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Sample records for alcoholic fatty liver

  1. Non-Alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease in HIV Infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macías, Juan; Pineda, Juan A; Real, Luis M

    2017-01-01

    Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease is one of the most frequent chronic hepatic conditions worldwide. The spectrum of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease goes from hepatic steatosis to steatohepatitis, cirrhosis, and hepatocellular carcinoma. Risk factors for non-alcoholic fatty liver disease are metabolic, mainly obesity and the accompanying consequences. Treatment and prevention of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease should target those metabolic abnormalities. The frequency of and the factors associated with hepatic steatosis in HIV infection seem to be similar to those reported in the general population, though direct comparisons are lacking. Hepatic steatosis in HIV infection may also be secondary to antiretroviral drugs or HCV-related factors in HCV-coinfected subjects. However, more recent data suggest that hepatic steatosis in HIV infection represents true non-alcoholic fatty liver disease. As such, management of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease in HIV infection should follow the same principles as in the general population.

  2. The association of vitamin D deficiency with non-alcoholic fatty liver disease

    OpenAIRE

    Küçükazman, Metin; Ata, Naim; Dal, Kürşat; Yeniova, Abdullah Özgür; Kefeli, Ayşe; Basyigit, Sebahat; Aktas, Bora; Akin, Kadir Okhan; Ağladioğlu, Kadir; Üre, Öznur Sari; Topal, Firdes; Nazligül, Yaşar; Beyan, Esin; Ertugrul, Derun Taner

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Vitamin D deficiency has been related to diabetes, hypertension, hyperlipidemia and peripheral vascular disease. In this study, we aimed to investigate the role of vitamin D status in non-alcoholic fatty liver disease. METHODS: We included 211 consecutive subjects to examine the presence of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease. Of these subjects, 57 did not have non-alcoholic fatty liver disease and 154 had non-alcoholic fatty liver disease. RESULTS: The non-alcoholic fatty liver ...

  3. Biphasic effect of alcohol intake on the development of fatty liver disease.

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    Takahashi, Hirokazu; Ono, Masafumi; Hyogo, Hideyuki; Tsuji, Chika; Kitajima, Yoichiro; Ono, Naofumi; Eguchi, Takahisa; Fujimoto, Kazuma; Chayama, Kazuaki; Saibara, Toshiji; Anzai, Keizo; Eguchi, Yuichiro

    2015-11-01

    Fatty liver is an important clinical feature not only in alcoholic and non-alcoholic fatty liver diseases, but in other chronic liver diseases as well. Our aim was to elucidate the effect and relationship between habitual alcohol intake and obesity in the development of fatty liver disease. We enrolled 8,029 subjects undergoing abdominal ultrasonography with general medical examinations, and analyzed the factors associated with fatty liver based on daily alcohol intake, body mass index (BMI), and waist circumference. For fatty liver, BMI, waist circumference, total cholesterol, triglycerides, and fasting plasma glucose were significant and independent risk factors. Heavy alcohol intake (50 g/day) was a significant risk factor for fatty liver in women (odds ratio [OR], 3.35). Analysis based on the presence or absence of obesity revealed that moderate alcohol intake was a significant negative risk factor for fatty liver in both male and female obese (BMI ≥25 kg/m(2)) subjects (OR, 0.74 for non-obese and 0.39 for obese patients, respectively). Heavy alcohol intake was also a significant negative risk factor in obese males (0.62). In contrast, heavy alcohol intake was a risk factor in non-obese males (OR, 1.29) and in all females (OR, 2.22 for non-obese and 6.6 for obese patients, respectively). The influence of alcohol intake on fatty liver differed depending on the level of alcohol consumption, gender, and the presence of obesity, and showed biphasic effects.

  4. The association of vitamin D deficiency with non-alcoholic fatty liver disease

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    Metin Küçükazman

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: Vitamin D deficiency has been related to diabetes, hypertension, hyperlipidemia and peripheral vascular disease. In this study, we aimed to investigate the role of vitamin D status in non-alcoholic fatty liver disease. METHODS: We included 211 consecutive subjects to examine the presence of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease. Of these subjects, 57 did not have non-alcoholic fatty liver disease and 154 had non-alcoholic fatty liver disease. RESULTS: The non-alcoholic fatty liver disease group had significantly higher fasting blood glucose (p = 0.005, uric acid (p = 0.001, aspartate aminotransferase (p<0.001, alanine aminotransferase (p<0.001, γ-glutamyltransferase (p<0.0001, alkaline phosphatase (p = 0.028, HbA1c (p<0.001, ferritin (p<0.001, insulin (p = 0.016, C-peptide (p = 0.001, HOMA-IR (p = 0.003, total cholesterol (p = 0.001, triglyceride (p = 0.001 and white blood cell (p = 0.04 levels. In contrast, the non-alcoholic fatty liver disease group had significantly lower 25(OHD levels (12.3±8.9 ng/dl, p<0.001 compared with those of the control group (20±13.6 ng/dl. CONCLUSIONS: In this study, we found lower serum 25(OHD levels in patients with non-alcoholic fatty liver disease than in subjects without non-alcoholic fatty liver disease. To establish causality between vitamin D and non-alcoholic fatty liver disease, further interventional studies with a long-term follow-up are needed.

  5. NON-ALCOHOLIC FATTY LIVER DISEASE IN CHILDREN

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    L.V. Chistova

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Metabolic syndrome that represents a totality of interrelated carbohydrate metabolism and lipid disorders, as well as a mechanism regulating arterial tension and endothelium function is one of the critical issues in pediatrics. In recent years, children with metabolic syndrome are increasingly diagnosed with liver injuries symptoms that are associated with a fatty transformation of the liver [1–3]. In this case, non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD, a liver manifestation of metabolic syndrome is diagnosed. The diagnosis is confirmed in the absence of alcohol abuse in the past medical history, virus and autoimmune liver disease markers, elimination of toxic and drug influence, as wells as disorders of copper and iron exchange in the patient’s system. One of the key risk factors for developing NAFLD in children is overeating and reduced physical activities. It was believed in the past that NAFLD is relatively benign, however, there is evidence in current literature that this is a pathological condition that may develop and result in extreme fibrotic alterations in the liver parenchymatous tissue all the way to cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma [4]. Early-stage identification and timely launch of therapy for NAFLD in children represents one of the most important objectives in modern healthcare. Key words: metabolic syndrome, non-alcoholic fatty liver disease, children, steatohepatosis. (Pediatric Pharmacology. – 2010; 7(6:68-72

  6. Strategies, models and biomarkers in experimental non-alcoholic fatty liver disease research

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    Willebrords, Joost; Pereira, Isabel Veloso Alves; Maes, Michaël; Yanguas, Sara Crespo; Colle, Isabelle; Van Den Bossche, Bert; Da silva, Tereza Cristina; Oliveira, Cláudia P; Andraus, Wellington; Alves, Venâncio Avancini Ferreira; Cogliati, Bruno; Vinken, Mathieu

    2015-01-01

    Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease encompasses a spectrum of liver diseases, including simple steatosis, steatohepatitis, liver fibrosis and cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma. Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease is currently the most dominant chronic liver disease in Western countries due to the fact that hepatic steatosis is associated with insulin resistance, type 2 diabetes mellitus, obesity, metabolic syndrome and drug-induced injury. A variety of chemicals, mainly drugs, and diets is known to cause hepatic steatosis in humans and rodents. Experimental non-alcoholic fatty liver disease models rely on the application of a diet or the administration of drugs to laboratory animals or the exposure of hepatic cell lines to these drugs. More recently, genetically modified rodents or zebrafish have been introduced as non-alcoholic fatty liver disease models. Considerable interest now lies in the discovery and development of novel non-invasive biomarkers of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease, with specific focus on hepatic steatosis. Experimental diagnostic biomarkers of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease, such as (epi)genetic parameters and ‘-omics’-based read-outs are still in their infancy, but show great promise. . In this paper, the array of tools and models for the study of liver steatosis is discussed. Furthermore, the current state-of-art regarding experimental biomarkers such as epigenetic, genetic, transcriptomic, proteomic and metabonomic biomarkers will be reviewed. PMID:26073454

  7. Multiparametric magnetic resonance imaging for the assessment of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease severity.

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    Pavlides, Michael; Banerjee, Rajarshi; Tunnicliffe, Elizabeth M; Kelly, Catherine; Collier, Jane; Wang, Lai Mun; Fleming, Kenneth A; Cobbold, Jeremy F; Robson, Matthew D; Neubauer, Stefan; Barnes, Eleanor

    2017-07-01

    The diagnosis of non-alcoholic steatohepatitis and fibrosis staging are central to non-alcoholic fatty liver disease assessment. We evaluated multiparametric magnetic resonance in the assessment of non-alcoholic steatohepatitis and fibrosis using histology as standard in non-alcoholic fatty liver disease. Seventy-one patients with suspected non-alcoholic fatty liver disease were recruited within 1 month of liver biopsy. Magnetic resonance data were used to define the liver inflammation and fibrosis score (LIF 0-4). Biopsies were assessed for steatosis, lobular inflammation, ballooning and fibrosis and classified as non-alcoholic steatohepatitis or simple steatosis, and mild or significant (Activity ≥2 and/or Fibrosis ≥2 as defined by the Fatty Liver Inhibition of Progression consortium) non-alcoholic fatty liver disease. Transient elastography was also performed. Magnetic resonance success rate was 95% vs 59% for transient elastography (Pliver inflammation and fibrosis (r s =.51, Pliver inflammation and fibrosis for the diagnosis of cirrhosis was 0.85. Liver inflammation and fibrosis score for ballooning grades 0, 1 and 2 was 1.2, 2.7 and 3.5 respectively (Pliver inflammation and fibrosis (1.3) compared to patients with non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (3.0) (PLiver inflammation and fibrosis scores for patients with mild and significant non-alcoholic fatty liver disease were 1.2 and 2.9 respectively (Pliver inflammation and fibrosis for the diagnosis of significant non-alcoholic fatty liver disease was 0.89. Multiparametric magnetic resonance is a promising technique with good diagnostic accuracy for non-alcoholic fatty liver disease histological parameters, and can potentially identify patients with non-alcoholic steatohepatitis and cirrhosis. © 2017 The Authors Liver International Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  8. Current management of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease

    OpenAIRE

    LISBOA, QUELSON COELHO; COSTA, SILVIA MARINHO FEROLLA; COUTO, CLÁUDIA ALVES

    2016-01-01

    SUMMARY Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is characterized by hepatic accumulation of lipid in patients who do not consume alcohol in amounts generally considered harmful to the liver. NAFLD is becoming a major liver disease in Eastern countries and it is related to insulin resistance and metabolic syndrome. Treatment has focused on improving insulin sensitivity, protecting the liver from oxidative stress, decreasing obesity and improving diabetes mellitus, dyslipidemia, hepatic infla...

  9. Nutritional Modulation of Non-Alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease and Insulin Resistance

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    Hannele Yki-Järvinen

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD covers a spectrum of disorders ranging from simple steatosis (non-alcoholic fatty liver, NAFL to non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH and cirrhosis. NAFL increases the risk of liver fibrosis. If the liver is fatty due to causes of insulin resistance such as obesity and physical inactivity, it overproduces glucose and triglycerides leading to hyperinsulinemia and a low high-density lipoprotein (HDL cholesterol concentration. The latter features predispose to type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular disease (CVD. Understanding the impact of nutritional modulation of liver fat content and insulin resistance is therefore of interest for prevention and treatment of NAFLD. Hypocaloric, especially low carbohydrate ketogenic diets rapidly decrease liver fat content and associated metabolic abnormalities. However, any type of caloric restriction seems effective long-term. Isocaloric diets containing 16%–23% fat and 57%–65% carbohydrate lower liver fat compared to diets with 43%–55% fat and 27%–38% carbohydrate. Diets rich in saturated (SFA as compared to monounsaturated (MUFA or polyunsaturated (PUFA fatty acids appear particularly harmful as they increase both liver fat and insulin resistance. Overfeeding either saturated fat or carbohydrate increases liver fat content. Vitamin E supplementation decreases liver fat content as well as fibrosis but has no effect on features of insulin resistance.

  10. Pediatric Non-Alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease

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    Haley Bush

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract: With the increase in the prevalence of obesity, non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD has become among the leading causes of chronic liver disease in the pediatric age group. Once believed to be a “two-hit process”, it is now clear that the actual pathophysiology of NAFLD is complex and involves multiple pathways. Moreover, NAFLD is not always benign, and patients with non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH are at increased risk of developing advanced stages of liver disease. It has also been shown that NAFLD is not only a liver disease, but is also associated with multiple extrahepatic manifestations, including cardiovascular diseases, type 2 diabetes, and low bone mineral density. Although the data is scarce in the pediatric population, some studies have suggested that long-term mortality and the requirement of liver transplantation will continue to increase in patients with NAFLD. More studies are needed to better understand the natural history of NAFLD, especially in the pediatric age group.

  11. Curcumin improves alcoholic fatty liver by inhibiting fatty acid biosynthesis.

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    Guo, Chang; Ma, Jingfan; Zhong, Qionghong; Zhao, Mengyuan; Hu, Tianxing; Chen, Tong; Qiu, Longxin; Wen, Longping

    2017-08-01

    Alcoholic fatty liver is a threat to human health. It has been long known that abstinence from alcohol is the most effective therapy, other effective therapies are not available for the treatment in humans. Curcumin has a great potential for anti-oxidation and anti-inflammation, but the effect on metabolic reconstruction remains little known. Here we performed metabolomic analysis by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry and explored ethanol pathogenic insight as well as curcumin action pattern. We identified seventy-one metabolites in mouse liver. Carbohydrates and lipids were characteristic categories. Pathway analysis results revealed that ethanol-induced pathways including biosynthesis of unsaturated fatty acids, fatty acid biosynthesis and pentose and glucuronate interconversions were suppressed by curcumin. Additionally, ethanol enhanced galactose metabolism and pentose phosphate pathway. Glyoxylate and dicarboxylate metabolism and pyruvate metabolism were inhibited in mice fed ethanol diet plus curcumin. Stearic acid, oleic acid and linoleic acid were disease biomarkers and therapical biomarkers. These results reflect the landscape of hepatic metabolism regulation. Our findings illustrate ethanol pathological pathway and metabolic mechanism of curcumin therapy. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  12. [Advances in the pathogenesis of non alcoholic fatty liver disease].

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    Pár, Alajos; Pár, Gabriella

    2017-06-01

    Non alcoholic fatty liver disease is the hepatic manifestation of metabolic syndrome, and the most common liver disease. Its more aggressive form is the non alcoholic steatohepatitis. Multiple genetic and environmental factors lead to the accumulation of triglicerides and the inflammatory cascade. High fat diet, obesity, adipocyte dysfunction with cytokine production, insulin resistance and increased lipolysis with free fatty acid flux into the liver - all are the drivers of liver cell injury. Activation of inflammasome by damage- or pathogen-associated molecular patterns results in "steril inflammation" and immune response, while the hepatic stellate cells and progenitor cells lead to fibrogenesis. Small intestinal bacterial overgrowth and gut dysbiosis are also of pivotal importance in the inflammation. Among the susceptible genetic factors, mutations of patatin-like phospholipase domain containing 3 and the transmembrane 6 superfamily 2 genes play a role in the development and progression of the disease, similarly as do epigenetic regulators such as microRNAs and extracellular vesicles. Better understanding of the pathogenesis of non alcoholic fatty liver disease may identify novel therapeutic agents that improve the outcome of the disease. Orv Hetil. 2017; 158(23): 882-894.

  13. ORIGINAL ARTICLE Non-Alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2018-01-01

    Jan 1, 2018 ... ABSTRACT. BACKGROUND: Non-alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease (NAFLD) among type 2 diabetic patients is completely ignored in developing regions like Africa paving the way for public health and economic burden in the region. Therefore, the main objective of this research was to evaluate non-alcoholic ...

  14. Non-Alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease: From patient to population

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    E.M. Koehler (Edith)

    2013-01-01

    textabstractNon-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) has become the most common chronic liver disease in Western countries, in parallel with epidemics in obesity and type 2 diabetes mellitus. NAFLD comprises a wide range of histological findings, extending from simple steatosis to

  15. Fatty liver disease in Sudan is not alcohol related | Nail | Sudan ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: The finding of fatty liver disease (FLD) has generally been assumed to be a consequence of ethanol ingestion. However, non- alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) was identified as a specific entity. Although FLD is generally nonprogressive or only slowly progressive, cirrhosis and HCC can develop.

  16. Serum adipokines might predict liver histology findings in non-alcoholic fatty liver disease.

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    Jamali, Raika; Razavizade, Mohsen; Arj, Abbas; Aarabi, Mohammad Hossein

    2016-06-07

    To assess significance of serum adipokines to determine the histological severity of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease. Patients with persistent elevation in serum aminotransferase levels and well-defined characteristics of fatty liver at ultrasound were enrolled. Individuals with a history of alcohol consumption, hepatotoxic medication, viral hepatitis or known liver disease were excluded. Liver biopsy was performed to confirm non-alcoholic liver disease (NAFLD). The degrees of liver steatosis, lobular inflammation and fibrosis were determined based on the non-alcoholic fatty liver activity score (NAS) by a single expert pathologist. Patients with a NAS of five or higher were considered to have steatohepatitis. Those with a NAS of two or lower were defined as simple fatty liver. Binary logistic regression was used to determine the independent association of adipokines with histological findings. Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) analysis was employed to determine cut-off values of serum adipokines to discriminate the grades of liver steatosis, lobular inflammation and fibrosis. Fifty-four participants aged 37.02 ± 9.82 were enrolled in the study. Higher serum levels of visfatin, IL-8, TNF-α levels were associated independently with steatosis grade of more than 33% [β = 1.08 (95%CI: 1.03-1.14), 1.04 (95%CI: 1.008-1.07), 1.04 (95%CI: 1.004-1.08), P < 0.05]. Elevated serum IL-6 and IL-8 levels were associated independently with advanced lobular inflammation [β = 1.4 (95%CI: 1.09-1.8), 1.07 (95%CI: 1.003-1.15), P < 0.05]. Similarly, higher TNF-α, resistin, and hepcidin levels were associated independently with advanced fibrosis stage [β = 1.06 (95%CI: 1.002-1.12), 19.86 (95%CI: 2.79-141.19), 560.72 (95%CI: 5.98-5255.33), P < 0.05]. Serum IL-8 and TNF-α values were associated independently with the NAS score, considering a NAS score of 5 as the reference value [β = 1.05 (95%CI: 1.01-1.1), 1.13 (95%CI: 1.04-1.22), P < 0.05]. Certain adipokines may

  17. Liver fat content, non-alcoholic fatty liver disease, and ischaemic heart disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lauridsen, Bo Kobberø; Stender, Stefan; Kristensen, Thomas Skårup

    2018-01-01

    Aims: In observational studies, non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is associated with high risk of ischaemic heart disease (IHD). We tested the hypothesis that a high liver fat content or a diagnosis of NAFLD is a causal risk factor for IHD. Methods and results: In a cohort study...

  18. [Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease--new view].

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    Raszeja-Wyszomirska, Joanna; Lawniczak, Małgorzata; Marlicz, Wojciech; Miezyńska-Kurtycz, Joanna; Milkiewicz, Piotr

    2008-06-01

    Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) covers a wide spectrum of liver pathology--from steatosis alone, through the necroinflammatory disorder of non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) to cirrhosis and liver cancer. NAFLD/NASH is mostly related with visceral adiposity, obesity, type 2 diabetes melitus (DM t.2) and metabolic syndrome. Pathogenetic concepts of NAFLD include overnutrition and underactivity, insulin resistance (IR) and genetic factor. The prevalence of NAFLD has been estimated to be 17-33% in some countries, NASH may be present in about 1/3 of such cases, while 20-25% of NASH cases could progress to cirrhosis. NAFLD is now recognized as one of the most frequent reason of liver tests elevation without clinical symptoms. Insulin resistance is considering as having a central role in NAFLD pathogenesis. In hepatocytes, IR is related to hyperglycaemia and hyperinsulinaemia, formation of advanced glycation end-products, increased free fatty acids and their metabolites, oxidative stress and altered profiles of adipocytokines. Early stages of fatty liver are clinically silent and include elevation of ALT and GGTP, hyperechogenic liver in USG and/or hepatomegaly. Among clinical symptoms, abdominal discomfort is relatively common as well as chronic fatigue. NAFLD/NASH is not a benign disease, progressive liver biopsy have shown histological progression of fibrosis in 32%, the estimated rate of cirrhosis development is 20% and a liver--related death is 12% over 10 years. No treatment has scientifically proved to ameliorate NAFLD or to avoid its progression. The various therapeutic alternatives are aimed at interfering with the risk factors involved in the pathogenesis of the disorder in order to prevent the progression to end-stage liver disease. The most important therapeutic measure is increasing insulin sensitivity by an attempt to change a lifestyle mostly by dieting and physical activity in order to loose weight. The most used agent is metformin, the others

  19. Prevalence of non alcoholic fatty liver disease in patients with metabolic syndrome

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iftikhar, R.; Kamran, S.M.

    2015-01-01

    To determine frequency of Non Alcoholic fatty liver disease in patients with Metabolic Syndrome (MetS). Study Design: Cross sectional study. Place and Duration of Study: Department of medicine, CMH Okara, Jan 2013 to July 2013. Patients and Methods: We included 491 adult males, diagnosed with metabolic syndrome (MetS), presenting in outpatient department for routine review. MetS was diagnosed as per the International Diabetes Federation (IDF) proposed criteria of 2004. Detailed history and examination of each individual was done and data entered in pre designed performa. Brightness and posterior attenuation on ultrasound abdomen were considered indices for fatty liver disease in presence of elevated ALT, negative hepatitis serology and absence of alcohol intake. All the data was analyzed using SPSS version 16. p value of less than 0.05 was considered statistically significant. Results: Out of 491 participants with MetS, 222 (45.2%) had fatty liver disease. Mean BMI in patients with metabolic syndrome was 26.1 (± .89) and mean BMI in fatty liver patients was 27.3 (± 0.67). Out of total 5 components of Mets, patients with fatty liver disease had 3.24 (± 0.25) components, as compared to 2.1 (± 0.34) in whole of study group. Conclusion: A large number of patients with metabolic syndrome have fatty liver disease. Fatty liver disease is more frequent in patients who are overweight and those having multiple risk factors of metabolic syndrome. (author)

  20. NON-ALCOHOLIC FATTY LIVER DISEASE AT OUR INSTITUTE

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    Madhavi

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION A Correlation clinical observational hospital based clinical study with 50 patients were undertaken to study the Clinical Profile of incidentally detected Non Alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease. The cases for the study were selected retrospectively who were diagnosed as fatty liver by ultrasound imaging who attended the Department of General Medicine, Government General Hospital Kakinada Rangaraya Medical College. Data has been enumerated for those who fulfilled the inclusion criteria. This study was conducted between January 2013-January 2015. The study has limitations of observer variant dependent diagnostic ultrasound for inclusion in to study. A BMI of>25 kg/m2 taken as definition for obesity for analysis.

  1. Molecular pathways in non-alcoholic fatty liver disease

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    Berlanga A

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Alba Berlanga,1,* Esther Guiu-Jurado,1,* José Antonio Porras,1,2 Teresa Auguet1,21Group GEMMAIR (AGAUR and Applied Medicine Research Group, Department of Medicine and Surgery, Universitat Rovira i Virgili (URV, IISPV, Hospital Universitari Joan XXIII, Tarragona, Spain; 2Department of Internal Medicine, Hospital Universitari Joan XXIII Tarragona, Tarragona, Spain *These authors contributed equally to this workAbstract: Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD is a clinicopathological change characterized by the accumulation of triglycerides in hepatocytes and has frequently been associated with obesity, type 2 diabetes mellitus, hyperlipidemia, and insulin resistance. It is an increasingly recognized condition that has become the most common liver disorder in developed countries, affecting over one-third of the population and is associated with increased cardiovascular- and liver-related mortality. NAFLD is a spectrum of disorders, beginning as simple steatosis. In about 15% of all NAFLD cases, simple steatosis can evolve into non-alcoholic steatohepatitis, a medley of inflammation, hepatocellular injury, and fibrosis, often resulting in cirrhosis and even hepatocellular cancer. However, the molecular mechanism underlying NAFLD progression is not completely understood. Its pathogenesis has often been interpreted by the "double-hit" hypothesis. The primary insult or the "first hit" includes lipid accumulation in the liver, followed by a "second hit" in which proinflammatory mediators induce inflammation, hepatocellular injury, and fibrosis. Nowadays, a more complex model suggests that fatty acids (FAs and their metabolites may be the true lipotoxic agents that contribute to NAFLD progression; a multiple parallel hits hypothesis has also been suggested. In NAFLD patients, insulin resistance leads to hepatic steatosis via multiple mechanisms. Despite the excess hepatic accumulation of FAs in NAFLD, it has been described that not only de novo FA

  2. Liver steatosis is associated with insulin resistance in skeletal muscle rather than in the liver in Japanese patients with non-alcoholic fatty liver disease.

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    Kato, Ken-Ichiro; Takeshita, Yumie; Misu, Hirofumi; Zen, Yoh; Kaneko, Shuichi; Takamura, Toshinari

    2015-03-01

    To examine the association between liver histological features and organ-specific insulin resistance indices calculated from 75-g oral glucose tolerance test data in patients with non-alcoholic fatty liver disease. Liver biopsy specimens were obtained from 72 patients with non-alcoholic fatty liver disease, and were scored for steatosis, grade and stage. Hepatic and skeletal muscle insulin resistance indices (hepatic insulin resistance index and Matsuda index, respectively) were calculated from 75-g oral glucose tolerance test data, and metabolic clearance rate was measured using the euglycemic hyperinsulinemic clamp method. The degree of hepatic steatosis, and grade and stage of non-alcoholic steatohepatitis were significantly correlated with Matsuda index (steatosis r = -0.45, P hepatic insulin resistance index. Multiple regression analyses adjusted for age, sex, body mass index and each histological score showed that the degree of hepatic steatosis (coefficient = -0.22, P steatosis and metabolic clearance rate (coefficient = -0.62, P = 0.059). Liver steatosis is associated with insulin resistance in skeletal muscle rather than in the liver in patients with non-alcoholic fatty liver disease, suggesting a central role of fatty liver in the development of peripheral insulin resistance and the existence of a network between the liver and skeletal muscle.

  3. Pathogenesis of hepatic steatosis: the link between hypercortisolism and non-alcoholic fatty liver disease.

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    Tarantino, Giovanni; Finelli, Carmine

    2013-10-28

    Based on the available literature, non alcoholic fatty liver disease or generally speaking, hepatic steatosis, is more frequent among people with diabetes and obesity, and is almost universally present amongst morbidly obese diabetic patients. Non alcoholic fatty liver disease is being increasingly recognized as a common liver condition in the developed world, with non alcoholic steatohepatitis projected to be the leading cause of liver transplantation. Previous data report that only 20% of patients with Cushing's syndrome have hepatic steatosis. Aiming at clarifying the reasons whereby patients suffering from Cushing's syndrome - a condition characterized by profound metabolic changes - present low prevalence of hepatic steatosis, the Authors reviewed the current concepts on the link between hypercortisolism and obesity/metabolic syndrome. They hypothesize that this low prevalence of fat accumulation in the liver of patients with Cushing's syndrome could result from the inhibition of the so-called low-grade chronic-inflammation, mainly mediated by Interleukin 6, due to an excess of cortisol, a hormone characterized by an anti-inflammatory effect. The Cushing's syndrome, speculatively considered as an in vivo model of the hepatic steatosis, could also help clarify the mechanisms of non alcoholic fatty liver disease.

  4. [Balneotherapeutics of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease with the use of the Essentuki-type drinking mineral waters].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fedorova, T E; Efimenko, N V; Kaĭsinova, A S

    2012-01-01

    The objective of the present work was to estimate the effectiveness of combined spa-and-resort treatment with the use of the Essentuki-type drinking mineral waters for the patients presenting with non-alcoholic fatty liver disease. A total of 40 patients presening with non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NOFLD) were available for the examination. The study has demonstrated positive dynamics of clinical symptoms and results of liver functional tests, characteristics of intrahepatic dynamics, lipid metabolism, antioxidant hemostais, and the hormonal status of the patients with non-alcoholic fatty liver disease. The intake of the Essentuki-type drinking mineral waters promoted normalization of adiponectin and leptin levels in conjunction with the reduction in the degree of insulin resistance, i.e., the key pathogenetic factors responsible for hepatic steatosis and non-alcoholic steatohepatitis. It is concluded that the Essentuki-type drinking mineral waters may be recommended for the inclusion in the combined treatment and prevention of the progression of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease.

  5. Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease and type 2 diabetes mellitus: the liver disease of our age?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Firneisz, Gábor

    2014-07-21

    Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is a chronic liver disease that might affect up to one-third of the adult population in industrialised countries. NAFLD incorporates histologically and clinically different non-alcoholic entities; fatty liver (NAFL, steatosis hepatis) and steatohepatitis (NASH-characterised by hepatocyte ballooning and lobular inflammation ± fibrosis) might progress to cirrhosis and rarely to hepatocellular cancer. NAFL increasingly affects children (paediatric prevalence is 4.2%-9.6%). Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM), insulin resistance (IR), obesity, metabolic syndrome and NAFLD are particularly closely related. Increased hepatic lipid storage is an early abnormality in insulin resistant women with a history of gestational diabetes mellitus. The accumulation of triacylglycerols in hepatocytes is predominantly derived from the plasma nonesterified fatty acid pool supplied largely by the adipose tissue. A few NAFLD susceptibility gene variants are associated with progressive liver disease, IR, T2DM and a higher risk for hepatocellular carcinoma. Although not approved, pharmacological approaches might be considered in NASH patients.

  6. A clinical and biochemical profile of biopsy-proven non-alcoholic fatty liver disease subjects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khurram, M.; Mushraf, M.

    2007-01-01

    To describe clinical and biochemical features of patients with biopsy-proven non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). Fifty patients of either and of all ages were included, who had ultrasound evidence of fatty liver, deranged liver enzymes, and negative history of alcohol uptake. Serological/biochemical tests/markers of other liver diseases were negative. Each subject underwent liver biopsy reported by a single histopathologist. Clinical (symptoms, hypertension, hepatomegaly, and obesity) and biochemical evaluation (for diabetes, lipid abnormalities, and aspartate to alanine aminotransferase ratio (AST/ALT)) of each subject was done. Chi-square and t-tests were used for p-value calculation for finding significant difference between fatty liver and non-alcoholic steato-hepatitis groups. Thirty three (66%) patients were female and 34% were male. Mean age was 45.50+-11.50 years. Histopathologically, 62% subjects had fatty liver alone, while 38% had nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH). Fatigue (100%), hypertriglyceridemia (80%), hepatomegaly (72%), AST/ALT ratio <1 (72%), and obesity/overweight (54%) were common NAFLD-related features. Except for hypertriglycedemia (p-value 0.008), no statistically significant association was noted between these features and histopathological subtypes of NAFLD. NAFLD-related clinical and biochemical features included fatigue, obesity, hepatomegaly, AST/ALT ratio <1, and hypertriglycedemia. Significant relationship existed between hypertriglyceridemia and NASH. (author)

  7. Fructose Consumption, Lipogenesis, and Non-Alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    ter Horst, Kasper W.; Serlie, Mireille J.

    2017-01-01

    Increased fructose consumption has been suggested to contribute to non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD), dyslipidemia, and insulin resistance, but a causal role of fructose in these metabolic diseases remains debated. Mechanistically, hepatic fructose metabolism yields precursors that can be

  8. Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease: What the clinician needs to know

    Science.gov (United States)

    Machado, Mariana Verdelho; Cortez-Pinto, Helena

    2014-01-01

    Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is the most frequent cause of liver disease in the Western world. Furthermore, it is increasing worldwide, paralleling the obesity pandemic. Though highly frequent, only about one fifth of affected subjects are at risk of developing the progressive form of the disease, non-alcoholic steatohepatitis with fibrosis. Even in the latter, liver disease is slowly progressive, though, since it is so prevalent, it is already the third cause of liver transplantation in the United States, and it is predicted to get to the top of the ranking in few years. Of relevance, fatty liver is also associated with increased overall mortality and particularly increased cardiovascular mortality. The literature and amount of published papers on NAFLD is increasing as fast as its prevalence, which makes it difficult to keep updated in this topic. This review aims to summarize the latest knowledge on NAFLD, in order to help clinicians understanding its pathogenesis and advances on diagnosis and treatment. PMID:25278691

  9. 'Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease' bij kinderen : een nieuwe complicatie van obesitas

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bocca, Gianni; Stolk, R.P.; Scheenstra, R.; Sauer, P.J.

    2008-01-01

    Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) comprises a range of chronic liver diseases from simple steatosis to steatohepatitis and cirrhosis with liver failure. In children, NAFLD is mainly associated with obesity and metabolic syndrome, the results of an unhealthy lifestyle. Insulin resistance and

  10. Deregulation of fatty acid metabolism and cannabinoid receptors in liver of morbidly obese women with non-alcoholic fatty liver disease

    OpenAIRE

    Berlanga Bustos, Alba

    2015-01-01

    Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) encompasses a histological spectrum from simple steatosis (SS) to non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH), with the latter being more frequently progressive. Due to lipid accumulation in the human liver seems to be a crucial mechanism in the NAFLD pathogenesis, an improved understanding of the underlying mechanisms leading to the initial hepatic lipid accumulation could be of great interest for controlling the progression of NAFLD. It has also been repor...

  11. Effect of baicalin on toll-like receptor 4-mediated ischemia/reperfusion inflammatory responses in alcoholic fatty liver condition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Seok-Joo; Lee, Sun-Mee

    2012-01-01

    Alcoholic fatty liver is susceptible to secondary stresses such as ischemia/reperfusion (I/R). Baicalin is an active component extracted from Scutellaria baicalensis, which is widely used in herbal preparations for treatment of hepatic diseases and inflammatory disorders. This study evaluated the potential beneficial effect of baicalin on I/R injury in alcoholic fatty liver. Rats were fed an alcohol liquid diet or a control isocaloric diet for 5 weeks, and then subjected to 60 min of hepatic ischemia and 5 h of reperfusion. Baicalin (200 mg/kg) was intraperitoneally administered 24 and 1 h before ischemia. After reperfusion, baicalin attenuated the increases in serum alanine aminotransferase activity, tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), and interleukin-6 (IL-6) levels in alcoholic fatty liver. The increased levels of TNF-α and IL-6 mRNA expression and inducible nitric oxide synthase and cyclooxygenase-2 protein and mRNA expressions increased after reperfusion, which were higher in ethanol-fed animals, were attenuated by baicalin. In ethanol-fed animals, baicalin attenuated the increases in toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) and myeloid differentiation factor 88 protein expressions and the nuclear translocation of NF-κB after reperfusion. In conclusion, our findings suggest that baicalin ameliorates I/R-induced hepatocellular damage by suppressing TLR4-mediated inflammatory responses in alcoholic fatty liver. -- Highlights: ► Baicalin attenuates hepatic I/R-induced inflammation in alcoholic fatty liver. ► Baicalin downregulates TLR4, MyD88 expression during I/R in alcoholic fatty liver. ► Baicalin attenuates NF-κB nuclear translocation during I/R in alcoholic fatty liver.

  12. New insights in the pathogenesis of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gaemers, Ingrid C.; Groen, Albert K.

    2006-01-01

    PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The hallmark of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease is hepatic steatosis. This is mostly a benign condition, but for largely unknown reasons it progresses to liver fibrosis, cirrhosis, and ultimately hepatocellular carcinoma in about 10% of patients. In this review we discuss recent

  13. Prediction of non-alcoholic fatty-liver disease and liver fat content by serum molecular lipids

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Orešic, Matej; Hyötyläinen, Tuulia; Kotronen, Anna

    2013-01-01

    We examined whether analysis of lipids by ultra-performance liquid chromatography (UPLC) coupled to MS allows the development of a laboratory test for non-alcoholic fatty-liver disease (NAFLD), and how a lipid-profile biomarker compares with the prediction of NAFLD and liver-fat content based...

  14. Fatty acid composition in serum correlates with that in the liver and non-alcoholic fatty liver disease activity scores in mice fed a high-fat diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xing-He; Li, Chun-Yan; Muhammad, Ishfaq; Zhang, Xiu-Ying

    2016-06-01

    In this study, we investigated the correlation between the serum fatty acid composition and hepatic steatosis, inflammation, hepatocellular ballooning scores, and liver fatty acids composition in mice fed a high-fat diet. Livers were collected for non-alcoholic fatty liver disease score analysis. Fatty acid compositions were analysed by gas chromatography. Correlations were determined by Pearson correlation coefficient. Exposed to a high-fat diet, mice developed fatty liver disease with varying severity without fibrosis. The serum fatty acid variation became more severe with prolonged exposure to a high-fat diet. This variation also correlated significantly with the variation in livers, with the types of fatty acids corresponding to liver steatosis, inflammation, and hepatocellular ballooning scores. Results of this study lead to the following hypothesis: the extent of serum fatty acid variation may be a preliminary biomarker of fatty liver disease caused by high-fat intake. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  15. Non-alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease: Beneficial Effects of Flavonoids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akhlaghi, Masoumeh

    2016-10-01

    Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) has been known as the hepatic feature of metabolic syndrome. Extra fat depots, especially in visceral areas, develop insulin resistance as a result of mild oxidation and inflammation. Insulin resistance induces lipolysis and releases free fatty acids into the circulation, where they are transported to the liver. In the liver, free fatty acids are converted to triglycerides and accumulate, causing simple steatosis that, if left untreated, can lead to steatohepatitis, and subsequently liver necrosis and cirrhosis.Flavonoids, a group of plant compounds with incredible biological characteristics, have shown advantages in pathological conditions. Beneficial effects of flavonoids against NAFLD and its related disorders have been observed in both animal and human studies. Various mechanisms have been found for their protection. Flavonoids prevent hepatosteatosis by increasing fatty acid oxidation in the liver. They can also reduce caloric intake and decrease body weight and fat deposition in visceral tissues. Flavonoids are unique antioxidants that exert their beneficial effects through inhibition of nuclear factor κB, thereby attenuating release of inflammatory cytokines, which are triggers of insulin resistance. Finally, flavonoids have shown to increase adiponectin, improve insulin sensitivity and glucose tolerance, correct dyslipidemia, and reduce blood pressure in patients with NAFLD. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  16. Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease is associated with high prevalence of gastro-oesophageal reflux symptoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miele, Luca; Cammarota, Giovanni; Vero, Vittoria; Racco, Simona; Cefalo, Consuelo; Marrone, Giuseppe; Pompili, Maurizio; Rapaccini, Gianlodovico; Bianco, Alessandro; Landolfi, Raffaele; Gasbarrini, Antonio; Grieco, Antonio

    2012-12-01

    Gastro-oesophageal reflux symptoms are usually reported by patients with obesity and metabolic syndrome. Aim of this study was to assess the prevalence and clinical characteristics of gastro-oesophageal reflux symptoms in subjects with non-alcoholic fatty liver disease. Cross-sectional, case-control study of 185 consecutive patients with non-alcoholic fatty liver disease and an age- and sex-matched control group of 112 healthy volunteers. Participants were interviewed with the aid of a previously validated questionnaire to assess lifestyle and reflux symptoms in the 3 months preceding enrolment. Odds ratios were determined before and after adjustment for body mass index, increased waist circumference, physical activity, metabolic syndrome and proton pump inhibitors and/or antiacid medication. The prevalence of heartburn and/or regurgitation and of at least one of gastro-oesophageal reflux symptoms was significantly higher in the non-alcoholic fatty liver disease group. Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease subjects were associated to higher prevalence of heartburn (adjusted odds ratios: 2.17, 95% confidence intervals: 1.16-4.04), regurgitation (adjusted odds ratios: 2.61, 95% confidence intervals: 1.24-5.48) and belching (adjusted odds ratios: 2.01, 95% confidence intervals: 1.12-3.59) and had higher prevalence of at least one GER symptom (adjusted odds ratios: 3.34, 95% confidence intervals: 1.76-6.36). Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease is associated with a higher prevalence of gastro-oesophageal reflux symptoms. Copyright © 2012 Editrice Gastroenterologica Italiana S.r.l. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Alcoholic fatty liver is enhanced in CYP2A5 knockout mice: The role of the PPARα-FGF21 axis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, Xue; Ward, Stephen C.; Cederbaum, Arthur I.; Xiong, Huabao; Lu, Yongke

    2017-01-01

    Background & aims: Cytochrome P450 2A5 (CYP2A5) is induced by ethanol, and the ethanol induction of CYP2A5 is regulated by nuclear factor-erythroid 2-related factor 2 (NRF2). Cyp2a5 knockout (Cyp2a5 −/− ) mice develop more severe alcoholic fatty liver than Cyp2a5 +/+ mice. Fibroblast growth factor 21 (FGF21), a PPARα-regulated liver hormone, is involved in hepatic lipid metabolism. Alcoholic and non-alcoholic fatty liver are enhanced in Pparα knockout (Pparα −/− ) mice. This study investigates the relationship between the PPARα-FGF21 axis and the enhanced alcoholic fatty liver in Cyp2a5 −/− mice. Methods: Mice were fed the Lieber-Decarli ethanol diet to induce alcoholic fatty liver. Results: More severe alcoholic fatty liver disease was developed in Cyp2a5 −/− mice than in Cyp2a5 +/+ mice. Basal FGF21 levels were higher in Cyp2a5 −/− mice than in Cyp2a5 +/+ mice, but ethanol did not further increase the elevated FGF21 levels in Cyp2a5 −/− mice while FGF21 was induced by ethanol in Cyp2a5 +/+ mice. Basal levels of serum FGF21 were lower in Pparα −/− mice than in Pparα +/+ mice; ethanol induced FGF21 in Pparα +/+ mice but not in Pparα −/− mice, whereas ethanol induced hypertriglyceridemia in Pparα −/− mice but not in Pparα +/+ mice. Administration of recombinant FGF21 normalized serum FGF21 and triglyceride in Pparα −/− mice. Alcoholic fatty liver was enhanced in liver-specific Fgf21 knockout mice. Pparα and Cyp2a5 double knockout (Pparα −/− /Cyp2a5 −/− ) mice developed more severe alcoholic fatty liver than Pparα +/+ /Cyp2a5 −/− mice. Conclusions: These results suggest that CYP2A5 protects against the development of alcoholic fatty liver disease, and the PPARα-FGF21 axis contributes to the protective effects of CYP2A5 on alcoholic fatty liver disease.

  18. Experimental non-alcoholic fatty liver disease results in decreased hepatic uptake transporter expression and function in rats

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fisher, Craig D.; Lickteig, Andrew J.; Augustine, Lisa M.; Oude Elferink, Ronald P. J.; Besselsen, David G.; Erickson, Robert P.; Cherrington, Nathan J.

    2009-01-01

    Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) encompasses a spectrum of diagnoses ranging from simple fatty liver (SFL), to non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH). This study aimed to determine the effect of moderate and severe NAFLD on hepatic transporter expression and function in vivo. Rats were fed a

  19. The nutritional geometry of liver disease including non-alcoholic fatty liver disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simpson, Stephen J; Raubenheimer, David; Cogger, Victoria C; Macia, Laurence; Solon-Biet, Samantha M; Le Couteur, David G; George, Jacob

    2018-02-01

    Nutrition has a profound effect on chronic liver disease, especially non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). Most observational studies and clinical trials have focussed on the effects of total energy intake, or the intake of individual macronutrients and certain micronutrients, such as vitamin D, on liver disease. Although these studies have shown the importance of nutrition on hepatic outcomes, there is not yet any unifying framework for understanding the relationship between diet and liver disease. The Geometric Framework for Nutrition (GFN) is an innovative model for designing nutritional experiments or interpreting nutritional data that can determine the effects of nutrients and their interactions on animal behaviour and phenotypes. Recently the GFN has provided insights into the relationship between dietary energy and macronutrients on obesity and ageing in mammals including humans. Mouse studies using the GFN have disentangled the effects of macronutrients on fatty liver and the gut microbiome. The GFN is likely to play a significant role in disentangling the effects of nutrients on liver disease, especially NAFLD, in humans. Copyright © 2017 European Association for the Study of the Liver. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease in obese persons with diabetes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomašević Ratko

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Obesity, diabetes and different lipid metabolic disorders are the most frequent risk factors for nonalcoholic fatty liver disease, presented with a high variability in clinical and histological findings. Case report. We presented a case of 37-year-old male, suffering from type 2 diabetes mellitus, grade III obesity (BMI 45 kg/m2 and multiple metabolic disorders. Abdominal ultrasound revealed hepatomegaly during the last six months. Laboratory diagnostics showed increased serum transaminase levels. Serologic markers for viral hepatitis B and C were negative. The patient denied significant alcohol consumption. Liver biopsy and pathohistologic finding revealed macro- (III grade and microvesicular (I grade fatty degeneration, as well as mixed-cell portal infiltration with moderate liver fibrosis, corresponding to the typical presentation of NASH (Non Alcoholic Steatohepatitis. Conclusion. NASH treatment options include the reduction of body mass and an adequate antidiabetic and dislipidemia treatment. The aim of all therapeutic measures was to stop the progression of the disease, to prevent the progression of fibrosis and the development of of cirrhosis. .

  1. Efficacy of Qianggan capsule in treatment of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease complicated with hyperlipidemia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhi-Jun He

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To observe the clinical effects of Qianggan capsule and silibinin capsule in the treatment of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease complicated with hyperlipidemia. Methods: A total of 112 patients with non-alcoholic fatty liver disease were included in the study and divided into the control group (n=50 and the observation group (n=62. The patients in the control group were given silibinin capsule, while the patients in the observation group were given Qianggan capsule. The patients in the two groups were treated for 24 weeks. The liver/ spleen CT was performed before and after treatment. BMI was measured. The liver function, serum lipid, and leptin were detected. Results: TG, LDL-C, BMI, and liver/spleen CT ratio in the observation group were significantly reduced when compared with the control group. The levels of HDL-C and adiponectin in the observation group were significantly elevated when compared with the control group. The differences of ALT, GGT, and AST after treatment between the two groups were not statistically significant. Conclusions: Qianggan capsule and silibinin capsule has an accurate efficacy and high safety in the treatment of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease complicated with hyperlipidemia.

  2. Protective Effects of Korean Red Ginseng against Alcohol-Induced Fatty Liver in Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hyo Jin Lee

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The present study tested the hypothesis that Korean red ginseng (KRG provides a protective effect against alcoholic fatty liver. Male Sprague-Dawley rats were divided into four groups and fed a modified Lieber-DeCarli diet containing 5% (w/v alcohol or an isocaloric amount of dextrin-maltose for the controls for 6 weeks: normal control (CON, alcohol control (ET, and ET treated with 125 or 250 mg/kg body weight/day of KRG (RGL or RGH, respectively. Compared with the CON group, the ET group exhibited a significant increase in triglycerides, total cholesterol and the presence of lipid droplets in the liver, and a decrease in fat mass, which were all attenuated by KRG supplementation in adose-dependent manner. The mitigation was accompanied by AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK signaling pathways in the liver and adipose tissue. In addition, suppression in the alcohol-induced changes of adipose adipokine mRNA expression was also observed in KRG supplementation group. These findings suggest that KRG may have the potential to ameliorate alcoholic fatty liver by suppressing inappropriate lysis of adipose tissue and preventing unnecessary de novo lipogenesis in the liver, which are mediated by AMPK signaling pathways. A mechanism for an interplay between the two organs is still needed to be examined with further assays.

  3. [Role of the endocrine system in the pathogenesis of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hagymási, Krisztina; Reismann, Péter; Rácz, Károly; Tulassay, Zsolt

    2009-11-29

    The most frequent liver disorder in metabolic syndrome is the nonalcoholic fatty liver disease. Its pathogenesis is a complex, multifactorial process, characterized by insulin resistance and involvement of the endocrine system. Hypothyroidism may lead to nonalcoholic steatohepatitis via hyperlipidemia and obesity. Adult patients with growth hormone deficiency have a metabolic syndrome-like phenotype with obesity and many characteristic metabolic alterations. The chronic activation of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis results in metabolic syndrome as well. Cushing's syndrome has also features of metabolic syndrome. Mild elevation of transaminase activities is commonly seen in patients with adrenal failure. Non-alcoholic steatosis is twice as common in postmenopusal as in premenopausal women and hormonal replacement therapy decreases the risk of steatosis. Insulin resistance, diabetes mellitus type 2, sleeping apnoe syndrome, cardiovascular disorders and non-alcoholic fatty liver disease are more frequent in polycystic ovary syndrome. Hypoandrogenism in males and hyperandrogenism in females may lead to fatty liver via obesity and insulin resistance. Adipokines (leptin, acylation stimulating protein, adiponectin) have a potential role in the pathogenesis of nonalcoholic fatty liver. The alterations of endocrine system must be considered in the background of cryptogenic liver diseases. The endocrine perspective may help the therapeutic approaches in the future.

  4. Prevalence and determinants of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease in lifelines: A large Dutch population cohort.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eline H van den Berg

    Full Text Available Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease is an increasing health issue that develops rather unnoticed with obesity, type 2 diabetes mellitus and metabolic syndrome. We investigated prevalence, determinants and associated metabolic abnormalities of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease in the largest population-based cohort to date.Biochemical characteristics, type 2 diabetes mellitus and metabolic syndrome were determined in the Lifelines Cohort Study (N = 167,729, a population-based cohort in the North of the Netherlands. Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease was defined as Fatty Liver Index (FLI≥60. Exclusion criteria were age <18 years, immigrants, missing data to assess FLI and metabolic syndrome, excessive alcohol use, previous-diagnosed hepatitis or cirrhosis and non-fasting blood sampling.Out of 37,496 included participants (median age 44 years, 62.1% female, 8,259 (22.0% had a FLI≥60. Individuals with a FLI≥60 were more often male, older, obese, had higher levels of hemoglobinA1c, fasting glucose, liver enzymes, total cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, triglycerides, c-reactive protein and leucocytes and lower high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (all P<0.0001. Participants with a FLI≥60 showed higher prevalence of type 2 diabetes mellitus (9.3% vs. 1.4%, metabolic syndrome (54.2% vs. 6.2%, impaired renal function (20.1% vs. 8.7% and cardiovascular disease (4.6% vs. 1.6% (all P<0.0001. Multivariable logistic analysis showed that smoking, hemoglobin, leucocytes, c-reactive protein, platelets, alanine aminotransferase, alkaline phosphatase, albumin, impaired renal function (OR 1.27, 95%CI 1.15-1.41, metabolic syndrome (OR 11.89, 95%CI 11.03-12.82 and its individual components hyperglycemia (OR 2.53, 95%CI 2.34-2.72, hypertension (OR 1.89, 95%CI 1.77-2.01 and reduced high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (OR 3.44, 95%CI 3.22-3.68 were independently associated with suspected non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (all P<0.0001.Twenty

  5. Discrimination of individuals in a general population at high-risk for alcoholic and non-alcoholic fatty liver disease based on liver stiffness: a cross section study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kasai Kenji

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Factors associated with liver stiffness (LS are unknown and normal reference values for LS have not been established. Individuals at high risk for alcoholic (ALD and non-alcoholic fatty (NAFLD liver disease need to be non-invasively discriminated during routine health checks. Factors related to LS measured using a FibroScan and normal reference values for LS are presented in this report. Methods We measured LS using a FibroScan in 416 consecutive individuals who presented for routine medical checks. We also investigated the relationship between LS and age, body mass index (BMI, liver function (LF, alcohol consumption, and fatty liver determined by ultrasonography. We identified individuals at high-risk for ALD and NAFLD as having a higher LS value than the normal upper limit detected in 171 healthy controls. Results The LS value for all individuals was 4.7 +/- 1.5 kPa (mean +/- SD and LS significantly and positively correlated with BMI and LF test results. The LS was significantly higher among individuals with, than without fatty liver. Liver stiffness in the 171 healthy controls was 4.3 +/- 0.81 kPa and the upper limit of LS in the normal controls was 5.9 kPa. We found that 60 (14.3% of 416 study participants had abnormal LS. The proportion of individuals whose LS values exceeded the normal upper limit was over five-fold higher among those with, than without fatty liver accompanied by abnormal LF test results. Conclusions Liver stiffness could be used to non-invasively monitor the progression of chronic liver diseases and to discriminate individuals at high risk for ALD and NAFLD during routine health assessments.

  6. Non alcoholic fatty liver disease in a Nigerian population with type II ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Introduction: Worldwide, Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) has become an important cause of chronic liver disease and cardiovascular morbidity, even more so in subjects with Type II Diabetes Mellitus (T2DM). The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence and risk factors of NAFLD in an African population ...

  7. Non-Alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease in Children: Focus on Nutritional Interventions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Min Yang

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available With increasing prevalence of childhood obesity, non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD has emerged as the most common cause of liver disease among children and adolescents in industrialized countries. It is generally recognized that both genetic and environmental risk factors contribute to the pathogenesis of NAFLD. Recently, there has been a growing body of evidence to implicate altered gut microbiota in the development of NAFLD through the gut-liver axis. The first line of prevention and treatment of NAFLD in children should be intensive lifestyle interventions such as changes in diet and physical activity. Recent advances have been focused on limitation of dietary fructose and supplementation of antioxidants, omega-3 fatty acids, and prebiotics/probiotics. Convincing evidences from both animal models and human studies have shown that reduction of dietary fructose and supplement of vitamin E, omega-3 fatty acids, and prebiotics/probiotics improve NAFLD.

  8. Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease: An expanded review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benedict, Mark; Zhang, Xuchen

    2017-01-01

    Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) encompasses the simple steatosis to more progressive steatosis with associated hepatitis, fibrosis, cirrhosis, and in some cases hepatocellular carcinoma. NAFLD is a growing epidemic, not only in the United States, but worldwide in part due to obesity and insulin resistance leading to liver accumulation of triglycerides and free fatty acids. Numerous risk factors for the development of NAFLD have been espoused with most having some form of metabolic derangement or insulin resistance at the core of its pathophysiology. NAFLD patients are at increased risk of liver-related as well as cardiovascular mortality, and NAFLD is rapidly becoming the leading indication for liver transplantation. Liver biopsy remains the gold standard for definitive diagnosis, but the development of noninvasive advanced imaging, biochemical and genetic tests will no doubt provide future clinicians with a great deal of information and opportunity for enhanced understanding of the pathogenesis and targeted treatment. As it currently stands several medications/supplements are being used in the treatment of NAFLD; however, none seem to be the “magic bullet” in curtailing this growing problem yet. In this review we summarized the current knowledge of NAFLD epidemiology, risk factors, diagnosis, pathogenesis, pathologic changes, natural history, and treatment in order to aid in further understanding this disease and better managing NAFLD patients. PMID:28652891

  9. Genetics Home Reference: non-alcoholic fatty liver disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... individual is considered to have a fatty liver (hepatic steatosis) if the liver contains more than 5 to ... Resources Genetic Testing (2 links) Genetic Testing Registry: Fatty liver disease, nonalcoholic 1 Genetic Testing Registry: Fatty liver ...

  10. Neutrophil depletion improves diet-induced non-alcoholic fatty liver disease in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ou, Rongying; Liu, Jia; Lv, Mingfen; Wang, Jingying; Wang, Jinmeng; Zhu, Li; Zhao, Liang; Xu, Yunsheng

    2017-07-01

    Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease is highly associated with morbidity and mortality in population. Although studies have already demonstrated that the immune response plays a pivotal role in the development of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease, the comprehensive regulation is unclear. Therefore, present study was carried out to investigate the non-alcoholic fatty liver disease development under neutrophil depletion. To achieve the aim of the study, C57BL/6 J mice were fed with high fat diet for 6 weeks before treated with neutrophil deplete antibody 1A8 or isotype control (200 μg/ mouse every week) for another 4 weeks. Treated with 1A8 antibody, obese mice exhibited better whole body metabolic parameters, including reduction of body weight gain and fasting blood glucose levels. Neutrophil depletion also effectively reduced hepatic structural disorders, dysfunction and lipid accumulation. Lipid β-oxidative markers, phosphorylated-AMP-activated protein kinase α and phosphorylated-acetyl-CoA carboxylase levels were increased in 1A8 antibody-treated obese mouse group. The mitochondrial number and function were also reversed after 1A8 antibody treatment, including increased mitochondrial number, reduced lipid oxidative damage and enhanced mitochondrial activity. Furthermore, the expression of inflammatory cytokines, tumor necrosis factor-α, interleukin-6, and monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 were obviously reduced after neutrophil depletion, accompanied with decreased F4/80 mRNA level and macrophage percentage in liver. The decreased NF-κB signaling activity was also involved in the beneficial effect of neutrophil depletion. Taken together, neutrophil depletion could attenuate metabolic syndromes and hepatic dysfunction.

  11. Metabolic syndrome and risk factors for non-alcoholic fatty liver disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mônica Rodrigues de Araújo Souza

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available CONTEXT: Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD, hepatic manifestation of metabolic syndrome, has been considered the most common liver disease nowadays, which is also the most frequent cause of elevated transaminases and cryptogenic cirrhosis. The greatest input of fatty acids into the liver and consequent increased beta-oxidation contribute to the formation of free radicals, release of inflammatory cytokines and varying degrees of hepatocytic aggression, whose histological expression may vary from steatosis (HS to non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH. The differentiation of these forms is required by the potential risk of progression to cirrhosis and development of hepatocellular carcinoma. OBJECTIVE: To review the literature about the major risk factors for NAFLD in the context of metabolic syndrome, focusing on underlying mechanisms and prevention. METHOD: PubMed, MEDLINE and SciELO data basis analysis was performed to identify studies describing the link between risk factors for metabolic syndrome and NAFLD. A combination of descriptors was used, non-alcoholic fatty liver disease, non-alcoholic steatohepatitis, metabolic syndrome and risk factors. At the end, 96 clinical and experimental studies, cohorts, meta-analysis and systematic reviews of great impact and scientific relevance to the topic, were selected. RESULTS: The final analysis of all these data, pointed out the central obesity, type 2 diabetes, dyslipidemia and hypertension as the best risk factors related to NAFLD. However, other factors were highlighted, such as gender differences, ethnicity, genetic factors and the role of innate immunity system. How these additional factors may be involved in the installation, progression and disease prognosis is discussed. CONCLUSION: Risk factors for NAFLD in the context of metabolic syndrome expands the prospects to 1 recognize patients with metabolic syndrome at high risk for NAFLD, 2 elucidate pathways common to other co-morbidities, 3

  12. Systems biology elucidates common pathogenic mechanisms between nonalcoholic and alcoholic-fatty liver disease.

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    Silvia Sookoian

    Full Text Available The abnormal accumulation of fat in the liver is often related either to metabolic risk factors associated with metabolic syndrome in the absence of alcohol consumption (nonalcoholic fatty liver disease, NAFLD or to chronic alcohol consumption (alcoholic fatty liver disease, AFLD. Clinical and histological studies suggest that NAFLD and AFLD share pathogenic mechanisms. Nevertheless, current data are still inconclusive as to whether the underlying biological process and disease pathways of NAFLD and AFLD are alike. Our primary aim was to integrate omics and physiological data to answer the question of whether NAFLD and AFLD share molecular processes that lead to disease development. We also explored the extent to which insulin resistance (IR is a distinctive feature of NAFLD. To answer these questions, we used systems biology approaches, such as gene enrichment analysis, protein-protein interaction networks, and gene prioritization, based on multi-level data extracted by computational data mining. We observed that the leading disease pathways associated with NAFLD did not significantly differ from those of AFLD. However, systems biology revealed the importance of each molecular process behind each of the two diseases, and dissected distinctive molecular NAFLD and AFLD-signatures. Comparative co-analysis of NAFLD and AFLD clarified the participation of NAFLD, but not AFLD, in cardiovascular disease, and showed that insulin signaling is impaired in fatty liver regardless of the noxa, but the putative regulatory mechanisms associated with NAFLD seem to encompass a complex network of genes and proteins, plausible of epigenetic modifications. Gene prioritization showed a cancer-related functional map that suggests that the fatty transformation of the liver tissue is regardless of the cause, an emerging mechanism of ubiquitous oncogenic activation. In conclusion, similar underlying disease mechanisms lead to NAFLD and AFLD, but specific ones depict a

  13. Lifestyle Modification through Dietary Intervention: Health Promotion of Patients with Non-Alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manoochehr Khoshbaten

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Prevalence of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD is more common worldwide and no certain treatment apart from lifestyle modification has been established yet. Available data consistently show that energy intake is significantly higher in patients with NAFLD than in individuals with no evidence of fatty liver. Changing nutritional behaviors seems to be the primary approach for treatment, simultaneously addressing all the clinical and biochemical defects. This study was aimed to examine the effects of two different composition of low energy diet (diet I vs. diet II on non-alcoholic fatty liver disease patients.Methods: In this double-blind randomized controlled trial, 44 ultrasonography-proven overweight non-alcoholic fatty liver disease patients were divided into two groups and received two low-energy diets (-500 kcal less than energy requirement individually inc. diet I (Carbohydrate: Fat: Protein: 55:25:20 and diet II (Carbohydrate: Fat: Protein: 40:40:20 for six weeks. Anthropometric and biochemical measures as well as liver enzymes were assessed after 12 hours fasting.Results: After diet I and diet II, weight decreased significantly (%1.82 and %2.45, respectively. Liver enzymes and echogenicity decreased significantly by both diet I and diet II. Mean of triglyceride concentration decreased (%18.09 after diet II (P=0.023, while there was no significant change after diet I. Significant correlations were found between changes in aspartate aminotransferase with triglyceride and LDL-C diet I.Conclusion: Low energy diets can decrease liver enzymes regardless of their composition, while diet II seems to be more effective than diet I in reduction of weight and triglyceride level.

  14. C-reactive protein levels in relation to various features of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease among obese patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zimmermann, Esther; Anty, Rodolphe; Tordjman, Joan

    2011-01-01

    Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is a major hepatic consequence of obesity. It has been suggested that the high sensitivity C-reactive protein (hs-CRP) is an obesity-independent surrogate marker of severity of NAFLD, especially development of non-alcoholic steato-hepatitis (NASH), but th......Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is a major hepatic consequence of obesity. It has been suggested that the high sensitivity C-reactive protein (hs-CRP) is an obesity-independent surrogate marker of severity of NAFLD, especially development of non-alcoholic steato-hepatitis (NASH...

  15. Isocaloric Dietary Changes and Non-Alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease in High Cardiometabolic Risk Individuals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giuseppe Della Pepa

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD incorporates an extensive spectrum of histologic liver abnormalities, varying from simple triglyceride accumulation in hepatocytes non-alcoholic fatty liver (NAFL to non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH, and it is the most frequent chronic liver disease in the industrialized world. Beyond liver related complications such as cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma, NAFLD is also an emerging risk factor for type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular disease. Currently, lifestyle intervention including strategies to reduce body weight and to increase regular physical activity represents the mainstay of NAFLD management. Total caloric intake plays a very important role in both the development and the treatment of NAFLD; however, apart from the caloric restriction alone, modifying the quality of the diet and modulating either the macro- or micronutrient composition can also markedly affect the clinical evolution of NAFLD, offering a more realistic and feasible treatment alternative. The aim of the present review is to summarize currently available evidence from randomized controlled trials on the effects of different nutrients including carbohydrates, lipids, protein and other dietary components, in isocaloric conditions, on NAFLD in people at high cardiometabolic risk. We also describe the plausible mechanisms by which different dietary components could modulate liver fat content.

  16. Comparing Effects of Medication Therapy and Exercise Training with Diet on Liver enzyme Levels and Liver Sonography in Patients with Non-Alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease (NAFLD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Azadeh Nabizadeh Haghighi

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Background & Objectives: Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease, characterized by the deposition of fat in liver cells, can cause fibrosis, cirrhosis, and liver cell damage if not controlled. The aim of this study is to compare the effects of medication therapy and exercise training with diet on liver enzyme levels and liver sonography in patients with non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD. Materials & Methods :In this quasi-experimental study, female patients with non-alcoholic fatty liver were randomly divided into two groups: medication therapy (n = 10 and exercise therapy (n = 10 for 8 weeks. During this period, the exercise group performed exercise training three days a week for 90 minutes per session. The drug was given to the medication group. In both groups, the diet was 500 calories less than their daily energy. Before and after intervention, blood tests and liver sonography were executed. All statistical analyses were done using SPSS for Windows version 20. Comparisons between and within groups were performed by Student's t-test and Wilcoxon test on paired and unpaired data. P < 0.05 was considered statistically significant. Results :In both groups, liver enzyme levels and disease severity in sonography reduced significantly (p<0.05. Conclusion: The findings of the present research showed that both methods of therapy have the same effect on reducing the severity of NAFLD.

  17. Nonalcoholic Fatty Liver Disease/Non-Alcoholic Steatohepatitis in Childhood: Endocrine-Metabolic “Mal-Programming”

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manti, Sara; Romano, Claudio; Chirico, Valeria; Filippelli, Martina; Cuppari, Caterina; Loddo, Italia; Salpietro, Carmelo; Arrigo, Teresa

    2014-01-01

    Context: Nonalcoholic Fatty Liver Disease (NAFLD) is the major chronic liver disease in the pediatric population. NAFLD includes a broad spectrum of abnormalities (inflammation, fibrosis and cirrhosis), ranging from accumulation of fat (also known as steatosis) towards non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH). The development of NAFLD in children is significantly increased. Evidence Acquisition: A literature search of electronic databases was undertaken for the major studies published from 1998 to today. The databases searched were: PubMed, EMBASE, Orphanet, Midline and Cochrane Library. We used the key words: "non-alcoholic fatty liver disease, children, non-alcoholic steatohepatitis and fatty liver". Results: NAFLD/NASH is probably promoted by “multiple parallel hits”: environmental and genetic factors, systemic immunological disorders (oxidative stress, persistent-low grade of inflammation) as well as obesity and metabolic alterations (insulin resistance and metabolic syndrome). However its exact cause still underdiagnosed and unknown. Conclusions: Pediatric NAFLD/NASH is emerging problem. Longitudinal follow-up studies, unfortunately still insufficient, are needed to better understand the natural history and outcome of NAFLD in children. This review focuses on the current knowledge regarding the epidemiology, pathogenesis, environmental, genetic and metabolic factors of disease. The review also highlights the importance of studying the underlying mechanisms of pediatric NAFLD and the need for complete and personalized approach in the management of NAFLD/NASH. PMID:24829591

  18. Lipotoxicity and steatohepatitis in an overfed mouse model for non-alcoholic fatty liver disease

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gaemers, Ingrid C.; Stallen, Jan M.; Kunne, Cindy; Wallner, Christian; van Werven, Jochem; Nederveen, Aart; Lamers, Wouter H.

    2011-01-01

    The major risk factors for non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) are obesity, insulin resistance and dyslipidemia. The cause for progression from the steatosis stage to the inflammatory condition (non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH)) remains elusive at present. Aim of this study was to test

  19. Relationship between hepatocellular carcinoma, metabolic syndrome and non-alcoholic fatty liver disease: which clinical arguments?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosmorduc, Olivier

    2013-05-01

    Obesity and the metabolic syndrome are growing epidemics associated with an increased risk for many types of cancer. In the liver, inflammatory and angiogenic changes due to insulin resistance and fatty liver disease are associated with an increased incidence of liver cancer. Regardless of underlying liver disease, cirrhosis remains the most important risk factor for hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) although are cases of HCC arising without cirrhosis raise the possibility of a direct carcinogenesis secondary to Non-alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease (NAFLD). Moreover, metabolic syndrome and its different features may also increase the risk of HCC in the setting of chronic liver diseases of other causes such as viral hepatitis or alcohol abuse. Taking into account all these data, it is necessary to better determine the risk of developing HCC in patients with metabolic syndrome to improve the screening guidelines and develop prophylactic treatments in this setting. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  20. Modest alcohol consumption decreases the risk of fatty liver disease or nonalcoholic fatty liver disease: a Meta-analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guo-li CAO

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Objective  To evaluate the association between modest alcohol consumption and the risk of fatty liver disease (FLD or nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD. Methods  PubMed, EMBASE, Web of Science, the Cochrane Library, China National Knowledge Infrastructure (CNKI, Wanfang Digital Journal Full-text Database, and database for Chinese Technical Periodicals (VIP till Nov. 2015 were searched for the studies in evaluating the effect of alcohol consumption on FLD or NAFLD. The quality assessment of included studies was performed according to the combined evaluation for cross-sectional studies and Newcastle-Ottawa scale (NOS for cohort studies. A meta-analysis was performed using Stata12.0 software. Results  A total of 16 studies including 13 cross-sectional studies, 2 cross-sectional following longitudinal studies, and 1 cohort study with 76 967 participants were selected finally. The results of Meta-analysis were as follows. Minimal and light alcohol consumptions reduced the risk for FLD or NAFLD by 17% and 27%, respectively, and moderate alcohol consumption was marginally associated with decreased risk for FLD or NAFLD. The results of subgroup analysis by gender showed that (1 Minimal and light alcohol consumptions reduced the risk of FLD or NAFLD by 29% and 33%, respectively, but moderate alcohol consumption was not statistically significant in reducing the risk of FLD or NAFLD in females compared with controls; (2 Light alcohol consumption reduced the risk of FLD or NAFLD by 23%, but minimal and moderate alcohol consumptions were not statistically significant in reducing the risk of FLD or NAFLD in male compared with controls; (3 Light and moderate alcohol consumptions in Asian males reduced the risk of FLD or NAFLD by 29.7% and 30.3%, respectively. Conclusions  Modest alcohol consumptions may not increase the risk of FLD or NAFLD. Inversely, minimal and light alcohol consumptions in female reduce the risk of FLD or NAFLD remarkably

  1. Long-term prognosis of fatty liver: risk of chronic liver disease and death

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dam-Larsen, S.; Franzmann, M.; Andersen, I.B.

    2004-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Fatty liver is a common histological finding in human liver biopsy specimens. It affects 10-24% of the general population and is believed to be a marker of risk of later chronic liver disease. The present study examined the risk of development of cirrhotic liver disease...... and the risk of death in a cohort diagnosed with pure fatty liver without inflammation. METHODS: A total of 215 patients who had a liver biopsy performed during the period 1976-1987 were included in the study. The population consisted of 109 non-alcoholic and 106 alcoholic fatty liver patients. Median follow...... up time was 16.7 (0.2-21.9) years in the non-alcoholic and 9.2 (0.6-23.1) years in the alcoholic group. Systematic data collection was carried out by review of all medical records. All members of the study cohort were linked through their unique personal identification number to the National Registry...

