WorldWideScience

Sample records for alcohol prevention initiatives

  1. Efficacy of a Web-Based, Tailored, Alcohol Prevention/Intervention Program for College Students: Initial Findings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bingham, C. Raymond; Barretto, Andrea Ippel; Walton, Maureen A.; Bryant, Christopher M.; Shope, Jean T.; Raghunathan, Trivellore E.

    2010-01-01

    Objective: Reduce college student at-risk drinking (ARD) using a Web-based brief motivational alcohol prevention/intervention called "Michigan Prevention and Alcohol Safety for Students" (M-PASS). Participants: Participants included 1,137 randomly sampled first-year college students, including 59% female, 80% white, and averaged age 18.1…

  2. Towards the Prevention of Alcohol Abuse

    Science.gov (United States)

    Facy, FranCoise; Rabaud, Myriam

    2006-01-01

    Mortality resulting from alcohol abuse in young French people is too high in spite of prevention campaigns for road safety in particular. There are problems in identifying alcohol abuse in young people in preventive medicine or alcohol care services. This study was carried out in alcohol centres; data from patients under 25 are analysed and…

  3. Initiatives for proliferation prevention

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-04-01

    Preventing the proliferation of weapons of mass destruction is a central part of US national security policy. A principal instrument of the Department of Energy`s (DOE`s) program for securing weapons of mass destruction technology and expertise and removing incentives for scientists, engineers and technicians in the newly independent states (NIS) of the former Soviet Union to go to rogue countries or assist terrorist groups is the Initiatives for Proliferation Prevention (IPP). IPP was initiated pursuant to the 1994 Foreign Operations Appropriations Act. IPP is a nonproliferation program with a commercialization strategy. IPP seeks to enhance US national security and to achieve nonproliferation objectives by engaging scientists, engineers and technicians from former NIS weapons institutes; redirecting their activities in cooperatively-developed, commercially viable non-weapons related projects. These projects lead to commercial and economic benefits for both the NIS and the US IPP projects are funded in Russian, Ukraine, Kazakhstan and Belarus. This booklet offers an overview of the IPP program as well as a sampling of some of the projects which are currently underway.

  4. Alcohol-attributable and alcohol-preventable mortality in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eliasen, Marie; Becker, Ulrik; Grønbæk, Morten

    2014-01-01

    The aim of the study was to quantify alcohol-attributable and -preventable mortality, totally and stratified on alcohol consumption in Denmark 2010, and to estimate alcohol-related mortality assuming different scenarios of changes in alcohol distribution in the population. We estimated alcohol......-attributable and -preventable fractions based on relative risks of conditions causally associated with alcohol from meta-analyses and information on alcohol consumption in Denmark obtained from 14,458 participants in the Danish National Health Survey 2010 and corrected for adult per capita consumption. Cause-specific mortality...... data were obtained from the Danish Register of Causes of Death. In total, 1,373 deaths among women (5.0 % of all deaths) and 2,522 deaths among men (9.5 % of all deaths) were attributable to alcohol, while an estimated number of 765 (2.8 %) and 583 (2.2 %) deaths were prevented by alcohol...

  5. Exploring Alcohol Policy Approaches to Prevent Sexual Violence Perpetration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lippy, Caroline; DeGue, Sarah

    2016-01-01

    Sexual violence continues to be a significant public health problem worldwide with serious consequences for individuals and communities. The implementation of prevention strategies that address risk and protective factors for sexual violence at the community level are important components of a comprehensive approach, but few such strategies have been identified or evaluated. The current review explores one potential opportunity for preventing sexual violence perpetration at the community level: alcohol policy. Alcohol policy has the potential to impact sexual violence perpetration through the direct effects of excessive alcohol consumption on behavior or through the impact of alcohol and alcohol outlets on social organization within communities. Policies affecting alcohol pricing, sale time, outlet density, drinking environment, marketing, and college environment are reviewed to identify existing evidence of impact on rates of sexual violence or related outcomes, including risk factors and related health behaviors. Several policy areas with initial evidence of an association with sexual violence outcomes were identified, including policies affecting alcohol pricing, alcohol outlet density, barroom management, sexist content in alcohol marketing, and policies banning alcohol on campus and in substance-free dorms. We identify other policy areas with evidence of an impact on related outcomes and risk factors that may also hold potential as a preventative approach for sexual violence perpetration. Evidence from the current review suggests that alcohol policy may represent one promising avenue for the prevention of sexual violence perpetration at the community level, but additional research is needed to directly examine effects on sexual violence outcomes.

  6. Effectiveness of policies restricting hours of alcohol sales in preventing excessive alcohol consumption and related harms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hahn, Robert A; Kuzara, Jennifer L; Elder, Randy; Brewer, Robert; Chattopadhyay, Sajal; Fielding, Jonathan; Naimi, Timothy S; Toomey, Traci; Middleton, Jennifer Cook; Lawrence, Briana

    2010-12-01

    Local, state, and national policies that limit the hours that alcoholic beverages may be available for sale might be a means of reducing excessive alcohol consumption and related harms. The methods of the Guide to Community Preventive Services were used to synthesize scientific evidence on the effectiveness of such policies. All of the studies included in this review assessed the effects of increasing hours of sale in on-premises settings (in which alcoholic beverages are consumed where purchased) in high-income nations. None of the studies was conducted in the U.S. The review team's initial assessment of this evidence suggested that changes of less than 2 hours were unlikely to significantly affect excessive alcohol consumption and related harms; to explore this hypothesis, studies assessing the effects of changing hours of sale by less than 2 hours and by 2 or more hours were assessed separately. There was sufficient evidence in ten qualifying studies to conclude that increasing hours of sale by 2 or more hours increases alcohol-related harms. Thus, disallowing extensions of hours of alcohol sales by 2 or more should be expected to prevent alcohol-related harms, while policies decreasing hours of sale by 2 hours or more at on-premises alcohol outlets may be an effective strategy for preventing alcohol-related harms. The evidence from six qualifying studies was insufficient to determine whether increasing hours of sale by less than 2 hours increases excessive alcohol consumption and related harms.

  7. Prevention of Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Floyd, R. Louise; Weber, Mary Kate; Denny, Clark; O'Connor, Mary J.

    2009-01-01

    Alcohol use among women of childbearing age is a leading, preventable cause of birth defects and developmental disabilities in the United States. Although most women reduce their alcohol use upon pregnancy recognition, some women report drinking during pregnancy and others may continue to drink prior to realizing they are pregnant. These findings…

  8. Economic issues and public alcohol abuse prevention policies in France

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spach, Miléna

    2016-10-19

    Objective: To analyse the impact of the alcohol market on the implementation of strong-willed public alcohol abuse prevention policies based on a critical review of the literature. Method: Documentary research and analysis of the alcohol market economic data were performed. An overview of public alcohol abuse prevention policies was conducted from a historical perspective by distinguishing drunkenness control policies, protection of vulnerable populations, and the fight against drink driving and drinking in the workplace. Results: Public alcohol abuse prevention policies are primarily designed to reduce the harmful consequences of alcohol occurring as a result of a drinking episode (motor vehicle accident, highway accidents, etc.), while neglecting the long-term consequences (cancer, cirrhosis, etc.). Moreover, while taxation is one of the major public health tools used to reduce the costs of alcohol-related damage on society, the State exercises legislative and tax protection for alcoholic beverages produced in France. In particular, wine benefits from a lower tax rate than other stronger forms of alcohol (spirits, liquors, etc.). The economic weight of the alcohol market can provide an explanation for these public alcohol abuse prevention policies. Conclusion: In view of the mortality caused by alcohol abuse, France must implement a proactive public policy. An alcohol taxation policy based on the alcohol content, a minimum unit pricing for alcohol, or higher taxes on alcohol are public policies that could be considered in order to reduce alcohol-related mortality.

  9. Alcohol Prevention Strategies on College Campuses and Student Alcohol Abuse and Related Problems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ringwalt, Christopher L.; Paschall, Mallie J.; Gitelman, Amy M.

    2011-01-01

    This study examined the relationship between colleges' alcohol abuse prevention strategies and students' alcohol abuse and related problems. Alcohol prevention coordinators and first year students in 22 colleges reported whether their schools were implementing 48 strategies in six domains, and students (N = 2041) completed another survey…

  10. Preventing Alcohol-Exposed Pregnancy among American-Indian Youth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jensen, Jamie; Kenyon, DenYelle Baete; Hanson, Jessica D.

    2016-01-01

    Research has determined that the prevention of alcohol-exposed pregnancies (AEP) must occur preconceptually, either by reducing alcohol intake in women planning pregnancy or at risk for becoming pregnant, or by preventing pregnancy in women drinking at risky levels. One such AEP prevention programme with non-pregnant American-Indian (AI) women is…

  11. Early Alcohol Initiation Increases Risk Related to Drinking among College Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    LaBrie, Joseph W.; Rodrigues, Andrea; Schiffman, Jason; Tawalbeh, Summer

    2008-01-01

    This study investigated the influence of age of alcohol initiation on current alcohol use and alcohol-related problems in a diverse college student sample. Participants (N = 214) completed a questionnaire assessing attitudes, beliefs, and behavioral habits regarding alcohol and other drugs. Early alcohol initiation (alcohol use before age 15) was…

  12. Pilot study of smoking, alcohol and drug abuse prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McAlister, A; Perry, C; Killen, J; Slinkard, L A; Maccoby, N

    1980-07-01

    A longitudinal pilot study gathered data on the onset and prevention of smoking, alcohol, and drug abuse among 526 students from two junior-high-schools in California. Over two school years, students who were trained to resist social pressures toward tobacco, alcohol, and drug use began smoking at less than one-half the rate of those who did not receive special training. Frequent alcohol and marijuana use was also less prevalent among the students who received such training.

  13. Prevention of Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorders: Educational Needs in Academia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brems, Christiane; Boschma-Wynn, Rachel V.; Dewane, Sarah L.; Edwards, Alexandra; Robinson, Rebecca Volino

    2011-01-01

    As many as 4.5 live births per 1000 are affected by fetal alcohol spectrum disorders (FASDs), preventable birth defects with life-long consequences. Prevention of FASDs is gaining in importance, and recruitment of diverse disciplines in delivering prevention to women of childbearing age is essential. This needs assessment explored to what extent…

  14. What College Students Are Telling Us about Alcohol Abuse Prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griffith, Jeanne A.; Kile, Marilyn J.

    This paper describes the successful use of student focus groups by the University of Wisconsin--Whitewater Student Health Center to assess marketing strategies for alcohol abuse prevention. The focus group is a group of 13 students who met several times with a facilitator to share perceptions, feelings, and attitudes about alcohol abuse…

  15. Prevention of alcohol misuse among children, youths and young adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Korczak, Dieter

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Despite many activities to prevent risky alcohol consumption among adolescents and young adults there is an increase of alcohol intoxications in the group of ten to twenty year old juveniles. Objectives: This report gives an overview about the recent literature as well as the German federal prevention system regarding activities concerning behavioral and policy prevention of risky alcohol consumption among children, adolescents and young adults. Furthermore, effective components of prevention activities are identified and the efficiency and efficacy of ongoing prevention programs is evaluated. Methods: A systematic literature review is done in 34 databases using Bool’sche combinations of the key words alcohol, prevention, treatment, children, adolescents and young adults. Results: 401 studies were found and 59 studies were selected for the health technology assessment (HTA. Most of the studies are done in USA, nine in Germany. A family strengthening program, personalized computer based intervention at schools, colleges and universities, brief motivational interventions and policy elements like increase of prices and taxes proved effective. Discussion: Among the 59 studies there are three meta-analyses, 15 reviews, 17 randomized controlled trials (RCT and 18 cohort studies. Despite the overall high quality of the study design, many of them have methodological weaknesses (missing randomization, missing or too short follow-ups, not clearly defined measurement parameters. The transferability of US-results to the German context is problematic. Only a few prevention activities reach a sustainable reduction of frequency and/or amount of alcohol consumption. Conclusion: The HTA-report shows the need to develop specific and target group focused prevention activities for the German situation. Essential for that is the definition of target goals (reduction of consumption, change of behaviour as well as the definition and empirical validation

  16. What Schools Are Doing to Prevent Alcohol and Drug Abuse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buscemi, Michael

    1985-01-01

    Describes current trends in drug and alcohol abuse prevention programs, including decreased emphasis on the school's role in prevention, increased interest in forestalling rather than treating health problems, greater involvement of celebrities in antidrug programs, and improved peer support mechanisms. Noteworthy national programs are cited. (PGD)

  17. Health promotion: Alcohol and drug misuse prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1983-01-01

    Currently, average apparent consumption of alcohol for all persons older than 14 is 10 percent higher than 10 years ago, and is equivalent to about 2.75 gallons of ethanol per person per year. Approximately 10 million adult Americans (i.e., 7 percent of those 18 or older) can be considered problem drinkers. Youthful problem drinkers, aged 14 to 17, are estimated to number more than 3 million and comprise 19 percent of this age group. In addition to the social costs, the economic costs to society as a result of alcohol misuse are substantial--an estimated +49.4 billion in 1977. Ten percent of all deaths in the United States are alcohol-related. Cirrhosis, which is largely attributable to alcohol consumption, ranks among the 10 leading causes of death. Alcohol use also is associated with cancer of the liver, pancreas, esophagus, and mouth. Alcohol consumption during pregnancy is associated with a wide range of possible harmful effects to the fetus--among them decreased birth weight, spontaneous abortion, and physical and mental birth defects. Drug misuse is also an expanding problem. There are some 16 million current marijuana users. The popularity of cocaine continues to increase--over 10 million Americans have tried cocaine at least once and there are an estimated 1 to 2 million current users. Misuse of barbiturates remains a significant problem with at least 1 million persons believed to misuse these drugs and the 30,000 estimated to be addicted to them. In addition, heroin addiction is still considered by many to be the most serious drug problem in the United States. Drug misuse leads to a number of social and health problems. Excessive doses of depressants can result in both physical and psychological dependence. The toll from heroin includes premature death and severe disability, family disruption, and crime committed to maintain the habit. Misuse of hallucinogens often results in emergency room visits. A special problem is the relationship of marijuana to

  18. AIDSCAP initiative expands prevention efforts for women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1995-01-01

    By 2000, women will likely comprise 50% of HIV-infected persons worldwide. Women, regardless of number of sexual partners, are especially vulnerable to HIV. One act of intercourse puts women at an 18 times greater risk than men of acquiring HIV. Traditional gender roles denying women the power to protect their own health exacerbate their biological susceptibility to HIV infection. AIDSCAP's Women's Initiative (AWI) aims to secure culturally and gender-sensitive AIDSCAP interventions and strategies and to advance AIDSCAP's leadership role in developing HIV/AIDS prevention models for women. More than 50% of AIDSCAP current projects target women. AWI integrates a broader gender perspective into AIDSCAP's project design, technical assistance, evaluation and monitoring, and policy projects. It has expanded target women's groups beyond the groups traditionally considered at high risk. To date, various AIDSCAP projects have trained and educated about one million women. The Christian Reformed World Relief Committee (CRWRC) is involved in HIV/AIDS prevention activities. Its AIDS and Sexually Transmitted Disease (STD) Health Promotion Prevention Program with Market Women in Senegal targets self-employed market women and urban female youth in Dakar, Kaoloack, and Thies. CRWRC worked with two women's groups to develop a sexual health promotion package with HIV/AIDS and STD IEC (information, education, and communication) materials and has trained 20 facilitators to use the promotion package. It helps the two collaborating groups to develop their organization capacities so they can implement and evaluate sustainable HIV/STD prevention programs. AIDSCAP also supports training of Kenyan family planning provider activities in HIV prevention of the JSI Family Planning Sector Project. It collaborates with the Center of Women Workers in Haiti to provide women factory workers IEC and condoms to promote risk reduction behavior. AWI also conducts research and policy activities (e

  19. Early initiation of alcohol consumption by adolescents in reconstructed families may be explained by parenting style

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iakunchykova, Olena

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND. Literature about risk factors of alcohol use points at the association between alcohol use and parenting style. This study investigates the relationship between family structure of adolescents in Ukraine and their initiation of alcohol use with parenting style as a mediating variable.METHODS: Pooled data from the repeated cross-sectional nationally representative survey of classes in Ukrainian secondary schools with target group of all 15-16 year old students, held in 1999, 2003, and 2007, were used for this analysis. Complete data were available for 11019 participants. Main exposures were family structure (full, single parent and reconstructed and perceptions of the relationships with mother and father, rule-setting, control, and support provided by parents. Outcome measure was age when students started consuming alcohol.RESULTS: In bivariate analysis, children in reconstructed families had higher risk for initiating alcohol use at age of 13 or younger (odds ratio 1.37, confidence interval 1,15-1,63 compared to full families. In reconstructed families, adolescents were more likely to be dissatisfied with their relationships with mother compared to intact family structure (8.7% vs. 4.7% and dissatisfied with their relationships with father compared to intact family structure (19,8% vs. 9,1%. Parental support was lacking in higher proportion of reconstructed families, compared to intact family structure (20.7% vs. 15.1%. In the multivariate analysis, controlling for relationship with mother and father, support received from parents, and socio-demographic characteristics, the association between family structure and alcohol drinking initiation was attenuated.CONCLUSIONS: Children in reconstructed families have higher risk of early drinking initiation. This study also supports the hypothesis that dissatisfaction with relationships with parents and lack of support received from parents may mediate the association between family structure

  20. N-acetylcysteine Prevents Alcohol Related Neuroinflammation in Rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schneider, Ricardo; Bandiera, Solange; Souza, Débora Guerini; Bellaver, Bruna; Caletti, Greice; Quincozes-Santos, André; Elisabetsky, Elaine; Gomez, Rosane

    2017-03-16

    Alcoholism has been characterized as a systemic pro-inflammatory condition and alcohol withdrawal has been linked to various changes in the brain homeostasis, including oxidative stress and glutamate hyperactivity. N-acetylcysteine (NAC) is an anti-inflammatory and antioxidant multi-target drug with promising results in psychiatry, including drug addiction. We assessed the effects of NAC on the serum and brain inflammatory cytokines after cessation of chronic alcohol treatment in rats. Male Wistar rats received 2 g/kg alcohol or vehicle twice a day by oral gavage for 30 days. Rats were treated, from day 31 to 34, with NAC (60 or 90 mg/kg) or saline, intraperitoneally, once daily. Rats were sacrificed at day 35, trunk blood was collected and the frontal cortex and hippocampus dissected for assessment of TNF-α, IL-1β, IL-6, IL-18, IL-10. NAC prevented the increase of pro-inflammatory cytokines and the decrease of anti-inflammatory cytokine in the frontal cortex and hippocampus. No changes were observed on serum cytokines. We conclude that NAC protects against inflammation induced by chronic (30 days) alcohol ingestion followed by 5 days cessation in two rat brain areas. Because inflammation has been documented and associated with craving and relapse in alcoholics, the data revealed by this study points to the validity of NAC clinical evaluation in the context of alcohol detoxification and withdrawal.

  1. Parental divorce and initiation of alcohol use in early adolescence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackson, Kristina M; Rogers, Michelle L; Sartor, Carolyn E

    2016-06-01

    Parental divorce/separation is among the most commonly endorsed adverse childhood events. It has been shown to increase subsequent risk of alcohol dependence and problems across adolescence and early adulthood, but its influence on early stages of alcohol involvement has only recently been explored. In the present study, we examined whether time to first full drink was accelerated among youth who experienced parental divorce/separation. To determine specificity of risk, models controlled for perceived stress as well as family history of alcoholism, current parental drinking, and internalizing and externalizing problems. Developmental specificity in terms of timing of both parental divorce and first drink was also examined. Participants were 931 middle-school students (488 girls, 443 boys) who were enrolled in a prospective study on drinking initiation and progression (52% female; 23% non-White, 11% Hispanic). Students indicated whether and at what age they had consumed a full drink of alcohol. Parental divorce/separation was coded from a parent-reported life-events inventory and was grouped based on age experienced (ages 0-5, ages 6-9, age 10+). Cox proportional hazard models showed increased risk for onset of drinking as a function of divorce/separation, even controlling for stress, parental alcohol involvement, and psychopathology. There was no evidence for developmental specificity of the divorce/separation effect based on when it occurred nor in timing of first drink. However, the effect of parental divorce/separation on initiation was magnified at higher levels of parental drinking. Given the rates of parental divorce/separation and its association with increased risk of early drinking, investigation of the mechanisms underlying this link is clearly warranted. (PsycINFO Database Record

  2. The control-of-consumption approach to alcohol abuse prevention

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ravn, Ib

    1987-01-01

    The single-distribution theory of alcohol consumption and the derived prevention strategy, the control-of-consumption approach, are conceptualized as three probabilistic relationships between four variables, collectively called "the Ledermann string": availability, average consumption, proportion...... on the relationships of the Ledermann string....

  3. Prevention before profits: a levy on food and alcohol advertising.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harper, Todd A; Mooney, Gavin

    2010-04-05

    The recent interest in health promotion and disease prevention has drawn attention to the role of the alcohol and junk-food industries. Companies supplying, producing, advertising or selling alcohol or junk food (ie, foods with a high content of fat, sugar or salt) do so to generate profits. Even companies marketing "low-carbohydrate" beers, "mild" cigarettes, or "high-fibre" sugary cereals are not primarily concerned about population health, more so increased sales and profits. In a competitive market, it is assumed that consumers make fully informed choices about costs and benefits before purchasing. However, consumers are not being fully informed of the implications of their junk-food and alcohol choices, as advertising of these products carries little information on the health consequences of consumption. We propose that there should be a levy on advertising expenditure for junk food and alcoholic beverages to provide an incentive for industry to promote healthier products. Proceeds of the levy could be used to provide consumers with more complete and balanced information on the healthy and harmful impacts of food and alcohol choices. Our proposal addresses two of the greatest challenges facing Australia's preventable disease epidemic - the imbalance between the promotion of healthier and unhealthy products, and securing funds to empower consumer choice.

  4. Predicting Post-Treatment-Initiation Alcohol Use among Patients with Severe Mental Illness and Alcohol Use Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bradizza, Clara M.; Maisto, Stephen A.; Vincent, Paula C.; Stasiewicz, Paul R.; Connors, Gerard J.; Mercer, Nicole D.

    2009-01-01

    Few investigators studying alcohol abuse among individuals with a severe mental illness (SMI) have examined predictors of posttreatment alcohol outcomes. In the present study, a multivariate approach based on a theoretical model was used to study the relationship between psychosocial factors and post-treatment-initiation alcohol use. Predictors of…

  5. Brazilian obesity prevention and control initiatives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaime, P C; da Silva, A C F; Gentil, P C; Claro, R M; Monteiro, C A

    2013-11-01

    Obesity prevalence in the Brazilian adult population is 12.5% among men and 16.9% among women. Obesity control has been a subject of concern in Brazilian health policies since the publication of the National Food and Nutrition Policy in 1999. The initiatives include a comprehensive national intersectorial plan for obesity prevention and control focused on confronting its social and environmental causes, development of a food and nutrition education framework aimed at intersectorial public policies in the food and nutritional security field, promotion and provision of healthy food in school environments (linked to family farming), structuring nutrition actions in primary healthcare in the national healthcare system, promoting community physical activity, food regulation and control, and encouragement of public participation and food control. We conclude that several initiatives have been developed in Brazil to deal with the challenge of implementing an intergovernmental, intersectorial response to reverse the rising overweight and obesity rates. The success of this response will depend on a governance model that promotes joint and integrated action by different sectors and active participation of society to consolidate the actions, places and laws that protect health and promote healthy lifestyles.

  6. Radiation initiated copolymerization of allyl alcohol with acrylonitrile

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Solpan, Dilek; Guven, Olgun [Hacettepe Univ., Ankara (Turkey). Dept. of Chemistry

    1996-07-01

    Copolymerization of allyl alcohol (AA) with acrylonitrile (AN) initiated by {gamma}-rays has been investigated to determine the respective reactivity ratios. Three different experimental techniques, namely Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR), Ultraviolet (UV/vis) and elemental analysis (EA) have been used for the determination of copolymer compositions. Fineman-Ross (FR), Kelen-Tudos (KT), Non-Linear Least Square (NLLS) Analysis and Q-e methods have been applied to the three sets of experimental data. It has been concluded that data obtained from elemental analysis as applied to the Non-Linear Least Square approach gave the most reliable reactivity ratios as 2.09 and 0.40 for acrylonitrile and allyl alcohol, respectively. (Author).

