objective: This study was designed to investigate the effects of N. sativa seed extracts of different germination phases on the central nervous system (CNS) responses in experimental animals. Materials and Methods: Anxiolytic, locomotor activity of extracts (1 g/kg of body weight) was evaluated in both stressed and unstressed animal models and antiepileptic effect was evaluated by maximal electroshock seizure model keeping diazepam (20 mg/kg) as a positive control. Antidepressant effect was evaluated by forced swim test and tail suspension test keeping imipramine (15 mg/kg) as a positive control. Results: All tested extracts of N. sativa during different phases of germination (especially 5th day germination phase) showed significant (P < 0.001) anxiolytic effect in comparison to control. Diazepam reduced locomotor activity in control (unstressed) rats but did not show affect in stressed rats while N. sativa extracts from germination phases significantly (P < 0.001) reduced locomotor activity in unstressed as well as stressed animals. All the extracts of N. sativa from different germination phases exhibited significant (P < 0.001) reduction in various phases of epileptic seizure on comparison with the reference standard (diazepam). During antidepressant test, N. sativa extracts exhibited a slight reduction in the immobility of rats. Conclusion: During germination, especially in 5th day germination extract, N. sativa showed significant CNS depressant activity as compared to whole seeds that possibly may be due higher content of secondary metabolites produced during germination. PMID:26109765

  17. Associação de densidades populacionais de cenoura e alface no desempenho agronômico da cenoura em cultivo consorciado em faixa Association of carrot and lettuce planting densities on carrot agronomic performance in strip-intercropping system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco Bezerra Neto

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available O experimento foi realizado de junho a setembro de 2003, em área experimental da ESAM, para avaliar associações de densidades populacionais de cenoura e alface no desempenho agronômico da cenoura em sistema consorciado em faixa. O delineamento experimental utilizado foi de blocos completos casualizados, em esquema fatorial 4 x 4 com cinco repetições. Os tratamentos foram resultantes da combinação de quatro populações de cenoura [100%; 80%; 60% e 40% população recomendada no cultivo solteiro (PRCS] com quatro populações de alface (100%; 80%; 60% e 40% da PRCS. A PRCS da cenoura na região é de 500.000 plantas/ha e no cultivo da alface é de 250.000 plantas/ha. As cultivares de cenoura e alface plantadas, pertencentes aos grupos Brasília e Americana, foram, respectivamente, 'Brasília' e 'Tainá'. Na cenoura avaliou-se altura de plantas, massa seca da parte aérea e das raízes, produtividades total e comercial, e classificação de raízes. Não houve interação significativa entre as densidades populacionais da cenoura e de alface em qualquer uma das características avaliadas na cenoura. Não houve também efeito significativo do aumento dos níveis populacionais da alface em qualquer característica avaliada na cenoura. O aumento na densidade populacional da cenoura aumentou a altura de plantas da cenoura e diminui a massa seca da parte aérea e de raízes, e a percentagem de raízes classes longa e média, e refugo. O aumento na associação das densidades populacionais de cenoura e de alface aumentou a produtividade total e comercial da cenoura, além do aumento na percentagem de raízes classe curta.An experiment was carried out from June to September 2003, in the field, in Mossoró, Rio Grande do Norte State, Brazil. Associations of carrot (cv. Brasília and lettuce (cv. Tainá planting densities on carrot agronomic performance in strip-intercropping system were evaluated. The experimental design was of randomized complete

  18. Medical uses of marijuana (Cannabis sativa): fact or fallacy?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maule, W J

    2015-01-01

    Marijuana (Cannabis sativa) has been used throughout the world medically, recreationally and spiritually for thousands of years. In South Africa, from the mid-19th century to the 1920s, practitioners prescribed it for a multitude of conditions. In 1928 it was classified as a Schedule I substance, illegal, and without medical value. Ironically, with this prohibition, cannabis became the most widely used illicit recreational drug, not only in South Africa, but worldwide. Cannabis is generally regarded as enjoyable and relaxing without the addictive risks of opioids or stimulants. In alternative medicine circles it has never lost its appeal. To date 23 States in the USA have legalised its medical use despite the federal ban. Unfortunately, little about cannabis is not without controversy. Its main active ingredient, δ-9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC), was not isolated until 1964, and it was not until the 1990s that the far-reaching modulatory activities of the endocannabinoid system in the human body was studied. This system's elucidation raises the possibility of many promising pharmaceutical applications, even as restrictions show no sign of abating. Recreational use of cannabis continues to increase, despite growing evidence of its addictive potential, particularly in the young. Public approval drives medical cannabis legalisation efforts without the scientific data normally required to justify a new medication's introduction. This review explores these controversies and whether cannabis is a panacea, a scourge, or both. PMID:26126326

  19. Herbicidal treatments for control of Cannabis sativa L.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horowitz, M

    1977-01-01

    In order to test herbicides for the destruction of illicit stands of cannabis (Cannabis sativa L.) a series of commercially available herbicides were sprayed on glasshouse-grown plants having 2 to 6 leaves. The following herbicides caused complete kill or severe injury to cannabis plants: (a) herbicides with root and foliage activity--ametryn, atrazine, metribuzin, prometryn, terbutryne, diuron, fluometuron, linuron, methabenzthiazuron, phenobenzuron, ethofumesate, karbutilate, methazole and oxadiazon; and (b) foliar-acting herbicides with brief or no soil persistence--amitrole, bentazon, 2,4-D, diquat + paraquat, glyphosate and phenmedipham. In field experiments herbicides of the latter group, and ioxynil, metribuzin, and a MSMA-cacodylate mixture, caused death or severe damage to young cannabis plants. Glyphosate, ioxynil and bentazon destroyed developed cannabis plants. In glasshouse and field experiments the following herbicides applied to young cannabis plants caused marked deformations of stems, leaves and/or inflorescences: barban, butralin, dalapon, difenzoquat, dinitramine, diphenamid, IPC, napropamide, penoxalin, triffuralin, and U-27267. PMID:585583

  20. Selectivity of herbicides in Camelina (Camelina sativa (L. Crtz.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Scheliga, Maria

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Camelina (Camelina sativa (L. Crtz. is a cruciferous plant. As an oilseed crop camelina is mainly grown for oil production. After the 1960s, however, the cultivation has become less important. Only in recent years, interest in this culture was awakened in the search for new sources of omega 3 fatty acids, natural antioxidants and a potential crop for the production of biofuels. The use of camelina oil for different purposes within the framework of the material use of renewable raw materials is of particular interest due to the high levels of linoleic and linolenic acid. For the establishment of camelina as a crop in agricultural crop rotation systems weed control should not be disregarded despite the rather good competitive ability against weeds. Based on greenhouse experiments a field trial in 2015 with different herbicide strategies was carried out. Besides Butisan Top (metazachlor + quinmerac, Devrinol FL (napropamide and Stomp Aqua (pendimethalin and also Betasana SC (phenmedipham has been tested in various amounts and combinations. Using assessments to weed density and herbicide tolerance different herbicide strategies were compared with each other. Though, it is difficult to find a compromise between satisfactory herbicidal effect and a slight injury to the crop plant. The herbicide selection, the application rate and the combination of different herbicides have an effect on the crop. To confirm the data obtained further tests are necessary.

  1. Cannabidiol, a Cannabis sativa constituent, as an antipsychotic drug

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zuardi A.W.

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available A high dose of delta9-tetrahydrocannabinol, the main Cannabis sativa (cannabis component, induces anxiety and psychotic-like symptoms in healthy volunteers. These effects of delta9-tetrahydrocannabinol are significantly reduced by cannabidiol (CBD, a cannabis constituent which is devoid of the typical effects of the plant. This observation led us to suspect that CBD could have anxiolytic and/or antipsychotic actions. Studies in animal models and in healthy volunteers clearly suggest an anxiolytic-like effect of CBD. The antipsychotic-like properties of CBD have been investigated in animal models using behavioral and neurochemical techniques which suggested that CBD has a pharmacological profile similar to that of atypical antipsychotic drugs. The results of two studies on healthy volunteers using perception of binocular depth inversion and ketamine-induced psychotic symptoms supported the proposal of the antipsychotic-like properties of CBD. In addition, open case reports of schizophrenic patients treated with CBD and a preliminary report of a controlled clinical trial comparing CBD with an atypical antipsychotic drug have confirmed that this cannabinoid can be a safe and well-tolerated alternative treatment for schizophrenia. Future studies of CBD in other psychotic conditions such as bipolar disorder and comparative studies of its antipsychotic effects with those produced by clozapine in schizophrenic patients are clearly indicated.

