WorldWideScience

Sample records for alcohol screening day

  1. Alcohol Use Screening

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Depression Screening Substance Abuse Screening Alcohol Use Screening Alcohol Use Screening (AUDIT-C) - Instructions The following questions ... this tool, there is also text-only version . Alcohol Use Screening (AUDIT-C) - Manual Instructions The following ...

  2. Primary care validation of a single-question alcohol screening test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Peter C; Schmidt, Susan M; Allensworth-Davies, Donald; Saitz, Richard

    2009-07-01

    Unhealthy alcohol use is prevalent but under-diagnosed in primary care settings. To validate, in primary care, a single-item screening test for unhealthy alcohol use recommended by the National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism (NIAAA). Cross-sectional study. Adult English-speaking patients recruited from primary care waiting rooms. Participants were asked the single screening question, “How many times in the past year have you had X or more drinks in a day?”, where X is 5 for men and 4 for women, and a response of 1 or greater [corrected] is considered positive. Unhealthy alcohol use was defined as the presence of an alcohol use disorder, as determined by a standardized diagnostic interview, or risky consumption, as determined using a validated 30-day calendar method. Of 394 eligible primary care patients, 286 (73%) completed the interview. The single-question screen was 81.8% sensitive (95% confidence interval (CI) 72.5% to 88.5%) and 79.3% specific (95% CI 73.1% to 84.4%) for the detection of unhealthy alcohol use. It was slightly more sensitive (87.9%, 95% CI 72.7% to 95.2%) but was less specific (66.8%, 95% CI 60.8% to 72.3%) for the detection of a current alcohol use disorder. Test characteristics were similar to that of a commonly used three-item screen, and were affected very little by subject demographic characteristics. The single screening question recommended by the NIAAA accurately identified unhealthy alcohol use in this sample of primary care patients. These findings support the use of this brief screen in primary care.

  3. A Screening Tool for Assessing Alcohol Use Risk among Medically Vulnerable Youth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levy, Sharon; Dedeoglu, Fatma; Gaffin, Jonathan M; Garvey, Katharine C; Harstad, Elizabeth; MacGinnitie, Andrew; Rufo, Paul A; Huang, Qian; Ziemnik, Rosemary E; Wisk, Lauren E; Weitzman, Elissa R

    2016-01-01

    In an effort to reduce barriers to screening for alcohol use in pediatric primary care, the National Institute on Alcoholism and Alcohol Abuse (NIAAA) developed a two-question Youth Alcohol Screening Tool derived from population-based survey data. It is unknown whether this screening tool, designed for use with general populations, accurately identifies risk among youth with chronic medical conditions (YCMC). This growing population, which comprises nearly one in four youth in the US, faces a unique constellation of drinking-related risks. To validate the NIAAA Youth Alcohol Screening Tool in a population of YCMC, we performed a cross-sectional validation study with a sample of 388 youth ages 9-18 years presenting for routine subspecialty care at a large children's hospital for type 1 diabetes, persistent asthma, cystic fibrosis, inflammatory bowel disease, or juvenile idiopathic arthritis. Participants self-administered the NIAAA Youth Alcohol Screening Tool and the Diagnostic Interview Schedule for Children as a criterion standard measure of alcohol use disorders (AUD). Receiver operating curve analysis was used to determine cut points for identifying youth at moderate and highest risk for an AUD. Nearly one third of participants (n = 118; 30.4%) reported alcohol use in the past year; 86.4% (106) of past year drinkers did not endorse any AUD criteria, 6.8% (n = 8) of drinkers endorsed a single criterion, and 6.8% of drinkers met criteria for an AUD. Using the NIAAA tool, optimal cut points found to identify youth at moderate and highest risk for an AUD were ≥ 6 and ≥12 drinking days in the past year, respectively. The NIAAA Youth Alcohol Screening Tool is highly efficient for detecting alcohol use and discriminating disordered use among YCMC. This brief screen appears feasible for use in specialty care to ascertain alcohol-related risk that may impact adversely on health status and disease management.

  4. Comparison of Alcohol Use Disorder Screens During College Athlete Pre-Participation Evaluations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Majka, Erek; Graves, Travis; Diaz, Vanessa A; Player, Marty S; Dickerson, Lori M; Gavin, Jennifer K; Wessell, Andrea

    2016-05-01

    The US Preventive Services Task Force (USPSTF) recommends screening adults for alcohol misuse, a challenge among young adults who may not have regular primary care. The pre-participation evaluation (PPE) provides an opportunity for screening, but traditional screening tools require extra time in an already busy visit. The objective of this study was to compare the 10-item Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test (AUDIT) with a single-question alcohol misuse screen in a population of college-aged athletes. This cross-sectional study was performed during an athletic PPE clinic at a college in the Southeastern United States among athletes ages 18 years and older. Written AUDIT and single-question screen "How many times in the past year have you had X or more drinks in a day?" (five for men, four for women) asked orally were administered to each participant. Sensitivity, specificity, and positive and negative predictive values for the single-question screen were compared to AUDIT. A total of 225 athletes were screened; 60% were female; 29% screened positive by AUDIT; 59% positive by single-question instrument. Males were more likely to screen positive by both methods. Compared to the AUDIT, the brief single-question screen had 92% sensitivity for alcohol misuse and 55% specificity. The negative predictive value of the single-question screen was 95% compared to AUDIT. A single-question screen for alcohol misuse in college-aged athletes had a high sensitivity and negative predictive value compared to the more extensive AUDIT screen. Ease of administration of this screening tool is ideal for use within the pre-participation physical among college-aged athletes who may not seek regular medical care.

  5. A Screening Tool for Assessing Alcohol Use Risk among Medically Vulnerable Youth.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sharon Levy

    Full Text Available In an effort to reduce barriers to screening for alcohol use in pediatric primary care, the National Institute on Alcoholism and Alcohol Abuse (NIAAA developed a two-question Youth Alcohol Screening Tool derived from population-based survey data. It is unknown whether this screening tool, designed for use with general populations, accurately identifies risk among youth with chronic medical conditions (YCMC. This growing population, which comprises nearly one in four youth in the US, faces a unique constellation of drinking-related risks.To validate the NIAAA Youth Alcohol Screening Tool in a population of YCMC, we performed a cross-sectional validation study with a sample of 388 youth ages 9-18 years presenting for routine subspecialty care at a large children's hospital for type 1 diabetes, persistent asthma, cystic fibrosis, inflammatory bowel disease, or juvenile idiopathic arthritis. Participants self-administered the NIAAA Youth Alcohol Screening Tool and the Diagnostic Interview Schedule for Children as a criterion standard measure of alcohol use disorders (AUD. Receiver operating curve analysis was used to determine cut points for identifying youth at moderate and highest risk for an AUD.Nearly one third of participants (n = 118; 30.4% reported alcohol use in the past year; 86.4% (106 of past year drinkers did not endorse any AUD criteria, 6.8% (n = 8 of drinkers endorsed a single criterion, and 6.8% of drinkers met criteria for an AUD. Using the NIAAA tool, optimal cut points found to identify youth at moderate and highest risk for an AUD were ≥ 6 and ≥12 drinking days in the past year, respectively.The NIAAA Youth Alcohol Screening Tool is highly efficient for detecting alcohol use and discriminating disordered use among YCMC. This brief screen appears feasible for use in specialty care to ascertain alcohol-related risk that may impact adversely on health status and disease management.

  6. Use of a single alcohol screening question to identify other drug use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Peter C; Cheng, Debbie M; Allensworth-Davies, Donald; Winter, Michael R; Saitz, Richard

    2014-06-01

    People who consume unhealthy amounts of alcohol are more likely to use illicit drugs. We tested the ability of a screening test for unhealthy alcohol use to simultaneously detect drug use. Adult English speaking patients (n=286) were enrolled from a primary care waiting room. They were asked the screening question for unhealthy alcohol use "How many times in the past year have you had X or more drinks in a day?", where X is 5 for men and 4 for women, and a response of one or more is considered positive. A standard diagnostic interview was used to determine current (past year) drug use or a drug use disorder (abuse or dependence). Oral fluid testing was also used to detect recent use of common drugs of abuse. The single screening question for unhealthy alcohol use was 67.6% sensitive (95% confidence interval [CI], 50.2-82.0%) and 64.7% specific (95% CI, 58.4-70.6%) for the detection of a drug use disorder. It was similarly insensitive for drug use detected by oral fluid testing and/or self-report. Although a patient with a drug use disorder has twice the odds of screening positive for unhealthy alcohol use compared to one without a drug use disorder, suggesting patients who screen positive for alcohol should be asked about drug use, a single screening question for unhealthy alcohol use was not sensitive or specific for the detection of other drug use or drug use disorders in a sample of primary care patients. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. AUDIT-C Alcohol Screening Results and Postoperative Inpatient Health Care Use

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rubinsky, Anna D; Sun, Haili; Blough, David K

    2012-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Alcohol screening scores ≥5 on the Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test-Consumption (AUDIT-C) up to a year before surgery have been associated with postoperative complications, but the association with postoperative health care use is unknown. This study evaluated whether AUDIT...... surgery, but not increased hospital readmission within 30 days postdischarge, relative to the low-risk group. CONCLUSIONS: AUDIT-C screening results could be used to identify patients at risk for increased postoperative health care use who might benefit from preoperative alcohol interventions....... September 2006) and were hospitalized for nonemergent noncardiac major operations in the following year. Postoperative health care use was evaluated across 4 AUDIT-C risk groups (scores 0, 1 to 4, 5 to 8, and 9 to 12) using linear or logistic regression models adjusted for sociodemographics, smoking status...

  8. Energy drinks and alcohol: links to alcohol behaviors and consequences across 56 days.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patrick, Megan E; Maggs, Jennifer L

    2014-04-01

    To examine short-term consequences associated with consuming alcohol and energy drinks compared with consuming alcohol without energy drinks. A longitudinal measurement-burst design (14-day bursts of daily surveys in four consecutive college semesters) captured both within-person variation across occasions and between-person differences across individuals. The analytic sample of late adolescent alcohol users included 4,203 days with alcohol use across up to four semesters per person from 508 college students. Adding energy drink use to a given day with alcohol use was associated with an increase in number of alcoholic drinks, a trend toward more hours spent drinking, elevated estimated blood alcohol content (eBAC), a greater likelihood of subjective intoxication, and more negative consequences of drinking that day. After controlling for eBAC, energy drink use no longer predicted subjective intoxication but was still associated with a greater number of negative consequences. The consumption of energy drinks may lead to increases in alcohol consumption and, after controlling for eBAC, negative consequences. Use of energy drinks plus alcohol represents an emerging threat to public health. Copyright © 2014 Society for Adolescent Health and Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Effectiveness of policies maintaining or restricting days of alcohol sales on excessive alcohol consumption and related harms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Middleton, Jennifer Cook; Hahn, Robert A; Kuzara, Jennifer L; Elder, Randy; Brewer, Robert; Chattopadhyay, Sajal; Fielding, Jonathan; Naimi, Timothy S; Toomey, Traci; Lawrence, Briana

    2010-12-01

    Local, state, and national laws and policies that limit the days of the week on which alcoholic beverages may be sold may be a means of reducing excessive alcohol consumption and related harms. The methods of the Guide to Community Preventive Services were used to synthesize scientific evidence on the effectiveness for preventing excessive alcohol consumption and related harms of laws and policies maintaining or reducing the days when alcoholic beverages may be sold. Outcomes assessed in 14 studies that met qualifying criteria were excessive alcohol consumption and alcohol-related harms, including motor vehicle injuries and deaths, violence-related and other injuries, and health conditions. Qualifying studies assessed the effects of changes in days of sale in both on-premises settings (at which alcoholic beverages are consumed where purchased) and off-premises settings (at which alcoholic beverages may not be consumed where purchased). Eleven studies assessed the effects of adding days of sale, and three studies assessed the effects of imposing a ban on sales on a given weekend day. The evidence from these studies indicated that increasing days of sale leads to increases in excessive alcohol consumption and alcohol-related harms and that reducing the number of days that alcoholic beverages are sold generally decreases alcohol-related harms. Based on these findings, when the expansion of days of sale is being considered, laws and policies maintaining the number of days of the week that alcoholic beverages are sold at on- and off-premises outlets in local, state, and national jurisdictions are effective public health strategies for preventing excessive alcohol consumption and related harms. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  10. Effectiveness of Policies Maintaining or Restricting Days of Alcohol Sales on Excessive Alcohol Consumption and Related Harms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Middleton, Jennifer Cook; Hahn, Robert A.; Kuzara, Jennifer L.; Elder, Randy; Brewer, Robert; Chattopadhyay, Sajal; Fielding, Jonathan; Naimi, Timothy S.; Toomey, Traci; Lawrence, Briana

    2013-01-01

    Local, state, and national laws and policies that limit the days of the week on which alcoholic beverages may be sold may be a means of reducing excessive alcohol consumption and related harms. The methods of the Guide to Community Preventive Services were used to synthesize scientific evidence on the effectiveness for preventing excessive alcohol consumption and related harms of laws and policies maintaining or reducing the days when alcoholic beverages may be sold. Outcomes assessed in 14 studies that met qualifying criteria were excessive alcohol consumption and alcohol-related harms, including motor vehicle injuries and deaths, violence-related and other injuries, and health conditions. Qualifying studies assessed the effects of changes in days of sale in both on-premises settings (at which alcoholic beverages are consumed where purchased) and off-premises settings (at which alcoholic beverages may not be consumed where purchased). Eleven studies assessed the effects of adding days of sale, and three studies assessed the effects of imposing a ban on sales on a given weekend day. The evidence from these studies indicated that increasing days of sale leads to increases in excessive alcohol consumption and alcohol-related harms and that reducing the number of days that alcoholic beverages are sold generally decreases alcohol-related harms. Based on these findings, when the expansion of days of sale is being considered, laws and policies maintaining the number of days of the week that alcoholic beverages are sold at on- and off-premises outlets in local, state, and national jurisdictions are effective public health strategies for preventing excessive alcohol consumption and related harms. PMID:21084079

  11. Identifying parents with risky alcohol consumption habits in a paediatric unit--are screening and brief intervention appropriate methods?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bjerregaard, Lene B L; Gerke, Oke; Rubak, Sune; Høst, Arne; Wagner, Lis

    2011-06-01

    There is no systematic identification of parents with excessive alcohol use who have a child admitted to hospital. Children in families with excessive alcohol issues form a high risk group as substantial alcohol consumption has a damaging influence on a child emotionally, cognitively, socially and physically. Alcohol consumption is a sensitive issue, and health staff needs knowledge, qualifications and adequate training in communicating with parents about this taboo. • To identify specific patterns in subgroups of parents by comparing results from screening and demographic variables • To identify systematic patterns in staff members by demographic variables to decide whether these factors influence the screening results. During 1 year, screening and brief intervention (SBI) was accomplished, including health staff conducting dialogues with parents of a hospitalized child using motivational interviewing (MI) and screening for risky alcohol behaviour by Cut down, Annoyance from others, feel Guilty, Early-morning Craving (CAGE)-C. Data were analysed by descriptive statistics, and relationships were tested with a statistical significance level of 0.05, using SPSS (version 16.0). Motivational dialogues with 779 parents were conducted by 43 staff members, and 11% of the parents were screened positive for risky alcohol behaviour. Drinking alcohol 4 days a week or more and drinking alcohol outside mealtimes were main risk factors. Parents' gender was the strongest predictor of screening positive and OR was 6.8 for men (CI 4.03-11.74) compared to women, pparents' age (CI 1.02-1.42) indicates the risk of screening positive increases with age, p=0.027. Brief intervention using CAGE-C and MI has proven successful in mapping parents' alcohol consumption patterns and in identifying parents with risky alcohol consumption habits. Health staff is able to manage health promotion and prevention when having the right competences and when being supervised. © 2010 The Authors

  12. The validity of the Michigan Alcoholism Screening Test (MAST)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Storgaard, H; Nielsen, S D; Gluud, C

    1994-01-01

    This review examines the validity of the Michigan Alcoholism Screening Test (MAST) as a screening instrument for alcohol problems. Studies that compare the MAST-questionnaire with other defined diagnostic criteria of alcohol problems were retrieved through MEDLINE and a cross-bibliographic check....... A total of 20 validity studies were included. The studies varied considerably regarding the prevalence of alcohol problems, the diagnostic criteria, and the examined patient categories. The MAST compared with other diagnostic criteria of alcohol problems gave validity measures with the following span...... and the specificities show substantial variations. The variables that seem to have the largest influence on the PVpos seem to be the prevalence of alcohol problems, the diagnostic method against which the MAST-questionnaire is validated, and the populations on which the MAST is applied. The MAST should in the future...

  13. Postoperative risks associated with alcohol screening depend on documented drinking at the time of surgery

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rubinsky, Anna D; Bishop, Michael J; Maynard, Charles

    2013-01-01

    Both AUDIT-C alcohol screening scores up to a year before surgery and clinical documentation of drinking over 2 drinks per day immediately prior to surgery ("documented drinking >2d/d") are associated with increased postoperative complications and health care utilization. The purpose of this study...

  14. Alcohol screening and risk of postoperative complications in male VA patients undergoing major non-cardiac surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bradley, Katharine A; Rubinsky, Anna D; Sun, Haili; Bryson, Chris L; Bishop, Michael J; Blough, David K; Henderson, William G; Maynard, Charles; Hawn, Mary T; Tønnesen, Hanne; Hughes, Grant; Beste, Lauren A; Harris, Alex H S; Hawkins, Eric J; Houston, Thomas K; Kivlahan, Daniel R

    2011-02-01

    Patients who misuse alcohol are at increased risk for surgical complications. Four weeks of preoperative abstinence decreases the risk of complications, but practical approaches for early preoperative identification of alcohol misuse are needed. To evaluate whether results of alcohol screening with the Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test - Consumption (AUDIT-C) questionnaire-up to a year before surgery-were associated with the risk of postoperative complications. This is a cohort study. Male Veterans Affairs (VA) patients were eligible if they had major noncardiac surgery assessed by the VA's Surgical Quality Improvement Program (VASQIP) in fiscal years 2004-2006, and completed the AUDIT-C alcohol screening questionnaire (0-12 points) on a mailed survey within 1 year before surgery. One or more postoperative complication(s) within 30 days of surgery based on VASQIP nurse medical record reviews. Among 9,176 eligible men, 16.3% screened positive for alcohol misuse with AUDIT-C scores ≥ 5, and 7.8% had postoperative complications. Patients with AUDIT-C scores ≥ 5 were at significantly increased risk for postoperative complications, compared to patients who drank less. In analyses adjusted for age, smoking, and days from screening to surgery, the estimated prevalence of postoperative complications increased from 5.6% (95% CI 4.8-6.6%) in patients with AUDIT-C scores 1-4, to 7.9% (6.3-9.7%) in patients with AUDIT-Cs 5-8, 9.7% (6.6-14.1%) in patients with AUDIT-Cs 9-10 and 14.0% (8.9-21.3%) in patients with AUDIT-Cs 11-12. In fully-adjusted analyses that included preoperative covariates potentially in the causal pathway between alcohol misuse and complications, the estimated prevalence of postoperative complications increased significantly from 4.8% (4.1-5.7%) in patients with AUDIT-C scores 1-4, to 6.9% (5.5-8.7%) in patients with AUDIT-Cs 5-8 and 7.5% (5.0-11.3%) among those with AUDIT-Cs 9-10. AUDIT-C scores of 5 or more up to a year before surgery were

  15. Screening for hazardous drinking using the Michigan Alcohol Screening Test-Geriatric Version (MAST-G) in elderly persons with acute cerebrovascular accidents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson-Greene, Doug; McCaul, Mary E; Roger, Patricia

    2009-09-01

    Effective and valid screening methods are needed to identify hazardous drinking in elderly persons with new onset acute medical illness. The goal of the current study was to examine the effectiveness of the Michigan Alcohol Screening Test-Geriatric Version (MAST-G) in identifying hazardous drinking among elderly patients with acute cerebrovascular accidents (CVA) and to compare the effectiveness of 2 shorter versions of the MAST-G with the full instrument. The study sample included 100 men and women who averaged 12 days posthemorrhagic or ischemic CVA admitted to a rehabilitation unit and who were at least 50 years of age and free of substance use other than alcohol. This cross-sectional validation study compared the 24-item full MAST-G, the 10-item Short MAST-G (SMAST-G), and a 2-item regression analysis derived Mini MAST-G (MMAST-G) to the reference standard of hazardous drinking during the past 3 months. Alcohol use was collected using the Timeline Followback (TLFB). Recent and lifetime alcohol-related consequences were collected using the Short Inventory of Problems (SIP). Nearly one-third (28%) of the study sample met the World Health Organization (WHO) criteria for hazardous drinking. Moderately strong associations were found for the MAST-G, SMAST-G, and MMAST-G with alcohol quantity and frequency and recent and lifetime alcohol consequences. All 3 MAST-G versions could differentiate hazardous from nonhazardous drinkers and had nearly identical area under the curve characteristics. Comparable sensitivity was found across the 3 MAST-G measures. The optimal screening threshold for hazardous drinking was 5 for the MAST-G, 2 for the SMAST-G, and 1 for the MMAST-G. The 10-item SMAST-G and 2-item MMAST-G are brief screening tests that show comparable effectiveness in detecting hazardous drinking in elderly patients with acute CVA compared with the full 24-item MAST-G. Implications for research and clinical practice are discussed.

  16. Alcohol Screening and Counseling PSA (:60)

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    This 60 second public service announcement is based on the January 2014 CDC Vital Signs report. Millions of Americans drink too much, a dangerous behavior that can lead to serious health problems. Alcohol screening and counseling can help.

  17. Evaluation of California's Alcohol and Drug Screening and Brief Intervention Project for Emergency Department Patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susan I Woodruff

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Visits to settings such as emergency departments (EDs may present a “teachable moment” in that a patient may be more open to feedback and suggestions regarding their risky alcohol and illicit drug-use behaviors. Screening, Brief Intervention, and Referral to Treatment (SBIRT is an ’opportunistic’ public health approach that targets low-risk users, in addition to those already dependent on alcohol and/or drugs. SBIRT programs provide patients with comprehensive screening and assessments, and deliver interventions of appropriate intensity to reduce risks related to alcohol and drug use. Methods: This study used a single group pre-post test design to assess the effect of the California SBIRT service program (i.e., CASBIRT on 6 substance-use outcomes (past-month prevalence and number of days of binge drinking, illegal drug use, and marijuana use. Trained bilingual/bicultural Health Educators attempted to screen all adult patients in 12 EDs/trauma centers (regardless of the reason for the patient’s visit using a short instrument, and then delivered a brief motivational intervention matched to the patient’s risk level. A total of 2,436 randomly selected patients who screened positive for alcohol and/or drug use consented to be in a 6-month telephone follow-up interview. Because of the high loss to follow-up rate, we used an intention-to-treat approach for the data analysis. Results: Results of generalized linear mixed models showed modest reductions in all 6 drug- and alcohol-use outcomes. Men (versus women, those at relatively higher risk status (versus lower risk, and those with only one substance of misuse (versus both alcohol and illicit drug misuse tended to show more positive change. Conclusion: These results suggest that SBIRT services provided in acute care settings are associated with modest changes in self-reported recent alcohol and illicit drug use. [West J Emerg Med. 2013;14(3:263–270.

  18. Screening for Underage Drinking and Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, 5th Edition Alcohol Use Disorder in Rural Primary Care Practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, Duncan B; Martin, Christopher S; Chung, Tammy; Gordon, Adam J; Fiorentino, Lisa; Tootell, Mason; Rubio, Doris M

    2016-06-01

    To examine the National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism Youth Guide alcohol frequency screening thresholds when applied to Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, 5th Edition (DSM-5) diagnostic criteria, and to describe alcohol use patterns and alcohol use disorder (AUD) characteristics in rural youth from primary care settings. Adolescents (n = 1193; ages 12 through 20 years) visiting their primary care practitioner for outpatient visits in six rural primary care clinics were assessed prior to their practitioner visit. A tablet computer collected youth self-report of past-year frequency and quantity of alcohol use and DSM-5 AUD symptoms. Sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value (PPV), and negative predictive value (NPV) were determined. For early adolescents (ages 12 through 14 years), 1.9% met DSM-5 criteria for past-year AUD and ≥3 days with alcohol use in the past year yielded a screen for DSM-5 with optimal psychometric properties (sensitivity: 89%; specificity: 95%; PPV: 37%; NPV: 100%). For middle adolescents (ages 15 through 17 years), 9.5% met DSM-5 AUD criteria, and ≥3 past year drinking days showed optimal screening results (sensitivity: 91%; specificity: 89%; PPV: 50%; NPV: 99%). For late adolescents (ages 18 through 20 years), 10.0% met DSM-5 AUD criteria, and ≥12 past year drinking days showed optimal screening results (sensitivity: 92%; specificity: 75%; PPV: 31%; NPV: 99%). The age stratified National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism frequency thresholds also produced effective results. In rural primary care clinics, 10% of youth over age 14 years had a past-year DSM-5 AUD. These at-risk adolescents can be identified with a single question on alcohol use frequency. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Barriers to Alcohol Screening Among Hypertensive Patients and the Role of Stigma: Lessons for the Implementation of Screening and Brief Interventions in European Primary Care Settings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanschmidt, Franz; Manthey, Jakob; Kraus, Ludwig; Scafato, Emanuele; Gual, Antoni; Grimm, Carsten; Rehm, Jürgen

    2017-09-01

    1. To quantify barriers to alcohol screening among hypertensive patients reported by primary healthcare professionals. 2. To examine whether education and screening frequency measures are associated with stigma-related barriers. A web survey was conducted among 3081 primary healthcare professionals from France, Germany, Italy, Spain and the UK. Participants were asked about perceived barriers to alcohol screening as free-text response. The replies were independently categorized by two raters. Stigma-related barriers were predicted by logistic regressions with education, knowledge on alcohol as risk factor and frequency of alcohol screening. In France and Italy, almost half of the reported barriers were stigma-related, whereas time constraints were cited most commonly in Spain and the UK. In Germany, nearly half of respondents rated the importance of alcohol screening for hypertension as low. Perception that regular screening is inappropriate or associated with too much effort, beliefs that screening is unnecessary, and insufficient knowledge of screening tools were cited as further barriers. Professional education on alcohol use was consistently rated to be poorer than the equivalent education on hypertension, and only a minority of respondents perceived alcohol as important risk factor for hypertension. Stigma-related barriers could not be significantly predicted by education, knowledge or screening frequency in most models. Overall, regular alcohol screening among hypertensive patients seems to be widely accepted, but further education (Germany) and structural support (Spain, UK) could contribute to increase screening rates. In France and Italy, screening uptake could be improved by addressing stigma. Alcohol screening among hypertensive patients was largely accepted among general practitioners from five different European countries. Reported screening barriers varied between countries and included time constraints, stigma and underrated importance of alcohol

  20. Fetal Alcohol Syndrome (FAS) in C57BL/6 Mice Detected through Proteomics Screening of the Amniotic Fluid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Datta, Susmita; Turner, Delano; Singh, Reetu; Ruest, L. Bruno; Pierce, William M.; Knudsen, Thomas B.

    2009-01-01

    BACKGROUND Fetal Alcohol Syndrome (FAS), a severe consequence of the Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorders, is associated with craniofacial defects, mental retardation, and stunted growth. Previous studies in C57BL/6J and C57BL/6N mice provide evidence that alcohol-induced pathogenesis follows early changes in gene expression within specific molecular pathways in the embryonic headfold. Whereas the former (B6J) pregnancies carry a high-risk for dysmorphogenesis following maternal exposure to 2.9 g/kg alcohol (two injections spaced 4.0 h apart on gestation day 8), the latter (B6N) pregnancies carry a low-risk for malformations. The present study used this murine model to screen amniotic fluid for biomarkers that could potentially discriminate between FAS-positive and FAS-negative pregnancies. METHODS B6J and B6N litters were treated with alcohol (exposed) or saline (control) on day 8 of gestation. Amniotic fluid aspirated on day 17 (n = 6 replicate litters per group) was subjected to trypsin digestion for analysis by matrix-assisted laser desorption–time of flight mass spectrometry with the aid of denoising algorithms, statistical testing, and classification methods. RESULTS We identified several peaks in the proteomics screen that were reduced consistently and specifically in exposed B6J litters. Preliminary characterization by liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry and multidimensional protein identification mapped the reduced peaks to alpha fetoprotein (AFP). The predictive strength of AFP deficiency as a biomarker for FAS-positive litters was confirmed by area under the receiver operating characteristic curve. CONCLUSIONS These findings in genetically susceptible mice support clinical observations in maternal serum that implicate a decrease in AFP levels following prenatal alcohol damage. PMID:18240165

  1. The Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test and carbohydrate-deficient transferrin in alcohol-related sickness absence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hermansson, Ulric; Helander, Anders; Brandt, Lena; Huss, Anders; Rönnberg, Sten

    2002-01-01

    Previous studies have shown that elevated, risky levels of alcohol consumption may lead to higher rates of sickness absence. However, no studies have examined the Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test (AUDIT) or serum carbohydrate-deficient transferrin (CDT) in relation to sickness absence in the workplace. The purpose of this study was to examine the relationship between sick-days, 12 months before screening, and the AUDIT and CDT (CDTect kit). Serum gamma-glutamyltransferase also was used for comparison. The study was carried out over 36 months in a large workplace and formed part of an ongoing controlled study. In conjunction with a routine health examination, employees were offered the opportunity to undergo an alcohol screening. Absence data were obtained from the company payroll system, and sickness absence was analyzed by using a three-ordinal level cumulative logistic model on the number of sick-days. Odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) are reported. Of the 989 subjects who participated in the study, 193 (19.5%) screened positive in relation to either the AUDIT (>or=8 points) or CDT (women), or both. Employees who screened positive with the AUDIT had a significantly higher proportion of sick-days (p = 0.047) compared with those who screened negative (OR = 1.4, CI 1.0-1.9). Neither long, continuous periods of sickness absence nor absence on Mondays or Fridays gave a clear indication of individuals who screened positive on the AUDIT or CDT test. Our data indicate that individuals with moderately elevated or risky levels of alcohol consumption show an increase in sick-days. Accordingly, workplaces have a good reason for using a more systematic approach to alcohol screening in routine workplace health examinations.

  2. Validation of the Cross-Cultural Alcoholism Screening Test (CCAST).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gorenc, K D; Peredo, S; Pacurucu, S; Llanos, R; Vincente, B; López, R; Abreu, L F; Paez, E

    1999-01-01

    When screening instruments that are used in the assessment and diagnosis of alcoholism of individuals from different ethnicities, some cultural variables based on norms and societal acceptance of drinking behavior can play an important role in determining the outcome. The accepted diagnostic criteria of current market testing are based on Western standards. In this study, the Munich Alcoholism Test (31 items) was the base instrument applied to subjects from several Hispanic-American countries (Bolivia, Chile, Ecuador, Mexico, and Peru). After the sample was submitted to several statistical procedures, these 31 items were reduced to a culture-free, 31-item test named the Cross-Cultural Alcohol Screening Test (CCAST). The results of this Hispanic-American sample (n = 2,107) empirically demonstrated that CCAST measures alcoholism with an adequate degree of accuracy when compared to other available cross-cultural tests. CCAST is useful in the diagnosis of alcoholism in Spanish-speaking immigrants living in countries where English is spoken. CCAST can be used in general hospitals, psychiatric wards, emergency services and police stations. The test can be useful for other professionals, such as psychological consultants, researchers, and those conducting expertise appraisal.

  3. Universal screening for alcohol misuse in acute medical admissions is feasible and identifies patients at high risk of liver disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Westwood, Greta; Meredith, Paul; Atkins, Susan; Greengross, Peter; Schmidt, Paul E; Aspinall, Richard J

    2017-09-01

    targeted with interventions to reduce the burden of alcohol related harm. Lay summary: Many people who die from alcohol related liver disease (ARLD) have a recent history of recurrent admissions to hospital. These admissions may represent missed opportunities to intervene earlier and offer effective therapies for alcohol misuse. Unfortunately, we know that patients are often missed because medical staff may not routinely ask about alcohol consumption. In our study of over 50,000 admissions, we have demonstrated the feasibility of offering screening for alcohol misuse to all medical admissions to hospital and delivered this 24hours a day, 7days a week, with automatic referral to treatment services. We have shown that it is possible to identify those people who are at the highest risk of dependency, those who have attended the emergency department the most and those who are at an increased risk of ARLD. We hope this study will lead to improved detection and management of alcohol problems in acute hospitals. Copyright © 2017 European Association for the Study of the Liver. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Alcohol Screening and Counseling PSA (:60)

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2014-01-07

    This 60 second public service announcement is based on the January 2014 CDC Vital Signs report. Millions of Americans drink too much, a dangerous behavior that can lead to serious health problems. Alcohol screening and counseling can help.  Created: 1/7/2014 by Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC).   Date Released: 1/7/2014.

  5. Alcohol and drug screening of occupational drivers for preventing injury

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cashman, Clodagh M.; Ruotsalainen, Jani H.; Greiner, Birgit A.; Beirne, Paul V.; Verbeek, Jos H.

    2009-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Workforce alcohol and drug testing is commonplace but its effect in reducing occupational injuries remains unclear. OBJECTIVES: To assess the effects of alcohol and drug screening of occupational drivers (operating a motorised vehicle) in preventing injury or work-related effects such as

  6. Web-based alcohol screening and brief intervention for university students: a randomized trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kypri, Kypros; Vater, Tina; Bowe, Steven J; Saunders, John B; Cunningham, John A; Horton, Nicholas J; McCambridge, Jim

    2014-03-26

    Unhealthy alcohol use is a leading contributor to the global burden of disease, particularly among young people. Systematic reviews suggest efficacy of web-based alcohol screening and brief intervention and call for effectiveness trials in settings where it could be sustainably delivered. To evaluate a national web-based alcohol screening and brief intervention program. A multisite, double-blind, parallel-group, individually randomized trial was conducted at 7 New Zealand universities. In April and May of 2010, invitations containing hyperlinks to the Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test-Consumption (AUDIT-C) screening test were e-mailed to 14,991 students aged 17 to 24 years. Participants who screened positive (AUDIT-C score ≥4) were randomized to undergo screening alone or to 10 minutes of assessment and feedback (including comparisons with medical guidelines and peer norms) on alcohol expenditure, peak blood alcohol concentration, alcohol dependence, and access to help and information. A fully automated 5-month follow-up assessment was conducted that measured 6 primary outcomes: consumption per typical occasion, drinking frequency, volume of alcohol consumed, an academic problems score, and whether participants exceeded medical guidelines for acute harm (binge drinking) and chronic harm (heavy drinking). A Bonferroni-corrected significance threshold of .0083 was used to account for the 6 comparisons and a sensitivity analysis was used to assess possible attrition bias. Of 5135 students screened, 3422 scored 4 or greater and were randomized, and 83% were followed up. There was a significant effect on 1 of the 6 prespecified outcomes. Relative to control participants, those who received intervention consumed less alcohol per typical drinking occasion (median 4 drinks [interquartile range {IQR}, 2-8] vs 5 drinks [IQR 2-8]; rate ratio [RR], 0.93 [99.17% CI, 0.86-1.00]; P = .005) but not less often (RR, 0.95 [99.17% CI, 0.88-1.03]; P = .08) or less

  7. 77 FR 35745 - Highway Safety Programs; Conforming Products List of Screening Devices To Measure Alcohol in...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-14

    ..., battery powered device with a semiconductor sensor. (2) Alcohol Countermeasure Systems Corp., submitted...-0062] Highway Safety Programs; Conforming Products List of Screening Devices To Measure Alcohol in... Screening Devices to Measure Alcohol in Bodily Fluids dated, March 31, 2008 (73 FR 16956). DATES: Effective...

  8. AUDIT and AUDIT-C as screening instruments for alcohol problem use in adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liskola, Joni; Haravuori, Henna; Lindberg, Nina; Niemelä, Solja; Karlsson, Linnea; Kiviruusu, Olli; Marttunen, Mauri

    2018-07-01

    The Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test (AUDIT) is commonly used in adults to screen for harmful alcohol consumption but few studies exist on its use among adolescents. Our aim was to validate the AUDIT and its derivative consumption questionnaire (AUDIT-C) as screening instruments for the detection of problem use of alcohol in adolescents. 621 adolescents (age-range, 12-19 years) were drawn from clinical and population samples who completed the AUDIT questionnaire. Psychiatric diagnoses were assessed using K-SADS-PL. A rating based on the K-SADS-PL was used to assess alcohol use habits, alcohol use disorders, screening and symptom criteria questions. Screening performance of the AUDIT and AUDIT-C sum scores and Receiver Operating Characteristic (ROC) curves were calculated. The diagnostic odds ratios (dOR) were calculated to express the overall discrimination between cut-offs. Comparisons of ROC between the AUDIT and AUDIT-C pairs indicated a slightly better test performance by AUDIT for the whole sample and in a proportion of the subsamples. Optimal cut-off value for the AUDIT was ≥5 (sensitivity 0.931, specificity 0.772, dOR 45.22; 95% CI: 24.72-83.57) for detecting alcohol problem use. The corresponding optimal cut-off value for the AUDIT-C was ≥3 in detecting alcohol problem use (sensitivity 0.952, specificity 0.663, dOR 39.31; 95% CI: 19.46-78.97). Agreement between the AUDIT and AUDIT-C using these cut-off scores was high at 91.9%. Our results for the cut-off scores for the early detection of alcohol problem use in adolescents are ≥5 for AUDIT, and ≥3 for AUDIT-C. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Screening for alcohol and drug use disorders among adults in primary care: a review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pilowsky DJ

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Daniel J Pilowsky1, Li-Tzy Wu21Departments of Epidemiology and Psychiatry, Columbia University, and the New York State Psychiatric Institute, New York City, NY, 2Department of Psychiatry and Behavioral Sciences, School of Medicine, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, NC, USABackground: The Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act of 2010 supports integration of substance abuse interventions and treatments into the mainstream health care system. Thus, effective screening and intervention for substance use disorders in health care settings is a priority.Objective: This paper reviews the prevalence of alcohol and drug use disorders (abuse or dependence in primary care settings and emergency departments, as well as current screening tools and brief interventions.Methods: MEDLINE was searched using the following keywords: alcohol use, alcohol use disorder, drug use, drug use disorder, screening, primary care, and emergency departments. Using the related-articles link, additional articles were screened for inclusion. This review focuses on alcohol and drug use and related disorders among adults in primary care settings.Conclusion: Screening, brief intervention, and referral for treatment are feasible and effective in primary care settings, provided that funding for screening is available, along with brief interventions and treatment facilities to which patients can be referred and treated promptly.Keywords: brief intervention, emergency departments

  10. Vital Signs – Alcohol Screening and Counseling?

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    This podcast is based on the January 2014 CDC Vital Signs report. Millions of Americans drink too much, a dangerous behavior that can lead to serious health problems. Alcohol screening and counseling can help.

  11. [Cognitive impairments in alcohol dependence: From screening to treatment improvements].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cabé, N; Laniepce, A; Ritz, L; Lannuzel, C; Boudehent, C; Vabret, F; Eustache, F; Beaunieux, H; Pitel, A-L

    2016-02-01

    Alcohol-related cognitive impairments are largely underestimated in clinical practice, even though they could limit the benefit of alcohol treatment and hamper the patient's ability to remain abstinent or to respect his/her therapeutic contract. These neuropsychological deficits can impact the management of patients well before the development of the well-known Korsakoff's syndrome. Indeed, even in the absence of ostensible neurological complications, excessive and chronic alcohol consumption results in damage of brain structure and function. The frontocerebellar circuit and the circuit of Papez, respectively involved in motor and executive abilities and episodic memory, are mainly affected. Those brain dysfunctions are associated with neuropsychological deficits, including deficits of executive functions, episodic memory, social cognition, as well as visuospatial and motor abilities. Such cognitive disorders can interfere with the motivation process to abandon maladjusted drinking behavior in favor of a healthier lifestyle (such as abstinence or controlled alcohol consumption). They can also limit the patient's capacity to fully benefit from treatment (notably psychoeducation and cognitive-behavioural treatments) currently widely proposed in French Addiction departments. In addition, they may contribute to relapse which is multi-determinated. A neuropsychological assessment appears therefore crucial to take relevant clinical decisions. However, very few addiction departments have the human and financial resources to conduct an extensive neuropsychological examination of all patients with alcohol dependence. Some brief screening tools can be used, notably the MOntreal Cognitive Assessment and the Brief Evaluation of Alcohol-Related Neuropsychological Impairments, which has been especially designed to assess cognitive and motor deficits in alcoholism. These tools can be used by non-psychologist clinicians to detect alcohol-related cognitive deficits, which require

  12. Using Internet to recruit immigrants with language and culture barriers for tobacco and alcohol use screening: a study among Brazilians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carlini, Beatriz H; Safioti, Luciana; Rue, Tessa C; Miles, Lyndsay

    2015-04-01

    Limited English proficient (LEP) individuals face disparities in accessing substance abuse treatment, but little is known on how to reach this population. This study aimed to test online recruitment methods for tobacco and alcohol screening among LEP Portuguese speakers. The study was advertised in Portuguese using Facebook, Google, online newsletters and E-mail. Participants clicked ads to consent and access a screening for tobacco and alcohol dependence. Ads yielded 690 screening responses in 90 days. Respondents had a mean age of 42.7 (SD 12), with a higher proportion of women than men, 95% born in Brazil with high levels of LEP and low levels of acculturation. Facebook ads yielded 41.4% of responses, and were the lowest cost recruitment channel ($8.9, $31.10 and $20.40 per respondent, hazardous drinker and smoker, respectively). Online recruitment of LEP populations is feasible. Future studies should test similar strategies in other LEP groups.

  13. Alcohol-related and mental health care for patients with unhealthy alcohol use and posttraumatic stress disorder in a National Veterans Affairs cohort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Jessica A; Owens, Mandy D; Browne, Kendall C; Williams, Emily C

    2018-02-01

    Unhealthy alcohol use and posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) frequently co-occur. Patients with both conditions have poorer functioning and worse treatment adherence compared to those with either condition alone. Therefore, it is possible that PTSD, when co-occurring with unhealthy alcohol use, may influence receipt of evidence-based alcohol-related care and mental health care. We evaluated receipt of interventions for unhealthy alcohol use and receipt of mental health follow-up care among patients screening positive for unhealthy alcohol use with and without PTSD in a national sample from the Veterans Health Administration (VA). National clinical and administrative data from VA's electronic medical record were used to identify all patients who screened positive for unhealthy alcohol use (AUDIT-C score≥5) between 10/1/09-5/30/13. Unadjusted and adjusted Poisson regression models were fit to estimate the relative rate and prevalence of receipt of: brief interventions (advice to reduce or abstain from drinking≤14days after positive screening), specialty addictions treatment for alcohol use disorder (AUD; documented visit≤365days after positive screening), pharmacotherapy for AUD (filled prescription≤365days after positive screening), and mental health care ≤14days after positive screening for patients with and without PTSD (documented with ICD-9 CM codes). In secondary analyses, we tested effect modification by both severity of unhealthy alcohol use and age. Among 830,825 patients who screened positive for unhealthy alcohol use, 140,388 (16.9%) had documented PTSD. Of the full sample, 71.6% received brief interventions, 10.3% received specialty AUD treatment, 3.1% received pharmacotherapy for AUD, and 24.0% received mental health care. PTSD was associated with increased likelihood of receiving all types of care. Adjusted relative rates were 1.04 (95% CI 1.03-1.05) for brief interventions, 1.06 (1.05-1.08) for specialty AUD treatment, 1.35 (1.31-1.39) for

  14. Optimizing the use of the AUDIT for alcohol screening in college students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demartini, Kelly S; Carey, Kate B

    2012-12-01

    The screening and brief intervention modality of treatment for at-risk college drinking is becoming increasingly popular. A key to effective implementation is use of validated screening tools. Although the Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test (AUDIT) has been validated in adult samples and is often used with college students, research has not yet established optimal cutoff scores to screen for at-risk drinking. Four hundred and one current drinkers completed computerized assessments of demographics, family history of alcohol use disorders, alcohol use history, alcohol-related problems, and general health. Of the 401 drinkers, 207 met criteria for at-risk drinking. Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve analysis revealed that the area under the ROC (AUROC) of the AUDIT was .86 (95% CI [.83, .90]). The first 3 consumption items of the AUDIT (AUDIT-C; AUROC = .89, 95% CI [.86, .92]) performed significantly better than the AUDIT in the detection of at-risk drinking in the whole sample, and specifically for females. Gender differences emerged in the optimal cutoff scores for the AUDIT-C. A total score of 7 should be used for males, and a score of 5 should be used for females. These empirical guidelines may enhance identification of at-risk drinkers in college settings.

  15. Extreme Ritualistic Alcohol Consumption among College Students on Game Day

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glassman, Tavis J.; Dodd, Virginia J.; Sheu, Jiunn-Jye; Rienzo, Barbara A.; Wagenaar, Alex C.

    2010-01-01

    Alcohol use and the related consequences associated with college football games are a serious public health issue for university communities. Objective: Examining "Extreme Ritualistic Alcohol Consumption" (ERAC), defined as consuming 10 or more drinks on game day for a male, and 8 or more drinks for a female, is the focus of this study.…

  16. Screening and behavioral counseling interventions in primary care to reduce alcohol misuse: U.S. preventive services task force recommendation statement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moyer, Virginia A

    2013-08-06

    Update of the 2004 U.S. Preventive Services Task Force (USPSTF) recommendation statement on screening and behavioral counseling interventions in primary care to reduce alcohol misuse. The USPSTF reviewed new evidence on the effectiveness of screening for alcohol misuse for improving health outcomes, the accuracy of various screening approaches, the effectiveness of various behavioral counseling interventions for improving intermediate or long-term health outcomes, the harms of screening and behavioral counseling interventions, and influences from the health care system that promote or detract from effective screening and counseling interventions for alcohol misuse. These recommendations apply to adolescents aged 12 to 17 years and adults aged 18 years or older. These recommendations do not apply to persons who are actively seeking evaluation or treatment of alcohol misuse. The USPSTF recommends that clinicians screen adults aged 18 years or older for alcohol misuse and provide persons engaged in risky or hazardous drinking with brief behavioral counseling interventions to reduce alcohol misuse. (Grade B recommendation)The USPSTF concludes that the current evidence is insufficient to assess the balance of benefits and harms of screening and behavioral counseling interventions in primary care settings to reduce alcohol misuse in adolescents. (I statement)

  17. Screening for Drug Abuse Among College Students: Modification of the Michigan Alcoholism Screening Test

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cannell, M. Barry; Favazza, Armando R.

    1978-01-01

    Modified version of the Michigan Alcoholism Screening Test was anonymously given to 245 college students on two Midwestern university campuses. Cutoff score for suspected drug abuse was set at five points. The percent of students scoring five or more points was 25 and 22 from campuses A and B respectively. (Author)

  18. Standardised alcohol screening in primary health care services targeting Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander peoples in Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Islam, M Mofizul; Oni, Helen T; Lee, K S Kylie; Hayman, Noel; Wilson, Scott; Harrison, Kristie; Hummerston, Beth; Ivers, Rowena; Conigrave, Katherine M

    2018-03-29

    Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Community Controlled Health Services (ACCHSs) around Australia have been asked to standardise screening for unhealthy drinking. Accordingly, screening with the 3-item AUDIT-C (Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test-Consumption) tool has become a national key performance indicator. Here we provide an overview of suitability of AUDIT-C and other brief alcohol screening tools for use in ACCHSs. All peer-reviewed literature providing original data on validity, acceptability or feasibility of alcohol screening tools among Indigenous Australians was reviewed. Narrative synthesis was used to identify themes and integrate results. Three screening tools-full AUDIT, AUDIT-3 (third question of AUDIT) and CAGE (Cut-down, Annoyed, Guilty and Eye-opener) have been validated against other consumption measures, and found to correspond well. Short forms of AUDIT have also been found to compare well with full AUDIT, and were preferred by primary care staff. Help was often required with converting consumption into standard drinks. Researchers commented that AUDIT and its short forms prompted reflection on drinking. Another tool, the Indigenous Risk Impact Screen (IRIS), jointly screens for alcohol, drug and mental health risk, but is relatively long (13 items). IRIS has been validated against dependence scales. AUDIT, IRIS and CAGE have a greater focus on dependence than on hazardous or harmful consumption. Detection of unhealthy drinking before harms occur is a goal of screening, so AUDIT-C offers advantages over tools like IRIS or CAGE which focus on dependence. AUDIT-C's brevity suits integration with general health screening. Further research is needed on facilitating implementation of systematic alcohol screening into Indigenous primary healthcare.

  19. Ethylglucuronide in the urine as a marker of alcohol consumption during pregnancy: Comparison with four alcohol screening questionnaires.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferraguti, Giampiero; Ciolli, Paola; Carito, Valentina; Battagliese, Gemma; Mancinelli, Rosanna; Ciafrè, Stefania; Tirassa, Paola; Ciccarelli, Rosaria; Cipriani, Alessia; Messina, Marisa Patrizia; Fiore, Marco; Ceccanti, Mauro

    2017-06-05

    Ethyl glucuronide (EtG) is an ethanol metabolite and EtG is used as a biomarker of alcohol drinking. EtG can be detected in the blood and in several biological matrices including urine, hair and nails. Alcohol consumption during pregnancy is a strong risk factor for fetus health so in the recent years different strategies to reveal alcohol use have been planning including the use of screening questionnaires as the AUDIT-C, T-ACE and TWEAK. The present study aims to investigate in pregnant women the specificity and predictive value of the AUDIT-C, T-ACE and TWEAK plus a food diary in use in Sapienza University Hospital compared with the results of urine EtG measurement. Seventy pregnant women were enrolled and examined. Urine samples were provided by pregnant women immediately after the interviews. EtG determinations were performed by Enzyme Immunoassay with a cut-off established at 100ng/mL. Data show that 34.28% of the enrolled pregnant women overcame the EtG cut off. No direct correlation was found between EtG data and the alcohol screening interviews showing lower levels of alcohol consumption, although T-ACE revealed the same at risk percentage. However, a significant concordance was observed with food diary data and T-ACE only in patients with higher EtG urinary concentration. This study provides clinical evidence that the diagnosis of maternal alcohol consumption during pregnancy only based on indirect methods, such as questionnaires and food diary, may significantly underestimate alcohol use. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Virtual Reality Skills Training for Health Care Professionals in Alcohol Screening and Brief Intervention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fleming, Michael; Olsen, Dale; Stathes, Hilary; Boteler, Laura; Grossberg, Paul; Pfeifer, Judie; Schiro, Stephanie; Banning, Jane; Skochelak, Susan

    2009-01-01

    Background Educating physicians and other health care professionals to identify and treat patients who drink above recommended limits is an ongoing challenge. Methods An educational Randomized Control Trial (RCT) was conducted to test the ability of a stand alone training simulation to improve the clinical skills of health care professionals in alcohol screening and intervention. The “virtual reality simulation” combines video, voice recognition and non branching logic to create an interactive environment that allows trainees to encounter complex social cues and realistic interpersonal exchanges. The simulation includes 707 questions and statements and 1207 simulated patient responses. Results A sample of 102 health care professionals (10 physicians; 30 physician assistants [PAs] or nurse practitioners [NPs]; 36 medical students; 26 pharmacy, PA or NP students) were randomly assigned to no training (n=51) or a computer based virtual reality intervention (n=51). Subjects in both groups had similar pre-test standardized patient alcohol screening skill scores – 53.2 (experimental) vs. 54.4 (controls), 52.2 vs. 53.7 alcohol brief intervention skills, and 42.9 vs. 43.5 alcohol referral skills. Following repeated practice with the simulation there were significant increases in the scores of the experimental group at 6 months post-randomization compared to the control group for the screening (67.7 vs. 58.1, pvirtual reality simulation to demonstrate an increase in the alcohol screening and brief intervention skills of health care professionals. PMID:19587253

  1. Virtual reality skills training for health care professionals in alcohol screening and brief intervention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fleming, Michael; Olsen, Dale; Stathes, Hilary; Boteler, Laura; Grossberg, Paul; Pfeifer, Judie; Schiro, Stephanie; Banning, Jane; Skochelak, Susan

    2009-01-01

    Educating physicians and other health care professionals about the identification and treatment of patients who drink more than recommended limits is an ongoing challenge. An educational randomized controlled trial was conducted to test the ability of a stand-alone training simulation to improve the clinical skills of health care professionals in alcohol screening and intervention. The "virtual reality simulation" combined video, voice recognition, and nonbranching logic to create an interactive environment that allowed trainees to encounter complex social cues and realistic interpersonal exchanges. The simulation included 707 questions and statements and 1207 simulated patient responses. A sample of 102 health care professionals (10 physicians; 30 physician assistants or nurse practitioners; 36 medical students; 26 pharmacy, physican assistant, or nurse practitioner students) were randomly assigned to a no training group (n = 51) or a computer-based virtual reality intervention (n = 51). Professionals in both groups had similar pretest standardized patient alcohol screening skill scores: 53.2 (experimental) vs 54.4 (controls), 52.2 vs 53.7 alcohol brief intervention skills, and 42.9 vs 43.5 alcohol referral skills. After repeated practice with the simulation there were significant increases in the scores of the experimental group at 6 months after randomization compared with the control group for the screening (67.7 vs 58.1; P virtual reality simulation to demonstrate an increase in the alcohol screening and brief intervention skills of health care professionals.

  2. Alcohol screening and brief intervention among drug users in primary care: a discussion paper.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Field, C A

    2011-08-24

    BACKGROUND: Problem alcohol use is common among problem drug users (PDU) and associated with adverse health outcomes. Primary care has an important role in the overall stepped approach to alcohol treatment, especially screening and brief intervention (SBI). AIM: To discuss three themes that emerged from an exploration of the literature on SBI for problem alcohol use in drug users attending primary care. METHODS: Material for this discussion paper was gathered from three biomedical databases (PubMed, PsycINFO and Cochrane library), conference proceedings and online resources of professional organisations or national health agencies. RESULTS: Themes discussed in this paper are: (a) the potential of primary care for delivery of alcohol SBIs to PDUs, (b) screening methods and (c) application of brief interventions to PDUs. CONCLUSIONS: Although SBI improves health outcomes associated with problem alcohol use in the general population, further research is needed among high-risk patient groups, especially PDUs.

  3. Psychometric Properties of Brief Screening Tests for Alcohol Use Disorders during Pregnancy in Argentina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    López, Mariana Beatriz; Lichtenberger, Aldana; Conde, Karina; Cremonte, Mariana

    2017-07-01

    Background  Considering the physical, mental and behavioral problems related to fetal alcohol exposure, prenatal clinical guides suggest a brief evaluation of alcohol consumption during pregnancy to detect alcohol intake and to adjust interventions, if required. Even if any alcohol use should be considered risky during pregnancy, identifying women with alcohol use disorders is important because they could need a more specific intervention than simple advice to abstain. Most screening tests have been developed and validated in male populations and focused on the long-term consequences of heavy alcohol use, so they might be inappropriate to assess consumption in pregnant women. Objective  To analyze the internal reliability and validity of the alcohol screening instruments Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test (AUDIT), Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test - Consumption (AUDIT-C), Tolerance, Worried, Eye-Opener, Amnesia and Cut-Down (TWEAK), Rapid Alcohol Problems Screen - Quantity Frequency (RAPS-QF) and Tolerance, Annoyed, Cut-Down and Eye-Opener (T-ACE) to identify alcohol use disorders in pregnant women. Methods  A total of 641 puerperal women were personally interviewed during the 48 hours after delivery. The receiver operating characteristics (ROC) curves and the sensitivity and specificity of each instrument using different cut-off points were analyzed. Results  All instruments showed areas under the ROC curves above 0.80. Larger areas were found for the TWEAK and the AUDIT. The TWEAK, the T-ACE and the AUDIT-C showed higher sensitivity, while the AUDIT and the RAPS-QF showed higher specificity. Reliability (internal consistency) was low for all instruments, improving when optimal cut-off points were used, especially for the AUDIT, the AUDIT-C and the RAPS-QF. Conclusions  In other cultural contexts, studies have concluded that T-ACE and TWEAK are the best instruments to assess pregnant women. In contrast, our results evidenced the low

  4. Use of AUDIT-based measures to identify unhealthy alcohol use and alcohol dependence in primary care: a validation study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, J Aaron; Lee, Anna; Vinson, Daniel; Seale, J Paul

    2013-01-01

    As programs for screening, brief intervention, and referral to treatment (SBIRT) for unhealthy alcohol use disseminate, evidence-based approaches for identifying patients with unhealthy alcohol use and alcohol dependence (AD) are needed. While the National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism Clinician Guide suggests use of a single alcohol screening question (SASQ) for screening and Diagnostic and Statistical Manual checklists for assessment, many SBIRT programs use alcohol use disorders identification test (AUDIT) "zones" for screening and assessment. Validation data for these zones are limited. This study used primary care data from a bi-ethnic southern U.S. population to examine the ability of the AUDIT zones and other AUDIT-based approaches to identify unhealthy alcohol use and dependence. Existing data were analyzed from interviews with 625 female and male adult drinkers presenting to 5 southeastern primary care practices. Timeline follow-back was used to identify at-risk drinking, and diagnostic interview schedule was used to identify alcohol abuse and dependence. Validity measures compared performance of AUDIT, AUDIT-C, and AUDIT dependence domains scores, with and without a 30-day binge drinking measure, for detecting unhealthy alcohol use and dependence. Optimal AUDIT scores for detecting unhealthy alcohol use were lower than current commonly used cutoffs (5 for men, 3 for women). Improved performance was obtained by combining AUDIT cutoffs of 6 for men and 4 for women with a 30-day binge drinking measure. AUDIT scores of 15 for men and 13 for women detected AD with 100% specificity but low sensitivity (20 and 18%, respectively). AUDIT dependence subscale scores of 2 or more showed similar specificity (99%) and slightly higher sensitivity (31% for men, 24% for women). Combining lower AUDIT cutoff scores and binge drinking measures may increase the detection of unhealthy alcohol use in primary care. Use of lower cutoff scores and dependence subscale

  5. Optimizing the Use of the AUDIT for Alcohol Screening in College Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeMartini, Kelly S.; Carey, Kate B.

    2012-01-01

    The screening and brief intervention modality of treatment for at-risk college drinking is becoming increasingly popular. A key to effective implementation is use of validated screening tools. Although the Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test (AUDIT) has been validated in adult samples and is often used with college students, research has not…

  6. Vital Signs – Alcohol Screening and Counseling?

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2014-01-07

    This podcast is based on the January 2014 CDC Vital Signs report. Millions of Americans drink too much, a dangerous behavior that can lead to serious health problems. Alcohol screening and counseling can help.  Created: 1/7/2014 by Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC).   Date Released: 1/7/2014.

  7. Development and Evaluation of Algorithms for Breath Alcohol Screening.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ljungblad, Jonas; Hök, Bertil; Ekström, Mikael

    2016-04-01

    Breath alcohol screening is important for traffic safety, access control and other areas of health promotion. A family of sensor devices useful for these purposes is being developed and evaluated. This paper is focusing on algorithms for the determination of breath alcohol concentration in diluted breath samples using carbon dioxide to compensate for the dilution. The examined algorithms make use of signal averaging, weighting and personalization to reduce estimation errors. Evaluation has been performed by using data from a previously conducted human study. It is concluded that these features in combination will significantly reduce the random error compared to the signal averaging algorithm taken alone.

  8. Comparison of the Substance Use Brief Screen (SUBS) to the AUDIT-C and ASSIST for detecting unhealthy alcohol and drug use in a population of hospitalized smokers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Benjamin H; Sherman, Scott E; Link, Alissa R; Wang, Binhuan; McNeely, Jennifer

    2017-08-01

    Hospitalized patients have high rates of unhealthy substance use, which has important impacts on health both during and after hospitalization, but is infrequently identified in the absence of screening. The Substance Use Brief Screen (SUBS) was developed as a brief, self-administered instrument to identify use of tobacco, alcohol, illicit drugs, and non-medical use of prescription drugs, and was previously validated in primary care patients. This study assessed the diagnostic accuracy of the SUBS in comparison to longer screening instruments to identify unhealthy and high-risk alcohol and drug use in hospitalized current smokers. Participants were 439 patients, aged 18 and older, who were admitted to either two urban safety-net hospitals in New York City and enrolled in a smoking cessation trial. We measured the performance of the SUBS for identifying illicit drug and non-medical use of prescription drugs in comparison to a modified Alcohol, Smoking and Substance Involvement Screening Test (ASSIST) and its performance for identifying excessive alcohol use in comparison to the Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test-Consumption (AUDIT-C). At the standard cutoff (response other than 'never' indicates a positive screen), the SUBS had a sensitivity of 98% (95% CI 95-100%) and specificity of 61% (95% CI 55-67%) for unhealthy alcohol use, a sensitivity of 85% (95% CI 80-90%) and specificity of 75% (95% CI 78-87%) for illicit drug use, and a sensitivity of 73% (95% CI 61-83%) and specificity of 83% (95% CI 78-87%) for prescription drug non-medical use. For identifying high-risk use, a higher cutoff (response of '3 or more days' of use indicates a positive screen), the SUBS retained high sensitivity (77-90%), and specificity was 62-88%. The SUBS can be considered as an alternative to longer screening instruments, which may fit more easily into busy inpatient settings. Further study is needed to evaluate its validity using gold standard measures in hospitalized

  9. The drinking habits of users of an alcohol screening web site in Slovenia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marko Kolšek

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: Heavy drinking is responsible for major health and social problems. Slovenia has few epidemiological studies about drinking, none of them have used the AUDIT questionnaire. Pilot studies have indicated that a Webbased screening is likely to be acceptable to young heavy drinkers. Methods: Cross sectional study. Visitors of a free website, older then 10 years, were offered screening with the Alcohol Use Disorder Identification Test (AUDIT. Their demographic data and information about their drinking habits were collected. All users who completed the questionnaire received a specially prepared feed-back message with an evaluation of their drinking. Data from the database for the first four months were collected for analysis on February 1, 2009. Results: In four months 3329 users filled in the questionnaire, 69.2 % completed it and 1790 participans completed it for themselves. Their mean age was 28.9 years, 62.7 % were between 19 and 34 years. 41 % were single, 49.4 % had finnished the secondary school. 0.1 % of men did not drink alcohol at all, 57.7 % drank hazardous or harmful amounts of alcohol. 50.6 % of women did not have risky drinking habits. Mean baseline AUDIT scores were 8.8 ± 1.3, 9.79 ± 2.1 for men and 7.68 ± 4.7 for women. Conclusions: The alcohol screening website was widely used, especially by young people. The percentage of hazardous male drinkers accessing the site was high. The website seems to be an accessible and useful tool for young people and it could contribute to health promotion and constitute an easier alternative to screening for hazardous and harmful drinking.

  10. Organizational Barriers to Adopting an Alcohol Screening and Brief Intervention in Community-Based Mental Health Organizations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patterson, David A; Wolf Adelv Unegv Waya, Silver; Dulmus, Catherine N

    2012-06-01

    This paper examines two factors related to successfully implementing a brief alcohol screening throughout all community-based mental health organizations. The first issue is related to an organization's internal structures, such as culture and climate that can impede evidenced-based practice implementation. There is literature suggesting that organizational culture and climate affect decisions about whether evidence-based practices are adopted and implemented within health care agencies. Following this literature review on organizational barriers, the history and successes of adopting an alcohol screening and brief intervention are reviewed. Studying, identifying, and understanding the organizational factors associated with the successful dissemination and implementation of best practices throughout community-based mental health organizations would contribute to increasing the likelihood that an alcohol screening and brief intervention are implemented throughout mental health organizations.

  11. Telephonic screening and brief intervention for alcohol misuse among workers contacting the employee assistance program: A feasibility study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McPherson, Tracy L; Goplerud, Eric; Derr, Dennis; Mickenberg, Judy; Courtemanche, Sherry

    2010-11-01

    Substantial empirical support exists for alcohol screening, brief intervention, and referral to treatment (SBIRT) in medical, but not non-medical settings such as the workplace. Workplace settings remain underutilised for delivering evidenced-based health services. This research aims to translate medical research into behavioural health-care practice in a telephonic call centre acting as a point of entry into an Employee Assistance Program (EAP). The goal of the study is to examine the feasibility of implementing routine telephonic alcohol SBIRT in an EAP call centre and assess whether routine SBIRT results in increased identification of workers who misuse alcohol. The design was pretest-posttest, one-group, pre-experimental. An alcohol SBIRT program developed based on World Health Organization recommendations was implemented in one EAP call centre serving one large employer. Workers were offered screening using the Alcohol Use Disorder Identification Test (AUDIT) during intake, brief counselling using motivational interviewing, referral to counselling, and follow-up. At 5 months, 93% of workers contacting the EAP completed the AUDIT-C: 40% prescreened positive and 52% went on to screen at moderate or high risk for an alcohol problem. Overall identification rate (18%) approached general US population estimates. Most agreed to follow-up and three-quarters set an appointment for face-to-face counselling. Integration of routine alcohol SBIRT into EAP practice is feasible in telephonic delivery systems and increases identification and opportunity for brief motivational counselling. When SBIRT is seamlessly integrated workers are willing to answer questions about alcohol and participate in follow-up.[McPherson TL, Goplerud E, Derr D, Mickenberg J, Courtemanche S. Telephonic screening and brief intervention for alcohol misuse among workers contacting the employee assistance program: A feasibility study. © 2010 Australasian Professional Society on Alcohol and other Drugs.

  12. Health on the web: randomised controlled trial of online screening and brief alcohol intervention delivered in a workplace setting.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zarnie Khadjesari

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Alcohol misuse in England costs around £7.3 billion (US$12.2 billion annually from lost productivity and absenteeism. Delivering brief alcohol interventions to employees as part of a health check may be acceptable, particularly with online delivery which can provide privacy for this stigmatised behaviour. Research to support this approach is limited and methodologically weak. The aim was to determine the effectiveness of online screening and personalised feedback on alcohol consumption, delivered in a workplace as part of a health check. METHODS AND FINDINGS: This two-group online individually randomised controlled trial recruited employees from a UK-based private sector organisation (approx. 100,000 employees. 3,375 employees completed the online health check in the three week recruitment period. Of these, 1,330 (39% scored five or more on the AUDIT-C (indicating alcohol misuse and were randomised to receive personalised feedback on their alcohol intake, alongside feedback on other health behaviours (n = 659, or to receive feedback on all health behaviours except alcohol intake (n = 671. Participants were mostly male (75%, with a median age of 48 years and half were in managerial positions (55%. Median Body Mass Index was 26, 12% were smokers, median time undertaking moderate/vigorous physical activity a week was 173 minutes and median fruit and vegetable consumption was three portions a day. Eighty percent (n = 1,066 of participants completed follow-up questionnaires at three months. An intention to treat analysis found no difference between experimental groups for past week drinking (primary outcome (5.6% increase associated with the intervention (95% CI -4.7% to 16.9%; p = .30, AUDIT (measure of alcohol-related harm and health utility (EQ-5D. CONCLUSIONS: There was no evidence to support the use of personalised feedback within an online health check for reducing alcohol consumption among employees in this

  13. Health on the Web: Randomised Controlled Trial of Online Screening and Brief Alcohol Intervention Delivered in a Workplace Setting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khadjesari, Zarnie; Freemantle, Nick; Linke, Stuart; Hunter, Rachael; Murray, Elizabeth

    2014-01-01

    Background Alcohol misuse in England costs around £7.3 billion (US$12.2 billion) annually from lost productivity and absenteeism. Delivering brief alcohol interventions to employees as part of a health check may be acceptable, particularly with online delivery which can provide privacy for this stigmatised behaviour. Research to support this approach is limited and methodologically weak. The aim was to determine the effectiveness of online screening and personalised feedback on alcohol consumption, delivered in a workplace as part of a health check. Methods and Findings This two-group online individually randomised controlled trial recruited employees from a UK-based private sector organisation (approx. 100,000 employees). 3,375 employees completed the online health check in the three week recruitment period. Of these, 1,330 (39%) scored five or more on the AUDIT-C (indicating alcohol misuse) and were randomised to receive personalised feedback on their alcohol intake, alongside feedback on other health behaviours (n = 659), or to receive feedback on all health behaviours except alcohol intake (n = 671). Participants were mostly male (75%), with a median age of 48 years and half were in managerial positions (55%). Median Body Mass Index was 26, 12% were smokers, median time undertaking moderate/vigorous physical activity a week was 173 minutes and median fruit and vegetable consumption was three portions a day. Eighty percent (n = 1,066) of participants completed follow-up questionnaires at three months. An intention to treat analysis found no difference between experimental groups for past week drinking (primary outcome) (5.6% increase associated with the intervention (95% CI −4.7% to 16.9%; p = .30)), AUDIT (measure of alcohol-related harm) and health utility (EQ-5D). Conclusions There was no evidence to support the use of personalised feedback within an online health check for reducing alcohol consumption among employees in this organisation

  14. Screening of allyl alcohol resistant mutant of Rhizopus oryzae and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Ethanol is a main by-product in the fermentation broth of Rhizopus oryzae during the production of high-optical purity L-lactic acid. By screening the lower activity of alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH) mutant, thus decreasing the flux of pyruvic acid to ethanol may be a virtual method for increasing the conversion rate of glucose ...