  2. Hepatic steatosis and non-alcoholic fatty liver disease are not associated with decline in renal function in people with Type 2 diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jenks, S J; Conway, B R; Hor, T J; Williamson, R M; McLachlan, S; Robertson, C; Morling, J R; Strachan, M W J; Price, J F

    2014-09-01

    We aimed to determine whether the presence of hepatic steatosis and/or non-alcoholic fatty liver disease was associated with decline in renal function or onset of microalbuminuria in a cohort of people with Type 2 diabetes, including those managed in both primary and secondary care. Nine hundred and thirty-three patients from the Edinburgh Type 2 Diabetes Study, a cohort of Scottish men and women aged 60-74 years with Type 2 diabetes, underwent assessment for hepatic steatosis by liver ultrasonography 1 year after recruitment. Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease was defined as the presence of steatosis following exclusion of secondary causes of liver disease. Patients were followed for 4 years and decline in renal function was assessed by the change in estimated glomerular filtration rate over time. Of the 933 subjects, 530 had hepatic steatosis and, of those with hepatic steatosis, 388 had non-alcoholic fatty liver disease. Neither hepatic steatosis nor non-alcoholic fatty liver disease were significantly associated with rate of decline in renal function, with the mean rate of decline in estimated glomerular filtration rate being -1.55 ml min(-1) 1.73 m(-2) per year for participants with hepatic steatosis compared with -1.84 ml min(-1) 1.73 m(-2) for those without steatosis (P = 0.19). Similar results were obtained when the analysis was restricted to participants with and without non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (-1.44 vs. -1.64 ml min(-1) 1.73 m(-2) per year, respectively; P = 0.44). Additionally, neither hepatic steatosis nor non-alcoholic fatty liver disease were associated with the onset or regression of albuminuria during follow-up (all P ≥ 0.05). The presence of hepatic steatosis/non-alcoholic fatty liver disease was not associated with decline in renal function during a 4-year follow-up in our cohort of older people with Type 2 diabetes. © 2014 The Authors. Diabetic Medicine © 2014 Diabetes UK.

  3. Glycosyltransferases and non-alcoholic fatty liver disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhan, Yu-Tao; Su, Hai-Ying; An, Wei

    2016-01-01

    Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is the most common form of chronic liver disease and its incidence is increasing worldwide. However, the underlying mechanisms leading to the development of NAFLD are still not fully understood. Glycosyltransferases (GTs) are a diverse class of enzymes involved in catalyzing the transfer of one or multiple sugar residues to a wide range of acceptor molecules. GTs mediate a wide range of functions from structure and storage to signaling, and play a key role in many fundamental biological processes. Therefore, it is anticipated that GTs have a role in the pathogenesis of NAFLD. In this article, we present an overview of the basic information on NAFLD, particularly GTs and glycosylation modification of certain molecules and their association with NAFLD pathogenesis. In addition, the effects and mechanisms of some GTs in the development of NAFLD are summarized. PMID:26937136

  4. Omega-3 fatty acids and non-alcoholic fatty liver disease: Evidence of efficacy and mechanism of action.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scorletti, Eleonora; Byrne, Christopher D

    2018-03-22

    For many years it has been known that high doses of long chain omega-3 fatty acids are beneficial in the treatment of hypertriglyceridaemia. Over the last three decades, there has also been a wealth of in vitro and in vivo data that has accumulated to suggest that long chain omega-3 fatty acid treatment might be beneficial to decrease liver triacylglycerol. Several biological mechanisms have been identified that support this hypothesis; notably, it has been shown that long chain omega-3 fatty acids have a beneficial effect: a) on bioactive metabolites involved in inflammatory pathways, and b) on alteration of nuclear transcription factor activities such as peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors (PPARs), sterol regulatory element-binding protein 1c (SREBP-1c) and carbohydrate-responsive element-binding protein (ChREBP), involved in inflammatory pathways and liver lipid metabolism. Since the pathogenesis of non alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) begins with the accumulation of liver lipid and progresses with inflammation and then several years later with development of fibrosis; it has been thought in patients with NAFLD omega-3 fatty acid treatment would be beneficial in treating liver lipid and possibly also in ameliorating inflammation. Meta-analyses (of predominantly dietary studies and small trials) have tended to support the assertion that omega-3 fatty acids are beneficial in decreasing liver lipid, but recent randomised controlled trials have produced conflicting data. These trials have suggested that omega-3 fatty acid might be beneficial in decreasing liver triglyceride (docosahexanoic acid also possibly being more effective than eicosapentanoic acid) but not in decreasing other features of steatohepatitis (or liver fibrosis). The purpose of this review is to discuss recent evidence regarding biological mechanisms by which long chain omega-3 fatty acids might act to ameliorate liver disease in NAFLD; to consider the recent evidence from randomised

  5. Non-Alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease and Extra-Hepatic Cancers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudia Sanna

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD is a leading cause of chronic liver disease but the second cause of death among NAFLD patients are attributed to malignancies at both gastrointestinal (liver, colon, esophagus, stomach, and pancreas and extra-intestinal sites (kidney in men, and breast in women. Obesity and related metabolic abnormalities are associated with increased incidence or mortality for a number of cancers. NAFLD has an intertwined relationship with metabolic syndrome and significantly contributes to the risk of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC, but recent evidence have fuelled concerns that NAFLD may be a new, and added, risk factor for extra-hepatic cancers, particularly in the gastrointestinal tract. In this review we critically appraise key studies on NAFLD-associated extra-hepatic cancers and speculate on how NAFLD may influence carcinogenesis at these sites.

  6. The benefits of exercise for patients with non-alcoholic fatty liver disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keating, Shelley E; George, Jacob; Johnson, Nathan A

    2015-01-01

    As exercise is now an established therapy for the management of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD), recent investigations have sought to identify the optimal dose (type, intensity and amount) of exercise for hepatic benefit. Here, the authors discuss the following: the role of aerobic exercise for the modulation of hepatic steatosis; the limited evidence for the role of resistance training in reducing liver fat; the lack of evidence from clinical trials on the role of exercise in non-alcoholic steatohepatitis; and the benefits of exercise for patients with NAFLD, beyond steatosis. Based on current evidence, the authors provide recommendations for exercise prescription for patients with NAFLD.

  7. Sex-specific metabolic interactions between liver and adipose tissue in MCD diet-induced non-alcoholic fatty liver disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Yun-Hee; Kim, Sou Hyun; Kim, Sang-Nam; Kwon, Hyun-Jung; Kim, Jeong-Dong; Oh, Ji Youn; Jung, Young-Suk

    2016-07-26

    Higher susceptibility to metabolic disease in male exemplifies the importance of sexual dimorphism in pathogenesis. We hypothesized that the higher incidence of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease in males involves sex-specific metabolic interactions between liver and adipose tissue. In the present study, we used a methionine-choline deficient (MCD) diet-induced fatty liver mouse model to investigate sex differences in the metabolic response of the liver and adipose tissue. After 2 weeks on an MCD-diet, fatty liver was induced in a sex-specific manner, affecting male mice more severely than females. The MCD-diet increased lipolytic enzymes in the gonadal white adipose tissue (gWAT) of male mice, whereas it increased expression of uncoupling protein 1 and other brown adipocyte markers in the gWAT of female mice. Moreover, gWAT from female mice demonstrated higher levels of oxygen consumption and mitochondrial content compared to gWAT from male mice. FGF21 expression was increased in liver tissue by the MCD diet, and the degree of upregulation was significantly higher in the livers of female mice. The endocrine effect of FGF21 was responsible, in part, for the sex-specific browning of gonadal white adipose tissue. Collectively, these data demonstrated that distinctively female-specific browning of white adipose tissue aids in protecting female mice against MCD diet-induced fatty liver disease.

  8. Probiotics as a novel treatment for non-alcoholic Fatty liver disease; a systematic review on the current evidences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelishadi, Roya; Farajian, Sanam; Mirlohi, Maryam

    2013-04-01

    Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is a chronic liver disease, with 5-10% of liver having extra fat. Increase in its prevalence in all age groups is linked with obesity and Type II diabetes. The treatment of NAFLD remains controversial. A growing body of evidence suggests a relation between overgrowth of gut microbiota with NAFLD and non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH). The objective of this review is to provide an overview on experimental and clinical studies assessing all positive and negative effects of probiotics. We made a critical appraisal on various types of documents published from 1999 to March 2012 in journals, electronic books, seminars, and symposium contexts including Medline, PubMed, and Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials databases. We used the key words: "non-alcoholic fatty liver disease, probiotics, non-alcoholic steatohepatitis, liver disease, and fatty liver". Probiotics, as biological factors, control the gut microbiota and result in its progression. It is in this sense that they are suggestive of a new and a natural way of promoting liver function. Correspondingly, limited evidence suggests that probiotics could be considered as a new way of treatment for NAFLD. Various experimental studies and clinical trials revealed promising effects of probiotics in improving NAFLD; however given the limited experience in this field, generalization of probiotics as treatment of NAFLD needs substantiation through more trials with a larger sample sizes and with longer-term follow up.

  9. Circulating lipocalin 2 is neither related to liver steatosis in patients with non-alcoholic fatty liver disease nor to residual liver function in cirrhosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meier, Elisabeth M; Pohl, Rebekka; Rein-Fischboeck, Lisa; Schacherer, Doris; Eisinger, Kristina; Wiest, Reiner; Krautbauer, Sabrina; Buechler, Christa

    2016-09-01

    Lipocalin 2 (LCN2) is induced in the injured liver and associated with inflammation. Aim of the present study was to evaluate whether serum LCN2 is a non-invasive marker to assess hepatic steatosis in patients with non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) or residual liver function in patients with liver cirrhosis. Therefore, LCN2 was measured by ELISA in serum of 32 randomly selected patients without fatty liver (controls), 24 patients with ultrasound diagnosed NAFLD and 42 patients with liver cirrhosis mainly due to alcohol. Systemic LCN2 was comparable in patients with liver steatosis, those with liver cirrhosis and controls. LCN2 negatively correlated with bilirubin in both cohorts. In cirrhosis, LCN2 was not associated with more advanced liver injury defined by the CHILD-PUGH score and model for end-stage liver disease score. Resistin but not C-reactive protein or chemerin positively correlated with LCN2. LCN2 levels were not increased in patients with ascites or patients with esophageal varices. Consequently, reduction of portal pressure by transjugular intrahepatic portosystemic shunt did not affect LCN2 levels. Hepatic venous blood (HVS), portal venous blood and systemic venous blood levels of LCN2 were similar. HVS LCN2 was unchanged in patients with end-stage liver cirrhosis compared to those with well-compensated disease arguing against increased hepatic release. Current data exclude that serum LCN2 is of any value as steatosis marker in patients with NAFLD and indicator of liver function in patients with alcoholic liver cirrhosis. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. A case of alcoholic hepatitis demonstrating focal fatty infiltration of the liver on computed tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Uesaka, Toshihiro; Kato, Masayoshi; Nagai, Tadayuki; Kametani, Tomio; Horigami, Tateyuki; Takimoto, Hiroaki; Tanino, Mikio

    1985-01-01

    Focal fatty infiltration of the liver is a newly recognized entity that may be confused with primary neoplasm or tumor metastasis on computed tomography. We report a 31-year-old woman with a history of chronic alcoholism. Physical examination revealed jaundice, marked hepatomegaly and ascites. Laboratory studies revealed mild elevation of bilirubin, AlP, GOT, γ-GTP and marked leukocytosis. Abdominal CT showed a large area of decreased density in the right lobe. The radionuclide scan demonstrated the area of diminished activity located in the central portion of the right lobe. Ultrasonography demonstrated high echoic mass shadows in the right lobe. The rapid disappearance of the low density area on CT was recognized. The liver biopsy specimen revealed fatty metamorphosis, alcoholic hyaline bodies, pericellular fibrosis and mild lobular disorganization. Focal fatty infiltration can mimic focal hepatic lesions and repeat CT scans are useful in diagnosis. (author)

  11. Transferrin metabolism in alcoholic liver disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Potter, B.J.; Chapman, R.W.; Nunes, R.M.; Sorrentino, D.; Sherlock, S.

    1985-01-01

    The metabolism of transferrin was studied using purified 125 I-labeled transferrin in 11 alcoholic patients; six with fatty liver and five with cirrhosis. Six healthy subjects whose alcohol intake was les than 40 gm daily were studied as a control group. There were no significant differences in the mean fractional catabolic rate and plasma volume in the alcoholic groups when compared with control subjects. A significantly decreased mean serum transferrin concentration was found in the alcoholic cirrhotic patients (1.8 +/- 0.3 gm per liter vs. 2.9 +/- 0.2; p less than 0.01), resulting from diminished total body synthesis (0.9 +/- 0.2 mg per kg per hr vs. 1.8 +/- 0.2; p less than 0.01). In contrast, in the patients with alcoholic fatty liver, the mean total body transferrin synthesis (2.4 +/- 0.3 mg per kg per hr) was significantly increased when compared with controls (p less than 0.05). For all the alcoholic patients, the serum transferrin correlated with transferrin synthesis (r = +0.70; p less than 0.01) but the serum iron did not. These results suggest that, in alcoholic cirrhosis, transferrin synthesis is decreased, probably reflecting diminished synthetic capacity by the liver. In contrast, in patients with alcoholic fatty liver, transferrin turnover is accelerated

  12. Clinical investigation of fatty liver by CT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kato, Katsumoto; Takayama, Tetsuo; Sano, Hiroshi; Katada, Naoyuki; Takeichi, Masayuki

    1984-01-01

    CT findings of 56 cases of diffuse fatty infiltration comfirmed by liver biopsy were investigated and compared with those of chronic hepatitis and liver cirrhosis. We found that the diagnosis of severe fatty infiltration (fatty liver) can be specifically possible when the ratios of CT values of liver to those of spleen are less than 0.85 and it is reasonable criterion for diagnosis of fatty liver by CT. This criterion was satisfied by 197 studies (2.9%), 169 cases with fatty liver (diffuse: 141 cases, focal: 28 cases) of 6800 CT studies of liver. Obesity, diabetes and alcohol abuse were main causative factors in both diffuse and focal fatty liver. The percentage of cases showing no abnormal results in blood chemistry tests was great compared with the previous report based on liver biopsy. The changes of CT values of liver faithfully reflected the improvement of each causal factor and reciprocal changes were observed between diffuse and focal fatty liver in repeated CT examination. So, CT is useful in estimating the effect of treatment as well as in diagnosis of fatty liver. Focal fatty liver is temporary manifestation during the proscess of development or improvement of fatty liver. (author)

  13. Histological scoring and associated risk factors of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Majid, N; Ali, Z; Rahman, M R; Akhter, A; Rajib, R C; Ahmad, F; Sharmin, S; Akond, A K; Huq, N

    2013-10-01

    Non alcoholic steatohepatitis is a hepatic disorder with histological features of alcohol induced liver disease that occurs in individual who do not consume significant alcohol. Liver biopsy is an important part of the evaluation in term of both grade & stage. A cross sectional study was carried out in the department of Pathology, Dhaka Medical College, Dhaka & department of Hepatology, Bangabandhu Sheikh Mujib Medical University (BSMMU) from July 2007 to June 2009. Total 55 adult subjects of both sex were included on the basis of predefined inclusion & exclusion criteria in this study to evaluate the histological pattern of non alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) and its correlation with risk factors. Liver biopsy was done and H & E and Masson's Trichrome stain slides were examined to evaluate the grade and stage of NAFLD. Scoring and semiquantitative assessment of steatosis and NAFLD severity was done according to Kleiner scale known as NAFLD activity score (NAS). The results of Pearson correlation showed only BMI and triglyceride level significantly correlated with NAS score. The results of Spearman's rank correlation showed that BMI, central obesity, triglyceridaemia and age significantly correlated with staging of fibrosis. The results of multiple regression analysis showed that variation of NAS depend on BMI and triglyceride level. The study also revealed that risk factors contributed about 29% risk for the occurrence of non alcoholic steatohepatitis.

  14. Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease, to struggle with the strangle: Oxygen availability in fatty livers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anavi, Sarit; Madar, Zecharia; Tirosh, Oren

    2017-10-01

    Nonalcoholic fatty liver diseases (NAFLD) is one of the most common chronic liver disease in Western countries. Oxygen is a central component of the cellular microenvironment, which participate in the regulation of cell survival, differentiation, functions and energy metabolism. Accordingly, sufficient oxygen supply is an important factor for tissue durability, mainly in highly metabolic tissues, such as the liver. Accumulating evidence from the past few decades provides strong support for the existence of interruptions in oxygen availability in fatty livers. This outcome may be the consequence of both, impaired systemic microcirculation and cellular membrane modifications which occur under steatotic conditions. This review summarizes current knowledge regarding the main factors which can affect oxygen supply in fatty liver. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Medium chain triglycerides dose-dependently prevent liver pathology in a rat model of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Metabolic syndrome is often accompanied by development of hepatic steatosis and less frequently by nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) leading to nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH). Replacement of corn oil with medium chain triacylglycerols (MCT) in the diets of alcohol-fed rats has been show...

  16. Novel Action of Carotenoids on Non-Alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease: Macrophage Polarization and Liver Homeostasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ni, Yinhua; Zhuge, Fen; Nagashimada, Mayumi; Ota, Tsuguhito

    2016-06-24

    Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is the most common chronic liver disease. It is characterized by a wide spectrum of hepatic changes, which may progress to non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) and cirrhosis. NAFLD is considered a hepatic manifestation of metabolic syndrome; however, mechanisms underlying the onset and progression of NAFLD are still unclear. Resident and recruited macrophages are key players in the homeostatic function of the liver and in the progression of NAFLD to NASH. Progress has been made in understanding the molecular mechanisms underlying the polarized activation of macrophages. New NAFLD therapies will likely involve modification of macrophage polarization by restraining M1 activation or driving M2 activation. Carotenoids are potent antioxidants and anti-inflammatory micronutrients that have been used to prevent and treat NAFLD. In addition to their antioxidative action, carotenoids can regulate macrophage polarization and thereby halt the progression of NASH. In this review, we summarize the molecular mechanisms of macrophage polarization and the function of liver macrophages/Kupffer cells in NAFLD. From our review, we propose that dietary carotenoids, such as β-cryptoxanthin and astaxanthin, be used to prevent or treat NAFLD through the regulation of macrophage polarization and liver homeostasis.

  17. Alcohol consumption and risk of fatty liver disease: a meta-analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guoli Cao

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Background Observational studies have shown inconsistent results regarding alcohol consumption and risk of fatty liver. We performed a meta-analysis of published literature to investigate the association between alcohol consumption and fatty liver disease (FLD. Methods We searched Medline, Embase, Web of Science, and several Chinese databases, identifying studies that reported an association between alcohol consumption and the risk of FLD. Results A total of 16 studies with 76,608 participants including 13 cross-sectional studies, two cross-sectional following longitudinal studies, and one cohort study met the inclusion criteria. For light to moderate alcohol consumption (LMAC, there was a 22.6% reduction in risk of FLD (odds ratio [OR] = 0.774, 95% confidence interval CI [0.695–0.862], P <0.001, and subgroup analysis showed that a greater reduction in risk of FLD was found in the female drinkers (30.2% and the drinkers with BMI ≥25 kg/m2(31.3% compared with the male drinkers (22.6% and the drinkers with BMI <25 kg/m2(21.3%, respectively. For heavy alcohol consumption, there was no significant influence on risk of FLD (OR = 0.869, 95% CI [0.553–1.364], P = 0.541 in Japanese women, but there was a 33.7% reduction in risk of FLD (OR = 0.663, 95% CI [0.574–0.765], P < 0.001 in Japanese men and a significant increased risk of FLD (OR = 1.785, 95% CI [1.064–2.996], P = 0.028 in Germans. Conclusion LMAC is associated with a significant protective effect on FLD in the studied population, especially in the women and obese population. However, the effect of heavy alcohol consumption on FLD remains unclear due to limited studies and small sample sizes.

  18. Bioinformatics-Driven Identification and Examination of Candidate Genes for Non-Alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Banasik, Karina; Justesen, Johanne M.; Hornbak, Malene

    2011-01-01

    Objective: Candidate genes for non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) identified by a bioinformatics approach were examined for variant associations to quantitative traits of NAFLD-related phenotypes. Research Design and Methods: By integrating public database text mining, trans-organism protein...

  19. Maternal western diet primes non-alcoholic fatty liver disease in adult mouse offspring

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pruis, M. G. M.; Lendvai, A.; Bloks, V. W.; Zwier, M. V.; Baller, J. F. W.; de Bruin, A.; Groen, A. K.; Plosch, T.

    AimMetabolic programming via components of the maternal diet during gestation may play a role in the development of different aspects of the metabolic syndrome. Using a mouse model, we aimed to characterize the role of maternal western-type diet in the development of non-alcoholic fatty liver

  20. Insulin resistance index (HOMA-IR) in the differentiation of patients with non-alcoholic fatty liver disease and healthy individuals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salgado, Ana Lúcia Farias de Azevedo; Carvalho, Luciana de; Oliveira, Ana Claudia; Santos, Virgínia Nascimento dos; Vieira, Jose Gilberto; Parise, Edison Roberto

    2010-01-01

    Due to its good correlation to glycemic clamp, HOMA-IR has been widely utilized as insulin resistance index in clinical and epidemiological studies involving non-alcoholic fatty liver disease carriers. However, values used for this parameter have shown large variability. To identify the HOMA-IR cut value that best distinguishes non-diabetic non-alcoholic fatty liver disease patients from a control group. One hundred sixteen non-alcoholic fatty liver disease patients were studied, diagnosed by clinical, biochemical, and liver image or biopsy criteria, and 88 healthy individuals, without any liver disease and testing for oral glucose tolerance within normality. These groups did not differ in age and gender. All were submitted to oral glucose tolerance test and blood samples were collected for glucose and insulin measurements by immunofluorometric method. HOMA-IR was calculated according to the formula: fasting insulin (microU/L) x fasting glucose (nmol/L)/22.5. NAFLD patients showed higher insulin, glycemia, and HOMA-IR values than control group, even when excluding glucose intolerant and diabetes mellitus patients by their glycemic curves. HOMA-IR 75th percentile for control group was 1.78 and the best area under the curve index was obtained for HOMA-IR values of 2.0 [AUC= 0.840 (0.781-0.899 CI 95%), sensitivity (Se): 85%, specificity (Sp): 83%] while value 2.5 showed best specificity without important loss in sensitivity [AUC=0,831 (0.773-0.888) Se = 72%, Sp = 94%]. HOMA-IR values above or equal to 2.0 or 2.5 show enhanced diagnostic value in distinguishing non-alcoholic fatty liver disease carriers from control group individuals.

  1. Obstructive Sleep Apnea and Non-alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease: Is the Liver Another Target?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aibek eMirrakhimov

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA is recurrent obstruction of the upper airway during sleep leading to intermittent hypoxia (IH. OSA has been associated with all components of the metabolic syndrome as well as with non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD. NAFLD is a common condition ranging in severity from uncomplicated hepatic steatosis to steatohepatitis (NASH, liver fibrosis and cirrhosis. The gold standard for the diagnosis and staging of NAFLD is liver biopsy. Obesity and insulin resistance lead to liver steatosis, but the causes of the progression to NASH are not known. Emerging evidence suggests that OSA may play a role in the progression of hepatic steatosis and the development of NASH. Several cross-sectional studies showed that the severity of IH in patients with OSA predicted the severity of NAFLD on liver biopsy. However, neither prospective nor interventional studies with continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP treatment have been performed. Studies in a mouse model showed that IH causes triglyceride accumulation in the liver and liver injury as well as hepatic inflammation. The mouse model provided insight in the pathogenesis of liver injury showing that (1 IH accelerates the progression of hepatic steatosis by inducing adipose tissue lipolysis and increasing free fatty acids (FFA flux into the liver; (2 IH up-regulates lipid biosynthetic pathways in the liver; (3 IH induces oxidative stress in the liver; (4 IH up-regulates hypoxia inducible factor 1 alpha and possibly HIF-2 alpha, which may increase hepatic steatosis and induce liver inflammation and fibrosis. However, the role of FFA and different transcription factors in the pathogenesis of IH-induced NAFLD is yet to be established. Thus, multiple lines of evidence suggest that IH of OSA may contribute to the progression of NAFLD but definitive clinical studies and experiments in the mouse model have yet to be done.

  2. CT number of the fatty liver

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maeda, Hiroko; Kawai, Takeshi; Kanasaki, Yoshiki; Akagi, Hiroaki

    1981-01-01

    This report is studied on CT number and CT images of the eight cases with fatty liver. Five of these cases showed the reversal of densities of the liver and vessels. In these cases, the diagnoses of the fatty liver were easible. In other cases, the diagnoses were possible only by comparison of the CT number of the liver and spleen because the CT number of normal liver were higher than those of the spleen. In the results which we examined the correlation of the CT number and specific gravities of the blood, normal saline, distilled water, mayonnaise, eatable iol, ethyl alcohol and lard, we observed the linear relationship between CT number and specific gravities. And so, we think that the diagnosis of the fatty liver and the degree of fatty infiltration can be guessed by the CT number of the liver and spleen. (author)

  3. Free triiodothyronine as determinant of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease in euthyroid subjects: The lifelines cohort study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Den Berg, Eline; van Tienhoven-Wind, Lynnda; Amini, Marzyeh; Schreuder, Tim C.M.A.; Faber, Klaas Nico; Blokzijl, H.; Dullaart, Robin P.F.

    2016-01-01

    Background: Non-alcoholic fatty live disease (NAFLD) is becoming the leading cause of chronic liver disease in de Western world. The liver plays a crucial role in the metabolism of cholesterol and triglycerides and thyroid hormones interact on hepatic lipid homeostasis. Given the importance of

  4. Effect of specific amino acids on hepatic lipid metabolism in fructose-induced non-alcoholic fatty liver disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jegatheesan, Prasanthi; Beutheu, Stéphanie; Ventura, Gabrielle; Sarfati, Gilles; Nubret, Esther; Kapel, Nathalie; Waligora-Dupriet, Anne-Judith; Bergheim, Ina; Cynober, Luc; De-Bandt, Jean-Pascal

    2016-02-01

    Fructose diets have been shown to induce insulin resistance and to alter liver metabolism and gut barrier function, ultimately leading to non-alcoholic fatty liver disease. Citrulline, Glutamine and Arginine may improve insulin sensitivity and have beneficial effects on gut trophicity. Our aim was to evaluate their effects on liver and gut functions in a rat model of fructose-induced non-alcoholic fatty liver disease. Male Sprague-Dawley rats (n = 58) received a 4-week fructose (60%) diet or standard chow with or without Citrulline (0.15 g/d) or an isomolar amount of Arginine or Glutamine. All diets were made isonitrogenous by addition of non-essential amino acids. At week 4, nutritional and metabolic status (plasma glucose, insulin, cholesterol, triglycerides and amino acids, net intestinal absorption) was determined; steatosis (hepatic triglycerides content, histological examination) and hepatic function (plasma aspartate aminotransferase, alanine aminotransferase, alkaline phosphatase, bilirubin) were assessed; and gut barrier integrity (myeloperoxidase activity, portal endotoxemia, tight junction protein expression and localization) and intestinal and hepatic inflammation were evaluated. We also assessed diets effects on caecal microbiota. In these experimental isonitrogenous fructose diet conditions, fructose led to steatosis with dyslipidemia but without altering glucose homeostasis, liver function or gut permeability. Fructose significantly decreased Bifidobacterium and Lactobacillus and tended to increase endotoxemia. Arginine and Glutamine supplements were ineffective but Citrulline supplementation prevented hypertriglyceridemia and attenuated liver fat accumulation. While nitrogen supply alone can attenuate fructose-induced non-alcoholic fatty liver disease, Citrulline appears to act directly on hepatic lipid metabolism by partially preventing hypertriglyceridemia and steatosis. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd and European Society for Clinical Nutrition

  5. Adipokines and Non-Alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease: Multiple Interactions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Timon E. Adolph

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Accumulating evidence links obesity with low-grade inflammation which may originate from adipose tissue that secretes a plethora of pro- and anti-inflammatory cytokines termed adipokines. Adiponectin and leptin have evolved as crucial signals in many obesity-related pathologies including non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD. Whereas adiponectin deficiency might be critically involved in the pro-inflammatory state associated with obesity and related disorders, overproduction of leptin, a rather pro-inflammatory mediator, is considered of equal relevance. An imbalanced adipokine profile in obesity consecutively contributes to metabolic inflammation in NAFLD, which is associated with a substantial risk for developing hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC also in the non-cirrhotic stage of disease. Both adiponectin and leptin have been related to liver tumorigenesis especially in preclinical models. This review covers recent advances in our understanding of some adipokines in NAFLD and associated HCC.

  6. Correlation of Body Mass Index and Serum Parameters With Ultrasonographic Grade of Fatty Change in Non-alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abangah, Ghobad; Yousefi, Atefeh; Asadollahi, Rouhangiz; Veisani, Yousef; Rahimifar, Paria; Alizadeh, Sajjad

    2014-01-01

    Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is a common liver disease in the western population and expanding disease in the world. Pathological changes in fatty liver are like alcohol liver damage, which can lead to end-stage liver disease. The prevalence of NAFLD in obese or overweight people is higher than general population, and it seems that people with high Body Mass Index (BMI) or abnormality in some laboratory tests are more susceptible for severe fatty liver and high grade of NAFLD in ultrasonography (U.S). This study aimed to evaluate the correlation of BMI and laboratory tests with NAFLD in ultrasonography. During a multi-step process, we selected two-hundred and thirteen cases from four hundred and eighteen patients with NAFLD. Laboratory tests performed included: ALT, AST, FBS, Triglyceride and cholesterol levels, hepatitis B surface antigen, hepatitis C antibody, ceruloplasmin, serum iron, TIBC, transferrin saturation, ferritin, AMA, ANA, ANTI LKM1, serum protein electrophoresis, TSH, anti TTG (IgA). BMI and ultrasonography for 213 patients were performed, and then data was analyzed. These parameters and grades of ultrasonography were compared with the values obtained using one way ANOVA. An ordinal logistic regression model was used to estimate the probability of ultrasonography grade. The Statistical Package for the Social Science program (SPSS, version 16.0) was used for data analysis. Two-hundred and thirteen cases including 140 male and 73 female, were studied. In general, 72.3% of patients were overweight and obese. Post-hoc tests showed that only BMI (P < 0.001) and TG (P < 0.011) among variables had statistically significant associations with ultrasonography grade (USG), and ordinal logistic regression model showed that BMI and AST were the best predictors. Our results suggest that in patients with NAFLD, BMI and TG are most effective factors in severity of fatty liver disease and ultrasonography grade (USG). On the other hand, BMI as a

  7. [Non-invasive assessment of fatty liver].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Egresi, Anna; Lengyel, Gabriella; Hagymási, Krisztina

    2015-04-05

    As the result of various harmful effects (infectious agents, metabolic diseases, unhealthy diet, obesity, toxic agents, autoimmune processes) hepatic damage may develop, which can progress towards liver steatosis, and fibrosis as well. The most common etiological factors of liver damages are hepatitis B and C infection, alcohol consumption and non-alcoholic fatty liver disease. Liver biopsy is considered as the gold standard for the diagnosis of chronic liver diseases. Due to the dangers and complications of liver biopsy, studies are focused on non-invasive markers and radiological imaging for liver steatosis, progression of fatty liver, activity of the necroinflammation and the severity of the fibrosis. Authors review the possibilities of non-invasive assessment of liver steatosis. The statistical features of the probes (positive, negative predictive values, sensitivity, specificity) are reviewed. The role of radiological imaging is also discussed. Although the non-invasive methods discussed in this article are useful to assess liver steatosis, further studies are needed to validate to follow progression of the diseases and to control therapeutic response.

  8. Final results of a long-term, clinical follow-up in fatty liver patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dam-Larsen, Sanne; Becker, Ulrik; Franzmann, Maria-Benedicte

    2009-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: There is increasing focus on non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). The aim of the present study was to conduct a long-term clinical follow-up of patients with biopsy-confirmed fatty liver without inflammation or significant fibrosis (pure fatty liver), to analyse for potential risk....... All admissions, discharge diagnoses and causes of death during follow-up were collected. All surviving patients were invited to a clinical follow-up. RESULTS: The follow-up period was 20.4 and 21.0 years, respectively, for the NAFLD and alcoholic fatty liver disease (AFLD) groups. Two NAFLD patients...... of death. Patients with AFLD died primarily from cirrhosis and other alcohol-related disorders, whereas in patients with NAFLD the main causes of death were cardiovascular disease and cancer. CONCLUSIONS: For patients with pure non-alcoholic fatty liver, survival was good and independent...

  9. Increased Nitroxidative Stress Promotes Mitochondrial Dysfunction in Alcoholic and Nonalcoholic Fatty Liver Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Byoung-Joon Song

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Increased nitroxidative stress causes mitochondrial dysfunctions through oxidative modifications of mitochondrial DNA, lipids, and proteins. Persistent mitochondrial dysfunction sensitizes the target cells/organs to other pathological risk factors and thus ultimately contributes to the development of more severe disease states in alcoholic and nonalcoholic fatty liver disease. The incidences of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease continuously increase due to high prevalence of metabolic syndrome including hyperlipidemia, hypercholesterolemia, obesity, insulin resistance, and diabetes. Many mitochondrial proteins including the enzymes involved in fat oxidation and energy supply could be oxidatively modified (including S-nitrosylation/nitration under increased nitroxidative stress and thus inactivated, leading to increased fat accumulation and ATP depletion. To demonstrate the underlying mechanism(s of mitochondrial dysfunction, we employed a redox proteomics approach using biotin-N-maleimide (biotin-NM as a sensitive biotin-switch probe to identify oxidized Cys residues of mitochondrial proteins in the experimental models of alcoholic and acute liver disease. The aims of this paper are to briefly describe the mechanisms, functional consequences, and detection methods of mitochondrial dysfunction. We also describe advantages and limitations of the Cys-targeted redox proteomics method with alternative approaches. Finally, we discuss various applications of this method in studying oxidatively modified mitochondrial proteins in extrahepatic tissues or different subcellular organelles and translational research.

  10. Computed tomographic demonstration of rapid changes in fatty infiltration of the liver

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bashist, B.; Hecht, H.L.; Harely, W.D.

    1982-01-01

    Two alcoholic patients in whom computed tomography (CT) demonstrated reversal of fatty infiltration of the liver are described. The rapid reversibility of fatty infiltration can be useful in monitoring alcoholics with fatty livers. Focal fatty infiltration can mimic focal hepatic lesions and repeat scans can be utilized to assess changes in CT attenuation values when this condition is suspected

  11. EXPERIENCE OF ORNITHINE ASPARTATE (HEPA-MERZ AND PROBIOTICS BIOFLORUM FORTE IN THE TREATMENT OF NON-SEVERE FORMS OF ALCOHOLIC AND NON-ALCOHOLIC FATTY LIVER DISEASE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Yu. Ilchenko

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim: to evaluate the efficacy and tolerability of ornithine aspartate, probiotic Bioflorum Forte and their combination with steatosis and steatohepatitis in patients  with alcohol and non-alcoholic  fatty  liver disease. Materials and methods.  An open, randomized,  comparative  clinical study, which included 30 outpatients and inpatients with a diagnosis of steatosis, steatohepatitis. We analyzed the clinical symptoms, functional state of the liver. With the help of questionnaires  (Grids LeGo and post intoxication alcohol syndrome have established the presence of chronic alcohol intoxication. Test transmissions of numbers used to characterize the cognitive function, as well as detection  of minimal hepatic encephalopathy. Quality of life was assessed by questionnaire for patients with chronic liver disease — CLDQ (The chronic liver disease questionnaire. The duration of treatment was4 weeks. Results: all three treatment regimens have demonstrated therapeutic  efficacy: clinical improvement, recovery of liver function and results in cognitive function. When combined therapy also produced a significant improvement  in patients’ quality of life. It is shown that  the safety and tolerability of the means employed, adverse events were not reported. Conclusion: the results obtained allow us to recommend the use of ornithine aspartate (Hepa-Merz, both as monotherapy and as part of complex therapy of steatosis,  steatohepatitis with probiotic Bioflorum Forte in patients with alcoholic and non-alcoholic fatty liver disease.

  12. Circulating sCD36 levels in patients with non-alcoholic fatty liver disease and controls

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heebøll, Sara; Poulsen, Marianne Kjær; Ørnstrup, Marie Juul

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: CD36 is implicated in fatty acid uptake in multiple tissues, including hepatocytes and adipocytes. Circulating CD36 (sCD36) is increased in non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD).We explored this association further by investigating correlations between sCD36 levels...... resonance imaging (n=94, subcutaneous and visceral adipose tissue) and liver biopsy (n=28 NAFLD patients) performed. Plasma sCD36 was assessed by ELISA. RESULTS: NAFLD patients had elevated sCD36 levels compared to controls (0.68 (0.12-2.27) versus 0.43 (0.10-1.18), P.... An unhealthy and unbalanced CD36 expression in adipose and hepatic tissue may shift the fatty acid load to the liver.Clinical Trials.gov (NCT01464801, NCT01412645, NCT01446276).International Journal of Obesity accepted article preview online, 05 December 2016. doi:10.1038/ijo.2016.223....

  13. FT-IR imaging for quantitative determination of liver fat content in non-alcoholic fatty liver.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kochan, K; Maslak, E; Chlopicki, S; Baranska, M

    2015-08-07

    In this work we apply FT-IR imaging of large areas of liver tissue cross-section samples (∼5 cm × 5 cm) for quantitative assessment of steatosis in murine model of Non-Alcoholic Fatty Liver (NAFLD). We quantified the area of liver tissue occupied by lipid droplets (LDs) by FT-IR imaging and Oil Red O (ORO) staining for comparison. Two alternative FT-IR based approaches are presented. The first, straightforward method, was based on average spectra from tissues and provided values of the fat content by using a PLS regression model and the reference method. The second one – the chemometric-based method – enabled us to determine the values of the fat content, independently of the reference method by means of k-means cluster (KMC) analysis. In summary, FT-IR images of large size liver sections may prove to be useful for quantifying liver steatosis without the need of tissue staining.

  14. Higher free triiodothyronine is associated with non-alcoholic fatty liver disease in euthyroid subjects : The Lifelines Cohort Study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van den Berg, Eline H.; van Tienhoven-Wind, Lynnda J. N.; Amini, Marzyeh; Schreuder, Tim C.M.A.; Faber, Klaas Nico; Blokzijl, Hans; Dullaart, Robin P. F.

    Objective. Overt hypothyroidism confers an increased risk of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). The liver plays a crucial role in the metabolism of cholesterol and triglycerides; thyroid hormones interact on hepatic lipid homeostasis. Thyroid function within the euthyroid range affects a

  15. Uneven acute non-alcoholic fatty change of the liver after percutaneous transhepatic portal vein embolization in a patient with hilar cholangiocarcinoma - a case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsai, Chun-Yi; Nojiri, Motoi; Yokoyama, Yukihiro; Ebata, Tomoki; Mizuno, Takashi; Nagino, Masato

    2017-12-06

    Portal vein embolization is essential for patients with biliary cancer who undergo extended hepatectomy to induce hypertrophy of the future remnant liver. Over 830 patients have undergone the portal vein embolization at our institution since 1990. Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease is an entity of hepatic disease characterized by fat deposition in hepatocytes. It has a higher prevalence among persons with morbid obesity, type 2 diabetes, and hyperlipidemia. Neither the mechanism of hepatic hypertrophy after portal vein embolization nor the pathophysiology of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease has been fully elucidated. Some researchers integrated the evident insults leading to progression of fatty liver disease into the multiple-hit hypothesis. Among these recognized insults, the change of hemodynamic status of the liver was never mentioned. We present the case of a woman with perihilar cholangiocarcinoma who received endoscopic biliary drainage and presented to our institute for surgical consultation. A left trisectionectomy with caudate lobectomy and extrahepatic bile duct resection was indicated for curative treatment. To safely undergo left trisectionectomy, she underwent selective portal vein embolization of the liver, in which uneven acute fatty change subsequently developed. The undrained left medial sector of the liver with dilated biliary tracts was spared the fatty change. The patient underwent planned surgery without any major complications 6 weeks after the event and has since resumed a normal life. The discrepancies in fatty deposition in the different sectors of the liver were confirmed by pathologic interpretations. This is the first report of acute fatty change of the liver after portal vein embolization. The sparing of the undrained medial sector is unique and extraordinary. The images and pathologic interpretations presented in this report may inspire further research on how the change of hepatic total inflow after portal vein embolization can be

  16. Imaging of non alcoholic fatty liver disease: A road less travelled

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Divya Singh

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Non alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD is a spectrum that includes simple steatosis, nonalcoholic steatohepatitis and cirrhosis. It is increasingly emerging as a cause of elevated liver enzymes, cryptogenic cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma. The morbidity and mortality related to NAFLD is expected to rise with the upsurge of obesity and type 2 diabetes mellitus. The need of the hour is to devise techniques to estimate and then accurately follow-up hepatic fat content in patients with NAFLD. There are lots of imaging modalities in the radiological armamentarium, namely, ultrasonography with the extra edge of elastography, computed tomography, and magnetic resonance imaging with chemical shift imaging and spectroscopy to provide an estimation of hepatic fat content.

  17. Alimentary regimen in non-alcoholic fatty liver disease: Mediterranean diet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abenavoli, Ludovico; Milic, Natasa; Peta, Valentina; Alfieri, Francesco; De Lorenzo, Antonino; Bellentani, Stefano

    2014-01-01

    Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is the most common liver disease worldwide. The mechanisms of the underlying disease development and progression are awaiting clarification. Insulin resistance and obesity-related inflammation status, among other possible genetic, dietary, and lifestyle factors, are thought to play the key role. There is no consensus concerning the pharmacological treatment. However, the dietary nutritional management to achieve weight loss is an essential component of any treatment strategy. On the basis of its components, the literature reports on the effectiveness of the Mediterranean diet in reducing cardiovascular risk and in preventing major chronic diseases, including obesity and diabetes. New evidence supports the idea that the Mediterranean diet, associated with physical activity and cognitive behaviour therapy, may have an important role in the prevention and the treatment of NAFLD. PMID:25492997

  18. Adrenal disorders and non-alcoholic fatty liver disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papanastasiou, Labrini; Fountoulakis, Stelios; Vatalas, Ioannis-Anastasios

    2017-06-01

    Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is the most common liver disease in the developed world and its pathogenesis is complex and multifactorial. It is considered the hepatic manifestation of the metabolic syndrome and is the leading cause of hepatic cirrhosis. This review aims to present current knowledge on the involvement of the adrenal glands in the development of NAFLD. Clinical and animal studies have shown that excess glucocorticoids (GC) have been implicated in the pathogenesis of NAFLD. Patients with NAFLD seem to have a subtle chronic activation of the hypothalamic pituitary adrenal axis leading to a state of subclinical hypercortisolism. Regulators of GC such as 11β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 1 (11β-HSD1), an enzyme that regenerates cortisol from inactive cortisone, and 5α/5β-reductases, enzymes that increase cortisol clearance, are implicated in the development of NAFLD by amplifying local GC action. Adrenal androgen (dehydroepiandrosterone) abnormalities and increased aldosterone levels may also have a role in the development of NAFLD whereas the contribution of adrenergic signaling in NAFLD pathogenesis remains unclear.

  19. Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease: molecular mechanisms for the hepatic steatosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koo, Seung-Hoi

    2013-09-01

    Liver plays a central role in the biogenesis of major metabolites including glucose, fatty acids, and cholesterol. Increased incidence of obesity in the modern society promotes insulin resistance in the peripheral tissues in humans, and could cause severe metabolic disorders by inducing accumulation of lipid in the liver, resulting in the progression of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). NAFLD, which is characterized by increased fat depots in the liver, could precede more severe diseases such as non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH), cirrhosis, and in some cases hepatocellular carcinoma. Accumulation of lipid in the liver can be traced by increased uptake of free fatty acids into the liver, impaired fatty acid beta oxidation, or the increased incidence of de novo lipogenesis. In this review, I would like to focus on the roles of individual pathways that contribute to the hepatic steatosis as a precursor for the NAFLD.

  20. Fatty liver disease--a practical guide for GPs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iser, David; Ryan, Marno

    2013-07-01

    Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD), encompassing both simple steatosis and non-alcoholic steato-hepatitis (NASH), is the most common cause of liver disease in Australia. Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease needs to be considered in the context of the metabolic syndrome, as cardiovascular disease will account for much of the mortality associated with NAFLD. To provide an approach to the identification of NAFLD in general practice, the distinction between simple steatosis and NASH, and the management of these two conditions. Non-alcoholic steato-hepatitis is more common in the presence of diabetes, obesity, older age and increased inflammation, and is more likely to progress to cirrhosis. Cirrhosis may be complicated by hepatocellular carcinoma or liver failure. Hepatocellular carcinoma has also been described in NASH without cirrhosis. Assessment and treatment of features of the metabolic syndrome may reduce associated cardiovascular mortality. Numerous agents have been evaluated, but weight loss remains the only effective treatment for NAFLD.

  1. Prevalence and factors associated with the presence of non alcoholic fatty liver disease in an apparently healthy adult population in primary care units

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pizarro Gregorio

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Fatty liver disease is characterized by the accumulation of fat vacuoles inside of the hepatocytes. Non alcoholic fatty liver is associated with obesity, type 2 diabetes, dyslipemia, the intake of certain drugs and with the so-called metabolic syndrome. However, there is little information on the clinical relevance of this disorder as a healthcare problem in the general population, since the studies published generally include a limited number of patients and the diagnosis is established on the basis of clear biochemical alterations and liver biopsy. Methods/Design The aim of the study is the prevalence of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease in a general adult population by hepatic ultrasonography. A population-based, descriptive, transversal, multicentre study. Eighteen primary care centres of the north of Barcelona and the Maresme Areas of Healthcare Management attending an urban and semi-urban population of 360.000 inhabitants. A randomized sample of 786 subjects of 15 years or older were selected from the population and assigned to the participating centres according to the Primary Care Information System (SIAP: This population is practically the same as the general population of the area. The following determinations will be carried out in all the participants: hepatic ultrasonography to detect fatty liver, a questionnaire concerning liver diseases, alcohol intake, smoking and drug use, physical examination including abdominal perimeter and body mass index and biochemical analysis including liver function tests and parameters related to the metabolic syndrome and the HAIR score. Ultrasonographic diagnosis of fatty liver will be made according to established criteria (American Gastroenterology Association and diagnosis of metabolic syndrome according to the criteria of the European Group for the Study of Insulin Resistance. Discussion This study will attempt to determine the prevalence of non alcoholic fatty liver disease

  2. Role of γ-glutamyl transferase levels in prediction of high cardiovascular risk among patients with non-alcoholic fatty liver disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benan Kasapoglu

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background & objectives: Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD is an important cause of elevated liver functions. There is evidence showing an association between NAFLD and subclinical atherosclerosis independent of traditional risk factors. We undertook this retrospective study to determine the association of Framingham cardiovascular risk scoring system with liver function tests and inflammatory markers and to find the role of liver function tests in determination of CVD risk among non-obese and non-diabetic subjects with non-alcoholic fatty liver disease. Methods: A total of 2058 patients were included in the study. Framingham cardiovascular risk scoring was done of all patients according to the age, gender, systolic blood pressure, serum total cholesterol and HDL cholesterol levels, smoking and antihypertensive medication history. Liver function test, lipid profile, insulin, uric acid, ferritin levels, etc. were determined. Results: According to the ultrasonography findings, patients were grouped as without any fatty infiltration of the liver (control group (n=982, mild (n= 473, moderate (n=363 and severe fatty liver disease (n= 240 groups. In severe fatty liver disease group, the mean Framingham cardiovascular risk score was significantly higher than that of other groups. t0 here was a positive correlation between GGT, uric acid and ferritin levels with Framingham cardiovascular score. In multivariate analysis, high GGT levels were positively associated with high-risk disease presence (OR: 3.02, 95% CI: 2.62-3.42 compared to low GGT levels independent of the age and sex. Interpretation & conclusions: Cardiovascular disease risk increases with the presence and stage of fatty liver disease. Our findings showed a positive correlation between elevated GGT levels and Framingham cardiovascular risk scoring system among non-diabetic, non-obese adults which could be important in clinical practice. Though in normal limits, elevated GGT levels

  3. Non-alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease and Metabolic Syndrome in Hypopituitary Patients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nyenwe, Ebenezer A; Williamson-Baddorf, Sarah; Waters, Bradford; Wan, Jim Y; Solomon, Solomon S.

    2009-01-01

    Background Increased incidence of cardiovascular mortality and non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) has been reported in hypopituitarism; but previous studies did not correct for obesity in these patients. Therefore it remained unclear if endocrine deficiency in hypopituitarism is associated with metabolic consequences independent of obesity. This study was designed to determine the burden of cardiovascular disease and NAFLD in hypopituitarism. Methods We performed a retrospective case-control analysis of hypopituitary patients at Veterans Affair Medical center, Memphis; from January 1997- June 2007. After matching for age, gender, obesity and race, relevant data were abstracted from the subjects' records to determine the presence of hypopituitarism, cardiovascular risk factors and fatty liver disease. Cases and controls were characterized by descriptive statistics, and compared using Chi-square and Student's t- tests. Results Hypopituitary patients exhibited higher prevalence of hypertension- 88% vs 78% (P0.3). Hypopituitary patients had higher elevations in serum aminotransferase levels and hyperbilirubinemia-24% vs 11% (Phypopituitarism. Although hypopituitary patients had higher prevalence of cardiovascular risk factors than controls, they were not disproportionately affected by cardiovascular disease. PMID:19745609

  4. Epigenetic Mechanisms Underlying the Link between Non-Alcoholic Fatty Liver Diseases and Nutrition

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    Joo Ho Lee

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD is defined as a pathologic accumulation of fat in the form of triglycerides (TG in the liver (steatosis that is not caused by alcohol. A subgroup of NAFLD patients shows liver cell injury and inflammation coupled with the excessive fat accumulation (steatohepatitis, which is referred to as non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH. Patients with NASH may develop cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC. NAFLD shares the key features of metabolic syndrome including obesity, hyperlipidemia, hypertension, and insulin resistance. The pathogenesis of NAFLD is multi-factorial, however the oxidative stress seems to plays a major role in the development and progression of the disease. The emerging field of epigenetics provides a new perspective on the pathogenesis of NAFLD. Epigenetics is an inheritable but reversible phenomenon that affects gene expression without altering the DNA sequence and refers to DNA methylation, histone modifications and microRNAs. Epigenetic manipulation through metabolic pathways such as one-carbon metabolism has been proposed as a promising approach to retard the progression of NAFLD. Investigating the epigenetic modifiers in NAFLD may also lead to the development of preventive or therapeutic strategies for NASH-associated complications.

  5. Beneficial mechanisms of aerobic exercise on hepatic lipid metabolism in non-alcoholic fatty liver disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Rui; Liong, Emily C; So, Kwok Fai; Fung, Man-Lung; Tipoe, George L

    2015-04-01

    Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) refers to any fatty liver disease that is not due to excessive use of alcohol. NAFLD probably results from abnormal hepatic lipid metabolism and insulin resistance. Aerobic exercise is shown to improve NAFLD. This review aimed to evaluate the molecular mechanisms involved in the beneficial effects of aerobic exercise on NAFLD. We searched articles in English on the role of aerobic exercise in NAFLD therapy in PubMed. The mechanisms of chronic aerobic exercise in regulating the outcome of NAFLD include: (i) reducing intrahepatic fat content by down-regulating sterol regulatory element-binding protein-1c and up-regulating peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma expression levels; (ii) decreasing hepatic oxidative stress through modulating the reactive oxygen species, and enhancing antioxidant enzymes such as catalase and glutathione peroxidase; (iii) ameliorating hepatic inflammation via the inhibition of pro-inflammatory mediators such as tumor necrosis factor-alpha and interleukin-1 beta; (iv) attenuating mitochondrial dependent apoptosis by reducing cytochrome C released from the mitochondria to the cytosol; and (v) inducing hepato-protective autophagy. Aerobic exercise, via different mechanisms, significantly decreases the fat content of the liver and improves the outcomes of patients with NAFLD.

  6. Association between serum irisin levels and non-alcoholic fatty liver disease in health screen examinees.

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    Eun Sung Choi

    Full Text Available Irisin is a recently found myokine that aids obesity control and improves glucose homeostasis by acting on white adipose tissue cells and increases total energy consumption. The aim of this study was to evaluate serum irisin levels in patients with non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD and to compare these levels with those of normal controls. Among 595 health screen examinees who had visited our institute between January 2013 to March 2013, 355 patients (84 NAFLD patients and 271 normal controls were enrolled depending on whether they gave written informed consents and their history of alcohol intake, blood tests, and abdominal ultrasonographic findings. Age; sex; laboratory test parameters; homeostasis model assessment-insulin resistance; and levels of leptin, adiponectin, and irisin were assessed. Serum irisin levels (ng/ml were significantly higher in the NAFLD group than in normal controls (63.4 ± 32.6 vs. 43.0 ± 29.7, p<0.001 and higher in the mild fatty liver group than in the moderate-to-severe fatty liver group (68.3 ± 38.2 vs. 56.6 ± 21.2, p<0.001. Additionally, serum irisin levels were not different between the non-obese and obese groups (48.4 ± 34.2 vs. 45.8 ± 22.9, p = 0.492; however, the levels were significantly lowest in normal controls and highest in the mild fatty liver group in the non-obese (44.9 ± 31.7 vs. 73.1 ± 48.5 vs 59.7 ± 18.0, p<0.001 and obese groups (35.0 ± 17.0 vs. 62.9 ± 21.2 vs. 54.6 ± 23.3, p<0.001. Serum irisin levels were significantly higher in NAFLD patients, which is not consistent with the results of previously published studies. Therefore, more studies are needed to confirm the role of irisin in NAFLD.

  7. Effects of coenzyme Q10 supplementation on the anthropometric variables, lipid profiles and liver enzymes in patients with non-alcoholic fatty liver disease

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    Elnaz Jafarvand

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available This randomized double-blind placebo-controlled trial was conducted on 41 patients with non-alcoholic fatty liver disease. Patients in intervention group received 100 mg/day coenzyme Q10 (CoQ10 for four weeks. There was a significant reduction in waist circumference and aspartate aminotransferase concentrations after CoQ10 supplementation (p<0.05. Dietary fiber was in negative correlation with change in serum alanine aminotransferase (ALT concentrations (r = -410, p = 0.04, and dietary fat intake was in positive relation with serum triglyceride (r = 463, p = 0.04 and in negative relation with serum high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C (r = -533, p = 0.02 in CoQ10-treated group. CoQ10 supplement is able to reduce central obesity and improve liver function in non-alcoholic fatty liver disease. Dietary factors were also significant determinants of change in liver-specific enzyme ALT and lipid profile in these patients. Further trials with higher dose of CoQ10 and longer treatment periods are warranted to better clarify these findings.

  8. Procoagulant imbalance in patients with non-alcoholic fatty liver disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tripodi, Armando; Fracanzani, Anna L; Primignani, Massimo; Chantarangkul, Veena; Clerici, Marigrazia; Mannucci, Pier Mannuccio; Peyvandi, Flora; Bertelli, Cristina; Valenti, Luca; Fargion, Silvia

    2014-07-01

    Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is characterized by increased risk of cardiovascular events and liver-fibrosis. Both could be explained by a procoagulant-imbalance that was surmised but never directly demonstrated. We investigated 113 patients with varying histological liver damage [steatosis (n=32), steatohepatitis (n=51), metabolic-cirrhosis (n=30)], 54 with alcoholic/viral-cirrhosis and 179 controls. Plasma was evaluated for levels of pro- and anti-coagulants, and for thrombin-generation assessed as endogenous-thrombin-potential (ETP) with and without thrombomodulin or Protac® as protein C activators. The procoagulant-imbalance was defined as ETP-ratio (with-to-without thrombomodulin) or as Protac®-induced-coagulation-inhibition (PICI%). High ETP-ratios or low PICI% indicate resistance to thrombomodulin or Protac® and hence a procoagulant-imbalance. ETP-ratio increased from controls [0.57 (0.11-0.89)] to steatosis [0.72 (0.33-0.86)] and metabolic-cirrhosis [0.80 (0.57-0.95)], (pimbalance detected as ETP-ratio greater or PICI% lower than the median value of controls tended to have a higher risk of metabolic-syndrome, higher intima-media thickness, fibrosis, steatosis or lobular inflammation, all considered clinical manifestations of NAFLD. NAFLD is characterized by a procoagulant-imbalance progressing from the less severe (steatosis) to the most severe form of the disease (metabolic-cirrhosis). This imbalance appears to result from increased factor VIII and reduced protein C and might play a role in the risk of cardiovascular events and liver-fibrosis commonly observed in NAFLD. Copyright © 2014 European Association for the Study of the Liver. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Coffee and non-alcoholic fatty liver disease: brewing evidence for hepatoprotection?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Shaohua; Teoh, Narci C; Chitturi, Shiv; Farrell, Geoffrey C

    2014-03-01

    Coffee is one of the most popular beverages in the world. Several studies consistently show that coffee drinkers with chronic liver disease have a reduced risk of cirrhosis and a lower incidence of hepatocellular carcinoma regardless of primary etiology. With the increasing prevalence of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) worldwide, there is renewed interest in the effect of coffee intake on NAFLD severity and positive clinical outcomes. This review gives an overview of growing epidemiological and clinical evidence which indicate that coffee consumption reduces severity of NAFLD. These studies vary in methodology, and potential confounding factors have not always been completely excluded. However, it does appear that coffee, and particular components other than caffeine, reduce NAFLD prevalence and inflammation of non-alcoholic steatohepatitis. Several possible mechanisms underlying coffee's hepatoprotective effects in NAFLD include antioxidative, anti-inflammatory, and antifibrotic effects, while a chemopreventive effect against hepatocarcinogenesis seems likely. The so-far limited data supporting such effects will be discussed, and the need for further study is highlighted. © 2013 Journal of Gastroenterology and Hepatology Foundation and Wiley Publishing Asia Pty Ltd.

  10. Correlation of hepatic 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose uptake with fatty liver

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An, Young Sil; Yoon, Joon Kee; Hong, Seon Pyo; Joh, Chul Woo; Yoon, Seok Nam

    2006-01-01

    Liver demonstrates heterogeneous FDG uptake and sometimes it shows abnormally increased uptake even though there is no malignant tissue. However, there was no previous study to correlate these various pattern of hepatic FDG uptake with benign liver disease. Therefore, we evaluated the significance of hepatic FDG uptake associated with various clinical factors including fatty liver, liver function tests and lipid profiles. We reviewed a total of 188 patients (male/female: 120/68, mean age: 50 ± 9) who underwent PET/CT for screening of malignancy. Patients with DM, impaired glucose tolerance, previous severe hepatic disease or long-term medication history were excluded. The FDG uptake in liver was analyzed semi-quantitatively using ROI on transaxial images (segment 8) and we compared mean standardized uptake value (SUV) between fatty liver and non-fatty liver group. We also evaluated the correlation between hepatic FDG uptake and various clinical factors including serum liver function test (ALT, AST), γ -GT, total cholesterol and triglyceride concentration. The effect of alcoholic history and body mass index on hepatic FDG uptake was analyzed within the fatty liver patients. The hepatic FDG uptake of fatty liver group was significantly higher than that of non-fatty liver group. Serum total cholesterol and triglyceride concentration showed significant correlation with hepatic FDG uptake. However, there was no significant correlation between other factors (ALT, AST, and γ -GT) and FDG uptake. Also there was no difference of mean SUV between normal and abnormal groups on the basis of alcoholic history and body mass index within fatty liver patients. Fatty liver and high serum triglyceride concentration were the independent factors affecting hepatic FDG uptake according to multivariate analysis. In conclusion, hepatic FDG uptake was strongly correlated with fatty liver and serum triglyceride concentration

  11. Relevant Aspects of Nutritional and Dietary Interventions in Non-Alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease

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    Maria Catalina Hernandez-Rodas

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD is the main cause of liver disease worldwide. NAFLD is linked to circumstances such as type 2 diabetes, insulin resistance, obesity, hyperlipidemia, and hypertension. Since the obesity figures and related comorbidities are increasing, NAFLD has turned into a liver problem that has become progressively more common. Currently, there is no effective drug therapy for NAFLD; therefore, interventions in lifestyles remain the first line of treatment. Bearing in mind that adherence rates to this type of treatment are poor, great efforts are currently focused on finding novel therapeutic agents for the prevention in the development of hepatic steatosis and its progression to nonalcoholic steatohepatitis and cirrhosis. This review presents a compilation of the scientific evidence found in the last years showing the results of interventions in lifestyle, diet, and behavioral therapies and research results in human, animal and cell models. Possible therapeutic agents ranging from supplementation with vitamins, amino acids, prebiotics, probiotics, symbiotics, polyunsaturated fatty acids and polyphenols to interventions with medicinal plants are analyzed.

  12. A STUDY OF CLINICAL, BIOCHEMICAL AND SONOLOGICAL PROFILE OF NON-ALCOHOLIC FATTY LIVER DISEASE IN TYPE 2 DIABETES PATIENTS

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    Ganga Prasad Uppalapati

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND The Prevalence of Diabetes is increasing worldwide and is expected to affect 57 million adults in India by 2025. Virtually, the entire spectrum of liver disease is seen in patients with type 2 diabetes. This includes NAFLD, NASH and cirrhosis. Nearly, 70- 80% of the diabetic subjects have been reported to have hepatic fat accumulation, referred to as NAFLD (Non Alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease. There are not enough studies done on hepatic status of diabetic patients in our country. Hence, this study aims to describe the hepatic profile of type 2 diabetic patients. The aim of the study is to assess the clinical, biochemical and sonological profile of fatty liver in type 2 diabetes patients. MATERIALS AND METHODS Type 2 diabetes patients who are attending medical OPD (n=118 were taken as subjects. They underwent liver function tests, blood glucose levels and assessed by ultrasound examination of abdomen. Their diabetic duration and treatment history was also recorded. RESULTS Age wise and sex wise comparison of the liver function tests did not reveal any significant difference. Comparing mean blood glucose between those with or without fatty liver did not reveal any significant difference. There was no clinically significant difference between liver enzyme parameters among patients with fatty liver and those without fatty liver (as assessed by ultrasonogram. Significant number of females developed fatty liver disease as compared to males. Obesity was found to have a significant association with fatty liver disease. Only 6 patients among 60 patients of those with normal or underweight showed fatty liver change as compared to 44 patients. Among 58 patients of those with overweight or obese patients showed fatty liver change (assessed by ultrasonogram. CONCLUSION Obese persons are at greater risk of developing NAFLD. Females have high risk of developing fatty liver disease when compared to males. No significant correlation was found between

  13. Manifestation of Non-Alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease/Non-Alcoholic Steatohepatitis in Different Dietary Mouse Models

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    Vera HI Fengler

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD and non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH, which are usually associated with obesity and metabolic syndrome, are considerable health and economic issues due to the rapid increase of their prevalence in Western society. Histologically, the diseases are characterised by steatosis, hepatic inflammation, and if further progressed, fibrosis. Dietary-induced mouse models are widely used in investigations of the development and progression of NAFLD and NASH; these models attempt to mimic the histological and metabolic features of the human diseases. However, the majority of dietary mouse models fail to reflect the whole pathophysiological spectrum of NAFLD and NASH. Some models exhibit histological features similar to those seen in humans while lacking the metabolic context, while others resemble the metabolic conditions leading to NAFLD in humans but fail to mimic the whole histological spectrum, including progression from steatosis to liver fibrosis, and thus fail to mimic NASH. This review summarises the advantages and disadvantages of the different dietary-induced mouse models of NAFLD and NASH, with a focus on the genetic background of several commonly used wild-type mouse strains as well as gender and age, which influence the development and progression of these liver diseases.

  14. Pathogenesis, diagnosis and treatment of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease

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    Verónica Martín-Domínguez

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD includes a broad spectrum of alterations that go from simple steatosis to steatohepatitis and cirrhosis. Type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM-2 and obesity are the principle factors associated to NAFLD. A 20-30 % prevalence in general population has been described. The survival of this type of patient is lower than the general population's, showing a higher incidence of hepatic and cardiovascular complications. The aetiopathogenesis is still unclear, but we know the intervention of different factors that produce fatty-acid accumulation in hepatic parenchyma, causing oxidative stress, oxygen-free radicals and the synthesis of an inflammatory cascade, that determine the progression of this disease from steatosis up to advanced fibrosis. The diagnostic gold-standard is still the liver biopsy, even though the development of newer non-invasive techniques, like serological and imaging (radiology, have opened a new field for research that allows bloodless testing of these patients and better study of the natural history of this disease. Nowadays, there is still no specific treatment for NAFLD. The development of healthy life habits and moderate exercise continue to be the pillars of treatment. Different pharmacological approaches have been studied and applied, such as the control of insulin resistance, lowering cholesterol levels, antioxidants, and other alternatives in experimental trials.

  15. Frequency of non alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) and its biochemical derangements in Type-2 diabetic patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Taseer, I.H.; Hussain, L.; Safdar, S.; Mirbahar, A.M.; Ahmad, I.

    2010-01-01

    Objective: To see the frequency of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease in Type-2 diabetic patients and to see iochemical derangements in NAFLD patients. Methodology: It is a cross-sectional study, conducted at Diabetic Research Centre and outpatient department Nishtar Hospital and PMRC Research Centre Nishtar Medical College, Multan. One hundred patients of either sex having type 2 diabetes mellitus attending diabetic out-patient department Nishtar Hospital Multan were included in the study. A pre-designed study proforma was filled with relevant investigations and clinical assessments were carried out in all cases. All the patients underwent abdominal ultrasonography. Data were entered in SPSS-11 and analyzed. Results: Out of one hundred patients, 51 (51%) were female and 49 (49%) were male. Mean age of the patients was 47.93 +- 8.57 years. Fifty one (51%) of the diabetic patients had fatty liver. Out of these 32 (62.75%) were female and 19 (37.25%) were male. Fatigue was present in 49 (53.26%), generalized weakness in 48 (52.18%), heaviness right upper abdomen in 22 (64.70%) and pain right upper abdomen in 20 (58.82%) of fatty liver patients. Corresponding figure in Non Fatty Liver Patients were 43 (46.74%), 44 (47.82%), 12 (35.30%) and 14(41.18%), respectively. Itching was noted in 19 (44.18%) patients of fatty liver while it was 24(55.82%) in non-fatty liver patients. Serum triglyceride level more than 160 mg/dl in 47 (92.15%) patients of fatty liver while serum cholesterol level more than 200 mg/dl was seen in 24(47.05%). Aspartate amino transferase (AST) more than 35 u/l was noted in seven (13.72%), alanine amino-transferase (ALT) more than 40u/l was noted in 6(11.76%) fatty liver patients while serum albumin and serum bilirubin were within normal range in all fatty liver and non-fatty liver patients. Conclusion: Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is more commonly seen in Type-2 diabetic patients. Serum triglyceride and serum cholesterol are significantly

  16. Fatty liver index vs waist circumference for predicting non-alcoholic fatty liver disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Motamed, Nima; Sohrabi, Masoudreza; Ajdarkosh, Hossein; Hemmasi, Gholamreza; Maadi, Mansooreh; Sayeedian, Fatemeh Sima; Pirzad, Reza; Abedi, Khadijeh; Aghapour, Sivil; Fallahnezhad, Mojtaba; Zamani, Farhad

    2016-03-14

    To determine the discriminatory performance of fatty liver index (FLI) for non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). The data of 5052 subjects aged over 18 years were analyzed. FLI was calculated from body mass index, waist circumference (WC), triglyceride, and gamma glutamyl transferase data. Logistic regression analysis was conducted to determine the association between FLI and NAFLD. The discriminatory performance of FLI in the diagnosis of NAFLD was evaluated by receiver operating characteristic analysis. Area under the curves (AUCs) and related confidence intervals were estimated. Optimal cutoff points of FLI in the diagnosis of NAFLD were determined based on the maximum values of Youden's index. The mean age of men and women in the study population were 44.8 ± 16.8 and 43.78 ± 15.43, respectively (P = 0.0216). The prevalence of NAFLD was 40.1% in men and 44.2% in women (P < 0.0017). FLI was strongly associated with NAFLD, so that even a one unit increase in FLI increased the chance of developing NAFLD by 5.8% (OR = 1.058, 95%CI: 1.054-1.063, P < 0.0001). Although FLI showed good performance in the diagnosis of NAFLD (AUC = 0.8656 (95%CI: 0.8548-0.8764), there was no significant difference with regards to WC (AUC = 0.8533, 95%CI: 0.8419-0.8646). The performance of FLI was not significantly different between men (AUC = 0.8648, 95%CI: 0.8505-0.8791) and women (AUC = 0.8682, 95%CI: 0.8513-0.8851). The highest performance with regards to age was related to the 18-39 age group (AUC = 0.8930, 95%CI: 0.8766-0.9093). The optimal cutoff points of FLI were 46.9 in men (sensitivity = 0.8242, specificity = 0.7687, Youden's index = 0.5929) and 53.8 in women (sensitivity = 0.8233, specificity = 0.7655, Youden's index = 0.5888). Although FLI had acceptable discriminatory power in the diagnosis of NAFLD, WC was a simpler and more accessible index with a similar performance.

  17. Connection Between Non-Alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease and Diabetes Mellitus

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    Oprea-Călin Gabriela

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD is the commonest liver condition in the world, accounting for 20-30% of the adult population, and encompasses a spectrum of liver disorders characterized by fat accumulation within the liver, associated or not with varying degrees of hepatic inflammation and liver fibrosis through to cirrhosis. The prevalence of NAFLD increases significantly in the presence of obesity (60-80% and type 2 diabetes (60%. NAFLD is associated with metabolic disorders (type 2 diabetes, obesity and hyperlipidemia grouped together as the metabolic syndrome (MetS. It is now regarded as the hepatic manifestation of this syndrome and is closely linked to insulin resistance (IR.The presence of NAFLD predicts the development of type 2 diabetes independent of established risk factors. NAFLD patients should therefore be screened for diabetes, including by the Oral Glucose Tolerance Test (OGTT if there any abnormalities of fasting blood glucose (FBG and given appropriate lifestyle advice. Early diagnosis with the institution of lifestyle measures could help prevent or retard the onset of these metabolic disorders. Type 2 diabetes causes more severe non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH, and patients with diabetes have an increased risk for cirrhosis and the development of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC

  18. PNPLA3 Expression Is Related to Liver Steatosis in Morbidly Obese Women with Non-Alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease

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    Gemma Aragonès

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Recent reports suggest a role for the Patatin-like phospholipase domain-containing protein 3 (PNPLA3 in the pathology of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD. Lipid deposition in the liver seems to be a critical process in the pathogenesis of NAFLD. The aim of the present work was to evaluate the association between the liver PNPLA3 expression, key genes of lipid metabolism, and the presence of NAFLD in morbidly obese women. We used real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR analysis to analyze the hepatic expression of PNPLA3 and lipid metabolism-related genes in 55 morbidly obese subjects with normal liver histology (NL, n = 18, simple steatosis (SS, n = 20, and non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH, n = 17. Liver biopsies were collected during bariatric surgery. We observed that liver PNPLA3 expression was increased in NAFLD than in NL. It was also upregulated in SS than in NL. Interestingly, we found that the expression of PNPLA3 was significantly higher in severe than mild SS group. In addition, the expression of the transcription factors LXRα, PPARα, and SREBP2 was positively correlated with PNPLA3 liver expression. Regarding rs738409 polymorphism, GG genotype was positive correlated with the presence of NASH. In conclusion, our results show that PNPLA3 could be related to lipid accumulation in liver, mainly in the development and progression of simple steatosis.