  7. Radiation initiated copolymerization of allyl alcohol with acrylonitrile

    Science.gov (United States)

    Şolpan, Dilek; Güven, Olgun

    1996-07-01

    Copolymerization of allyl alcohol (AA) with acrylonitrile (AN) initiated by γ-rays has been investigated to determine the respective reactivity ratios. Three different experimental techniques, namely Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR), Ultraviolet (UV/vis) and elemental analysis (EA) have been used for the determination of copolymer compositions. Fineman-Ross (FR), Kelen-Tüdös (KT), Non-Linear Least Square (NLLS) Analysis and Q-e methods have been applied to the three sets of experimental data. It has been concluded that data obtained from elemental analysis as applied to the Non-Linear Least Square approach gave the most reliable reactivity ratios as 2.09 and 0.40 for acrylonitrile and allyl alcohol, respectively.

  8. Good practices for the prevention of alcohol harmful use amongst the elderly in Europe, the VINTAGE project

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge Palacio-Vieira

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: There is a lack of information about initiatives aimed at preventing the harmful effects of alcohol amongst the elderly. OBJECTIVES: One of the objectives of the VINTAGE study was to collect the initiatives carried out in Europe and review the published grey literature about this topic. METHODS: Email-based survey addressed to researchers, professionals and policymakers, and internet search of grey literature. RESULTS: Three hundred nine contacts were finally made, and 21 of the 36 collected initiatives were considered as useful in preventing the harmful use of alcohol amongst the elderly. Out of the about 2900 references identified 96 were classified as relevant. CONCLUSIONS: Despite a growing interest, alcohol use in the elderly is not yet perceived as a major issue for prevention.

  9. The alcohol industry's way to discipline pleasure. Prevention campaigns aimed at Danish youth

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Demant, Jakob Johan; Houborg, Esben

    2011-01-01

    ) to analyze drug prevention campaigns in Sweden. After this a more detailed analysis of how the two campaigns articulate pleasure is done. Results – Both campaigns recognize recreational motives for consuming alcohol. In both campaigns pleasure is central to the regulation of alcohol consumption among young...... people. Both campaigns aim to associate alcohol consumption with a disciplined pleasure that does not involve intoxication. In this way alcohol policy becomes a politics of pleasure. Conclusion – Alcohol prevention that aims to moderate alcohol consumption among young people by associating alcohol......Aims – To analyze how two youth alcohol prevention campaigns funded by the Danish alcohol industry articulate the relationship between alcohol, intoxication and pleasure. Design – The two campaigns are first analyzed by applying an analytical model developed by Karlsson and Bergmark (2009...

  10. New Technology Tools: Using Social Media for Alcohol, Drug Abuse, and Violence Prevention. Prevention Update

    Science.gov (United States)

    Higher Education Center for Alcohol, Drug Abuse, and Violence Prevention, 2011

    2011-01-01

    When it comes to using social media technology for alcohol, drug abuse, and violence prevention, Thomas Workman, at Baylor College of Medicine's John M. Eisenberg Center for Clinical Decisions and Communications Science, points out that social media is interactive. This means that a person is entering a conversation rather than a declaration, and…

  11. Ebselen prevents early alcohol-induced liver injury in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kono, H; Arteel, G E; Rusyn, I; Sies, H; Thurman, R G

    2001-02-15

    Oxidants have been shown to be involved in alcohol-induced liver injury. Moreover, 2-phenyl-1,2-benzisoselenazole-3(2H)-one (ebselen), an organoselenium compound and glutathione peroxidase mimic, decreases oxidative stress and protects against stroke clinically. This study was designed to test the hypothesis that ebselen protects against early alcohol-induced liver injury in rats. Male Wistar rats were fed high-fat liquid diets with or without ethanol (10-16 g/kg/d) continuously for up to 4 weeks using the intragastric enteral feeding protocol developed by Tsukamoto and French. Ebselen (50 mg/kg twice daily, intragastrically) or vehicle (1% tylose) was administered throughout the experiment. Mean urine ethanol concentrations were not significantly different between treatment groups, and ebselen did not affect body weight gains or cyclic patterns of ethanol concentrations in urine. After 4 weeks, serum ALT levels were increased significantly about 4-fold over control values (37 +/- 5 IU/l) by enteral ethanol (112 +/- 7 IU/l); ebselen blunted this increase significantly (61 +/- 8 IU/l). Enteral ethanol also caused severe fatty accumulation, mild inflammation, and necrosis in the liver (pathology score: 4.3 +/- 0.3). In contrast, these pathological changes were blunted significantly by ebselen (pathology score: 2.5 +/- 0.4). While there were no significant effects of either ethanol or ebselen on glutathione peroxidase activity in serum or liver tissue, ebselen blocked the increase in serum nitrate/nitrite caused by ethanol. Furthermore, ethanol increased the activity of NF-kappaB over 5-fold, the number of infiltrating neutrophils 4-fold, and the accumulation of 4-hydroxynonenal over 5-fold. Ebselen blunted all of these effects significantly. These results indicate that ebselen prevents early alcohol-induced liver injury, most likely by preventing oxidative stress, which decreases inflammation.

  12. [Art, health and prevention: initial collaborations].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avila, Noemí; Orellana, Ana; Cano, Marta G; Antúnez, Noelia; Claver, Dolores

    2014-01-01

    This article presents a summary of the first 2 years of the collaboration between the Faculty of Fine Arts of the Universidad Complutense in Madrid and Madrid Health, an autonomous organism of Madrid Council. This collaboration has allowed the development of joint experiences and projects among distinct professionals with highly diverse profiles: health professionals (sexologists, psychiatrists, nurses, etc.), and teachers, researchers, artists and students in the Faculty of Fine Arts. As a result, these experiences could be the beginning of future collaborations between the arts, health and prevention.

  13. Initial subjective reward: Single-exposure conditioned place preference to alcohol in mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Judith E. Grisel

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Most adults consume alcohol with relative impunity, but about 10-20% of users persist (or progress in their consumption, despite mounting and serious repercussions. Identifying at-risk individuals before neuroadaptative changes associated with chronic use become well ingrained is thus a key step in mitigating and preventing the end stage disease and its devastating impacts. Explaining liability has been impeded, in part, by the absence of animal models for assessing initial sensitivity to the drug’s reinforcing properties, an important endophenotype in the trajectory toward excessive drinking. Here we assess the initial rewarding effects of the drug in a novel application of the conditioned place preference paradigm. In contrast to previous studies that have all employed repeated drug administration, we demonstrated a robust preference for a context paired with a single exposure to 1.5g/kg EtOH in male and female subjects of three strains. This model validates an assay of initial sensitivity to the subjective rewarding effects of alcohol, a widely used drug with multifarious impacts on both brain and society, and provides a new tool for theory-driven endophenotypic pharmacogenetic approaches to understanding and treating addiction.

  14. 34 CFR 86.1 - What is the purpose of the Drug and Alcohol Abuse Prevention regulations?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 34 Education 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false What is the purpose of the Drug and Alcohol Abuse... ALCOHOL ABUSE PREVENTION General § 86.1 What is the purpose of the Drug and Alcohol Abuse Prevention regulations? The purpose of the Drug and Alcohol Abuse Prevention regulations is to implement section 22...

  15. White Matter Integrity Pre- and Post Marijuana and Alcohol Initiation in Adolescence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lindsay M. Squeglia

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Characterizing the effects of alcohol and marijuana use on adolescent brain development is important for understanding potential alterations in neurodevelopment. Several cross sectional studies have identified group differences in white matter integrity after initiation of heavy alcohol and marijuana use, however none have explored white matter trajectories in adolescents pre- and post initiation of use, particularly for marijuana users. This study followed 16 adolescents with minimal alcohol and marijuana use at ages 16–18 over three years. At follow-up, teens were 19–22 years old; half of the participants initiated heavy alcohol use and half initiated heavy alcohol and marijuana use. Repeated-measures ANOVA revealed 20 clusters in association and projection fibers tracts (p < 0.01 in which a group by time interaction was found. Most consistently, white matter integrity (i.e., fractional anisotropy decreased for those who initiated both heavy alcohol and marijuana use over the follow-up interval. No effect of time or change in white matter integrity was seen for those who initiated alcohol use only in the majority of clusters. In most regions, at the baseline time point, teens who would later initiate both alcohol and marijuana use demonstrated white matter integrity greater than or equal to teens that initiated alcohol use only. Findings suggest poorer tissue integrity associated with combined initiation of heavy alcohol and marijuana use in late adolescence. While pre-existing differences may also be related to likelihood of substance use, the present data suggest an effect on tissue integrity for these teens transitioning to combined alcohol and marijuana use in later adolescence.

  16. Parental Divorce and Initiation of Alcohol Use in Early Adolescence

    OpenAIRE

    Jackson, Kristina M.; Rogers, Michelle L.; Sartor, Carolyn E.

    2016-01-01

    Parental divorce/separation is among the most commonly endorsed adverse childhood events and has been shown to increase subsequent risk of alcohol dependence and problems across adolescence and early adulthood, but its influence on early stages of alcohol involvement has only recently been explored. The present study examined whether time to first full drink was accelerated among youth who experienced parental divorce/separation. To determine specificity of risk, models controlled for perceiv...

  17. Interpersonal communication outcomes of a media literacy alcohol prevention curriculum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banerjee, Smita C; Greene, Kathryn; Magsamen-Conrad, Kate; Elek, Elvira; Hecht, Michael L

    2015-12-01

    Media literacy intervention efficacy literature has focused on media-relevant (e.g., knowledge and realism) and behavior-relevant outcomes (e.g., attitudes and behaviors), without much attention paid to interpersonal communication outcomes. This project examined interpersonal communication after participation in two versions (analysis plus analysis and analysis plus planning) of the Youth Message Development (YMD) intervention, a brief media literacy curriculum targeted at preventing high school student alcohol use. Participants attended a 75-mins media literacy YMD workshop and completed a delayed posttest questionnaire 3 to 4 months later. Overall, 68 % participants replied affirmatively to interpersonal communication about the YMD intervention. Communication about the workshop moderated the effects of the type of workshop (analysis plus analysis or analysis plus planning) on self-efficacy to counter-argue (but not critical thinking). Interpersonal communication moderated the effects of the YMD intervention on self-efficacy to counter-argue, thereby signaling the importance of including interpersonal communication behaviors in intervention evaluation.

  18. Communities Putting Prevention to Work: The Healthy Corner Store Initiative

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2013-07-18

    This podcast is an interview with Dr. Stephanie Jilcott Pitts, Associate Professor in the Department of Public Health at East Carolina University. Dr. Pitts answers questions about her study involving a healthy corner store initiative in North Carolina.  Created: 7/18/2013 by Preventing Chronic Disease (PCD), National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion (NCCDPHP).   Date Released: 7/18/2013.

  19. Alcohol consumption among university students: applying a social ecological approach for multi-level preventions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vantamay, Somphol

    2009-03-01

    This study investigates factors affecting alcohol consumption among university students through a social ecological approach as a theoretical framework. A multistage sampling technique was used to select 1,200 university students in Bangkok, Thailand. Data were collected by a self-administered questionnaire. Descriptive statistics and multiple regression analysis at the 0.05 level of statistical significance were used to analyze the data. The results showed that all 22 independent variables can copredict alcohol consumption among university students at 41.2% (Adjusted = 40.1%). However, there were only 13 variables that affected alcohol consumption significantly: gender, age, monthly income, living arrangement, attitude toward alcohol use, perceived susceptibility of alcohol use, perceived self-efficacy, peer drinking, relatives drinking, accessibility of alcohol around university, accessibility of alcohol around community, exposure to anti-alcohol campaign, and exposure to alcohol advertising. The findings suggested that alcohol consumption was not only affected by the individual-level factor, but it was also affected by multi-level environmental factors, including interpersonal-level, institutional-level, community-level, and societal-level factors. Consequently, multi-level preventions should be urgently considered to prevent alcohol use among university students in Thailand.

  20. 75 FR 10291 - National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-05

    ... National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice of Closed Meeting Pursuant to section 10(d) of... Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism, Initial Review Group, Epidemiology, Prevention and Behavior... Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism, Office of Extramural Activities, Extramural Project Review...

  1. [Trans-Cultural Prevention of Alcohol-Related Disorders in Elderly Immigrants].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bermejo, I; Frank, F

    2015-09-01

    In migrants alcohol-related problems increase with increasing age. This group, in particular, is hardly reached by alcohol-specific care offers. Thus our project aimed at the identification of target group-specific barriers to health-care use by means of a cross-sectional study (n=435). Based on these results a trans-cultural concept for alcohol prevention among elderly migrants was developed and evaluated in a cluster-randomised controlled trial (n=176).

  2. Natural Products for the Prevention and Treatment of Hangover and Alcohol Use Disorder

    OpenAIRE

    Fang Wang; Ya Li; Yu-Jie Zhang; Yue Zhou; Sha Li; Hua-Bin Li

    2016-01-01

    Alcoholic beverages such as beer, wine and spirits are widely consumed around the world. However, alcohol and its metabolite acetaldehyde are toxic and harmful to human beings. Chronic alcohol use disorder or occasional binge drinking can cause a wide range of health problems, such as hangover, liver damage and cancer. Some natural products such as traditional herbs, fruits, and vegetables might be potential dietary supplements or medicinal products for the prevention and treatment of the pro...

  3. Preventing Abuse of Drugs, Alcohol, and Tobacco by Adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Falco, Mathea

    From the mid-1960s until 1980, adolescent drug use rose sharply. Although use has declined somewhat since, adolescent cocaine use remains at peak levels, and crack presents a major threat. Treatment for compulsive drug or alcohol use is needed by 5 to 15 percent of the teenagers who experiment with drugs and alcohol. Drug abuse experts now believe…

  4. A sport-based intervention for preventing alcohol use and promoting physical activity among adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Werch, Chudley; Moore, Michele; DiClemente, Carlo C; Owen, Deborah M; Jobli, Edessa; Bledsoe, Rhonda

    2003-12-01

    This study tested the potential of a novel intervention addressing alcohol prevention within the context of a sport program. Study participants were randomly assigned to one of three groups, with one group receiving the sport consultation (Sport), a second the sport consultation plus an alcohol consultation (Sport Plus), and a third a sport consultation, alcohol consultation, and mailed parent print materials (Sport Plus Parent). Researchers recruited 465 eighth graders from three schools in the northeast Florida region to participate in the study. The Youth Alcohol and Health Survey was used to collect data on alcohol and drug consumption, alcohol use risk and protective factors, and exercise habits at baseline and three-month post-intervention. Significant time effects (p's Sport intervention showing the greatest improvements on all but two measures. Findings suggest that a brief sport-based screen and consultation tailored to adolescents' health habits, with and without parent materials, may potentially reduce alcohol use while increasing exercise frequency.

  5. Preventing Tobacco and Alcohol Use among Elementary School Students through Life Skills Training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Botvin, Gilbert J.; Griffin, Kenneth W.; Paul, Elizabeth; Macaulay, Araxi P.

    2003-01-01

    Study examined effectiveness of a substance abuse prevention program in preventing tobacco and alcohol use among elementary school students in grades 3 through 6. Program teaches social resistance skills and general personal and social competence skills. Findings indicate a school-based substance abuse prevention approach previously found to be…

  6. The role of the primary care provider in preventing and treating alcohol problems in adolescents

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Knight, [No Value

    2001-01-01

    Adolescents use alcohol more frequently and heavily than all other illicit drugs combined.(1) Given the myriad health, developmental, and social problems associated with alcohol use, it is not surprising that the American Medical Association's Guidelines for Adolescent Preventive Services recommends

  7. Evaluating Community Readiness to Implement Environmental and Policy-Based Alcohol Abuse Prevention Strategies in Wisconsin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paltzer, Jason; Black, Penny; Moberg, D. Paul

    2013-01-01

    Background: Matching evidence-based alcohol prevention strat- egies with a community's readiness to support those strategies is the basis for the Tri-Ethnic Community Readiness Model (CRM). The purpose of this evaluation was to assess the association of a community's readiness to address alcohol abuse in their community with the…

  8. Alcohol Services for Mexican Americans: A Review of Utilization Patterns, Treatment Considerations and Prevention Activities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilbert, M. Jean; Cervantes, Richard C.

    1986-01-01

    Synthesizes available literature that addresses: (1) utilization patterns of alcohol-related services by Mexican Americans; (2) existing therapeutic approaches which take into account cultural factors; and (3) existing approaches to alcohol abuse education and prevention for this population. Discusses research needs and the need for…

  9. Prevention of alcohol use in early adolescents: A joint venture of school and parents

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koning, H.M.

    2011-01-01

    More than half of the Dutch adolescents start drinking before age 12 (Monshouwer et al., 2009). Early drinking is related to several developmental risks and to later alcohol and drug abuse (Behrendt et al., 2009). A Dutch alcohol prevention program (PAS) targets early adolescents and their parents i

  10. Evaluating Community Readiness to Implement Environmental and Policy-Based Alcohol Abuse Prevention Strategies in Wisconsin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paltzer, Jason; Black, Penny; Moberg, D. Paul

    2013-01-01

    Background: Matching evidence-based alcohol prevention strat- egies with a community's readiness to support those strategies is the basis for the Tri-Ethnic Community Readiness Model (CRM). The purpose of this evaluation was to assess the association of a community's readiness to address alcohol abuse in their community with the implementation of…

  11. Predictors of risky alcohol consumption in schoolchildren and their implications for preventing alcohol-related harm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Allen Tony

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background While alcohol-related health and social problems amongst youths are increasing internationally, both consumption and associated harms are particularly high in British youth. Youth drinking patterns, including bingeing, frequent drinking and drinking in public spaces, are associated with increased risks of acute (e.g. violence and long-term (e.g. alcohol-dependence health problems. Here we examine economic, behavioural and demographic factors that predict these risky drinking behaviours among 15–16 year old schoolchildren who consume alcohol. A cross-sectional survey was conducted among schoolchildren in North West England (n = 10,271 using an anonymous questionnaire delivered in school settings. Analysis utilised logistic regression to identify independent predictors of risky drinking behaviour. Results Of all respondents, 87.9% drank alcohol. Of drinkers, 38.0% usually binged when drinking, 24.4% were frequent drinkers and 49.8% drank in public spaces. Binge, frequent and public drinking were strongly related to expendable income and to individuals buying their own alcohol. Obtaining alcohol from friends, older siblings and adults outside shops were also predictors of risky drinking amongst drinkers. However, being bought alcohol by parents was associated with both lower bingeing and drinking in public places. Membership of youth groups/teams was in general protective despite some association with bingeing. Conclusion Although previous studies have examined predictors of risky drinking, our analyses of access to alcohol and youth income have highlighted eradicating underage alcohol sales and increased understanding of children's spending as key considerations in reducing risky alcohol use. Parental provision of alcohol to children in a family environment may also be important in establishing child-parent dialogues on alcohol and moderating youth consumption. However, this will require supporting parents to ensure they

  12. Why is adolescence a key period of alcohol initiation and who is prone to develop long-term problem use?: A review of current available data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Géraldine Petit

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Early adolescence is a key developmental period for the initiation of alcohol use, and consumption among adolescents is characterized by drinking in high quantities. At the same time, adolescence is characterized by rapid biological transformations including dramatic changes in the brain, particularly in the prefrontal cortex and the mesocorticolimbic dopamine system. Methods: This article begins with an overview of the unique neural and behavioural characteristics of adolescent development that predispose these individuals to seek rewards and take risks such as initiation of drinking and high levels of alcohol intake. The authors then outline important factors associated with an increased risk for developing alcohol problems in later adolescence and young adulthood. Thereafter they address causality and the complex interplay of risk factors that lead to the development of alcohol use problems in late adolescence and young adults. Conclusions: A few recommendations for the prevention of underage drinking are presented.

  13. Graves' hyperthyroidism and moderate alcohol consumption: evidence for disease prevention

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Carle, A.; Bülow Pedersen, I.; Knudsen, N.

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND: We recently demonstrated that moderate alcohol consumption is associated with a considerable reduction in the risk of autoimmune hypothyroidism, similar to findings in other autoimmune diseases such as systemic lupus erythematosus and rheumatoid arthritis. We aimed to study a possible....... CONCLUSIONS: Moderate alcohol consumption is associated with a considerable reduction in the risk of Graves' disease with hyperthyroidism - irrespective of age and sex. Autoimmune thyroid disease seems to be much more dependent on environmental factors than hitherto anticipated....

  14. Natural Products for the Prevention and Treatment of Hangover and Alcohol Use Disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fang Wang

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Alcoholic beverages such as beer, wine and spirits are widely consumed around the world. However, alcohol and its metabolite acetaldehyde are toxic and harmful to human beings. Chronic alcohol use disorder or occasional binge drinking can cause a wide range of health problems, such as hangover, liver damage and cancer. Some natural products such as traditional herbs, fruits, and vegetables might be potential dietary supplements or medicinal products for the prevention and treatment of the problems caused by excessive alcohol consumption. The aim of this review is to provide an overview of effective natural products for the prevention and treatment of hangover and alcohol use disorder, and special emphasis is paid to the possible functional component(s and related mechanism(s of action.

  15. Natural Products for the Prevention and Treatment of Hangover and Alcohol Use Disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Fang; Li, Ya; Zhang, Yu-Jie; Zhou, Yue; Li, Sha; Li, Hua-Bin

    2016-01-07

    Alcoholic beverages such as beer, wine and spirits are widely consumed around the world. However, alcohol and its metabolite acetaldehyde are toxic and harmful to human beings. Chronic alcohol use disorder or occasional binge drinking can cause a wide range of health problems, such as hangover, liver damage and cancer. Some natural products such as traditional herbs, fruits, and vegetables might be potential dietary supplements or medicinal products for the prevention and treatment of the problems caused by excessive alcohol consumption. The aim of this review is to provide an overview of effective natural products for the prevention and treatment of hangover and alcohol use disorder, and special emphasis is paid to the possible functional component(s) and related mechanism(s) of action.

  16. Health initiatives for the prevention of skin cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greinert, Rüdiger; Breitbart, Eckhard W; Mohr, Peter; Volkmer, Beate

    2014-01-01

    Skin cancer is the most frequent type of cancer in white population worldwide. However, because the most prominent risk factor-solar UV-radiation and/or artificial UV from sunbeds-is known, skin cancer is highly preventable be primary prevention. This prevention needs, that the public is informed by simple and balanced messages about the possible harms and benefits of UV-exposure and how a person should behave under certain conditions of UV-exposure. For this purpose information and recommendations for the public must be age- and target-group specific to cover all periods of life and to reach all sub-groups of a population, continuously. There is a need that political institutions together with Health Institutions and Societies (e.g., European Commission, WHO, EUROSKIN, ICNIRP, etc.), which are responsible for primary prevention of skin cancer, find a common language to inform the public, in order not to confuse it. This is especially important in connection with the ongoing Vitamin D debate, where possible positive effects of UV have to be balanced with the well known skin cancer risk of UV. A continuously ongoing evaluation of interventions and programs in primary prevention is a pre-requisite to assess the effectiveness of strategies. There is surely no "no message fits all" approach, but balanced information in health initiatives for prevention of skin cancer, which use evidence-base strategies, will further be needed in the future to reduce the incidence, morbidity and mortality skin cancer.

  17. The Quality and Accuracy of Mobile Apps to Prevent Driving After Drinking Alcohol

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stoyanov, Stoyan R; Gandabhai, Shailen; Baldwin, Alexander

    2016-01-01

    Background Driving after the consumption of alcohol represents a significant problem globally. Individual prevention countermeasures such as personalized mobile apps aimed at preventing such behavior are widespread, but there is little research on their accuracy and evidence base. There has been no known assessment investigating the quality of such apps. Objective This study aimed to determine the quality and accuracy of apps for drink driving prevention by conducting a review and evaluation of relevant mobile apps. Methods A systematic app search was conducted following PRISMA guidelines. App quality was assessed using the Mobile App Rating Scale (MARS). Apps providing blood alcohol calculators (hereafter “calculators”) were reviewed against current alcohol advice for accuracy. Results A total of 58 apps (30 iOS and 28 Android) met inclusion criteria and were included in the final analysis. Drink driving prevention apps had significantly lower engagement and overall quality scores than alcohol management apps. Most calculators provided conservative blood alcohol content (BAC) time until sober calculations. None of the apps had been evaluated to determine their efficacy in changing either drinking or driving behaviors. Conclusions This novel study demonstrates that most drink driving prevention apps are not engaging and lack accuracy. They could be improved by increasing engagement features, such as gamification. Further research should examine the context and motivations for using apps to prevent driving after drinking in at-risk populations. Development of drink driving prevention apps should incorporate evidence-based information and guidance, lacking in current apps. PMID:27502956

  18. Accident Prevention by Eye Blinking Sensor and Alcohol Detector

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deepa K B, Chaitra M

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available This system provides a unique method to curb drunken and drowsy people. This system has an alcohol sensor and eye blinking sensor embedded in the vehicles. Whenever the driver start vehicle, the sensors senses the eye blink and measures the content of alcohol in his breathe and automatically sends the signal to buzzer, gsm and lcd. In this system the outputs of sensors are given to the microcontroller for comparison. If the value reaches to fixed limit then automatically gsm will send the sms, buzzer will produces sound and lcd will display the message.