  15. The impact of policies regulating alcohol trading hours and days on specific alcohol-related harms: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanchez-Ramirez, Diana C; Voaklander, Donald

    2018-02-01

    Evidence supports the expectation that changes in time of alcohol sales associate with changes in alcohol-related harm in both directions. However, to the best of our knowledge, no comprehensive systematic reviews had examined the effect of policies restricting time of alcohol trading on specific alcohol-related harms. To compile existing evidence related to the impact of policies regulating alcohol trading hours/days of on specific harm outcomes such as: assault/violence, motor vehicle crashes/fatalities, injury, visits to the emergency department/hospital, murder/homicides and crime. Systematic review of literature studying the impact of policies regulation alcohol trading times in alcohol-related harm, published between January 2000 and October 2016 in English language. Results support the premise that policies regulating times of alcohol trading and consumption can contribute to reduce injuries, alcohol-related hospitalisations/emergency department visits, homicides and crime. Although the impact of alcohol trading policies in assault/violence and motor vehicle crashes/fatalities is also positive, these associations seem to be more complex and require further study. Evidence suggests a potential direct effect of policies that regulate alcohol trading times in the prevention of injuries, alcohol-related hospitalisations, homicides and crime. The impact of these alcohol trading policies in assault/violence and motor vehicle crashes/fatalities is less compelling. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2018. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  16. Screening and brief interventions for hazardous and harmful alcohol use in probation services: a cluster randomised controlled trial protocol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Myles Judy

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background A large number of randomised controlled trials in health settings have consistently reported positive effects of brief intervention in terms of reductions in alcohol use. However, although alcohol misuse is common amongst offenders, there is limited evidence of alcohol brief interventions in the criminal justice field. This factorial pragmatic cluster randomised controlled trial with Offender Managers (OMs as the unit of randomisation will evaluate the effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of different models of screening to identify hazardous and harmful drinkers in probation and different intensities of brief intervention to reduce excessive drinking in probation clients. Methods and design Ninety-six OMs from 9 probation areas across 3 English regions (the North East Region (n = 4 and London and the South East Regions (n = 5 will be recruited. OMs will be randomly allocated to one of three intervention conditions: a client information leaflet control condition (n = 32 OMs; 5-minute simple structured advice (n = 32 OMs and 20-minute brief lifestyle counselling delivered by an Alcohol Health Worker (n = 32 OMs. Randomisation will be stratified by probation area. To test the relative effectiveness of different screening methods all OMs will be randomised to either the Modified Single Item Screening Questionnaire (M-SASQ or the Fast Alcohol Screening Test (FAST. There will be a minimum of 480 clients recruited into the trial. There will be an intention to treat analysis of study outcomes at 6 and 12 months post intervention. Analysis will include client measures (screening result, weekly alcohol consumption, alcohol-related problems, re-offending, public service use and quality of life and implementation measures from OMs (the extent of screening and brief intervention beyond the minimum recruitment threshold will provide data on acceptability and feasibility of different models of brief intervention. We will also examine the

  17. Screening and brief interventions for hazardous and harmful alcohol use in probation services: a cluster randomised controlled trial protocol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newbury-Birch, Dorothy; Bland, Martin; Cassidy, Paul; Coulton, Simon; Deluca, Paolo; Drummond, Colin; Gilvarry, Eilish; Godfrey, Christine; Heather, Nick; Kaner, Eileen; Myles, Judy; Oyefeso, Adenekan; Parrott, Steve; Perryman, Katherine; Phillips, Tom; Shenker, Don; Shepherd, Jonathan

    2009-11-18

    A large number of randomised controlled trials in health settings have consistently reported positive effects of brief intervention in terms of reductions in alcohol use. However, although alcohol misuse is common amongst offenders, there is limited evidence of alcohol brief interventions in the criminal justice field. This factorial pragmatic cluster randomised controlled trial with Offender Managers (OMs) as the unit of randomisation will evaluate the effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of different models of screening to identify hazardous and harmful drinkers in probation and different intensities of brief intervention to reduce excessive drinking in probation clients. Ninety-six OMs from 9 probation areas across 3 English regions (the North East Region (n = 4) and London and the South East Regions (n = 5)) will be recruited. OMs will be randomly allocated to one of three intervention conditions: a client information leaflet control condition (n = 32 OMs); 5-minute simple structured advice (n = 32 OMs) and 20-minute brief lifestyle counselling delivered by an Alcohol Health Worker (n = 32 OMs). Randomisation will be stratified by probation area. To test the relative effectiveness of different screening methods all OMs will be randomised to either the Modified Single Item Screening Questionnaire (M-SASQ) or the Fast Alcohol Screening Test (FAST). There will be a minimum of 480 clients recruited into the trial. There will be an intention to treat analysis of study outcomes at 6 and 12 months post intervention. Analysis will include client measures (screening result, weekly alcohol consumption, alcohol-related problems, re-offending, public service use and quality of life) and implementation measures from OMs (the extent of screening and brief intervention beyond the minimum recruitment threshold will provide data on acceptability and feasibility of different models of brief intervention). We will also examine the practitioner and organisational factors

  18. Alcohol Consumption and the Physical Availability of Take-Away Alcohol: Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses of the Days and Hours of Sale and Outlet Density.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sherk, Adam; Stockwell, Tim; Chikritzhs, Tanya; Andréasson, Sven; Angus, Colin; Gripenberg, Johanna; Holder, Harold; Holmes, John; Mäkelä, Pia; Mills, Megan; Norström, Thor; Ramstedt, Mats; Woods, Jonathan

    2018-01-01

    Systematic reviews and meta-analyses were completed studying the effect of changes in the physical availability of take-away alcohol on per capita alcohol consumption. Previous reviews examining this topic have not focused on off-premise outlets where take-away alcohol is sold and have not completed meta-analyses. Systematic reviews were conducted separately for policies affecting the temporal availability (days and hours of sale) and spatial availability (outlet density) of take-away alcohol. Studies were included up to December 2015. Quality criteria were used to select articles that studied the effect of changes in these policies on alcohol consumption with a focus on natural experiments. Random-effects meta-analyses were applied to produce the estimated effect of an additional day of sale on total and beverage-specific consumption. Separate systematic reviews identified seven studies regarding days and hours of sale and four studies regarding density. The majority of articles included in these systematic reviews, for days/hours of sale (7/7) and outlet density (3/4), concluded that restricting the physical availability of take-away alcohol reduces per capita alcohol consumption. Meta-analyses studying the effect of adding one additional day of sale found that this was associated with per capita consumption increases of 3.4% (95% CI [2.7, 4.1]) for total alcohol, 5.3% (95% CI [3.2, 7.4]) for beer, 2.6% (95% CI [1.8, 3.5]) for wine, and 2.6% (95% CI [2.1, 3.2]) for spirits. The small number of included studies regarding hours of sale and density precluded meta-analysis. The results of this study suggest that decreasing the physical availability of take-away alcohol will decrease per capita consumption. As decreasing per capita consumption has been shown to reduce alcohol-related harm, restricting the physical availability of take-away alcohol would be expected to result in improvements to public health.

  19. A Quick Drinking Screen for identifying women at risk for an alcohol-exposed pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dum, Mariam; Sobell, Linda Carter; Sobell, Mark B; Heinecke, Nicholas; Voluse, Andrew; Johnson, Kenneth

    2009-09-01

    Two previous studies comparing the Quick Drinking Screen (QDS) with the Timeline Followback (TLFB) found that these two instruments yielded similar reports of alcohol use for clinical and nonclinical populations of problem drinkers. The current study evaluated the correspondence between these two drinking measures with women at risk of an Alcohol-Exposed Pregnancy (AEP). Participants were 355 women who voluntarily participated in a research study during 2005 through 2007 designed to prevent AEPs. All women were screened by phone for eligibility using the QDS and approximately 2 weeks later completed a 3-month TLFB by mail. Results of this study, analyzed in 2008, paralleled previous studies showing that the QDS and the TLFB, two very different drinking measures, collected similar aggregate drinking data for women who drink heavily and are at risk of an AEP. Correspondence between the two drinking measures met acceptable levels of reliability. The present study found that the QDS has demonstrated efficacy for screening women whose level of alcohol use puts them at risk for an AEP. Although the QDS does not yield detailed drinking information, it could be used when it is not possible or necessary to gather daily drinking data.

  20. Comparative study of different alcohol sensors based on Screen-Printed Carbon Electrodes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costa Rama, Estefanía; Biscay, Julien; González García, María Begoña; Julio Reviejo, A; Pingarrón Carrazón, José Manuel; Costa García, Agustín

    2012-05-30

    Different very simple single-use alcohol enzyme sensors were developed using alcohol oxidase (AOX) from three different yeast, Hansenula sp., Pichia pastoris and Candida boidinii, and employing three different commercial mediator-based Screen-Printed Carbon Electrodes as transducers. The mediators tested, Prussian Blue, Ferrocyanide and Co-phthalocyanine were included into the ink of the working electrode. The procedure to obtain these sensors consists of the immobilization of the enzyme on the electrode surface by adsorption. For the immobilization, an AOX solution is deposited on the working electrode and left until dried (1h) at room temperature. The best results were obtained with the biosensor using Screen-Printed Co-phthalocyanine/Carbon Electrode and AOX from Hansenula sp. The reduced cobalt-phthalocyanine form is amperometrically detected at +0.4V (vs. Ag pseudo reference electrode). This sensor shows good sensitivity (1211 nA mM(-1)), high precision (2.1% RSD value for the slope value of the calibration plot) and wide linear response (0.05-1.00 mM) for ethanol determination. The sensor provides also accurate results for ethanol quantification in alcoholic drinks. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Validation of the alcohol use module from a multidimensional prenatal psychosocial risk screening instrument.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harrison, Patricia A; Godecker, Amy; Sidebottom, Abbey C

    2012-12-01

    The purpose of the study was to validate the Prenatal Risk Overview (PRO) Alcohol use domain against a structured diagnostic interview. The PRO was developed to screen for 13 psychosocial risk factors associated with poor birth outcomes. After clinic staff administered the PRO to prenatal patients, they asked for consent to administration of selected modules of the structured clinical interview for DSM-IV (SCID) by a research assistant. To assess the criterion validity of the PRO, low and moderate/high risk classifications from the alcohol use domain were cross-tabulated with SCID Alcohol Use Disorder variables. The study sample included 744 women. Based on PRO responses, 48.7% reported alcohol use during the 12 months before they learned they were pregnant; 5.4% reported use post pregnancy awareness. The typical quantity consumed pre-pregnancy was four or more drinks per occasion. Based on the SCID, 7.4% met DSM-IV criteria for either Alcohol Abuse or Dependence. Sensitivity and specificity of the PRO for Alcohol Use Disorders were 83.6 and 80.3%, respectively. Negative predictive value was 98.4% and positive predictive value was 25.3%. The results indicate the PRO effectively identified pregnant women with Alcohol Use Disorders. However, prenatal screening must also detect consumption patterns that do not meet diagnostic thresholds but may endanger fetal development. The PRO also identified women who continued to drink after they knew they were pregnant, as well as those whose previous drinking habits put them at risk for resumption of hazardous use.

  2. Screening and brief interventions for hazardous alcohol use in accident and emergency departments: a randomised controlled trial protocol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Myles Judy

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background There is a wealth of evidence regarding the detrimental impact of excessive alcohol consumption on the physical, psychological and social health of the population. There also exists a substantial evidence base for the efficacy of brief interventions aimed at reducing alcohol consumption across a range of healthcare settings. Primary research conducted in emergency departments has reinforced the current evidence regarding the potential effectiveness and cost-effectiveness. Within this body of evidence there is marked variation in the intensity of brief intervention delivered, from very minimal interventions to more intensive behavioural or lifestyle counselling approaches. Further the majority of primary research has been conducted in single centre and there is little evidence of the wider issues of generalisability and implementation of brief interventions across emergency departments. Methods/design The study design is a prospective pragmatic factorial cluster randomised controlled trial. Individual Emergency Departments (ED (n = 9 are randomised with equal probability to a combination of screening tool (M-SASQ vs FAST vs SIPS-PAT and an intervention (Minimal intervention vs Brief advice vs Brief lifestyle counselling. The primary hypothesis is that brief lifestyle counselling delivered by an Alcohol Health Worker (AHW is more effective than Brief Advice or a minimal intervention delivered by ED staff. Secondary hypotheses address whether short screening instruments are more acceptable and as efficient as longer screening instruments and the cost-effectiveness of screening and brief interventions in ED. Individual participants will be followed up at 6 and 12 months after consent. The primary outcome measure is performance using a gold-standard screening test (AUDIT. Secondary outcomes include; quantity and frequency of alcohol consumed, alcohol-related problems, motivation to change, health related quality of life and

  3. Kiosk versus In-person Screening for Alcohol and Drug Use in the Emergency Department: Patient Preferences and Disclosure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hankin, Abigail

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Annually eight million emergency department (ED visits are attributable to alcohol use. Screening ED patients for at-risk alcohol and substance use is an integral component of screening, brief intervention, and referral to treatment programs, shown to be effective at reducing substance use. The objective is to evaluate ED patients’ acceptance of and willingness to disclose alcohol/substance use via a computer kiosk versus an in-person interview. Methods: This was a cross-sectional, survey-based study. Eligible participants included those who presented to walk-in triage, were English-speaking, ≥18 years, were clinically stable and able to consent. Patients had the opportunity to access the kiosk in the ED waiting room, and were approached for an in-person survey by a research assistant (9am-5pm weekdays. Both surveys used validated assessment tools to assess drug and alcohol use. Disclosure statistics and preferences were calculated using chi-square tests and McNemar’s test. Results: A total of 1,207 patients were screened: 229 in person only, 824 by kiosk, and 154 by both in person and kiosk. Single-modality participants were more likely to disclose hazardous drinking (p=0.003 and high-risk drug use (OR=22.3 [12.3-42.2]; p<0.0001 via kiosk. Participants who had participated in screening via both modalities were more likely to reveal high-risk drug use on the kiosk (p=0.003. When asked about screening preferences, 73.6% reported a preference for an in-person survey, which patients rated higher on privacy and comfort. Conclusion: ED patients were significantly more likely to disclose at-risk alcohol and substance use to a computer kiosk than an interviewer. Paradoxically patients stated a preference for in-person screening, despite reduced disclosure to a human screener. [West J Emerg Med. 2015;16(2:220–228.

  4. Prevalence and Predictors of Maternal Alcohol Consumption in Two Regions of Ukraine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chambers, Christina D.; Yevtushok, Lyubov; Zymak-Zakutnya, Natalya; Korzhynskyy, Yuriy; Ostapchuk, Lyubov; Akhmedzhanova, Diana; Chan, Priscilla H.; Xu, Ronghui; Wertelecki, Wladimir

    2014-01-01

    Background Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorders (FASD) are thought to be a leading cause of developmental disabilities worldwide. However, data are lacking on alcohol use among pregnant women in many countries.. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the prevalence and predictors of alcohol consumption by pregnant women in Ukraine. Methods Cross sectional screening of pregnant women was conducted in two regions of Ukraine during the recruitment phase of an ongoing clinical study that is part of the Collaborative Initiative on Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorders (CIFASD). Women attending a routine prenatal visit at one of two participating regional centers were asked about alcohol consumption. Quantity and frequency of alcoholic beverages consumed in the month around conception and in the most recent month of pregnancy were measured using a standard interview instrument. Results Between 2007 and 2012, 11,909 pregnant women were screened on average in the second trimester of pregnancy. Of these, 92.7% reported being ever-drinkers. Among ever-drinkers, 54.8% reported drinking alcohol in the month around conception, and 12.9% consumed at least three drinks on at least one day in that time period. In the most recent month of pregnancy, 46.3% continued to report alcohol use and 9.2% consumed at least three drinks per day. Significant predictors of average number of drinks or heavier drinking per day in either time period in pregnancy included lower gravidity, being single, unmarried/living with a partner, or separated, lower maternal education, smoking, younger age at initiation of drinking and higher score on the TWEAK screening test for harmful drinking. Conclusions These findings support the need for education/intervention in women of childbearing age in Ukraine, and can help inform targeted interventions for women at risk of an alcohol exposed pregnancy. The initiation of a standard screening protocol in pregnancy is a step in the right direction. PMID:24834525

  5. Assessing the delivery of alcohol screening and brief intervention in sexual health clinics in the north east of England

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Sullivan

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Risky drinking is associated with risky sexual experiences, however the relationship between alcohol and sex is complex. The aim of the study was to assess the feasibility of delivering alcohol screening and brief interventions in genitourinary medicine (GUM clinics. The objectives were to; understand the levels of alcohol use amongst patients; report on the number of alcohol interventions delivered; and to analyse the relationship between alcohol use with demographic data as well as diagnosed sexually transmitted infections (STIs to see if there were any associations. Methods All new patients attending GUM between April 2012 and March 2013 self-completed the Alcohol Use Disorder Identification Test (AUDIT prior to their clinical consultation. Where appropriate (scoring 8+ on AUDIT the clinician would deliver up to 2–3 min of alcohol brief intervention. Descriptive statistics, t-tests, ANOVA and logistic regression were carried out as appropriate. Results AUDIT scores were available for 90% of all new patients (3058/3390 with an average mean score of 7.75. Of those who drank alcohol, 44% were categorised as being AUDIT positive, including 2% who had a score indicative of probable alcohol dependence (20+. 55 % (n = 638 of patients who screened positive on the AUDIT received a brief intervention whilst 24% (n = 674 of drinkers were diagnosed with a STI. Logistic regression modelling revealed that males, younger age groups and those of ‘white’ ethnicity were more likely to score positive on AUDIT. Patients classified as non-students, living in deprivation quintiles one to four and categorised as probable alcohol dependence on the AUDIT were more likely to be diagnosed with an STI. Conclusion It is possible to embed alcohol screening into routine practice within sexual health services however further work is required to embed brief interventions particularly amongst increasing risk drinkers. If resources are limited

  6. Assessing the delivery of alcohol screening and brief intervention in sexual health clinics in the north east of England.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sullivan, C; Martin, N; White, C; Newbury-Birch, D

    2017-11-17

    Risky drinking is associated with risky sexual experiences, however the relationship between alcohol and sex is complex. The aim of the study was to assess the feasibility of delivering alcohol screening and brief interventions in genitourinary medicine (GUM) clinics. The objectives were to; understand the levels of alcohol use amongst patients; report on the number of alcohol interventions delivered; and to analyse the relationship between alcohol use with demographic data as well as diagnosed sexually transmitted infections (STIs) to see if there were any associations. All new patients attending GUM between April 2012 and March 2013 self-completed the Alcohol Use Disorder Identification Test (AUDIT) prior to their clinical consultation. Where appropriate (scoring 8+ on AUDIT) the clinician would deliver up to 2-3 min of alcohol brief intervention. Descriptive statistics, t-tests, ANOVA and logistic regression were carried out as appropriate. AUDIT scores were available for 90% of all new patients (3058/3390) with an average mean score of 7.75. Of those who drank alcohol, 44% were categorised as being AUDIT positive, including 2% who had a score indicative of probable alcohol dependence (20+). 55 % (n = 638) of patients who screened positive on the AUDIT received a brief intervention whilst 24% (n = 674) of drinkers were diagnosed with a STI. Logistic regression modelling revealed that males, younger age groups and those of 'white' ethnicity were more likely to score positive on AUDIT. Patients classified as non-students, living in deprivation quintiles one to four and categorised as probable alcohol dependence on the AUDIT were more likely to be diagnosed with an STI. It is possible to embed alcohol screening into routine practice within sexual health services however further work is required to embed brief interventions particularly amongst increasing risk drinkers. If resources are limited, services may consider more targeted rather than universal alcohol

  7. Validation of the French version of the alcohol, smoking and substance involvement screening test (ASSIST in the elderly

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khan Riaz

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Substance use disorders seem to be an under considered health problem amongst the elderly. The Alcohol, Smoking and Substance Involvement Screening Test (ASSIST, was developed by the World Health Organization to detect substance use disorders. The present study evaluates the psychometric properties of the French version of ASSIST in a sample of elderly people attending geriatric outpatient facilities (primary care or psychiatric facilities. Methods One hundred persons older than 65 years were recruited from clients attending a geriatric policlinic day care centre and from geriatric psychiatric facilities. Measures included ASSIST, Addiction Severity Index (ASI, Mini-International Neuropsychiatric Interview (MINI-Plus, Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test (AUDIT, Revised Fagerstrom Tolerance Questionnaire-Smoking (RTQ and MiniMental State(MMS. Results Concurrent validity was established with significant correlations between ASSIST scores, scores from ASI, AUDIT, RTQ, and significantly higher ASSIST scores for patients with a MINI-Plus diagnosis of abuse or dependence. The ASSIST questionnaire was found to have high internal consistency for the total substance involvement along with specific substance involvement as assessed by Cronbach’s α, ranging from 0.66, to 0.89 . Conclusions The findings demonstrate that ASSIST is a valid screening test for identifying substance use disorders in elderly.

  8. Perceived barriers to implementing screening and brief intervention for alcohol consumption by adolescents in hospital emergency department in Spain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Falcón, María; Navarro-Zaragoza, Javier; García-Rodríguez, Rosa María; Nova-López, Daniel; González-Navarro, María Dulce; Mercadal, María; García-Algar, Oscar; Luna Ruiz-Cabello, Aurelio

    2017-07-14

    Screening for alcohol consumption in adolescents is widely justified in the health care field because of the particular vulnerability of this population, which starts drinking alcohol at a very early age and frequently consumes high levels of the same. Hospital emergency departments (ED) could be a good venue to manage early detection and carry out brief intervention (BI) programmes. The aim of this study was to identify perceived barriers for medical staff of three hospitals in Spain to successfully implement a protocol for alcohol detection and BI for minors in the ED. Exploratory qualitative analysis using focus groups with semi-structured, flexible and open-ended questions to explore beliefs, attitudes, and barriers perceived by professionals to screening alcohol consumption and implementing BI in adolescents attended at the ED. The main perceived barriers by health professionals were lack of time, work overload, mistrust, lack of validated and simple screening tools, lack of training/awareness and legal concerns about informed consent and confidentiality. Barriers to screening and intervention in ED are similar to those described previously. It is necessary to improve organization of time allocated for medical consultations, avoid limiting ED resources, motivate staff and provide appropriate training.

  9. Prevalence of problem drinking and characteristics of a single-question screen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stewart, Scott H; Borg, Keith T; Miller, Peter M

    2010-09-01

    Hazardous drinking and alcohol use disorders (i.e, abuse and dependence) are common in Emergency Departments (EDs). This study examined 1) the prevalence of these conditions among ED patients and 2) characteristics of a single screening question (having consumed at least five drinks for males or four for females during a single day). Data from the National Epidemiologic Survey on Alcohol and Related Conditions were analyzed. Logistic regression for clustered data was used to estimate the relative risk for past-year ED use associated with hazardous drinking, abuse, and dependence. Contingency tables were analyzed to estimate the sensitivity and specificity of the single-question screen for detecting these conditions. Hazardous drinking was not associated with ED utilization. Alcohol abuse was associated with a relative risk of 1.3 (95% confidence interval [CI] 1.1-1.5) and alcohol dependence with a relative risk of 1.9 (95% CI 1.6-2.2). For current drinkers, the single question screen was 0.96, 0.85, and 0.90 sensitive for hazardous drinking, alcohol abuse, and alcohol dependence, respectively. Individuals with a positive screen in the past year were considered at least hazardous drinkers, and specificity was 0.80, 0.64, and 0.65 for hazardous drinking, abuse, and dependence, respectively. Specificity was modestly increased in women. Most problem drinkers were hazardous drinkers, but only severe alcohol use disorders were particularly prevalent in the ED. The single heavy-drinking-day item appears sensitive for problem drinking. Positive tests must be followed by additional assessment to differentiate hazardous drinking from alcohol use disorders. Copyright © 2010. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  10. Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorders (FASDs): Alcohol Use Quiz

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Links to Other Websites About Us More CDC Alcohol Topics CDC Alcohol Portal Excessive Alcohol Use Binge ... of alcohol screening and counseling for all women Alcohol Use Quiz Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir ...

  11. Effect of the Uniform Accident and Sickness Policy Provision Law on alcohol screening and intervention in trauma centers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gentilello, Larry M; Donato, Anthony; Nolan, Susan; Mackin, Robert E; Liebich, Franesa; Hoyt, David B; LaBrie, Richard A

    2005-09-01

    Alcohol screening and intervention in trauma centers are widely recommended. The Uniform Accident and Sickness Policy Provision Law (UPPL) exists in most states, and allows insurers to refuse payment for treatment of injuries in patients with a positive alcohol or drug test. This article analyzed the UPPL's impact on screening and reimbursement, measured the knowledge of legislators about substance use problems in trauma centers, and determined their opinions about substance use-related exclusions in insurance contracts for trauma care. A nationwide survey of members of the American Association for the Surgery of Trauma was conducted. A separate survey of legislators who are members of the Senate, House, or Assembly and serve in some leadership role on committees responsible for insurance in their state was also performed. Ninety-eight trauma surgeon and 56 legislator questionnaires were analyzed. Surgeons' familiarity with the UPPL was limited; only 13% believed they practiced in a UPPL state, but 70% actually did. Despite lack of knowledge of the statute, 24% reported an alcohol- or drug-related insurance denial in the past 6 months. This appeared to affect screening practices; the majority of surgeons (51.5%) do not routinely measure blood alcohol concentration, even though over 91% believe blood alcohol concentration testing is important. Most (82%) indicated that if there were no insurance barriers, they would be willing to establish a brief alcohol intervention program in their center. Legislators were aware of the impact of substance use on trauma centers. They overwhelmingly agreed (89%) that alcohol problems are treatable, and 80% believed it is a good idea to offer counseling in trauma centers. As with surgeons, the majority (53%) were not sure whether the UPPL existed in their state, but they favored prohibiting alcohol-related exclusions by a 2:1 ratio, with strong bipartisan support. The study documents strong support for screening and intervention

  12. Ecological momentary assessment of acute alcohol use disorder symptoms: associations with mood, motives, and use on planned drinking days.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dvorak, Robert D; Pearson, Matthew R; Day, Anne M

    2014-08-01

    Several theories posit that alcohol is consumed both in relation to one's mood and in relation to different motives for drinking. However, there are mixed findings regarding the role of mood and motives in predicting drinking. Ecological momentary assessment (EMA) methods provide an opportunity to evaluate near real-time changes in mood and motives within individuals to predict alcohol use. In addition, endorsement of criteria of an alcohol use disorder (AUD) may also be sensitive to changes within subjects. The current study used EMA with 74 moderate drinkers who responded to fixed and random mood, motive, alcohol use, and AUD criteria prompts over a 21-day assessment period. A temporal pattern of daytime mood, evening drinking motivation, and nighttime alcohol use and acute AUD symptoms on planned drinking days was modeled to examine how these associations unfold throughout the day. The results suggest considerable heterogeneity in drinking motivation across drinking days. Additionally, an affect regulation model of drinking to cope with negative mood was observed. Specifically, on planned drinking days, the temporal association between daytime negative mood and the experience of acute AUD symptoms was mediated via coping motives and alcohol use. The current study found that motives are dynamic, and that changes in motives may predict differential drinking patterns across days. Further, the study provides evidence that emotion-regulation-driven alcohol involvement may need to be examined at the event level to fully capture the ebb and flow of negative affect motivated drinking.

  13. Unrecorded Alcohol and Alcohol-Related Harm in Rural Sabah, Malaysia: A Socio-economically Deprived Region with Expensive Beer and Cheap Local Spirits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shoesmith, Wendy Diana; Oo Tha, Naing; Naing, Khin Saw; Abbas, Roslee Bin Haji; Abdullah, Ahmad Faris

    2016-11-01

    To investigate recorded and unrecorded alcohol and the relation to alcohol-related harm in a region with high taxation, economic deprivation and cultural use of alcohol. Two participants per household were systematically sampled from 12 different villages chosen using stratified random sampling in the North of Sabah, Malaysia. Participants were asked about each type and amount of drink consumed; price paid, whether tax was paid, number of days sick in the last year and whether they had experienced various health problems. A brief screen for mental disorders (PHQ) and an alcohol disorder screening test (AUDIT) were completed. Village heads were also interviewed about alcohol-related problems at village level. 470 people were interviewed. The most commonly drunk beverages were beer and Montoku (a local distilled beverage), which had average prices of RM3.85 and RM0.48 per standard drink respectively. Montoku was more likely to be drunk by problem drinkers. Only 3.1% of alcohol drunk was believed by respondents to be taxed. Men with an AUDIT score of more than 15 were more likely to have had a sick day in the last year and have a female household member with symptoms of mental disorder on PHQ. Change in the taxation structure needs to be considered to reduce alcohol-related harm. Most alcohol consumed in rural Sabah is smuggled or informal. The low price of local spirits is likely to be contributing to alcohol-related harm. Differential effects on minority populations need to be considered when designing alcohol policy. © The Author 2016. Medical Council on Alcohol and Oxford University Press. All rights reserved.

  14. Relationship between Alcohol Purchasing Time and Alcohol Use Disorder in South Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amista, Narcie Faith; Chun, Sungsoo; Yun, Mieun

    2017-12-01

    Currently, time of alcohol purchase is not part of the policies to regulate alcohol consumption in South Korea. This study was conducted to determine the relationship between alcohol purchasing time and alcohol use disorder. The survey for this study was conducted in geographically diverse regions of South Korea in 2012. Respondents' purchasing behaviors for both on-licensed (i.e., allows for consumption within the premises) and off-licensed (i.e., where alcohol is consumed off the premises) outlets and time of alcohol consumption were collected. Alcohol consumption patterns were examined using the Rapid Alcohol Problem Screen 4 (RAPS4). Data were also analyzed by age, gender and purchasing time. Results showed that among the off-licensed premises, supermarkets appear to be the most popular venue while for on-licensed premises; alcohol was generally consumed inside hotels/pubs regardless of age and gender of the purchaser. Purchasing of alcohol was highest during the day and early evening period (9:00 a.m. to 9:59 p.m.). Females are most likely to abuse alcohol than males during the early morning period and is that period after 12:00 midnight. Analysis suggests that the survey instrument used in the International Alcohol Control Study is being used to collect data on alcohol purchasing time consumption; therefore, the potential is there to provide accurate results to contribute appropriate policy responses to reduce alcohol related-harm.

  15. Faculty buy-in to teach alcohol and drug use screening.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puskar, Kathy; Mitchell, Ann M; Kane, Irene; Hagle, Holly; Talcott, Kimberly S

    2014-09-01

    Educating nursing faculty about the use of an evidence-based practice to screen and intervene earlier along the continuum of alcohol and other drug use, misuse, and dependence is essential in today's health care arena. Misuse of alcohol and other drugs is a significant problem for both individual health and societal economic welfare. The purpose of this article is to describe nursing faculty buy-in for the implementation of an evidence-based addiction training program at a university-based school of nursing. Derived from an academic-community partnership, the training program results suggest implications for continuing education and curriculum innovation in schools of nursing and clinical practice. The training content presented can be used in continuing education for nursing faculty across all types of nursing school programs and professional nursing staff employed in multiple settings. The training program was funded by the Health Resources and Services Administration.

  16. Validity and Reliability of the Alcohol, Smoking, and Substance Involvement Screening Test (ASSIST) in University Students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tiburcio Sainz, Marcela; Rosete-Mohedano, Ma Guadalupe; Natera Rey, Guillermina; Martínez Vélez, Nora Angélica; Carreño García, Silvia; Pérez Cisneros, Daniel

    2016-03-02

    The Alcohol, Smoking and Substance Involvement Screening Test (ASSIST), developed by the World Health Organization (WHO), has been used successfully in many countries, but there are few studies of its validity and reliability for the Mexican population. The objective of this study was to determine the psychometric properties of the self-administered ASSIST test in university students in Mexico. This was an ex post facto non-experimental study with 1,176 undergraduate students, the majority women (70.1%) aged 18-23 years (89.5%) and single (87.5%). To estimate concurrent validity, factor analysis and tests of reliability and correlation were carried out between the subscale for alcohol and AUDIT, those for tobacco and the Fagerström Test, and those for marijuana and DAST-20. Adequate reliability coefficients were obtained for ASSIST subscales for tobacco (alpha = 0.83), alcohol (alpha = 0.76), and marijuana (alpha = 0.73). Significant correlations were found only with the AUDIT (r = 0.71) and the alcohol subscale. The best balance of sensitivity and specificity of the alcohol subscale (83.8% and 80%, respectively) and the largest area under the ROC curve (81.9%) was found with a cutoff score of 8. The self-administered version of ASSIST is a valid screening instrument to identify at-risk cases due to substance use in this population.

  17. Inconsistencies between alcohol screening results based on AUDIT-C scores and reported drinking on the AUDIT-C questions: prevalence in two US national samples

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Background The AUDIT-C is an extensively validated screen for unhealthy alcohol use (i.e. drinking above recommended limits or alcohol use disorder), which consists of three questions about alcohol consumption. AUDIT-C scores ≥4 points for men and ≥3 for women are considered positive screens based on US validation studies that compared the AUDIT-C to “gold standard” measures of unhealthy alcohol use from independent, detailed interviews. However, results of screening—positive or negative based on AUDIT-C scores—can be inconsistent with reported drinking on the AUDIT-C questions. For example, individuals can screen positive based on the AUDIT-C score while reporting drinking below US recommended limits on the same AUDIT-C. Alternatively, they can screen negative based on the AUDIT-C score while reporting drinking above US recommended limits. Such inconsistencies could complicate interpretation of screening results, but it is unclear how often they occur in practice. Methods This study used AUDIT-C data from respondents who reported past-year drinking on one of two national US surveys: a general population survey (N = 26,610) and a Veterans Health Administration (VA) outpatient survey (N = 467,416). Gender-stratified analyses estimated the prevalence of AUDIT-C screen results—positive or negative screens based on the AUDIT-C score—that were inconsistent with reported drinking (above or below US recommended limits) on the same AUDIT-C. Results Among men who reported drinking, 13.8% and 21.1% of US general population and VA samples, respectively, had screening results based on AUDIT-C scores (positive or negative) that were inconsistent with reported drinking on the AUDIT-C questions (above or below US recommended limits). Among women who reported drinking, 18.3% and 20.7% of US general population and VA samples, respectively, had screening results that were inconsistent with reported drinking. Limitations This study did not include an

  18. Screening for non-alcoholic fatty liver disease in children: do guidelines provide enough guidance?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koot, B G P; Nobili, V

    2017-09-01

    Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is the most common chronic liver disease in the industrialized world in children. Its high prevalence and important health risks make NAFLD highly suitable for screening. In practice, screening is widely, albeit not consistently, performed. To review the recommendations on screening for NAFLD in children. Recommendations on screening were reviewed from major paediatric obesity guidelines and NAFLD guidelines. A literature overview is provided on open questions and controversies. Screening for NAFLD is advocated in all obesity and most NAFLD guidelines. Guidelines are not uniform in whom to screen, and most guidelines do not specify how screening should be performed in practice. Screening for NAFLD remains controversial, due to lack of a highly accurate screening tool, limited knowledge to predict the natural course of NAFLD and limited data on its cost effectiveness. Guidelines provide little guidance on how screening should be performed. Screening for NAFLD remains controversial because not all conditions for screening are fully met. Consensus is needed on the optimal use of currently available screening tools. Research should focus on new accurate screening tool, the natural history of NAFLD and the cost effectiveness of different screening strategies in children. © 2017 The Authors. Obesity Reviews published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd on behalf of World Obesity Federation.

  19. Brief Screening and Intervention for Alcohol and Drug Use in a College Student Health Clinic: Feasibility, Implementation, and Outcomes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amaro, Hortensia; Reed, Elizabeth; Rowe, Erin; Picci, Jennifer; Mantella, Philomena; Prado, Guillermo

    2010-01-01

    Objective: Evaluation of the Brief Alcohol Screen and Intervention in College Students (BASICS) in a university primary care setting. Participants/Methods: Undergraduates (N = 449) participated in BASICS and electronic surveys assessing frequency/quantity of alcohol and drug use, psychosocial and mental health outcomes, and demographic…

  20. Moderate Maternal Alcohol Exposure on Gestational Day 12 Impacts Anxiety-Like Behavior in Offspring

    OpenAIRE

    Rouzer, Siara K.; Cole, Jesse M.; Johnson, Julia M.; Varlinskaya, Elena I.; Diaz, Marvin R.

    2017-01-01

    Among the numerous consequences of prenatal alcohol exposure (PAE) is an increase in anxiety-like behavior that can prove debilitating to daily functioning. A significant body of literature has linked gestational day 12 (G12) heavy ethanol exposure with social anxiety, evident in adolescent males and females. However, the association between non-social anxiety-like behavior and moderate alcohol exposure, a more common pattern of drinking in pregnant women, is yet unidentified. To model modera...

  1. Italian Euromelanoma Day Screening Campaign (2005-2007) and the planning of melanoma screening strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seidenari, Stefania; Benati, Elisa; Ponti, Giovanni; Borsari, Stefania; Ferrari, Chiara; Albertini, Giuseppe; Altomare, Gianfranco; Arcangeli, Fabio; Aste, Nicola; Bernengo, Maria Grazia; Bongiorno, Maria Rita; Borroni, Giovanni; Calvieri, Stefano; Chimenti, Sergio; Cusano, Francesco; Fracchiolla, Claudio; Gaddoni, Giuseppe; Girolomoni, Giampiero; Guarneri, Biagio; Lanzoni, Anna; Lombardi, Mara; Lotti, Torello; Mariotti, Antonio; Marsili, Franco; Micali, Giuseppe; Parodi, Aurora; Peris, Ketty; Peserico, Andrea; Quaglino, Pietro; Santini, Marcello; Schiavon, Sergio; Tonino, Camillo; Trevisan, Giusto; Tribuzi, Paola; Valentini, Paolo; Vena, Gino A; Virgili, Annarosa

    2012-01-01

    Although no study has definitively shown that unfocused screening of skin cancer is effective, many campaigns have been organized with the aim of increasing awareness on melanoma risk factors. The objective of this study was to analyse the results of the Skin Cancer Screening Day in Italy during the period 2005-2007, to determine the priorities for melanoma control plans in a Mediterranean country. A total of 5002 patients were screened by dermatologists in 31 cities. Individuals who considered themselves to have many naevi and those with a family history of melanoma showed a higher number of common and atypical naevi. Ten melanomas, 20 basal cell carcinomas and two squamous cell carcinomas were histopathologically confirmed. Our observations provide the following suggestions for melanoma prevention strategies: (a) an unfocused campaign is suitable to inform the public about the importance of self-examination of the skin, but is not useful to identify a larger number of melanomas; and (b) melanoma screening campaigns should focus on a selected population, which meets rigorous risk criteria to maintain higher cost-effectiveness. The financial support to effective melanoma screening programmes could be increased, especially in southern populations where lower levels of self-surveillance and socioeconomic conditions represent risk factors for late identification of melanoma.

  2. Fatty acid ethyl esters (FAEEs) as markers for alcohol in meconium: method validation and implementation of a screening program for prenatal drug exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hastedt, Martin; Krumbiegel, Franziska; Gapert, René; Tsokos, Michael; Hartwig, Sven

    2013-09-01

    Alcohol consumption during pregnancy is a widespread problem and can cause severe fetal damage. As the diagnosis of fetal alcohol syndrome is difficult, the implementation of a reliable marker for alcohol consumption during pregnancy into meconium drug screening programs would be invaluable. A previously published gas chromatography mass spectrometry method for the detection of fatty acid ethyl esters (FAEEs) as alcohol markers in meconium was optimized and newly validated for a sample size of 50 mg. This method was applied to 122 cases from a drug-using population. The meconium samples were also tested for common drugs of abuse. In 73 % of the cases, one or more drugs were found. Twenty percent of the samples tested positive for FAEEs at levels indicating significant alcohol exposure. Consequently, alcohol was found to be the third most frequently abused substance within the study group. This re-validated method provides an increase in testing sensitivity, is reliable and easily applicable as part of a drug screening program. It can be used as a non-invasive tool to detect high alcohol consumption in the last trimester of pregnancy. The introduction of FAEEs testing in meconium screening was found to be of particular use in a drug-using population.

  3. Psychometric properties of the Chinese version of the Michigan Alcoholism Screening Test (MAST-C) for patients with alcoholism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsueh, Yu-Jung; Chu, Hsin; Huang, Chang-Chih; Ou, Keng-Liang; Chen, Chiung-Hua; Chou, Kuei-Ru

    2014-04-01

    The aim of this study was to examine the psychometric properties of the Chinese version of the Michigan Alcoholism Screening Test (MAST-C). The sensitivity, specificity, and positive and negative predictive values for the MAST-C were examined in this study. The MAST-C had an internal consistency of 0.83 and a test-retest reliability of 0.89. It had a good content validity index of 0.92. Factor analysis identified four factors and the optimal cutoff point for the MAST-C was a score of 6/7, which yielded a sensitivity of 0.92, a specificity of 0.83, a positive predictive value of 0.92, and a negative predictive value of 0.83. The MAST-C provides a fast, accurate, and sensitive method for clinically diagnosing alcoholism and clinical management. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  4. Ups and downs of alcohol use among first-year college students: Number of drinks, heavy drinking, and stumble and pass out drinking days.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maggs, Jennifer L; Williams, Lela Rankin; Lee, Christine M

    2011-03-01

    Given the dynamic fluctuating nature of alcohol use among emerging adults (Del Boca, Darkes, Greenbaum, & Goldman, 2004), patterns of alcohol use were modeled across 70 days in an intensive repeated-measures diary design. Two hundred first-year college students provided 10 weekly reports of their daily alcohol consumption via computer-assisted telephone interviews. Multi-level models demonstrated large within-person variability across days in drinks consumed, binge drinking, and days exceeding self-reported limits for stumbling around and passing out; these outcome variables were predicted by weekdays vs. weekend days (within-person) and gender, age of drinking initiation, fraternity/sorority membership, and alcohol motivations (between-persons). Repeated measurement of alternate indicators of alcohol use permits the examination of novel and important questions about alcohol use and abuse particularly in young adult and other erratically drinking populations. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Depression Screening

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Depression Screening Substance Abuse Screening Alcohol Use Screening Depression Screening (PHQ-9) - Instructions The following questions are ... this tool, there is also text-only version . Depression Screening - Manual Instructions The following questions are a ...

  6. Anti-inflammatory and Antinociceptive Effects of the Alcoholic Extract ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The alcoholic extract of Polygala arvensis (family Polygalaceae) was screened for antinociceptive and anti-inflammatory activities in experimental animals. The extract was administered for three consecutive days. Following an oral dose of 25 - 100 mg/kg, the extract exhibited graded dose response equivalent to 16.24% ...

  7. Assessing barriers to change in drinking behavior: results of an online employee screening program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aseltine, Robert H; Demarco, Frank J; Wallenstein, Gene V; Jacobs, Douglas G

    2009-01-01

    The impact of alcohol abuse on worker productivity is considerable and appears to be increasing over time. Although early screening and intervention may help prevent or reduce the damaging health and productivity effects of problem drinking, barriers to behavioral change may render broad-based prevention efforts ineffectual. This study examined the correlates of two potential barriers to changes in drinking behavior--underestimation of drinking and lack of knowledge of helping resources--using data from web-based employee alcohol screenings. Anonymous screening data from 1185 employees of ten companies participating in the 2003 National Alcohol Screening Day were analyzed. The AUDIT, a 10-item screening instrument developed by the World Health Organization, was used to measure drinking behavior; employees' subjective assessments of their drinking were also obtained. Over 53% of participants subjectively underestimated their drinking relative to their AUDIT results, and 58% of respondents did not know whether their medical insurance included benefits for alcohol treatment. Logistic regression analysis revealed that younger and male respondents tended to have the highest AUDIT scores and also (along with married respondents) were most likely to underestimate their drinking. Younger, unmarried respondents were least likely to be aware of their alcohol treatment insurance benefits. Current corporate efforts to curtail problem drinking among employees may not adequately address barriers to change. Targeting at-risk employee groups for alcohol screening and dissemination of information about health insurance benefits and treatment options is recommended, as is providing personalized feedback based on screening results to raise awareness of at-risk drinking and available helping resources.

  8. Blood (Breath) Alcohol Concentration Rates of College Football Fans on Game Day

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glassman, Tavis; Braun, Robert; Reindl, Diana M.; Whewell, Aubrey

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the Blood (breath) Alcohol Concentration (BrAC) rates of college football fans on game day. Researchers employed a time-series study design, collecting data at home football games at a large university in the Midwest. Participants included 536 individuals (64.4% male) ages 18-83 (M = 28.44, SD = 12.32).…

  9. Evaluation of work-based screening for early signs of alcohol-related liver disease in hazardous and harmful drinkers: the PrevAIL study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cook, Penny A; Morleo, Michela; Billington, David; Sanderson-Shortt, Kevin; Jones, Colin; Gabbay, Mark; Sheron, Nick; Bellis, Mark A; Phillips-Howard, Penelope A; Gilmore, Ian T

    2015-06-04

    The direct cost of excessive alcohol consumption to health services is substantial but dwarfed by the cost borne by the workplace as a result of lost productivity. The workplace is also a promising setting for health interventions. The Preventing Alcohol Harm in Liverpool and Knowsley (PrevAIL) project aimed to evaluate a mechanism for detecting the prevalence of alcohol related liver disease using fibrosis biomarkers. Secondary aims were to identify the additive effect of obesity as a risk factor for early liver disease; to assess other impacts of alcohol on work, using a cross-sectional survey. Participants (aged 36-55 y) from 13 workplaces participated (March 2011-April 2012). BMI, waist circumference, blood pressure and self-reported alcohol consumption in the previous week was recorded. Those consuming more than the accepted UK threshold (men: >21 units; female: >14 units alcohol) provided a 20 ml venous blood sample for a biomarker test (Southampton Traffic Light Test) and completed an alcohol questionnaire (incorporating the Severity of Alcohol Dependence Questionnaire). The screening mechanism enrolled 363 individuals (52 % women), 39 % of whom drank above the threshold and participated in the liver screen (n = 141, complete data = 124 persons). Workplaces with successful participation were those where employers actively promoted, encouraged and facilitated attendance. Biomarkers detected that 30 % had liver disease (25 %, intermediate; 5 % probable). Liver disease was associated with the frequency of visits to the family physician (P = 0.036) and obesity (P = 0.052). The workplace is an important setting for addressing alcohol harm, but there are barriers to voluntary screening that need to be addressed. Early detection and support of cases in the community could avert deaths and save health and social costs. Alcohol and obesity should be addressed simultaneously, because of their known multiplicative effect on liver disease risk, and because employers

  10. Screening for alcohol use disorders and at-risk drinking in the general population: psychometric performance of three questionnaires.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rumpf, Hans-Jürgen; Hapke, Ulfert; Meyer, Christian; John, Ulrich

    2002-01-01

    Most screening questionnaires are developed in clinical settings and there are few data on their performance in the general population. This study provides data on the area under the receiver-operating characteristic (ROC) curve, sensitivity, specificity, and internal consistency of the Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test (AUDIT), the consumption questions of the AUDIT (AUDIT-C) and the Lübeck Alcohol Dependence and Abuse Screening Test (LAST) among current drinkers (n = 3551) of a general population sample in northern Germany. Alcohol dependence and misuse according to DSM-IV and at-risk drinking served as gold standards to assess sensitivity and specificity and were assessed with the Munich-Composite Diagnostic Interview (M-CIDI). AUDIT and LAST showed insufficient sensitivity for at-risk drinking and alcohol misuse using standard cut-off scores, but satisfactory detection rates for alcohol dependence. The AUDIT-C showed low specificity in all criterion groups with standard cut-off. Adjusted cut-points are recommended. Among a subsample of individuals with previous general hospital admission in the last year, all questionnaires showed higher internal consistency suggesting lower reliability in non-clinical samples. In logistic regression analyses, having had a hospital admission increased the sensitivity in detecting any criterion group of the LAST, and the number of recent general practice visits increased the sensitivity of the AUDIT in detecting alcohol misuse. Women showed lower scores and larger areas under the ROC curves. It is concluded that setting specific instruments (e.g. primary care or general population) or adjusted cut-offs should be used.

  11. Alcohol misuse in the general hospital: some hard facts.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Bradshaw, P

    2012-02-03

    AIMS: To examine (1) the prevalence of alcohol use disorders in adult general hospital inpatients; (2) the accuracy of documentation in relation to alcohol use. METHODS: A total of 210 random patients were interviewed out of 1,448 consecutive new admissions to CUH over 7 days. Case notes were reviewed for 206 (98%). Alcohol consumption was assessed using the Fast Alcohol Screening Test (FAST) and weekly drinking diary. FAST-positive (and a random sample of FAST-negative) patients then had a standardized interview. RESULTS: A total of 82% admitted for drinking alcohol. Among them 22% were drinking in excess of guidelines, 9% had DSM-IV Alcohol Abuse and 7% dependence. The sensitivity and specificity of the FAST for detecting those drinking above guidelines were 89 and 94% and for detecting a DSM-IV diagnosis was 100 and 73%. The majority of case notes contained inadequate information about alcohol intake. CONCLUSION: Alcohol use disorders are common and often undetected in the general hospital setting.

  12. Problem alcohol use among problem drug users in primary care: a qualitative study of what patients think about screening and treatment.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Field, Catherine Anne

    2013-01-01

    Problem alcohol use is common and associated with considerable adverse outcomes among patients who attend primary care in Ireland and other European countries for opiate substitution treatment. This paper aims to describe patients\\' experience of, and attitude towards, screening and therapeutic interventions for problem alcohol use in primary care.

  13. Television viewing and alcohol advertising with alcohol expectancies among school-aged children in Taiwan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Ying-Ying; Chiu, Yu-Chan; Ting, Te-Tien; Liao, Hsin-Yao; Chen, Wei J; Chen, Chuan-Yu

    2016-05-01

    This study is aimed to examine the strength of association between television watching and potential exposure to alcohol advertising with multidimensional alcohol expectancies in school-aged children. A total of 779 4th (age 10) and 768 6th (age 12) grade students were recruited from 17 public elementary schools in northern Taiwan in 2006, with two waves of follow-up at 6 months apart. Self-administered questionnaires were used to collect information concerning individual characteristics, parental attributes, past-week screen time, drinking behaviors, and alcohol expectancies. Data of aired alcohol advertisements at baseline were obtained from the Nielsen Media Research Advertising Information Services; parenting styles were ascertained from the 1st follow-up. Alcohol Expectancies Questionnaire-Children version was used to measure alcohol expectancies (AEs) at baseline and the 2nd follow-up. Nearly 27% of students reported watching television for more than two hours per day and 58% watching television after 9 p.m. Dimension-related heterogeneity exists in the relationship between TV viewing and alcohol advertising with AEs. With statistical adjustment for covariates, spending more than two hours watching TV per day was associated with increased levels of positive AEs "Promoting Relaxation or Tension Reduction [PRTR]" (β=1.52, 95% CI=0.92, 2.12; padvertising was associated with decline in negative AEs "Deteriorated Cognitive and Behavioral Function" (e.g., >8.0 ads: β=-1.06, 95% CI=-1.66, -0.47, padvertising exposure is linked with lowered negative expectancies in late childhood. School-based anti-underage drinking programs may consider integrating the media literacy curriculum. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Age-Specific Associations Between Violence Exposure and Past 30-Day Marijuana and Alcohol Use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldstick, Jason E; Heinze, Justin E; Stoddard, Sarah A; Cunningham, Rebecca M; Zimmerman, Marc A

    2018-04-23

    Using data from a cohort study of students at risk for high school dropout, we examined associations between violence exposure and past 30-day alcohol and marijuana use. We used varying-coefficient regression with person-level fixed effects to estimate how those associations changed within-person across ages approximately 14-23. Generally, violence perpetration was most strongly associated with substance use, within-person. Substance use became increasingly associated with both observed violence and violence perpetration during early/middle adolescence; this increase continued longer into development (age 18+) for alcohol use. Across most of the age range studied here, violence victimization was minimally associated with within-person changes in substance use. Results indicate age-specific associations between violence exposure and alcohol and other drug use, which may be useful for informing prevention strategies. © 2018 Society for Research on Adolescence.

  15. Alcohol use and alcohol use disorder among male outpatients in a primary care setting in rural Puducherry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akkilagunta Sujiv

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Context: Alcohol use contributes to considerable morbidity and mortality worldwide. Screening for alcohol use and alcohol use disorder (AUD at the primary care level can help in reducing this burden. While several community studies have been conducted to estimate the AUD, there apparently are no studies on opportunistic screening in a primary care setting in India. Aims: The aim was to estimate the prevalence of alcohol use and AUD in a primary care setting. Settings and Design: A hospital-based cross-sectional study was conducted among adult male outpatients in a primary care setting in Puducherry, South India. Subjects and Methods: Male outpatients aged 18 and above were interviewed for alcohol use. Current alcohol users were screened for AUD using World Health Organization - AUD identification test (AUDIT questionnaire, respectively. Statistical Analysis Used: Proportions were used to describe the study population and the main study findings. The Chi-square test was used to find out the association between sociodemographic factors and alcohol use. Results: Of 256 subjects studied, 39.8% were found to be current alcohol users and 10.9% had AUD (AUDIT score ≥8. The sociodemographic factors did not show any association with an alcohol use in the current setting. Conclusion: Based on the findings of the present study, four current alcohol users are to be screened to identify one patient with AUD. Screening at the primary health care level can help in identifying the risk group and thus help in reducing the morbidity and mortality due to alcohol use in the population.

  16. Prevalence of alcohol problems in general practice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rambaldi, A; Todisco, N; Gluud, C

    1996-01-01

    The Michigan Alcoholism Screening Test (MAST) and the response to a question about heavy alcohol consumption were used to assess the prevalence of alcohol problems in consecutive patients (77 males and 46 females) consulting a general practitioner in an urban area in the South of Italy (Castellam...... as a screening question in order to detect alcohol problems and give advice regarding reduction of alcohol consumption....

  17. Screening and Brief Interventions for Hazardous and Harmful Alcohol Use among University Students in South Africa: Results from a Randomized Controlled Trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hendry van der Heever

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to assess the effectiveness of Screening and Brief Intervention (SBI for alcohol problems among university students in South Africa. The study design for this efficacy study is a randomized controlled trial with 6- and 12-month follow-ups to examine the effects of a brief alcohol intervention to reduce alcohol use by hazardous and harmful drinkers in a university setting. The unit of randomization is the individual university student identified as a hazardous or harmful drinker attending public recruitment venues in a university campus. University students were screened for alcohol problems, and those identified as hazardous or harmful drinkers were randomized into an experimental or control group. The experimental group received one brief counseling session on alcohol risk reduction, while the control group received a health education leaflet. Results indicate that of the 722 screened for alcohol and who agreed to participate in the trial 152 (21.1% tested positive for the Alcohol Use Disorder Identification Test (AUDIT (score 8 or more. Among the 147 (96.7% university students who also attended the 12-month follow-up session, the intervention effect on the AUDIT score was −1.5, which was statistically significant (P = 0.009. Further, the depression scores marginally significantly decreased over time across treatment groups, while other substance use (tobacco and cannabis use, self-rated health status and Posttraumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD scores did not change over time across treatment groups. The study provides evidence of effective brief intervention by assistant nurses with hazardous and harmful drinkers in a university setting in South Africa. The short duration of the brief intervention makes it a realistic candidate for use in a university setting.

  18. The 4P's Plus screen for substance use in pregnancy: clinical application and outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chasnoff, Ira J; McGourty, Richard F; Bailey, Gregory W; Hutchins, Ellen; Lightfoot, Saundra O; Pawson, Leslie Lynn; Fahey, Cynthia; May, Barbara; Brodie, Paula; McCulley, Larry; Campbell, Jan

    2005-06-01

    Determine the prevalence of substance use among pregnant women in five diverse communities utilizing the 4P's Plus screen for alcohol, tobacco, and other drug use. Pregnant women enrolled in prenatal care clinics in five communities were screened for substance use with the 4P's Plus. Those women with a positive screen underwent an assessment for substance use through a follow-up structured clinical interview conducted at the same prenatal visit. Among 7818 women in five communities, 2555 (32.7%) had a positive screen for substance use in pregnancy. Four of the communities conducted a follow-up assessment on all women with a positive screen (n = 1548). Among these women, 717 (15% of the total population) had continued use after learning of the pregnancy. Overall, 21% of the pregnant women used alcohol prior to recognition of the pregnancy, and 11% continued use after knowledge of the pregnancy. Among the 512 women who continued to use alcohol, 2% were drinking daily, 7% were drinking 3 to 6 days per week, 27% were drinking 1 to 2 days per week, and 63% were drinking less than 1 day per week. The rates of marijuana use and other illicit drug use among the women were 7 and 2%, respectively, prior to knowledge of pregnancy and dropped to 3 and 1% after learning of the pregnancy. The 4P's Plus identifies not only those pregnant women whose drinking or drug use is at a high enough level to impair daily functioning, but provides an opportunity for early intervention for the much larger group of women whose pregnancies are at risk from relatively small amounts of substance use.

  19. Exploring healthcare professionals experience and attitudes towards screening for and treatment of problem alcohol use among drug users attending primary care

    OpenAIRE

    Field, Catherine Anne; Klimas, Jan; Barry, Joe; Bury, Gerard; Keenan, Eamon; Lyons, Suzi; Smyth, Bobby P.; Cullen, Walter

    2011-01-01

    Problem alcohol use (PAU) is common among drug users (DUs) prevalence rates vary from 13-76%, in a recent Irish study of patients on methadone 35% had an AUDIT score indicating PAU. PAU is associated with adverse health outcomes including physical, psychological and social implications. Despite the crucial role of primary care in screening and treatment for problematic alcohol use and the importance of a stepped approach to alcohol treatment, supported by the evidence, little data reporting i...

  20. Performance of the AUDIT in Detecting DSM-5 Alcohol Use Disorders in College Students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hagman, Brett T

    2016-09-18

    It is critical that our alcohol screening instruments maintain their accuracy at detecting DSM-5 Alcohol Use Disorder (AUD) symptomatology. The Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test (AUDIT) is one of the most widely used alcohol screening instruments, despite no studies evaluating its performance for detecting DSM-5 AUDs. The present study evaluated the performance of the AUDIT in the screening of DSM-5 AUDs in non-treatment seeking college students. Participants (N = 251) were undergraduate students who had at least one binge drinking occasion in the past 90-days. The AUROC value for DSM-5 AUD status in the overall sample was.779 (SE =.029; 95% CIs =.721 to.837). The AUROC values for the reference groups of any DSM-IV AUD and any binge drinker were.798 (SE =.028; 95% CIs =.742 to.853) and.827 (SE =.03; 95% CIs.768 -.886), respectively. A similar pattern of findings emerged between males and females. Gender differences emerged in the identification of AUDIT cut-off scores. A score of ≥ 8 and ≥ 9 had the best balance of sensitivity and specificity for females and males in college, respectively. Findings indicate that the AUDIT has a reasonable degree of diagnostic proficiency in screening for DSM-5 AUDs in college students.

  1. 49 CFR 40.211 - Who conducts DOT alcohol tests?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ...) Screening test technicians (STTs) and breath alcohol technicians (BATs) meeting their respective... conduct only alcohol screening tests, but a BAT can conduct alcohol screening and confirmation tests. (c) As a BAT- or STT-qualified immediate supervisor of a particular employee, you may not act as the STT...

  2. Receptivity to and Recall of Alcohol Brand Appearances in U.S. Popular Music and Alcohol-Related Behaviors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Primack, Brian A.; McClure, Auden; Li, Zhigang; Sargent, James D.

    2014-01-01

    Background The average U.S. adolescent is exposed to about 2.5 hours of popular music per day and 8 mentions of alcohol brands every day. Alcohol brand mentions may function as advertising whether or not they are sanctioned by the alcohol industry. Our study aimed to determine associations between adolescents' involvement with music containing alcohol brand mentions and alcohol-related behaviors. Methods In 2010–2011 we conducted a random-digit-dial survey using national U.S. land line and cell phone frames. Through screening interviews, we identified 6,466 eligible households with subjects between 15 to 23 years of age, of whom 3422 (52%) completed the telephone survey. Of these, 2541 opted to participate in a subsequent Web-based component. Independent variables included a composite score indicating owning and liking popular songs with alcohol brand mentions and correct recall of alcohol brands in songs. Outcome measures included ever having consumed a complete drink, ever bingeing, bingeing at least monthly, and having experienced problems from alcohol use. Results Among the 2541 participants, compared with those in the lowest tertile on the receptivity scale, those in the highest tertile had higher odds of having had a complete drink (OR=3.4; 95% CI=2.2, 5.2) after adjusting for age, sex, race/ethnicity, socioeconomic status, sensation seeking, friend alcohol use, and parent alcohol use. Compared with those who did not identify at least one alcohol brand correctly, those who did had over twice the odds of having had a complete drink (OR=2.1; 95% CI=1.2, 3.8) after adjusting for all covariates. Results were also significant for the outcome of ever bingeing but not for bingeing at least monthly or having had problems due to drinking. Conclusions In a national sample of U.S. adolescents and young adults, there were independent associations between involvement with popular music containing alcohol brand mentions and both having ever had a complete drink and

  3. Screening Drug, Alcohol and Substance Abuse the Psychometric Measures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Othman Mohamad Hashim

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Urinalysis was used in previous studies among higher institution students (n=16252 in Malaysia to answer the question of whether university students are involved in drug abuse. However, the use of urinalysis had faced some problems. The problems were related to human rights issues and the cost to perform the urinalysis was expensive and quite impossible to be implemented to a large population of university students. To overcome this problem, this study was conducted to examine the effectiveness of psychometric measures in screening drug, alcohol and substance abuse. The Substance Abuse Subtle Screening Inventory A2 (SASSI-A2 was used for this purpose. SASSI-A2 is a brief screening tool designed to identify individuals who have a high probability of having a substance use disorder, including both substance abuse and substance dependence. SASSI-A2 comprises of 72 items that are rated on a two point scale with response; true and false. SASSI-A2 was translated into Malay language and it was refined through a back-translation technique and focus group approach. Psychometric testing was undertaken on a sample of 750 university students from five public universities in Malaysia. All participants were aged between 19 and 20 years. Internal consistency coefficients were calculated for the total scale and its subscales. Chronbach's alpha obtained for SASSI-A2 was 0.72. This relatively high level of Chronbach's alpha showed relatively high level of reliability. The results demonstrated that the whole SASSI-A2 meets the fundamental measurement properties and can discriminate groups of higher institution students from high to low on the substance dependency variable. The accuracy of the test has been found to be unaffected by gender, ethnicity, age and years of education. Although more rigorous validation studies are needed, it is recommended that SASSI-A2 be considered for usage to higher institution students populations when a brief, objective, and

  4. Identifying parents with risky alcohol consumption habits in a paediatric unit - are screening and brief intervention appropriate methods?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjerregaard, Lene B L; Gerke, Oke; Rubak, Sune Leisgaard Mørck

    2011-01-01

    child using motivational interviewing (MI) and screening for risky alcohol behaviour by Cut down, Annoyance from others, feel Guilty, Early-morning Craving (CAGE)-C. Data were analysed by descriptive statistics, and relationships were tested with a statistical significance level of 0.05, using SPSS...

  5. Alcohol Advertising on Social Media: Examining the Content of Popular Alcohol Brands on Instagram.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barry, Adam E; Padon, Alisa A; Whiteman, Shawn D; Hicks, Kristen K; Carreon, Amie K; Crowell, Jarrett R; Willingham, Kristen L; Merianos, Ashley L

    2018-06-11

    There is considerable evidence that exposure to alcohol marketing increases the likelihood of adolescents initiating and engaging in alcohol consumption. There is a paucity of research, however, specifically examining industry generated alcohol marketing occurring on social media/networking platforms. The purpose of this investigation was to analyze the content of promotional advertisements by alcohol brands on Instagram. For a 30-day period, Instagram profiles of 15 distinct alcohol brands were examined. Pictorial posts/updates from each profile were screen captured and individually documented. Approximately 184 distinct posts constituted our final sample. The Content Appealing to Youth Index was independently employed by two raters to assess each post. For each characteristic, Cohen's Kappa measures, and associated 95% confidence intervals, were calculated. Descriptive statistics were performed. Posts increased throughout the week and peaked on Thursday and Friday. The production value of the posts examined was generally high, frequently featuring color, texture, shine, contrast, faces, and action. Character appeals and use of youth-oriented genres were uncommon. Many of the posts used product appeals and physical benefits to consumption. The posts also emphasized the following rewarding appeal characteristics: positive emotional experiences, achievement, individuality, and camaraderie. The most commonly coded risk-related feature was inappropriate use. Conclusions/Importance: This investigation represents an initial attempt to provide insights into the content alcohol brands are including in their promotional materials on social networking sites.

  6. Effects of consuming alcohol mixed with energy drinks versus consuming alcohol only on overall alcohol consumption and negative alcohol-related consequences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    de Haan L

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Lydia de Haan,1 Hein A de Haan,2,3 Job van der Palen,4,5 Berend Olivier,1 Joris C Verster11Utrecht University, Utrecht Institute for Pharmaceutical Sciences, Division of Pharmacology, Utrecht, 2Tactus Addiction Treatment, Deventer, 3Nijmegen Institute for Scientist-Practitioners in Addiction, Nijmegen, 4Medical School Twente, Medisch Spectrum Twente, Enschede, 5Department of Research Methodology, Measurement, and Data Analysis, University of Twente, Enschede, The NetherlandsBackground: The aim of this study was to examine differences in alcohol consumption and its consequences when consumed alone and when mixed with energy drinks.Methods: A survey was conducted among Dutch students at Utrecht University and the College of Utrecht. We collected data on alcohol consumption and alcohol-related consequences of alcohol consumed alone and/or alcohol mixed with energy drinks (AMED. The data were analyzed using a retrospective within-subject design, comparing occasions when subjects consumed AMED with those when they consumed alcohol only in the past 30 days.Results: A representative sample of 6002 students completed the survey, including 1239 who consumed AMED. Compared with consuming alcohol only, when consuming AMED, students consumed significantly fewer alcoholic drinks on an average drinking day (6.0 versus 5.4, respectively, and reported significantly fewer drinking days in the previous month (9.2 versus 1.4, significantly fewer days being drunk (1.9 versus 0.5, and significantly fewer occasions of consuming more than four (female/five (male alcoholic drinks (4.7 versus 0.9. The maximum number of mixed alcoholic drinks (4.5 in the previous month was significantly lower when compared with occasions when they consumed alcohol only (10.7. Accordingly, the mean duration of a drinking session was significantly shorter when mixing alcoholic drinks (4.0 versus 6.0 hours. Finally, when consuming AMED, significantly fewer alcohol-related consequences were

  7. Experiences with SCRAMx alcohol monitoring technology in 100 alcohol treatment outpatients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alessi, Sheila M; Barnett, Nancy P; Petry, Nancy M

    2017-09-01

    Transdermal alcohol monitoring technology allows for new research on alcohol use disorders. This study assessed feasibility, acceptability, and adherence with this technology in the context of two clinical research trials. Participants were the first 100 community-based alcohol treatment outpatients enrolled in randomized studies that monitored drinking with the secure continuous remote alcohol monitor (SCRAMx ® ) for 12 weeks. Study 1 participants were randomized to usual care (n=36) or usual care with contingency management incentives for treatment attendance (CM-Att; n=30). Study 2 participants were randomized to usual care (n=17) or usual care with CM for each day of no drinking per SCRAMx (CM-Abst; n=17). After 12 weeks, participants completed a survey about the bracelet. Nine percent of individuals screened (54 of 595) declined participation because of the bracelet. Of participants, 84% provided 12weeks of data, and 96% of bracelets were returned fully intact. Ninety-four equipment tampers occurred, affecting 2% of monitoring days; 56% (67) of tampers coincided with detected drinking. Common concerns reported by participants were skin marks (58%), irritation (54%), and interfered with clothing choices (51%), but severity ratings were generally mild (60%-94%). Eighty-one percent of participants reported that the bracelet helped them reduce drinking, and 75% indicated that they would wear it for longer. A common suggestion for improvement was to reduce the size of the bracelet. Results support the viability of transdermal monitoring in voluntary substance abuse treatment participants for an extended duration. Issues to consider for future applications of this technology are discussed. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Using In Vitro Electrophysiology to Screen Medications: Accumbal Plasticity as an Engram of Alcohol Dependence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Renteria, R; Jeanes, Z M; Mangieri, R A; Maier, E Y; Kircher, D M; Buske, T R; Morrisett, R A

    2016-01-01

    The nucleus accumbens (NAc) is a central component of the mesocorticolimbic reward system. Increasing evidence strongly implicates long-term synaptic neuroadaptations in glutamatergic excitatory activity of the NAc shell and/or core medium spiny neurons in response to chronic drug and alcohol exposure. Such neuroadaptations likely play a critical role in the development and expression of drug-seeking behaviors. We have observed unique cell-type-specific bidirectional changes in NAc synaptic plasticity (metaplasticity) following acute and chronic intermittent ethanol exposure. Other investigators have also previously observed similar metaplasticity in the NAc following exposure to psychostimulants, opiates, and amazingly, even following an anhedonia-inducing experience. Considering that the proteome of the postsynaptic density likely contains hundreds of biochemicals, proteins and other components and regulators, we believe that there is a large number of potential molecular sites through which accumbal metaplasticity may be involved in chronic alcohol abuse. Many of our companion laboratories are now engaged in identifying and screening medications targeting candidate genes and its products previously linked to maladaptive alcohol phenotypes. We hypothesize that if manipulation of such target genes and their products change NAc plasticity, then that observation constitutes an important validation step for the development of novel therapeutics to treat alcohol dependence. © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Varenicline Reduces Alcohol Intake During Repeated Cycles of Alcohol Reaccess Following Deprivation in Alcohol-Preferring (P) Rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Froehlich, Janice C; Nicholson, Emily R; Dilley, Julian E; Filosa, Nick J; Rademacher, Logan C; Smith, Teal N

    2017-08-01

    Most alcoholics experience periods of voluntary alcohol abstinence or imposed alcohol deprivation followed by a return to alcohol drinking. This study examined whether varenicline (VAR) reduces alcohol intake during a return to drinking after periods of alcohol deprivation in rats selectively bred for high alcohol drinking (the alcohol preferring or "P" rats). Alcohol-experienced P rats were given 24-hour access to food and water and scheduled access to alcohol (15% and 30% v/v) for 2 h/d. After 4 weeks, rats were deprived of alcohol for 2 weeks, followed by reaccess to alcohol for 2 weeks, and this pattern was repeated for a total of 3 cycles. Rats were fed either vehicle (VEH) or VAR, in doses of 0.5, 1.0, or 2.0 mg/kg BW, at 1 hour prior to onset of the daily alcohol reaccess period for the first 5 days of each of the 3 alcohol reaccess cycles. Low-dose VAR (0.5 mg/kg BW) reduced alcohol intake during the 5 days of drug treatment in alcohol reaccess cycles 1 and 2. Higher doses of VAR (1.0 mg/kg BW and 2.0 mg/kg BW) reduced alcohol intake during the 5 days of treatment in all 3 alcohol reaccess cycles. The decrease in alcohol intake disappeared with termination of VAR treatment in all alcohol reaccess cycles. The results demonstrate that VAR decreases alcohol intake during multiple cycles of alcohol reaccess following alcohol deprivation in rats and suggests that it may prevent a return to heavy alcohol drinking during a lapse from alcohol abstinence in humans with alcohol use disorder. Copyright © 2017 by the Research Society on Alcoholism.