  2. Gene duplication and divergence affecting drug content in Cannabis sativa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weiblen, George D; Wenger, Jonathan P; Craft, Kathleen J; ElSohly, Mahmoud A; Mehmedic, Zlatko; Treiber, Erin L; Marks, M David

    2015-12-01

    Cannabis sativa is an economically important source of durable fibers, nutritious seeds, and psychoactive drugs but few economic plants are so poorly understood genetically. Marijuana and hemp were crossed to evaluate competing models of cannabinoid inheritance and to explain the predominance of tetrahydrocannabinolic acid (THCA) in marijuana compared with cannabidiolic acid (CBDA) in hemp. Individuals in the resulting F2 population were assessed for differential expression of cannabinoid synthase genes and were used in linkage mapping. Genetic markers associated with divergent cannabinoid phenotypes were identified. Although phenotypic segregation and a major quantitative trait locus (QTL) for the THCA/CBDA ratio were consistent with a simple model of codominant alleles at a single locus, the diversity of THCA and CBDA synthase sequences observed in the mapping population, the position of enzyme coding loci on the map, and patterns of expression suggest multiple linked loci. Phylogenetic analysis further suggests a history of duplication and divergence affecting drug content. Marijuana is distinguished from hemp by a nonfunctional CBDA synthase that appears to have been positively selected to enhance psychoactivity. An unlinked QTL for cannabinoid quantity may also have played a role in the recent escalation of drug potency. PMID:26189495

  3. Monitoring homologous recombination in rice (Oryza sativa L.)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Here we describe a system to assay homologous recombination during the complete life cycle of rice (Oryza sativa L.). Rice plants were transformed with two copies of non-functional GUS reporter overlap fragments as recombination substrate. Recombination was observed in all plant organs examined, from the seed stage until the flowering stage of somatic plant development. Embryogenic cells exhibited the highest recombination ability with an average of 3 x 10-5 recombination events per genome, which is about 10-fold of that observed in root cells, and two orders of that observed in leaf cells. Histological analysis revealed that recombination events occurred in diverse cell types, but preferentially in cells with small size. Examples of this included embryogenic cells in callus, phloem cells in the leaf vein, and cells located in the root apical meristem. Steady state RNA analysis revealed that the expression levels of rice Rad51 homologs are positively correlated with increased recombination rates in embryogenic calli, roots and anthers. Finally, radiation treatment of plantlets from distinct recombination lines increased the recombination frequency to different extents. These results showed that homologous recombination frequency can be effectively measured in rice using a transgene reporter assay. This system will facilitate the study of DNA damage signaling and homologous recombination in rice, a model monocot.

  4. Monitoring homologous recombination in rice (Oryza sativa L.)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang Zhuanying; Tang Li [Guangdong Provincial Key Lab of Biotechnology for Plant Development, College of Life Sciences, South China Normal University, Guangzhou 510631 (China); Li Meiru [South China Botanic Garden, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Guangzhou 510650 (China); Chen Lei; Xu Jie [Guangdong Provincial Key Lab of Biotechnology for Plant Development, College of Life Sciences, South China Normal University, Guangzhou 510631 (China); Wu Goujiang [South China Botanic Garden, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Guangzhou 510650 (China); Li Hongqing, E-mail: hqli@scnu.edu.cn [Guangdong Provincial Key Lab of Biotechnology for Plant Development, College of Life Sciences, South China Normal University, Guangzhou 510631 (China)

    2010-09-10

    Here we describe a system to assay homologous recombination during the complete life cycle of rice (Oryza sativa L.). Rice plants were transformed with two copies of non-functional GUS reporter overlap fragments as recombination substrate. Recombination was observed in all plant organs examined, from the seed stage until the flowering stage of somatic plant development. Embryogenic cells exhibited the highest recombination ability with an average of 3 x 10{sup -5} recombination events per genome, which is about 10-fold of that observed in root cells, and two orders of that observed in leaf cells. Histological analysis revealed that recombination events occurred in diverse cell types, but preferentially in cells with small size. Examples of this included embryogenic cells in callus, phloem cells in the leaf vein, and cells located in the root apical meristem. Steady state RNA analysis revealed that the expression levels of rice Rad51 homologs are positively correlated with increased recombination rates in embryogenic calli, roots and anthers. Finally, radiation treatment of plantlets from distinct recombination lines increased the recombination frequency to different extents. These results showed that homologous recombination frequency can be effectively measured in rice using a transgene reporter assay. This system will facilitate the study of DNA damage signaling and homologous recombination in rice, a model monocot.

  5. Minor oxygenated cannabinoids from high potency Cannabis sativa L.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmed, Safwat A; Ross, Samir A; Slade, Desmond; Radwan, Mohamed M; Khan, Ikhlas A; ElSohly, Mahmoud A

    2015-09-01

    Nine oxygenated cannabinoids were isolated from a high potency Cannabis sativa L. variety. Structure elucidation was achieved using spectroscopic techniques, including 1D and 2D NMR, HRMS and GC-MS. These minor compounds include four hexahydrocannabinols, four tetrahydrocannabinols, and one hydroxylated cannabinol, namely 9α-hydroxyhexahydrocannabinol, 7-oxo-9α-hydroxyhexa-hydrocannabinol, 10α-hydroxyhexahydrocannabinol, 10aR-hydroxyhexahydrocannabinol, Δ(9)-THC aldehyde A, 8-oxo-Δ(9)-THC, 10aα-hydroxy-10-oxo-Δ(8)-THC, 9α-hydroxy-10-oxo-Δ(6a,10a)-THC, and 1'S-hydroxycannabinol, respectively. The latter compound showed moderate anti-MRSa (IC50 10.0 μg/mL), moderate antileishmanial (IC50 14.0 μg/mL) and mild antimalarial activity against Plasmodium falciparum (D6 clone) and P. falciparum (W2 clone) with IC50 values of 3.4 and 2.3 μg/mL, respectively. PMID:26093324

  6. Induction of mutants in Cannabis Sativa L. by γ radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A description is given of the mutations induced in a well known cultivar of fibre hemp belonging to the species Cannabis sativa in order to obtain new phenotypic characters that could unequivocally differentiate it from drug hemp. Two new dioecious hemp cultivars, characterized by clear morphological markers and low (≤0.2%)Δ-9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) content, have been obtained by mutagenesis of seeds irradiated with 60Co γ rays(optimum dose 300-350 Gy) and selection of the segregant progenies. These new cultivars, named red petiole (exhibiting anthocyanin leaf petioles) and yellow apex (exhibiting yellow distal leaflets), have been compared with varieties C.S., carmagnola and fibranova by growing them in three different areas (centre-north and south) of Italy. These agronomical trials highlighted the good performance of both new cultivars as for yield in dry matter and in fibre, not significantly different from the results of carmagnola. Besides, the new cultivars showed THC contents (0.09 and 0.17%) lower than the threshold set by the E.U. (0.2%). (Author)

  7. The WRKY Gene Family in Rice (Oryza sativa)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Christian A. Ross; Yue Liu; Qingxi J. Shen

    2007-01-01

    WRKYgenes encode transcription factors that are involved in the regulation of various biological processes. These zinc-finger proteins, especially those members mediating stress responses, are uniquely expanded in plants. To facilitate the study of the evolutionary history and functions of this supergene family, we performed an exhaustive search for WRKY genes using HMMER and a Hidden Markov Model that was specifically trained for rice. This work resulted in a comprehensive list of WRKY gene models in Oryza sativa L. ssp. indica and L. ssp. japonica. Mapping of these genes to individual chromosomes facilitated elimination of the redundant, leading to the identification of 98 WRKY genes in japonica and 102 in indica rice. These genes were further categorized according to the number and structure of their zinc-finger domains. Based on a phylogenetic tree of the conserved WRKY domains and the graphic display of WRKY loci on corresponding indica and japonica chromosomes, we identified possible WRKY gene duplications within, and losses between the two closely related rice subspecies. Also reviewed are the roles of WRKY genes in disease resistance and responses to salicylic acid and jasmonic acid, seed development and germination mediated by gibberellins, other developmental processes including senescence, and responses to abiotic stresses and abscisic acid in rice and other plants. The signaling pathways mediating WRKY gene expression are also discussed.