  19. The FIGO initiative for the prevention of unsafe abortion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaw, Dorothy

    2010-07-01

    Unsafe abortion is a recognized public health problem that contributes significantly to maternal mortality. At least 13% of maternal mortality is caused by unsafe abortion, mostly in poor and marginalized women. The International Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics (FIGO) launched an initiative in 2007 to prevent unsafe abortion and its consequences, building on its work on other major causes of maternal mortality. A Working Group was identified with collaborators from many international organizations and terms of reference provided direction from the FIGO Executive Board as to possible evidence-based interventions. A total of 54 member associations of FIGO, representing almost half its member societies, requested participation in the initiative, with 43 subsequently producing action plans that are country specific and involve the national government and multiple collaborators. Obstetrician/gynecologists have demonstrated the importance of the initiative by an unprecedented level of engagement in efforts to reduce maternal mortality and morbidity in country and by sharing experiences regionally.

  20. Is There Evidence To Show That Fetal Alcohol Syndrome Can Be Prevented?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murphy-Brennan, Majella G.; Oei, Tian P. S.

    1999-01-01

    Reviews the effectiveness of prevention programs in reducing Fetal Alcohol Syndrome (FAS). Results reveal that prevention programs, to date, have been successful in raising awareness of FAS; however this awareness has not been translated into behavioral changes in high-risk drinkers as consumption levels in this group have increased. (Author/MKA)

  1. Annotated Bibliography of Alcohol, Other Drug, and Violence Prevention Resources, 2006-2008

    Science.gov (United States)

    Segars, Lance, Ed.; Akinola, Olayinka, Ed.

    2009-01-01

    The U.S. Department of Education's Higher Education Center for Alcohol and Other Drug Abuse and Violence Prevention has developed this annotated bibliography to provide those interested in prevention at colleges and universities--and in surrounding communities--with a ready reference of current, important, and available information resources.…

  2. Risk factors associated with problematic alcohol use in adolescence: The preventive role of mindfulness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Manuel Lerma-Cabrera

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Problematic alcohol consumption in youth is known to be related to social, health and financial problems, generating huge costs for the public health system. A number of studies describe early onset of drinking as being associated with an increased risk for developing alcohol dependence. However, this relationship is mediated by contextual (e.g. family history of alcoholism and individual (e.g. problems of impulse control risk factors. Therefore, prevention programs aim to reduce both problematic drinking and detriments of existing consumption. One of the most developed psychological approaches in recent years is mindfulness-based interventions (MBIs, also termed a part of third wave cognitive behavioral therapies. Recently, MBIs were applied in the treatment of substance dependence. Nevertheless, there are only a few studies which intend to analyze the role of mindfulness in the field of prevention, examining its effects on associated factors of risky alcohol use and related problems of this consumption in youth.

  3. From Single-Parent Families to Stepfamilies: Is the Transition Associated with Adolescent Alcohol Initiation?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirby, James B.

    2006-01-01

    This study addresses two questions: Is stepfamily formation associated with the likelihood that adolescents will initiate alcohol use, and if so, does this association differ by the type of single-parent families from which adolescents move or the type of stepfamilies to which they move? The author found that adolescents who moved to stepfamilies…

  4. Enforcing regulations on alcohol sales and use as universal environmental prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villalbí, Joan R; Bartroli, Montserrat; Bosque-Prous, Marina; Guitart, Anna M; Serra-Batiste, Enric; Casas, Conrad; Brugal, M Teresa

    2015-12-15

    The informal social control over alcohol consumption that was traditional in Southern European countries has weakened. At the same time there is an increase in binge drinking and drunkenness among young people in Spain. To mitigate this problem, regulations on alcohol and driving and restrictions on the sale and consumption of alcohol have been adopted. This paper documents the current regulations in the city of Barcelona and describes efforts to enforce them and their outcomes. Data from the municipal information systems on infringements reported for the period 2008-13 are provided. There is an increasing pressure of municipal services to enforce the rules in two areas: a) alcohol sales at night (retailers); and b) consumption in the public space (citizens). An increase in the controls of drink-driving has also taken place, and the proportion above legal limits has decreased. The largest relative increase occurred in the control of retailers. In Barcelona interventions are made to limit the supply and consumption of alcohol at low cost and during the night, and of driving under the influence of alcohol. There have been no documented episodes of massive drinking in public spaces (known as 'botellón') in the city. These actions, which complement other preventive efforts based on health education, can change the social perceptions of alcohol by minors in a direction less favorable to consumption, promoting environmental prevention.

  5. Alcohol Control in Cuba: Preventing Countervailing Cultural and Mass Media Influences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    González-Menéndez, Ricardo Á

    2016-07-01

    Harmful use of alcohol-the prime gateway drug to other addictions-is also a problem in Cuba, even though the National Program for Prevention of Harmful Use of Alcohol includes the most effective measures used in analogous programs around the world. As a participant in the program's committee and empirical observer of its accomplishments and unaccomplished goals, I draw attention to the community's attitude of tolerance toward intoxication manifested by the lack of proportional consequences, and I insist on the need to broaden the community's understanding of the risks of non-social drinking, which in Latin America is practically limited to alcoholism and its complications. This undervalues the damage wreaked by unpredictable and dangerous behavior under the influence, as well as the suffering of codependents and other "passive drinkers," and the adverse effects of even social drinking. KEYWORDS Alcohol abuse/prevention and control, alcohol consumption, alcohol drinking/culture, alcoholism, drinking behavior, behavior and behavior mechanisms, social determinants of health, social reinforcement, mass media, communication, Cuba.

  6. California Breast Cancer Prevention Initiatives: Setting a research agenda for prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sutton, P; Kavanaugh-Lynch, M H E; Plumb, M; Yen, I H; Sarantis, H; Thomsen, C L; Campleman, S; Galpern, E; Dickenson, C; Woodruff, T J

    2015-07-01

    The environment is an underutilized pathway to breast cancer prevention. Current research approaches and funding streams related to breast cancer and the environment are unequal to the task at hand. We undertook the California Breast Cancer Prevention Initiatives, a four-year comprehensive effort to set a research agenda related to breast cancer, the environment, disparities and prevention. We identified 20 topics for Concept Proposals reflecting a life-course approach and the complex etiology of breast cancer; considering the environment as chemical, physical and socially constructed exposures that are experienced concurrently: at home, in the community and at work; and addressing how we should be modifying the world around us to promote a less carcinogenic environment. Redirecting breast cancer research toward prevention-oriented discovery could significantly reduce the incidence and associated disparities of the disease among future generations.

  7. Can pricing deter adolescents and young adults from starting to drink: An analysis of the effect of alcohol taxation on drinking initiation among Thai adolescents and young adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sornpaisarn, Bundit; Shield, Kevin D; Cohen, Joanna E; Schwartz, Robert; Rehm, Jürgen

    2015-12-01

    The objective of this study is to assess the relationship between alcohol taxation changes and drinking initiation among adolescents and young adults (collectively "youth") in Thailand (a middle-income country). Using a survey panel, this study undertook an age-period-cohort analysis using four large-scale national cross-sectional surveys of alcohol consumption performed in Thailand in 2001, 2004, 2007 and 2011 (n=87,176 Thai youth, 15-24 years of age) to test the hypothesis that changes in the inflation-adjusted alcohol taxation rates are associated with drinking initiation. Regression analyses were used to examine the association between inflation-adjusted taxation increases and the prevalence of lifetime drinkers. After adjusting for potential confounders, clear cohort and age effects were observed. Furthermore, a 10% increase of the inflation-adjusted taxation rate of the total alcohol market was significantly associated with a 4.3% reduction in the prevalence of lifetime drinking among Thai youth. In conclusion, tax rate changes in Thailand from 2001 to 2011 were associated with drinking initiation among youth. Accordingly, increases in taxation may prevent drinking initiation among youth in countries with a high prevalence of abstainers and may reduce the harms caused by alcohol.

  8. [Risky alcohol drinking surveyed at a GP unit. Secondary prevention of alcohol problems in primary care patients].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eriksson, G; Spak, F; Andersson, C

    2000-03-08

    This article describes an implementation of secondary prevention of alcohol abuse at a GP unit in southern Gothenburg, Sweden. During several periods between 1994 and 1996, screening for alcohol problems was performed using either AUDIT or a 4-item instrument called SWAG. In one part of the study, screening was simultaneously carried out using gamma-GT and MCV. The main object of screening efforts was to stimulate interest for alcohol-related conditions, and this goal was reached. The staff was trained in treatment techniques such as motivational interviewing (MI), bio-feedback using gamma-GT and delivery of concise information. Simple methods to determine level of motivation were used for treatment stratification. Some doctors reported that they had insufficient time for adequate MI treatment, and therefore a condensed model was sometimes used. A nurse-staffed treatment unit was started and successfully promoted work with alcohol problem. Attempts were made to spread these methods to other GP units in the region and this was partially successful, although support from the central primary care administration was not secured.

  9. The role of the health services in the prevention of alcohol-related facial injury.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    McHugh, E E

    2009-10-01

    This paper outlines the preventive health strategic measures that are currently in place and it endeavours to consider how improvements can be made to our national preventive strategy with the goal of reducing alcohol-related facial injuries. It is based on a review of the literature sourced through PubMed, Ovid Medline and the Cochrane database. The main findings are that increased funding, legislative amendment and media involvement are key to improving the work of the health services in their struggle to limit the ever increasing alcohol-related incidents that are experienced by society today.

  10. Merging public relations with health communication in the context of university alcohol prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brummette, John

    2015-01-01

    The scope of this study is to determine whether social norms marketing should be further evaluated according to its ability to serve as a public relations tactic for universities. Based on a framework of social norms theory and strategic issues management, this study uses a web-based survey with university parents (N = 173) to identify relationships among exaggerated parental misperceptions of student binge drinking, parental awareness of alcohol prevention programs, and parental perceptions of organizational legitimacy. Findings from this study are used to make the argument that health communication and public relations should be viewed as interrelated concepts in the context of university alcohol prevention.

  11. Alcohol

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... that's how many accidents occur. continue What Is Alcoholism? What can be confusing about alcohol is that ... develop a problem with it. Sometimes, that's called alcoholism (say: al-kuh-HOL - ism) or being an ...

  12. Alcohol

    Science.gov (United States)

    If you are like many Americans, you drink alcohol at least occasionally. For many people, moderate drinking ... risky. Heavy drinking can lead to alcoholism and alcohol abuse, as well as injuries, liver disease, heart ...

  13. SHPPS 2006: School Health Policies and Programs Study--Alcohol- or Other Drug-Use Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, 2007

    2007-01-01

    The School Health Policies and Programs Study (SHPPS) is a national survey periodically conducted to assess school health policies and programs at the state, district, school, and classroom levels. This brief reports the results of the study in the area of alcohol- or other drug-use prevention, covering the following topics: (1) Health Education;…

  14. Weeding and Seeding: Programming for Alcohol Abuse Prevention and Wellness Enhancement in an Undergraduate Population

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halligan, Fredrica R.; Pohl, Jonathan A.; Smith, M. Katrina

    2006-01-01

    College students who are no longer fully adolescent and not yet fully adult are frequently at risk for developing habits of excessive alcohol use, with consequent poor study habits and aberrant socialization patterns. "Weeding out" such trends is the work of prevention programs on campus. "Seeding" with other pro-social norms becomes the second…

  15. The role of parents in preventing adolescent alcohol and cannabis use

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vermeulen-Smit, Evelien

    2014-01-01

    This thesis aimed to investigate the role of parents in preventing adolescent alcohol and cannabis use. First, we investigated the association of specific parental drinking patterns with 12-15 year olds' drinking. Only two out of six parental drinking patterns, i.e. having a heavy drinking father o

  16. Facile synthesis of β-diketone alcohols for combined functionality: initiation, catalysis, and luminescence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xuepeng; Cui, Minxin; Zhou, Rui; Chen, Changle; Zhang, Guoqing

    2014-03-01

    Primary alcohol-functionalized β-diketones (bdks) are successfully synthesized via facile one-step Claisen condensation between aromatic monoketones and ε-caprolactone (ε-CL). To demonstrate application potentials, these bdk alcohols are used to chelate with various Lewis acids, including Tb (III), Eu (III), and B (III). It is discovered that the resulting Tb (III) and Eu (III) diketonate complexes can serve as both catalysts and initiators for ring-opening polymerization (ROP) under solvent-free conditions, using lactide monomer as an example. The polylactides (PLAs) thus obtained exhibit luminescence properties characteristic of Tb (III) and Eu (III), respectively. On the other hand, boron-chelated diketone can initiate ROP of lactide in the presence of Sn(oct)2 , and affords a PLA material with dual-emission, i.e., fluorescence and room temperature phosphorescence. The synthesis described here represents a shortcut for the preparation of bdk-based macroligands and subsequent functional materials.

  17. Co-Occurring Physical Fighting and Suicide Attempts among U.S. High School Students: Examining Patterns of Early Alcohol Use Initiation and Current Binge Drinking

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monica H Swahn

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: A growing body of empirical research documents a significant co-occurrence of suicide attempts and interpersonal violence among youth. However, the potential role of early alcohol use initiation and current heavy alcohol use as correlates of this comorbidity has not been examined in a nationally representative sample of high school students.Methods: We based our analyses on cross-sectional data from the 2009 Youth Risk Behavior Survey, which includes a nationally representative sample (n=16,410 of high school students in grades 9 through 12 in the United States. Multinomial logistic regression analyses were conducted to test the associations between measures of alcohol use (early alcohol use initiation and heavy drinking and comorbid suicidal and violent behavior while controlling for potential confounders.Results: Among high school students, 3.6% reported comorbid physical fighting and suicide attempt in the past year. Early alcohol use (prior to age 13 and heavy drinking (5 or more drinks in a row were strongly associated with comorbid reports of physical fighting and suicide attempts (Adj. odds ratio [OR]=3.12; 95% confidence interval [CI]:2.49-3.89 and (Adj. OR=3.45; 95%CI:2.63-4.52.Conclusion: These findings underscore the importance of both early alcohol use initiation and heavy drinking as statistically significant correlates of comorbid fighting and suicide attempts among youth. While future research is needed to determine the temporal ordering between problem drinking and violent or suicidal behaviors, existing prevention programs may benefit from including components aimed at reducing and delaying alcohol use. [West J Emerg Med. 2013;14(4:341–346.

  18. Non-alcohol fatty liver disease in Asia: Prevention andplanning

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2015-01-01

    AIM To review all of epidemiological aspects of nonalcoholicfatty liver disease (NAFLD) and also preventthis disease is examined.METHODS: We conducted a systematic reviewaccording to the PRISMA guidelines. All searches forwriting this review is based on the papers was foundin PubMed (MEDLINE), Cochrane database and Scopusin August and September 2014 for topic of NAFLD inAsia and the way of prevention of this disease, with nolanguage limitations. All relevant articles were accessedin full text and all relevant materials was evaluated andreviewed.RESULTS: NAFLD is the most common liver disorder inworldwide, with an estimated with 20%-30% prevalencein Western countries and 2%-4% worldwide. Theprevalence of NAFLD in Asia, depending on location(urban vs rural), gender, ethnicity, and age is variablebetween 15%-20%. According to the many studies inthe world, the relationship between NAFLD, obesity,diabetes mellitus, and metabolic syndrome (MS) isquiet obvious. Prevalence of NAFLD in Asian countriesseems to be lower than the Western countries but, ithas increased recently due to the rise of obesity, type 2diabetes and MS in this region. One of the main reasonsfor the increase in obesity, diabetes and MS in Asia isa lifestyle change and industrialization. Today, NAFLDis recognized as a major chronic liver disease in Asia.Therefore, prevention of this disease in Asian countriesis very important and the best strategy for preventionand control of NAFLD is lifestyle modifications. Lifestylemodification programs are typically designed to changebad eating habits and increase physical activity that isassociated with clinically significant improvements inobesity, type 2 diabetes and MS.CONCLUSION: Prevention of NAFLD is very important in Asian countries particularly in Arab countries becauseof high prevalence of obesity, diabetes and MS.

  19. The impact of alcohol on HIV prevention and treatment for South Africans in primary healthcare

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michelle Schneider

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Background: Antiretroviral treatment (ART has substantially reduced morbidity and mortality for HIV patients. In South Africa, with the largest ART programme globally, attention is needed not only on the further expansion of ART coverage, but also on factors which undermine its effectiveness, such as alcohol use.Objective: Given the decentralised approach of nurse-initiated and -sustained ART in the South African primary health sector, it is important to document key aspects of alcohol use to be conveyed to HIV-positive individuals and those at risk for HIV.Method: This study comprised a narrative review of relevant literature.Results: Alcohol acts through both behavioural and physiological pathways to impact on the acquisition, further transmission and then progression of HIV disease. Besides links to risky sex, alcohol undermines the immune system, raising susceptibility to contracting and then countering HIV and other infections. There are important drug interactions between alcohol and ART, or therapies for opportunistic infections and other co-morbidities. Moreover, alcohol undermines adherence to the medication which is essential for effective ART.Conclusion: Primary healthcare clinic attendees need evidence-based information on the detrimental effects of alcohol consumption on HIV infection, which ensue throughout the clinical course of HIV. This spans the role of alcohol consumption as a risk factor for HIV infection, HIV replication in infected individuals, a person’s response to HIV infection and HIV treatment. Primary healthcare workers, especially nurses and HIV counsellors, require training in order to screen for and provide appropriate interventions for HIV-positive patients, those on treatment and treatment-naïve patients, who will benefit from reduced alcohol consumption or the cessation thereof.

  20. Preventing Fetal Alcohol Syndrome and Other Alcohol-Related Birth Defects: Teacher's Manual and Student Text. High School Edition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howard, Elizabeth; And Others

    This teacher's manual presents lesson plans for a high-school instructional unit on Fetal Alcohol Syndrome and its less severe manifestations, Alcohol-Related Birth Defects. The lessons cover alcohol's effects during pregnancy, the history of concern about alcohol's effects, consequences of alcohol use in pregnancy, lifestyle risk reduction, and…

  1. Adolescent Substance Use Initiation: Correlates of the Profiles of Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paiva, Andrea L.; Amoyal, Nicole R.; Johnson, Janet L.; Prochaska, James O.

    2014-01-01

    Using cluster analysis, 717 students who reported that they had never smoked and the nondrinking 292 students who reported that they had never drank alcohol were classified into four profile groups based on their Pros and Cons of not using and temptation to use. Profiles were labeled Most Protected, Least Positive, Most Negative, and Most Tempted.…

  2. Cost-effectiveness of preventive interventions to reduce alcohol consumption in Denmark.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Astrid Ledgaard Holm

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Excessive alcohol consumption increases the risk of many diseases and injuries, and the Global Burden of Disease 2010 study estimated that 6% of the burden of disease in Denmark is due to alcohol consumption. Alcohol consumption thus places a considerable economic burden on society. METHODS: We analysed the cost-effectiveness of six interventions aimed at preventing alcohol abuse in the adult Danish population: 30% increased taxation, increased minimum legal drinking age, advertisement bans, limited hours of retail sales, and brief and longer individual interventions. Potential health effects were evaluated as changes in incidence, prevalence and mortality of alcohol-related diseases and injuries. Net costs were calculated as the sum of intervention costs and cost offsets related to treatment of alcohol-related outcomes, based on health care costs from Danish national registers. Cost-effectiveness was evaluated by calculating incremental cost-effectiveness ratios (ICERs for each intervention. We also created an intervention pathway to determine the optimal sequence of interventions and their combined effects. RESULTS: Three of the analysed interventions (advertising bans, limited hours of retail sales and taxation were cost-saving, and the remaining three interventions were all cost-effective. Net costs varied from € -17 million per year for advertisement ban to € 8 million for longer individual intervention. Effectiveness varied from 115 disability-adjusted life years (DALY per year for minimum legal drinking age to 2,900 DALY for advertisement ban. The total annual effect if all interventions were implemented would be 7,300 DALY, with a net cost of € -30 million. CONCLUSION: Our results show that interventions targeting the whole population were more effective than individual-focused interventions. A ban on alcohol advertising, limited hours of retail sale and increased taxation had the highest probability of being cost

  3. 'Why don’t they just do what we tell them?’ Different alcohol prevention discourses in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Elmeland, Karen; Kolind, Torsten

    2012-01-01

    In recent decades great focus has been placed on the excessive consumption of alcohol by young Danes. In this connection, Danish parents have been called upon by the national health authorities to function as prevention workers with a view to reducing their children’s alcohol intake. Parallel...... the prevention field: a public alcohol prevention discourse and an everyday discourse, respectively. The analysis is based on alcohol legislation, public health programmes and national alcohol recommendations, as well as on a qualitative study of a special Danish phenomenon: parties for young people organized...... to these efforts, and also responding to the increase in drinking by young people, efforts to reduce the harm caused by the drinking practices of adolescents have grown bottom-up among parents. In this article we identify and compare these two seemingly contrasting discourses, both of which influence...

  4. Indicated Prevention of Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorders in South Africa: Effectiveness of Case Management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marlene M. de Vries

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available In the Western Cape Province of South Africa (ZA a subculture of binge drinking produces the highest global documented prevalence of fetal alcohol spectrum disorders (FASD. FASD prevention research activities in ZA use the Comprehensive Prevention approach from the United States Institute of Medicine. Case management (CM was delivered as a method of indicated prevention to empower heavy drinking pregnant women to achieve cessation or a reduction in drinking. CM activities incorporated life management, Motivational Interviewing (MI techniques and the Community Reinforcement Approach (CRA. Data were collected at baseline, 6, 12 and 18 months. Mean drinking decreases 6 months into CM; but overall alcohol consumption rose significantly over time to levels higher than baseline at 12 and 18 months. Alcohol consumption drops significantly from before pregnancy to the second and third trimesters. AUDIT scores indicate that problematic drinking decreases significantly even after the vulnerable fetus/baby was born. CM significantly increases client happiness, which correlates with reduced weekend drinking. CM was successful for women with high-risk drinking behaviour, and was effective in helping women stop drinking, or drink less, while pregnant, reducing the risk of FASD.

  5. 78 FR 60878 - Disease, Disability, and Injury Prevention and Control Special Emphasis Panel (SEP): Initial Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-10-02

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Disease, Disability, and Injury Prevention and... and Disease Prevention Research Centers, Funding Opportunity Announcement (FOA) DP14-001, initial... Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) announces the aforementioned meeting: Times and Dates 8...

  6. An Empirical Case Study of a Child Sexual Abuse Prevention Initiative in Georgia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schober, Daniel J.; Fawcett, Stephen B.; Thigpen, Sally; Curtis, Anna; Wright, Renee

    2012-01-01

    Objective: This empirical case study describes Prevent Child Abuse Georgia's effort to prevent child sexual abuse (CSA) by educating communities throughout the state on supporting preventive behaviour. The initiative consisted of three major components: (1) dissemination of CSA prevention messages and materials; (2) a statewide helpline that…

  7. Eating disorder prevention initiatives for athletes: A review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bar, Rachel J; Cassin, Stephanie E; Dionne, Michelle M

    2016-01-01

    A substantial amount of evidence suggests that collegiate and elite athletes involved in weight-sensitive sports are at greater risk of developing eating disorders (EDs) than the general population. With the limited effectiveness of treatment for EDs, prevention of EDs has been broadly considered in the literature. The present paper reviewed the existing literature on ED prevention programmes for athletes in order to determine the current status of prevention programmes and recommend future directions. The available literature suggests that selective, primary interventions with multiple targets and an interactive multimodal approach appear most effective. Current challenges in the field, including lack of longitudinal research, hesitation by the sport community to be involved in ED research and poor cross-field communication and collaboration, are also explored. The lack of dissemination of evidence-based prevention programmes and the simultaneous promotion of prevention programmes that have not yet been empirically examined are also discussed. Based on these observations future directions are recommended.