  10. Alcohol use and positive screening results for depression and anxiety are highly prevalent among Chinese children with strabismus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Shibin; Congdon, Nathan; Yam, Jason C S; Huang, Yuqiang; Qiu, Kunliang; Ma, Di; Chen, Bin; Li, Liping; Zhang, Mingzhi

    2014-04-01

    To study associations between strabismus and alcohol use, anxiety, and depression among 10- to 17-year-old children in Guangdong, southern China. Cross-sectional, population-based study. Among 7537 children aged 6-17 years from 9 randomly selected primary and middle schools, ocular alignment was assessed with the Hirschberg light reflex, cover-uncover testing, and alternate cover testing at distance (6 m) and near (40 cm). Additionally, 4000 children (53.1%) aged 10+ years received self-administered questionnaires containing screening questions on alcohol use, anxiety, and depression. Examinations were completed on 7464 of 7537 subjects (99.0%), including 3928 boys (52.6%), with a mean age of 11.1 ± 1.8 years. The prevalence of any strabismus, including exotropia (2.7%), esotropia (0.2%), and intermittent exotropia (3.9%), was 6.8%. Strabismus was more prevalent in urban students (7.3%) and female subjects (7.4%) compared to rural students (6.0%) and male subjects (6.2%) (all P children (97.6%) answering questionnaires, history of alcohol use (62.3% vs 36.3%) and positive screening responses for depression (26.0% vs 11.6%) and anxiety (10.3% vs 4.9%) were significantly (P children with strabismus. These Chinese children with strabismus had a significantly higher prevalence of alcohol use and possible markers of emotional problems than children without strabismus. Further research should focus on the appropriateness of classifying surgical treatment for strabismus as "cosmetic" (ineligible for reimbursement) under China's rural health insurance. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. First day of life pulse oximetry screening to detect congenital heart defects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meberg, Alf; Brügmann-Pieper, Sabine; Due, Reidar; Eskedal, Leif; Fagerli, Ingebjørg; Farstad, Teresa; Frøisland, Dag Helge; Sannes, Catharina Hovland; Johansen, Ole Jakob; Keljalic, Jasmina; Markestad, Trond; Nygaard, Egil Andre; Røsvik, Alet; Silberg, Inger Elisabeth

    2008-06-01

    To evaluate the efficacy of first day of life pulse oximetry screening to detect congenital heart defects (CHDs). We performed a population-based prospective multicenter study of postductal (foot) arterial oxygen saturation (SpO(2)) in apparently healthy newborns after transfer from the delivery suite to the nursery. SpO(2) < 95% led to further diagnostic evaluations. Of 57,959 live births, 50,008 (86%) were screened. In the screened population, 35 CHDs were [corrected] classified as critical (ductus dependent, cyanotic). CHDs were prospectively registered and diagnosed in 658/57,959 (1.1%) [corrected] Of the infants screened, 324 (0.6%) failed the test. Of these, 43 (13%) had CHDs (27 critical), and 134 (41%) had pulmonary diseases or other disorders. The remaining 147 infants (45%) were healthy with transitional circulation. The median age for babies with CHDs at failing the test was 6 hours (range, 1-21 hours). For identifying critical CHDs, the pulse oximetry screening had a sensitivity rate of 77.1% (95% CI, 59.4-89.0), specificity rate of 99.4% (95% CI, 99.3-99.5), and a false-positive rate of 0.6% (95% CI, 0.5-0.7). Early pulse oximetry screening promotes early detection of critical CHDs and other potentially severe diseases. The sensitivity rate for detecting critical CHDs is high, and the false-positive rate is low.

  12. 'Making the invisible visible' through alcohol screening and brief intervention in community pharmacies: an Australian feasibility study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hattingh, H Laetitia; Hallett, Jonathan; Tait, Robert J

    2016-11-08

    Screening and brief interventions (SBI) for alcohol related problems have been shown to be effective in health settings such as general practice or emergency departments. Recent data from the United Kingdom and New Zealand suggest that SBI can be delivered through community pharmacies, but this approach has not been tested in Australia. This study assesses the feasibility of delivering alcohol SBI via community pharmacists. We recruited five pharmacies and developed an SBI training package to be delivered by pharmacy staff, who screened consumers and delivered the brief intervention where appropriate. Consumers also completed a questionnaire on the process. At three months consumers were telephoned to enable 'retention' to be quantified. After completing recruitment, a semi-structured interview was conducted with pharmacists on the process of delivering the intervention, potential improvements and sustainability. Fifty consumer participants were screened, ten from each pharmacy. There were 28 (57 %) men and 21 (43 %) women with one not responding. Most (67 %) were aged 25-55 years. Their AUDIT scores had a range of 0 to 39 (mean 10.9, SD 9.8) with 11 categorised as 'hazardous (8-15)', four as 'harmful (16-19)' and eight as 'probably dependent (20+)' consumers of alcohol. Reactions to the process of SBI were generally favourable: for example 75 % agreed that it was either appropriate or very appropriate being asked about their alcohol consumption. With respect to follow-up interviews, 23 (46 %) agreed that they could be contacted, including five from the highest AUDIT category. Subsequently 11 (48 %) were contactable at three months. Three of the five non-low risk drinkers had reduced their level of risk over the three months. Ten pharmacists participated in semi-structured telephone interviews. Overall these pharmacists were positive about the intervention and five main themes emerged from the interviews: 1) flexibility applied in recruitment of participants

  13. The impact of alcohol-related presentations on a New Zealand hospital emergency department.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stewart, Rebecca; Das, Manidipa; Ardagh, Michael; Deely, Joanne M; Dodd, Stuart; Bartholomew, Nadia; Pearson, Scott; Spearing, Ruth; Williams, Tracey; Than, Martin

    2014-08-29

    To determine the impact of alcohol-related presentations on the Christchurch Hospital Emergency Department (ED). Over 42 8-hour shifts (2 weeks) between 15 November 2013 and 9 December 2013, patients attending the ED with recent alcohol consumption were classified as screen-positive (consumed alcohol in the 4 hours prior to presentation) or not. A subset of screen-positive patients was classified as impact-positive (alcohol consumption clearly contributed to the reason for presenting). Data were analysed in relation to days/shifts for gender, age, disruptive behaviour, medical reasons for presenting, and completeness of ED records. Of the 3619 patients screened in the study, 268 (7.4%) and 182 (5%) were screen-positive and impact-positive, respectively. Most patients attended the ED on the weekends (58%: 105/182), particularly on Saturday night (31%; 56/182). More males (118) than females (64) were impact-positive. Of the impact-positive males, most were 16-25 years old (37%; 44/118) or 41-61 years old (32%; 38/118), attended the ED on weekend night shifts (24%; 28/118), and sought treatment for non- interpersonal trauma (38%; 45/118) or interpersonal trauma due to violence (17%; 20/118). Of the female impact-positive patients, most were 16-25 years old (41%; 26/64) or 41-60 years old (33%; 21/64), and presented for deliberate self-harm (36%; 23/64) or non-interpersonal trauma (27%; 17/64). Of the 182 impact-positive patients, 86% (156) were recorded in the ED computer system. Alcohol-related presentations had a significant impact on the ED, particularly on weekends. Teenagers, young adults and middle-aged adults contributed to the alcohol-related patient impact on weekends. Male patients were a significant burden on Saturday evening and night shifts.

  14. Changes in Patient-Reported Alcohol-Related Advice Following Veterans Health Administration Implementation of Brief Alcohol Interventions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chavez, Laura J; Williams, Emily C; Lapham, Gwen T; Rubinsky, Anna D; Kivlahan, Daniel R; Bradley, Katharine A

    2016-05-01

    Brief alcohol interventions are recommended for primary care patients who screen positive for alcohol misuse, but implementation is challenging. The U.S. Veterans Health Administration (Veterans Affairs [VA]) implemented brief interventions for patients with alcohol misuse in 2008, and rates of brief interventions documented in the electronic medical record increased from 24% to 78% (2008-2011). This study examined whether an independent measure of brief interventions-patient-reported alcohol-related advice-also increased among VA outpatients who screened positive for alcohol misuse on a mailed survey. This retrospective cross-sectional study included VA outpatient respondents to the VA's Survey of Healthcare Experiences of Patients (SHEP; 2007-2011) who reported past-year alcohol use and answered a question about alcohol-related advice. Alcohol-related advice was defined as a report of past-year advice from a VA clinician to abstain from or reduce drinking. The adjusted prevalence of alcoholrelated advice among patients who screened positive for alcohol misuse (SHEP AUDIT-C ≥ 5) was estimated for each year. Among patients with alcohol misuse (n = 61,843), the adjusted prevalence of alcohol-related advice increased from 40.4% (95% CI [39.3%, 41.5%]) in 2007 to 55.5% (95% CI [53.3%, 57.8%]) in 2011. Rates of alcoholrelated advice increased significantly each year except the last. The VA's efforts to implement brief interventions were associated with increased patient-reported alcohol-related advice over time, with a majority of patients with alcohol misuse reporting its receipt. Other systems considering similar approaches to implementation may benefit from collecting patient-reported measures of brief interventions for an additional perspective on implementation.

  15. Stroke prevention--a population screening day in district XII of Budapest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Folyovich, András; Bakos, Mária; Kántor, Zita; Hertelendy, Anna; Horváth, Eszter; Zsiga, Katalin; Lakatos, Henriette; Vadasdi, Károly

    2012-03-30

    Along with advances in the treatment of acute stroke, new efforts have been made to enhance efficiency of the prevention of cerebrovascular diseases. Population screening is a way to contact high-risk patients, and there is an increasing international and national experience with the procedure. However, efforts are associated with high costs, so an efficient method, complying with local features, should be selected from the various methods. A stroke prevention day was organized in Szent János Hospital, localized in district XII, and data were analyzed. Taking advantage of the potentials of a large hospital, a comprehensive risk assessment - within the capacity of health care workers - was performed. Program and contact information of the screening day was published in the local newspaper of the district. Data of 48 residents of the district were analyzed. In addition to neurologists, a radiologist, a cardiologist and an ophtalmologist, as well as health care workers were involved in the project. A data sheet was filled in for all participants, including known risk factors, BMI, blood pressure and serum cholesterol levels. All participants had duplex sonography of the cervical vessels, cardiac evaluation and ophtalmic examination. Data were analyzed anonymously, and - if participants approved - postcode and educational level were also recorded. Among the 48 individuals screened, 35 were female and 13 were male. Average age was 62.86 (+/- 8.57) years, and participants were typically of higher educational level. 5 individuals had no known risk factors, most of them had 2-3 risk factors, and multiple risk factors were not uncommon. Individuals with six and seven risk factors were also found. 20 of 27 patients with known hypertension had target blood pressure levels. By duplex sonography, 36 individuals had mild, 4 had significant atherosclerosis. There was no significant carotid stenosis or occlusion. Based on ophtalmic evaluation, 26 patients had signs of vascular

  16. Alcohol-tolerant mutants of cyanobacterium Synechococcus elongatus PCC 7942 obtained by single-cell mutant screening system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arai, Sayuri; Hayashihara, Kayoko; Kanamoto, Yuki; Shimizu, Kazunori; Hirokawa, Yasutaka; Hanai, Taizo; Murakami, Akio; Honda, Hiroyuki

    2017-08-01

    Enhancement of alcohol tolerance in microorganisms is an important strategy for improving bioalcohol productivity. Although cyanobacteria can be used as a promising biocatalyst to produce various alcohols directly from CO 2 , low productivity, and low tolerance against alcohols are the main issues to be resolved. Nevertheless, to date, a mutant with increasing alcohol tolerance has rarely been reported. In this study, we attempted to select isopropanol (IPA)-tolerant mutants of Synechococcus elongatus PCC 7942 using UV-C-induced random mutagenesis, followed by enrichment of the tolerant candidates in medium containing 10 g/L IPA and screening of the cells with a high growth rate in the single cell culture system in liquid medium containing 10 g/L IPA. We successfully acquired the most tolerant strain, SY1043, which maintains the ability to grow in medium containing 30 g/L IPA. The photosynthetic oxygen-evolving activities of SY1043 were almost same in cells after 72 h incubation under light with or without 10 g/L IPA, while the activity of the wild-type was remarkably decreased after the incubation with IPA. SY1043 also showed higher tolerance to ethanol, 1-butanol, isobutanol, and 1-pentanol than the wild type. These results suggest that SY1043 would be a promising candidate to improve alcohol production using cyanobacteria. Biotechnol. Bioeng. 2017;114: 1771-1778. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  17. Contingency management for alcohol use reduction: a pilot study using a transdermal alcohol sensor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnett, Nancy P; Tidey, Jennifer; Murphy, James G; Swift, Robert; Colby, Suzanne M

    2011-11-01

    Contingency management (CM) has not been thoroughly evaluated as a treatment for alcohol abuse or dependence, in part because verification of alcohol use reduction requires frequent in-person breath tests. Transdermal alcohol sensors detect alcohol regularly throughout the day, providing remote monitoring and allowing for rapid reinforcement of reductions in use. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of CM for reduction in alcohol use, using a transdermal alcohol sensor to provide a continuous measure of alcohol use. Participants were 13 heavy drinking adults who wore the Secure Continuous Remote Alcohol Monitoring (SCRAM) bracelet for three weeks and provided reports of alcohol and drug use using daily web-based surveys. In Week 1, participants were asked to drink as usual; in Weeks 2 and 3, they were reinforced on an escalating schedule with values ranging from $5 to $17 per day on days when alcohol use was not reported or detected by the SCRAM. Self-reports of percent days abstinent and drinks per week, and transdermal measures of average and peak transdermal alcohol concentration and area under the curve declined significantly in Weeks 2-3. A nonsignificant but large effect size for reduction in days of tobacco use also was found. An adjustment to the SCRAM criteria for detecting alcohol use provided an accurate but less conservative method for use with non-mandated clients. Results support the efficacy of CM for alcohol use reductions and the feasibility of using transdermal monitoring of alcohol use for clinical purposes. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Contingency Management for Alcohol Use Reduction: A Pilot Study using a Transdermal Alcohol Sensor*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnett, Nancy P.; Tidey, Jennifer; Murphy, James G.; Swift, Robert; Colby, Suzanne M.

    2011-01-01

    Background Contingency management (CM) has not been thoroughly evaluated as a treatment for alcohol abuse or dependence, in part because verification of alcohol use reduction requires frequent in-person breath tests. Transdermal alcohol sensors detect alcohol regularly throughout the day, providing remote monitoring and allowing for rapid reinforcement of reductions in use. Methods The purpose of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of CM for reduction in alcohol use, using a transdermal alcohol sensor to provide a continuous measure of alcohol use. Participants were 13 heavy drinking adults who wore the Secure Continuous Remote Alcohol Monitoring (SCRAM) bracelet for three weeks and provided reports of alcohol and drug use using daily web-based surveys. In Week 1, participants were asked to drink as usual; in Weeks 2 and 3, they were reinforced on an escalating schedule with values ranging from $5-$17 per day on days when alcohol use was not reported or detected by the SCRAM. Results Self-reports of percent days abstinent and drinks per week, and transdermal measures of average and peak transdermal alcohol concentration and area under the curve declined significantly in Weeks 2-3. A nonsignificant but large effect size for reduction in days of tobacco use also was found. An adjustment to the SCRAM criteria for detecting alcohol use provided an accurate but less conservative method for use with non-mandated clients. Conclusion Results support the efficacy of CM for alcohol use reductions and the feasibility of using transdermal monitoring of alcohol use for clinical purposes. PMID:21665385

  19. Alcohol Alert: Link Between Stress and Alcohol

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... patients to better address how stress affects their motivation to drink. Early screening also is vital. For ... C.; Hong, K.A.; et al Enhanced negative emotion and alcohol craving, and altered physiological responses following ...

  20. [Nationwide survey of alcohol drinking and alcoholism among Japanese adults].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osaki, Yoneatsu; Matsushita, Sachio; Shirasaka, Tomonobu; Hiro, Hisanori; Higuchi, Susumu

    2005-10-01

    To investigate the characteristics of alcohol use among Japanese adults and prevalence of alcohol dependence in Japan, we conducted a nationwide survey on alcohol drinking behavior and alcohol dependence among Japanese adults using a representative sampling method. We sampled 3500 adults from throughout the entire country using a stratified random sampling method with two-step stratification, and carried out a home visit interview survey. A total of 2547 people (72.8%) responded to the survey. The survey period was June, 2003. The questionnaire contained questions about the frequency and quantity of alcohol use, 'hazardous use of alcohol' and 'alcohol dependence' according to the ICD-10 definition, several screening scales on problem use of alcohol (CAGE, KAST, AUDIT), life-time prevalence of 24 alcohol related diseases, smoking status, dysgryphia, and nightcap drinking. The number of respondents was, 1184 males, and 1363 females. Lifetime alcohol drinking, and weekly drinking, and daily drinking rates were 95.1%, 64.4%, and 36.2% for males, 79.0%, 27.5%, and 7.5% for females, respectively. Average daily alcohol consumption was 3.7 units for males, and 2.0 units for females (1 unit = 10 g pure alcohol). The proportion of drinkers who drank alcohol 4 units or more daily was 28.9% for males, and 7.6% for females, and that for 6 units or more was 12.7% for males, and 3.4% for females. The proportion of flasher was 41.2% for males, and 35.0% for females. Among screening questions, problem drinking was most frequently identified using AUDIT (score 12 points or more, 150 persons), followed by KAST (2 points or more, 100 persons) and CAGE (2 points or more, 98 persons). The number of subjects who met the ICD-10 criteria for alcohol dependence was 24, while the number who engaged in hazardous alcohol use was 64. This study revealed that problem drinking and alcohol dependence are a serious problem in Japanese general population. The problem of females drinking may be

  1. Screening for use of alcohol, tobacco and cannabis in pregnancy using self-report tools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hotham, E; White, J; Ali, R; Robinson, J

    2012-08-01

    The World Health Organization has identified substance use in the top 20 risk factors for ill health. Risks in pregnancy are compounded, with risk to the woman's health, to pregnancy progression and on both the foetus and the newborn. Intrauterine exposure can result in negative influences on offspring development, sometimes into adulthood. With effectively two patients, there is a clear need for antenatal screening. Biomarker reliability is limited and research efforts have been directed to self-report tools, often attempting to address potential lack of veracity if women feel guilty about substance use and worried about possible stigmatization. Tools, which assume the behaviour, are likely to elicit more honest responses; querying pre-pregnancy use would likely have the same effect. Although veracity is heightened if substance use questions are embedded within health and social functioning questionnaires, such tools may be too lengthy clinically. It has been proposed that screening only for alcohol and tobacco, with focus on the month pre-pregnancy, could enable identification of all other substances. Alternatively, the Revised Fagerstrom Questionnaire could be used initially, tobacco being highly indicative of substance use generally. The ASSIST V.3.0 is readily administered and covers all substances, although the pregnancy 'risk level' cut-off for tobacco is not established. Alcohol tools - the 4Ps, TLFB and 'drug' CAGE (with E: query of use to avoid withdrawal) - have been studied with other substances and could be used. General psychosocial distress and mental ill-health often co-exist with substance use and identification of substance use needs to become legitimate practice for obstetric clinicians.

  2. Moderate Maternal Alcohol Exposure on Gestational Day 12 Impacts Anxiety-Like Behavior in Offspring

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Siara K. Rouzer

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Among the numerous consequences of prenatal alcohol exposure (PAE is an increase in anxiety-like behavior that can prove debilitating to daily functioning. A significant body of literature has linked gestational day 12 (G12 heavy ethanol exposure with social anxiety, evident in adolescent males and females. However, the association between non-social anxiety-like behavior and moderate alcohol exposure, a more common pattern of drinking in pregnant women, is yet unidentified. To model moderate PAE (mPAE, we exposed pregnant Sprague-Dawley rats to either room air or vaporized ethanol for 6 h on G12. Adolescent offspring were then tested on postnatal days (P 41–47 in one of the following four anxiety assays: novelty-induced hypophagia (NIH, elevated plus maze (EPM, light-dark box (LDB and open-field (OF. Our findings revealed significant increases in measures of anxiety-like behavior in male PAE offspring in the NIH, LDB and OF, with no differences observed in females on any test. Additionally, male offspring who demonstrated heightened anxiety-like behavior as adolescents demonstrated decreased anxiety-like behavior in adulthood, as measured by a marble-burying test (MBT, while females continued to be unaffected in adulthood. These results suggest that mPAE leads to dynamic changes in anxiety-like behavior exclusively in male offspring.

  3. Psychological distress among Plains Indian mothers with children referred to screening for Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Parker Tassy

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Psychological distress (PD includes symptoms of depression and anxiety and is associated with considerable emotional suffering, social dysfunction and, often, with problematic alcohol use. The rate of current PD among American Indian women is approximately 2.5 times higher than that of U.S. women in general. Our study aims to fill the current knowledge gap about the prevalence and characteristics of PD and its association with self-reported current drinking problems among American Indian mothers whose children were referred to screening for fetal alcohol spectrum disorders (FASD. Methods Secondary analysis of cross-sectional data was conducted from maternal interviews of referred American Indian mothers (n = 152 and a comparison group of mothers (n = 33 from the same Plains culture tribes who participated in an NIAAA-funded epidemiology study of FASD. Referred women were from one of six Plains Indian reservation communities and one urban area who bore children suspected of having an FASD. A 6-item PD scale (PD-6, Cronbach's alpha = .86 was constructed with a summed score range of 0-12 and a cut-point of 7 indicating serious PD. Multiple statistical tests were used to examine the characteristics of PD and its association with self-reported current drinking problems. Results Referred and comparison mothers had an average age of 31.3 years but differed (respectively on: education ( Conclusions Psychological distress among referred mothers is significantly associated with having a self-reported drinking problem. FASD prevention requires multi-level prevention efforts that provide real opportunities for educational attainment and screening and monitoring of PD and alcohol use during the childbearing years. Mixed methods studies are needed to illuminate the social and cultural determinants at the base of the experience of PD and to identify the strengths and protective factors of unaffected peers who reside within the same

  4. Can Alcohol Intake from Mouthwash be Measured in Epidemiological Studies? Development and Validation of Mouthwash Use Questionnaire with Particular Attention to Measuring Alcohol Intake from Mouthwash

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tanja Wirth

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: The purpose of this study was to develop and validate the mouthwash use questionnaire to determine the lifetime exposure to alcohol from mouthwash and verify that it was suitable for use in general population.Material and Methods: Data were available from three consecutive studies, all collecting information on mouthwash use. In addition, supermarkets and online stores were screened for the brands of mouthwash they sold. Alcohol content of mouthwash was identified from various sources, including laboratory measurements. Alcohol-containing mouthwash use was converted to glasses of wine equivalent.Results: Mouthwash was used by 62% of the participants, and the main benefits reported were refreshment of bad breath (75%, elimination of bacteria (68% and reduction of plaque formation (47%. Majority mouthwashes used by the participants contained alcohol (61%. Life-time exposure from alcohol in mouthwash was relatively small for most of the study participants: 79% had rinsed for less than one year with alcohol equivalent of one glass of wine per day. There was substantial agreement in mouthwash reporting between different occasions (Kappa > 0.62.Conclusions: The questionnaire can be used to investigate mouthwash use in the general population and to measure alcohol intake from mouthwash.

  5. Combining the audit questionnaire and biochemical markers to assess alcohol use and risk of alcohol withdrawal in medical inpatients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dolman, Jonathan M; Hawkes, Neil D

    2005-01-01

    Alcohol consumption is often under-reported in patients admitted to general hospitals with acute illness. For alcohol-dependent individuals hospital admission results in an enforced period of abstinence with potential alcohol withdrawal symptoms, and possible life threatening complications. Early detection of alcohol use is therefore beneficial to patients and health services. The purpose of this study was to investigate the performance of the alcohol use disorders identification test (AUDIT) questionnaire in the acute medical setting, and the effect of combining routine biological markers-glutamyltransferase, alanine aminotransferase, aspartate aminotransferase, and mean corpuscular volume (MCV) on its performance in the early identification of in-patients with alcohol use disorders and at risk of developing symptoms of alcohol withdrawal. Prospective study in consecutive patients admitted to an acute medical admissions ward. All patients were screened using the AUDIT questionnaire and routine blood tests. Patients were then monitored for symptoms of withdrawal using clinical institute withdrawal assessment for alcohol (CIWA-Ar). Of the 874 patients screened using the AUDIT, 98 (11%) screened positive of whom 17 (2% of the 874) experienced clinically significant alcohol withdrawal symptoms, when using serial CIWA-Ar. The AUDIT and serial CIWA-Ar detected all patients who went on to manifest acute withdrawal symptoms. There was no loss of sensitivity at an AUDIT cut-off of 13 or more compared with the lower cut-off of 8 or more. A positive predictive value of 17.3% for an AUDIT score of 8 or more in the detection of withdrawal, increased to 47.1% when found in combination with at least two abnormal biological markers whilst maintaining a sensitivity of 94.1% and specificity of 97.9%. These findings confirm that AUDIT is a useful alcohol screen in general medical settings and that its ability to correctly predict which patients will experience alcohol withdrawal is

  6. Alcohol, Sex, and Screens: Modeling Media Influence on Adolescent Alcohol and Sex Co-Occurrence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bleakley, Amy; Ellithorpe, Morgan E; Hennessy, Michael; Khurana, Atika; Jamieson, Patrick; Weitz, Ilana

    2017-10-01

    Alcohol use and sexual behavior are important risk behaviors in adolescent development, and combining the two is common. The reasoned action approach (RAA) is used to predict adolescents' intention to combine alcohol use and sexual behavior based on exposure to alcohol and sex combinations in popular entertainment media. We conducted a content analysis of mainstream (n = 29) and Black-oriented movies (n = 34) from 2014 and 2013-2014, respectively, and 56 television shows (2014-2015 season). Content analysis ratings featuring character portrayals of both alcohol and sex within the same five-minute segment were used to create exposure measures that were linked to online survey data collected from 1,990 adolescents ages 14 to 17 years old (50.3% Black, 49.7% White; 48.1% female). Structural equation modeling (SEM) and group analysis by race were used to test whether attitudes, norms, and perceived behavioral control mediated the effects of media exposure on intention to combine alcohol and sex. Results suggest that for both White and Black adolescents, exposure to media portrayals of alcohol and sex combinations is positively associated with adolescents' attitudes and norms. These relationships were stronger among White adolescents. Intention was predicted by attitude, norms, and control, but only the attitude-intention relationship was different by race group (stronger for Whites).

  7. Is alcohol more dangerous than heroin? The physical, social and financial costs of alcohol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Geraldine A; Forsythe, Marcus

    2011-07-01

    A recent paper claimed in its classification of harmful substances, that alcohol is more dangerous than heroin. This paper aims to weigh up some of the evidence in the literature on the physical, social and financial effects of alcohol and the associated disease burden. We will also explore alcohol within the context of emergency department (ED) presentations. Reasons for ED attendance can be overtly and directly alcohol related such as alcohol intoxication, assaults, injuries and falls and indirectly such as child neglect, psychological problems and chronic diseases. Alcohol is often viewed as an isolated incident or factor for ED presentations but there are data that refute this perception. In ED, the priority is to treat the patient and their primary complaint, however it may be appropriate to screen for alcohol use, give advice and potentially offer an intervention to the patient. With the recent UK and Australian guidelines on reducing health risks from drinking alcohol, the ED has the ability to play an active role in reducing the harmful effects of alcohol through screening, advising and undertaking intervention as appropriate. However this cannot be achieved in isolation but within the broader political and health policy framework. There is now a growing body of literature supporting the need to make alcohol less affordable, less easy to buy and reducing alcohol advertising. Although alcohol is a legal substance, this paper concludes that examining the wider effects in physical, social and financial terms, alcohol is more dangerous than heroin. It has become an endemic problem in society affecting the individual and the whole community. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Effects of alcohol-induced working memory decline on alcohol consumption and adverse consequences of use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lechner, William V; Day, Anne M; Metrik, Jane; Leventhal, Adam M; Kahler, Christopher W

    2016-01-01

    Alcohol use appears to decrease executive function acutely in a dose-dependent manner, and lower baseline executive function appears to contribute to problematic alcohol use. However, no studies, to our knowledge, have examined the relationship between individual differences in working memory (a subcomponent of executive function) after alcohol consumption and drinking behaviors and consequences. The current study assessed the relationship between drinking behavior, alcohol-related consequences, and alcohol-induced changes in working memory (as assessed by Trail Making Test-B). Participants recruited from the community (n = 41), 57.3 % male, mean age 39.2, took part in a three-session, within-subjects, repeated-measures design. Participants were administered a placebo, 0.4 g/kg, or 0.8 g/kg dose of alcohol. Working memory, past 30-day alcohol consumption, and consequences of alcohol use were measured at baseline; working memory was measured again after each beverage administration. Poorer working memory after alcohol administration (controlling for baseline working memory) was significantly associated with a greater number of drinks consumed per drinking day. Additionally, we observed a significant indirect relationship between the degree of alcohol-induced working memory decline and adverse consequences of alcohol use, which was mediated through greater average drinks per drinking day. It is possible that greater individual susceptibility to alcohol-induced working memory decline may limit one's ability to moderate alcohol consumption as evidenced by greater drinks per drinking day and that this results in more adverse consequences of alcohol use.

  9. ‘Making the invisible visible’ through alcohol screening and brief intervention in community pharmacies: an Australian feasibility study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Laetitia Hattingh

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Screening and brief interventions (SBI for alcohol related problems have been shown to be effective in health settings such as general practice or emergency departments. Recent data from the United Kingdom and New Zealand suggest that SBI can be delivered through community pharmacies, but this approach has not been tested in Australia. This study assesses the feasibility of delivering alcohol SBI via community pharmacists. Method We recruited five pharmacies and developed an SBI training package to be delivered by pharmacy staff, who screened consumers and delivered the brief intervention where appropriate. Consumers also completed a questionnaire on the process. At three months consumers were telephoned to enable ‘retention’ to be quantified. After completing recruitment, a semi-structured interview was conducted with pharmacists on the process of delivering the intervention, potential improvements and sustainability. Results Fifty consumer participants were screened, ten from each pharmacy. There were 28 (57 % men and 21 (43 % women with one not responding. Most (67 % were aged 25–55 years. Their AUDIT scores had a range of 0 to 39 (mean 10.9, SD 9.8 with 11 categorised as ‘hazardous (8–15’, four as ‘harmful (16–19’ and eight as ‘probably dependent (20+’ consumers of alcohol. Reactions to the process of SBI were generally favourable: for example 75 % agreed that it was either appropriate or very appropriate being asked about their alcohol consumption. With respect to follow-up interviews, 23 (46 % agreed that they could be contacted, including five from the highest AUDIT category. Subsequently 11 (48 % were contactable at three months. Three of the five non-low risk drinkers had reduced their level of risk over the three months. Ten pharmacists participated in semi-structured telephone interviews. Overall these pharmacists were positive about the intervention and five main themes emerged from the

  10. Receptivity to and recall of alcohol brand appearances in U.S. popular music and alcohol-related behaviors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Primack, Brian A; McClure, Auden C; Li, Zhigang; Sargent, James D

    2014-06-01

    The average U.S. adolescent is exposed to about 2.5 hours of popular music and 8 mentions of alcohol brands every day. Alcohol brand mentions may function as advertising whether or not they are sanctioned by the alcohol industry. Our study aimed to determine associations between adolescents' involvement with music containing alcohol brand mentions and alcohol-related behaviors. In 2010 to 2011, we conducted a random-digit-dial survey using national U.S. land line and cell phone frames. Through screening interviews, we identified 6,466 eligible households with subjects between 15 and 23 years of age, of whom 3,422 (53%) completed the telephone survey. Of these, 2,541 opted to participate in a subsequent web-based component. Independent variables included a composite score indicating owning and liking popular songs with alcohol brand mentions and correct recall of alcohol brands in songs. Outcome measures included ever having consumed a complete drink, ever bingeing, bingeing at least monthly, and having experienced problems from alcohol use. Among the 2,541 participants, compared with those in the lowest tertile on the receptivity scale, those in the highest tertile had higher odds of having had a complete drink (OR = 3.4; 95% CI = 2.2, 5.2) after adjusting for age, sex, race/ethnicity, socioeconomic status, sensation seeking, friend alcohol use, and parent alcohol use. Compared with those who did not identify at least 1 alcohol brand correctly, those who did had over twice the odds of having had a complete drink (OR = 2.1; 95% CI = 1.2, 3.8) after adjusting for all covariates. Results were also significant for the outcome of ever bingeing, but not for bingeing at least monthly or having had problems due to drinking. In a national sample of U.S. adolescents and young adults, there were independent associations between involvement with popular music containing alcohol brand mentions and both having ever had a complete drink and having ever binged on alcohol

  11. Children of alcoholics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert Oravecz

    2002-09-01

    Full Text Available The author briefly interprets the research – results, referring to the phenomenon of children of alcoholics, especially the psychological and psychopathological characteristics of children of alcoholics in adolescence and young adulthood. The author presents a screening study of adolescents. The sample contains 200 high school students at age 18. The aim of the survey was to discover the relationship between alcohol consumption of parents, PTSD - related psychopathological symptoms and reported life quality of their children. The study confirmed the hypothesis about a substantial correlation between high alcohol consumption of parents, higher psychopathological symptom - expression and lower reported life quality score of their children. Higher PTSD-related symptomatology in children of alcoholics is probably resulted by home violence, which is very often present in family of alcoholics. The article also evaluated the results regarding suicide ideation of children of alcoholics, which is definitely more frequent and more intense than in their peers living in non alcohol – dependent families.

  12. Pregnancy and alcohol use: evidence and recommendations for prenatal care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bailey, Beth A; Sokol, Robert J

    2008-06-01

    Pregnancy alcohol consumption has been linked to poor birth outcomes and long-term developmental problems. Despite this, a significant number of women drink during pregnancy. Although most prenatal care providers are asking women about alcohol use, validated screening tools are infrequently employed. Research has demonstrated that currently available screening methods and intervention techniques are effective in identifying and reducing pregnancy drinking. Implementing universal screening and appropriate intervention for pregnancy alcohol use should be a priority for prenatal care providers, as these efforts could substantially improve pregnancy, birth, and longer term developmental outcomes for those affected.

  13. Radiohippuran renography in chronic alcoholics with acute alcohol withdrawal syndromes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dobrzanski, T.

    1975-01-01

    Functional changes found in radiohippuran renography in chronic alcoholics with acute alcohol withdrawal syndromes (n=82; AAWS) regressed to normal values with recovery from AAWS (during 4 days on the average) with the exception of the secretory value which increased to a maximum on the 7th day of observation, remaining approximately unchanged for the following 3 days and decreasing more gradually to a normal value on the 23rd day of observation. In various forms of AAWS the same functional changes in the radiohippuran renogram were observed. (author)

  14. The influence of depressive symptoms on alcohol use among HIV-infected Russian drinkers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palfai, T P; Cheng, D M; Coleman, S M; Bridden, C; Krupitsky, E; Samet, J H

    2014-01-01

    Depressive symptoms have been linked to HIV progression through a number of biobehavioral mechanisms including increased alcohol use. Although research supports an association between alcohol use and depressive symptoms among HIV patients, there have been few studies that have examined whether depressive symptoms predict subsequent drinking, especially among heavy drinking HIV-infected patients. Heavy drinking Russian HIV-infected patients (n=700) were recruited from addiction and HIV care settings for a randomized controlled trial of a risk reduction intervention [HERMITAGE]. GEE overdispersed Poisson regression analyses were conducted to assess the association between depressive symptoms and alcohol consumption 6-months later. In adjusted analyses, depressive symptom severity was significantly associated with drinks per day (global p=.02). Compared to the non-depressed category, mild depressive symptoms were significantly associated with more drinks per day [IRR=1.55, (95% CI: 1.14, 2.09)], while moderate [IRR=1.14, (95% CI: 0.83, 1.56)] and severe [IRR=1.48, (95% CI: 0.93, 2.34)] depressive symptoms were not. Associations between depressive symptom severity and heavy drinking days were not statistically significant (global p=.19). Secondary analyses using the BDI-II screening threshold (BDI-II>14) and the BDI-II cognitive subscale suggested an association between depressive symptoms and drinks per day over time but not heavy episodic drinking. Among heavy drinking HIV-infected patients, elevated depressive symptoms were associated with greater subsequent alcohol use. These findings suggest that depressive symptoms may be important to address in efforts to reduce alcohol-related risks among HIV-infected populations. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Increased alcohol consumption as a cause of alcoholism, without similar evidence for depression

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wium-Andersen, Marie Kim; Orsted, David Dynnes; Tolstrup, Janne Schurmann

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Increased alcohol consumption has been associated with depression and alcoholism, but whether these associations are causal remains unclear. We tested whether alcohol consumption is causally associated with depression and alcoholism. METHODS: We included 78 154 men and women aged 20...... randomization design with antidepressant medication use and hospitalization/death, with depression and alcoholism as outcomes. RESULTS: In prospective analyses, the multifactorially adjusted hazard ratio for participants reporting >6 drinks/day vs participants reporting 0.1-1 drinks/day was 1.28 (95% confidence...... interval, 1.00-1.65) for prescription antidepressant use, with a corresponding hazard ratio of 0.80 (0.45-1.45) for hospitalization/death with depression and of 11.7 (8.77-15.6) for hospitalization/death with alcoholism. For hospitalization/death with alcoholism, instrumental variable analysis yielded...

  16. Between-Day Reliability of Pre-Participation Screening Components in Pre-Professional Ballet and Contemporary Dancers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kenny, Sarah J; Palacios-Derflingher, Luz; Owoeye, Oluwatoyosi B A; Whittaker, Jackie L; Emery, Carolyn A

    2018-03-15

    Critical appraisal of research investigating risk factors for musculoskeletal injury in dancers suggests high quality reliability studies are lacking. The purpose of this study was to determine between-day reliability of pre-participation screening (PPS) components in pre-professional ballet and contemporary dancers. Thirty-eight dancers (35 female, 3 male; median age; 18 years; range: 11 to 30 years) participated. Screening components (Athletic Coping Skills Inventory-28, body mass index, percent total body fat, total bone mineral density, Foot Posture Index-6, hip and ankle range of motion, three lumbopelvic control tasks, unipedal dynamic balance, and the Y-Balance Test) were conducted one week apart. Intra-class correlation coefficients (ICCs: 95% confidence intervals), standard error of measurement, minimal detectable change (MDC), Bland-Altman methods of agreement [95% limits of agreement (LOA)], Cohen's kappa coefficients, standard error, and percent agreements were calculated. Depending on the screening component, ICC estimates ranged from 0.51 to 0.98, kappa coefficients varied between -0.09 and 0.47, and percent agreement spanned 71% to 95%. Wide 95% LOA were demonstrated by Foot Posture Index-6 (right: -6.06, 7.31), passive hip external rotation (right: -9.89, 16.54), and passive supine turnout (left: -15.36, 17.58). The PPS components examined demonstrated moderate to excellent relative reliability with mean between-day differences less than MDC, or sufficient percent agreement, across all assessments. However, due to wide 95% limits of agreement, the Foot Posture Index-6 and passive hip range of motion are not recommended for screening injury risk in pre-professional dancers.

  17. Drug and Alcohol Studies (Volume 5: Interventions)

    OpenAIRE

    MacGregor, S; Thom, B

    2014-01-01

    VOLUME FIVE: INTERVENTIONS Natural Recovery from Alcohol Problems Harald Klingemann School-Based Programmes to Prevent Alcohol, Tobacco and Other Drug Use Gilbert Botvin and Kenneth Griffin Community Prevention of Alcohol Problems Harold Holder Can Screening and Brief Intervention Lead to Population-Level Reductions in Alcohol-Related Harm? Nick Heather Sharpening the Focus of Alcohol Policy from Aggregate Consumption to Harm and Risk Reduction Tim Stockwell et al A Review of the Efficacy and...

  18. The Epidemiology of Alcohol Use and Alcohol Use Disorders among Young People in Northern Tanzania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Francis, Joel M; Weiss, Helen A; Mshana, Gerry; Baisley, Kathy; Grosskurth, Heiner; Kapiga, Saidi H

    2015-01-01

    Alcohol use is a global public health problem, including as a risk factor for HIV infection, but few data are available on the epidemiology of alcohol use and alcohol use disorders (AUD) among young people in sub-Saharan Africa. We conducted a cross-sectional survey among 4 groups of young people aged 15-24 years old (secondary school students, college/university students, employees of local industries and casual labourers) in two regions (Kilimanjaro and Mwanza) of northern Tanzania. Using a multistage stratified random sampling strategy, we collected information on demographics, alcohol use, and behavioural factors. We screened severity of alcohol use using the Alcohol Use Disorder Identification Test (AUDIT) and estimated the quantity and frequency of alcohol consumption using the timeline-follow-back-calendar (TLFB) method. A total of 1954 young people were surveyed. The prevalence of reported alcohol use was higher among males (47-70% ever users and 20-45% current users) than females (24-54% ever users and 12-47% current users). Prevalence of use was substantially higher in Kilimanjaro than Mwanza region. In both regions, participants reported high exposure to alcohol advertisements, and wide alcohol availability. College students reported the highest prevalence of current alcohol use (45% among males; 26% among females) and of heavy episodic drinking (71% among males; 27% among females) followed by casual labourers. Males were more likely to have AUD (an AUDIT score ≥8) than females, with 11-28% of males screening positive for AUD. Alcohol use was associated with male gender, being in a relationship, greater disposable income, non-Muslim religion and a higher number of sexual partners. Alcohol use is a significant problem among young people in northern Tanzania. There is an urgent need to develop, pilot and deliver interventions to help young people delay initiation and reduce levels of harmful drinking, particularly among college students and casual

  19. Risks of Esophageal Cancer Screening

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... alcohol use, and Barrett esophagus can affect the risk of developing esophageal cancer. Anything that increases the ... tissue gives off less light than normal tissue. Risks of Esophageal Cancer Screening Key Points Screening tests ...

  20. Fetal alcohol-spectrum disorders: identifying at-risk mothers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Montag AC

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Annika C Montag Department of Pediatrics, Division of Dysmorphology and Teratology, University of California San Diego, San Diego, CA, USA Abstract: Fetal alcohol-spectrum disorders (FASDs are a collection of physical and neuro­behavioral disabilities caused by prenatal exposure to alcohol. To prevent or mitigate the costly effects of FASD, we must identify mothers at risk for having a child with FASD, so that we may reach them with interventions. Identifying mothers at risk is beneficial at all time points, whether prior to pregnancy, during pregnancy, or following the birth of the child. In this review, three approaches to identifying mothers at risk are explored: using characteristics of the mother and her pregnancy, using laboratory biomarkers, and using self-report assessment of alcohol-consumption risk. At present, all approaches have serious limitations. Research is needed to improve the sensitivity and specificity of biomarkers and screening instruments, and to link them to outcomes as opposed to exposure. Universal self-report screening of all women of childbearing potential should ideally be incorporated into routine obstetric and gynecologic care, followed by brief interventions, including education and personalized feedback for all who consume alcohol, and referral to treatment as indicated. Effective biomarkers or combinations of biomarkers may be used during pregnancy and at birth to determine maternal and fetal alcohol exposure. The combination of self-report and biomarker screening may help identify a greater proportion of women at risk for having a child with FASD, allowing them to access information and treatment, and empowering them to make decisions that benefit their children. Keywords: fetal alcohol-spectrum disorder (FASD, alcohol, pregnancy, screening, biomarkers, SBIRT

  1. Use of social networking sites and alcohol consumption among adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sampasa-Kanyinga, H; Chaput, J-P

    2016-10-01

    Research indicates that screen time (e.g. TV viewing) is associated with alcohol consumption in adolescents; however, very little is known about the link between the use of social networking sites (SNSs) and alcohol intake in this age group. The purpose of this study was to examine the association between the use of SNSs and alcohol consumption among Canadian middle and high school students, and to test whether this link varies by sex and drinking frequency or intensity. School-based cross-sectional study. Self-reported data on time spent on SNSs, alcohol consumption and sociodemographic characteristics were obtained from 10,072 participants within the 2013 cycle of the Ontario Student Drug Use and Health Survey, a province-wide survey of students in grades 7-12 (11-20 years old). Adolescent females who reported daily use of SNSs (≤2 hours/day or >2 hours/day) were more likely than those who use them infrequently or do not use them at all to report both occasional and regular alcohol consumption in the past 12 months, while adolescent males who reported daily use of SNSs were more likely than those who use SNSs infrequently or do not use them at all to report regular alcohol use in the past 12 months. The use of SNSs was also associated with report of binge drinking (defined as drinking five or more drinks on one occasion) in the past 4 weeks in both males and females. Results provide evidence that the use of SNSs is associated with alcohol consumption among adolescents. Differences between males and females in the reported associations warrant further investigations. Copyright © 2016 The Royal Society for Public Health. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Study Protocol: Screening and Treatment of Alcohol-Related Trauma (START – a randomised controlled trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jayaraj Rama

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The incidence of mandibular fractures in the Northern Territory of Australia is very high, especially among Indigenous people. Alcohol intoxication is implicated in the majority of facial injuries, and substance use is therefore an important target for secondary prevention. The current study tests the efficacy of a brief therapy, Motivational Care Planning, in improving wellbeing and substance misuse in youth and adults hospitalised with alcohol-related facial trauma. Methods and design The study is a randomised controlled trial with 6 months of follow-up, to examine the effectiveness of a brief and culturally adapted intervention in improving outcomes for trauma patients with at-risk drinking admitted to the Royal Darwin Hospital maxillofacial surgery unit. Potential participants are identified using AUDIT-C questionnaire. Eligible participants are randomised to either Motivational Care Planning (MCP or Treatment as Usual (TAU. The outcome measures will include quantity and frequency of alcohol and other substance use by Timeline Followback. The recruitment target is 154 participants, which with 20% dropout, is hoped to provide 124 people receiving treatment and follow-up. Discussion This project introduces screening and brief interventions for high-risk drinkers admitted to the hospital with facial trauma. It introduces a practical approach to integrating brief interventions in the hospital setting, and has potential to demonstrate significant benefits for at-risk drinkers with facial trauma. Trial Registration The trial has been registered in Australian New Zealand Clinical Trials Registry (ANZCTR and Trial Registration: ACTRN12611000135910.

  3. AUDIT-C scores as a scaled marker of mean daily drinking, alcohol use disorder severity, and probability of alcohol dependence in a U.S. general population sample of drinkers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rubinsky, Anna D; Dawson, Deborah A; Williams, Emily C; Kivlahan, Daniel R; Bradley, Katharine A

    2013-08-01

    Brief alcohol screening questionnaires are increasingly used to identify alcohol misuse in routine care, but clinicians also need to assess the level of consumption and the severity of misuse so that appropriate intervention can be offered. Information provided by a patient's alcohol screening score might provide a practical tool for assessing the level of consumption and severity of misuse. This post hoc analysis of data from the 2001 to 2002 National Epidemiologic Survey on Alcohol and Related Conditions (NESARC) included 26,546 U.S. adults who reported drinking in the past year and answered additional questions about their consumption, including Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test-Consumption questionnaire (AUDIT-C) alcohol screening. Linear or logistic regression models and postestimation methods were used to estimate mean daily drinking, the number of endorsed alcohol use disorder (AUD) criteria ("AUD severity"), and the probability of alcohol dependence associated with each individual AUDIT-C score (1 to 12), after testing for effect modification by gender and age. Among eligible past-year drinkers, mean daily drinking, AUD severity, and the probability of alcohol dependence increased exponentially across increasing AUDIT-C scores. Mean daily drinking ranged from alcohol dependence ranged from used to estimate patient-specific consumption and severity based on age, gender, and alcohol screening score. This information could be integrated into electronic decision support systems to help providers estimate and provide feedback about patient-specific risks and identify those patients most likely to benefit from further diagnostic assessment. Copyright © 2013 by the Research Society on Alcoholism.

  4. Factors Associated with Alcohol Consumption: A Survey of Women ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Non-Islamic religion, not being in marital union, consuming an alcoholic herbal brew and considering alcohol was beneficial to health were strong predictors of alcohol consumption. We conclude that the prevalence of alcohol consumption is high among this cohort of Ghanaian women. Women should be screened for ...

  5. Alcohol attributable hospitalisations and costs in Ireland, 2000-2004.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Martin, J

    2011-05-01

    The aim of this study was to calculate the number and costs of hospital bed-days due to alcohol use in Ireland over the five year period 2000 to 2004. Age and sex specific Irish alcohol-attributable-fractions (AAFs) were developed by combining international risk estimates with Irish consumption data where available; where not available international AAFs were used. These were applied to national datasets to count the number and costs of bed-days wholly caused and prevented by alcohol and that proportion of bed-days that were partially caused and prevented by alcohol. Between 2000 and 2004, alcohol was estimated to have caused 3,428,973 (10.3%) and prevented 529,239 (1.6%) of hospital bed-days, giving a net number of bed-days due to alcohol of 2,899,734 (8.7%). Over this period the hospital inpatient costs attributed to the negative effects of alcohol were 953,126,381 euros, the costs attributed to hospitalisations prevented were 147,968,164 euros; giving net costs of alcohol-attributed bed-days of 805,158,217 euros. Chronic conditions accounted for 3,262,408 (95%) hospital bed-days due to the harmful effects of alcohol. Conditions not wholly due to alcohol accounted for 2,297,412 (67%) hospital bed-days due to the harmful effects of alcohol. The negative impacts of alcohol were greater than previously thought and spread across the whole population.

  6. The Role of Alcohol on Antiretroviral Therapy Adherence Among Persons Living With HIV in Urban India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schensul, Stephen L; Ha, Toan; Schensul, Jean J; Vaz, Melita; Singh, Rajendra; Burleson, Joseph A; Bryant, Kendall

    2017-09-01

    The purpose of this study was to estimate the prevalence of alcohol use among men living with HIV on antiretroviral therapy (ART) and examine the association of alcohol use and psychosocial variables on ART adherence. The study was a cross-sectional survey supplemented by medical records and qualitative narratives as a part of the initial formative stage of a multilevel, multicentric intervention and evaluation project. A screening instrument was administered to men living with HIV (n = 3,088) at four ART Centers using the Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test-consumption questions (AUDIT-C) to determine alcohol use for study eligibility. Alcohol screening data were triangulated with medical records of men living with HIV (n = 15,747) from 13 ART Centers to estimate alcohol consumption among men on ART in greater Mumbai. A survey instrument to identify associations between ART adherence and alcohol, psychosocial, and contextual factors was administered to eligible men living with HIV (n = 361), and in-depth interviews (n = 55) were conducted to elucidate the ways in which these factors are manifest in men's lives. Nearly one fifth of men living with HIV on ART in the Mumbai area have consumed alcohol in the last 30 days. Non-adherence was associated with a higher AUDIT score, consumption of more types of alcohol, and poorer self-ratings on quality of life, depression, and external stigma. The qualitative data demonstrate that non-adherence results from avoiding the mixing of alcohol with medication, forgetfulness when drinking, and skipping medication for fear of disclosure of HIV status when drinking with friends. As the demand for ART expands, Indian government programs will need to more effectively address alcohol to reduce risk and maintain effective adherence.

  7. Brief screening questionnaires to identify problem drinking during pregnancy: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burns, Ethel; Gray, Ron; Smith, Lesley A

    2010-04-01

    Although prenatal screening for problem drinking during pregnancy has been recommended, guidance on screening instruments is lacking. We investigated the sensitivity, specificity and predictive value of brief alcohol screening questionnaires to identify problem drinking in pregnant women. Electronic databases from their inception to June 2008 were searched, as well as reference lists of eligible papers and related review papers. We sought cohort or cross-sectional studies that compared one or more brief alcohol screening questionnaire(s) with reference criteria obtained using structured interviews to detect 'at-risk' drinking, alcohol abuse or dependency in pregnant women receiving prenatal care. Five studies (6724 participants) were included. In total, seven instruments were evaluated: TWEAK (Tolerance, Worried, Eye-opener, Amnesia, Kut down), T-ACE [Take (number of drinks), Annoyed, Cut down, Eye-opener], CAGE (Cut down, Annoyed, Guilt, Eye-opener], NET (Normal drinker, Eye-opener, Tolerance), AUDIT (Alcohol Use Disorder Identification Test), AUDIT-C (AUDIT-consumption) and SMAST (Short Michigan Alcohol Screening Test). Study quality was generally good, but lack of blinding was a common weakness. For risk drinking sensitivity was highest for T-ACE (69-88%), TWEAK (71-91%) and AUDIT-C (95%), with high specificity (71-89%, 73-83% and 85%, respectively). CAGE and SMAST performed poorly. Sensitivity of AUDIT-C at score >or=3 was high for past year alcohol dependence (100%) or alcohol use disorder (96%) with moderate specificity (71% each). For life-time alcohol dependency the AUDIT at score >or=8 performed poorly. T-ACE, TWEAK and AUDIT-C show promise for screening for risk drinking, and AUDIT-C may also be useful for identifying alcohol dependency or abuse. However, their performance as stand-alone tools is uncertain, and further evaluation of questionnaires for prenatal alcohol use is warranted.

  8. Associations between longer habitual day napping and non-alcoholic fatty liver disease in an elderly Chinese population.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hua Qu

    Full Text Available Both longer habitual day napping and Non-Alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease (NAFLD are associated with diabetes and inflammation, but the association between day napping and NAFLD remains unexplored.To investigate the association between the duration of habitual day napping and NAFLD in an elderly Chinese population and to gain insight into the role of inflammatory cytokines in this association.We conducted a series of cross-sectional studies of the community population in Chongqing, China, from 2011 to 2012.Among 6998 participants aged 40 to 75 years, 6438 eligible participants were included in the first study and analyzed to observe the association between day napping duration and NAFLD. In a separate study, 80 non-nappers and 90 nappers were selected to identify the role of inflammatory cytokines in this association. Logistic regression models were used to examine the odds ratios (ORs of day nap duration with NAFLD.Day nappers had a significantly higher prevalence of NAFLD (P1 h of day napping compared with individuals who did not take day naps (all P0.05.Longer day napping duration is associated with a higher prevalence of NAFLD, and inflammatory cytokines may be an essential link between day napping and NAFLD.

  9. The effects of the therapeutic workplace and heavy alcohol use on homelessness among homeless alcohol-dependent adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carlson, Emily; Holtyn, August F; Fingerhood, Michael; Friedman-Wheeler, Dara; Leoutsakos, Jeannie-Marie S; Silverman, Kenneth

    2016-11-01

    A clinical trial demonstrated that a therapeutic workplace could promote alcohol abstinence in homeless, alcohol-dependent adults. This secondary-data analysis examined rates of homelessness and their relation to the therapeutic workplace intervention and alcohol use during the trial. In the trial, homeless, alcohol-dependent adults could work in a therapeutic workplace for 6 months and were randomly assigned to Unpaid Training, Paid Training, or Contingent Paid Training groups. Unpaid Training participants were not paid for working. Paid Training participants were paid for working. Contingent Paid Training participants were paid for working if they provided alcohol-negative breath samples. Rates of homelessness during the study were calculated for each participant and the three groups were compared. Mixed-effects regression models were conducted to examine the relation between alcohol use (i.e., heavy drinking, drinks per drinking day, and days of alcohol abstinence) and homelessness. Unpaid Training, Paid Training, and Contingent Paid Training participants did not differ in the percentage of study days spent homeless (31%, 28%, 17%; respectively; F(2,94)=1.732, p=0.183). However, participants with more heavy drinking days (b=0.350, phomeless. Reducing heavy drinking and alcohol use may help homeless, alcohol-dependent adults transition out of homelessness. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Alcohol drinking pattern and risk of alcoholic liver cirrhosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Askgaard, Gro; Grønbæk, Morten; Kjær, Mette S

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND & AIMS: Alcohol is the main contributing factor of alcoholic cirrhosis, but less is known about the significance of drinking pattern. METHODS: We investigated the risk of alcoholic cirrhosis among 55,917 participants (aged 50-64years) in the Danish Cancer, Diet, and Health study (1993......-2011). Baseline information on alcohol intake, drinking pattern, and confounders was obtained from a questionnaire. Follow-up information came from national registers. We calculated hazard ratios (HRs) for alcoholic cirrhosis in relation to drinking frequency, lifetime alcohol amount, and beverage type. RESULTS......: We observed 257 and 85 incident cases of alcoholic cirrhosis among men and women, respectively, none among lifetime abstainers. In men, HR for alcoholic cirrhosis among daily drinkers was 3.65 (95% CI: 2.39; 5.55) compared to drinking 2-4days/week. Alcohol amount in recent age periods (40-49 and 50...

  11. A review of the Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test (AUDIT), AUDIT-C, and USAUDIT for screening in the United States: Past issues and future directions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Higgins-Biddle, John C; Babor, Thomas F

    2018-05-03

    The US Preventive Services Task Force recommends that clinicians screen all adults for alcohol misuse and provide brief counseling to those engaged in risky or hazardous drinking. The World Health Organization's (WHO's) Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test (AUDIT) is the most widely tested instrument for screening in primary health care. This paper describes the structural and functional features of the AUDIT and methodological problems with the validation of the alcohol consumption questions (AUDIT-C). The content, scoring, and rationale for a new version of the AUDIT (called the USAUDIT), adapted to US standard drink size and hazardous drinking guidelines, is presented. Narrative review focusing on the consumption elements of the AUDIT. Four studies of the AUDIT-C are reviewed and evaluated. The AUDIT has been used extensively in many countries without making the changes in the first three consumption questions recommended in the AUDIT User's Manual. As a consequence, the original WHO version is not compatible with US guidelines and AUDIT scores are not comparable with those obtained in countries that have different drink sizes, consumption units, and safe drinking limits. Clinical and Scientific Significance. The USAUDIT has adapted the WHO AUDIT to a 14 g standard drink, and US low-risk drinking guidelines. These changes provide greater accuracy in measuring alcohol consumption than the AUDIT-C.

  12. The Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test-Consumption (AUDIT-C) in the assessment of alcohol use disorders among acute injury patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wade, Darryl; Varker, Tracey; Forbes, David; O'Donnell, Meaghan

    2014-01-01

    The Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test-Consumption (AUDIT-C) is a brief alcohol screening test and a candidate for inclusion in recommended screening and brief intervention protocols for acute injury patients. The objective of the current study was to examine the performance of the AUDIT-C to risk stratify injury patients with regard to their probability of having an alcohol use disorder. Participants (n = 1,004) were from a multisite Australian acute injury study. Stratum-specific likelihood ratio (SSLR) analysis was used to examine the performance of previously recommended AUDIT-C risk zones based on a dichotomous cut-point (0 to 3, 4 to 12) and risk zones derived from SSLR analysis to estimate the probability of a current alcohol use disorder. Almost a quarter (23%) of patients met criteria for a current alcohol use disorder. SSLR analysis identified multiple AUDIT-C risk zones (0 to 3, 4 to 5, 6, 7 to 8, 9 to 12) with a wide range of posttest probabilities of alcohol use disorder, from 5 to 68%. The area under receiver operating characteristic curve (AUROC) score was 0.82 for the derived AUDIT-C zones and 0.70 for the recommended AUDIT-C zones. A comparison between AUROCs revealed that overall the derived zones performed significantly better than the recommended zones in being able to discriminate between patients with and without alcohol use disorder. The findings of SSLR analysis can be used to improve estimates of the probability of alcohol use disorder in acute injury patients based on AUDIT-C scores. In turn, this information can inform clinical interventions and the development of screening and intervention protocols in a range of settings. Copyright © 2013 by the Research Society on Alcoholism.

  13. The Epidemiology of Alcohol Use and Alcohol Use Disorders among Young People in Northern Tanzania.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joel M Francis

    Full Text Available Alcohol use is a global public health problem, including as a risk factor for HIV infection, but few data are available on the epidemiology of alcohol use and alcohol use disorders (AUD among young people in sub-Saharan Africa.We conducted a cross-sectional survey among 4 groups of young people aged 15-24 years old (secondary school students, college/university students, employees of local industries and casual labourers in two regions (Kilimanjaro and Mwanza of northern Tanzania. Using a multistage stratified random sampling strategy, we collected information on demographics, alcohol use, and behavioural factors. We screened severity of alcohol use using the Alcohol Use Disorder Identification Test (AUDIT and estimated the quantity and frequency of alcohol consumption using the timeline-follow-back-calendar (TLFB method.A total of 1954 young people were surveyed. The prevalence of reported alcohol use was higher among males (47-70% ever users and 20-45% current users than females (24-54% ever users and 12-47% current users. Prevalence of use was substantially higher in Kilimanjaro than Mwanza region. In both regions, participants reported high exposure to alcohol advertisements, and wide alcohol availability. College students reported the highest prevalence of current alcohol use (45% among males; 26% among females and of heavy episodic drinking (71% among males; 27% among females followed by casual labourers. Males were more likely to have AUD (an AUDIT score ≥8 than females, with 11-28% of males screening positive for AUD. Alcohol use was associated with male gender, being in a relationship, greater disposable income, non-Muslim religion and a higher number of sexual partners.Alcohol use is a significant problem among young people in northern Tanzania. There is an urgent need to develop, pilot and deliver interventions to help young people delay initiation and reduce levels of harmful drinking, particularly among college students and casual

  14. Alcohol screening and brief intervention in workplace settings and social services: A comparison of literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bernd eSchulte

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The robust evidence base for the effectiveness of alcohol screening and brief interventions (ASBI in primary health care (PHC suggests a widespread expansion of ASBI in non-medical settings could be beneficial. Social service and criminal justice settings work frequently with persons with alcohol use disorders, and workplace settings can be an appropriate setting for the implementation of alcohol prevention programs, as a considerable part of their social interactions take place in this context. METHODS: Update of two systematic reviews on ASBI effectiveness in workplaces, social service and criminal justice settings. Review to identify implementation barriers and facilitators and future research needs of ASBI in nonmedical settings.RESULTS: We found a limited number of randomized controlled trials (RCTs in non-medical settings with an equivocal evidence of effectiveness of ASBI. In terms of barriers and facilitators to implementation, the heterogeneity of non-medical settings makes it challenging to draw overarching conclusions. In the workplace, employee concerns with regard to the consequences of self-disclosure appear to be key. For social services, the complexity of certain client needs suggest a stepped and carefully tailored approach is likely to be required.DISCUSSION: Compared to PHC, the reviewed settings are far more heterogeneous in terms of client groups, external conditions and the focus on substance use disorders. Thus, future research should try to systematize these differences, and consider their implications for the deliverability, acceptance and potential effectiveness of ASBI for different target groups, organisational frameworks and professionals.

  15. Trauma activation patients: evidence for routine alcohol and illicit drug screening.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C Michael Dunham

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Statistics from the National Trauma Data Bank imply that discretionary blood alcohol and urine drug testing is common. However, there is little evidence to determine which patients are appropriate for routine testing, based on information available at trauma center arrival. In 2002, Langdorf reported alcohol and illicit drug rates in Trauma Activation Patients. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: This is a retrospective investigation of alcohol and illicit drug rates in consecutive St. Elizabeth Health Center (SEHC trauma patients. SEHC Trauma Activation Patients are compared with the Langdorf Activation Patients and with the SEHC Trauma Nonactivation Patients. Minimum Rates are positive tests divided by total patients (tested and not tested. Activation patients: The minimum alcohol rates were: SEHC 23.1%, Langdorf 28.2%, combined 24.8%. The minimum illicit drug rates were: SEHC 15.7%, Langdorf 23.5, combined 18.3%. The minimum alcohol and/or illicit drug rates were: SEHC 33.4%, Langdorf 41.8%, combined 36.2%. Nonactivation patients: The SEHC minimum alcohol rate was 4.7% and the minimum illicit drug rate was 6.0%. CONCLUSIONS: Alcohol and illicit drug rates were significantly greater for Trauma Activation Patients, when compared to Nonactivation Patients. At minimum, Trauma Activation Patients are likely to have a 1-in-3 positive test for alcohol and/or an illicit drug. This substantial rate suggests that Trauma Activation Patients, a readily discernible group at trauma center arrival, are appropriate for routine alcohol and illicit drug testing. However, discretionary testing is more reasonable for Trauma Nonactivation Patients, because minimum rates are low.

  16. Associations between longer habitual day napping and non-alcoholic fatty liver disease in an elderly Chinese population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qu, Hua; Wang, Hang; Deng, Min; Wei, Huili; Deng, Huacong

    2014-01-01

    Both longer habitual day napping and Non-Alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease (NAFLD) are associated with diabetes and inflammation, but the association between day napping and NAFLD remains unexplored. To investigate the association between the duration of habitual day napping and NAFLD in an elderly Chinese population and to gain insight into the role of inflammatory cytokines in this association. We conducted a series of cross-sectional studies of the community population in Chongqing, China, from 2011 to 2012. Among 6998 participants aged 40 to 75 years, 6438 eligible participants were included in the first study and analyzed to observe the association between day napping duration and NAFLD. In a separate study, 80 non-nappers and 90 nappers were selected to identify the role of inflammatory cytokines in this association. Logistic regression models were used to examine the odds ratios (ORs) of day nap duration with NAFLD. Day nappers had a significantly higher prevalence of NAFLD (Pnapping duration was associated in a dose-dependent manner with NAFLD (P trend 1 h of day napping compared with individuals who did not take day naps (all Pnapping duration and NAFLD disappeared (all P>0.05). Longer day napping duration is associated with a higher prevalence of NAFLD, and inflammatory cytokines may be an essential link between day napping and NAFLD.

  17. Isoflavonoid compounds extracted from Pueraria lobata suppress alcohol preference in a pharmacogenetic rat model of alcoholism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, R C; Guthrie, S; Xie, C Y; Mai, K; Lee, D Y; Lumeng, L; Li, T K

    1996-06-01

    The extract from an edible vine, Pueraria lobata, has long been used in China to lessen alcohol intoxication. We have previously shown that daidzin, one of the major components from this plant extract, is efficacious in lowering blood alcohol levels and shortens sleep time induced by alcohol ingestion. This study was conducted to test the antidipsotropic effect of daidzin and two other major isoflavonoids, daidzein and puerarin, from Pueraria lobata administered by the oral route. An alcohol-preferring rat model, the selectively-bred P line of rats, was used for the study. All three isoflavonoid compounds were effective in suppressing voluntary alcohol consumption by the P rats. When given orally to P rats at a dose of 100 mg/kg/day, daidzein, daidzin, and puerarin decreased ethanol intake by 75%, 50%, and 40%, respectively. The decrease in alcohol consumption was accompanied by an increase in water intake, so that the total fluid volume consumed daily remained unchanged. The effects of these isoflavonoid compounds on alcohol and water intake were reversible. Suppression of alcohol consumption was evident after 1 day of administration and became maximal after 2 days. Similarly, alcohol preference returned to baseline levels 2 days after discontinuation of the isoflavonoids. Rats receiving the herbal extracts ate the same amounts of food as control animals, and they gained weight normally during the experiments. When administered orally, none of these compounds affected the activities of liver alcohol dehydrogenase and aldehyde dehydrogenase. Therefore, the reversal of alcohol preference produced by these compounds may be mediated via the CNS. Data demonstrate that isoflavonoid compounds extracted from Pueraria lobata is effective in suppressing the appetite for alcohol when taken orally, raising the possibility that other constituents of edible plants may exert similar and more potent actions.

  18. Strategies to Overcome Barriers to Implementation of Alcohol Screening and Brief Intervention in General Practice: a Delphi Study Among Healthcare Professionals and Addiction Prevention Experts

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    L. Abidi; A. Oenema (Anke); P. Nilsen; P.D. Anderson (Peter); H. van de Mheen (Dike)

    2016-01-01

    textabstractDespite the evidence base, alcohol screening and brief intervention (ASBI) have rarely been integrated into routine clinical practice. The aim of this study is to identify strategies that could tackle barriers to ASBI implementation in general practice by involving primary healthcare

  19. Examining the sustainability potential of a multisite pilot to integrate alcohol screening and brief intervention within three primary care systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, D K; Gonzalez, S J; Hartje, J A; Hanson, B L; Edney, C; Snell, H; Zoorob, R J; Roget, N A

    2018-01-23

    The U.S. Preventive Services Task Force recommends that clinicians adopt universal alcohol screening and brief intervention as a routine preventive service for adults, and efforts are underway to support its widespread dissemination. The likelihood that healthcare systems will sustain this change, once implemented, is under-reported in the literature. This article identifies factors that were important to postimplementation sustainability of an evidence-based practice change to address alcohol misuse that was piloted within three diverse primary care organizations. The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention funded three academic teams to pilot and evaluate implementation of alcohol screening and brief intervention within multiclinic healthcare systems in their respective regions. Following the completion of the pilots, teams used the Program Sustainability Assessment Tool to retrospectively describe and compare differences across eight sustainability domains, identify strengths and potential threats to sustainability, and make recommendations for improvement. Health systems varied across all domains, with greatest differences noted for Program Evaluation, Strategic Planning, and Funding Stability. Lack of funding to sustain practice change, or data monitoring to promote fit and fidelity, was an indication of diminished Organizational Capacity in systems that discontinued the service after the pilot. Early assessment of sustainability factors may identify potential threats that could be addressed prior to, or during implementation to enhance Organizational Capacity. Although this study provides a retrospective assessment conducted by external academic teams, it identifies factors that may be relevant for translating evidence-based behavioral interventions in a way that assures that they are sustained within healthcare systems. © The Society of Behavioral Medicine 2018. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  20. Prevalence of alcohol problems among adult somatic in-patients in Naples

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rambaldi, A; Gluud, C; Belli, A

    1995-01-01

    The aim of this cross-sectional study was to determine the prevalence of alcohol problems among adult somatic in-patients in urban hospitals of Naples. The patients were screened with a structured questionnaire regarding life style. After discharge, the patient records were examined and the hospi......The aim of this cross-sectional study was to determine the prevalence of alcohol problems among adult somatic in-patients in urban hospitals of Naples. The patients were screened with a structured questionnaire regarding life style. After discharge, the patient records were examined...... and the hospital discharge diagnoses were registered. A patient was considered having an alcohol problem if one or more of the following criteria were fulfilled: (1) a Michigan Alcoholism Screening Test score at or above five; (2) a self-reported daily consumption for at least 2 years of at least 60 g of ethanol...