  19. PNPLA3 Expression Is Related to Liver Steatosis in Morbidly Obese Women with Non-Alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aragonès, Gemma; Auguet, Teresa; Armengol, Sandra; Berlanga, Alba; Guiu-Jurado, Esther; Aguilar, Carmen; Martínez, Salomé; Sabench, Fátima; Porras, José Antonio; Ruiz, Maikel Daniel; Hernández, Mercé; Sirvent, Joan Josep; Del Castillo, Daniel; Richart, Cristóbal

    2016-04-27

    Recent reports suggest a role for the Patatin-like phospholipase domain-containing protein 3 (PNPLA3) in the pathology of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). Lipid deposition in the liver seems to be a critical process in the pathogenesis of NAFLD. The aim of the present work was to evaluate the association between the liver PNPLA3 expression, key genes of lipid metabolism, and the presence of NAFLD in morbidly obese women. We used real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) analysis to analyze the hepatic expression of PNPLA3 and lipid metabolism-related genes in 55 morbidly obese subjects with normal liver histology (NL, n = 18), simple steatosis (SS, n = 20), and non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH, n = 17). Liver biopsies were collected during bariatric surgery. We observed that liver PNPLA3 expression was increased in NAFLD than in NL. It was also upregulated in SS than in NL. Interestingly, we found that the expression of PNPLA3 was significantly higher in severe than mild SS group. In addition, the expression of the transcription factors LXRα, PPARα, and SREBP2 was positively correlated with PNPLA3 liver expression. Regarding rs738409 polymorphism, GG genotype was positive correlated with the presence of NASH. In conclusion, our results show that PNPLA3 could be related to lipid accumulation in liver, mainly in the development and progression of simple steatosis.

  20. Cordyceps militaris alleviates non-alcoholic fatty liver disease in ob/ob mice

    OpenAIRE

    Choi, Ha-Neul; Jang, Yang-Hee; Kim, Min-Joo; Seo, Min Jeong; Kang, Byoung Won; Jeong, Yong Kee; Kim, Jung-In

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is becoming an important public health problem as metabolic syndrome and type 2 diabetes have become epidemic. In this study we investigated the protective effect of Cordyceps militaris (C. militaris) against NAFLD in an obese mouse model. MATERIALS/METHODS Four-week-old male ob/ob mice were fed an AIN-93G diet or a diet containing 1% C. militaris water extract for 10 weeks after 1 week of adaptation. Serum glucose, insulin, free...

  1. NHE1 deficiency in liver: Implications for non-alcoholic fatty liver disease

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Prasad, Vikram, E-mail: prasadvm@ucmail.uc.edu [Department of Molecular Genetics, Biochemistry, and Microbiology, University of Cincinnati College of Medicine (United States); Chirra, Shivani [Department of Molecular Genetics, Biochemistry, and Microbiology, University of Cincinnati College of Medicine (United States); Kohli, Rohit [Department of Gastroenterology, Hepatology, and Nutrition, Cincinnati Children’s Hospital, University of Cincinnati, Cincinnati, OH 45267 (United States); Shull, Gary E. [Department of Molecular Genetics, Biochemistry, and Microbiology, University of Cincinnati College of Medicine (United States)

    2014-07-25

    Highlights: • FXR, PGC1α and PPARγ levels are upregulated in NHE1 deficient livers. • NHE1 deficiency downregulates expression of pro-lipogenic genes in liver. • Chronic exposure to high-fat diet upregulates hepatic NHE1 expression. • Loss of NHE1 better preserves hepatic insulin signaling in high-fat diet-fed mice. - Abstract: Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease NAFLD is closely associated with the dysregulation of lipid homeostasis. Diet-induced hepatic steatosis, which can initiate NAFLD progression, has been shown to be dramatically reduced in mice lacking the electroneutral Na{sup +}/H{sup +} exchanger NHE1 (Slc9a1). In this study, we investigated if NHE1 deficiency had effects in liver that could contribute to the apparent protection against aberrant lipid accumulation. RT-PCR and immunoblot analyses of wild-type and NHE1-null livers revealed an expression profile that strongly suggested attenuation of both de novo lipogenesis and hepatic stellate cell activation, which is implicated in liver fibrosis. This included upregulation of the farnesoid X receptor FXR, peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor PPARγ, its co-activator PGC1α, and sestrin 2, an antioxidant protein involved in hepatic metabolic homeostasis. Furthermore, expression levels of the pro-lipogenic liver X receptor LXRα, and acetyl CoA carboxylases 1 and 2 were downregulated. These changes were associated with evidence of reduced cellular stress, which persisted even upon exposure to a high-fat diet, and the better preservation of insulin signaling, as evidenced by protein kinase B/Akt phosphorylation (Ser473). These results indicate that NHE1 deficiency may protect against NAFLD pathogenesis, which is significant given the availability of highly specific NHE1 inhibitors.

  2. NHE1 deficiency in liver: Implications for non-alcoholic fatty liver disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prasad, Vikram; Chirra, Shivani; Kohli, Rohit; Shull, Gary E.

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • FXR, PGC1α and PPARγ levels are upregulated in NHE1 deficient livers. • NHE1 deficiency downregulates expression of pro-lipogenic genes in liver. • Chronic exposure to high-fat diet upregulates hepatic NHE1 expression. • Loss of NHE1 better preserves hepatic insulin signaling in high-fat diet-fed mice. - Abstract: Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease NAFLD is closely associated with the dysregulation of lipid homeostasis. Diet-induced hepatic steatosis, which can initiate NAFLD progression, has been shown to be dramatically reduced in mice lacking the electroneutral Na + /H + exchanger NHE1 (Slc9a1). In this study, we investigated if NHE1 deficiency had effects in liver that could contribute to the apparent protection against aberrant lipid accumulation. RT-PCR and immunoblot analyses of wild-type and NHE1-null livers revealed an expression profile that strongly suggested attenuation of both de novo lipogenesis and hepatic stellate cell activation, which is implicated in liver fibrosis. This included upregulation of the farnesoid X receptor FXR, peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor PPARγ, its co-activator PGC1α, and sestrin 2, an antioxidant protein involved in hepatic metabolic homeostasis. Furthermore, expression levels of the pro-lipogenic liver X receptor LXRα, and acetyl CoA carboxylases 1 and 2 were downregulated. These changes were associated with evidence of reduced cellular stress, which persisted even upon exposure to a high-fat diet, and the better preservation of insulin signaling, as evidenced by protein kinase B/Akt phosphorylation (Ser473). These results indicate that NHE1 deficiency may protect against NAFLD pathogenesis, which is significant given the availability of highly specific NHE1 inhibitors

  3. OBESITY AS A RISK FACTOR FOR NON-ALCOHOLIC FATTY LIVER DISEASE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. A. Pavlenko

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD is a highly prevalent disorder associated with obesity and metabolic syndrome. The main pathophysiological factor of liver steatosis is insulin resistance that may lead to development of type 2 diabetes mellitus. Overcoming of insulin resistance by means of body weight reduction and administration of insulin sensitizers is considered to be a promising approach to NAFLD treatment. In accordance with the Russian guidelines on diagnostics and treatment of NAFLD, sibutramine is the drug of choice for medical treatment of obesity. As for insulin sensitizers, metformin (biguanide class is widely used for treatment of NAFLD in everyday clinical practice. Treatment of NAFLD as a component of metabolic syndrome should be multifactorial and aimed at different aspects of the disease pathophysiology. 

  4. Imaging evaluation of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease: focused on quantification

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-01-01

    Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) has been an emerging major health problem, and the most common cause of chronic liver disease in Western countries. Traditionally, liver biopsy has been gold standard method for quantification of hepatic steatosis. However, its invasive nature with potential complication as well as measurement variability are major problem. Thus, various imaging studies have been used for evaluation of hepatic steatosis. Ultrasonography provides fairly good accuracy to detect moderate-to-severe degree hepatic steatosis, but limited accuracy for mild steatosis. Operator-dependency and subjective/qualitative nature of examination are another major drawbacks of ultrasonography. Computed tomography can be considered as an unsuitable imaging modality for evaluation of NAFLD due to potential risk of radiation exposure and limited accuracy in detecting mild steatosis. Both magnetic resonance spectroscopy and magnetic resonance imaging using chemical shift technique provide highly accurate and reproducible diagnostic performance for evaluating NAFLD, and therefore, have been used in many clinical trials as a non-invasive reference of standard method. PMID:28994271

  5. Research progress in role of iron overload in non-alcoholic fatty liver disease

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    LI Guangming

    2013-01-01

    Iron overload is an important research focus in non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). The relationship between iron overload and NAFLD is summarized from the assessment method for iron overload, relationship between iron load and hemochromatosis gene mutations, incidence of iron load in NAFLD, and relationship between iron load and progression of NAFLD; the action mechanism of iron overload in the progression of NAFLD is reviewed from the causes of iron overload, relationship between iro...

  6. Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) models in drug discovery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cole, Banumathi K; Feaver, Ryan E; Wamhoff, Brian R; Dash, Ajit

    2018-02-01

    The progressive disease spectrum of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD), which includes non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH), is a rapidly emerging public health crisis with no approved therapy. The diversity of various therapies under development highlights the lack of consensus around the most effective target, underscoring the need for better translatable preclinical models to study the complex progressive disease and effective therapies. Areas covered: This article reviews published literature of various mouse models of NASH used in preclinical studies, as well as complex organotypic in vitro and ex vivo liver models being developed. It discusses translational challenges associated with both kinds of models, and describes some of the studies that validate their application in NAFLD. Expert opinion: Animal models offer advantages of understanding drug distribution and effects in a whole body context, but are limited by important species differences. Human organotypic in vitro and ex vivo models with physiological relevance and translatability need to be used in a tiered manner with simpler screens. Leveraging newer technologies, like metabolomics, proteomics, and transcriptomics, and the future development of validated disease biomarkers will allow us to fully utilize the value of these models to understand disease and evaluate novel drugs in isolation or combination.

  7. Comparison of serum lipid profile in non alcoholic fatty liver disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Latif, A.; Ain, Q.U.A.; Ahmed, N.; Shafiq, A.M.; Sapna, K.

    2017-01-01

    Objective: To compare serum lipid profile in different ultrasonographic grades of non alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). Study Design: Cross sectional study. Place and Duration of Study: PNS SHIFA hospital, Karachi, from Oct 2015 to Jul 2016. Material and Methods: Seventy three adults of either gender were consecutively inducted after diagnosis of non alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) on ultrasonography (USG). These individuals were further classified into grade I, II and III of NAFLD depending on US findings. Fasting blood sample of all the subjects was analyzed for serum fasting lipid profile comprising of total cholesterol (TC), triglycerides (TG), high density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) and low density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C). Serum non HDL cholesterol (nonHDL-C) was calculated by subtracting HDL-C from TC. Results: Among 73 subjects with NAFLD, 42.5%, 37% and 20.5% had grade I, II and III NAFLD respectively. All parameters showed significant increase in frequency of abnormal results with increasing grade of NAFLD except TG. Significant difference was found in mean TC (p=0.000), LDL-C (p=0.000), HDL-C (p=0.005) and nonHDL-C (p=0.000) between grades of NAFLD. Post hoc analysis revealed that only mean nonHDL-C was significantly different amongst all the grades of NAFLD. Conclusion: The increasing severity of NAFLD was found associated with increased frequency of dyslipidemia. Though most frequent dyslipidemia in NAFLD was low serum HDL-C followed by hypertriglyceridemia, only serum nonHDL-C was statistically different amongst all the grades of NAFLD. (author)

  8. The Association between Non-Alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease and Cardiovascular Risk in Children

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    Anna Di Sessa

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available The rising prevalence of childhood obesity in the past decades has made Non-Alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease (NAFLD the most common cause of pediatric chronic liver disease worldwide. Currently, a growing body of evidence links NAFLD with cardiovascular disease (CVD even at an early age. Data on the pediatric population have shown that NAFLD could represent an independent risk factor not only for cardiovascular events but also for early subclinical abnormalities in myocardial structure and function. Briefly, we review the current knowledge regarding the relationship between pediatric NAFLD and cardiovascular risk in an attempt to clarify our understanding of NAFLD as a possible cardiovascular risk factor in childhood.

  9. Correlation of hepatic {sup 18}F-fluorodeoxyglucose uptake with fatty liver

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    An, Young Sil; Yoon, Joon Kee; Hong, Seon Pyo; Joh, Chul Woo; Yoon, Seok Nam [Ajou University School of Medicine, Suwon (Korea, Republic of)

    2006-10-15

    Liver demonstrates heterogeneous FDG uptake and sometimes it shows abnormally increased uptake even though there is no malignant tissue. However, there was no previous study to correlate these various pattern of hepatic FDG uptake with benign liver disease. Therefore, we evaluated the significance of hepatic FDG uptake associated with various clinical factors including fatty liver, liver function tests and lipid profiles. We reviewed a total of 188 patients (male/female: 120/68, mean age: 50 {+-} 9) who underwent PET/CT for screening of malignancy. Patients with DM, impaired glucose tolerance, previous severe hepatic disease or long-term medication history were excluded. The FDG uptake in liver was analyzed semi-quantitatively using ROI on transaxial images (segment 8) and we compared mean standardized uptake value (SUV) between fatty liver and non-fatty liver group. We also evaluated the correlation between hepatic FDG uptake and various clinical factors including serum liver function test (ALT, AST), {gamma} -GT, total cholesterol and triglyceride concentration. The effect of alcoholic history and body mass index on hepatic FDG uptake was analyzed within the fatty liver patients. The hepatic FDG uptake of fatty liver group was significantly higher than that of non-fatty liver group. Serum total cholesterol and triglyceride concentration showed significant correlation with hepatic FDG uptake. However, there was no significant correlation between other factors (ALT, AST, and {gamma} -GT) and FDG uptake. Also there was no difference of mean SUV between normal and abnormal groups on the basis of alcoholic history and body mass index within fatty liver patients. Fatty liver and high serum triglyceride concentration were the independent factors affecting hepatic FDG uptake according to multivariate analysis. In conclusion, hepatic FDG uptake was strongly correlated with fatty liver and serum triglyceride concentration.

  10. Nonalcoholic Fatty Liver Disease Treatment

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    M Sadeghian

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD is increasing in pediatric age group parallel to the growing prevalence of obesity and overweight all around the world. So changing in life style and   interventions on obesogenic environment is cornerstone of NAFLD therapy in obese children. Some experts recommend that children and adolescents be encouraged to follow a low-fat, low-glycemic-index diet that includes eating a minimum of 5 servings of vegetables and fruits daily, engaging in physical activity for at least 1 hour daily, and minimizing television/computer time to 2 hours daily.  In spite of effectiveness of weight loss and exercise in improvement NAFLD, this goal is very difficult to be achieved and pharmacological approaches have become necessary. Pharmacologic therapies against one or more specific factors and/or molecules involved in the development of NAFLD (i.e., insulin resistance, free fatty acid lipid toxicity, and oxidative stress also might slow the progression of NAFLD to NASH or cirrhosis.  On this basis, insulin sensitizers, antioxidants, cytoprotective agents, and dietary supplementations have been evaluated in pediatric clinical trials but there is no approved pharmacologic therapy for NAFLD or NASH. Not all obese children affected by NAFLD. Diet modification and regular exercise beside to serial medical follow up highly suggested for this group of children. Normal weight and thin children with NAFLD or NASH should be investigated appropriately in a logical manner based on causes of primary liver steatosis in children and treatment of underlying disease can cause improvement fatty liver in these patients.   Keywords: Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease; Non-alcoholic steatohepatitis; Children; Steatosis; Treatment

  11. An Overview of Dietary Interventions and Strategies to Optimize the Management of Non-Alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brandon J. Perumpail

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Aim: To investigate the efficacy of lifestyle adjustment strategies as a preventive measure and/or treatment of obesity-related non-alcoholic fatty liver disease in adults. Method: A systematic review of literature through 1 July 2017 on the PubMed Database was performed. A comprehensive search was conducted using key terms, such as non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD, combined with lifestyle intervention, diet, and exercise. All of the articles and studies obtained from the search were reviewed. Redundant literature was excluded. Results: Several types of dietary compositions and exercise techniques were identified. Most studies concluded and recommended reduction in the intake of saturated and trans fatty acids, carbohydrates, and animal-based protein, and increased intake of polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs, monounsaturated fatty acids (MUFAs, plant-based proteins, antioxidants, and other nutrients was recommended. The Mediterranean and Paleo diet both seem to be promising schemes for NAFLD patients to follow. Exercise was also encouraged, but the type of exercise did not affect its efficacy as a NAFLD treatment when the duration is consistent. Conclusions: Although these different dietary strategies and exercise regimens can be adopted to treat NAFLD, current literature on the topic is limited in scope. Further research should be conducted to truly elucidate which lifestyle adjustments individually, and in combination, may facilitate patients with obesity-related NAFLD.

  12. An Overview of Dietary Interventions and Strategies to Optimize the Management of Non-Alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perumpail, Brandon J; Cholankeril, Rosann; Yoo, Eric R; Kim, Donghee; Ahmed, Aijaz

    2017-10-22

    Aim : To investigate the efficacy of lifestyle adjustment strategies as a preventive measure and/or treatment of obesity-related non-alcoholic fatty liver disease in adults. Method : A systematic review of literature through 1 July 2017 on the PubMed Database was performed. A comprehensive search was conducted using key terms, such as non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD), combined with lifestyle intervention, diet, and exercise. All of the articles and studies obtained from the search were reviewed. Redundant literature was excluded. Results : Several types of dietary compositions and exercise techniques were identified. Most studies concluded and recommended reduction in the intake of saturated and trans fatty acids, carbohydrates, and animal-based protein, and increased intake of polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs), monounsaturated fatty acids (MUFAs), plant-based proteins, antioxidants, and other nutrients was recommended. The Mediterranean and Paleo diet both seem to be promising schemes for NAFLD patients to follow. Exercise was also encouraged, but the type of exercise did not affect its efficacy as a NAFLD treatment when the duration is consistent. Conclusions : Although these different dietary strategies and exercise regimens can be adopted to treat NAFLD, current literature on the topic is limited in scope. Further research should be conducted to truly elucidate which lifestyle adjustments individually, and in combination, may facilitate patients with obesity-related NAFLD.

  13. Epigenetic mechanisms in non-alcoholic fatty liver disease: An emerging field.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallego-Durán, Rocío; Romero-Gómez, Manuel

    2015-10-28

    Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is an emerging health concern in both developed and non-developed world, encompassing from simple steatosis to non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH), cirrhosis and liver cancer. Incidence and prevalence of this disease are increasing due to the socioeconomic transition and change to harmful diet. Currently, gold standard method in NAFLD diagnosis is liver biopsy, despite complications and lack of accuracy due to sampling error. Further, pathogenesis of NAFLD is not fully understood, but is well-known that obesity, diabetes and metabolic derangements played a major role in disease development and progression. Besides, gut microbioma and host genetic and epigenetic background could explain considerable interindividual variability. Knowledge that epigenetics, heritable events not caused by changes in DNA sequence, contribute to development of diseases has been a revolution in the last few years. Recently, evidences are accumulating revealing the important role of epigenetics in NAFLD pathogenesis and in NASH genesis. Histone modifications, changes in DNA methylation and aberrant profiles or microRNAs could boost development of NAFLD and transition into clinical relevant status. PNPLA3 genotype GG has been associated with a more progressive disease and epigenetics could modulate this effect. The impact of epigenetic on NAFLD progression could deserve further applications on therapeutic targets together with future non-invasive methods useful for the diagnosis and staging of NAFLD.

  14. Interleukin-17 exacerbates hepatic steatosis and inflammation in non-alcoholic fatty liver disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Y; Bian, Z; Zhao, L; Liu, Y; Liang, S; Wang, Q; Han, X; Peng, Y; Chen, X; Shen, L; Qiu, D; Li, Z; Ma, X

    2011-11-01

    Mechanisms associated with the progression of simple steatosis to non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) remain undefined. Regulatory T cells (T(regs)) play a critical role in regulating inflammatory processes in non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) and because T helper type 17 (Th17) functionally oppose T(reg)-mediated responses, this study focused on characterizing the role of Th17 cells using a NAFLD mouse model. C57BL/6 mice were fed either a normal diet (ND) or high fat (HF) diet for 8 weeks. Mice in the HF group had a significantly higher frequency of liver Th17 cells compared to ND-fed mice. Neutralization of interleukin (IL)-17 in HF mice ameliorated lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced liver injury reflected by decreased serum alanine aminotransferase (ALT) levels and reduced inflammatory cell infiltrates in the liver. In vitro, HepG2 cells cultured in the presence of free fatty acids (FFA; oleic acid and palmitic acid) for 24 h and IL-17 developed steatosis via insulin-signalling pathway interference. IL-17 and FFAs synergized to induce IL-6 production by HepG2 cells and murine primary hepatocytes which, in combination with transforming growth factor (TGF-β), expanded Th17 cells. It is likely that a similar process occurs in NASH patients, as there were significant levels of IL-17(+) cell infiltrates in NASH patient livers. The hepatic expression of Th17 cell-related genes [retinoid-related orphan receptor gamma (ROR)γt, IL-17, IL-21 and IL-23] was also increased significantly in NASH patients compared to healthy controls. Th17 cells and IL-17 were associated with hepatic steatosis and proinflammatory response in NAFLD and facilitated the transition from simple steatosis to steatohepatitis. Strategies designed to alter the balance between Th17 cells and T(regs) should be explored as a means of preventing progression to NASH and advanced liver diseases in NAFLD patients. © 2011 The Authors. Clinical and Experimental Immunology © 2011 British Society for

  15. SREBP-2 1784 G/C Genotype is Associated with Non-Alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease in North Indians

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    Surya Prakash Bhatt

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Genetics of non-alcoholic fatty liver (NAFLD in Asian Indians has been inadequately investigated. This study aims to determine the association of the 1784G > C polymorphism in the SREBP-2 gene with NAFLD in Asian Indians in north India.

  16. Effects of Mediterranean diet supplemented with silybin-vitamin E-phospholipid complex in overweight patients with non-alcoholic fatty liver disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abenavoli, Ludovico; Greco, Marta; Nazionale, Immacolata; Peta, Valentina; Milic, Natasa; Accattato, Francesca; Foti, Daniela; Gulletta, Elio; Luzza, Francesco

    2015-04-01

    Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease is the most common liver disease worldwide. The aim of this study is to compare the metabolic effects of the Mediterranean diet versus the diet associated with silybin, phosphatidylcholine and vitamin E complex in overweight patients with non-alcoholic fatty liver disease. Thirty Caucasian overweight patients were randomized into three groups of 10 (Groups A, B and C). A personalized Mediterranean diet was started in Group A and B patients. In association with the diet, Group B patients were given Realsil complex, daily, for 6 months. Group C patients refused any treatment. We showed that the Mediterranean diet alone, or in association with the Realsil complex, led to the significant variation in BMI, waist circumference, total cholesterol and triglycerides. We also observed a statistically significant decrease in homeostasis model assessment technique in Group B patients.

  17. Hepatic unsaturated fatty acids in patients with non-alcoholic fatty liver disease assessed by 3.0 T MR spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Werven, J.R. van; Schreuder, T.C.M.A.; Nederveen, A.J.; Lavini, C.; Jansen, P.L.M.; Stoker, J.

    2010-01-01

    Rationale and objective: Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is related to the metabolic syndrome and obesity. Proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy ( 1 H MRS) is a non-invasive technique to assess hepatic triglyceride content (HTGC) and allows assessment of unsaturated fatty acids (UFA). There is increasing evidence that hepatic UFA are associated with the development of NAFLD. Therefore the objective of this study was to assess hepatic UFA in patients with NAFLD using 1 H MRS. Materials and methods: We included 26 consecutive patients with deranged liver enzymes, with and without type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM2), suspected for NAFLD. Liver function and metabolic parameters were assessed. 1 H MRS measurements were performed at 3.0 T. From the 1 H MR spectra two ratios were calculated: ratio 1 (UFA); unsaturated fatty acid peak vs. reference water peak and ratio 2 (HTGC); total fatty acid peak vs. reference water peak. Results: Twenty-six patients were included. In these patients hepatic UFA (ratio 1) correlated with AST/ALT ratio (r = -0.46, p = 0.02), glucose levels (r = 0.46, p = 0.018), HOMA-IR (r = 0.59, p = 0.004) and HTGC (r = 0.81, p 1 H MRS. 1 H MRS determined hepatic UFA correlate with clinical and metabolic parameters associated with NAFLD. Hepatic UFA are increased in patients with DM2. This study provides evidence for the use of non-invasive 1 H MRS to assess hepatic UFA in vivo.

  18. Protective effects of glycyrrhizic acid against non-alcoholic fatty liver disease in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Xue; Duan, Xingping; Wang, Changyuan; Liu, Zhihao; Sun, Pengyuan; Huo, Xiaokui; Ma, Xiaodong; Sun, Huijun; Liu, Kexin; Meng, Qiang

    2017-07-05

    Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) has become a predictive factor of death from many diseases. The purpose of the present study is to investigate the protective effect of glycyrrhizic acid (GA), a natural triterpene glycoside, on NAFLD induced by a high-fat diet (HFD) in mice, and further to elucidate the mechanisms underlying GA protection. GA treatment significantly reduced the relative liver weight, serum ALT, AST activities, levels of serum lipid, blood glucose and insulin. GA suppressed lipid accumulation in liver. Further mechanism investigation indicated that GA reduced hepatic lipogenesis via downregulating SREBP-1c, FAS and SCD1 expression, increased fatty acids β-oxidation via an increase in PPARα, CPT1α and ACADS, and promoted triglyceride metabolism through inducing LPL activity. Furthermore, GA reduced gluconeogenesis through repressing PEPCK and G6Pase, and increased glycogen synthesis through an induction in gene expression of PDase and GSK3β. In addition, GA increased insulin sensitivity through upregulating phosphorylation of IRS-1 and IRS-2. In conclusion, GA produces protective effect against NAFLD, due to regulation of genes involved in lipid, glucose homeostasis and insulin sensitivity. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Therapeutic Mechanisms of Bile Acids and Nor-Ursodeoxycholic Acid in Non-Alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steinacher, Daniel; Claudel, Thierry; Trauner, Michael

    2017-01-01

    Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease is one of the most rapidly rising clinical problems in the 21st century. So far no effective drug treatment has been established to cure this disease. Bile acids (BAs) have a variety of signaling properties, which can be used therapeutically for modulating hepatic metabolism and inflammation. A side-chain shorted derivative of ursodeoxycholic acid (UDCA) is 24 nor-ursodeoxycholic acid (NorUDCA) and it represents a new class of drugs for treatment of liver diseases. NorUDCA has unique biochemical and therapeutic properties, since it is relatively resistant to conjugation with glycine or taurine compared to UDCA. NorUDCA undergoes cholehepatic shunting, resulting in ductular targeting, bicarbonate-rich hypercholeresis, and cholangiocyte protection. Furthermore, it showed anti-fibrotic, anti-inflammatory, and anti-lipotoxic properties in several animal models. As such, NorUDCA is a promising new approach in the treatment of cholestatic and metabolic liver diseases. This review is a summary of current BA-based therapeutic approaches in the treatment of the fatty liver disease. © 2017 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  20. Diabetes mellitus and non-alcoholic fatty liver disease: the thread of Ariadne.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kosmidou, Maria; Milionis, Haralampos

    2017-06-01

    Non alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD, the hepatic fat accumulation) and non alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH, the aggressive form of liver steatosis plus inflammation and hepatocyte necrosis) are reaching epidemic dimensions in subjects with diabetes mellitus (DM). Taking into account that the incidence of DM increases worldwide, these entities represent major health problems. There is accumulating evidence that diabetic subjects with NASH are at increased risk not only for cardiovascular disease compications but also for cirrhosis and hepatocellular cancer. On the other hand, the presence of NAFLD correlates with an increased risk for the development of DM. The most-widely accepted pathophysiological mechanisms relating DM and NAFLD include central obesity and insulin resistanc, but new insights are under scrutiny. Therapeutic modalities used for the management of diabetes have been studied for their impact on NAFLD/NASH and both neutral and beneficial effects have been reported. In this review, we discuss issues regarding the epidemiology, the pathophysiological pathways relating NAFLD with DM and consider strategies that may be useful in the management of NAFLD in the diabetic population.

  1. Effect of severity of steatosis as assessed ultrasonographically on hepatic vascular indices in non-alcoholic fatty liver disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohammadi, Afshin; Ghasemi-rad, Mohammad; Zahedi, Hengameh; Toldi, Gergely; Alinia, Tahereh

    2011-09-01

    Early monitoring of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) progression in obese patients is important to avoid the development of complications associated with fatty infiltration. of this study was to investigate the relationship between the degrees of fatty infiltration and reduced vascular compliance in NAFLD patients in the three main hepatic vessels. Two hundred and fourty subjects were enrolled in the study. They were divided into 4 groups: 60 controls, 60 grade 1 NAFLD patients, 60 grade 2 NAFLD patients and 60 grade 3 NAFLD patients. After US confirmation of the presence and grade of NAFLD, the peak and mean portal vein velocity (PPVV and MPVV, respectively), the hepatic artery resistance index (HARI), and the phasicity of the hepatic vein were measured. The PPVV was 19.6 +/- 2.4 cm/sec in patients with grade 1 fatty liver, 17.6 +/- 1.2 cm/sec in grade 2 and 15.4 +/- 1.1 cm/sec in grade 3. The MPVV was 16.6 +/- 2.4 cm/sec in patients with grade 1 fatty liver, 16.6 +/- 2.9 cm/sec in grade 2 and 12.7 +/- 0.7 cm/sec in grade 3. The HARI was 0.75 in patients with grade 1 fatty liver, 0.68 in grade 2 and 0.64 in grade 3. There was an inverse relationship between PPVV, MPVV and HARI and different grades of fatty liver in patients (p = 0.001 for PPVV (Figure 7) and HARI, p = 0.006 for MPVV. The values of the investigated liver blood flow parameters were inversely correlated with the fatty infiltration grading. Fatty infiltration can severely influence hepatic blood flow, pointing attention to the importance of early diagnosis and the need for hepatic vessel flow abnormalities characterization in the NAFLD population.

  2. Non-Alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease: The Emerging Burden in Cardiometabolic and Renal Diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Eugene; Lee, Yong Ho

    2017-12-01

    As the number of individuals with non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) has increased, the influence of NAFLD on other metabolic diseases has been highlighted. Accumulating epidemiologic evidence indicates that NAFLD not only affects the liver but also increases the risk of extra-hepatic diseases such as type 2 diabetes mellitus, metabolic syndrome, dyslipidemia, hypertension, cardiovascular or cerebrovascular diseases, and chronic kidney disease. Non-alcoholic steatohepatitis, an advanced type of NAFLD, can aggravate these inter-organ relationships and lead to poorer outcomes. NAFLD induces insulin resistance and exacerbates systemic chronic inflammation and oxidative stress, which leads to organ dysfunction in extra-hepatic tissues. Although more research is needed to identify the pathophysiological mechanisms and causal relationship between NAFLD and cardiometabolic and renal diseases, screening for heart, brain, and kidney diseases, risk assessment for diabetes, and a multidisciplinary approach for managing these patients should be highly encouraged. Copyright © 2017 Korean Diabetes Association.

  3. Liver proteomics in progressive alcoholic steatosis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fernando, Harshica [Department of Pathology, The University of Texas Medical Branch, Galveston, TX 77555 (United States); Wiktorowicz, John E.; Soman, Kizhake V. [Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, The University of Texas Medical Branch, Galveston, TX 77555 (United States); Kaphalia, Bhupendra S.; Khan, M. Firoze [Department of Pathology, The University of Texas Medical Branch, Galveston, TX 77555 (United States); Shakeel Ansari, G.A., E-mail: sansari@utmb.edu [Department of Pathology, The University of Texas Medical Branch, Galveston, TX 77555 (United States)

    2013-02-01

    Fatty liver is an early stage of alcoholic and nonalcoholic liver disease (ALD and NALD) that progresses to steatohepatitis and other irreversible conditions. In this study, we identified proteins that were differentially expressed in the livers of rats fed 5% ethanol in a Lieber–DeCarli diet daily for 1 and 3 months by discovery proteomics (two-dimensional gel electrophoresis and mass spectrometry) and non-parametric modeling (Multivariate Adaptive Regression Splines). Hepatic fatty infiltration was significantly higher in ethanol-fed animals as compared to controls, and more pronounced at 3 months of ethanol feeding. Discovery proteomics identified changes in the expression of proteins involved in alcohol, lipid, and amino acid metabolism after ethanol feeding. At 1 and 3 months, 12 and 15 different proteins were differentially expressed. Of the identified proteins, down regulation of alcohol dehydrogenase (− 1.6) at 1 month and up regulation of aldehyde dehydrogenase (2.1) at 3 months could be a protective/adaptive mechanism against ethanol toxicity. In addition, betaine-homocysteine S-methyltransferase 2 a protein responsible for methionine metabolism and previously implicated in fatty liver development was significantly up regulated (1.4) at ethanol-induced fatty liver stage (1 month) while peroxiredoxin-1 was down regulated (− 1.5) at late fatty liver stage (3 months). Nonparametric analysis of the protein spots yielded fewer proteins and narrowed the list of possible markers and identified D-dopachrome tautomerase (− 1.7, at 3 months) as a possible marker for ethanol-induced early steatohepatitis. The observed differential regulation of proteins have potential to serve as biomarker signature for the detection of steatosis and its progression to steatohepatitis once validated in plasma/serum. -- Graphical abstract: The figure shows the Hierarchial cluster analysis of differentially expressed protein spots obtained after ethanol feeding for 1 (1–3

  4. Ethanol and liver: Recent insights into the mechanisms of ethanol-induced fatty liver

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jinyao

    2014-01-01

    Alcoholic fatty liver disease (AFLD), a potentially pathologic condition, can progress to steatohepatitis, fibrosis, and cirrhosis, leading to an increased probability of hepatic failure and death. Alcohol induces fatty liver by increasing the ratio of reduced form of nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide to oxidized form of nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide in hepatocytes; increasing hepatic sterol regulatory element-binding protein (SREBP)-1, plasminogen activator inhibitor (PAI)-1, and early growth response-1 activity; and decreasing hepatic peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-α activity. Alcohol activates the innate immune system and induces an imbalance of the immune response, which is followed by activated Kupffer cell-derived tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α overproduction, which is in turn responsible for the changes in the hepatic SREBP-1 and PAI-1 activity. Alcohol abuse promotes the migration of bone marrow-derived cells (BMDCs) to the liver and then reprograms TNF-α expression from BMDCs. Chronic alcohol intake triggers the sympathetic hyperactivity-activated hepatic stellate cell (HSC) feedback loop that in turn activates the HSCs, resulting in HSC-derived TNF-α overproduction. Carvedilol may block this feedback loop by suppressing sympathetic activity, which attenuates the progression of AFLD. Clinical studies evaluating combination therapy of carvedilol with a TNF-α inhibitor to treat patients with AFLD are warranted to prevent the development of alcoholic liver disease. PMID:25356030

  5. Increased Circulating Levels of Alpha-Ketoglutarate in Morbidly Obese Women with Non-Alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease.

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    Gemma Aragonès

    Full Text Available Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD causes a wide spectrum of liver damage, ranging from simple steatosis to cirrhosis. However, simple steatosis (SS and steatohepatitis (NASH cannot yet be distinguished by clinical or laboratory features. The aim of this study was to assess the relationship between alpha-ketoglutarate and the degrees of NAFLD in morbidly obese patients.We used a gas chromatography-quadruple time-of-flight-mass spectrometry analysis to quantify alpha-ketoglutarate in serum from normal-weight subjects (n = 30 and morbidly obese women (n = 97 with or without NAFLD.We found that serum levels of alpha-ketoglutarate were significantly higher in morbidly obese women than in normal-weight women. We showed that circulating levels of alpha-ketoglutarate were lower in lean controls and morbidly obese patients without NAFLD. We also found that alpha-ketoglutarate serum levels were higher in both SS and NASH than in normal liver of morbidly obese patients. However, there was no difference between SS and NASH. Moreover, we observed that circulating levels of alpha-ketoglutarate were associated with glucose metabolism parameters, lipid profile, hepatic enzymes and steatosis degree. In addition, diagnostic performance of alpha-ketoglutarate has been analyzed in NAFLD patients. The AUROC curves from patients with liver steatosis exhibited an acceptable clinical utility. Finally, we showed that the combination of biomarkers (AST, ALT and alpha-ketoglutarate had the highest accuracy in diagnosing liver steatosis.These findings suggest that alpha-ketoglutarate can determine the presence of non-alcoholic fatty liver in morbidly obese patients but it is not valid a biomarker for NASH.

  6. Paediatric gastroenterology evaluation of overweight and obese children referred from primary care for suspected non-alcoholic fatty liver disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwimmer, J B; Newton, K P; Awai, H I; Choi, L J; Garcia, M A; Ellis, L L; Vanderwall, K; Fontanesi, J

    2013-01-01

    Background Screening overweight and obese children for non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is recommended by paediatric and endocrinology societies. However, gastroenterology societies have called for more data before making a formal recommendation. Aim To determine whether the detection of suspected NAFLD in overweight and obese children through screening in primary care and referral to paediatric gastroenterology resulted in a correct diagnosis of NAFLD. Methods Information generated in the clinical evaluation of 347 children identified with suspected NAFLD through screening in primary care and referral to paediatric gastroenterology was captured prospectively. Diagnostic outcomes were reported. The diagnostic performance of two times the upper limit of normal (ULN) for alanine aminotransferase (ALT) was assessed. Results Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease was diagnosed in 55% of children identified by screening and referral. Liver disease other than NAFLD was present in 18% of those referred. Autoimmune hepatitis was the most common alternative diagnosis. Children with NAFLD had significantly (P gastroenterology has the potential to identify clinically relevant liver pathology. Consensus is needed on how to value the risk and rewards of screening and referral, to identify children with liver disease in the most appropriate manner. PMID:24117728

  7. Models of non-Alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease and Potential Translational Value: the Effects of 3,5-L-diiodothyronine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grasselli, Elena; Canesi, Laura; Portincasa, Piero; Voci, Adriana; Vergani, Laura; Demori, Ilaria

    2017-01-01

    Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is the most common liver disorder in industrialized countries and is associated with increased risk of cardiovascular, hepatic and metabolic diseases. Molecular mechanisms on the root of the disrupted lipid homeostasis in NAFLD and potential therapeutic strategies can benefit of in vivo and in vitro experimental models of fatty liver. Here, we describe the high fat diet (HFD)-fed rat in vivo model, and two in vitro models, the primary cultured rat fatty hepatocytes or the FaO rat hepatoma fatty cells, mimicking human NAFLD. Liver steatosis was invariably associated with increased number/size of lipid droplets (LDs) and modulation of expression of genes coding for key genes of lipid metabolism such as peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors (Ppars) and perilipins (Plins). In these models, we tested the anti-steatotic effects of 3,5-L-diiodothyronine (T2), a metabolite of thyroid hormones. T2 markedly reduced triglyceride content and LD size acting on mRNA expression of both Ppars and Plins. T2 also stimulated mitochondrial oxidative metabolism of fatty acids. We conclude that in vivo and especially in vitro models of NAFLD are valuable tools to screen a large number of compounds counteracting the deleterious effect of liver steatosis. Because of the high and negative impact of liver steatosis on human health, ongoing experimental studies from our group are unravelling the ultimate translational value of such cellular models of NAFLD.

  8. COMPARISON OF CLINICAL PROFILE OF DIABETES MELLITUS PATIENTS WITH OR WITHOUT NON-ALCOHOLIC FATTY LIVER DISEASES

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    Satish Kumar

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease represents a spectrum of conditions, which is characterised histologically by significant macrovesicular hepatic steatosis that occurs in those who do not consume alcohol in amounts considered to be harmful to liver and in the absence of known toxins, drugs, viral disease, etc. This disease is quite frequently seen in diabetes especially type 2 diabetes mellitus, which is probably related to altered glucose metabolism. The spectrum of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease is quite variable from mild alteration of transaminases, which is a benign disease to one with high morbidity and mortality. Type 2 diabetes mellitus is a risk factor for NAFLD and the prevalence of NAFLD in diabetic patients have been shown to be between 30-80%. MATERIALS AND METHODS In this study, normative survey technique was selected. Duration of the study was one year. The sample comprised of 100 diabetic patients age ranged 31-70 years. The sample was selected on the basis of inclusion and exclusion criteria. The tools such as clinical profile and checklist were administered. RESULTS The study found out that NAFLD is very common in diabetes mellitus. Diabetic patients with NAFLD has a longer duration of diabetes compared to that of diabetic patients without NAFLD diabetic patients with NAFLD had higher BMI, waist circumference and systolic blood pressure than that of patients without NAFLD. CONCLUSION All the patients within the spectrum of NAFLD should be considered potentially affected not only by a liver disease, but by a multisystem disease. Clinicians should be aware of the importance of a complete clinical evaluation for early diagnosis and treatment of liver disease as well as the different manifestations. All type 2 diabetic patients should be monitored for the development of NAFLD. Early diagnosis of NAFLD can prevent the progression to NASH and its complications.

  9. Pediatric Non-alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease: Current Thinking.

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    Nobili, Valerio; Socha, Piotr

    2017-10-31

    Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD), an increasingly prevalent paediatric disorder is diagnosed and managed by both paediatric gastroenterologists / hepatologists but also frequently by the general paediatrician. This paper updates recent advances in diagnostic and therapeutic approach which may be applied to everyday practice. Diagnosis of NAFLD takes into account the risk factor profile and is a diagnosis of exclusion. Techniques such as transient elastography and specific biomarkers aimed at improving diagnosis and monitoring of NAFLD need further validation in the paediatric population. Defining the risk to develop cirrhosis seems to be of primary importance already in childhood and a combination of genetic, clinical and environmental factors can help in monitoring and making decisions on therapy. Weight reduction therapy should be the aim of treatment approach but the compliance is poor and pharmacological treatment would be helpful- DHA, some probiotics, vitamin E are to be considered but evidence is not sufficient to recommend widespread use.

  10. Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease is not associated with a lower health perception.

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    Mlynarsky, Liat; Schlesinger, Dalit; Lotan, Roni; Webb, Muriel; Halpern, Zamir; Santo, Erwin; Shibolet, Oren; Zelber-Sagi, Shira

    2016-05-07

    To examine the association between non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) and general health perception. This cross sectional and prospective follow-up study was performed on a cohort of a sub-sample of the first Israeli national health and nutrition examination survey, with no secondary liver disease or history of alcohol abuse. On the first survey, in 2003-2004, 349 participants were included. In 2009-2010 participants from the baseline survey were invited to participate in a follow-up survey. On both baseline and follow-up surveys the data collected included: self-reported general health perception, physical activity habits, frequency of physician's visits, fatigue impact scale and abdominal ultrasound. Fatty liver was diagnosed by abdominal ultrasonography using standardized criteria and the ratio between the median brightness level of the liver and the right kidney was calculated to determine the Hepato-Renal Index. Out of 349 eligible participants in the first survey, 213 volunteers participated in the follow-up cohort and were included in the current analysis, NAFLD was diagnosed in 70/213 (32.9%). The prevalence of "very good" self-reported health perception was lower among participants diagnosed with NAFLD compared to those without NAFLD. However, adjustment for BMI attenuated the association (OR = 0.73, 95%CI: 0.36-1.50, P = 0.392). Similar results were observed for the hepato-renal index; it was inversely associated with "very good" health perception but adjustment for BMI attenuated the association. In a full model of multivariate analysis, that included all potential predictors for health perception, NAFLD was not associated with the self-reported general health perception (OR = 0.86, 95%CI: 0.40-1.86, P = 0.704). The odds for "very good" self-reported general health perception (compared to "else") increased among men (OR = 2.42, 95%CI: 1.26-4.66, P = 0.008) and those with higher performance of leisure time physical activity (OR = 1.01, 95%CI: 1

  11. Effect of aerobic exercise and diet on liver fat in pre-diabetic patients with non-alcoholic-fatty-liver-disease : A randomized controlled trial

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cheng, Sulin; Ge, Jun; Zhao, Can; Le, Shenglong; Yang, Yifan; Ke, Dandan; Wu, Na; Tan, Xiao; Zhang, Xiaobo; Du, Xiaming; Sun, Jianqin; Wang, Renwei; Shi, Yongyong; Borra, Ronald J. H.; Parkkola, Riitta; Wiklund, Petri; Lu, Dajiang

    2017-01-01

    The study aimed to assess whether aerobic exercise (AEx) training and a fibre-enriched diet can reduce hepatic fat content (HFC) and increase glycaemic control in pre-diabetic patients with non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). Six-hundred-and-three patients from seven clinics in Yangpu

  12. Green tea polyphenols ameliorate non-alcoholic fatty liver disease through upregulating AMPK activation in high fat fed Zucker fatty rats.

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    Tan, Yi; Kim, Jane; Cheng, Jing; Ong, Madeleine; Lao, Wei-Guo; Jin, Xing-Liang; Lin, Yi-Guang; Xiao, Linda; Zhu, Xue-Qiong; Qu, Xian-Qin

    2017-06-07

    To investigate protective effects and molecular mechanisms of green tea polyphenols (GTP) on non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) in Zucker fatty (ZF) rats. Male ZF rats were fed a high-fat diet (HFD) for 2 wk then treated with GTP (200 mg/kg) or saline (5 mL/kg) for 8 wk, with Zucker lean rat as their control. At the end of experiment, serum and liver tissue were collected for measurement of metabolic parameters, alanine aminotransferase (ALT) and aspartate aminotransferase (AST), inflammatory cytokines and hepatic triglyceride and liver histology. Immunoblotting was used to detect phosphorylation of AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) acetyl-CoA carboxylase (ACC), and sterol regulatory element-binding protein 1c (SREBP1c). Genetically obese ZF rats on a HFD presented with metabolic features of hepatic pathological changes comparable to human with NAFLD. GTP intervention decreased weight gain (10.1%, P = 0.052) and significantly lowered visceral fat (31.0%, P liver in GTP treated rats. The protective effects of GTP against HFD-induced NAFLD in genetically obese ZF rats are positively correlated to reduction in hepatic lipogenesis through upregulating the AMPK pathway.

  13. Diabetes Mellitus Type 2 and Non-alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease. The Effects of Metformin

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    V.I. Pankiv

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Diabetes mellitus (DM type 2 in clinical practice is often associated with non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD, which has a number of clinical and morphological forms and develops in patients who do not abuse alcohol. The combination of DM type 2 and NAFLD is associated not only with a high risk of developing liver cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma in these patients. Although all aspects of the etiology of NAFLD is not fully known, it is points to the role of insulin resistance in its development. This concept has facilitated a number of clinical studies using metformin as the insulin sensitizer in insulin-resistant patients with NAFLD. The findings emphasize the importance of metformin in the treatment of NAFLD in combination with a hypocaloric diet and the control of body weight. It is also reported about other tissue effects of metformin in NAFLD.

  14. Risk factors associated with non-alcoholic fatty liver disease in subjects from primary care units. A case-control study

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    Bernad Jesús

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Non alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFL consists in the accumulation of fat vacuoles in the cytoplasm of hepatocytes. Many etiologic factors are associated with NAFL, such as, the metabolic syndrome factors, medications, bariatric surgery, nutritional disorders. However, very little information is available on the clinical relevance of this disorder as a health problem in the general population. Methods and design The aim of the study is establish the risk factors most frequently associated with NAFL in a general adult population assigned to the primary care units and to investigate the relationship between each component of the metabolic syndrome and the risk of having a NAFL. A population based case-control, observational and multicenter study will be carried out in 18 primary care units from the "Area de Gestión del Barcelonés Nord y Maresme" (Barcelona attending a population of 360,000 inhabitants and will include 326 cases and 370 controls. Cases are defined as all subjects fulfilling the inclusion criteria and with evidence of fatty liver in an abdominal ultrasonography performed for any reason. One control will be randomly selected for each case from the population, matched for age, gender and primary care center. Controls with fatty liver or other liver diseases will be excluded. All cases and controls will be asked about previous hepatic diseases, consumption of alcohol, smoking and drugs, and a physical examination, biochemical analyses including liver function tests, the different components of the metabolic syndrome and the HAIR score will also be performed. Paired controls will also undergo an abdominal ultrasonography. Discussion This study will attempt to determine the factors most frequently associated with the presence of NAFL investigate the relationship between the metabolic syndrome and the risk of fatty liver and study the influence of the different primary care professionals in avoiding the evolution

  15. An update on non-alcoholic fatty liver disease and non-alcoholic steatohepatitis in Asia.

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    Hsu, Ching-Sheng; Kao, Jia-Horng

    2017-08-01

    Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) has become the most overwhelming liver disease in Asia. In consideration of its increasing medical and economic impact on Asian people, it is time for us to review the update data in Asian countries and formulate strategies to cope with this emerging health problem in Asia. Moreover, growing data indicates that NAFLD may be a systemic disease, not just confined to liver-specific morbidity and mortality, but also associated with several extra-hepatic manifestations, such as cardiovascular diseases, chronic renal diseases, and malignancy. As the co-occurrence of NAFLD and viral hepatitis is common in Asia, issues related to the impact of NAFLD on the clinical outcomes and management of viral hepatitis remain to be elucidated. Areas covered: In this article, a narrative review was conducted, searching for literature from PubMed, Ovid MEDLINE, and the Cochrane Library database till August 2016. Studies relevant to the emerging data of NAFLD in Asia, including the diagnosis, risk factors, the assessment and management of Asian NAFLD patients were examined and discussed. Expert commentary: Collaboration in Asian countries to develop an effective and practical measurement to assess the severity of NAFLD is urgently required.

  16. Intensive lifestyle treatment for non-alcoholic fatty liver disease in children with severe obesity: inpatient versus ambulatory treatment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koot, B. G. P.; van der Baan-Slootweg, O. H.; Vinke, S.; Bohte, A. E.; Tamminga-Smeulders, C. L. J.; Jansen, P. L. M.; Stoker, J.; Benninga, M. A.

    2016-01-01

    Lifestyle intervention is the only established therapy for non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). The optimal treatment schedule and predictors of response of this treatment have not been established in children. We aimed to evaluate the 2-year efficacy of an inpatient versus ambulatory

  17. A Guide to Non-Alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease in Childhood and Adolescence

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    Temple, Jonathan L.; Cordero, Paul; Li, Jiawei; Nguyen, Vi; Oben, Jude A.

    2016-01-01

    Non-Alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease (NAFLD) is now the most prevalent form of chronic liver disease, affecting 10%–20% of the general paediatric population. Within the next 10 years it is expected to become the leading cause of liver pathology, liver failure and indication for liver transplantation in childhood and adolescence in the Western world. While our understanding of the pathophysiological mechanisms underlying this disease remains limited, it is thought to be the hepatic manifestation of more widespread metabolic dysfunction and is strongly associated with a number of metabolic risk factors, including insulin resistance, dyslipidaemia, cardiovascular disease and, most significantly, obesity. Despite this, ”paediatric” NAFLD remains under-studied, under-recognised and, potentially, undermanaged. This article will explore and evaluate our current understanding of NAFLD in childhood and adolescence and how it differs from adult NAFLD, in terms of its epidemiology, pathophysiology, natural history, diagnosis and clinical management. Given the current absence of definitive radiological and histopathological diagnostic tests, maintenance of a high clinical suspicion by all members of the multidisciplinary team in primary and specialist care settings remains the most potent of diagnostic tools, enabling early diagnosis and appropriate therapeutic intervention. PMID:27314342

  18. Aerobic exercise training in the treatment of non‐alcoholic fatty liver disease related fibrosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linden, Melissa A.; Sheldon, Ryan D.; Meers, Grace M.; Ortinau, Laura C.; Morris, E. Matthew; Booth, Frank W.; Kanaley, Jill A.; Vieira‐Potter, Victoria J.; Sowers, James R.; Ibdah, Jamal A.; Thyfault, John P.; Laughlin, M. Harold

    2016-01-01

    Key points Physiologically relevant rodent models of non‐alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) that resemble the human condition are limited.Exercise training and energy restriction are first‐line recommendations for the treatment of NASH.Hyperphagic Otsuka Long–Evans Tokushima fatty rats fed a western diet high in fat, sucrose and cholesterol for 24 weeks developed a severe NASH with fibrosis phenotype.Moderate intensity exercise training and modest energy restriction provided some improvement in the histological features of NASH that coincided with alterations in markers of hepatic stellate cell activation and extracellular matrix remodelling.The present study highlights the importance of lifestyle modification, including exercise training and energy restriction, in the regulation of advanced liver disease. Abstract The incidence of non‐alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) is rising but the efficacy of lifestyle modifications to improve NASH‐related outcomes remain unclear. We hypothesized that a western diet (WD) would induce NASH in the Otsuka Long–Evans Tokushima Fatty (OLETF) rat and that lifestyle modification would improve this condition. Eight‐week‐old Long–Evans Tokushima Otsuka (L) and OLETF (O) rats consumed a control diet (10% kcal fat, 3.5% sucrose) or a WD (45% kcal fat, 17% sucrose, 1% cholesterol) for 24 weeks. At 20 weeks of age, additional WD‐fed OLETFs were randomized to sedentary (O‐SED), food restriction (O‐FR; ∼25% kcal reduction vs. O‐SED) or exercise training (O‐EX; treadmill running 20 m min–1 with a 15% incline, 60 min day–1, 5 days week–1) conditions for 12 weeks. WD induced a NASH phenotype in OLETFs characterized by hepatic fibrosis (collagen 1α1 mRNA and hydroxyproline content), as well as elevated inflammation and non‐alcoholic fatty liver disease activity scores, and hepatic stellate cell activation (α‐smooth muscle actin) compared to Long–Evans Tokushima Otsuka rats. FR and EX modestly

  19. Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease: From insulin resistance to mitochondrial dysfunction Enfermedad grasa del hígado no alcohólica: Desde la resistencia a la insulina a la disfunción mitocondrial

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    J. A. Solís Herruzo

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease represents a set of liver lesions similar to those induced by alcohol that develop in individuals with no alcohol abuse. When lesions consist of fatty and hydropic degeneration, inflammation, and eventually fibrosis, the condition is designated non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH. The pathogenesis of these lesions is not clearly understood, but they are associated with insulin resistance in most cases. As a result, abdominal fat tissue lipolysis and excessive fatty acid uptake by the liver occur. This, together with a disturbance of triglyceride export as VLDL, results in fatty liver development. Both the inflammatory and hepatocellular degenerative components of NASH are attributed to oxidative stress. Mitochondrial respiratory chain loss of activity plays a critical role in the genesis of latter stress. This may be initiated by an increase in the hepatic TNFa, iNOS induction, peroxynitrite formation, tyrosine nitration and inactivation of enzymes making up this chain. Consequences of oxidative stress include: lipid peroxidation in cell membranes, stellate cell activation in the liver, liver fibrosis, chronic inflammation, and apoptosis.

  20. COMPLICATIONS OF ALCOHOLIC LIVER DISEASE AND DIAGNOSTIC MARKERS

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    Milena Ilić

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Alcoholism is one of the leading diseases affecting people’s health and immunity worldwide. Nearly 30 thousand people in the USA die from chronic liver damage. The liver is the central organ in the metabolism of alcohol. Alcohol is primarily a hepatotoxic agent. Hepatotoxicity of alcohol is clinically manifested by the development of alcoholic fatty liver, alcoholic hepatitis and alcoholic cirrhosis. It is characterized by appropriate symptomatology, depending on the degree of liver damage. Excessive use of alcohol for a long period of time, along with malnutrition, genetic and ethnic predisposition, leads to alcoholic cirrhosis and the development of its complications. Portal hypertension damages other organs and organ systems, causing hepatopulmonary syndrome, hepatorenal syndrome, hepatic encephalopathy, spontaneous bacterial peritonitis, etc. For these reasons, alcoholism reduction is given priority, as well as reduction of morbidity and mortality of people with alcoholic chronic liver damage. Therefore, early diagnosis of alcohol abuse is necessary, as well as timely diagnosis of different degrees of alcoholic liver damage. The diagnosis of chronic alcoholic liver damage is set on the basis of confirmed data of alcohol consumption; liver function test (serum markers aminotransferase, gammaglutamyl transferase, prothrombin time, serum bilirubin and albumin level; serum markers of liver fibrosis. Fibrosis markers are directly involved in sedimentation and dissolution of extracellular matrix, i.e. in the process of fibrogenesis and fibrinolysis of liver tissues. They include markers and enzymes of metabolism, as well as cytokines and chemokines.

  1. Relationship between Controlled Attenuation Parameter and Hepatic Steatosis as Assessed by Ultrasound in Alcoholic or Nonalcoholic Fatty Liver Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahn, Jem Ma; Paik, Yong-Han; Min, Sin Yeong; Cho, Ju Yeon; Sohn, Won; Sinn, Dong Hyun; Gwak, Geum-Youn; Choi, Moon Seok; Lee, Joon Hyeok; Koh, Kwang Cheol; Paik, Seung Woon; Yoo, Byung Chul

    2016-03-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the relationship between controlled attenuation parameter (CAP) and hepatic steatosis, as assessed by ultrasound (US) in patients with alcoholic liver disease (ALD) or non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). Patients with either ALD or NAFLD who were diagnosed with fatty liver with US and whose CAP scores were measured, were retrospectively enrolled in this study. The degree of hepatic steatosis assessed by US was categorized into mild (S1), moderate (S2), and severe (S3). A total of 186 patients were included 106 with NAFLD and 80 with ALD. Regarding hepatic steatosis, the CAP score was significantly correlated with US (ρ=0.580, psteatosis were excellent (0.789 and 0.843, respectively). For sensitivity ≥ 90%, CAP cutoffs for the detection of ≥ S2 and ≥ S3 steastosis were separated with a gap of approximately 35 dB/m in all patients and in each of the NAFLD and ALD groups. The CAP score is well correlated with hepatic steatosis, as assessed by US, in both ALD and NAFLD.

  2. Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease is associated with left ventricular diastolic dysfunction in essential hypertension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fallo, F; Dalla Pozza, A; Sonino, N; Lupia, M; Tona, F; Federspil, G; Ermani, M; Catena, C; Soardo, G; Di Piazza, L; Bernardi, S; Bertolotto, M; Pinamonti, B; Fabris, B; Sechi, L A

    2009-11-01

    Insulin resistance is recognized as the pathophysiological hallmark of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). A relation between insulin sensitivity and left ventricular morphology and function has been reported in essential hypertension, where a high prevalence of NAFLD has been recently found. We investigated the inter-relationship between left ventricular morphology/function, metabolic parameters and NAFLD in 86 never-treated essential hypertensive patients subdivided in two subgroups according to the presence (n = 48) or absence (n = 38) of NAFLD at ultrasonography. The two groups were similar as to sex, age and blood pressure levels. No patient had diabetes mellitus, obesity, hyperlipidemia, or other risk factors for liver disease. Body mass index, waist circumference, triglycerides, glucose, insulin, homeostasis model of assessment index for insulin resistance (HOMA-IR), aspartate aminotransferase and alanine aminotransferase were higher and adiponectin levels were lower in patients with NAFLD than in patients without NAFLD, and were associated with NAFLD at univariate analysis. Patients with NAFLD had similar prevalence of left ventricular hypertrophy compared to patients without NAFLD, but a higher prevalence of diastolic dysfunction (62.5 vs 21.1%, P 220 ms. Diastolic dysfunction (P = 0.040) and HOMA-IR (P = 0.012) remained independently associated with NAFLD at backward multivariate analysis. Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease was associated with insulin resistance and abnormalities of left ventricular diastolic function in a cohort of patients with essential hypertension, suggesting a concomitant increase of metabolic and cardiac risk in this condition.

  3. Imaging patterns and focal lesions in fatty liver: a pictorial review.

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    Venkatesh, Sudhakar K; Hennedige, Tiffany; Johnson, Geoffrey B; Hough, David M; Fletcher, Joel G

    2017-05-01

    Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease is the most common cause of chronic liver disease and affects nearly one-third of US population. With the increasing trend of obesity in the population, associated fatty change in the liver will be a common feature observed in imaging studies. Fatty liver causes changes in liver parenchyma appearance on imaging modalities including ultrasound, computed tomography (CT), and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and may affect the imaging characteristics of focal liver lesions (FLLs). The imaging characteristics of FLLs were classically described in a non-fatty liver. In addition, focal fatty change and focal fat sparing may also simulate FLLs. Knowledge of characteristic patterns of fatty change in the liver (diffuse, geographical, focal, subcapsular, and perivascular) and their impact on the detection and characterization of FLL is therefore important. In general, fatty change may improve detection of FLLs on MRI using fat suppression sequences, but may reduce sensitivity on a single-phase (portal venous) CT and conventional ultrasound. In patients with fatty liver, MRI is generally superior to ultrasound and CT for detection and characterization of FLL. In this pictorial essay, we describe the imaging patterns of fatty change in the liver and its effect on detection and characterization of FLLs on ultrasound, CT, MRI, and PET.

  4. Hepatic fat quantification using the two-point Dixon method and fat color maps based on non-alcoholic fatty liver disease activity score.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayashi, Tatsuya; Saitoh, Satoshi; Takahashi, Junji; Tsuji, Yoshinori; Ikeda, Kenji; Kobayashi, Masahiro; Kawamura, Yusuke; Fujii, Takeshi; Inoue, Masafumi; Miyati, Tosiaki; Kumada, Hiromitsu

    2017-04-01

    The two-point Dixon method for magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is commonly used to non-invasively measure fat deposition in the liver. The aim of the present study was to assess the usefulness of MRI-fat fraction (MRI-FF) using the two-point Dixon method based on the non-alcoholic fatty liver disease activity score. This retrospective study included 106 patients who underwent liver MRI and MR spectroscopy, and 201 patients who underwent liver MRI and histological assessment. The relationship between MRI-FF and MR spectroscopy-fat fraction was used to estimate the corrected MRI-FF for hepatic multi-peaks of fat. Then, a color FF map was generated with the corrected MRI-FF based on the non-alcoholic fatty liver disease activity score. We defined FF variability as the standard deviation of FF in regions of interest. Uniformity of hepatic fat was visually graded on a three-point scale using both gray-scale and color FF maps. Confounding effects of histology (iron, inflammation and fibrosis) on corrected MRI-FF were assessed by multiple linear regression. The linear correlations between MRI-FF and MR spectroscopy-fat fraction, and between corrected MRI-FF and histological steatosis were strong (R 2  = 0.90 and R 2  = 0.88, respectively). Liver fat variability significantly increased with visual fat uniformity grade using both of the maps (ρ = 0.67-0.69, both P Hepatic iron, inflammation and fibrosis had no significant confounding effects on the corrected MRI-FF (all P > 0.05). The two-point Dixon method and the gray-scale or color FF maps based on the non-alcoholic fatty liver disease activity score were useful for fat quantification in the liver of patients without severe iron deposition. © 2016 The Japan Society of Hepatology.

  5. Inhibition of p53 attenuates steatosis and liver injury in a mouse model of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease.

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    Derdak, Zoltan; Villegas, Kristine A; Harb, Ragheb; Wu, Annie M; Sousa, Aryanna; Wands, Jack R

    2013-04-01

    p53 and its transcriptional target miRNA34a have been implicated in the pathogenesis of fatty liver. We tested the efficacy of a p53 inhibitor, pifithrin-α p-nitro (PFT) in attenuating steatosis, associated oxidative stress and apoptosis in a murine model of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). C57BL/6 mice were fed a high-fat (HFD) or control diet for 8 weeks; PFT or DMSO (vehicle) was administered three times per week. Markers of oxidative stress and apoptosis as well as mediators of hepatic fatty acid metabolism were assessed by immunohistochemistry, Western blot, real-time PCR, and biochemical assays. PFT administration suppressed HFD-induced weight gain, ALT elevation, steatosis, oxidative stress, and apoptosis. PFT treatment blunted the HFD-induced upregulation of miRNA34a and increased SIRT1 expression. In the livers of HFD-fed, PFT-treated mice, activation of the SIRT1/PGC1α/PPARα axis increased the expression of malonyl-CoA decarboxylase (MLYCD), an enzyme responsible for malonyl-CoA (mCoA) degradation. Additionally, the SIRT1/LKB1/AMPK pathway (upstream activator of MLYCD) was promoted by PFT. Thus, induction of these two pathways by PFT diminished the hepatic mCoA content by enhancing MLYCD expression and function. Since mCoA inhibits carnitine palmitoyltransferase 1 (CPT1), the decrease of hepatic mCoA in the PFT-treated, HFD-fed mice increased CPT1 activity, favored fatty acid oxidation, and decreased steatosis. Additionally, we demonstrated that PFT abrogated steatosis and promoted MLYCD expression in palmitoleic acid-treated human HepaRG cells. The p53 inhibitor PFT diminished hepatic triglyceride accumulation and lipotoxicity in mice fed a HFD, by depleting mCoA and favoring the β-oxidation of fatty acids. Copyright © 2012 European Association for the Study of the Liver. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Fructose Consumption, Lipogenesis, and Non-Alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease.

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    Ter Horst, Kasper W; Serlie, Mireille J

    2017-09-06

    Increased fructose consumption has been suggested to contribute to non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD), dyslipidemia, and insulin resistance, but a causal role of fructose in these metabolic diseases remains debated. Mechanistically, hepatic fructose metabolism yields precursors that can be used for gluconeogenesis and de novo lipogenesis (DNL). Fructose-derived precursors also act as nutritional regulators of the transcription factors, including ChREBP and SREBP1c, that regulate the expression of hepatic gluconeogenesis and DNL genes. In support of these mechanisms, fructose intake increases hepatic gluconeogenesis and DNL and raises plasma glucose and triglyceride levels in humans. However, epidemiological and fructose-intervention studies have had inconclusive results with respect to liver fat, and there is currently no good human evidence that fructose, when consumed in isocaloric amounts, causes more liver fat accumulation than other energy-dense nutrients. In this review, we aim to provide an overview of the seemingly contradicting literature on fructose and NAFLD. We outline fructose physiology, the mechanisms that link fructose to NAFLD, and the available evidence from human studies. From this framework, we conclude that the cellular mechanisms underlying hepatic fructose metabolism will likely reveal novel targets for the treatment of NAFLD, dyslipidemia, and hepatic insulin resistance. Finally, fructose-containing sugars are a major source of excess calories, suggesting that a reduction of their intake has potential for the prevention of NAFLD and other obesity-related diseases.

  7. Comparison of low-calorie diet with and without sibutramine on body weight and liver function of patients with non-alcoholic fatty liver disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Z bahmanabadi

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Introduction & Objective: Non-alcoholic fatty liver (NAFLD is defined as a spectrum of clinical scenarios which is pathological deposition of fat droplets in the liver of patients who have no history of alcohol use. This study compared the effect of low calorie diet with and without sibutramine on body weight and liver function in patients with NAFLD. Materials & Methods: This clinical trial study was conducted in 2010 at Tabriz University of Medical Sciences, on 40 obese patients with non-alcoholic fatty liver. Patients were randomly divided into two equal groups of intervention and control groups. Group one received 15 mg daily sibutramine capsules half an hour before lunch and a weight loss diet based on ideal body weight. The other group only had diet control for weight reduction. Before and after 3 months of intervention, weight changes, fasting glucose, glycosylated hemoglobin HbA1c, levels of liver enzymes and ultrasound evaluation was repeated. Data were analyzed using the SPSS software and the paired T test, Mann-Whitney and McNemar test. Results: The mean age of the subjects was 38.90 ± 7.00 in the sibutramine group and 36.55 ±7.87 for the control group. After three months, the average weight loss in sibutramine group was significantly more than the control group (sibutramine group13 kg and control group 4 kg (p<0.05. Improvement in liver echogenicity in sibutramine patients was 90% and 50% of diet group patients. ALT changes in the sibutramine group and control group was 7.50 ± 15.11 and 6.15 ± 28.23 respectively, which was statistically significant in the sibutramine group. AST changes were 4.38 ± 13.37 and 1.70 ± 18.37 in sibutramine and control group respectively. The changes were not statistically significant. Conclusion: Overall, findings of this study suggest that sibutramine is effective in liver function improvement and treatment of NAFLD patients.

  8. Effects of nigella sativa on various parameters in patients of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hussain, M.; Shaikh, G.S.

    2017-01-01

    Background: Non-alcoholic Fatty Liver disease (NAFLD) is the most common cause of progressive liver disorders worldwide. Drug options are limited with varying results. Nigella sativa in the form of herbal medicine could be another option because of its strong historical background. The objective of the study was to evaluate the effect Nigella sativa on various parameters in patients of NAFLD. Methods: A randomized controlled trial was conducted at outpatient clinic of medical unit-1 of Sheikh Zayed Medical College/Hospital, Rahim Yar Khan, in which seventy patients of NAFLD were divided in to interventional and non-interventional groups. The interventional group was given cap Nigella sativa 1g twice a day while non-interventional group was given cap placebo in a same way for three months. Body weight, BMI, liver enzymes and ultrasound finding of fatty liver were assayed before and after treatment. Results: After 12 weeks treatment with Nigella sativa body weight decreased significantly from 86±13.8 to76±12.6 kg vs placebo (p=0.041). BMI also reduced significantly from 29.06±4.6 to 26.25±6.2kg/m2 vs placebo(p=0.012). There is remarkable reduction in aminotransferases level after treatment with Nigella sativa vs placebo (ALT: 78.05±5.52 to 52.6±5.65 IU/L vs 76.48±4.95-74.32±5.58 IU/L (p=0.036). AST: 65.54±4.56-44.56±5.52 IU/L vs 63.25±5.43-59.43±3.39 IU/L (p=0.021). There was overall 57.14 % patient had normal fatty liver grading on ultrasound after 12 weeks treatment with Nigella sativa as compared to placebo (p=0.002). Conclusion: Nigella sativa improves bio chemical and fatty liver changes in NAFLD patients. Its use in early stages of NAFLD is recommended in order to prevent its life-threatening complication. (author)

  9. Association Between Insulin Resistance and Oxidative Stress Parameters in Obese Adolescents with Non-Alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease

    OpenAIRE

    Pirgon, ?zg?r; Bilgin, H?seyin; ?ekmez, Ferhat; Kurku, H?seyin; D?ndar, Bumin Nuri

    2013-01-01

    Objective: Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) has become one of the most common chronic liver diseases in children. The aim of this study was to investigate the associations of oxidative stress with insulin resistance and metabolic risk factors in obese adolescents with NAFLD. Methods: Forty-six obese adolescents (23 girls and 23 boys, mean age: 12.8?2.2 years) and 29 control subjects (15 girls and 14 boys, mean age: 12.7?2.7 years) were enrolled in the study. The obese subjects were d...