  8. Prevention of adolescent reoccurring violence and alcohol abuse: a multiple site evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wodarski, John S

    2010-07-01

    "Prevention of Adolescent Reoccurring Violence and Alcohol Abuse: A Multiple Site Evaluation" is a multiple component alcohol abuse and violent behavior prevention strategy, targeted to adolescents ages 16-21 who have high levels of anger, or who are victims/perpetrators of violence, and their families. Three community centers located in upstate New York provided group participants (N = 210) known to have conduct disorder and substance abuse history. The centers were used as the intervention sites over a seven-week period with the youth assessment staff using objective screening measures. The participants were exposed to a two-pronged intervention, using a parental involvement cohort with approximately half of the study participants. The Teams, Games, and Tournaments strategy was the intervention method. Teams, Games, and Tournaments is a Social Learning Theory-based intervention with demonstrated empirical evidence of the model's effectiveness. A 2 x 3 factorial design with two follow-up points encompassed: anger control, alcohol/substance abuse, and family interactive education. The goals of the study were to help adolescents reduce their alcohol use, to increase productive family interaction, and ultimately to reduce the adolescents' aggression levels and subsequently reduce the possibility of their becoming victims or perpetrators of a violent crime. Consistent with Social Learning Theory, the Teams, Games, and Tournaments treatment intervention makes use of adolescents as peer counselors. The practical implications include that professionals or students in our public schools, juvenile courts, correctional institutions, and residential treatment centers can easily implement this program. A standardized treatment manual is available. It offers a complete, ready-to-use, and cost-effective tool for reducing adolescent violence and alcohol abuse. Further, the data provide support for a hypothesis of social learning theory, that is: interventions using multiple

  9. Preventive effects of Flos Perariae (Gehua water extract and its active ingredient puerarin in rodent alcoholism models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wang Yuqiang

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Radix Puerariae is used in Chinese medicine to treat alcohol addiction and intoxication. The present study investigates the effects of Flos puerariae lobatae water extract (FPE and its active ingredient puerarin on alcoholism using rodent models. Methods Alcoholic animals were given FPE or puerarin by oral intubation prior or after alcohol treatment. The loss of righting reflex (LORR assay was used to evaluate sedative/hypnotic effects. Changes of gama-aminobutyric acid type A receptor (GABAAR subunits induced by alcohol treatment in hippocampus were measured with western blot. In alcoholic mice, body weight gain was monitored throughout the experiments. Alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH levels in liver were measured. Results FPE and puerarin pretreatment significantly prolonged the time of LORR induced by diazepam in acute alcoholic rat. Puerarin increased expression of gama-aminobutyric acid type A receptor alpha1 subunit and decreased expression of alpha4 subunit. In chronic alcoholic mice, puerarin pretreatment significantly increased body weight and liver ADH activity in a dose-dependent manner. Puerarin pretreatment, but not post-treatment, can reverse the changes of gama-aminobutyric acid type A receptor subunit expression and increase ADH activity in alcoholism models. Conclusion The present study demonstrates that FPE and its active ingredient puerarin have preventive effects on alcoholism related disorders.

  10. An economic evaluation of the parent-child assistance program for preventing fetal alcohol spectrum disorder in Alberta, Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thanh, Nguyen Xuan; Jonsson, Egon; Moffatt, Jessica; Dennett, Liz; Chuck, Anderson W; Birchard, Shelley

    2015-01-01

    Parent-Child Assistance Program (P-CAP) is a 3-year home visitation/harm reduction intervention to prevent alcohol exposed births, thereby births with fetal alcohol spectrum disorder, among high-risk women. This article used a decision analytic modeling technique to estimate the incremental cost-effectiveness ratio and the net monetary benefit of the P-CAP within the Alberta Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorder Service Networks in Canada. The results indicate that the P-CAP is cost-effective and support placing a high priority not only on reducing alcohol use during pregnancy, but also on providing effective contraceptive measures when a program is launched.

  11. The Relative Contribution of Genes and Environment to Alcohol Use in Early Adolescents : Are Similar Factors Related to Initiation of Alcohol Use and Frequency of Drinking?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Poelen, E.A.P.; Derks, E.M.; Engels, R.C.M.E.; Scholte, R.H.J.; Willemsen, A.H.M.; Boomsma, D.I.

    2008-01-01

    Background: The present study assessed the relative contribution of genes and environment to individual differences in initiation of alcohol use and frequency of drinking among early adolescents and examined the extent to which the same genetic and environmental factors influence both individual dif

  12. Alcohol

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hendriks, H.F.; Tol, A. van

    2005-01-01

    Alcohol consumption affects overall mortality. Light to moderate alcohol consumption reduces the risk of coronary heart disease; epidemiological, physiological and genetic data show a causal relationship. Light to moderate drinking is also associated with a reduced risk of other vascular diseases an

  13. Effectiveness of two prevention programs on alcohol use as a function of provider type

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mónica Gázquez

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Currently, it is still unclear how to translate effectively programs validated in research for use in real-world contexts. Among the efforts being made to identify strategies which optimize the application of these programs in everyday practice are tests of the differential effectiveness of the programs depending on the application agent. Method: this study analyses the effects of two programs on alcohol use and its variables as a function of provider type. Two hundred students from the first year of secondary education were distributed among five experimental conditions: four treatment conditions, in which the two programs were applied by teachers at the school or external psychologists, and a control condition. Results: the results suggest that, for both programs, teachers obtain better outcomes in alcohol use and concern about addiction. Conclusions: it is concluded that teachers are the ideal application agents in terms of efficiency, and we discuss the implications for research and preventive practice.

  14. The neuroeconomics of alcohol demand: an initial investigation of the neural correlates of alcohol cost-benefit decision making in heavy drinking men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacKillop, James; Amlung, Michael T; Acker, John; Gray, Joshua C; Brown, Courtney L; Murphy, James G; Ray, Lara A; Sweet, Lawrence H

    2014-07-01

    Neuroeconomics integrates concepts and methods from psychology, economics, and cognitive neuroscience to understand how the brain makes decisions. In economics, demand refers to the relationship between a commodity's consumption and its cost, and, in behavioral studies, high alcohol demand has been consistently associated with greater alcohol misuse. Relatively little is known about how the brain processes demand decision making, and the current study is an initial investigation of the neural correlates of alcohol demand among heavy drinkers. Using an event-related functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) paradigm, participants (N=24) selected how much they would drink under varying levels of price. These choices determined access to alcohol during a subsequent bar laboratory self-administration period. During decisions to drink in general, greater activity was present in multiple distinct subunits of the prefrontal and parietal cortices. In contrast, during decisions to drink that were demonstrably affected by the cost of alcohol, significantly greater activation was evident in frontostriatal regions, suggesting an active interplay between cognitive deliberation and subjective reward value. These choices were also characterized by significant deactivation in default mode network regions, suggesting suppression resulting from greater cognitive load. Across choice types, the anterior insula was notably recruited in diverse roles, further implicating the importance of interoceptive processing in decision-making behavior. These findings reveal the neural signatures subserving alcohol cost-benefit decision making, providing a foundation for future clinical applications of this paradigm and extending this approach to understanding the neural correlates of demand for other addictive commodities.

  15. USASOC Injury Prevention/Performance Optimization Musculoskeletal Screening Initiative

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-11-01

    able to perform maximally and are combat ready more quickly. Background: Carbohydrate is the major fuel source for skeletal muscle and the brain ...performance and injury prevention research with USASOC if they were aged 18 to 60 years (inclusive); had no recent (3 month) history of traumatic brain ...proportion of Soldiers demonstrated bilateral asymmetry > 10%. This threshold has been previously identified as a risk factor for musculoskeletal

  16. 78 FR 15015 - Disease, Disability, and Injury Prevention and Control Special Emphasis Panels (SEP): Initial Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-08

    ... Activities for Avian Influenza and other Zoonotic Diseases, FOA CK13-002, initial review. Correction: The... HUMAN SERVICES Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Disease, Disability, and Injury Prevention and... Disease Control and Prevention and the Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry. Elaine L....

  17. 77 FR 25181 - Disease, Disability, and Injury Prevention and Control Special Emphasis Panel (SEP): Initial Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-27

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Disease, Disability, and Injury Prevention and..., Cholera And HIV/AIDS Response, GH12-003, initial review. In accordance with Section 10(a)(2) of the Federal Advisory Committee Act (Pub. L. 92-463), the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention...

  18. 78 FR 17411 - Disease, Disability, and Injury Prevention and Control Special Emphasis Panel (SEP): Initial Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-21

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Disease, Disability, and Injury Prevention and... Evaluation of Malaria Control and Elimination Activities, FOA GH13-005, initial review. In accordance with... and Prevention (CDC) announces the aforementioned meeting: Time and Date: 11:00 a.m.-3:00 p.m., May...

  19. Patients with alcohol use disorder: initial results from a prospective multicenter registry in the Spanish Network on Addiction Disorders. CohRTA Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanvisens, Arantza; Zuluaga, Paola; Rivas, Inmaculada; Rubio, Gabriel; Gual, Antoni; Torrens, Marta; Short, Antoni; Álvarez, Francisco Javier; Tor, Jordi; Farré, Magí; Rodríguez de Fonseca, Fernando; Muga, Roberto

    2017-01-12

    The Alcohol Program of the Spanish Network on Addictive Disorders-RTA requires a longitudinal study to address different research questions related to alcoholism. The cohort study (CohRTA) focuses on patients seeking treatment for alcohol use disorder, as a multicentre, collaborative research project aimed to improve secondary prevention and early diagnosis of pathological processes associated with the disorder.

  20. Physical Manoeuvres to Prevent Vasovagal Syncope and Initial Orthostatic Hypotension

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Krediet, Paul

    2007-01-01

    Vasovagal syncope ("the common faint") and near syncope from initial orthostatic hypotension are huge medical problems given the number of patients and their impact on quality of life. The treatment options are often unsatisfactory. The studies in this thesis set out to investigate the potential ben

  1. Changes in health professionals' knowledge, attitudes and practice following provision of educational resources about prevention of prenatal alcohol exposure and fetal alcohol spectrum disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Payne, Janet; France, Kathryn; Henley, Nadine; D'Antoine, Heather; Bartu, Anne; O'Leary, Colleen; Elliott, Elizabeth; Bower, Carol

    2011-07-01

    We provided health professionals in Western Australia (WA) with educational resources about prevention of prenatal alcohol exposure and fetal alcohol spectrum disorder and assessed changes in their knowledge, attitudes and practice concerning fetal alcohol syndrome (FAS) and alcohol consumption in pregnancy. Following our 2002 survey of health professionals in WA, we developed and distributed educational resources to 3348 health professionals in WA in 2007. Six months later we surveyed 1483 of these health professionals. Prevalence rate ratios [PRR] and 95% confidence intervals [CI] were calculated to compare 2007 results with results from the 2002 survey. Of the 1001 responding health professionals, 69.8% had seen the educational resources; of these 77.1% have used them and 48.5% said the resources had assisted them to change their practice or their intention to change their practice. Compared with 2002, there was an increase in the proportion who knew all the essential features of FAS from 11.7% to 15.8% [PRR 1.35; 95% CI 1.09, 1.67] and had diagnosed FAS, from 4.8% to 7.3% [PRR 1.52; 95% CI 1.08, 2.13]. In 2007, 98.1% of health professionals stated they would advise pregnant women to consider not drinking at all or advise them that no alcohol in pregnancy is the safest choice. Health professionals surveyed in 2007 have increased their knowledge, changed their attitudes and practice about FAS, and altered the advice they give to pregnant women about alcohol consumption since our survey in 2002. It is essential that we build on this change and continue to support health professionals' knowledge, attitudes and practice about the prevention of prenatal alcohol exposure and fetal alcohol spectrum disorder. The educational resources for health professionals may be ordered as hard copies and downloaded from the internet http://www.ichr.uwa.edu.au/alcoholandpregnancy.

  2. The Effects of Hydro-Alcoholic Extract of Zingiber Officinale on Prevention from Plumbism in Kidney Tissue of Neonatal Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Habiballah Johari

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Background: In the present research, the effects of hydro-alcoholic extract of Zingiber officinale (ginger on treating lead-poisoned kidney of neonatal rats was studied.Materials and Methods: This research was conducted as a laboratory work. The neonatal rats were divided into 7 groups of 10 samples. The first control group received no treatment. The second control group received 0.1 mg of distilled water. As an experimental group, the one received an amount of 0.6 g/l lead. The fourth group received only 2 g/kg body weight of hydro-alcoholic extract of ginger. Groups 5 to 7 each initially received 0.6 g/l lead and then amounts of 0.5, 1 and 2 g/kg hydro-alcoholic extract of ginger. The injections were administered via oral gavage during 10 consecutive days.Results: According to the obtained results, the body and kidney weights showed a significant reduction in experimental groups that had received amounts of 1 and 2 g/kg in comparison with the group that had received lead. The kidney weight of the group that had received only extract showed no significant difference in comparison with the control group. As for the body weights, however, it showed a significant increase. Moreover, the body and kidney weights of the lead-injected group showed a significant increase in comparison with the control group.Conclusion: Lead can cause damage to kidney tissues. Due to its antioxidant and protective effect, ginger can be a medication to nephrotoxicity of lead and prevent kidney tissues from destruction.

  3. Alcohol

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... changes that come from drinking alcohol can make people do stupid or embarrassing things, like throwing up or peeing on themselves. Drinking also gives people bad breath, and no one enjoys a hangover. ...

  4. Canadian initiatives to prevent hypertension by reducing dietary sodium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, Norm R C; Willis, Kevin J; L'Abbe, Mary; Strang, Robert; Young, Eric

    2011-08-01

    Hypertension is the leading risk for premature death in the world. High dietary sodium is an important contributor to increased blood pressure and is strongly associated with other important diseases (e.g., gastric cancer, calcium containing kidney stones, osteoporosis, asthma and obesity). The average dietary sodium intake in Canada is approximately 3400 mg/day. It is estimated that 30% of hypertension, more than 10% of cardiovascular events and 1.4 billion dollars/year in health care expenses are caused by this high level of intake in Canada. Since 2006, Canada has had a focused and evolving effort to reduce dietary sodium based on actions from Non Governmental Organizations (NGO), and Federal and Provincial/Territorial Government actions. NGOs initiated Canadian sodium reduction programs by developing a policy statement outlining the health issue and calling for governmental, NGO and industry action, developing and disseminating an extensive health care professional education program including resources for patient education, developing a public awareness campaign through extensive media releases and publications in the lay press. The Federal Government responded by striking a Intersectoral Sodium Work Group to develop recommendations on how to implement Canada's dietary reference intake values for dietary sodium and by developing timelines and targets for foods to be reduced in sodium, assessing key research gaps with funding for targeted dietary sodium based research, developing plans for public education and for conducting evaluation of the program to reduce dietary sodium. While food regulation is a Federal Government responsibility Provincial and Territorial governments indicated reducing dietary sodium needed to be a priority. Federal and Provincial Ministers of Health have endorsed a target to reduce the average consumption of sodium to 2300 mg/day by 2016 and the Deputy Ministers of Health have tasked a joint committee to review the recommendations of

  5. Canadian Initiatives to Prevent Hypertension by Reducing Dietary Sodium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert Strang

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Hypertension is the leading risk for premature death in the world. High dietary sodium is an important contributor to increased blood pressure and is strongly associated with other important diseases (e.g., gastric cancer, calcium containing kidney stones, osteoporosis, asthma and obesity. The average dietary sodium intake in Canada is approximately 3400 mg/day. It is estimated that 30% of hypertension, more than 10% of cardiovascular events and 1.4 billion dollars/year in health care expenses are caused by this high level of intake in Canada. Since 2006, Canada has had a focused and evolving effort to reduce dietary sodium based on actions from Non Governmental Organizations (NGO, and Federal and Provincial/Territorial Government actions. NGOs initiated Canadian sodium reduction programs by developing a policy statement outlining the health issue and calling for governmental, NGO and industry action, developing and disseminating an extensive health care professional education program including resources for patient education, developing a public awareness campaign through extensive media releases and publications in the lay press. The Federal Government responded by striking a Intersectoral Sodium Work Group to develop recommendations on how to implement Canada’s dietary reference intake values for dietary sodium and by developing timelines and targets for foods to be reduced in sodium, assessing key research gaps with funding for targeted dietary sodium based research, developing plans for public education and for conducting evaluation of the program to reduce dietary sodium. While food regulation is a Federal Government responsibility Provincial and Territorial governments indicated reducing dietary sodium needed to be a priority. Federal and Provincial Ministers of Health have endorsed a target to reduce the average consumption of sodium to 2300 mg/day by 2016 and the Deputy Ministers of Health have tasked a joint committee to review the

  6. Understanding Race and Gender Differences in Delinquent Acts and Alcohol and Marijuana Use: A Developmental Analysis of Initiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, James Herbert; Van Dorn, Richard A.; Ayers, Charles D.; Bright, Charlotte L.; Abbott, Robert D.; Hawkins, J. David

    2007-01-01

    Guided by social development constructs, this article investigates race and gender differences in the initiation of various types of delinquent behavior and alcohol and marijuana use among African American and Caucasian adolescents in grades 7 through 12. In addition, this study examined the potential direct or indirect effects of parental…

  7. 77 FR 291 - Disease, Disability, and Injury Prevention and Control Special Emphasis Panel (SEP): Initial Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-04

    ... Positive Persons, Funding Opportunity Announcement (FOA), PS12-001, initial review. In accordance with... HIV Prevention with Positive Persons, FOA PS12-001.'' Contact Person for More Information:...

  8. 78 FR 9055 - Disease, Disability, and Injury Prevention and Control Special Emphasis Panel (SEP): Initial review

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-07

    ... Activities for Avian Influenza and other Zoonotic Diseases, FOA CK13-002, initial review. In accordance with... Interface Activities for Avian Influenza and other Zoonotic Diseases, FOA CK13-002''. Contact Person for... HUMAN SERVICES Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Disease, Disability, and Injury Prevention...

  9. Personalised normative feedback for preventing alcohol misuse in university students: Solomon three-group randomised controlled trial.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria T Moreira

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Young people tend to over-estimate peer group drinking levels. Personalised normative feedback (PNF aims to correct this misperception by providing information about personal drinking levels and patterns compared with norms in similar aged peer groups. PNF is intended to raise motivation for behaviour change and has been highlighted for alcohol misuse prevention by the British Government Behavioural Insight Team. The objective of the trial was to assess the effectiveness of PNF with college students for the prevention of alcohol misuse. METHODOLOGY: Solomon three-group randomised controlled trial. 1751 students, from 22 British Universities, allocated to a PNF group, a normal control group, or a delayed measurement control group to allow assessment of any measurement effects. PNF was provided by email. Participants completed online questionnaires at baseline, 6- and 12-months (only 12-months for the delayed measurement controls. Drinking behaviour measures were (i alcohol disorders; (ii frequency; (iii typical quantity, (iv weekly consumption; (v alcohol-related problems; (vi perceived drinking norms; and (vii positive alcohol expectancies. Analyses focused on high-risk drinkers, as well as all students, because of research evidence for the prevention paradox in student drinkers. PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Follow-up rates were low, with only 50% and 40% responding at 6- and 12-months, respectively, though comparable to similar European studies. We found no evidence for any systematic attrition bias. Overall, statistical analyses with the high risk sub-sample, and for all students, showed no significant effects of the intervention, at either time-point, in a completed case analysis and a multiple imputation analysis. CONCLUSIONS: We found no evidence for the effectiveness of PNF for the prevention of alcohol misuse and alcohol-related problems in a UK student population. REGISTRATION: Controlled-Trials.com ISRCTN30784467.

  10. Differential Impact of a Dutch Alcohol Prevention Program Targeting Adolescents and Parents Separately and Simultaneously: Low Self-Control and Lenient Parenting at Baseline Predict Effectiveness

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koning, I.M.; Verdurmen, J.E.E.; Engels, R.C.M.E.; Eijnden, R.J.J.M. van den; Vollebergh, W.A.M.

    2012-01-01

    To test whether baseline levels of the factors accountable for the impact of the Prevention of Alcohol use in Students (PAS) intervention (self-control, perceived rules about alcohol and parental attitudes about alcohol), moderate the effect of the intervention. A cluster randomized trial including

  11. Dietary sodium, potassium, and alcohol: key players in the pathophysiology, prevention, and treatment of human hypertension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koliaki, Chrysi; Katsilambros, Nicholas

    2013-06-01

    Western industrialized societies are currently experiencing an epidemic expansion of hypertension (HTN), which extends alarmingly even to children and adolescents. HTN constitutes an independent risk factor for cardiorenal disease and represents an extremely common comorbidity of diabetes and obesity. Numerous randomized clinical trials and meta-analyses have provided robust scientific evidence that reduced dietary salt intake, increased dietary potassium intake, moderation of alcohol consumption, optimal weight maintenance, and the adoption of "heart-friendly" dietary patterns such as the Dietary Approaches to Stop Hypertension or the Mediterranean diet can effectively lower blood pressure. Interestingly, the susceptibility of blood pressure to nutritional interventions is greatly variable among individuals, depending on age, race, genetic background, and comorbidities. The purpose of this review is to provide a comprehensive overview of currently available scientific evidence in the constantly evolving field of diet and HTN, placing particular emphasis on the key role of dietary sodium, dietary potassium, and alcohol intake in the pathophysiology, prevention, and treatment of human hypertension.

  12. Communities Putting Prevention to Work: Results of an Obesity Prevention Initiative in Child Care Facilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Natale, Ruby; Camejo, Stephanie; Sanders, Lee M.

    2016-01-01

    Obesity is a significant public health issue affecting even our youngest children. Given that a significant amount of young children are enrolled in child care, the goal of this project was to evaluate the effectiveness of a child care facility-based obesity prevention program. Over 1,000 facilities participated in the study. The intervention…

  13. Weaknesses in executive functioning predict the initiating of adolescents’ alcohol use.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Peeters, Margot; Janssen, T.; Monshouwer, Karin; Boendermaker, Wouter; Pronk, Thomas; Wiers, Reinout; Vollebergh, Wilma

    2015-01-01

    Recently, it has been suggested that impairments in executive functioning might be risk factors for the onset of alcohol use rather than a result of heavy alcohol use. In the present study, we examined whether two aspects of executive functioning, working memory and response inhibition, predicted th

  14. Advancing Behavioral HIV Prevention: Adapting an Evidence-Based Intervention for People Living with HIV and Alcohol Use Disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armstrong, M L; LaPlante, A M; Altice, F L; Copenhaver, M; Molina, P E

    2015-01-01

    Alcohol use disorders (AUDs) are highly prevalent among people living with HIV/AIDS (PLWHA) and are associated with increased HIV risk behaviors, suboptimal treatment adherence, and greater risk for disease progression. We used the ADAPT-ITT strategy to adapt an evidence-based intervention (EBI), the Holistic Health Recovery Program (HHRP+), that focuses on secondary HIV prevention and antiretroviral therapy (ART) adherence and apply it to PLWHA with problematic drinking. Focus groups (FGs) were conducted with PLWHA who consume alcohol and with treatment providers at the largest HIV primary care clinic in New Orleans, LA. Overall themes that emerged from the FGs included the following: (1) negative mood states contribute to heavy alcohol consumption in PLWHA; (2) high levels of psychosocial stress, paired with few adaptive coping strategies, perpetuate the use of harmful alcohol consumption in PLWHA; (3) local cultural norms are related to the permissiveness and pervasiveness of drinking and contribute to heavy alcohol use; (4) healthcare providers unanimously stated that outpatient options for AUD intervention are scarce, (5) misperceptions about the relationships between alcohol and HIV are common; (6) PLWHA are interested in learning about alcohol's impact on ART and HIV disease progression. These data were used to design the adapted EBI.

  15. Maternal L-glutamine supplementation prevents prenatal alcohol exposure-induced fetal growth restriction in an ovine model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sawant, Onkar B; Wu, Guoyao; Washburn, Shannon E

    2015-06-01

    Prenatal alcohol exposure is known to cause fetal growth restriction and disturbances in amino acid bioavailability. Alterations in these parameters can persist into adulthood and low birth weight can lead to altered fetal programming. Glutamine has been associated with the synthesis of other amino acids, an increase in protein synthesis and it is used clinically as a nutrient supplement for low birth weight infants. The aim of this study was to explore the effect of repeated maternal alcohol exposure and L-glutamine supplementation on fetal growth and amino acid bioavailability during the third trimester-equivalent period in an ovine model. Pregnant sheep were randomly assigned to four groups, saline control, alcohol (1.75-2.5 g/kg), glutamine (100 mg/kg, three times daily) or alcohol + glutamine. In this study, a weekend binge drinking model was followed where treatment was done 3 days per week in succession from gestational day (GD) 109-132 (normal term ~147). Maternal alcohol exposure significantly reduced fetal body weight, height, length, thoracic girth and brain weight, and resulted in decreased amino acid bioavailability in fetal plasma and placental fluids. Maternal glutamine supplementation successfully mitigated alcohol-induced fetal growth restriction and improved the bioavailability of glutamine and glutamine-related amino acids such as glycine, arginine, and asparagine in the fetal compartment. All together, these findings show that L-glutamine supplementation enhances amino acid availability in the fetus and prevents alcohol-induced fetal growth restriction.