  1. Hazardous alcohol users during pregnancy: psychiatric health and personality traits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magnusson, Asa; Göransson, Mona; Heilig, Markus

    2007-07-10

    We examined alcohol use disorders, psychiatric symptoms and personality traits in women reporting alcohol use during pregnancy. In a pilot cohort (n=139), subjects were screened for alcohol use disorders, and assessed for psychopathology, personality traits, and alcohol use during the first trimester. Those reporting consumption exceeding a conservative threshold for harmful use were offered a diagnostic psychiatric interview. The main findings of the pilot study were replicated using a large sample of women in the third trimester (n=715), who were screened for alcohol use disorders, had their consumption during pregnancy assessed, and were assessed for personality traits. In the pilot cohort, only a minority of women who consumed significant amounts of alcohol during pregnancy fulfilled alcohol dependence criteria, or had scores on the Alcohol Use Disorder Identification Test typically associated with such a diagnosis. Psychiatric morbidity was also unremarkable as assessed by self-reported symptom intensity. The distinguishing feature was high novelty seeking. The results were robustly confirmed in the replication study. Most women with significant alcohol consumption during pregnancy do not seem to be alcohol dependent. Instead, use during pregnancy may reflect impulsive personality traits, and be correlated with additional risk behaviors.

  2. Effectiveness and Cost-effectiveness of Opportunistic Screening and Stepped-care Interventions for Older Alcohol Users in Primary Care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coulton, Simon; Bland, Martin; Crosby, Helen; Dale, Veronica; Drummond, Colin; Godfrey, Christine; Kaner, Eileen; Sweetman, Jennifer; McGovern, Ruth; Newbury-Birch, Dorothy; Parrott, Steve; Tober, Gillian; Watson, Judith; Wu, Qi

    2017-11-01

    To compare the clinical effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of a stepped-care intervention versus a minimal intervention for the treatment of older hazardous alcohol users in primary care. Multi-centre, pragmatic RCT, set in Primary Care in UK. Patients aged ≥ 55 years scoring ≥ 8 on the Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test were allocated either to 5-min of brief advice or to 'Stepped Care': an initial 20-min of behavioural change counselling, with Step 2 being three sessions of Motivational Enhancement Therapy and Step 3 referral to local alcohol services (progression between each Step being determined by outcomes 1 month after each Step). Outcome measures included average drinks per day, AUDIT-C, alcohol-related problems using the Drinking Problems Index, health-related quality of life using the Short Form 12, costs measured from a NHS/Personal Social Care perspective and estimated health gains in quality adjusted life-years measured assessed EQ-5D. Both groups reduced alcohol consumption at 12 months but the difference between groups was small and not significant. No significant differences were observed between the groups on secondary outcomes. In economic terms stepped care was less costly and more effective than the minimal intervention. Stepped care does not confer an advantage over a minimal intervention in terms of reduction in alcohol use for older hazardous alcohol users in primary care. However, stepped care has a greater probability of being more cost-effective. Current controlled trials ISRCTN52557360. A stepped care approach was compared with brief intervention for older at-risk drinkers attending primary care. While consumption reduced in both groups over 12 months there was no significant difference between the groups. An economic analysis indicated the stepped care which had a greater probability of being more cost-effective than brief intervention. © The Author 2017. Medical Council on Alcohol and Oxford University Press. All rights

  3. The reliability and validity of the Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test (AUDIT) in a German general practice population sample.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dybek, Inga; Bischof, Gallus; Grothues, Janina; Reinhardt, Susa; Meyer, Christian; Hapke, Ulfert; John, Ulrich; Broocks, Andreas; Hohagen, Fritz; Rumpf, Hans-Jürgen

    2006-05-01

    Our goal was to analyze the retest reliability and validity of the Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test (AUDIT) in a primary-care setting and recommend a cut-off value for the different alcohol-related diagnoses. Participants recruited from general practices (GPs) in two northern German cities received the AUDIT, which was embedded in a health-risk questionnaire. In total, 10,803 screenings were conducted. The retest reliability was tested on a subsample of 99 patients, with an intertest interval of 30 days. Sensitivity and specificity at a number of different cut-off values were estimated for the sample of alcohol consumers (n=8237). For this study, 1109 screen-positive patients received a diagnostic interview. Individuals who scored less than five points in the AUDIT and also tested negative in a second alcohol-related screen were defined as "negative" (n=6003). This definition was supported by diagnostic interviews of 99 screen-negative patients from which no false negatives could be detected. As the gold standard for detection of an alcohol-use disorder (AUD), we used the Munich-Composite International Diagnostic Interview (MCIDI), which is based on Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fourth Edition, criteria. On the item level, the reliability, measured by the intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC), ranged between .39 (Item 9) and .98 (Item 10). For the total score, the ICC was .95. For cut-off values of eight points and five points, 87.5% and 88.9%, respectively, of the AUDIT-positives, and 98.9% and 95.1%, respectively, of the AUDIT-negatives were identically identified at retest, with kappa = .86 and kappa = .81. At the cut-off value of five points, we determined good combinations of sensitivity and specificity for the following diagnoses: alcohol dependence (sensitivity and specificity of .97 and .88, respectively), AUD (.97 and .92), and AUD and/or at-risk consumption (.97 and .91). Embedded in a health-risk questionnaire in

  4. A comparison between brand-specific and traditional alcohol surveillance methods to assess underage drinkers' reported alcohol use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, Sarah P; Siegel, Michael B; DeJong, William; Jernigan, David H

    2014-11-01

    Adolescent alcohol consumption remains common and is associated with many negative health outcomes. Unfortunately, common alcohol surveillance methods often underestimate consumption. Improved alcohol use measures are needed to characterize the landscape of youth drinking. We aimed to compare a standard quantity-frequency measure of youth alcohol consumption to a novel brand-specific measure. We recruited a sample of 1031 respondents across the United States to complete an online survey. Analyses included 833 male and female underage drinkers ages 13-20. Respondents reported on how many of the past 30 days they consumed alcohol, and the number of drinks consumed on an average drinking day. Using our brand-specific measure, respondents identified which brands they consumed, how many days they consumed each brand, and how many drinks per brand they usually had. Youth reported consuming significantly more alcohol (on average, 11 drinks more per month) when responding to the brand-specific versus the standard measure (p brands consumed (p brand preferences and consumption.

  5. Alcohol consumption and mammographic density in the Danish Diet, Cancer and Health cohort

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jacobsen, Katja Kemp; Lynge, Elsebeth; Tjønneland, Anne

    2017-01-01

    screening in Copenhagen (1993-2001), we used MD (mixed/dense or fatty) assessed at the first screening after cohort entry. Alcohol consumption was assessed at the time of recruitment. Logistic regression was used to estimate associations [odds ratios (OR), 95% confidence intervals (CI)] between alcohol...

  6. Screening and brief intervention in high schools: School nurses' practices and attitudes in Massachusetts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lunstead, Julie; Weitzman, Elissa R; Kaye, Dylan; Levy, Sharon

    2017-01-01

    Screening, brief intervention, and referral to treatment (SBIRT) is recommended as a strategy to prevent or reduce adolescent substance use. Offering SBIRT in schools may provide an opportunity to reach adolescents not accessing primary care. The objective is to assess school nurses' attitudes and practices regarding adolescent SBIRT. The authors administered electronically and in person a questionnaire including 29 items on SBIRT attitudes and practices to school nurses registered for the Northeastern University's School Health Institute Summer Program in Massachusetts (N = 168). Survey questions were adapted from a questionnaire originally developed by the American Academy of Pediatrics. One hundred and forty-four nurses completed the survey for a response rate of 85.7%. More than three quarters of the respondents (77.0%) were in favor of universal alcohol screening in schools. None of the respondents reported screening their students on a regular basis. More than half (64.4%) of nurses reported screening students; however, they did so only when they suspected alcohol use. During these instances, only 17.9% used a validated screening tool and almost all (98.2%) used face-to-face clinical interviews. When addressing alcohol use by a student, the large majority of respondents reported including the following recommended clinical strategies: asking about problems related to alcohol use (56.3%), explaining the harms of alcohol use (70.1%), and advising abstinence (73.6%). On average, respondents spend 5 to 10 minutes discussing alcohol use with their students. Survey respondents were supportive of universal alcohol screening in school, although few were doing so at the time. When respondents identified students using alcohol, their interventions were closely aligned with clinical recommendations for brief intervention. Implementation of SBIRT that focuses on standardized, annual screening has the potential to deliver high-quality care in this setting.

  7. The effect of prior alcohol consumption on the ataxic response to alcohol in high-alcohol preferring mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fritz, Brandon M; Boehm, Stephen L

    2014-12-01

    We have previously shown that ethanol-naïve high-alcohol preferring (HAP) mice, genetically predisposed to consume large quantities of alcohol, exhibited heightened sensitivity and more rapid acute functional tolerance (AFT) to alcohol-induced ataxia compared to low-alcohol preferring mice. The goal of the present study was to evaluate the effect of prior alcohol self-administration on these responses in HAP mice. Naïve male and female adult HAP mice from the second replicate of selection (HAP2) underwent 18 days of 24-h, 2-bottle choice drinking for 10% ethanol vs. water, or water only. After 18 days of fluid access, mice were tested for ataxic sensitivity and rapid AFT following a 1.75 g/kg injection of ethanol on a static dowel apparatus in Experiment 1. In Experiment 2, a separate group of mice was tested for more protracted AFT development using a dual-injection approach where a second, larger (2.0 g/kg) injection of ethanol was given following the initial recovery of performance on the task. HAP2 mice that had prior access to alcohol exhibited a blunted ataxic response to the acute alcohol challenge, but this pre-exposure did not alter rapid within-session AFT capacity in Experiment 1 or more protracted AFT capacity in Experiment 2. These findings suggest that the typically observed increase in alcohol consumption in these mice may be influenced by ataxic functional tolerance development, but is not mediated by a greater capacity for ethanol exposure to positively influence within-session ataxic tolerance. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Chronic voluntary alcohol consumption results in tolerance to sedative/hypnotic and hypothermic effects of alcohol in hybrid mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozburn, Angela Renee; Harris, R. Adron; Blednov, Yuri A.

    2013-01-01

    The continuous two bottle choice test is the most common measure of alcohol consumption but there is remarkably little information about the development of tolerance or dependence with this procedure. We showed that C57BL/6JxFVB/NJ and FVB/NJxC57BL/6J F1 hybrid mice demonstrate greater preference for and consumption of alcohol than either parental strain. In order to test the ability of this genetic model of high alcohol consumption to produce neuroadaptation, we examined development of alcohol tolerance and dependence after chronic self-administration using a continuous access two-bottle choice paradigm. Ethanol-experienced mice stably consumed about 16–18 g/kg/day of ethanol. Ethanol-induced withdrawal severity was assessed (after 59 days of drinking) by scoring handling-induced convulsions; withdrawal severity was minimal and did not differ between ethanol-experienced and -naïve mice. After 71 days of drinking, the rate of ethanol clearance was similar for ethanol-experienced and -naïve mice. After 77 days of drinking, ethanol-induced loss of righting reflex (LORR) was tested daily for 5 days. Ethanol-experienced mice had a shorter duration of LORR. For both ethanol-experienced and -naïve mice, blood ethanol concentrations taken at gain of righting reflex were greater on day 5 than on day 1, indicative of tolerance. After 98 days of drinking, ethanol-induced hypothermia was assessed daily for 3 days. Both ethanol-experienced and –naïve mice developed rapid and chronic tolerance to ethanol-induced hypothermia, with significant group differences on the first day of testing. In summary, chronic, high levels of alcohol consumption in F1 hybrid mice produced rapid and chronic tolerance to both the sedative/hypnotic and hypothermic effects of ethanol; additionally, a small degree of metabolic tolerance developed. The development of tolerance supports the validity of using this model of high alcohol consumption in genetic studies of alcoholism. PMID:23313769

  9. Evaluation of a pilot training program in alcohol screening, brief intervention, and referral to treatment for nurses in inpatient settings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Broyles, Lauren M; Gordon, Adam J; Rodriguez, Keri L; Hanusa, Barbara H; Kengor, Caroline; Kraemer, Kevin L

    2013-01-01

    Alcohol screening, brief intervention, and referral to treatment (SBIRT) is a set of clinical strategies for reducing the burden of alcohol-related injury, disease, and disability. SBIRT is typically considered a physician responsibility but calls for interdisciplinary involvement requiring basic SBIRT knowledge and skills training for all healthcare disciplines. The purpose of this pilot study was to design, implement, and evaluate a theory-driven SBIRT training program for nurses in inpatient settings (RN-SBIRT) that was developed through an interdisciplinary collaboration of nursing, medical, and public health professionals and tailored for registered nurses in the inpatient setting. In this three-phase study, we evaluated (1) RN-SBIRT's effectiveness for changing nurses' alcohol-related knowledge, clinical practice, and attitudes and (2) the feasibility of implementing the inpatient curriculum. In a quasi-experimental design, two general medical units at our facility were randomized to receive RN-SBIRT or a self-directed Web site on alcohol-related care. We performed a formative evaluation of RN-SBIRT, guided by the RE-AIM implementation framework. After training, nurses in the experimental condition had significant increases in Role Adequacy for working with drinkers and reported increased performance and increased competence for a greater number of SBIRT care tasks. Despite some scheduling challenges for the nurses to attend RN-SBIRT, nurse stakeholders were highly satisfied with RN-SBIRT. Results suggest that with adequate training and ongoing role support, nurses in inpatient settings could play active roles in interdisciplinary initiatives to address unhealthy alcohol use among hospitalized patients.

  10. Alcoholic Ketosis: Prevalence, Determinants, and Ketohepatitis in Japanese Alcoholic Men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yokoyama, Akira; Yokoyama, Tetsuji; Mizukami, Takeshi; Matsui, Toshifumi; Shiraishi, Koichi; Kimura, Mitsuru; Matsushita, Sachio; Higuchi, Susumu; Maruyama, Katsuya

    2014-11-01

    Alcoholic ketosis and ketoacidosis are metabolic abnormalities often diagnosed in alcoholics in emergency departments. We attempted to identify determinants or factors associated with alcoholic ketosis. The subjects of this cross-sectional survey were 1588 Japanese alcoholic men (≥40 years) who came to an addiction center within 14 days of their last drink. The results of the dipstick urinalyses revealed a prevalence of ketosis of 34.0% (±, 21.5%; +, 8.9%; and 2+/3+; 3.6%) in the alcoholics. Higher urine ketone levels were associated with higher serum total bilirubin, aspartate transaminase (AST), alanine transaminase and gamma-glutamyl transpeptidase levels. A multivariate analysis by the proportional odds model showed that the odds ratio (95% confidence interval) for an increase in ketosis by one category was 0.94 (0.84-1.06) per 10-year increase in age, 0.93 (0.89-0.97) per 1-day increase in interval since the last drink, 1.78 (1.41-2.26) in the presence of slow-metabolizing alcohol dehydrogenase-1B (ADH1B*1/*1), 1.61 (1.10-2.36) and 1.30 (1.03-1.65) when the beverage of choice was whiskey and shochu, respectively (distilled no-carbohydrate beverages vs. the other beverages), 2.05 (1.27-3.32) in the presence of hypoglycemia Ketosis was a very common complication and frequently accompanied by alcoholic liver injury in our Japanese male alcoholic population, in which ADH1B*1/*1 genotype, consumption of whiskey or shochu, hypoglycemia, lower BMI and smoking were significant determinants of the development of ketosis. © The Author 2014. Medical Council on Alcohol and Oxford University Press. All rights reserved.

  11. The effect of alcohol price on dependent drinkers' alcohol consumption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Falkner, Carolyn; Christie, Grant; Zhou, Lifeng; King, Julian

    2015-12-18

    To investigate the current purchasing behaviours of a group of dependent drinkers and their potential response to future increases in the price of alcohol. 115 clients undergoing medical detoxification completed an anonymous survey about their daily alcohol consumption, its cost, their response to potential price increases and strategies previously used when unable to afford alcohol. Mean and median number of standard drinks consumed per day was 24, at a median cost of $25 NZD (95%CI $22, $30). Thirty-six per cent (95%CI 26%, 46%) of the group bought alcohol at $1 or less per standard drink, and the median number of drinks consumed per day (30) by this group was significantly higher (p=0.0028) than the rest of the sample (22.5). The most common strategy used if no money was available to purchase alcohol was to forgo essentials. If facing a potential price rise, 77% (95%CI 69%, 85%) would switch wholly or partially to a cheaper product and 13% (95%CI 8%, 21%) would cut down their drinking. Although the majority of our group would be financially impacted by an increase in the minimum price per standard drink, any potential impacts would be most significant in those buying the cheapest alcohol (who also drink the most), suggesting that minimum pricing may be an important harm minimisation strategy in this group. A minimum price per standard drink would limit the possibility of switching to an alternate cheaper product and likely result in an overall reduction in alcohol consumption in this group. Stealing alcohol, or the use of non-beverage alcohol, were seldom reported as previous strategies used in response to unaffordable alcohol and fears of such are not valid reasons for rejecting minimum pricing to reduce general population consumption.

  12. Bedside screen for oral cavity structure, salivary flow, and vocal production over the 14days following endotracheal extubation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Cheryl Chia-Hui; Wu, Kuo-Hsiang; Ku, Shih-Chi; Chan, Ding-Cheng; Lee, Jang-Jaer; Wang, Tyng-Guey; Hsiao, Tzu-Yu

    2018-06-01

    To describe the sequelae of oral endotracheal intubation by evaluating prevalence rates of structural injury, hyposalivation, and impaired vocal production over 14days following extubation. Consecutive adults (≥20years, N=114) with prolonged (≥48h) endotracheal intubation were enrolled from medical intensive care units at a university hospital. Participants were assessed by trained nurses at 2, 7, and 14days after extubation, using a standardized bedside screening protocol. Within 48-hour postextubation, structural injuries were common, with 51% having restricted mouth opening. Unstimulated salivary flow was reduced in 43%. For vocal production, 51% had inadequate breathing support for phonation, dysphonia was common (94% had hoarseness and 36% showed reduced efficiency of vocal fold closure), and >40% had impaired articulatory precision. By 14days postextubation, recovery was noted in most conditions, but reduced efficiency of vocal fold closure persisted. Restricted mouth opening (39%) and reduced salivary flow (34%) remained highly prevalent. After extubation, restricted mouth opening, reduced salivary flow, and dysphonia were common and prolonged in recovery. Reduced efficiency of vocal cord closure persisted at 14days postextubation. The extent and duration of these sequelae remind clinicians to screen for them up to 2weeks after extubation. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Quality of Life as Medicine. II. A Pilot Study of a Five-Day �Quality of Life and Health� Cure for Patients with Alcoholism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soren Ventegodt

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Alcoholism can be understood as a self-treatment for existential pain. A 5-day treatment was designed to relieve this psychological pain and existential anxiety, and thereby diminish the need for self-treatment with alcohol. The basic principle behind the treatment was holistic, restoring the quality of life (QOL and relationship with self, which according to the life mission theory happens when life-denying views are corrected and inner emotional conflicts are solved. The method in this treatment was a course with teachings in philosophy of life, psychotherapy, and body therapy. The synergy attained was considerable and the outcome demonstrates that in the course of 1 week, people have time to revise essential life-denying views and to integrate important, unfinished life events involving negative feelings. This was demonstrated by an improved QOL and a decrease in their dependency and need for alcohol abuse. In the week before, after the 5-day course, and again after 1 and 3 months, the 16 participants completed the SEQOL questionnaire on QOL and health. This was a pilot study based on a pre-experimental design, without a control group and without clinical control. Common for the group were a low QOL, numerous health problems, and alcohol dependency in spite of treatment with Antabus� (disulfiram. The study showed an increase in QOL from 57.6% before the course to 69.4% 3 months after the course, or an improvement in QOL of 11.8%. There was a 24.0% improvement in self-perceived mental health, and satisfaction with health in general was improved by 11.1%. The total sum of health symptoms in the group was reduced from 59% of maximum to 33%. It is concluded that for this small and motivated group with alcohol problems, it was possible to improve QOL and health in only 5 days with a holistic treatment that combined philosophy of life, psychotherapy, and body therapy, but the results are not final. Further research is needed.

  14. Daily Patterns of Marijuana and Alcohol Co-Use Among Individuals with Alcohol and Cannabis Use Disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Metrik, Jane; Gunn, Rachel L; Jackson, Kristina M; Sokolovsky, Alexander W; Borsari, Brian

    2018-04-15

    The study aims were to examine daily associations between marijuana and alcohol use and the extent to which the association differs as a function of cannabis use disorder (CUD) and/or alcohol use disorder (AUD) diagnosis. Timeline Followback interview data was collected in a study of veterans (N = 127) recruited from a Veterans Affairs hospital who reported at least 1 day of co-use of marijuana and alcohol in the past 180 days (22,860 observations). Participants reported 40% marijuana use days, 28% drinking days, with 37% meeting DSM-5 criteria for CUD, 40% for AUD, and 15% for both. Use of marijuana on a given day was used to predict a 3-level gender-adjusted drinking variable (heavy: ≥5 (men)/4 (women) drinks; moderate: 1 to 4/3 drinks; or none: 0 drinks). A categorical 4-level variable (no diagnosis, AUD, CUD, or both) was tested as a moderator of the marijuana-alcohol relationship. Multilevel modeling analyses demonstrated that participants were more likely to drink heavily compared to moderately (OR = 2.34) and moderately compared to not drinking (OR = 1.61) on marijuana use days relative to nonuse days. On marijuana use days, those with AUD and those with AUD + CUD were more likely to drink heavily (OR = 1.91; OR = 2.51, respectively), but those with CUD were less likely to drink heavily (OR = 0.32) compared to moderately, nonsignificant differences between any versus moderate drinking in interaction models. Heavy drinking occurs on days when marijuana is also used. This association is particularly evident in individuals diagnosed with both AUD and CUD and AUDs alone but not in those with only CUDs. Findings suggest that alcohol interventions may need to specifically address marijuana use as a risk factor for heavy drinking and AUD. Copyright © 2018 by the Research Society on Alcoholism.

  15. The first skin cancer screening day at the Italian parliament: a Euromelanoma initiative.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suppa, Mariano; Neri, Luca; Bianchi, Luca; Capizzi, Rodolfo; Carbone, Angelo; Catricalà, Caterina; Chimenti, Sergio; Fargnoli, Maria Concetta; Fossati, Barbara; Frascione, Pasquale; Peris, Ketty

    2015-01-01

    The effort to decrease incidence/mortality of skin cancer should target not only the general public but also politicians and decision makers, to create a proper health policy. We report the results of the first Skin Cancer Screening Day at the Italian Parliament, organized to draw politicians' attention on skin cancer. A questionnaire was used to collect data on participants' characteristics and suspected skin cancers. We screened 70 members of parliament (61.4% males, median age 54 years). Overall skin cancer suspicion rate was 14.5%. Suspicion rate, detection rate, and positive predictive values for melanoma were respectively 1.6, 1.6, and 100%, and for basal cell carcinoma 6.5, 1.6, and 25%. Highly educated, parliament display sun-seeking behaviors similar to those previously described in the general public. Increasing politicians' attention on skin cancer is vital for sufficient resources to be allocated to prevention strategies. Expert medical groups and politicians should cooperate to create a proper, integrated policy on skin cancer. © 2014 The International Society of Dermatology.

  16. Failure of carnitine in improving hepatic nitrogen content in alcoholic and non-alcoholic malnourished rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luciana P. Rodrigues

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available AIMS: To investigate the effect of carnitine supplementation on alcoholic malnourished rats' hepatic nitrogen content. METHODS: Malnourished rats, on 50% protein-calorie restriction with free access to water (malnutrition group and malnourished rats under the same conditions with free access to a 20% alcohol/water solution (alcohol group were studied. After the undernourishment period (4 weeks with or without alcohol, both groups were randomly divided into two subgroups, one of them nutritionally recovered for 28 days with free access to a normal diet and water (recovery groups and the other re-fed with free access to diet and water plus carnitine (0.1 g/g body weight/day by gavage (carnitine groups. No alcohol intake was allowed during the recovery period. RESULTS: The results showed: i no difference between the alcohol/no alcohol groups, with or without carnitine, regarding body weight gain, diet consumption, urinary nitrogen excretion, plasma free fatty acids, lysine, methionine, and glycine. ii Liver nitrogen content was highest in the carnitine recovery non-alcoholic group (from 1.7 to 3.3 g/100 g, P.05 was highest in the alcoholic animals. CONCLUSION: Carnitine supplementation did not induce better nutritional recovery.

  17. Self- and Collateral Spouse-Reported Alcohol in Malawi: Exploring ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Adult (18+ years old) Malawian men and women's alcohol use and social drinking norms were examined. From 31,676 screened households, heads and spouses in 1,795 households with at least one alcohol user were interviewed. Alcohol use last 12 months was reported by 27.3% and 1.6% of all adult men and women ...

  18. Cue-induced alcohol-seeking behaviour is reduced by disrupting the reconsolidation of alcohol-related memories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    von der Goltz, Christoph; Vengeliene, Valentina; Bilbao, Ainhoa; Perreau-Lenz, Stephanie; Pawlak, Cornelius R; Kiefer, Falk; Spanagel, Rainer

    2009-08-01

    In humans, the retrieval of memories associated with an alcohol-related experience frequently evokes alcohol-seeking behaviour. The reconsolidation hypothesis states that a consolidated memory could again become labile and susceptible to disruption after memory retrieval. The aim of our study was to examine whether retrieval of alcohol-related memories undergoes a reconsolidation process. For this purpose, male Wistar rats were trained to self-administer ethanol in the presence of specific conditioned stimuli. Thereafter, animals were left undisturbed in their home cages for the following 21 days. Memory retrieval was performed in a single 5-min exposure to all alcohol-associated stimuli. The protein synthesis inhibitor anisomycin, the non-competitive N-methyl-D: -aspartate (NMDA) receptor antagonist MK-801 and acamprosate, a clinically used drug known to reduce a hyper-glutamatergic state, were given immediately after retrieval of alcohol-related memories. The impact of drug treatment on cue-induced alcohol-seeking behaviour was measured on the following day and 7 days later. Administration of both anisomycin and MK-801 reduced cue-induced alcohol-seeking behaviour, showing that memory reconsolidation was disrupted by these compounds. However, acamprosate had no effect on the reconsolidation process, suggesting that this process is not dependent on a hyper-glutamatergic state but is more related to protein synthesis and NMDA receptor activity. Pharmacological disruption of reconsolidation of alcohol-associated memories can be achieved by the use of NMDA antagonists and protein synthesis inhibitors and may thus provide a potential new therapeutic strategy for the prevention of relapse in alcohol addiction.

  19. Predictors of detection of alcohol use episodes using a transdermal alcohol sensor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnett, Nancy P; Meade, E B; Glynn, Tiffany R

    2014-02-01

    The objective of this investigation was to establish the ability of the Secure Continuous Remote Alcohol Monitoring (SCRAM) alcohol sensor to detect different levels of self-reported alcohol consumption, and to determine whether gender and body mass index, alcohol dependence, bracelet version, and age of bracelet influenced detection of alcohol use. Heavy drinking adults (N = 66, 46% female) wore the SCRAM for 1-28 days and reported their alcohol use in daily Web-based surveys. Participant reports of alcohol use were matched with drinking episodes identified from bracelet readings. On days when bracelets were functional, 690 drinking episodes were reported and 502 of those episodes (72.8%) were detected using sensor data. Using generalized estimating equations, we found no gender differences in detection of reported drinking episodes (77% for women, 69% for men). In univariate analyses, at the level of fewer than 5 drinks, women's episodes were more likely to be detected, likely because of the significantly higher transdermal alcohol concentration levels of these episodes, whereas at the level of 5 or more drinks, there was no gender difference in detection (92.6% for women, 93.4% for men). In multivariable analyses, no variables other than number of drinks significantly predicted alcohol detection. In summary, the SCRAM sensor is very good at detecting 5 or more drinks; performance of the monitor below this level was better among women because of their higher transdermal alcohol concentration levels. Individual person characteristics and bracelet features were not related to detection after number of drinks was included. Minimal bracelet malfunctions were noted.

  20. Screening for autism spectrum disorders in Flemish day-care centres with the checklist for early signs of developmental disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dereu, Mieke; Warreyn, Petra; Raymaekers, Ruth; Meirsschaut, Mieke; Pattyn, Griet; Schietecatte, Inge; Roeyers, Herbert

    2010-10-01

    A new screening instrument for ASD was developed that can be filled out by child care workers: the Checklist for Early Signs of Developmental Disorders (CESDD). The predictive validity of the CESDD was evaluated in a population of 6,808 children between 3 and 39 months attending day-care centres in Flanders. The CESDD had a sensitivity of .80 and a specificity of .94. Based on the screening procedure used in this study, 41 children were diagnosed with ASD or got a working diagnosis of ASD. Thus, including child care workers' report on signs of ASD in screening procedures can help to identify cases of ASD at a young age.

  1. COMORBID GAMBLING IN PERSONS SUFFERING FROM ALCOHOL DEPENDENCE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jagadeesan M. S

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND Gambling has been a part of human behaviour since prehistory. Past global studies show that rates of pathologic gambling are 4 to 10 times higher for substance abusers than for the general population. Alcohol dependence is also more common among parents of pathologic gamblers. Studies from India have been very few on this subject. OBJECTIVES The objectives were to analyse the prevalence of gambling behaviour in alcohol dependent individuals, to assess whether alcohol influence had effect on gambling behaviour, to analyse if gambling behaviour was associated with personality traits, to explore the possibility whether alcohol use & gambling behaviour in parents had influence on the gamblers. METHODS A sample of 100 consecutive male patients attending de-addiction OPD of a Government Tertiary Care Hospital in Chennai was selected. Those who had a diagnosis of alcohol dependence were screened for gambling and assessed using the South Oaks Gambling Screen (SOGS and Eysenck’s Personality Questionnaire. History of gambling behaviour and alcohol use in parents were correlated. RESULTS A high incidence of gambling related problems in alcohol dependent individuals was found. Among them, 24% had gambling related problems, of which 11% amounted to pathologic gambling. Age, Marital status, Residential locality, Economic status, Educational levels, or being under the influence of alcohol did not correlate with the gambling behaviour. Extrovert personality, alcohol dependence in father, and family history of gambling were more common in problem/pathologic gamblers.

  2. Drugs, alcohol and sexual health: opportunities to influence risk behaviour

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Keaney Francis

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Alcohol and drug consumption can affect judgment and may contribute towards an increased likelihood of engaging in risky sexual behaviour. In this cross sectional survey of clients attending STI services levels of drug and alcohol use were assessed using two standardised drug and alcohol screening instruments (the PAT and the SDS. Findings The rates of hazardous alcohol consumption were similar to those found among patients attending A&E departments. Approximately 15% of clients indicated possible dependence on alcohol or other drugs, and these clients were likely to cite their substance use as related to their attendance, and to accept the offer of help or advice. Conclusion The use of brief screening instruments as part of routine clinical practice is recommended. The STI clinic is well placed to identify substance use and to offer advice and/or onward referral to specialist services.

  3. Prevalence of alcohol use in pregnant women with substance use disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bakhireva, Ludmila N; Shrestha, Shikhar; Garrison, Laura; Leeman, Lawrence; Rayburn, William F; Stephen, Julia M

    2018-06-01

    Prenatal care programs for women with opioid use disorder (OUD) often focus treatment/counseling plans around illicit substances, while concurrent use of alcohol might present an equal or greater risk to the fetus. This study evaluated self-reported prevalence of alcohol use in patients participating in a comprehensive prenatal care program for women with substance use disorder (SUD; n = 295), of which 95% are treated for OUD, and pregnant women being served through general obstetrical clinics at the University of New Mexico (n = 365). During the screening phase of a prospective study, patients were asked to report alcohol use in the periconceptional period, and between the last menstrual period and pregnancy recognition. The screening interview was conducted at 22.3 (median = 22; Q1 = 16; Q3 = 29) gestational weeks. Among patients screened at the SUD clinic, 28.8% and 24.1% reported at least one binge drinking episode in the periconceptional period and in early pregnancy, respectively. The prevalence of binge drinking was similar in the general obstetrics population (24.7% and 24.4%, respectively). Among those who reported drinking in early pregnancy, median number of binge drinking episodes was higher among patients screened at the SUD clinic (median = 3; Q1 = 1; Q3 = 10) compared to the general obstetrics group (median = 1; Q1 = 1; Q3 = 3; p < 0.001). This study demonstrates a high prevalence of prenatal alcohol use in early pregnancy in both groups, while patients with SUD/OUD consume more alcohol. These findings underscore the need for targeted screening and intervention for alcohol use in all pregnant women, especially those with SUD/OUD. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. The effects of cocaine, alcohol and cocaine/alcohol combinations in conditioned taste aversion learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Busse, Gregory D; Verendeev, Andrey; Jones, Jermaine; Riley, Anthony L

    2005-09-01

    We have recently reported that alcohol attenuates cocaine place preferences. Although the basis for this effect is unknown, alcohol may attenuate cocaine reward by potentiating its aversive effects. To examine this possibility, these experiments assessed the effects of alcohol on cocaine-induced taste aversions under conditions similar to those that resulted in attenuated place preferences. Specifically, Experiments 1 and 2 assessed the effects of alcohol (0.5 g/kg) on taste aversions induced by 20, 30 and 40 mg/kg cocaine. Experiment 3 examined the role of intertrial interval in the effects of alcohol (0.5 g/kg) on cocaine (30 mg/kg) taste aversions. In Experiments 1 and 2, cocaine was effective at conditioning aversions. Alcohol produced no measurable effect. Combining cocaine and alcohol produced no greater aversion than cocaine alone (and, in fact, weakened aversions at the lowest dose of cocaine). In Experiment 3, varying the intertrial interval from 3 days (as in the case of Experiments 1 and 2) to 1 day (a procedure identical to that in which alcohol attenuated cocaine place preferences) resulted in significant alcohol- and cocaine-induced taste aversions. Nonetheless, alcohol remained ineffective in potentiating cocaine aversions. Thus, under these conditions alcohol does not potentiate cocaine's aversiveness. These results were discussed in terms of their implication for the effects of alcohol on cocaine-induced place preferences. Further, the effects of alcohol on place preferences conditioned by cocaine were discussed in relation to other assessments of the effects of alcohol on the affective properties of cocaine and the implications of these interactions for alcohol and cocaine co-use.

  5. Prevalence of psychoactive substances, alcohol and illicit drugs, in Spanish drivers: A roadside study in 2015.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Domingo-Salvany, Antonia; Herrero, M Jesús; Fernandez, Beatriz; Perez, Julio; Del Real, Pilar; González-Luque, Juan Carlos; de la Torre, Rafael

    2017-09-01

    A survey was conducted during 2015 to monitor psychoactive substance use in a sample of drivers in Spanish roads and cities. Traffic police officers recruited drivers at sites carefully chosen to achieve representativeness of the driver population. A brief questionnaire included the date, time, and personal and driving patterns data. Alcohol use was ascertained through ethanol breath test at the roadside and considered positive if concentrations >0.05mg alcohol/L were detected. Four drug classes were assessed on-site through an oral fluid screening test that, if positive, was confirmed through a second oral fluid sample at a reference laboratory. Laboratory confirmation analyses screened for 26 psychoactive substances. To evaluate the association between drug findings and age, sex, road type (urban/interurban), and period of the week (weekdays, weeknights, weekend days, weekend nights), logistic regression analyses were done (overall, and separately for alcohol, cannabis and cocaine). A total of 2744 drivers, mean age of 37.5 years, 77.8% men, were included. Overall, 11.6% of the drivers had at least one positive finding to the substances assessed. Substances more frequently testing positive were cannabis (7.5%), cocaine (4.7%) and alcohol (2.6%). More than one substance was detected in 4% of the subjects. The proportion of positive results decreased with age, and was more likely among men and on urban roads. The pattern for alcohol use was similar but did not change with age and increased among drivers recruited at night. Cannabis was more likely to be detected at younger ages and cocaine was associated with night driving. Alcohol use before driving has decreased over the last decade; however, the consumption of other illegal drugs seems to have increased. The pattern of illegal psychoactive substance observed is similar to that declared in surveys of the general population of adults. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  6. The 'Outcome Reporting in Brief Intervention Trials: Alcohol' (ORBITAL) framework: protocol to determine a core outcome set for efficacy and effectiveness trials of alcohol screening and brief intervention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shorter, G W; Heather, N; Bray, Jeremy W; Giles, E L; Holloway, A; Barbosa, C; Berman, A H; O'Donnell, A J; Clarke, M; Stockdale, K J; Newbury-Birch, D

    2017-12-22

    The evidence base to assess the efficacy and effectiveness of alcohol brief interventions (ABI) is weakened by variation in the outcomes measured and by inconsistent reporting. The 'Outcome Reporting in Brief Intervention Trials: Alcohol' (ORBITAL) project aims to develop a core outcome set (COS) and reporting guidance for its use in future trials of ABI in a range of settings. An international Special Interest Group was convened through INEBRIA (International Network on Brief Interventions for Alcohol and Other Drugs) to inform the development of a COS for trials of ABI. ORBITAL will incorporate a systematic review to map outcomes used in efficacy and effectiveness trials of ABI and their measurement properties, using the COnsensus-based Standards for the selection of health Measurement INstruments (COSMIN) criteria. This will support a multi-round Delphi study to prioritise outcomes. Delphi panellists will be drawn from a range of settings and stakeholder groups, and the Delphi study will also be used to determine if a single COS is relevant for all settings. A consensus meeting with key stakeholder representation will determine the final COS and associated guidance for its use in trials of ABI. ORBITAL will develop a COS for alcohol screening and brief intervention trials, with outcomes stratified into domains and guidance on outcome measurement instruments. The standardisation of ABI outcomes and their measurement will support the ongoing development of ABI studies and a systematic synthesis of emerging research findings. We will track the extent to which the COS delivers on this promise through an exploration of the use of the guidance in the decade following COS publication.

  7. Are energy drinks unique mixers in terms of their effects on alcohol consumption and negative alcohol-related consequences?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Sean J; Alford, Chris; Stewart, Karina; Verster, Joris C

    2018-01-01

    Previous research has suggested that consuming alcohol mixed with energy drinks (AMED) increases overall alcohol consumption. However, there is limited research examining whether energy drinks are unique in their effects when mixed with alcohol, when compared with alcohol mixed with other caffeinated mixers (AOCM). Therefore, the aim of this survey was to investigate alcohol consumption on AMED occasions, to that on other occasions when the same individuals consumed AOCM or alcohol only (AO). A UK-wide online student survey collected data on the frequency of alcohol consumption and quantity consumed, as well as the number of negative alcohol-related consequences reported on AO, AMED and AOCM occasions (N=250). Within-subjects analysis revealed that there were no significant differences in the number of alcoholic drinks consumed on a standard and a heavy drinking session between AMED and AOCM drinking occasions. However, the number of standard mixers typically consumed was significantly lower on AMED occasions compared with AOCM occasions. In addition, when consuming AMED, students reported significantly fewer days consuming 5 or more alcohol drinks, fewer days mixing drinks, and fewer days being drunk, compared with when consuming AOCM. There were no significant differences in the number of reported negative alcohol-related consequences on AMED occasions to AOCM occasions. Of importance, alcohol consumption and negative alcohol-related consequences were significantly less on both AMED and AOCM occasions compared with AO occasions. The findings that heavy alcohol consumption occurs significantly less often on AMED occasions compared with AOCM occasions is in opposition to some earlier claims implying that greatest alcohol consumption occurs with AMED. The overall greatest alcohol consumption and associated negative consequences were clearly associated with AO occasions. Negative consequences for AMED and AOCM drinking occasions were similar, suggesting that energy

  8. Screening for non-alcoholic fatty liver disease in children and adolescents with type 1 diabetes mellitus: a cross-sectional analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kummer, Sebastian; Klee, Dirk; Kircheis, Gerald; Friedt, Michael; Schaper, Joerg; Häussinger, Dieter; Mayatepek, Ertan; Meissner, Thomas

    2017-04-01

    The liver is intensely involved in glucose metabolism and is thereby closely related to diabetes pathophysiology. Adult patients with type 1 diabetes mellitus (DM) are at an increased risk for non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). Here, we studied the prevalence of NAFLD in a cohort of children and adolescents with type 1 DM in a tertiary care paediatric diabetes centre in Germany. We screened 93 children and adolescents with type 1 DM using ultrasound, laboratory investigations, and liver stiffness measurements (Fibroscan® [FS] and acoustic radiation force imaging [ARFI]). Of these, 82 (88.1%) had completely normal results in all examined aspects. Only one patient (1.1%) fulfilled the criteria as potential NAFLD with ALT > twice the upper limit of normal. Ten of the 93 patients (10.8%) showed any mild abnormality in at least one examined category including ALT, conventional ultrasounds and liver stiffness measurements. However, none of these ten fulfilled the NAFLD case definition criteria. Therefore, these slightly abnormal results were judged to be unspecific or at least of unknown significance in terms of NAFLD indication. Compared to data from the general population, our results do not indicate a significantly increased prevalence of NAFLD in this cohort, and advocate against the systematic screening for NAFLD in paediatric type 1 DM. What is Known: • Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is common in adults with type 1 DM, and paediatric patients with type 1 DM in Egypt and Saudi Arabia. What is New: • Our results do not indicate a significantly increased prevalence of NAFLD in a cohort of children and adolescents with type 1 DM from Germany compared to prevalence data from the general population. • This finding advocates against the systematic screening for NAFLD in paediatric type 1 DM in western countries.

  9. A preliminary randomized controlled trial of contingency management for alcohol use reduction using a transdermal alcohol sensor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnett, Nancy P; Celio, Mark A; Tidey, Jennifer W; Murphy, James G; Colby, Suzanne M; Swift, Robert M

    2017-06-01

    We tested the efficacy of daily contingent reinforcement for reducing alcohol use compared with (yoked) non-contingent reinforcement (NR) using a transdermal alcohol sensor to detect alcohol use. Pilot randomized controlled design with 1 baseline week, 3 intervention weeks and 1-month follow-up. New England, USA. Heavy drinking adults (46.7% female) not seeking treatment were randomized to (1) an escalating schedule of cash reinforcement (CR; n = 15) for days on which alcohol was neither reported nor detected or (2) yoked NR (n = 15). Reinforcement for CR participants started at $5 and increased $2 every subsequent day on which alcohol was not detected or reported, to a maximum of $17. Participants received no reinforcement for days on which alcohol use was detected or reported, and the reinforcer value was re-set to $5 the day after a drinking day. NR participants were yoked to the daily reinforcer value of an individual in the CR condition, in order of enrollment. Paired participants in CR and NR therefore received the same amount of money, but the amount for the NR participant was not behavior-related. The primary outcome was percentage of days without sensor-detected drinking. Secondary outcomes were number of consecutive days with no detected drinking, peak transdermal alcohol concentration (TAC), self-reported drinks per week and drinking below NIH low-risk guidelines. Controlling for baseline, CR had a higher percentage of days with no drinking detected (54.3%) than NR (31.2%) during intervention weeks [P = 0.05, Cohen's d = 0.74; 95% confidence interval (CI) = 0.007-1.47]. The longest period of consecutive days with no drinking detected was 8.0 for CR versus 2.9 for NR (P = 0.03, d = 0.85; 95% CI = 0.08-1.61). Peak TAC during intervention showed a non-significant group difference (P = 0.20; d = 0.48; 95% CI = 0.00-1.18); a similar result was found for drinks per week (P = 0.12; d = 0.59; 95% CI = 0.00-1.30). Four times more

  10. Towards holistic dual diagnosis care: physical health screening in a Victorian community-based alcohol and drug treatment service.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackson, Lara; Felstead, Boyce; Bhowmik, Jahar; Avery, Rachel; Nelson-Hearity, Rhonda

    2016-01-01

    The poorer health outcomes experienced by people with mental illness have led to new directions in policy for routine physical health screening of service users. By contrast, little attention has been paid to the physical health needs of consumers of alcohol and other drug (AOD) services, despite a similar disparity in physical health outcomes compared with the general population. The majority of people with problematic AOD use have comorbid mental illness, known as a dual diagnosis, likely to exacerbate their vulnerability to poor physical health. With the potential for physical health screening to improve health outcomes for AOD clients, a need exists for systematic identification and management of common health conditions. Within the current health service system, those with a dual diagnosis are more likely to have their physical health surveyed and responded to if they present for treatment in the mental health system. In this study, a physical health screening tool was administered to clients attending a community-based AOD service. The tool was administered by a counsellor during the initial phase of treatment, and referrals to health professionals were made as appropriate. Findings are discussed in terms of prevalence, types of problems identified and subsequent rates of referral. The results corroborate the known link between mental and physical ill health, and contribute to developing evidence that AOD clients present with equally concerning physical ill health to that of mental health clients and should equally be screened for such when presenting for AOD treatment.

  11. Screening for substance abuse in women's health: a public health imperative.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodman, Daisy J; Wolff, Kristina B

    2013-01-01

    Alcohol and drug use is a significant public health problem with particular implications for the health and safety of women. Women who abuse these substances are more likely to have untreated depression and anxiety and are at higher risk for intimate partner violence, homelessness, incarceration, infectious disease, and unplanned pregnancy. Substance abuse during pregnancy places both mother and fetus at risk for adverse perinatal outcomes. Data regarding the prevalence of substance abuse in women are conflicting and difficult to interpret. On the clinical level, strong arguments exist against routine urine drug testing and in favor of the use of validated instruments to screen women for drug and alcohol use both in primary women's health care and during pregnancy. A number of sex-specific screening tools are available for clinicians, some of which have also been validated for use during pregnancy. Given the risks associated with untreated substance abuse and dependence in women, the integration of drug and alcohol screening into daily clinical practice is imperative. This article reviews screening tools available to providers in both the prenatal and primary women's health care settings and addresses some of the challenges raised when women screen positive for drug and alcohol abuse. © 2013 by the American College of Nurse-Midwives.

  12. Alcohol misuse in patients with psoriasis: identification and relationship to disease severity and psychological distress.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    McAleer, M A

    2012-02-01

    BACKGROUND: Moderate to severe psoriasis is associated with increased alcohol intake and excessive mortality from alcohol-related causes. Alcohol biomarkers provide an objective measure of alcohol consumption. Carbohydrate-deficient transferrin (CDT) is the single most sensitive and specific alcohol biomarker. OBJECTIVES: To assess alcohol consumption in a cohort of patients with moderate to severe psoriasis using standard alcohol screening questionnaires and biomarkers. We investigated whether there was an association between alcohol intake, anxiety, depression and disease severity. METHODS: Consecutive patients with chronic plaque psoriasis were recruited and completed a range of anonymized assessments. Psoriasis severity, anxiety and depression, and the impact of psoriasis on quality of life were assessed. Alcohol screening questionnaires were administered. Blood specimens were taken and gamma-glutamyltransferase (gammaGT) and CDT were measured. RESULTS: A total of 135 patients completed the study. Using validated questionnaires, between 22% and 32% had difficulties with alcohol. Seven per cent had CDT > 1.6% indicating a heavy alcohol intake. The Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test (AUDIT) questionnaire was superior to other validated questionnaires in detecting alcohol misuse. There were no significant associations between measures of excessive alcohol consumption and disease severity. Excessive alcohol intake as measured by the CAGE questionnaire was associated with increased depression (P = 0.001) but other measures of alcohol excess did not correlate with psychological distress. Men had significantly more difficulties with alcohol than women (P < 0.001). CONCLUSION: Alcohol misuse is common in patients with moderate to severe psoriasis. Screening with the AUDIT questionnaire and CDT may allow the identification of patients who are misusing alcohol and allow appropriate intervention.

  13. Alcohol Use Problems Mediate the Relation between Cannabis Use Frequency and College Functioning among Students Mandated to an Alcohol Diversion Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    McChargue, Dennis E.; Klanecky, Alicia K.; Anderson, Jennifer

    2012-01-01

    The present study examined the degree to which alcohol use problems explained the relationship between cannabis use frequency and college functioning. Undergraduates (N = 546) mandated to an alcohol diversion program at a Midwestern United States university completed screening questionnaires between October 2003 and April 2006. Sobel's (1982) test…

  14. Exposure to alcohol advertisements and teenage alcohol-related problems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grenard, Jerry L; Dent, Clyde W; Stacy, Alan W

    2013-02-01

    This study used prospective data to test the hypothesis that exposure to alcohol advertising contributes to an increase in underage drinking and that an increase in underage drinking then leads to problems associated with drinking alcohol. A total of 3890 students were surveyed once per year across 4 years from the 7th through the 10th grades. Assessments included several measures of exposure to alcohol advertising, alcohol use, problems related to alcohol use, and a range of covariates, such as age, drinking by peers, drinking by close adults, playing sports, general TV watching, acculturation, parents' jobs, and parents' education. Structural equation modeling of alcohol consumption showed that exposure to alcohol ads and/or liking of those ads in seventh grade were predictive of the latent growth factors for alcohol use (past 30 days and past 6 months) after controlling for covariates. In addition, there was a significant total effect for boys and a significant mediated effect for girls of exposure to alcohol ads and liking of those ads in 7th grade through latent growth factors for alcohol use on alcohol-related problems in 10th grade. Younger adolescents appear to be susceptible to the persuasive messages contained in alcohol commercials broadcast on TV, which sometimes results in a positive affective reaction to the ads. Alcohol ad exposure and the affective reaction to those ads influence some youth to drink more and experience drinking-related problems later in adolescence.

  15. Exposure to Alcohol Advertisements and Teenage Alcohol-Related Problems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dent, Clyde W.; Stacy, Alan W.

    2013-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: This study used prospective data to test the hypothesis that exposure to alcohol advertising contributes to an increase in underage drinking and that an increase in underage drinking then leads to problems associated with drinking alcohol. METHODS: A total of 3890 students were surveyed once per year across 4 years from the 7th through the 10th grades. Assessments included several measures of exposure to alcohol advertising, alcohol use, problems related to alcohol use, and a range of covariates, such as age, drinking by peers, drinking by close adults, playing sports, general TV watching, acculturation, parents’ jobs, and parents’ education. RESULTS: Structural equation modeling of alcohol consumption showed that exposure to alcohol ads and/or liking of those ads in seventh grade were predictive of the latent growth factors for alcohol use (past 30 days and past 6 months) after controlling for covariates. In addition, there was a significant total effect for boys and a significant mediated effect for girls of exposure to alcohol ads and liking of those ads in 7th grade through latent growth factors for alcohol use on alcohol-related problems in 10th grade. CONCLUSIONS: Younger adolescents appear to be susceptible to the persuasive messages contained in alcohol commercials broadcast on TV, which sometimes results in a positive affective reaction to the ads. Alcohol ad exposure and the affective reaction to those ads influence some youth to drink more and experience drinking-related problems later in adolescence. PMID:23359585

  16. Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorders (FASDs)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Articles & Key Findings Materials & Multimedia Fact Sheets & Brochures Posters & Print Ads Infographics 5 Steps for Alcohol Screening ... site? Adobe PDF file Microsoft PowerPoint file Microsoft Word file Microsoft Excel file Audio/Video file Apple ...

  17. Pathological gamblers and alcoholics: do they share the same addictions?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Briggs, J R; Goodin, B J; Nelson, T

    1996-01-01

    This study examined the cross over between alcoholics and habitual gamblers. A group of Alcoholics Anonymous members (n = 30) and a group of pathological gamblers (Gamblers Anonymous members) (n = 23) and self-identified habitual gamblers (n = 21) were asked to respond to two inventories--the South Oaks Gambling Screen (SOGS, Lesieur & Blume, 1987) and the Substance Abuse Subtle Screening Inventory (SASSI-2, Miller, 1994). Results of our analyses suggested there were not significant degrees of cross over.

  18. the benefits of the cage as a screening tool for alcoholism

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    pnce we have to pay is a high level of alcohol-related pioblems. ... such as: is the new reformed health care system of South Africa equipped to deal with ..... Congress on Alcohol and Drug Dependence, Sydney, Australia 1970. 19. EwingJA.

  19. Receptivity to alcohol marketing predicts initiation of alcohol use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henriksen, Lisa; Feighery, Ellen C; Schleicher, Nina C; Fortmann, Stephen P

    2008-01-01

    This longitudinal study examined the influence of alcohol advertising and promotions on the initiation of alcohol use. A measure of receptivity to alcohol marketing was developed from research about tobacco marketing. Recall and recognition of alcohol brand names were also examined. Data were obtained from in-class surveys of sixth, seventh, and eighth graders at baseline and 12-month follow-up. Participants who were classified as never drinkers at baseline (n = 1,080) comprised the analysis sample. Logistic regression models examined the association of advertising receptivity at baseline with any alcohol use and current drinking at follow-up, adjusting for multiple risk factors, including peer alcohol use, school performance, risk taking, and demographics. At baseline, 29% of never drinkers either owned or wanted to use an alcohol branded promotional item (high receptivity), 12% students named the brand of their favorite alcohol ad (moderate receptivity), and 59% were not receptive to alcohol marketing. Approximately 29% of adolescents reported any alcohol use at follow-up; 13% reported drinking at least 1 or 2 days in the past month. Never drinkers who reported high receptivity to alcohol marketing at baseline were 77% more likely to initiate drinking by follow-up than those were not receptive. Smaller increases in the odds of alcohol use at follow-up were associated with better recall and recognition of alcohol brand names at baseline. Alcohol advertising and promotions are associated with the uptake of drinking. Prevention programs may reduce adolescents' receptivity to alcohol marketing by limiting their exposure to alcohol ads and promotions and by increasing their skepticism about the sponsors' marketing tactics.

  20. Alcoholic liver disease in Nepal: identifying homemade alcohol as a culprit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pradhan, Bickram; Hadengue, Antoine; Chappuis, François; Chaudhary, Shatdal; Baral, Dharanidhar; Gache, Pascal; Karki, Prahlad; Rijal, Suman

    2015-01-01

    Though the type of alcohol consumed is not thought to be associated with alcoholic liver disease (ALD), some studies have shown a beverage-specific effect. In the present study, we aim to study the effects of locally brewed alcoholic beverages on the development of liver disease. This cross-sectional study was conducted at the internal medicine department of a university hospital in Nepal. All patients classified as having either alcohol abuse or alcohol dependence by the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, 4th Edition were evaluated for the presence of ALD. A total of 1,500 patients were screened, of which, 447 patients had ALD. Chronic liver disease (CLD) was detected in 144 patients (9.6%). Most of the patients consumed homemade locally brewed alcohol. On multivariate analysis, the following variables were found to be significantly associated with CLD: male sex (odds ratio [OR]: 1.81; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.12-2.94; P=0.02): rakshi consumption ≥30 units (OR: 2.53; 95% CI: 1.07-6.01; P=0.04); and tongba consumption (OR: 3.02; 95% CI: 1.22-7.50; P=0.02). There was a significant increase in the risk of developing ALD with the consumption of rakshi and tongba after adjusting for total units consumed. The absence of striking differences between our patients with CLD and non-CLD patients with regards to the amount of alcohol consumed demonstrates that, although alcohol consumption is a prerequisite for the development of ALD, other factors like type of alcoholic beverage consumed may be involved.

  1. Cerebrospinal fluid monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 in alcoholics: support for a neuroinflammatory model of chronic alcoholism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Umhau, John C; Schwandt, Melanie; Solomon, Matthew G; Yuan, Peixiong; Nugent, Allison; Zarate, Carlos A; Drevets, Wayne C; Hall, Samuel D; George, David T; Heilig, Markus

    2014-05-01

    Liver inflammation in alcoholism has been hypothesized to influence the development of a neuroinflammatory process in the brain characterized by neurodegeneration and altered cognitive function. Monocyte chemoattractant protein-1/chemokine (C-C motif) ligand 2 (MCP-1/CCL2) elevations have been noted in the alcoholic brain at autopsy and may have a role in this process. We studied cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) levels of MCP-1 as well as interleukin-1β and tumor necrosis factor-α in 13 healthy volunteers and 28 alcoholics during weeks 1 and 4 following detoxification. Serum liver enzymes were obtained as markers of alcohol-related liver inflammation. Compared to healthy volunteers, MCP-1 levels were significantly higher in alcoholics both on day 4 and day 25 (p alcohol-induced liver inflammation, as defined by peripheral concentrations of GGT and AST/GOT. Published 2014. This article is a U.S. Government work and is in the public domain in the USA.

  2. Screening and brief intervention targeting risky drinkers in Danish general practice - a pragmatic controlled trial

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Beich, A.; Gannik, D.; Saelan, H.

    2007-01-01

    AIMS: Recommendations for routine alcohol screening and brief counselling intervention in primary health care rest on results from intervention efficacy studies. By conducting a pragmatic controlled trial (PCT), we aimed at evaluating the effectiveness of the WHO recommendations for screening......-14 months. Outcome measures focused on patients' acceptance of screening and intervention and their self-reported alcohol consumption. RESULTS: Patient acceptance of screening and intervention -10.3% (N = 794) of the target population (N = 7, 691) explicitly refused screening. All intervention group...

  3. Long-Term Alcohol Drinking Reduces the Efficacy of Forced Abstinence and Conditioned Taste Aversion in Crossed High-Alcohol-Preferring Mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Tousa, David S; Grahame, Nicholas J

    2016-07-01

    Negative outcomes of alcoholism are progressively more severe as the duration of problem of alcohol use increases. Additionally, alcoholics demonstrate tendencies to neglect negative consequences associated with drinking and/or to choose to drink in the immediate presence of warning factors against drinking. The recently derived crossed high-alcohol-preferring (cHAP) mice, which volitionally drink to heavier intoxication (as assessed by blood ethanol [EtOH] concentration) than other alcohol-preferring populations, as well as spontaneously escalating their intake, may be a candidate to explore mechanisms underlying long-term excessive drinking. Here, we hypothesized that an extended drinking history would reduce the ability of 2 manipulations (forced abstinence [FA] and conditioned taste aversion [CTA]) to attenuate drinking. Experiment 1 examined differences between groups drinking for either 14 or 35 days, half of each subjected to 7 days of FA and half not, to characterize the potential changes in postabstinence drinking resulting from an extended drinking history. Experiment 2 used a CTA procedure to assess stimulus specificity of the ability of an aversive flavorant to decrease alcohol consumption. Experiment 3 used this taste aversion procedure to assess differences among groups drinking for 1, 14, or 35 days in their propensity to overcome this aversion when the flavorant was mixed with either EtOH or water. Experiment 1 demonstrated that although FA decreased alcohol consumption in mice with a 14-day drinking history, it failed to do so in mice drinking alcohol for 35 days. Experiment 2 showed that the addition of a flavorant only suppressed alcohol drinking if an aversion to the flavorant was previously established. Experiment 3 demonstrated that an extended drinking history expedited extinction of suppressed alcohol intake caused by a conditioned aversive flavor. These data show that a history of long-term drinking in cHAP mice attenuates the efficacy

  4. Game Day Alcohol Expectancies among College Students from a University in the Southeast

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glassman, Tavis; Miller, Jeff; Miller, E. Maureen; Wohlwend, Jennifer; Reindl, Diana

    2012-01-01

    Background: The alcohol consumption associated with college sporting events depicts a public health challenge. Purpose: The aim of this investigation involved assessing the alcohol expectancies among college students associated with home football games and which of these expectancies was most predictive of high-risk drinking. Methods: Researchers…

  5. The Utility of a Brief Web-Based Prevention Intervention as a Universal Approach for Risky Alcohol Use in College Students: Evidence of Moderation by Family History

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zoe E. Neale

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Background: Alcohol use on college campuses is prevalent and contributes to problems that affect the health, emotional wellbeing, and academic success of college students. Risk factors, such as family history of alcohol problems, predict future alcohol problems, but less is known about their potential impact on intervention effectiveness. The purpose of this study was to examine the effect of an intervention implemented in a non-randomized sample of drinking and non-drinking college freshmen.Methods: Freshmen college students recruited for the intervention study (n = 153 completed a web-adaptation of the Brief Alcohol Screening and Intervention for College Students (BASICS at the start of spring semester. We compared their 30-days post-intervention alcohol initiation, number of drinking days (DAYS, drinks per occasion (DRINKS, maximum drinks in 24 h (MAX24 and alcohol use disorder symptoms (AUDsx to 151 comparison participants retrospectively matched on demographics and baseline alcohol use behaviors. We also tested baseline DRINKS, DAYS, AUDsx, MAX24, and parental family history (PFH of alcohol problems as moderators of the effect of the intervention.Results: At follow-up, intervention participants had lower rates of AUDsx than comparison participants, especially among baseline drinkers. Among participants drinking 3+ days/month at baseline, intervention participants showed fewer DAYS at follow-up than the comparison group participants. BASICS was also associated with a decreased likelihood of initiation among baseline non-drinkers. PFH significantly interacted with treatment group, with positive PFH intervention participants reporting significantly fewer AUDsx at follow-up compared to positive PFH comparison participants. We found no evidence for an effect of the intervention on DRINKS or MAX24 in our analyses.Conclusions: Results suggest some indication that novel groups, such as non-drinkers, regular drinkers, and PFH positive students may

  6. Trends in screen time on week and weekend days in a representative sample of Southern Brazil students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopes, Adair S; Silva, Kelly S; Barbosa Filho, Valter C; Bezerra, Jorge; de Oliveira, Elusa S A; Nahas, Markus V

    2014-12-01

    Economic and technological improvements can help increase screen time use among adolescents, but evidence in developing countries is scarce. The aim of this study was to examine changes in TV watching and computer/video game use patterns on week and weekend days after a decade (2001 and 2011), among students in Santa Catarina, southern Brazil. A comparative analysis of two cross-sectional surveys that included 5 028 and 6 529 students in 2001 and 2011, respectively, aged 15-19 years. The screen time use indicators were self-reported. 95% Confidence intervals were used to compare the prevalence rates. All analyses were separated by gender. After a decade, there was a significant increase in computer/video game use. Inversely, a significant reduction in TV watching was observed, with a similar magnitude to the change in computer/video game use. The worst trends were identified on weekend days. The decrease in TV watching after a decade appears to be compensated by the increase in computer/video game use, both in boys and girls. Interventions are needed to reduce the negative impact of technological improvements in the lifestyles of young people, especially on weekend days. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Faculty of Public Health. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  7. Alcohol and caffeine consumption and decreased fertility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hakim, R B; Gray, R H; Zacur, H

    1998-10-01

    To examine the effects of alcohol and caffeine on conception. Prospective observational study. Healthy volunteers in two manufacturing facilities. One hundred twenty-four women who provided daily urine samples for measurement of steroid hormones and hCG, and prospective information about alcohol and caffeine consumption. Probability of conception per 100 menstrual cycles. There was >50% reduction in the probability of conception during a menstrual cycle during which participants consumed alcohol. Caffeine consumption did not independently affect the probability of conception but may enhance alcohol's negative effect. Women who abstained from alcohol and consumed less than one cup of coffee or its equivalent per day conceived 26.9 pregnancies per 100 menstrual cycles compared with 10.5 per 100 menstrual cycles among those who consumed any alcohol and more than one cup of coffee per day. This study revealed an independent dose-related negative effect of alcohol consumption on the ability to conceive. Our results suggest that women who are attempting to conceive should abstain from consuming alcohol.

  8. Alcohol, cognitive impairment and the hard to discharge acute hospital inpatients.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Popoola, A

    2012-02-03

    AIM: To examine the role of alcohol and alcohol-related cognitive impairment in the clinical presentation of adults in-patients less than 65 years who are \\'hard to discharge\\' in a general hospital. METHOD: Retrospective medical file review of inpatients in CUH referred to the discharge coordinator between March and September 2006. RESULTS: Of 46 patients identified, the case notes of 44 (25 male; age was 52.2 +\\/- 7.7 years) were reviewed. The average length of stay in the hospital was 84.0 +\\/- 72.3 days and mean lost bed days was 15.9 +\\/- 36.6 days. The number of patients documented to have an overt alcohol problem was 15 (34.1%). Patients with alcohol problems were more likely to have cognitive impairment than those without an alcohol problem [12 (80%) and 9 (31%) P = 0.004]. Patients with alcohol problems had a shorter length of stay (81.5 vs. 85.3 days; t = 0.161, df = 42, P = 0.87), fewer lost bed days (8.2 vs. 19.2 days; Mann-Whitney U = 179, P = 0.34) and no mortality (0 vs. 6) compared with hard to discharge patients without alcohol problem. CONCLUSION: Alcohol problems and alcohol-related cognitive impairment are hugely over-represented in acute hospital in-patients who are hard to discharge. Despite these problems, this group appears to have reduced morbidity, less lost bed days and a better outcome than other categories of hard to discharge patients. There is a need to resource acute hospitals to address alcohol-related morbidity in general and Wernicke-Korsakoff Syndrome in particular.

  9. Alcohol use and pregnancy consensus clinical guidelines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carson, George; Cox, Lori Vitale; Crane, Joan; Croteau, Pascal; Graves, Lisa; Kluka, Sandra; Koren, Gideon; Martel, Marie-Jocelyne; Midmer, Deana; Nulman, Irena; Poole, Nancy; Senikas, Vyta; Wood, Rebecca

    2010-08-01

    to establish national standards of care for the screening and recording of alcohol use and counselling on alcohol use of women of child-bearing age and pregnant women based on the most up-to-date evidence. published literature was retrieved through searches of PubMed, CINAHL, and the Cochrane Library in May 2009 using appropriate controlled vocabulary (e.g., pregnancy complications, alcohol drinking, prenatal care) and key words (e.g., pregnancy, alcohol consumption, risk reduction). Results were restricted to literature published in the last five years with the following research designs: systematic reviews, randomized control trials/controlled clinical trials, and observational studies. There were no language restrictions. Searches were updated on a regular basis and incorporated in the guideline to May 2010. Grey (unpublished) literature was identified through searching the websites of health technology assessment (HTA) and HTA-related agencies, national and international medical specialty societies, clinical practice guideline collections, and clinical trial registries. Each article was screened for relevance and the full text acquired if determined to be relevant. The evidence obtained was reviewed and evaluated by the members of the Expert Workgroup established by the Society of Obstetricians and Gynaecologists of Canada. The quality of evidence was evaluated and recommendations were made according to guidelines developed by the Canadian Task Force on Preventive Health Care. the quality of evidence was rated using the criteria described by the Canadian Task Force on Preventive Health Care (Table 1). the Public Health Agency of Canada and the Society of Obstetricians and Gynaecologists of Canada. these consensus guidelines have been endorsed by the Association of Obstetricians and Gynecologists of Quebec; the Canadian Association of Midwives; the Canadian Association of Perinatal, Women's Health and Neonatal Nurses (CAPWHN); the College of Family Physicians of

  10. Alcohol-Related Problems And High Risk Sexual Behaviour In ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    There was a significant association between alcohol-related problems and risky sexual behavior. Alcohol-related problems are fairly common in people already infected with HIV/AIDS and are associated with high-risk sexual behavior. Thus, screening and treatment should be part of an effective HIV intervention program.

  11. Energy drinks and alcohol-related risk among young adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caviness, Celeste M; Anderson, Bradley J; Stein, Michael D

    2017-01-01

    Energy drink consumption, with or without concurrent alcohol use, is common among young adults. This study sought to clarify risk for negative alcohol outcomes related to the timing of energy drink use. The authors interviewed a community sample of 481 young adults, aged 18-25, who drank alcohol in the last month. Past-30-day energy drink use was operationalized as no-use, use without concurrent alcohol, and concurrent use of energy drinks with alcohol ("within a couple of hours"). Negative alcohol outcomes included past-30-day binge drinking, past-30-day alcohol use disorder, and drinking-related consequences. Just over half (50.5%) reported no use of energy drinks,18.3% reported using energy drinks without concurrent alcohol use, and 31.2% reported concurrent use of energy drinks and alcohol. Relative to those who reported concurrent use of energy drinks with alcohol, and controlling for background characteristics and frequency of alcohol consumption, those who didn't use energy drinks and those who used without concurrent alcohol use had significantly lower binge drinking, negative consequences, and rates of alcohol use disorder (P energy drink without concurrent alcohol groups on any alcohol-related measure (P > .10 for all outcomes). Concurrent energy drink and alcohol use is associated with increased risk for negative alcohol consequences in young adults. Clinicians providing care to young adults could consider asking patients about concurrent energy drink and alcohol use as a way to begin a conversation about risky alcohol consumption while addressing 2 substances commonly used by this population.