  10. Disturbed Vitamin A Metabolism in Non-Alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease (NAFLD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Saeed

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Vitamin A is required for important physiological processes, including embryogenesis, vision, cell proliferation and differentiation, immune regulation, and glucose and lipid metabolism. Many of vitamin A’s functions are executed through retinoic acids that activate transcriptional networks controlled by retinoic acid receptors (RARs and retinoid X receptors (RXRs.The liver plays a central role in vitamin A metabolism: (1 it produces bile supporting efficient intestinal absorption of fat-soluble nutrients like vitamin A; (2 it produces retinol binding protein 4 (RBP4 that distributes vitamin A, as retinol, to peripheral tissues; and (3 it harbors the largest body supply of vitamin A, mostly as retinyl esters, in hepatic stellate cells (HSCs. In times of inadequate dietary intake, the liver maintains stable circulating retinol levels of approximately 2 μmol/L, sufficient to provide the body with this vitamin for months. Liver diseases, in particular those leading to fibrosis and cirrhosis, are associated with impaired vitamin A homeostasis and may lead to vitamin A deficiency. Liver injury triggers HSCs to transdifferentiate to myofibroblasts that produce excessive amounts of extracellular matrix, leading to fibrosis. HSCs lose the retinyl ester stores in this process, ultimately leading to vitamin A deficiency. Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD is the hepatic manifestation of metabolic syndrome and is a spectrum of conditions ranging from benign hepatic steatosis to non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH; it may progress to cirrhosis and liver cancer. NASH is projected to be the main cause of liver failure in the near future. Retinoic acids are key regulators of glucose and lipid metabolism in the liver and adipose tissue, but it is unknown whether impaired vitamin A homeostasis contributes to or suppresses the development of NAFLD. A genetic variant of patatin-like phospholipase domain-containing 3 (PNPLA3-I148M is the most prominent

  11. Effect of Mediterranean Diet and Antioxidant Formulation in Non-Alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease: A Randomized Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abenavoli, Ludovico; Greco, Marta; Milic, Natasa; Accattato, Francesca; Foti, Daniela; Gulletta, Elio; Luzza, Francesco

    2017-08-12

    Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is the most common liver disease worldwide, characterized by liver fatty acid accumulation and fibrosis, not due to excessive alcohol consumption. Notably, nutritional habits have been reported to be implicated in the onset and severity of the hepatic damage, while the Mediterranean diet has shown beneficial effects on NAFLD. Free radicals and oxidative stress were suggested to be involved in the pathogenesis and progression of NAFLD, and several data highlighted the efficacy of antioxidant supplementation in its treatment. The aim of this study was to compare the effects of the Mediterranean diet, with or without an antioxidant complex supplement, in overweight patients suffering from NAFLD. In this prospective study, fifty Caucasian overweight patients were randomized into three groups (Groups A-C). A personalized moderately hypocaloric Mediterranean diet was prescribed to all patients included in the A and B groups. In addition to the diet, Group B was administered antioxidant supplementation daily and for the period of six months. Group C did not have any type of treatment. The study proved that the Mediterranean diet alone or in association with the antioxidant complex improved anthropometric parameters, lipid profile and reduced hepatic fat accumulation and liver stiffness. However, Group B patients, in which the diet was associated with antioxidant intake, showed not only a significant improvement in insulin sensitivity, but also a more consistent reduction of anthropometric parameters when compared with Group A patients. Taken together, these results support the benefit of antioxidant supplementation in overweight patients with NAFLD.

  12. Cardiometabolic effects of antidiabetic drugs in non-alcoholic fatty liver disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rix, Iben; Steen Pedersen, Julie; Storgaard, Heidi

    2018-01-01

    PURPOSE: Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) affects about 25% of the population worldwide. NAFLD may be viewed as the hepatological manifestation of metabolic syndrome. Patients with metabolic syndrome due to diabetes or obesity have an increased risk of cardiovascular disease....... This narrative review describes cardiometabolic effects of antidiabetic drugs in NAFLD. METHODS: We conducted a systematic search in PubMed and manually scanned bibliographies in trial databases and reference lists in relevant articles. RESULTS: Heart disease is the leading cause of death in NAFLD. Conversely......, NAFLD is an independent cardiovascular risk factor in patients suffering from metabolic syndrome. NAFLD is associated with markers of atherosclerosis, and patients have increased risk of ischaemic heart disease. Additionally, patients with NAFLD have increased risk of cardiac dysfunction and heart...

  13. [Non alcoholic fatty liver. A frequent entity with an unknown outcome].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barisio D'Angelo, María Gabriela; Mariel Actis, Andrea; Outomuro, Delia

    2009-01-01

    Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD), defined as excessive fat accumulation into the hepatocytes, has a prevalence of approximately 15 to 25%. Frequently associated risk factors for NAFLD are obesity, type 2 diabetes and dyslipidemia. It has been proponed that a mitochondrial dysfunction would play a crucial role in the disease development.On the other hand, focus is on insulin resistance syndrome, the only metabolic alteration strongly associated with this malady. The disease is suspected in individuals with insulina resistance characteristics such as metabolic syndrome and also in those with augmented serum aminotransferases levels. Different tests with biochemical markers have been proposed to predict the development of fibrosis or steatohepatitis. Therapeutic options in NAFLD patients are limited and weight lost remains as the most recommended one.

  14. Type 2 Diabetes in Non-Alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease and Hepatitis C Virus Infection—Liver: The “Musketeer” in the Spotlight

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ballestri, Stefano; Nascimbeni, Fabio; Romagnoli, Dante; Baldelli, Enrica; Targher, Giovanni; Lonardo, Amedeo

    2016-01-01

    The pathogenesis of type 2 diabetes (T2D) involves chronic hyperinsulinemia due to systemic and hepatic insulin resistance (IR), which if uncorrected, will lead to progressive pancreatic beta cell failure in predisposed individuals. Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) encompasses a spectrum of fatty (simple steatosis and steatohepatitis) and non-fatty liver changes (NASH-cirrhosis with or without hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC)) that are commonly observed among individuals with multiple metabolic derangements, notably including visceral obesity, IR and T2D. Hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection is also often associated with both hepatic steatosis and features of a specific HCV-associated dysmetabolic syndrome. In recent years, the key role of the steatotic liver in the development of IR and T2D has been increasingly recognized. Thus, in this comprehensive review we summarize the rapidly expanding body of evidence that links T2D with NAFLD and HCV infection. For each of these two liver diseases with systemic manifestations, we discuss the epidemiological burden, the pathophysiologic mechanisms and the clinical implications. To date, substantial evidence suggests that NAFLD and HCV play a key role in T2D development and that the interaction of T2D with liver disease may result in a “vicious circle”, eventually leading to an increased risk of all-cause mortality and liver-related and cardiovascular complications. Preliminary evidence also suggests that improvement of NAFLD is associated with a decreased incidence of T2D. Similarly, the prevention of T2D following HCV eradication in the era of direct-acting antiviral agents is a biologically plausible result. However, additional studies are required for further clarification of mechanisms involved. PMID:27005620

  15. Type 2 Diabetes in Non-Alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease and Hepatitis C Virus Infection—Liver: The “Musketeer” in the Spotlight

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefano Ballestri

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The pathogenesis of type 2 diabetes (T2D involves chronic hyperinsulinemia due to systemic and hepatic insulin resistance (IR, which if uncorrected, will lead to progressive pancreatic beta cell failure in predisposed individuals. Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD encompasses a spectrum of fatty (simple steatosis and steatohepatitis and non-fatty liver changes (NASH-cirrhosis with or without hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC that are commonly observed among individuals with multiple metabolic derangements, notably including visceral obesity, IR and T2D. Hepatitis C virus (HCV infection is also often associated with both hepatic steatosis and features of a specific HCV-associated dysmetabolic syndrome. In recent years, the key role of the steatotic liver in the development of IR and T2D has been increasingly recognized. Thus, in this comprehensive review we summarize the rapidly expanding body of evidence that links T2D with NAFLD and HCV infection. For each of these two liver diseases with systemic manifestations, we discuss the epidemiological burden, the pathophysiologic mechanisms and the clinical implications. To date, substantial evidence suggests that NAFLD and HCV play a key role in T2D development and that the interaction of T2D with liver disease may result in a “vicious circle”, eventually leading to an increased risk of all-cause mortality and liver-related and cardiovascular complications. Preliminary evidence also suggests that improvement of NAFLD is associated with a decreased incidence of T2D. Similarly, the prevention of T2D following HCV eradication in the era of direct-acting antiviral agents is a biologically plausible result. However, additional studies are required for further clarification of mechanisms involved.

  16. Application of Weka environment to determine factors that stand behind non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plutecki, Michal M.; Wierzbicka, Aldona; Socha, Piotr; Mulawka, Jan J.

    2009-06-01

    The paper describes an innovative approach to discover new knowledge in non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). In order to determine the factors that may cause the disease a number of classification and attribute selection algorithms have been applied. Only those with the best classification results were chosen. Several interesting facts associated with this unclear disease have been discovered. All data mining computations were made in Weka environment.

  17. Reversible fatty infiltration of the liver

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bostel, F.; Hauger, W.

    1987-01-01

    Case studies show that acute pancreatitis occurring independently or combined with a preceding abuse of alcohol may be the cause of fatty infiltration of the liver. These fat areas can evolve in a very short time and provoke in the case of focal incidence diagnostic problems of differentiation against abscesses of metastases. Due to this fact and because of the rapid reversibility of the fatty infiltration under therapy, the safest method to clarify the situation consists of short-term CT controls. (orig.) [de

  18. A randomised controlled trial of a Mediterranean Dietary Intervention for Adults with Non Alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease (MEDINA): study protocol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papamiltiadous, Elena S; Roberts, Stuart K; Nicoll, Amanda J; Ryan, Marno C; Itsiopoulos, Catherine; Salim, Agus; Tierney, Audrey C

    2016-02-02

    Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease, the most prevalent liver disease in developed countries, remains difficult to manage with no proven safe and effective pharmacotherapy available. While weight reduction is the most commonly practiced treatment strategy, this is difficult to both achieve and/or maintain in the majority. Furthermore evidence-based dietary recommendations to guide the nutritional management of these patients are lacking. Using a randomised controlled trial design, this study compares the effectiveness of the Mediterranean diet to a standard low fat diet in terms of differences in insulin sensitivity, hepatic steatosis and metabolic outcomes in participants with non-alcoholic fatty liver disease. Ninety four eligible patients who have non-alcoholic fatty liver disease and who are insulin resistant, will be randomised into either a Mediterranean or low fat diet group for a 3 month intervention period. Insulin sensitivity will be measured on peripheral blood using Homeostatic Model Assessment and liver fat content quantified using Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy. Both arms will consist of three face to face and three telephone call follow up consultations delivered by an Accredited Practicing Dietitian. The intervention arm focuses on recommendations from the traditional Mediterranean diet which have been tailored for use in the Australian population The standard arm uses the Australian Guide to Healthy Eating and the Australian National Heart Foundation dietary guidelines. Study recruitment will take place at four major metropolitan hospitals in Melbourne, Australia. Data collection will occur at all face to face reviews including baseline, 6, and 12 weeks. A follow up assessment to measure sustainability will take place at 6 and 12 months. The primary end point is improved insulin sensitivity scores at the 12 week time point. This trial aims to demonstrate in a large cohort of participants with NALFD that a Mediterranean diet independent of weight

  19. Does propolis have any effect on non-alcoholic fatty liver disease?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kismet, Kemal; Ozcan, Cigdem; Kuru, Serdar; Gencay Celemli, Omur; Celepli, Pinar; Senes, Mehmet; Guclu, Tuncay; Sorkun, Kadriye; Hucumenoglu, Sema; Besler, Tanju

    2017-06-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the therapeutic effect of propolis on non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) in rats. The rats were randomly divided into 3 groups of 10 as the NAFLD, NAFLD+100 and NAFLD+200 groups. The rats were fed with a fatty diet (25g/kg/day) to provoke NAFLD. Then after the formation of fatty liver, a standard diet (SD) (25g/kg/day) was given to the NAFLD group and the other two groups were fed with SD and 100mg/kg (NAFLD+100 Group) or 200mg/kg propolis (NAFLD+200 Group) for two weeks. At the end of two weeks the animals were sacrificed. Blood and tissue samples were taken for biochemical and histopathological evaluations. The propolis-treated groups had better results in serum lipids (total cholesterol, non-HDL cholesterol, triglyceride), ALT, and ALP values. When compared with the NAFLD group, IL-6 and TNF-α values decreased in the NAFLD+100 and NAFLD+200 groups. The administration of propolis to the rats significantly reduced serum and tissue MDA and GPX values and increased SH in serum when compared with the NAFLD group. No difference was determined between the groups treated with two different doses of propolis in respect of biochemical values. When the mean histological scores of the groups were compared, statistically significant differences were found between the NAFLD group and the propolis-treated groups. No difference was determined between the groups treated with the two different doses of propolis in respect of histopathological results. Propolis had positive effects on histopathological and biochemical parameters of NAFLD and these effects were related to the anti-oxidant and anti-inflammatory effects of propolis. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  20. Subclassification of fatty liver by its pathogenesis: cIEFing is believing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Byrne, Frances L; Hoehn, Kyle L

    2016-05-01

    Fatty liver, also termed hepatic steatosis or fatty liver disease, is a condition characterized by excess fat accumulation in the liver. Common causes of fatty liver include obesity, ageing, medications, genetic disorders, viral hepatitis, excess alcohol or toxins. This diversity in pathogenesis is matched by an equally diverse spectrum of consequences, whereby some individuals remain asymptomatic yet others progress through a series of inflammatory, fibrotic and metabolic disorders that can lead to liver failure, cancer or diabetes. Current treatment approaches for fatty liver do not differ by disease aetiology and primarily involve weight loss strategies or management of co-morbidities. In a recent paper published in this journal, Urasaki et al used capillary isoelectric focusing (cIEF) to create profiles of protein post-translational modifications that distinguish four different models of fatty liver in mice. Importantly, this new cIEF approach has the potential to provide rapid individualized diagnosis of fatty liver pathogenesis that may enable more accurate and personalized treatment strategies. Further testing and optimization of cIEF as a diagnostic screening tool in humans is warranted. Copyright © 2016 Pathological Society of Great Britain and Ireland. Published by John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  1. Lack of ClC-2 Alleviates High Fat Diet-Induced Insulin Resistance and Non-Alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dongxia Fu

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aims: Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD is the most common cause of chronic liver disease. This study aims to investigate whether chloride channel 2 (ClC-2 is involved in high fat diet (HFD-induced NAFLD and possible molecular mechanisms. Methods: ClC-2 expression was liver-specifically downregulated using adeno-associated virus in C57BL/6 mice treated with a chow diet or HFD for 12 weeks. Peripheral blood and liver tissues were collected for biochemical and pathological estimation respectively. Western blotting was applied to detect the protein expressions of lipid synthesis-related enzymes and the phosphorylated level of IRS-1, Akt and mTOR. Results: ClC-2 mRNA level was significantly increased in patients with non-alcoholic steatohepatitis, which positively correlated with the plasma levels of alanine transaminase (ALT, aspartate transaminase (AST and insulin. Knockdown of ClC-2 in liver attenuated HFD-induced weight gain, obesity, hepatocellular ballooning, and liver lipid accumulation and fibrosis, accompanied by reduced plasma free fatty acid (FFA, triglyceride (TG, total cholesterol (TC, ALT, AST, glucose and insulin levels and homeostasis model of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR value. Moreover, HFD-treated mice lacking ClC-2 showed inhibited hepatic lipid accumulation via regulating lipid metabolism through decreasing sterol regulatory element binding protein (SREBP-1c expression and its downstream targeting enzymes such as fatty acid synthase (FAS, HMG-CoA reductase (HMGCR and acetyl-Coenzyme A carboxylase (ACCα. In addition, in vivo and in vitro results demonstrated that ClC-2 downregulation in HFD-treated mice or HepG2 cells increased the sensitivity to insulin via activation of IRS-1/Akt/mTOR signaling pathway. Conclusion: Our present study reveals a critical role of ClC-2 in regulating metabolic diseases. Mice lacking ClC-2 are associated with a remarkably beneficial metabolic phenotype, suggesting that decreasing Cl

  2. Relationship of sitting time and physical activity with non-alcoholic fatty liver disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryu, Seungho; Chang, Yoosoo; Jung, Hyun-Suk; Yun, Kyung Eun; Kwon, Min-Jung; Choi, Yuni; Kim, Chan-Won; Cho, Juhee; Suh, Byung-Seong; Cho, Yong Kyun; Chung, Eun Chul; Shin, Hocheol; Kim, Yeon Soo

    2015-11-01

    The goal of this study was to examine the association of sitting time and physical activity level with non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) in Korean men and women and to explore whether any observed associations were mediated by adiposity. A cross-sectional study was performed on 139,056 Koreans, who underwent a health examination between March 2011 and December 2013. Physical activity level and sitting time were assessed using the validated Korean version of the international Physical Activity Questionnaire Short Form. The presence of fatty liver was determined using ultrasonographic findings. Poisson regression models with robust variance were used to evaluate the association of sitting time and physical activity level with NAFLD. Of the 139,056 subjects, 39,257 had NAFLD. In a multivariable-adjusted model, both prolonged sitting time and decreased physical activity level were independently associated with increasing prevalence of NAFLD. The prevalence ratios (95% CIs) for NAFLD comparing 5-9 and ⩾10 h/day sitting time to active and health-enhancing physically active groups to the inactive group were 0.94 (0.92-0.95) and 0.80 (0.78-0.82), respectively (p for trend physical activity level were positively associated with the prevalence of NAFLD in a large sample of middle-aged Koreans, supporting the importance of reducing time spent sitting in addition to promoting physical activity. Copyright © 2015 European Association for the Study of the Liver. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Translational Aspects of Diet and Non-Alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicolas Goossens

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD is a spectrum of diseases ranging from simple steatosis without inflammation or fibrosis to nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH. Despite the strong association between dietary factors and NAFLD, no dietary animal model of NAFLD fully recapitulates the complex metabolic and histological phenotype of the disease, although recent models show promise. Although animal models have significantly contributed to our understanding of human diseases, they have been less successful in accurate translation to predict effective treatment strategies. We discuss strategies to overcome this challenge, in particular the adoption of big data approaches combining clinical phenotype, genomic heterogeneity, transcriptomics, and metabolomics changes to identify the ideal NAFLD animal model for a given scientific question or to test a given drug. We conclude by noting that novel big data approaches may help to bridge the translational gap for selecting dietary models of NAFLD.

  4. Fatty Liver Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    What is fatty liver disease? Your liver is the largest organ inside your body. It helps your body digest food, store energy, and remove poisons. Fatty liver disease is a condition in which fat builds ...

  5. Effects of glucagon-like peptide-1 on glucagon secretion in patients with non-alcoholic fatty liver disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Junker, Anders E; Gluud, Lise L; van Hall, Gerrit

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND & AIMS: We evaluated the glucagon-suppressive effect of glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) and its potential effects on endogenous glucose production and whole body lipolysis in non-diabetic patients with non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). METHODS: On two separate days 10 non-diabetic...... patients with liver biopsy-verified NAFLD (NAFLD activity score 2.5±1.0) and 10 matched controls underwent a 2-hour intravenous infusions of GLP-1 (0.8 pmol × kg(-1) × min(-1)) and placebo. Since GLP-1-mediated glucagon suppression has been shown to be glucose-dependent, plasma glucose was clamped...

  6. Effectiveness of exercise in hepatic fat mobilization in non-alcoholic fatty liver disease: Systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Golabi, Pegah; Locklear, Cameron T; Austin, Patrick; Afdhal, Sophie; Byrns, Melinda; Gerber, Lynn; Younossi, Zobair M

    2016-07-21

    To investigate the efficacy of exercise interventions on hepatic fat mobilization in non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) patients. Ovid-Medline, PubMed, EMBASE and Cochrane database were searched for randomized trials and prospective cohort studies in adults aged ≥ 18 which investigated the effects of at least 8 wk of exercise only or combination with diet on NAFLD from 2010 to 2016. The search terms used to identify articles, in which exercise was clearly described by type, duration, intensity and frequency were: "NASH", "NAFLD", "non-alcoholic steatohepatitis", "non-alcoholic fatty liver disease", "fat", "steatosis", "diet", "exercise", "MR spectroscopy" and "liver biopsy". NAFLD diagnosis, as well as the outcome measures, was confirmed by either hydrogen-magnetic resonance spectroscopy (H-MRS) or biopsy. Trials that included dietary interventions along with exercise were accepted if they met all criteria. Eight studies met selection criteria (6 with exercise only, 2 with diet and exercise with a total of 433 adult participants). Training interventions ranged between 8 and 48 wk in duration with a prescribed exercise frequency of 3 to 7 d per week, at intensities between 45% and 75% of VO2 peak. The most commonly used imaging modality was H-MRS and one study utilized biopsy. The effect of intervention on fat mobilization was 30.2% in the exercise only group and 49.8% in diet and exercise group. There was no difference between aerobic and resistance exercise intervention, although only one study compared the two interventions. The beneficial effects of exercise on intrahepatic triglyceride (IHTG) were seen even in the absence of significant weight loss. Although combining an exercise program with dietary interventions augmented the reduction in IHTG, as well as improved measures of glucose control and/or insulin sensitivity, exercise only significantly decreased hepatic lipid contents. Prescribed exercise in subjects with NAFLD reduces IHTG independent of

  7. Diagnosis of fatty liver

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saitoh, Shuichi; Nagamine, Takeaki; Takagi, Hitoshi

    1988-01-01

    Diagnostic values of various ultrasonographic findings were evaluated from fatty infiltration ratio calculated by liver specimens in 42 patients. The ratio of the CT number of liver to those of spleen were also compared with fatty infiltration ratio in 11 patients. Fatty bandless sign one plus (perirenal bright echo between the liver and the right kidney is masked partially) or more and the fatty score 3 (it is calculated by several ultrasonographic findings) and the less than 0.90 of the ratio of CT number of liver to those of spleen were useful for diagnosis of fatty liver, the sensitivity was 100%, 87.5%, 85.7% and the accuracy was 78.1%, 81.8%, 81.8% respectively. It was considered that these criteria were suitable in screening study of fatty liver. (author)

  8. Low incidence of non-alcoholic steatohepatitis in a Danish liver unit

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Semb, Synne; Dam-Larsen, Sanne; Mogensen, Anne Mellon

    2012-01-01

    Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease encompasses a spectrum of histological lesions ranging from steatosis to non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) and cirrhosis. Simple steatosis is generally benign, while NASH can progress to severe liver disease. The aim of the present study was to quantify...... the number of patients with NASH and assess the prognosis associated with the condition in a large Danish referral centre for liver disease....

  9. Pediatric non-alcoholic fatty liver disease: Recent solutions, unresolved issues, and future research directions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clemente, Maria Grazia; Mandato, Claudia; Poeta, Marco; Vajro, Pietro

    2016-01-01

    Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) in children is becoming a major health concern. A “multiple-hit” pathogenetic model has been suggested to explain the progressive liver damage that occurs among children with NAFLD. In addition to the accumulation of fat in the liver, insulin resistance (IR) and oxidative stress due to genetic/epigenetic background, unfavorable lifestyles, gut microbiota and gut-liver axis dysfunction, and perturbations of trace element homeostasis have been shown to be critical for disease progression and the development of more severe inflammatory and fibrotic stages [non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH)]. Simple clinical and laboratory parameters, such as age, history, anthropometrical data (BMI and waist circumference percentiles), blood pressure, surrogate clinical markers of IR (acanthosis nigricans), abdominal ultrasounds, and serum transaminases, lipids and glucose/insulin profiles, allow a clinician to identify children with obesity and obesity-related conditions, including NAFLD and cardiovascular and metabolic risks. A liver biopsy (the “imperfect” gold standard) is required for a definitive NAFLD/NASH diagnosis, particularly to exclude other treatable conditions or when advanced liver disease is expected on clinical and laboratory grounds and preferably prior to any controlled trial of pharmacological/surgical treatments. However, a biopsy clearly cannot represent a screening procedure. Advancements in diagnostic serum and imaging tools, especially for the non-invasive differentiation between NAFLD and NASH, have shown promising results, e.g., magnetic resonance elastography. Weight loss and physical activity should be the first option of intervention. Effective pharmacological treatments are still under development; however, drugs targeting IR, oxidative stress, proinflammatory pathways, dyslipidemia, gut microbiota and gut liver axis dysfunction are an option for patients who are unable to comply with the recommended

  10. Experience of Using Mineral Water in the Treatment of Patients with Chronic Viral Hepatitis C with Concomitant Non-Alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N.V. Dragomyretska

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available The paper proved the feasibility of a course of mineral water intake (in double dosing regimen in combination treatment of patients with chronic viral hepatitis C and concomitant non-alcoholic fatty liver disease in order to improve the clinical course of the underlying disease and comorbidity, to restore the functional state of the liver, to reduce insulin resistance.

  11. Fads1 and 2 are promoted to meet instant need for long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids in goose fatty liver.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osman, Rashid H; Liu, Long; Xia, Lili; Zhao, Xing; Wang, Qianqian; Sun, Xiaoxian; Zhang, Yihui; Yang, Biao; Zheng, Yun; Gong, Daoqing; Geng, Tuoyu

    2016-07-01

    Global prevalence of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) constitutes a threat to human health. Goose is a unique model of NAFLD for discovering therapeutic targets as its liver can develop severe steatosis without overt injury. Fatty acid desaturase (Fads) is a potential therapeutic target as Fads expression and mutations are associated with liver fat. Here, we hypothesized that Fads was promoted to provide a protection for goose fatty liver. To test this, goose Fads1 and Fads2 were sequenced. Fads1/2/6 expression was determined in goose liver and primary hepatocytes by quantitative PCR. Liver fatty acid composition was also analyzed by gas chromatography. Data indicated that hepatic Fads1/2/6 expression was gradually increased with the time of overfeeding. In contrast, trans-C18:1n9 fatty acid (Fads inhibitor) was reduced. However, enhanced Fads capacity for long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acid (LC-PUFA) synthesis was not sufficient to compensate for the depleted LC-PUFAs in goose fatty liver. Moreover, cell studies showed that Fads1/2/6 expression was regulated by fatty liver-associated factors. Together, these findings suggest Fads1/2 as protective components are promoted to meet instant need for LC-PUFAs in goose fatty liver, and we propose this is required for severe hepatic steatosis without liver injury.

  12. Macrophage activation marker soluble CD163 and non-alcoholic fatty liver disease in morbidly obese patients undergoing bariatric surgery

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kazankov, Konstantin; Tordjman, Joan; Møller, Holger Jon

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Macrophages play an important role in non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). Soluble CD163 (sCD163) is a specific marker of macrophage activation. We aimed to measure sCD163 in morbidly obese patients with varying degrees of NAFLD before and after bariatric surgery (BS...... (NAS), Kleiner fibrosis score, and the fatty liver inhibition of progression (FLIP) algorithm. In a subset, CD163 immunohistochemistry and real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction for CD163 mRNA were performed. RESULTS: sCD163 was higher in patients with NAS ≥ 5 compared with those with NAS ...). METHODS: Demographic, clinical, and biochemical data, and plasma sCD163 measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, of 196 patients were collected preoperatively and 3, 6, and 12 months after BS leading to significant weight loss. Peroperative liver biopsies were assessed for the NAFLD Activity Score...

  13. Non-Alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease as a Predictor of Atrial Fibrillation in Middle-Aged Population (OPERA Study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aki J Käräjämäki

    Full Text Available Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD and atrial fibrillation (AF are widespread diseases and have multiple common risk factors and comorbidities. No studies of association between ultrasonography-diagnosed NAFLD and AF exist in other than diabetic population. The goal of this prospective study was to study the value of NAFLD as a predictor of atrial fibrillation. This study had 958 subjects from the OPERA (Oulu Project Elucidating Risk of Atherosclerosis cohort, and the mean follow-up time was 16.3 years. NAFLD was diagnosed if the subject had fatty liver in ultrasonography and no excess alcohol intake. AF was followed in the National Registers. In this study 249 subjects (26.0% had NAFLD and 37 (14.9% of these had AF whereas only 56 (7.9% of those without NAFLD experienced AF during the follow-up time (p = 0.001. In the multiple Cox regression analysis including potential confounders (age, sex, study group, diabetes, body mass index (BMI, waist circumference, alcohol consumption, smoking, serum alanine aminotransferase concentration (ALT, systolic blood pressure, quick index, left ventricular mass index, left atrial diameter, coronary artery disease (CAD, atrial natriuretic peptide (ANP and high sensitive C-reactive protein (hs-CRP, NAFLD remained as an independent predictor of AF (Adjusted OR, 1.88 (95% Confidence interval (CI 1.03-3.45. In conclusion, our data shows that NAFLD is independently associated with the risk of AF.

  14. Omic studies reveal the pathogenic lipid droplet proteins in non-alcoholic fatty liver disease

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    Xuelin Zhang

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD is an epidemic metabolic condition driven by an underlying lipid homeostasis disorder. The lipid droplet (LD, the main organelle involved in neutral lipid storage and hydrolysis, is a potential target for NAFLD therapeutic treatment. In this review, we summarize recent progress elucidating the connections between LD-associated proteins and NAFLD found by genome-wide association studies (GWAS, genomic and proteomic studies. Finally, we discuss a possible mechanism by which the protein 17β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase 13 (17β-HSD13 may promote the development of NAFLD.

  15. The occurrence and significance of fibronectin in livers from chronic alcoholics. An immunohistochemical study of early alcoholic liver injury

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Junge, Jette; Horn, T; Christoffersen, P

    1988-01-01

    The occurrence and distribution of fibronectin (FN) was assessed by an immunoperoxidase technique in liver biopsies from alcoholics without and with acinar zone 3 fibrosis of varying degrees. Increased amounts of FN was found diffusely in zone 3 areas with a perisinusoidal and pericellular...... localization. FN was closely correlating to the pattern of fibrosis but increased amounts of FN could also be seen in biopsies without fibrosis as visualized in Picro-Sirius stained sections. There was no topographical relationship to liver cells with fatty changes, Mallory bodies or to alcoholic hepatitis....... It is made probable that FN is of significance in the development of early liver fibrosis in alcoholics and that FN may act as a chemotactic factor for collagen producing cells and as a skeleton for the new collagen formation....

  16. Coffee Intake Is Associated with a Lower Liver Stiffness in Patients with Non-Alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease, Hepatitis C, and Hepatitis B.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hodge, Alexander; Lim, Sarah; Goh, Evan; Wong, Ophelia; Marsh, Philip; Knight, Virginia; Sievert, William; de Courten, Barbora

    2017-01-10

    There is emerging evidence for the positive effects or benefits of coffee in patients with liver disease. We conducted a retrospective cross-sectional study on patients with non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD), hepatitis C virus (HCV), and hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection to determine the effects of coffee intake on a non-invasive marker of liver fibrosis: liver stiffness assessed by transient elastography (TE). We assessed coffee and tea intake and measured TE in 1018 patients with NAFLD, HCV, and HBV (155 with NAFLD, 378 with HCV and 485 with HBV). Univariate and multivariate regression models were performed taking into account potential confounders. Liver stiffness was higher in males compared to females ( p disease state (NAFLD, HCV, and HBV status), those who drank 2 or more cups of coffee per day had a lower liver stiffness ( p = 0.044). Tea consumption had no effect ( p = 0.9). Coffee consumption decreases liver stiffness, which may indicate less fibrosis and inflammation, independent of disease state. This study adds further evidence to the notion of coffee maybe beneficial in patients with liver disease.

  17. Evaluation of the Effect of Exercise on Nonalcoholic Fatty Liver By Sonography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Kyoung Yeon; Lim, Hyun Soo

    2012-01-01

    Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is accumulation state of fat in liver cells without excessive alcohol intake, and it has been studied that is closely related to obesity. The purpose of this study is to identify risk factors for NAFLD and may prevent or to manage risk factors. This study was in progress for six months (2011 May 1 to October 31), of the 83 people who underwent abdominal ultrasound 11 people eventually were selected. Research results was as follows : First, the decreased body weight and body mass index (BMI), and the second, a decrease of the deepening of fatty liver in ultrasound diagnosis, and the third, steady movement reduces the deepening of fatty liver regardless of calories. Thus, the implication of this research is that long-term exercise programs have positive effects in the treatment of fatty liver.

  18. Evaluation of the Effect of Exercise on Nonalcoholic Fatty Liver By Sonography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Kyoung Yeon [Dept. of Radiology, Anseong Hanju Clinic, Anseong (Korea, Republic of); Lim, Hyun Soo [Dept. of Biomedical Engineering, Chungnam University, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2012-03-15

    Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is accumulation state of fat in liver cells without excessive alcohol intake, and it has been studied that is closely related to obesity. The purpose of this study is to identify risk factors for NAFLD and may prevent or to manage risk factors. This study was in progress for six months (2011 May 1 to October 31), of the 83 people who underwent abdominal ultrasound 11 people eventually were selected. Research results was as follows : First, the decreased body weight and body mass index (BMI), and the second, a decrease of the deepening of fatty liver in ultrasound diagnosis, and the third, steady movement reduces the deepening of fatty liver regardless of calories. Thus, the implication of this research is that long-term exercise programs have positive effects in the treatment of fatty liver.

  19. Hepatic unsaturated fatty acids in patients with non-alcoholic fatty liver disease assessed by 3.0 T MR spectroscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Werven, J.R. van, E-mail: j.r.vanwerven@amc.uva.n [Department of Radiology, Academic Medical Center, Meibergdreef 9, 1105 AZ Amsterdam (Netherlands); Schreuder, T.C.M.A. [Department of Gastroenterology and Hepatology, VU Medical Center, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Nederveen, A.J.; Lavini, C. [Department of Radiology, Academic Medical Center, Meibergdreef 9, 1105 AZ Amsterdam (Netherlands); Jansen, P.L.M. [AMC Liver Center/Department of Hepatology, Academic Medical Center, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Stoker, J. [Department of Radiology, Academic Medical Center, Meibergdreef 9, 1105 AZ Amsterdam (Netherlands)

    2010-08-15

    Rationale and objective: Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is related to the metabolic syndrome and obesity. Proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy ({sup 1}H MRS) is a non-invasive technique to assess hepatic triglyceride content (HTGC) and allows assessment of unsaturated fatty acids (UFA). There is increasing evidence that hepatic UFA are associated with the development of NAFLD. Therefore the objective of this study was to assess hepatic UFA in patients with NAFLD using {sup 1}H MRS. Materials and methods: We included 26 consecutive patients with deranged liver enzymes, with and without type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM2), suspected for NAFLD. Liver function and metabolic parameters were assessed. {sup 1}H MRS measurements were performed at 3.0 T. From the {sup 1}H MR spectra two ratios were calculated: ratio 1 (UFA); unsaturated fatty acid peak vs. reference water peak and ratio 2 (HTGC); total fatty acid peak vs. reference water peak. Results: Twenty-six patients were included. In these patients hepatic UFA (ratio 1) correlated with AST/ALT ratio (r = -0.46, p = 0.02), glucose levels (r = 0.46, p = 0.018), HOMA-IR (r = 0.59, p = 0.004) and HTGC (r = 0.81, p < 0.001). In diabetic patients (n = 12) hepatic UFA correlated with alkaline phosphatase levels (r = 0.72, p = 0.01), HOMA-IR (r = 0.73, p = 0.01) and HTGC (r = 0.83, p = 0.002). Compared to non-diabetic patients with NAFLD, hepatic UFA levels were increased in patients with DM2 and NAFLD (0.032 vs. 0.014, p = 0.03). Conclusion: Hepatic UFA can be assessed with {sup 1}H MRS. {sup 1}H MRS determined hepatic UFA correlate with clinical and metabolic parameters associated with NAFLD. Hepatic UFA are increased in patients with DM2. This study provides evidence for the use of non-invasive {sup 1}H MRS to assess hepatic UFA in vivo.

  20. The effectiveness of metformin in patients with metabolic syndrome and nonalcoholic fatty liver disease

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    S A Butrova

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available The mechanism of action of metformin is realized through activation of cAMP-dependent protein kinase, leading to a decrease hepatic glucose production as well as to decrease the synthesis of triglycerides and an increase in fat oxidation. Several studies have demonstrated the positive effect of the drug in non-alcoholic fatty liver disease, manifested in reducing the activity of enzymes, reducing the size of the liver and insulin resistance. The aim of our study was to evaluate the effectiveness of metformin in patients with metabolic syndrome and nonalcoholic fatty liver disease. The study found that the use Siofor 850 mg 2 times a day in conjunction with a reduced-calorie nutrition in patients with metabolic syndrome and nonalcoholic fatty liver disease leads to a significant reduction in insulin resistance associated with decreased activity of transaminases, improvement of metabolic parameters. The therapy Siofor majority of patients (60% with metabolic syndrome and nonalcoholic fatty liver disease achieved a clinically significant weight loss and improved body composition. Application Siofor improves lifestyle changes in obese patients with non-alcoholic liver disease dirovoy and metabolic disorders.

  1. Sugar-sweetened beverage, diet soda, and fatty liver disease in the Framingham Heart Study cohorts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Jiantao; Fox, Caroline S; Jacques, Paul F; Speliotes, Elizabeth K; Hoffmann, Udo; Smith, Caren E; Saltzman, Edward; McKeown, Nicola M

    2015-08-01

    Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease affects ∼30% of US adults, yet the role of sugar-sweetened beverages and diet soda on these diseases remains unknown. We examined the cross-sectional association between intake of sugar-sweetened beverages or diet soda and fatty liver disease in participants of the Framingham Offspring and Third Generation cohorts. Fatty liver disease was defined using liver attenuation measurements generated from computed tomography in 2634 participants. Alanine transaminase concentration, a crude marker of fatty liver disease, was measured in 5908 participants. Sugar-sweetened beverage and diet soda intake were estimated using a food frequency questionnaire. Participants were categorized as either non-consumers or consumers (3 categories: 1 serving/month to sugar-sweetened beverages or diet soda. After adjustment for age, sex, smoking status, Framingham cohort, energy intake, alcohol, dietary fiber, fat (% energy), protein (% energy), diet soda intake, and body mass index, the odds ratios of fatty liver disease were 1, 1.16 (0.88, 1.54), 1.32 (0.93, 1.86), and 1.61 (1.04, 2.49) across sugar-sweetened beverage consumption categories (p trend=0.04). Sugar-sweetened beverage consumption was also positively associated with alanine transaminase levels (p trend=0.007). We observed no significant association between diet soda intake and measures of fatty liver disease. In conclusion, we observed that regular sugar-sweetened beverage consumption was associated with greater risk of fatty liver disease, particularly in overweight and obese individuals, whereas diet soda intake was not associated with measures of fatty liver disease. Copyright © 2015 European Association for the Study of the Liver. All rights reserved.

  2. Research progress in role of iron overload in non-alcoholic fatty liver disease

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    LI Guangming

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Iron overload is an important research focus in non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD. The relationship between iron overload and NAFLD is summarized from the assessment method for iron overload, relationship between iron load and hemochromatosis gene mutations, incidence of iron load in NAFLD, and relationship between iron load and progression of NAFLD; the action mechanism of iron overload in the progression of NAFLD is reviewed from the causes of iron overload, relationship between iron overload and lipid metabolism, and relationship between type of iron deposition and liver damage; the significance of iron overload in the diagnosis and treatment of NAFLD is discussed from iron overload as a new marker of risk stratification and potential therapeutic target in NAFLD. It is currently considered that iron overload, whether the cause or result of NAFLD progression, will promote the progression of NAFLD once it occurs; as a new marker of risk stratification and potential therapeutic target in NAFLD, iron load is worthy of further study.

  3. Serum parameters predict the severity of ultrasonographicifndingsinnon-alcoholic fatty liver disease

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Mohsen Razavizade; Raika Jamali; Abbas Arj; Hamidreza Talari

    2012-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Controversy exists about the correlation between liver ultrasonography and serum parameters for evaluating the severity of liver involvement in non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). This study was designed to determine the association between liver ultrasonography staging in NAFLD and serum parameters correlated with disease severity in previous studies; and set optimal cut-off points for those serum parameters correlated with NAFLD staging at ultrasonography, in order to differentiate ultrasonographic groups (USGs). METHODS: This cross-sectional study evaluated outpatients with evidence of NAFLD in ultrasonography referred to a general hospital. Those with positive viral markers, abnormal serum ceruloplasmin or gamma-globulin concentrations were excluded. A radiologist performed the ultrasonography staging and stratiifed the patients into mild, moderate, and severe groups. Fasting serum alanine aminotransferase (ALT), aspartate aminotransferase, alkaline phosphatase, triglyceride (TG), high and low density lipoprotein (HDL, LDL), and cholesterol were checked. RESULTS:Two hundred and forty-ifve patients with a mean age (±standard deviation) of 41.63(±11.46) years were included. There were no signiifcant differences when mean laboratory concentrations were compared between moderate and severe USGs. Therefore, these groups were combined to create revised USGs ("mild"versus"moderate or severe"). There were associations between the revised USGs, and ALT, TG, HDL levels, and diabetes mellitus [odds ratios=2.81 (95%conifdence interval (CI):1.37-5.76), 2.48 (95%CI:1.29-4.78), 0.36 (95%CI:0.18-0.74), and 5.65 (95%CI:2.86-11.16) respectively;all P values CONCLUSIONS: Serum ALT, TG, and HDL concentrations seem to be associated with the staging by liver ultrasonography in NAFLD. They might be used to predict the staging of liver ultrasonography in these patients.

  4. Evidence that non-alcoholic fatty liver disease and polycystic ovary syndrome are associated by necessity rather than chance: a novel hepato-ovarian axis?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Targher, Giovanni; Rossini, Maurizio; Lonardo, Amedeo

    2016-02-01

    Increasing evidence suggests that non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) and polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) are associated with obesity, insulin resistance, metabolic syndrome, cardiovascular disease, cirrhosis, and liver tumors. On these grounds, we have hypothesized that NAFLD and PCOS occur more frequently than expected by chance alone. We have tested this hypothesis by reviewing the clinical and biological evidence that supports a significant association between NAFLD and PCOS. PubMed was extensively searched for articles published through March 2015 using the keywords "nonalcoholic fatty liver disease" or "fatty liver" combined with "PCOS." Several cross-sectional and case-control studies have consistently demonstrated that the prevalence of NAFLD is remarkably increased in young women with PCOS, independent of overweight/obesity and other coexisting metabolic syndrome features, and that these women are more likely to have the more severe forms of NAFLD (non-alcoholic steatohepatitis, advanced fibrosis, and cirrhosis). Accumulating evidence suggests that NAFLD, especially its necro-inflammatory form, may exacerbate hepatic and systemic insulin resistance and releases multiple pro-inflammatory, pro-coagulant, and pro-fibrogenic mediators that may play important roles in the pathophysiology of PCOS. These findings call for more active and systematic search for NAFLD among women with PCOS. Conversely, gastroenterologists/hepatologists need to be aware of the presence of PCOS among female patients with NAFLD and compatible clinical features. Finally, all these patients should undergo regular follow-up not only for liver-related complications but also for cardio-metabolic diseases.

  5. Candidate proteomic biomarkers for non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (steatosis and non-alcoholic steatohepatitis) discovered with mass-spectrometry: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lădaru, Anca; Bălănescu, Paul; Stan, Mihaela; Codreanu, Ioana; Anca, Ioana Alina

    2016-01-01

    Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is characterized by lipid accumulation in the liver which is accompanied by a series of metabolic deregulations. There are sustained research efforts focusing upon biomarker discovery for NAFLD diagnosis and its prognosis in order investigate and follow-up patients as minimally invasive as possible. The objective of this study is to critically review proteomic studies that used mass spectrometry techniques and summarize relevant proteomic NAFLD candidate biomarkers. Medline and Embase databases were searched from inception to December 2014. A final number of 22 records were included that identified 251 candidate proteomic biomarkers. Thirty-three biomarkers were confirmed - 14 were found in liver samples, 21 in serum samples, and two from both serum and liver samples. Some of the biomarkers identified have already been extensively studied regarding their diagnostic and prognostic capacity. However, there are also more potential biomarkers that still need to be addressed in future studies.

  6. Effect of Combination Therapy with Atorvastatin and Ursodeoxycholic Acid on the Course of Ischemic Heart Disease with Co-Existent Non-Alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease and Obesity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nataliya Karpyshyn

    2016-12-01

    Conclusions. The use of ursodeoxycholic acid in addition to atorvastatin in patients with ischemic heart disease, co-existent non-alcoholic fatty liver disease and obesity makes it possible to avoid the adverse effect of hypolipidemic therapy on the functional status of the liver.

  7. Consumption of Coprinus comatus polysaccharide extract causes recovery of alcoholic liver damage in rats

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ozalp, F.O.; Canbek, M.; Yamac, M.; Kanbak, G.; Griensven, van L.J.L.D.; Uyanoglu, M.; Senturk, H.; Karlkava, K.; Oglakci, A.

    2014-01-01

    Excess use of alcohol is known to be associated with liver diseases such as fatty liver, alcoholic hepatitis, and cirrhosis. Various practices may be applied to prevent or treat the damage caused by chronic alcoholism. Coprinus comatus (O.F. Müll.) Pers. (Agaricaceae) is a macrofungus that has been

  8. Family history and obesity in youth, their effect on acylcarnitine/aminoacids metabolomics and non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). Structural equation modeling approach

    OpenAIRE

    Romero-Ibarguengoitia, Maria Elena; Vadillo-Ortega, Felipe; Caballero, Augusto Enrique; Ibarra-González, Isabel; Herrera-Rosas, Arturo; Serratos-Canales, María Fabiola; León-Hernández, Mireya; González-Chávez, Antonio; Mummidi, Srinivas; Duggirala, Ravindranath; López-Alvarenga, Juan Carlos

    2018-01-01

    Background: Structural equation modeling (SEM) can help understanding complex functional relationships among obesity, non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD), family history of obesity, targeted metabolomics and pro-inflammatory markers. We tested two hypotheses: 1) If obesity precedes an excess of free fatty acids that increase oxidative stress and mitochondrial dysfunction, there would be an increase of serum acylcarnitines, amino acids and cytokines in obese subjects. Acylcarnitines woul...

  9. Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease, association with cardiovascular disease and treatment. (I). Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease and its association with cardiovascular disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brea, Ángel; Pintó, Xavier; Ascaso, Juan F; Blasco, Mariano; Díaz, Ángel; González-Santos, Pedro; Hernández Mijares, Antonio; Mantilla, Teresa; Millán, Jesús; Pedro-Botet, Juan

    Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) comprises a series of histologically lesions similar to those induced by alcohol consumption in people with very little or no liver damage. The importance of NAFLD is its high prevalence in the Western world and, from the point of view of the liver, in its gradual progression from steatosis to steatohepatitis, cirrhosis, and liver cancer. During the last decade it has been observed that NAFLD leads to an increased cardiovascular risk with acceleration of arteriosclerosis and events related to it, being the main cause of its morbidity and mortality. This review, updated to January 2016, consists of two parts, with the first part analysing the association of NAFLD with cardiovascular disease. Copyright © 2016 Sociedad Española de Arteriosclerosis. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  10. Docosahexaenoic acid prevents trans-10, cis-12 conjugated linoleic acid-induced non-alcoholic fatty liver disease in mice by altering expression of hepatic genes regulating fatty acid synthesis and oxidation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Background: Concomitant supplementation with docosahexaenoic acid (22:6 n-3; DHA) prevented t10, c12- conjugated linoleic acid (CLA)-induced non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) and insulin resistance. Effective dose of DHA and mechanisms involved are poorly understood. Methods: We examined abi...

  11. Involvement of a periodontal pathogen, Porphyromonas gingivalis on the pathogenesis of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yoneda Masato

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD is a hepatic manifestation of metabolic syndrome that is closely associated with multiple factors such as obesity, hyperlipidemia and type 2 diabetes mellitus. However, other risk factors for the development of NAFLD are unclear. With the association between periodontal disease and the development of systemic diseases receiving increasing attention recently, we conducted this study to investigate the relationship between NAFLD and infection with Porphyromonas gingivalis (P. gingivalis, a major causative agent of periodontitis. Methods The detection frequencies of periodontal bacteria in oral samples collected from 150 biopsy-proven NAFLD patients (102 with non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH and 48 with non-alcoholic fatty liver (NAFL patients and 60 non-NAFLD control subjects were determined. Detection of P. gingivalis and other periodontopathic bacteria were detected by PCR assay. In addition, effect of P. gingivalis-infection on mouse NAFLD model was investigated. To clarify the exact contribution of P. gingivalis-induced periodontitis, non-surgical periodontal treatments were also undertaken for 3 months in 10 NAFLD patients with periodontitis. Results The detection frequency of P. gingivalis in NAFLD patients was significantly higher than that in the non-NAFLD control subjects (46.7% vs. 21.7%, odds ratio: 3.16. In addition, the detection frequency of P. gingivalis in NASH patients was markedly higher than that in the non-NAFLD subjects (52.0%, odds ratio: 3.91. Most of the P. gingivalis fimbria detected in the NAFLD patients was of invasive genotypes, especially type II (50.0%. Infection of type II P. gingivalis on NAFLD model of mice accelerated the NAFLD progression. The non-surgical periodontal treatments on NAFLD patients carried out for 3 months ameliorated the liver function parameters, such as the serum levels of AST and ALT. Conclusions Infection with high-virulence P

  12. Significant decrease of saturation index in erythrocytes membrane from subjects with non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Notarnicola, Maria; Caruso, Maria Gabriella; Tutino, Valeria; Bonfiglio, Caterina; Cozzolongo, Raffaele; Giannuzzi, Vito; De Nunzio, Valentina; De Leonardis, Giampiero; Abbrescia, Daniela I; Franco, Isabella; Intini, Vincenza; Mirizzi, Antonella; Osella, Alberto R

    2017-08-23

    The lipidomic profiling of erythrocyte membranes is expected to provide a peculiar scenario at molecular level of metabolic and nutritional pathways which may influence the lipid balance and the adaptation and homeostasis of the organism. Considering that lipid accumulation in the cell is important in promoting tissue inflammation, the purpose of this study is to analyze the fatty acid profile in red blood cell membranes of patients with Non-Alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease (NAFLD), in order to identify and validate membrane profiles possibly associated with the degree of hepatic damage. This work presents data obtained at baseline from 101 subjects that participated to a nutritional trial (registration number: NCT02347696) enrolling consecutive subjects with NAFLD. Diagnosis of liver steatosis was performed by using vibration-controlled elastography implemented on FibroScan. Fatty acids, extracted from phospholipids of erythrocyte membranes, were quantified by gas chromatography method. The subjects with severe NAFLD showed a significant decrease of the ratio of stearic acid to oleic acid (saturation index, SI) compared to controls, 1.281 ± 0.31 vs 1.5 ± 0.29, respectively. Low levels of SI in red blood cell membranes, inversely associated with degree of liver damage, suggest that an impairment of circulating cell membrane structure can reflect modifications that take place in the liver. Subjects with severe NAFLDalso showed higher levels of elongase 5 enzymatic activity, evaluated as vaccenic acid to palmitoleic acid ratio. Starting from these evidences, our findings show the importance of lipidomic approach in the diagnosis and the staging of NAFLD.

  13. The Role of Lipid and Lipoprotein Metabolism in Non‐Alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease

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    Francesco Massimo Perla

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Due to the epidemic of obesity across the world, nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD has become one of the most prevalent chronic liver disorders in children and adolescents. NAFLD comprises a spectrum of fat-associated liver conditions that can result in end-stage liver disease and the need for liver transplantation. Simple steatosis, or fatty liver, occurs early in NAFLD and may progress to nonalcoholic steatohepatitis, fibrosis and cirrhosis with increased risk of hepatocellular carcinoma. The mechanism of the liver injury in NAFLD is currently thought to be a “multiple-hit process” where the first “hit” is an increase in liver fat, followed by multiple additional factors that trigger the inflammatory activity. At the onset of disease, NAFLD is characterized by hepatic triglyceride accumulation and insulin resistance. Liver fat accumulation is associated with increased lipotoxicity from high levels of free fatty acids, free cholesterol and other lipid metabolites. As a consequence, mitochondrial dysfunction with oxidative stress and production of reactive oxygen species and endoplasmic reticulum stress-associated mechanisms, are activated. The present review focuses on the relationship between intra-cellular lipid accumulation and insulin resistance, as well as on lipid and lipoprotein metabolism in NAFLD.

  14. A Public Health Issue that Increased Prevelance: Non-Acholic Fatty Liver Disease

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    Muammer Kara

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD, is a liver disease, that occur in non alcohol users, with same histological features of alcoholic liver disease. The increased importance of NAFLD is depends on its close relation of current problems such as Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus and hyperlipidemia, and its high prevalence as %20-30, in Europe and Middle East. NAFLD has a wide spectrum from simple steatozis (SS, liver cell damage, non alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH with inflammation to high stage fibrosis, and cirrhosis. Hepathocellular cancer and liver failure might develop in cirrhosis patients. Biopsy is gold standard for NAFLD diagnosis; differentiate from SS and NASH and defining NASH stages. Nutrition regulations and slow and continuous weight loss with regular exercises is still best treatment method [TAF Prev Med Bull 2014; 13(1.000: 65-76

  15. Association of Blood Fatty Acid Composition and Dietary Pattern with the Risk of Non-Alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease in Patients Who Underwent Cholecystectomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shim, Poyoung; Choi, Dongho; Park, Yongsoon

    2017-01-01

    The relationship between diet and non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) in patients with gallstone disease and in those who have a high risk for NAFLD has not been investigated. This study was conducted to investigate the association between the risk of NAFLD and dietary pattern in patients who underwent cholecystectomy. Additionally, we assessed the association between erythrocyte fatty acid composition, a marker for diet, and the risk of NAFLD. Patients (n = 139) underwent liver ultrasonography to determine the presence of NAFLD before laparoscopic cholecystectomy, reported dietary intake using food frequency questionnaire, and were assessed for blood fatty acid composition. Fifty-eight patients were diagnosed with NAFLD. The risk of NAFLD was negatively associated with 2 dietary patterns: consuming whole grain and legumes and consuming fish, vegetables, and fruit. NAFLD was positively associated with the consumption of refined grain, meat, processed meat, and fried foods. Additionally, the risk of NAFLD was positively associated with erythrocyte levels of 16:0 and 18:2t, while it was negatively associated with 20:5n3, 22:5n3, and Omega-3 Index. The risk of NAFLD was negatively associated with a healthy dietary pattern of consuming whole grains, legumes, vegetables, fish, and fruit and with an erythrocyte level of n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids rich in fish. © 2017 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  16. Dietary patterns in Brazilian patients with nonalcoholic fatty liver disease: a cross-sectional study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvia Marinho Ferolla

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: Recent evidence suggests that non-alcoholic fatty liver disease is associated with diet. Our aim was to investigate the dietary patterns of a Brazilian population with this condition and compare them with the recommended diet. METHODS: A cross-sectional study was conducted on 96 non-alcoholic fatty liver disease patients before any dietetic counseling. All patients underwent abdominal ultrasound, biochemical tests, dietary evaluations, and anthropometric evaluations. Their food intake was assessed by a semi-quantitative food-frequency questionnaire and 24-hour food recall. RESULTS: The median patient age was 53 years, and 77% of the individuals were women. Most (67.7% participants were obese, and a large waist circumference was observed in 80.2% subjects. Almost 70% of the participants had metabolic syndrome, and 62.3% presented evidence of either insulin resistance or overt diabetes. Most patients (51.5, 58.5, and 61.7%, respectively exceeded the recommendations for energy intake, as well as total and saturated fat. All patients consumed less than the amount of recommended monounsaturated fatty acids, and 52.1 and 76.6% of them consumed less polyunsaturated fatty acids and fiber, respectively, than recommended. In most patients, the calcium, sodium, potassium, pyridoxine, and vitamin C intake did not meet the recommendations, and in 10.5-15.5% of individuals, the tolerable upper limit intake for sodium was exceeded. The patients presented a significantly high intake of meats, fats, sugars, legumes (beans, and vegetables and a low consumption of cereals, fruits, and dairy products compared with the recommendations. CONCLUSIONS: Although patients with non-alcoholic fatty liver disease exhibited high energy and lipid consumption, most of them had inadequate intake of some micronutrients. The possible role of nutrient-deficient intake in the development of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease warrants investigation.

  17. Effects of Bariatric Surgery on Non-alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease: Magnetic Resonance Imaging Is an Effective, Non-invasive Method to Evaluate Changes in the Liver Fat Fraction.

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    Hedderich, Dennis M; Hasenberg, Till; Haneder, Stefan; Schoenberg, Stefan O; Kücükoglu, Özlem; Canbay, Ali; Otto, Mirko

    2017-07-01

    Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is considered the most common liver disease worldwide and is highly associated with obesity. The prevalences of both conditions have markedly increased in the Western civilization. Bariatric surgery is the most effective treatment for morbid obesity and its comorbidities such as NAFLD. Measure postoperative liver fat fraction (LFF) in bariatric patients by using in-opposed-phase MRI, a widely available clinical tool validated for the quantification of liver fat METHODS: Retrospective analyses of participants, who underwent laparoscopic Roux-Y-gastric-bypass (17) or laparoscopic sleeve gastrectomy (2) were performed using magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), bioelectrical impedance analysis (BIA), and anthropometric measurements 1 day before surgery, as well as 6, 12, and 24 weeks after surgery, LFF was calculated from fat-only and water-only MR images. Six months after surgery, a significant decrease of LFF and liver volume has been observed along with weight loss, decreased waist circumference, and parameters obtained by body fat measured by BIA. LFF significantly correlated with liver volume in the postoperative course. MRI including in-opposed-phase imaging of the liver can detect the quantitative decrease of fatty infiltration within the liver after bariatric surgery and thus could be a valuable tool to monitor NAFLD/NASH postoperatively.

  18. Strong association between non alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD and low 25(OH vitamin D levels in an adult population with normal serum liver enzymes

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    Pozzilli Paolo

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Hypovitaminosis D has been recently recognized as a worldwide epidemic. Since vitamin D exerts significant metabolic activities, comprising free fatty acids (FFA flux regulation from the periphery to the liver, its deficiency may promote fat deposition into the hepatocytes. Aim of our study was to test the hypothesis of a direct association between hypovitaminosis D and the presence of NAFLD in subjects with various degree of insulin-resistance and related metabolic disorders. Methods We studied 262 consecutive subjects referred to the Diabetes and Metabolic Diseases clinics for metabolic evaluation. NAFLD (non-alcoholic fatty liver disease was diagnosed by upper abdomen ultrasonography, metabolic syndrome was identified according to the Third Report of National Cholesterol Education Program/Adult Treatment Panel (NCEP/ATPIII modified criteria. Insulin-resistance was evaluated by means of HOMA-IR. Fatty-Liver-Index, a recently identified correlate of NAFLD, was also estimated. Serum 25(OHvitamin D was measured by colorimetric method. Results Patients with NAFLD (n = 162,61.8% had reduced serum 25(OH vitamin D levels compared to subjects without NAFLD (14.8 ± 9.2 vs 20.5 ± 9.7 ng/ml, p Conclusions Low 25(OHvitamin D levels are associated with the presence of NAFLD independently from metabolic syndrome, diabetes and insulin-resistance profile.

  19. Metabolic adaptations in models of fatty liver disease : Of mice and math

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    Hijmans, Brenda

    2017-01-01

    The increasing incidence of overweight is accompanied by a plethora of medical symptoms together called the metabolic syndrome. Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease, characterized by persistent storage of lipids in the liver, is regarded as the hepatic component of the metabolic syndrome. An imbalance

  20. Non-Alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease (NAFLD): new challenge for general practitioners and important burden for health authorities?

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    Ahmed, Mohamed H; Abu, Emmanuel O; Byrne, Christopher D

    2010-10-01

    Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is the most common cause of hepatic dysfunction encountered in general practice. A large proportion of individuals with type 2 diabetes and the metabolic syndrome develop NAFLD. NAFLD is associated with severe insulin resistance and increased risk of cardiovascular disease and can progress to non-alcoholic steato-hepatitis, liver cirrhosis and cancer. Currently the only known effective treatments for NAFLD are lifestyle changes including stable weight loss and a diet low in calories. General practitioners will increasingly play a key role in dealing with this evolving but serious epidemic of NAFLD and associated metabolic complications. However, success will depend on the appropriate systems and mechanisms being in place in primary care and the proper motivation, support and education of the patient. This review provides the primary care physician with: (a) a step-by step guide of how to identify NAFLD, (b) information to exclude common other causes of liver fat accumulation and (c) additional insight into relationships between NAFLD and other conditions such as obesity, cardiovascular disease and type 2 diabetes. Copyright © 2010 Primary Care Diabetes Europe. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Dietary capsaicin and antibiotics act synergistically to reduce non-alcoholic fatty liver disease induced by high fat diet in mice.

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    Hu, Jingjuan; Luo, Haihua; Jiang, Yong; Chen, Peng

    2017-06-13

    The prevalence of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease is increasing rapidly worldwide. However, effective strategies for combating high-fat diet (HFD) induced obesity, fatty liver and metabolic disorder are still limited, and outcomes remain poor. In the present study, we evaluated the combined actions of dietary capsaicin and antibiotics on HFD-induced physiological abnormalities in mice. C57BL/6 male mice were fed with HFD (60% calories from fat) for 17 weeks, and the resultant pathophysiological effects were examined. Antibiotic treatment markedly attenuated gut inflammation and leakiness induced by HFD, whereas capsaicin showed limited effects on the gut. However, dietary capsaicin significantly increased PPAR-α expression in adipose tissue, while antibiotics had no such effect. Animals treated with a combination of capsaicin and antibiotics had the smallest body weight gain and fat pad index, as well as the lowest hepatic fat accumulation. Combination treatment also maximally improved insulin responsiveness, as indicated by insulin tolerance tests. These results suggest the co-treatment of capsaicin and antibiotics, a novel combination strategy, would play synergistically to attenuate the HFD-induced obesity, fatty liver and metabolic disorder.

  2. [Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) in patients with metabolic syndrome and type 2 diabetes mellitus. Pathomechanism, new diagnostic markers].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kieć-Wilk, Beata; Klupa, Tomasz; Dembińska-Kieć, Aldona

    2010-01-01

    Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is a complex of a wide spectrum of liver pathology--from steatosis alone, to cirrhosis and liver cancer. The pathogenic concept of NAFLD covers overnutrition with fatty acids, underactivity. Insulin resistance is believed to play the main role in this process. NAFLD is mostly related to visceral adiposity, metabolic syndrome and type 2 diabetes melitus. The presented work is a review of in vitro and in vivo modern studies, as well as clinical observations on molecular mechanisms leading to development and progress of NAFLD. Up till today their is no treatment od NAFLD, and this pathology is not benign--it may lead to patients' death in 10 years. The clinical approach to NAFLD is prevention of it's development. The manuscript is a review of new biochemical markers allowing for early detection of metabolic disorders leading to NAFLD development, thus to sufficient prevention of this pathology in patients.

  3. Fat content, fatty acid pattern and iron content in livers of turkeys with hepatic lipidosis

    OpenAIRE

    Visscher, Christian; Middendorf, Lea; G?nther, Ronald; Engels, Alexandra; Leibfacher, Christof; M?hle, Henrik; D?ngelhoef, Kristian; Weier, Stefan; Haider, Wolfram; Radko, Dimitri

    2017-01-01

    Background The so-called ?hepatic lipidosis? in turkeys is an acute progressive disease associated with a high mortality rate in a very short time. Dead animals show a massive fatty degeneration of the liver. The cause is still unclear. Previous findings suggest that there may be parallels to human non-alcoholic fatty liver disease. The object of the study was to examine the changes in the fat contents, the fatty acid composition and the iron content in livers of animals, which have died from...

  4. Dietary Omega-3 Fatty Acid Deficiency and High Fructose Intake in the Development of Metabolic Syndrome, Brain Metabolic Abnormalities, and Non-Alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Artemis P. Simopoulos

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Western diets are characterized by both dietary omega-3 fatty acid deficiency and increased fructose intake. The latter found in high amounts in added sugars such as sucrose and high fructose corn syrup (HFCS. Both a low intake of omega-3 fatty acids or a high fructose intake contribute to metabolic syndrome, liver steatosis or non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD, promote brain insulin resistance, and increase the vulnerability to cognitive dysfunction. Insulin resistance is the core perturbation of metabolic syndrome. Multiple cognitive domains are affected by metabolic syndrome in adults and in obese adolescents, with volume losses in the hippocampus and frontal lobe, affecting executive function. Fish oil supplementation maintains proper insulin signaling in the brain, ameliorates NAFLD and decreases the risk to metabolic syndrome suggesting that adequate levels of omega-3 fatty acids in the diet can cope with the metabolic challenges imposed by high fructose intake in Western diets which is of major public health importance. This review presents the current status of the mechanisms involved in the development of the metabolic syndrome, brain insulin resistance, and NAFLD a most promising area of research in Nutrition for the prevention of these conditions, chronic diseases, and improvement of Public Health.

  5. The pediatric NAFLD fibrosis index: a predictor of liver fibrosis in children with non-alcoholic fatty liver disease

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    Pietrobattista Andrea

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Liver fibrosis is a stage of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD which is responsible for liver-related morbidity and mortality in adults. Accordingly, the search for non-invasive markers of liver fibrosis has been the subject of intensive efforts in adults with NAFLD. Here, we developed a simple algorithm for the prediction of liver fibrosis in children with NAFLD followed at a tertiary care center. Methods The study included 136 male and 67 female children with NAFLD aged 3.3 to 18.0 years; 141 (69% of them had fibrosis at liver biopsy. On the basis of biological plausibility, readily availability and evidence from adult studies, we evaluated the following potential predictors of liver fibrosis at bootstrapped stepwise logistic regression: gender, age, body mass index, waist circumference, alanine transaminase, aspartate transaminase, gamma-glutamyl-transferase, albumin, prothrombin time, glucose, insulin, triglycerides and cholesterol. A final model was developed using bootstrapped logistic regression with bias-correction. We used this model to develop the 'pediatric NAFLD fibrosis index' (PNFI, which varies between 0 and 10. Results The final model was based on age, waist circumference and triglycerides and had a area under the receiver operating characteristic curve of 0.85 (95% bootstrapped confidence interval (CI with bias correction 0.80 to 0.90 for the prediction of liver fibrosis. A PNFI ≥ 9 (positive likelihood ratio = 28.6, 95% CI 4.0 to 201.0; positive predictive value = 98.5, 95% CI 91.8 to 100.0 could be used to rule in liver fibrosis without performing liver biopsy. Conclusion PNFI may help clinicians to predict liver fibrosis in children with NAFLD, but external validation is needed before it can be employed for this purpose.

  6. Inorganic arsenic causes fatty liver and interacts with ethanol to cause alcoholic liver disease in zebrafish

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    Kathryn Bambino

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available The rapid increase in fatty liver disease (FLD incidence is attributed largely to genetic and lifestyle factors; however, environmental toxicants are a frequently overlooked factor that can modify the effects of more common causes of FLD. Chronic exposure to inorganic arsenic (iAs is associated with liver disease in humans and animal models, but neither the mechanism of action nor the combinatorial interaction with other disease-causing factors has been fully investigated. Here, we examined the contribution of iAs to FLD using zebrafish and tested the interaction with ethanol to cause alcoholic liver disease (ALD. We report that zebrafish exposed to iAs throughout development developed specific phenotypes beginning at 4 days post-fertilization (dpf, including the development of FLD in over 50% of larvae by 5 dpf. Comparative transcriptomic analysis of livers from larvae exposed to either iAs or ethanol revealed the oxidative stress response and the unfolded protein response (UPR caused by endoplasmic reticulum (ER stress as common pathways in both these models of FLD, suggesting that they target similar cellular processes. This was confirmed by our finding that arsenic is synthetically lethal with both ethanol and a well-characterized ER-stress-inducing agent (tunicamycin, suggesting that these exposures work together through UPR activation to cause iAs toxicity. Most significantly, combined exposure to sub-toxic concentrations of iAs and ethanol potentiated the expression of UPR-associated genes, cooperated to induce FLD, reduced the expression of as3mt, which encodes an arsenic-metabolizing enzyme, and significantly increased the concentration of iAs in the liver. This demonstrates that iAs exposure is sufficient to cause FLD and that low doses of iAs can potentiate the effects of ethanol to cause liver disease. This article has an associated First Person interview with the first author of the paper.

  7. Inorganic arsenic causes fatty liver and interacts with ethanol to cause alcoholic liver disease in zebrafish

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    Zhang, Chi; Austin, Christine; Amarasiriwardena, Chitra; Arora, Manish

    2018-01-01

    ABSTRACT The rapid increase in fatty liver disease (FLD) incidence is attributed largely to genetic and lifestyle factors; however, environmental toxicants are a frequently overlooked factor that can modify the effects of more common causes of FLD. Chronic exposure to inorganic arsenic (iAs) is associated with liver disease in humans and animal models, but neither the mechanism of action nor the combinatorial interaction with other disease-causing factors has been fully investigated. Here, we examined the contribution of iAs to FLD using zebrafish and tested the interaction with ethanol to cause alcoholic liver disease (ALD). We report that zebrafish exposed to iAs throughout development developed specific phenotypes beginning at 4 days post-fertilization (dpf), including the development of FLD in over 50% of larvae by 5 dpf. Comparative transcriptomic analysis of livers from larvae exposed to either iAs or ethanol revealed the oxidative stress response and the unfolded protein response (UPR) caused by endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress as common pathways in both these models of FLD, suggesting that they target similar cellular processes. This was confirmed by our finding that arsenic is synthetically lethal with both ethanol and a well-characterized ER-stress-inducing agent (tunicamycin), suggesting that these exposures work together through UPR activation to cause iAs toxicity. Most significantly, combined exposure to sub-toxic concentrations of iAs and ethanol potentiated the expression of UPR-associated genes, cooperated to induce FLD, reduced the expression of as3mt, which encodes an arsenic-metabolizing enzyme, and significantly increased the concentration of iAs in the liver. This demonstrates that iAs exposure is sufficient to cause FLD and that low doses of iAs can potentiate the effects of ethanol to cause liver disease. This article has an associated First Person interview with the first author of the paper. PMID:29361514

  8. Prevalence and risk factors for non-alcoholic fatty liver in children and youth with obesity.

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    Jimenez-Rivera, Carolina; Hadjiyannakis, Stasia; Davila, Jorge; Hurteau, Julie; Aglipay, Mary; Barrowman, Nick; Adamo, Kristi B

    2017-04-26

    Non- Alcoholic Fatty Liver (NAFL) is a spectrum of liver diseases (LD) that ranges from benign fatty infiltration of the liver to cirrhosis and hepatic failure. Hepatic ultrasound (US) and serum alanine aminotransferase (ALT) are often used as markers of NAFL. Our aim is to describe prevalence of NAFL and associated findings on ultrasound (US) and biochemical parameters in a population of children and adolescents with obesity at the Children's Hospital of Eastern Ontario. Children with Obesity (BMI >95th percentile) ages 8-17 years presenting to the Endocrinology and Gastroenterology clinics, without underlying LD were prospectively recruited from 2009 to 2012. Fasting lipid profile, HOMA IR) and serum adiponectin levels were measured. NAFL was defined as ALT > 25 and >22 IU/mL (males and females respectively) and/or evidence of fatty infiltration by US. Logistic regression was performed to assess associations. 97 children with obesity included in the study (Male 43%). Mean age was 12.9 ± 3.2 years (84% were older than 10 y). Mean BMI-Z score was 3.8 ± 1.4. NAFL was identified in 85%(82/97) of participants. ALT was elevated in 61% of patients. Median triglyceride (TG) level was higher in children with NAFL(1.5 ± 0.9 vs. 1.1 ± 0.5 mmol/L, p = 0.01). Total cholesterol, HDL, LDL and Non HDL cholesterol were similar in both groups(p = 0.63, p = 0.98, p = 0.72 and p = 0.37 respectively). HOMA IR was ≥3.16 in 53% of children(55% in those with NAFL and 40% in those without NAFL). Median serum adiponectin was 11.2 μg/ml(IQR 7.3-18.3) in children with NAFL vs. 16.1 μg/ml(IQR 9.0-21.9) in those without NAFL(p = 0.23). Liver US was reported as normal in 30%, mild fatty infiltration in 38%, moderate in 20% and severe in 12%. TG were significantly higher(1.5 mmol/L vs. 1.0 mmol/L, p obese children and youth. Elevated TG levels are associated with NAFL; these findings may serve as a noninvasive screening tool to help clinicians identify

  9. In Vitro and in Vivo Models of Non-Alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease (NAFLD

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    Ina Bergheim

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available By now, non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD is considered to be among the most common liver diseases world-wide. NAFLD encompasses a broad spectrum of pathological conditions ranging from simple steatosis to steatohepatitis, fibrosis and finally even cirrhosis; however, only a minority of patients progress to end-stages of the disease, and the course of the disease progression to the later stages seems to be slow, developing progressively over several years. Key risk factors including overweight, insulin resistance, a sedentary life-style and an altered dietary pattern, as well as genetic factors and disturbances of the intestinal barrier function have been identified in recent years. Despite intense research efforts that lead to the identification of these risk factors, knowledge about disease initiation and molecular mechanisms involved in progression is still limited. This review summarizes diet-induced and genetic animal models, as well as cell culture models commonly used in recent years to add to the understanding of the mechanisms involved in NAFLD, also referring to their advantages and disadvantages.