  8. Polyploid genome of Camelina sativa revealed by isolation of fatty acid synthesis genes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shewmaker Christine K

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Camelina sativa, an oilseed crop in the Brassicaceae family, has inspired renewed interest due to its potential for biofuels applications. Little is understood of the nature of the C. sativa genome, however. A study was undertaken to characterize two genes in the fatty acid biosynthesis pathway, fatty acid desaturase (FAD 2 and fatty acid elongase (FAE 1, which revealed unexpected complexity in the C. sativa genome. Results In C. sativa, Southern analysis indicates the presence of three copies of both FAD2 and FAE1 as well as LFY, a known single copy gene in other species. All three copies of both CsFAD2 and CsFAE1 are expressed in developing seeds, and sequence alignments show that previously described conserved sites are present, suggesting that all three copies of both genes could be functional. The regions downstream of CsFAD2 and upstream of CsFAE1 demonstrate co-linearity with the Arabidopsis genome. In addition, three expressed haplotypes were observed for six predicted single-copy genes in 454 sequencing analysis and results from flow cytometry indicate that the DNA content of C. sativa is approximately three-fold that of diploid Camelina relatives. Phylogenetic analyses further support a history of duplication and indicate that C. sativa and C. microcarpa might share a parental genome. Conclusions There is compelling evidence for triplication of the C. sativa genome, including a larger chromosome number and three-fold larger measured genome size than other Camelina relatives, three isolated copies of FAD2, FAE1, and the KCS17-FAE1 intergenic region, and three expressed haplotypes observed for six predicted single-copy genes. Based on these results, we propose that C. sativa be considered an allohexaploid. The characterization of fatty acid synthesis pathway genes will allow for the future manipulation of oil composition of this emerging biofuel crop; however, targeted manipulations of oil composition and general

  9. Cardio-protective and anti-cancer therapeutic potential of Nigella sativa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hammad Shafiq

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Nigella sativa is the miraculous plant having a lot of nutritional and medicinal benefits, and attracts large number of nutrition and pharmacological researchers. N. sativa seed composition shows that it is the blessing of nature and it contains and many bioactive compounds like thymoquinone, α-hederin, alkaloids, flavonoids, antioxidants, fatty acids many other compounds that have positive effects on curing of different diseases. Several medicinal properties of N. sativa like its anti-cancer, anti-inflammatory, anti-diabetic, antioxidant activities and many others are well acknowledged. However, this article focuses on activity of N. sativa against cardiovascular diseases and cancer. For gathering required data the authors went through vast number of articles using search engines like Science direct, ELSEVIER, Pub Med, Willey on Line Library and Google scholar and the findings were classified on the basis of relevance of the topic and were reviewed in the article. N. sativa is rich source of different biologically active compounds and is found effective in controlling number of cardiovascular diseases and various cancers both in vivo and in vitro studies.

  10. Safety evaluation of Phytovagex, a pessary formulation of Nigella sativa, on pregnant rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reza Salarinia

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The possible toxicity of drugs in pregnancy should be tested before their use in pregnant patients. In the present study, we aimed to evaluate the safety of phytovagex, a pessary formulation of Nigella sativa (N. sativa, which is already in clinical use for vaginal fungal infection. Materials and Methods: The pregnant rats were treated intravaginal with physiological saline (vehicle or phytovagex pessary in the first half of their pregnancy (days 1 to 10 of gestation. Duration of pregnancy and health parameters of the newborns were recorded after parturition. Also, cytotoxicity of N. sativa hydroalcoholic extract was tested against ovary Cho cells.  Results: The phytovagex had no significant effect on the duration of pregnancy, number of newborns, weight of neonates, and percent of stillbirth. No deformity or general behavioral abnormality was observed in neonates monitored for 30 days after birth. N. sativa extract had no significant effect on the viability of ovary cells at the concentrations of 12.5-200 µg/mL. Conclusion: Results of this animal study showed that phytovagex has no overall effect on the duration of pregnancy and health parameters of the newborns. Also, its active agent, N. sativa, does not induce any cytotoxic effect on ovary cells.

  11. Antifungal effects of Zataria multiflora and Nigella sativa extracts against Candida albicans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moghim Hassan

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Candidiasis is a fungal infection caused by Candida albicans. Recentstudies suggest that the side effects of herbal drugs with significant therapeutic effectsare far less than chemical drugs. This study was therefore, conducted to examineantifungal activities of Zataria multif lora and Nigella sativa extracts on C. albicans.Methods: Powders of Z. multif lora and N. sativa were macerated with ethanol 70% and evaporatedat 38˚C by rotary evaporator. The suspension of C. albicans was prepared according to McFarlandat a concentration of approximately 0.5-2.5 × 10CFU/ml. Testing was performed according tomicrobroth dilution in 96-well micro-dilution plates. Minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC,MIC50%, MIC90% and minimum fungicidal concentration (MFC were separately evaluated bycounting the fungal colonies for Z. multif lora and N. sativa.Results: The measured values of MIC, MIC50%, MIC90% and MFC of Z. multiflora on the C.albicans were 0.13, 0.38, 0.74 and 1.03 mg/ml, and those of N. sativa were 10, 27.7, 52.3 and 72.3 mg/ml, respectively.Conclusion: The results indicate that both Zataria multiflora and Nigella sativa extracts are effectiveagainst Candida albicans, but the former species has the highest antifungal activity. If the clinicaltrials confirm the results of this study, Z. multiflora, as a new antifungal agent by replacing chemicaldrugs can be used to develop antifungal medicinal herbs.

  12. A review on therapeutic potential of Nigella sativa: A miracle herb.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmad, Aftab; Husain, Asif; Mujeeb, Mohd; Khan, Shah Alam; Najmi, Abul Kalam; Siddique, Nasir Ali; Damanhouri, Zoheir A; Anwar, Firoz

    2013-05-01

    Nigella sativa (N. sativa) (Family Ranunculaceae) is a widely used medicinal plant throughout the world. It is very popular in various traditional systems of medicine like Unani and Tibb, Ayurveda and Siddha. Seeds and oil have a long history of folklore usage in various systems of medicines and food. The seeds of N. sativa have been widely used in the treatment of different diseases and ailments. In Islamic literature, it is considered as one of the greatest forms of healing medicine. It has been recommended for using on regular basis in Tibb-e-Nabwi (Prophetic Medicine). It has been widely used as antihypertensive, liver tonics, diuretics, digestive, anti-diarrheal, appetite stimulant, analgesics, anti-bacterial and in skin disorders. Extensive studies on N. sativa have been carried out by various researchers and a wide spectrum of its pharmacological actions have been explored which may include antidiabetic, anticancer, immunomodulator, analgesic, antimicrobial, anti-inflammatory, spasmolytic, bronchodilator, hepato-protective, renal protective, gastro-protective, antioxidant properties, etc. Due to its miraculous power of healing, N. sativa has got the place among the top ranked evidence based herbal medicines. This is also revealed that most of the therapeutic properties of this plant are due to the presence of thymoquinone which is major bioactive component of the essential oil. The present review is an effort to provide a detailed survey of the literature on scientific researches of pharmacognostical characteristics, chemical composition and pharmacological activities of the seeds of this plant. PMID:23646296