  12. Ecological Momentary Assessment of the Association Between Exposure to Alcohol Advertising and Early Adolescents' Beliefs About Alcohol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martino, Steven C; Kovalchik, Stephanie A; Collins, Rebecca L; Becker, Kirsten M; Shadel, William G; D'Amico, Elizabeth J

    2016-01-01

    To evaluate the momentary association between exposure to alcohol advertising and middle-school students' beliefs about alcohol in real-world settings and to explore racial/ethnic differences in this association. Middle-school students (N = 588) carried handheld data collection devices for 14 days, recording their exposures to all forms of alcohol advertising during the assessment period. Students also responded to three investigator-initiated control prompts (programmed to occur randomly) on each day of the assessment period. After each exposure to advertising and at each control prompt, students reported their beliefs about alcohol. Mixed-effects regression models compared students' beliefs about alcohol between moments of exposure to alcohol advertising and control prompts. Students perceived the typical person their age who drinks alcohol (prototype perceptions) more favorably and perceived alcohol use as more normative at times of exposure to alcohol advertising than at times of nonexposure (i.e., at control prompts). Exposure to alcohol advertising was not associated with shifts in the perceived norms of black and Hispanic students, however, and the association between exposure and prototype perceptions was stronger among non-Hispanic students than among Hispanic students. Exposure to alcohol advertising is associated with acute shifts in adolescents' perceptions of the typical person that drinks alcohol and the normativeness of drinking. These associations are both statistically and substantively meaningful. Copyright © 2016 Society for Adolescent Health and Medicine. All rights reserved.

  13. Alcohol expectancies pre-and post-alcohol use disorder treatment: Clinical implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coates, Jason M; Gullo, Matthew J; Feeney, Gerald F X; Young, Ross McD; Dingle, Genevieve A; Connor, Jason P

    2018-05-01

    Modification of elevated positive expectations of alcohol consumption (alcohol outcome expectancies; AOEs) is a key feature of Cognitive Behaviour Therapy (CBT) approaches to Alcohol Use Disorders (AUDs). Despite extensive research supporting the efficacy of CBT for AUD, few studies have examined AOE change. This study aimed to assess AOE change following completion of CBT for AUD and its association with drinking behaviour. One-hundred and seventy-five patients who completed a 12-week CBT program for AUD were administered the Drinking Expectancy Questionnaire (DEQ) at pre-treatment assessment and upon completion of treatment. Abstinence was achieved by 108 (61.7%) of completing patients. For patients who lapsed, the mean proportion of abstinent days was 93%. DEQ scales assessing expectations of positive alcohol effects on tension reduction, assertiveness, and cognitive enhancement were significantly lower post-treatment (pscale. Greater percentage of abstinent days over treatment was associated with lower pre-and post-treatment tension reduction expectancy scores (p<0.05). Drinking during treatment was associated with smaller changes in expectations of negative effects of alcohol on mood (p<0.05). Individuals who completed CBT treatment for AUD showed significant AOE change. Tension reduction and affective change expectancies may be particularly important for abstinence and useful markers of lapse risk. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. An application of deviance regulation theory to reduce alcohol-related problems among college women during spring break.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dvorak, Robert D; Kramer, Matthew P; Stevenson, Brittany L; Sargent, Emily M; Kilwein, Tess M

    2017-05-01

    Spring break (SB) can lead to heavy episodic drinking and increased alcohol-related risks. This may be especially relevant for women. The current study utilized deviance regulation theory to increase the use of protective behavioral strategies (PBSs) among female college students on SB. Female college students going on SB (n = 62) completed a screening, a pre-SB intervention (where they were randomly assigned to receive either a positively or negatively framed message about individuals who do or do not use PBS), and a post-SB assessment that provided alcohol and PBS use data for each day of SB (n = 620 person-days). Data were analyzed using a multilevel structural equation model. In the negative frame, SB PBS use was higher among those who perceived SB PBS norms to be more common on SB relative to non-SB. In the positive frame, SB PBS use was higher among those who perceived SB PBS norms to be less common on SB relative to non-SB. These associations did not result in lower alcohol consumption, but did result in a lower likelihood of experiencing alcohol-related problems during SB. These results suggest that a brief online intervention, that utilizes targeted messages based on normative perceptions of SB PBS use, could be an effective strategy for reducing alcohol-related consequences among college student women during SB. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  15. Harm reduction-a systematic review on effects of alcohol reduction on physical and mental symptoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charlet, Katrin; Heinz, Andreas

    2017-09-01

    Based on the knowledge that alcohol misuse causes a multitude of diseases and increased mortality, this systematic review examines whether a reduction of the individual alcohol consumption can contribute to a minimization of health risks within a harm reduction approach. In fact, the reviewed 63 studies indicate that interventions aiming at alcohol reduction (including total abstinence as one possible therapeutic aim) indeed resulted in or were associated with positive effects in harmful, hazardous or alcohol-dependent drinkers. Major benefits were observed for reducing alcohol-associated injuries, recovery of ventricular heart function in alcoholic cardiomyopathy, blood pressure lowering, normalization of biochemical parameter, body weight reduction, histological improvement in pre-cirrhotic alcohol-related liver disease and slowed progression of an already existing alcohol-attributable liver fibrosis. Furthermore, reduced withdrawal symptoms, prevalence of psychiatric episodes and duration of in-patient hospital days, improvement of anxiety and depression symptoms, self-confidence, physical and mental quality of life, fewer alcohol-related adverse consequences as well as lower psychosocial stress levels and better social functioning can result from reduced alcohol intake. The reviewed literature demonstrated remarkable socioeconomic cost benefits in areas such as the medical health-care system or workforce productivity. Individuals with heightened vulnerability further benefit significantly from alcohol reduction (e.g. hypertension, hepatitis C, psychiatric co-morbidities, pregnancy, but also among adolescents and young adults). Concluding, the reviewed studies strongly support and emphasize the importance and benefits of early initial screening for problematic alcohol use followed by brief and other interventions in first contact medical health-care facilities to reduce alcohol intake. © 2016 Society for the Study of Addiction.

  16. Drug and Alcohol Use in College Students with and without ADHD

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, Leigh; Prevatt, Frances; Proctor, Briley

    2012-01-01

    Objective: This study examines differences in reported levels of drug and alcohol use between college students with and without ADHD. Method: The Michigan Alcohol Screening Test (MAST) and several self-report and interview questions, developed by Barkley, were used to examine the drug and alcohol use of college students with and without ADHD.…

  17. 45-Day safety screening results for tank 241-U-102, push mode cores 143 and 144

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Steen, F.H.

    1996-01-01

    This document is the 45-day report deliverable for tank 241-U-102 push mode core segments collected between April 16, 1996 and May 6, 1996 and received by the 222-S Laboratory between April 17, 1996 and May 8, 1996. The segments were subsampled and analyzed in accordance, with the Tank 241-U-102 Push Mode Core Sampling and analysis Plan (TSAP) (Hu, 1996) and the Safety Screening Data Quality Objective (DQO) (Dukelow, et al., 1995). The analytical results are included in Table 1. Attachment I is a cross reference to relate the tank farm identification numbers to the 222-S Laboratory LabCore sample numbers. The subsamples generated in the laboratory for analysis are identified in these diagrams with their sources shown. The diagram identifying the hydrostatic head fluid (HHF) blank is also included, Primary safety screening results and the raw data from Differential Scanning Calorimetry (DSC) and thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) analyses are included in this report. Two of the samples submitted for DSC analysis exceeded notification limits as stated in the Safety Screening DQO (Dukelow, et al., 1995). Cyanide analysis was requested on these samples and a Reactive System Screening Tool analysis was requested for the sample exhibiting the highest exothenn in accordance with the TSAP (Hu, 1996). The results for these analyses will be reported in a revision to this document

  18. Father and son attachment styles in alcoholic and non-alcoholic families

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mythili Hazarika

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: The theory of attachment is important to understand a lot of human behaviour. Styles of attachment could be important predictors in developing dependence on alcoholism. Insecure attachment patterns could be significant risk factors for future alcohol use. Methods: Participants for this study consist of fathers with alcohol dependence syndrome (ADS from treatment centres and fathers from the community with no dependency on alcohol, and their sons (n=200. The Michigan Alcoholism Screening Test (MAST, socioeconomic status scale were administered, and attachment styles were derived by the Attachment Style Questionnaire (ASQ. We hypothesised a prior concept reflecting theoretical predictions for the association between attachment styles and alcohol in both the generations. Results: Statistics on SPSS-16 was used to test our hypotheses. As predicted, fathers with ADS had insecure attachments styles in comparison to the control group. Substance abuse/dependence and treatment participation were at an all-time low for the secure group. Conclusion: The findings from this study identify attachment styles as an influential factor in understanding the divergence between alcohol dependence in treatment seekers. The findings further imply that differential treatment may need to be provided taking into account one’s attachment representation to promote successful recovery. It also highlights the need to develop secure ties in children of alcoholic parents to protect them from use of substances as a coping and a learned mechanism. Limitations of the study and suggestions for further research are highlighted and implications for diagnosis and treatment are discussed.

  19. Alcohol Mixed with Energy Drinks: Daily Context of Use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linden-Carmichael, Ashley N; Lau-Barraco, Cathy

    2017-04-01

    The link between use of alcohol mixed with energy drinks (AmEDs) and alcohol-related harms is well established, but limited research has examined the context in which AmEDs are consumed. Identifying the social and environmental characteristics of use may illuminate whether AmEDs are used in settings that could increase the likelihood of engaging in risky behaviors or experiencing harms. This study used a 2-week daily diary assessment to compare days in which AmEDs were consumed ("AmED days") and days where other types of alcohol were used ("non-AmED days") on where, when, and with whom drinking occurred. Participants were 122 (90 women) heavy drinking college students who reported mixing caffeine with alcohol at least once in the past week. Data were collected across 389 drinking days; 40 of these days involved AmED use. Multilevel modeling findings revealed that odds of drinking AmEDs were higher on days where individuals drank at a bar or club and drank at home relative to other locations. In addition, odds of pregaming were higher on AmED days as compared to non-AmED days. AmED use was linked with lower odds of drinking game behavior. Overall, AmEDs appear to be consumed in potentially risky contexts. In combination with prior findings that AmED days are linked with heavier alcohol use and more harms experienced, these findings support the unique nature of AmED consumption in terms of the factors that may predict or maintain potentially hazardous drinking patterns. Copyright © 2017 by the Research Society on Alcoholism.

  20. Activation of prefrontal cortex and anterior thalamus in alcoholic subjects on exposure to alcohol-specific cues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    George, M S; Anton, R F; Bloomer, C; Teneback, C; Drobes, D J; Lorberbaum, J P; Nahas, Z; Vincent, D J

    2001-04-01

    Functional imaging studies have recently demonstrated that specific brain regions become active in cocaine addicts when they are exposed to cocaine stimuli. To test whether there are regional brain activity differences during alcohol cue exposure between alcoholic subjects and social drinkers, we designed a functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) protocol involving alcohol-specific cues. Ten non-treatment-seeking adult alcoholic subjects (2 women) (mean [SD] age, 29.9 [9.9] years) as well as 10 healthy social drinking controls of similar age (2 women) (mean [SD] age, 29.4 [8.9] years) were recruited, screened, and scanned. In the 1.5-T magnetic resonance imaging scanner, subjects were serially rated for alcohol craving before and after a sip of alcohol, and after a 9-minute randomized presentation of pictures of alcoholic beverages, control nonalcoholic beverages, and 2 different visual control tasks. During picture presentation, changes in regional brain activity were measured with the blood oxygen level-dependent technique. Alcoholic subjects, compared with the social drinking subjects, reported higher overall craving ratings for alcohol. After a sip of alcohol, while viewing alcohol cues compared with viewing other beverage cues, only the alcoholic subjects had increased activity in the left dorsolateral prefrontal cortex and the anterior thalamus. The social drinkers exhibited specific activation only while viewing the control beverage pictures. When exposed to alcohol cues, alcoholic subjects have increased brain activity in the prefrontal cortex and anterior thalamus-brain regions associated with emotion regulation, attention, and appetitive behavior.

  1. The relationship between prenatal care, personal alcohol abuse and alcohol abuse in the home environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    GREKIN, EMILY R.; ONDERSMA, STEVEN J.

    2013-01-01

    Aims Nearly one-fourth of African-American women receive no prenatal care during the first trimester of pregnancy. The aim of the current study is to identify factors that underlie inadequate prenatal care among African-American women. Maternal alcohol abuse has been examined as one risk factor for inadequate prenatal care, but findings have been inconsistent, perhaps because (a) alcohol use during pregnancy is substantially under-reported and (b) studies have not considered the wider social network in which maternal alcohol use takes place. The current study attempts to clarify relationships between personal alcohol use, alcohol use in the home environment, and prenatal care in a sample of post-partum women. Methods Participants were 107 low-income, primarily African-American women. All participants completed a computer-based screening which assessed personal and environmental alcohol use, prenatal care and mental health. Findings Environmental alcohol use was related to delayed prenatal care while personal alcohol use was not. More specifically, after controlling for demographic variables, the presence of more than three person-episodes of binge drinking in a woman’s home environment increased the odds of seriously compromized prenatal care by a factor of seven. Conclusions Findings suggest the need to further assess environmental alcohol use and to examine the reliability of personal alcohol use measures. PMID:24391354

  2. Vital Signs-Alcohol Poisoning Deaths

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    This podcast is based on the January 2015 CDC Vital Signs report. In the United States, an average of six people die every day from alcohol poisoning. Learn what you can do to prevent binge drinking and alcohol poisoning.

  3. Alcohol-Related Blackouts, Negative Alcohol-Related Consequences, and Motivations for Drinking Reported by Newly Matriculating Transgender College Students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tupler, Larry A; Zapp, Daniel; DeJong, William; Ali, Maryam; O'Rourke, Sarah; Looney, John; Swartzwelder, H Scott

    2017-05-01

    Many transgender college students struggle with identity formation and other emotional, social, and developmental challenges associated with emerging adulthood. A potential maladaptive coping strategy employed by such students is heavy drinking. Prior literature has suggested greater consumption and negative alcohol-related consequences (ARCs) in transgender students compared with their cisgender peers, but little is known about their differing experiences with alcohol-related blackouts (ARBs). We examined the level of alcohol consumption, the frequency of ARBs and other ARCs, and motivations for drinking reported by the largest sample of transgender college students to date. A Web survey from an alcohol-prevention program, AlcoholEdu for College™, assessed student demographics and drinking-related behaviors, experiences, and motivations of newly matriculating first-year college students. A self-reported drinking calendar was used to examine each of the following measures over the previous 14 days: number of drinking days, total number of drinks, and maximum number of drinks on any single day. A 7-point Likert scale was used to measure ARCs, ARBs, and drinking motivations. Transgender students of both sexes were compared with their cisgender peers. A total of 989 of 422,906 students (0.2%) identified as transgender. Over a 14-day period, transgender compared with cisgender students were more likely to consume alcohol over more days, more total drinks, and a greater number of maximum drinks on a single day. Transgender students (36%) were more likely to report an ARB than cisgender students (25%) as well as more negative academic, confrontation-related, social, and sexual ARCs. Transgender respondents more often cited stress reduction, social anxiety, self-esteem issues, and the inherent properties of alcohol as motivations for drinking. For nearly all measures, higher values were yielded by male-to-female than female-to-male transgender students. Transgender

  4. Alcohol-Induced Memory Blackouts as an Indicator of Injury Risk among College Drinkers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mundt, Marlon P.; Zakletskaia, Larissa I.; Brown, David D.; Fleming, Michael F.

    2011-01-01

    Objective An alcohol-induced memory blackout represents an amnesia to recall events but does not involve a loss of consciousness. Memory blackouts are a common occurrence among college drinkers, but it is not clear if a history of memory blackouts is predictive of future alcohol-related injury above and beyond the risk associated with heavy drinking episodes. This analysis sought to determine if baseline memory blackouts can prospectively identify college students with alcohol-related injury in the next 24 months after controlling for heavy drinking days. Methods Data were analyzed from the College Health Intervention Project Study (CHIPS), a randomized controlled trial of screening and brief physician intervention for problem alcohol use among 796 undergraduate and 158 graduate students at four university sites in the US and one in Canada, conducted from 2004 to 2009. Multivariate analyses used generalized estimating equations (GEE) with the logit link. Results The overall 24-month alcohol-related injury rate was 25.6%, with no significant difference between males and females (p=.51). Alcohol-induced memory blackouts at baseline exhibited a significant dose-response on odds of alcohol-related injury during follow-up, increasing from 1.57 (95% CI: 1.13–2.19) for subjects reporting 1–2 memory blackouts at baseline to 2.64 (95% CI: 1.65–4.21) for students acknowledging 6+ memory blackouts at baseline. The link between memory blackouts and injury was mediated by younger age, prior alcohol-related injury, heavy drinking, and sensation-seeking disposition. Conclusions Memory blackouts are a significant predictor of future alcohol-related injury among college drinkers after adjusting for heavy drinking episodes. PMID:21708813

  5. Increased alcohol consumption as a cause of alcoholism, without similar evidence for depression: a Mendelian randomization study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wium-Andersen, Marie Kim; Ørsted, David Dynnes; Tolstrup, Janne Schurmann; Nordestgaard, Børge Grønne

    2015-04-01

    Increased alcohol consumption has been associated with depression and alcoholism, but whether these associations are causal remains unclear. We tested whether alcohol consumption is causally associated with depression and alcoholism. We included 78,154 men and women aged 20-100 years randomly selected in 1991-2010 from the general population of Copenhagen, Denmark, and genotyped 68,486 participants for two genetic variants in two alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH) genes, ADH-1B (rs1229984) and ADH-1C (rs698). We performed observational and causal analyses using a Mendelian randomization design with antidepressant medication use and hospitalization/death, with depression and alcoholism as outcomes. In prospective analyses, the multifactorially adjusted hazard ratio for participants reporting >6 drinks/day vs participants reporting 0.1-1 drinks/day was 1.28 (95% confidence interval, 1.00-1.65) for prescription antidepressant use, with a corresponding hazard ratio of 0.80 (0.45-1.45) for hospitalization/death with depression and of 11.7 (8.77-15.6) for hospitalization/death with alcoholism. For hospitalization/death with alcoholism, instrumental variable analysis yielded a causal odds ratio of 28.6 (95 % confidence interval 6.47-126) for an increase of 1 drink/day estimated from the combined genotype combination, whereas the corresponding multifactorially adjusted observational odds ratio was 1.28 (1.25-1.31). Corresponding odds ratios were 1.11 (0.67-1.83) causal and 1.04 (1.03-1.06) observational for prescription antidepressant use, and 4.52 (0.99-20.5) causal and 0.98 (0.94-1.03) observational for hospitalization/death with depression. These data indicate that the association between increased alcohol consumption and alcoholism is causal, without similar strong evidence for depression. © The Author 2014; all rights reserved. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the International Epidemiological Association.

  6. Comfortably engaging: which approach to alcohol screening should we use?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vinson, Daniel C; Galliher, James M; Reidinger, Carol; Kappus, Jennifer A

    2004-01-01

    We wanted to compare 2 screening instruments for problem drinking, the CAGE and a single question, assessing frequency of use, patient and clinician comfort, and patient engagement in change. The study was a crossover, cluster-randomized clinical trial with 31 clinicians in Missouri and 13 in the American Academy of Family Physicians (AAFP) National Network for Family Practice and Primary Care Research; 2,800 patients provided data. The clinician was the unit of randomization. Clinicians decided whether to screen each patient; if they chose to screen, they used the screening approach assigned for that block of patients. The clinician and patient separately completed questionnaires immediately after the office visit to assess each one's comfort with screening (and any ensuing discussion) and the patient's engagement in change. Missouri clinicians screened more patients when assigned the single question (81%) than the CAGE (69%, P = .001 in weighted analysis). There was no difference among AAFP network clinicians (96% of patients screened with the CAGE, 97% with the single question). Eighty percent to 90% of clinicians and 70% of patients reported being comfortable with screening and the ensuing discussion, with no difference between approaches in either network. About one third of patients who were identified as problem drinkers reported thinking about or planning to change their drinking behavior, with no difference in engagement between screening approaches. Clinicians and patients reported similar comfort with the CAGE questions and the single-question screening tools for problem drinking, and the 2 instruments were equal in their ability to engage the patient. In Missouri, the single question was more likely to be used.

  7. Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorders (FASDs): Diagnosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Articles & Key Findings Materials & Multimedia Fact Sheets & Brochures Posters & Print Ads Infographics 5 Steps for Alcohol Screening ... site? Adobe PDF file Microsoft PowerPoint file Microsoft Word file Microsoft Excel file Audio/Video file Apple ...

  8. Alcohol and atherosclerosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Murilo Foppa

    2001-02-01

    Full Text Available Observational studies have attributed a protective effect to alcohol consumption on the development of atherosclerosis and cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. Alcohol intake in the amount of one to two drinks per day results in an estimated 20-40% reduction in cardiovascular events. An additional protective effect, according to major cohort studies, has been attributed to wine, probably due to antioxidant effects and platelet antiaggregation agents. On the other hand, the influence of different patterns of alcohol consumption and environmental factors may explain a great part of the additional effect of wine. Protection may be mediated by modulation of other risk factors, because alcohol increases HDL-C, produces a biphasic response on blood pressure, and modulates the endothelial function, while it neither increases body weight nor impairs glucose-insulin homeostasis. Alcohol may also have a direct effect on atherogenesis. Despite these favorable effects, the current evidence is not enough to justify prescribing alcohol to prevent cardiovascular disease.

  9. False-positive ethyl glucuronide immunoassay screening caused by a propyl alcohol-based hand sanitizer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arndt, Torsten; Grüner, Joachim; Schröfel, Stefanie; Stemmerich, Karsten

    2012-11-30

    the inhalation of the sanitizer vapor, the formation of propyl glucuronides and thus false-positive DRI(®) EIA EtG screening results, proving that propyl alcohols are almost exclusively taken up by respiration. The widespread use of propanol-containing products such as hand sanitizers may lead to sufficient uptake of propyl alcohols and excretion of significant amounts of propyl glucuronides to yield false-positive DRI(®) EIA EtG screening results. Thus, positive EtG immunoassay results have to be controlled by mass-spectrometry, in clinical cases at least if ethanol intake is denied by the patient. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Binge Alcohol Exposure Transiently Changes the Endocannabinoid System: A Potential Target to Prevent Alcohol-Induced Neurodegeneration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel J. Liput

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Excessive alcohol consumption leads to neurodegeneration, which contributes to cognitive decline that is associated with alcohol use disorders (AUDs. The endocannabinoid system has been implicated in the development of AUDs, but little is known about how the neurotoxic effects of alcohol impact the endocannabinoid system. Therefore, the current study investigated the effects of neurotoxic, binge-like alcohol exposure on components of the endocannabinoid system and related N-acylethanolamines (NAEs, and then evaluated the efficacy of fatty acid amide hydrolase (FAAH inhibition on attenuating alcohol-induced neurodegeneration. Male rats were administered alcohol according to a binge model, which resulted in a transient decrease in [3H]-CP-55,940 binding in the entorhinal cortex and hippocampus following two days, but not four days, of treatment. Furthermore, binge alcohol treatment did not change the tissue content of the three NAEs quantified, including the endocannabinoid and anandamide. In a separate study, the FAAH inhibitor, URB597 was administered to rats during alcohol treatment and neuroprotection was assessed by FluoroJade B (FJB staining. The administration of URB597 during binge treatment did not significantly reduce FJB+ cells in the entorhinal cortex or hippocampus, however, a follow up “target engagement” study found that NAE augmentation by URB597 was impaired in alcohol intoxicated rats. Thus, potential alcohol induced alterations in URB597 pharmacodynamics may have contributed to the lack of neuroprotection by FAAH inhibition.

  11. Alcohol Consumption Increases Post-Operative Infection but Not Mortality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shabanzadeh, Daniel Mønsted; Sørensen, Lars Tue

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Alcohol consumption causes multiple comorbidities with potentially negative outcome after operations. The aims are to study the association between alcohol consumption and post-operative non-surgical site infections and mortality and to determine the impact of peri-operative...... alcohol consumption and mortality was found. Meta-analyses of RCTs showed that interventions reduce infections but not mortality in patients with alcohol abuse. CONCLUSIONS: Consumption of more than two units of alcohol per day increases post-operative non-surgical site infections. Alcohol...... for observational studies and RCTs. RESULTS: Thirteen observational studies and five RCTs were identified. Meta-analyses of observational studies showed more infections in those consuming more than two units of alcohol per day compared with drinking less in both unadjusted and adjusted data. No association between...

  12. Health status of hostel dwellers: Part VI. Tobacco smoking, alcohol ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Smoking, alcohol consumption and diet were among the criteria selected to screen health status among the residents of the urban migrant council-built hostels of Langa, Nyanga and. Guguletu outside Cape Town. Smoking patterns fell within the range found elsewhere. Problems associated with alcohol consumption were ...

  13. Alcohol Poisoning Deaths PSA (:60)

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    This 60 second Public Service Announcement is based on the January 2015 CDC Vital Signs report. In the United States, an average of six people die every day from alcohol poisoning. Learn what you can do to prevent binge drinking and alcohol poisoning.

  14. Alcohol and atherosclerosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    DA LUZ PROTASIO L.

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available Atherosclerosis is manifested as coronary artery disease (CAD, ischemic stroke and peripheral vascular disease. Moderate alcohol consumption has been associated with reduction of CAD complications. Apparently, red wine offers more benefits than any other kind of drinks, probably due to flavonoids. Alcohol alters lipoproteins and the coagulation system. The flavonoids induce vascular relaxation by mechanisms that are both dependent and independent of nitric oxide, inhibits many of the cellular reactions associated with atherosclerosis and inflammation, such as endothelial expression of vascular adhesion molecules and release of cytokines from polymorphonuclear leukocytes. Hypertension is also influenced by the alcohol intake. Thus, heavy alcohol intake is almost always associated with systemic hypertension, and hence shall be avoided. In individuals that ingest excess alcohol, there is higher risk of coronary occlusion, arrhythmias, hepatic cirrhosis, upper gastrointestinal cancers, fetal alcohol syndrome, murders, sex crimes, traffic and industrial accidents, robberies, and psychosis. Alcohol is no treatment for atherosclerosis; but it doesn't need to be prohibited for everyone. Thus moderate amounts of alcohol (1-2 drinks/day, especially red wine, may be allowed for those at risk for atherosclerosis complications.

  15. Performance of the Tobacco, Alcohol, Prescription Medication, and Other Substance Use (TAPS) Tool for Substance Use Screening in Primary Care Patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McNeely, Jennifer; Wu, Li-Tzy; Subramaniam, Geetha; Sharma, Gaurav; Cathers, Lauretta A; Svikis, Dace; Sleiter, Luke; Russell, Linnea; Nordeck, Courtney; Sharma, Anjalee; O'Grady, Kevin E; Bouk, Leah B; Cushing, Carol; King, Jacqueline; Wahle, Aimee; Schwartz, Robert P

    2016-11-15

    Substance use, a leading cause of illness and death, is underidentified in medical practice. The Tobacco, Alcohol, Prescription medication, and other Substance use (TAPS) tool was developed to address the need for a brief screening and assessment instrument that includes all commonly used substances and fits into clinical workflows. The goal of this study was to assess the performance of the TAPS tool in primary care patients. Multisite study, conducted within the National Drug Abuse Treatment Clinical Trials Network, comparing the TAPS tool with a reference standard measure. (ClinicalTrials.gov: NCT02110693). 5 adult primary care clinics. 2000 adult patients consecutively recruited from clinic waiting areas. Interviewer- and self-administered versions of the TAPS tool were compared with a reference standard, the modified World Mental Health Composite International Diagnostic Interview (CIDI), which measures problem use and substance use disorder (SUD). Interviewer- and self-administered versions of the TAPS tool had similar diagnostic characteristics. For identifying problem use (at a cutoff of 1+), the TAPS tool had a sensitivity of 0.93 (95% CI, 0.90 to 0.95) and specificity of 0.87 (CI, 0.85 to 0.89) for tobacco and a sensitivity of 0.74 (CI, 0.70 to 0.78) and specificity of 0.79 (CI, 0.76 to 0.81) for alcohol. For problem use of illicit and prescription drugs, sensitivity ranged from 0.82 (CI, 0.76 to 0.87) for marijuana to 0.63 (CI, 0.47 to 0.78) for sedatives; specificity was 0.93 or higher. For identifying any SUD (at a cutoff of 2+), sensitivity was lower. The low prevalence of some drug classes led to poor precision in some estimates. Research assistants were not blinded to participants' TAPS tool responses when they administered the CIDI. In a diverse population of adult primary care patients, the TAPS tool detected clinically relevant problem substance use. Although it also may detect tobacco, alcohol, and marijuana use disorders, further refinement is

  16. Establishing links between alcohol intake, cognitive functions and type 2 diabetes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Toarba Cristina

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In the present report, we studied the associations that might exist between alcohol consumption, cognitive functions and diabetic pathology in patients with type 2 diabetes (T2D. The alcohol intake of 219 patients diagnosed with diabetes was classified into 6 groups: nondrinkers, 0.1-9.9, 10.0-14.9, 15.0-29.9, 30.0-49.9 and ≥ 50.0, according to the total amount (grams/day of alcohol consumption. Our results mainly confirm that moderate alcohol consumption can reduce some of the neuropathological aspects of T2D, as demonstrated by the decrease in glycemic levels in patients that consumed higher levels of alcohol (30.0-49.9 g/day, when compared to non-drinkers (p=0.04 or groups in which individuals consumed 0.1-9.9 g/day (p=0.01 and 10.0-14.9 g/day (p=0.02. Regarding the results of cognitive testing, we noticed a significant increase in the values of the MMSE score a lower dose of alcohol intake (0.1-9.9 g/day was compared with higher doses: 30.0-49.9 g/day (p=0.008 and ≥ 50.0 g/day (p=0.047.

  17. Theoretical investigation of the weak interaction between graphene and alcohol solvents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Haining; Chen, Sian; Lu, Shanfu; Xiang, Yan

    2017-05-01

    The dispersion of graphene in five different alcohol solvents was investigated by evaluating the binding energy between graphene and alcohol molecules using DFT-D method. The calculation showed the most stable binding energy appeared at the distance of ∼3.5 Å between graphene and alcohol molecules and increased linearly as changing the alcohol from methanol to 1-pentanol. The weak interaction was further graphically illustrated using the reduced density gradient method. The theoretical study revealed alcohols with more carbon atoms could be a good starting point for screening suitable solvents for graphene dispersion.

  18. Pharmacological interventions for alcohol relapse prevention

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Arun Kumar Agnihotri

    Health NHS Foundation Trust, Birmingham, UK ... ABSTRACT: Alcohol dependence is a chronic, debilitating disorder that is an important .... hours, or as long as alcohol remains in the blood. ... term and slightly improving days to relapse.

  19. Psychometric validation of the POSIT for screening alcohol and other drugs risk consumption among adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Araujo, Manuel; Golpe, Sandra; Braña, Teresa; Varela, Jesús; Rial, Antonio

    2018-04-15

    Early detection of alcohol and drug abuse among adolescents is decisive not only for rapid referral and intervention in cases of risk, but also as an indicator for use in the evaluation of prevention programs and public policies to reduce consumption. One of the most widely-used screening instruments in the world is the Problem Oriented Screening Instrument for Teenagers (POSIT) (Rahdert, 1991), whose substance use and abuse subscale (POSITUAS) is a brief tool of enormous applied potential. However, there is still no empirical validation study that would ensure its good psychometric performance in Spain. The aim of this paper is to analyse the psychometric properties of POSITUAS among Spanish adolescents. For this purpose, 569 students aged between 12 and 18 years (M = 14.71; SD = 1.79) were personally interviewed. The study sample was selected through two-stage sampling. The results obtained, using the Adolescent Diagnostic Interview (Winters & Henly, 1993) as the gold criterion, allow us to inform that the Spanish version of the POSITUAS has excellent psychometric behaviour, both at the level of internal consistency (a  = .82) as well as regards sensitivity (94.3%) and specificity (83.9%), with an area under the ROC curve of .953. Also, the realisation of a Confirmatory Factor Analysis allows for verifying the one-dimensional character of the scale. As a result, POSITUAS is made available to researchers and professionals in the field of addictive behaviours for use with a minimum of psychometric guarantees.

  20. Modeling the Severity of Drinking Consequences in First-Year College Women: An Item Response Theory Analysis of the Rutgers Alcohol Problem Index*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohn, Amy M.; Hagman, Brett T.; Graff, Fiona S.; Noel, Nora E.

    2011-01-01

    Objective: The present study examined the latent continuum of alcohol-related negative consequences among first-year college women using methods from item response theory and classical test theory. Method: Participants (N = 315) were college women in their freshman year who reported consuming any alcohol in the past 90 days and who completed assessments of alcohol consumption and alcohol-related negative consequences using the Rutgers Alcohol Problem Index. Results: Item response theory analyses showed poor model fit for five items identified in the Rutgers Alcohol Problem Index. Two-parameter item response theory logistic models were applied to the remaining 18 items to examine estimates of item difficulty (i.e., severity) and discrimination parameters. The item difficulty parameters ranged from 0.591 to 2.031, and the discrimination parameters ranged from 0.321 to 2.371. Classical test theory analyses indicated that the omission of the five misfit items did not significantly alter the psychometric properties of the construct. Conclusions: Findings suggest that those consequences that had greater severity and discrimination parameters may be used as screening items to identify female problem drinkers at risk for an alcohol use disorder. PMID:22051212

  1. Alcohol use disorder and tuberculosis treatment: A longitudinal mixed method study in Thailand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samai Laprawat

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The relationship between tuberculosis (TB treatment and alcohol use disorders over time is under-researched. The aim of this investigation was to study alcohol use and TB medication adherence and its predictors among TB patients over a period of 6 months. Methods: A longitudinal investigation was carried out with new TB and TB retreatment patients systematically selected from two hospitals and had screened positive for hazardous or harmful alcohol use in Sisaket Province in Thailand. Alcohol use disorders were measured with Alcohol Use Disorder Identification Test (AUDIT-C at baseline, 3 months and 6 months. Results: Of the 295 TB patients who were screened with AUDIT-C, 72 (24.4% tested positive for hazardous or harmful alcohol use. At 6 months, 72 TB patients had completed the follow- up. At the 6-month follow-up, hazardous or harmful drinking was reduced by 84.7%. Multivariate logistic regression analysis using generalised estimation equation modelling found that alcohol use significantly reduced over time, whereas there was no change in current tobacco use. Conclusion: The prevalence of alcohol use disorders significantly reduced over a period of 6 months.

  2. Energy drink consumption and increased risk for alcohol dependence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arria, Amelia M; Caldeira, Kimberly M; Kasperski, Sarah J; Vincent, Kathryn B; Griffiths, Roland R; O'Grady, Kevin E

    2011-02-01

    Energy drinks are highly caffeinated beverages that are increasingly consumed by young adults. Prior research has established associations between energy drink use and heavier drinking and alcohol-related problems among college students. This study investigated the extent to which energy drink use might pose additional risk for alcohol dependence over and above that from known risk factors. Data were collected via personal interview from 1,097 fourth-year college students sampled from 1 large public university as part of an ongoing longitudinal study. Alcohol dependence was assessed according to DSM-IV criteria. After adjustment for the sampling design, 51.3%(wt) of students were classified as "low-frequency" energy drink users (1 to 51 days in the past year) and 10.1%(wt) as "high-frequency" users (≥52 days). Typical caffeine consumption varied widely depending on the brand consumed. Compared to the low-frequency group, high-frequency users drank alcohol more frequently (141.6 vs. 103.1 days) and in higher quantities (6.15 vs. 4.64 drinks/typical drinking day). High-frequency users were at significantly greater risk for alcohol dependence relative to both nonusers (AOR = 2.40, 95% CI = 1.27 to 4.56, p = 0.007) and low-frequency users (AOR = 1.86, 95% CI = 1.10, 3.14, p = 0.020), even after holding constant demographics, typical alcohol consumption, fraternity/sorority involvement, depressive symptoms, parental history of alcohol/drug problems, and childhood conduct problems. Low-frequency energy drink users did not differ from nonusers on their risk for alcohol dependence. Weekly or daily energy drink consumption is strongly associated with alcohol dependence. Further research is warranted to understand the possible mechanisms underlying this association. College students who frequently consume energy drinks represent an important target population for alcohol prevention. Copyright © 2010 by the Research Society on Alcoholism.

  3. How is adults' screen time behaviour influencing their views on screen time restrictions for children? A cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schoeppe, Stephanie; Rebar, Amanda L; Short, Camille E; Alley, Stephanie; Van Lippevelde, Wendy; Vandelanotte, Corneel

    2016-03-01

    High screen time in children and its detrimental health effects is a major public health problem. How much screen time adults think is appropriate for children remains little explored, as well as whether adults' screen time behaviour would determine their views on screen time restrictions for children. This study aimed to investigate how adults' screen time behaviour influences their views on screen time restrictions for children, including differences by gender and parental status. In 2013, 2034 Australian adults participated in an online survey conducted by the Population Research Laboratory at Central Queensland University, Rockhampton. Adult screen time behaviour was assessed using the Workforce Sitting Questionnaire. Adults reported the maximum time children aged between 5-12 years should be allowed to spend watching TV and using a computer. Ordinal logistic regression was used to compare adult screen time behaviour with views on screen time restrictions for children. Most adults (68%) held the view that children should be allowed no more than 2 h of TV viewing and computer use on school days, whilst fewer adults (44%) thought this screen time limit is needed on weekend days. Women would impose higher screen time restrictions for children than men (p 2 h on watching TV and using the computer at home on work days (66%) and non-work days (88%). Adults spending ≤ 2 h/day in leisure-related screen time were less likely to permit children > 2 h/day of screen time. These associations did not differ by adult gender and parental status. Most adults think it is appropriate to limit children's screen time to the recommended ≤ 2 h/day but few adults themselves adhere to this screen time limit. Adults with lower screen use may be more inclined to limit children's screen time. Strategies to reduce screen time in children may also need to target adult screen use.

  4. A profile of concurrent alcohol and alcohol-interactive prescription drug use in the US population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jalbert, Jessica J; Quilliam, Brian J; Lapane, Kate L

    2008-09-01

    The risk of adverse events among alcohol-interactive medication users can occur with one standard alcoholic drink. Research on the extent to which this occurs is scant. To examine the prevalence and correlates of concurrent alcohol and alcohol-interactive (AI) medication use across different levels of risk for an alcohol-related adverse event in a nationally representative sample of American adults. Cross-sectional analysis of past year, self-reported drinking history as well as past month, self-reported and visually inspected prescription drug use data from the 1999-2000 and 2001-2002 NHANES questionnaire section (n = 8,246). Medications were considered AI if concurrent use of alcohol and the prescription drug could intensify the effects of alcohol, resulting in increased sedation, drowsiness, or dizziness. Weighted prevalence estimates and polytomous logistic regression accounted for the complex survey design. Overall, 13.5% took prescription AI medications, of which 5.6% reported alcohol consumption of three or more drinks on each drinking occasion. Correlates of such use were being a man [adjusted odds ratio (AOR): 4.37; 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.84-10.35], between the ages of 20 and 54 (AOR=12.28; 95% CI: 3.12-48.25), and currently smoking (AOR: 2.61; 95% CI: 1.28-5.29), with alcohol-abstaining AI users as the referent group. Combining alcohol and AI medications is a common phenomenon, and the risk of alcohol-related adverse drug events may be nontrivial. Screening for alcohol use before prescribing AI medications would be prudent. Better communication regarding the dangers of mixing alcohol with AI medications is warranted.

  5. THE STUDY OF HEART MUSCLE IN CHRONIC ALCOHOLICS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Girish M

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND Alcohol affects many organs, especially the liver, pancreas and brain. Although, the beneficial effects of mild or moderate ethanol consumption have been implied with respect to coronary artery disease, excessive ethanol consumption can result in Alcoholic Heart Muscle Disease (AHMD. AIMS Alcohol consumption, mainly arrack, is common social problem in Mangalore. This study has been undertaken to assess the effects of alcohol on cardiovascular system. MATERIALS AND METHODS Thirty patient with history of consumption of about 6 units of alcohol per day for at least 5 days a week for at least 5 years who were admitted to Government Wenlock Hospital, Attavar K.M.C. and University Medical Centre, Mangalore, were selected as case and studied. RESULTS Alcohol intake is predominantly observed in males, majority of alcoholic had high blood pressure, serum levels of CPK-MB and LDH are elevated in chronic alcoholic patients, left ventricular hypertrophy, premature ventricular contraction and sinus tachycardia were common findings in the electrocardiograms of chronic alcoholic patients and development of alcoholic heart muscle disease is directly proportional to the quantity and duration of alcohol intake. CONCLUSION Overall, the present study has found high morbidity from chronic alcohol consumption highlighting the need for preventive measures to tackle this preventable hazard.

  6. Mobile phone sensors and supervised machine learning to identify alcohol use events in young adults: Implications for just-in-time adaptive interventions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bae, Sangwon; Chung, Tammy; Ferreira, Denzil; Dey, Anind K; Suffoletto, Brian

    2017-11-27

    Real-time detection of drinking could improve timely delivery of interventions aimed at reducing alcohol consumption and alcohol-related injury, but existing detection methods are burdensome or impractical. To evaluate whether phone sensor data and machine learning models are useful to detect alcohol use events, and to discuss implications of these results for just-in-time mobile interventions. 38 non-treatment seeking young adult heavy drinkers downloaded AWARE app (which continuously collected mobile phone sensor data), and reported alcohol consumption (number of drinks, start/end time of prior day's drinking) for 28days. We tested various machine learning models using the 20 most informative sensor features to classify time periods as non-drinking, low-risk (1 to 3/4 drinks per occasion for women/men), and high-risk drinking (>4/5 drinks per occasion for women/men). Among 30 participants in the analyses, 207 non-drinking, 41 low-risk, and 45 high-risk drinking episodes were reported. A Random Forest model using 30-min windows with 1day of historical data performed best for detecting high-risk drinking, correctly classifying high-risk drinking windows 90.9% of the time. The most informative sensor features were related to time (i.e., day of week, time of day), movement (e.g., change in activities), device usage (e.g., screen duration), and communication (e.g., call duration, typing speed). Preliminary evidence suggests that sensor data captured from mobile phones of young adults is useful in building accurate models to detect periods of high-risk drinking. Interventions using mobile phone sensor features could trigger delivery of a range of interventions to potentially improve effectiveness. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. The influence of alcohol and tobacco use in orthopaedic inpatients on complications of surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Gerard; Daly, Michelle; Proude, Elizabeth M; Kermode, Steven; Davis, Michelle; Barling, Jan; Haber, Paul S

    2008-01-01

    Tobacco use and heavy alcohol consumption are associated with increased morbidity and mortality. There is limited research on the correlation between tobacco and risky levels of alcohol use and the possible complications associated with a hospital admission. The underestimation of problem drinking, in particular, has obvious repercussions for the management of patients in hospital. If alcohol-related problems go undetected or unrecorded, treatment may be inadequate or inappropriate. The aims of the project were to assess the prevalence of high-risk alcohol and tobacco use in orthopaedic in-patients and to examine any relationship between alcohol and tobacco use and the number and type of complications, management and length of stay. One hundred and fifty-three consecutive orthopaedic admissions to the Orthopaedic Ward at Lismore Base Hospital were screened using the Drinkcheck questionnaire, which is based on the Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test (AUDIT), but which also screens for tobacco use. Nursing staff on the ward completed a Complications Evaluation Questionnaire (CEQ). The risk status of the subjects was compared to the number and type of complications, to assess any effects of alcohol and tobacco on post-surgical complications. Significant correlations were found between tobacco use, hazardous and harmful alcohol use and numerous medical complications and behavioural problems. Behavioural problems associated with risky alcohol use included verbal abuse, agitation and sleep disturbances, particularly in men; problems associated with tobacco use included agitation and non-compliance. Orthopaedic patients who smoke and/or drink heavily prior to surgery may have more non-medical complications than non-smokers and light or non-drinkers. All surgery patients should thus be screened for alcohol and tobacco use and alcohol withdrawal, which may cause other symptoms such as behavioural problems, non-compliance and verbal abuse post-surgery.

  8. Evaluation of screening for oral cancer and precancer in a company headquarters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Downer, M C; Evans, A W; Hughes Hallet, C M; Jullien, J A; Speight, P M; Zakrzewska, J M

    1995-04-01

    Oral cancer and precancer appear to fulfil many of the criteria for a disease suitable for mass screening. Several commercial organisations in the UK have introduced screening for their employees. One program has been formally evaluated over the course of 1 yr. Of 553 company headquarters staff aged > or = 40 yr, 292 (53%) responded to the well-publicised screening invitation and received a simple clinical examination of the oral mucosa from one of two company dentists. In addition, 17 staff were screened from a separate company work-site. After screening, subjects were examined independently by an oral medicine specialist with access to the relevant diagnostic aids. The dentists' screening decisions were validated against the specialist's definitive diagnoses (the 'gold standard'). The true prevalence of subjects with lesions diagnosed as positive (white patch, red patch or ulcer of greater than 2 weeks' duration) was 17 (5.5%). Overall, sensitivity was 0.71 and specificity, 0.99. The compliance rate to screening among headquarters subjects in seven occupational categories did not differ significantly from the occupational profile for all headquarters personnel. Estimates of relative risk of a positive diagnosis were calculated by logistic regression for five independent variables; gender, age, moderate smoking, heavy smoking, and smoking combined with greater than low risk alcohol consumption. Only heavy smoking (> or = 20 cigarettes per day) produced a significant odds ratio (3.43, P < 0.05).

  9. A Genetic Animal Model of Alcoholism for Screening Medications to Treat Addiction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bell, Richard L.; Hauser, Sheketha; Rodd, Zachary A.; Liang, Tiebing; Sari, Youssef; McClintick, Jeanette; Rahman, Shafiqur; Engleman, Eric A.

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this review is to present up-to-date pharmacological, genetic and behavioral findings from the alcohol-preferring P rat and summarize similar past work. Behaviorally, the focus will be on how the P rat meets criteria put forth for a valid animal model of alcoholism with a highlight on its use as an animal model of polysubstance abuse, including alcohol, nicotine and psychostimulants. Pharmacologically and genetically, the focus will be on the neurotransmitter and neuropeptide systems that have received the most attention: cholinergic, dopaminergic, GABAergic, glutamatergic, serotonergic, noradrenergic, corticotrophin releasing hormone, opioid, and neuropeptide Y. Herein we sought to place the P rat’s behavioral and neurochemical phenotypes, and to some extent its genotype, in the context of the clinical literature. After reviewing the findings thus far, this paper discusses future directions for expanding the use of this genetic animal model of alcoholism to identify molecular targets for treating drug addiction in general. PMID:27055615

  10. Perinatal alcohol exposure enhances nocistatin levels in adulthood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tekes, Kornélia; Hantos, Mónika; Gyenge, Melinda; Csaba, Gyorgy

    2007-06-01

    In earlier experiments perinatal hormonal imprinting by alcohol decreased the hormone content of immune cells for life. In the present study, both a single day (15% on the third postnatal day) and a long-term treatment schedule of alcohol exposure (3% for 21 days) of dams during lactation significantly (P < 0.01) enhanced endogenous levels of nocistatin in the blood plasma as well as in the cerebrospinal fluid of the offspring, measured in 3-month-old rats. Our data suggest that alcohol consumption during lactation can cause a life-long influence on nocistatin levels in the offspring and most likely modify nocistatin-related functions such as pain tolerance.

  11. Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorders (FASDs): Treatments

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... the treatment plan that works best for your child. Behavior and Education Therapy NOFAS Brochure — Hope for Children Living with ... Curriculum Development Guide for Medical and Allied Health Education and Practice ... importance of alcohol screening and counseling for all women ...

  12. MORTALITY FROM SUICIDE AND ALCOHOLISM, DEPENDING ON THE LEVEL OF ALCOHOL CONSUMPTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. A. Radkevich

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available According to WHO, the world takes place every year approximately 500 000 suicides and suicide attempts of 7 million. Since 1994, Russia ranks 2nd in the world after Lithuania, in the level of suicides, and is among the countries with the linear dependence of frequency of suicides on the level of alcohol consumption.Purpose. Install a quantitative connection between the frequency of suicide with alcohol consumption and mortality from alcoholism in the world.Material and method. For studies we used the mortality coefficient (MK from suicide and alcohol abuse (number of people/100 thousand of age standardized the population in 159 countries according to the WHO in 2004, the average daily consumption levels of alcoholic beverages: spirits, wine and beer (g/person/day according to the FAO (Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations. For data analysis we used correlation and regression methods.Results. We found significant positive correlation of mortality coefficient (MK from suicide for men and women with consumption of alcoholic beverages (spirits, wine and beer and mortality from alcoholism. The gender differences are revealed. Included in the regression model independent variables (levels of alcohol consumption and mortality from alcoholism explain 66% and 52% of the variability in the frequency of suicides of men and women (dependent variables. A complete rejection of the consumption of alcohol reduces the MK from suicide of men in the world at 39.5 percent, in Russia — at 76.5%; women — 37.9%, in Russia — by 54.3%. According to the regression analysis the average daily level of consumption of strong alcohol in the world is 10.4 g (3.8 kg per year for men, in Russia — 91.8 g (of 33.5 kg per year. The increase in the consumption of strong alcohol to 3 g per day (1 kg per year increases the MK from suicide in men up to 10.8% (1.6 people in the world, in Russia — 2.4% (1.6 people. The increase in the MK of alcoholism of men

  13. [Prophylaxis of alcoholic disease of the liver].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beliakin, S A

    2009-08-01

    Military doctors should have a uniform position to the use of alcohol. Now alcohol is the basic pathogenic factor in development of a lethal cirrhosis of a liver. The most known sayings justifying the use of alcohol, are insolvent. Useful doses of alcohol does not exist. The quantity of used alcohol has the great value. Only at achievement of age 21 year it is possible to use safe doses of alcohol. A safe dose of pure alcohol (ethanol) less than 30,0 in day. In a basis of prophylaxis of a cirrhosis of a liver there is a medical educational activity.

  14. Quasi-experimental Study of Systematic Screening for Family Planning Services among Postpartum Women Attending Village Health and Nutrition Days in Jharkhand, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balasubramaniam, Sudharsanam; Kumar, Somesh; Sethi, Reena; Charurat, Elaine; Lalchandani, Kamlesh; Schuster, Anne; Sood, Bulbul

    2018-01-25

    Systematic screening helps increase family planning uptake through integration with other services, including immunization. Though successfully demonstrated at health facilities, this strategy has not been demonstrated in communities. This study assessed the effectiveness of systematic screening to increase postpartum family planning use during community health days in India without adversely affecting immunization services. The study was conducted during 180 individual Village Health and Nutrition Days in Jharkhand, India. All health workers were trained in postpartum family planning counseling. Intervention providers were also trained in systematic screening. 217 postpartum women aged 15-49 years participated in baseline and endline exit interviews and routine service statistics were analyzed from 2,485 facility visits at affiliated health centers. No difference in family planning service use was found in the intervention group, but significantly fewer interviewed women reported receiving family planning services at endline in the comparison group (p = 0.014). Family planning acceptance at affiliated health centers increased significantly in intervention areas (p family planning services when integrated with community-based services in Jharkhand.

  15. Prevalence and risk factors of alcohol and substance abuse among motorcycle drivers in Fars province, Iran

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Seyed Taghi Heydari; Mehrdad Vossoughi; Armin Akbarzadeh; Kamran B.Lankarani; Yaser Sarikhani; Kazem Javanmardi; Ali Akbary

    2016-01-01

    Purpose:The aim of this present study is to investigate the prevalence of alcohol and substance abuse (ASA) and its relationship with other risky driving behaviors among motorcycle drivers.Methods:This is a cross sectional study which is performed at Shiraz city of Iran.Data from motorcycle drivers were collected using a standard questionnaire in eight major streets at different times of the dayThe data includes consumption of alcohol and other substances two hours before driving and some of the risky behaviors during driving.Results:A total of 414 drivers with a mean ± SD age of(27.0 + 9.3) years participated in the study.Alcohol or substance consumptions two hours before driving was significantly associated with risky driving behaviors such as using mobile phone during driving,poor maneuvering,and driving over the speed limit (both p < 0.001).It was also associated with carelessness about safety such as driving with technical defects (p < 0.001) and not wearing a crash helmet (p =0.008).Conclusion:Screening for alcohol and substance consumption among motorcycle drivers is an efficient way to identifiy drivers that are at a greater risk for road traffic accidents.

  16. Screening and Recording of Patients' Alcohol‑use Habit by ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Alcohol is widely consumed in Ireland; more so in major urban centers. Alcohol‑related problems account for a significant number of Accident and Emergency (A and E) department presentations in Ireland. As a result, the national alcohol policy calls on doctors to be proactive in screening for and addressing ...

  17. The alcohol use disorders identification test (AUDIT: validation of a Nepali version for the detection of alcohol use disorders and hazardous drinking in medical settings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pradhan Bickram

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Alcohol problems are a major health issue in Nepal and remain under diagnosed. Increase in consumption are due to many factors, including advertising, pricing and availability, but accurate information is lacking on the prevalence of current alcohol use disorders. The AUDIT (Alcohol Use Disorder Identification Test questionnaire developed by WHO identifies individuals along the full spectrum of alcohol misuse and hence provides an opportunity for early intervention in non-specialty settings. This study aims to validate a Nepali version of AUDIT among patients attending a university hospital and assess the prevalence of alcohol use disorders along the full spectrum of alcohol misuse. Methods This cross-sectional study was conducted in patients attending the medicine out-patient department of a university hospital. DSM-IV diagnostic categories (alcohol abuse and alcohol dependence were used as the gold standard to calculate the diagnostic parameters of the AUDIT. Hazardous drinking was defined as self reported consumption of ≥21 standard drink units per week for males and ≥14 standard drink units per week for females. Results A total of 1068 individuals successfully completed the study. According to DSM-IV, drinkers were classified as follows: No alcohol problem (n=562; 59.5%, alcohol abusers (n= 78; 8.3% and alcohol dependent (n=304; 32.2%. The prevalence of hazardous drinker was 67.1%. The Nepali version of AUDIT is a reliable and valid screening tool to identify individuals with alcohol use disorders in the Nepalese population. AUDIT showed a good capacity to discriminate dependent patients (with AUDIT ≥11 for both the gender and hazardous drinkers (with AUDIT ≥5 for males and ≥4 for females. For alcohol dependence/abuse the cut off values was ≥9 for both males and females. Conclusion The AUDIT questionnaire is a good screening instrument for detecting alcohol use disorders in patients attending a university

  18. People with gambling disorder and risky alcohol habits benefit more from motivational interviewing than from cognitive behavioral group therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Henrik Josephson

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Background. Effective psychological treatment, including cognitive behavioral therapy and motivational interviewing (MI, is available for people with problematic gambling behaviors. To advance the development of treatment for gambling disorder, it is critical to further investigate how comorbidity impacts different types of treatments. The purpose of this study was to investigate whether screening for risky alcohol habits can provide guidance on whether people with gambling disorder should be recommended cognitive behavioral group therapy (CBGT or MI. Methods. The present study is a secondary analysis of a previous randomized controlled trial that compared the effects of CBGT, MI and a waitlist control group in the treatment of disordered gambling. Assessment and treatment was conducted at an outpatient dependency clinic in Stockholm, Sweden, where 53 trial participants with gambling disorder began treatment. A modified version of the National Opinion Research Centre DSM-IV Screen for gambling problems was used to assess gambling disorder. The Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test (AUDIT was used to screen for risky alcohol habits. Results. The interaction between treatment and alcohol habits was significant and suggests that patients with gambling disorder and risky alcohol habits were better helped by MI, while those without risky alcohol habits were better helped by CBGT. Conclusions. The results support a screening procedure including the AUDIT prior to starting treatment for gambling disorder because the result of the screening can provide guidance in the choice of treatment. Patients with gambling disorder and risky alcohol habits are likely to be best helped if they are referred to MI, while those without risky alcohol habits are likely to be best helped if they are referred to CBGT.

  19. Validation of brief screening tools for depressive and alcohol use disorders among TB and HIV patients in primary care in Zambia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patel Vikram

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background This study was conducted to evaluate the diagnostic accuracy and determine the optimum cut-off scores for clinical use of the Center for Epidemiological Studies Depression scale (CES-D and Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test (AUDIT against a reference psychiatric diagnostic interview, in TB and anti-retroviral therapy (ART patients in primary care in Zambia. Methods This was a cross-sectional study in 16 primary level care clinics. Consecutive sampling was used to select 649 participants who started TB treatment or ART in the preceding month. Participants were first interviewed using the CES-D and AUDIT, and subsequently with a psychiatric diagnostic interview for current major depressive disorder (MDD and alcohol use disorders (AUDs using the Mini-International Neuropsychiatric Interview (MINI. The diagnostic accuracy was calculated using the Area Under the Receiver Operating Characteristic curve (AUROC. The optimum cut-off scores for clinical use were calculated using sensitivity and positive predictive value (PPV. Results The CES-D and AUDIT had high internal consistency (Cronbach's alpha = 0.84; 0.98 respectively. Confirmatory factor analysis showed that the four-factor CES-D model was not a good fit for the data (Tucker-Lewis Fit Index (TLI = 0.86; standardized root-mean square residual (SRMR = 0.06 while the two-factor AUDIT model fitted the data well (TFI = 0.99; SRMR = 0.04. Both the CES-D and AUDIT demonstrated good discriminatory ability in detecting MINI-defined current MDDs and AUDs (AUROC for CES-D = 0.78; AUDIT = 0.98 for women and 0.75 for men. The optimum CES-D cut-off score in screening for current MDD was 22 (sensitivity 73%, PPV 76% while that of the AUDIT in screening for AUD was 24 for women (sensitivity 60%, PPV 60%, and 20 for men (sensitivity 55%, PPV 50%. Conclusions The CES-D and AUDIT showed high discriminatory ability in measuring MINI-defined current MDD and AUD respectively. They are

  20. Meta-Analysis of the Association of Alcohol-Related Social Media Use with Alcohol Consumption and Alcohol-Related Problems in Adolescents and Young Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Curtis, Brenda L; Lookatch, Samantha J; Ramo, Danielle E; McKay, James R; Feinn, Richard S; Kranzler, Henry R

    2018-06-01

    Despite the pervasive use of social media by young adults, there is comparatively little known about whether, and how, engagement in social media influences this group's drinking patterns and risk of alcohol-related problems. We examined the relations between young adults' alcohol-related social media engagement (defined as the posting, liking, commenting, and viewing of alcohol-related social media content) and their drinking behavior and problems. We conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis of studies evaluating the association of alcohol consumption and alcohol-related problems with alcohol-related social media engagement. Summary baseline variables regarding the social media platform used (e.g., Facebook and Twitter), social media measures assessed (e.g., number of alcohol photographs posted), alcohol measures (e.g., Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test and Timeline Follow back Interview), and the number of time points at which data were collected were extracted from each published study. We used the Q statistic to examine heterogeneity in the correlations between alcohol-related social media engagement and both drinking behavior and alcohol-related problems. Because there was significant heterogeneity, we used a random-effects model to evaluate the difference from zero of the weighted aggregate correlations. We used metaregression with study characteristics as moderators to test for moderators of the observed heterogeneity. Following screening, 19 articles met inclusion criteria for the meta-analysis. The primary findings indicated a statistically significant relationship and moderate effect sizes between alcohol-related social media engagement and both alcohol consumption (r = 0.36, 95% CI: 0.29 to 0.44, p social media engagement and drinking behavior or these were measured on different occasions and (ii) whether measurements were taken by self-report or observation of social media engagement. We found moderate-sized effects across the 19

  1. An investigation of strategies used in alcohol brand marketing and alcohol-related health promotion on Facebook.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, Megan Sc; Hare, James D; Carrotte, Elise R; Dietze, Paul M

    2016-01-01

    Alcohol brands are incorporating social networking sites (SNS) into their marketing programmes. SNS are also being used to reduce alcohol consumption and harms by health promotion organisations. Marketing via SNS can attempt to influence consumers using a range of strategies from traditional marketing, social media, and behaviour change theory. This study systematically quantifies marketing strategies used by alcohol brands and health promoters on Facebook. We identified the 10 most popular alcohol brands and health promotion organisations in Australia on Facebook and extracted all posts from April 2014. A framework was developed, listing 33 SNS marketing strategies. The frequency of use of each strategy in posts was counted for all profiles. The median number of fans of alcohol brands was 189,290 compared with 7562 for health promotion pages. A total of 210 Facebook posts were analysed. Popular marketing strategies included visual attraction, connecting with other organisations, and links to culture and events. Time-specific and day-specific posts and tweets were used more regularly by alcohol brands than health promotion agencies. Alcohol brands remain substantially more popular than health promotion organisations, and this difference is likely driven by offline factors rather than specific use of marketing strategies. However, health promotion organisations can learn from the strategies used by popular brands, particularly in the use of time and day-specific content.

  2. How is adults’ screen time behaviour influencing their views on screen time restrictions for children? A cross-sectional study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephanie Schoeppe

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background High screen time in children and its detrimental health effects is a major public health problem. How much screen time adults think is appropriate for children remains little explored, as well as whether adults’ screen time behaviour would determine their views on screen time restrictions for children. This study aimed to investigate how adults’ screen time behaviour influences their views on screen time restrictions for children, including differences by gender and parental status. Methods In 2013, 2034 Australian adults participated in an online survey conducted by the Population Research Laboratory at Central Queensland University, Rockhampton. Adult screen time behaviour was assessed using the Workforce Sitting Questionnaire. Adults reported the maximum time children aged between 5–12 years should be allowed to spend watching TV and using a computer. Ordinal logistic regression was used to compare adult screen time behaviour with views on screen time restrictions for children. Results Most adults (68 % held the view that children should be allowed no more than 2 h of TV viewing and computer use on school days, whilst fewer adults (44 % thought this screen time limit is needed on weekend days. Women would impose higher screen time restrictions for children than men (p  2 h on watching TV and using the computer at home on work days (66 % and non-work days (88 %. Adults spending ≤ 2 h/day in leisure-related screen time were less likely to permit children > 2 h/day of screen time. These associations did not differ by adult gender and parental status. Conclusions Most adults think it is appropriate to limit children’s screen time to the recommended ≤ 2 h/day but few adults themselves adhere to this screen time limit. Adults with lower screen use may be more inclined to limit children’s screen time. Strategies to reduce screen time in children may also need to target adult screen use.

  3. Alcohol self-control behaviors of adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glassman, Tavis; Werch, Chudley Chad; Jobli, Edessa

    2007-03-01

    The aims of the present study were to: (1) factor analyze a 13-item adolescent alcohol self-control behavior scale, (2) examine associations between frequency of self-control behavior use and alcohol consumption, and (3) to determine which self-control behaviors best predict alcohol use and consequences. A confidential standardized survey was used to collect data on participant's 30-day frequency, quantity, and heavy use of alcohol; alcohol-related consequences; and alcohol self-control behaviors. A principal component factor analysis produced the following three components: Healthy Alternatives (alpha=.81), Self-regulation (alpha=.72), and Assertive Communication (alpha=.73). MANOVAs indicated strong associations between frequency of use of the three types of self-control behaviors and alcohol consumption (p valuesadolescents, followed by Healthy Alternatives.

  4. Genetic polymorphisms of alcohol dehydrogense-1B and aldehyde dehydrogenase-2, alcohol flushing, mean corpuscular volume, and aerodigestive tract neoplasia in Japanese drinkers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yokoyama, Akira; Mizukami, Takeshi; Yokoyama, Tetsuji

    2015-01-01

    Genetic polymorphisms of alcohol dehydrogenase-1B (ADH1B) and aldehyde dehydrogenase-2 (ALDH2) modulate exposure levels to ethanol/acetaldehyde. Endoscopic screening of 6,014 Japanese alcoholics yielded high detection rates of esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (SCC; 4.1%) and head and neck SCC (1.0%). The risks of upper aerodigestive tract SCC/dysplasia, especially of multiple SCC/dysplasia, were increased in a multiplicative fashion by the presence of a combination of slow-metabolizing ADH1B*1/*1 and inactive heterozygous ALDH2*1/*2 because of prolonged exposure to higher concentrations of ethanol/acetaldehyde. A questionnaire asking about current and past facial flushing after drinking a glass (≈180 mL) of beer is a reliable tool for detecting the presence of inactive ALDH2. We invented a health-risk appraisal (HRA) model including the flushing questionnaire and drinking, smoking, and dietary habits. Esophageal SCC was detected at a high rate by endoscopic mass-screening in high HRA score persons. A total of 5.0% of 4,879 alcoholics had a history of (4.0%) or newly diagnosed (1.0%) gastric cancer. Their high frequency of a history of gastric cancer is partly explained by gastrectomy being a risk factor for alcoholism because of altered ethanol metabolism, e.g., by blood ethanol level overshooting. The combination of H. pylori-associated atrophic gastritis and ALDH2*1/*2 showed the greatest risk of gastric cancer in alcoholics. High detection rates of advanced colorectal adenoma/carcinoma were found in alcoholics, 15.7% of 744 immunochemical fecal occult blood test (IFOBT)-negative alcoholics and 31.5% of the 393 IFOBT-positive alcoholics. Macrocytosis with an MCV≥106 fl increased the risk of neoplasia in the entire aerodigestive tract of alcoholics, suggesting that poor nutrition as well as ethanol/acetaldehyde exposure plays an important role in neoplasia.

  5. Does last week's alcohol intake affect semen quality or reproductive hormones?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, M L; Thulstrup, A M; Bonde, J P

    2012-01-01

    The association between last 5 days of alcohol intake, semen quality and reproductive hormones was estimated in this cross-sectional study among 347 men. Conventional semen characteristics, DNA fragmentation index and reproductive hormones (testosterone, estradiol, sex hormone-binding globulin...... (SHBG), follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH), luteinizing hormone (LH) and inhibin B) were determined. There was a tendency towards lower semen characteristics at higher intake of alcohol past 5 days, albeit with no statistically significant dose-response association. The ratio between free estradiol...... and free testosterone was higher at higher alcohol intake during the 5 days preceding semen sampling. In conclusion, alcohol intake was associated with impairment of most semen characteristics but without a coherent dose-response pattern. The study indicates an association between recent alcohol intake...

  6. [Development of a prediabetic state under chronic alcohol intoxication].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voĭtenko, V V; Konopel'niuk, V V; Savchuk, O M; Ostapchenko, L I

    2013-01-01

    We investigated the changes in key parameters of carbohydrate and lipid metabolism, which correspond to the clinical picture that accompanies the development of prediabetic condition on the background of chronic alcohol intoxication. From the analysis of glycemic curves obtained during the insulin-glucose test, a speed of glucose uptake by peripheral tissues increased at the 1st day (1.5 fold) and the third day (1.3 fold) of administration of alcohol solution. At the later periods, at 7 and 11 days of ethanol administration, a decreased rate of glucose uptake in animals with chronic alcohol intoxication was detected. We also detected an increased content of serotonin in the blood serum and a decreased (1.2 fold) serotonin content in rat brain during the whole period of development of chronic alcohol intoxication.

  7. Risky drinking among community pharmacy customers in New Zealand and their attitudes towards pharmacist screening and brief interventions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheridan, Janie; Stewart, Joanna; Smart, Ros; McCormick, Ross

    2012-01-01

    To estimate the prevalence of risky drinking among customers in community pharmacies and to explore customer attitudes towards screening and brief intervention (SBI). Cross-sectional, anonymous survey, using random selection of community pharmacies in New Zealand to collect data using self-completion questionnaires and an opportunity to enter a prize draw. Participants were customers/patients attending the community pharmacy on a specific, randomly selected day (Monday to Friday) in one set week. Alcohol Use Disorder Identification Test (AUDIT)-C using a cut-off score of 5 was used to measure risky drinking. Attitudes towards pharmacists engaging in SBI for risky drinkers were measured. 2384 completed customer/patient questionnaires from 43 participating pharmacies. Almost 84% ever drank alcohol and using a score of 5 or more as a cut-off, 30% of the sample would be considered as risky drinkers. Attitudes were generally positive to pharmacists undertaking SBI. Logistic regression with AUDIT-C positive or negative as the dependent variable found those taking medicines for mental health and liver disease being more likely to score negative on the AUDIT-C, and smokers and those purchasing hangover cures were more likely than average to have a positive AUDIT-C screen. This study indicates there is scope for community pharmacists to undertake SBI for risky drinking, and that customers find this to be acceptable. Targeted screening may well be useful, in particular for smokers. Further research is required to explore the effectiveness of SBI for risky drinkers in this setting. © 2011 Australasian Professional Society on Alcohol and other Drugs.

  8. Reduction of mortality following better detection of hypertension and alcohol problems in primary health care in Spain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rehm, Jürgen; Gmel, Gerrit; Sierra, Cristina; Gual, Antoni

    2018-01-01

    Through a simulation study, we estimated the potential effects of better detection of hypertension and improved screening for alcohol problems with subsequent interventions. Results showed that if 50% of Spanish males between 40 and 64 years of age who are currently unaware of their hypertension become aware of their condition and receive the usual treatment, and 50% of these males with hypertension are screened for alcohol and are treated for hazardous drinking or alcohol use disorders, then the percentage of uncontrolled hypertension among men with hypertension decreases from 61.2% to 55.9%, i.e. by 8.6%, with about 1/3 of the effect due to the alcohol intervention. For women, likewise, these interventions would decrease the percentage of women in the same age group with uncontrolled hypertension by 7.4% (about 40% due to the alcohol intervention). The reduction of blood pressure in the population would avoid 412 premature CVD deaths (346 in men, 66 in women) within one year. Therefore, better detection of hypertension and screening for alcohol with subsequent interventions would result in marked reductions of uncontrolled hypertension and CVD mortality.