  10. Fatty liver disease and lifestyle in youngsters: diet, food intake frequency, exercise, sleep shortage and fashion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trovato, Francesca M; Martines, Giuseppe Fabio; Brischetto, Daniela; Catalano, Daniela; Musumeci, Giuseppe; Trovato, Guglielmo M

    2016-03-01

    Fatty liver is associated with alcohol habits and/or overweight/obesity. We challenged several lifestyle features associated with fatty liver and, particularly, with non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). Among them, sleep shortage as a result of nightlife habits and a preference for plus-size fashion were assessed. The latter consists of fashionable plus-sized clothing for actual individuals' size and reflects a frequent attitude of some social or age groups, conceivably indicating more global and widespread trend and behaviour. We studied a group of 708 non-diabetic youngsters, 458 women and 250 men, 21.72 ± 3.71 years old (range 15-35 years), referred for minor digestive ailments for clinical assessment, ultrasound detection of fatty liver and nutritional counselling. Details of personal history regarding lifestyle, food intake frequency and alcohol intake, dietary and physical exercise profile, sleep duration and clothing preferences were recorded. The prevalence of NAFLD in this cohort of youngsters is 67/708 (9.4%). Even if it is quantitatively very low in both groups, the average alcohol intake, always below 20 g/day, is greater in NAFLD subjects (5.83 ± 4.32 g) vs. subjects with normal liver (2.02 ± 3.20 g). The number of meals/day and adherence to a Mediterranean diet profile are smaller in NAFLD subjects. By multiple regression, BMI, sedentary life, plus-sized clothing for their actual size, sleep shortage and lower frequency of daily food intake are associated with the presence of NAFLD. Onset and continuation of fatty liver disease, beyond food and exercise quantity and quality, with their effects on obesity, may also be associated with other aspects of lifestyle. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  11. Effects of Ramadan fasting on plasma free fatty acids in patients with non-alcoholic fatty liver disease

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    Seyed Mostafa Arabi

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD is a global disease which its prevalence is about 10-35%. Several factors are involved in the pathogenesis of the disease. The present study was conducted to evaluate the effect of fasting during Ramadan on plasma free fatty acids in patients with NAFLD.Methods: This cross-sectional study was performed during the month of Ramadan in June-July, 2014 (Islamic year: 1435 with 50 patients who were living in Mashhad, Iran. The participants were recruited from 18-65 years old patients. The inclusion criteria were 1 patients with NAFLD that diagnosed fatty liver by ultrasonography and 2 being at least 10 hours fasting. Levels of plasma free fatty acids (Palmitic, Elaidic and Oleic fatty acid were analyzed in blood sample of all patients by gas chromatography apparatus equipped with a flame ionization detector (GC-FID.Result: results indicated that there was no significant changes were observed in plasma levels of Palmitic, Elaidic and Oleic fatty acids in overweight patients (BMI 25-30 , but plasma levels of Elaidic acid significantly increased in obese patients (P

  12. Design and rationale of the WELCOME trial: A randomised, placebo controlled study to test the efficacy of purified long chainomega-3 fatty acid treatment in non-alcoholic fatty liver disease [corrected].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scorletti, E; Bhatia, L; McCormick, K G; Clough, G F; Nash, K; Calder, P C; Byrne, C D

    2014-03-01

    Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) represents a range of liver conditions from simple fatty liver to progressive end stage liver disease requiring liver transplantation. NAFLD is common in the population and in certain sub groups (e.g. type 2 diabetes) up to 70% of patients may be affected. NAFLD is not only a cause of end stage liver disease and hepatocellular carcinoma, but is also an independent risk factor for type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular disease. Consequently, effective treatments for NAFLD are urgently needed. The WELCOME study is testing the hypothesis that treatment with high dose purified long chain omega-3 fatty acids will have a beneficial effect on a) liver fat percentage and b) two histologically validated algorithmically-derived biomarker scores for liver fibrosis. In a randomised double blind placebo controlled trial, 103 participants with NAFLD were randomised to 15-18months treatment with either 4g/day purified long chain omega-3 fatty acids (Omacor) or 4g/day olive oil as placebo. Erythrocyte percentage DHA and EPA enrichment (a validated proxy for hepatic enrichment) was determined by gas chromatography. Liver fat percentage was measured in three discrete liver zones by magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS). We also measured body fat distribution, physical activity and a range of cardiometabolic risk factors. Recruitment started in January 2010 and ended in June 2011. We identified 178 potential participants, and randomised 103 participants who met the inclusion criteria. The WELCOME study was approved by the local ethics committee (REC: 08/H0502/165; www.clinicalTrials.gov registration number NCT00760513). Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Alteration of liver parameters in non-alcoholic fatty liver disease in patients with metabolic síndrome

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    Alicia Sahuquillo Martínez

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The interest of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD is growing due to several reasons: high prevalence of the disease in the Western World, its capability to progress towards more aggressive histological forms and its association with diseases that increase cardiovascular risk. Objective: To analyze the alteration of liver parameters in NAFLD in patients with metabolic syndrome. Methods: A transverse, descriptive study of 100 patients with two or more cardiovascular risk factors was conducted. All patients signed informed consent. Patients selected were among those attending our Medical Office of Primary Attention and who had very little or no alcoholic consumption. A complete battery of analysis was performed including total abdominal ultrasound. Steatosis was evaluated and, if determined positive, patients were stratified in three degrees. The following determinations were collected: sex, personal and familial history of diabetes, arterial hypertension, dyslipidemia, age, weight, BMI, present pharmacological treatment, analytical parameters, blood pressure and abdominal perimeter. Results: 100 patients were included in the study, 56 (56% women and 44 (44% men, with an average age of 61,84 + 9,5 years 23% of all patients did not have NAFLD; 29% had mild NAFLD, 29% had moderate NAFLD and 19% had severe NAFLD. 82% of men presented NAFLD. 29% of women did not nave NAFLD. 22% were overweight and 38% were obese. Blood pressure was altered in 22% of men and 18% of women. 60% had altered fasting blood glucose. 36% had hypertriglyceridemia, 41% hypercholesterolemia with 65% high LDL cholesterol and 16% of low HDL cholesterol. 83% of patients had two or more criteria of metabolic syndrome. Average transaminases were: ALT 24.98 u/i; AST 32.19 u/i; GGT 55,65 u/i; ALT/AST ratio: 0.77. Lactate dehydrogenase 255.30 u/L. Alkaline phosphatase 82.80 u/L and bilirubin 0.78 mg/dL Conclusions: We did not find correlation between liver steatosis and alteration

  14. Therapeutic options in pediatric non alcoholic fatty liver disease: current status and future directions

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    Vajro Pietro

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The epidemics of overweight and obesity has resulted in a significant increase of non alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD, a potentially progressive condition. Currently, obesity related hepatopathy represents therefore the main cause of pediatric chronic liver disease. The first choice treatment at all ages is weight loss and/or lifestyle changes, however compliance is very poor and a pharmacological approach has become necessary. In the present article we present a systematic literature review focusing on established pediatric NALFD drugs (ursodeoxycholic acid, insulin sensitizers, and antioxidants and on innovative therapeutic options as well. Regarding the former ones, a pediatric pilot study highlighted that ursodeoxycholic acid is not efficient on transaminases levels and bright liver. Similarly, a recent large scale, multicenter randomized clinical trial (TONIC study showed that also insulin sensitizers and antioxidant vitamin E have scarce effects on serum transaminase levels. Among a large series of novel therapeutic approaches acting on recently proposed different pathomechanisms, probiotics seem hitherto the most interesting and reasonable option for their safety and tolerability. Toll-like receptors modifiers, Pentoxifylline, and Farnesoid X receptors agonists have been still poorly investigated, and will need further studies before becoming possible promising innovative therapeutic strategies.

  15. Non-alcoholic and alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease - two Diseases of Affluence associated with the Metabolic Syndrome and Type 2 Diabetes: the FIN-D2D Survey

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    Saltevo Juha

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD is known to be associated with the metabolic syndrome (MetS and abnormal glucose tolerance. Whether alcoholic fatty liver disease (AFLD is associated with similar metabolic abnormalities has not been examined in a population-based study. We aimed at assessing the prevalences of NAFLD and AFLD, and to examine to what extent these conditions are associated with MetS and abnormal glucose tolerance. Methods The cohort included 2766 Finnish subjects (45-74 years from the population-based FIN-D2D survey. Features of insulin resistance, components of the MetS, glucose tolerance status by oral glucose tolerance test, serum liver enzyme concentrations, and daily alcohol consumption were assessed. Results Subjects with NAFLD and AFLD were equally obese and had similar fasting and insulin concentrations. The prevalences of NAFLD and AFLD were 21% (95% CI: 19%-22% and 7% (95% CI: 6%-8%. The MetS was slightly more prevalent in AFLD (73% than in NAFLD (70%, p = 0.028, and type 2 diabetes was similarly prevalent in NAFLD and AFLD (24-25%. The MetS and type 2 diabetes were more prevalent in subjects with NAFLD or AFLD compared to subjects with normal LFTs (53% and 14%, p Discussion and conclusion In Finnish middle-aged population, the prevalence of NAFLD is 3-fold higher than that of AFLD. The prevalences of MetS and type 2 diabetes are, however, significantly increased in both NAFLD and AFLD compared to subjects with normal LFTs. Subjects with AFLD are thus similarly metabolically unhealthy as subjects with NAFLD.

  16. Alcohol Consumption in Diabetic Patients with Nonalcoholic Fatty Liver Disease

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    Preya J. Patel

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim. To examine the association between lifetime alcohol consumption and significant liver disease in type 2 diabetic patients with NAFLD. Methods. A cross-sectional study assessing 151 patients with NAFLD at risk of clinically significant liver disease. NAFLD fibrosis severity was classified by transient elastography; liver stiffness measurements ≥8.2 kPa defined significant fibrosis. Lifetime drinking history classified patients into nondrinkers, light drinkers (always ≤20 g/day, and moderate drinkers (any period with intake >20 g/day. Result. Compared with lifetime nondrinkers, light and moderate drinkers were more likely to be male (p=0.008 and to be Caucasian (p=0.007 and to have a history of cigarette smoking (p=0.000, obstructive sleep apnea (p=0.003, and self-reported depression (p=0.003. Moderate drinkers required ≥3 hypoglycemic agents to maintain diabetic control (p=0.041 and fibrate medication to lower blood triglyceride levels (p=0.044. Compared to lifetime nondrinkers, light drinkers had 1.79 (95% CI: 0.67–4.82; p=0.247 and moderate drinkers had 0.91 (95% CI: 0.27–3.10; p=0.881 times the odds of having liver stiffness measurements ≥8.2 kPa (adjusted for age, gender, and body mass index. Conclusions. In diabetic patients with NAFLD, light or moderate lifetime alcohol consumption was not significantly associated with liver fibrosis. The impact of lifetime alcohol intake on fibrosis progression and diabetic comorbidities, in particular obstructive sleep apnea and hypertriglyceridemia, requires further investigation.

  17. Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease in a rural, physically active, low income population in Sri Lanka

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    Pinidiyapathirage M

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD is recognized as a metabolic disorder largely seen in urbanized populations. The purpose of this study was to assess prevalence and risk factors for NAFLD in a rural, physically active, economically deprived population in Sri Lanka. Methods By visiting individual households in the community, 35-64 year old adults resident in two selected estates in the Nuwara Eliya District of Sri Lanka, were invited to participate in the study. Blood pressure and anthropometric measurements were made on all participants. Blood samples were obtained for the assay of fasting glucose, serum lipids, serum insulin and alanine aminotransferase. NAFLD was diagnosed on established ultrasound criteria for fatty liver in the absence of hepatitis B and C markers and high alcohol consumption. Results Of those invited, 403 (65% participated in the study. Almost all participants were either Indian or Sri Lankan Tamils and 53% were females. Prevalence of NAFLD was 18% in this population. Twice as many males were diagnosed as having NAFLD compared to females. Male sex, high BMI, high waist circumference, high diastolic blood pressure and high plasma glucose levels were significant predictors of NAFLD. Conclusion Nearly one in five people in this predominantly Indian Tamil, rural, physically active, economically deprived population had NAFLD. The condition was associated with constituent features of the metabolic syndrome. These results support studies reporting ethnic variations in disease susceptibility and suggest that genetic factors may also play a role in determining disease risk.

  18. Editor’s Pick: Non-Alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease – Changing the Prevalence of Liver Cancer?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benedetta Campana

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Due to its increasing prevalence, exceeding 25% of the Western population, non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD merits recognition as one of the most frequent chronic liver diseases (CLD and requires consideration of the associated disease-related complications and their consequences for the surveillance and treatment of patients and the socio-economy worldwide. Along with the increasing incidence of NAFLD-related cirrhosis and end-stage liver disease, the frequency of NAFLD-related hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC is rising and expected to surpass HCC related to chronic hepatitis C in the upcoming future. These epidemiologic changes will impact on the overall mortality of CLD and the requirement of organs for transplantation. Although the risk of HCC in NAFLD, similar to other CLD, is related to fibrosis (advanced fibrosis increases the risk of HCC 25-fold, there are reports suggesting a considerable rate of HCC also developing in simple hepatic steatosis. Moreover, HCC is nowadays the leading cause of obesity-related cancer mortality; cancers of other origin such as colorectal cancer are more prevalent in patients with NAFLD and obesity. The pathophysiology of HCC has mainly been studied in models of viral hepatitis. Given the expected raise in NAFLD-related HCC, a better understanding of the pathophysiology of carcinogenesis in NAFLD and obesity is desired in order to better define chemopreventive strategies. Here we review the epidemiology, aetiology, and pathogenesis of HCC on the background of NAFLD and deduce potential consequences for the management of patients in respect to the NAFLD epidemic.

  19. The Possible Role of Helicobacter pylori Infection in Non-alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease

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    Dan-dan Cheng

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori which colonizes the stomach can cause a wide array of gastric disorders, including chronic gastritis, peptic ulcer, and gastric cancer. Recently, accumulating evidence has implicated H. pylori infection in extragastrointestinal diseases such as cardiovascular diseases, neurological disorders, and metabolic diseases. At the same time, many scholars have noted the relationship between H. pylori infection and non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD. Despite the positive association between H. pylori and NAFLD reported in some researches, there are opposite perspectives denying their relationship. Due to high prevalence, unclear etiology and difficult treatment of NAFLD, confirming the pathogenicity of H. pylori infection in NAFLD will undoubtedly provide insights for novel treatment strategies for NAFLD. This paper will review the relationship between H. pylori infection and NAFLD and the possible pathogenic mechanisms.

  20. MR and magnetisation transfer imaging in cirrhotic and fatty livers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alanen, A.; Komu, M.; Leino, R.; Toikkanen, S.

    1998-01-01

    Purpose: To determine whether low-field MR fat/water separation and magnetisation transfer (MT) techniques are useful in studying the livers of patients with parenchymal liver diseases in vivo. Material and Methods: MR and MT imaging of the liver in 33 patients (14 with primary biliary cirrhosis, 15 with alcohol-induced liver disease, and 4 with fatty liver) was performed by means of the fat/water separation technique at 0.1 T. The relaxation time T1 and the MT contrast (MTC) parameter of liver and spleen tissue were measured, and the relative proton density fat content N(%) and MTC of the liver were calculated from the separate fat and water images. The value of N(%) was also compared with the percentage of fatty hepatocytes at histology. Results: The relaxation rate R1 of liver measured from the magnitude image, and the difference in the value of MTC measured form the water image compared with the one measured from the fat and water magnitude image, both depended linearly on the value of N(%). The value of N(%) correlated significantly with the percentage of the fatty hepatocytes. In in vivo fatty tissue, fat infiltration increased both the observed relaxation rate R1 and the measured magnetisation ratio (the steady state magnetisation M s divided by the equilibrium magnetisation M o , M s /M o ) and consequently decreased the MT efficiency measured in a magnitude MR image. The amount of liver fibrosis did not correlate with the value of MTC measured after fat separation. Conclusion: Our results in studying fatty livers with MR imaging and the MT method show that the fat/water separation gives more reliable parametric results. Characterisation of liver cirrhosis by means of the MTC parameter is not reliable, even after fat separation. (orig.)

  1. Cordyceps militaris alleviates non-alcoholic fatty liver disease in ob/ob mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Ha-Neul; Jang, Yang-Hee; Kim, Min-Joo; Seo, Min Jeong; Kang, Byoung Won; Jeong, Yong Kee; Kim, Jung-In

    2014-04-01

    Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is becoming an important public health problem as metabolic syndrome and type 2 diabetes have become epidemic. In this study we investigated the protective effect of Cordyceps militaris (C. militaris) against NAFLD in an obese mouse model. Four-week-old male ob/ob mice were fed an AIN-93G diet or a diet containing 1% C. militaris water extract for 10 weeks after 1 week of adaptation. Serum glucose, insulin, free fatty acid (FFA), alanine transaminase (ALT), and proinflammatory cytokines were measured. Hepatic levels of lipids, glutathione (GSH), and lipid peroxide were determined. Consumption of C. militaris significantly decreased serum glucose, as well as homeostasis model assessment for insulin resistance (HOMA-IR), in ob/ob mice. In addition to lowering serum FFA levels, C. militaris also significantly decreased hepatic total lipids and triglyceride contents. Serum ALT activities and tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) and interleukin-6 (IL-6) levels were reduced by C. militaris. Consumption of C. militaris increased hepatic GSH and reduced lipid peroxide levels. These results indicate that C. militaris can exert protective effects against development of NAFLD, partly by reducing inflammatory cytokines and improving hepatic antioxidant status in ob/ob mice.

  2. Prevalence of Nonalcoholic Fatty Liver Disease in Normal-weight and Overweight Preadolescent Children in Haryana, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Das, Manoja Kumar; Bhatia, Vidyut; Sibal, Anupam; Gupta, Abha; Gopalan, Sarath; Sardana, Raman; Sahni, Reeti; Roy, Ankur; Arora, Narendra K

    2017-12-15

    To document the prevalence of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) and metabolic parameters among normal-weight and overweight schoolchildren. Cross-sectional study. Thirteen private schools in urban Faridabad, Haryana. 961 school children aged 5-10 years. Ultrasound testing was done, and 215 with fatty liver on ultrasound underwent further clinical, biochemical and virological testing. Prevalence of fatty liver on ultrasound, and NAFLD and its association with biochemical abnormalities and demographic risk factors. On ultrasound, 215 (22.4%) children had fatty liver; 18.9% in normal-weight and 45.6% in overweight category. Presence and severity of fatty liver disease increased with body mass index (BMI) and age. Among the children with NAFLD, elevated SGOT and SGPT was observed in 21.5% and 10.4% children, respectively. Liver enzyme derangement was significantly higher in overweight children (27% vs 19.4% in normal-weight) and severity of fatty liver (28% vs 20% in mild fatty liver cases). Eleven (8.1%) children with NAFLD had metabolic syndrome. Higher BMI (OR 35.9), severe fatty liver disease (OR 1.7) and female sex (OR 1.9) had strong association with metabolic syndrome. 22.4% of normal-weight and overweight children aged 5-10 years had fatty liver. A high proportion (18.9%) of normal-weight children with fatty liver on ultrasound indicates the silent burden in the population.

  3. Protective effect of bicyclol on tetracycline-induced fatty liver in mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yu, Hong-Yan; Wang, Bao-Lian; Zhao, Jing; Yao, Xiao-Min; Gu, Yu; Li, Yan

    2009-01-01

    Peroxisome proliferators-activated receptor α (PPARα) and oxidative stress are two important pathological factors in non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). Tetracycline-induced fatty liver was partly due to the disturbance of mitochondrial fatty acids β-oxidation regulated by PPARα. Bicyclol was found to protect against high fat diet-induced fatty liver through modulating PPARα and clearing reactive oxygen species (ROS). The present study was performed to further investigate the effect of bicyclol on tetracycline-induced fatty liver and related mechanism in mice. Bicyclol (75, 150, 300 mg/kg) was given orally three times in two consecutive days. Tetracycline (200 mg/kg) was injected intraperitoneally 1 h after the last administration of bicyclol. Oxidative stress, mitochondrial function, PPARα and its target genes were evaluated by biochemical and RT-PCR analysis. The activity of CYP4A was assessed by liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry (LC/MS) method. Bicyclol significantly protected against tetracycline-induced fatty liver by reducing the accumulation of hepatic lipids and elevation of serum aminotransferase. In addition, bicyclol remarkably alleviated the over-production of thiobarbituric acid-reactive substance. The reduced activity of mitochondrial respiratory chain (MRC) complexes I and IV and mitochondrial permeability transition (MPT) were also improved by bicyclol. Furthermore, bicyclol inhibited the decrease of PPARα expression and its target genes, including long-chain acyl CoA dehydrogenase (LCAD), acetyl CoA oxidase (AOX) and CYP4A at mRNA and enzyme activity level. Bicyclol protected against tetracycline-induced fatty liver mainly through modulating the disturbance of PPARα pathway and ameliorating mitochondrial function.

  4. Sulfur Amino Acids in Diet-induced Fatty Liver: A New Perspective Based on Recent Findings

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    John I. Toohey

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The relationship of sulfur amino acids to diet-induced fatty liver was established 80 years ago, with cystine promoting the condition and methionine preventing it. This relationship has renewed importance today because diet-induced fatty liver is relevant to the current epidemics of obesity, non-alcoholic fatty liver disease, metabolic syndrome, and type 2 diabetes. Two recent papers provide the first evidence linking sulfane sulfur to diet-induced fatty liver opening a new perspective on the problem. This review summarizes the early data on sulfur amino acids in fatty liver and correlates that data with current knowledge of sulfur metabolism. Evidence is reviewed showing that the lipotropic effect of methionine may be mediated by sulfane sulfur and that the hepatosteatogenic effect of cystine may be related to the removal of sulfane sulfur by cysteine catabolites. Possible preventive and therapeutic strategies are discussed.

  5. Relationship between adiponectin and hepatic fibrosis markers expressions as well as insulin resistance index in patients with non-alcoholic fatty liver disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cui Jianhe; Pan Feng; Zhou Chuanwen; Ren Jianguo; Li Donghai

    2009-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the retationship between expressions of adiponectin and hepatic fibrosis markers as well as insulin resistance index in patients with non-alcoholic fatty liver disease. Methods: Serum adiponectin, type III pro-collagen (PCIII), hyaluronic acid (HA), type IV collagen (CIV), laminin levels (with ELISA) and insulin resistance index (IRI) (calculated from homeostasis model assessment) were determined in 46 patients with non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) and 46 controls. Results The serum adiponectin levels in patients with NAFLD were significantly lower than those in controls while the serum hepatic fibrosis markers (PCIII, HA, CIV, LN) levels and IRI were significantly higher than those in controls (P<0.05). IRI was significantly positively correlated with the hepatic fibrosis markers levels (P<0.05). Serum adiponectin levels were significantly negatively correlated with WHR, RMI, HOMA-IRI and levels of FRG, TG, FINS hepatic fibrosis markers (P<0.05 or P<0.01). Conclusion: Serum adiponectin levels were greatly reduced in patients with NAFLD, which might play important role in the increase of insulin resistance and development of hepatic fibrosis. (authors)

  6. Diagnosis of different liver fibrosis characteristics by blood tests in non-alcoholic fatty liver disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calès, Paul; Boursier, Jérôme; Chaigneau, Julien; Lainé, Fabrice; Sandrini, Jeremy; Michalak, Sophie; Hubert, Isabelle; Dib, Nina; Oberti, Frédéric; Bertrais, Sandrine; Hunault, Gilles; Cavaro-Ménard, Christine; Gallois, Yves; Deugnier, Yves; Rousselet, Marie C

    2010-10-01

    Our aim was to develop an accurate, non-invasive, blood-test-based method for identifying the main characteristics of liver fibrosis in non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). Fibrosis was staged according to NASH-CRN and Metavir systems in 226 patients with NAFLD. A fully automated algorithm measured the fractal dimension (FD) and the area of fibrosis (AOF). Independent predictors of diagnostic targets were determined using bootstrap methods. (i) Development. Significant fibrosis defined by NASH-CRN F ≥2 was diagnosed by weight, glycaemia, aspartate aminotransferase (AST), alanine aminotransferase (ALT) and prothrombin index [area under the receiver operating characteristic (AUROC)=0.867]; significant fibrosis defined by Metavir F ≥2 was diagnosed by weight, age, glycaemia, AST, ALT, ferritin and platelets (FibroMeter AUROC=0.941, Pfibrosis staging, Metavir staging was a better reference for blood test. Thus, the patient rate with predictive values ≥90% by tests was 97.3% with Metavir reference vs. 66.5% with NASH-CRN reference (Pfibrosis score for significant fibrosis, but not for severe fibrosis or cirrhosis, with both staging systems. Relationships between fibrosis lesions were well reflected by blood tests, e.g., the correlation between histological area and FD of fibrosis (r(s) =0.971, Pblood tests (r(s) =0.852, Pfibrosis in NAFLD can be diagnosed and quantified by blood tests with excellent accuracy. © 2010 John Wiley & Sons A/S.

  7. Bone Turnover Markers in Patients with Non-Alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease and/or Type 2 Diabetes during Oral Glucose and Isoglycemic iv Glucose

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Maagensen, Henrik; Junker, Anders E; Jørgensen, Niklas R

    2018-01-01

    Context: Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is associated with type 2 diabetes (T2D) and vice versa, and both conditions are associated with an increased risk of fractures and altered bone turnover. While NAFLD patients typically suffer from decreased bone mineral density (BMD), T2D is ass...

  8. Review article: coffee consumption, the metabolic syndrome and non-alcoholic fatty liver disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yesil, A; Yilmaz, Y

    2013-11-01

    Coffee consumption may modulate the risk of the metabolic syndrome (MetS) and non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). To review the experimental, epidemiological and clinical studies investigating the association between coffee consumption and the risk of MetS and NAFLD. A literature search was conducted with the aim of finding original experimental, epidemiological and clinical articles on the association between coffee consumption, MetS and NAFLD. The following databases were used: PubMed, Embase, Scopus and Science Direct. We included articles written in English and published up to July 2013. Three experimental animal studies investigated the effects of coffee in the MetS, whereas five examined whether experimental coffee intake may modulate the risk of fatty liver infiltration. All of the animal studies showed a protective effect of coffee towards the development of MetS and NAFLD. Moreover, we identified eleven epidemiological and clinical studies that met the inclusion criteria. Of them, six were carried out on the risk of the MetS and five on the risk of NAFLD. Four of the six studies reported an inverse association between coffee consumption and the risk of MetS. The two studies showing negative results were from the same study cohort consisting of young persons with a low prevalence of the MetS. All of the epidemiological and clinical studies on NAFLD reported a protective effect of coffee intake. Coffee intake can reduce the risk of NAFLD. Whether this effect may be mediated by certain components of the MetS deserves further investigation. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  9. Epicardial Adipose Tissue (EAT Thickness Is Associated with Cardiovascular and Liver Damage in Nonalcoholic Fatty Liver Disease.

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    Anna Ludovica Fracanzani

    Full Text Available Epicardial adipose tissue (EAT has been proposed as a cardiometabolic and hepatic fibrosis risk factor in patients with non alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD. Aim of this study was to evaluate the role of EAT in NAFLD by analyzing 1 the association between EAT, the other metabolic parameters and the severity of steatosis 2 the relationship between cardiovascular (cIMT, cplaques, E/A, liver (presence of NASH and significant fibrosis damage and metabolic risk factors including EAT 3 the relationship between EAT and genetic factors strongly influencing liver steatosis.In a cross-sectional study, we considered 512 consecutive patients with NAFLD (confirmed by biopsy in 100. EAT, severity of steatosis, carotid intima-media thickness (cIMT and plaques were evaluated by ultrasonography and results analysed by multiple linear and logistic regression models. Variables independently associated with EAT (mm were female gender (p = 0.003, age (p = 0.001, BMI (p = 0.01, diastolic blood pressure (p = 0.009, steatosis grade 2 (p = 0.01 and 3 (p = 0.04, fatty liver index (p = 0.001 and statin use (p = 0.03. Variables independently associated with carotid IMT were age (p = 0.0001, hypertension (p = 0.009, diabetes (p = 0.04, smoking habits (p = 0.04 and fatty liver index (p = 0.02, with carotid plaques age (p = 0.0001, BMI (p = 0.03, EAT (p = 0.02, and hypertension (p = 0.02, and with E/A age (p = 0.0001, diabetes (p = 0.005, hypertension (p = 0.04 and fatty liver index (p = 0.004. In the 100 patients with available liver histology non alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH was independently associated with EAT (p = 0.04 and diabetes (p = 0.054 while significant fibrosis with EAT (p = 0.02, diabetes (p = 0.01 and waist circumference (p = 0.05. No association between EAT and PNPLA3 and TM6SF2 polymorphisms was found.In patients with NAFLD, EAT is associated with the severity of liver and vascular damage besides with the known metabolic risk factors.

  10. Prevalence of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease and fibrosis in a large population cohort in the north of the Netherlands: A lifelines cohort study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Den Berg, E.H.; Amini, M.; Schreuder, T.C.M.A.; Dullaart, R.P.F.; Faber, K.N.; Alizadeh, B.Z.; Blokzijl, H.

    2016-01-01

    Background and Aims: Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is an increasing health issue, being part of the worldwide epidemic of obesity. The aim of this study was to investigate the prevalence of NAFLD and fibrosis and analyze biochemical characteristics in a large population-based cohort

  11. Effect of insulin-sensitizing agents in combination with ezetimibe, and valsartan in rats with non-alcoholic fatty liver disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Assy, Nimer; Grozovski, Masha; Bersudsky, Ilana; Szvalb, Sergio; Hussein, Osamah

    2006-01-01

    AIM: To assess whether treatment with insulin-sensitizing agents (ISAs) in combination with ezetimibe and valsartan have greater effect on hepatic fat content and lipid peroxidation compared to monotherapy in the methionine choline-deficient diet (MCDD) rat model of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). METHODS: Rats (n = 6 per group) were treated with different drugs, including MCDD only, MCDD diet with either metformin (200 mg/kg), rosiglitazone (3 mg/kg), metformin plus rosiglitazone (M+R), ezetimibe (2 mg/kg), valsartan (2 mg/kg), or combination of all drugs for a total of 15 wk. Liver histology, lipids, parameters of oxidative stress and TNF-alpha were measured. RESULTS: Fatty liver (FL) rats demonstrated severe hepatic fatty infiltration (> 91% fat), with an increase in hepatic TG (+1263%, P < 0.001), hepatic cholesterol (+245%, P < 0.03), hepatic MDA levels (+225%, P < 0.001), serum TNF-alpha (17.8 ± 10 vs 7.8 ± 0.0, P < 0.001), but a decrease in hepatic alpha tocopherol (-74%, P < 0.001) as compared to the control rats. Combination therapy with all drugs produced a significant decrease in liver steatosis (-54%), hepatic TG (-64%), hepatic cholesterol (-31%) and hepatic MDA (-70%), but increased hepatic alpha tocopherol (+443%) as compared to FL rats. Combination therapy with ISA alone produced a smaller decrease in liver steatosis (-32% vs -54%, P < 0.001) and in hepatic MDA levels (-55% vs -70%, P < 0.01), but a similar decrease in hepatic lipids when compared with the all drugs combination. TNF-alpha levels decreased significantly in all treatment groups except in ISA group. CONCLUSION: Combination therapies have a greater effect on liver fat content as compared to monotherapy. Rosiglitazone appears to improve hepatic steatosis to a greater extent than metformin. PMID:16865780

  12. Transient Elastography Role in the Diagnosis of Nonalcoholic Fatty Liver Disease

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    Yu.M. Stepanov

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease includes hepatic steatosis, steatohepatitis and fibrosis, which can progress to cirrhosis. In view of the prevalence of this disease, the deterioration of the quality of life of patients, mortality from complications, the development of methods for accurate and timely assessment of the severity of fatty liver and progression of fibrosis are becoming of greater interest. Purpose. The study of diagnostic potential of transient elastography in patients with idiopathic transaminase elevations. Methods. In 52 patients (20 men and 32 women with idiopathic increased transaminases without signs of hepatic steatosis according to sonographic study, controlled attenuation parameter (CAP and liver stiffness measurements (LSM were performed using FibroScan with M probe. Exclusion criteria from the study were the presence of chronic viral, autoimmune hepatitis and alcohol abuse. Results. Forty one patients (78.8 % had fatty liver disease according to CAP. The analysis of the data of transient elastography demonstrated that 63.4 % had fibrosis F0–F1, 29.3 % — F1–F2 and in 7.3 % — F3. In terms of the CAP there were significant differences between the group with severe fibrosis (F3 and groups with minimal fibrosis (F0–F1 ((203.0 ± 5.1 vs. (243.0 ± 10.1, p < 0.05. The analysis of biochemical parameters demonstrated significant differences in terms of gamma-glutamyltransferase in the groups with severe fibrosis (F3 and minimal fibrosis ((40.2 ± 5.7 vs. (26.4 ± 3.7, p < 0.05. Thus, the results obtained in the study indicate that a significant proportion of patients with idiopathic transaminase elevations inflammation factor is fatty liver disease, which is not detected at routine ultrasound examination. In the group with more expressed fibrosis reduction of fat in the liver and increased activity gamma glutamyltransferase were determined, that indicated the cholestasis deterioration in the liver in these patients

  13. Statins Increase Mitochondrial and Peroxisomal Fatty Acid Oxidation in the Liver and Prevent Non-Alcoholic Steatohepatitis in Mice

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    Han-Sol Park

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available BackgroundNon-alcoholic fatty liver disease is the most common form of chronic liver disease in industrialized countries. Recent studies have highlighted the association between peroxisomal dysfunction and hepatic steatosis. Peroxisomes are intracellular organelles that contribute to several crucial metabolic processes, such as facilitation of mitochondrial fatty acid oxidation (FAO and removal of reactive oxygen species through catalase or plasmalogen synthesis. Statins are known to prevent hepatic steatosis and non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH, but underlying mechanisms of this prevention are largely unknown.MethodsSeven-week-old C57BL/6J mice were given normal chow or a methionine- and choline-deficient diet (MCDD with or without various statins, fluvastatin, pravastatin, simvastatin, atorvastatin, and rosuvastatin (15 mg/kg/day, for 6 weeks. Histological lesions were analyzed by grading and staging systems of NASH. We also measured mitochondrial and peroxisomal FAO in the liver.ResultsStatin treatment prevented the development of MCDD-induced NASH. Both steatosis and inflammation or fibrosis grades were significantly improved by statins compared with MCDD-fed mice. Gene expression levels of peroxisomal proliferator-activated receptor α (PPARα were decreased by MCDD and recovered by statin treatment. MCDD-induced suppression of mitochondrial and peroxisomal FAO was restored by statins. Each statin's effect on increasing FAO and improving NASH was independent on its effect of decreasing cholesterol levels.ConclusionStatins prevented NASH and increased mitochondrial and peroxisomal FAO via induction of PPARα. The ability to increase hepatic FAO is likely the major determinant of NASH prevention by statins. Improvement of peroxisomal function by statins may contribute to the prevention of NASH.

  14. Use of HOMA-IR to diagnose non-alcoholic fatty liver disease: a population-based and inter-laboratory study

    OpenAIRE

    Isokuortti, Elina; Zhou, You; Peltonen, Markku; Bugianesi, Elisabetta; Clement, Karine; Bonnefont-Rousselot, Dominique; Lacorte, Jean-Marc; Gastaldelli, Amalia; Schuppan, Detlef; Schattenberg, Jörn M.; Hakkarainen, Antti; Lundbom, Nina; Jousilahti, Pekka; Männistö, Satu; Keinänen-Kiukaanniemi, Sirkka

    2017-01-01

    Aims/hypothesis\\ud \\ud Recent European guidelines for non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) call for reference values for HOMA-IR. In this study, we aimed to determine: (1) the upper limit of normal HOMA-IR in two population-based cohorts; (2) the HOMA-IR corresponding to NAFLD; (3) the effect of sex and PNPLA3 genotype at rs738409 on HOMA-IR; and (4) inter-laboratory variations in HOMA-IR.\\ud \\ud Methods\\ud \\ud We identified healthy individuals in two population-based cohorts (FINRISK 20...

  15. Fish oil prevents sucrose-induced fatty liver but exacerbates high-safflower oil-induced fatty liver in ddy mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamazaki, Tomomi; Nakamori, Akiko; Sasaki, Eriko; Wada, Satoshi; Ezaki, Osamu

    2007-12-01

    Diets high in sucrose/fructose or fat can result in hepatic steatosis (fatty liver). We analyzed the effects of dietary fish oil on fatty liver induced by sucrose, safflower oil, and butter in ddY mice. In experiment I, mice were fed a high-starch diet [70 energy% (en%) starch] plus 20% (wt/wt) sucrose in the drinking water or fed a high-safflower oil diet (60 en%) for 11 weeks. As a control, mice were fed a high-starch diet with drinking water. Fish oil (10 en%) was either supplemented or not. Mice supplemented with sucrose or fed safflower oil showed a 1.7-fold or 2.2-fold increased liver triglyceride content, respectively, compared with that of control mice. Fish oil completely prevented sucrose-induced fatty liver, whereas it exacerbated safflower oil-induced fatty liver. Sucrose increased SREBP-1c and target gene messenger RNAs (mRNAs), and fish oil completely inhibited these increases. In experiment II, mice were fed a high-safflower oil or a high-butter diet, with or without fish oil supplementation. Fish oil exacerbated safflower oil-induced fatty liver but did not affect butter-induced fatty liver. Fish oil increased expression of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPARgamma) and target CD36 mRNA in safflower oil-fed mice. These increases were not observed in sucrose-supplemented or butter-fed mice. The effects of dietary fish oil on fatty liver differ according to the cause of fatty liver; fish oil prevents sucrose-induced fatty liver but exacerbates safflower oil-induced fatty liver. The exacerbation of fatty liver may be due, at least in part, to increased expression of liver PPARgamma.

  16. High fat diet-induced non alcoholic fatty liver disease in rats is associated with hyperhomocysteinemia caused by down regulation of the transsulphuration pathway

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    Napolitano Mariarosaria

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Hyperhomocysteinemia (HHcy causes increased oxidative stress and is an independent risk factor for cardiovascular disease. Oxidative stress is now believed to be a major contributory factor in the development of non alcoholic fatty liver disease, the most common liver disorder worldwide. In this study, the changes which occur in homocysteine (Hcy metabolism in high fat-diet induced non alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD in rats were investigated. Methods and results After feeding rats a standard low fat diet (control or a high fat diet (57% metabolisable energy as fat for 18 weeks, the concentration of homocysteine in the plasma was significantly raised while that of cysteine was lowered in the high fat as compared to the control diet fed animals. The hepatic activities of cystathionine β-synthase (CBS and cystathionine γ-lyase (CGS, the enzymes responsible for the breakdown of homocysteine to cysteine via the transsulphuration pathway in the liver, were also significantly reduced in the high fat-fed group. Conclusions These results indicate that high fat diet-induced NAFLD in rats is associated with increased plasma Hcy levels caused by down-regulation of hepatic CBS and CGL activity. Thus, HHcy occurs at an early stage in high fat diet-induced NAFLD and is likely to contribute to the increased risk of cardiovascular disease associated with the condition.

  17. DEP domain-containing mTOR-interacting protein suppresses lipogenesis and ameliorates hepatic steatosis and acute-on-chronic liver injury in alcoholic liver disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Hanqing; Shen, Feng; Sherban, Alex; Nocon, Allison; Li, Yu; Wang, Hua; Xu, Ming-Jiang; Rui, Xianliang; Han, Jinyan; Jiang, Bingbing; Lee, Donghwan; Li, Na; Keyhani-Nejad, Farnaz; Fan, Jian-Gao; Liu, Feng; Kamat, Amrita; Musi, Nicolas; Guarente, Leonard; Pacher, Pal; Gao, Bin; Zang, Mengwei

    2018-02-19

    Alcoholic liver disease (ALD) is characterized by lipid accumulation and liver injury. However, how chronic alcohol consumption causes hepatic lipid accumulation remains elusive. The present study demonstrates that activation of the mechanistic target of rapamycin complex 1 (mTORC1) plays a causal role in alcoholic steatosis, inflammation, and liver injury. Chronic-plus-binge ethanol feeding led to hyperactivation of mTORC1, as evidenced by increased phosphorylation of mTOR and its downstream kinase S6 kinase 1 (S6K1) in hepatocytes. Aberrant activation of mTORC1 was likely attributed to the defects of the DEP domain-containing mTOR-interacting protein (DEPTOR) and the nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide-dependent deacetylase sirtuin 1 (SIRT1) in the liver of chronic-plus-binge ethanol-fed mice and in the liver of patients with ALD. Conversely, adenoviral overexpression of hepatic DEPTOR suppressed mTORC1 signaling and ameliorated alcoholic hepatosteatosis, inflammation, and acute-on-chronic liver injury. Mechanistically, the lipid-lowering effect of hepatic DEPTOR was attributable to decreased proteolytic processing, nuclear translocation, and transcriptional activity of the lipogenic transcription factor sterol regulatory element-binding protein-1 (SREBP-1). DEPTOR-dependent inhibition of mTORC1 also attenuated alcohol-induced cytoplasmic accumulation of the lipogenic regulator lipin 1 and prevented alcohol-mediated inhibition of fatty acid oxidation. Pharmacological intervention with rapamycin alleviated the ability of alcohol to up-regulate lipogenesis, to down-regulate fatty acid oxidation, and to induce steatogenic phenotypes. Chronic-plus-binge ethanol feeding led to activation of SREBP-1 and lipin 1 through S6K1-dependent and independent mechanisms. Furthermore, hepatocyte-specific deletion of SIRT1 disrupted DEPTOR function, enhanced mTORC1 activity, and exacerbated alcoholic fatty liver, inflammation, and liver injury in mice. The dysregulation of SIRT1

  18. Screening for non-alcoholic fatty liver disease in children and adolescents with type 1 diabetes mellitus: a cross-sectional analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kummer, Sebastian; Klee, Dirk; Kircheis, Gerald; Friedt, Michael; Schaper, Joerg; Häussinger, Dieter; Mayatepek, Ertan; Meissner, Thomas

    2017-04-01

    The liver is intensely involved in glucose metabolism and is thereby closely related to diabetes pathophysiology. Adult patients with type 1 diabetes mellitus (DM) are at an increased risk for non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). Here, we studied the prevalence of NAFLD in a cohort of children and adolescents with type 1 DM in a tertiary care paediatric diabetes centre in Germany. We screened 93 children and adolescents with type 1 DM using ultrasound, laboratory investigations, and liver stiffness measurements (Fibroscan® [FS] and acoustic radiation force imaging [ARFI]). Of these, 82 (88.1%) had completely normal results in all examined aspects. Only one patient (1.1%) fulfilled the criteria as potential NAFLD with ALT > twice the upper limit of normal. Ten of the 93 patients (10.8%) showed any mild abnormality in at least one examined category including ALT, conventional ultrasounds and liver stiffness measurements. However, none of these ten fulfilled the NAFLD case definition criteria. Therefore, these slightly abnormal results were judged to be unspecific or at least of unknown significance in terms of NAFLD indication. Compared to data from the general population, our results do not indicate a significantly increased prevalence of NAFLD in this cohort, and advocate against the systematic screening for NAFLD in paediatric type 1 DM. What is Known: • Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is common in adults with type 1 DM, and paediatric patients with type 1 DM in Egypt and Saudi Arabia. What is New: • Our results do not indicate a significantly increased prevalence of NAFLD in a cohort of children and adolescents with type 1 DM from Germany compared to prevalence data from the general population. • This finding advocates against the systematic screening for NAFLD in paediatric type 1 DM in western countries.

  19. Non-laboratory-based self-assessment screening score for non-alcoholic fatty liver disease: development, validation and comparison with other scores.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yong-ho Lee

    Full Text Available Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD is a prevalent and rapidly increasing disease worldwide; however, no widely accepted screening models to assess the risk of NAFLD are available. Therefore, we aimed to develop and validate a self-assessment score for NAFLD in the general population using two independent cohorts.The development cohort comprised 15676 subjects (8313 males and 7363 females who visited the National Health Insurance Service Ilsan Hospital in Korea in 2008-2010. Anthropometric, clinical, and laboratory data were examined during regular health check-ups and fatty liver diagnosed by abdominal ultrasound. Logistic regression analysis was conducted to determine predictors of prevalent NAFLD and to derive risk scores/models. We validated our models and compared them with other existing methods using an external cohort (N = 66868.The simple self-assessment score consists of age, sex, waist circumference, body mass index, history of diabetes and dyslipidemia, alcohol intake, physical activity and menopause status, which are independently associated with NAFLD, and has a value of 0-15. A cut-off point of ≥ 8 defined 58% of males and 36% of females as being at high-risk of NAFLD, and yielded a sensitivity of 80% in men (77% in women, a specificity of 67% (81%, a positive predictive value of 72% (63%, a negative predictive value of 76% (89% and an AUC of 0.82 (0.88. Comparable results were obtained using the validation dataset. The comprehensive NAFLD score, which includes additional laboratory parameters, has enhanced discrimination ability, with an AUC of 0.86 for males and 0.91 for females. Both simple and comprehensive NAFLD scores were significantly increased in subjects with higher fatty liver grades or severity of liver conditions (e.g., simple steatosis, steatohepatitis.The new non-laboratory-based self-assessment score may be useful for identifying individuals at high-risk of NAFLD. Further studies are warranted to evaluate

  20. Plasma concentrations of zonulin are elevated in obese men with fatty liver disease

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    Kim AS

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available A-Sol Kim,1,2 Hae-Jin Ko1,3 1Department of Family Medicine, School of Medicine, Kyungpook National University, Daegu, South Korea; 2Department of Family Medicine, Kyungpook National University Chilgok Hospital, Daegu, South Korea; 3Department of Family Medicine, Kyungpook National University Hospital, Daegu, South Korea Purpose: Zonulin is considered as a biomarker of increased intestinal permeability. The relationship between intestinal permeability and obesity is known, and many studies have investigated the relationship between intestinal permeability and liver disease. Thus, we aimed to investigate the potential association between plasma zonulin concentrations and fatty liver in obese men. Patients and methods: A total of 140 obese men without inflammatory bowel diseases, autoimmune diseases, and severe liver diseases were included. The subjects were divided into three groups: normal, mild fatty liver, and moderate-to-severe fatty liver, according to abdominal ultrasonography findings. We subdivided the subjects into two subgroups based on the amount of alcohol consumption (appropriate drinking and hazardous drinking, and subgroup analyses were performed. Results: The mean plasma zonulin concentrations (ng/mL in the normal, mild fatty liver, and moderate-to-severe fatty liver groups were 0.618, 2.143, and 5.815, respectively (P<0.001. A multivariate multinomial logistic regression analysis revealed an odds ratio (OR of 1.77 (P=0.015 in the moderate-to-severe fatty liver group. The median plasma zonulin concentrations (ng/mL in the appropriate drinking subgroup of the fatty liver groups were 0.002, 0.500, and 6.550, respectively (P-trend<0.001, and in the hazardous drinking subgroup were 0.002, 0.590, and 5.800, respectively (P-trend=0.001. The ORs for moderate-to-severe fatty liver were 1.91 (P=0.039 in the appropriate drinking group and 1.56 (P=0.045 in the hazardous drinking group. Conclusion: Plasma zonulin concentrations were elevated

  1. Added fructose as a principal driver of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease: a public health crisis

    OpenAIRE

    DiNicolantonio, James J; Subramonian, Ashwin M; O’Keefe, James H

    2017-01-01

    Fatty liver disease affects up to one out of every two adults in the western world. Data from animal and human studies implicate added sugars (eg, sucrose and high-fructose corn syrup) in the development of fatty liver disease and its consequences. Added fructose in particular, as a component of added sugars, may pose the greatest risk for fatty liver disease. Considering that there is no requirement for added sugars in the diet, dietary guidelines should recommend reducing the intake of adde...

  2. Inorganic arsenic causes fatty liver and interacts with ethanol to cause alcoholic liver disease in zebrafish.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bambino, Kathryn; Zhang, Chi; Austin, Christine; Amarasiriwardena, Chitra; Arora, Manish; Chu, Jaime; Sadler, Kirsten C

    2018-02-26

    The rapid increase in fatty liver disease (FLD) incidence is attributed largely to genetic and lifestyle factors; however, environmental toxicants are a frequently overlooked factor that can modify the effects of more common causes of FLD. Chronic exposure to inorganic arsenic (iAs) is associated with liver disease in humans and animal models, but neither the mechanism of action nor the combinatorial interaction with other disease-causing factors has been fully investigated. Here, we examined the contribution of iAs to FLD using zebrafish and tested the interaction with ethanol to cause alcoholic liver disease (ALD). We report that zebrafish exposed to iAs throughout development developed specific phenotypes beginning at 4 days post-fertilization (dpf), including the development of FLD in over 50% of larvae by 5 dpf. Comparative transcriptomic analysis of livers from larvae exposed to either iAs or ethanol revealed the oxidative stress response and the unfolded protein response (UPR) caused by endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress as common pathways in both these models of FLD, suggesting that they target similar cellular processes. This was confirmed by our finding that arsenic is synthetically lethal with both ethanol and a well-characterized ER-stress-inducing agent (tunicamycin), suggesting that these exposures work together through UPR activation to cause iAs toxicity. Most significantly, combined exposure to sub-toxic concentrations of iAs and ethanol potentiated the expression of UPR-associated genes, cooperated to induce FLD, reduced the expression of as3mt , which encodes an arsenic-metabolizing enzyme, and significantly increased the concentration of iAs in the liver. This demonstrates that iAs exposure is sufficient to cause FLD and that low doses of iAs can potentiate the effects of ethanol to cause liver disease.This article has an associated First Person interview with the first author of the paper. © 2018. Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd.

  3. What does irritable bowel syndrome share with non-alcoholic fatty liver disease?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scalera, Antonella; Di Minno, Matteo Nicola Dario; Tarantino, Giovanni

    2013-09-07

    Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) and irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) are two very common diseases in the general population. To date, there are no studies that highlight a direct link between NAFLD and IBS, but some recent reports have found an interesting correlation between obesity and IBS. A systematic PubMed database search was conducted highlighting that common mechanisms are involved in many of the local and systemic manifestations of NAFLD, leading to an increased cardiovascular risk, and IBS, leading to microbial dysbiosis, impaired intestinal barrier and altered intestinal motility. It is not known when considering local and systemic inflammation/immune system activation, which one has greater importance in NAFLD and IBS pathogenesis. Also, the nervous system is implicated. In fact, inflammation participates in the development of mood disorders, such as anxiety and depression, characteristics of obesity and consequently of NAFLD and, on the other hand, in intestinal hypersensitivity and dysmotility.

  4. Profile of liver enzymes in non-alcoholic fatty liver disease in patients with impaired glucose tolerance and newly detected untreated type 2 diabetes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Debmalya Sanyal

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Context: The perception of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD as an uncommon and benign condition is rapidly changing. Approximately, 70% type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM patients have a fatty liver, which may follow an aggressive course with necroinflammation and fibrosis. Aims: To assess the profile of liver enzymes in subjects with impaired glucose tolerance (IGT, new onset treatment naive T2DM and normal glucose tolerance (NGT with and without NAFLD. Settings and Design: Cross-sectional clinic-based study. Subjects and Methods: 152 IGT and 158 recently detected T2DM subjects aged between 30 and 69 years, along with 160 age and gender matched controls with NGT. An ultrasonography scan of the upper abdomen was done in all patients in order to examine presence of fatty liver. Anthropometry, lipid profile, liver enzymes were also analyzed in all patients. Statistical Analysis Used: Unpaired t-test, Chi-square/Fisher Exact test (for categorical variables, Pearson/Spearmen correlation test to find significant difference, association and correlation between two or more groups respectively. Results: NAFLD was significantly associated with higher alanine aminotransferase (ALT and gamma-glutamyl transferase (GGT but not ALP levels in IGT and T2DM patients. ALT, GGT significant correlated with waist circumference, body mass index, fasting insulin, homeostatic model assessment- insulin resistance, fasting blood glucose, high density lipoprotein cholesterol, triglyceride. 57% of NAFLD patients had normal ALT between 25 and 40 U/L, 53% of NAFLD subjects had normal GGT between 15 and 30 U/L. ALT 40 U/L and GGT > 30 U/L had highest positive predictivity for presence of NAFLD in our study sample. Conclusions: Mild elevations of liver enzymes in the upper normal range are associated with features of metabolic syndrome and NAFLD even in IGT and recently detected T2DM patients. Novel cut-offs for liver enzymes are warranted in order to prevent unnecessary

  5. Fatty Liver

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Filippone, A.; Digiovandomenico, V.; Digiovandomenico, E.; Genovesi, N.; Bonomo, L.

    1991-01-01

    The authors report their experience with the combined use of US and CT in the study of diffuse and subtotal fatty infiltration of the liver. An apparent disagreement was initially found between the two examinations in the study of fatty infiltration. Fifty-five patients were studied with US and CT of the upper abdomen, as suggested by clinics. US showed normal liver echogenicity in 30 patients and diffuse increased echogenicity (bright liver) in 25 cases. In 5 patients with bright liver, US demonstrated a solitary hypoechoic area, appearing as a 'skip area', in the quadrate lobe. In 2 patients with bright liver, the hypoechoic area was seen in the right lobe and exhibited no typical US features of 'Skip area'. Bright liver was quantified by measuring CT density of both liver and spleen. The relative attenuation values of spleen and liver were compared on plain and enhanced CT scans. In 5 cases with a hypoechoic area in the right lobe, CT findings were suggestive of hemangioma. A good correlation was found between broght liver and CT attenuation values, which decrease with increasing fat content of the liver. Moreover, CT attenuation values confirmed US findings in the study of typical 'skip area', by demonstrating normal density - which suggests that CT can characterize normal tissue in atypical 'skip area'

  6. The Potential of Non-Provitamin A Carotenoids for the Prevention and Treatment of Non-Alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Gabriela Murillo

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD is an obesity-associated spectrum of comorbidities defined by the presence of metabolic dysfunction, oxidative stress, inflammation, and fibrosis in the liver. If left untreated, NAFLD can progress to cirrhosis, liver failure, or hepatocellular carcinoma. NAFLD is recognized as the most common liver disease in the United States, affecting around 30% of the population. Identification of dietary components capable of reducing or preventing NAFLD is therefore essential to battle this condition. Dietary carotenoids including astaxanthin, lycopene, lutein, and zeaxanthin have been demonstrated to be potent antioxidants as well as to exhibit anti-inflammatory effects. Many studies report the protective effect(s of these carotenoids against different conditions such as atherosclerosis, diabetic complications, age-related macular degeneration, and liver diseases. In this review, we will focus on the effects of these carotenoids in the prevention or reduction of NAFLD as seen in epidemiological observations and clinical trials, as well as the suggested mechanism of action derived from animal and cell studies.

  7. Mediterranean diet and non-alcoholic fatty liver disease: New therapeutic option around the corner?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sofi, Francesco; Casini, Alessandro

    2014-01-01

    Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) represents the most common chronic liver disease in Western countries, being considered as the hepatic manifestation of metabolic syndrome. NAFLD has a common pathogenic background to that of metabolic syndrome, and shares many risk factors such as obesity, hypertension, insulin resistance and dyslipidemia. Although there is no currently available evidence-based established treatment for NAFLD, all the recommendations from the medical associations indicate that the most effective treatment is to reduce weight through lifestyle modifications. Diet, indeed, plays a key role in the management of NAFLD patients, as both the quantity and quality of the diet have been reported to have a beneficial role in the onset and severity of the liver disease. Among all the diets that have been proposed, a Mediterranean diet was the most effective dietary option for inducing weight loss together with beneficial effects on all the risk factors associated with metabolic syndrome and NAFLD. Over the last few years, research has demonstrated a beneficial effect of a Mediterranean diet in NAFLD. In this review, we will examine all the available data on the association between diet, nutrients and the Mediterranean diet in association with onset and severity of NAFLD. PMID:24966604

  8. High-normal levels of hs-CRP predict the development of non-alcoholic fatty liver in healthy men.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jieun Lee

    Full Text Available We performed a follow-up study to address whether high sensitivity C-reactive protein (hs-CRP levels within the normal range can predict the development of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD in healthy male subjects. Among15347 male workers between 30 and 59 years old who received annual health check-ups in 2002, a NAFLD-free cohort of 4,138 was followed through December 2009. Alcohol consumption was assessed with a questionnaire. At each visit, abdominal ultrasonography was performed to identify fatty liver disease. The COX proportional hazard model was used to evaluate the relationship between hs-CRP and incident NAFLD. During the follow-up period, 28.8% (1191 of 4138 of participants developed NAFLD. The hazard ratios of NAFLD were increased by hs-CRP categories within the normal range in the non-adjusted model and age-adjusted model. After adjusting for age, exercise, smoking, BMI, systolic BP, triglyceride, and fasting glucose, these incidences were only increased between the lowest and the highest hs-CRP categories. The risk for NAFLD increased as the hs-CRP level increased (p< 0.001. As the hs-CRP level increased within the healthy cohort, the risk of developing NAFLD increased. This trend remained true even if the hs-CRP level remained within the normal range. hs-CRP can be used as a predictor of NAFLD, as well as other obesity-associated diseases. Therefore, individuals with higher hs-CRP levels (even within the normal range may require appropriate follow-up and management to prevent NAFLD development.

  9. Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease, association with cardiovascular disease and treatment (II). The treatment of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brea, Ángel; Pintó, Xavier; Ascaso, Juan F; Blasco, Mariano; Díaz, Ángel; González-Santos, Pedro; Hernández-Mijares, Antonio; Mantilla, Teresa; Millán, Jesús; Pedro-Botet, Juan

    Disease nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) comprises a series of histologically similar to those induced by alcohol consumption in people with very little or no liver damage same. The importance of NAFLD is its high prevalence in our Western societies, from the point of view liver in its progressive evolution from steatosis to steatohepatitis, cirrhosis and liver cancer. During the last decade it has been observed that NAFLD leads to an increased cardiovascular risk with accelerated atherosclerosis and cardiovascular events, the leading cause of morbidity and mortality. This updated January 2016 revision consists of two parts. In this second part, the treatment of NAFLD and its influence on cardiovascular disease and drugs used in the control of cardiovascular risk factors showing a beneficial effect on the liver disease will be reviewed. Copyright © 2016 Sociedad Española de Arteriosclerosis. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  10. Exploring the molecular mechanisms underlying the potentiation of exogenous growth hormone on alcohol-induced fatty liver diseases in mice

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    Tian Ya-ping

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Growth hormone (GH is an essential regulator of intrahepatic lipid metabolism by activating multiple complex hepatic signaling cascades. Here, we examined whether chronic exogenous GH administration (via gene therapy could ameliorate liver steatosis in animal models of alcoholic fatty liver disease (AFLD and explored the underlying molecular mechanisms. Methods Male C57BL/6J mice were fed either an alcohol or a control liquid diet with or without GH therapy for 6 weeks. Biochemical parameters, liver histology, oxidative stress markers, and serum high molecular weight (HMW adiponectin were measured. Quantitative real-time PCR and western blotting were also conducted to determine the underlying molecular mechanism. Results Serum HMW adiponectin levels were significantly higher in the GH1-treated control group than in the control group (3.98 ± 0.71 μg/mL vs. 3.07 ± 0.55 μg/mL; P P P P P Conclusions GH therapy had positive effects on AFLD and may offer a promising approach to prevent or treat AFLD. These beneficial effects of GH on AFLD were achieved through the activation of the hepatic adiponectin-SIRT1-AMPK and PPARα-AMPK signaling systems.

  11. Diagnosis and management of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease and related metabolic disorders: Consensus statement from the Study Group of Liver and Metabolism, Chinese Society of Endocrinology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Xin; Fan, Jian-Gao

    2013-01-01

    Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is the most common liver disease in Western countries, affecting 20%–33% of the general population. Large population-based surveys in China indicate a prevalence of approximately 15%–30%. Worldwide, including in China, the prevalence of NAFLD has increased rapidly in parallel with regional trends of obesity, type2 diabetes and metabolic syndrome. In addition, NAFLD has contributed significantly to increased overall, as well as cardiovascular and liver-related, mortality in the general population. In view of rapid advances in research into NAFLD in recent years, this consensus statement provides a brief update on the progress in the field and suggests preferred approaches for the comprehensive management of NAFLD and its related metabolic diseases. PMID:23560695

  12. Human germline hedgehog pathway mutations predispose to fatty liver.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guillen-Sacoto, Maria J; Martinez, Ariel F; Abe, Yu; Kruszka, Paul; Weiss, Karin; Everson, Joshua L; Bataller, Ramon; Kleiner, David E; Ward, Jerrold M; Sulik, Kathleen K; Lipinski, Robert J; Solomon, Benjamin D; Muenke, Maximilian

    2017-10-01

    Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is the most common form of liver disease. Activation of hedgehog (Hh) signaling has been implicated in the progression of NAFLD and proposed as a therapeutic target; however, the effects of Hh signaling inhibition have not been studied in humans with germline mutations that affect this pathway. Patients with holoprosencephaly (HPE), a disorder associated with germline mutations disrupting Sonic hedgehog (SHH) signaling, were clinically evaluated for NAFLD. A combined mouse model of Hh signaling attenuation (Gli2 heterozygous null: Gli2 +/- ) and diet-induced NAFLD was used to examine aspects of NAFLD and hepatic gene expression profiles, including molecular markers of hepatic fibrosis and inflammation. Patients with HPE had a higher prevalence of liver steatosis compared to the general population, independent of obesity. Exposure of Gli2 +/- mice to fatty liver-inducing diets resulted in increased liver steatosis compared to wild-type mice. Similar to humans, this effect was independent of obesity in the mutant mice and was associated with decreased expression of pro-fibrotic and pro-inflammatory genes, and increased expression of PPARγ, a potent anti-fibrogenic and anti-inflammatory regulator. Interestingly, tumor suppressors p53 and p16INK4 were found to be downregulated in the Gli2 +/- mice exposed to a high-fat diet. Our results indicate that germline mutations disrupting Hh signaling promotes liver steatosis, independent of obesity, with reduced fibrosis. While Hh signaling inhibition has been associated with a better NAFLD prognosis, further studies are required to evaluate the long-term effects of mutations affecting this pathway. Lay summary: Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is characterized by excess fat deposition in the liver predominantly due to high calorie intake and a sedentary lifestyle. NAFLD progression is usually accompanied by activation of the Sonic hedgehog (SHH) pathway leading to fibrous

  13. Effects of Pomegranate and Orange Juice on Antioxidant Status in Non-Alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease Patients: A Randomized Clinical Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ekhlasi, Golnaz; Shidfar, Farzad; Agah, Shahram; Merat, Shahin; Hosseini, Agha Fatemeh

    2015-12-01

    The fruit of the pomegranate (Punica granatum) has a high content of polyphenols and is renowned for its antioxidant capabilities. In particular, it is recognized as reducing oxidative stress and, therefore, playing a productive role in obstructing the pathogenesis of fatty liver disease. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the effects of consumingpomegranate juice (high in antioxidant content) and orange juice (low in antioxidant content) when combined with a hypocaloric diet on liver enzymes and the antioxidant status of patients. In a randomized clinical trial, 65 patients who exhibited non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) at a mean age of 39+/-8 years received 250 mL pomegranate juice or orange juice per day as a substitute for two servings of fruit in a hypocaloric diet over a period of 12 weeks. The subjects' levels of aspartate aminotransferase (AST), alanine aminotransferase (ALT), total antioxidant capacity (TAC), malondialdehyde (MDA) and tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) were measured at the beginning and end of the study. At the end of the study, the levels of liver enzymes and body mass index (BMI) had significantly decreased in both groups. A significant increase in TAC was also observed in the subjects in the pomegranate group (p diet.

  14. Evaluation of fatty liver by using in-phase and opposed-phase MR images and in-vivo proton MR spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jae-Seung; Im, In-Chul; Goo, Eun-Hoe; Park, Hyong-Hu; Kwak, Byung-Joon

    2012-12-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the necessity of in-phase and opposed-phase MR images and their correlations with weight, the aspartate aminotransferase/alanine aminotransferase (AST/ALT) value, and age. Magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS) was used as a reference in this study. We selected 68 people as subjects, among which 14 were volunteers with normal AST/ALT values ( liver function study and 54 were non-alcoholic fatty liver patients for whom ultrasonic images had been obtained within 3 months of the study. In this study, the liver was more enhanced than the spleen or kidney. When the Eq. (3) formula was applied to normal volunteers, the difference between the in-phase and the opposed-phase images was -3.54 ± 12.56. The MRS study result showed a high sensitivity of 96.6% and a specificity of 100% ( p = 0.000) when the cutoff value was 20%. Furthermore, this result showed a high sensitivity of 94% and a specificity of 80% with a similar cutoff when the Eq. (2) formula was applied to non-alcoholic fatty liver patients ( p = 0.000). The MRS study revealed a strong correlation between normal volunteers and non-alcoholic fatty liver patients (r = 0.59, p = 0.04). The correlations between AST/ALT and Eq. (3) (r = 0.45, p = 0.004), age and Eq. (3) (r = 0.73, p = 0.03), and weight and Eq. (3) (r = 0.77, p = 0.000) values were all statistically significant. In the case of non-alcoholic liver disease, MRS was found to be significantly correlated with Eq. (1) (r = 0.39, p = 0.002), Eq. (2) (r = 0.68, p = 0.04), Eq. (3) (r = 0.67, p = 0.04), and AST/ALT (r = 0.77, p = 0.000). In conclusion, in-phase and opposed-phase images can help to distinguish a normal liver from a fatty liver in order to identify non-alcoholic fatty liver patients. The intensity difference between the in-phase and opposed-phase MR signals showed valuable correlations with respect to weight, AST/ALT value, and age, with all values being above the mild lipid value (r = 0.3).

  15. Analysis of hepatic gene expression during fatty liver change due to chronic ethanol administration in mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yin, H.-Q.; Je, Young-Tae; Kim, Mingoo; Kim, Ju-Han; Kong, Gu; Kang, Kyung-Sun; Kim, Hyung-Lae; Yoon, Byung-IL; Lee, Mi-Ock; Lee, Byung-Hoon

    2009-01-01

    Chronic consumption of ethanol can cause cumulative liver damage that can ultimately lead to cirrhosis. To explore the mechanisms of alcoholic steatosis, we investigated the global intrahepatic gene expression profiles of livers from mice administered alcohol. Ethanol was administered by feeding the standard Lieber-DeCarli diet, of which 36% (high dose) and 3.6% (low dose) of the total calories were supplied from ethanol for 1, 2, or 4 weeks. Histopathological evaluation of the liver samples revealed fatty changes and punctate necrosis in the high-dose group and ballooning degeneration in the low-dose group. In total, 292 genes were identified as ethanol responsive, and several of these differed significantly in expression compared to those of control mice (two-way ANOVA; p < 0.05). Specifically, the expression levels of genes involved in hepatic lipid transport and metabolism were examined. An overall net increase in gene expression was observed for genes involved in (i) glucose transport and glycolysis, (ii) fatty acid influx and de novo synthesis, (iii) fatty acid esterification to triglycerides, and (iv) cholesterol transport, de novo cholesterol synthesis, and bile acid synthesis. Collectively, these data provide useful information concerning the global gene expression changes that occur due to alcohol intake and provide important insights into the comprehensive mechanisms of chronic alcoholic steatosis

  16. Nonalcoholic Fatty Liver Disease & NASH

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Eating, Diet, & Nutrition Clinical Trials Wilson Disease Nonalcoholic Fatty Liver Disease & NASH View or Print All Sections Definition & Facts Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is a condition in which fat ...

  17. Focus on Therapeutic Strategies of Nonalcoholic Fatty Liver Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marilena Durazzo

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD is the most common chronic liver disease in the Western world (it affects 30% of the general adult population. The NAFLD encompasses a histological spectrum ranging from simple steatosis to nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH, defined by steatosis, hepatocellular damage, and lobular inflammation in individuals without significant alcohol consumption and negative viral, congenital, and autoimmune liver disease markers. Currently, NAFLD is considered an emerging epidemic in light of the dramatic increase in obesity rates. With the progressive nature of NASH and its rising prevalence there is a significant need for a specific and targeted treatments since to date there has not been any validated therapies for NAFLD other than weight loss, which is well known to have a poor long-term success rate. In recent years, visceral adipose tissue has taken an important role in NAFLD pathogenesis, and current therapeutic approaches aim at reducing visceral obesity and free fatty acid overflow to the liver. This paper is focused on the treatments used for NAFLD and the potential new therapy.