  13. Linhagens de alface-crespa para o verão resistentes ao Meloidogyne javanica e ao vírus mosaico-da-alface Lineages of crisp-leaf lettuce for summer cropping resistant to Meloidogyne javanica and to Lettuce mosaic virus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renata Rodrigues Silva

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi selecionar famílias F4 de alface, oriundas do cruzamento entre as cultivares Verônica e Salinas 88, para o cultivo no verão, com relação ao tipo de folha, e à resistência ao Lettuce mosaic virus (LMV e ao nematóide-das-galhas Meloidogyne javanica. Primeiramente, avaliaram-se a coloração da folha, tipos de borda e limbo foliares, além da tolerância ao calor no campo, em blocos ao acaso compostos pelas 15 famílias F4 previamente selecionadas, pelas cultivares parentais e pela cultivar testemunha Regina 71 (folhas lisas e tolerante ao calor, com cinco repetições e oito plantas por parcela. Na segunda etapa, as famílias foram avaliadas quanto à resistência ao LMV e ao nematóide-das-galhas, em bandejas de 128 células acondicionadas em estufa. As médias das notas atribuídas a cada família foram comparadas às médias de cada cultivar parental pelo teste de Dunnet (5%. A família AFX007B-140-21, homozigota resistente aos nematóides e ao LMV e, também, tolerante ao calor, foi a mais promissora. O cruzamento entre uma cultivar de folhas crespas e soltas com uma de folhas crespas e repolhuda, pode originar linhagens promissoras tanto de folhas crespas quanto de folhas lisas.The aim of this work was to select F4 lettuce families, derived from the cross 'Veronica' x 'Salinas 88 ', for summer cropping, type of leaves, and for resistance to Meloidogyne javanica and to Lettuce mosaic virus (LMV. First, evaluations were made for leaf colour, leaf limb, border type, and heat tolerance in the field, in a complete blocks desing, in 15 F4 families previously selected, parent cultivars and, as control, the cultivar Regina 71 (butterleaf and tolerant to heat. Five replicates and eight plants per plot were used. As second step, the families were evaluated in greenhouse, in 128-cell expanded polystyrene trays, for resistance to LMV and root-knot nematodes. Score means of each family were compared to the means of

  14. Produção e renda bruta de rabanete e alface em cultivo solteiro e consorciado = Yield and gross income of radish and lettuce in monocrop and intercrop system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    João Dimas Graciano

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo do trabalho foi verificar a produtividade e a renda bruta da alface e do rabanete em cultivo solteiro ou consorciado. Foram estudados a cultivar alface Crespa Grand Rapids Nacional e a de rabanete Crimson Vip, em cultivo solteiro com três ou quatro linhas, e os consórcios R4A3 e R3A4. O rabanete cultivado sob quatro fileiras de plantas no canteiro teve aumento significativo de 1,16 t ha-1 de massa fresca de plantas com raiz comercial em relação ao cultivado sob três fileiras. No cultivo solteiro, os maiores valores (16,36 cm de altura, 25,04 cm de diâmetro e 137.780 plantas ha-1 foram obtidoscom quatro fileiras e no consórcio, os maiores valores de altura (13,84 cm e diâmetro (21,86 cm foram com quatro fileiras e o maior número de plantas comerciais (133.220 plantas ha-1 foi com três. A razão de área equivalente (RAE, para o consórcio R4A3 foi de 1,69 e para o consórcio R3A4 foi de 2,05. Ao considerar a renda bruta, o consórcio R3A4 deve ser recomendado já que induziu aumentos monetários de R$ 24.748,00; R$ 1.224,00 e R$ 39.686,00 em relação ao consórcio R4A3 e aos cultivos solteiros com quatro fileiras deplantas de alface e rabanete, respectivamente.The objective of this paper was to verify yield and gross income oflettuce and radish in monocrop and intercrop systems. Crespa Grand Rapids Nacional lettuce and Crimson Vip radish varieties were studied in monocrop system with three and four rows, as well as the R4A3 and R3A4 intercroppings. Radish cultivated under four rows of plants in plot had significant increase of 1.16 t ha-1 of fresh mass in plants with commercial root in relation to those cultivated under three rows. In monocrop system, the highest values (16.36 cm height, 25.04 cm of diameter and 137,780 plants ha-1 were obtained from four rows and with intercrop, the highest values of height (13.84 cm anddiameter (21.86 cm were obtained from four rows, and the highest number of commercial plants (133

  15. Reposição de nutrientes em solução nutritiva para o cultivo hidropônico de alface Nutrients replacement in nutrient solution for lettuce hydroponic cultivation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernanda Alice Antonello Londero Backes

    2004-10-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho teve como objetivos comparar a produção de alface sob diferentes métodos de reposição de nutrientes em soluções renovadas a cada cultivo, bem como avaliar a utilização da mesma solução, com reposição de nutrientes, durante três cultivos consecutivos. O experimento foi realizado em casa-de-vegetação da Universidade Federal de Santa Maria-RS, no período de agosto a novembro de 1999. O delineamento experimental foi um fatorial 5x2 em blocos casualizados, com três repetições. Avaliaram-se cinco formas de reposição de nutrientes na solução nutritiva com base na condutividade elétrica (CE, no sistema de fluxo laminar de nutrientes - NFT, e duas cultivares de alface: Regina e Deisy, cultivadas em bancadas de produção formadas por telhas de fibro-cimento revestidas com tinta betuminosa Neutrolâ. Os resultados demonstraram que a reposição de nutrientes na solução nutritiva renovada a cada cultivo não resulta em ganhos de produtividade da alface em relação à ausência de reposição de nutrientes. Os métodos de reposição de nutrientes com base na redução de 0,25mScm-1 da CE inicial e redução de 50% da CE inicial permitiram a utilização da mesma solução por três cultivos consecutivos, sendo que a reposição com base na redução de 50% da CE inicial promoveu melhores resultados, em especial quanto à matéria fresca de planta. Não houve interação de cultivares com métodos de reposição, sendo a cultivar Regina caracterizada pelo maior número de folhas por planta.The objectives of this work were to compare lettuce yield under different nutrient replacement methods. The experiment was carried out in a plastic greenhouse of the "Universidade Federal de Santa Maria", RS, Brazil, from August to November, 1999. The experimental design was a factorial 5x2 in random blocks with three repetitions. Five kinds of nutrient replacement were evaluated based on electrical conductivity (EC in the

  16. Eficiência e efeito residual de biofertilizantes de rochas com PK e enxofre com Acidithiobacillus em alface Efficiency and residual effect of PK rock biofertilizers with sulfur and Acidithiobacillus on lettuce

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rita de Cássia Matias de Lima

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available Entre agosto e novembro de 2005 foi realizado um experimento em campo, com dois plantios consecutivos de alface (cv. Grand Rapids, em solo do Cariri cearense, visando avaliar a eficiência da fertilização com biofertilizantes de rocha fosfatada (BP e potássica (BK, em comparação com os fertilizantes minerais superfosfato simples(SFS e cloreto de potássio (KCl. Os fertilizantes minerais foram aplicados nos níveis recomendados com base na análise de solo para alface (SFS e KCl, e os biofertilizantes em três níveis (BP1 e BK1 metade da recomendação; BP2 e BK2 nível recomendado e BP3 e BK3 uma vez e meia o recomendado para SFS e KCl, e o tratamento controle (P0K0 sem aplicação de P e K. O delineamento experimental foi de blocos casualizados, em esquema fatorial 5², com quatro repetições. Os resultados demonstraram que o desempenho dos biofertilizantes com P e K foi equivalente ao dos fertilizantes minerais, especialmente com aplicação no nível BP2BK3. No segundo cultivo ficou evidenciado o efeito residual para produtividade da alface (biomassa fresca da parte aérea, altura, número de folhas, avaliação comercial e acumulação de P e K na parte aérea. Os resultados sugerem que os biofertilizantes de rochas com P e K podem ser usados como alternativa a fertilizantes minerais.Production of rock biofertilizers is a practical process with reduction of energy consumption and increasing nutrients availability in soils. To evaluate the agronomic efficiency and the residual effect of P rock biofertilizer (PB and potash rock (KB, compared to simple superphosphate (SSP and potassium chloride (KCl, a field experiment with two consecutive lettuce crops (cv. Grand Rapids was carried out in a soil at Cariri (Ceará, Brazil, from August to September 2005. The mineral fertilizers were applied in the levels recommended for lettuce (SSP and KCl, and the biofertilizers in three levels (PB1 and KB1 half of recommended levels; recommended levels