  9. Stressor-related drinking and future alcohol problems among university students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russell, Michael A; Almeida, David M; Maggs, Jennifer L

    2017-09-01

    Research using daily designs has shown that daily stressors (i.e., conflict, school/work demands) are associated with alcohol use, and that the strength of within-person links between stressors and alcohol use differs from person to person. However, to our knowledge no research has tested whether individual differences in stressor-related drinking-characterized by within-person associations between daily stressors and drinking-predict risk for future alcohol problems, a relationship suggested by theoretical models. The current study used an Internet-based daily diary design among 744 university students to (a) examine the day-level relationship between stressors and alcohol use during the first 3 years of college, and (b) test whether individual differences in the stressor-drinking relationship, captured by person-specific slopes generated from multilevel models, predicted alcohol problems as measured by the Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test (AUDIT) in the fourth year of college. Results showed that students were more likely to drink on days with many versus fewer stressors, and on drinking days, students consumed more drinks with each additional stressor they experienced. Next, using individual multilevel modeling slopes as predictors, we found that students whose odds of drinking alcohol increased more sharply on high- versus low-stressor days (steeper slopes) had more severe AUDIT alcohol problems in the fourth year than students whose drinking odds increased less sharply (flatter slopes). Findings highlight the role of daily stressors in college student drinking and suggest stressor-related drinking as a risk factor for future alcohol problems. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  10. Wasted - the years waiting for an alcohol policy

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Murphy, JFA

    2012-12-01

    Throughout his lecture Bedford portrayed the close and complex relationship between Irish society and alcohol. Alcohol is part of our image both nationally and internationally. Some of the most abiding images of US presidential visits to Ireland are of drinking pints in Irish pubs. There is Arthur’s day and jump into Ireland. Alcohol is intertwined with our great sporting occasions and achievements. The famous Ireland vs England rugby match at Croke Park was set against the backdrop of intensive Guinness advertising. All Ireland final day has a strong association with the drinks industry.

  11. A theory-based implementation program for alcohol screening and brief intervention (ASBI) in general practices: Planned development and study protocol of a cluster randomised controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abidi, L; Oenema, A; Candel, M J J M; van de Mheen, D

    2016-11-01

    Previous studies have shown that alcohol screening and brief intervention (ASBI) in general practices can lead to significant reductions in alcohol consumption among patients, yet ASBI is rarely implemented into routine clinical practice. The aim of this paper is to describe the development and evaluation of an ASBI implementation program aimed at increasing ASBI delivery rates of general practitioners (GPs) and decreasing patients' alcohol consumption. This study protocol describes the step-wise development and evaluation of an ASBI implementation program. A four-step method is used to identify relevant determinants of change and intervention components based on the Behaviour Change Wheel and the Theoretical Domains Framework. The program will be evaluated in general practices in The Netherlands in a two-arm cluster randomised controlled trial which investigates the effect of the program on GPs' ASBI delivery behaviour as well as on patients' alcohol consumption. Effective theory- and practice-based strategies to implement ASBI in general practices are highly needed. Using a stepwise method we described the development of a program consisting of an e-learning module, a tailored feedback module and environmental support and materials. We hypothesize that this program will result in an increase of GPs' ASBI delivery behaviour. Secondly, we expect an overall decrease in percentage of patients with excessive or problematic alcohol use and a higher proportion of patients from GPs receiving the ASBI implementation program decreasing their alcohol consumption, compared to patients from GPs in the control group. NTR5539. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Methamphetamine-alcohol interactions in murine models of sequential and simultaneous oral drug-taking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fultz, Elissa K; Martin, Douglas L; Hudson, Courtney N; Kippin, Tod E; Szumlinski, Karen K

    2017-08-01

    A high degree of co-morbidity exists between methamphetamine (MA) addiction and alcohol use disorders and both sequential and simultaneous MA-alcohol mixing increases risk for co-abuse. As little preclinical work has focused on the biobehavioral interactions between MA and alcohol within the context of drug-taking behavior, we employed simple murine models of voluntary oral drug consumption to examine how prior histories of either MA- or alcohol-taking influence the intake of the other drug. In one study, mice with a 10-day history of binge alcohol-drinking [5,10, 20 and 40% (v/v); 2h/day] were trained to self-administer oral MA in an operant-conditioning paradigm (10-40mg/L). In a second study, mice with a 10-day history of limited-access oral MA-drinking (5, 10, 20 and 40mg/L; 2h/day) were presented with alcohol (5-40% v/v; 2h/day) and then a choice between solutions of 20% alcohol, 10mg/L MA or their mix. Under operant-conditioning procedures, alcohol-drinking mice exhibited less MA reinforcement overall, than water controls. However, when drug availability was not behaviorally-contingent, alcohol-drinking mice consumed more MA and exhibited greater preference for the 10mg/L MA solution than drug-naïve and combination drug-experienced mice. Conversely, prior MA-drinking history increased alcohol intake across a range of alcohol concentrations. These exploratory studies indicate the feasibility of employing procedurally simple murine models of sequential and simultaneous oral MA-alcohol mixing of relevance to advancing our biobehavioral understanding of MA-alcohol co-abuse. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. CDC Vital Signs: Alcohol Screening and Counseling

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... service without a co-payment. Top of Page Problem Doctors, nurses, and other health professionals should screen all adult patients and counsel ... often than it does. Yet, people report a doctor, nurse, or other health ... first step for addressing problems with drinking too much: Only 1 in 6 ...

  14. Social Desirability Bias in the Reporting of Alcohol Consumption: A Randomized Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kypri, Kypros; Wilson, Amanda; Attia, John; Sheeran, Paschal; Miller, Peter; McCambridge, Jim

    2016-05-01

    To investigate reporting of alcohol consumption, we manipulated the contexts of questions in ways designed to induce social desirability bias. We undertook a two-arm, parallel-group, individually randomized trial at an Australian public university. Students were recruited by email to a web-based "Research Project on Student Health Behavior." Respondents answered nine questions about their physical activity, diet, and smoking. They were unknowingly randomized to a group presented with either (A) three questions about their alcohol consumption or (B) seven questions about their alcohol dependence and problems (under a prominent header labeled "Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test"), followed by the same three alcohol consumption questions from (A). A total of 3,594 students (mean age = 27, SD = 10) responded and were randomized: 1,778 to Group A and 1,816 to Group B. Outcome measures were the number of days they drank alcohol, the typical number of drinks they consumed per drinking day, and the number of days they consumed six or more drinks. The primary analysis included participants with any alcohol consumption in the preceding 4 weeks (1,304 in Group A; 1,340 in Group B) using between-group, two-tailed t tests. In Groups A and B, respectively, means (and SDs) of the number of days drinking were 5.89 (5.92) versus 6.06 (6.12), p = .49; typical number of drinks per drinking day: 4.02 (3.87) versus 3.82 (3.76), p = .17; and number of days consuming six or more drinks: 1.69 (2.94) versus 1.67 (3.25), p = .56. We could not reject the null hypothesis because earlier questions about alcohol dependence and problems showed no sign of biasing the respondents' subsequent reports of alcohol consumption. These data support the validity of university students' reporting of alcohol consumption in web-based studies.

  15. Blood alcohol analysis alone versus comprehensive toxicological analysis - Systematic investigation of missed co-ingested other drugs in suspected alcohol-impaired drivers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steuer, Andrea E; Eisenbeiss, Lisa; Kraemer, Thomas

    2016-10-01

    Driving under the influence of alcohol and/or drugs (DUID) is a safety issue of increasing public concern. When a police officer has reasonable grounds to classify a driver as impaired, he may arrange for a blood sample to be taken. In many countries, alcohol analysis only is ordered if impairment is suspected to be exclusively due to alcohol while comprehensive toxicological screening will be performed if additional suspicion for other illegal drugs of abuse (DoA) or medicinal drugs is on hand. The aim of the present study was firstly to evaluate whether signs of impairment can be differentiated to be caused by alcohol alone or a combination of alcohol and other driving-impairing drugs and secondly to which extent additional drugs are missed in suspected alcohol-impaired drivers. A total of 293 DUID cases (negative n=41; alcohol positive only, n=131; alcohol+active drug positive, n=121) analyzed in 2015 in the Canton of Zurich were evaluated for their documented impairment symptoms by translating these into a severity score and comparing them applying principle component analysis (PCA). Additional 500 cases suspected for alcohol-impaired driving only were reanalyzed using comprehensive LC-MS/MS screening methods covering about 1500 compounds. Drugs detected were classified for severity of driving impairment using the classification system established in the DRUID study of the European Commission. As partly expected from the pharmacological and toxicological point of view, PCA analysis revealed no differences between signs of impairment caused by alcohol alone and those caused by alcohol plus at least one active drug. Breaking it down to different blood alcohol concentration ranges, only between 0.3 and 0.5g/kg trends could be observed in terms of more severe impairment for combined alcohol and drug intake. In the 500 blood samples retrospectively analyzed in this study, a total of 330 additional drugs could be detected; in some cases up to 9 co-ingested ones. In

  16. Predictors of advanced colorectal neoplasia for colorectal cancer screening.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Martin C S; Lam, Thomas Y T; Tsoi, Kelvin K F; Chan, Victor C W; Hirai, Hoyee W; Ching, Jessica Y L; Sung, Joseph J Y

    2014-05-01

    The Asia-Pacific Colorectal Screening (APCS) score based on age, gender, family history, and smoking is useful to predict advanced colorectal neoplasia (ACN) in asymptomatic Asian subjects. To evaluate the factors in addition to those of APCS associated with ACN colonoscopic findings. Data from 5,220 asymptomatic subjects aged between 50 and 70 years who underwent screening colonoscopy in a community center between 2008 and 2012 were analyzed. One binary logistic regression analysis was conducted in 2013 with the presence of ACN or cancer as the outcome, controlling for APCS score, alcohol consumption, BMI, hypertension, and other chronic diseases as independent variables. The average participant age was 57.7 years (SD=4.9) and 47.5% were men. Advanced neoplasms or cancers were identified at colonoscopy in 5.6% of all screening participants. From multivariate regression analysis, APCS score≥4 (adjusted OR [AOR]=1.74, 95% CI=1.34, 2.25, pstatistic of APCS score alone was 0.560 (95% CI=0.524, 0.595, p=0.001) and that of APCS score plus BMI, hypertension, and alcohol consumption was 0.613 (95% CI=0.578, 0.648, p<0.001). Alcohol consumption, hypertension, and BMI are independent predictors of ACN, which could be incorporated into the APCS for prioritizing Asian asymptomatic subjects for colorectal cancer screening. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  17. Personality disorder and treatment outcome in alcohol use disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newton-Howes, Giles; Foulds, James

    2018-01-01

    As personality disorder impacts the outcome of most major mental disorders, it would be consistent for it to impact negatively on the outcome of alcohol use disorders (AUDs). This update is to provide an up-to-date overview of the recent literature examining the impact of personality disorder and personality traits on the treatment outcome of AUDs. Comorbidity between personality disorder and AUD is significant and approaches 50%. Patients with AUD and comorbid personality disorder are substantially less likely to remain in treatment, drink more per drinking day and drink more frequently. If retained in treatment, comorbidity does not, however, lead to poorer outcomes. Relapse to drinking is more common in patient with high novelty seeking and lower reward dependence and persistence. Reporting from most studies is of moderate-to-poor quality and a single high-quality study may alter these findings. Landmark alcohol studies are notably quiet on the impact of personality on AUD treatment outcome. Both personality disorder and higher novelty seeking impact negatively on the treatment outcome of AUD. As personality disorder is common in this group, clinicians engaged in AUD treatment should screen for personality disturbance, either disorder or high novelty seeking.

  18. Hepatotoxicity of illegal home-made alcohols.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gökce, Hasan; Akcan, Ramazan; Celikel, Adnan; Zeren, Cem; Ortanca, Ibrahim; Demirkiran, Sumeyra

    2016-10-01

    Alcohol-related hepatotoxicity is not only caused by excessive alcohol consumption but also caused and even accelerated by hepatotoxic ingredients other than ethanol. Concentrations of hepatotoxic substances might be significantly high, particularly in illegally produced home-made alcohols. In this study we aim to analyze the hepatotoxic effects of a home-made alcohol traditionally called "bogma raki" in Turkey. Fifty Wistar albino male rats were used. Five groups were randomly formed with ten animals in each. Besides laboratory diets, groups were fed as follows: Group 1 (control group) distilled water; Group 2 bogma raki with distilled water (%44 (v/v), 9.2 ml/kg/day); Group 3 bogma raki with distilled water (%44 (v/v), 9.2 ml/kg/day)+walnut (10 g/kg/day); Group 4 whisky with distilled water (%40 (v/v), 9.2 ml/kg/day); Group 5 distilled water + walnut (10 g/kg/day), for 28 days. The toxicological analysis of The spirits were analyzed using Hewlett-Packard (Palo Alto, CA) GC/MS system with HP 6890 gas chromatograph, an HP 5972 mass selective detector (MSD) and an HP 6890 automatic liquid sampler GC/MS; the pressure of the carrier gas helium was 6.0 bar and the split value with a ratio of 1:100. The injection unit temperature set to 250 °C and MS quadrupole temperature set to 280 °C. The MS quadrupole detector ionization energy set to 70 eV. The initial column temperature was 60 °C (for 4 min) programmed by 6 °C/min to final temperature 160 °C and kept for 8 min at 160 °C. Utilized whisky and bogma raki samples were analyzed for the amounts of trans-anethole, ethanol, methanol, 1-propanolol, butanol, 2-butanol, 2-methyl-1-propanolol (isobutanol) and 3-methylbutanol (isoamyl alcohol). Histopathological changes in liver tissues were graded as follows; normal = 0 (illegally produced raki sample (%v/v) was as follows: trans-anethole %1.93, ethanol %95.70, 2-methyl-1-propanolol (isobutanol) %0.19, asetic acid %0.25, 3-methylbutanol (isoamyl

  19. Effect of alcohol exposure on fetal brain development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sudheendran, Narendran; Bake, Shameena; Miranda, Rajesh C.; Larin, Kirill V.

    2013-02-01

    Alcohol consumption during pregnancy can be severely damage to the brain development in fetuses. This study investigates the effects of maternal ethanol consumption on brain development in mice embryos. Pregnant mice at gestational day 12.5 were intragastrically gavaged with ethanol (3g/Kg bwt) twice daily for three consecutive days. On gestational day 14.5, fetuses were collected and fixed in 4% paraformaldehyde and imaged using a swept-source optical coherence tomography (SSOCT) system. 3D images of the mice embryo brain were obtained and the volumes of the left and right ventricles of the brain were measured. The average volumes of the left and the right volumes of 5 embryos each alcohol-exposed and control embryos were measured to be 0.35 and 0.15 mm3, respectively. The results suggest that the left and right ventricle volumes of brain are much larger in the alcohol-exposed embryos as compared to control embryos indicating alcohol-induced developmental delay.

  20. Alcohol-Related Facebook Activity Predicts Alcohol Use Patterns in College Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marczinski, Cecile A.; Hertzenberg, Heather; Goddard, Perilou; Maloney, Sarah F.; Stamates, Amy L.; O’Connor, Kathleen

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine if a brief 10-item alcohol-related Facebook® activity (ARFA) questionnaire would predict alcohol use patterns in college students (N = 146). During a single laboratory session, participants first privately logged on to their Facebook® profiles while they completed the ARFA measure, which queries past 30 day postings related to alcohol use and intoxication. Participants were then asked to complete five additional questionnaires: three measures of alcohol use (the Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test [AUDIT], the Timeline Follow-Back [TLFB], and the Personal Drinking Habits Questionnaire [PDHQ]), the Barratt Impulsiveness Scale (BIS-11), and the Marlowe-Crowne Social Desirability Scale (MC-SDS). Regression analyses revealed that total ARFA scores were significant predictors of recent drinking behaviors, as assessed by the AUDIT, TLFB, and PDHQ measures. Moreover, impulsivity (BIS-11) and social desirability (MC-SDS) did not predict recent drinking behaviors when ARFA total scores were included in the regressions. The findings suggest that social media activity measured via the ARFA scale may be useful as a research tool for identifying risky alcohol use. PMID:28138317

  1. Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorders (FASDs): Data and Statistics

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... alcohol screening and counseling for all women Data & Statistics Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir Prevalence of ... conducted annually by the National Center for Health Statistics (NCHS), CDC, to produce national estimates for a ...

  2. Prednisolone or pentoxifylline for alcoholic hepatitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thursz, Mark R; Richardson, Paul; Allison, Michael; Austin, Andrew; Bowers, Megan; Day, Christopher P; Downs, Nichola; Gleeson, Dermot; MacGilchrist, Alastair; Grant, Allister; Hood, Steven; Masson, Steven; McCune, Anne; Mellor, Jane; O'Grady, John; Patch, David; Ratcliffe, Ian; Roderick, Paul; Stanton, Louise; Vergis, Nikhil; Wright, Mark; Ryder, Stephen; Forrest, Ewan H

    2015-04-23

    Alcoholic hepatitis is a clinical syndrome characterized by jaundice and liver impairment that occurs in patients with a history of heavy and prolonged alcohol use. The short-term mortality among patients with severe disease exceeds 30%. Prednisolone and pentoxifylline are both recommended for the treatment of severe alcoholic hepatitis, but uncertainty about their benefit persists. We conducted a multicenter, double-blind, randomized trial with a 2-by-2 factorial design to evaluate the effect of treatment with prednisolone or pentoxifylline. The primary end point was mortality at 28 days. Secondary end points included death or liver transplantation at 90 days and at 1 year. Patients with a clinical diagnosis of alcoholic hepatitis and severe disease were randomly assigned to one of four groups: a group that received a pentoxifylline-matched placebo and a prednisolone-matched placebo, a group that received prednisolone and a pentoxifylline-matched placebo, a group that received pentoxifylline and a prednisolone-matched placebo, or a group that received both prednisolone and pentoxifylline. A total of 1103 patients underwent randomization, and data from 1053 were available for the primary end-point analysis. Mortality at 28 days was 17% (45 of 269 patients) in the placebo-placebo group, 14% (38 of 266 patients) in the prednisolone-placebo group, 19% (50 of 258 patients) in the pentoxifylline-placebo group, and 13% (35 of 260 patients) in the prednisolone-pentoxifylline group. The odds ratio for 28-day mortality with pentoxifylline was 1.07 (95% confidence interval [CI], 0.77 to 1.49; P=0.69), and that with prednisolone was 0.72 (95% CI, 0.52 to 1.01; P=0.06). At 90 days and at 1 year, there were no significant between-group differences. Serious infections occurred in 13% of the patients treated with prednisolone versus 7% of those who did not receive prednisolone (P=0.002). Pentoxifylline did not improve survival in patients with alcoholic hepatitis. Prednisolone

  3. The validity of military screening for mental health problems: diagnostic accuracy of the PCL, K10 and AUDIT scales in an entire military population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Searle, Amelia K; Van Hooff, Miranda; McFarlane, Alexander C; Davies, Christopher E; Fairweather-Schmidt, A Kate; Hodson, Stephanie E; Benassi, Helen; Steele, Nicole

    2015-03-01

    Depression, alcohol use disorders and post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) are serious issues among military personnel due to their impact on operational capability and individual well-being. Several military forces screen for these disorders using scales including the Kessler Psychological Distress Scale (K10), Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test (AUDIT), and Post-traumatic Stress Disorder Checklist (PCL). However, it is unknown whether established cutoffs apply to military populations. This study is the first to test the diagnostic accuracy of these three scales in a population-based military cohort. A large sample of currently-serving Australian Defence Force (ADF) Navy, Army and Air Force personnel (n = 24,481) completed the K10, AUDIT and PCL-C (civilian version). Then, a stratified sub-sample (n = 1798) completed a structured diagnostic interview detecting 30-day disorder. Data were weighted to represent the ADF population (n = 50,049). Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) analyses suggested all three scales had acceptable sensitivity and specificity, with areas under the curve from 0.75 to 0.93. AUDIT and K10 screening cutoffs closely paralleled established cutoffs, whereas the PCL-C screening cutoff resembled that recommended for US military personnel. These self-report scales represent a cost-effective and clinically-useful means of screening personnel for disorder. Military populations may need lower cutoffs than civilians to screen for PTSD. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  4. An experimental trial exploring the impact of continuous transdermal alcohol monitoring upon alcohol consumption in a cohort of male students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neville, Fergus G; Williams, Damien J; Goodall, Christine A; Murer, Jeffrey S; Donnelly, Peter D

    2013-01-01

    To examine the impact of continuous transdermal alcohol monitoring upon alcohol consumption in male students at a Scottish university. Using a within-subject mixed-methods design, 60 male university students were randomly allocated into three experimental conditions using AUDIT score stratified sampling. Participants in Conditions A and B were asked not to consume alcohol for a 14-day period, with those in Condition A additionally being required to wear a continuous transdermal alcohol monitoring anklet. Condition C participants wore an anklet and were asked to continue consuming alcohol as normal. Alcohol consumption was measured through alcohol timeline follow-back, and using data collected from the anklets where available. Diaries and focus groups explored participants' experiences of the trial. Alcohol consumption during the 14-day trial decreased significantly for participants in Conditions A and B, but not in C. There was no significant relative difference in units of alcohol consumed between Conditions A and B, but significantly fewer participants in Condition A drank alcohol than in Condition B. Possible reasons for this difference identified from the focus groups and diaries included the anklet acting as a reminder of commitment to the study (and the agreement to sobriety), participants feeling under surveillance, and the use of the anklet as a tool to resist social pressure to consume alcohol. The study provided experience in using continuous transdermal alcohol monitors in an experimental context, and demonstrated ways in which the technology may be supportive in facilitating sobriety. Results from the study have been used to design a research project using continuous transdermal alcohol monitors with ex-offenders who recognise a link between their alcohol consumption and offending behaviour.

  5. Modulation of the effects of alcohol on driving-related psychomotor skills by chronic exposure to cannabis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wright, A; Terry, P

    2002-03-01

    Many previous studies have reported that alcohol and cannabis produce additive psychomotor effects in acute combination, but few have explicitly tested whether chronic exposure to cannabis, in the absence of acute administration, alters the effects of alcohol on psychomotor performance. To test whether long-term cannabis use modulates the effects of alcohol on psychomotor skills and self-reported mood and sensation. Regular cannabis users (minimum: daily use for at least 3 years) and infrequent users (maximum: once-monthly use for at most 3 years) were matched for sex, age, alcohol intake and other drug use (14 participants in each group). Participants received alcohol (females 0.35 g/kg; males 0.45 g/kg) and placebo drinks. By urinalysis, only regular users tested positive for metabolites of Delta(9)-tetrahydrocannabinol; breath alcohol levels were similar between groups. Participants were tested on a computerised tracking task that has been used to screen drugs for adverse effects on driving. The task involved tracking a moving target on a computer screen while simultaneously responding to occasional presentations of stimuli in the periphery of the screen. Tracking accuracy was similar for both groups after placebo, but alcohol caused a significant deterioration in performance among infrequent cannabis users relative to regular users. These changes were mirrored by significant changes in self-reported scores for dizziness, measured by visual analogue scales. Alcohol slowed reaction times, but not differentially between groups. For psychomotor skills relevant to driving, chronic cannabis use (in the absence of acute administration) does not potentiate the effects of alcohol. In fact, the superior tracking accuracy of regular users relative to infrequent users after alcohol, and their lower scores for dizziness, suggest that chronic cannabis use may instead confer cross-tolerance to specific effects of alcohol on behaviour.

  6. Patient and practitioner characteristics predict brief alcohol intervention in primary care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaner, E F; Heather, N; Brodie, J; Lock, C A; McAvoy, B R

    2001-10-01

    The effectiveness of an evidence-based health care intervention depends on it being delivered consistently to appropriate patients. Brief alcohol intervention is known to be effective at reducing excessive drinking and its concomitant health and social problems. However, a recent implementation trial reported partial delivery of brief alcohol intervention by general practitioners (GPs) which is likely to have reduced its impact. To investigate patient-practitioner characteristics influencing brief alcohol intervention in primary care. Cross-sectional analysis of 12,814 completed Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test (AUDIT) screening questionnaires. Eighty-four GPs who had implemented a brief alcohol intervention programme in a previous trial based in the Northeast of England. GPs were requested to screen all adults (aged over 16 years) presenting to their surgery and follow a structured protocol to give a brief intervention (five minutes of advice plus an information booklet) to all 'risk' drinkers. Anonymized carbon copies of the screening questionnaire were collected from all practices after a three-month implementation period. Although AUDIT identified 4080 'risk' drinkers, only 2043 (50%) received brief intervention. Risk drinkers that were most likely to receive brief intervention were males (58%), unemployed (61%), and technically-trained patients (55%). Risk drinkers that were least likely to receive brief intervention were females (44%), students (38%), and university educated patients (46%). Logistic regression modelling showed that patients' risk status was the most influential predictor of brief intervention. Also, GPs' experience of relevant training and longer average practice consultations predicted brief intervention. However, personal characteristics relating to patients and GPs also predicted brief intervention in routine practice. Interpersonal factors relating to patients and practitioners contributed to the selective provision of brief

  7. Alcoholic liver disease in Nepal: identifying homemade alcohol as a culprit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pradhan B

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Bickram Pradhan,1 Antoine Hadengue,2 François Chappuis,3 Shatdal Chaudhary,1 Dharanidhar Baral,4 Pascal Gache,5 Prahlad Karki,6 Suman Rijal6 1Division of Gastroenterology and Hepatology, Department of Internal Medicine, B P Koirala Institute of Health Sciences, Dharan, Nepal; 2Department of Gastroenterology and Hepatology, 3Division of Tropical and Humanitarian Medicine, Geneva University Hospital, Geneva, Switzerland; 4Department of Community Medicine and School of Public Health, B P Koirala Institute of Health Sciences, Dharan, Nepal; 5Department of Health and Community Medicine. Geneva University Hospital, Geneva, Switzerland; 6Department of Internal Medicine, B P Koirala Institute of Health Sciences, Dharan, Nepal Background: Though the type of alcohol consumed is not thought to be associated with alcoholic liver disease (ALD, some studies have shown a beverage-specific effect. In the present study, we aim to study the effects of locally brewed alcoholic beverages on the development of liver disease.Patients and methods: This cross-sectional study was conducted at the internal medicine department of a university hospital in Nepal. All patients classified as having either alcohol abuse or alcohol dependence by the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, 4th Edition were evaluated for the presence of ALD.Results: A total of 1,500 patients were screened, of which, 447 patients had ALD. Chronic liver disease (CLD was detected in 144 patients (9.6%. Most of the patients consumed homemade locally brewed alcohol. On multivariate analysis, the following variables were found to be significantly associated with CLD: male sex (odds ratio [OR]: 1.81; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.12–2.94; P=0.02: rakshi consumption ≥30 units (OR: 2.53; 95% CI: 1.07–6.01; P=0.04; and tongba consumption (OR: 3.02; 95% CI: 1.22–7.50; P=0.02.Conclusion: There was a significant increase in the risk of developing ALD with the consumption of rakshi

  8. Alcohol calibration of tests measuring skills related to car driving.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jongen, Stefan; Vuurman, Eric; Ramaekers, Jan; Vermeeren, Annemiek

    2014-06-01

    Medication and illicit drugs can have detrimental side effects which impair driving performance. A drug's impairing potential should be determined by well-validated, reliable, and sensitive tests and ideally be calibrated by benchmark drugs and doses. To date, no consensus has been reached on the issue of which psychometric tests are best suited for initial screening of a drug's driving impairment potential. The aim of this alcohol calibration study is to determine which performance tests are useful to measure drug-induced impairment. The effects of alcohol are used to compare the psychometric quality between tests and as benchmark to quantify performance changes in each test associated with potentially impairing drug effects. Twenty-four healthy volunteers participated in a double-blind, four-way crossover study. Treatments were placebo and three different doses of alcohol leading to blood alcohol concentrations (BACs) of 0.2, 0.5, and 0.8 g/L. Main effects of alcohol were found in most tests. Compared with placebo, performance in the Divided Attention Test (DAT) was significantly impaired after all alcohol doses and performance in the Psychomotor Vigilance Test (PVT) and the Balance Test was impaired with a BAC of 0.5 and 0.8 g/L. The largest effect sizes were found on postural balance with eyes open and mean reaction time in the divided attention and the psychomotor vigilance test. The preferable tests for initial screening are the DAT and the PVT, as these tests were most sensitive to the impairing effects of alcohol and being considerably valid in assessing potential driving impairment.

  9. Damage of hippocampal neurons in rats with chronic alcoholism

    OpenAIRE

    Du, Ailin; Jiang, Hongbo; Xu, Lei; An, Na; Liu, Hui; Li, Yinsheng; Zhang, Ruiling

    2014-01-01

    Chronic alcoholism can damage the cytoskeleton and aggravate neurological deficits. However, the effect of chronic alcoholism on hippocampal neurons remains unclear. In this study, a model of chronic alcoholism was established in rats that were fed with 6% alcohol for 42 days. Endogenous hydrogen sulfide content and cystathionine-beta-synthase activity in the hippocampus of rats with chronic alcoholism were significantly increased, while F-actin expression was decreased. Hippocampal neurons i...

  10. Underage college students' alcohol displays on Facebook and real-time alcohol behaviors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreno, Megan A; Cox, Elizabeth D; Young, Henry N; Haaland, Wren

    2015-06-01

    College is often a time of alcohol use initiation and displayed Facebook alcohol references. The purpose of this longitudinal study was to determine associations between initial references to alcohol on social media and college students' self-reported recent drinking, binge drinking, and excessive drinking. First-year students from two U.S. public universities were randomly selected from registrar lists for recruitment. Data collection included 2 years of monthly Facebook evaluation. When an initial displayed Facebook alcohol reference was identified, these "New Alcohol Displayers" were contacted for phone interviews. Phone interviews used the validated timeline followback method to evaluate recent alcohol use, binge episodes, and excessive drinking. Analyses included calculation of positive predictive value and Poisson regression. A total of 338 participants were enrolled; 56.1% participants were female, 74.8% were Caucasian, and 58.8% were from the Midwestern University. A total of 167 (49.4%) participants became new alcohol displayers during the first 2 years of college. Among new alcohol displayers, 78.5% reported past 28-day alcohol use. Among new alcohol displayers who reported recent alcohol use, 84.9% reported at least one binge episode. Posting an initial Facebook alcohol reference as a profile picture or cover photo was positively associated with excessive drinking (risk ratio = 2.34; 95% confidence interval, 1.54-3.58). Findings suggest positive associations between references to alcohol on social media and self-reported recent alcohol use. Location of initial reference as a profile picture or cover photo was associated with problematic drinking and may suggest that a student would benefit from clinical investigation or resources. Copyright © 2015 Society for Adolescent Health and Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Screening and brief intervention for unhealthy drug use: little or no efficacy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard eSaitz

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Unhealthy drug use ranges from use that risks health harms through severe drug use disorders. This narrative review addresses whether screening and brief intervention, efficacious for risky alcohol use, has efficacy for reducing other drug use and consequences. Brief intervention among those seeking help shows some promise. Screening tools have been validated though most are neither brief nor simple enough for use in general health settings. Several randomized trials have tested the efficacy of brief intervention for unhealthy drug use identified by screening in general health settings (i.e. in people not seeking help for their drug use. Substantial evidence now suggests efficacy is limited or non-existent. Reasons likely include a range of actual and perceived severity (or lack of severity, concomitant unhealthy alcohol use and comorbid mental health conditions, and the wide range of types of unhealthy drug use (e.g. from marijuana, to prescription drugs, to heroin. Although brief intervention may have some efficacy for unhealthy drug users seeking help, the model of screening and brief intervention that has effects in primary care settings on risky alcohol use may not be efficacious for other drug use.

  12. Alcohol use among Latino migrant workers in South Florida.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sánchez, Jesús

    2015-06-01

    A significant segment of the Latino migrant worker population in the United States is at high risk for alcohol abuse and related risk behaviors. Information about the prevalence of alcohol use and abuse and its association with sociodemographic and psychological variables is needed for designing effective intervention prevention strategies. Cross-sectional data were drawn from a baseline assessment that was part of a randomized controlled trial of 278 Latino migrant workers (LMWs) conducted between 2008 and 2010. About one-third (32%) of participants engaged in heavy drinking in the past 30 days prior to baseline interview. More females than males reported no alcohol use in the past 30 days (53.5% vs. 20.5%). On the other hand, more males reported drinking every day or nearly (25.2% vs. 7.1%). Five factors-gender, country of origin, relationship status, living arrangements, and acculturation-were significantly associated with frequency of alcohol consumption. Multivariate analyses indicated that gender, country of origin, education attainment, relationship status, living arrangement, living with children, length of stay in the US, religious beliefs, acculturation, and depression were associated with frequent heavy drinking, alcohol abuse/dependence, and unprotected sex under the influence of alcohol. There is significant variation in alcohol use among Latino migrant workers. Although a substantial proportion of this population abstains from alcohol, an equally substantial proportion report levels of alcohol use that pose significant risk. More research is needed to better understand drinking patterns in this community in order to design prevention strategies specifically tailored for this population. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Family history density of substance use problems among undergraduate college students: Associations with heavy alcohol use and alcohol use disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Powers, Gregory; Berger, Lisa; Fuhrmann, Daniel; Fendrich, Michael

    2017-08-01

    A family history of alcoholism has been found associated with problematic alcohol use among college students, but less research has examined the effects of family history density of substance use problems in this population. This study examined the prevalence of family history density of substance use problems and its associations with heavy alcohol use, negative alcohol consequences, and alcohol use disorder in a college sample. Based on a secondary analysis of a probability sample, data were analyzed from 606 undergraduate students. Family history density of substance use problems included both first and second degree biological relatives. Heavy alcohol use was the total number of days in which participants drank five/four or more drinks for men/women, negative alcohol consequences were derived from items commonly asked in college student surveys, and an alcohol use disorder was defined as meeting diagnostic criteria for alcohol abuse or dependence. Point prevalence estimated rates of family history density of substance use problems, and negative binomial, ANCOVA, and logistic regression models examined associations between family history density and the alcohol variables while adjusting for sociodemographic variables. Family history density of substance use problems was not significantly associated with total days of heavy alcohol use. Having a second degree, a first degree, or both a first and second degree relative(s) with a substance use problem, however, was significantly associated with experiencing negative alcohol consequences. In addition, having both a first and second degree relative(s) with a substance use problem significantly increased the odds of having an alcohol use disorder. Family history density of substance use problems may play a role in experiencing negative alcohol consequences and in having an alcohol use disorder among undergraduate college students and may be an important risk factor to assess by college health professionals. Copyright

  14. Alcohol abuse and postoperative morbidity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tønnesen, Hanne

    2003-01-01

    Patients who drink too much have more complications after surgery. The aim of this thesis was to evaluate the evidence, possible mechanisms, and prevention of the increased postoperative morbidity in alcohol abusers, defined by a consumption of at least five drinks per day. The literature could...... be criticised for several methodological flaws. Nevertheless, the results are in agreement showing moderate to strong evidence of increased postoperative morbidity after surgical procedures on alcohol abusers. There is weak to moderate evidence of increased postoperative mortality, hospital stay, and re......-operation. The personal and economic consequences are tremendous. The incidence of alcohol abusers undergoing surgery was 7% to 49%, according to gender and diagnosis. They have been identified by a self-reported alcohol intake, which implies the possibility of underestimation. Alcohol markers could be used for a more...

  15. Continuous alcoholic fermentation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smidrkal, M; Nejedly, A

    1956-01-01

    Results are given of investigations on the continuous production of ethanol on a laboratory and on a semi-commercial scale. The suggested devices are particularly described. Under constant conditions the production cycle required 12 to 17 days, the acidity being 4.0 to 415 ml. 0.1 N NaOH/100 ml and the concentration of fermented wort 10.5 to 11%. The maximum production from 1 h of fermentation space during 24 h was 8.67 l of absolute alcohol when the efflux was divided into several basins; when the efflux of sweet wort was collected into one basin only, the maximum production was 7.20 l of absolute alcohol. The amount of alcohol produced was 62.20 l/100 kg sugar.

  16. The Relationship Between Excessive Alcohol Consumption and Alcohol Use Disorders According to DSM-IV and DSM-5

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tuithof, Marlous; ten Have, Margreet; van den Brink, Wim; Vollebergh, Wilma; de Graaf, Ron

    BackgroundAlthough it seems intuitive that alcohol use disorders (AUDs) include excessive alcohol consumption (EAC), this notion is not well established. This study investigates to which degree EAC (defined as >14/21 drinks weekly for women/men and at least three 5+ drinking days per week) and AUD

  17. The relationship between excessive alcohol consumption and alcohol use disorders according to DSM-IV and DSM-5

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tuithof, Marlous; ten Have, Margreet; van den Brink, Wim; Vollebergh, Wilma; de Graaf, Ron

    2014-01-01

    Although it seems intuitive that alcohol use disorders (AUDs) include excessive alcohol consumption (EAC), this notion is not well established. This study investigates to which degree EAC (defined as >14/21 drinks weekly for women/men and at least three 5+ drinking days per week) and AUD overlap and

  18. Association between serum irisin levels and non-alcoholic fatty liver disease in health screen examinees.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eun Sung Choi

    Full Text Available Irisin is a recently found myokine that aids obesity control and improves glucose homeostasis by acting on white adipose tissue cells and increases total energy consumption. The aim of this study was to evaluate serum irisin levels in patients with non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD and to compare these levels with those of normal controls. Among 595 health screen examinees who had visited our institute between January 2013 to March 2013, 355 patients (84 NAFLD patients and 271 normal controls were enrolled depending on whether they gave written informed consents and their history of alcohol intake, blood tests, and abdominal ultrasonographic findings. Age; sex; laboratory test parameters; homeostasis model assessment-insulin resistance; and levels of leptin, adiponectin, and irisin were assessed. Serum irisin levels (ng/ml were significantly higher in the NAFLD group than in normal controls (63.4 ± 32.6 vs. 43.0 ± 29.7, p<0.001 and higher in the mild fatty liver group than in the moderate-to-severe fatty liver group (68.3 ± 38.2 vs. 56.6 ± 21.2, p<0.001. Additionally, serum irisin levels were not different between the non-obese and obese groups (48.4 ± 34.2 vs. 45.8 ± 22.9, p = 0.492; however, the levels were significantly lowest in normal controls and highest in the mild fatty liver group in the non-obese (44.9 ± 31.7 vs. 73.1 ± 48.5 vs 59.7 ± 18.0, p<0.001 and obese groups (35.0 ± 17.0 vs. 62.9 ± 21.2 vs. 54.6 ± 23.3, p<0.001. Serum irisin levels were significantly higher in NAFLD patients, which is not consistent with the results of previously published studies. Therefore, more studies are needed to confirm the role of irisin in NAFLD.

  19. Vital Signs-Alcohol Poisoning Deaths

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2015-01-06

    This podcast is based on the January 2015 CDC Vital Signs report. In the United States, an average of six people die every day from alcohol poisoning. Learn what you can do to prevent binge drinking and alcohol poisoning.  Created: 1/6/2015 by National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion (NCCDPHP).   Date Released: 1/6/2015.

  20. Demographic Predictors of Event-Level Associations between Alcohol Consumption and Sexual Behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wells, Brooke E; Rendina, H Jonathon; Kelly, Brian C; Golub, Sarit A; Parsons, Jeffrey T

    2016-02-01

    Alcohol consumption is associated with sexual behavior and outcomes, though research indicates a variety of moderating factors, including demographic characteristics. To better target interventions aimed at alcohol-related sexual risk behavior, our analyses simultaneously examine demographic predictors of both day- and event-level associations between alcohol consumption and sexual behavior in a sample of young adults (N = 301) who are sexually active and consume alcohol. Young adults (aged 18-29) recruited using time-space sampling and incentivized snowball sampling completed a survey and a timeline follow-back calendar reporting alcohol consumption and sexual behavior in the past 30 days. On a given day, a greater number of drinks consumed was associated with higher likelihood of sex occurring, particularly for women and single participants. During a given sexual event, number of drinks consumed was not associated with condom use, nor did any demographic predictors predict that association. Findings highlight associations between alcohol and sexual behavior, though not between alcohol and sexual risk behavior, highlighting the need for additional research exploring the complex role of alcohol in sexual risk behavior and the need to develop prevention efforts to minimize the role of alcohol in the initiation of sexual encounters.

  1. Professional's Attitudes Do Not Influence Screening and Brief Interventions Rates for Hazardous and Harmful Drinkers: Results from ODHIN Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bendtsen, Preben; Anderson, Peter; Wojnar, Marcin; Newbury-Birch, Dorothy; Müssener, Ulrika; Colom, Joan; Karlsson, Nadine; Brzózka, Krzysztof; Spak, Fredrik; Deluca, Paolo; Drummond, Colin; Kaner, Eileen; Kłoda, Karolina; Mierzecki, Artur; Okulicz-Kozaryn, Katarzyna; Parkinson, Kathryn; Reynolds, Jillian; Ronda, Gaby; Segura, Lidia; Palacio, Jorge; Baena, Begoña; Slodownik, Luiza; van Steenkiste, Ben; Wolstenholme, Amy; Wallace, Paul; Keurhorst, Myrna N; Laurant, Miranda G H; Gual, Antoni

    2015-07-01

    To determine the relation between existing levels of alcohol screening and brief intervention rates in five European jurisdictions and role security and therapeutic commitment by the participating primary healthcare professionals. Health care professionals consisting of, 409 GPs, 282 nurses and 55 other staff including psychologists, social workers and nurse aids from 120 primary health care centres participated in a cross-sectional 4-week survey. The participants registered all screening and brief intervention activities as part of their normal routine. The participants also completed the Shortened Alcohol and Alcohol Problems Perception Questionnaire (SAAPPQ), which measure role security and therapeutic commitment. The only significant but small relationship was found between role security and screening rate in a multilevel logistic regression analysis adjusted for occupation of the provider, number of eligible patients and the random effects of jurisdictions and primary health care units (PHCU). No significant relationship was found between role security and brief intervention rate nor between therapeutic commitment and screening rate/brief intervention rate. The proportion of patients screened varied across jurisdictions between 2 and 10%. The findings show that the studied factors (role security and therapeutic commitment) are not of great importance for alcohol screening and BI rates. Given the fact that screening and brief intervention implementation rate has not changed much in the last decade in spite of increased policy emphasis, training initiatives and more research being published, this raises a question about what else is needed to enhance implementation. © The Author 2015. Medical Council on Alcohol and Oxford University Press. All rights reserved.

  2. Alcohol use and religiousness/spirituality among adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knight, John R; Sherritt, Lon; Harris, Sion Kim; Holder, David W; Kulig, John; Shrier, Lydia A; Gabrielli, Joy; Chang, Grace

    2007-04-01

    Previous studies indicate that religiousness is associated with lower levels of substance use among adolescents, but less is known about the relationship between spirituality and substance use. The objective of this study was to determine the association between adolescents' use of alcohol and specific aspects of religiousness and spirituality. Twelve- to 18-year-old patients coming for routine medical care at three primary care sites completed a modified Brief Multidimensional Measure of Religiousness/Spirituality; the Spiritual Connectedness Scale; and a past-90-days alcohol use Timeline Followback calendar. We used multiple logistic regression analysis to assess the association between each religiousness/spirituality measure and odds of any past-90-days alcohol use, controlling for age, gender, race/ethnicity, and clinic site. Timeline Followback data were dichotomized to indicate any past-90-days alcohol use and religiousness/spirituality scale scores were z-transformed for analysis. Participants (n = 305) were 67% female, 74% Hispanic or black, and 45% from two-parent families. Mean +/- SD age was 16.0 +/- 1.8 years. Approximately 1/3 (34%) reported past-90-day alcohol use. After controlling for demographics and clinic site, Religiousness/Spirituality scales that were not significantly associated with alcohol use included: Commitment (OR = 0.81, 95% CI 0.36, 1.79), Organizational Religiousness (OR = 0.83, 95% CI 0.64, 1.07), Private Religious Practices (OR = 0.94, 95% CI 0.80, 1.10), and Religious and Spiritual Coping--Negative (OR = 1.07, 95% CI 0.91, 1.23). All of these are measures of religiousness, except for Religious and Spiritual Coping--Negative. Scales that were significantly and negatively associated with alcohol use included: Forgiveness (OR = 0.55, 95% CI 0.42-0.73), Religious and Spiritual Coping--Positive (OR = 0.67, 95% CI 0.51-0.84), Daily Spiritual Experiences (OR = 0.67, 95% CI 0.54-0.84), and Belief (OR = 0.76, 95% CI 0.68-0.83), which are

  3. Screening of alcohol use disorders in psychiatric outpatients: influence of gender, age, and psychiatric diagnosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sánchez Autet, Mónica; Garriga, Marina; Zamora, Francisco Javier; González, Idilio; Usall, Judith; Tolosa, Leticia; Benítez, Concepción; Puertas, Raquel; Arranz, Belén

    2017-07-14

    Alcohol use disorders (AUD) are 2 times higher among psychiatric patients than in the general population. The under-recognition of this dual diagnosis can entail several negative outcomes. Early assessment with a screening tool like the CAGE questionnaire could be an opportunity to improve patients' prognoses. The objective of this study is to assess AUD risk in an outpatient psychiatric sample with a modified CAGE, considering the influence of age, gender and clinical psychiatric diagnosis. An observational, multicentric, descriptive study was carried out. The 4-item CAGE scale, camouflaged in a healthy lifestyle questionnaire, was implemented, using a cut-off point of one. 559 outpatients were assessed. 54% were female and the average age was 50.07 years. 182 patients presented a CAGE score ≥1 (45.1% of men and 21.9% of women). Gender was the strongest predictor of a positive result in CAGE, as men were 3.03 times more likely to score ≥1 on the CAGE questionnaire (p < .001, 95% CI: 0.22-0.49). Patients with bipolar and personality disorders had the highest rates of CAGE scores ≥1 (45.2 and 44.9%, respectively), with a significant association between diagnosis and a positive score (p = .002). Patients above 60 years were 2.5 times less likely to score ≥1 on the CAGE (p = .017, 95% CI: 0.19-0.85). Specific screening questionnaires, like the CAGE scale, can be an easy and useful tool in the assessment of AUD risk in psychiatric outpatients. Male patients with a bipolar or personality disorder present a higher risk of AUD.

  4. Cancer incidence among Danish Seventh-day Adventists and Baptists

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thygesen, Lau Caspar; Hvidt, Niels Christian; Hansen, Helle Ploug

    2012-01-01

    American Seventh-day Adventists have been reported to have lower cancer mortality and incidence than the general population. Adventists do not consume tobacco, alcohol or pork, and many adhere to a lacto-ovo-vegetarian lifestyle. Baptists discourage excessive use of alcohol and tobacco. In this s...

  5. Lipid metabolism abnormalities in alcohol-treated rabbits: a morphometric and haematologic study comparing high and low alcohol doses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ikemura, Satoshi; Yamamoto, Takuaki; Motomura, Goro; Iwasaki, Kenyu; Yamaguchi, Ryosuke; Zhao, Garida; Iwamoto, Yukihide

    2011-08-01

    The pathogenesis of alcohol-induced osteonecrosis remains unclear. The purpose of the present study was to evaluate the morphological changes in bone marrow fat cells and the changes in the serum lipid levels in alcohol-treated rabbits. Fifteen rabbits were randomly assigned into three groups: Four rabbits intragastrically received low-dose alcohol (LDA) (15 ml/kg per day) containing 15% ethanol for 4 weeks, five rabbits received high-dose alcohol (HDA) (30 ml/kg per day) for 4 weeks and six rabbits received physiologic saline for 4 weeks as a control group. Six weeks after the initial alcohol administration, all rabbits were sacrificed. The mean size of the bone marrow fat cells in rabbits treated with HDA was significantly larger than that in the control group (P = 0.0001). Haematologically, the levels of triglycerides and free fatty acids in the rabbits treated with both low-dose and HDA were significantly higher than those in the control group (P = 0.001 for both comparisons). The results of this study are that there are lipid metabolism abnormalities, both morphologically and haematologically, after alcohol administration. Also these findings were more apparent in rabbits treated with HDA than those treated with LDA. © 2011 The Authors. International Journal of Experimental Pathology © 2011 International Journal of Experimental Pathology.

  6. Alcohol drinking behaviour and economic cost incurred by users in Khon Kaen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paileeklee, Suchada; Kanato, Manop; Kaenmanee, Sumeth; McGhee, Sarah M

    2010-03-01

    Alcohol consumption increases health risks and social consequences. It also lowers productivity resulting in economic losses for drinkers and the rest of society. To investigate alcohol drinking behavior and to estimate economic cost incurred by alcohol users in Khon Kaen province in 2007. A cross-sectional survey targeting the population aged 12-65 years old was conducted in 20 communities. Data were collected using full-structured questionnaires through interviews. Among 1,053 respondents, 53.0% drank alcohol sometime in their lives (95% CI: 46.1, 59.9). The percentage of individuals drinking in the past 12 months was 43.3% (95% CI: 37.1, 49.5). The average number of drinking days in past 12 months was 36.8 days. Most respondents drank for social activities, mainly with friends and relatives. Individual costs of alcohol consumption varied greatly. The weighted average cost in 2007 was 975.5 Baht per drinker. The estimated overall cost of alcohol consumption in Khon Kaen, in 2007, was 691.2 million Baht (95% CI: 280.0, 1,102.3 million), or 502.9 Baht per capita. More than half of the Khon Kaen population drank alcohol sometime in their lives and 43.3% were current drinkers. The average number of drinking days in past 12 months was 36.8 days. The estimated cost of alcohol consumption in Khon Kaen province was enormous.

  7. Alcohol reduction in the first trimester is unrelated to smoking, patient or pregnancy characteristics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kristen A. Schmidt

    2017-06-01

    Conclusions: Women reported reducing their alcohol consumption during pregnancy, including those screening positive for pre-pregnancy problem drinking. First trimester alcohol reduction cannot be accounted for by smoking, patient or pregnancy characteristics; public health initiatives, psychological factors and hormonal mechanisms may be implicated.

  8. Alcohol, Other Drugs, and Obesity: Plan-of-the-Day Notes

    Science.gov (United States)

    1992-05-01

    the human body ap- ing. proximately two hours to me- If you are a woman, re- tabolize each ounce of alco- member that alcohol will have hol; coffee or...eliminated from the body. This process normally takes about 1 1/2 hours per drink and cannot be speeded up by drinking black coffee or taking cold...is the most familiar form of cannabis , hashish ("hash") is a drug-rich resinous secretion of the can- nabis plant; it is usually compressed into cakes

  9. Magnitude and predictors of excessive alcohol use in Ethiopia ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Magnitude and predictors of excessive alcohol use in Ethiopia: Findings from the 2015 national non-communicable diseases STEPS survey. ... overall prevalence of lifetime alcohol consumption was 49.3%, and 40.7% of the study participants reported consumption of alcohol in the past 30 days, defined as current drinkers.

  10. Acute ethanol poisoning in a 6-year-old girl following ingestion of alcohol-based hand sanitizer at school.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joseph, Madeline Matar; Zeretzke, Cristina; Reader, Sara; Sollee, Dawn R

    2011-01-01

    Alcohol-based hand sanitizers (ABHSs) have been widely used in homes, workplaces and schools to prevent the spread of infectious diseases. We report a young child unintentionally ingested ABHS at a school, resulting in intoxication. The child was a 6-year-old girl who had been brought to the emergency department (ED) for hypothermia, altered mental status (AMS), periods of hypoventilation, hypothermia and vomiting. Computed tomography of her head revealed nothing abnormal in intracranial pathology. Urine drug screening was negative. Alcohol level was 205 mg/dL on admission. Other abnormal values included potassium of 2.8 mEq/L, osmolality of 340 mOsm/kg and no hypoglycemia. Further investigation revealed that the patient had gone frequently to the class restroom for ingestion of unknown quantities of ABHSs during the day. The patient was admitted for one day for intravenous fluid hydration and close observation of her mental status. The patient was discharged from the hospital the next day without any complications. Despite the large safety margin of ABHSs, emergency physicians need to be aware of the potential risk of ingestion of a large amount of such products in children and consider it in the assessment and management of school-age children with acute AMS.

  11. Alcohol Poisoning Deaths PSA (:60)

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2015-01-06

    This 60 second Public Service Announcement is based on the January 2015 CDC Vital Signs report. In the United States, an average of six people die every day from alcohol poisoning. Learn what you can do to prevent binge drinking and alcohol poisoning.  Created: 1/6/2015 by National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion (NCCDPHP).   Date Released: 1/6/2015.

  12. Alcohol Misuse and Multiple Sexual Partners

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shahrzad Bazargan-Hejazi, PhD

    2012-05-01

    riskysexual behaviors. EDs should strive to institute a system for regular screening, brief intervention, andreferral of at-risk patients to reduce negative consequences of alcohol misuse, including those of riskysexual behaviors.

  13. The Svalbard study 1988-89: a unique setting for validation of self-reported alcohol consumption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Høyer, G; Nilssen, O; Brenn, T; Schirmer, H

    1995-04-01

    The Norwegian island of Spitzbergen, Svalbard offers a unique setting for validation studies on self-reported alcohol consumption. No counterfeit production or illegal import exists, thus making complete registration of all sources of alcohol possible. In this study we recorded sales from all agencies selling alcohol on Svalbard over a 2-month period in 1988. During the same period all adults living permanently on Svalbard were invited to take part in a health screening. As part of the screening a self-administered questionnaire on alcohol consumption was introduced to the participants. We found that the self-reported volume accounted for approximately 40 percent of the sales volume. Because of the unique situation applying to Svalbard, the estimate made in this study is believed to be more reliable compared to other studies using sales volume to validate self-reports.

  14. Methadone maintenance and the problem with alcohol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siassi, I; Alston, D C

    1976-01-01

    There is a growing concern with the rapid pace of physical and psychosocial deterioration of methadone patients who abuse alcohol. The need for a sample method for determining the extent of the problem, as well as the presence of an alcohol problem in individual patients, led the authors to test the validity of the Michigan Alcoholism Sreen Test (MAST) in a small urban methadone maintenance clinic (N = 125). The MAST was administered to every patient by their counselors, and the nursing staff was asked to independently rate each patient according to Keller's definition of alcoholism. The authors compared the patients' MAST scores with the global ratings of the nursing staff. Forty-six percent (n = 58) of the patients scored in the alcoholism range of the MAST questionnaire, while 34% (n = 43) of the patients were diagnosed as alcoholics by the nursing staff. There was 75% (n = 94) agreement between the MAST findings and the nurses' global ratings (p less than .001). The authors suggest that the MAST could be an effective screening tool in the area of alcohol abuse in methadone clinics. Going beyond the data, the authors recommend reexamination by psychiatrists of their peripheral role in the treatment of these difficult and multihandicapped patients.

  15. Inhibition of MMPs by alcohols

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tezvergil-Mutluay, Arzu; Agee, Kelli A.; Hoshika, Tomohiro; Uchiyama, Toshikazu; Tjäderhane, Leo; Breschi, Lorenzo; Mazzoni, Annalisa; Thompson, Jeremy M.; McCracken, Courtney E.; Looney, Stephen W.; Tay, Franklin R.; Pashley, David H.

    2011-01-01

    Objectives While screening the activity of potential inhibitors of matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs), due to the limited water solubility of some of the compounds, they had to be solubilized in ethanol. When ethanol solvent controls were run, they were found to partially inhibit MMPs. Thus, the purpose of this study was to compare the MMP-inhibitory activity of a series of alcohols. Methods The possible inhibitory activity of a series of alcohols was measured against soluble rhMMP-9 and insoluble matrix-bound endogenous MMPs of dentin in completely demineralized dentin. Increasing concentrations (0.17, 0.86, 1.71 and 4.28 moles/L) of a homologous series of alcohols (i.e. methanol, ethanol, propanols, butanols, pentanols, hexanols, the ethanol ester of methacrylic acid, heptanols and octanol) were compared to ethanediol, and propanediol by regression analysis to calculate the molar concentration required to inhibit MMPs by 50% (i.e. the IC50). Results Using two different MMP models, alcohols were shown to inhibit rhMMP-9 and the endogenous proteases of dentin matrix in a dose-dependent manner. The degree of MMP inhibition by alcohols increased with chain length up to 4 methylene groups. Based on the molar concentration required to inhibit rhMMP-9 fifty percent, 2-hydroxyethylmethacrylate (HEMA), 3-hexanol, 3-heptanol and 1-octanol gave the strongest inhibition. Significance The results indicate that alcohols with 4 methylene groups inhibit MMPs more effectively than methanol or ethanol. MMP inhibition was inversely related to the Hoy's solubility parameter for hydrogen bonding forces of the alcohols (i.e. to their hydrophilicity). PMID:21676453

  16. Prazosin Prevents Increased Anxiety Behavior That Occurs in Response to Stress During Alcohol Deprivations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rasmussen, Dennis D; Kincaid, Carrie L; Froehlich, Janice C

    2017-01-01

    Stress-induced anxiety is a risk factor for relapse to alcohol drinking. The aim of this study was to test the hypothesis that the central nervous system (CNS)-active α 1 -adrenergic receptor antagonist, prazosin, would block the stress-induced increase in anxiety that occurs during alcohol deprivations. Selectively bred male alcohol-preferring (P) rats were given three cycles of 5 days of ad libitum voluntary alcohol drinking interrupted by 2 days of alcohol deprivation, with or without 1 h of restraint stress 4 h after the start of each of the first two alcohol deprivation cycles. Prazosin (1.0 or 1.5 mg/kg, IP) or vehicle was administered before each restraint stress. Anxiety-like behavior during alcohol deprivation following the third 5-day cycle of alcohol drinking (7 days after the most recent restraint stress ± prazosin treatment) was measured by performance in an elevated plus-maze and in social approach/avoidance testing. Rats that received constant alcohol access, or alcohol access and deprivations without stress or prazosin treatments in the first two alcohol deprivations did not exhibit augmented anxiety-like behavior during the third deprivation. In contrast, rats that had been stressed during the first two alcohol deprivations exhibited increased anxiety-like behavior (compared with control rats) in both anxiety tests during the third deprivation. Prazosin given before stresses in the first two cycles of alcohol withdrawal prevented increased anxiety-like behavior during the third alcohol deprivation. Prazosin treatment before stresses experienced during alcohol deprivations may prevent the increased anxiety during subsequent deprivation/abstinence that is a risk factor for relapse to alcohol drinking. Administration of prazosin before stresses during repetitive alcohol deprivations in male alcohol-preferring (P) rats prevents increased anxiety during a subsequent deprivation without further prazosin treatment. Prazosin treatment during repeated

  17. Alcohol and CV Health: Jekyll and Hyde J-Curves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Keefe, Evan L; DiNicolantonio, James J; O'Keefe, James H; Lavie, Carl J

    2018-02-16

    A routine of light or moderate alcohol consumption (≤1 drink/day for women and 1 to 2 drinks/day for men) is associated with a lower risk for all-cause mortality, coronary artery disease (CAD), type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2D), heart failure (HF), and stroke. Conversely, heavy drinking, (>4 drinks/day) is associated with an increased risk for death and cardiovascular (CV) disease (CVD). Excessive alcohol intake trails behind only smoking and obesity among the 3 leading causes of premature deaths in the United States (US). Heavy alcohol use is a common cause of reversible hypertension (HTN), nonischemic dilated cardiomyopathy, atrial fibrillation (AF), and stroke (both ischemic and hemorrhagic). Among males aged 15 to 59 years, alcohol abuse is perhaps the leading cause of premature death. As such, the risk-to-benefit ratio of drinking is less favorable in younger individuals. A daily habit of light to moderate drinking is ideal for those who choose to consume alcohol regularly. Red wine in particular before or during the evening meal is linked with the best long-term CV outcomes. Most of the studies on alcohol and health are observational, and correlation does not prove causation. Health care professionals should not advise nondrinkers to begin drinking because of the paucity of randomized outcome data coupled with the potential for alcohol abuse even among seemingly low risk individuals. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  18. Prevalence of alcohol misuse among men and women undergoing major noncardiac surgery in the Veterans Affairs health care system

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bradley, Katharine A; Rubinsky, Anna D; Sun, Haili

    2012-01-01

    Patients who screen positive for alcohol misuse on the Alcohol Use Disorder Identification Test Consumption Questionnaire (AUDIT-C ≥5 points) have significantly increased postoperative complications. Severe alcohol misuse (AUDIT-C ≥9 points) is associated with increased postoperative health care...

  19. Curcumin confers neuroprotection against alcohol-induced hippocampal neurodegeneration via CREB-BDNF pathway in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Motaghinejad, Majid; Motevalian, Manijeh; Fatima, Sulail; Hashemi, Hajar; Gholami, Mina

    2017-03-01

    Alcohol abuse causes severe damage to the brain neurons. Studies have reported the neuroprotective effects of curcumin against alcohol-induced neurodegeneration. However, the precise mechanism of action remains unclear. Seventy rats were equally divided into 7 groups (10 rats per group). Group 1 received normal saline (0.7ml/rat) and group 2 received alcohol (2g/kg/day) for 21days. Groups 3, 4, 5 and 6 concurrently received alcohol (2g/kg/day) and curcumin (10, 20, 40 and 60mg/kg, respectively) for 21days. Animals in group 7 self- administered alcohol for 21days. Group 8 treated with curcumin (60mg/kg, i.p.) alone for 21days. Open Field Test (OFT) was used to investigate motor activity in rats. Hippocampal oxidative, antioxidative and inflammatory factors were evaluated. Furthermore, brain cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP) response element binding protein (CREB) and brain derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) levels were studied at gene level by reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). In addition, protein expression for BDNF, CREB, phosphorylated CREB (CREB-P), Bax and Bcl-2 was determined by western blotting. Voluntary and involuntary administration of alcohol altered motor activity in OFT, and curcumin treatment inhibited this alcohol-induced motor disturbance. Also, alcohol administration augmented lipid peroxidation, mitochondrial oxidized glutathione (GSSG), interleukin-1 beta (IL-1β), tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α) and Bax levels in isolated hippocampal tissues. Furthermore, alcohol-induced significant reduction were observed in reduced form of glutathione (GSH), superoxide dismutase (SOD), glutathione peroxidase (GPx) and glutathione reductase (GR) activities and CREB, BDNF and Bcl-2 levels. Also curcumin alone did not change the behavior and biochemical and molecular parameters. Curcumin can act as a neuroprotective agent against neurodegenerative effects of alcohol abuse, probably via activation of CREB-BDNF signaling pathway

  20. Alcohol-related brief intervention in patients treated for opiate or cocaine dependence: a randomized controlled study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khan Riaz

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Despite the importance of heavy drinking and alcohol dependence among patients with opiate and cocaine dependence, few studies have evaluated specific interventions within this group. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the impact of screening with the Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test (AUDIT and of brief intervention (BI on alcohol use in a sample of patients treated for opioid or cocaine dependence in a specialized outpatient clinic. Methods Adult outpatients treated for opioid or cocaine dependence in Switzerland were screened for excessive alcohol drinking and dependence with the AUDIT. Patients with AUDIT scores that indicated excessive drinking or dependence were randomized into two groups--treatment as usual or treatment as usual together with BI--and assessed at 3 months and 9 months. Results Findings revealed a high rate (44% of problematic alcohol use (excessive drinking and dependence among patients with opiate and cocaine dependence. The number of drinks per week decreased significantly between T0 (inclusion and T3 (month 3. A decrease in average AUDIT scores was observed between T0 and T3 and between T0 and T9 (month 9. No statistically significant difference between treatment groups was observed. Conclusions In a substance abuse specialized setting, screening for alcohol use with the AUDIT, followed by feedback on the score, and use of alcohol BI are both possibly useful strategies to induce changes in problematic alcohol use. Definitive conclusions cannot, however, be drawn from the study because of limitations such as lack of a naturalistic group. An important result of the study is the excellent internal consistency of AUDIT in a population treated for opiate or cocaine dependence.

  1. Association Between Alcohol Consumption and Metabolic Syndrome in a Community-Based Cohort of Korean Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Su Kang; Hong, Seung-Hee; Chung, Joo-Ho; Cho, Kyu Bong

    2017-01-01

    Background The relationship between alcohol consumption and metabolic syndrome (MetS) remains controversial. This study investigated the relationship between alcohol consumption and MetS components and prevalence. Material/Methods We analyzed 10 037 subjects (3076 MetS and 6961 non-MetS) in a community-based cohort. MetS was defined according to the ATP III Guidelines. Subjects were divided according to amount of alcohol consumption; non-drinker, very light (0.1–5.0 g/day), light (5.1–15.0 g/day), moderate (15.1–30.0 g/day), and heavy drinker (>30 g/day). Multiple logistic regression models were performed to estimate odds ratios (ORs) and confidence intervals (CIs). The analyses were performed in men and women separately. SPSS statistical software was used for analyses. Results The prevalence of MetS in both males and females was associated with alcohol drinking status (palcohol consumption (0.1–5.0 g/day) was significantly associated with lower prevalence of MetS in both genders compared to non-drinkers. Amount of alcohol consumption (>30.0 g/day) did not show a significant association with prevalence of MetS. However, alcohol consumption (>30.0 g/day) showed an association with glucose and HDL cholesterol among the components of MetS. Conclusions Our results indicate that alcohol drinking (0.1–5.0 g/day) contributed to decrease prevalence of MetS and components, including triglyceride and HDL cholesterol. PMID:28465500

  2. The Efficacy of Disulfiram for the Treatment of Alcohol Use Disorder

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Charlotte H; Pedersen, Bolette; Tønnesen, Hanne

    2011-01-01

    Background: Alcohol use disorders (AUD) involving hazardous, harmful, and addictive misuse of alcohol are widespread in most parts of the world. The aim of this study was to review the effect of disulfiram in the treatment of patients with AUD. The effect of disulfiram was evaluated according...... to the primary outcome of an intake of alcohol below 30 and 20 g/d for men and women, respectively, as well as secondary outcomes such as days until relapse, alcohol intake, and numbers of drinking days. Methods: A systematic review of the literature was conducted using MEDLINE, EMBASE, and Cochrane Central...

  3. Alcohol imagery on New Zealand television

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reeder Anthony I

    2007-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background To examine the extent and nature of alcohol imagery on New Zealand (NZ television, a content analysis of 98 hours of prime-time television programs and advertising was carried out over 7 consecutive days' viewing in June/July 2004. The main outcome measures were number of scenes in programs, trailers and advertisements depicting alcohol imagery; the extent of critical versus neutral and promotional imagery; and the mean number of scenes with alcohol per hour, and characteristics of scenes in which alcohol featured. Results There were 648 separate depictions of alcohol imagery across the week, with an average of one scene every nine minutes. Scenes depicting uncritical imagery outnumbered scenes showing possible adverse health consequences of drinking by 12 to 1. Conclusion The evidence points to a large amount of alcohol imagery incidental to storylines in programming on NZ television. Alcohol is also used in many advertisements to market non-alcohol goods and services. More attention needs to be paid to the extent of alcohol imagery on television from the industry, the government and public health practitioners. Health education with young people could raise critical awareness of the way alcohol imagery is presented on television.

  4. Consumption of energy drinks, alcohol, and alcohol-mixed energy drinks among Italian adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flotta, Domenico; Micò, Rocco; Nobile, Carmelo G A; Pileggi, Claudia; Bianco, Aida; Pavia, Maria

    2014-06-01

    It has been argued that the excessive consumption of energy drinks (EDs) may have serious health consequences, and that may serve as an indicator for substance use and other risky behaviors. The present paper offers a perspective on this topic that remains underexplored on the population of adolescents. Data were collected via self-administered anonymous questionnaires from 870 adolescents aged 15 to 19 years who were recruited from a random sample of public secondary schools in the geographic area of the Calabria Region, in the South of Italy. A total of 616 participants completed the survey for a response rate of 70.8%. Nearly 68% of respondents had drunk at least a whole can of ED during their life, and about 55% reported consuming EDs during the 30 days before the survey. Only 13% of interviewed adolescents were aware that drinking EDs is the same as drinking coffee, whereas a sizable percentage believed that drinking EDs is the same as drinking carbonated beverages or rehydrating sport drinks. Forty-six percent of adolescents had drunk alcohol-mixed energy drinks (AmEDs) during their life, and 63% of lifetime users admitted drinking AmEDs during the 30 days before the survey. Overall, 210 (63.3%) had drunk alcohol alone not mixed with EDs during their life, and more than half (56.3%) reported having consumed it at least once during the 30 days before the survey. Multivariate analysis showed that the factors independently associated with the consumption of AmEDs were the increasing number of sexual partners, being a current smoker, being male, riding with a driver who had been drinking alcohol, and having used marijuana. Comprehensive educational programs among youths focusing on potential health effects of EDs, alcohol, and the combination of the two, designed to empower the ability to manage these drinking habits, are strongly advisable. Copyright © 2014 by the Research Society on Alcoholism.

  5. Parenting styles and alcohol consumption among Brazilian adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paiva, Fernando Santana; Bastos, Ronaldo Rocha; Ronzani, Telmo Mota

    2012-10-01

    This study evaluates the correlation between alcohol consumption in adolescence and parenting styles of socialization among Brazilian adolescents. The sample was composed of 273 adolescents, 58% whom were males. Instruments were: 1) Sociodemographic Questionnaire; 2) Demand and Responsiveness Scales; 3) Drug Use Screening Inventory (DUSI). Study analyses employed multiple correspondence analysis and logistic regression. Maternal, but not paternal, authoritative and authoritarian parenting styles were directly related to adolescent alcohol intake. The style that mothers use to interact with their children may influence uptake of high-risk behaviors.

  6. CinéGlobe presents: "One Day on Earth"

    CERN Multimedia

    2012-01-01

    The CinéGlobe International Film Festival is proud to announce that it will be hosting the Swiss edition of the Global Screening of “One Day on Earth”, the first film to be shot and then screened in every country in the world.   Founded in 2008, “One Day on Earth's” first media creation event occurred on 10.10.10. The collaboration was the first ever simultaneous filming event occuring in every country of the world. It created a unique geo-tagged video archive as well as a unique feature film. “One Day on Earth” showcases the amazing diversity, conflict, tragedy, and triumph that occurs in one day on our planet.  This Earth Day, April 22nd, CinéGlobe and CERN invite the public to a free global screening event of the first One Day on Earth Motion Picture. This unique film, created from over 3000 hours of footage, was shot by the One Day on Earth community in every country of the world on October...