  16. 酒精依赖的危害和预防%Hazards and Prevention of Alcohol Dependence

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王丹姝

    2012-01-01

    the daily performance of alcohol dependence, its hazards on individuals, families and society, and its preventive measures were introduced.%介绍了酒精依赖的日常表现、对个人、家庭和社会的危害及预防方法。

  17. Sorafenib prevents liver fibrosis in a non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) rodent model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stefano, J.T.; Pereira, I.V.A.; Torres, M.M.; Bida, P.M. [Disciplina de Gastroenterologia Clínica (LIM-07), Faculdade de Medicina, Universidade de São Paulo, São Paulo, SP (Brazil); Coelho, A.M.M. [Disciplina de Transplante de Órgãos do Aparelho Digestivo (LIM-37), Faculdade de Medicina, Universidade de São Paulo, São Paulo, SP (Brazil); Xerfan, M.P. [Disciplina de Gastroenterologia Clínica (LIM-07), Faculdade de Medicina, Universidade de São Paulo, São Paulo, SP (Brazil); Cogliati, B. [Departamento de Patologia, Faculdade de Medicina Veterinária e Zootecnia, Universidade de São Paulo, São Paulo, SP (Brazil); Barbeiro, D.F. [Disciplina de Emergências Clínicas (LIM-51), Faculdade de Medicina, Universidade de São Paulo, São Paulo, SP (Brazil); Mazo, D.F.C. [Disciplina de Gastroenterologia Clínica (LIM-07), Faculdade de Medicina, Universidade de São Paulo, São Paulo, SP (Brazil); Kubrusly, M.S.; D' Albuquerque, L.A.C. [Disciplina de Transplante de Órgãos do Aparelho Digestivo (LIM-37), Faculdade de Medicina, Universidade de São Paulo, São Paulo, SP (Brazil); Souza, H.P. [Disciplina de Emergências Clínicas (LIM-51), Faculdade de Medicina, Universidade de São Paulo, São Paulo, SP (Brazil); Carrilho, F.J.; Oliveira, C.P. [Disciplina de Gastroenterologia Clínica (LIM-07), Faculdade de Medicina, Universidade de São Paulo, São Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2015-02-24

    Liver fibrosis occurring as an outcome of non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) can precede the development of cirrhosis. We investigated the effects of sorafenib in preventing liver fibrosis in a rodent model of NASH. Adult Sprague-Dawley rats were fed a choline-deficient high-fat diet and exposed to diethylnitrosamine for 6 weeks. The NASH group (n=10) received vehicle and the sorafenib group (n=10) received 2.5 mg·kg{sup -1}·day{sup -1} by gavage. A control group (n=4) received only standard diet and vehicle. Following treatment, animals were sacrificed and liver tissue was collected for histologic examination, mRNA isolation, and analysis of mitochondrial function. Genes related to fibrosis (MMP9, TIMP1, TIMP2), oxidative stress (HSP60, HSP90, GST), and mitochondrial biogenesis (PGC1α) were evaluated by real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction (RT-qPCR). Liver mitochondrial oxidation activity was measured by a polarographic method, and cytokines by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Sorafenib treatment restored mitochondrial function and reduced collagen deposition by nearly 63% compared to the NASH group. Sorafenib upregulated PGC1α and MMP9 and reduced TIMP1 and TIMP2 mRNA and IL-6 and IL-10 protein expression. There were no differences in HSP60, HSP90 and GST expression. Sorafenib modulated PGC1α expression, improved mitochondrial respiration and prevented collagen deposition. It may, therefore, be useful in the treatment of liver fibrosis in NASH.

  18. Implementation of Community-Wide Teen Pregnancy Prevention Initiatives: Focus on Partnerships.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tevendale, Heather D; Fuller, Taleria R; House, L Duane; Dee, Deborah L; Koumans, Emilia H

    2017-03-01

    Seeking to reduce teen pregnancy and births in communities with rates above the national average, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, in partnership with the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services Office of Adolescent Health Teen Pregnancy Prevention Program, developed a joint funding opportunity through which grantees worked to implement and test an approach involving community-wide teen pregnancy prevention initiatives. Once these projects had been in the field for 2.5 years, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention staff developed plans for a supplemental issue of the Journal of Adolescent Health to present findings from and lessons learned during implementation of the community-wide initiatives. When the articles included in the supplemental issue are considered together, common themes emerge, particularly those related to initiating, building, and maintaining strong partnerships. Themes seen across articles include the importance of (1) sharing local data with partners to advance initiative implementation, (2) defining partner roles from the beginning of the initiatives, (3) developing teams that include community partners to provide direction to the initiatives, and (4) addressing challenges to maintaining strong partnerships including partner staff turnover and delays in implementation.

  19. CAPP: A Comprehensive Preventative Program Model Addressing Alcohol Misuse among College Freshmen

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsotsis, Laura

    2012-01-01

    Alcohol consumption by college students in the United States has increased in quantity and frequency over the past five years. With this increase, there has come evidence of a rise in negative consequences caused by alcohol misuse. To help reduce these problems, colleges and universities nationwide have begun implementing alcohol programs for…

  20. Cost-effectiveness of preventive interventions to reduce alcohol consumption in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holm, Astrid Ledgaard; Veerman, Lennert; Cobiac, Linda;

    2014-01-01

    Excessive alcohol consumption increases the risk of many diseases and injuries, and the Global Burden of Disease 2010 study estimated that 6% of the burden of disease in Denmark is due to alcohol consumption. Alcohol consumption thus places a considerable economic burden on society....

  1. Protecting you/protecting me: effects of an alcohol prevention and vehicle safety program on elementary students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bell, Mary Lou; Kelley-Baker, Tara; Rider, Raamses; Ringwalt, Christopher

    2005-05-01

    This paper describes an evaluation of Protecting You/Protecting Me (PY/PM), a classroom-based, alcohol-use prevention and vehicle safety program for elementary students in first through fifth grades developed by Mothers Against Drunk Driving. PY/PM lessons and activities focus on teaching children about (I) their brains (why their brain is important, how their brain continues to develop throughout childhood and adolescence, what alcohol does to the developing brain, and why it is important to protect their brain); (2) vehicle safety (what to do to protect themselves should they ever ride with an impaired driver); and (3) life skills (decision making, stress management, and media literacy). Fourth- and fifth-grade students from schools in the fourth year of PY/PM implementation were surveyed. Results indicated that, relative to comparison students from matched schools, PY/PM students increased their knowledge of alcohol's effect on development; gained decision-making, stress-management, and vehicle safety skills; and demonstrated changes in attitudes toward underage alcohol use and its harm. Further, students retained lessons learned in previous years and their scores improved with increased exposure to PY/PM. In addition, the findings demonstrate that it is possible to design and implement a program that can improve young children's knowledge regarding alcohol and their developing brains, teach them skills to protect themselves in dangerous situations, increase already high antialcohol attitudes, and change perceptions of alcohol's harmfulness.

  2. Advancing Behavioral HIV Prevention: Adapting an Evidence-Based Intervention for People Living with HIV and Alcohol Use Disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. L. Armstrong

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Alcohol use disorders (AUDs are highly prevalent among people living with HIV/AIDS (PLWHA and are associated with increased HIV risk behaviors, suboptimal treatment adherence, and greater risk for disease progression. We used the ADAPT-ITT strategy to adapt an evidence-based intervention (EBI, the Holistic Health Recovery Program (HHRP+, that focuses on secondary HIV prevention and antiretroviral therapy (ART adherence and apply it to PLWHA with problematic drinking. Focus groups (FGs were conducted with PLWHA who consume alcohol and with treatment providers at the largest HIV primary care clinic in New Orleans, LA. Overall themes that emerged from the FGs included the following: (1 negative mood states contribute to heavy alcohol consumption in PLWHA; (2 high levels of psychosocial stress, paired with few adaptive coping strategies, perpetuate the use of harmful alcohol consumption in PLWHA; (3 local cultural norms are related to the permissiveness and pervasiveness of drinking and contribute to heavy alcohol use; (4 healthcare providers unanimously stated that outpatient options for AUD intervention are scarce, (5 misperceptions about the relationships between alcohol and HIV are common; (6 PLWHA are interested in learning about alcohol’s impact on ART and HIV disease progression. These data were used to design the adapted EBI.

  3. Detecting and Preventing Beacon Replay Attacks in Receiver-Initiated MAC Protocols for Energy Efficient WSNs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Di Mauro, Alessio; Fafoutis, Xenofon; Mödersheim, Sebastian Alexander

    2013-01-01

    In receiver-initiated MAC protocols for Wireless Sensor Networks (WSNs), communication is initiated by the receiver of the data through beacons containing the receiver's identity. In this paper, we consider the case of a network intruder that captures and replays such beacons towards legitimate...... nodes, pretending to have a fake identity within the network. To prevent this attack we propose RAP, a challenge-response authentication protocol that is able to detect and prevent the beacon replay attack. The effectiveness of the protocol is formally verified using OFMC and ProVerif. Furthermore, we...

  4. Alcohol, folate, methionine, and risk of incident breast cancer in the American Cancer Society Cancer Prevention Study II Nutrition Cohort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feigelson, Heather Spencer; Jonas, Carolyn R; Robertson, Andreas S; McCullough, Marjorie L; Thun, Michael J; Calle, Eugenia E

    2003-02-01

    Recent studies suggest that the increased risk of breast cancer associated with alcohol consumption may be reduced by adequate folate intake. We examined this question among 66,561 postmenopausal women in the American Cancer Society Cancer Prevention Study II Nutrition Cohort. A total of 1,303 incident cases had accrued during the first 5 years of follow-up. Cox proportional hazards models and stratified analysis were used to examine the relationship between alcohol, dietary and total folate intake, multivitamin use, dietary methionine, and breast cancer. We observed an increasing risk of breast cancer with increasing alcohol consumption (P for trend = 0.01). In the highest category of consumption (15 or more grams of ethanol/day), the risk of breast cancer was 1.26 (95% confidence interval, 1.04-1.53) compared with nonusers. We observed this association with higher alcohol consumption for in situ, localized, and regional disease. We found no association between risk of breast cancer and dietary folate, total folate, multivitamin use, or methionine intake. Furthermore, we found no evidence of an interaction between levels of dietary folate (P for interaction = 0.10) or total folate (P for interaction = 0.61) and alcohol. Nor did we find evidence of an interaction between alcohol consumption and recent or long-term multivitamin use (P for interaction = 0.27). Our results are consistent with a positive association with alcohol but do not support an association with folate or methionine intake or an interaction between folate and alcohol intake on risk of breast cancer.

  5. Military Personnel: DOD Needs to Take Further Actions to Prevent Sexual Assault During Initial Military Training

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-09-01

    supervisory or command position who uses or condones any form of sexual behavior to control, influence , or affect the career, pay, or job of a military...in the armed forces must have signed parental consent prior to age 18. Page 37 GAO-14-806 Sexual Assault during Initial Training...MILITARY PERSONNEL DOD Needs to Take Further Actions to Prevent Sexual Assault during Initial Military Training

  6. Los Alamos National Laboratory Training Capabilities (Possible Applications in the Global Initiatives for Proliferation Prevention Program)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martin, Olga [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2012-06-04

    The briefing provides an overview of the training capabilities at Los Alamos National Laboratory that can be applied to nonproliferation/responsible science education at nuclear institutes in the Former Soviet Union, as part of the programmatic effort under the Global Initiatives for Proliferation Prevention program (GIPP).

  7. The influence of socioeconomic environment on the effectiveness of alcohol prevention among European students: a cluster randomized controlled trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Faggiano Fabrizio

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Although social environments may influence alcohol-related behaviours in youth, the relationship between neighbourhood socioeconomic context and effectiveness of school-based prevention against underage drinking has been insufficiently investigated. We study whether the social environment affects the impact of a new school-based prevention programme on alcohol use among European students. Methods During the school year 2004-2005, 7079 students 12-14 years of age from 143 schools in nine European centres participated in this cluster randomised controlled trial. Schools were randomly assigned to either control or a 12-session standardised curriculum based on the comprehensive social influence model. Randomisation was blocked within socioeconomic levels of the school environment. Alcohol use and alcohol-related problem behaviours were investigated through a self-completed anonymous questionnaire at baseline and 18 months thereafter. Data were analysed using multilevel models, separately by socioeconomic level. Results At baseline, adolescents in schools of low socioeconomic level were more likely to report problem drinking than other students. Participation in the programme was associated in this group with a decreased odds of reporting episodes of drunkenness (OR = 0.60, 95% CI = 0.44-0.83, intention to get drunk (OR = 0.60, 95% CI = 0.45-0.79, and marginally alcohol-related problem behaviours (OR = 0.70, 95% CI = 0.46-1.06. No significant programme's effects emerged for students in schools of medium or high socioeconomic level. Effects on frequency of alcohol consumption were also stronger among students in disadvantaged schools, although the estimates did not attain statistical significance in any subgroup. Conclusions It is plausible that comprehensive social influence programmes have a more favourable effect on problematic drinking among students in underprivileged social environments. Trial registration ISRCTN: ISRCTN

  8. Opportunities for woman-initiated HIV prevention methods among female sex workers in southern China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weeks, Margaret R; Abbott, Maryann; Liao, Susu; Yu, Wang; He, Bin; Zhou, Yuejiang; Wei, Liu; Jiang, Jingmei

    2007-05-01

    Rapid changes in China over the past two decades have led to significant problems associated with population migration and changing social attitudes, including a growing sex industry and concurrent increases in STIs and HIV. This article reports results of an exploratory study of microbicide acceptability and readiness and current HIV prevention efforts among female sex workers in two rural and one urban town in Hainan and Guangxi Provinces in southern China. The study focused on these women's knowledge and cultural understandings of options for protecting themselves from exposure to STIs and HIV, and the potential viability and acceptability of woman-initiated prevention methods. We report on ethnographic elicitation interviews conducted with women working within informal sex-work establishments (hotels, massage and beauty parlors, roadside restaurants, boarding houses). We discuss implications of these findings for further promotion of woman-initiated prevention methods such as microbicides and female condoms among female sex workers in China.

  9. Mobilizing Communities in Support of Teen Pregnancy Prevention: "Communitywide Initiatives" Findings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saunders, Edward J

    2016-08-16

    The U.S. Office of Adolescent Health and the Centers for Disease Control continue to promote a community mobilization model in support of teen pregnancy prevention in new grant initiatives. The most recent federal grant program-the "Communitywide Initiatives (2010-2015)" grant-promoted pregnancy prevention using three teams within the nine targeted communities to promote evidence-based sexuality education programs and enhanced access to contraceptive services among adolescents. The "lessons" reported in this article are compiled from three key informant interviews conducted with all project coordinators over the course of the 5 years (2010-2015) that this grant was implemented. Both successes and challenges to community mobilization in support of teen pregnancy prevention are presented and discussed.

  10. Multilevel Prevention Trial of Alcohol Use Among American Indian and White High School Students in the Cherokee Nation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Livingston, Melvin D.; Wagenaar, Alexander C.; Kominsky, Terrence K.; Pettigrew, Dallas W.; Garrett, Brady A.

    2017-01-01

    Objectives. To evaluate the effectiveness of a multilevel intervention designed to prevent underage alcohol use among youths living in the Cherokee Nation. Methods. We randomly assigned 6 communities to a control, Communities Mobilizing for Change on Alcohol (CMCA; a community-organizing intervention targeting alcohol access) only, CONNECT (a school-based universal screening and brief intervention) only, or a combined condition. We collected quarterly surveys 2012–2015 from students starting in 9th and 10th grades and ending in 11th and 12th grades. Response rates ranged from 83% to 90%; 46% of students were American Indian (of which 80% were Cherokee) and 46% were White only. Results. Students exposed to CMCA, CONNECT, and both showed a significant reduction in the probability over time of 30-day alcohol use (25%, 22%, and 12% reduction, respectively) and heavy episodic drinking (24%, 19%, and 13% reduction) compared with students in the control condition, with variation in magnitude of effects over the 2.5-year intervention period. Conclusions. CMCA and CONNECT are effective interventions for reducing alcohol use among American Indian and other youths living in rural communities. Challenges remain for sustaining intervention effects. PMID:28103073

  11. Alcohol-to-acid ratio and substrate concentration affect product structure in chain elongation reactions initiated by unacclimatized inoculum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yuhao; Lü, Fan; Shao, Liming; He, Pinjing

    2016-10-01

    The objective of the study was to investigate whether the ratio of ethanol to acetate affects yield and product structure in chain elongation initiated by unacclimatized mixed cultures. The effect of varying the substrate concentration, while maintaining the same ratio of alcohol to acid, was also investigated. With a high substrate concentration, an alcohol to acid ratio >2:1 provided sufficient electron donor capacity for the chain elongation reaction. With an ethanol to acetate ratio of 3:1 (300mM total carbon), the highest n-caproate concentration (3033±98mg/L) was achieved during the stable phase of the reaction. A lower substrate concentration (150mM total carbon) gave a lower yield of products and led to reduced carbon transformation efficiency compared with other reaction conditions. The use of unacclimatized inoculum in chain elongation can produce significant amounts of odd-carbon-number carboxylates as a result of protein hydrolysis.

  12. Advancing Behavioral HIV Prevention: Adapting an Evidence-Based Intervention for People Living with HIV and Alcohol Use Disorders

    OpenAIRE

    2015-01-01

    Alcohol use disorders (AUDs) are highly prevalent among people living with HIV/AIDS (PLWHA) and are associated with increased HIV risk behaviors, suboptimal treatment adherence, and greater risk for disease progression. We used the ADAPT-ITT strategy to adapt an evidence-based intervention (EBI), the Holistic Health Recovery Program (HHRP+), that focuses on secondary HIV prevention and antiretroviral therapy (ART) adherence and apply it to PLWHA with problematic drinking. Focus groups (FGs) w...

  13. The virtuous tax: lifesaving and crime-prevention effects of the 1991 federal alcohol-tax increase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cook, Philip J; Durrance, Christine Piette

    2013-01-01

    The last time that federal excise taxes on alcoholic beverages were increased was 1991. The changes were larger than the typical state-level changes that have been used to study price effects, but the consequences have not been assessed due to the lack of a control group. Here we develop and implement a novel method for utilizing interstate heterogeneity to estimate the aggregate effects of a federal tax increase on rates of injury fatality and crime. We provide evidence that the relative importance of alcohol in violence and injury rates is directly related to per capita consumption, and build on that finding to generate estimates. A conservative estimate is that the federal tax (which increased alcohol prices by 6% initially) reduced injury deaths by 4.5% (6480 deaths), in 1991, and had a still larger effect on violent crime.

  14. Mechanism for prevention of alcohol-induced liver injury by dietary methyl donors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Powell, Christine L; Bradford, Blair U; Craig, Christopher Patrick; Tsuchiya, Masato; Uehara, Takeki; O'Connell, Thomas M; Pogribny, Igor P; Melnyk, Stepan; Koop, Dennis R; Bleyle, Lisa; Threadgill, David W; Rusyn, Ivan

    2010-05-01

    Alcohol-induced liver injury (ALI) has been associated with, among other molecular changes, abnormal hepatic methionine metabolism, resulting in decreased levels of S-adenosylmethionine (SAM). Dietary methyl donor supplements such as SAM and betaine mitigate ALI in animal models; however, the mechanisms of protection remain elusive. It has been suggested that methyl donors may act via attenuation of alcohol-induced oxidative stress. We hypothesized that the protective action of methyl donors is mediated by an effect on the oxidative metabolism of alcohol in the liver. Male C57BL/6J mice were administered a control high-fat diet or diet enriched in methyl donors with or without alcohol for 4 weeks using the enteral alcohol feeding model. As expected, attenuation of ALI and an increase in reduced glutathione:oxidized glutathione ratio were achieved with methyl donor supplementation. Interestingly, methyl donors led to a 35% increase in blood alcohol elimination rate, and while there was no effect on alcohol metabolism in the stomach, a profound effect on liver alcohol metabolism was observed. The catalase-dependent pathway of alcohol metabolism was induced, yet the increase in CYP2E1 activity by alcohol was blunted, which may be mitigating production of oxidants. Additional factors contributing to the protective effects of methyl donors in ALI were increased activity of low- and high-K(m) aldehyde dehydrogenases leading to lower hepatic acetaldehyde, maintenance of the efficient mitochondrial energy metabolism, and promotion of peroxisomal beta-oxidation. Profound changes in alcohol metabolism represent additional important mechanism of the protective effect of methyl donors in ALI.

  15. Televised Entertainment-Education to Prevent Adolescent Alcohol Use: Perceived Realism, Enjoyment, and Impact

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Leeuwen, Lonneke; Renes, Reint Jan; Leeuwis, Cees

    2013-01-01

    Alcohol use among adolescents is a concern in the Netherlands because of its high prevalence and risks. To discourage adolescents from drinking alcohol, a televised entertainment-education (E-E) intervention was developed. This study investigated responses of adolescents on perceived realism and enjoyment of the E-E intervention, as well as its…

  16. Televised Entertainment-Education to Prevent Adolescent Alcohol Use: Perceived Realism, Enjoyment, and Impact

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Leeuwen, van G.B.; Renes, R.J.; Leeuwis, C.

    2013-01-01

    Alcohol use among adolescents is a concern in the Netherlands because of its high prevalence and risks. To discourage adolescents from drinking alcohol, a televised entertainment-education (E-E) intervention was developed. This study investigated responses of adolescents on perceived realism and enj

  17. Prioritizing Alcohol Prevention: Establishing Alcohol as the Gateway Drug and Linking Age of First Drink with Illicit Drug Use

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barry, Adam E.; King, Jessica; Sears, Cynthia; Harville, Cedric; Bondoc, Irina; Joseph, Kessy

    2016-01-01

    Background: Given ever-reducing budgets of community and school substance use prevention programs, there is a call for identifying the first substance in the sequence leading to polydrug use. Methods: Examining data from a nationally representative sample of 2835 United States 12th graders, we sought to determine (1) the first substance…

  18. Efficacy of postmilking disinfection with benzyl alcohol versus lodophor in the prevention of new intramammary infections in lactating cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erskine, R J; Sears, P M; Bartlett, P C; Gage, C R

    1998-01-01

    Five Michigan dairy herds participated in a split-herd study to compare the efficacy of two postmilking teat dips in the prevention of new intramammary infections (IMI) in lactating cows. Three hundred seventy cows were assigned to 4% benzyl alcohol, and 387 cows were assigned to 1% iodophor germicidal teat dip. The teat dips were applied by directly immersing the teats immediately after milking. Once a group was assigned to a teat dip, cows in that group maintained on that same teat dip throughout the trial. Total new IMI numbered 254 and 201 for cows treated with benzyl alcohol and iodophor germicidal teat dip, respectively. Staphylococcus spp. (52.0%), Staphylococcus aureus (20.1%), and Corynebacterium bovis (12.2%) were the predominant pathogens that caused new IMI in cows treated with benzyl alcohol. Staphylococcus spp., Staph. aureus, and C. bovis, respectively, were the pathogens responsible for 69.7, 12.4, and 4.5% of the new IMI in cows treated with iodophor. The incidences of new IMI caused by Staph. aureus (0.66 new IMI/100 milking quarters per mo), C. bovis (0.38 new IMI/100 milking quarters per mo), and all pathogens (3.15 new IMI/100 milking quarters per mo) were higher in cows treated with benzyl alcohol than in cows treated with iodophor (0.29, 0.11, and 2.35 new IMI/100 milking quarters per mo, respectively). Incidence of new IMI did not differ between groups for other pathogens. One percent iodophor prevented new IMI caused by contagious pathogens more effectively than did benzyl alcohol.

  19. Global initiatives to prevent nuclear terrorism; Globalt initiativ for aa hindre nukleaer terrorisme

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2010-07-01

    The fight against nuclear and radiological terrorism - someone to blow up a nuclear weapon or spread radioactive material as a 'dirty bomb' that act of terrorism - is one of the most serious threats to international security. The Global Initiative to prevent nuclear terrorism is a Norwegian-sponsored initiative that is aimed directly at combating terrorism by non-state actors. NRPA follow up Norwegian measures, including in Kazakhstan, and verifies that they are implemented and functioning as intended. (AG)

  20. Sustaining evidence-based prevention programs: correlates in a large-scale dissemination initiative.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooper, Brittany Rhoades; Bumbarger, Brian K; Moore, Julia E

    2015-01-01

    Over the past four decades, significant strides have been made in the science of preventing youth problem behaviors. Subsequently, policymakers and funders have begun to insist on the use of evidence-based programs (EBPs) as a requirement for funding. However, unless practitioners are able to sustain these programs beyond initial seed funding, they are unlikely to achieve their ultimate goal of broad public health impact. Despite its obvious importance, sustainability has received relatively little attention in prevention science until recently. Moreover, there have been few opportunities to study the correlates of sustainability in large-scale, multi-year initiatives involving multiple programs. The present study examined rates of sustainment of a wide range of proven-effective prevention and intervention programs; identified factors related to organizational support and readiness, program and implementer characteristics, and sustainability planning that distinguished sustained programs; and examined variability in these associations across classroom-based, community/mentoring, family-focused prevention, and family treatment program types within the context of a state-wide EBP dissemination initiative in Pennsylvania over 4 years. The majority of EBPs sustained functioning 2 years or more beyond their initial funding. In general, sustained programs reported greater community coalition functioning, communication to key stakeholders, knowledge of the program's logical model, communication with the trainer or program developer, and sustainability planning. In addition to these universal correlates, important program-specific correlates emerged as well. Implications for the technical assistance and support necessary to promote the sustainability of EBPs in nonresearch contexts are also discussed.