  17. A surface complexation model of YREE sorption on Ulva lactuca in 0.05-5.0 M NaCl solutions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zoll, Alison M.; Schijf, Johan

    2012-11-01

    We present distribution coefficients, log iKS, for the sorption of yttrium and the rare earth elements (YREEs) on BCR-279, a dehydrated tissue homogenate of a marine macroalga, Ulva lactuca, resembling materials featured in chemical engineering studies aimed at designing renewable biosorbents. Sorption experiments were conducted in NaCl solutions of different ionic strength (0.05, 0.5, and 5.0 M) at T = 25 °C over the pH range 2.7-8.5. Distribution coefficients based on separation of the dissolved and particulate phase by conventional filtration (effect of colloid-bound YREEs (>3 kDa) using an existing pH-dependent model. Colloid-corrected values were renormalized to free-cation concentrations by accounting for YREE hydrolysis and chloride complexation. At each ionic strength, the pH dependence of the renormalized values is accurately described with a non-electrostatic surface complexation model (SCM) that incorporates YREE binding to three monoprotic functional groups, previously characterized by alkalimetric titration, as well as binding of YREE-hydroxide complexes (MOH2+) to the least acidic one (pKa ∼ 9.5). In non-linear regressions of the distribution coefficients as a function of pH, each pKa was fixed at its reported value, while stability constants of the four YREE surface complexes were used as adjustable parameters. Data for a single fresh U. lactuca specimen in 0.5 M NaCl show generally the same pH-dependent behavior but a lower degree of sorption and were excluded from the regressions. Good linear free-energy relations (LFERs) between stability constants of the YREE-acetate and YREE-hydroxide solution complex and surface complexes with the first and third functional group, respectively, support their prior tentative identifications as carboxyl and phenol. A similar confirmation for the second group is precluded by insufficient knowledge of the stability of YREE-phosphate complexes and a perceived lack of YREE binding in 0.05 M NaCl; this issue awaits

  18. Analysis of cannabinoids in laser-microdissected trichomes of medicinal Cannabis sativa using LCMS and cryogenic NMR

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Happyana, Nizar; Agnolet, Sara; Muntendam, Remco; Van Dam, Annie; Schneider, Bernd; Kayser, Oliver

    2013-01-01

    Trichomes, especially the capitate-stalked glandular hairs, are well known as the main sites of cannabinoid and essential oil production of Cannabis sativa. In this study the distribution and density of various types of Cannabis sativa L trichomes, have been investigated by scanning electron microsc

  19. Evaluation of anticonvulsant activity of volatile oil extract of Nigella sativa seeds by chemically induced seizure model in albino rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Asmatanzeem Bepari

    2016-08-01

    Conclusions: The N. sativa seeds showed anticonvulsant activity in pentylenetetrazole induced seizure model of epilepsy. This study showed that volatile oil of N. sativa seeds potentiated the effect of sodium valproate. [Int J Basic Clin Pharmacol 2016; 5(4.000: 1300-1307

  20. Identification of Intergeneric Hybrid Plants Between Oryza sativa and O. minuta via GISH and RAPD

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YU Shun-wu; CHEN Bao-tang; TAO Ai-lin; ZHANG Duan-pin

    2003-01-01

    To transfer desirable resistance traits from O. minuta to O. sativa, intergeneric hybrid plants between O. sativa (AA, 2n=2X=24) and O. minuta (BBCC, 2n=4X=48) were produced by embryo rescue after sexual cross. Morphological observation and chromosome counts indicated their hybrid status (ABC, 2n =3X=36). Genomic in situ hybridization (GISH) was further applied to confirm the parentage of the chromosomes of F1 hybrids. Chromosomes of O. minuta and O. sativa were distinguishable in the hybrids in different fluorescence colors. GISH indicated that A and BC chromosomes were not randomly assembled in a cell.RAPD profiles unequivocally revealed their hybrids with double parent patterns. The results of blast tests showed that the hybrids had obtained disease resistance from O. minuta, and had a level of susceptibility between the parents.

  1. Potencial alelopático de Ipomoea fistulosa sobre a germinação de alface e tomate = Allelopathic potential of Ipomoea fistulosa on the germination of lettuce and tomato

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juliana Domingues Lima

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo do presente trabalho foi determinar o potencial alelopático de Ipomoea fistulosa na germinação e crescimento de plântulas. Em laboratório, sementes de alface e de tomate foram colocadas para germinar na presença de água ou extratos de folhasde Ipomoea fistulosa, nas concentrações de 5, 10 e 15% (p/v. Em casa-de-vegetação, as sementes foram colocadas para germinar em bandejas, contendo o substrato Plantmax® e o substrato Plantmax® + resíduo de folhas secas de Ipomoea fistulosa, na proporção 3% (p/p. Oextrato aquoso inibiu a germinação e elevou o tempo médio de germinação das sementes, além de reduzir o crescimento da radícula e hipocótilo em todas as concentrações utilizadas. Em casa-de-vegetação, a altura da planta, o número de folhas, o acúmulo de massa seca das plantas também foram reduzidos na presença dos resíduos de folhas no substrato. Os resultados sugerem a presença de aleloquímicos em Ipomoea fistulosa e demonstram maior sensibilidade da alface a esses compostos, quando comparada ao tomate.The objective of the present research was to determine theallelopathic potential of Ipomoea fistulosa plants on germination and growth of seedlings. In laboratory, lettuce and tomato seeds were placed to germinate in the presence of water or Ipomoea fistulosa leaf extract, in the concentrations of 5, 10 e 15% (p/v. In greenhouse, seeds were placed to germinate in trays containing Plantmax® substrate and Plantmax® substrate + Ipomoea fistulosa dry leaf residue, at 3% (w/w. The aqueous extract inhibited germination,raised the mean germination time of the seeds and reduced the radicle and hypocotyl growth in all used concentrations. In greenhouse, the plant height, leaf number, and dry mass accumulation also were reduced in the presence of the leaf residue in the substrate.The results suggest the presence of allelochemicals in Ipomoea fistulosa and demonstrate the highest sensitivity of lettuce that tomato

  2. Resposta da alface à adubação nitrogenada com diferentes compostos orgânicos em dois ciclos sucessivos = Response of lettuce to nitrogen fertilization with different organic composts in two successive cycles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisca Alcivania de Melo Silva

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Os objetivos deste trabalho foram avaliar a produção de alface em ambiente protegido, utilizando diferentes compostos orgânicos como fonte de nitrogênio, e seu efeito residual em dois ciclos sucessivos. O experimento foi conduzido entre os meses de fevereiro e maio de 2005, em casa-de-vegetação com ventilação e temperatura controlados, utilizando vasos de 3,5 L e solo classificado como Latossolo Vermelho Escuro. Foram utilizados compostos orgânicos produzidos a partir da mistura de resíduos do processamento de quatro plantas medicinais e esterco bovino. Os compostos C1, C2, C3 e C4 nas doses 30, 60, 90 e 120 t ha-1 constituíram os tratamentos dispostos em delineamento inteiramente casualizado, com quatro repetições e uma testemunha (adicional. Foram determinados: matéria fresca da parte aérea (MFPA; massa de matéria seca da parte aérea (MSPA. Os compostos aplicados supriram satisfatoriamente as necessidades de nitrogênio da cultura, no primeiro ciclo, dispensando o uso de fertilizante mineral. A composição dos materiais aplicados influenciou significativamente a produção de alface no primeiro ciclo, promovendo efeito residual no segundo ciclo, porém em menores proporções.The objectives of this work were to evaluate the production of lettuce in a protected environment, using different organic composts as nitrogen source and its residual effect in two successive cycles. The experiment was conducted between February and May of 2005, at a greenhouse with controlled ventilation and temperature, using 3.5 L vases and ground classified as Dark Red Latossol. Organic composts produced from the mixture of residues of the processing of four medicinal plants and cattle manure were used. The composts C1, C2, C3 and C4 in doses 30, 60, 90 and 120 t ha-1 composed the treatments, set in an entirely randomized design, with four repetitions and one control (additional treatment. The following were determined: freshmatter of aerial part