  18. Adrenic acid as an inflammation enhancer in non-alcoholic fatty liver disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horas H Nababan, Saut; Nishiumi, Shin; Kawano, Yuki; Kobayashi, Takashi; Yoshida, Masaru; Azuma, Takeshi

    2017-06-01

    This study was designed to identify novel links between lipid species and disease progression in non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). We analyzed lipid species in the liver and plasma of db/db mice fed a choline-deficient l-amino acid-defined, high-fat diet (CDAHFD) using liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry (LC/MS). An in vitro experiment was performed using HepG2 cells stimulated with recombinant human TNFα or IL1β. The expression of steatosis-, inflammation-, and fibrosis-related genes were analyzed. Plasma samples from NAFLD patients were also analyzed by LC/MS. The CDAHFD-fed db/db mice with hepatic steatosis, inflammation, mild fibrosis, obesity, and hypercholesterolemia displayed significantly higher hepatic and plasma levels of free adrenic acid (p < 0.05). The accumulated adrenic acid in the CDAHFD-fed db/db mice was associated with increased expression of ELOVL2 and 5, and the suppression of the acyl-CoA oxidase 1 gene during peroxisomal β-oxidation. The pretreatment of HepG2 cells with adrenic acid enhanced their cytokine-induced cytokines and chemokines mRNA expression. In NAFLD patients, the group with the highest ALT levels exhibited higher plasma adrenic acid concentrations than the other ALT groups (p-value for trend <0.001). Data obtained demonstrated that adrenic acid accumulation contributes to disease progression in NAFLD. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Fat content, fatty acid pattern and iron content in livers of turkeys with hepatic lipidosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Visscher, Christian; Middendorf, Lea; Günther, Ronald; Engels, Alexandra; Leibfacher, Christof; Möhle, Henrik; Düngelhoef, Kristian; Weier, Stefan; Haider, Wolfram; Radko, Dimitri

    2017-05-30

    The so-called "hepatic lipidosis" in turkeys is an acute progressive disease associated with a high mortality rate in a very short time. Dead animals show a massive fatty degeneration of the liver. The cause is still unclear. Previous findings suggest that there may be parallels to human non-alcoholic fatty liver disease. The object of the study was to examine the changes in the fat contents, the fatty acid composition and the iron content in livers of animals, which have died from hepatic lipidosis. The conspicuous livers (n = 85) were collected from 20 flocks where the phenomenon of massive increased animal losses accompanied by marked macroscopically visible pathological liver steatosis suddenly occurred. For comparison and as a reference, livers (n = 16) of two healthy flocks were taken. Healthy and diseased flocks were fed identical diets concerning official nutrient recommendations and were operating under standardized, comparable conventional conditions. Compared to livers of healthy animals, in the livers of turkeys died from hepatic lipidosis there were found massively increased fat levels (130 ± 33.2 vs. 324 ± 101 g/kg dry matter-DM). In all fatty livers, different fatty acids concentrations were present in significantly increased concentrations compared to controls (palmitic acid: 104 g/kg DM, +345%; palmitoleic acid: 18.0 g/kg DM, + 570%; oleic acid: 115 g/kg DM, +437%). Fatty acids concentrations relevant for liver metabolism and inflammation were significantly reduced (arachidonic acid: 2.92 g/kg DM, -66.6%; eicosapentaenoic acid: 0.141 g/kg DM, -78.3%; docosahexaenoic acid: 0.227 g/kg DM, -90.4%). The ratio of certain fatty acids to one another between control and case livers changed analogously to liver diseases in humans (e.g.: C18:0/C16:0 - 0.913 against 0.311; C16:1n7/C16:0 - 0.090 against 0.165; C18:1/C18:0 - 0.938 against 4.03). The iron content in the liver tissue also increased massively (271 ± 51.5 vs 712 ± 214 mg/kg DM). The hepatic

  20. External Validation of Fatty Liver Index for Identifying Ultrasonographic Fatty Liver in a Large-Scale Cross-Sectional Study in Taiwan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fang, Kuan-Chieh; Wang, Yuan-Chen; Huo, Teh-Ia; Huang, Yi-Hsiang; Yang, Hwai-I; Su, Chien-Wei; Lin, Han-Chieh; Lee, Fa-Yauh; Wu, Jaw-Ching; Lee, Shou-Dong

    2015-01-01

    Background and Aims The fatty liver index (FLI) is an algorithm involving the waist circumference, body mass index, and serum levels of triglyceride and gamma-glutamyl transferase to identify fatty liver. Although some studies have attempted to validate the FLI, few studies have been conducted for external validation among Asians. We attempted to validate FLI to predict ultrasonographic fatty liver in Taiwanese subjects. Methods We enrolled consecutive subjects who received health check-up services at the Taipei Veterans General Hospital from 2002 to 2009. Ultrasonography was applied to diagnose fatty liver. The ability of the FLI to detect ultrasonographic fatty liver was assessed by analyzing the area under the receiver operating characteristic (AUROC) curve. Results Among the 29,797 subjects enrolled in this study, fatty liver was diagnosed in 44.5% of the population. Subjects with ultrasonographic fatty liver had a significantly higher FLI than those without fatty liver by multivariate analysis (odds ratio 1.045; 95% confidence interval, CI 1.044–1.047, pfatty liver (AUROC: 0.827, 95% confidence interval, 0.822–0.831). An FLI fatty liver. Moreover, an FLI ≥ 35 (positive likelihood ratio (LR+) 3.12) for males and ≥ 20 (LR+ 4.43) for females rule in ultrasonographic fatty liver. Conclusions FLI could accurately identify ultrasonographic fatty liver in a large-scale population in Taiwan but with lower cut-off value than the Western population. Meanwhile the cut-off value was lower in females than in males. PMID:25781622

  1. Diagnostic methods of fatty liver disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kukuk, Guido Matthias; Sprinkart, Alois Martin; Traeber, Frank

    2017-01-01

    Fatty liver disease is defined as an abnormal accumulation of lipids into the cytoplasm of hepatocytes. Different kinds of fatty liver diseases are becoming the most important etiologies of end-stage liver disease in the western world. Because fatty liver is a theoretically reversible process, timely and accurate diagnosis is a prerequisite for potential therapeutic options. This work describes major diagnostic methods and discusses particular advantages and disadvantages of various techniques.

  2. Influence of fat/carbohydrate ratio on progression of fatty liver disease and on development of osteopenia in male rats fed alcohol via total enteral nutrition (TEN)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alcohol abuse is associated with the development of fatty liver disease and also with significant bone loss in both genders. In this study, we examined ethanol (EtOH)-induced pathology in response to diets with differing fat/carbohydrate ratios. Male Sprague-Dawley rats were fed intragastrically wit...

  3. Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease and metabolic syndrome in Brazilian middle-aged and older adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mauro Karnikowski

    Full Text Available CONTEXT AND OBJECTIVES: Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD is a complex clinicopathological entity characterized by diffuse or focal fat accumulation in the hepatic parenchyma of patients who deny abusive alcohol consumption. This study aimed to assess idiopathic NAFLD in community-dwelling, middle-aged and older adults living in the Brazilian Federal District. Associations between NAFLD and components of metabolic syndrome and the whole syndrome were investigated. DESIGN AND SETTINGS: This was a cross-sectional study on 139 subjects aged 55 years or older. METHODS: NAFLD was diagnosed by means of clinical procedures, to exclude subjects with signs of liver disorders, abusive alcohol consumption and influence from hepatotoxic drugs. Phenotypes were graded based on ultrasound examination. Metabolic syndrome was defined using the NCEP ATP III criteria. Laboratory tests were performed to assist clinical examinations and define the syndrome. RESULTS NAFLD was present in 35.2% of the subjects. Taken together, the two most intense phenotypes correlated with increased serum fasting glucose, triglyceride and VLDL cholesterol levels. Metabolic syndrome was diagnosed in 25.9% of the sample. In addition to associating NAFLD with specific traits of metabolic syndrome, non-parametric analysis confirmed the existence of a relationship (p < 0.05 between the steatotic manifestation and the syndromic condition. CONCLUSION: Compared with the literature, this study reveals greater frequency of idiopathic NAFLD among Brazilian middle-aged and older adults than is described elsewhere. The findings also suggest that impaired glycemic metabolism coupled with increased fat delivery and/or sustained endogenous biosynthesis is the most likely physiopathogenic mechanisms underlying the onset of NAFLD in this population.

  4. Diagnostic performances of serum liver enzymes and cytokines in non-alcoholic fatty liver disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hakan Turkon

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Objective:Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD is affecting people worldwide with increasing prevalence. Non-invasive tests are required for both diagnosis and staging of the disease. We aimed to evaluate diagnostic accuracy of routine liver enzymes and cytokines in NAFLD. Methods:A total of 88 cases, aged between 20 and 62 years, were included in the study. Serum ALT, AST, GGT, triglyceride, TNF-alpha, IL-6 and IL-8 were measured in 40 patients with NAFLD and in 48 healthy control patients with similar BMI and demographic characteristics. Diagnostic performances of serum biomarkers for diagnosis of NAFLD were evaluated with ROC analysis. Results:ALT and AST showed good diagnostic performance in predicting patients with NAFLD in the overall group (AUC=0.817; 95% CI[0.721-0.913], AUC=0.815;95% CI[0.718-0.911] respectively but in obese subjects ALT and AST showed poor performance (AUC=0.659;95% CI[0.478-0.841], AUC=0.680; 95% CI[0.498-0.861] respectively. Among cytokines TNF-alpha showed best performance in the diagnosis of NAFLD in both overall group and obese subjects (AUC=0.892; 95% CI[0.824- 0.959], AUC=0.858; 95% CI[0.739-0.977] respectively. The optimal cut off value for TNF-alpha was 10.65pg/ml with a sensitivity of 75% and a specificity of 93% in the overall group. IL-6 and IL-8 showed poor performance. Conclusion: TNF-alpha may be a good parameter for predicting patients with NAFLD. J Clin Exp Invest 2015;6 (1: 16-20

  5. Effects of elastase on fatty liver

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ogura, Kazuo; Shimizu, Yoshikazu; Hihara, Masafumi; Ando, Hideki; Nishiyama, Masateru; Tano, Hironobu

    1984-01-01

    Elastase (Elaszym 6T) was administered, in addition to the dietary instruction, to three patients with fatty liver. CT scanning revealed marked improvement in fatty liver. Transaminase levels returned to normal, total cholesterol levels tended to decrease, and HDL-cholesterol levels tended to increase. These results suggest that elastase is effective in the treatment of fatty liver. (Namekawa, K.)

  6. External validation of fatty liver index for identifying ultrasonographic fatty liver in a large-scale cross-sectional study in Taiwan.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bi-Ling Yang

    Full Text Available The fatty liver index (FLI is an algorithm involving the waist circumference, body mass index, and serum levels of triglyceride and gamma-glutamyl transferase to identify fatty liver. Although some studies have attempted to validate the FLI, few studies have been conducted for external validation among Asians. We attempted to validate FLI to predict ultrasonographic fatty liver in Taiwanese subjects.We enrolled consecutive subjects who received health check-up services at the Taipei Veterans General Hospital from 2002 to 2009. Ultrasonography was applied to diagnose fatty liver. The ability of the FLI to detect ultrasonographic fatty liver was assessed by analyzing the area under the receiver operating characteristic (AUROC curve.Among the 29,797 subjects enrolled in this study, fatty liver was diagnosed in 44.5% of the population. Subjects with ultrasonographic fatty liver had a significantly higher FLI than those without fatty liver by multivariate analysis (odds ratio 1.045; 95% confidence interval, CI 1.044-1.047, p< 0.001. Moreover, FLI had the best discriminative ability to identify patients with ultrasonographic fatty liver (AUROC: 0.827, 95% confidence interval, 0.822-0.831. An FLI < 25 (negative likelihood ratio (LR- 0.32 for males and <10 (LR- 0.26 for females rule out ultrasonographic fatty liver. Moreover, an FLI ≥ 35 (positive likelihood ratio (LR+ 3.12 for males and ≥ 20 (LR+ 4.43 for females rule in ultrasonographic fatty liver.FLI could accurately identify ultrasonographic fatty liver in a large-scale population in Taiwan but with lower cut-off value than the Western population. Meanwhile the cut-off value was lower in females than in males.

  7. Alcoholic Liver Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... may be increased in women because their digestive system may be less able to process alcohol, thus increasing the amount of alcohol reaching the liver. Genetic makeup Genetic makeup is thought to be involved because alcoholic liver disease often ...

  8. Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease - A multisystem disease?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mikolasevic, Ivana; Milic, Sandra; Turk Wensveen, Tamara; Grgic, Ivana; Jakopcic, Ivan; Stimac, Davor; Wensveen, Felix; Orlic, Lidija

    2016-01-01

    Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is one of the most common comorbidities associated with overweight and metabolic syndrome (MetS). Importantly, NAFLD is one of its most dangerous complications because it can lead to severe liver pathologies, including fibrosis, cirrhosis and hepatic cellular carcinoma. Given the increasing worldwide prevalence of obesity, NAFLD has become the most common cause of chronic liver disease and therefore is a major global health problem. Currently, NAFLD is predominantly regarded as a hepatic manifestation of MetS. However, accumulating evidence indicates that the effects of NAFLD extend beyond the liver and are negatively associated with a range of chronic diseases, most notably cardiovascular disease (CVD), diabetes mellitus type 2 (T2DM) and chronic kidney disease (CKD). It is becoming increasingly clear that these diseases are the result of the same underlying pathophysiological processes associated with MetS, such as insulin resistance, chronic systemic inflammation and dyslipidemia. As a result, they have been shown to be independent reciprocal risk factors. In addition, recent data have shown that NAFLD actively contributes to aggravation of the pathophysiology of CVD, T2DM, and CKD, as well as several other pathologies. Thus, NAFLD is a direct cause of many chronic diseases associated with MetS, and better detection and treatment of fatty liver disease is therefore urgently needed. As non-invasive screening methods for liver disease become increasingly available, detection and treatment of NAFLD in patients with MetS should therefore be considered by both (sub-) specialists and primary care physicians. PMID:27920470

  9. The effect of resveratrol on experimental non-alcoholic fatty liver disease depends on severity of pathology and timing of treatment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heebøll, Sara; El-Houri, Rime Bahij; Hellberg, Ylva Erika Kristina

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND AIM: Non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) is a leading cause of chronic liver disease with few therapeutic options. RSV prevents the development of steatosis in a number of experimental fatty liver (NAFL) models but the preventive or therapeutic effects on experimental NASH.......01), while there was no effect on biochemical, histopathological, or transcriptional NASH changes. Further, RSV had no therapeutic effect on established NASH. We found RSV metabolites but no parent RSV in serum or liver tissue, confirming low bioavailability. CONCLUSIONS: These experimental findings suggest...... are not yet clarified, and clinical results on NAFLD are ambiguous. Thus, we aimed to compare the RSV-mediated preventive and therapeutic effects on experimental NAFL and NASH. METHODS: We used a high-fat (HF) diet to generate a rat NAFL model and a high-fat, high-cholesterol (HFC) diet to generate a rat NASH...

  10. Hepatic microvascular dysfunction and increased advanced glycation end products are components of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pereira, Evelyn Nunes Goulart da Silva; Silvares, Raquel Rangel; Flores, Edgar Eduardo Ilaquita; Rodrigues, Karine Lino; Ramos, Isalira Peroba; da Silva, Igor José; Machado, Marcelo Pelajo; Miranda, Rosiane Aparecida; Pazos-Moura, Carmen Cabanelas; Gonçalves-de-Albuquerque, Cassiano F; Faria-Neto, Hugo Caire de Castro; Tibiriça, Eduardo; Daliry, Anissa

    2017-01-01

    This study aimed to investigate the pathophysiology of hepatic microcirculatory dysfunction in non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). In Wistar rats, NAFLD model was induced by 20 weeks of high-fat diet (HFD) feeding. Rolling and adhesion of leukocytes and tissue perfusion in hepatic microcirculation were examined using in vivo microscopic and laser speckle contrast imaging (LSCI), respectively. Oxidative stress and inflamatory parameters were analysed by TBARs, catalase enzyme activity, RT-PCR and ELISA. The participation of advanced glycation end-products (AGE) and its receptor RAGE was evaluated by the measurement of gene and protein expression of RAGE by RT-PCR and Western-blot, respectively and by liver and serum quantification of fluorescent AGEs. Wistar rats fed high-fat diet (HFD) showed increase in epididymal and abdominal fat content, systolic arterial blood pressure, fasting blood glucose levels, hepatic triglycerides and cholesterol, and impairment of glucose and insulin metabolisms. Liver histology confirmed the presence of steatosis and ultrasound analysis revealed increased liver size and parenchymal echogenicity in HFD-fed rats. HFD causes significant increases in leukocyte rolling and adhesion on hepatic microcirculation and decrease in liver microvascular blood flow. Liver tissue presented increase in oxidative stress and inflammtion. At 20 weeks, there was a significantly increase in AGE content in the liver and serum of HFD-fed rats and an increase in RAGE gene expression in the liver. The increase in liver AGE levels and microcirculatory disturbances could play a role in the pathogenesis of liver injury and are key components of NAFLD.

  11. A comparison of liver fat content as determined by magnetic resonance imaging-proton density fat fraction and MRS versus liver histology in non-alcoholic fatty liver disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Idilman, Ilkay S; Keskin, Onur; Celik, Azim; Savas, Berna; Elhan, Atilla Halil; Idilman, Ramazan; Karcaaltincaba, Musturay

    2016-03-01

    Many imaging methods have been defined for quantification of hepatic steatosis in non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). However, studies comparing the efficiency of magnetic resonance imaging-proton density fat fraction (MRI-PDFF), magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS), and liver histology for quantification of liver fat content are limited. To compare the efficiency of MRI-PDFF and MRS in the quantification of liver fat content in individuals with NAFLD. A total of 19 NAFLD patients underwent MRI-PDFF, MRS, and liver biopsy for quantification of liver fat content. The MR examinations were performed on a 1.5 HDx MRI system. The MRI protocol included T1-independent volumetric multi-echo gradient-echo imaging with T2* correction and spectral fat modeling and MRS with STEAM technique. A close correlation was observed between liver MRI-PDFF- and histology- determined steatosis (r = 0.743, P liver MRS- and histology-determined steatosis (r = 0.712, P quantification of hepatic steatosis, a high correlation was observed between the two MRI methods (r = 0.986, P steatosis from mild/no hepatic steatosis (P = 0.007 and 0.013, respectively), with no superiority between them (AUCMRI-PDFF = 0.881 ± 0.0856 versus AUCMRS = 0.857 ± 0.0924, P = 0.461). Both MRI-PDFF and MRS can be used for accurate quantification of hepatic steatosis. © The Foundation Acta Radiologica 2015.

  12. Validity criteria for the diagnosis of fatty liver by M probe-based controlled attenuation parameter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Vincent Wai-Sun; Petta, Salvatore; Hiriart, Jean-Baptiste; Cammà, Calogero; Wong, Grace Lai-Hung; Marra, Fabio; Vergniol, Julien; Chan, Anthony Wing-Hung; Tuttolomondo, Antonino; Merrouche, Wassil; Chan, Henry Lik-Yuen; Le Bail, Brigitte; Arena, Umberto; Craxì, Antonio; de Lédinghen, Victor

    2017-09-01

    Controlled attenuation parameter (CAP) can be performed together with liver stiffness measurement (LSM) by transient elastography (TE) and is often used to diagnose fatty liver. We aimed to define the validity criteria of CAP. CAP was measured by the M probe prior to liver biopsy in 754 consecutive patients with different liver diseases at three centers in Europe and Hong Kong (derivation cohort, n=340; validation cohort, n=414; 101 chronic hepatitis B, 154 chronic hepatitis C, 349 non-alcoholic fatty liver disease, 37 autoimmune hepatitis, 49 cholestatic liver disease, 64 others; 277 F3-4; age 52±14; body mass index 27.2±5.3kg/m 2 ). The primary outcome was the diagnosis of fatty liver, defined as steatosis involving ≥5% of hepatocytes. The area under the receiver-operating characteristics curve (AUROC) for CAP diagnosis of fatty liver was 0.85 (95% CI 0.82-0.88). The interquartile range (IQR) of CAP had a negative correlation with CAP (r=-0.32, psteatosis was lower among patients with body mass index ≥30kg/m 2 and F3-4 fibrosis. The validity of CAP for the diagnosis of fatty liver is lower if the IQR of CAP is ≥40dB/m. Lay summary: Controlled attenuation parameter (CAP) is measured by transient elastography (TE) for the detection of fatty liver. In this large study, using liver biopsy as a reference, we show that the variability of CAP measurements based on its interquartile range can reflect the accuracy of fatty liver diagnosis. In contrast, other clinical factors such as adiposity and liver enzyme levels do not affect the performance of CAP. Copyright © 2017 European Association for the Study of the Liver. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Chronic alcohol exposure disturbs lipid homeostasis at the adipose tissue-liver axis in mice: analysis of triacylglycerols using high-resolution mass spectrometry in combination with in vivo metabolite deuterium labeling.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaoli Wei

    Full Text Available A method of employing high-resolution mass spectrometry in combination with in vivo metabolite deuterium labeling was developed in this study to investigate the effects of alcohol exposure on lipid homeostasis at the white adipose tissue (WAT-liver axis in a mouse model of alcoholic fatty liver. In order to differentiate the liver lipids synthesized from the fatty acids that were transported back from adipose tissue and the lipids synthesized from other sources of fatty acids, a two-stage mouse feeding experiment was performed to incorporate deuterium into metabolites. Hepatic lipids extracted from mouse liver, epididymal white adipose tissue (eWAT and subcutaneous white adipose tissue (sWAT were analyzed. It was found that 13 and 10 triacylglycerols (TGs incorporated with a certain number of deuterium were significantly increased in alcohol induced fatty liver at two and four weeks of alcohol feeding periods, respectively. The concentration changes of these TGs ranged from 1.7 to 6.3-fold increase. A total of 14 deuterated TGs were significantly decreased in both eWAT and sWAT at the two and four weeks and the fold-change ranged from 0.19 to 0.77. The increase of deuterium incorporated TGs in alcohol-induced fatty liver and their decrease in both eWAT and sWAT indicate that alcohol exposure induces hepatic influx of fatty acids which are released from WATs. The results of time course analysis further indicate a mechanistic link between adipose fat loss and hepatic fat gain in alcoholic fatty liver.

  14. Sleep duration and quality in relation to non-alcoholic fatty liver disease in middle-aged workers and their spouses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Chan-Won; Yun, Kyung Eun; Jung, Hyun-Suk; Chang, Yoosoo; Choi, Eun-Suk; Kwon, Min-Jung; Lee, Eun-Hyun; Woo, Eui Jeong; Kim, Nan Hee; Shin, Hocheol; Ryu, Seungho

    2013-08-01

    Although accumulated evidence implies that short sleep duration and poor sleep quality may lead to an altered metabolic milieu, potentially triggering the development of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD), no studies have explored this association. This study sought to examine whether short sleep duration or poor sleep quality is associated with NAFLD in the general population. We assessed sleep duration and quality using the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index in 69,463 middle-aged workers and their spouses and carried out biochemical and anthropometric measurements. The presence of fatty liver was determined using ultrasonographic findings. Logistic regression models were used to evaluate the association of sleep duration and quality with NAFLD, after adjusting for potential confounders. After controlling for the relevant confounding factors (age, alcohol intake, smoking, physical activity, systolic blood pressure, education level, marital status, presence of job, sleep apnea, and loud snoring), the adjusted odds ratio (95% confidence interval) for NAFLD comparing sleep duration ≤5 h to the reference (>7h) was 1.28 (1.13-1.44) in men and 1.71 (1.38-2.13) in women. After further adjustments for BMI, this association was not significant in men (OR: 1.03, 95% CI: 0.90-1.19) but remained significant in women (OR: 1.59, 95% CI: 1.23-2.05). The multivariate-adjusted odds ratio comparing participants with poor sleep quality vs. participants with good sleep quality was 1.10 (95% CI 1.02-1.19) and 1.36 (95% CI 1.17-1.59) in men and women, respectively. In the middle-aged, general population, short sleep duration, and poor sleep quality were significantly associated with an increased risk of NAFLD. Prospective studies are required to confirm this association. Copyright © 2013 European Association for the Study of the Liver. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Nutritional Status and Nutrition Quality in Patients with Non-Alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vranešić Bender, Darija; Nutrizio, Marinela; Jošić, Mirja; Ljubas Kelečić, Dina; Karas, Irena; Premužić, Marina; Domislović, Viktor; Rotim, Cecilija; Krznarić, Željko

    2017-12-01

    Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is becoming a major health burden with increasing prevalence worldwide due to its close association with the epidemic of obesity. Currently there is no standardized pharmacological treatment, and the only proven effective therapeutic strategy is lifestyle modification, therefore it is important to determine the potential dietary targets for the prevention and treatment of NAFLD. We assessed nutritional status in 30 patients diagnosed with NAFLD using anthropometric parameters, hand grip strength, and lifestyle and dietetic parameters (physical activity, NRS2002 form and three-day food diary). The mean body mass index was 29.62±4.61 kg/m2, yielding 86.67% of obese or overweight patients. Physical activity results indicat-ed poorly active subjects. Excessive energy intake was recorded in 27.78% of patients. The mean in-take of macronutrients was as follows: 15.5% of proteins, 42.3% of carbohydrates and 42.2% of fat, with -deficient micronutrient intake of calcium, magnesium, iron, zinc, and vitamins A, B1 and B2. The -results showed that the quality of nutrition in study subjects was not accordant to current rec-ommendations and that they consumed a high proportion of fat, especially saturated fatty acids, along with low micronutrient intake. The results obtained might point to the importance of unbalanced diet as a contributing factor in NAFLD development.

  16. The Correlation of Sonographic Finding of Fatty Liver with Hematologic Examination and Body Fat Percentage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cheon, Hae Kyung; Lee, Tae Yong; Kim, Young Ran

    2009-01-01

    Ultrasonography has been used as a basic examination of a medical check up for prevention and diagnostics of diseases. Even the person who has no particular subjective symptoms can have a variety of diseases. Especially fatty liver is found in many cases. In this study, we tested 3582 persons who are in between the ages of 15 to 81 and observed that 1390 persons had fatty liver while 2192 persons are normal. We classified the grade of fatty liver and compared their life styles with the results of liver function test and BMI. The results are as follows. Ratio of the subjects who had a fatty liver is 38.8%. Male and female ratio was 46.2% and 24.2%. On the correlation among the fatty liver, the body mass index and the body fat, the average value of body mass index and body fat were significantly higher in the group of the fatty liver than in those of the normal liver. The influence of the related factor and the correlation on the fatty liver was shown that it was more related with the order of age, body mass index, triglyceride, ALT, body fat, sex, HDL-Cholesterol, LDL-Cholesterol, and GGT. The result of the ultrasonography carried out for the purpose of regular health check up indicates that even the 38.8% of those who was diagnosed as normal condition could have the fatty liver and have possibility of other diseases. Therefore, if there are any troubles related to liver function and lipid through hematologic examination or when practicing follow-up study with ultrasonography concerning the correlation relation between the body fat and dietary preference, alcohol consumption and exercise, the ultrasonography is definitely useful for prevention and treatment of diseases.

  17. The Correlation of Sonographic Finding of Fatty Liver with Hematologic Examination and Body Fat Percentage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cheon, Hae Kyung [Dept. of Radiology, Sun General Hospital, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Tae Yong; Kim, Young Ran [Dept. of Preventive Medicine and Public Health College of Midicin, Chungnam National University, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2009-12-15

    Ultrasonography has been used as a basic examination of a medical check up for prevention and diagnostics of diseases. Even the person who has no particular subjective symptoms can have a variety of diseases. Especially fatty liver is found in many cases. In this study, we tested 3582 persons who are in between the ages of 15 to 81 and observed that 1390 persons had fatty liver while 2192 persons are normal. We classified the grade of fatty liver and compared their life styles with the results of liver function test and BMI. The results are as follows. Ratio of the subjects who had a fatty liver is 38.8%. Male and female ratio was 46.2% and 24.2%. On the correlation among the fatty liver, the body mass index and the body fat, the average value of body mass index and body fat were significantly higher in the group of the fatty liver than in those of the normal liver. The influence of the related factor and the correlation on the fatty liver was shown that it was more related with the order of age, body mass index, triglyceride, ALT, body fat, sex, HDL-Cholesterol, LDL-Cholesterol, and GGT. The result of the ultrasonography carried out for the purpose of regular health check up indicates that even the 38.8% of those who was diagnosed as normal condition could have the fatty liver and have possibility of other diseases. Therefore, if there are any troubles related to liver function and lipid through hematologic examination or when practicing follow-up study with ultrasonography concerning the correlation relation between the body fat and dietary preference, alcohol consumption and exercise, the ultrasonography is definitely useful for prevention and treatment of diseases.

  18. Inorganic arsenic causes fatty liver and interacts with ethanol to cause alcoholic liver disease in zebrafish

    OpenAIRE

    Kathryn Bambino; Chi Zhang; Christine Austin; Chitra Amarasiriwardena; Manish Arora; Jaime Chu; Kirsten C. Sadler

    2018-01-01

    The rapid increase in fatty liver disease (FLD) incidence is attributed largely to genetic and lifestyle factors; however, environmental toxicants are a frequently overlooked factor that can modify the effects of more common causes of FLD. Chronic exposure to inorganic arsenic (iAs) is associated with liver disease in humans and animal models, but neither the mechanism of action nor the combinatorial interaction with other disease-causing factors has been fully investigated. Here, we examined...

  19. Fatty liver incidence and predictive variables

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsuneto, Akira; Seto, Shinji; Maemura, Koji; Hida, Ayumi; Sera, Nobuko; Imaizumi, Misa; Ichimaru, Shinichiro; Nakashima, Eiji; Akahoshi, Masazumi

    2010-01-01

    Although fatty liver predicts ischemic heart disease, the incidence and predictors of fatty liver need examination. The objective of this study was to determine fatty liver incidence and predictive variables. Using abdominal ultrasonography, we followed biennially through 2007 (mean follow-up, 11.6±4.6 years) 1635 Nagasaki atomic bomb survivors (606 men) without fatty liver at baseline (November 1990 through October 1992). We examined potential predictive variables with the Cox proportional hazard model and longitudinal trends with the Wilcoxon rank-sum test. In all, 323 (124 men) new fatty liver cases were diagnosed. The incidence was 19.9/1000 person-years (22.3 for men, 18.6 for women) and peaked in the sixth decade of life. After controlling for age, sex, and smoking and drinking habits, obesity (relative risk (RR), 2.93; 95% confidence interval (CI), 2.33-3.69, P<0.001), low high-density lipoprotein-cholesterol (RR, 1.87; 95% CI, 1.42-2.47; P<0.001), hypertriglyceridemia (RR, 2.49; 95% CI, 1.96-3.15; P<0.001), glucose intolerance (RR, 1.51; 95% CI, 1.09-2.10; P=0.013) and hypertension (RR, 1.63; 95% CI, 1.30-2.04; P<0.001) were predictive of fatty liver. In multivariate analysis including all variables, obesity (RR, 2.55; 95% CI, 1.93-3.38; P<0.001), hypertriglyceridemia (RR, 1.92; 95% CI, 1.41-2.62; P<0.001) and hypertension (RR, 1.31; 95% CI, 1.01-1.71; P=0.046) remained predictive. In fatty liver cases, body mass index and serum triglycerides, but not systolic or diastolic blood pressure, increased significantly and steadily up to the time of the diagnosis. Obesity, hypertriglyceridemia and, to a lesser extent, hypertension might serve as predictive variables for fatty liver. (author)

  20. Regulation of fatty acid composition and lipid storage by thyroid hormone in mouse liver

    OpenAIRE

    Yao, Xuan; Hou, Sarina; Zhang, Duo; Xia, Hongfeng; Wang, Yu-Cheng; Jiang, Jingjing; Yin, Huiyong; Ying, Hao

    2014-01-01

    Background Thyroid hormones (THs) are potent hormones modulating liver lipid homeostasis. The perturbation of lipid homeostasis is a hallmark of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD), a very common liver disorder. It was reported that NAFLD patients were associated with higher incidence of hypothyroidism. However, whether abnormal thyroid function contributes to the pathogenesis of NAFLD remains unclear. Results We used in vivo models to investigate the influence of hypothyroidism and TH ...

  1. Nine-year incident diabetes is predicted by fatty liver indices: the French D.E.S.I.R. study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vol Sylviane

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Fatty liver is known to be linked with insulin resistance, alcohol intake, diabetes and obesity. Biopsy and even scan-assessed fatty liver are not always feasible in clinical practice. This report evaluates the predictive ability of two recently published markers of fatty liver: the Fatty Liver Index (FLI and the NAFLD fatty liver score (NAFLD-FLS, for 9-year incident diabetes, in the French general-population cohort: Data from an Epidemiological Study on the Insulin Resistance syndrome (D.E.S.I.R. Methods At baseline, there were 1861 men and 1950 women, non-diabetic, aged 30 to 65 years. Over the follow-up, 203 incident diabetes cases (140 men, 63 women were identified by diabetes-treatment or fasting plasma glucose ≥ 7.0 mmol/l. The FLI includes: BMI, waist circumference, triglycerides and gamma glutamyl transferase, and the NAFLD-FLS: the metabolic syndrome, diabetes, insulin, alanine aminotransferase, and asparate aminotransferase. Logistic regression was used to determine the odds ratios for incident diabetes associated with categories of the fatty liver indices. Results In comparison to those with a FLI Conclusions These fatty liver indexes are simple clinical tools for evaluating the extent of liver fat and they are predictive of incident diabetes. Physicians should screen for diabetes in patients with fatty liver.

  2. Impact of diesel exhaust exposure on the liver of mice fed on omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids-deficient diet.

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    Umezawa, Masakazu; Nakamura, Masayuki; El-Ghoneimy, Ashraf A; Onoda, Atsuto; Shaheen, Hazem M; Hori, Hiroshi; Shinkai, Yusuke; El-Sayed, Yasser S; El-Far, Ali H; Takeda, Ken

    2018-01-01

    Exposure to diesel exhaust (DE) exacerbates non-alcoholic fatty liver disease, and may systemically affect lipid metabolism. Omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (n-3 PUFA) have anti-inflammatory activity and suppresses hepatic triacylglycerol accumulation, but many daily diets are deficient in this nutrient. Therefore, the effect of DE exposure in mice fed n-3 PUFA-deficient diet was investigated. Mice were fed control chow or n-3 PUFA-deficient diet for 4 weeks, then exposed to clean air or DE by inhalation for further 4 weeks. Liver histology, plasma parameters, and expression of fatty acid synthesis-related genes were evaluated. N-3 PUFA-deficient diet increased hepatic lipid droplets accumulation and expression of genes promoting fatty acid synthesis: Acaca, Acacb, and Scd1. DE further increased the plasma leptin and the expression of fatty acid synthesis-related genes: Acacb, Fasn, and Scd1. N-3 PUFA-deficient diet and DE exposure potentially enhanced hepatic fatty acid synthesis and subsequently accumulation of lipid droplets. The combination of low-dose DE exposure and intake of n-3 PUFA-deficient diet may be an additional risk factor for the incidence of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease. The present study suggests an important mechanism for preventing toxicity of DE on the liver through the incorporation of n-3 PUFAs in the diet. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Long Non-Coding RNA Profiling in a Non-Alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease Rodent Model: New Insight into Pathogenesis

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    Yi Chen

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD is one of the most prevalent chronic liver diseases worldwide with an unclear mechanism. Long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs have recently emerged as important regulatory molecules. To better understand NAFLD pathogenesis, lncRNA and messenger RNA (mRNA microarrays were conducted in an NAFLD rodent model. Potential target genes of significantly changed lncRNA were predicted using cis/trans-regulatory algorithms. Gene Ontology (GO analysis and Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG pathway enrichment analysis were then performed to explore their function. In the current analysis, 89 upregulated and 177 downregulated mRNAs were identified, together with 291 deregulated lncRNAs. Bioinformatic analysis of these RNAs has categorized these RNAs into pathways including arachidonic acid metabolism, circadian rhythm, linoleic acid metabolism, peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR signaling pathway, sphingolipid metabolism, steroid biosynthesis, tryptophan metabolism and tyrosine metabolism were compromised. Quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR of representative nine mRNAs and eight lncRNAs (named fatty liver-related lncRNA, FLRL was conducted and this verified previous microarray results. Several lncRNAs, such as FLRL1, FLRL6 and FLRL2 demonstrated to be involved in circadian rhythm targeting period circadian clock 3 (Per3, Per2 and aryl hydrocarbon receptor nuclear translocator-like (Arntl, respectively. While FLRL8, FLRL3 and FLRL7 showed a potential role in PPAR signaling pathway through interaction with fatty acid binding protein 5 (Fabp5, lipoprotein lipase (Lpl and fatty acid desaturase 2 (Fads2. Functional experiments showed that interfering of lncRNA FLRL2 expression affected the expression of predicted target, circadian rhythm gene Arntl. Moreover, both FLRL2 and Arntl were downregulated in the NAFLD cellular model. The current study identified lncRNA and corresponding mRNA in NAFLD

  4. Efficacy of the Omega-3 Index in predicting non-alcoholic fatty liver disease in overweight and obese adults: a pilot study.

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    Parker, Helen M; O'Connor, Helen T; Keating, Shelley E; Cohn, Jeffrey S; Garg, Manohar L; Caterson, Ian D; George, Jacob; Johnson, Nathan A

    2015-09-14

    Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is an independent predictor of CVD in otherwise healthy individuals. Low n-3 PUFA intake has been associated with the presence of NAFLD; however, the relationship between a biomarker of n-3 status - the Omega-3 Index - and liver fat is yet to be elucidated. A total of eighty overweight adults (fifty-six men) completed the anthropometric and biochemical measurements, including the Omega-3 Index, and underwent proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy assessment of liver fat. Bivariate correlations and multiple regression analyses were performed with reference to prediction of liver fat percentage. The mean Omega-3 Index was high in both NAFLD (intrahepatic lipid concentration≥5·5 %) and non-NAFLD groups. The Omega-3 Index, BMI, waist circumference, glucose, insulin, TAG, high-sensitive C-reactive protein (hsCRP) and alanine aminotransferase (ALT) were positively correlated, and HDL and erythrocyte n-6:n-3 ratio negatively correlated with liver fat concentration. Regression analysis found that simple anthropometric and demographic variables (waist, age) accounted for 31 % of the variance in liver fat and the addition of traditional cardiometabolic blood markers (TAG, HDL, hsCRP and ALT) increased the predictive power to 43 %. The addition of the novel erythrocyte fatty acid variable (Omega-3 Index) to the model only accounted for a further 3 % of the variance (P=0·049). In conclusion, the Omega-3 Index was associated with liver fat concentration but did not improve the overall capacity of demographic, anthropometric and blood markers to predict NAFLD.

  5. Higher association of coronary artery calcification with non-alcoholic fatty liver disease than with abdominal obesity in middle-aged Korean men: the Kangbuk Samsung Health Study.

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    Lee, Min-Kyung; Park, Hye-Jeong; Jeon, Won Seon; Park, Se Eun; Park, Cheol-Young; Lee, Won-Young; Oh, Ki-Won; Park, Sung-Woo; Rhee, Eun-Jung

    2015-07-15

    It is uncertain whether non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) or abdominal obesity is more associated with atherosclerosis. The aim of this study was to determine whether NAFLD or abdominal obesity is more strongly associated with subclinical atherosclerosis represented by coronary artery calcification (CAC). A total of 21,335 male participants in a health screening program (mean age 41 years) were enrolled. Ultrasonographic measurements of fatty liver and multi-detector computed tomography were performed to determine the coronary artery calcium score (CACS). The presence of CAC was defined as CACS > 0. Subjects were divided into four groups according to the presence or absence of NAFLD and/or abdominal obesity as assessed by waist-hip ratio (WHR) > 0.9. The presence of CAC was detected in 2,385 subjects (11.2%). The proportion of subjects with CAC was highest in the abdominal obesity only group (23.2%). After adjustment for age, diabetes history, hypertension, cigarette smoking, and physical inactivity, the odds ratio (OR) for CAC was the highest in the group with both abnormalities [1.465 (1.324-1.623)]. The NAFLD only group showed significantly increased OR for CAC compared to that in the abdominal obesity only group [1.286 (1.151-1.436) vs. 1.076 (0.939-1.233)]. Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease is more closely associated with CAC than abdominal obesity as assessed by the WHR. NAFLD could be considered an independent determinant of subclinical atherosclerosis as assessed by CAC.

  6. Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease in mice with heterozygous mutation in TMED2.

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    Wenyang Hou

    Full Text Available The transmembrane emp24 domain/p24 (TMED family are essential components of the vesicular transport machinery. Members of the TMED family serve as cargo receptors implicated in selection and packaging of endoplasmic reticulum (ER luminal proteins into coatomer (COP II coated vesicles for anterograde transport to the Golgi. Deletion or mutations of Tmed genes in yeast and Drosophila results in ER-stress and activation of the unfolded protein response (UPR. The UPR leads to expression of genes and proteins important for expanding the folding capacity of the ER, degrading misfolded proteins, and reducing the load of new proteins entering the ER. The UPR is activated in non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD in human and mouse and may contribute to the development and the progression of NAFLD. Tmed2, the sole member of the vertebrate Tmed β subfamily, exhibits tissue and temporal specific patterns of expression in embryos and developing placenta but is ubiquitously expressed in all adult organs. We previously identified a single point mutation, the 99J mutation, in the signal sequence of Tmed2 in an N-ethyl-N-nitrosourea (ENU mutagenesis screen. Histological and molecular analysis of livers from heterozygous mice carrying the 99J mutation, Tmed299J/+, revealed a requirement for TMED2 in liver health. We show that Tmed299J/+ mice had decreased levels of TMED2 and TMED10, dilated endoplasmic reticulum membrane, and increased phosphorylation of eIF2α, indicating ER-stress and activation of the UPR. Increased expression of Srebp1a and 2 at the newborn stage and increased incidence of NAFLD were also found in Tmed299J/+ mice. Our data establishes Tmed299J/+ mice as a novel mouse model for NAFLD and supports a role for TMED2 in liver health.

  7. Antioxidant dietary approach in treatment of fatty liver: New insights and updates.

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    Ferramosca, Alessandra; Di Giacomo, Mariangela; Zara, Vincenzo

    2017-06-21

    Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is a common clinicopathological condition, encompassing a range of conditions caused by lipid deposition within liver cells. To date, no approved drugs are available for the treatment of NAFLD, despite the fact that it represents a serious and growing clinical problem in the Western world. Identification of the molecular mechanisms leading to NAFLD-related fat accumulation, mitochondrial dysfunction and oxidative balance impairment facilitates the development of specific interventions aimed at preventing the progression of hepatic steatosis. In this review, we focus our attention on the role of dysfunctions in mitochondrial bioenergetics in the pathogenesis of fatty liver. Major data from the literature about the mitochondrial targeting of some antioxidant molecules as a potential treatment for hepatic steatosis are described and critically analysed. There is ample evidence of the positive effects of several classes of antioxidants, such as polyphenols ( i.e ., resveratrol, quercetin, coumestrol, anthocyanins, epigallocatechin gallate and curcumin), carotenoids ( i.e ., lycopene, astaxanthin and fucoxanthin) and glucosinolates ( i.e ., glucoraphanin, sulforaphane, sinigrin and allyl-isothiocyanate), on the reversion of fatty liver. Although the mechanism of action is not yet fully elucidated, in some cases an indirect interaction with mitochondrial metabolism is expected. We believe that such knowledge will eventually translate into the development of novel therapeutic approaches for fatty liver.

  8. Uridine prevents fenofibrate-induced fatty liver.

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    Thuc T Le

    Full Text Available Uridine, a pyrimidine nucleoside, can modulate liver lipid metabolism although its specific acting targets have not been identified. Using mice with fenofibrate-induced fatty liver as a model system, the effects of uridine on liver lipid metabolism are examined. At a daily dosage of 400 mg/kg, fenofibrate treatment causes reduction of liver NAD(+/NADH ratio, induces hyper-acetylation of peroxisomal bifunctional enzyme (ECHD and acyl-CoA oxidase 1 (ACOX1, and induces excessive accumulation of long chain fatty acids (LCFA and very long chain fatty acids (VLCFA. Uridine co-administration at a daily dosage of 400 mg/kg raises NAD(+/NADH ratio, inhibits fenofibrate-induced hyper-acetylation of ECHD, ACOX1, and reduces accumulation of LCFA and VLCFA. Our data indicates a therapeutic potential for uridine co-administration to prevent fenofibrate-induced fatty liver.

  9. Fatty Liver Index and Lipid Accumulation Product Can Predict Metabolic Syndrome in Subjects without Fatty Liver Disease

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    Yuan-Lung Cheng

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Fatty liver index (FLI and lipid accumulation product (LAP are indexes originally designed to assess the risk of fatty liver and cardiovascular disease, respectively. Both indexes have been proven to be reliable markers of subsequent metabolic syndrome; however, their ability to predict metabolic syndrome in subjects without fatty liver disease has not been clarified. Methods. We enrolled consecutive subjects who received health check-up services at Taipei Veterans General Hospital from 2002 to 2009. Fatty liver disease was diagnosed by abdominal ultrasonography. The ability of the FLI and LAP to predict metabolic syndrome was assessed by analyzing the area under the receiver operating characteristic (AUROC curve. Results. Male sex was strongly associated with metabolic syndrome, and the LAP and FLI were better than other variables to predict metabolic syndrome among the 29,797 subjects. Both indexes were also better than other variables to detect metabolic syndrome in subjects without fatty liver disease (AUROC: 0.871 and 0.879, resp., and the predictive power was greater among women. Conclusion. Metabolic syndrome increases the cardiovascular disease risk. The FLI and LAP could be used to recognize the syndrome in both subjects with and without fatty liver disease who require lifestyle modifications and counseling.

  10. The Mediterranean diet improves hepatic steatosis and insulin sensitivity in individuals with non-alcoholic fatty liver disease.

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    Ryan, Marno C; Itsiopoulos, Catherine; Thodis, Tania; Ward, Glenn; Trost, Nicholas; Hofferberth, Sophie; O'Dea, Kerin; Desmond, Paul V; Johnson, Nathan A; Wilson, Andrew M

    2013-07-01

    Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) affects up to 30% of the population and signifies increased risk of liver fibrosis and cirrhosis, type 2 diabetes, and cardiovascular disease. Therapies are limited. Weight loss is of benefit but is difficult to maintain. We aimed at examining the effect of the Mediterranean diet (MD), a diet high in monounsaturated fatty acids, on steatosis and insulin sensitivity, using gold standard techniques. Twelve non-diabetic subjects (6 Females/6 Males) with biopsy-proven NAFLD were recruited for a randomised, cross-over 6-week dietary intervention study. All subjects undertook both the MD and a control diet, a low fat-high carbohydrate diet (LF/HCD), in random order with a 6-week wash-out period in- between. Insulin sensitivity was determined with a 3-h hyperinsulinemic-euglycemic clamp study and hepatic steatosis was assessed with localized magnetic resonance (1)H spectroscopy ((1)H-MRS). At baseline, subjects were abdominally obese with elevated fasting concentrations of glucose, insulin, triglycerides, ALT, and GGT. Insulin sensitivity at baseline was low (M=2.7 ± 1.0 mg/kg/min(-1)). Mean weight loss was not different between the two diets (p=0.22). There was a significant relative reduction in hepatic steatosis after the MD compared with the LF/HCD: 39 ± 4% versus 7 ± 3%, as measured by (1)H-MRS (p=0.012). Insulin sensitivity improved with the MD, whereas after the LF/HCD there was no change (p=0.03 between diets). Even without weight loss, MD reduces liver steatosis and improves insulin sensitivity in an insulin-resistant population with NAFLD, compared to current dietary advice. This diet should be further investigated in subjects with NAFLD. Copyright © 2013 European Association for the Study of the Liver. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Association of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease with low bone mass in postmenopausal women.

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    Moon, Seong-Su; Lee, Young-Sil; Kim, Sung Woo

    2012-10-01

    Osteoporosis is a disease associated with insulin resistant states such as central obesity, diabetes, and metabolic syndrome. Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is also increased in such conditions. However, little is known about whether osteoporosis and nonalcoholic fatty liver disease are etiologically related to each other or not. We examined whether bone mineral density (BMD) is associated with NAFLD in pre- and postmenopausal women. Four hundred eighty-one female subjects (216 premenopausal and 265 postmenopausal) were enrolled. Lumbar BMD was measured using dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry. Liver ultrasonography was done to check the severity of fatty liver. We excluded subjects with a secondary cause of liver disease. Blood pressure, lipid profile, fasting plasma glucose, alanine aminotransferase (ALT), aspartate aminotransferase, and body mass index were measured in every subject. Mean lumbar BMD was lower in subjects with NAFLD than those without NAFLD in postmenopausal women (0.98 ± 0.01 vs. 1.01 ± 0.02 g/cm², P = 0.046). Multiple correlation analysis revealed a significant association between mean lumbar BMD and NAFLD in postmenopausal subjects after adjusting for age, body mass index, ALT, smoking status, and alcohol consumption (β coefficient -0.066, 95% CI -0.105 to -0.027, P = 0.001). Even after adjusting the presence of metabolic syndrome, the significance was maintained (β coefficient -0.043, 95% CI -0.082 to -0.004, P = 0.031). Lumbar BMD is related with NAFLD in postmenopausal females. We suggest that postmenopausal women with NAFLD may have a higher risk of osteoporosis than those without.

  12. Mediterranean Diet and Multi-Ingredient-Based Interventions for the Management of Non-Alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease

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    Manuel Suárez

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD comprises a wide spectrum of hepatic disorders, from simple steatosis to hepatic necro-inflammation leading to non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH. Although the prevalence of these multifactorial pathologies is continuously increasing in the population, there is still not an established methodology for their treatment other than weight loss and a change in lifestyle habits, such as a hypocaloric diet and physical exercise. In this framework, there is increasing evidence that several food bioactives and dietary patterns are effective for reversing and preventing the onset of these pathologies. Some studies have claimed that better responses are obtained when treatments are performed under a multifaceted approach, using different bioactive compounds that act against complementary targets. Thus, in this work, current strategies for treating NAFLD and NASH based on multi-ingredient-based supplements or the Mediterranean diet, a dietary pattern rich in bioactive compounds, are reviewed. Furthermore, the usefulness of omics techniques to design effective multi-ingredient nutritional interventions and to predict and monitor their response against these disorders is also discussed.

  13. Mediterranean Diet and Multi-Ingredient-Based Interventions for the Management of Non-Alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suárez, Manuel; Boqué, Noemí; del Bas, Josep M.; Arola, Lluís; Caimari, Antoni

    2017-01-01

    Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) comprises a wide spectrum of hepatic disorders, from simple steatosis to hepatic necro-inflammation leading to non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH). Although the prevalence of these multifactorial pathologies is continuously increasing in the population, there is still not an established methodology for their treatment other than weight loss and a change in lifestyle habits, such as a hypocaloric diet and physical exercise. In this framework, there is increasing evidence that several food bioactives and dietary patterns are effective for reversing and preventing the onset of these pathologies. Some studies have claimed that better responses are obtained when treatments are performed under a multifaceted approach, using different bioactive compounds that act against complementary targets. Thus, in this work, current strategies for treating NAFLD and NASH based on multi-ingredient-based supplements or the Mediterranean diet, a dietary pattern rich in bioactive compounds, are reviewed. Furthermore, the usefulness of omics techniques to design effective multi-ingredient nutritional interventions and to predict and monitor their response against these disorders is also discussed. PMID:28937599

  14. Screening for non-alcoholic fatty liver disease in children: do guidelines provide enough guidance?

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    Koot, B G P; Nobili, V

    2017-09-01

    Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is the most common chronic liver disease in the industrialized world in children. Its high prevalence and important health risks make NAFLD highly suitable for screening. In practice, screening is widely, albeit not consistently, performed. To review the recommendations on screening for NAFLD in children. Recommendations on screening were reviewed from major paediatric obesity guidelines and NAFLD guidelines. A literature overview is provided on open questions and controversies. Screening for NAFLD is advocated in all obesity and most NAFLD guidelines. Guidelines are not uniform in whom to screen, and most guidelines do not specify how screening should be performed in practice. Screening for NAFLD remains controversial, due to lack of a highly accurate screening tool, limited knowledge to predict the natural course of NAFLD and limited data on its cost effectiveness. Guidelines provide little guidance on how screening should be performed. Screening for NAFLD remains controversial because not all conditions for screening are fully met. Consensus is needed on the optimal use of currently available screening tools. Research should focus on new accurate screening tool, the natural history of NAFLD and the cost effectiveness of different screening strategies in children. © 2017 The Authors. Obesity Reviews published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd on behalf of World Obesity Federation.

  15. [Progress in research of the mechanisms related with the hepatic steatosis in the nonalcoholic fatty liver disease].

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    Shi, Li-Juan; Song, Guang-Yao

    2013-12-01

    With the increased morbidity of Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease, the pathogenesis of which has become one of the focuses for researchers. Many details need to be clarified. The hepatic steatosis has been taken as the clinical pathological characters and the "golden standard of diagnosis" for the nonalcoholic fatty liver disease. More and more studies have shown that the hepatic steatosis (mainly as triglycerides) is the consequence of hepatic lipid metabolism disequilibrium. Generally, the related metabolism pathways including lipid input, lipid uptake, de novo lipogenesis, fatty acid oxidation, fatty acid reesterification, and lipid secretion etc. In this review, we focused on the progress of some key enzymes involved in these pathways in order to clarify the possible molecular mechanisms and the effective targets so that to broad our vision about the prevention and treatment of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease.

  16. Fatty acids in non-alcoholic steatohepatitis: Focus on pentadecanoic acid.

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    Wonbeak Yoo

    Full Text Available Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD is the most common form of liver disease and ranges from isolated steatosis to NASH. To determine whether circulating fatty acids could serve as diagnostic markers of NAFLD severity and whether specific fatty acids could contribute to the pathogenesis of NASH, we analyzed two independent NAFLD patient cohorts and used the methionine- and choline-deficient diet (MCD NASH mouse model. We identified six fatty acids that could serve as non-invasive markers of NASH in patients with NAFLD. Serum levels of 15:0, 17:0 and 16:1n7t negatively correlated with NAFLD activity scores and hepatocyte ballooning scores, while 18:1n7c serum levels strongly correlated with fibrosis stage and liver inflammation. Serum levels of 15:0 and 17:0 also negatively correlated with fasting glucose and AST, while 16:1n7c and 18:1n7c levels positively correlated with AST and ferritin, respectively. Inclusion of demographic and clinical parameters improved the performance of the fatty acid panels in detecting NASH in NAFLD patients. The panel [15:0, 16:1n7t, 18:1n7c, 22:5n3, age, ferritin and APRI] predicted intermediate or advanced fibrosis in NAFLD patients, with 82% sensitivity at 90% specificity [AUROC = 0.92]. 15:0 and 18:1n7c were further selected for functional studies in vivo. Mice treated with 15:0-supplemented MCD diet showed reduced AST levels and hepatic infiltration of ceroid-laden macrophages compared to MCD-treated mice, suggesting that 15:0 deficiency contributes to liver injury in NASH. In contrast, 18:1n7c-supplemented MCD diet didn't affect liver pathology. In conclusion, 15:0 may serve as a promising biomarker or therapeutic target in NASH, opening avenues for the integration of diagnosis and treatment.

  17. Higher free triiodothyronine is associated with non-alcoholic fatty liver disease in euthyroid subjects: the Lifelines Cohort Study.

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    van den Berg, Eline H; van Tienhoven-Wind, Lynnda J N; Amini, Marzyeh; Schreuder, Tim C M A; Faber, Klaas Nico; Blokzijl, Hans; Dullaart, Robin P F

    2017-02-01

    Overt hypothyroidism confers an increased risk of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). The liver plays a crucial role in the metabolism of cholesterol and triglycerides; thyroid hormones interact on hepatic lipid homeostasis. Thyroid function within the euthyroid range affects a number of health issues, including atherosclerosis development and biochemical markers of increased cardiovascular risk. However, the association of thyroid hormones with NAFLD in euthyroid subjects has not been unequivocally established. We therefore determined associations of thyroid hormone parameters with NAFLD among euthyroid subjects. The study was conducted in the Lifelines Cohort Study, a population-based cohort study of participants living in the North of the Netherlands. Only euthyroid subjects (thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) 0.5-4.0mU/L, free thyroxine (FT4) 11-19.5pmol/L and free triiodothyronine (FT3) 4.4-6.7pmol/L) older than 18years were included. Exclusion criteria were participants with excessive alcohol use, known hepatitis or cirrhosis, liver functions ≥ three times the upper limit, current cancer, non-white ancestry, previous or current use of thyroid medication and current use of lipid or glucose lowering medication. A priori defined liver biochemistry, thyroid function parameters and metabolic syndrome (MetS) were studied. NAFLD was defined by using the validated Fatty Liver Index (FLI); FLI≥60 was categorized as NAFLD. A P<0.01 was considered significant. FLI≥60 was found in 4274 (21.1%) of 20,289 individuals (62.1% male, median age 46years) with increased prevalence of MetS (P<0.0001). In age- and sex-adjusted analysis FLI≥60 was independently associated with a higher FT3 (OR 1.34, 95% CI 1.29-1.39, per SD increment, P<0.0001) and a lower FT4 (OR 0.73, 95% CI 0.70-0.75, P<0.0001) but not by TSH. The strongest association was found for the FT3/FT4 ratio (OR 1.44, 95% CI 1.39-1.49, P<0.0001). These associations remained similar after additional

  18. Quantitative MRI for hepatic fat fraction and T2* measurement in pediatric patients with non-alcoholic fatty liver disease.

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    Deng, Jie; Fishbein, Mark H; Rigsby, Cynthia K; Zhang, Gang; Schoeneman, Samantha E; Donaldson, James S

    2014-11-01

    Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is the most common cause of chronic liver disease in children. The gold standard for diagnosis is liver biopsy. MRI is a non-invasive imaging method to provide quantitative measurement of hepatic fat content. The methodology is particularly appealing for the pediatric population because of its rapidity and radiation-free imaging techniques. To develop a multi-point Dixon MRI method with multi-interference models (multi-fat-peak modeling and bi-exponential T2* correction) for accurate hepatic fat fraction (FF) and T2* measurements in pediatric patients with NAFLD. A phantom study was first performed to validate the accuracy of the MRI fat fraction measurement by comparing it with the chemical fat composition of the ex-vivo pork liver-fat homogenate. The most accurate model determined from the phantom study was used for fat fraction and T2* measurements in 52 children and young adults referred from the pediatric hepatology clinic with suspected or identified NAFLD. Separate T2* values of water (T2*W) and fat (T2*F) components derived from the bi-exponential fitting were evaluated and plotted as a function of fat fraction. In ten patients undergoing liver biopsy, we compared histological analysis of liver fat fraction with MRI fat fraction. In the phantom study the 6-point Dixon with 5-fat-peak, bi-exponential T2* modeling demonstrated the best precision and accuracy in fat fraction measurements compared with other methods. This model was further calibrated with chemical fat fraction and applied in patients, where similar patterns were observed as in the phantom study that conventional 2-point and 3-point Dixon methods underestimated fat fraction compared to the calibrated 6-point 5-fat-peak bi-exponential model (P fat fraction, T2*W (27.9 ± 3.5 ms) decreased, whereas T2*F (20.3 ± 5.5 ms) increased; and T2*W and T2*F became increasingly more similar when fat fraction was higher than 15-20%. Histological fat

  19. Quantitative MRI for hepatic fat fraction and T2* measurement in pediatric patients with non-alcoholic fatty liver disease

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    Deng, Jie; Rigsby, Cynthia K.; Donaldson, James S. [Ann and Robert H. Lurie Children' s Hospital of Chicago, Department of Medical Imaging, Chicago, IL (United States); Northwestern University, Department of Radiology, Feinberg School of Medicine, Chicago, IL (United States); Fishbein, Mark H. [Ann and Robert H. Lurie Children' s Hospital of Chicago, Division of Gastroenterology, Hepatology, and Nutrition, Chicago, IL (United States); Zhang, Gang [Ann and Robert H. Lurie Children' s Hospital of Chicago, Biostatistics Research Core, Chicago, IL (United States); Schoeneman, Samantha E. [Ann and Robert H. Lurie Children' s Hospital of Chicago, Department of Medical Imaging, Chicago, IL (United States)

    2014-11-15

    Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is the most common cause of chronic liver disease in children. The gold standard for diagnosis is liver biopsy. MRI is a non-invasive imaging method to provide quantitative measurement of hepatic fat content. The methodology is particularly appealing for the pediatric population because of its rapidity and radiation-free imaging techniques. To develop a multi-point Dixon MRI method with multi-interference models (multi-fat-peak modeling and bi-exponential T2* correction) for accurate hepatic fat fraction (FF) and T2* measurements in pediatric patients with NAFLD. A phantom study was first performed to validate the accuracy of the MRI fat fraction measurement by comparing it with the chemical fat composition of the ex-vivo pork liver-fat homogenate. The most accurate model determined from the phantom study was used for fat fraction and T2* measurements in 52 children and young adults referred from the pediatric hepatology clinic with suspected or identified NAFLD. Separate T2* values of water (T2*{sub W}) and fat (T2*{sub F}) components derived from the bi-exponential fitting were evaluated and plotted as a function of fat fraction. In ten patients undergoing liver biopsy, we compared histological analysis of liver fat fraction with MRI fat fraction. In the phantom study the 6-point Dixon with 5-fat-peak, bi-exponential T2* modeling demonstrated the best precision and accuracy in fat fraction measurements compared with other methods. This model was further calibrated with chemical fat fraction and applied in patients, where similar patterns were observed as in the phantom study that conventional 2-point and 3-point Dixon methods underestimated fat fraction compared to the calibrated 6-point 5-fat-peak bi-exponential model (P < 0.0001). With increasing fat fraction, T2*{sub W} (27.9 ± 3.5 ms) decreased, whereas T2*{sub F} (20.3 ± 5.5 ms) increased; and T2*{sub W} and T2*{sub F} became increasingly more similar when fat

  20. Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease and subclinical atherosclerosis: A comparison of metabolically- versus genetically-driven excess fat hepatic storage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Costanzo, Alessia; D'Erasmo, Laura; Polimeni, Licia; Baratta, Francesco; Coletta, Paola; Di Martino, Michele; Loffredo, Lorenzo; Perri, Ludovica; Ceci, Fabrizio; Montali, Anna; Girelli, Gabriella; De Masi, Bruna; Angeloni, Antonio; Catalano, Carlo; Maranghi, Marianna; Del Ben, Maria; Angelico, Francesco; Arca, Marcello

    2017-02-01

    Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is frequently associated with atherosclerosis. However, it is unclear whether this association is related to excess fat liver storage per se or to metabolic abnormalities that typically accompany NAFLD. To investigate this, we compared individuals with hepatic steatosis driven by metabolic disturbances to those with hepatic steatosis associated with the rs738409 GG genotype in the patatin-like phospholipase domain-containing 3 gene (PNPLA3). Carotid intima-media thickness (CIMT), as a surrogate marker of subclinical atherosclerosis, was measured in 83 blood donors with the mutant GG genotype (group G), 100 patients with features of metabolic syndrome (MetS) but the wildtype CC genotype (group M), and 74 blood donors with the wildtype CC genotype (controls). Fatty liver was evaluated by ultrasonography and hepatic fat fraction (HFF) was measured using magnetic resonance (MRS/MRI) in 157 subjects. Compared with group G and controls, group M subjects were older and had increased adiposity indices, dyslipidemia, insulin resistance and elevated transaminase levels (all p hepatic steatosis), the median CIMT in group M (0.84 [0.70-0.95] mm) was significantly greater than that in group G (0.66 [0.55-0.74] mm; p < 0.001), which was similar to that in controls (0.70 [0.64-0.81] mm). Results were similar in the subgroup evaluated using MRS/MRI. Excess liver fat accumulation appeared to increase the burden of subclinical atherosclerosis only when it is associated with metabolic abnormalities. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Therapeutic role of ursolic acid on ameliorating hepatic steatosis and improving metabolic disorders in high-fat diet-induced non-alcoholic fatty liver disease rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Songtao; Liao, Xilu; Meng, Fanyu; Wang, Yemei; Sun, Zongxiang; Guo, Fuchuan; Li, Xiaoxia; Meng, Man; Li, Ying; Sun, Changhao

    2014-01-01

    Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is one of the most prevalent liver diseases around the world, and is closely associated with obesity, diabetes, and insulin resistance. Ursolic acid (UA), an ubiquitous triterpenoid with multifold biological roles, is distributed in various plants. This study was conducted to investigate the therapeutic effect and potential mechanisms of UA against hepatic steatosis in a high-fat diet (HFD)-induced obese non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) rat model. Obese NAFLD model was established in Sprague-Dawley rats by 8-week HFD feeding. Therapeutic role of UA was evaluated using 0.125%, 0.25%, 0.5% UA-supplemented diet for another 6 weeks. The results from both morphologic and histological detections indicated that UA significantly reversed HFD-induced hepatic steatosis and liver injury. Besides, hepatic peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR)-α was markedly up-regulated at both mRNA and protein levels by UA. Knocking down PPAR-α significantly inhibited the anti-steatosis role of UA in vitro. HFD-induced adverse changes in the key genes, which participated in hepatic lipid metabolism, were also alleviated by UA treatment. Furthermore, UA significantly ameliorated HFD-induced metabolic disorders, including insulin resistance, inflammation and oxidative stress. These results demonstrated that UA effectively ameliorated HFD-induced hepatic steatosis through a PPAR-α involved pathway, via improving key enzymes in the controlling of lipids metabolism. The metabolic disorders were accordingly improved with the decrease of hepatic steatosis. Thereby, UA could be a promising candidate for the treatment of NAFLD.

  2. Therapeutic role of ursolic acid on ameliorating hepatic steatosis and improving metabolic disorders in high-fat diet-induced non-alcoholic fatty liver disease rats.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Songtao Li

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD is one of the most prevalent liver diseases around the world, and is closely associated with obesity, diabetes, and insulin resistance. Ursolic acid (UA, an ubiquitous triterpenoid with multifold biological roles, is distributed in various plants. This study was conducted to investigate the therapeutic effect and potential mechanisms of UA against hepatic steatosis in a high-fat diet (HFD-induced obese non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD rat model. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Obese NAFLD model was established in Sprague-Dawley rats by 8-week HFD feeding. Therapeutic role of UA was evaluated using 0.125%, 0.25%, 0.5% UA-supplemented diet for another 6 weeks. The results from both morphologic and histological detections indicated that UA significantly reversed HFD-induced hepatic steatosis and liver injury. Besides, hepatic peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR-α was markedly up-regulated at both mRNA and protein levels by UA. Knocking down PPAR-α significantly inhibited the anti-steatosis role of UA in vitro. HFD-induced adverse changes in the key genes, which participated in hepatic lipid metabolism, were also alleviated by UA treatment. Furthermore, UA significantly ameliorated HFD-induced metabolic disorders, including insulin resistance, inflammation and oxidative stress. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: These results demonstrated that UA effectively ameliorated HFD-induced hepatic steatosis through a PPAR-α involved pathway, via improving key enzymes in the controlling of lipids metabolism. The metabolic disorders were accordingly improved with the decrease of hepatic steatosis. Thereby, UA could be a promising candidate for the treatment of NAFLD.

  3. Metabolic profiling of fatty liver in young and middle‐aged adults: Cross‐sectional and prospective analyses of the Young Finns Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Würtz, Peter; Suomela, Emmi; Lehtovirta, Miia; Kangas, Antti J.; Jula, Antti; Mikkilä, Vera; Viikari, Jorma S.A.; Juonala, Markus; Rönnemaa, Tapani; Hutri‐Kähönen, Nina; Kähönen, Mika; Lehtimäki, Terho; Soininen, Pasi; Ala‐Korpela, Mika; Raitakari, Olli T.

    2016-01-01

    Nonalcoholic fatty liver is associated with obesity‐related metabolic disturbances, but little is known about the metabolic perturbations preceding fatty liver disease. We performed comprehensive metabolic profiling to assess how circulating metabolites, such as lipoprotein lipids, fatty acids, amino acids, and glycolysis‐related metabolites, reflect the presence of and future risk for fatty liver in young adults. Sixty‐eight lipids and metabolites were quantified by nuclear magnetic resonance metabolomics in the population‐based Young Finns Study from serum collected in 2001 (n = 1,575), 2007 (n = 1,509), and 2011 (n = 2,002). Fatty liver was diagnosed by ultrasound in 2011 when participants were aged 34‐49 years (19% prevalence). Cross‐sectional associations as well as 4‐year and 10‐year risks for fatty liver were assessed by logistic regression. Metabolites across multiple pathways were strongly associated with the presence of fatty liver (P fatty acids including omega‐6 (OR = 0.37, 0.32‐0.42). The metabolic associations were attenuated but remained significant after adjusting for waist, physical activity, alcohol consumption, and smoking (P fatty liver diagnosis. Conclusion: Circulating lipids, fatty acids, and amino acids reflect fatty liver independently of routine metabolic risk factors; these metabolic aberrations appear to precede the development of fatty liver in young adults. (Hepatology 2017;65:491‐500). PMID:27775848

  4. The Effect of Chlorella vulgaris Supplementation on Liver Enzymes, Serum Glucose and Lipid Profile in Patients with Non-Alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease

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    Mehrangiz Ebrahimi-Mameghani

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD is becoming a public health problem worldwide and using microalgae is a new approach on its treatment. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of Chlorella vulgaris supplementation on liver enzymes, serum glucose and lipid profile in patients with NAFLD. Methods: This double-blind randomized placebo-controlled clinical trial was conducted on 60 NAFLD patients from specialized clinics of Tabriz University of Medical Sciences from December 2011 to July 2012. The subjects were randomly allocated into 2 groups: 1 “intervention” (n=30 received 400 mg/day vitamin E plus four 300 mg tablets of Chlorella vulgaris and, 2 “placebo” (n=30 received 400 mg/day vitamin E and four placebo tablets per day for 8 weeks. Weight, liver enzymes and metabolic factors were assessed in fasting serum and dietary data was collected at baseline and end of the study. Results: Weight, liver enzymes, fasting blood sugar (FBS and lipid profile decreased significantly in both groups (P<0.05. The differences in weight, ALP and FBS between the two groups were statistically significant (P=0.01, P=0.04 and P=0.02, respectively. Conclusion: C. vulgaris seems to improve FBS and lipid profile and therefore could be considered as an effective complementary treatment in NAFLD.

  5. Association between Serum Uric Acid and Non-Alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease: A Meta-Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Darmawan, Guntur; Hamijoyo, Laniyati; Hasan, Irsan

    2017-04-01

    non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is known to be associated with some metabolic disorders. Recent studies suggested the role of uric acid in NAFLD through oxidative stress and inflammatory process. This study is aimed to evaluate the association between serum uric acid and NAFLD. a systematic literature review was conducted using Pubmed and Cochrane library. The quality of all studies was assessed using the Strengthening the Reporting of Observational Studies in Epidemiology (STROBE). All data were analyzed using REVIEW MANAGER 5.3. eleven studies from America and Asia involving 100,275 subjects were included. The pooled adjusted OR for NAFLD was 1.92 (95% CI: 1.66-2.23; puric acid levels and severity of NAFLD. No publication bias was observed. our study demonstrated association between serum uric acid level and NAFLD. This finding brings a new insight of uric acid in clinical practice. Increased in serum uric acid levels might serve as a trigger for physician to screen for NAFLD.