  7. The Leu72Met Polymorphism of the Prepro-ghrelin Gene is Associated With Alcohol Consumption and Subjective Responses to Alcohol: Preliminary Findings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suchankova, Petra; Yan, Jia; Schwandt, Melanie L; Stangl, Bethany L; Jerlhag, Elisabet; Engel, Jörgen A; Hodgkinson, Colin A; Ramchandani, Vijay A; Leggio, Lorenzo

    2017-07-01

    The orexigenic peptide ghrelin may enhance the incentive value of food-, drug- and alcohol-related rewards. Consistent with preclinical findings, human studies indicate a role of ghrelin in alcohol use disorders (AUD). In the present study an a priori hypothesis-driven analysis was conducted to investigate whether a Leu72Met missense polymorphism (rs696217) in the prepro-ghrelin gene (GHRL), is associated with AUD, alcohol consumption and subjective responses to alcohol. Association analysis was performed using the National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism (NIAAA) clinical sample, comprising AUD individuals and controls (N = 1127). Then, a post-hoc analysis using data from a human laboratory study of intravenous alcohol self-administration (IV-ASA, N = 144) was performed to investigate the association of this SNP with subjective responses following a fixed dose of alcohol (priming phase) and alcohol self-administration (ad libitum phase). The case-control study revealed a trend association (N = 1127, OR = 0.665, CI = 0.44-1.01, P = 0.056) between AUD diagnosis and Leu72Met. In AUD subjects, the SNP was associated with significantly lower average drinks per day (n = 567, β = -2.49, 95% CI = -4.34 to -0.64, P = 0.008) and significantly fewer heavy drinking days (n = 567, β = -12.00, 95% CI = -19.10 to -4.89, P polymorphism in the prepro-ghrelin gene, is associated with alcohol use disorder, alcohol consumption and subjective responses to alcohol. Although preliminary, results suggest that the Leu72Leu genotype may lead to increased risk of alcohol use disorder possibly via mechanisms involving a lower response to alcohol. Medical Council on Alcohol and Oxford University Press 2017. This work is written by (a) US Government employee(s) and is in the public domain in the US.

  8. Alcohol and the young child.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bradford, D E

    1984-01-01

    With the increasing availability of alcohol in modern times, the child neglect and abuse portrayed in Hogarth's engraving Gin Lane may once again be witnessed. Reports occur occasionally of alcohol being given deliberately to infants to quieten them, but alcohol poisoning in the slightly older child is not uncommon. The introduction of child-proof containers has altered poisoning figures recently. However, alcohol poisoning tends to occur at ages 3 and 4, that is, about 2 years after the peak of all poisonings in children. This difference may be an indication that alcohol is taken in imitation of parents' drinking, a suggestion which has some support from reported cases of mouthwash poisoning. Holidays and high days where children and alcohol mix, are potentially dangerous periods. Since alcohol poisoning can be fatal, yet if recognised is relatively easily managed, every child with the slightest degree of drowsiness should be suspect until proven or not by blood alcohol. The prevention of alcohol poisoning in the young child consists in protecting the alcohol by lock and key, not setting an example by drinking or gargling in front of children. Many substances such as mouthwash and perfume should also be under supervision. Once actual poisoning has occurred blood sugar is probably more important than the level of blood ethanol and blood sugar levels should be monitored frequently and the child treated with glucose, preferably intravenously.

  9. Cigarette, alcohol, and caffeine consumption

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasch, Vibeke

    2003-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To study the association between cigarette, alcohol, and caffeine consumption and the occurrence of spontaneous abortion. METHODS: The study population consisted of 330 women with spontaneous abortion and 1168 pregnant women receiving antenatal care. A case-control design was utilized;...... units alcohol per week and 375 mg or more caffeine per day during pregnancy may increase the risk of spontaneous abortion.......OBJECTIVE: To study the association between cigarette, alcohol, and caffeine consumption and the occurrence of spontaneous abortion. METHODS: The study population consisted of 330 women with spontaneous abortion and 1168 pregnant women receiving antenatal care. A case-control design was utilized......; cases were defined as women with a spontaneous abortion in gestational week 6-16 and controls as women with a live fetus in gestational week 6-16. The variables studied comprise age, parity, occupational situation, cigarette, alcohol, and caffeine consumption. The association between cigarette, alcohol...

  10. Factors associated with alcohol intake and alcohol abuse among women in Belo Horizonte, Minas Gerais State, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ísis Eloah Machado

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available The main objective of this cross-sectional study was to analyze factors associated with alcohol consumption among adult women living in Belo Horizonte, Minas Gerais State, Brazil, in 2011. Data for Belo Horizonte were obtained from the VIGITEL system (Telephone-Based Surveillance of Risk and Protective Factors for Chronic Diseases. Alcohol use was defined as self-reported intake of at least one dose in the previous 30 days; alcohol abuse was defined as four or more doses on at least one occasion during the same period. Polytomous logistic regression was used to evaluate factors associated with alcohol use and abuse. Alcohol use was more prevalent among women 25 to 34 years of age. Alcohol abuse was associated with age, schooling, health status, and smoking. The results suggest the need for policies to prevent alcohol abuse among women, especially targeting those who are younger, single, smokers, and with more education.

  11. Monkey alcohol tissue research resource: banking tissues for alcohol research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daunais, James B; Davenport, April T; Helms, Christa M; Gonzales, Steven W; Hemby, Scott E; Friedman, David P; Farro, Jonathan P; Baker, Erich J; Grant, Kathleen A

    2014-07-01

    An estimated 18 million adults in the United States meet the clinical criteria for diagnosis of alcohol abuse or alcoholism, a disorder ranked as the third leading cause of preventable death. In addition to brain pathology, heavy alcohol consumption is comorbid with damage to major organs including heart, lungs, liver, pancreas, and kidneys. Much of what is known about risk for and consequences of heavy consumption derive from rodent or retrospective human studies. The neurobiological effects of chronic intake in rodent studies may not easily translate to humans due to key differences in brain structure and organization between species, including a lack of higher-order cognitive functions, and differences in underlying prefrontal cortical neural structures that characterize the primate brain. Further, rodents do not voluntarily consume large quantities of ethanol (EtOH) and they metabolize it more rapidly than primates. The basis of the Monkey Alcohol Tissue Research Resource (MATRR) is that nonhuman primates, specifically monkeys, show a range of drinking excessive amounts of alcohol (>3.0 g/kg or a 12 drink equivalent per day) over long periods of time (12 to 30 months) with concomitant pathological changes in endocrine, hepatic, and central nervous system (CNS) processes. The patterns and range of alcohol intake that monkeys voluntarily consume parallel what is observed in humans with alcohol use disorders and the longitudinal experimental design spans stages of drinking from the EtOH-naïve state to early exposure through chronic abuse. Age- and sex-matched control animals self-administer an isocaloric solution under identical operant procedures. The MATRR is a unique postmortem tissue bank that provides CNS and peripheral tissues, and associated bioinformatics from monkeys that self-administer EtOH using a standardized experimental paradigm to the broader alcohol research community. This resource provides a translational platform from which we can better

  12. What are the implications for policy makers? A systematic review of the cost-effectiveness of screening and brief interventions for alcohol misuse in primary care.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Colin eAngus

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available IntroductionThe efficacy of screening and brief interventions (SBI for excessive alcohol use in primary care is well established; however evidence on their cost-effectiveness is limited. A small number of previous reviews have concluded that SBI programmes are likely to be cost-effective, but these results are equivocal and important questions around the cost-effectiveness implications of key policy decisions such as staffing choices for delivery of SBIs and the intervention duration remain unanswered. MethodsStudies reporting both the costs and a measure of health outcomes of programmes combining screening and brief interventions in primary care were identified by searching MEDLINE, EMBASE, Econlit, the Cochrane Library Database (including NHS EED, CINAHL, PsycINFO, Assia and the Social Science Citation Index and Science Citation Index via Web of Knowledge. Included studies have been stratified both by delivery staff and intervention duration and assessed for quality using the Drummond checklist for economic evaluations.ResultsThe search yielded a total of 23 papers reporting the results of 22 distinct studies. There was significant heterogeneity in methods and outcome measures between studies; however almost all studies reported SBI programmes to be cost-effective. There was no clear evidence that either the duration of the intervention or the delivery staff used had a substantial impact on this result.ConclusionThis review provides strong evidence that SBI programmes in primary care are a cost-effective option for tackling alcohol misuse.

  13. Alcohol and cirrhosis: dose--response or threshold effect?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kamper-Jørgensen, Mads; Grønbaek, Morten; Tolstrup, Janne

    2004-01-01

    BACKGROUND/AIMS: General population studies have shown a strong association between alcohol intake and death from alcoholic cirrhosis, but whether this is a dose-response or a threshold effect remains unknown, and the relation among alcohol misusers has not been studied. METHODS: A cohort of 6152...... alcohol misusing men and women aged 15-83 were interviewed about drinking pattern and social issues and followed for 84,257 person-years. Outcome was alcoholic cirrhosis mortality. Data was analyzed by means of Cox-regression models. RESULTS: In this large prospective cohort study of alcohol misusers...... there was a 27 fold increased mortality from alcoholic cirrhosis in men and a 35 fold increased mortality from alcoholic cirrhosis in women compared to the Danish population. Number of drinks per day was not significantly associated with death from alcoholic cirrhosis, since there was no additional risk of death...

  14. Psychosocial stress, demoralization and the consumption of tobacco, alcohol and medical drugs by veterinarians

    OpenAIRE

    Harling, Melanie; Strehmel, Petra; Schablon, Anja; Nienhaus, Albert

    2009-01-01

    Abstract Background In this cross-sectional study the association between psychosocial stress, demoralization and the consumption of psychotropic substances in veterinarians was examined using data from a sample of 1,060 subjects (52.7% response). Methods Multiple logistic regression models were used to determine risk factors for psychosocial stress, demoralization, tobacco consumption (≹ 10 items/day), high-risk alcohol consumption (men > 20 g pure alcohol/day, women > 10 g pure alcohol/day)...

  15. Improving Alcohol Screening for College Students: Screening for Alcohol Misuse amongst College Students with a Simple Modification to the CAGE Questionnaire

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Purcell; El-Sabawi, Taleed; Cangin, Causenge

    2016-01-01

    Objective: To improve the CAGE (Cut down, Annoyed, Guilty, Eye opener) questionnaire's predictive accuracy in screening college students. Participants: The sample consisted of 219 midwestern university students who self-administered a confidential survey. Methods: Exploratory factor analysis, confirmatory factor analysis, receiver operating…

  16. Evolution of Metabolic Abnormalities in Alcoholic Patients during Withdrawal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    X. Vandemergel

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Chronic alcohol intoxication is accompanied by metabolic abnormalities. Evolution during the early withdrawal period has been poorly investigated. The aim of this study was to determine the evolution of metabolic parameters during alcohol withdrawal. Patients and Methods. Thirty-three patients admitted in our department for alcohol withdrawal were prospectively included. Results. Baseline hypophosphatemia was found in 24% of cases. FEPO4 was reduced from 14.2 ± 9% at baseline to 7.3 ± 4.2% at day 3 (Pnl, respectively. No correlation was found between the sodium and CPK levels (P=0.75 nor between the CPK level and the amount of alcohol ingested (rs = 0.084, P=0.097. Baseline urate level was elevated and returned to normal after three days. Baseline magnesium concentration was normal and stable over time. Conclusion. Chronic alcohol intoxication was accompanied by phosphaturia, rapidly reversible after alcohol withdrawal and inversely correlated with albuminemia, slight hyponatremia, low levels of 25 hydroxy vitamin D, elevated CPK level in about 30% of women, and hyperuricemia with rapid normalization.

  17. Descriptive epidemiology of screen and non-screen sedentary time in adolescents: a cross sectional study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ridley Kate

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Much attention has been paid to adolescents' screen time, however very few studies have examined non-screen sedentary time (NSST. This study aimed to (1 describe the magnitude and composition of screen sedentary time (SST and NSST in Australian adolescents, (2 describe the socio-demographic correlates of SST and NSST, and (3 determine whether screen time is an adequate surrogate for total sedentary behaviour in this population. Methods 2200 9-16 year old Australians provided detailed use of time data for four days. Non-screen sedentary time (NSST included time spent participating in activities expected to elicit Results Adolescents spent a mean (SD of 345 (105 minutes/day in NSST, which constituted 60% of total sedentary time. School activities contributed 42% of NSST, socialising 19%, self-care (mainly eating 16%, and passive transport 15%. Screen time and NSST showed opposite patterns in relation to key socio-demographic characteristics, including sex, age, weight status, household income, parental education and day type. Because screen time was negatively correlated with NSST (r = -0.58, and exhibited a moderate correlation (r = 0.53 with total sedentary time, screen time was only a moderately effective surrogate for total sedentary time. Conclusions To capture a complete picture of young people's sedentary time, studies should endeavour to measure both screen time and NSST.

  18. Alcohol Use and Religiousness/Spirituality Among Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knight, John R.; Sherritt, Lon; Harris, Sion Kim; Holder, David W.; Kulig, John; Shrier, Lydia A.; Gabrielli, Joy; Chang, Grace

    2014-01-01

    Background Previous studies indicate that religiousness is associated with lower levels of substance use among adolescents, but less is known about the relationship between spirituality and substance use. The objective of this study was to determine the association between adolescents’ use of alcohol and specific aspects of religiousness and spirituality. Methods Twelve- to 18-year-old patients coming for routine medical care at three primary care sites completed a modified Brief Multidimensional Measure of Religiousness/Spirituality; the Spiritual Connectedness Scale; and a past-90-days alcohol use Timeline Followback calendar. We used multiple logistic regression analysis to assess the association between each religiousness/spirituality measure and odds of any past-90-days alcohol use, controlling for age, gender, race/ethnicity, and clinic site. Timeline Followback data were dichotomized to indicate any past-90-days alcohol use and religiousness/spirituality scale scores were z-transformed for analysis. Results Participants (n = 305) were 67% female, 74% Hispanic or black, and 45% from two-parent families. Mean ± SD age was 16.0 ± 1.8 years. Approximately 1/3 (34%) reported past-90-day alcohol use. After controlling for demographics and clinic site, Religiousness/Spirituality scales that were not significantly associated with alcohol use included: Commitment (OR = 0.81, 95% CI 0.36, 1.79), Organizational Religiousness (OR = 0.83, 95% CI 0.64, 1.07), Private Religious Practices (OR = 0.94, 95% CI 0.80, 1.10), and Religious and Spiritual Coping – Negative (OR = 1.07, 95% CI 0.91, 1.23). All of these are measures of religiousness, except for Religious and Spiritual Coping – Negative. Scales that were significantly and negatively associated with alcohol use included: Forgiveness (OR = 0.55, 95% CI 0.42–0.73), Religious and Spiritual Coping –Positive (OR = 0.67, 95% CI 0.51–0.84), Daily Spiritual Experiences (OR = 0.67, 95% CI 0.54–0.84), and Belief

  19. Preoperative Alcohol Consumption and Postoperative Complications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eliasen, Marie; Grønkjær, Marie; Skov-Ettrup, Lise Skrubbeltrang

    2013-01-01

    OBJECTIVE:: To systematically review and summarize the evidence of the association between preoperative alcohol consumption and postoperative complications elaborated on complication type. BACKGROUND:: Conclusions in studies on preoperative alcohol consumption and postoperative complications have...... been inconsistent. METHODS:: A systematic review and meta-analysis based on a search in MEDLINE, EMBASE, CINAHL, and PsycINFO citations. Included were original studies of the association between preoperative alcohol consumption and postoperative complications occurring within 30 days of the operation.......30-2.49), prolonged stay at the hospital (RR = 1.24; 95% CI: 1.18-1.31), and admission to intensive care unit (RR = 1.29; 95% CI: 1.03-1.61). Clearly defined high alcohol consumption was associated with increased risk of postoperative mortality (RR = 2.68; 95% CI: 1.50-4.78). Low to moderate preoperative alcohol...

  20. Alcohol consumption and Helicobacter pylori infection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brenner, H; Berg, Gabriele; Lappus, N

    1999-01-01

    Alcohol has strong antimicrobial activity and stimulates gastric acid secretion. Alcohol consumption may therefore compromise the living conditions of Helicobacter pylori in the stomach. We assessed the relation of alcohol consumption with H. pylori infection among 1,785 participants ages 18...... prevalence of H. pylori infection was 39.2%. There was a clear inverse dose-response-relation between reported alcohol consumption and H. pylori infection. The relation persisted after control for potential confounding factors. The adjusted prevalence ratios (95% confidence intervals) for H. pylori infection...... among persons who consumed up to 10, 10 to 20, and more than 20 gm of alcohol per day compared with non-drinkers were 0.93 (0.77-1.13), 0.82 (0.65-1.04), and 0.71 (0.55-0.92). The inverse relation between alcohol consumption and H. pylori infection was even stronger when individuals with an indication...

  1. Drug use among drivers who drank on alcohol outlets from Porto Alegre, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Boni, Raquel B; Bastos, Francisco Inacio; de Vasconcellos, Mauricio; Oliveira, Fernanda; Limberger, Renata P; Pechansky, Flavio

    2014-01-01

    Driving under the influence of multiple substances is a public health concern, but there is little epidemiological data about their combined use and putative impact on driving in low and middle-income countries where traffic crashes have been clustering in recent years. The aim of this study is to estimate the prevalence of alcohol and drug use - as well as their associated factors - among drivers in the context of alcohol outlets (AOs). A probability three-stage sample survey was conducted in Porto Alegre, Brazil. Individuals who were leaving AO were screened, with the selection of 683 drivers who met the inclusion criteria. Drivers answered a structured interview, were breathalyzed, and had their saliva collected for drug screening. Prevalences were assessed using domain estimation and logistic regression models assessed covariates associated with substance use. Benzodiazepines 3.9% (SE 2.13) and cocaine 3.8% (SE 1.3) were the most frequently detected drugs in saliva. Among drivers who were going to drive, 11% had at least one drug identified by the saliva drug screening, 0.4% two, and 0.1% three drugs in addition to alcohol. In multivariable analyses, having a blood alcohol concentration (BAC)>0.06% was found to be associated with a 3.64 times (CI 95% 1.79-7.39) higher chance of drug detection, compared with interviewees with lower BACs. To drive under the influence of multiple substances is likely to be found in this setting, highlighting an association between harmful patterns of consume of alcohol and the misuse of other substances. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Alcohol consumption and dementia risk: a dose–response meta-analysis of prospective studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xu, Wei; Wang, Huifu; Wan, Yu; Tan, Chenchen; Li, Jieqiong; Tan, Lan; Yu, Jin-Tai

    2017-01-01

    It is widely believed that light-to-moderate alcohol intake may protect against dementia while excessive drinking may instead increase the risk. Nonetheless, these findings need cautious interpretations due to varying methodologies and lack of standard definition, which hindered our transferring into preventative practice. The objective of this study is to investigate the potential dose–response association between alcohol consumption and risk of dementia. A systematic search was conducted in electronic databases to identify relevant studies. Risk estimates were combined using a random-effect model. Eleven studies with 73,330 participants and 4586 cases for all-cause dementia (ACD), five studies with 52,715 participants and 1267 cases for Alzheimer’s dementia (AD) and four studies with 49,535 participants and 542 cases for vascular dementia were included. We observed a nonlinear association between alcohol consumption and ACD risk (p_n_o_n_l_i_n_e_a_r_i_t_y < 0.05). The alcohol dose associated with lower risk of dementia was confined to at most 12.5 g/day, with the risk hitting bottom (RR ≈ 0.9) at roughly 6 g/day. Of note, the ACD risk seemed to be elevated (≈10%) when the dose surpasses certain levels: 23 drinks/week or 38 g/day. For the alcohol type, recommendation for wine is prioritized. The subgroup analysis further indicated that the effect of alcohol may be greater in younger adults (<60 years old) with regard to fighting against dementia. Modest alcohol consumption (≤12.5 g/day) is associated with a reduced risk of dementia with 6 g/day of alcohol conferring a lower risk than other levels while excessive drinking (≥38 g/day) may instead elevate the risk.

  3. Plasma carnitine concentrations after chronic alcohol intoxication 

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alina Kępka

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Background: Carnitine transports fatty acids from the cytoplasm to the mitochondrial matrix, where the fatty acids are oxidized. Chronic alcohol consumption reduces the concentration of carnitine and interferes with oxidative processes occurring in the cell.Aim: The assessment of carnitine concentrations in plasma of chronically intoxicated alcohol dependent persons in a 49-day abstinence period.Material/Methods: The study included 31 patients (5 women and 27 men aged from 26 to 60 years (44.6± 8.9 and 32 healthy subjects (15 women and 17 men aged 22-60 years (39.8± 9.4. The patients’ alcohol dependence ranged from 2 to 30 years (13.6± 7.5. Examined subjects consumed 75-700 g of ethanol/day (226.9± 151.5. Plasma concentrations of free and total carnitine were measured three times: at the first (T0, 30th (T30 and 49th (T49 day of hospital detoxification. Free (FC and total (TC carnitine were determined by the spectrophotometric method. Plasma acylcarnitine (AC concentration was calculated from the difference between TC and FC; then the AC/FC ratio was calculated. To determine statistically significant differences for related variables, Student’s t-test was used.Results: At T0, alcoholics had significantly lower concentration of FC and TC (p < 0.05 in plasma, as compared to the control group. In comparison to controls, at T30, plasma TC and FC (p < 0.01 as well as AC (p < 0.001 were reduced. The lowest concentration of TC, FC and AC (p < 0.001was found at T49. The ratio of AC/FC at T0 had a tendency to be higher in alcoholics than in the control group (p = 0.05, whereas at T49 it was significantly lower in alcoholics as compared to the control subjects (p < 0.05.Conclusions: Chronic alcohol intoxication causes a plasma deficiency of carnitine. Forty-nine days of abstinence showed a significant decrease in the concentration of TC, FC and AC. Further research is necessary to clarify whether a low level of plasma carnitine

  4. Effects of Assault Type on Cognitive Behaviour Therapy for Coexisting Depression and Alcohol Misuse

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kylie A. Bailey

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Although assault exposure is common in mental health and substance misusing populations, screening for assaults in treatment settings is frequently overlooked. This secondary analysis explored the effects of past sexual (SA and physical (PA assault on depression, alcohol misuse, global functioning and attrition in the Depression and Alcohol Integrated and Single focussed Intervention (DAISI project, whose participants (N = 278 received cognitive behaviour therapy (CBT for their depression and/or alcohol misuse. Of the 278 DAISI participants, 220 consented to screening for past assault (either by a stranger or non-stranger at baseline. Depression, alcohol, and global functioning assessments were administered at baseline and 3, 12, 24, and 36 months post baseline. A between-group analysis was used to assess differences between SA and No SA, and PA and No PA groupings, on adjusted mean treatment outcomes across all assessment periods. SA and PA participants had similar mean symptom reductions compared to No SA and No PA participants except for lower depression and global functioning change scores at the 12-month follow-up. People with coexisting depression and alcohol misuse reporting SA or PA can respond well to CBT for depression and alcohol misuse. However, follow-up is recommended in order to monitor fluctuations in outcomes.

  5. Identifying hazardous alcohol consumption during pregnancy: implementing a research-based model in real life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Göransson, Mona; Magnusson, Asa; Heilig, Markus

    2006-01-01

    It has been repeatedly demonstrated that hazardous alcohol use during pregnancy is rarely detected in regular antenatal care, and that detection can be markedly improved using systematic screening. A major challenge is to translate research-based strategies into regular antenatal care. Here, we examined whether a screening strategy using the Alcohol Use Disorder Test (AUDIT) and time-line follow-back (TLFB) could be implemented under naturalistic conditions and within available resources; and whether it would improve detection to the extent previously shown in a research context. Regular midwives at a large antenatal care clinic were randomized to receive brief training and then implement AUDIT and TLFB ("intervention"); or to a waiting-list control group continuing to deliver regular care ("control"). In the intervention-condition, AUDIT was used to collect data about alcohol use during the year preceding pregnancy, and TLFB to assess actual consumption during the first trimester. Data were collected from new admissions over 6 months. Drop out was higher among patients of the intervention group than control midwives, 14% (23/162) versus 0% (0/153), and ppregnancy i.e. AUDIT score 6 or higher (17%, 23/139), and patients with ongoing consumption exceeding 70 g/week and/or binge consumption according to TLFB (17%, 24/139), to a significantly higher degree than regular antenatal screening (0/162). The AUDIT- and TLFB-positive populations overlapped partially, with 36/139 subjects screening positive with either of the instrument and 11/139 were positive for both. We confirm previous findings that alcohol use during pregnancy is more extensive in Sweden than has generally been realized. Systematic screening using AUDIT and TLFB detects hazardous use in a manner which regular antenatal care does not. This remains true under naturalistic conditions, following minimal training of regular antenatal care staff, and can be achieved with minimal resources. The proposed

  6. Predictive Utility of Brief Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test (AUDIT) for human immunodeficiency virus antiretroviral medication nonadherence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Broyles, Lauren Matukaitis; Gordon, Adam J; Sereika, Susan M; Ryan, Christopher M; Erlen, Judith A

    2011-10-01

    Alcohol use negatively affects adherence to antiretroviral therapy (ART), thus human immunodeficiency virus/acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (HIV/AIDS) care providers need accurate, efficient assessments of alcohol use. Using existing data from an efficacy trial of 2 cognitive-behavioral ART adherence interventions, the authors sought to determine if results on 2 common alcohol screening tests (Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test--Consumption [AUDIT-C] and its binge-related question [AUDIT-3]) predict ART nonadherence. Twenty-seven percent of the sample (n = 308) were positive on the AUDIT-C and 34% were positive on the AUDIT-3. In multivariate analyses, AUDIT-C-positive status predicted ART nonadherence after controlling for race, age, conscientiousness, and self-efficacy (P = .036). Although AUDIT-3-positive status was associated with ART nonadherence in unadjusted analyses, this relationship was not maintained in the final multivariate model. The AUDIT-C shows potential as an indirect screening tool for both at-risk drinking and ART nonadherence, underscoring the relationship between alcohol and chronic disease management.

  7. Trends in Energy Intake from Alcoholic Beverages among US Adults by Sociodemographic Characteristics, 1989-2012.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butler, Lauren; Poti, Jennifer M; Popkin, Barry M

    2016-07-01

    Long-term US trends in alcoholic beverage calorie intakes remain unexamined, particularly with respect to changes in population subgroup-specific patterns over time. This study examined shifts in the consumption of alcoholic beverages, in total and by beverage type, on any given day among US adults in relation to sociodemographic characteristics. This study was a repeated cross-sectional analysis of data from the 1989-1991 and 1994-1996 Continuing Survey of Food Intakes by Individuals and the 2003-2006 and 2009-2012 National Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys. Adults aged ≥19 years (N=39,298) were targeted. A subset of alcoholic beverage consumers (n=7,081) were studied. Survey weighted mean per capita per day intakes (among all participants, both consumers of alcoholic beverages and nonconsumers) and contributions of beer, wine, and liquor/mixed drinks to total alcoholic beverage energy were determined. Multivariable regression models were used to examine trends in the proportion of alcoholic beverage consumers and the per consumer intakes (among consumers of alcoholic beverages only). Per capita intakes from alcoholic beverages increased from 49 kcal/capita/day in 1989-1991 to 109 kcal/capita/day in 2003-2006 (Pbeverages on any given day increased significantly from 1989-1991 to 2009-2012 (P for overall increasing trend beverage calories increased between 1989-1991 and 1994-1996 (Pbeverage intake for less educated consumers across time. These results indicate there has been an increase in the proportion of US adults who drink on any given day and an increase in calories consumed from alcoholic beverages when drinking occurs. Copyright © 2016 Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Base-free Pd/TOMPP-Catalyzed Telomerization of 1,3-Butadiene with Carbohydrates and sugar alcohols

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hausoul, P.J.C.; Bruijnincx, P.C.A.; Klein Gebbink, R.J.M.; Weckhuysen, B.M.

    2009-01-01

    Sugar and alcohol - a superior combo: The telomerization activity of the Pd/TOMPP catalyst is screened using thirteen different biomass-derived carbohydrates and sugar alcohols. High substrate conversions are achieved by using low Pd loading and without the use of an added base. In terms of

  9. College Students' Alcohol Displays on Facebook: Intervention Considerations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreno, Megan A.; Grant, Allison; Kacvinsky, Lauren; Egan, Katie G.; Fleming, Michael F.

    2012-01-01

    Objective: The purpose of this study was to investigate college freshmen's views towards potential social networking site (SNS) screening or intervention efforts regarding alcohol. Participants: Freshmen college students between February 2010 and May 2011. Methods: Participants were interviewed; all interviews were audio-recorded and transcribed.…

  10. Anticonvulsants for alcohol withdrawal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minozzi, Silvia; Amato, Laura; Vecchi, Simona; Davoli, Marina

    2010-03-17

    Alcohol abuse and dependence represents a most serious health problem worldwide with major social, interpersonal and legal interpolations. Besides benzodiazepines, anticonvulsants are often used for the treatment of alcohol withdrawal symptoms. Anticonvulsants drugs are indicated for the treatment of alcohol withdrawal syndrome, alone or in combination with benzodiazepine treatments. In spite of the wide use, the exact role of the anticonvulsants for the treatment of alcohol withdrawal has not yet bee adequately assessed. To evaluate the effectiveness and safety of anticonvulsants in the treatment of alcohol withdrawal. We searched Cochrane Drugs and Alcohol Group' Register of Trials (December 2009), PubMed, EMBASE, CINAHL (1966 to December 2009), EconLIT (1969 to December 2009). Parallel searches on web sites of health technology assessment and related agencies, and their databases. Randomized controlled trials (RCTs) examining the effectiveness, safety and overall risk-benefit of anticonvulsants in comparison with a placebo or other pharmacological treatment. All patients were included regardless of age, gender, nationality, and outpatient or inpatient therapy. Two authors independently screened and extracted data from studies. Fifty-six studies, with a total of 4076 participants, met the inclusion criteria. Comparing anticonvulsants with placebo, no statistically significant differences for the six outcomes considered.Comparing anticonvulsant versus other drug, 19 outcomes considered, results favour anticonvulsants only in the comparison carbamazepine versus benzodiazepine (oxazepam and lorazepam) for alcohol withdrawal symptoms (CIWA-Ar score): 3 studies, 262 participants, MD -1.04 (-1.89 to -0.20), none of the other comparisons reached statistical significance.Comparing different anticonvulsants no statistically significant differences in the two outcomes considered.Comparing anticonvulsants plus other drugs versus other drugs (3 outcomes considered), results

  11. Alcohol use among Hispanic college students along the US/Mexico border.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montoya, Jared A; Wittenburg, David; Martinez, Vanessa

    2016-11-01

    The trend of alcohol use among college students has been shown to vary by ethnicity and has been linked to acculturation among Hispanics. Consistent findings indicate that males consume alcohol more frequently and in greater quantities compared to females. This study investigated the drinking habits of Hispanic college students living in the border region of South Texas. The study evaluated the influence of acculturation on alcohol consumption among Hispanic males and females. Two hundred and ninety-six Hispanic students participated in this study. The participants reported their drinking behaviors over the past 30 days and completed a measure of acculturation. Fifty-nine percent of the participants reported consuming alcohol in the past 30 days with more males than females reporting alcohol consumption. Logistic regression analysis indicated that age and gender, and not acculturation or enculturation, predicted drinking in the last 30 days. Among drinkers, the regression analyses indicated that gender and lower levels of Anglo orientation were linked to increased alcohol consumption, suggesting that Hispanics who were less oriented toward the Anglo culture consumed more alcohol than those more oriented toward the Anglo culture. Among drinkers, males and females did not differ in frequency or binge drinking, but males consumed more alcohol than females. Previous research indicates that greater acculturation is linked to greater consumption of alcohol; however, we found it to be associated with less consumption. The findings regarding gender represent some consistencies with previous research but there are some inconsistencies as well. These results suggest that less acculturated Hispanic male college students residing in the border region may be at a higher risk of alcohol abuse than Hispanic female students and more acculturated male students.

  12. Are lifestyle changes achieved after participation in a screening programme for Type 2 diabetes? The ADDITION Study, Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mai, K S; Sandbaek, A; Borch-Johnsen, K

    2007-01-01

    . The screening comprised two main steps: identification of high-risk individuals by a mailed risk score questionnaire, and subsequent testing of high-risk individuals by their general practitioner. Questionnaires on physical exercise [International Physical Activity Questionnaire (IPAQ), short form], smoking...... habits and alcohol consumption were mailed to the target population 1 month prior to the offer of screening, and at 12 months' follow-up. At follow-up, additional questions regarding perceived changes in dietary habits, smoking, alcohol consumption and exercise were included. Three pairs of comparison...... groups were analysed. RESULTS: One year after screening, smokers who underwent further testing reduced smoking by one daily cigarette more than people at low risk of diabetes. The rate of smokers was not reduced, and the result was not confirmed by data regarding perceived change. Alcohol intake...

  13. Fatal alcohol-related traffic crashes increase subsequent to changes to and from daylight savings time.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hicks, G J; Davis, J W; Hicks, R A

    1998-06-01

    On the hypothesis that sleepiness and alcohol interact to increase the risk of alcohol-related traffic fatalities, the percentages of alcohol-related fatal traffic crashes were assessed for the entire state of New Mexico for the years 1989-1992, for each of the seven days that preceded the changes to and from Daylight Savings Time and for each of the 14 days which followed the changes to and from Daylight Savings Time. Consistent with our hypothesis the percentage of alcohol-related fatal crashes increased significantly during the first seven days after these changes in Daylight Savings Time.

  14. Time Trends and Policy Gaps: The Case of Alcohol Misuse Among Adolescents in Lebanon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghandour, Lilian; Afifi, Rima; Fares, Sonia; El Salibi, Noura; Rady, Alissar

    2015-01-01

    Monitoring studies are crucial for informing and reforming local policies. Using the Lebanon 2005 and 2011 Global School-based Student Health Surveys (GSHS), alcohol time trends were described, policy gaps were identified, and harm reduction policy recommendations were made. In 2005 and 2011, 100 (n = 5109 students) and 44 (n = 2784 students) middle schools were surveyed, respectively. Self-reported cross-sectional data on alcohol use among 7-9th graders in private and public schools was collected including 30-day prevalence, lifetime drunkenness, alcohol-related problems, and sources of alcohol. In 2011, the majority (87%) had alcohol before turning 14. Between 2005 and 2011, past 30-day alcohol use had increased by 40% and lifetime drunkenness by 50% in the total sample (122% among females with a narrowing in the gender gap). Drinking was regular for more than a third of the past 30-day drinkers (drank two or more drinks on the days they drank). Male adolescents were more likely to obtain alcohol from "stores" or "through their friends" whereas females' main source was their "family." One in twenty reported experiencing alcohol-related problems (e.g., getting into fights with family/friends and skipping school). Conclusion/Importance: Evidence-informed policy implications include enforcing a minimum legal drinking age, regulating alcohol advertising, and marketing particularly those targeting youth and women, and ensuring the availability of youth-friendly services. Public messages to increase awareness among all stakeholders including youth, their parents, and larger community are also needed.

  15. Validity of the AUDIT-C screen for at-risk drinking among students utilizing university primary care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, Clare E; Maisto, Stephen A

    2018-03-22

    Research is needed to establish the psychometric properties of brief screens in university primary care settings. This study aimed to assess the construct validity of one such screen, the Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test-Consumption (AUDIT-C), for detecting at-risk drinking among students who have utilized on-campus primary care. 389 students recently seen in university primary care completed a confidential online survey in December 2014. Bivariate correlations between the AUDIT-C and measures of alcohol consumption and negative drinking consequences provided concurrent evidence for construct validity. Receiver Operating Characteristic curve analyses determined optimal cut-off scores for at-risk drinking. The AUDIT-C significantly correlated with measures of alcohol consumption and negative drinking consequences (p AUDIT-C cut-off scores of 5 for females and 7 for males. The AUDIT-C is a valid screen for at-risk drinking among students who utilize university primary care.

  16. Effects of ethanol on offspring of C57BL/6J mice alcoholized during gestation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grinfeld Hermann

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available The effects of chronic alcohol consumption during pregnancy were analysed in the gestation and offspring of alcoholized mice. Female C57BL/6J mice were placed overnight with stud males and the presence of a sperm plug in the next morning indicated the onset of gestation. Pregnant mice were distributed in two weight-matched groups. In the alcoholized group, the mice received a high protein liquid diet ad libitum containing 27.5% of ethanol-derived calories (5.28% v/v from gestation day 5 to 19. The control group received the same volume of diet containing isocaloric amounts of maltose-dextrin substituted for ethanol. After postnatal day zero, the dams received food pellets and tap water ad libitum. On postnatal day 6 the pups were counted and weighed at variable intervals up to the 60th day of life. The majority of the pregnant dams that have received ethanol completed the gestational period, and the chronic consumption of alcohol did not interfere with the number of dams that gave birth. The alcoholized and control dams gained an equivalent weight and consumed an equivalent volume of diet throughout the gestation. The number of pups from alcohol diet dams was 46,26% smaller compared with the control group. There were less male than female pups in the offspring of alcoholized mice. Teratogeny like gastroschisis and limb malformation were present in the offspring of alcoholized dams. The body weight of the offspring of alcoholized mice increased from the 18th to the 36th postnatal day.

  17. A survey of physicians knowledge regarding awareness of maternal alcohol use and the diagnosis of FAS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nevin, Alexandra C; Parshuram, Christopher; Nulman, Irena; Koren, Gideon; Einarson, Adrienne

    2002-01-01

    Background Alcohol is the most widely used drug in the world that is a human teratogen whose use among women of childbearing age has been steadily increasing. It is also probable that Fetal Alcohol Syndrome is under diagnosed by physicians. The objectives of this study were twofold: 1) to evaluate the experience, knowledge and confidence of family physicians with respect to the diagnosis of FAS and 2) to evaluate physicians awareness of maternal drinking patterns. Methods and Participants A multiple choice anonymous questionnaire was sent to a randomly selected group of family physicians in the Metropolitan Toronto area. Results There was a 73% (75/103) total response rate; Overall, 6/75 (8%) of family physicians reported that they had actually diagnosed a child with FAS. 17.9% had suspicions but did not make a diagnosis and 12.7% reported making a referral to confirm the diagnosis. Physician rated confidence in the ability to diagnosis FAS was low, with 49% feeling they had very little confidence. 75% reported counselling pregnant women and 60.8% reported counselling childbearing women in general on the use of alcohol. When asked what screening test they used to detect the use of alcohol, 75% described frequency/quantity. Not a single respondent identified using the current accepted screening method for alcohol use (TWEAK) which is recommended by The Centre for Addiction and Mental Health. Conclusions Family physicians do not feel confident about diagnosing FAS. None of the physicians were aware of the current screening methods to accurately gage alcohol use in pregnant and childbearing women PMID:11860607

  18. Validity of Alcohol Use Disorder Identification Test-Korean Revised Version for Screening Alcohol Use Disorder according to Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fifth Edition Criteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Jung Wei; Kim, Jong Sung; Jung, Jin Gyu; Kim, Sung Soo; Yoon, Seok Joon; Jang, Hak Sun

    2016-11-01

    The Alcohol Use Disorder Identification Test (AUDIT) has been widely used to identify alcohol use disorder (AUD). This study evaluated the validity of the AUDIT-Korean revised version (AUDIT-KR) for screening AUD according to Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, fifth edition (DSM-5) criteria. This research was conducted with 443 subjects who visited the Chungnam National University Hospital for a comprehensive medical examination. All subjects completed the demographic questionnaire and AUDIT-KR without assistance. Subjects were divided into two groups according to DSM-5 criteria: an AUD group, which included patients that fit the criteria for AUD (120 males and 21 females), and a non-AUD group, which included 146 males and 156 females that did not meet AUD criteria. The appropriate cut-off values, sensitivity, specificity, and positive and negative predictive values of the AUDIT-KR were evaluated. The mean±standard deviation AUDIT-KR scores were 10.32±7.48 points in males and 3.23±4.42 points in females. The area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (95% confidence interval, CI) of the AUDIT-KR for identifying AUD was 0.884 (0.840-0.920) in males and 0.962 (0.923-0.985) in females. The optimal cut-off value of the AUDIT-KR was 10 points for males (sensitivity, 81.90%; specificity, 81.33%; positive predictive value, 77.2%; negative predictive value, 85.3%) and 5 points for females (sensitivity, 100.00%; specificity, 88.54%; positive predictive value, 52.6%; negative predictive value, 100.0%). The AUDIT-KR has high reliability and validity for identifying AUD according to DSM-5 criteria.

  19. 10 CFR 26.65 - Pre-access drug and alcohol testing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Pre-access drug and alcohol testing. 26.65 Section 26.65... § 26.65 Pre-access drug and alcohol testing. (a) Purpose. This section contains pre-access testing... days. If an individual has negative results from drug and alcohol tests that were conducted under the...

  20. Alcohol and cannabis use among college students: Substitutes or complements?

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Hara, Ross E; Armeli, Stephen; Tennen, Howard

    2016-07-01

    Economists debate whether changes in availability of alcohol or cannabis are positively or negatively related to changes in use of the other substance. Implicit in these arguments are two competing, individual-level hypotheses-that people use alcohol and cannabis either as complements or substitutes for one another. This is the first study to test these hypotheses using micro-longitudinal data on individuals' alcohol and cannabis use on a given evening. United States college students who use alcohol and cannabis (n=876) were selected from a larger sample who participated in a 30-day online daily diary study. At baseline, students reported their proclivity to use alcohol/drugs to cope with stress. Each day students reported their level of alcohol use from the prior evening as well as whether they had used cannabis. Evening levels of alcohol use and mean levels of alcohol use positively predicted the likelihood of evening cannabis use, results indicative of complementary use. This relation, however, was moderated by coping style, such that students who were more likely to use alcohol/drugs to cope were less likely to use cannabis as their evening or mean alcohol use levels increased, results indicative of substitution. Substance-using college students showed evidence for complementary alcohol and cannabis use at both the within- and between-person levels. Students with a proclivity toward using alcohol/drugs to cope, however, showed evidence of substitution. These findings suggest that studies based on economic theories of substance use should take into account individual differences in substance use motives. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Risk factors for alcohol relapse following orthotopic liver transplantation: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rustad, James K; Stern, Theodore A; Prabhakar, Maithri; Musselman, Dominique

    2015-01-01

    more than double the prevalence of steatohepatitis or rejection on biopsy and graft failure and more frequent mortality resulting from recurrent alcoholic liver disease than late-onset (i.e., peak of heaviest drinking at 6y posttransplantation) alcohol users do. Fortunately, pretransplantation screening combined with a structured pretransplantation management program and a 12-step program attendance reduced recidivism. No randomized clinical trials have been performed that target pretransplantation risk factors in individuals with alcoholic liver disease before or after OLT to improve post-OLT outcomes. Recent research findings suggest that screening can reveal individuals who are vulnerable to alcohol relapse and targeted intervention can prevent their relapse to alcohol. Based on existing addiction treatments (e.g., relapse prevention plan construction), randomized clinical trials tailored to post-OLT patients should be conducted to improve their survival and quality of life. Copyright © 2014 The Academy of Psychosomatic Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. AESOPS: a randomised controlled trial of the clinical effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of opportunistic screening and stepped care interventions for older hazardous alcohol users in primary care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watson, J M; Crosby, H; Dale, V M; Tober, G; Wu, Q; Lang, J; McGovern, R; Newbury-Birch, D; Parrott, S; Bland, J M; Drummond, C; Godfrey, C; Kaner, E; Coulton, S

    2013-06-01

    There is clear evidence of the detrimental impact of hazardous alcohol consumption on the physical and mental health of the population. Estimates suggest that hazardous alcohol consumption annually accounts for 150,000 hospital admissions and between 15,000 and 22,000 deaths in the UK. In the older population, hazardous alcohol consumption is associated with a wide range of physical, psychological and social problems. There is evidence of an association between increased alcohol consumption and increased risk of coronary heart disease, hypertension and haemorrhagic and ischaemic stroke, increased rates of alcohol-related liver disease and increased risk of a range of cancers. Alcohol is identified as one of the three main risk factors for falls. Excessive alcohol consumption in older age can also contribute to the onset of dementia and other age-related cognitive deficits and is implicated in one-third of all suicides in the older population. To compare the clinical effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of a stepped care intervention against a minimal intervention in the treatment of older hazardous alcohol users in primary care. A multicentre, pragmatic, two-armed randomised controlled trial with an economic evaluation. General practices in primary care in England and Scotland between April 2008 and October 2010. Adults aged ≥ 55 years scoring ≥ 8 on the Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test (10-item) (AUDIT) were eligible. In total, 529 patients were randomised in the study. The minimal intervention group received a 5-minute brief advice intervention with the practice or research nurse involving feedback of the screening results and discussion regarding the health consequences of continued hazardous alcohol consumption. Those in the stepped care arm initially received a 20-minute session of behavioural change counselling, with referral to step 2 (motivational enhancement therapy) and step 3 (local specialist alcohol services) if indicated. Sessions were

  3. The midwife´s dialogue about alcohol in a lifecycle perspective with both parents-to-be

    OpenAIRE

    Högberg, Hjördis

    2016-01-01

    Alcohol use during pregnancy can damage the fetus. Midwives at antenatal care (ANC) screen pregnant women for risk drinking in early pregnancy. There are however, no routines involving both parents-to-be in a dialogue about alcohol. The aim of this thesis is to investigate alcohol use among pregnant women and their partners and to evaluate a method for midwives’ dialogue about alcohol in a life cycle perspective with both parents-to-be. Study I was a quasi-experiment within ANC. An interventi...

  4. Alcohol brief intervention in community pharmacies: a feasibility study of outcomes and customer experiences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Natasha S; Norman, Ian J; Dhital, Ranjita; McCrone, Paul; Milligan, Peter; Whittlesea, Cate M

    2013-12-01

    Studies indicate that community pharmacy-based alcohol brief intervention (BI) is feasible. However, few studies report significant reductions in post-BI alcohol consumption and customer experience. Cost-effectiveness has not been previously examined. This 5 month study adopted a single group pre- and post-experimental design to: (1) assess uptake of the community pharmacy alcohol BI service; (2) establish post-BI changes in alcohol consumption for hazardous drinkers; (3) report the acceptability of the service to customers who received it; and (4) undertake a preliminary economic evaluation of the service through establishing whether pharmacy-based alcohol BI affected health and social care costs, including lost employment costs, and whether it was cost-effective. 26 community pharmacies in south London, UK. Trained pharmacists used the AUDIT-C and a retrospective 7-day Drinking Diary to identify risky drinkers and inform feedback and advice. Harmful drinkers were referred to their general practitioner and/or specialist alcohol services. A confidential service feedback questionnaire was completed by alcohol BI recipients. Baseline and 3-month follow-up telephone interviews were conducted with hazardous and low risk drinkers to assess post-BI alcohol use change and service cost-effectiveness. AUDIT-C, 7-day alcohol unit consumption, drinking days, cost utilisation data. Of the 663 eligible customers offered alcohol BI, 141 (21 %) took up the service. Three-quarters of customers were identified as risky drinkers. Follow-up interviews were conducted with 61 hazardous/low risk drinkers (response rate = 58 %). Hazardous drinkers were found to significantly reduce their 7-day alcohol unit consumption and drinking days, but not AUDIT-C scores. The majority of harmful drinkers (91 %, n = 10) who were contactable post-BI had accessed further alcohol related services. Customer feedback was generally positive. Over 75 % of customers would recommend the service to others. The

  5. Does alcohol contribute to accident and emergency department attendance in elderly people?

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Pol, V; Rodgers, H; Aitken, P; James, O; Curless, R

    1996-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the possible contribution of alcohol to presentation of elderly subjects at a hospital accident and emergency (A&E) department. METHODS: 105 patients aged 70 years and over who attended the department were interviewed by a single observer using a structured questionnaire based on previously validated general population surveys. Details of alcohol consumption within the previous 24 hours were recorded. Usual consumption of alcohol in the preceding 12 months was estimated by the quantity frequency method. Alcohol dependence was screened for by the CAGE questionnaire. An assessment of disability was made using the Barthel index. Breath alcohol was measured. RESULTS: In only 2% of attenders was alcohol thought to be a contributory factor. Breath alcohol measurements were technically unsatisfactory in this age group. Regular drinkers were functionally and socially more independent than non-regular drinkers. Drinking patterns in this age group may partly be determined by the physical ability to obtain alcohol. CONCLUSIONS: Alcohol was not found to be a major factor in A&E attendance in elderly people. PMID:8832344

  6. Alcoholism and Alcohol Abuse

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... their drinking causes distress and harm. It includes alcoholism and alcohol abuse. Alcoholism, or alcohol dependence, is a disease that causes ... the liver, brain, and other organs. Drinking during pregnancy can harm your baby. Alcohol also increases the ...

  7. Health Evaluation and Referral Assistant: A Randomized Controlled Trial of a Web-Based Screening, Brief Intervention, and Referral to Treatment System to Reduce Risky Alcohol Use Among Emergency Department Patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haskins, Brianna L; Davis-Martin, Rachel; Abar, Beau; Baumann, Brigitte M; Harralson, Tina; Boudreaux, Edwin D

    2017-05-01

    Computer technologies hold promise for implementing alcohol screening, brief intervention, and referral to treatment (SBIRT). Questions concerning the most effective and appropriate SBIRT model remain. The aim of this study was to evaluate the impact of a computerized SBIRT system called the Health Evaluation and Referral Assistant (HERA) on risky alcohol use treatment initiation. Alcohol users (N=319) presenting to an emergency department (ED) were considered for enrollment. Those enrolled (n=212) were randomly assigned to the HERA, to complete a patient-administered assessment using a tablet computer, or a minimal-treatment control, and were followed for 3 months. Analyses compared alcohol treatment provider contact, treatment initiation, treatment completion, and alcohol use across condition using univariate comparisons, generalized estimating equations (GEEs), and post hoc chi-square analyses. HERA participants (n=212; control=115; intervention=97) did not differ between conditions on initial contact with an alcohol treatment provider, treatment initiation, treatment completion, or change in risky alcohol use behavior. Subanalyses indicated that HERA participants, who accepted a faxed referral, were more likely to initiate contact with a treatment provider and initiate treatment for risky alcohol use, but were not more likely to continue engaging in treatment, or to complete treatment and change risky alcohol use behavior over the 3-month period following the ED visit. The HERA promoted initial contact with an alcohol treatment provider and initiation of treatment for those who accepted the faxed referral, but it did not lead to reduced risky alcohol use behavior. Factors which may have limited the HERA's impact include lack of support for the intervention by clinical staff, the low intensity of the brief and stand-alone design of the intervention, and barriers related to patient follow-through, (eg, a lack of transportation or childcare, fees for services, or

  8. Damage of hippocampal neurons in rats with chronic alcoholism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du, Ailin; Jiang, Hongbo; Xu, Lei; An, Na; Liu, Hui; Li, Yinsheng; Zhang, Ruiling

    2014-09-01

    Chronic alcoholism can damage the cytoskeleton and aggravate neurological deficits. However, the effect of chronic alcoholism on hippocampal neurons remains unclear. In this study, a model of chronic alcoholism was established in rats that were fed with 6% alcohol for 42 days. Endogenous hydrogen sulfide content and cystathionine-beta-synthase activity in the hippocampus of rats with chronic alcoholism were significantly increased, while F-actin expression was decreased. Hippocampal neurons in rats with chronic alcoholism appeared to have a fuzzy nuclear membrane, mitochondrial edema, and ruptured mitochondrial crista. These findings suggest that chronic alcoholism can cause learning and memory decline in rats, which may be associated with the hydrogen sulfide/cystathionine-beta-synthase system, mitochondrial damage and reduced expression of F-actin.

  9. Mutation and screening of high-alcoholic-yield yeast by HEPE and optimization of the fermentation condition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Han Jingjing; Lu Jiangtao; Zhang Qin; Wang Yan; Fu Yujie; Wang Shilong; Fu Haiying

    2011-01-01

    The Saccharomyces Cerevisiae YE0 was mutated using high-energy-pulse-electron (HEPE) beam. After ethanol stress and determination of the alcohol yield by gas chromatograph, the mutant YF1 with high alcoholic yield was obtained. The results showed that under the optimized fermentation conditions (34 degree C as the fermentation temperature, 72 h as the fermentation time and 30% as the glucose concentration), the alcoholic yield of YF1 was 15.57% which was 58.23% higher than that of the original strain YE0 (9.84%) under the same conditions. The growth rate and lethal temperature of the mutant YF1 were obviously enhanced to the original strain YE0. The mutant YF1 has a great potential application in industrial production of alcohol. And it can also be used as the original strain for further mutagenesis to get the strain of higher alcoholic yield. (authors)

  10. Increasing Follow-up Outcomes of At-Risk Alcohol Patients Using Motivational Interviewing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagner, Andrew J; Garbers, Rachael; Lang, Ann; Borgert, Andrew J; Fisher, Mason

    2016-01-01

    Our trauma division implemented a screening, brief intervention, and referral to treatment (SBIRT) program in 2009 and has maintained more than 92% screening rate for all inpatient admissions since inception. Brief interventions are proven to be more likely to effect and reinforce change if a follow-up contact is made with patients. This led to discussion regarding whether identified patients were more likely to follow up with our SBIRT wellness specialist using motivational interviewing or with our partners, exercise physiology, who use traditional interviewing techniques. We retrospectively reviewed more than 3,000 inpatient admissions in which screening for at-risk alcohol use were positive. Fifty-one percent of identified patients were referred for wellness specialist consultation with a follow-up rate of 52% compared with a follow-up rate of only 21% in the exercise physiology group. Motivational interviewing is more effective in encouraging at-risk alcohol users to participate in follow-up care.

  11. The impaired driver: hospital and police detection of alcohol and other drugs of abuse in motor vehicle crashes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orsay, E M; Doan-Wiggins, L; Lewis, R; Lucke, R; RamaKrishnan, V

    1994-07-01

    To determine the incidence of drugs of abuse and alcohol use in admitted drivers involved in motor vehicle crashes (MVCs) and to determine the rate of police detection of alcohol and drug use in these motorists. Retrospective chart review of hospitalized drivers involved in MVCs and review of corresponding police reports. Two Level I trauma centers in a large metropolitan region. All MVC drivers/motorcycle operators admitted to the trauma service from January 1, 1990, to December 31, 1990. The records of 634 injured motorists were reviewed; 200 (32% of the 625 patients with serum alcohol levels) were legally drunk (serum alcohol of 100 mg/dL or more), and 132 (22.6% of the 585 urine drug screens) had positive urine drug screens. Cocaine was the most prevalent drug of abuse, present in 51 patients (8.7%). Two hundred eighty-five patients (45.0%) were considered impaired (alcohol of 100 mg/dL or more and/or positive drug screen), representing almost half of all motorists admitted. The impaired motorists were younger, more often male, less likely to use a seat belt or helmet, and had higher Injury Severity Scores than their unimpaired counterparts. Police reports were available for 446 patients, 139 (31.2%) of whom were legally drunk and 67 (15%) of whom had positive drug screens, yielding an overall impairment rate of 46.2%. Only 34 (16.5%) patients were cited for driving under the influence. An exceedingly high rate of impairment existed in this population of seriously injured motorists in a metropolitan region, the majority of whom were not charged by the police. Although alcohol is the most prevalent source of driver impairment, other drugs of abuse are also important contributors to this problem.

  12. Alcohol Content in the 'Hyper-Reality' MTV Show 'Geordie Shore'.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lowe, Eden; Britton, John; Cranwell, Jo

    2018-05-01

    To quantify the occurrence of alcohol content, including alcohol branding, in the popular primetime television UK Reality TV show 'Geordie Shore' Series 11. A 1-min interval coding content analysis of alcohol content in the entire DVD Series 11 of 'Geordie Shore' (10 episodes). Occurrence of alcohol use, implied use, other alcohol reference/paraphernalia or branding was recorded. All categories of alcohol were present in all episodes. 'Any alcohol' content occurred in 78%, 'actual alcohol use' in 30%, 'inferred alcohol use' in 72%, and all 'other' alcohol references occurred in 59% of all coding intervals (ACIs), respectively. Brand appearances occurred in 23% of ACIs. The most frequently observed alcohol brand was Smirnoff which appeared in 43% of all brand appearances. Episodes categorized as suitable for viewing by adolescents below the legal drinking age of 18 years comprised of 61% of all brand appearances. Alcohol content, including branding, is highly prevalent in the UK Reality TV show 'Geordie Shore' Series 11. Two-thirds of all alcohol branding occurred in episodes age-rated by the British Board of Film Classification (BBFC) as suitable for viewers aged 15 years. The organizations OfCom, Advertising Standards Authority (ASA) and the Portman Group should implement more effective policies to reduce adolescent exposure to on-screen drinking. The drinks industry should consider demanding the withdrawal of their brands from the show. Alcohol content, including branding, is highly prevalent in the MTV reality TV show 'Geordie Shore' Series 11. Current alcohol regulation is failing to protect young viewers from exposure to such content.

  13. Effects of alcohol and noise on temporary threshold shift in Guinea pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Tien-Chen; Hsu, Chuan-Jen; Hwang, Juen-Haur; Tseng, Fen-Yu; Chen, Yuh-Shyang

    2004-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of concomitant exposure to noise and alcohol on the auditory thresholds. Twenty-four guinea pigs were equally divided into three groups: the acute intoxication group, the chronic intoxication group and the control group. Animals in the acute group received single intraperitoneal injections of ethanol (2 g/kg). In the chronic group, alcohol was administered via drinking water (10%, v/v) over a 60-day period. All animals were exposed to a white noise at the intensity of 105 dB A for 30 min. Auditory brainstem response (ABR) thresholds and distortion product otoacoustic emission (DPOAE) levels were measured before, immediately after noise exposure and also 1, 2, and 7 days following exposure. The results showed: first, acute alcohol injection caused a significant, temporary elevation of ABR threshold (4.8 dB in average), while chronic alcohol treatment did not change auditory threshold significantly. Second, noise exposure induced a mean threshold shift of 15.4- 19.7 dB. ABR threshold returned to normal 2 days after exposure. Both acute and chronic alcohol treatment did not alter the magnitude and time course of recovery of the temporary threshold shift (TTS). Third, the mean DPOAE amplitudes decreased at most frequencies following acute injection of alcohol. However, the differences did not reach statistical significance. Fourth, the mean DPOAE levels dropped 3.4-9.6 dB in all groups after noise exposure and returned to normal 1 day to 2 days after noise. There were no significant differences in the amount of DPOAE suppression after noise between the three groups. In summary, we have found that acute and chronic treatment of alcohol in combination with noise did not significantly exacerbate TTS or decrease DPOAE amplitudes relative to noise exposure alone. Copyright 2004 S. Karger AG, Basel

  14. Alcohol consuption among academics of physical education

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    João Jorge da Costa Júnior

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available This is a cross-sectional study that aims to determine the prevalence of alcohol consumption among physical education students of a public university of São Luís-MA. The sample consisted of 80 students. It was identified the following profile: 44 men and 36 women, aged between 18 and 21 years, most Catholics and having family income between $ 1,440.00 and $ 2,400.00. The prevalence of alcohol use was 95%, being higher among men (97.72%. The problematic use of alcohol, detected by the CAGE test, showed that 15% had physical and psychic problems and 23.75% mentioned to have missed classes in the last 30 days because of alcohol consumption. The study showed a significant number of students that had an exacerbated level of alcohol consumption, which draws attention to the need of addressing the topic of alcoholism in the academic scenario.

  15. Is trivialisation of alcohol consumption a laughing matter? Alcohol incidence in a metropolitan daily newspaper's comic strips.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donovan, Robert J; Fielder, Lynda; Donovan, Patrick; Handley, Claire

    2009-05-01

    A number of studies have looked at the incidence and nature of depictions of alcohol in various media, primarily in movies, television and magazines. However, there have been few studies of depictions of alcohol in comic strips in newspapers. This study analysed the content of the five comic strips in the 258 weekday editions of a metropolitan newspaper over a period of 1 year. Where alcohol was depicted, this was classified as either integral or incidental to the theme or story of that day's strip. As an indication of the nature of the depiction and in the absence of specific codes for the depiction of alcohol in comic strips, depictions were assessed against the Australian Alcoholic Beverages Advertising Code (ABAC). Of the 1 290 individual comic strips, 4% (n = 54) depicted alcohol. Depictions were equal in number incidental and integral to the 'story'. Over half of the strips depicting alcohol were deemed to breach the ABAC, with the most common breach related to trivialisation of alcohol consumption. One strip accounted for over 60% of all depictions with the majority breaching the ABAC. These results suggest that newspaper publishers should consider a code for depictions of alcohol (and other unhealthy or risky products/behaviours) in comics. At the very least, comics that trivialise the abuse of alcohol should be excluded under such a code.

  16. 49 CFR 40.223 - What steps must be taken to protect the security of alcohol testing sites?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... alcohol test for only one employee at a time. (1) When an EBT screening test on an employee indicates an... the first employee. (2) As a BAT who will conduct both the screening and the confirmation test, you are to complete the entire screening and confirmation process on one employee before starting the...

  17. COMPARISON OF SERUM LIPID PROFILE IN MIDDLE AGED ALCOHOLICS & NON ALCOHOLICS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bhanuprakash

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION Alcoholism has become a major burden in developing countries like India, especially in rural areas. Multiple reasons like financial burden of being low socio economic status, heavy field work leading to physical stress & mental stress. Added to this illiteracy, lack of knowledge about ill effects of alcohol, people consume it regularly & become addictive. AIMS & OBJECTIVES The present study was conducted to study the lipid profile of alcoholics & compare them with normal subjects. MATERIALS & METHODS 30 males between the age group of 35-60 years who consumed alcohol (>250 ml/day regularly for more than 15 years in Chittoor and surrounding villages were recruited for the study group. 30 subjects of same age group attending SVIMS OPD, Tirupathi were taken as control group. Fasting serum lipid profile was done on both the groups by collecting their venous blood samples. RESULTS We found that serum cholesterol (234.66+10.34, Triglycerides (178.38+8.8, (LDL Low density lipoprotein (160.6+10.3 & (VLDL Very Low density lipoprotein (35.09+7.56 were significantly (p<0.05 higher in study group than compared to control group. Whereas High density lipoprotein HDL was significantly lower in study group (38.2 than control group (41.2. CONCLUSION Alcohol consumption leads to liver diseases which may present with clinical and biochemical features, mainly impaired serum lipid profile.

  18. Aminobutyric acid and formation of higher alcohols by Saccharomyces carlsbergenesis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Babaeva, S A; Veselov, I Ya; Gracheva, I M

    1966-01-01

    Aminobutyric acid (1) added before the start of fermentation increased the formation of propyl-, isobutyl-, and isoamyl alcohols. With addition of I after 24, 28, or 72 hours of fermentation, the formation of the alcohols gradually decreased. Addition of I after 3 days of fermentation did not affect formation of the higher alcohols. I was not the source of formation of the higher alcohols, but affected the metabolism of carbohydrates and N in the cells. Formation of hexyl alcohols and high amounts of aldehydes was observed only during aerobic fermentation.

  19. Effect of a brief intervention for alcohol and illicit drug use on trauma recidivism in a cohort of trauma patients.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergio Cordovilla-Guardia

    Full Text Available Estimate the effectiveness of brief interventions in reducing trauma recidivism in hospitalized trauma patients who screened positive for alcohol and/or illicit drug use.Dynamic cohort study based on registry data from 1818 patients included in a screening and brief intervention program for alcohol and illicit drug use for hospitalized trauma patients. Three subcohorts emerged from the data analysis: patients who screened negative, those who screened positive and were offered brief intervention, and those who screened positive and were not offered brief intervention. Follow-up lasted from 10 to 52 months. Trauma-free survival, adjusted hazard rate ratios (aHRR and adjusted incidence rate ratios (aIRR were calculated, and complier average causal effect (CACE analysis was used.We found a higher cumulative risk of trauma recidivism in the subcohort who screened positive. In this subcohort, an aHRR of 0.63 (95% CI: 0.41-0.95 was obtained for the group offered brief intervention compared to the group not offered intervention. CACE analysis yielded an estimated 52% reduction in trauma recidivism associated with the brief intervention.The brief intervention offered during hospitalization in trauma patients positive for alcohol and/or illicit drug use can halve the incidence of trauma recidivism.

  20. Effect of a brief intervention for alcohol and illicit drug use on trauma recidivism in a cohort of trauma patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cordovilla-Guardia, Sergio; Fernández-Mondéjar, Enrique; Vilar-López, Raquel; Navas, Juan F; Portillo-Santamaría, Mónica; Rico-Martín, Sergio; Lardelli-Claret, Pablo

    2017-01-01

    Estimate the effectiveness of brief interventions in reducing trauma recidivism in hospitalized trauma patients who screened positive for alcohol and/or illicit drug use. Dynamic cohort study based on registry data from 1818 patients included in a screening and brief intervention program for alcohol and illicit drug use for hospitalized trauma patients. Three subcohorts emerged from the data analysis: patients who screened negative, those who screened positive and were offered brief intervention, and those who screened positive and were not offered brief intervention. Follow-up lasted from 10 to 52 months. Trauma-free survival, adjusted hazard rate ratios (aHRR) and adjusted incidence rate ratios (aIRR) were calculated, and complier average causal effect (CACE) analysis was used. We found a higher cumulative risk of trauma recidivism in the subcohort who screened positive. In this subcohort, an aHRR of 0.63 (95% CI: 0.41-0.95) was obtained for the group offered brief intervention compared to the group not offered intervention. CACE analysis yielded an estimated 52% reduction in trauma recidivism associated with the brief intervention. The brief intervention offered during hospitalization in trauma patients positive for alcohol and/or illicit drug use can halve the incidence of trauma recidivism.

  1. Effect of a brief intervention for alcohol and illicit drug use on trauma recidivism in a cohort of trauma patients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernández-Mondéjar, Enrique; Vilar-López, Raquel; Navas, Juan F.; Portillo-Santamaría, Mónica; Rico-Martín, Sergio; Lardelli-Claret, Pablo

    2017-01-01

    Objective Estimate the effectiveness of brief interventions in reducing trauma recidivism in hospitalized trauma patients who screened positive for alcohol and/or illicit drug use. Methods Dynamic cohort study based on registry data from 1818 patients included in a screening and brief intervention program for alcohol and illicit drug use for hospitalized trauma patients. Three subcohorts emerged from the data analysis: patients who screened negative, those who screened positive and were offered brief intervention, and those who screened positive and were not offered brief intervention. Follow-up lasted from 10 to 52 months. Trauma-free survival, adjusted hazard rate ratios (aHRR) and adjusted incidence rate ratios (aIRR) were calculated, and complier average causal effect (CACE) analysis was used. Results We found a higher cumulative risk of trauma recidivism in the subcohort who screened positive. In this subcohort, an aHRR of 0.63 (95% CI: 0.41–0.95) was obtained for the group offered brief intervention compared to the group not offered intervention. CACE analysis yielded an estimated 52% reduction in trauma recidivism associated with the brief intervention. Conclusion The brief intervention offered during hospitalization in trauma patients positive for alcohol and/or illicit drug use can halve the incidence of trauma recidivism. PMID:28813444

  2. Behavioral Analysis of Chronic Alcoholism in Four Women

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tracey, Dorothy A.; Nathan, Peter E.

    1976-01-01

    The behavior of four female alcoholics was observed over a 22-day period. A 12-day drinking period was preceded by a 6-day predrinking baseline assessment period and followed by a 4-day postdrinking withdrawal phase. Points were earned for operant responding at a button-pressing task. No changes in psychopathology were noted during drinking.…

  3. Different pathways explain alcohol related problems in female and male college students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pedrelli, P.; Collado, A.; Shapero, B. G.; Brill, C.; MacPherson, L.

    2016-01-01

    Objectives Comprehensive models elucidating the intricate associations of depressive symptoms, coping motives, alcohol use, alcohol-related problems (ARP) and gender among young adults have been scarcely examined. This study investigated relationships among these variables and the effect of gender on these pathways. Methods College students (N = 163; 49.7% female) completed self-report measures on alcohol consumption, depressive symptoms, coping motives, and ARPs. Results Structural equation modeling showed that the association between depressive symptoms and ARPs was mediated by coping motives in both females and males. However, frequency of heavy alcohol use mediated the association between depressive symptoms and ARPs in females but not in males. Conclusions Different models explain the association between depressive symptoms and ARPs in male and female college students. Prevention programs aimed at reducing ARPs should focus on increasing alcohol screening among students with depressive symptoms, teaching coping skills, and emphasizing moderation in alcohol consumption. PMID:27219280

  4. Cost-effectiveness of screening and referral to an alcohol health worker in alcohol misusing patients attending an accident and emergency department: a decision-making approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barrett, Barbara; Byford, Sarah; Crawford, Mike J; Patton, Robert; Drummond, Colin; Henry, John A; Touquet, Robin

    2006-01-04

    We present the cost and cost-effectiveness of referral to an alcohol health worker (AHW) and information only control in alcohol misusing patients. The study was a pragmatic randomised controlled trial conducted from April 2001 to March 2003 in an accident and emergency department (AED) in a general hospital in London, England. A total of 599 adults identified as drinking hazardously according to the Paddington Alcohol Test were randomised to referral to an alcohol health worker who delivered a brief intervention (n = 287) or to an information only control (n = 312). Total societal costs, including health and social services costs, criminal justice costs and productivity losses, and clinical measures of alcohol consumption were measured. Levels of drinking were observably lower in those referred to an AHW at 12 months follow-up and statistically significantly lower at 6 months follow-up. Total costs were not significantly different at either follow-up. Referral to AHWs in an AED produces favourable clinical outcomes and does not generate a significant increase in cost. A decision-making approach revealed that there is at least a 65% probability that referral to an AHW is more cost-effective than the information only control in reducing alcohol consumption among AED attendees with a hazardous level of drinking.