  3. Desempenho de cultivares de alface em cultivo hidropônico sob dois níveis de condutividade elétrica Evaluation of two electric conductivity levels on the hidroponic cultivation of lettuce

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriana G Magalhães

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo do trabalho foi comparar cultivares de alface de folhas soltas lisas, submetidas a estresse osmótico em soluções nutritivas sob cultivo hidropônico. Foram realizados dois experimentos, cada um com uma condutividade elétrica (C.E. de 2,0 dS m-1 e 2,5 dS m-1. Os tratamentos foram as cultivares de alface Babá de Verão, Floresta, Luisa, Manoa, Regina 579, Saia Véia e Vitória Verdinha. O delineamento experimental foi blocos casualizados, com três repetições. A colheita foi feita aos 45 dias após a semeadura. Nenhuma cultivar se destacou no conjunto das características avaliadas, embora a Manoa tenha apresentado o maior índice de queima de bordas das folhas, sem diferir estatisticamente da Saia Véia e Babá de Verão. As cultivares Regina 579 e Vitória Verdinha são as preferidas dos produtores hidropônico de Pernambuco, devido à falta de genótipos mais adaptados a essa modalidade de cultivo, e por apresentarem folhas lisas, levemente enrugadas e de textura macia.The aim of this work was to compare loose-leaf lettuce cultivars submitted to osmotic stress in nutrient solutions in hydroponic culture. Two experiments were carried out, with electric conductivity of 2.0 or 2.5 dS m-1. The treatments were the cultivars Babá de Verão, Floresta, Luisa, Manoa, Regina 579, Saia Véia, and Vitória Verdinha. The experimental design was randomized blocks with three replications. Harvest was performed 45 days after sowing. None among the cultivars differed clearly on the characteristics evaluated. However, "Manoa" showed the highest rate of leaf-edge burning, without significant difference in comparison to "Saia Véia" and "Babá de Verão" for summer. The cultivars Regina 579 and Vitória Verdinha are preferred by the growers of hydroponic vegetables of Pernambuco, due to the lack of better genotypes for this type of cultivation and due to the presence of smooth slightly-wrinkled leaves with soft texture.

  4. Effect of Nigella sativa oil on experimental toxoplasmosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mady, Rasha F; El-Hadidy, Wessam; Elachy, Samar

    2016-01-01

    Toxoplasmosis is a parasitic infection caused by Toxoplasma gondii protozoon. It is most commonly treated by pyrimethamine (PYR); however, this was intolerable by many patients. The aim of this study was to assess therapeutic effects of Nigella sativa oil (NSO) alone and combined with pyrimethamine (PYR) compared to a previous combination of clindamycin (CLN) and (PYR). One hundred Albino mice were used in the current study and were equally divided into five groups: normal (I), infected untreated control (II); infected, treated with NSO-only (III); infected, treated with NSO + PYR (IV); and infected, treated with CLN + PYR (V). The virulent RH Toxoplasma strain was used in infection survival rates estimation, impression smears from liver and spleen, and histopathological and ultrastructural studies were done. Liver malondialdehyde (MDA) level and total antioxidant capacity (TAC) were determined. Interferon-γ and specific IgM were also measured in sera by ELISA. Results showed that NSO alone has no direct anti-Toxoplasma effect, whereas its combination with PYR produced potent effect that is comparable to CLN + PYR. It significantly increased the survival rate and decreased the parasite density and pathological insult in both liver and spleen. Also, significant increase in interferon-γ level denotes stimulation of cellular immunity. NSO + PYR combination markedly improved the antioxidant capacity of Toxoplasma infected mice compared to the infected untreated ones and to CLN/PYR. In conclusion, although NSO, if administered alone, has significant immunostimulant and antioxidant properties, it failed to decrease tachyzoite counts. Combination of NSO and PYR had synergistic effect in treatment of toxoplasmosis. PMID:26446086

  5. Cannabidiol, a constituent of Cannabis sativa, modulates sleep in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murillo-Rodríguez, Eric; Millán-Aldaco, Diana; Palomero-Rivero, Marcela; Mechoulam, Raphael; Drucker-Colín, René

    2006-08-01

    Delta(9)-tetrahydrocannabinol (Delta(9)-THC) and cannabidiol (CBD) are two major constituents of Cannabis sativa. Delta(9)-THC modulates sleep, but no clear evidence on the role of CBD is available. In order to determine the effects of CBD on sleep, it was administered intracerebroventricular (icv) in a dose of 10 microg/5 microl at the beginning of either the lights-on or the lights-off period. We found that CBD administered during the lights-on period increased wakefulness (W) and decreased rapid eye movement sleep (REMS). No changes on sleep were observed during the dark phase. Icv injections of CBD (10 microg/5microl) induced an enhancement of c-Fos expression in waking-related brain areas such as hypothalamus and dorsal raphe nucleus (DRD). Microdialysis in unanesthetized rats was carried out to characterize the effects of icv administration of CBD (10 microg/5 microl) on extracellular levels of dopamine (DA) within the nucleus accumbens. CBD induced an increase in DA release. Finally, in order to test if the waking properties of CBD could be blocked by the sleep-inducing endocannabinoid anandamide (ANA), animals received ANA (10 microg/2.5 microl, icv) followed 15 min later by CBD (10 microg/2.5 microl). Results showed that the waking properties of CBD were not blocked by ANA. In conclusion, we found that CBD modulates waking via activation of neurons in the hypothalamus and DRD. Both regions are apparently involved in the generation of alertness. Also, CBD increases DA levels as measured by microdialysis and HPLC procedures. Since CBD induces alertness, it might be of therapeutic value in sleep disorders such as excessive somnolence. PMID:16844117

  6. Cannabis sativa: The Plant of the Thousand and One Molecules.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andre, Christelle M; Hausman, Jean-Francois; Guerriero, Gea

    2016-01-01

    Cannabis sativa L. is an important herbaceous species originating from Central Asia, which has been used in folk medicine and as a source of textile fiber since the dawn of times. This fast-growing plant has recently seen a resurgence of interest because of its multi-purpose applications: it is indeed a treasure trove of phytochemicals and a rich source of both cellulosic and woody fibers. Equally highly interested in this plant are the pharmaceutical and construction sectors, since its metabolites show potent bioactivities on human health and its outer and inner stem tissues can be used to make bioplastics and concrete-like material, respectively. In this review, the rich spectrum of hemp phytochemicals is discussed by putting a special emphasis on molecules of industrial interest, including cannabinoids, terpenes and phenolic compounds, and their biosynthetic routes. Cannabinoids represent the most studied group of compounds, mainly due to their wide range of pharmaceutical effects in humans, including psychotropic activities. The therapeutic and commercial interests of some terpenes and phenolic compounds, and in particular stilbenoids and lignans, are also highlighted in view of the most recent literature data. Biotechnological avenues to enhance the production and bioactivity of hemp secondary metabolites are proposed by discussing the power of plant genetic engineering and tissue culture. In particular two systems are reviewed, i.e., cell suspension and hairy root cultures. Additionally, an entire section is devoted to hemp trichomes, in the light of their importance as phytochemical factories. Ultimately, prospects on the benefits linked to the use of the -omics technologies, such as metabolomics and transcriptomics to speed up the identification and the large-scale production of lead agents from bioengineered Cannabis cell culture, are presented. PMID:26870049