  1. Acanthoic Acid Can Partially Prevent Alcohol Exposure-Induced Liver Lipid Deposition and Inflammation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yao, You-Li; Han, Xin; Li, Zhi-Man; Lian, Li-Hua; Nan, Ji-Xing; Wu, Yan-Ling

    2017-01-01

    droplets, and SREBP-1 and CYP2E1 expressions, compared with EtOH/LPS treatment. AA also significantly increased protein expressions of Sirt1, p-LKB1, p-ACC, PPARα, and decreased protein expression of PPARγ, compared with EtOH/LPS treatment. Conclusion: Acanthoic acid can partially prevent alcohol exposure-induced liver lipid deposition and inflammation via regulation of LKB1/Sirt1/AMPK/ACC and LXRs pathways. PMID:28360860

  2. Mechanism for Prevention of Alcohol-Induced Liver Injury by Dietary Methyl Donors

    OpenAIRE

    Powell, Christine L.; Bradford, Blair U.; Craig, Christopher Patrick; Tsuchiya, Masato; Uehara, Takeki; O’Connell, Thomas M.; Pogribny, Igor P.; Melnyk, Stepan; Koop, Dennis R.; Bleyle, Lisa; Threadgill, David W.; Rusyn, Ivan

    2010-01-01

    Alcohol-induced liver injury (ALI) has been associated with, among other molecular changes, abnormal hepatic methionine metabolism, resulting in decreased levels of S-adenosylmethionine (SAM). Dietary methyl donor supplements such as SAM and betaine mitigate ALI in animal models; however, the mechanisms of protection remain elusive. It has been suggested that methyl donors may act via attenuation of alcohol-induced oxidative stress. We hypothesized that the protective action of methyl donors ...

  3. Roundtable on the Prevention of Eating Disorders: The Catalan public policy initiative.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sánchez-Carracedo, David; Carretero, Cristina; Conesa, Alfons

    2016-07-12

    The field of prevention of body image problems and eating disorders has made major advances in recent years, particularly in the development and evaluation of prevention programmes. However, few programmes achieve good long-term results because, among other reasons, the sociocultural influences affecting the development of these problems do not stop. Moreover, accelerating progress in this field is required, transferring their impact onto a larger scale. These reasons justify the need to progress in the development of public policy interventions. This paper describes a recent Catalan initiative in this sphere: the Roundtable on the Prevention of Eating Disorders, made up of different public and private sectors of Catalan society. It specifically details the main actions carried out, such as: media campaigns to reduce weight-related teasing and encouraging self-esteem, encouraging family meals and promoting help-seeking among those affected; the creation of a new informative website about these matters in the Department of Health; the production of a Decalogue of Best Practices for the promotion of self-esteem and positive body image in social media and advertising; and actions to prevent the promotion of eating disorders on the Internet. The Roundtable is the most comprehensive Catalan (and Spanish) public policy activity undertaken until now for the prevention of eating disorders.

  4. Osteopontin binding to lipopolysaccharide lowers tumor necrosis factor-α and prevents early alcohol-induced liver injury in mice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ge, Xiadong; Leung, Tung-Ming; Arriazu, Elena;

    2014-01-01

    Although osteopontin (OPN) is induced in alcoholic patients, its role in the pathophysiology of alcoholic liver disease (ALD) remains unclear. Increased translocation of lipopolysaccharide (LPS) from the gut is key for the onset of ALD because it promotes macrophage infiltration and activation...... by decreased liver-to-body weight ratio, hepatic triglycerides, the steatosis score, oil red-O staining, and lipid peroxidation. There was also less inflammation and liver injury as demonstrated by lower alanine aminotransferase (ALT) activity, hepatocyte ballooning degeneration, LPS levels, the inflammation...... score, and the number of macrophages and TNFα+ cells. To establish if OPN could limit LPS availability and its noxious effects in the liver, binding studies were performed. OPN showed binding affinity for LPS which prevented macrophage activation, reactive oxygen, and nitrogen species generation...

  5. Statins Increase Mitochondrial and Peroxisomal Fatty Acid Oxidation in the Liver and Prevent Non-Alcoholic Steatohepatitis in Mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Han-Sol; Jang, Jung Eun; Ko, Myoung Seok; Woo, Sung Hoon; Kim, Bum Joong; Kim, Hyun Sik; Park, Hye Sun; Park, In-Sun; Koh, Eun Hee

    2016-01-01

    Background Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease is the most common form of chronic liver disease in industrialized countries. Recent studies have highlighted the association between peroxisomal dysfunction and hepatic steatosis. Peroxisomes are intracellular organelles that contribute to several crucial metabolic processes, such as facilitation of mitochondrial fatty acid oxidation (FAO) and removal of reactive oxygen species through catalase or plasmalogen synthesis. Statins are known to prevent hepatic steatosis and non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH), but underlying mechanisms of this prevention are largely unknown. Methods Seven-week-old C57BL/6J mice were given normal chow or a methionine- and choline-deficient diet (MCDD) with or without various statins, fluvastatin, pravastatin, simvastatin, atorvastatin, and rosuvastatin (15 mg/kg/day), for 6 weeks. Histological lesions were analyzed by grading and staging systems of NASH. We also measured mitochondrial and peroxisomal FAO in the liver. Results Statin treatment prevented the development of MCDD-induced NASH. Both steatosis and inflammation or fibrosis grades were significantly improved by statins compared with MCDD-fed mice. Gene expression levels of peroxisomal proliferator-activated receptor α (PPARα) were decreased by MCDD and recovered by statin treatment. MCDD-induced suppression of mitochondrial and peroxisomal FAO was restored by statins. Each statin's effect on increasing FAO and improving NASH was independent on its effect of decreasing cholesterol levels. Conclusion Statins prevented NASH and increased mitochondrial and peroxisomal FAO via induction of PPARα. The ability to increase hepatic FAO is likely the major determinant of NASH prevention by statins. Improvement of peroxisomal function by statins may contribute to the prevention of NASH.

  6. Community Colleges--Prevention Challenges. Issues in Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Higher Education Center for Alcohol, Drug Abuse, and Violence Prevention, 2012

    2012-01-01

    This issue of "Issues in Prevention" focuses on prevention challenges facing community colleges. This issue contains the following articles: (1) Prevention at Community Colleges; (2) Q&A With William Auvenshine; (3) Chancellor's Initiative at the University of Wisconsin-Stout; (4) Alcohol Marketing in the Digital Age; and (5) Higher Education…

  7. Caries preventive efficiency of therapeutic complex accomponying orthodontic treatment of children with initial dental caries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Denga A.E.

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The use of orthodontic non-removable appliance in orthodontic treatment inter¬feres with the process of teeth mineralization, worsens level of oral cavity hygiene, stimulates development of caries process. The situation is complicated when a patient has an initial tooth decay. The aim of this study was to determine genetic characteristics of children with initial caries and clinical evaluation of effectiveness of the developed caries preventive therapeutic complex accompanying treatment of jaw facial anomalies (JFA. 47 children aged 12-14 with initial tooth decay participated in the examination. Complex diagnostics, including molecular genetic studies was carried out. Therapeutic complex for children, of the main group included remineralizing, adaptogenic, biogenic agents, which increase non-specific resistance, as well as infiltration ICON therapy before fixing braces. Caries preventive complex accompanying JFA treatment in children with primary tooth decay developed with regard to revealed genetic disorders of amelogenesis, 2-nd of phase detoxification, collagen formation, functional responses in the oral cavity, state of hard tissues of teeth and periodontal tissues enabled to preserve existing carious process, normalize periodontal and hygienic indices at all stages of treatment.

  8. Biomimetic enzyme nanocomplexes and their use as antidotes and preventive measures for alcohol intoxication

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yang; Du, Juanjuan; Yan, Ming; Lau, Mo Yin; Hu, Jay; Han, Hui; Yang, Otto O.; Liang, Sheng; Wei, Wei; Wang, Hui; Li, Jianmin; Zhu, Xinyuan; Shi, Linqi; Chen, Wei; Ji, Cheng; Lu, Yunfeng

    2013-03-01

    Organisms have sophisticated subcellular compartments containing enzymes that function in tandem. These confined compartments ensure effective chemical transformation and transport of molecules, and the elimination of toxic metabolic wastes. Creating functional enzyme complexes that are confined in a similar way remains challenging. Here we show that two or more enzymes with complementary functions can be assembled and encapsulated within a thin polymer shell to form enzyme nanocomplexes. These nanocomplexes exhibit improved catalytic efficiency and enhanced stability when compared with free enzymes. Furthermore, the co-localized enzymes display complementary functions, whereby toxic intermediates generated by one enzyme can be promptly eliminated by another enzyme. We show that nanocomplexes containing alcohol oxidase and catalase could reduce blood alcohol levels in intoxicated mice, offering an alternative antidote and prophylactic for alcohol intoxication.

  9. La Esperanza del Valle: alcohol prevention novelas for Hispanic youth and their families.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lalonde, B; Rabinowitz, P; Shefsky, M L; Washienko, K

    1997-10-01

    With extensive Hispanic community involvement, a television, radio, and storybook novela were developed to improve Hispanic parent-youth communications and youth attitudes regarding alcohol. Focus groups with the target audiences determined the novelas' concentration on alcohol, their medium and language of choice for Hispanic youth versus parents, and the health messages and cultural values to be portrayed. Reactions to the novelas were obtained via self-report surveys, random street interviews, radio listener call-ins, and community group meetings. Favorable reactions were obtained regarding the novelas' cultural sensitivity and appropriateness, and their potential to affect future behavior change. The affect of the television novela on Hispanic youth was evaluated by a pre-post self-report survey administered to middle and high school students. Survey results indicated the television novela may have had some positive impact on Hispanic youth attitudes and behavioral intentions regarding alcohol. The evaluation time line was limiting, however, and further evaluation is required.

  10. Initial rotor position estimation and sliding preventing for elevators with surface-mounted PMSMs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Feng; Shen, Anwen; Tang, Qipeng; Xu, Jinbang

    2016-03-01

    Improved methods of initial rotor position estimation and sliding prevention are presented in this paper for elevators with surface-mounted permanent magnet synchronous machines (SPMSMs). In contrast to most of the existing literature, in this paper, estimation errors caused by stator resistance and dead time are analysed in detail. The improved estimation method can reduce the errors greatly without dead-time compensations and knowledge of motor parameters. Besides, an observer-based feedforward compensation of load torque is introduced to elevator applications to prevent sliding during the starting process. Since the torque observer is widely used in other motor applications, we focus on the impact caused by the change in inertia. Finally, a series of experiments are performed on a testing system with two 13.4 kW SPMSMs and drivers to illustrate the effectiveness and improvement of the method.

  11. Practical Approaches to Evaluating Progress and Outcomes in Community-Wide Teen Pregnancy Prevention Initiatives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tevendale, Heather D; Condron, D Susanne; Garraza, Lucas Godoy; House, L Duane; Romero, Lisa M; Brooks, Megan A M; Walrath, Christine

    2017-03-01

    This paper presents an overview of the key evaluation components for a set of community-wide teen pregnancy prevention initiatives. We first describe the performance measures selected to assess progress toward meeting short-term objectives on the reach and quality of implementation of evidence-based teen pregnancy prevention interventions and adolescent reproductive health services. Next, we describe an evaluation that will compare teen birth rates in intervention communities relative to synthetic control communities. Synthetic controls are developed via a data-driven technique that constructs control communities by combining information from a pool of communities that are similar to the intervention community. Finally, we share lessons learned thus far in the evaluation of the project, with a focus on those lessons that may be valuable for local communities evaluating efforts to reduce teen pregnancy.

  12. Towards programs for alcohol consumption prevention in college students in Bogota, Colombia [Elementos para programas de prevención en consumo de alcohol en universitarios en Bogotá, Colombia

    OpenAIRE

    María Liliana Muñoz Ortega; Lucía Carolina Barbosa Ramírez; José Arturo Bríñez Horta; Claudia Consuelo Caycedo Espinel; Margarita Méndez Heilman; Raúl Oyuela Vargas

    2012-01-01

    This non–experimental study, aimed to propose from university students items for prevention programs of alcohol consumption obtain by examining levels, situations and characteristics of alcohol consumption of 2910 students in ten universities of Bogotá – Colombia who answered the features tab in consumption, the Ceal and the Isca, participating in 15 focus groups, 80 students. Consumption is high, begins at early ages, approved by parents, associated by academic pressures loneliness and cultu...

  13. Using PANDA (Preventing the Abuse of Tobacco, Narcotics, Drugs, and Alcohol) in a Baltimore City Head Start Setting: A Preliminary Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belcher, Harolyn M. E.; Lockhart, Paula J.; Perkins-Parks, Susan; McNally, Margaret

    2000-01-01

    Describes an evaluation of a substance abuse prevention curriculum, Preventing the Abuse of Tobacco, Narcotics, Drugs, and Alcohol (PANDA), taught to African American Head Start preschool students, examining changes in children's self-concept following participation. Overall, students demonstrated significantly improved self-concept, and PANDA…

  14. Contraceptive Method Initiation: Using the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Selected Practice Guidelines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Wan-Ju; Edelman, Alison

    2015-12-01

    The US Selected Practice Recommendations is a companion document to the Medical Eligibility Criteria for Contraceptive Use that focuses on how providers can use contraceptive methods most effectively as well as problem-solve common issues that may arise. These guidelines serve to help clinicians provide contraception safely as well as to decrease barriers that prevent or delay a woman from obtaining a desired method. This article summarizes the Selected Practice Recommendations on timing of contraceptive initiation, examinations, and tests needed prior to starting a method and any necessary follow-up.

  15. Initiating and continuing behaviour change within a weight gain prevention trial: a qualitative investigation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samantha Kozica

    Full Text Available Preventing obesity is an international health priority. In Australia, young women who live in rural communities are at high risk of unhealthy weight gain. Interventions which engage young women and support sustainable behaviour change are needed and comprehensive evaluation of such interventions generates knowledge for population scale-up. This qualitative sub-study aims to identify enablers and barriers to behaviour change initiation and continuation within a community weight gain prevention program.In-depth semi-structured interviews were conducted with program participants 6 months after baseline. All interviews were audio-taped and transcribed verbatim. Transcripts were analysed independently by two investigators via thematic analysis.A total of 28 women with a mean age of 39.9±6.2years and a BMI of 28.6±5.2kg/m2 were purposively recruited from the larger cohort (n = 649 that participated in the prevention trial.Four behaviour change groups emerged were identified from participant interviews: (i no change, (ii relapse, (iii intermittent and (iv continued change. Factors influencing behaviour change initiation and continuation included realistic program expectations and the participant's ability to apply the core program elements including: setting small, achievable behaviour change goals, problem solving and using self-management techniques. Personal knowledge, skills, motivation, self-efficacy, accountability and perceived social and environmental barriers also affected behaviour change. Satisfaction with personal program progress and the perceived amount of program supports required to achieve ongoing behaviour change varied amongst participants. Women who relapsed expressed a desire for more intensive and regular support from health professionals, identified more barriers unrelated to the program, anticipated significant weight loss and had lower satisfaction with their progress.Initiating and continuing behaviour change is a complex

  16. Impact of a smoking and alcohol intervention programme on lung and breast cancer incidence in Denmark: An example of dynamic modelling with Prevent

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Soerjomataram, Isabelle; de Vries, Esther; Engholm, Gerda;

    2010-01-01

    of risk factors because of a 10% increase in cigarette and alcohol beverage price, repeated every 5years). Danish data from the household surveys, cancer registration and Eurostat were used. RESULTS: Up to 49% less new lung cancer cases can be expected in 2050 if smoking were to be completely eliminated....... Five-yearly 10% price increases may prevent 521 new lung cancer cases in 2050 (21% less cases). An intervention that immediately reduces population alcohol consumption to the recommended level (below 12g/d) may lower breast cancer by 7%, preventing 445 out of the 6060 expected new cases in 2050. Five......-yearly 10% price increases in alcoholic beverages achieved a reduction of half as expected by the ideal scenario, i.e. 4% (262) preventable cases in 2050. CONCLUSIONS: The future burden of lung and breast cancer could be markedly reduced by intervening in their risk factors. Prevent illustrates the benefit...

  17. Faculty Member's Handbook. Strategies for Preventing Alcohol and Other Drug Problems. The College Series.

    Science.gov (United States)

    CSR, Inc., Washington, DC.

    This handbook for higher education faculty is designed to inform them of the nature and extent of alcohol and other drug abuse on the nation's campuses and to enlist their involvement in responding to these problems. Based on the premise that each individual can make a difference, the faculty member is encouraged to help shape the campus…

  18. Depression, Anxiety, and Alcohol or Other Drug Use among College Students. Prevention Updates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ross, Virginia

    2004-01-01

    Community studies and reports from clinicians reveal that significant numbers of students on U.S. college campuses suffer from depression and/or anxiety and use alcohol or other drugs (AOD). Counselors in both the drug abuse and mental health fields confirm that students who seek mental health treatment often report symptoms of substance abuse,…

  19. Alcohol intake and the incidence of non-hodgkin lymphoid neoplasms in the cancer prevention study II nutrition cohort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gapstur, Susan M; Diver, W Ryan; McCullough, Marjorie L; Teras, Lauren R; Thun, Michael J; Patel, Alpa V

    2012-07-01

    Although several studies have shown a lower risk of non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL) in alcohol drinkers compared with nondrinkers, the dose-response relation and potential differences between former and current drinking and across beverage types and subtypes are unclear. The authors examined associations of alcohol intake with risk of NHL and NHL subtypes in the Cancer Prevention Study II Nutrition Cohort, a prospective study of US men and women aged 50-74 years. Between 1992 and 2007, there were 1,991 incident NHL cases among 143,124 participants. Multivariable-adjusted relative risks and 95% confidence intervals were computed using Cox proportional hazards regression. Compared with nondrinkers, the relative risk of NHL associated with former drinking was 0.90 (95% confidence interval (CI): 0.75, 1.10); the relative risks associated with current intakes of 2 drinks/day were 0.93 (95% CI: 0.83, 1.03), 0.91 (95% CI: 0.78, 1.06), and 0.78 (95% CI: 0.65, 0.93), respectively. Associations did not differ by sex (P-interaction = 0.45) or beverage type (P-difference = 0.22). Alcohol intake was more strongly associated with B-cell lymphoma (P-trend = 0.005) than with T-cell lymphoma (P-trend = 0.76), and associations were similar among B-cell lymphoma subtypes. In this prospective study, current heavy alcohol intake was associated with a reduced risk of NHL. Associations did not differ by beverage type and were slightly stronger for B-cell tumors than for T-cell tumors.

  20. Breast cancer prevention with Morinda citrifolia (noni at the initiation stage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mian-Ying Wang

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACTBackground: It has been reported that noni has multiple health benefits for over 2000 years. In this study, the cancer preventive effects of Tahitian noni® juice (TNJ at the initiation stage on DMBA-induced mammary tumorigenesis in female SD rats was investigated.Objective: We took advantage of the DMBA-induced mammary carcinogenic model to study the preventive effects of TNJ at the initiation stage of mammary carcinogenesis in female SD rats by using clinical observation, pathological examination, and 32P-postlabeling assay.Methods: One hundred and sixty female SD rats were divided into eight groups with 20 rats in each group. Three doses of TNJ or placebo was given to the animals at the age of 35 days until the end of the experiment. When the animals were 55 days old, 25 mg/kg DMBA was fed to the animals in the DMBA group, placebo, and TNJ groups. The 20 rats were kept at age-matched controls. Palpable tumors were examined twice a week after DMBA administration in each group by an experienced professional. The size of tumor was measured by a graduated caliper. A piece of tumor, vascularization area, and mammary glands in the thoracic and abdomen areas of each rat were dissected respectively and fixed in 10% neutral buffered formalin for light microscope examination. The DMBA-DNA adduct formation in mammary tissues was detected by 32P-postlabeling assay.Results: The tumor latency in TNJ groups was delayed about 60-90 days when compared with positive controls. The number of palpable tumors per group was significantly reduced by 73%, 72% and 80% in 3%, 5%, and 10% TNJ groups respectively when compared with positive controls at the end of 330 days after DMBA administration. The number of palpable tumors in the placebo groups was slightly reduced in the early stage, but much less than that in the TNJ groups. The multiplicity and malignancy of lesions were significantly reduced and the survival rate of animals in the TNJ groups was

  1. 78 FR 42530 - National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-16

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice... personal privacy. Name of Committee: National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism Initial Review..., Ph.D., Scientific Review Officer, National Institute on Alcohol Abuse & Alcoholism,...

  2. 76 FR 78014 - National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-15

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice... personal privacy. Name of Committee: National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism Initial Review...., Scientific Review Administrator, National Institutes on Alcohol Abuse & Alcoholism, National Institutes...

  3. 78 FR 42529 - National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-16

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice... personal privacy. Name of Committee: National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism Initial Review....D., Scientific Review Administrator, National Institutes on Alcohol Abuse & Alcoholism,...

  4. 76 FR 26308 - National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-06

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice... personal privacy. Name of Committee: National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism Initial Review..., Scientific Review Administrator, National Institutes On Alcohol Abuse & Alcoholism National, Institutes...

  5. 77 FR 22794 - National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-17

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice... personal privacy. Name of Committee: National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism Initial Review..., Ph.D., Scientific Review Administrator, National Institutes on Alcohol Abuse & Alcoholism...

  6. 77 FR 4048 - Disease, Disability, and Injury Prevention and Control Special Emphasis Panel (SEP): Initial Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-26

    ... Dengue Epidemiology, Outcomes, and Prevention in Sentinel Surveillance and Research Sites in Puerto Rico... to ``Evaluation of Dengue Epidemiology, Outcomes and Prevention in Sentinel Surveillance and Research... HUMAN SERVICES Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Disease, Disability, and Injury Prevention...

  7. An Assessment of Alcohol and Drug Education/Prevention Programs in the United States Army

    Science.gov (United States)

    1973-12-01

    who would be more likely to report their motive as a desire for kicks, a desire to raise consciousness, or previous enjoyable experiences with drugs...getting work done. If a soldier is too drunk , hung over, or strung out to work, the senior NCO must immediately face the problem. Any action or... enjoyment use alcohol or drugs because they feel better when they do so, or they experience a heightening of consciousness, feelings of insight, or peace

  8. Alcoholism: genes and mechanisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oroszi, Gabor; Goldman, David

    2004-12-01

    Alcoholism is a chronic relapsing/remitting disease that is frequently unrecognized and untreated, in part because of the partial efficacy of treatment. Only approximately one-third of patients remain abstinent and one-third have fully relapsed 1 year after withdrawal from alcohol, with treated patients doing substantially better than untreated [1]. The partial effectiveness of strategies for prevention and treatment, and variation in clinical course and side effects, represent a challenge and an opportunity to better understand the neurobiology of addiction. The strong heritability of alcoholism suggests the existence of inherited functional variants of genes that alter the metabolism of alcohol and variants of other genes that alter the neurobiologies of reward, executive cognitive function, anxiety/dysphoria, and neuronal plasticity. Each of these neurobiologies has been identified as a critical domain in the addictions. Functional alleles that alter alcoholism-related intermediate phenotypes include common alcohol dehydrogenase 1B and aldehyde dehydrogenase 2 variants that cause the aversive flushing reaction; catechol-O-methyltransferase (COMT) Val158Met leading to differences in three aspects of neurobiology: executive cognitive function, stress/anxiety response, and opioid function; opioid receptor micro1 (OPRM1) Asn40Asp, which may serve as a gatekeeper molecule in the action of naltrexone, a drug used in alcoholism treatment; and HTTLPR, which alters serotonin transporter function and appears to affect stress response and anxiety/dysphoria, which are factors relevant to initial vulnerability, the process of addiction, and relapse.

  9. Effects of the initial cell concentration on the alcoholic fermentation of cassava

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Doin, P.A.; Olivo, J.E.; Varella, V.L.; Concone, B.R.; Pinto, A.G.