  5. Effects of sibutramine alone and with alcohol on cognitive function in healthy volunteers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wesnes, K A; Garratt, C; Wickens, M; Gudgeon, A; Oliver, S

    2000-01-01

    Aims To investigate the effects of sibutramine in combination with alcohol in a double-blind, randomised, placebo-controlled, four-way crossover study in 20 healthy volunteers. Methods On each study day each volunteer received either: sibutramine 20 mg+0.5 g kg−1 alcohol; sibutramine 20 mg+placebo alcohol; placebo capsules+0.5 g kg−1 alcohol; or placebo capsules+placebo alcohol. Alcohol was administered 2 h following ingestion of the study capsules. During each study day, assessments of cognitive performance were made prior to dosing, and at 3, 4.5, 6 and 10 h post dosing. Blood alcohol concentration was estimated using a breath alcometer immediately prior to each cognitive performance test session. Each study day was followed by a minimum 7 day washout period. Results Alcohol was found to produce statistically significant impairments in tests of attention (maximum impairment to speed of digit vigilance=49 ms) and episodic memory (maximum impairment to speed of word recognition=74 ms). Alcohol also increased body sway (maximum increase 17.4 units) and lowered self rated alertness (maximum decrease 13.6 mm). These effects were produced by an inferred blood alcohol level of 53.2 mg dl−1.Sibutramine was not found to potentiate any of the effects of alcohol. There was a small, yet statistically significant, interaction effect observed on the sensitivity index of the picture recognition task. In this test, the combined effects of sibutramine and alcohol were smaller than the impairments produced by alcohol alone. Sibutramine, when dosed alone, was associated with improved performance on several tasks. Sibutramine improved attention (mean speed of digit vigilance improved by 21 ms), picture recognition speed (improvement at 3=81) and motor control (tracking error at 3 h reduced by 1.58 mm). Also sibutramine improved postural stability (reducing body sway at 3 h by 14.2 units). Adverse events reported were unremarkable and consistent with the known pharmacology of

  6. Skipping meals and alcohol consumption. The regulation of energy intake and expenditure among weight loss participants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carels, Robert A; Young, Kathleen M; Coit, Carissa; Clayton, Anna Marie; Spencer, Alexis; Wagner, Marissa

    2008-11-01

    Research suggests that specific eating patterns (e.g., eating breakfast) may be related to favorable weight status. This investigation examined the relationship between eating patterns (i.e., skipping meals; consuming alcohol) and weight loss treatment outcomes (weight loss, energy intake, energy expenditure, and duration of exercise). Fifty-four overweight or obese adults (BMI> or =27 kg/m(2)) participated in a self-help or therapist-assisted weight loss program. Daily energy intake from breakfast, lunch, dinner, and alcoholic beverages, total daily energy intake, total daily energy expenditure, physical activity, and weekly weight loss were assessed. On days that breakfast or dinner was skipped, or alcoholic beverages were not consumed, less total daily energy was consumed compared to days that breakfast, dinner, or alcoholic beverages were consumed. On days that breakfast or alcohol was consumed, daily energy expenditure (breakfast only) and duration of exercise were higher compared to days that breakfast or alcohol was not consumed. Individuals who skipped dinner or lunch more often had lower energy expenditure and exercise duration than individuals who skipped dinner or lunch less often. Individuals who consumed alcohol more often had high daily energy expenditure than individuals who consumed alcohol less often. Skipping meals or consuming alcoholic beverages was not associated with weekly weight loss. In this investigation, weight loss program participants may have compensated for excess energy intake from alcoholic beverages and meals with greater daily energy expenditure and longer exercise duration.

  7. Enhanced self-administration of alcohol in muscarinic acetylcholine M4 receptor knockout mice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    de la Cour, Cecilie; Sørensen, Gunnar; Wörtwein, Gitta

    2015-01-01

    % and 10% alcohol in 60min sessions, 6 days/week, after having undergone a standard sucrose fading training procedure on a fixed ratio schedule. The mice were further subjected to an extinction period followed by a 1 day reinstatement trial. M4-/- mice consumed more alcohol at 5% and 8% compared to their M......4+/+ littermates. The highest alcohol concentration used (10%) did not immediately result in divergent drinking patterns, but after 4 weeks of 10% alcohol self-administration, baseline levels as well as a pattern of M4-/- mice consuming more alcohol than their M4+/+ controls were re...

  8. Ketogenic Diet Suppresses Alcohol Withdrawal Syndrome in Rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dencker, Ditte; Molander, Anna; Thomsen, Morgane; Schlumberger, Chantal; Wortwein, Gitta; Weikop, Pia; Benveniste, Helene; Volkow, Nora D; Fink-Jensen, Anders

    2018-02-01

    Alcohol use disorder is underdiagnosed and undertreated, and up to 50% of alcohol-abstinent patients diagnosed with alcohol dependence relapse within the first year of treatment. Current treatments for the maintenance of alcohol abstinence in patients with alcohol use disorder have limited efficacy, and there is an urgent need for novel treatment strategies. Decreased cerebral glucose metabolism and increased brain uptake of acetate were recently reported in heavy drinkers, relative to controls. Given the switch of metabolic fuel from glucose to acetate in the alcohol-dependent brain, we investigated the potential therapeutic benefit of a ketogenic diet in managing alcohol withdrawal symptoms during detoxification. Male Sprague Dawley rats fed either ketogenic or regular diet were administered ethanol or water orally, twice daily for 6 days while the diet conditions were maintained. Abstinence symptoms were rated 6, 24, 48, and 72 hours after the last alcohol administration. Maintenance on a ketogenic diet caused a significant decrease in the alcohol withdrawal symptoms' "rigidity" and "irritability." Our preclinical pilot study suggests that a ketogenic diet may be a novel approach for treating alcohol withdrawal symptoms in humans. Copyright © 2017 by the Research Society on Alcoholism.

  9. Associations between social media displays and event-specific alcohol consumption by college students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreno, Megan A; Kacvinsky, Lauren; Pumper, Megan; Wachowski, Leah; Whitehill, Jennifer M

    2013-12-01

    The Mifflin Street Block Party is a yearly Wisconsin event known for high levels of alcohol consumption and previous negative outcomes. This study investigated displayed Mifflin references on Facebook and their association with alcohol consumption at the block party. Participants included first-year college students who were enrolled in a longitudinal study involving Facebook profile assessments and interviews. We identified a subset of participants who were interviewed within 28 days following the Mifflin St Block Party. Participants were categorized as "Mifflin Displayers" or "Non-displayers" based on Facebook profile content. Interviews included the timeline follow-back method to assess alcohol use in the past 28 days. Analysis included logistic and linear regression. Among the 66 participants included in this study, 45 (68.2%) were female and 38 (50%) were Mifflin Displayers on Facebook. Among the Mifflin Displayer participants, 18 (27.2%) displayed prior to Mifflin, 11 displayed the day of Mifflin (16.7%) and 19 (28.8%) displayed after. Some participants displayed in more than 1 time frame. A total of 40 (60.6%) reported alcohol use on the day of the Mifflin Street Block Party. The mean number of drinks reported on the day of Mifflin was 8.8 (SD = 6.1), with a range of 1 to 35. Displayed references to Mifflin on Facebook were positively associated with reporting alcohol use at Mifflin (OR = 20.9, 95% CI 5.6-78.8). Displaying Facebook references to Mifflin was associated with alcohol consumption on the day of the event. Future prevention efforts could consider creating Facebook advertisements with safety messages triggered by Mifflin displays.

  10. Alcohol sales and risk of serious assault.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joel G Ray

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Alcohol is a contributing cause of unintentional injuries, such as motor vehicle crashes. Prior research on the association between alcohol use and violent injury was limited to survey-based data, and the inclusion of cases from a single trauma centre, without adequate controls. Beyond these limitations was the inability of prior researchers to comprehensively capture most alcohol sales. In Ontario, most alcohol is sold through retail outlets run by the provincial government, and hospitals are financed under a provincial health care system. We assessed the risk of being hospitalized due to assault in association with retail alcohol sales across Ontario. METHODS AND FINDINGS: We performed a population-based case-crossover analysis of all persons aged 13 years and older hospitalized for assault in Ontario from 1 April 2002 to 1 December 2004. On the day prior to each assault case's hospitalization, the volume of alcohol sold at the store in closest proximity to the victim's home was compared to the volume of alcohol sold at the same store 7 d earlier. Conditional logistic regression analysis was used to determine the associated relative risk (RR of assault per 1,000 l higher daily sales of alcohol. Of the 3,212 persons admitted to hospital for assault, nearly 25% were between the ages of 13 and 20 y, and 83% were male. A total of 1,150 assaults (36% involved the use of a sharp or blunt weapon, and 1,532 (48% arose during an unarmed brawl or fight. For every 1,000 l more of alcohol sold per store per day, the relative risk of being hospitalized for assault was 1.13 (95% confidence interval [CI] 1.02-1.26. The risk was accentuated for males (1.18, 95% CI 1.05-1.33, youth aged 13 to 20 y (1.21, 95% CI 0.99-1.46, and those in urban areas (1.19, 95% CI 1.06-1.35. CONCLUSIONS: The risk of being a victim of serious assault increases with alcohol sales, especially among young urban men. Akin to reducing the risk of driving while impaired

  11. Motivation to change risky drinking and motivation to seek help for alcohol risk drinking among general hospital inpatients with problem drinking and alcohol-related diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lau, Katharina; Freyer-Adam, Jennis; Gaertner, Beate; Rumpf, Hans-Jürgen; John, Ulrich; Hapke, Ulfert

    2010-01-01

    The objective of this study was to analyze motivation to change drinking behavior and motivation to seek help in general hospital inpatients with problem drinking and alcohol-related diseases. The sample consisted of 294 general hospital inpatients aged 18-64 years. Inpatients with alcohol-attributable disease were classified according to its alcohol-attributable fraction (AAF; AAF=1, AAFmotivation between the AAF groups were analyzed. Furthermore, differences in motivation to change, in motivation to seek help and in the amount of alcohol consumed from baseline to follow-up between the AAF groups were evaluated. During hospital stay, motivation to change was higher among inpatients with alcohol-attributable diseases than among inpatients who had no alcohol-attributable diseases [F(2)=18.40, PMotivation to seek help was higher among inpatients with AAF=1 than among inpatients with AAFmotivation to change drinking behavior remained stable within 12 months of hospitalization, motivation to seek help decreased. The amount of alcohol consumed decreased in all three AAF groups. Data suggest that hospital stay seems to be a "teachable moment." Screening for problem drinking and motivation differentiated by AAFs might be a tool for early intervention. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Explaining Counterfeit Alcohol Purchases in Russia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kotelnikova, Zoya

    2017-04-01

    Alcohol is a common target of counterfeiting in Russia. Counterfeit alcohol is defined here as the manufacture, distribution, unauthorized placement (forgery) of protected commodity trademarks, and infringement of the exclusive rights of the registered trademark holders of alcoholic beverages. It is often argued that the expansion of the counterfeit product market is due to the steady demand of economically disadvantaged people for low-priced goods. The situation becomes more complicated once deceptive and nondeceptive forms of counterfeiting are taken into account. This study aimed to identify markers of risky behavior associated with the purchase of counterfeit alcohol in Russia. The analysis relied on consumer self-reports of alcohol use and purchase collected nationwide by the Russia Longitudinal Monitoring Survey (RLMS-HSE) in 2012 to 2014. I used a generalized linear mixed-model logistic regression to identify predictors of risky behavior by consumers who purchased counterfeit alcohol, either knowingly or unknowingly, during the 30 days preceding the survey. Purchases of counterfeit alcohol declined slightly from 2012 to 2014, mainly due to a decrease in consumers mistakenly purchasing counterfeit products. Predictors of counterfeit alcohol purchases differed between consumers who knowingly and unknowingly purchased counterfeit products. Nondeceptive purchase of counterfeit alcohol was related primarily to an indifference to alcohol brands. Consumers with social networks that include drinkers of nonbeverage alcohol and producers of homemade alcohol were highly likely to consume counterfeit alcohol deliberately. Problem drinking was significantly associated with a higher risk of both deceptive and nondeceptive purchases of counterfeit alcohol. Poverty largely contributed to nondeceptive counterfeiting. The literature has overestimated the impact of low prices on counterfeit alcohol consumption. Problem drinking and membership in social networks of consumers

  13. Prenatal choline supplementation mitigates behavioral alterations associated with prenatal alcohol exposure in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Jennifer D; Idrus, Nirelia M; Monk, Bradley R; Dominguez, Hector D

    2010-10-01

    Prenatal alcohol exposure can alter physical and behavioral development, leading to a range of fetal alcohol spectrum disorders. Despite warning labels, pregnant women continue to drink alcohol, creating a need to identify effective interventions to reduce the severity of alcohol's teratogenic effects. Choline is an essential nutrient that influences brain and behavioral development. Recent studies indicate that choline supplementation can reduce the teratogenic effects of developmental alcohol exposure. The present study examined whether choline supplementation during prenatal ethanol treatment could mitigate the adverse effects of ethanol on behavioral development. Pregnant Sprague-Dawley rats were intubated with 6 g/kg/day ethanol in a binge-like manner from gestational days 5-20; pair-fed and ad libitum chow controls were included. During treatment, subjects from each group were intubated with either 250 mg/kg/day choline chloride or vehicle. Spontaneous alternation, parallel bar motor coordination, Morris water maze, and spatial working memory were assessed in male and female offspring. Subjects prenatally exposed to alcohol exhibited delayed development of spontaneous alternation behavior and deficits on the working memory version of the Morris water maze during adulthood, effects that were mitigated with prenatal choline supplementation. Neither alcohol nor choline influenced performance on the motor coordination task. These data indicate that choline supplementation during prenatal alcohol exposure may reduce the severity of fetal alcohol effects, particularly on alterations in tasks that require behavioral flexibility. These findings have important implications for children of women who drink alcohol during pregnancy. © 2010 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  14. Urine ethanol concentration and alcohol hangover severity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brookhuis, Karel; Van De Loo, Aurora; Mackus, M.; Verster, Joris

    Background The aim of this study was to examine the relationship between urine ethanol concentration and alcohol hangover severity. Methods N = 36 healthy social drinkers participated in a naturalistic study, comprising a hangover day and a control day. N = 18 of them have regular hangovers (the

  15. The Cost-effectiveness of Alcohol Screening, Brief Intervention, and Referral to Treatment (SBIRT) in Emergency and Outpatient Medical Settings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barbosa, Carolina; Cowell, Alexander; Bray, Jeremy; Aldridge, Arnie

    2015-06-01

    This study analyzed the cost-effectiveness of delivering alcohol screening, brief intervention, and referral to treatment (SBIRT) in emergency departments (ED) when compared to outpatient medical settings. A probabilistic decision analytic tree categorized patients into health states. Utility weights and social costs were assigned to each health state. Health outcome measures were the proportion of patients not drinking above threshold levels at follow-up, the proportion of patients transitioning from above threshold levels at baseline to abstinent or below threshold levels at follow-up, and the quality-adjusted life years (QALYs) gained. Expected costs under a provider perspective were the marginal costs of SBIRT, and under a societal perspective were the sum of SBIRT cost per patient and the change in social costs. Incremental cost-effectiveness ratios were computed. When considering provider costs only, compared to outpatient, SBIRT in ED cost $8.63 less, generated 0.005 more QALYs per patient, and resulted in 13.8% more patients drinking below threshold levels. Sensitivity analyses in which patients were assumed to receive a fixed number of treatment sessions that met clinical sites' guidelines made SBIRT more expensive in ED than outpatient; the ED remained more effective. In this sensitivity analysis, the ED was the most cost-effective setting if decision makers were willing to pay more than $1500 per QALY gained. Alcohol SBIRT generates costs savings and improves health in both ED and outpatient settings. EDs provide better effectiveness at a lower cost and greater social cost reductions than outpatient. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Alcohol Use Disorders: Implications for the Clinical Toxicologist

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael McDonough

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Alcohol use disorders (AUDs are a health problem of high prevalence in most communities and such problems account for 5% of the total burden of disease worldwide. Clinical toxicologists are commonly required to treat patients having AUDs and associated drug/alcohol-related harm. There have been recent changes to some of the diagnostic criteria (notably in DSM V relevant to AUDs, with older terms “alcohol abuse” and “alcohol dependence” no longer being classified. AUDs may sometimes not be clearly recognizable and use of evidence-based screening interventions can help identify such conditions and lead to effective brief interventions (e.g. SBIRT programs in emergency departments. AUDs are viewed as chronic disorders of alcohol consumption occurring across a spectrum of severity. While most AUDs are mild to moderate in severity and usually self-limiting conditions, more severe presentations are more commonly encountered by physicians in emergency settings. Hence, clinical toxicologists are more likely to see patients within the more severe form of disorder, at end of the spectrum of AUDs. Among this group of patients, multi-morbidity and particularly high mortality risk exists, and thus they usually require management collaboration with specialist services. Patients with AUDs are most likely to be recognized by a clinical toxicologist in the following scenarios: following acute heavy alcohol ingestion and subsequently developing acute alcohol intoxication (ethanol toxidrome, following accidental or intentional drug overdosage where alcohol has also been consumed, following acute alcohol consumption that has been associated with behavioral risk-taking and/or self-harming (e.g. poisoning, envenomation, etc., when alcohol withdrawal reactions are severe requiring hospitalization and possibly following an adverse drug reaction.

  17. Is HOMA-IR a potential screening test for non-alcoholic fatty liver disease in adults with type 2 diabetes?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gutierrez-Buey, Gala; Núñez-Córdoba, Jorge M; Llavero-Valero, María; Gargallo, Javier; Salvador, Javier; Escalada, Javier

    2017-06-01

    Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is the commonest hepatic disease in many parts of the World, with particularly high prevalence in patients with type 2 diabetes (T2DM). However, a good screening test for NAFLD in T2DM has not been established. Insulin resistance (IR) has been associated with NAFLD, and homeostatic model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR), a good proxy for IR, may represent an affordable predictive test which could be easily applied in routine clinical practice. We aimed to evaluate the diagnostic accuracy of HOMA-IR for NAFLD in T2DM and sought to estimate an optimal cut-off value for discriminating NAFLD from non-NAFLD cases. We conducted a retrospective analysis of 56 well-controlled patients with T2DM (HbAc1HOMA-IR and NAFLD was found (OR 1.5; 95% CI: 1.03-2.1; p=0.033), independently of transaminases, fat percentage, BMI and triglyceride levels. The AUROC curve of HOMA-IR for identifying NAFLD was 80.7% (95% CI: 68.9-92.5). A value of HOMA-IR of 4.5 was estimated to be an optimal threshold for discriminating NAFLD from non-NAFLD cases. HOMA-IR is independently associated with the presence of NAFLD in adults with T2DM, and might potentially be applied in clinical practice as a screen for this condition. Copyright © 2017 European Federation of Internal Medicine. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Oral metformin-ascorbic acid co-administration ameliorates alcohol-induced hepatotoxicity in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adeneye, A A; Benebo, A S

    2007-01-01

    Alcoholic liver disease remains a major cause of liver failure worldwide with no available curative or prophylactic therapy as at present. High dose metformin is reported to ameliorate liver injuries in both human and animal models of acute and chronic alcoholic liver injuries. The aim of the present in vivo animal study was to determine whether metformin-ascorbic acid co-administration also prevents alcoholic hepatotoxicity in chronic alcohol exposure. In the present study, ameliorating effect of 200 mg/ kg/day of ascorbic acid (Asc), 500 mg/kg/day of metformin (Met) and their co-administration (Met-Asc) were investigated in 5 groups of 50% ethanol-treated male Wistar rats for 2 weeks of the experiment. The body weight of each rat was taken on days 1, 7, and 14 of the experiment, respectively. On day 15, fasted blood samples for plasma lipids and liver enzyme markers were collected via cardiac puncture from the rats under diethyl ether anaesthesia. Results showed that administration of graded oral doses of 50% ethanol for 14 days significantly (pcholesterol (PTC), high density lipoprotein (HDL-c), and low density lipoprotein (LDL-c). However, these elevations were significantly (pascorbic acid co-administration protected the liver against the deleterious effects of chronic high dose alcohol and the hepatoprotective effect of Met-Asc appeared to be due mainly to the metformin molecule of the drug combination. However, further studies would be required to evaluate the mechanisms underlying the observed effects.

  19. Alcohol, drinking pattern and all-cause, cardiovascular and alcohol-related mortality in Eastern Europe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bobak, Martin; Malyutina, Sofia; Horvat, Pia; Pajak, Andrzej; Tamosiunas, Abdonas; Kubinova, Ruzena; Simonova, Galina; Topor-Madry, Roman; Peasey, Anne; Pikhart, Hynek; Marmot, Michael G

    2016-01-01

    Alcohol has been implicated in the high mortality in Central and Eastern Europe but the magnitude of its effect, and whether it is due to regular high intake or episodic binge drinking remain unclear. The aim of this paper was to estimate the contribution of alcohol to mortality in four Central and Eastern European countries. We used data from the Health, Alcohol and Psychosocial factors in Eastern Europe is a prospective multi-centre cohort study in Novosibirsk (Russia), Krakow (Poland), Kaunas (Lithuania) and six Czech towns. Random population samples of 34,304 men and women aged 45-69 years in 2002-2005 were followed up for a median 7 years. Drinking volume, frequency and pattern were estimated from the graduated frequency questionnaire. Deaths were ascertained using mortality registers. In 230,246 person-years of follow-up, 2895 participants died from all causes, 1222 from cardiovascular diseases (CVD), 672 from coronary heart disease (CHD) and 489 from pre-defined alcohol-related causes (ARD). In fully-adjusted models, abstainers had 30-50% increased mortality risk compared to light-to-moderate drinkers. Adjusted hazard ratios (HR) in men drinking on average ≥60 g of ethanol/day (3% of men) were 1.23 (95% CI 0.95-1.59) for all-cause, 1.38 (0.95-2.02) for CVD, 1.64 (1.02-2.64) for CHD and 2.03 (1.28-3.23) for ARD mortality. Corresponding HRs in women drinking on average ≥20 g/day (2% of women) were 1.92 (1.25-2.93), 1.74 (0.76-3.99), 1.39 (0.34-5.76) and 3.00 (1.26-7.10). Binge drinking increased ARD mortality in men only. Mortality was associated with high average alcohol intake but not binge drinking, except for ARD in men.

  20. Enhanced Heterogeneous Catalytic Conversion of Furfuryl Alcohol into Butyl Levulinate

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Carà, P.D..; Ciriminna, R.; Shiju, N.R.; Rothenberg, G.; Pagliaro, M.

    2014-01-01

    We study the catalytic condensation of furfuryl alcohol with 1-butanol to butyl levulinate. A screening of several commercial and as-synthesized solid acid catalysts shows that propylsulfonic acid-functionalized mesoporous silica outperforms the state-of-the-art phosphotungstate acid catalysts. The

  1. Alcohol drinking during adolescence increases consumptive responses to alcohol in adulthood in Wistar rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amodeo, Leslie R.; Kneiber, Diana; Wills, Derek N.; Ehlers, Cindy L.

    2017-01-01

    Binge drinking and the onset of alcohol use disorders usually peak during the transition between late adolescence and early adulthood, and early adolescent onset of alcohol consumption has been demonstrated to increase the risk for alcohol dependence in adulthood. In the present study we describe an animal model of early adolescent alcohol consumption where animals drink unsweetened and unflavored ethanol in high concentrations (20%). Using this model we investigated the influence of drinking on alcohol-related appetitive behavior and alcohol consumption levels in early adulthood. Further, we also sought to investigate whether differences in alcohol-related drinking behaviors were specific to exposure in adolescence versus exposure in adulthood. Male Wistar rats were given a 2-bottle choice between 20% ethanol and water in one group and between two water bottles in another group during their adolescence (Postnatal Day (PD) PD26-59) to model voluntary drinking in adolescent humans. As young adults (PD85), rats were trained in a paradigm that provided free access to 20% alcohol for 25 min after completing up to a fixed ratio (FR) 16-lever press response. A set of young adult male Wistar rats was exposed to the same paradigm using the same time course beginning at PD92. The results indicate that adolescent exposure to alcohol increased consumption of alcohol in adulthood. Furthermore, when investigating differences between adolescent high and low adolescent drinkers in adulthood, high consumers continued to drink more alcohol, had fewer FR failures, and had faster completion of FR schedules in adulthood whereas the low consumers were no different than controls. Rats exposed to ethanol in young adulthood also increased future intake but there were no differences in any other components of drinking behavior. Both adolescent- and adult-exposed rats did not exhibit an increase in lever pressing during the appetitive challenge session. These data indicate that adolescent

  2. Faster self-paced rate of drinking for alcohol mixed with energy drinks versus alcohol alone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marczinski, Cecile A; Fillmore, Mark T; Maloney, Sarah F; Stamates, Amy L

    2017-03-01

    The consumption of alcohol mixed with energy drinks (AmED) has been associated with higher rates of binge drinking and impaired driving when compared with alcohol alone. However, it remains unclear why the risks of use of AmED are heightened compared with alcohol alone even when the doses of alcohol consumed are similar. Therefore, the purpose of this laboratory study was to investigate if the rate of self-paced beverage consumption was faster for a dose of AmED versus alcohol alone using a double-blind, within-subjects, placebo-controlled study design. Participants (n = 16) of equal gender who were social drinkers attended 4 separate test sessions that involved consumption of alcohol (1.97 ml/kg vodka) and energy drinks, alone and in combination. On each test day, the dose assigned was divided into 10 cups. Participants were informed that they would have a 2-h period to consume the 10 drinks. After the self-paced drinking period, participants completed a cued go/no-go reaction time (RT) task and subjective ratings of stimulation and sedation. The results indicated that participants consumed the AmED dose significantly faster (by ∼16 min) than the alcohol dose. For the performance task, participants' mean RTs were slower in the alcohol conditions and faster in the energy-drink conditions. In conclusion, alcohol consumers should be made aware that rapid drinking might occur for AmED beverages, thus heightening alcohol-related safety risks. The fast rate of drinking may be related to the generalized speeding of responses after energy-drink consumption. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  3. Ketogenic Diet suppresses Alcohol Withdrawal Syndrome in Rats

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dencker, Ditte; Molander, Anna; Thomsen, Morgane

    2018-01-01

    , we investigated the potential therapeutic benefit of a ketogenic diet in managing alcohol withdrawal symptoms during detoxification. METHODS: Male Sprague Dawley rats fed either ketogenic or regular diets were administered ethanol or water orally, twice daily for 6 days while the diet conditions were...... maintained. Abstinence symptoms were rated 6, 24, 48, and 72 hours after the last alcohol administration. RESULTS: Maintenance on a ketogenic diet caused a significant decrease in the alcohol withdrawal symptoms 'rigidity' and 'irritability'. CONCLUSION: Our preclinical pilot study suggests that a ketogenic...... diet may be a novel approach for treating alcohol withdrawal symptoms in humans. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved....

  4. Need for screening for alcohol and drugs in Emergency Trauma Units

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objectives: To examine the prevalence of alcohol and drug use and abuse, to identify socio-demographic characteristics that correlated with injury and to identify risk factors for injury in a Nigerian Trauma unit. Design: Descriptive cross sectional study. Setting: The study was carried out a general hospital trauma unit in ...

  5. Daily Stressors as Antecedents, Correlates, and Consequences of Alcohol and Drug Use and Cravings in Community-Based Offenders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neupert, Shevaun D.; Desmarais, Sarah L.; Gray, Julie S.; Cohn, Amy M.; Doherty, Stephen; Knight, Kevin

    2017-01-01

    Justice-involved individuals with alcohol and drug use problems reoffend at higher rates than their non-using counterparts, with alcohol and drug use serving as an important vector to recidivism. At the daily level, exposure to stressors may exacerbate problematic alcohol and drug use; at the individual-level, prior treatment experiences may mitigate substance use as individuals adapt to and learn new coping mechanisms. We conducted a daily diary study using Interactive Voice Response (IVR) technology over 14 consecutive days with 117 men on probation or parole participating in a community-based treatment program (n = 860 calls) and referred to medication-assisted treatment. Participants reported daily stressors, craving for alcohol and illegal drugs, and use of alcohol and illegal drugs one time each day. Results of multilevel models showed significant day-to-day fluctuation in alcohol and drug craving and use. In concurrent models, increases in daily stressors were associated with increases in cravings and use of illegal drugs. Prior treatment experience modified many of these relationships, and additional lagged models revealed that those with less treatment experience reported an increase in next-day alcohol craving when they experienced increases in stressors on the previous day compared to those with more treatment experience. Collectively, these findings highlight the importance of tailoring treatment as a function of individual differences, including prior treatment experiences, and targeting daily stressors and subsequent cravings among justice-involved adults with alcohol and drug use problems. PMID:28383933

  6. Alcohol screening and risk of postoperative complications in male VA patients undergoing major non-cardiac surgery

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bradley, Katharine A; Rubinsky, Anna D; Sun, Haili

    2011-01-01

    Patients who misuse alcohol are at increased risk for surgical complications. Four weeks of preoperative abstinence decreases the risk of complications, but practical approaches for early preoperative identification of alcohol misuse are needed....

  7. The composition of alcohol products from markets in Lithuania and Hungary, and potential health consequences: a pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lachenmeier, Dirk W; Sarsh, Bart; Rehm, Jürgen

    2009-01-01

    The rates of alcohol-attributable mortality in Lithuania and Hungary have been shown to be higher than those in most other European countries. Quality of alcohol products is investigated as a possible explanation. In a descriptive pilot study, a convenience sample of alcohol products was collected from local city markets in both countries (Lithuania n = 10, Hungary n = 15) and chemical analyses, including some that have not been done in prior studies, were conducted. The parameters studied were alcoholic strength, volatiles (methanol, acetaldehyde, higher alcohols), ethyl carbamate, anions (including nitrate) and inorganic elements (including lead). Additionally, a multi-target screening analysis for toxicologically relevant substances was conducted. The majority of samples (64%) had an alcohol content between 35% vol. and 40% vol., being in accordance with the typical strength of legal spirits in Europe. Three samples containing significantly higher concentrations of alcohol above 60% vol. were found to be unrecorded alcohol products, defined as any alcohol that is outside of legal and taxed production. Screening analysis showed that those samples contained various flavourings, including the hepatotoxic substance coumarin, at concentrations above the legal limit for foods. All other substance classes under study were found to be at levels of no toxicological concern. Although some problems with the quality of the alcohol samples were found, there is insufficient evidence from this pilot study to conclude that alcohol quality has an influence on health as reflected in alcohol-attributable mortality rates. Given the extent of alcohol-attributable disease burden in central and eastern European countries, future research should focus on collection of large, representative samples, particularly of unrecorded sources, which was the most problematic product group in our study.

  8. Socioeconomic impact of alcohol in patients with alcoholic liver disease in eastern India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Shivaram Prasad; Padhi, Pradeep Kumar; Narayan, Jimmy; Singh, Ayaskanta; Pati, Girish Kumar; Nath, Preetam; Parida, Prasant Kumar; Mishra, Sunil

    2016-11-01

    The aim of this study is to estimate the socioeconomic impact of alcohol use on patients with alcoholic liver disease (ALD) and their families. The demographic and socioeconomic data were collected from hospitalized ALD patients and attendants using a self designed non validated questionnaire and analyzed. Study subjects included 100 consecutive ALD patients (all males). Sixty percent were between 30 and 50 years. Most were married (96 %), literate (63 %), either businessmen (37 %) or employed (30 %) and belonged to middle socioeconomic class. Ninety percent started alcohol use before age 30 years and half during teenage. Mean alcohol intake was 190 mL/day (mean duration 23 years); 60 % consumed alcohol daily. Concomitant tobacco abuse was noted in 79 %. Average expenditure on alcohol was Rs 3800/month. Average hospitalizations for ALD related problems was 2.6 times/year with average expenditure of INR 30,000 (~440 US$) during each hospitalization. For treatment expenses, 86 % of patients borrowed money from friends/relatives, 36 % used saving deposits, and 4 % sold personal belongings. Eleven percent lost their job, and 7 % sold immovable property. In 43 % of cases, children were deprived of education. Besides, 52 % had disturbed social and family life, 34 % abused their spouse, 20 % suffered accidents, and 37 % indulged in physical violence. Majority of ALD patients and their families had disturbed social and family life and incurred severe financial loss arising of alcohol use.

  9. Factors Influencing whether Nurses Talk to Somatic Patients about their Alcohol Consumption

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hellum Rikke

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available AIM – Many Danes drink so much that it is detrimental to their health. As they are at risk of suffering diseases which can lead to hospitalisation on somatic wards, hospitals are ideal arenas for identifying individuals whose alcohol consumption is excessive. However, literature points out that this identification rarely takes place in hospitals, and literature further suggests that the staff experience barriers to talking about alcohol use with their patients. The primary aim of this study is to identify potential factors that influence whether or not nurses talk to patients about their alcohol consumption on somatic wards. Secondarily, we wish to examine whether a screening project may affect the nurses’ readiness to talk about alcohol use with their patients.

  10. A Randomized Trial of Individual and Couple Behavioral Alcohol Treatment for Women

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mccrady, Barbara S.; Epstein, Elizabeth E.; Cook, Sharon; Jensen, Noelle; Hildebrandt, Thomas

    2009-01-01

    Although alcohol use disorders (AUDs) adversely affect women, research on efficacious treatments for women is limited. In this randomized efficacy trial of 102 heterosexual women with AUDs, the authors compared alcohol behavioral couple therapy (ABCT) and alcohol behavioral individual therapy (ABIT) on percentage of days abstinent (PDA) and…

  11. Alcohol Metabolizing Gene Polymorphisms as Genetic Biomarkers of Alcoholic Liver Disease Susceptibility and Severity: A Northeast India Patient Based Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tarun K. Basumatary

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: Excessive alcohol consumption is associated with genetic predisposition to Alcoholic Liver Disease (ALD, but there is very limited data on both molecular and genetic aspects of ALD among the Northeast Indian (NEI population. Aim and Objectives: Screening the role of genetic alterations in alcohol metabolizing pathway genes in the pathogenesis of ALD which is prevalent in the ethnically NEI population. Material and Methods: Whole blood was collected from ALD patients (n=150 [alcoholic chronic liver disease (CLD, n=110 and alcoholic cirrhosis (Cirr/cirrhosis, n=40], Alcoholic Without Liver Disease (AWLD, n=93 and healthy controls (HC/controls, n=274 with informed consents along with Fibroscan based liver stiffness measurement (LSM score and clinical data. Alcohol Dehydrogenase 2 (ADH2 and Aldehyde Dehydrogenase 2 (ALDH2 genotyping was studied by Polymerase Chain Reaction with Confronting Two Pair Primers (PCR-CTPP; and Alcohol Dehydrogenase 3 (ADH3 by Polymerase Chain Reaction-Restriction Fragment Length Polymorphism (PCR-RFLP method. Results:ADH2*2 genotype was predominant and associated with increased risk of cirrhosis compared to healthy controls, AWLD and CLD cases; and CLD compared to AWLD cases. ADH3*1 genotype was associated with significantly increased risk of cirrhosis compared to healthy controls, AWLD and CLD cases (p<0.001. Variant ALDH2 genotype was rare and analysis of the joint effects of genotypes showed that higher variant genotype resulted increased risk of CLD and cirrhosis compared to AWLD, and cirrhosis compared to CLD; thereby confirming the association of the polymorphisms in key alcohol metabolizing genes in the predisposition to ALD susceptibility and severity. Presence of variant ADH2, ADH3 and ALDH2 genotypes correlated with higher LSM scores in ALD. Conclusion: Alterations in the alcohol metabolizing genes are critically associated with ALD susceptibility and severity.

  12. Child physical and sexual abuse: a comprehensive look at alcohol consumption patterns, consequences, and dependence from the National Alcohol Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lown, E Anne; Nayak, Madhabika B; Korcha, Rachael A; Greenfield, Thomas K

    2011-02-01

    adult women, even when controlling for parental alcohol problems. The study results point to the need to screen for and treat underlying issues related to child abuse, particularly in an alcohol treatment setting. Copyright © 2010 by the Research Society on Alcoholism.

  13. USEFULNESS OF A NEW PROGNOSTIC INDEX FOR ALCOHOLIC HEPATITIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jazon Romilson de Souza ALMEIDA

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Background Alcoholic liver disease is a major cause of end-stage liver disease worldwide and severe forms of alcoholic hepatitis are associated with a high short-term mortality. Objectives To analyze the importance of age-bilirubin-INR-creatinine (ABIC score as an index of mortality and predictor for complications in patients with alcoholic hepatitis. To evaluate its correlation with those complications, with risk of death, as well as the scores model for end stage liver disease (MELD and Maddrey’s discriminat function. Methods A total of 46 medical records of patients who had been hospitalized with alcoholic hepatitis were assessed retrospectively with lab tests on admission and after seven days. Score calculations were carried out and analyzed as well. Results The scores showed positive reciprocal correlation and were associated with both hepatic encephalopathy and ascites. ABIC index, which was classified as high risk, presented as a risk factor for these complications and for death. In univariate logistic regression analysis of mortality, the ABIC index at hospital admission odds ratio was 19.27, whereas after 7 days, it was 41.29. The average survival of patients with ABIC of low and intermediate risk was 61.1 days, and for those with high risk, 26.2 days. Conclusions ABIC index is a predictor factor for complications such as ascites and hepatic encephalopathy, as well as for risk of death. Thus, it is a useful tool for clinical practice.

  14. Alcohol use in motion pictures and its relation with early-onset teen drinking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sargent, James D; Wills, Thomas A; Stoolmiller, Mike; Gibson, Jennifer; Gibbons, Frederick X

    2006-01-01

    Little is known about the impact of viewing depictions of alcohol in entertainment media on adolescent drinking behavior. Our aims were to assess drinking in a sample of popular contemporary movies and to examine the association of movie alcohol exposure with early-onset drinking in an adolescent sample. We conducted a school-based cross-sectional survey (N=4655) with longitudinal follow-up of never-drinkers (N=2406) involving adolescents ages 10-14 years and recruited from 15 New Hampshire and Vermont schools. Screen depictions of alcohol use were timed for each of 601 popular contemporary movies. Each adolescent was asked if he/she had seen a unique list of 50 movie titles, randomly selected from the larger pool. Movie alcohol use was summed for movies the adolescent had seen, adjusted to reflect exposure to the larger pool and modeled as a continuous variable. Ninety-two percent of the movies in the sample depicted drinking; median screen time for movie alcohol use was 2.5 minutes (interquartile range [IQR]: 0.9-5.0 minutes). Median exposure to movie alcohol use from the 601 movies was 8.6 hours (IQR: 4.6-13.5 hours). Overall 23.1% of the cross-sectional sample had tried alcohol, and 14.8% of initial nondrinkers had tried alcohol at the follow-up assessment. We found statistical evidence to support a curvilinear association between higher exposure to movie alcohol use and increased risk of prevalent and incident alcohol use, with a statistically significant linear and quadratic effect, and suggesting a higher dose-effect relationship at lower movie alcohol exposure levels compared to higher levels. The linear and the quadratic associations remained strong and significant in cross-sectional and prospective models after controlling for sociodemographics (grade in school, school, gender, parent education), personality characteristics of the adolescent (sensation seeking, rebelliousness, self-esteem), school performance, parenting style, and smoking experimentation

  15. Alcohol marketing receptivity, marketing-specific cognitions, and underage binge drinking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McClure, Auden C; Stoolmiller, Mike; Tanski, Susanne E; Engels, Rutger C M E; Sargent, James D

    2013-01-01

    Exposure to alcohol marketing is prevalent and is associated with both initiation and progression of alcohol use in underage youth. The mechanism of influence is not well understood, however. This study tests a model that proposes alcohol-specific cognitions as mediators of the relation between alcohol marketing and problematic drinking among experimental underage drinkers. This study describes a cross-sectional analysis of 1,734 U.S. 15- to 20-year-old underage drinkers, recruited for a national study of media and substance use. Subjects were queried about a number of alcohol marketing variables including TV time, Internet time, favorite alcohol ad, ownership of alcohol-branded merchandise (ABM), and exposure to alcohol brands in movies. The relation between these exposures and current (30-day) binge drinking was assessed, as were proposed mediators of this relation, including marketing-specific cognitions (drinker identity and favorite brand to drink), favorable alcohol expectancies, and alcohol norms. Paths were tested in a structural equation model that controlled for sociodemographics, personality, and peer drinking. Almost one-third of this sample of ever drinkers had engaged in 30-day binge drinking. Correlations between mediators were all statistically significant (range 0.16 to 0.47), and all were significantly associated with binge drinking. Statistically significant mediation was found for the association between ABM ownership and binge drinking through both drinker identity and having a favorite brand to drink, which also mediated the path between movie brand exposure and binge drinking. Peer drinking and sensation seeking were associated with binge drinking in paths through all mediators. Associations between alcohol marketing and binge drinking were mediated through marketing-specific cognitions that assess drinker identity and brand allegiance, cognitions that marketers aim to cultivate in the consumer. Copyright © 2012 by the Research Society on

  16. Tobacco and alcohol use in G-rated children's animated films.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldstein, A O; Sobel, R A; Newman, G R

    Tobacco and alcohol use among youth are major public health problems, but the extent to which children are routinely exposed to tobacco and alcohol products in children's films is unknown. To identify the prevalence and characteristics associated with tobacco and alcohol use portrayed in G-rated, animated feature films. Design All G-rated, animated feature films released between 1937 and 1997 by 5 major production companies (Walt Disney Co, MGM/United Artists, Warner Brothers Studios, Universal Studios, and 20th Century Fox) that were available on videotape were reviewed for episodes of tobacco and alcohol use. Presence of tobacco and alcohol use in each film, type of tobacco or alcohol used, duration of use, type of character using substance (bad, neutral, or good), and any associated effects. Of 50 films reviewed, 34 (68%) displayed at least 1 episode of tobacco or alcohol use. Twenty-eight (56%) portrayed 1 or more incidences of tobacco use, including all 7 films released in 1996 and 1997. Twenty-five films (50%) included alcohol use. Smoking was portrayed on screen by 76 characters for more than 45 minutes in duration; alcohol use was portrayed by 63 characters for 27 minutes. Good characters use tobacco and alcohol as frequently as bad characters. Cigars and wine are shown in these films more often than other tobacco or alcohol substances. More than two thirds of animated children's films feature tobacco or alcohol use in story plots without clear verbal messages of any negative long-term health effects associated with use of either substance.

  17. [Predictors of hospitalization for alcohol use disorder in Korean men].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, Hae-Sook; Park, Jeong-Eun; Park, Wan-Ju

    2014-10-01

    This study was done to identify the patterns and significant predictors influencing hospitalization of Korean men for alcohol use disorder. A descriptive study design was utilized. Data were collected using self-report questionnaires from 143 inpatients who met the DSM-5 alcohol use disorder criteria and were receiving treatment and 157 social drinkers living in the community. The questionnaires included Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test (AUDIT), Alcohol Problems, Alcohol Expectancy Questionnaire (AEQ), Life Position, and The Korean version of the Children of Alcoholics Screening Test (CAST-K). Data were analyzed using descriptive statistics, t-test, χ²-test, F-test, Pearson correlation coefficients, and logistic regression with forward stepwise. AUDIT had significant correlations with alcohol problems, alcohol expectancy, and parents' alcoholism. In logistic regression, factors significantly affecting hospitalization were divorced (OR=4.18, 95% CI: 1.28-13.71), graduation from elementary school (OR=28.50, 95% CI: 8.07-100.69), middle school (OR=6.66, 95% CI: 2.21-20.09), high school (OR=6.31, 95% CI: 2.59-15.36), drinking alone (OR=9.07, 95% CI: 1.78-46.17), family history of alcoholism (OR=2.41, 95% CI: 1.11-5.25), interpersonal relationship problems (OR=1.28, 95% CI:1.17-1.41), and sexual enhancement of alcohol expectancy (OR=0.83, 95% CI: 0.72-0.94), which accounted for 53% of the variance. Results suggest that interpersonal relationship programs and customized cognitive programs for social drinkers in the community are needed to decreased alcohol related hospitalization in Korean men.

  18. Factores predictores de uso problemático de alcohol en personas atendidas en una sala de emergencia Predictive factors of alcohol use problems among patients visiting an emergency room

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabián Fiestas

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Objetivos. Valorar el efecto predictivo de características claves de pacientes atendidos en salas de emergencia para detectar casos de uso problemático de alcohol. Materiales y Métodos. La muestra de estudio estuvo constituida por 371 personas atendidas en el lapso de siete días completos de enero de 2005 en el servicio de emergencia de un hospital público de Lima, Perú. Se aplicó un cuestionario demográfico, el SIDUC/CICAD para uso reciente de sustancias psicoactivas en salas de emergencias (i.e., uso dentro de las seis horas previas a la atención y el AUDIT para uso problemático de alcohol en el último año. El análisis de regresión logística simple y multivariada permitió valorar el efecto predictor de la edad, sexo, especialidad del servicio de atención, presencia de daño físico y el uso reciente de alcohol para detectar casos problemáticos de su uso. Resultados. El odds de tener uso problemático de alcohol en los varones es 26 veces el odds de tener dicho problema entre las mujeres (pObjectives. To assess the predictive effect of key individual-level characteristics to identify cases of alcohol use problems among patients visiting an emergency room. Materials and methods. The study sample was composed of 371 people attending an emergency room in a public hospital in Lima, Peru, during a period of seven complete days in January, 2005. For data gathering, we used a questionnaire for demographic information, the SIDUC/CICAD for recent use (i.e., in the last 6 hours of psychoactive substances before arriving to the emergency room, and the AUDIT, to identify alcohol use problems in the last year. Univariate and multivariate logistic regression models were used to estimate the predictive effect of age, sex, area of attention in the emergency room, presence of physical injuries and recent use of alcohol. Results. The odds of being a case of alcohol use problem for males is 26 times the odds of having that problem for females (p

  19. Amount of Televised Alcohol Advertising Exposure and the Quantity of Alcohol Consumed by Youth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naimi, Timothy S; Ross, Craig S; Siegel, Michael B; DeJong, William; Jernigan, David H

    2016-09-01

    Although studies demonstrate that exposure to brand-specific alcohol advertising is associated with an increased likelihood of youth consuming particular brands, the relationship between quantity of brand-specific advertising exposure and quantity of brand-specific consumption has not been firmly established. Using the Alcohol Brand Research Among Underage Drinkers (ABRAND) national sample of 1,031 young drinkers (ages 13-20), this study examined the relationship between their aggregated past-year exposure to advertising (in adstock units, a measure based on gross rating points) for 61 alcohol brands that advertised on the 20 most popular nonsports television programs viewed by underage youth and their aggregated total consumption of those same brands during the past 30 days. Predictive models adjusted for other media exposure, predictors of youth's alcohol consumption, and the consumption of brands not advertised on the 20 shows. For the fully adjusted models, each 100 adstock unit increase in exposure (about 1 SD) was associated with an increase of 5.9 drinks (95% CI [0.9, 11.0 drinks]) consumed during the past 30 days among those with less than 300 units of advertising exposure, and an increase of 55.7 drinks (95% CI [13.9, 97.4 drinks]) among those with 300 or more adstock units of exposure. Among underage youth, the quantity of brand-specific advertising exposure is positively associated with the total quantity of consumption of those advertised brands, even after controlling for the consumption of non-advertised brands. Future research should examine exposure-consumption relationships longitudinally and in other media.

  20. Amount of Televised Alcohol Advertising Exposure and the Quantity of Alcohol Consumed by Youth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naimi, Timothy S.; Ross, Craig S.; Siegel, Michael B.; DeJong, William; Jernigan, David H.

    2016-01-01

    Objective: Although studies demonstrate that exposure to brand-specific alcohol advertising is associated with an increased likelihood of youth consuming particular brands, the relationship between quantity of brand-specific advertising exposure and quantity of brand-specific consumption has not been firmly established. Method: Using the Alcohol Brand Research Among Underage Drinkers (ABRAND) national sample of 1,031 young drinkers (ages 13–20), this study examined the relationship between their aggregated past-year exposure to advertising (in adstock units, a measure based on gross rating points) for 61 alcohol brands that advertised on the 20 most popular nonsports television programs viewed by underage youth and their aggregated total consumption of those same brands during the past 30 days. Predictive models adjusted for other media exposure, predictors of youth’s alcohol consumption, and the consumption of brands not advertised on the 20 shows. Results: For the fully adjusted models, each 100 adstock unit increase in exposure (about 1 SD) was associated with an increase of 5.9 drinks (95% CI [0.9, 11.0 drinks]) consumed during the past 30 days among those with less than 300 units of advertising exposure, and an increase of 55.7 drinks (95% CI [13.9, 97.4 drinks]) among those with 300 or more adstock units of exposure. Conclusions: Among underage youth, the quantity of brand-specific advertising exposure is positively associated with the total quantity of consumption of those advertised brands, even after controlling for the consumption of non-advertised brands. Future research should examine exposure–consumption relationships longitudinally and in other media. PMID:27588530

  1. Effect of chronic alcohol ingestion on the progression of periodontitis induced in Fisher-344 rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Éder Ricardo Biasoli

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Understand the effect of chronic alcohol on the progression of periodontitis induced in Fischer-344 rats.Methods: For the study, 22 Fischer-344 rats, two months old were used, divided into groups: alcohol (n=8, ligature (n=7 and control (n=7. On the first day, the animals in the alcohol group were exposed to ingestion of a water solution containing 20% alcohol (size/size, up to day 90. After thirty days from the beginning of the experiment, the animals in the alcohol group and the ligature group were submitted to the placement of a silk thread around the right maxillary second molar. Nothing was performed on the left side, serving as control. All the groups were submitted to euthanasia 60 days after ligature placement. To assess the destruction of periodontitis, a radiographic exam was used to measure the destruction of bone height. Results: The results of the study showed that on the side in which periodontitis was induced, the group that ingested alcohol suffered an increase in destruction, with statistical differences when compared with the ligature and control groups and increased bone destruction in the ligature group when compared to control. Conclusion: Within the limitations of the study, it was concluded that chronic alcohol consumption by Fischer-344 rats led to greater progression of induced periodontitis.

  2. The Relationship among Alcohol Consumption, Tailgating, and Negative Consequences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawrence, Shawn A.; Hall, Thomas; Lancey, Patrice

    2012-01-01

    Tailgating has been associated with both problem drinking and high-risk behaviors. The purpose of this study was to determine if student participation in game day on-campus tailgating activities is associated with increased alcohol consumption. Employing a convenience sample of 567 university students, the authors compared the alcohol use patterns…

  3. Alcohol and highway safety : screening and brief intervention for alcohol problems as a community approach to improving traffic safety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-01

    Only a small fraction of the impaired drivers who are at risk for alcohol-impaired-driving crashes are arrested. These include drivers who drink regularly or occasionally to intoxication before they drive. Researchers have estimated the probability o...

  4. Trial of the University Assistance Program for Alcohol Use Among Mandated Students*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amaro, Hortensia; Ahl, Marilyn; Matsumoto, Atsushi; Prado, Guillermo; Mulé, Christina; Kemmemer, Amaura; Larimer, Mary E.; Masi, Dale; Mantella, Philomena

    2009-01-01

    Objective: The aim of this study was to investigate the effectiveness of a brief intervention for mandated students in the context of the University Assistance Program, a Student Assistance Program developed and modeled after workplace Employee Assistance Programs. Method: Participants were 265 (196 males and 69 females) judicially mandated college students enrolled in a large, urban university in the northeast United States. All participants were sanctioned by the university's judicial office for an alcohol- or drug-related violation. Participants were randomized to one of two intervention conditions (the University Assistance Program or services as usual) and were assessed at baseline and 3 and 6 months after intervention. Results: Growth curve analyses showed that, relative to services as usual, the University Assistance Program was more efficacious in reducing past-90-day weekday alcohol consumption and the number of alcohol-related consequences while increasing past-90-day use of protective behaviors and coping skills. No significant differences in growth trajectories were found between the two intervention conditions on past-90-day blood alcohol concentration, total alcohol consumption, or weekend consumption. Conclusions: The University Assistance Program may have a possible advantage over services as usual for mandated students. PMID:19538912

  5. Trial of the university assistance program for alcohol use among mandated students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amaro, Hortensia; Ahl, Marilyn; Matsumoto, Atsushi; Prado, Guillermo; Mulé, Christina; Kemmemer, Amaura; Larimer, Mary E; Masi, Dale; Mantella, Philomena

    2009-07-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the effectiveness of a brief intervention for mandated students in the context of the University Assistance Program, a Student Assistance Program developed and modeled after workplace Employee Assistance Programs. Participants were 265 (196 males and 69 females) judicially mandated college students enrolled in a large, urban university in the northeast United States. All participants were sanctioned by the university's judicial office for an alcohol- or drug-related violation. Participants were randomized to one of two intervention conditions (the University Assistance Program or services as usual) and were assessed at baseline and 3 and 6 months after intervention. Growth curve analyses showed that, relative to services as usual, the University Assistance Program was more efficacious in reducing past-90-day weekday alcohol consumption and the number of alcohol-related consequences while increasing past-90-day use of protective behaviors and coping skills. No significant differences in growth trajectories were found between the two intervention conditions on past-90-day blood alcohol concentration, total alcohol consumption, or weekend consumption. The University Assistance Program may have a possible advantage over services as usual for mandated students.

  6. Outcomes in smokers and alcohol users after fast-track hip and knee arthroplasty

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, C C; Kehlet, Henrik; Hansen, Torben Bæk

    2013-01-01

    and knee arthroplasty. RESULTS: In 3041 consecutive patients, 458 reported smoking and 216 drinking > 2 drinks a day, of which 66 did both. Smokers/alcohol users were younger than non-users (mean age: 64.3 vs. 68.0 years, P  4 days and smoking (odds ratio [95% confidence interval], P) (1.34 [0.92-1.95], 0......BACKGROUND: Smoking and alcohol use impair post-operative outcomes. However, no studies include fast-track surgery, which is a multimodal-enhanced recovery programme demonstrated to improve outcome. We hypothesised that outcome is similar in smokers and alcohol users as in non-users after fast.......127) or alcohol use (0.59 [0.30-1.16], 0.127). Thirty- and ninety-day readmission rate was 6.6% (n = 201) and 9.4% (n = 285). Multiple logistic regression analysis showed an increased risk of readmissions in smokers at 30 (1.60 [1.05-2.44], 0.028) but not 90-day follow-up (1.17 [0.80-1.73], 0.419). No increased...

  7. A multicentre randomised controlled trial of day hospital-based falls prevention programme for a screened population of community-dwelling older people at high risk of falls

    OpenAIRE

    Conroy, Simon; Kendrick, Denise; Harwood, Rowan; Gladman, John; Coupland, Carol; Sach, Tracey; Drummond, Avril; Youde, Jane; Edmans, Judi; Masud, Tahir

    2010-01-01

    Objective: to determine the clinical effectiveness of a day hospital-delivered multifactorial falls prevention programme, for community-dwelling older people at high risk of future falls identified through a screening process. Design: multicentre randomised controlled trial. Setting: eight general practices and three day hospitals based in the East Midlands, UK. Participants: three hundred and sixty-four participants, mean age 79 years, with a median of three falls risk factors per person at ...

  8. Component processes of memory in alcoholism: pattern of compromise and neural substrates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pitel, Anne-Lise; Eustache, Francis; Beaunieux, Helene

    2014-01-01

    Initially, alcohol-related memory deficits were considered only through the prism of Korsakoff's syndrome (KS). It is now clear, however, that chronic alcohol consumption results in memory disorders in alcoholics without ostensible neurologic complications, such as Wernicke's encephalopathy and KS. Most of the principal memory components are affected, including working memory, episodic memory, semantic memory, perceptual memory, and procedural memory. The extent of those cognitive impairments depends on several factors, such as age, gender, nutritional status, and psychiatric comorbidity. While memory disorders, especially episodic memory deficits, are largely definitive in patients with KS, recovery of memory abilities has been described with abstinence in uncomplicated alcoholics. Neuropsychologic impairments, and especially memory disorders, must be evaluated at alcohol treatment entry because they could impede patients from benefiting fully from cognitive and behavioral treatment approaches for alcohol dependence. Screening of memory deficits could also enable clinicians to detect, among alcoholics without ostensible neurologic complications, those at risk of developing permanent and debilitating amnesia that features KS. © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Physio-pathological effects of alcohol on the cardiovascular system: its role in hypertension and cardiovascular disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawano, Yuhei

    2010-03-01

    Alcohol has complex effects on the cardiovascular system. The purpose of this article is to review physio-pathological effects of alcohol on cardiovascular and related systems and to describe its role in hypertension and cardiovascular disease. The relationship between alcohol and hypertension is well known, and a reduction in the alcohol intake is widely recommended in the management of hypertension. Moreover, alcohol has both pressor and depressor actions. The latter actions are clear in Oriental subjects, especially in those who show alcohol flush because of the genetic variation in aldehyde dehydrogenase activity. Repeated alcohol intake in the evening causes an elevation in daytime and a reduction in nighttime blood pressure (BP), with little change in the average 24-h BP in Japanese men. Thus, the hypertensive effect of alcohol seems to be overestimated by the measurement of casual BP during the day. Heavy alcohol intake seems to increase the risk of several cardiovascular diseases, such as hemorrhagic stroke, arrhythmia and heart failure. On the other hand, alcohol may act to prevent atherosclerosis and to decrease the risk of ischemic heart disease, mainly by increasing HDL cholesterol and inhibiting thrombus formation. A J- or U-shaped relationship has been observed between the level of alcohol intake and risk of cardiovascular mortality and total mortality. It is reasonable to reduce the alcohol intake to less than 30 ml per day for men and 15 ml per day for women in the management of hypertension. As a small amount of alcohol seems to be beneficial, abstinence from alcohol is not recommended to prevent cardiovascular disease.

  10. Alcohol and drug use in the workplace : managing the human factor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McKibbon, D. [Kelly Luttmer and Associates Ltd., Edmonton, AB (Canada)

    1999-07-01

    The importance of implementing comprehensive drug and alcohol policies in the workplace was discussed with particular emphasis on the procedures which are needed to ensure that employers meet due diligence requirements regarding alcoholism and drug abuse. A study of workplace substance abuse issues in Alberta revealed that 80 per cent of the Alberta workforce uses alcohol, 27 per cent use cold medication, and 6.5 per cent use illicit drugs. The impact of drug and alcohol use in the workplace was also reviewed. Under the Canadian human rights legislation an employer cannot terminate an employee for having a medical illness including alcoholism or drug addiction. The issue of drug testing and when to drug screen was also discussed. It was suggested that addressing substance abuse in the workplace through policy procedures and practices can reduce costs related to lost productivity, absenteeism, workers` compensation claims, staff turnover, health benefit premiums and legal liabilities. 3 refs.

  11. Alcohol, other Drugs, and Obesity: Plan-Of-The-Day-Notes, Volume 2

    Science.gov (United States)

    1993-08-11

    crashes, drowning, etc., can result from memory loss, distorted sight perception, poor judgment or loss of coordination. Also, the painkilling effects may...in the presentation of alcohol and other drug abuse awareness education. An effective information program is essential to all prevention efforts. One...filling!" than for his efforts on the field and decided to quit the Miller Lite team. "I don’t like the effect I was having on a lot of little people

  12. Associations between sleep disturbance and alcohol drinking: A large-scale epidemiological study of adolescents in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morioka, Hisayoshi; Itani, Osamu; Kaneita, Yoshitaka; Ikeda, Maki; Kondo, Shuji; Yamamoto, Ryuichiro; Osaki, Yoneatsu; Kanda, Hideyuki; Higuchi, Susumu; Ohida, Takashi

    2013-12-01

    In this study, we attempted to clarify the associations between various sleep disturbance symptoms and the frequency and amount of alcohol use among Japanese adolescents. This study was designed as a cross-sectional sampling survey. A self-administered questionnaire survey was administered to students enrolled in randomly selected junior and senior high schools throughout Japan. A total of 99,416 adolescents responded, and 98,867 questionnaires were subjected to analysis. The prevalence rates of sleep disturbance in the 30 days preceding the day of the survey were as follows: subjectively insufficient sleep (SIS) (boys: 37.6%, girls: 38.7%); short sleep duration (SSD) with less than 6 h of sleep (boys: 28.0%, girls: 33.0%); difficulty initiating sleep (DIS) (boys: 12.5%, girls: 14.1%); difficulty maintaining sleep (DMS) (boys: 10.1%, girls: 10.9%); and early morning awakening (EMA) (boys: 5.1%, girls: 5.0%). Adolescents reporting one or more symptoms of DIS, DMS, and EMA were classified as having insomnia, and its prevalence was 21.5%. The prevalence of each symptom of sleep disturbance increased significantly with the number of days on which alcohol was consumed in the previous 30 days and the amount of alcohol consumed per drinking session (p sleep disturbance, except SIS and EMA, tended to increase with the number of days on which alcohol was consumed and the amount of alcohol consumed per drinking session. The prevalence of sleep disturbance is particularly high among adolescents drinking alcohol. The risk of having each symptom of sleep disturbance, except SIS and EMA, increases with the number of days on which alcohol was consumed and the amount of alcohol consumed per drinking session. These findings reconfirm the need to eliminate underage drinking to ensure good sleep among adolescents. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Alcohol Use-Related Problems Among a Rural Indian Population of West Bengal: An Application of the Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test (AUDIT).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barik, Anamitra; Rai, Rajesh Kumar; Chowdhury, Abhijit

    2016-03-01

    To examine alcohol use and related problems among a rural subset of the Indian population. The Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test (AUDIT) was used as part of Health and Demographic Surveillance of 36,611 individuals aged ≥18 years. From this survey data on 3671 current alcohol users were analysed using bivariate and multivariate ordered logit regression. Over 19% of males and 2.4% of females were current alcohol users. Mean ethanol consumption on a typical drinking day among males was estimated to be higher (96.3 gm) than females (56.5 gm). Mean AUDIT score was 11 among current alcohol users. AUDIT showed in the ordered logit regression estimated alcohol use-related problems to be low among women, Scheduled Tribes and unmarried people, whereas alcohol use-related problems registered high among Muslims. This rural population appears to be in need of an effective intervention program, perhaps targeting men and the household, aimed at reducing the level of alcohol use and related problems. © The Author 2015. Medical Council on Alcohol and Oxford University Press. All rights reserved.

  14. Risk factors & screening modalities for oral cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chau, Steven

    2008-01-01

    Dentists are at the forefront for screening oral cancer. In addition to the well known carcinogenic potential of tobacco and alcohol, betel nut chewing and human papilloma virus are important risk factors in the development of oral cancer. To aid in screening and decreasing morbidity and mortality from oral cancer, a variety of techniques have been developed. These techniques show promise but they require additional investigations to determine their usefulness in oral cancer detection. Dentists need to be well educated and vigilant when dealing with all patients they encounter. Early detection, diagnosis and treatment are critical for the effective management of oral cancers.

  15. Utility of compact ultrasound in a mass surgical selection program in Africa: experience of a sonologist at the MV Africa Mercy Hospital Ship's screening day.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, Robert D; Parker, Gary

    2015-02-01

    Compact ultrasound (US) was introduced in an austere setting with no other available imaging for an annual mass surgical screening day. Compact US examinations were performed on 25 patients from more than 7000 potential patients, as deemed possibly useful by the screening surgeons. Of the 20 patients with recorded data, compact US was helpful in 14 of 20 as a decision-making tool, obviating computed tomography for preoperative planning. Compact US was helpful in most cases, saving resources (computed tomography), technologist time, and radiation risk in this select population. © 2015 by the American Institute of Ultrasound in Medicine.

  16. Liver Transplantation for Alcoholic Liver Disease and Hepatocellular Carcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burra, Patrizia; Zanetto, Alberto; Germani, Giacomo

    2018-02-09

    Hepatocellular carcinoma is one of the main important causes of cancer-related death and its mortality is increasingly worldwide. In Europe, alcohol abuse accounts for approximately half of all liver cancer cases and it will become the leading cause of hepatocellular carcinoma in the next future with the sharp decline of chronic viral hepatitis. The pathophysiology of alcohol-induced carcinogenesis involves acetaldehyde catabolism, oxidative stress and chronic liver inflammation. Genetic background plays also a significant role and specific patterns of gene mutations in alcohol-related hepatocellular carcinoma have been characterized. Survival is higher in patients who undergo specific surveillance programmes than in patients who do not. However, patients with alcohol cirrhosis present a significantly greater risk of liver decompensation than those with cirrhosis due to other aetiologies. Furthermore, the adherence to screening program can be suboptimal. Liver transplant for patients with Milan-in hepatocellular carcinoma represents the best possible treatment in case of tumour recurrence/progression despite loco-regional or surgical treatments. Long-term result after liver transplantation for alcohol related liver disease is good. However, cardiovascular disease and de novo malignancies can significantly hamper patients' survival and should be carefully considered by transplant team. In this review, we have focused on the evolution of alcohol-related hepatocellular carcinoma epidemiology and risk factors as well as on liver transplantation in alcoholic patients with and without hepatocellular carcinoma.

  17. Faces of Change: Do I Have a Problem with Alcohol or Drugs?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... You Do About Drugs And Alcohol In Your Life? Know if there’s a problem: • Are drugs or alcohol affecting your work or health? • Do you feel like you need alcohol or drugs to get through the day? • Are your friends or family members telling you there’s a problem? ...

  18. Neurological status and ethanol preference in rats during alcohol addiction formation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A S Tarasov

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available Aim. To estimate the features of neurological status and drinking behaviour in rats during 20 days of chronic alcohol intake. Methods. The current study was performed on 40 male Wistar rats (170-300 g. The animals from the study group were administered 15% solution of ethanol used as the only fluid source. On day 20 of the experiment the alcohol preference test and evaluation of neurological status were performed: tail-suspension (to determine paresis and paralysis, home cage motion activity (to determine gait disorders and stereotypic movements and features of horizontal beam-walking (evaluation of movement coordination were assessed, presence of the basic reflexes (startle reflex, external auditory canal reflex, corneal reflex was controlled. Results. The main neurological signs were presented as ataxic form, in which unsteady gait in beam-walking test was predominant. In the experimental groups, the signs of ataxic form of neurological deficit were demonstrated, when animals slipped off and fell off the beam within 40 s from the beginning of the test. This was associated with the significant increase of discrimination ratio in alcohol preference test. Conclusion. In rat models of chronic alcohol intake, significant changes in drinking behavior and alcohol preference test were found on day 20 of the experiment, reflecting formation of alcohol addiction; changes in drinking behavior were associated with mild and moderate neurological deficit, primarily including movement coordination disorders that illustrates the malfunction of peripheral nervous system.

  19. Association between alcohol advertising and beer drinking among adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faria, Roberta; Vendrame, Alan; Silva, Rebeca; Pinsky, Ilana

    2011-06-01

    To analyze the association between alcohol advertising and beer drinking among adolescents. A total of 1,115 students enrolled in the 7th and 8th grades of three public schools in São Bernardo do Campo, Southeastern Brazil, were interviewed in 2006. The independent variables were as follows: attention paid to alcohol advertisements, belief in the veracity of advertisements, affective response to advertisements and previous tobacco use, among others. The dependent variable was beer drinking in the last 30 days. Univariate and multiple logistic regression analyses were made. Age, importance given to religion and the presence of a bathroom in the home were used as control. Beer drinking in the last 30 days was associated with tobacco use (OR = 4.551), having a favorite alcoholic beverage brand (OR = 5.150), poor parental supervision (OR = 2.139), considering parties one goes to as similar to those seen in commercials (OR = 1.712), paying more attention to advertisements (OR = 1.563) and believing that advertisements tell the truth (OR = 2.122). This association remained, even in the presence of other variables associated with beer drinking. Alcohol advertisements are positively associated with recent beer drinking, because they remind adolescents of their own reality or make them believe in their veracity. Alcohol advertisement restrictions can be one way to prevent alcohol use and abuse by adolescents.

  20. Feasibility and Acceptability of Screening and Brief Interventions to Address Alcohol and Other Drug Use among Patients Presenting for Emergency Services in Cape Town, South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bronwyn Myers

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Despite evidence from high income countries, it is not known whether screening and brief interventions (SBI for alcohol and other drug (AOD use are feasible to implement in low and middle income countries. This paper describes the feasibility and acceptability of a peer-led SBI for AOD-using patients presenting with injuries at emergency services in Cape Town, South Africa. Data were extracted from program records on the number of eligible patients screened and the number of program refusals. A questionnaire examined preliminary responses to the intervention for 30 patients who had completed the program and 10 emergency personnel. Peer counselors were also interviewed to identify barriers to implementation. Of the 1458 patients screened, 21% (305 met inclusion criteria, of which 74% (225 were enrolled in the intervention. Of the 30 patients interviewed, most (83% found the program useful. Emergency personnel were supportive of the program but felt that visibility and reach could improve. Peer counselors identified the need for better integration of the program into emergency services and for additional training and support. In conclusion, with limited additional resources, peer-led SBIs for AOD use are feasible to conduct in South African emergency services and are acceptable to patients and emergency personnel.

  1. Efficacy of Outpatient Aftercare for Adolescents with Alcohol Use Disorders: A Randomized Controlled Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaminer, Yifrah; Burleson, Joseph A.; Burke, Rebecca H.

    2008-01-01

    The effectiveness of active aftercare for adolescents with alcohol use disorders in maintaining treatment gains is evaluated. Findings show that active aftercare interventions were effective in slowing the posttreatement relapse of alcohol use in adolescents. Impacts of active aftercare on number of drinking days and heavy drinking days are also…

  2. Determination of diethyl phthalate and polyhexamethylene guanidine in surrogate alcohol from Russia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monakhova, Yulia B; Kuballa, Thomas; Leitz, Jenny; Lachenmeier, Dirk W

    2011-01-01

    Analytical m