  7. Cannabis sativa: the plant of the thousand and one molecules

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christelle M Andre

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Cannabis sativa L. is an important herbaceous species originating from Central Asia, which has been used in folk medicine and as a source of textile fibre since the dawn of times. This fast-growing plant has recently seen a resurgence of interest because of its multi-purpose applications: it is indeed a treasure trove of phytochemicals and a rich source of both cellulosic and woody fibres. Equally highly interested in this plant are the pharmaceutical and construction sectors, since its metabolites show potent bioactivities on human health and its outer and inner stem tissues can be used to make bioplastics and concrete-like material, respectively. In this review, the rich spectrum of hemp phytochemicals is discussed by putting a special emphasis on molecules of industrial interest, including cannabinoids, terpenoids and phenolic compounds, and their biosynthetic routes. Cannabinoids represent the most studied group of compounds, mainly due to their wide range of pharmaceutical effects in humans, including psychotropic activities. The therapeutic and commercial interests of some terpenoids and phenolic compounds, and in particular stilbenoids and lignans, are also highlighted in view of the most recent literature data. Biotechnological avenues to enhance the production and bioactivity of hemp secondary metabolites are proposed by discussing the power of plant genetic engineering and tissue culture. In particular two systems are reviewed, i.e. cell suspension and hairy root cultures. Additionally, an entire section is devoted to hemp trichomes, in the light of their importance as phytochemical factories. Ultimately, prospects on the benefits linked to the use of the -omics technologies, such as metabolomics and transcriptomics to speed up the identification and the large-scale production of lead agents from bioengineered Cannabis cell culture, are presented.

  8. Transesterification of camelina sativa oil with supercritical alcohol mixtures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • Transesterification of camelina oil under supercritical methanol/ethanol and 1-butanol mixture conditions. • Chemical composition of fatty acid methyl esters, ethyl esters and butyl esters. • Effect of different alcohol molar ratio on biodiesel yields. • Effect of different alcohol molar ratio on physical properties of biodiesel products. - Abstract: The transesterification of camelina sativa oil with methanol–1-butanol, and ethanol–1-butanol alcohol mixtures under supercritical conditions have been studied in order to maximize biodiesel yield and improve biodiesel quality. The influence of the variation of the molar ratio of methanol–1-butanol and ethanol–1-butanol from 1:0, 3:1, 2:1, 1:1, 1:2, to 0:1 on the yield of free fatty methyl esters/free fatty ethanol esters–free fatty acid butyl esters, the composition of the biodiesel blend mixtures, and the physical properties of the biodiesel have been investigated at the reaction temperature of 290 °C, reaction time of 30 min, and the initial reaction pressure of 500 psi. A maximum yield of 86.14 wt% for free fatty acid methyl esters–free fatty acid butyl esters with the optimum cold property can be obtained at the molar ratio of methanol–1-butanol of 0.5–0.9. Also, a maximum yield of 85.60 wt% for free fatty ethyl esters–free fatty butyl esters with the lowest pour point can be achieved at the molar ratio of ethanol–1-butanol in the range of 0.5–0.7

  9. Lipid analysis of developing Camelina sativa seeds and cultured embryos.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pollard, Mike; Martin, Tina M; Shachar-Hill, Yair

    2015-10-01

    Camelina sativa is a cultivated oilseed rich in triacylglycerols containing oleic, linoleic, α-linolenic and eicosenoic acids. As it holds promise as a model species, its lipid synthesis was characterized in vivo and in culture. Lipid accumulates at a maximum rate of about 26 μg/day/seed (11.5 mg lipid/day/g fresh seed weight), a rate comparable with other oilseeds. Noteworthy is a late stage surge in α-linolenic acid accumulation. Small amounts of unusual epoxy and hydroxy fatty acids are also present in the triacylglycerols. These include 15,16-epoxy- and 15-hydroxy-octadecadienoic acids and homologous series of ω7-hydroxy-alk-ω9-enoic and ω9/10-hydroxy-alkanoic acids. Mid-maturation embryos cultured in vitro have growth and lipid deposition rates and fatty acid compositions that closely match that of seeds, but extended culture periods allow these rates to rise and surpass those observed in planta. Optimized thin layer chromatography systems for characterization of labeled products from acetate or glycerol labeling are described. Glycerol label is only found in acylglycerols, largely as the intact glyceryl backbone, but acetate can label acyl groups and sterols, the latter to a much higher relative specific activity. This presumably occurs because mevalonic acid precursor is derived from the non-plastid pool of acetyl-CoA that is also the source for malonyl-CoA to drive FAE1-dependent chain elongation. Particular attention has been paid to the separation of sterols and diacylglycerols, and to hydrogenation of triacylglycerols to simplify their analysis. These improved methods will allow more accurate analyses of the fluxes of lipid metabolism in cultured plant embryos. PMID:26262674

  10. Effect of nigella sativa seeds extract on serum c-reactive protein in albino rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    C-reactive protein (CRP) is an acute phase protein. It predicts future risk of cardiovascular diseases. Different medicinal plants and their active ingredients possess the ability to reduce serum CRP levels and hence inflammatory disorders and cardiovascular diseases. In our study, ethanolic extract of Nigella sativa seeds was evaluated in albino rats for its possible effect on serum CRP levels. Objective: The objective of this study was to determine the effect of ethanolic extract of Nigella sativa seeds on an acute inflammatory biomarker/mediator, C-reactive protein (CRP) in albino rats. Study Design: Randomized controlled trial (RCT). Place and Duration of Study: Physiology Department, Services Institute of Medical Sciences (SIMS), Lahore; from September to November, 2009. Subjects and Methods: The study was carried out on 90 male albino rats. Five percent (5%) formalin in a dose of 50 meu1 was injected into sub-plantar surface of right hind paw of each rat to produce inflammation. The rats were randomly divided into three groups of thirty each. Group A was given normal saline (control); group B was given Nigella sativa seed extract; and group C received diclofenac sodium, as a reference drug. CRP levels in each group were measured from blood samples taken 25 hours after giving formalin. Results: The ethanolic extract of Nigella sativa seeds, given intraperitoneally, caused highly significant (p<0.001) reduction in serum CRP levels as compared to control group. The reduction in CRP levels by ethanolic extract of Nigella sativa was also significantly (p<0.05) more than that produced by diclofenac sodium. Conclusion: Our results suggest that Nigella sativa possesses ability to reduce serum CRP levels significantly, after production of artificial inflammation, in albino rats. (author)

  11. N-glycan transition of the early developmental stage in Oryza sativa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horiuchi, Risa; Hirotsu, Naoki; Miyanishi, Nobumitsu

    2016-08-26

    N-Glycosylation is one of the post-translational modifications. In animals, N-glycans linked to proteins function in cell-cell recognition, sorting, transport, and other biological phenomena. However, in plants, N-glycan-mediated biological functions remain obscure. In a previous study, we showed that the main type of N-glycan transition is from the paucimannosidic to complex type before and after germination in Oryza sativa, suggesting that transitions of N-glycan, including those of glycoproteins and glycosyltransferases, are closely associated with plant growth. To further elucidate the relationship between N-glycan structure and plant growth, we analyzed the structures of N-glycans expressed in O. sativa seedlings grown under light conditions and performed comparative analyses of the structures in the shoot and root. The analyses show that fundamental N-glycan structures are common to the shoot and root, whereas paucimannosidic-type N-glycans dramatically decreased in the root grown under light conditions. Further, to investigate the effects of light on N-glycan structures in O. sativa seedlings, we analyzed N-glycan structures in O. sativa seedlings grown in the dark. Understandably, N-glycan expression in the root was almost unaffected by light. However, despite a marked difference in phenotype, N-glycan expression in the shoot was also unaffected by light. This result suggests that the shoot and root of O. sativa have different glycoproteins and distinct N-glycan synthetic systems. Thus, we propose that the N-glycan synthetic system of the O. sativa shoot is almost unaffected by light conditions and that many photosynthesis-related proteins are not modified by N-glycans. PMID:27320861