    1984-01-01

    Cassava is being considered in Brazil as the main alternative to sugarcane for the production of ethanol for industrial and fuel purposes, and efforts are being made to improve this technology. Among the possible improvements one of the most important is the increase in the saccharification and fermentation yields and productivities when these operators are accomplished simultaneously. In this work, using Saccharomyces cerevisiae, ethanol fermentations from cassava starch were carried out as a function of cell concentration ranging from 0.3 to 15.0 g/l. The main conclusions were that ethanol productivities and yields were not affected by the initial cell concentration unless this was below 0.3 to 0.6 g/l (dry base). Average ethanol productivities of about 4.0%/h were consistently obtained with ethanol yields ranging from 85 to 90%. Concerning reaction rates, it was found that unless very low values of initial cell concentration were used, the saccharification become the limiting step of the overall process.

  10. Relapse Prevention for Alcohol and Drug Problems: That Was Zen, This Is Tao

    Science.gov (United States)

    Witkiewitz, Katie; Marlatt, Alan G.

    2004-01-01

    Relapse prevention, based on the cognitive-behavioral model of relapse, has become an adjunct to the treatment of numerous psychological problems, including (but not limited to) substance abuse, depression, sexual offending, and schizophrenia. This article provides an overview of the efficacy and effectiveness of relapse prevention in the…

  11. A Web-Based Computer-Tailored Alcohol Prevention Program for Adolescents: Cost-Effectiveness and Intersectoral Costs and Benefits

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-01-01

    Background Preventing excessive alcohol use among adolescents is important not only to foster individual and public health, but also to reduce alcohol-related costs inside and outside the health care sector. Computer tailoring can be both effective and cost-effective for working with many lifestyle behaviors, yet the available information on the cost-effectiveness of computer tailoring for reducing alcohol use by adolescents is limited as is information on the costs and benefits pertaining to sectors outside the health care sector, also known as intersectoral costs and benefits (ICBs). Objective The aim was to assess the cost-effectiveness of a Web-based computer-tailored intervention for reducing alcohol use and binge drinking by adolescents from a health care perspective (excluding ICBs) and from a societal perspective (including ICBs). Methods Data used were from the Alcoholic Alert study, a cluster randomized controlled trial with randomization at the level of schools into two conditions. Participants either played a game with tailored feedback on alcohol awareness after the baseline assessment (intervention condition) or received care as usual (CAU), meaning that they had the opportunity to play the game subsequent to the final measurement (waiting list control condition). Data were recorded at baseline (T0=January/February 2014) and after 4 months (T1=May/June 2014) and were used to calculate incremental cost-effectiveness ratios (ICERs), both from a health care perspective and a societal perspective. Stochastic uncertainty in the data was dealt with by using nonparametric bootstraps (5000 simulated replications). Additional sensitivity analyses were conducted based on excluding cost outliers. Subgroup cost-effectiveness analyses were conducted based on several background variables, including gender, age, educational level, religion, and ethnicity. Results From both the health care perspective and the societal perspective for both outcome measures, the

  12. Is it time to ban alcohol advertising?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Peter

    2009-04-01

    Children and adolescents are particularly vulnerable to the harmful effects of alcohol, with heavy drinking risking impaired brain development and future alcohol dependence. Advertisements increase expectancies about alcohol, leading to a greater likelihood of drinking. A systematic review of 13 longitudinal studies of over 38,000 young people found convincing evidence of an impact of media exposure and alcohol advertising on subsequent alcohol use, including initiation of drinking and heavier drinking among existing drinkers. All European countries, with the exception of the UK, have a ban on one or more types of advertising. Since self-regulation is reported as failing to prevent marketing which has an impact on younger people, and since advertising commonly crosses country borders, there is an argument to approximate advertising rules across Europe banning alcohol advertising targeted at young people, a highly cost-effective measure to reduce harmful alcohol use, and one supported by European citizens and case law.

  13. PNF 2.0? Initial evidence that gamification can increase the efficacy of brief, web-based personalized normative feedback alcohol interventions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boyle, Sarah C; Earle, Andrew M; LaBrie, Joseph W; Smith, Daniel J

    2017-04-01

    Gamified interventions exploit the motivational characteristics of a game in order to provide prevention information and promote behavior change. Despite the modest effect sizes observed in increasingly popular web-based personalized normative feedback (PNF) alcohol interventions for college students, previous research has yet to consider how gamification might be used to enhance efficacy. This study examines whether a novel, gamified PNF intervention format, which includes a point-based reward system, the element of chance, and personal icons to visually represent users, is more effective in reducing short-term alcohol use than the standard web-based style of PNF currently used on college campuses. Two-hundred and thirty-seven college students were randomly assigned to receive either a standard brief, web-based PNF alcohol intervention or the same alcohol intervention components delivered within a Facebook-connected social game called CampusGANDR (Gamified Alcohol Norm Discovery and Readjustment). In both study conditions participants answered identical questions about their perceptions of peer drinking norms and own drinking and then received the same PNF slides. Two weeks following PNF delivery, participants again reported their perceptions of peers' alcohol use and own drinking. Students in the CampusGANDR condition reported significantly reduced peer drinking norms and alcohol use at the two-week follow-up relative to students who received identical PNF delivered by standard online survey. Further, a mediation model demonstrated that this effect was driven by larger reductions in perceived drinking norms among participants assigned to receive CampusGANDR, relative to control. As web-based PNF is becoming an increasingly universal prevention strategy, findings from this study suggest gamification may represent one method by which intervention efficacy could be substantially improved. The potential methodological and economic benefits associated with gamified

  14. Alcoholism and Alcohol Abuse

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... their drinking causes distress and harm. It includes alcoholism and alcohol abuse. Alcoholism, or alcohol dependence, is a disease that causes ... groups. NIH: National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism

  15. 76 FR 32213 - Disease, Disability, and Injury Prevention and Control Special Emphasis Panel (SEP); Initial Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-03

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Disease, Disability, and Injury Prevention and..., Hepatitis and Sexually Transmitted Diseases Prevention, CDC, 1600 Clifton Road, NE., Mailstop E-60, Atlanta... and Prevention and the Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry. Dated: May 25, 2011. Elaine...

  16. 76 FR 49771 - Disease, Disability, and Injury Prevention and Control Special Emphasis Panel (SEP): Initial Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-11

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Disease, Disability, and Injury Prevention and... Advisory Committee Act (Pub. L. 92-463), the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) announces the..., National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion, CDC, 4770 Buford Highway,...

  17. 78 FR 19489 - Disease, Disability, and Injury Prevention and Control Special Emphasis Panel (SEP): Initial Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-01

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Disease, Disability, and Injury Prevention and... the Federal Advisory Committee Act (Pub. L. 92-463), the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention... management activities, for both the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention and the Agency for...

  18. 78 FR 56236 - Disease, Disability, and Injury Prevention and Control Special Emphasis Panel (SEP): Initial Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-12

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Disease, Disability, and Injury Prevention and... Committee Act (Pub. L. 92-463), the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) announces the... Disease Control and Prevention and the Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry. Elaine L....

  19. 76 FR 28437 - Disease, Disability, and Injury Prevention and Control Special Interest Project (SIP): Initial...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-17

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Disease, Disability, and Injury Prevention and... Federal Advisory Committee Act (Pub. L. 92-463), the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC..., Director, Extramural Research Program Office, National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and...

  20. 78 FR 19490 - Disease, Disability, and Injury Prevention and Control Special Emphasis Panels (SEP): Initial Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-01

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Disease, Disability, and Injury Prevention and... activities, for both the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention and the Agency for Toxic Substances and... Disease Control and Prevention. BILLING CODE 4163-18-P...

  1. 76 FR 28437 - Disease, Disability, and Injury Prevention and Control Special Interest Projects (SIPs): Initial...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-17

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Disease, Disability, and Injury Prevention and... Federal Advisory Committee Act (Pub. L. 92-463), the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC...., Director, Extramural Research Program Office, National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and...

  2. 78 FR 25743 - Disease, Disability, and Injury Prevention and Control Special Emphasis Panel (SEP): Initial Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-02

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Disease, Disability, and Injury Prevention and... Federal Advisory Committee Act (Pub. L. 92-463), the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC... both the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention and the Agency for Toxic Substances and...

  3. 78 FR 24751 - Disease, Disability, and Injury Prevention and Control Special Emphasis Panel (SEP): Initial Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-26

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Disease, Disability, and Injury Prevention and... Advisory Committee Act (Pub. L. 92-463), the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) announces the... Disease Control and Prevention and the Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry. Elaine L....

  4. 78 FR 19490 - Disease, Disability, and Injury Prevention and Control Special Emphasis Panel (SEP): Initial Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-01

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Disease, Disability, and Injury Prevention and... and Prevention and the Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry. Dana Redford, Acting Director, Management Analysis and Services Office, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. BILLING CODE 4163-18-P...

  5. 76 FR 45575 - Disease, Disability, and Injury Prevention and Control Special Emphasis Panel (SEP): Initial Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-29

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Disease, Disability, and Injury Prevention and..., Extramural Programs, National Center for HIV, Hepatitis and Sexually Transmitted Diseases Prevention, CDC... management activities, for both the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention and the Agency for...

  6. 78 FR 22268 - Disease, Disability, and Injury Prevention and Control Special Emphasis Panels (SEP): Initial Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-15

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Disease, Disability, and Injury Prevention and...; Strengthening Disease Prevention Research Capacity for Public Health Action in Guatemala and the Central...; Strengthening Disease Prevention Research Capacity for Public Health Action in Guatemala and the...

  7. 78 FR 78966 - Disease, Disability, and Injury Prevention and Control Special Emphasis Panel (SEP): Initial Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-27

    ..., Prevention, and Treatment of Influenza and Other Respiratory Infections in a Malaria- Endemic Area of Malawi... HUMAN SERVICES Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Disease, Disability, and Injury Prevention and... Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) announces the aforementioned meeting: Time and Date: 1:00 p.m.-3:00...

  8. Introduction of culturally sensitive HIV prevention in the context of female initiation rites: an applied anthropological approach in Mozambique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kotanyi, Sophie; Krings-Ney, Brigitte

    2009-12-01

    In Mozambique, initiation rites represent the most appropriate socio-cultural context for dealing with sexuality for a large part of the population. As the group most vulnerable to HIV exposure, HIV-prevention counselling could be ideally introduced to young women during initiation rites. This article demonstrates how interventions can take advantage of the positive aspects of this tradition. We discuss local notions of social 'contamination' versus biological 'contamination,' and we present a culturally sensitive communication strategy to bridge the divergent paradigms around AIDS-similar symptoms. Because of the emotional importance of the initiation rites, the suggested approach goes far beyond cognitive knowledge. After training, the godmothers in initiation rites became highly motivated to teach novice girls about HIV prevention and they trained other elderly women as well. Thus, the initiation rites turned into a process of empowerment for women in their own communities. A central agenda of the female initiation rites in Mozambique is to inculcate respect towards ancestors, elders, authorities and others; however, this respectful attitude between genders and between generations is disappearing due to factors like warfare and the cash economy. HIV-prevention counselling may be successfully introduced into initiation rites because of the unconscious, emotional impact of the process on the initiates' behaviour. Other studies have shown that cognitive knowledge is not enough to lead to behavioural changes. Without changing the traditional initiation rites for females, which in Mozambique includes no genital cutting, a complementary approach introduces HIV-prevention counselling during ritual counselling moments, thereby motivating godmothers and novice girls and young women to be more aware and take precautions to prevent HIV infection.

  9. A Comparison of Maternal Outcomes from an Alcohol, Tobacco, and Other Drug Prevention Program for Mothers Choosing an Intervention versus Being Randomized

    OpenAIRE

    Byrnes, Hilary F.; Miller, Brenda A.; Laborde, Nicole

    2012-01-01

    Self-determination theory and substantial research findings suggest that more desirable outcomes may occur when participants are able to choose their prevention or treatment interventions, as having a choice may lead to greater motivation and feelings of self-efficacy. The present study examined the influence of having a choice of family-based prevention programs for youth alcohol, tobacco, and drug use on mothers’ communication outcomes. Families (N=496) were those with an 11–12 year old enr...

  10. Cities, Counties and Universities Look for Ways to Prevent Underage Drinking--Social Host Laws Make Adults Responsible for Alcohol Served on Their Property to Those Under 21

    Science.gov (United States)

    Birch, Glynn R.

    2008-01-01

    Municipalities and colleges are adding Social Host ordinances to their list of tactics to prevent underage drinking. The ordinances, which focus on the locations where underage drinking takes place, hold property owners responsible for making sure those under 21 don't consume alcohol in their home, apartment or any venue they own. MADD (Mothers…

  11. Project Self-Esteem: A Parent Involvement Program for Improving Self-Esteem and Preventing Drug and Alcohol Abuse, K-6. Revised.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDaniel, Sandy; Bielen, Peggy

    This guide presents Project Self-Esteem, a program for improving self-esteem and preventing drug and alcohol abuse in kindergarten through grade 6. Chapter I presents the team leader's guide and discusses introducing the program to the principal, school staff, and parents. Chapter II focuses on kindergarten and includes lessons on being a friend…

  12. Prevention Effects Moderate the Association of 5-HTTLPR and Youth Risk Behavior Initiation: Gene x Environment Hypotheses Tested via a Randomized Prevention Design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brody, Gene H.; Beach, Steven R. H.; Philibert, Robert A.; Chen, Yi-Fu; Murry, Velma McBride

    2009-01-01

    A randomized prevention design was used to investigate a moderation effect in the association between a polymorphism in the "SCL6A4"("5HTT") gene at 5-HTTLPR and increases in youths' risk behavior initiation. Participation in the Strong African American Families (SAAF) program was hypothesized to attenuate the link between 5-HTTLPR status and risk…

  13. Evaluating the impact of getting to outcomes-underage drinking on prevention capacity and alcohol merchant attitudes and selling behaviors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chinman, Matthew; Ebener, Patricia; Burkhart, Q; Osilla, Karen Chan; Imm, Pamela; Paddock, Susan M; Wright, Patricia Ann

    2014-08-01

    Underage drinking is a significant problem facing US communities. Several environmental alcohol prevention (EAP) strategies (laws, regulations, responsible beverage service training and practices) successfully address underage drinking. Communities, however, face challenges carrying out these EAP strategies effectively. This small-scale, 3-year, randomized controlled trial assessed whether providing prevention coalitions with Getting To Outcomes-Underage Drinking (GTO-UD), a tool kit and implementation support intervention, helped improve implementation of two common EAP strategies, responsible beverage service training (RBS) and compliance checks. Three coalitions in South Carolina and their RBS and compliance check programs received the 16-month GTO-UD intervention, including the GTO-UD manual, training, and onsite technical assistance, while another three in South Carolina maintained routine operations. The measures, collected at baseline and after the intervention, were a structured interview assessing how well coalitions carried out their work and a survey of merchant attitudes and practices in the six counties served by the participating coalitions. Over time, the quality of some RBS and compliance check activities improved more in GTO-UD coalitions than in the control sites. No changes in merchant practices or attitudes significantly differed between the GTO-UD and control groups, although merchants in the GTO-UD counties did significantly improve on refusing sales to minors while control merchants did not.

  14. The Potential of Non-Provitamin A Carotenoids for the Prevention and Treatment of Non-Alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Gabriela Murillo

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD is an obesity-associated spectrum of comorbidities defined by the presence of metabolic dysfunction, oxidative stress, inflammation, and fibrosis in the liver. If left untreated, NAFLD can progress to cirrhosis, liver failure, or hepatocellular carcinoma. NAFLD is recognized as the most common liver disease in the United States, affecting around 30% of the population. Identification of dietary components capable of reducing or preventing NAFLD is therefore essential to battle this condition. Dietary carotenoids including astaxanthin, lycopene, lutein, and zeaxanthin have been demonstrated to be potent antioxidants as well as to exhibit anti-inflammatory effects. Many studies report the protective effect(s of these carotenoids against different conditions such as atherosclerosis, diabetic complications, age-related macular degeneration, and liver diseases. In this review, we will focus on the effects of these carotenoids in the prevention or reduction of NAFLD as seen in epidemiological observations and clinical trials, as well as the suggested mechanism of action derived from animal and cell studies.

  15. Acid-sensitive channel inhibition prevents fetal alcohol spectrum disorders cerebellar Purkinje cell loss

    OpenAIRE

    Ramadoss, Jayanth; Lunde, Emilie R.; Ouyang, Nengtai; Chen, Wei-Jung A.; Cudd, Timothy A.

    2008-01-01

    Ethanol is now considered the most common human teratogen. Educational campaigns have not reduced the incidence of ethanol-mediated teratogenesis, leading to a growing interest in the development of therapeutic prevention or mitigation strategies. On the basis of the observation that maternal ethanol consumption reduces maternal and fetal pH, we hypothesized that a pH-sensitive pathway involving the TWIK-related acid-sensitive potassium channels (TASKs) is implicated in ethanol-induced injury...

  16. Depression, alcohol use, and stigma in younger versus older HIV-infected pregnant women initiating antiretroviral therapy in Cape Town, South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Marcia; Myer, Landon; Zerbe, Allison; Phillips, Tamsin; Petro, Greg; Mellins, Claude A; Remien, Robert H; Shiau, Stephanie; Brittain, Kirsty; Abrams, Elaine J

    2017-02-01

    HIV-infected pregnant women in sub-Saharan Africa are at risk for depression and alcohol abuse. Young women may be more vulnerable, but little is known about the psychosocial functioning of this population. We compared younger (18-24 years old) and older (≥25 years old) HIV-infected pregnant women initiating antiretroviral therapy (ART) in Cape Town, South Africa. Women were assessed on a range of psychosocial measures, including the Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test and the Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale (EPDS). Among 625 women initiating ART, 16 % reported risky alcohol use and 21 % alcohol-related harm; these percentages were similar across age groups. When younger women were stratified by age, 37 % of 18-21 years old versus 20 % of 22-24 years old reported alcohol-related harm (p = 0.02). Overall, 11 % of women had EPDS scores suggesting probable depression, and 6 % reported self-harming thoughts. Younger women reported more depressive symptoms. Report of self-harming thoughts was 11 % in younger and 4 % in older women (p = 0.002). In multivariable analysis, age remained significantly associated with depressive symptoms and report of self-harming thoughts. Level of HIV-related stigma and report of intimate partner violence modified the association between age and depressive symptoms. Young HIV-infected pregnant women in South Africa were more likely to report depressive symptoms and self-harming thoughts compared to older women, and the youngest women reported the highest levels of alcohol-related harm. HIV-related stigma and intimate partner violence may be moderating factors. These findings have implications for maternal and infant health, underscoring the urgent need for effective targeted interventions in this vulnerable population.

  17. Progesterone for the prevention of preterm birth: indications, when to initiate, efficacy and safety

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helen Y How

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Helen Y How, Baha M SibaiDivision of Maternal Fetal Medicine, Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, University of Cincinnati, Cincinnati, OH USAAbstract: Preterm birth is the leading cause of neonatal mortality and morbidity and long-term disability of non-anomalous infants. Previous studies have identified a prior early spontaneous preterm birth as the risk factor with the highest predictive value for recurrence. Two recent double blind randomized placebo controlled trials reported lower preterm birth rate with the use of either intramuscular 17 alpha-hydroxyprogesterone caproate (IM 17OHP-C or intravaginal micronized progesterone suppositories in women at risk for preterm delivery. However, it is still unclear which high-risk women would truly benefit from this treatment in a general clinical setting and whether socio-cultural, racial and genetic differences play a role in patient’s response to supplemental progesterone. In addition the patient’s acceptance of such recommendation is also in question. More research is still required on identification of at risk group, the optimal gestational age at initiation, mode of administration, dose of progesterone and long-term safety.Keywords: preterm birth prevention, 17-alpha-hydroxyprogesterone caproate

  18. Effectiveness of public health programs for decreasing alcohol consumption

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kelly-Weeder S

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Susan Kelly-Weeder, Kathryn Phillips, Shannon RounsevilleWilliam F Connell School of Nursing, Boston College, Chestnut Hill, MA, USAAbstract: Excessive alcohol consumption and the associated negative consequences are a major public health concern in the United States and throughout the world. Historically, there have been numerous attempts to develop policies and prevention programs aimed at decreasing high-risk alcohol use. Policy initiatives have demonstrated considerable effectiveness and include changes in the minimum legal drinking age, reductions in acceptable legal limits for blood alcohol concentration while operating a motor vehicle, as well as decreasing availability and access to alcohol for underage individuals. Primary prevention programs that have used exclusively educational approaches have received mixed results. Increasing effectiveness has been associated with prevention programs that have utilized a multi-component approach and have included educational initiatives with environmental changes.Keywords: alcohol abuse, underage, public health, programs, binge drinking

  19. 78 FR 66937 - Disease, Disability, and Injury Prevention and Control Special Emphasis Panel (SEP): Initial Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-11-07

    ... Building Assistance for High Impact HIV Prevention, Funding Opportunity Announcement (FOA) PS14-1403... Impact HIV Prevention'' FOA PS14-1403. Contact Person for More Information: Harriette A. Lynch,...

  20. Genetic deficiency in neprilysin or its pharmacological inhibition initiate excessive stress-induced alcohol consumption in mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Björn Maul

    Full Text Available Both acquired and inherited genetic factors contribute to excessive alcohol consumption and the corresponding development of addiction. Here we show that the genetic deficiency in neprilysin [NEP] did not change the kinetics of alcohol degradation but led to an increase in alcohol intake in mice in a 2-bottle-free-choice paradigm after one single stress stimulus (intruder. A repetition of such stress led to an irreversible elevated alcohol consumption. This phenomenon could be also observed in wild-type mice receiving an orally active NEP inhibitor. We therefore elucidated the stress behavior in NEP-deficient mice. In an Elevated Plus Maze, NEP knockouts crossed more often the area between the arms, implicating a significant stronger stress response. Furthermore, such animals showed a decreased locomotor activity under intense light in a locomotor activity test, identifying such mice to be more responsive in aversive situations than their wild-type controls. Since the reduction in NEP activity itself does not lead to significant signs of an altered alcohol preference in mice but requires an environmental stimulus, our findings build a bridge between stress components and genetic factors in the development of alcoholism. Therefore, targeting NEP activity might be a very attractive approach for the treatment of alcohol abuse in a society with increasing social and financial stress.

  1. Acid-sensitive channel inhibition prevents fetal alcohol spectrum disorders cerebellar Purkinje cell loss.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramadoss, Jayanth; Lunde, Emilie R; Ouyang, Nengtai; Chen, Wei-Jung A; Cudd, Timothy A

    2008-08-01

    Ethanol is now considered the most common human teratogen. Educational campaigns have not reduced the incidence of ethanol-mediated teratogenesis, leading to a growing interest in the development of therapeutic prevention or mitigation strategies. On the basis of the observation that maternal ethanol consumption reduces maternal and fetal pH, we hypothesized that a pH-sensitive pathway involving the TWIK-related acid-sensitive potassium channels (TASKs) is implicated in ethanol-induced injury to the fetal cerebellum, one of the most sensitive targets of prenatal ethanol exposure. Pregnant ewes were intravenously infused with ethanol (258+/-10 mg/dl peak blood ethanol concentration) or saline in a "3 days/wk binge" pattern throughout the third trimester. Quantitative stereological analysis demonstrated that ethanol resulted in a 45% reduction in the total number of fetal cerebellar Purkinje cells, the cell type most sensitive to developmental ethanol exposure. Extracellular pH manipulation to create the same degree and pattern of pH fall caused by ethanol (manipulations large enough to inhibit TASK 1 channels), resulted in a 24% decrease in Purkinje cell number. We determined immunohistochemically that TASK 1 channels are expressed in Purkinje cells and that the TASK 3 isoform is expressed in granule cells of the ovine fetal cerebellum. Pharmacological blockade of both TASK 1 and TASK 3 channels simultaneous with ethanol effectively prevented any reduction in fetal cerebellar Purkinje cell number. These results demonstrate for the first time functional significance of fetal cerebellar two-pore domain pH-sensitive channels and establishes them as a potential therapeutic target for prevention of ethanol teratogenesis.

  2. 77 FR 25180 - Disease, Disability, and Injury Prevention and Control Special Emphasis Panel (SEP): Initial Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-27

    ... Dengue Epidemiology, Outcomes, and Prevention in Sentinel Surveillance and Research Sites in Puerto Rico... HUMAN SERVICES Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Disease, Disability, and Injury Prevention and... meetings and other committee management activities, for both the Centers for Disease Control and...

  3. 77 FR 14806 - Disease, Disability, and Injury Prevention and Control Special Emphasis Panel (SEP): Initial Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-13

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Disease, Disability, and Injury Prevention and..., Prevention and Treatment of Influenza and Other Respiratory Infections in Ghana, Studies at the...