  6. Sedimentary Fatty Alcohols in Kapas Island, Terengganu

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Noor Farahin Amiruddin; Mohamad Iznul Muazim Mohamad Zabidi; Nurul Fathihah Mt Nanyan; Masni Mohd Ali; Masni Mohd Ali

    2015-01-01

    A geochemical study was carried out to identify the composition and sources of fatty alcohols in Kapas Island, Terengganu, Malaysia. Fatty alcohols in surface sediments were extracted and analyzed using Gas Chromatography - Mass Spectrometry (GC-MS). A total of 23 fatty alcohol compounds were identified in the Kapas Island sediment. Total concentrations of fatty alcohols ranged from 0.53 to 21.31 ng/ g dry weight and the highest total concentration was found at S2, which is probably due to its location profile that is located north of Kapas Island which is close to several small islands. The short chain/ long chain fatty alcohol ratio and alcohol source index (ASI) were used together to identify the dominant input in Kapas Island. Kapas Island sediments contained a mixture of organic sources, of which terrestrial sources were indicated to be the most abundant sources in these marine sediments. (author)

  7. CORRELATION OF NON-ALCOHOLIC FATTY LIVER DISEASE AND FEATURES OF METABOLIC SYNDROME IN MORBIDLY OBESE PATIENTS IN THE PREOPERATIVE ASSESSMENT FOR BARIATRIC SURGERY

    Science.gov (United States)

    de BARROS, Fernando; SETÚBAL, Sergio; MARTINHO, José Manoel; FERRAZ, Loraine; GAUDÊNCIO, Andressa

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Background: Obesity is an epidemic and chronic disease that can bring other comorbidities to the patient. Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease is present in up to 90% of these patients and can progress to hepatitis and hepatocarcinoma. The relationship of this liver disease and obesity is already well known; however, it is possible that some parameters of the comorbidities are more related than others in the pathophysiology of the disease. Aim: Was analyzed the relationship between non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) and the comorbidities of metabolic syndrome in morbidly obese patients. Methods: Was involved ultrasonography and laboratory assessment of obese patients before bariatric surgery. NAFLD was assessed using the same sonography parameters for all patients. Based on the results, the patients were divided into groups with and without NAFLD. Comparisons between them involved clinical and laboratory variables such as fasting blood glucose, insulin, HOMA-IR (homeostasis model assessment - insulin resistance), glycated hemoglobin, total cholesterol and fractions, triglycerides, alanine aminotransferase, aspartate aminotransferase, gamma glutamyl transferase, C-reactive protein, albumin and ferritin. Patients who reported alcohol abuse (defined as the consumption of >14 drinks per week) or who had hepatitis were excluded. Results: Eighty-two patients (74 women and 8 men) were studied, of whom 53 (64.6%) had NAFLD and 29 (35.4%) did not. The levels of glycated hemoglobin (p=0.05) and LDL cholesterol (p=0.01) were significantly altered in patients with NAFLD. However, weight, body mass index and excess weight did not differ significantly between the groups (p=0.835, p=0.488 and p=0.727, respectively). Conclusions: Altered LDL cholesterol and glycated hemoglobin levels were related to the presence of NAFLD. PMID:28076482

  8. To Study the Activity of Paraoxonase-1 and High Density Lipoprotein-Cholesterol in Alcoholic Liver Cirrhosis

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    Pooja Nemagoudar

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Alcoholic liver cirrhosis is the most common complication of ethanol abuse. Alcoholic fatty liver progresses to alcoholic hepatitis, cirrhosis and liver failure. Lipoproteins are synthesized by the liver and secreted into the circulation. Alcoholic liver cirrhosis causes alteration in lipoprotein metabolism producing liver steatosis and necrosis. Paraoxonase-1 (PON-1 is an enzyme synthesized in liver and has an esterase activity towards lipid peroxides and circulates in plasma bound to High-Density Lipoproteins-cholesterol (HDL-c. Aim and Objectives: To determine the activity of PON-1 and levels of HDL-c in alcoholic liver disease and to correlate PON-1 activity with HDL-c. Materials and Methods: A Cross sectional study done in Department of Biochemistry and Department of Medicine, Belagavi Institute of Medical Sciences, Belagavi, Karnataka, India, from 1st December 2014 to 31st January 2016 Study included 50 males (age range 25-55 years with alcoholic liver cirrhosis and 50 healthy male participants (age range 25-55 years. PON-1 activity was estimated using spectrophotometric method by the hydrolysis of phenylacetate. HDL-c level was measured by cholesterol oxidase-peroxidase method. Results: The serum PON-1 activity and levels of HDL-c in patients with alcoholic liver cirrhosis were significantly reduced (p<0.001 compared with controls. Conclusion: A significant decrease in PON-1 and HDL-c in alcoholic liver cirrhosis may contribute to the risk of atherosclerosis in alcoholic liver cirrhosis patients.

  9. Propylthiouracil for alcoholic liver disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rambaldi, A; Gluud, C

    2002-01-01

    Alcohol is the most common cause of liver disease in the Western world today. Randomised clinical trials have addressed the question whether propylthiouracil has any efficacy in patients with alcoholic liver disease.......Alcohol is the most common cause of liver disease in the Western world today. Randomised clinical trials have addressed the question whether propylthiouracil has any efficacy in patients with alcoholic liver disease....

  10. Mitochondrial-nuclear genome interactions in non-alcoholic fatty liver disease in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Betancourt, Angela M; King, Adrienne L; Fetterman, Jessica L; Millender-Swain, Telisha; Finley, Rachel D; Oliva, Claudia R; Crowe, David R; Ballinger, Scott W; Bailey, Shannon M

    2014-07-15

    NAFLD (non-alcoholic fatty liver disease) involves significant changes in liver metabolism characterized by oxidative stress, lipid accumulation and fibrogenesis. Mitochondrial dysfunction and bioenergetic defects also contribute to NAFLD. In the present study, we examined whether differences in mtDNA influence NAFLD. To determine the role of mitochondrial and nuclear genomes in NAFLD, MNX (mitochondrial-nuclear exchange) mice were fed an atherogenic diet. MNX mice have mtDNA from C57BL/6J mice on a C3H/HeN nuclear background and vice versa. Results from MNX mice were compared with wild-type C57BL/6J and C3H/HeN mice fed a control or atherogenic diet. Mice with the C57BL/6J nuclear genome developed more macrosteatosis, inflammation and fibrosis compared with mice containing the C3H/HeN nuclear genome when fed the atherogenic diet. These changes were associated with parallel alterations in inflammation and fibrosis gene expression in wild-type mice, with intermediate responses in MNX mice. Mice with the C57BL/6J nuclear genome had increased State 4 respiration, whereas MNX mice had decreased State 3 respiration and RCR (respiratory control ratio) when fed the atherogenic diet. Complex IV activity and most mitochondrial biogenesis genes were increased in mice with the C57BL/6J nuclear or mitochondrial genome, or both fed the atherogenic diet. These results reveal new interactions between mitochondrial and nuclear genomes and support the concept that mtDNA influences mitochondrial function and metabolic pathways implicated in NAFLD.

  11. Chronic fructose intake accelerates non-alcoholic fatty liver disease in the presence of essential hypertension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lírio, Layla Mendonça; Forechi, Ludimila; Zanardo, Tadeu Caliman; Batista, Hiago Martins; Meira, Eduardo Frizera; Nogueira, Breno Valentim; Mill, José Geraldo; Baldo, Marcelo Perim

    2016-01-01

    The growing epidemic of metabolic syndrome has been related to the increased use of fructose by the food industry. In fact, the use of fructose as an ingredient has increased in sweetened beverages, such as sodas and juices. We thus hypothesized that fructose intake by hypertensive rats would have a worse prognosis in developing metabolic disorder and non-alcoholic fatty liver disease. Male Wistar and SHR rats aged 6weeks were given water or fructose (10%) for 6weeks. Blood glucose was measured every two weeks, and insulin and glucose sensitivity tests were assessed at the end of the follow-up. Systolic blood pressure was measure by plethysmography. Lean mass and abdominal fat mass were collected and weighed. Liver tissue was analyzed to determine interstitial fat deposition and fibrosis. Fasting glucose increased in animals that underwent a high fructose intake, independent of blood pressure levels. Also, insulin resistance was observed in normotensive and mostly in hypertensive rats after fructose intake. Fructose intake caused a 2.5-fold increase in triglycerides levels in both groups. Fructose intake did not change lean mass. However, we found that fructose intake significantly increased abdominal fat mass deposition in normotensive but not in hypertensive rats. Nevertheless, chronic fructose intake only increased fat deposition and fibrosis in the liver in hypertensive rats. We demonstrated that, in normotensive and hypertensive rats, fructose intake increased triglycerides and abdominal fat deposition, and caused insulin resistance. However, hypertensive rats that underwent fructose intake also developed interstitial fat deposition and fibrosis in liver. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. CLINICAL PROFILE OF PATIENTS WITH ALCOHOLIC LIVER DISEASE IN UPPER ASSAM OF NORTH EAST INDIA

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    Ardhendu Kumar Sen

    2017-05-01

    mean haemoglobin level was 8.6 ± 2.02 gm%. The mean AST was 155.61 ± 85.24 U/L and mean ALT was 81.65 ± 37.59 U/L. In ultrasonography of abdomen, cirrhosis of liver was seen in 60.14% cases, fatty liver in 20.29% cases and hepatomegaly with hepatitis in 19.57% cases. The most common findings in UGI endoscopy was oesophageal varices (56.19% cases. The average duration of alcohol intake in fatty liver, hepatitis and cirrhosis cases were 12.77 ± 3.70, 14.56 ± 6.83 and 20.53 ± 6.08 years, respectively. The most common ECG findings were sinus tachycardia (31.88%. Atrial fibrillation was seen in 8.69% cases. CONCLUSION Alcoholic liver disease has a varied clinical and biochemical presentation ranging from the subtle features of fatty liver to obvious findings of decompensated cirrhosis. ALD was more common in people with lower socioeconomic status. A higher prevalence of ALD was also seen in the females

  13. Prevalence of metabolic risk factors in non-alcoholic fatty liver disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ashraf, N.; Sarfraz, T.; Mumtaz, Z.; Rizwan, M.

    2017-01-01

    Objective: To determine the frequency of factors leading to metabolic syndrome among non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) patients at a tertiary care hospital. Study Design: Descriptive cross sectional study. Place and Duration of Study: Department of Medicine, Combined Military Hospital, Kharian. Study was carried out over a period of six months from Jan 2015 to Jun 2015. Material and Methods: A total of 110 patients were included in this study. Past history was taken to rule out alcohol intake, viral and drug induced etiology, to determine the presence of co-morbidities like obesity, type 2 diabetes mellitus, arterial hypertension and dyslipidemia. Physical examination was carried to determine the arterial blood pressure and to determine anthropometric data that is weight, height, body mass index (BMI) and abdominal obesity by measuring waist circumference. Results: Mean age of the patients was 49.95 +- 8.86 years. There were 72 male patients (65.5%) while 38 (34.5%) patients were female. Different metabolic factors were central obesity in 82 patients (74.5%), raised high density lipoprotein (HDL) in 19 patients (17.3%), raised cholesterol in 87 patients (79.1%), raised blood pressure in 65 patients (59.1%) and raised fasting plasma glucose in 82 patients (74.5%). Mean BMI was 26.31 kg/m2 +- 2.68, mean waist circumference was 109.82 cm +- 18.41, mean cholesterol was 237.50 +- 48.47mg/dl, mean systolic blood pressure was 148.88mmHg +- 22.10, mean diastolic blood pressure was 90.41mmHg +- 12.25 and mean fasting plasma glucose was 113.28mg/dl +- 22.80. Stratification with regard to age was carried out. Conclusion: A considerable number of patients with NAFLD had metabolic syndrome. There was a close correlation between NAFLD and metabolic syndrome. (author)

  14. Temporal Trends of Non-alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease-related Hepatocellular Carcinoma in the Veteran Affairs Population

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mittal, Sahil; Sada, Yvonne H.; El-Serag, Hashem B.; Kanwal, Fasiha; Duan, Zhigang; Temple, Sarah; May, Sarah B.; Kramer, Jennifer R.; Richardson, Peter A.; Davila, Jessica A.

    2014-01-01

    Background & Aims Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is a risk factor for hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). However, no systemic studies from the United States have examined temporal trends, HCC surveillance practices, and outcomes of NAFLD-related HCC. Methods We identified a national cohort of 1500 patients who developed HCC from 2005 through 2010 from Veterans Administration (VA) hospitals. We reviewed patients’ full VA medical records; NAFLD was diagnosed based on histologic evidence for, or the presence of, metabolic syndrome in the absence of hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection, hepatitis B, or alcoholic liver disease. We compared annual prevalence values for the main risk factors (NAFLD, alcohol abuse, HCV), as well HCC surveillance and outcomes, among HCC patients. Results NAFLD was the underlying risk factor for HCC in 120 patients (8.0%); the annual proportion of NAFLD-related HCC remained relatively stable (7.5%–12.0%). In contrast, the proportion of HCC cases associated with HCV increased from 61.0% in 2005 (95% confidence interval, 53.1%–68.9%) to 74.9% in 2010 (95% confidence interval, 69.0%–80.7%). The proportion of HCC cases associated with only alcohol abuse decreased from 21.9% in 2005 to 15.7% in 2010, and the annual proportion of HCC cases associated with hepatitis B remained relatively stable (1.4%–3.5%). A significantly lower proportion of patients with NAFLD-related HCC had cirrhosis (58.3%) compared to patients with alcohol- or HCV-related HCC (72.4% and 85.6%, respectively; P<.05). A significantly higher percentage of patients with NAFLD-related HCC did not receive HCC surveillance in the 3 years before their HCC diagnosis, compared to patients with alcohol- or HCV-associated HCC. A lower proportion of patients with NAFLD-related HCC received HCC-specific treatment (61.5%) than of patients with HCV-related HCC (77.5%; P<.01). However, 1-year survival did not differ among patients with HCC related to different risk factors

  15. Gut microbiota manipulation with prebiotics in patients with non-alcoholic fatty liver disease: a randomized controlled trial protocol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lambert, Jennifer E; Parnell, Jill A; Eksteen, Bertus; Raman, Maitreyi; Bomhof, Marc R; Rioux, Kevin P; Madsen, Karen L; Reimer, Raylene A

    2015-12-03

    Evidence for the role of the gut microbiome in the pathogenesis of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is emerging. Strategies to manipulate the gut microbiota towards a healthier community structure are actively being investigated. Based on their ability to favorably modulate the gut microbiota, prebiotics may provide an inexpensive yet effective dietary treatment for NAFLD. Additionally, prebiotics have established benefits for glucose control and potentially weight control, both advantageous in managing fatty liver disease. Our objective is to evaluate the effects of prebiotic supplementation, adjunct to those achieved with diet-induced weight loss, on heptic injury and liver fat, the gut microbiota, inflammation, glucose tolerance, and satiety in patients with NAFLD. In a double blind, placebo controlled, parallel group study, adults (BMI ≥25) with confirmed NAFLD will be randomized to either a 16 g/d prebiotic supplemented group or isocaloric placebo group for 24 weeks (n = 30/group). All participants will receive individualized dietary counseling sessions with a registered dietitian to achieve 10 % weight loss. Primary outcome measures include change in hepatic injury (fibrosis and inflammation) and liver fat. Secondary outcomes include change in body composition, appetite and dietary adherence, glycemic and insulinemic responses and inflammatory cytokines. Mechanisms related to prebiotic-induced changes in gut microbiota (shot-gun sequencing) and their metabolic by-products (volatile organic compounds) and de novo lipogenesis (using deuterium incorporation) will also be investigated. There are currently no medications or surgical procedures approved for the treatment of NAFLD and weight loss via lifestyle modification remains the cornerstone of current care recommendations. Given that prebiotics target multiple metabolic impairments associated with NAFLD, investigating their ability to modulate the gut microbiota and hepatic health in patients

  16. Body mass index in school-aged children and the risk of routinely diagnosed non-alcoholic fatty liver disease in adulthood

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zimmermann, Esther; Gamborg, Michael; Holst, Claus

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: The relation between childhood overweight and adult non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is largely unknown. We investigated if weight and weight gain in childhood increases the risk of being diagnosed with NAFLD in routine clinical settings in adulthood. PARTICIPANTS: We studied.......23) per 1-unit gain in BMI z-score in men and women, respectively. Associations were similar when adjusted for BMI z-score at age 13 years, and were consistent across birth years. CONCLUSIONS: A BMI gain in school-aged children is associated with adult NAFLD. Intriguingly, BMI gain appears to have...

  17. Additive Effect of Non-Alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease on Metabolic Syndrome-Related Endothelial Dysfunction in Hypertensive Patients

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    Maria Perticone

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Metabolic syndrome (MS is characterized by an increased risk of incident diabetes and cardiovascular (CV events, identifying insulin resistance (IR and endothelial dysfunction as key elements. Moreover, non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD is bidirectionally linked with MS as a consequence of metabolic and inflammatory abnormalities. We addressed the question if the evolution in NAFLD might worsen endothelium-dependent vasodilating response in MS hypertensives. We recruited 272 Caucasian newly-diagnosed never-treated hypertensive outpatients divided into three groups according to the presence/absence of MS alone or in combination with NAFLD. MS and NAFLD were defined according to the National Cholesterol Education Program-Adult Treatment Panel III (NCEP-ATPIII and non-invasive fatty liver index, respectively. We determined IR by using the homeostasis model assessment (HOMA index. Vascular function, as forearm blood flow (FBF, was determined through strain-gauge plethysmography after intra-arterial infusion of acetylcholine (ACh and sodium nitroprusside. MS+NAFLD+ group showed worse metabolic, inflammatory and vascular profiles compared with MS−NAFLD− and MS+NAFLD−. HOMA resulted in being the strongest predictor of FBF both in the MS+NAFLD− and in the MS+NAFLD+ groups, accounting for 20.5% and 33.2% of its variation, respectively. In conclusion, we demonstrated that MS+NAFLD+ hypertensives show a worse endothelium-dependent vasodilation compared with MS+NAFLD−, allowing for consideration of NAFLD as an early marker of endothelial dysfunction in hypertensives.

  18. CT appearance of focal fatty infiltration of the liver

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Halvorsen, R.A.; Korobkin, M.; Ram, P.C.; Thompson, W.M.

    1982-01-01

    Focal fatty infiltration of the liver is an entity that may be confused with liver metastasis on computed tomography (CT). The imaging results and medical records of 16 patients with CT appearance suggestive of focal fatty liver were reviewed, three of whom had the simultaneous presence of metastitic liver disease. Focal fatty liver often has a distinctive appearance with CT, usually with a nonspherical shape, absence of mass effect, and density close to water. Liver metastases are usually round or oval, and unless cystic or necrotic, they have CT attenuation values closer to normal liver parenchyma than water. A radionuclide liver scan almost always resolves any confusion about the differential diagnosis of focal fatty liver: a well defined focus of photon deficiency is due to neoplasm rather than focal fatty infiltration. Sonography sometimes helps to confirm the CT impression, but may be misleading if the diagnosis of focal or diffuse fatty infiltration is not suspected before the examination

  19. Bioinformatics-driven identification and examination of candidate genes for non-alcoholic fatty liver disease.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karina Banasik

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Candidate genes for non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD identified by a bioinformatics approach were examined for variant associations to quantitative traits of NAFLD-related phenotypes.By integrating public database text mining, trans-organism protein-protein interaction transferal, and information on liver protein expression a protein-protein interaction network was constructed and from this a smaller isolated interactome was identified. Five genes from this interactome were selected for genetic analysis. Twenty-one tag single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs which captured all common variation in these genes were genotyped in 10,196 Danes, and analyzed for association with NAFLD-related quantitative traits, type 2 diabetes (T2D, central obesity, and WHO-defined metabolic syndrome (MetS.273 genes were included in the protein-protein interaction analysis and EHHADH, ECHS1, HADHA, HADHB, and ACADL were selected for further examination. A total of 10 nominal statistical significant associations (P<0.05 to quantitative metabolic traits were identified. Also, the case-control study showed associations between variation in the five genes and T2D, central obesity, and MetS, respectively. Bonferroni adjustments for multiple testing negated all associations.Using a bioinformatics approach we identified five candidate genes for NAFLD. However, we failed to provide evidence of associations with major effects between SNPs in these five genes and NAFLD-related quantitative traits, T2D, central obesity, and MetS.

  20. Healthy dietary pattern is inversely associated with non-alcoholic fatty liver disease in elderly.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adriano, Lia Silveira; Sampaio, Helena Alves de Carvalho; Arruda, Soraia Pinheiro Machado; Portela, Clarissa Lima de Melo; de Melo, Maria Luisa Pereira; Carioca, Antônio Augusto Ferreira; Soares, Nadia Tavares

    2016-06-01

    The prevalence of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is rising, an increase that may be associated with changes in lifestyle such as unhealthy dietary patterns. Although advanced age is a risk factor for NAFLD, no studies reporting this association in the elderly population were found. In the present study, the association between dietary patterns and NAFLD in the elderly was assessed. A study including 229 older adults was conducted. NAFLD diagnosis was defined as individuals whose ultrasound examination disclosed hepatic steatosis at any stage, in the absence of excess intake of alcoholic beverages. Dietary patterns were obtained by principal components analysis. Mean scores and standard errors of each dietary pattern were calculated for the groups with and without NAFLD, and mean scores of the two groups were compared using the Mann-Whitney U test. The prevalence ratios and 95 % CI were estimated for each tertile of the dietary pattern adherence scores using Poisson multiple regression models with robust variance. A total of 103 (45 %) elderly with NAFLD and four dietary patterns were identified: traditional, regional snacks, energy dense and healthy. Mean scores for adherence to the healthy pattern in the groups with and without NAFLD differed. NAFLD was inversely associated with greater adherence to the healthy pattern and directly associated with the regional snacks, after adjustment for confounders. In conclusion, healthy dietary pattern is inversely associated with NAFLD in elderly.

  1. Role of dietary fatty acids in liver injury caused by vinyl chloride metabolites in mice

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anders, Lisanne C [Department of Pharmacology and Toxicology, University of Louisville Health Sciences Center, Louisville, KY 40292 (United States); Department of Medicine, University of Louisville Health Sciences Center, Louisville, KY 40292 (United States); Yeo, Heegook; Kaelin, Brenna R; Lang, Anna L; Bushau, Adrienne M; Douglas, Amanda N [Department of Pharmacology and Toxicology, University of Louisville Health Sciences Center, Louisville, KY 40292 (United States); Cave, Matt [Department of Pharmacology and Toxicology, University of Louisville Health Sciences Center, Louisville, KY 40292 (United States); Department of Medicine, University of Louisville Health Sciences Center, Louisville, KY 40292 (United States); Hepatobiology and Toxicology Program, University of Louisville Health Sciences Center, Louisville, KY 40292 (United States); Diabetes and Obesity Center, University of Louisville Health Sciences Center, Louisville, KY 40292 (United States); Robley Rex Louisville VAMC, Louisville, KY 40206 (United States); Arteel, Gavin E [Department of Pharmacology and Toxicology, University of Louisville Health Sciences Center, Louisville, KY 40292 (United States); Hepatobiology and Toxicology Program, University of Louisville Health Sciences Center, Louisville, KY 40292 (United States); McClain, Craig J [Department of Pharmacology and Toxicology, University of Louisville Health Sciences Center, Louisville, KY 40292 (United States); Department of Medicine, University of Louisville Health Sciences Center, Louisville, KY 40292 (United States); Hepatobiology and Toxicology Program, University of Louisville Health Sciences Center, Louisville, KY 40292 (United States); Diabetes and Obesity Center, University of Louisville Health Sciences Center, Louisville, KY 40292 (United States); Robley Rex Louisville VAMC, Louisville, KY 40206 (United States); and others

    2016-11-15

    Background: Vinyl chloride (VC) causes toxicant-associated steatohepatitis at high exposure levels. Recent work by this group suggests that underlying liver disease may predispose the liver to VC hepatotoxicity at lower exposure levels. The most common form of underlying liver disease in the developed world is non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). It is well-known that the type of dietary fat can play an important role in the pathogenesis of NAFLD. However, whether the combination of dietary fat and VC/metabolites promotes liver injury has not been studied. Methods: Mice were administered chloroethanol (CE - a VC metabolite) or vehicle once, 10 weeks after being fed diets rich in saturated fatty acids (HSFA), rich in poly-unsaturated fatty acids (HPUFA), or the respective low-fat control diets (LSFA; LPUFA). Results: In control mice, chloroethanol caused no detectable liver injury, as determined by plasma transaminases and histologic indices of damage. In HSFA-fed mice, chloroethanol increased HSFA-induced liver damage, steatosis, infiltrating inflammatory cells, hepatic expression of proinflammatory cytokines, and markers of endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress. Moreover, markers of inflammasome activation were increased, while markers of inflammasome inhibition were downregulated. In mice fed HPUFA all of these effects were significantly attenuated. Conclusions: Chloroethanol promotes inflammatory liver injury caused by dietary fatty acids. This effect is far more exacerbated with saturated fat, versus poly-unsaturated fat; and strongly correlates with a robust activation of the NLRP3 inflammasome in the saturated fed animals only. Taken together these data support the hypothesis that environmental toxicant exposure can exacerbate the severity of NAFLD/NASH. - Highlights: • CE promotes inflammatory liver injury caused by dietary fatty acids. • This effect is stronger with saturated than with unsaturated fatty acids. • Damage caused by saturated fat and CE

  2. Role of dietary fatty acids in liver injury caused by vinyl chloride metabolites in mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anders, Lisanne C; Yeo, Heegook; Kaelin, Brenna R; Lang, Anna L; Bushau, Adrienne M; Douglas, Amanda N; Cave, Matt; Arteel, Gavin E; McClain, Craig J

    2016-01-01

    Background: Vinyl chloride (VC) causes toxicant-associated steatohepatitis at high exposure levels. Recent work by this group suggests that underlying liver disease may predispose the liver to VC hepatotoxicity at lower exposure levels. The most common form of underlying liver disease in the developed world is non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). It is well-known that the type of dietary fat can play an important role in the pathogenesis of NAFLD. However, whether the combination of dietary fat and VC/metabolites promotes liver injury has not been studied. Methods: Mice were administered chloroethanol (CE - a VC metabolite) or vehicle once, 10 weeks after being fed diets rich in saturated fatty acids (HSFA), rich in poly-unsaturated fatty acids (HPUFA), or the respective low-fat control diets (LSFA; LPUFA). Results: In control mice, chloroethanol caused no detectable liver injury, as determined by plasma transaminases and histologic indices of damage. In HSFA-fed mice, chloroethanol increased HSFA-induced liver damage, steatosis, infiltrating inflammatory cells, hepatic expression of proinflammatory cytokines, and markers of endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress. Moreover, markers of inflammasome activation were increased, while markers of inflammasome inhibition were downregulated. In mice fed HPUFA all of these effects were significantly attenuated. Conclusions: Chloroethanol promotes inflammatory liver injury caused by dietary fatty acids. This effect is far more exacerbated with saturated fat, versus poly-unsaturated fat; and strongly correlates with a robust activation of the NLRP3 inflammasome in the saturated fed animals only. Taken together these data support the hypothesis that environmental toxicant exposure can exacerbate the severity of NAFLD/NASH. - Highlights: • CE promotes inflammatory liver injury caused by dietary fatty acids. • This effect is stronger with saturated than with unsaturated fatty acids. • Damage caused by saturated fat and CE

  3. Role of illness perception and self-efficacy in lifestyle modification among non-alcoholic fatty liver disease patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zelber-Sagi, Shira; Bord, Shiran; Dror-Lavi, Gali; Smith, Matthew Lee; Towne, Samuel D; Buch, Assaf; Webb, Muriel; Yeshua, Hanny; Nimer, Assy; Shibolet, Oren

    2017-03-14

    To describe the relationships between non-alcoholic fatty-liver disease (NAFLD) patient's disease consequences and treatment perceptions, self-efficacy, and healthy lifestyle maintenance. A cross-sectional study among 146 ultrasound diagnosed NAFLD patients who visited the fatty liver clinic at the Tel-Aviv Medical Center. Eighty-seven of these individuals, participated in a clinical trial of physical activity and underwent fasting blood tests, analyzed at the same lab. Exclusion criteria included positivity for serum HBsAg or anti-HCV antibodies; fatty liver suspected to be secondary to hepatotoxic drugs; excessive alcohol consumption (≥ 30 g/d in men or ≥ 20 g/d in women) and positive markers of genetic or immune-mediated liver diseases. Patients were asked to complete a self-report structured questionnaire, assembled by the Israeli Center for Disease Control. Nutrition habits were measured using six yes/no questions (0 = no, 1 = yes) adopted from the national survey questionnaire. Participants in the clinical trial completed a detailed semi-quantitative food frequency questionnaire (FFQ) reporting their habitual nutritional intake during the past year. Self-efficacy was assessed by the Self-Efficacy Scale questionnaire, emotional representation, degree of illness understanding, timeline perception, treatment perception and symptoms were measured by the Brief Illness Perception questionnaire. Illness consequences were measured by the Personal Models of Diabetes Interview questionnaire. A path analysis was performed to describe the interrelationships between the patients' illness perceptions, and assess the extent to which the data fit a prediction of nutritional habits. The study sample included 54.1% men, with a mean age of 47.76 ± 11.68 years (range: 20-60) and mean body mass index of 31.56 ± 4.6. The average perceived nutrition habits score was 4.73 ± 1.45 on a scale between 0-6, where 6 represents the healthiest eating habits. Most of the study

  4. Risk of cardiovascular, cardiac and arrhythmic complications in patients with non-alcoholic fatty liver disease

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    Ballestri, Stefano; Lonardo, Amedeo; Bonapace, Stefano; Byrne, Christopher D; Loria, Paola; Targher, Giovanni

    2014-01-01

    Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) has emerged as a public health problem of epidemic proportions worldwide. Accumulating clinical and epidemiological evidence indicates that NAFLD is not only associated with liver-related morbidity and mortality but also with an increased risk of coronary heart disease (CHD), abnormalities of cardiac function and structure (e.g., left ventricular dysfunction and hypertrophy, and heart failure), valvular heart disease (e.g., aortic valve sclerosis) and arrhythmias (e.g., atrial fibrillation). Experimental evidence suggests that NAFLD itself, especially in its more severe forms, exacerbates systemic/hepatic insulin resistance, causes atherogenic dyslipidemia, and releases a variety of pro-inflammatory, pro-coagulant and pro-fibrogenic mediators that may play important roles in the pathophysiology of cardiac and arrhythmic complications. Collectively, these findings suggest that patients with NAFLD may benefit from more intensive surveillance and early treatment interventions to decrease the risk for CHD and other cardiac/arrhythmic complications. The purpose of this clinical review is to summarize the rapidly expanding body of evidence that supports a strong association between NAFLD and cardiovascular, cardiac and arrhythmic complications, to briefly examine the putative biological mechanisms underlying this association, and to discuss some of the current treatment options that may influence both NAFLD and its related cardiac and arrhythmic complications. PMID:24587651

  5. A switch in hepatic cortisol metabolism across the spectrum of non alcoholic fatty liver disease.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adeeba Ahmed

    Full Text Available Non alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD is the hepatic manifestation of the metabolic syndrome. NAFLD represents a spectrum of liver disease ranging from reversible hepatic steatosis, to non alcoholic steato-hepatitis (NASH and cirrhosis. The potential role of glucocorticoids (GC in the pathogenesis of NAFLD is highlighted in patients with GC excess, Cushing's syndrome, who develop central adiposity, insulin resistance and in 20% of cases, NAFLD. Although in most cases of NAFLD, circulating cortisol levels are normal, hepatic cortisol availability is controlled by enzymes that regenerate cortisol (F from inactive cortisone (E (11β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 1, 11β-HSD1, or inactivate cortisol through A-ring metabolism (5α- and 5β-reductase, 5αR and 5βR.In vitro studies defined 11β-HSD1 expression in normal and NASH liver samples. We then characterised hepatic cortisol metabolism in 16 patients with histologically proven NAFLD compared to 32 obese controls using gas chromatographic analysis of 24 hour urine collection and plasma cortisol generation profile following oral cortisone.In patients with steatosis 5αR activity was increased, with a decrease in hepatic 11β-HSD1 activity. Total cortisol metabolites were increased in this group consistent with increased GC production rate. In contrast, in patients with NASH, 11β-HSD1 activity was increased both in comparison to patients with steatosis, and controls. Endorsing these findings, 11β-HSD1 mRNA and immunostaining was markedly increased in NASH patients in peri septal hepatocytes and within CD68 positive macrophages within inflamed cirrhotic septa.Patients with hepatic steatosis have increased clearance and decreased hepatic regeneration of cortisol and we propose that this may represent a protective mechanism to decrease local GC availability to preserve hepatic metabolic phenotype. With progression to NASH, increased 11β-HSD1 activity and consequent cortisol regeneration may

  6. A switch in hepatic cortisol metabolism across the spectrum of non alcoholic fatty liver disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmed, Adeeba; Rabbitt, Elizabeth; Brady, Theresa; Brown, Claire; Guest, Peter; Bujalska, Iwona J; Doig, Craig; Newsome, Philip N; Hubscher, Stefan; Elias, Elwyn; Adams, David H; Tomlinson, Jeremy W; Stewart, Paul M

    2012-01-01

    Non alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is the hepatic manifestation of the metabolic syndrome. NAFLD represents a spectrum of liver disease ranging from reversible hepatic steatosis, to non alcoholic steato-hepatitis (NASH) and cirrhosis. The potential role of glucocorticoids (GC) in the pathogenesis of NAFLD is highlighted in patients with GC excess, Cushing's syndrome, who develop central adiposity, insulin resistance and in 20% of cases, NAFLD. Although in most cases of NAFLD, circulating cortisol levels are normal, hepatic cortisol availability is controlled by enzymes that regenerate cortisol (F) from inactive cortisone (E) (11β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 1, 11β-HSD1), or inactivate cortisol through A-ring metabolism (5α- and 5β-reductase, 5αR and 5βR). In vitro studies defined 11β-HSD1 expression in normal and NASH liver samples. We then characterised hepatic cortisol metabolism in 16 patients with histologically proven NAFLD compared to 32 obese controls using gas chromatographic analysis of 24 hour urine collection and plasma cortisol generation profile following oral cortisone. In patients with steatosis 5αR activity was increased, with a decrease in hepatic 11β-HSD1 activity. Total cortisol metabolites were increased in this group consistent with increased GC production rate. In contrast, in patients with NASH, 11β-HSD1 activity was increased both in comparison to patients with steatosis, and controls. Endorsing these findings, 11β-HSD1 mRNA and immunostaining was markedly increased in NASH patients in peri septal hepatocytes and within CD68 positive macrophages within inflamed cirrhotic septa. Patients with hepatic steatosis have increased clearance and decreased hepatic regeneration of cortisol and we propose that this may represent a protective mechanism to decrease local GC availability to preserve hepatic metabolic phenotype. With progression to NASH, increased 11β-HSD1 activity and consequent cortisol regeneration may serve to

  7. Kefir improves fatty liver syndrome by inhibiting the lipogenesis pathway in leptin-deficient ob/ob knockout mice.

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    Chen, H-L; Tung, Y-T; Tsai, C-L; Lai, C-W; Lai, Z-L; Tsai, H-C; Lin, Y-L; Wang, C-H; Chen, C-M

    2014-09-01

    Fatty liver disease is commonly associated with obesity, insulin resistance and diabetes. Severe fatty liver is sometimes accompanied by steatohepatitis and may lead to the development of hepatocellular carcinoma. At present, there is no effective treatment for non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD); thus, recent investigations have focused on developing effective therapeutics to treat this condition. This study aimed to evaluate the effects of kefir on the hepatic lipid metabolism of ob/ob mice, which are commonly used to model fatty liver disease. In this study, we used leptin receptor-deficient ob/ob mice as an animal disease model of NAFLD. Six-week-old ob/ob mice were orally administered the dairy product kefir (140 mg kg(-1) of body weight (BW) per day) for 4 weeks. The data demonstrated that kefir improved fatty liver syndrome on BW, energy expenditure and basal metabolic rate by inhibiting serum glutamate oxaloacetate transaminase (GOT) and glutamate pyruvate transaminase (GPT) activities (Pkefir administration also significantly reduced the macrovesicular fat quantity in liver tissue. In addition, kefir markedly decreased the expression of the genes sterol regulatory element-binding protein 1 (SREBP1), fatty acid synthase (FAS) and acetyl-CoA carboxylase (ACC) (Pkefir improves NAFLD on BW, energy expenditure and basal metabolic rate by inhibiting the lipogenesis pathway and that kefir may have the potential for clinical application to the prevention or treatment of NAFLD.

  8. Fatty liver index and hepatic steatosis index for prediction of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease in type 1 diabetes.

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    Sviklāne, Laura; Olmane, Evija; Dzērve, Zane; Kupčs, Kārlis; Pīrāgs, Valdis; Sokolovska, Jeļizaveta

    2018-01-01

    Little is known about the diagnostic value of hepatic steatosis index (HSI) and fatty liver index (FLI), as well as their link to metabolic syndrome in type 1 diabetes mellitus. We have screened the effectiveness of FLI and HSI in an observational pilot study of 40 patients with type 1 diabetes. FLI and HSI were calculated for 201 patients with type 1 diabetes. Forty patients with FLI/HSI values corresponding to different risk of liver steatosis were invited for liver magnetic resonance study. In-phase/opposed-phase technique of magnetic resonance was used. Accuracy of indices was assessed from the area under the receiver operating characteristic curve. Twelve (30.0%) patients had liver steatosis. For FLI, sensitivity was 90%; specificity, 74%; positive likelihood ratio, 3.46; negative likelihood ratio, 0.14; positive predictive value, 0.64; and negative predictive value, 0.93. For HSI, sensitivity was 86%; specificity, 66%; positive likelihood ratio, 1.95; negative likelihood ratio, 0.21; positive predictive value, 0.50; and negative predictive value, 0.92. Area under the receiver operating characteristic curve for FLI was 0.86 (95% confidence interval [0.72; 0.99]); for HSI 0.75 [0.58; 0.91]. Liver fat correlated with liver enzymes, waist circumference, triglycerides, and C-reactive protein. FLI correlated with C-reactive protein, liver enzymes, and blood pressure. HSI correlated with waist circumference and C-reactive protein. FLI ≥ 60 and HSI ≥ 36 were significantly associated with metabolic syndrome and nephropathy. The tested indices, especially FLI, can serve as surrogate markers for liver fat content and metabolic syndrome in type 1 diabetes. © 2017 Journal of Gastroenterology and Hepatology Foundation and John Wiley & Sons Australia, Ltd.

  9. Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease and polycystic ovary syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vassilatou, Evangeline

    2014-01-01

    Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is the most common cause of chronic liver disease in the Western world comprising a spectrum of liver damage from fatty liver infiltration to end-stage liver disease, in patients without significant alcohol consumption. Increased prevalence of NAFLD has been reported in patients with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS), one of the most common endocrinopathies in premenopausal women, which has been redefined as a reproductive and metabolic disorder after the recognition of the important role of insulin resistance in the pathophysiology of the syndrome. Obesity, in particular central adiposity and insulin resistance are considered as the main factors related to NAFLD in PCOS. Moreover, existing data support that androgen excess, which is the main feature of PCOS and is interrelated to insulin resistance, may be an additional contributing factor to the development of NAFLD. Although the natural history of NAFLD remains unclear and hepatic steatosis seems to be a relatively benign condition in most patients, limited data imply that advanced stage of liver disease is possibly more frequent in obese PCOS patients with NAFLD. PCOS patients, particularly obese patients with features of the metabolic syndrome, should be submitted to screening for NAFLD comprising assessment of serum aminotransferase levels and of hepatic steatosis by abdominal ultrasound. Lifestyle modifications including diet, weight loss and exercise are the most appropriate initial therapeutic interventions for PCOS patients with NAFLD. When pharmacologic therapy is considered, metformin may be used, although currently there is no medical therapy of proven benefit for NAFLD. Long-term follow up studies are needed to clarify clinical implications and guide appropriate diagnostic evaluation, follow-up protocol and optimal treatment for PCOS patients with NAFLD. PMID:25024594

  10. Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease and polycystic ovary syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vassilatou, Evangeline

    2014-07-14

    Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is the most common cause of chronic liver disease in the Western world comprising a spectrum of liver damage from fatty liver infiltration to end-stage liver disease, in patients without significant alcohol consumption. Increased prevalence of NAFLD has been reported in patients with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS), one of the most common endocrinopathies in premenopausal women, which has been redefined as a reproductive and metabolic disorder after the recognition of the important role of insulin resistance in the pathophysiology of the syndrome. Obesity, in particular central adiposity and insulin resistance are considered as the main factors related to NAFLD in PCOS. Moreover, existing data support that androgen excess, which is the main feature of PCOS and is interrelated to insulin resistance, may be an additional contributing factor to the development of NAFLD. Although the natural history of NAFLD remains unclear and hepatic steatosis seems to be a relatively benign condition in most patients, limited data imply that advanced stage of liver disease is possibly more frequent in obese PCOS patients with NAFLD. PCOS patients, particularly obese patients with features of the metabolic syndrome, should be submitted to screening for NAFLD comprising assessment of serum aminotransferase levels and of hepatic steatosis by abdominal ultrasound. Lifestyle modifications including diet, weight loss and exercise are the most appropriate initial therapeutic interventions for PCOS patients with NAFLD. When pharmacologic therapy is considered, metformin may be used, although currently there is no medical therapy of proven benefit for NAFLD. Long-term follow up studies are needed to clarify clinical implications and guide appropriate diagnostic evaluation, follow-up protocol and optimal treatment for PCOS patients with NAFLD.

  11. Clinical epidemiology and disease burden of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perumpail, Brandon J; Khan, Muhammad Ali; Yoo, Eric R; Cholankeril, George; Kim, Donghee; Ahmed, Aijaz

    2017-01-01

    Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is defined as the presence of hepatic fat accumulation after the exclusion of other causes of hepatic steatosis, including other causes of liver disease, excessive alcohol consumption, and other conditions that may lead to hepatic steatosis. NAFLD encompasses a broad clinical spectrum ranging from nonalcoholic fatty liver to nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH), advanced fibrosis, cirrhosis, and finally hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). NAFLD is the most common liver disease in the world and NASH may soon become the most common indication for liver transplantation. Ongoing persistence of obesity with increasing rate of diabetes will increase the prevalence of NAFLD, and as this population ages, many will develop cirrhosis and end-stage liver disease. There has been a general increase in the prevalence of NAFLD, with Asia leading the rise, yet the United States is following closely behind with a rising prevalence from 15% in 2005 to 25% within 5 years. NAFLD is commonly associated with metabolic comorbidities, including obesity, type II diabetes, dyslipidemia, and metabolic syndrome. Our understanding of the pathophysiology of NAFLD is constantly evolving. Based on NAFLD subtypes, it has the potential to progress into advanced fibrosis, end-stage liver disease and HCC. The increasing prevalence of NAFLD with advanced fibrosis, is concerning because patients appear to experience higher liver-related and non-liver-related mortality than the general population. The increased morbidity and mortality, healthcare costs and declining health related quality of life associated with NAFLD makes it a formidable disease, and one that requires more in-depth analysis. PMID:29307986

  12. Tc-99 m-GSA liver scintigraphy in alcoholic liver cirrhosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Itano, Satoshi; Harada, Masaru; Nagamatsu, Hiroaki

    2003-01-01

    We compared 15 alcoholic liver cirrhosis patients with 10 viral liver cirrhosis patients using technetium-99 m-galactosyl human serum albumin (Tc-99 m-GSA) liver scintigraphy and could clinically reveal the disorder of metabolism of asialoglycoprotein in alcoholic liver cirrhosis. Receptor index (LHL 15 = liver count divided by the sum of liver and heart counts at 15 minutes) was significantly (p <0.01) lower in patients with alcoholic cirrhosis (median: 0.821), compared with patients with viral cirrhosis (0.915). Grading score, which was an index showed by the difference in the isotope uptake patterns between liver and heart, was significantly (p <0.01) worse in patients with alcoholic cirrhosis, compared with patients with viral cirrhosis. These results suggested that alcoholic liver cirrhosis had a specific disorder of a metabolic function for asialoglycoprotein. (author)

  13. Promiscuous activity of the LXR antagonist GSK2033 in a mouse model of fatty liver disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Griffett, Kristine; Burris, Thomas P.

    2016-01-01

    The liver X receptor (LXR) functions as a receptor for oxysterols and plays a critical role in the regulation of glucose and lipid metabolism. We recently described a synthetic LXR inverse agonist that displayed efficacy in treatment of hepatic steatosis in a mouse model of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). This compound, SR9238, was designed to display liver specificity so as to avoid potential detrimental effects on reverse cholesterol transport in peripheral tissues. Here, we examined the effects of a LXR antagonist/inverse agonist, GSK2033, which displays systemic exposure. Although GSK2033 performed as expected in cell-based models as a LXR inverse agonist, it displayed unexpected activity in the mouse NAFLD model. The expression of lipogenic enzyme genes such as fatty acid synthase and sterol regulatory binding protein 1c were induced rather than suppressed and no effect on hepatic steatosis was found. Further characterization of the specificity of GSK2033 revealed that it displayed a significant degree of promiscuity, targeting a number of other nuclear receptors that could clearly alter hepatic gene expression. - Highlights: • The LXR antagonist GSK2033 suppresses the expression of lipogenic genes FASN and SREBF1 in HepG2 cells. • GSK2033 exhibits sufficient exposure to perform animal experiments targeting the liver. • GSK2033 has fails to suppress hepatic Fasn and Srebf1 expression in an animal model of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease. • GSK2033 may regulate the activity of several nuclear receptors.

  14. Fatty infiltration of the liver: evaluation by proton spectroscopic imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heiken, J.P.; Lee, J.K.; Dixon, W.T.

    1985-01-01

    The reliability of proton spectroscopic imaging in evaluating fatty infiltration of the liver was investigated in 35 subjects (12 healthy volunteers and 23 patients with fatty livers). With this modified spin-echo technique, fatty liver could be separated from normal liver both visually and quantitatively. On the opposed image, normal liver had an intermediate signal intensity, greater than that of muscle, whereas fatty liver had a lower signal intensity, equal to or less than that of muscle. In normal livers, the lipid signal fraction was less than 10%, while in fatty livers it was greater than 10% and usually exceeded 20%. With this technique, nonuniform fatty infiltration of the liver can be differentiated from hepatic metastases, and the technique may prove useful in the differentiation of some hepatic disorders

  15. Serum Matrix Metalloproteinase-9 and Tissue Inhibitor of Metalloproteinase-1 Expression in Patients with Non-alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Taner Akyol

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD is the most common chronic liver disease in developed countries. NAFLD may progress to non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH and cirrhosis. Emerging evidence suggests that NAFLD is the hepatic manifestation of metabolic syndrome (MetS. NAFLD is closely linked to MetS, with a significant increase in cardiovascular risk. Several matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs and tissue inhibitors of MMPs (TIMPs play important roles in the pathophysiology of atherosclerosis and liver fibrosis. In this study we investigated the usefulness of serum metalloproteinases as noninvasive markers of NAFLD. Forty-six patients with NAFLD and twenty-six healthy controls were enrolled into the study, in Gulhane Military Medical Academy, Haydarpasa Training Hospital. Liver biopsies were performed on all patients with NAFLD and histopathological evaluations were made by an experienced pathologist. All NAFLD patients were divided into 2 subgroups according to MetS status using ATP III criteria. MMP-9 and TIMP-1 were studied in serum samples of all groups. Results were compared between both groups and subgroups. In this study, the NAFLD and control groups did not differ significantly on MMP-9, TIMP-1 and TIMP-1/MMP-9 ratio (p > 0.05. However, we found a significant relationship between the HOMA and TIMP-1 (p<0.05. Moreover, MMP-9 and TIMP-1/MMP-9 levels were significantly correlated with waist circumference (p<0.05. Our findings are not sufficient to suggest that MMP-9, TIMP-1 and TIMP-1/MMP-9 ratio might be used as noninvasive biochemical diagnostic tests among NAFLD patients. [Dis Mol Med 2015; 3(2.000: 11-17

  16. Lipocalin-2 in Fructose-Induced Fatty Liver Disease

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    Jessica Lambertz

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available The intake of excess dietary fructose most often leads to non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD. Fructose is metabolized mainly in the liver and its chronic consumption results in lipogenic gene expression in this organ. However, precisely how fructose is involved in NAFLD progression is still not fully understood, limiting therapy. Lipocalin-2 (LCN2 is a small secreted transport protein that binds to fatty acids, phospholipids, steroids, retinol, and pheromones. LCN2 regulates lipid and energy metabolism in obesity and is upregulated in response to insulin. We previously discovered that LCN2 has a hepatoprotective effect during hepatic insult, and that its upregulation is a marker of liver damage and inflammation. To investigate if LCN2 has impact on the metabolism of fructose and thereby arising liver damage, we fed wild type and Lcn2−/− mice for 4 or 8 weeks on diets that were enriched in fructose either by adding this sugar to the drinking water (30% w/v, or by feeding a chow containing 60% (w/w fructose. Body weight and daily intake of food and water of these mice was then measured. Fat content in liver sections was visualized using Oil Red O stain, and expression levels of genes involved in fat and sugar metabolism were measured by qRT-PCR and Western blot analysis. We found that fructose-induced steatosis and liver damage was more prominent in female than in male mice, but that the most severe hepatic damage occurred in female mice lacking LCN2. Unexpectedly, consumption of elevated fructose did not induce de novo lipogenesis or fat accumulation. We conclude that LCN2 acts in a lipid-independent manner to protect the liver against fructose-induced damage.

  17. The influence of hepatic steatosis on the evaluation of fibrosis with non-alcoholic fatty liver disease by acoustic radiation force impulse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yanrong Guo; Haoming Lin; Xinyu Zhang; Huiying Wen; Siping Chen; Xin Chen

    2017-07-01

    Acoustic radiation force impulse (ARFI) elastography is a non-invasive method for the assessment of liver by measuring liver stiffness. The aim of this study is to evaluate the accuracy of ARFI for the diagnosis of liver fibrosis and to assess impact of steatosis on liver fibrosis stiffness measurement, in rats model of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). The rat models were conducted in 59 rats. The right liver lobe was processed and embedded in a fabricated gelatin solution. Liver mechanics were measured using shear wave velocity (SWV) induced by acoustic radiation force. In rats with NAFLD, the diagnostic performance of ARFI elastography in predicting severe fibrosis (F ≥ 3) and cirrhosis (F ≥ 4) had the areas under the receiver operating characteristic curves (AUROC) of 0.993 and 0.985. Among rats mean SWV values were significantly higher in rats with severe steatosis by histology compared to those mild or without steatosis for F0-F2 fibrosis stages (3.07 versus 2.51 m/s, P = 0.01). ARFI elastography is a promising method for staging hepatic fibrosis with NAFLD in rat models. The presence of severe steatosis is a significant factor for assessing the lower stage of fibrosis.

  18. Dietary Composition Independent of Weight Loss in the Management of Non-Alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tannaz Eslamparast

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Poor dietary composition is an important factor in the progression of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD. The majority of NAFLD patients follow diets with overconsumption of simple carbohydrates, total and saturated fat, with reduced intake of dietary fiber and omega-3 rich foods. Although lifestyle modifications including weight loss and exercise remain the keystone of NAFLD management, modifying dietary composition with or without a calorie-restricted diet may also be a feasible and sustainable strategy for NAFLD treatment. In the present review article, we highlight the potential therapeutic role of a “high quality healthy diet” to improve hepatic steatosis and metabolic dysfunction in patients with NAFLD, independent of caloric restriction and weight loss. We provide a literature review evaluating the evidence behind dietary components including fiber-, meat- and omega-3-rich diets and, pending further evidence, we concur with the EASL-EASD-EASO Clinical Guidelines recommendation of the Mediterranean diet as the diet of choice in these patients.

  19. Colchicine for alcoholic and non-alcoholic liver fibrosis or cirrhosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rambaldi, A; Gluud, C

    2001-01-01

    Colchicine is an anti-inflammatory and anti-fibrotic drug. Several randomized clinical trials have addressed the question whether colchicine has any efficacy in patients with alcoholic as well as non-alcoholic fibrosis and cirrhosis. The objectives were to assess the efficacy of colchicine...... evaluated in randomized trials on mortality, liver related mortality, liver related complications, liver fibrosis markers, liver histology, alcohol consumption, quality of life, and health economics in patients with alcoholic and non-alcoholic fibrosis or cirrhosis....

  20. Focal sparing around the gallbladder in fatty liver

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, Kemin; Hiramatsu, Yoshihiro; Yunoki, Masanori; Hirano, Yoko

    1989-01-01

    In evaluating fatty liver with CT, the residual normal liver tissues without fat deposits are occasionally detected on CT as high attenuation regions, especially surrounding the gallbladder. This study examined the incidence of this phenomenon in terms of the diagnostic value of CT in fatty liver. Fifty-seven patients with fatty liver were examined with CT. The incidence of focal sparing area was the highest in the gallbladder bed (42/57, 74%), followed by the interlobar fissure or subcapsular area (13, 23%), quadrate lobe (8, 14%), caudate lobe (2, 4%), and right lobe (one, 1.8%). These CT appearances were of spot, band, ring, and the mixed type. In 38 patients, fatty liver was too moderate to be detected without CT attenuation numbers. Among them, 27 patients (71%) had focal sparing area surrounding the gallbladder. This CT appearance seemed to be of significance in preventing the missing of moderate fatty liver. (Namekawa, K)

  1. [The effectiveness of the spa and health resort-based treatment with the application of Essentuki-type drinking mineral waters for the management of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease in the patients presenting with type 2 diabetes mellitus].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Efimenko, N V; Kaĭsinova, A S; Fedorova, T E; Botvineva, L A

    2015-01-01

    The objective of the present study was to estimate the effectiveness of the spa and health resort-based treatment of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease in 40 patients at the mean age of 48,8 ± 5.7 years suffering from type 2 diabetes mellitus. All of them received combined therapy including the application of potable Essentuki-Novaya mineral water (20 patients) or Essentuki No 4 water (20 patients). This therapeutic modality resulted in positive dynamics of clinical symptoms of the disease, the functional liver tests, and parameters of intra-hepatic hemodynamics, lipid peroxidation homeostasis, and the hormonal status. It is concluded that the spa and health resort-based treatment with the application of local drinking Essentuki-type mineral waters for the management of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease in the patients presenting with type 2 diabetes mellitus leads to the improvement of the main functions of the liver, stabilizes carbohydrate and lipid metabolism, and prevents progression of the pathological process.

  2. Stage of change and motivation to healthier lifestyle in non-alcoholic fatty liver disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Centis, Elena; Moscatiello, Simona; Bugianesi, Elisabetta; Bellentani, Stefano; Fracanzani, Anna Ludovica; Calugi, Simona; Petta, Salvatore; Dalle Grave, Riccardo; Marchesini, Giulio

    2013-04-01

    Healthy diet and physical activity are the treatment cornerstones of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD); their effectiveness is however limited by difficulties in implementing lifestyle changes. We aimed at determining the stage of change and associated psychological factors as a prerequisite to refine strategies to implement behavior changes. We studied 138 consecutive NAFLD patients (73% male, age 19-73 years). The diagnosis was confirmed by liver biopsy in 64 cases (steatohepatitis, 47%). All cases completed the validated EMME-3 questionnaire, consisting of two parallel sets of instruments (for diet and physical activity, respectively) and providing stages of change according to transtheoretical model. Logistic regression analysis was used to identify factors associated with stages making behavioral changes more demanding. The individual profiles were variable; for diet, no cases had precontemplation as prevalent stage of change (highest score in individual profiles); 36% had contemplation. For physical activity, 50% were classified in either precontemplation or contemplation. Minor differences were recorded in relation to associated metabolic complications or steatohepatitis. Logistic regression identified male sex (odds ratio, 4.51; 95% confidence interval, 1.69-12.08) and age (1.70; 1.20-2.43 per decade) as the independent parameters predicting precontemplation or contemplation for diet. No predictors were identified for physical activity. NAFLD cases have scarce readiness to lifestyle changes, particularly with regard to physical activity. Defining stages of change and motivation offers the opportunity to improve clinical care of NAFLD people through individual programs exploiting the powerful potential of behavioral counseling, an issue to be tested in longitudinal studies. Copyright © 2012 European Association for the Study of the Liver. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. An Overview of Novel Dietary Supplements and Food Ingredients in Patients with Metabolic Syndrome and Non-Alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease

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    Priscila Silva Figueiredo

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Metabolic syndrome (MetS is characterized by interconnected factors related to metabolic disturbances, and is directly related to the occurrence of some diseases such as cardiovascular diseases and type 2 diabetes. MetS is described as one or both of insulin resistance and visceral adiposity, considered the initial causes of abnormalities that include hyperglycemia, elevated blood pressure, dyslipidemia, elevated inflammatory markers, and prothrombotic state, as well as polycystic ovarian syndrome in women. Other than in MetS, visceral adiposity and the pro-inflammatory state are also key in the development of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD, which is the most prevalent chronic liver disease in modern society. Both MetS and NAFLD are related to diet and lifestyle, and their treatment may be influenced by dietary pattern changes and the use of certain dietary supplements. This study aimed to review the role of food ingredients and supplements in the management of MetS and NAFLD specifically in human clinical trials. Moreover, bioactive compounds and polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs may be used as strategies for preventing the onset of and treatment of metabolic disorders, such as MetS and NAFLD, improving the inflammatory state and other comorbidities, such as obesity, dyslipidemias, and cardiovascular diseases (CVD.

  4. Use of HOMA-IR to diagnose non-alcoholic fatty liver disease: a population-based and inter-laboratory study.

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    Isokuortti, Elina; Zhou, You; Peltonen, Markku; Bugianesi, Elisabetta; Clement, Karine; Bonnefont-Rousselot, Dominique; Lacorte, Jean-Marc; Gastaldelli, Amalia; Schuppan, Detlef; Schattenberg, Jörn M; Hakkarainen, Antti; Lundbom, Nina; Jousilahti, Pekka; Männistö, Satu; Keinänen-Kiukaanniemi, Sirkka; Saltevo, Juha; Anstee, Quentin M; Yki-Järvinen, Hannele

    2017-10-01

    Recent European guidelines for non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) call for reference values for HOMA-IR. In this study, we aimed to determine: (1) the upper limit of normal HOMA-IR in two population-based cohorts; (2) the HOMA-IR corresponding to NAFLD; (3) the effect of sex and PNPLA3 genotype at rs738409 on HOMA-IR; and (4) inter-laboratory variations in HOMA-IR. We identified healthy individuals in two population-based cohorts (FINRISK 2007 [n = 5024] and the Programme for Prevention of Type 2 Diabetes in Finland [FIN-D2D; n = 2849]) to define the upper 95th percentile of HOMA-IR. Non-obese individuals with normal fasting glucose levels, no excessive alcohol use, no known diseases and no use of any drugs were considered healthy. The optimal HOMA-IR cut-off for NAFLD (liver fat ≥5.56%, based on the Dallas Heart Study) was determined in 368 non-diabetic individuals (35% with NAFLD), whose liver fat was measured using proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy ( 1 H-MRS). Samples from ten individuals were simultaneously analysed for HOMA-IR in seven European laboratories. The upper 95th percentiles of HOMA-IR were 1.9 and 2.0 in healthy individuals in the FINRISK (n = 1167) and FIN-D2D (n = 459) cohorts. Sex or PNPLA3 genotype did not influence these values. The optimal HOMA-IR cut-off for NAFLD was 1.9 (sensitivity 87%, specificity 79%). A HOMA-IR of 2.0 corresponded to normal liver fat (HOMA-IR measured in Helsinki corresponded to 1.3, 1.6, 1.8, 1.8, 2.0 and 2.1 in six other laboratories. The inter-laboratory CV% of HOMA-IR was 25% due to inter-assay variation in insulin (25%) rather than glucose (5%) measurements. The upper limit of HOMA-IR in population-based cohorts closely corresponds to that of normal liver fat. Standardisation of insulin assays would be the first step towards definition of normal values for HOMA-IR.

  5. Multidisciplinary Pharmacotherapeutic Options for Nonalcoholic Fatty Liver Disease

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    Kei Nakajima

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD and non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH are multidisciplinary liver diseases that often accompany type 2 diabetes or metabolic syndrome, which are characterized by insulin resistance. Therefore, effective treatment of type 2 diabetes and metabolic syndrome should target not only the cardiometabolic abnormalities, but also the associated liver disorders. In the last decade, it has been shown that metformin, thiazolidinediones, vitamin E, ezetimibe, n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids, renin-angiotensin system (RAS blockers, and antiobesity drugs may improve hepatic pathophysiological disorders as well as clinical parameters. Accordingly, insulin sensitizers, antioxidative agents, Niemann-Pick C1-like 1 (NPC1L1 inhibitors, RAS blockers, and drugs that target the central nervous system may represent candidate pharmacotherapies for NAFLD and possibly NASH. However, the efficacy, safety, and tolerability of long-term treatment (potentially for many years with these drugs have not been fully established. Furthermore, clinical trials have not comprehensively examined the efficacy of lipid-lowering drugs (i.e., statins, fibrates, and NPC1L1 inhibitors for the treatment of NAFLD. Although clinical evidence for RAS blockers and incretin-based agents (GLP-1 analogs and dipeptidyl peptidase-4 inhibitors is also lacking, these agents are promising in terms of their insulin-sensitizing and anti-inflammatory effects without causing weight gain.

  6. Controlled attenuation parameter using the FibroScan® XL probe for quantification of hepatic steatosis for non-alcoholic fatty liver disease in an Asian population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Wah-Kheong; Nik Mustapha, Nik Raihan; Wong, Grace Lai-Hung; Wong, Vincent Wai-Sun; Mahadeva, Sanjiv

    2017-02-01

    The FibroScan® XL probe reduces failure of liver stiffness measurement (LSM) and unreliable results in obese patients. The objective of this article is to evaluate the accuracy of controlled attenuation parameter (CAP) obtained using the XL probe for the estimation of hepatic steatosis in patients with non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). Adult NAFLD patients with a liver biopsy within six months were included and were examined with the FibroScan® M and XL probes. Histopathological findings were reported according to the Non-Alcoholic Steatohepatitis Clinical Research Network Scoring System. Participants who did not have fatty liver on ultrasonography were recruited as controls. A total of 57 NAFLD patients and 22 controls were included. The mean age of the NAFLD patients and controls was 50.1 ± 10.4 years and 20.2 ± 1.3 years, respectively ( p  = 0.000). The mean body mass index was 30.2 ± 5.0 kg per m 2 and 20.5 ± 2.4 kg per m 2 , respectively ( p  = 0.000). The distribution of steatosis grades were: S0, 29%; S1, 17%; S2, 35%; S3, 19%. The AUROC for estimation of steatosis grade ≥ S1, S2 and S3 was 0.94, 0.80 and 0.69, respectively, using the M probe, and 0.97, 0.81 and 0.67, respectively, using the XL probe. CAP obtained using the XL probe had similar accuracy as the M probe for the estimation of hepatic steatosis in NAFLD patients.

  7. The Prevalence of Non-Alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease Among Patients With and Without Coronary Artery Disease

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    Hashemi

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Background Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD is a growing diagnosed condition which causes a wide spectrum of liver disorders. There is a lot of evidence introducing NAFLD as a risk factor for coronary artery disease (CAD but there is substantial challenge on the independency of this correlation. Objectives The current study aimed to evaluate the prevalence of NAFLD among patients with CAD. Patients and Methods Patients referred for coronary angiography due to suspected coronary heart disease were included in the study. First, the demographic characteristics were extracted. Alanine aminotransferase (ALT, lipid profile and fasting blood glucose were measured and also liver sonography and coronary angiography were performed on all subjects. According to the angiography results, subjects were divided into three groups: 1- normal angiography; 2-mild CAD and 3- sever CAD. The prevalence of suspected NAFLD was evaluated in all of the groups. Suspected NAFLD was defined as elevated ALT accompanied with fatty liver on liver sonography. Results A total of 314 subjects were eligible for the study, out of which 161(51.3% were male and 153 (48.7% female; 236 (75.1% subjects had coronary artery disease and 78 (24.9% subjects had normal coronary arteries. After ranking the subjects according to the degree of coronary artery stenosis; in subjects with normal coronary arteries, 13 subjects (16.7% were suspected of NAFLD; 172 subjects had mild CAD that 17.44% of them were suspected of NAFLD which was not significant compared to the subjects without CAD (P = 0.046. There was a significant difference in the prevalence of suspected NAFLD among the subjects in the sever CAD group based on finding 64 subjects of NAFLD (P = 0.003. Mean values of total and low-density lipoproteins (LDL cholesterol, triglyceride and fasting blood sugar (FBS were significantly greater in subjects with CAD. Subjects with NAFLD had significantly greater means of triglyceride and LDL

  8. Lower levels of insulin-like growth factor-1 standard deviation score are associated with histological severity of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sumida, Yoshio; Yonei, Yoshikazu; Tanaka, Saiyu; Mori, Kojiroh; Kanemasa, Kazuyuki; Imai, Shunsuke; Taketani, Hiroyoshi; Hara, Tasuku; Seko, Yuya; Ishiba, Hiroshi; Okajima, Akira; Yamaguchi, Kanji; Moriguchi, Michihisa; Mitsuyoshi, Hironori; Yasui, Kohichiroh; Minami, Masahito; Itoh, Yoshito

    2015-07-01

    Growth hormone (GH) deficiency may be associated with histological progression of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) which includes non-alcoholic fatty liver (NAFL) and non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH). Insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-1) is mainly produced by hepatocytes and its secretion is stimulated by GH. Our aim was to determine whether more histologically advanced NAFLD is associated with low circulating levels of IGF-1 in Japanese patients. Serum samples were obtained in 199 Japanese patients with biopsy-proven NAFLD and in 2911 sex- and age-matched healthy people undergoing health checkups. The serum levels of IGF-1 were measured using a commercially available immunoradiometric assay. The standard deviation scores (SDS) of IGF-1 according to age and sex were also calculated in NAFLD patients. The serum IGF-1 levels in NAFLD patients were significantly lower (median, 112 ng/mL) compared with the control population (median, 121 ng/mL, P < 0.0001). IGF-1 SDS less than -2.0 SD from median were found in 11.6% of 199 patients. NASH patients exhibited significantly lower levels of IGF-1 SDS (n = 130; median, -0.7) compared with NAFL patients (n = 69; median, -0.3; P = 0.026). The IGF-1 SDS values decreased significantly with increasing lobular inflammation (P < 0.001) and fibrosis (P < 0.001). In multiple regressions, the association between the IGF-1 SDS values and the severity of NAFLD persisted after adjusting for age, sex and insulin resistance. Low levels of circulating IGF-1 may have a role in the development of advanced NAFLD, independent of insulin resistance. Supplementation with GH/IGF-1 may be a candidate for the treatment of NASH. © 2014 The Japan Society of Hepatology.

  9. Periodontitis is associated with significant hepatic fibrosis in patients with non-alcoholic fatty liver disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alazawi, William; Bernabe, Eduardo; Tai, David; Janicki, Tomasz; Kemos, Polychronis; Samsuddin, Salma; Syn, Wing-Kin; Gillam, David; Turner, Wendy

    2017-01-01

    Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) has a bidirectional association with metabolic syndrome. It affects up to 30% of the general population, 70% of individuals with diabetes and 90% with obesity. The main histological hallmark of progressive NAFLD is fibrosis. There is a bidirectional epidemiological link between periodontitis and metabolic syndrome. NAFLD, periodontitis and diabetes share common risk factors, are characterised by inflammation and associated with changes in commensal bacteria. Therefore we tested the hypothesis that periodontitis is associated with NAFLD and with significant fibrosis in two study groups. We analyzed data from a population-based survey and a patient-based study. NHANES III participants with abdominal ultrasound and sociodemographic, clinical, and oral examination data were extracted and appropriate weighting applied. In a separate patient-based study, consenting patients with biopsy-proved NAFLD (or with liver indices too mild to justify biopsy) underwent dental examination. Basic Periodontal Examination score was recorded. In NHANES, periodontitis was significantly associated with steatosis in 8172 adults even after adjusting for sociodemographic factors. However, associations were fully explained after accounting for features of metabolic syndrome. In the patient-based study, periodontitis was significantly more common in patients with biopsy-proven NASH and any fibrosis (F0-F4) than without NASH (p = 0.009). Periodontitis was more common in patients with NASH and significant fibrosis (F2-4) than mild or no fibrosis (F0-1, p = 0.04). Complementary evidence from an epidemiological survey and a clinical study show that NAFLD is associated with periodontitis and that the association is stronger with significant liver fibrosis.

  10. Hepatic NAD(+) deficiency as a therapeutic target for non-alcoholic fatty liver disease in ageing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Can-Can; Yang, Xi; Hua, Xia; Liu, Jian; Fan, Mao-Bing; Li, Guo-Qiang; Song, Jie; Xu, Tian-Ying; Li, Zhi-Yong; Guan, Yun-Feng; Wang, Pei; Miao, Chao-Yu

    2016-08-01

    Ageing is an important risk factor of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). Here, we investigated whether the deficiency of nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD(+) ), a ubiquitous coenzyme, links ageing with NAFLD. Hepatic concentrations of NAD(+) , protein levels of nicotinamide phosphoribosyltransferase (NAMPT) and several other critical enzymes regulating NAD(+) biosynthesis, were compared in middle-aged and aged mice or patients. The influences of NAD(+) decline on the steatosis and steatohepatitis were evaluated in wild-type and H247A dominant-negative, enzymically-inactive NAMPT transgenic mice (DN-NAMPT) given normal or high-fat diet (HFD). Hepatic NAD(+) level decreased in aged mice and humans. NAMPT-controlled NAD(+) salvage, but not de novo biosynthesis pathway, was compromised in liver of elderly mice and humans. Given normal chow, middle-age DN-NAMPT mice displayed systemic NAD(+) reduction and had moderate NAFLD phenotypes, including lipid accumulation, enhanced oxidative stress, triggered inflammation and impaired insulin sensitivity in liver. All these NAFLD phenotypes, especially release of pro-inflammatory factors, Kupffer cell accumulation, monocytes infiltration, NLRP3 inflammasome pathway and hepatic fibrosis (Masson's staining and α-SMA staining), deteriorated further under HFD challenge. Oral administration of nicotinamide riboside, a natural NAD(+) precursor, completely corrected these NAFLD phenotypes induced by NAD(+) deficiency alone or HFD, whereas adenovirus-mediated SIRT1 overexpression only partially rescued these phenotypes. These results provide the first evidence that ageing-associated NAD(+) deficiency is a critical risk factor for NAFLD, and suggest that supplementation with NAD(+) substrates may be a promising therapeutic strategy to prevent and treat NAFLD. © 2016 The British Pharmacological Society.

  11. Comparison of fatty liver index with noninvasive methods for steatosis detection and quantification

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    Zelber-Sagi, Shira; Webb, Muriel; Assy, Nimer; Blendis, Laurie; Yeshua, Hanny; Leshno, Moshe; Ratziu, Vlad; Halpern, Zamir; Oren, Ran; Santo, Erwin

    2013-01-01

    AIM: To compare noninvasive methods presently used for steatosis detection and quantification in nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). METHODS: Cross-sectional study of subjects from the general population, a subgroup from the First Israeli National Health Survey, without excessive alcohol consumption or viral hepatitis. All subjects underwent anthropometric measurements and fasting blood tests. Evaluation of liver fat was performed using four noninvasive methods: the SteatoTest; the fatty liver index (FLI); regular abdominal ultrasound (AUS); and the hepatorenal ultrasound index (HRI). Two of the noninvasive methods have been validated vs liver biopsy and were considered as the reference methods: the HRI, the ratio between the median brightness level of the liver and right kidney cortex; and the SteatoTest, a biochemical surrogate marker of liver steatosis. The FLI is calculated by an algorithm based on triglycerides, body mass index, γ-glutamyl-transpeptidase and waist circumference, that has been validated only vs AUS. FLI fatty liver. RESULTS: Three hundred and thirty-eight volunteers met the inclusion and exclusion criteria and had valid tests. The prevalence rate of NAFLD was 31.1% according to AUS. The FLI was very strongly correlated with SteatoTest (r = 0.91, P fatty liver by SteatoTest (≥ S2) and by FLI (≥ 60) was 0.74, which represented good agreement. The sensitivity of FLI vs SteatoTest was 85.5%, specificity 92.6%, positive predictive value (PPV) 74.7%, and negative predictive value (NPV) 96.1%. Most subjects (84.2%) with FLI fatty liver by HRI (≥ 1.5) and by FLI (≥ 60) was 0.43, which represented only moderate agreement. The sensitivity of FLI vs HRI was 56.3%, specificity 86.5%, PPV 57.0%, and NPV 86.1%. The diagnostic accuracy of FLI for steatosis > 5%, as predicted by SteatoTest, yielded an area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUROC) of 0.97 (95% CI: 0.95-0.98). The diagnostic accuracy of FLI for steatosis > 5%, as

  12. Liver Transplantation for Alcoholic Liver Disease and Hepatocellular Carcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burra, Patrizia; Zanetto, Alberto; Germani, Giacomo

    2018-02-09

    Hepatocellular carcinoma is one of the main important causes of cancer-related death and its mortality is increasingly worldwide. In Europe, alcohol abuse accounts for approximately half of all liver cancer cases and it will become the leading cause of hepatocellular carcinoma in the next future with the sharp decline of chronic viral hepatitis. The pathophysiology of alcohol-induced carcinogenesis involves acetaldehyde catabolism, oxidative stress and chronic liver inflammation. Genetic background plays also a significant role and specific patterns of gene mutations in alcohol-related hepatocellular carcinoma have been characterized. Survival is higher in patients who undergo specific surveillance programmes than in patients who do not. However, patients with alcohol cirrhosis present a significantly greater risk of liver decompensation than those with cirrhosis due to other aetiologies. Furthermore, the adherence to screening program can be suboptimal. Liver transplant for patients with Milan-in hepatocellular carcinoma represents the best possible treatment in case of tumour recurrence/progression despite loco-regional or surgical treatments. Long-term result after liver transplantation for alcohol related liver disease is good. However, cardiovascular disease and de novo malignancies can significantly hamper patients' survival and should be carefully considered by transplant team. In this review, we have focused on the evolution of alcohol-related hepatocellular carcinoma epidemiology and risk factors as well as on liver transplantation in alcoholic patients with and without hepatocellular carcinoma.