  12. Rhipicephalus annulatus (Acari: Ixodidae Control by Nigella sativa, Thyme and Spinosad Preparations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shawky Mohamed Aboelhadid

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Several compounds obtained from plants have potential insecticidal, growth deterrent or repellent characteristics. The control of hard ticks by non-chemical substances was targeted in this study.Methods: The effect of 36 materials on in-vitro ticks was studied, including 2 absolute controls (water only or ab­solute ethyl alcohol only, 6 conventionally used spinosad preparations (aqueous solutions, 12 Nigella sativa (N. sativa preparations (aqueous and alcoholic solutions, and 12 Thyme preparations (aqueous and alcoholic solutions. The engorged ticks were tested in-vitro for mortality and oviposition ability using the studied materials.Results: The final mortality after 48 hours of application in N. sativa aqueous preparations began from 10.0% con­centration, 1.0% to 100% by concentration preparations ≥10%. In addition, N. sativa alcoholic preparations began from 50.0% concentration, 2 % to 100% by concentration ≥5%. Meanwhile, Thyme aqueous and alcoholic prepa­rations began from 70.0% concentration, 5% to 90% by concentration 10–20%. Additionally, spinosad aqueous preparations and both of control preparations (Water and Alcohol resulted in no mortality. All differences were sta­tistically significant. The oviposition was stopped in N. sativa (aqueous ≥10% and alcoholic ≥5% and in spinosad (aqueous≥25%. The aqoues dilution of the used matters killed B. annulatus larvae beginning from the concentration 5%.Conclusion: Nigella sativa alcohol 20% was the best of studied preparations being the lowest concentration (20% that could achieve the highest lethal (100% effect in shortest time (12 hours. Moreover, Thyme oil and spinosad could not kill 100% of adult but did on larvae.

  13. Allelopathic effects of Medicago sativa L. and Vicia cracca L. leaf and root extracts on weeds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koloren, Onur

    2007-05-15

    In this study, the allelopathic potential of different concentration (5, 25 and 50%) of M. sativa and V. cracca leaf and root extracts were evaluated on germination and radicle length of four weed species (Amaranthus retroflexus L., Lolium perenne L., Ipomoea hederacea L. and Portulaca oleracea L.) in laboratory condition. As a result, germination and radicle length of all species were reduced by the extract from M. sativa and V. cracca leaf and root at different percentage. Increasing the water extract concentrations from 5 to 50% of test plants parts significantly increased the inhibition of all weed species germination and radicle length. PMID:19086510

  14. Advice of the Italian CCTN on the toxicity of Cannabis sativa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Camoni, I. [ed.] [Istituto Superiore di Sanita`, Rome (Italy). Lab. di Tossicologia Applicata; Mucci, N. [ed.] [ISPESL, Monteporzio Catone, Roma (Italy). Dip. di Medicina del Lavoro; Paroli, E. [ed.] [Rome, Univ. `La Sapienza` (Italy). Fac. di Medicina, Ist. di Farmacologia

    1998-06-01

    This recommendation of the Italian National Toxicological Committee (CCTN) regards the possible toxic effects of some products derived from Cannabis sativa, indica variety. The CCTN has especially evaluated genotoxic, immunological and toxic to reproduction effects of these substances, on the basis of the results from both experimental studies and observations on humans. [Italiano] Il documento contiene il parere della CCTN sui potenziali effetti tossici di alcuni derivati della Cannabis sativa, varieta` indica. Il parere e` stato elaborato sulla base dei risultati sia di studi sperimentali sia dei limitati studi sull`uomo, prendendo in particolare considerazione gli effetti genotossici, tossico-riproduttivi ed immunologici.

  15. Protective effects of Nigella sativa against hypertension-induced oxidative stress and cardiovascular dysfunction in rats

    OpenAIRE

    Nur Taşar; Ahmet Özer Şehirli; Ömer Yiğiner; Selami Süleymanoğlu; Meral Yüksel; Berrak Yeğen; Göksel Şener

    2012-01-01

    We investigated the protective effect of Nigella sativa against oxidative injury in the heart and kidney tissues of rats with renovascular hypertension (RVH). RVH model was induced by placing a renal artery clip (2-kidney-1-clip, 2K1C) in Wistar albino rats (n= 8), while sham rats (n= 8) had no clip placement. Starting on the 3rd week after the operation, rats received Nigella sativa (0.2 ml/kg/day, intraperitoneally) or vehicle for the following 6 weeks. Blood pressures (BP) were recorded at...

  16. Isolation of Cannabinoids from the plant Cannabis sativa and its potential anticancer activity

    OpenAIRE

    Tariq A.L.; Reyaz A.L

    2012-01-01

    The plant leaves were identified as Cannabis sativa L. The cannabniods were extracted by aqueous extract found a total yield of 3.8g while as acetone extract 4.8g. The protein content in crude extract of Cannabis sativa L for aqeous extract found 112μg/ml and for acetone extract 160μg/ml. The molecular weight of protein by SDS PGAGE found to be 70KDa. The HPLC intension percentage for aqueous was 11 while for acetone extract it found 25. The actone extract exhibited more anticancer activity a...

  17. Influence of Feed Supplementation with Cannabis Sativa on Quality of Broilers Carcass

    OpenAIRE

    Rifat Ullah Khan1*, F. R. Durrani1, Naila Chand1 and Haseeb Anwar

    2010-01-01

    A project was planned to study the effect of feeding powdered seeds of Cannabis sativa on the carcass quality of broiler chicks. A total of 160 day-old broiler chicks of equal weight were randomly divided into four equal groups A, B, C and D. Each group was further divided into four replicates with 10 chicks in each replicate. Dried crushed Cannabis sativa seeds were added to the feed of groups B, C and D at the rate of 5, 10 and 20% of offered feed respectively, while group A served as a con...

  18. Cannabis sativa and the endogenous cannabinoid system: therapeutic potential for appetite regulation

    OpenAIRE

    Farrimond, Jonathan Andrew; Mercier, Marion Simone; Whalley, Ben; Williams, Claire M.

    2011-01-01

    Abstract The herb Cannabis sativa (C. sativa) has been used in China and on the Indian subcontinent for thousands of years as a medicine. However, since it was brought to the U.K. and then the rest of the western world in the late 19th century, its use has been a source of controversy. Indeed, its psychotropic side effects are well reported but only relatively recently has scientific endeavour begun to find valuable uses for either the whole plant or its individual components. Here...

  19. A neurotoxicidade da Cannabis sativa e suas repercussões sobre a morfologia do tecido cerebral

    OpenAIRE

    Bárbara da Silva Santos; Marcelo Coertjens

    2014-01-01

    Para a compreensão das repercussões psicológicas e comportamentais verificadas em usuários de Cannabis sativa, experimentos têm sido desenvolvidos analisando a relação entre a intensidade do uso da droga e biomarcadores de lesão e inflamação. Dessa forma, este estudo teve como objetivo realizar pesquisa bibliográfica, relacionando marcadores bioquímicos de neurotoxicidade e suas repercussões sobre a morfologia do tecido cerebral em usuários de Cannabis sativa, durante a exposição ao ∆9-THC po...

  20. Isolation of Cannabinoids from the plant Cannabis sativa and its potential anticancer activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tariq. A. L

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available The plant leaves were identified as Cannabis sativa L. The cannabniods were extracted by aqueous extract found a total yield of 3.8g while as acetone extract 4.8g. The protein content in crude extract of Cannabis sativa L for aqeous extract found 112μg/ml and for acetone extract 160μg/ml. The molecular weight of protein by SDS PGAGE found to be 70KDa. The HPLC intension percentage for aqueous was 11 while for acetone extract it found 25. The actone extract exhibited more anticancer activity against HT29, MCF7 and SF-26 Cells