  13. Status of antiviral immunity in patients with non-alcoholic liver fatty disease, who were Chornobyl NPP accident liquidators

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    A.A. Chumak

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available 34 men were examined, who after participating in the liquidation of the Chornobyl NPP accident developed non-alcoholic fatty liver disease. The state of antiviral defense was evaluated by the levels of immunoglobulin (Ig G and IgM antibodies in the blood serum. In most patients with non-alcoholic steatohepatitis, who were Chornobyl NPP accident liquidators, antibodies of the IgG, but not IgM class to the persistent mixed infection with herpes simplex virus types 1 and 2, cytomegaly and Epstein-Barr were found. A positive correlation was established between the antibody titers to the herpes simplex virus types 1 and 2 (anti-HSV-1/2 IgG and cytomegalovirus (anti-CMV IgG (rs = 0.383, p = 0.040, as well as between the antibodies titers to the nuclear antigen of Epstein-Barr virus (anti-EBV NA IgG and antibodies to core antigen of Epstein-Barr (anti-EBV VCA IgG (rs = 0.584, p = 0.002 in patients with persistent mixed infection of these herpesviruses.

  14. Analysis of fatty liver by CT values in obese children

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Naganuma, Yoshihiro; Tomizawa, Shuichi; Ikarashi, Kozo; Tohyama, Jun; Ozawa, Kanzi; Uchiyama, Makoto.

    1996-01-01

    Liver attenuation values were measured by CT in 97 (183 times) obese children with ages 3 to 18 years and a diagnosis of fatty liver was made in 42 subjects. Liver/spleen ration from CT measurements showed a significant negative correlation with the percentage of standard body weight, and with the systolic pressure. In children with fatty liver, systolic pressure and serum GOT, GPT, ChE, TC, TG, ApoB and insulin were significantly higher than those in children without fatty liver. After a low-calorie dietary regimen and exercise therapy, the liver/spleen ratio and GPT improved in all children. The diagnosis of fatty infiltration (fatty liver) was made with a liver/spleen ratio of less than 1.0 as determined by the number of measurements taken, a reasonable criterion for the diagnosis of fatty liver by CT in children. There were some children with elevated GPT who showed normal CT findings. This may be caused by overnutrition which was associated with fatty infiltration, since GPT decreased in all these children after treatment. The present study suggests that CT is a useful procedure in diagnosing fatty liver, and in monitoring and determining efficacy of treatment in obese children. (author)

  15. Heterologous transporter expression for improved fatty alcohol secretion in yeast

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hu, Yating; Zhu, Zhiwei; Nielsen, Jens

    2017-01-01

    The yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae is an attractive host for industrial scale production of biofuels including fatty alcohols due to its robustness and tolerance towards harsh fermentation conditions. Many metabolic engineering strategies have been applied to generate high fatty alcohol production...... transporters tested, human FATP1 was shown to mediate fatty alcohol export in a high fatty alcohol production yeast strain. An approximately five-fold increase of fatty alcohol secretion was achieved. The results indicate that the overall cell fitness benefited from fatty alcohol secretion and that the acyl......-CoA synthase activity of FATP1 contributed to increased cell growth as well. This is the first study that enabled an increased cell fitness for fatty alcohol production by heterologous transporter expression in yeast, and this investigation indicates a new potential function of FATP1, which has been known...

  16. Metformin-Induced Changes of the Coding Transcriptome and Non-Coding RNAs in the Livers of Non-Alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease Mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Jun; Zhou, Yuan; Cheng, Yafen; Fang, Weiwei; Hu, Gang; Wei, Jie; Lin, Yajun; Man, Yong; Guo, Lixin; Sun, Mingxiao; Cui, Qinghua; Li, Jian

    2018-01-01

    Recent studies have suggested that changes in non-coding mRNA play a key role in the progression of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). Metformin is now recommended and effective for the treatment of NAFLD. We hope the current analyses of the non-coding mRNA transcriptome will provide a better presentation of the potential roles of mRNAs and long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs) that underlie NAFLD and metformin intervention. The present study mainly analysed changes in the coding transcriptome and non-coding RNAs after the application of a five-week metformin intervention. Liver samples from three groups of mice were harvested for transcriptome profiling, which covered mRNA, lncRNA, microRNA (miRNA) and circular RNA (circRNA), using a microarray technique. A systematic alleviation of high-fat diet (HFD)-induced transcriptome alterations by metformin was observed. The metformin treatment largely reversed the correlations with diabetes-related pathways. Our analysis also suggested interaction networks between differentially expressed lncRNAs and known hepatic disease genes and interactions between circRNA and their disease-related miRNA partners. Eight HFD-responsive lncRNAs and three metformin-responsive lncRNAs were noted due to their widespread associations with disease genes. Moreover, seven miRNAs that interacted with multiple differentially expressed circRNAs were highlighted because they were likely to be associated with metabolic or liver diseases. The present study identified novel changes in the coding transcriptome and non-coding RNAs in the livers of NAFLD mice after metformin treatment that might shed light on the underlying mechanism by which metformin impedes the progression of NAFLD. © 2018 The Author(s). Published by S. Karger AG, Basel.

  17. Investigation on liver fast metabolism with CT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huebener, K.H.; Schmitt, W.G.H.

    1981-01-01

    Measurements of the density of normal and diffusely diseased liver parenchyma show a significant difference only in fatty liver. A linear relationship between the fat content and physical density has been demonstrated. Computed tomographic densitometry of liver tissue correlates well with physical in vitro measurements of fat content and is sufficiently accurate for clinical use. Other types of liver diseases cannot be differentiated by densitometry, Lipolisis in fatty liver in chronic alcoholism alcohol withdrawal has been investigated. It has been found that a rate of decrease of the fatty degeneration of the liver equals to 1 percent/day. Fatty degeneration of the liver in acute pancreatitis and other diseases have been also investigated. CT densitometry of the liver should be considered as a useful routine clinical method to determine the fat content of liver. (author)

  18. Investigation on liver fast metabolism with CT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huebener, K.H.; Schmitt, W.G.H. (Heidelberg Univ. (Germany, F.R.). Pathologisches Inst.)

    1981-01-01

    Measurements of the density of normal and diffusely diseased liver parenchyma show a significant difference only in fatty liver. A linear relationship between the fat content and physical density has been demonstrated. Computed tomographic densitometry of liver tissue correlates well with physical in vitro measurements of fat content and is sufficiently accurate for clinical use. Other types of liver diseases cannot be differentiated by densitometry, Lipolisis in fatty liver in chronic alcoholism alcohol withdrawal has been investigated. It has been found that a rate of decrease of the fatty degeneration of the liver equals to 1 percent/day. Fatty degeneration of the liver in acute pancreatitis and other diseases have been also investigated. CT densitometry of the liver should be considered as a useful routine clinical method to determine the fat content of liver.

  19. Assessment of the fatty liver index as an indicator of hepatic steatosis for predicting incident diabetes independently of insulin resistance in a Korean population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, C H; Lee, W J; Hwang, J Y; Yu, J H; Shin, M S; Lee, M J; Jang, J E; Leem, J; Park, J-Y; Kim, H-K

    2013-04-01

    Fatty liver disease, especially non-alcoholic fatty liver disease, is considered to be the hepatic manifestation of the metabolic syndrome, both closely associated with insulin resistance. Furthermore, fatty liver disease assessed by ultrasonography is known to be a predictor of the development of Type 2 diabetes mellitus. However, it remains unclear whether fatty liver disease plays a role in the pathogenesis of Type 2 diabetes independently of insulin resistance. In this study, we investigated whether fatty liver disease assessed by the fatty liver index can predict the development of Type 2 diabetes independently of systemic insulin resistance. We examined the clinical and laboratory data of 7860 subjects without diabetes who underwent general routine health evaluations at the Asan Medical Center in 2007 and had returned for follow-up examinations in 2011. Fatty liver index was calculated using an equation that considers serum triglyceride levels, γ-glutamyltransferase, waist circumference and BMI. During a 4-year period, 457 incident diabetes cases (5.8%) were identified. The odds ratios for the development of Type 2 diabetes were significantly higher in the group with a fatty liver index ≥ 60 (fatty liver index-positive) than in the group with a fatty liver index hepatic steatosis is valuable in identifying subjects at high risk for Type 2 diabetes. In addition, fatty liver disease itself contributes to the development of Type 2 diabetes independently of systemic insulin resistance. © 2012 The Authors. Diabetic Medicine © 2012 Diabetes UK.

  20. Risk factors for hepatic steatosis in adults with cystic fibrosis: Similarities to non-alcoholic fatty liver disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ayoub, Fares; Trillo-Alvarez, Cesar; Morelli, Giuseppe; Lascano, Jorge

    2018-01-27

    To investigate the clinical, biochemical and imaging characteristics of adult cystic fibrosis (CF) patients with hepatic steatosis as compared to normal CF controls. We performed a retrospective review of adult CF patients in an academic outpatient setting during 2016. Baseline characteristics, genetic mutation analysis as well as laboratory values were collected. Abdominal imaging (ultrasound, computed tomography, magnetic resonance) was used to determine presence of hepatic steatosis. We compare patients with hepatic steatosis to normal controls. Data was collected on 114 patients meeting inclusion criteria. Seventeen patients (14.9%) were found to have hepatic steatosis on imaging. Being overweight (BMI > 25) ( P = 0.019) and having a higher ppFEV1 (75 vs 53, P = 0.037) were significantly associated with hepatic steatosis. Patients with hepatic steatosis had a significantly higher median alanine aminotransferase level (27 vs 19, P = 0.048). None of the hepatic steatosis patients had frank CF liver disease, cirrhosis or portal hypertension. We found no significant association with pancreatic insufficiency or CF related diabetes. Hepatic steatosis appears to be a clinically and phenotypically distinct entity from CF liver disease. The lack of association with malnourishment and the significant association with higher BMI and higher ppFEV1 demonstrate similarities with non-alcoholic fatty liver disease. Long term prospective studies are needed to ascertain whether CF hepatic steatosis progresses to fibrosis and cirrhosis.

  1. Associations of Fatty Liver Disease with Hypertension, Diabetes, and Dyslipidemia: Comparison between Alcoholic and Nonalcoholic Steatohepatitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nobuyuki Toshikuni

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Alcoholic steatohepatitis (ASH and nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH are representative types of fatty liver disease (FLD and have similar histologic features. In this study, we aimed to compare the associations of the two FLD types with hypertension (HT, diabetes mellitus (DM, and dyslipidemia (DL. A nationwide survey investigating FLD status included 753 Japanese subjects (median age 55 years; male 440, female 313 with biopsy-proven ASH (n=172 or NASH (n=581. We performed a multiple logistic regression analysis to identify the factors associated with HT, DM, or DL. Older age and a higher body mass index were significant factors associated with HT. Older age, female sex, a higher body mass index, advanced liver fibrosis, and the NASH type of FLD (odds ratio 2.77; 95% confidence interval 1.78–4.31; P<0.0001 were significant factors associated with DM. Finally, the NASH type of FLD (odds ratio 4.05; 95% confidence interval 2.63–6.24; P<0.0001 was the only significant factor associated with DL. Thus, the associations of NASH with DM and DL were stronger than those of ASH with DM and DL. In the management of FLD subjects, controlling DM and DL is particularly important for NASH subjects.

  2. Relationship between Retinal Vascular Caliber and Coronary Artery Disease in Patients with Non-Alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease (NAFLD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marmor Alon

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To evaluate the relationship between retinal vascular caliber and cardiovascular disease in non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD patients without diabetes and hypertension. Methods: Intention to treat study of individuals who underwent cardiac computed tomography (CT during a two year period. Coronary artery disease (CAD was defined as stenosis of >50% in at least one major coronary artery. Liver and spleen density were measured by abdominal (CT; intima-media thickness (IMT by Doppler ultrasound; retinal artery and vein diameter by colored-retinal angiography; and metabolic syndrome by ATP III guidelines. Serum biomarkers of insulin resistance, inflammation, and oxidant-antioxidant status were assessed. Results: Compared with 22 gender and age matched controls, the 29 NAFLD patients showed higher prevalence of coronary plaques (70% vs. 30%, p < 0.001, higher prevalence of coronary stenosis (30% vs. 15%, p < 0.001, lower retinal arteriole-to-venule ratio (AVR (0.66 ± 0.06 vs. 0.71 ± 0.02, p < 0.01, higher IMT (0.98 ± 0.3 vs. 0.83 ± 0.1, p < 0.04, higher carotid plaques (60% vs. 40%, p < 0.001, higher homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA (4.0 ± 3.4 vs. 2.0 ± 1.0, p < 0.005, and higher triglyceride levels (200 ± 80 vs. 150 ± 60, p < 0.005 than controls. Multivariate analysis showed fatty liver (OR 2.5; p < 0.01, IMT (OR 2.3 p < 0.001, and retinal AVR ratio (OR 1.5, p < 0.01 to be strongly associated with CAD independent of metabolic syndrome (OR 1.2, p < 0.05. Conclusions: Patients with smaller retinal AVR (<0.7 are likely to be at increased risk for CAD and carotid atherosclerosis in patients with NAFLD even without hypertension or diabetes.

  3. Metabolic Engineering of Oleaginous Yeasts for Fatty Alcohol Production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Wei; Wei, Hui; Knoshaug, Eric; Van Wychen, Stefanie; Xu, Qi; Himmel, Michael E.; Zhang, Min

    2016-04-25

    To develop pathways for advanced biological upgrading of sugars to hydrocarbons, we are seeking biological approaches to produce high carbon efficiency intermediates amenable to separations and catalytic upgrading to hydrocarbon fuels. In this study, we successfully demonstrated fatty alcohol production by oleaginous yeasts Yarrowia lipolytica and Lipomyces starkeyi by expressing a bacteria-derived fatty acyl-CoA reductase (FAR). Moreover, we find higher extracellular distribution of fatty alcohols produced by FAR-expressing L. starkeyi strain as compared to Y. lipolytica strain, which would benefit the downstream product recovery process. In both oleaginous yeasts, long chain length saturated fatty alcohols were predominant, accounting for more than 85% of the total fatty alcohols produced. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report of fatty alcohol production in L. starkeyi. Taken together, our work demonstrates that in addition to Y. lipolytica, L. starkeyi can also serve as a platform organism for production of fatty acid-derived biofuels and bioproducts via metabolic engineering. We believe strain and process development both will significantly contribute to our goal of producing scalable and cost-effective fatty alcohols from renewable biomass.

  4. Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease - histological scoring systems: a large cohort single-center, evaluation study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rastogi, Archana; Shasthry, Saggere Muralikrishna; Agarwal, Ayushi; Bihari, Chhagan; Jain, Priyanka; Jindal, Ankur; Sarin, Shiv

    2017-11-01

    Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is an increasingly common cause of chronic liver disease. Till date, liver biopsy remains the gold standard for identification and quantification of the wide histological spectra of NAFLD. Histological scorings are very useful and widely applied for the diagnosis and management in clinical trials and follow-up studies of non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH). However, in view of scarce published literature, there is a need to evaluate them in large cohort of NAFLD. This study was aimed to evaluate the two histological scoring systems (NAS-CRN, SAF) in the diagnosis of NAFLD and to assess the role of histological characteristics as injury markers in NAFLD. Retrospective histological study of liver biopsies of 1000 patients diagnosed as NAFLD, between 2010 and 2016, was conducted. Histopathologic evaluation and semiquantiative scoring based on NAS-CRN and SAF algorithm and their correlation with serum aminotransferase and fibrosis were performed. Liver biopsies were classified according to the NAS-CRN scoring, as NAS <3 (not NASH) in 72 (7.2%), NAS 3-4 (borderline NASH) in 310 (31%), and NAS ≥5 (definite NASH) in 618 (61.8%), and SAF classified 117 (11.7%) not NASH and 883 (88.3%) definite NASH. There was excellent concordance for definite NASH and not NASH; however, 88.06% of borderline NASH was classified as NASH by SAF. 76.39% by NAS and 78.63% by SAF algorithm who were diagnosed as not NASH showed the presence of fibrosis; however, higher stages of fibrosis were significantly more prevalent in definite NASH, excluding burnt-out cirrhosis. Serum ALT was significantly associated with increasing stages of fibrosis (p < 0.001) and the three categories (not NASH, borderline NASH, and definite NASH) when classified as with/without fibrosis (p < 0.001). Steatosis of higher grades, more ballooned cells, and more foci of Lobular Inflammation were found in significantly higher proportion of patients with NASH (p < 0

  5. Association of grade of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease and glycated albumin to glycated hemoglobin ratio in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, Chan-Hee; Lee, Bora; Choi, Dug-Hyun; Jung, Sang-Hee; Kim, Bo-Yeon; Kim, Chul-Hee; Kang, Sung-Koo; Mok, Ji-Oh

    2017-03-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the association between the glycated albumin (GA) to glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c) (GA/HbA1c) ratio and grade of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) on ultrasonography (US) in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). This retrospective, cross-sectional study was performed with data obtained from 186 T2DM patients. Participants were assessed for serum GA/HbA1c ratio and fatty liver using US. NAFLD was defined as ultrasonographically detected fatty liver and was graded as normal, mild, moderate, and severe fatty liver. A total of 98 subjects (53%) were diagnosed with NAFLD on US, of which 47 (48%) had moderate-to-severe grade of NAFLD. The mean GA level and GA/HbA1c ratio significantly decreased across increasing NAFLD stages (34% vs. 29% vs. 27% vs. 28%, p=0.023 for trend; 3.1vs. 2.9vs. 2.6vs. 2.7, p=0.001 for trend, respectively), whereas there was no significant difference in HbA1c level among groups (p=0.714 for trend). There was a significant decrease in prevalence of NAFLD across GA/HbA1c ratio tertiles (67% vs. 58% vs. 41%, p for trend=0.007). Multivariate logistic regression analysis showed that individuals with the lowest GA/HbA1c ratio had an odds ratio (OR) of 2.75 (95% CI=1.06-7.13) for having any grade of NAFLD and an OR of 4.48 [1.20-16.74] for moderate-to-severe grade NAFLD compared with the highest GA/HbA1c ratio even after adjustment for confounding factors (p=0.038, p=0.026, respectively). The present study showed that GA/HbA1c ratio was significantly inversely associated with the presence and severity of NAFLD on US. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Choline-Deficient-Diet-Induced Fatty Liver Is a Metastasis-Resistant Microenvironment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakamura, Miki; Suetsugu, Atsushi; Hasegawa, Kosuke; Matsumoto, Takuro; Aoki, Hitomi; Kunisada, Takahiro; Shimizu, Masahito; Saji, Shigetoyo; Moriwaki, Hisataka; Hoffman, Robert M

    2017-07-01

    Fatty liver disease is increasing in the developed and developing world. Liver metastasis from malignant lymphoma in the fatty liver is poorly understood. In a previous report, we developed color-coded imaging of the tumor microenvironment (TME) of the murine EL4-RFP malignant lymphoma during metastasis, including the lung. In the present report, we investigated the potential and microenvironment of the fatty liver induced by a choline-deficient diet as a metastatic site in this mouse lymphoma model. C57BL/6-GFP transgenic mice were fed with a choline-deficient diet in order to establish a fatty liver model. EL4-RFP cells were injected in the spleen of normal mice and fatty-liver mice. Metastases in mice with fatty liver or normal liver were imaged with the Olympus SZX7 microscope and the Olympus FV1000 confocal microscope. Metastases of EL4-RFP were observed in the liver, ascites and bone marrow. Primary tumors were imaged in the spleen at the injection site. The fewest metastases were observed in the fatty liver. In addition, the fewest cancer-associated fibroblasts (CAFs) were observed in the fatty liver. The relative metastatic resistance of the fatty liver may be due to the reduced number of CAFs in the fatty livers. The mechanism of the effect of the choline-deficient diet is discussed. Copyright© 2017, International Institute of Anticancer Research (Dr. George J. Delinasios), All rights reserved.

  7. Diagnostic methods of fatty liver disease; Diagnostik der Fettleber

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kukuk, Guido Matthias; Sprinkart, Alois Martin; Traeber, Frank [Radiologische Universitaetsklinik Bonn (Germany). FE MRT

    2017-09-15

    Fatty liver disease is defined as an abnormal accumulation of lipids into the cytoplasm of hepatocytes. Different kinds of fatty liver diseases are becoming the most important etiologies of end-stage liver disease in the western world. Because fatty liver is a theoretically reversible process, timely and accurate diagnosis is a prerequisite for potential therapeutic options. This work describes major diagnostic methods and discusses particular advantages and disadvantages of various techniques.

  8. A case of insulinoma with non-alcoholic fatty liver disease: Roles of hyperphagia and hyperinsulinemia in pathogenesis of the disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rokutan, Mariyo; Yabe, Daisuke; Komoto, Izumi; Kurose, Takeshi; Kawai, Jun; Nakamura, Takefumi; Imamura, Masayuki; Seino, Yutaka

    2015-01-01

    Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is a serious health-related condition all over the world; the number of patients is increasing in Asian countries including Japan. Better understanding of its pathophysiology is required to develop effective therapeutics, as patients may go on to develop non-alcoholic steatohepatitis and hepatocellular carcinomas. While NAFLD is believed to be associated with metabolic risk factors such as obesity, diabetes, and dyslipidemia, its etiology remains largely unknown and the development or co-existence of NAFLD in patients with insulinoma has not been investigated. A 33-year-old male with an insulinoma, who had been hypoglycemic during the previous four years, developed abnormally elevated levels of liver enzymes and histological fatty liver characteristic of NAFLD by the time of admission to our hospital for resection of an insulinoma. His medical records for the previous eight years revealed that his bodyweight had increased gradually from 60 kg to 71 kg for seven years and then acutely increased to 79 kg in the latest one-year period. This sudden increase was thought to be due to the patient's self-described overeating of fruits to forestall hypoglycemia. Fresh fruits are rich in fructose, and the patient's triglycerides, alanine and aspartate transaminases showed an acute increase in the previous one-year period. After resection of the insulinoma, the levels of these parameters all were mostly restored, which suggests that hyperinsulinemia and subsequent hyperphagia played a role in the development of NAFLD in this case. This is the first report of patient with NAFLD and an insulinoma.

  9. Fatty Acid Elongation in Non-Alcoholic Steatohepatitis and Hepatocellular Carcinoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sonja M. Kessler

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH represents a risk factor for the development of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC and is characterized by quantitative and qualitative changes in hepatic lipids. Since elongation of fatty acids from C16 to C18 has recently been reported to promote both hepatic lipid accumulation and inflammation we aimed to investigate whether a frequently used mouse NASH model reflects this clinically relevant feature and whether C16 to C18 elongation can be observed in HCC development. Feeding mice a methionine and choline deficient diet to model NASH not only increased total hepatic fatty acids and cholesterol, but also distinctly elevated the C18/C16 ratio, which was not changed in a model of simple steatosis (ob/ob mice. Depletion of Kupffer cells abrogated both quantitative and qualitative methionine-and-choline deficient (MCD-induced alterations in hepatic lipids. Interestingly, mimicking inflammatory events in early hepatocarcinogenesis by diethylnitrosamine-induced carcinogenesis (48 h increased hepatic lipids and the C18/C16 ratio. Analyses of human liver samples from patients with NASH or NASH-related HCC showed an elevated expression of the elongase ELOVL6, which is responsible for the elongation of C16 fatty acids. Taken together, our findings suggest a detrimental role of an altered fatty acid pattern in the progression of NASH-related liver disease.

  10. Impairment of Akt activity by CYP2E1 mediated oxidative stress is involved in chronic ethanol-induced fatty liver

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tao Zeng

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Protein kinase B (PKB/Akt plays important roles in the regulation of lipid homeostasis, and impairment of Akt activity has been demonstrated to be involved in the development of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD. Previous studies suggest that cytochrome P4502E1 (CYP2E1 plays causal roles in the pathogenesis of alcoholic fatty liver (AFL. We hypothesized that Akt activity might be impaired due to CYP2E1-induced oxidative stress in chronic ethanol-induced hepatic steatosis. In this study, we found that chronic ethanol-induced hepatic steatosis was accompanied with reduced phosphorylation of Akt at Thr308 in mice liver. Chronic ethanol exposure had no effects on the protein levels of phosphatidylinositol 3 kinase (PI3K and phosphatase and tensin homologue deleted on chromosome ten (PTEN, and led to a slight decrease of phosphoinositide-dependent protein kinase 1 (PDK-1 protein level. Ethanol exposure resulted in increased levels of malondialdehyde (MDA and 4-hydroxynonenal (4-HNE-Akt adducts, which was significantly inhibited by chlormethiazole (CMZ, an efficient CYP2E1 inhibitor. Interestingly, N-acetyl-L-cysteine (NAC significantly attenuated chronic ethanol-induced hepatic fat accumulation and the decline of Akt phosphorylation at Thr308. In the in vitro studies, Akt phosphorylation was suppressed in CYP2E1-expressing HepG2 (CYP2E1-HepG2 cells compared with the negative control HepG2 (NC-HepG2 cells, and 4-HNE treatment led to significant decrease of Akt phosphorylation at Thr308 in wild type HepG2 cells. Lastly, pharmacological activation of Akt by insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1 significantly alleviated chronic ethanol-induced fatty liver in mice. Collectively, these results indicate that CYP2E1-induced oxidative stress may be responsible for ethanol-induced suppression of Akt phosphorylation and pharmacological modulation of Akt in liver may be an effective strategy for the treatment of ethanol-induced fatty liver. Keywords

  11. Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Patrick-Melin, A J; Kalinski, M I; Kelly, K R

    2009-01-01

    Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is a rapidly emerging chronic liver disease and is reported to affect up to 70-80% of overweight and obese individuals. NAFLD represents a spectrum of liver diseases that range from simple hepatic steatosis, to a more severe and treatment resistant stage...... that features steatosis plus inflammation, termed nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH), which may in turn progress to hepatic fibrosis, cirrhosis, and sub-acute liver failure. Thus, NAFLD and its subsequent complications create a significant health burden, and currently there is no effective treatment strategy...

  12. Liver Disease in the Alcoholic

    OpenAIRE

    Szilagyi, Andrew

    1986-01-01

    The problem of liver damage in alcoholic patients is widespread. This review discusses hepatic damage on the basis of a histologic classification of increasing severity. In the early stages, or with compensated cirrhosis, clinical and laboratory findings may not accurately reflect hepatic involvement. Furthermore, there exists a group of alcoholic patients in whom liver disease may be caused by factors other than alcohol. Nevertheless, in most patients with liver disease, certain biochemical ...

  13. [Effect of aerobic exercise and resistance exercise in improving non-alcoholic fatty liver disease: a randomized controlled trial].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jia, G Y; Han, T; Gao, L; Wang, L; Wang, S C; Yang, L; Zhang, J; Guan, Y Y; Yan, N N; Yu, H Y; Xiao, H J; Di, F S

    2018-01-20

    Objective: To investigate the effect of dietary control combined with different exercise modes on plasma vaspin, irisin, and metabolic parameters in patients with non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) through a randomized open parallel-controlled study. Methods: The patients aged 30-65 years who visited Tianjin Third Central Hospital from January 2013 to December 2014 and were diagnosed with NAFLD by liver ultrasound and fat content determination were screening, and 474 patients were enrolled in this randomized controlled trial and divided into aerobic exercise group, resistance exercise group, and control group. All patients received dietary intervention. The three groups were compared in terms of biochemical parameters, fat content, NFS score, energy metabolic parameters, body composition index, and levels of vaspin and irisin at baseline and after 6 months of intervention. SPSS 19.0 was used for statistical analysis. The t -test, the Mann-Whitney U test, the chi-square test, and an analysis of variance were used for comparison between groups. The multiple imputation method was used for missing data, and the results were included in the intention-to-treat analysis. Results: There were no significant differences in age, sex, anthropometrical parameters, and biochemical parameters between the three groups at baseline. Compared with dietary control alone, aerobic exercise and resistance exercise helped to achieve significant reductions in waist circumference, diastolic pressure, percentage of body fat, volatile fatty acid, fasting blood glucose, homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance, triglyceride, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, free fatty acid, uric acid, alanine aminotransferase, and liver fat content after 6 months of intervention ( P aerobic exercise group had a significant increase in non-protein respiratory quotient and significant reductions in body mass index and aspartate aminotransferase after intervention, as well as a significant

  14. Insulinorresistencia e hígado graso no alcohólico, ¿existe relación causa-efecto entre ambas condiciones? Insulin-resistance and non-alcoholic fatty liver, is there a cause-effect relationship between both conditions?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raúl Orlando Calderín Bouza

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available La insulinorresistencia y el síndrome de insulinorresistencia constituyen la causa primaria más importante dentro de la etiopatogenia del hígado graso no alcohólico, conjuntamente con la obesidad y la diabetes mellitus tipo 2. La insulinorresistencia puede ser causa y a la vez consecuencia de la enfermedad hepática. La prevalencia del hígado graso no alcohólico documentada en trabajos realizados en países desarrollados es la siguiente: el hígado graso no alcohólico simple tiene una prevalencia de un 20 a 23 %, aumentando en los pacientes con hipertransaminasemia persitente, en los que se puede observar una prevalencia entre 21 y 63 %, y la prevalencia de esteatohepatitis oscila entre un 2 y un 3 % de la población. Es bueno señalar que esta prevalencia va en aumento conjuntamente con el aumento de la prevalencia del síndrome de insulinorresistencia, la obesidad y la diabetes mellitus tipo 2. El hígado graso no alcohólico constituye la causa más frecuente de hipertransaminasemia persistente, de hepatopatía crónica y de cirrosis hepática idiopática. La edad igual o superior a 40 años, la presencia de insulinorresistencia, de síndrome de insulinorresistencia, de obesidad y de diabetes mellitus tipo 2, ensombrecen el pronóstico de los pacientes con hígado graso no alcohólico, por lo que la presencia de estos factores antes mencionados son considerados factores de mal pronóstico en el paciente con hígado graso no alcohólicoInsulin resistance and the insulin resistance syndrome are the more significant main cause in pathogeny of non-alcoholic fatty liver, together with obesity and type 2 diabetes mellitus. Insulin resistance may be the cause and the consequence of hepatic disease. Prevalence of non-alcoholic fatty liver documented in papers performed in developing countries is at follow: from a 20 % to 23 %, increase in patients presenting with persistent high level of transaminase, in which it is possible to observe a

  15. Ischemia-reperfusion injury in rat fatty liver: role of nutritional status.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caraceni, P; Nardo, B; Domenicali, M; Turi, P; Vici, M; Simoncini, M; De Maria, N; Trevisani, F; Van Thiel, D H; Derenzini, M; Cavallari, A; Bernardi, M

    1999-04-01

    Fatty livers are more sensitive to the deleterious effects of ischemia-reperfusion than normal livers. Nutritional status greatly modulates this injury in normal livers, but its role in the specific setting of fatty liver is unknown. This study aimed to determine the effect of nutritional status on warm ischemia-reperfusion injury in rat fatty livers. Fed and fasted rats with normal or fatty liver induced by a choline deficient diet underwent 1 hour of lobar ischemia and reperfusion. Rat survival was determined for 7 days. Serum transaminases, liver histology and cell ultrastructure were assessed before and after ischemia, and at 30 minutes, 2 hours, 8 hours, and 24 hours after reperfusion. Survival was also determined in fatty fasted rats supplemented with glucose before surgery. The preischemic hepatic glycogen was measured in all groups. Whereas survival was similar in fasted and fed rats with normal liver (90% vs. 100%), fasting dramatically reduced survival in rats with fatty liver (14% vs. 64%, P nutritional repletion procedure may be part of a treatment strategy aimed to prevent ischemia-reperfusion injury in fatty livers.

  16. CT quantitative diagnosis in fatty liver: a clinical study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    He Wen; Qian Linxue; Zhao Jixue; Ma Daqing; Feng Jie; Hu Zhihai

    2001-01-01

    Objective: To establish the CT criteria of quantitative diagnosis for liver steatosis by means of studying the CT features of fatty liver cases proven histologically. Methods: Twenty-eight cases of fatty liver were underwent non-enhanced CT scan, and the attenuation of liver parenchyma was measured. To differentiate the degree of fatty liver, the mean CT value and the relative density of hepatic vessels were observed. The quantitative diagnosis was made according to the CT number threshold and the criteria of relative density of hepatic vessels, respectively. Results: Among the 28 cases, there were 17 cases of mild steatosis with mean CT number of 46 HU (32-65 HU), 7 cases of middle degree fatty liver with mean CT number of 28 HU (15-38 HU), and 4 cases of sever fatty liver with mean CT number of 0.2 HU (-7-11 HU). For the relative density of hepatic vessels, 16 of the 17 cases of mild fatty liver had a appearance of hepatic vessels immersion and 1 mild case had reverse hepatic vessels display, 6 of 7 middle degree cases had reverse hepatic vessels display with 1 case having the appearance of hepatic vessels immersion, and all the 4 case of sever steatosis had the appearance of reverse hepatic vessels display with sharp contrast between vessels and the liver parenchyma. The accuracy of quantitative diagnosis was 65.9% and 93.1% by means of criteria of CT number threshold and relative density of hepatic vessels, respectively (x 2 = 7.153, P < 0.01). Conclusion: The criteria of relative density of hepatic vessels is more reliable than that of CT number threshold in quantitative diagnosis of fatty liver

  17. Family history and obesity in youth, their effect on acylcarnitine/aminoacids metabolomics and non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD. Structural equation modeling approach.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Elena Romero-Ibarguengoitia

    Full Text Available Structural equation modeling (SEM can help understanding complex functional relationships among obesity, non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD, family history of obesity, targeted metabolomics and pro-inflammatory markers. We tested two hypotheses: 1 If obesity precedes an excess of free fatty acids that increase oxidative stress and mitochondrial dysfunction, there would be an increase of serum acylcarnitines, amino acids and cytokines in obese subjects. Acylcarnitines would be related to non-alcoholic fatty disease that will induce insulin resistance. 2 If a positive family history of obesity and type 2 diabetes are the major determinants of the metabolomic profile, there would be higher concentration of amino acids and acylcarnitines in patients with this background that will induce obesity and NAFLD which in turn will induce insulin resistance.137 normoglycemic subjects, mean age (SD of 30.61 (8.6 years divided in three groups: BMI30 with absence of NAFLD (G2, n = 24; and BMI>30 with NAFLD (G3, n = 31. Family history of obesity (any was present in 53%. Both models were adjusted in SEM. Family history of obesity predicted obesity but could not predict acylcarnitines and amino acid concentrations (effect size <0.2, but did predict obesity phenotype.Family history of obesity is the major predictor of obesity, and the metabolic abnormalities on amino acids, acylcarnitines, inflammation, insulin resistance, and NAFLD.

  18. Family history and obesity in youth, their effect on acylcarnitine/aminoacids metabolomics and non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). Structural equation modeling approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romero-Ibarguengoitia, Maria Elena; Vadillo-Ortega, Felipe; Caballero, Augusto Enrique; Ibarra-González, Isabel; Herrera-Rosas, Arturo; Serratos-Canales, María Fabiola; León-Hernández, Mireya; González-Chávez, Antonio; Mummidi, Srinivas; Duggirala, Ravindranath; López-Alvarenga, Juan Carlos

    2018-01-01

    Structural equation modeling (SEM) can help understanding complex functional relationships among obesity, non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD), family history of obesity, targeted metabolomics and pro-inflammatory markers. We tested two hypotheses: 1) If obesity precedes an excess of free fatty acids that increase oxidative stress and mitochondrial dysfunction, there would be an increase of serum acylcarnitines, amino acids and cytokines in obese subjects. Acylcarnitines would be related to non-alcoholic fatty disease that will induce insulin resistance. 2) If a positive family history of obesity and type 2 diabetes are the major determinants of the metabolomic profile, there would be higher concentration of amino acids and acylcarnitines in patients with this background that will induce obesity and NAFLD which in turn will induce insulin resistance. 137 normoglycemic subjects, mean age (SD) of 30.61 (8.6) years divided in three groups: BMI30 with absence of NAFLD (G2), n = 24; and BMI>30 with NAFLD (G3), n = 31. Family history of obesity (any) was present in 53%. Both models were adjusted in SEM. Family history of obesity predicted obesity but could not predict acylcarnitines and amino acid concentrations (effect size obesity phenotype. Family history of obesity is the major predictor of obesity, and the metabolic abnormalities on amino acids, acylcarnitines, inflammation, insulin resistance, and NAFLD.

  19. Hepatic NAD+ deficiency as a therapeutic target for non‐alcoholic fatty liver disease in ageing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Can‐Can; Yang, Xi; Hua, Xia; Liu, Jian; Fan, Mao‐Bing; Li, Guo‐Qiang; Song, Jie; Xu, Tian‐Ying; Li, Zhi‐Yong; Guan, Yun‐Feng

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Background and Purpose Ageing is an important risk factor of non‐alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). Here, we investigated whether the deficiency of nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD+), a ubiquitous coenzyme, links ageing with NAFLD. Experimental Approach Hepatic concentrations of NAD+, protein levels of nicotinamide phosphoribosyltransferase (NAMPT) and several other critical enzymes regulating NAD+ biosynthesis, were compared in middle‐aged and aged mice or patients. The influences of NAD+ decline on the steatosis and steatohepatitis were evaluated in wild‐type and H247A dominant‐negative, enzymically‐inactive NAMPT transgenic mice (DN‐NAMPT) given normal or high‐fat diet (HFD). Key Results Hepatic NAD+ level decreased in aged mice and humans. NAMPT‐controlled NAD+ salvage, but not de novo biosynthesis pathway, was compromised in liver of elderly mice and humans. Given normal chow, middle‐age DN‐NAMPT mice displayed systemic NAD+ reduction and had moderate NAFLD phenotypes, including lipid accumulation, enhanced oxidative stress, triggered inflammation and impaired insulin sensitivity in liver. All these NAFLD phenotypes, especially release of pro‐inflammatory factors, Kupffer cell accumulation, monocytes infiltration, NLRP3 inflammasome pathway and hepatic fibrosis (Masson's staining and α‐SMA staining), deteriorated further under HFD challenge. Oral administration of nicotinamide riboside, a natural NAD+ precursor, completely corrected these NAFLD phenotypes induced by NAD+ deficiency alone or HFD, whereas adenovirus‐mediated SIRT1 overexpression only partially rescued these phenotypes. Conclusions and Implications These results provide the first evidence that ageing‐associated NAD+ deficiency is a critical risk factor for NAFLD, and suggest that supplementation with NAD+ substrates may be a promising therapeutic strategy to prevent and treat NAFLD. PMID:27174364

  20. Periodontitis is associated with significant hepatic fibrosis in patients with non-alcoholic fatty liver disease.

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    William Alazawi

    Full Text Available Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD has a bidirectional association with metabolic syndrome. It affects up to 30% of the general population, 70% of individuals with diabetes and 90% with obesity. The main histological hallmark of progressive NAFLD is fibrosis. There is a bidirectional epidemiological link between periodontitis and metabolic syndrome. NAFLD, periodontitis and diabetes share common risk factors, are characterised by inflammation and associated with changes in commensal bacteria. Therefore we tested the hypothesis that periodontitis is associated with NAFLD and with significant fibrosis in two study groups.We analyzed data from a population-based survey and a patient-based study. NHANES III participants with abdominal ultrasound and sociodemographic, clinical, and oral examination data were extracted and appropriate weighting applied. In a separate patient-based study, consenting patients with biopsy-proved NAFLD (or with liver indices too mild to justify biopsy underwent dental examination. Basic Periodontal Examination score was recorded.In NHANES, periodontitis was significantly associated with steatosis in 8172 adults even after adjusting for sociodemographic factors. However, associations were fully explained after accounting for features of metabolic syndrome. In the patient-based study, periodontitis was significantly more common in patients with biopsy-proven NASH and any fibrosis (F0-F4 than without NASH (p = 0.009. Periodontitis was more common in patients with NASH and significant fibrosis (F2-4 than mild or no fibrosis (F0-1, p = 0.04.Complementary evidence from an epidemiological survey and a clinical study show that NAFLD is associated with periodontitis and that the association is stronger with significant liver fibrosis.

  1. Anabolic-androgenic steroids for alcoholic liver disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rambaldi, A; Gluud, C

    2006-01-01

    Alcohol is one of the most common causes of liver disease in the Western World. Randomised clinical trials have examined the effects of anabolic-androgenic steroids for alcoholic liver disease.......Alcohol is one of the most common causes of liver disease in the Western World. Randomised clinical trials have examined the effects of anabolic-androgenic steroids for alcoholic liver disease....

  2. Anabolic-androgenic steroids for alcoholic liver disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rambaldi, A; Iaquinto, G; Gluud, C

    2003-01-01

    Alcohol is one of the most common causes of liver disease in the Western World today. Randomised clinical trials have examined the effects of anabolic-androgenic steroids for alcoholic liver disease.......Alcohol is one of the most common causes of liver disease in the Western World today. Randomised clinical trials have examined the effects of anabolic-androgenic steroids for alcoholic liver disease....

  3. Clinical Significance of the Degree of Fatty Liver Diagnosed by Ultrasonography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Yong Kyun

    2008-01-01

    Fatty liver is one of the most commonly found disease by abdominal ultrasonography. The status of fatty liver is classified into mild, moderate and severe degrees. The study was conducted to investigate the clinical significance of fatty liver using ultrasonography. Test set consisted of 2,185 patients who visited D healthcare center in Daejeon to receive an abdominal ultrasonic test from January to December 2007. Out of the 2185 patients, 524 patients was diagnosed as fatty liver (290 male and 234 female patients). They were divided into three groups, group I for mild degree. II for moderate degree, and III for severe degree, depending on the echo of liver parenchyma, the sound attenuation, and the visibility of intrahepatic blood vessels and diaphragm. Then the correlation of obesity indices, liver function tests and metabolic syndrome was analyzed for males and females separately. As for the degree of fatty liver, 350 cases (66.8%) were classified as group I, 153 cases (29.2%) as group II, and 21 cases (4.1%) as group III. In addition, severe degree of fatty liver was more frequently found in males than in females. The mean ages of three groups for males were 46.1, 44.5, and 39.1, and those for females were 48.8, 50.2, 52.4, respectively. Males with lower mean ages have severely of fatty liver for both males and females. The results in this study show that the classification into three degrees of fatty liver in ultrasonography practice is helpful to treat and observe the progress of fatty liver. In addition, careful examination is required to measure the severity of fatty liver as well as detection of it. A standardized method to classify the degree of fatty liver is also needed for more objective measurement.

  4. Plant fatty acyl reductases: enzymes generating fatty alcohols for protective layers with potential for industrial applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rowland, Owen; Domergue, Frédéric

    2012-09-01

    Primary fatty alcohols are found throughout the biological world, either in free form or in a combined state. They are common components of plant surface lipids (i.e. cutin, suberin, sporopollenin, and associated waxes) and their absence can significantly perturb these essential barriers. Fatty alcohols and/or derived compounds are also likely to have direct functions in plant biotic and abiotic interactions. An evolutionarily related set of alcohol-forming fatty acyl reductases (FARs) is present in all kingdoms of life. Plant microsomal and plastid-associated FAR enzymes have been characterized, acting on acyl-coenzymeA (acyl-CoA) or acyl-acyl carrier protein (acyl-ACP) substrates, respectively. FARs have distinct substrate specificities both with regard to chain length and chain saturation. Fatty alcohols and wax esters, which are a combination of fatty alcohol and fatty acid, have a variety of commercial applications. The expression of FARs with desired specificities in transgenic microbes or oilseed crops would provide a novel means of obtaining these valuable compounds. In the present review, we report on recent progress in characterizing plant FAR enzymes and in understanding the biological roles of primary fatty alcohols, as well as describe the biotechnological production and industrial uses of fatty alcohols. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Effect and the probable mechanisms of silibinin in regulating insulin resistance in the liver of rats with non-alcoholic fatty liver

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yao, Jiayin; Zhi, Min; Gao, Xiang; Hu, Pinjin; Li, Chujun; Yang, Xiaobo [Department of Gastroenterology, The Sixth Affiliated Hospital, Sun Yat-Sen University, Guangzhou, Guangdong Province (China)

    2013-03-15

    Our previous study has shown that reduced insulin resistance (IR) was one of the possible mechanisms for the therapeutic effect of silibinin on non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) in rats. In the present study, we investigated the pathways of silibinin in regulating hepatic glucose production and IR amelioration. Forty-five 4- to 6-week-old male Sprague Dawley rats were divided into a control group, an HFD group (high-fat diet for 6 weeks) and an HFD + silibinin group (high-fat diet + 0.5 mg kg{sup -1}·day{sup -1} silibinin, starting at the beginning of the protocol). Both subcutaneous and visceral fat was measured. Homeostasis model assessment-IR index (HOMA-IR), intraperitoneal glucose tolerance test and insulin tolerance test (ITT) were performed. The expression of adipose triglyceride lipase (ATGL) and of genes associated with hepatic gluconeogenesis was evaluated. Silibinin intervention significantly protected liver function, down-regulated serum fat, and improved IR, as shown by decreased HOMA-IR and increased ITT slope. Silibinin markedly prevented visceral obesity by reducing visceral fat, enhanced lipolysis by up-regulating ATGL expression and inhibited gluconeogenesis by down-regulating associated genes such as Forkhead box O1, phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase and glucose-6-phosphatase. Silibinin was effective in ameliorating IR in NAFLD rats. Reduction of visceral obesity, enhancement of lipolysis and inhibition of gluconeogenesis might be the underlying mechanisms.

  6. Effect and the probable mechanisms of silibinin in regulating insulin resistance in the liver of rats with non-alcoholic fatty liver

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yao, Jiayin; Zhi, Min; Gao, Xiang; Hu, Pinjin; Li, Chujun; Yang, Xiaobo

    2013-01-01

    Our previous study has shown that reduced insulin resistance (IR) was one of the possible mechanisms for the therapeutic effect of silibinin on non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) in rats. In the present study, we investigated the pathways of silibinin in regulating hepatic glucose production and IR amelioration. Forty-five 4- to 6-week-old male Sprague Dawley rats were divided into a control group, an HFD group (high-fat diet for 6 weeks) and an HFD + silibinin group (high-fat diet + 0.5 mg kg -1 ·day -1 silibinin, starting at the beginning of the protocol). Both subcutaneous and visceral fat was measured. Homeostasis model assessment-IR index (HOMA-IR), intraperitoneal glucose tolerance test and insulin tolerance test (ITT) were performed. The expression of adipose triglyceride lipase (ATGL) and of genes associated with hepatic gluconeogenesis was evaluated. Silibinin intervention significantly protected liver function, down-regulated serum fat, and improved IR, as shown by decreased HOMA-IR and increased ITT slope. Silibinin markedly prevented visceral obesity by reducing visceral fat, enhanced lipolysis by up-regulating ATGL expression and inhibited gluconeogenesis by down-regulating associated genes such as Forkhead box O1, phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase and glucose-6-phosphatase. Silibinin was effective in ameliorating IR in NAFLD rats. Reduction of visceral obesity, enhancement of lipolysis and inhibition of gluconeogenesis might be the underlying mechanisms

  7. Effect and the probable mechanisms of silibinin in regulating insulin resistance in the liver of rats with non-alcoholic fatty liver

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiayin Yao

    Full Text Available Our previous study has shown that reduced insulin resistance (IR was one of the possible mechanisms for the therapeutic effect of silibinin on non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD in rats. In the present study, we investigated the pathways of silibinin in regulating hepatic glucose production and IR amelioration. Forty-five 4- to 6-week-old male Sprague Dawley rats were divided into a control group, an HFD group (high-fat diet for 6 weeks and an HFD + silibinin group (high-fat diet + 0.5 mg kg-1·day-1 silibinin, starting at the beginning of the protocol. Both subcutaneous and visceral fat was measured. Homeostasis model assessment-IR index (HOMA-IR, intraperitoneal glucose tolerance test and insulin tolerance test (ITT were performed. The expression of adipose triglyceride lipase (ATGL and of genes associated with hepatic gluconeogenesis was evaluated. Silibinin intervention significantly protected liver function, down-regulated serum fat, and improved IR, as shown by decreased HOMA-IR and increased ITT slope. Silibinin markedly prevented visceral obesity by reducing visceral fat, enhanced lipolysis by up-regulating ATGL expression and inhibited gluconeogenesis by down-regulating associated genes such as Forkhead box O1, phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase and glucose-6-phosphatase. Silibinin was effective in ameliorating IR in NAFLD rats. Reduction of visceral obesity, enhancement of lipolysis and inhibition of gluconeogenesis might be the underlying mechanisms.

  8. Clinical characteristics of patients with diabetes mellitus and fatty liver diagnosed by liver/spleen Hounsfield units on CT scan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakitani, Kosuke; Enooku, Kenichiro; Kubo, Hirokazu; Tanaka, Akifumi; Arai, Hisakatsu; Kawazu, Shoji; Koike, Kazuhiko

    2017-01-01

    Objective The leading cause of liver injuries in diabetes mellitus may be associated with fatty liver. We aimed to elucidate the relationship between fatty liver and diabetes characteristics. Methods Retrospectively, 970 patients with diabetes were analysed. Fatty liver was diagnosed when the liver/spleen Hounsfield unit ratio by computed tomography was below 0.9. Clinical diabetes characteristics were compared between patients with and without fatty liver. Results Of 970 patients (717 male and 253 female; mean age 64.4 years), 175 males (24.4%) and 60 females (23.7%) had fatty liver. None of the 28 patients with type 1 diabetes had fatty liver. In male patients with type 2 diabetes, age, visceral adipose tissue (VAT), albumin, alanine amino-transferase (ALT), and triglycerides were independently associated with fatty liver. In females, age and bilirubin were associated with fatty liver. Conclusions Fatty liver is associated with type 2 diabetes characteristics, including younger age and elevated VAT, albumin, ALT, and triglycerides in males and younger age and elevated bilirubin levels in females. PMID:28553763

  9. Clinical characteristics of patients with diabetes mellitus and fatty liver diagnosed by liver/spleen Hounsfield units on CT scan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakitani, Kosuke; Enooku, Kenichiro; Kubo, Hirokazu; Tanaka, Akifumi; Arai, Hisakatsu; Kawazu, Shoji; Koike, Kazuhiko

    2017-06-01

    Objective The leading cause of liver injuries in diabetes mellitus may be associated with fatty liver. We aimed to elucidate the relationship between fatty liver and diabetes characteristics. Methods Retrospectively, 970 patients with diabetes were analysed. Fatty liver was diagnosed when the liver/spleen Hounsfield unit ratio by computed tomography was below 0.9. Clinical diabetes characteristics were compared between patients with and without fatty liver. Results Of 970 patients (717 male and 253 female; mean age 64.4 years), 175 males (24.4%) and 60 females (23.7%) had fatty liver. None of the 28 patients with type 1 diabetes had fatty liver. In male patients with type 2 diabetes, age, visceral adipose tissue (VAT), albumin, alanine amino-transferase (ALT), and triglycerides were independently associated with fatty liver. In females, age and bilirubin were associated with fatty liver. Conclusions Fatty liver is associated with type 2 diabetes characteristics, including younger age and elevated VAT, albumin, ALT, and triglycerides in males and younger age and elevated bilirubin levels in females.

  10. Study on fatty liver diagnosed by abdominal ultrasonography and clinical laboratory findings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang, Jeong Hwa

    2006-01-01

    The study obtained the following conclusions by making a comparative study on fatty liver diagnosed by abdominal ultrasonography and clinical laboratory findings. I surveyed the value of abdominal ultrasound in 400 patients without clinical symptoms at C Health Clinic Center, Seoul. Compare with blood pressure was high (systolic/diastolic) in 7.5%/4.5% on persons who were diagnosed fatty liver. At the time of the diagnosis, Total cholesterol level was increased in fatty liver patients, HDL-cholesterol level was high in fatty liver patients. And Trigryceride level was increased in fatty liver persons, LDL-cholesterol was high in fatty liver persons. SGOT level was increased in 5.5% on patients who were diagnosed fatty liver, 0% on persons who were normal and SGPT level was high in 29.5% on people who were diagnosed fatty liver, 0% on patients who were diagnosed normal

  11. Study on fatty liver diagnosed by abdominal ultrasonography and clinical laboratory findings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang, Jeong Hwa [Cheju Halla College, Cheju (Korea, Republic of)

    2006-03-15

    The study obtained the following conclusions by making a comparative study on fatty liver diagnosed by abdominal ultrasonography and clinical laboratory findings. I surveyed the value of abdominal ultrasound in 400 patients without clinical symptoms at C Health Clinic Center, Seoul. Compare with blood pressure was high (systolic/diastolic) in 7.5%/4.5% on persons who were diagnosed fatty liver. At the time of the diagnosis, Total cholesterol level was increased in fatty liver patients, HDL-cholesterol level was high in fatty liver patients. And Trigryceride level was increased in fatty liver persons, LDL-cholesterol was high in fatty liver persons. SGOT level was increased in 5.5% on patients who were diagnosed fatty liver, 0% on persons who were normal and SGPT level was high in 29.5% on people who were diagnosed fatty liver, 0% on patients who were diagnosed normal.

  12. Fish oil alleviated high-fat diet-induced non-alcoholic fatty liver disease via regulating hepatic lipids metabolism and metaflammation: a transcriptomic study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Fahu; Wang, Hualin; Tian, Yu; Li, Qi; He, Lei; Li, Na; Liu, Zhiguo

    2016-02-01

    Intake of fish oil rich in n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) is believed to be beneficial against development of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). However, the underlying mechanisms remain unclear. This study was to gain further understanding of the potential mechanisms of the protective effects of fish oil against NAFLD. Ten male Sprague-Dawley rats were fed a control diet (CON), a Western style high-fat and high-cholesterol diet (WD), or a WD diet containing fish oil (FOH) for 16 weeks respectively. The development of liver steatosis and fibrosis were verified by histological and biochemical examination. Hepatic transcriptome were extracted for RNA-seq analysis, and particular results were confirmed by real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR). The consumption of fish oil significantly ameliorated WD-induced dyslipidemia, transaminase elevation, hepatic steatosis, inflammatory infiltration, and fibrosis. Hepatic RNA-Seq analysis showed that long-term intake of fish oil restored the expression of circadian clock-related genes per2 and per3, which were reduced in WD fed animals. Fish oil consumption also corrected the expression levels of genes involved in fatty acid and cholesterol metabolism, such as Srebf1, Fasn, Scd1, Insig2, Cd36, Cyp7a1, Abcg5, Abcg8 and Pcsk9. Moreover, the expression levels of pro-inflammation genes Mcp1, Socs2, Sema4a, and Cd44 in the FOH group were lower than that of WD group, implying that fish oil protects the liver against WD-induced hepatic inflammation. The present study demonstrates fish oil protects against WD-induced NALFD via improving lipid metabolism and ameliorating hepatic inflammation. Our findings add to the current understanding on the benefits of n-3 PUFAs against NAFLD.

  13. Propylthiouracil for alcoholic liver disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fede, Giuseppe; Germani, Giacomo; Gluud, Christian

    2011-01-01

    Randomised clinical trials have addressed the question whether propylthiouracil has any beneficial effects in patients with alcoholic liver disease.......Randomised clinical trials have addressed the question whether propylthiouracil has any beneficial effects in patients with alcoholic liver disease....

  14. Expression of genes for microRNA-processing enzymes is altered in advanced non-alcoholic fatty liver disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Haveesh; Estep, Michael; Birerdinc, Aybike; Afendy, Arian; Moazzez, Amir; Elariny, Hazem; Goodman, Zachary; Chandhoke, Vikas; Baranova, Ancha; Younossi, Zobair M

    2013-08-01

    Recently, microRNAs (miRNA) have been linked to the pathogenesis of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) and its progression to non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH). First transcribed as pri-miRNA, these molecules are further processed by a complex of endonuclear and cytosolic RNA binding molecules to form mature miRNAs. The aim of this study is to investigate mechanisms of miRNA regulation in the visceral adipose of obese NAFLD patients via measuring expression of miRNA processing enzymes and pri-miRNA. Total RNAs were extracted from visceral adipose tissue (VAT) samples collected from patients undergoing bariatric surgery. All patients had biopsy-proven NAFLD (NASH patients [n = 12] and non-NASH NAFLD [n = 12]). For each patient, we profiled mRNA levels for three miRNA processing elements (Drosha, DGCR8, and Dicer1) and seven pri-miRNAs (pri-miR-125b-2, pri-miR-16-2, pri-miR-26a-1, pri-miR-26a-2, pri-miR-7-1, pri-miR-7-2, and pri-miR-7-3). Expression of Dicer1, Drosha and DGCR8 was significantly increased within the NASH cohort along with expression of pri-miR-7-1. The presence of focal necrosis on the liver biopsy correlated significantly with levels of Dicer1 and DGRC8. Both NASH and ballooning degeneration of hepatocytes correlated negatively with the expression levels of hsa-miR-125b. Histologic NASH correlated positively with the expression levels of pri-miR-16-2 and pri-miR-7-1. The presence of the hepatocyte's ballooning degeneration in the liver biopsy correlated positively with pri-miR-26a-1 and pri-miR-7-1. The expression profile of pri-miR-125b-2 also correlated positively with body mass index. Our findings support the hypothesis that VAT-derived miRNA may contribute to the pathogenesis of NASH in obese patients. © 2013 Journal of Gastroenterology and Hepatology Foundation and Wiley Publishing Asia Pty Ltd.

  15. Quantitative evaluation of fatty liver by computed tomography in rabbits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kawata, R.; Sakata, K.; Kunieda, T.; Saji, S.; Doi, H.; Nozawa, Y.

    1984-01-01

    Biochemical, histologic, and computed tomographic (CT) examinations of the liver were performed in 32 rabbits in which fatty liver was induced by prolonged intravenous fat infusion. In two groups of rabbits, in which 2 and 4 g/kg/day of fat emulsion was administered, respectively, posttreatment reduction in CT value of mild degree was observed. In the group that received 8 g/kg/day of fat emulsion, posttreatment change in CT value was sufficient for a diagnosis of fatty liver of moderate degree. Reduction in CT value in fatty liver might be due largely to accumulation of triglyceride and cholesterol in the liver cells. Significant correlation was found between changes in CT value of the liver and degrees of histological fat accumulation in the liver cells. Consecutive measurement of CT values of the liver during prolonged intravenous hyperalimentation is a nonagressive method of diagnosing fatty liver

  16. Liver scintigraphic features associated with alcoholism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Drum, D.E.; Beard, J.O.

    1978-01-01

    The relationships between scintigraphic features and clinical alcoholism were studied by review of 2406 liver scintiphotos. Two distinct patterns were significantly associated with alcoholism: heterogeneous distribution of radiocolloid in the liver, and jointly increased uptake of tracer by the spleen and vertebral bone marrow. A total of 13 overall patterns were found to distinguish, with considerable reliability, alcoholics from all other patients. This finding reflects the frequency with which alcohol abuse is associated with hepatic dysfunction in hospital patients. These observations indicate an important role for the nuclear medicine physician in detection of alcoholism among patients referred for liver-spleen imaging, and they form a basis for comparison with the diagnostic efficacy of other methods of evaluating diffuse liver diseases

  17. Low-ω3 Fatty Acid and Soy Protein Attenuate Alcohol-Induced Fatty Liver and Injury by Regulating the Opposing Lipid Oxidation and Lipogenic Signaling Pathways

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karina Reyes-Gordillo

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Chronic ethanol-induced downregulation of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma coactivator 1-alpha (PGC1α and upregulation of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma coactivator 1-beta (PGC1β affect hepatic lipid oxidation and lipogenesis, respectively, leading to fatty liver injury. Low-ω3 fatty acid (Low-ω3FA that primarily regulates PGC1α and soy protein (SP that seems to have its major regulatory effect on PGC1β were evaluated for their protective effects against ethanol-induced hepatosteatosis in rats fed with Lieber-deCarli control or ethanol liquid diets with high or low ω3FA fish oil and soy protein. Low-ω3FA and SP opposed the actions of chronic ethanol by reducing serum and liver lipids with concomitant decreased fatty liver. They also prevented the downregulation of hepatic Sirtuin 1 (SIRT1 and PGC1α and their target fatty acid oxidation pathway genes and attenuated the upregulation of hepatic PGC1β and sterol regulatory element-binding protein 1c (SREBP1c and their target lipogenic pathway genes via the phosphorylation of 5′ adenosine monophosphate-activated protein kinase (AMPK. Thus, these two novel modulators attenuate ethanol-induced hepatosteatosis and consequent liver injury potentially by regulating the two opposing lipid oxidation and lipogenic pathways.

  18. Bicyclol attenuates tetracycline-induced fatty liver associated with inhibition of hepatic ER stress and apoptosis in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yao, Xiao-Min; Li, Yue; Li, Hong-Wei; Cheng, Xiao-Yan; Lin, Ai-Bin; Qu, Jun-Ge

    2016-01-01

    Endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress is known to be involved in the development of several metabolic disorders, including non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). Tetracycline can cause hepatic steatosis, and ER stress may be involved in tetracycline-induced fatty liver. Our previous study showed that bicyclol has been proven to protect against tetracycline-induced fatty liver in mice, and ER stress may also be involved in bicyclol's hepatoprotective effect. Therefore, this study was performed to investigate the underlying mechanisms associated with ER stress and apoptosis, by which bicyclol attenuated tetracycline-induced fatty liver in mice. Bicyclol (300 mg/kg) was given to mice by gavage 3 times. Tetracycline (200 mg/kg, intraperitoneally) was injected at 1 h after the last dose of bicyclol. At 6 h and 24 h after single dose of tetracycline injection, serum ALT, AST, TG, CHO and hepatic histopathological examinations were performed to evaluate liver injuries. Hepatic steatosis was assessed by the accumulation of hepatic TG and CHO. Moreover, hepatic apoptosis and ER stress related markers were determined by TUNEL, real-time PCR, and western blot. As a result, bicyclol significantly protected against tetracycline-induced fatty liver as evidenced by the decrease of elevated serum transaminases and hepatic triglyceride, and the attenuation of histopathological changes in mice. In addition, bicyclol remarkably alleviated hepatic apoptosis and the gene expression of caspase-3, and increased the gene expression of XIAP. The gene expressions of ER stress-related markers, including CHOP, GRP78, IRE-1α, and ATF6, which were downregulated by bicyclol pretreatment in tetracycline-injected mice. These results suggested that bicyclol protected tetracycline-induced fatty liver partly due to its ability of anti-apoptosis associated with ER stress.

  19. [Combination of NAFLD Fibrosis Score and liver stiffness measurement for identification of moderate fibrosis stages (II & III) in non-alcoholic fatty liver disease].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drolz, Andreas; Wehmeyer, Malte; Diedrich, Tom; Piecha, Felix; Schulze Zur Wiesch, Julian; Kluwe, Johannes

    2018-01-01

    Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) has become one of the most frequent causes of chronic liver disease. Currently, therapeutic options for NAFLD patients are limited, but new pharmacologic agents are being investigated in the course of clinical trials. Because most of these studies are focusing on patients with fibrosis stages II and III (according to Kleiner), non-invasive identification of patients with intermediate fibrosis stages (II and III) is of increasing interest. Evaluation of NAFLD Fibrosis Score (NFS) and liver stiffness measurement (LSM) for prediction of fibrosis stages II/III. Patients with histologically confirmed NAFLD diagnosis were included in the study. All patients underwent a clinical and laboratory examination as well as a LSM prior to liver biopsy. Predictive value of NFS and LSM with respect to identification of fibrosis stages II/III was assessed. 134 NAFLD patients were included and analyzed. Median age was 53 (IQR 36 - 60) years, 55 patients (41 %) were female. 82 % of our patients were overweight/obese with typical aspects of metabolic syndrome. 84 patients (66 %) had liver fibrosis, 42 (50 %) advanced fibrosis. LSM and NFS correlated with fibrosis stage (r = 0.696 and r = 0.685, respectively; p stages II/III. If both criteria were met, probability of fibrosis stage II/III was 61 %. If none of the two criteria was met, chance for fibrosis stage II/III was only 6 % (negative predictive value 94 %). Combination of LSM and NFS enables identification of patients with significant probability of fibrosis stage II/III. Accordingly, these tests, especially in combination, may be a suitable screening tool for fibrosis stages II/III in NAFLD. The use of these non-invasive methods might also help to avoid unnecessary biopsies. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  20. Correlation between liver histology and novel magnetic resonance imaging in adult patients with non-alcoholic fatty liver disease - MRI accurately quantifies hepatic steatosis in NAFLD.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Permutt, Z; Le, T-A; Peterson, M R; Seki, E; Brenner, D A; Sirlin, C; Loomba, R

    2012-07-01

    Conventional magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) techniques that measure hepatic steatosis are limited by T1 bias, T(2)* decay and multi-frequency signal-interference effects of protons in fat. Newer MR techniques such as the proton density-fat fraction (PDFF) that correct for these factors have not been specifically compared to liver biopsy in adult patients with non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). To examine the association between MRI-determined PDFF and histology-determined steatosis grade, and their association with fibrosis. A total of 51 adult patients with biopsy-confirmed NAFLD underwent metabolic-biochemical profiling, MRI-determined PDFF measurement of hepatic steatosis and liver biopsy assessment according to NASH-CRN histological scoring system. The average MRI-determined PDFF increased significantly with increasing histology-determined steatosis grade: 8.9% at grade-1, 16.3% at grade-2, and 25.0% at grade-3 with P ≤ 0.0001 (correlation: r(2) = 0.56, P hepatic steatosis by both MRI-determined PDFF (7.6% vs. 17.8%, P steatosis grade (1.4 vs. 2.2, P steatosis were more likely to have characteristics of advanced liver disease including higher average AST:ALT (0.87 vs. 0.60, P steatosis grade in adults with NAFLD. Steatosis is non-linearly related to fibrosis progression. In patients with NAFLD, a low amount of hepatic steatosis on imaging does not necessarily indicate mild disease. © 2012 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  1. Deleterious effect of n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids in non-alcoholic steatohepatitis in the fat-1 mouse model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diana Shefer-Weinberg

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD represents a spectrum of pathologies, ranging from hepatocellular steatosis to non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH, fibrosis and cirrhosis. It has been suggested that fish oil containing n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (n-3 PUFA induce beneficial effects in NAFLD. However, n-3 PUFA are sensitive to peroxidation that generate free radicals and reactive aldehydes. We aimed at determining whether changing the tissue ratio of n-3 to n-6 PUFA may be beneficial or alternatively harmful to the etiology of NAFLD. The transgenic Fat-1 mouse model was used to determine whether n-3 PUFA positively or negatively affect the development of NAFLD. fat-1mice express the fat-1 gene of Caenorhabditis elegans, which encodes an n-3 fatty-acid desaturase that converts n-6 to n-3 fatty acids. Wild-type C57BL/6 mice served as the control group. Both groups of mice were fed methionine and choline deficient (MCD diet, which induces NASH within 4 weeks. The study shows that NASH developed faster and was more severe in mice from the fat-1 group when compared to control C57BL/6 mice. This was due to enhanced lipid peroxidation of PUFA in the liver of the fat-1 mice as compared to the control group. Results of our mice study suggest that supplementing the diet of individuals who develop or have fatty livers with n-3 PUFA should be carefully considered and if recommended adequate antioxidants should be added to the diet in order to reduce such risk.

  2. Fatty liver diagnostic from medical examination to analyze the accuracy between the abdominal ultrasonography and liver hounsfield units

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oh, Wang Kyun; Kim, Sang Hyun

    2017-01-01

    In abdominal Ultrasonography, the fatty liver is diagnosed through hepatic parenchymal echo increased parenchymal density and unclear blood vessel boundary, and according to many studies, abdominal Ultrasonography has 60 ∼ 90% of sensitivity and 84 ∼ 95% of specificity in diagnosis of fatty liver, but the result of Ultrasonography is dependent on operators, so there can be difference among operators, and quantitative measurement of fatty infiltration is impossible. Among examinees who same day received abdominal Ultrasonography and chest computed tomography (CT), patients who were diagnosed with a fatty liver in the Ultrasonography were measured with liver Hounsfield Units (HU) of chest CT imaging to analyze the accuracy of the fatty liver diagnosis. Among 720 subject examinees, those who were diagnosed with a fatty liver through abdominal Ultrasonography by family physicians were 448, which is 62.2%. The result of Liver HU measurement in the chest CT imaging of those who were diagnosed with a fatty liver showed that 175 out of 720 had the measured value of less than 40 HU, which is 24.3%, and 173 were included to the 175 among 448 who were diagnosed through Ultrasonography, so 98.9% corresponded. This indicates that the operators' subjective ability has a great impact on diagnosis of lesion in Ultrasonography diagnosis of a fatty liver, and that in check up chest CT, under 40 HU in the measurement of Liver HU can be used for reference materials in diagnosis of a fatty liver

  3. Fatty liver diagnostic from medical examination to analyze the accuracy between the abdominal ultrasonography and liver hounsfield units

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oh, Wang Kyun [Dept. of Radiology, Cheongju Medical Center, Cheongju (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Sang Hyun [Dept. of Radiological Science, Shinhan University, Uijeongbu (Korea, Republic of)

    2017-06-15

    In abdominal Ultrasonography, the fatty liver is diagnosed through hepatic parenchymal echo increased parenchymal density and unclear blood vessel boundary, and according to many studies, abdominal Ultrasonography has 60 ∼ 90% of sensitivity and 84 ∼ 95% of specificity in diagnosis of fatty liver, but the result of Ultrasonography is dependent on operators, so there can be difference among operators, and quantitative measurement of fatty infiltration is impossible. Among examinees who same day received abdominal Ultrasonography and chest computed tomography (CT), patients who were diagnosed with a fatty liver in the Ultrasonography were measured with liver Hounsfield Units (HU) of chest CT imaging to analyze the accuracy of the fatty liver diagnosis. Among 720 subject examinees, those who were diagnosed with a fatty liver through abdominal Ultrasonography by family physicians were 448, which is 62.2%. The result of Liver HU measurement in the chest CT imaging of those who were diagnosed with a fatty liver showed that 175 out of 720 had the measured value of less than 40 HU, which is 24.3%, and 173 were included to the 175 among 448 who were diagnosed through Ultrasonography, so 98.9% corresponded. This indicates that the ope