  4. 77 FR 4047 - Disease, Disability, and Injury Prevention and Control Special Emphasis Panel (SEP): Initial Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-26

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Disease, Disability, and Injury Prevention and..., Prevention and Treatment of Influenza and Other Respiratory Infections in Ghana, IP12- 001, Studies at...

  5. 77 FR 20822 - Disease, Disability, and Injury Prevention and Control Special Emphasis Panel (SEP): Initial Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-06

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Disease, Disability, and Injury Prevention and... Emerging Vector- Borne Zoonotic Pathogens in Indonesia, Funding Opportunity Announcement (FOA) CK12-002... both the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention and the Agency for Toxic Substances and...

  6. 77 FR 12844 - Disease, Disability, and Injury Prevention and Control Special Emphasis Panel (SEP): Initial Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-02

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Disease, Disability, and Injury Prevention and... Emerging Vector- Borne Zoonotic Pathogens in Indonesia, Funding Opportunity Announcement (FOA) CK12-002..., for both the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention and the Agency for Toxic Substances...

  7. 77 FR 5257 - Disease, Disability, and Injury Prevention and Control Special Emphasis Panel (SEP): Initial Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-02

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Disease, Disability, and Injury Prevention and... Emerging Vector Borne Zoonotic Pathogens in Indonesia, Funding Opportunity Announcement (FOA), CK12-002...), the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) announces the aforementioned meeting: Time...

  8. 76 FR 51985 - Disease, Disability, and Injury Prevention and Control Special Emphasis Panel (SEP): Initial Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-19

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Disease, Disability, and Injury Prevention and..., National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion, CDC, 4770 Buford Highway, NE... meetings and other committee management activities, for both the Centers for Disease Control and...

  9. 76 FR 28438 - Disease, Disability, and Injury Prevention and Control Special Emphasis Panel (SEP): Initial Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-17

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Disease, Disability, and Injury Prevention and...), the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) announces the aforementioned meeting: Time and....S.P.H., Director, Extramural Research Program Office, National Center for Chronic Disease...

  10. The Outcomes of an Alcohol Prevention Program on Parents’ Rule Setting and Self-efficacy: A Bi-directional Model

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koning, H.M.; Glatz, T.

    2016-01-01

    Most adolescents have their first encounter with alcohol in early or middle adolescence. Parents’ rule setting about alcohol has been shown to be important to delay the onset and reduce the frequency of adolescents’ alcohol drinking, but less is known about the potential role of parents’ beliefs abo

  11. 78 FR 21615 - National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-11

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice... personal privacy. Name of Committee: National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism Initial ] Review... Foster, Ph.D., Scientific Review Administrator, National Institutes on Alcohol Abuse &...

  12. From a target group towards interaction group: Alcohol prevention policy regarding young people in Germany

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susanne Linden

    2015-10-01

    Conclusion: Not only the content matters to promote participation, interactive communication, but also context and style of the communication. To enhance self reflection and deeper understanding it is essential to deliver the information in an attractive context, which has been found relevant for the target group. Just providing information may be important but is not sufficient in order to change the behaviour. Information which is elaborated through discussion – even online – may transform information into deeper understanding respectively knowledge. Thus it is more likely to have an impact on future behaviour. The target group should be recognized as interaction group. This will help to improve the adaptation and intervention continuously. Nevertheless, prevention and behaviour change will take their time and will need continuous effort at high level. Future research is needed to measure the impact of vivid discussion on people who take part in these discussions in an active way, compared to those who only follow the conversation thread.

  13. Towards programs for alcohol consumption prevention in college students in Bogota, Colombia [Elementos para programas de prevención en consumo de alcohol en universitarios en Bogotá, Colombia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Liliana Muñoz Ortega

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available This non–experimental study, aimed to propose from university students items for prevention programs of alcohol consumption obtain by examining levels, situations and characteristics of alcohol consumption of 2910 students in ten universities of Bogotá – Colombia who answered the features tab in consumption, the Ceal and the Isca, participating in 15 focus groups, 80 students. Consumption is high, begins at early ages, approved by parents, associated by academic pressures loneliness and culture. There are indexes of abuse and dependence. The situations associated with consumption are emotions and good times, the urge to consume and social pressure. Preventive programs should be implemented by youth-oriented, responsible consumption using a variety of activities with responsibility from the actors.

  14. Atmospheric chemistry of 4 : 2 fluorotelomer alcohol (CF3(CF2)(3)CH2CH2OH): Products and mechanism of Cl atom initiated oxidation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hurley, MD; Ball, JC; Wallington, TJ;

    2004-01-01

    Smog chamber/FTIR techniques were used to study the products and mechanism of the Cl atom initiated oxidation of 4:2 fluorotelomer alcohol (CF3(CF2)(3)CH2CH2OH) in 700 Torr of N-2/O-2 diluent at 296 K. CF3(CF2)(3)CH2CHO is the sole primary oxidation product. CF3(CF2)(3)CHO, CF3(CF2)(3)CH2COOH, an...

  15. Preventing seasonal influenza worldwide through vaccination, education, and international cooperation: research, findings, and recommendations from the Global Influenza Initiative.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Paget, J.

    2015-01-01

    This supplement to IORV, dedicated to the Global Influenza Initiative (GII) and associated research, covers many of the key challenges involved in influenza disease prevention, management, and treatment. This supplement shares the latest data and current thinking on a range of issues including epide

  16. 77 FR 28392 - Disease, Disability, and Injury Prevention and Control Special Emphasis Panel (SEP): Initial Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-14

    ... Motor Vehicle Injury Research, FOA CE12-006, initial review. In accordance with Section 10(a)(2) of the...-related Motor Vehicle Injury Research, FOA CE12-006, initial review.'' Contact Person for More...

  17. Preventive Effects of Forced Exercise against Alcohol-induced Physical Dependency and Reduction of Pain Perception Threshold

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Majid Motaghinejad

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Treatment of postabstinence syndrome of alcohol is one of the major strategies of alcoholism treatment. Exercise can be modulated major brain pathways such as a reward system and pain perception centers. The aim of this study was to evaluation the effects of forced exercise in the management of alcohol dependence and pain perception alteration which induced by alcoholism. Methods: 72 adult male rats were divided into 2 major groups: (1 40 of them was divided into groups of positive control (alcohol dependent negative control and alcohol dependent groups under treatment by forced exercise, diazepam (0.4 mg/kg and forced exercise in combination with diazepam and alcohol withdrawal signs, and blood cortisols, were measured in this groups. (2 32 rats were divided into control, alcohol dependent (without treatment, and alcohol-dependent groups under treatment by forced exercise or indometacin (5 mg/kg and then pain perception was assessed by using writhing test, tail-flick and hot plate test. Results: Forced exercise, diazepam, and their combinations significantly attenuates withdrawal syndrome to 20 ± 2, 22 ± 1.3 and 16 ± 2 and blood cortisol level to 6.8 ± 1.3,7.9 ± 1.2 and 5.8 ± 1.1, respectively, in comparison with the positive control group (P < 0.05 and P < 0.001. In alcohol dependent animal under treatment by forced exercise, pain response significantly inhibited with 37%, 57% and 38% decreases in writhing test, hot plate, and tail-flick test, respectively, in comparison with alcohol dependent (without treatment group (P < 0.05. Conclusions: This study suggested that forced exercise can be useful as adjunct therapy in alcoholism patient and also can be effective in modulation of pain threshold reduction that was induced by alcohol dependency.

  18. 78 FR 20319 - Disease, Disability, and Injury Prevention and Control Special Emphasis Panel (SEP): Initial Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-04

    ... for Preventing Violence and Violence Related Injury, Funding Opportunity Announcement (FOA) CE13-002...: 9:00 a.m.-6:00 p.m., May 15-16, 2013 (Closed). Place: Georgian Terrace, 659 Peachtree Street NE... Grants for Preventing Violence and Violence Related Injury, FOA CE13-002''. Contact Person for...

  19. 77 FR 25485 - Disease, Disability, and Injury Prevention and Control Special Emphasis Panel (SEP): Initial Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-30

    ... for Preventing Violence and Violence Related Injury, Funding Opportunity Announcement (FOA) CE12-002... Street NE., Atlanta Georgia 30308. Status: The meeting will be closed to the public in accordance with... to ``Research Grants for Preventing Violence and Violence Related Injury, FOA CE12-002,...

  20. Further research needed to support a policy of antiretroviral therapy as an HIV prevention initiative

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rodger, Alison J; Bruun, Tina; Vernazza, Pietro;

    2013-01-01

    The results from the HPTN 052 trial have increased the focus on use of antiretroviral therapy (ART) for prevention of HIV transmission; however, condom use also effectively prevents HIV transmission. Studies in heterosexual serodiscordant couples with viral suppression have so far only reported...

  1. 78 FR 732 - Disease, Disability, and Injury Prevention and Control Special Emphasis Panel (SEP): Initial Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-04

    ..., Surveillance, and Control of Vector-Borne and Zoonotic Infectious Diseases in Uganda, Funding Opportunity... Control of Vector- Borne and Zoonotic Infectious Diseases in Uganda, FOA CK13-001.'' Contact Person for... HUMAN SERVICES Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Disease, Disability, and Injury Prevention...

  2. 77 FR 28393 - Disease, Disability, and Injury Prevention and Control Special Emphasis Panel (SEP): Initial Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-14

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Disease, Disability, and Injury Prevention and..., Cholera and HIV/AIDS Response, FOA GH12-001, and Research and Technical Assistance for Public Health Laboratories in Haiti to Support Post Earthquake Reconstruction, Cholera and HIV/AIDS Response, FOA...

  3. Oncogenic signaling pathways and origins of tumor-initiating stem-like cells of hepatocellular carcinomas induced by hepatitis C virus, alcohol and/or obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Chia-Lin; Tsukamoto, Hidekazu; Machida, Keigo

    2014-07-01

    This review article discusses the importance and oncogenic signaling pathways of tumor-initiating cells (TICs) in several etiologies of hepatocellular carcinomas (HCCs) induced by hepatitis C virus (HCV), alcohol, obesity and/or chemicals. Stem cells may be present in cancer tissue, and a hierarchy of cells is formed, as is the case for normal tissue. Tumor formation, growth and propagation are maintained by a small proportion of cells with stem cell-like properties. TICs are present in alcohol-fed HCV transgenic mice, diethylnitrosamine/phenobarbital-treated mice (chemical carcinogenesis) and Spnb2 +/- mice (defective TGF-β signal). Alcohol/obesity-associated endotoxemia induces the stem cell marker Nanog through TLR4 signaling to generate TICs and liver tumors in several HCC models. The oncogenic pathway (such as the STAT3 and TLR4-NANOG pathway) and mechanism of generation of TICs of HCCs associated with HCV, alcohol and obesity are discussed. Understanding the molecular stemness signaling and cellular hierarchy and defining key TIC-specific genes will accelerate the development of novel biomarkers and treatment strategies. This review highlights recent advances in understanding the pathogenesis of liver TICs and discusses unanswered questions about the concept of liver TICs. (This project was supported by NIH grants 1R01AA018857 and P50AA11999).

  4. Meeting the needs of women who use drugs and alcohol in North-east India – a challenge for HIV prevention services

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kermode Michelle

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The North-east Indian states of Manipur and Nagaland consistently report relatively high HIV prevalence. The targeted HIV prevention interventions in these two states are mostly delivered by non-government organizations (NGOs, and prevention of HIV transmission by injecting drug use is their main focus. Most injecting drug users (IDUs are male, and the services are primarily tailored to meet their needs, which are not necessarily the same as those for women. This qualitative study describes the health service needs of women who use drugs and alcohol in Manipur and Nagaland, with the goal of identifying strategies and activities that can be implemented by NGOs wanting to improve their reach among vulnerable women. Methods In 2009-10, semi-structured in-depth interviews were conducted with 27 key informants and nine focus group discussions (FGDs with women who use drugs and alcohol, and two FGDs with male IDUs. The thematic areas covered included: the context of female drug and alcohol use; drug and alcohol use patterns; HIV risk behaviours; barriers and facilitators of service use; perceived health needs; and expressed health service needs. The data were recorded, transcribed, translated and thematically analysed. Results The most problematic substance for women from Nagaland was alcohol, and for women from Manipur it was heroin. The most commonly identified health problems were primarily related to the women’s drug and alcohol use, reproductive health and mental health. Other problems of major concern included social exclusion, violence, children’s welfare, and financial difficulties. The expressed service needs of these women were women-only integrated health services, women-only detoxification and rehabilitation services, mental health services, desensitization of mainstream health workers, free access to medicines, assistance to meet basic needs, and a safe place for engaging in sex work. Conclusion The expressed

  5. Involving fathers in prevention of mother to child transmission initiatives – what the evidence suggests

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natasha Croome

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The current UNAIDS goal towards virtual ending or elimination of infants acquiring HIV by 2015 is perhaps the most achievable goal to date. Yet, models show that delivery of antiretroviral compounds alone will not suffice to achieve this goal, and a broader community-based approach to pregnancy, families and HIV is needed. Such an approach would highlight the important role of men in reproduction. Although early studies have shown it is cost-effective to include males, very few interventions have proceeded to involve men. Methods: This review utilized systematic review techniques to explore the literature on effective interventions for the inclusion of men in the prevention of HIV to infants. A key word search of literature sources generated 248 studies for hand sorting and interrogation. Of these, 13 were found to contain some information on involvement of males in some form of provision. Data were abstracted from these and form the basis of this review. Results: Background descriptive studies painted a picture of low male involvement, poor male inclusion and barriers to engagement at all stages. Yet, pregnancy intentions among men affected by HIV are high and the importance of fathers to family functioning – from relationships, through conception, pregnancy and parenting – is well established. Search strategies for interventions for males in HIV and pregnancy were used to generate studies of sufficient quality to inform strategies on the future of male involvement. Of the 317,434 papers on pregnancy and HIV, only 4178 included the term male (paternal or father. When these were restricted to intervention studies, only 248 remained for hand sorting, generating 13 studies of relevance for data extraction. The results show that all these interventions were concentrated around male partner HIV testing. In general, male partner testing was low and was amenable to change by offering voluntary counselling and testing (VCT information

  6. Educar en habilidades sociales para prevenir el abuso del alcohol en la adolescencia = Social skills to prevent alcohol abuse in adolescents

    OpenAIRE

    Senra Varela, María

    2010-01-01

    Existen estudios previos que señalan la incompetencia social como un factor de riesgo para el abusodel alcohol (Senra y Manzano, 2003) y Goleman puso de manifiesto la importancia de la competenciasocial en el adolescente para controlar sus impulsos, rela

  7. 75 FR 19983 - National Center for Injury Prevention and Control Initial Review Group

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-16

    ... of the peer reviews conducted in response to Fiscal Year 2010 Requests for Applications related to... Preventing Violence and Violence- Related Injury (R01) Agenda items are subject to change as...

  8. Preventing industrial pollution at its source: the final report of the Michigan source reduction initiative

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1999-09-01

    This report describes a collaborative effort between NRDC, Dow Chemical, and Michigan Environmental Groups. The effort resulted in the identification and implementation of 17 pollution prevention projects that reduced substantial quantities of wastes and emissions and saved Dow considerable money.

  9. Roundtable on the prevention of eating disorders : the Catalan public policy initiative

    OpenAIRE

    Sánchez Carracedo, David; Carretero i Jardí, Cristina; Conesa, Alfons

    2016-01-01

    The field of prevention of body image problems and eating disorders has made major advances in recent years, particularly in the development and evaluation of prevention programmes. However, few programmes achieve good long-term results because, among other reasons, the sociocultural influences affecting the development of these problems do not stop. Moreover, accelerating progress in this field is required, transferring their impact onto a larger scale. These reasons justify the need to prog...

  10. Modeling early sexual initiation among young adolescents using quantum and continuous behavior change methods: implications for HIV prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Xinguang; Lunn, Sonja; Harris, Carole; Li, Xiaoming; Deveaux, Lynette; Marshall, Sharon; Cottrell, Leslie; Stanton, Bonita

    2010-10-01

    Behavioral research and prevention intervention science efforts have largely been based on hypotheses of linear or rational behavior change. Additional advances in the field may result from the integration of quantum behavior change and catastrophe models. Longitudinal data from a randomized trial for 1241 pre-adolescents 9-12 years old who self-described as virgin were analyzed. Data for 469 virgins in the control group were included for linear and cusp catastrophe models to describe sexual initiation; data for the rest in the intervention group were added for program effect assessment. Self-reported likelihood to have sex was positively associated with actual initiation of sex (OR = 1.72, 95% CI: 1.43-2.06, R² = 0.13). Receipt of a behavioral prevention intervention based on a cognitive model prevented 15.6% (33.0% vs. 48.6%, OR = 0.52, 95% CI: 0.24-1.11) of the participants from initiating sex among only those who reported 'very likely to have sex.' The beta coefficients for the cubic term of the usp assessing three bifurcating variables (planning to have sex, intrinsic rewards from sex and self-efficacy for abstinence) were 0.0726, 0.1116 and 0.1069 respectively; R² varied from 0.49 to 0.54 (p sexual initiation, quantum change has contributed more than continuous change in describing sexual initiation among young adolescents, suggesting the need for quantum change and chaotic models to advance behavioral prevention of HIV/AIDS.

  11. Sex and the Lab: An Alcohol-Focused Commentary on the NIH Initiative to Balance Sex in Cell and Animal Studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guizzetti, Marina; Davies, Daryl L; Egli, Mark; Finn, Deborah A; Molina, Patricia; Regunathan, Soundar; Robinson, Donita L; Sohrabji, Farida

    2016-06-01

    In May 2014, Dr. Francis Collins, the director of U.S. National Institutes of Health (NIH), and Dr. Janine Clayton, the director of the U.S. National Institutes of Health Office of Research on Women's Health, published a commentary in the journal Nature announcing new policies to ensure that preclinical research funded by the NIH considers both males and females. While these policies are still developing, they have already generated great interest by the scientific community and triggered both criticism and applause. This review provides a description and interpretation of the NIH guidelines, and it traces the history that led to their implementation. As expected, this NIH initiative generated some anxiety in the scientific community. The use of female animals in the investigation of basic mechanisms is perceived to increase variability in the results, and the use of both sexes has been claimed to slow the pace of scientific discoveries and to increase the cost at a time characterized by declining research support. This review discusses issues related to the study of sex as a biological variable (SABV) in alcohol studies and provides examples of how researchers have successfully addressed some of them. A practical strategy is provided to include both sexes in biomedical research while maintaining control of the research direction. The inclusion of sex as an important biological variable in experimental design, analysis, and reporting of preclinical alcohol research is likely to lead to a better understanding of alcohol pharmacology and the development of alcohol use disorder, may promote drug discovery for new pharmacotherapies by increasing scientific rigor, and may provide clinical benefit to women's health. This review aims to promote the understanding of the NIH's SABV guidelines and to provide alcohol researchers with a theoretical and practical framework for working with both sexes in preclinical research.

  12. Electrical amygdala kindling in alcohol-withdrawal kindled rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ulrichsen, J; Woldbye, D P; Madsen, T M; Clemmesen, L; Haugbøl, S; Olsen, C H; Laursen, H; Bolwig, T G; Hemmingsen, R

    1998-01-01

    Repeated alcohol withdrawal has been shown to kindle seizure activity. The purpose of the present investigation was to study electrical amygdala kindling in rats previously exposed to alcohol-withdrawal kindling. In three independent experiments, male Wistar rats were subjected to multiple episodes each consisting of 2 days of severe alcohol intoxication and 5 days of alcohol withdrawal. In the first experiment, the alcohol-withdrawal kindled animals were divided into two groups depending on whether spontaneous alcohol-withdrawal seizures were observed in episodes 10-13. In the second and third experiments, the alcohol-withdrawal kindled animals were compared to a group in which alcohol-withdrawal kindling was prevented by diazepam treatment during the withdrawal reactions in order to discriminate between the effect of withdrawal and intoxication. Electrical kindling was initiated 28-35 days after the last alcohol dose by exposing the animals to daily electrical stimulations of the right amygdala. The results showed that amygdala kindling was facilitated in alcohol-withdrawal kindled animals which showed spontaneous withdrawal seizure activity, compared with animals exposed to multiple episodes of alcohol withdrawal which did not develop withdrawal seizures or with animals exposed to a single episode of alcohol intoxication. When compared to the control group, the alcohol-withdrawal kindled group with seizures also kindled at a faster rate, but the difference did not reach statistical significance and therefore the results must be regarded as preliminary at present.

  13. Factors Predisposing, Enabling and Reinforcing Routine Screening of Patients for Preventing Fetal Alcohol Syndrome: A Survey of New Jersey Physicians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donovan, Carole L.

    1991-01-01

    Survey of 58 physicians revealed that they did not routinely ask their pregnant patients about alcohol consumption for several reasons: physician bias resulting from own abuse, lack of training, poor awareness of problem and effects, denial that Fetal Alcohol Syndrome occurs in private practice, time limitations, disinterest, fear of offending…

  14. Alcohol, Marijuana, and Tobacco Use among Canadian Youth: Do We Need More Multi-Substance Prevention Programming?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leatherdale, Scott T.; Ahmed, Rashid

    2010-01-01

    Data from the Canadian Youth Smoking Survey (n = 27,030 in 2006; n = 16,705 in 2004; n = 11,757 in 2002) were used to examine changes in the prevalence and comorbid use of alcohol, tobacco, and marijuana over time and examine if demographic factors and binge drinking are associated with comorbid substance use among youth. Alcohol was the most…

  15. Cost Benefit Analyses of Behavioral Marital Therapy with and without Relapse Prevention Sessions for Alcoholics and Their Wives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Farrell, Timothy J.; And Others

    Several studies have indicated that costs of alcoholism treatment are partially or completely offset by monetary benefits of reduced health and legal system costs after such treatment, although most of these studies have been conducted in the private rather than the public alcoholism treatment system. This study examined the health and legal…

  16. 78 FR 9926 - Disease, Disability, and Injury Prevention and Control Special Emphasis Panel (SEP): Initial Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-12

    ... Incentive- based Smoking Cessation for Pregnant Women, FOA DP 13-003, initial review. In accordance with... applications received in response to ``Cost-Benefit of Incentive-based Smoking Cessation for Pregnant...

  17. 78 FR 17410 - Disease, Disability, and Injury Prevention and Control Special Emphasis Panels (SEP): Initial review

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-21

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND... the Prevention of Healthcare-Associated Infections, Antimicrobial Resistance and Adverse Events... and Adverse Events, FOA CK11-0010301SUPP13''. Contact Person for More Information: Gregory Anderson,...

  18. Study on Relieving Alcoholism and Preventing Drunkenness Effect of Taurine%牛磺酸解酒防醉作用的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨建成; 吴高峰; 刘梅; 胡建民

    2012-01-01

    [目的]探讨牛磺酸的解酒防醉效果.[方法]通过防醉和解酒试验,检测牛磺酸对醉酒后小鼠血液乙醇含量、肝脏中ADH和ALDH活性的影响.[结果]牛磺酸可显著延长小鼠对酒精的耐受时间,缩短醉酒的维持时间,并可明显降低醉酒小鼠血液中乙醇浓度,显著提高肝脏中ADH和ALDH的活性.[结论]牛磺酸具有良好的解酒防醉效果,其作用机制可能是牛磺酸提高肝脏内ADH和ALDH的活性,加速乙醇和乙醛的代谢,减轻了二者对机体的毒性反应.%[Objective] The study aimed to discuss the relieving alcoholism and preventing drunkenness effect of taurine. [ Method ] The effects of the taurine on the ethanol concentration in the blood and the activities of ADH and ALDH in the liver of the drunken mice were detected in the relieving alcoholism and preventing drunkenness experiment. [ Result] The taurine could significantly postpone the tolerance time of mice to the alcohol and shorten the duration of drunkenness, obviously decrease the ethanol concentration in the blood of the drunken mice and significantly increase the ADH and ALDH activities in the liver of the drunken mice. [ Conclusion ] The taurine had good effects of relieving alcoholism and preventing drunkenness and its action mechanism might be to increase the activities of ADH and ALDH activities in liver and speed up the metabolism of the ethanol and acetaldehyde, so as to relief their toxicity reaction to the organism.

  19. The Healthy Migrant Families Initiative: development of a culturally competent obesity prevention intervention for African migrants

    OpenAIRE

    2015-01-01

    Background Although obesity among immigrants remains an important area of study given the increasing migrant population in Australia and other developed countries, research on factors amenable to intervention is sparse. The aim of the study was to develop a culturally-competent obesity prevention program for sub-Saharan African (SSA) families with children aged 12–17 years using a community-partnered participatory approach. Methods A community-partnered participatory approach that allowed the...

  20. Dietary Regulation of PTEN Signaling and Mammary Tumor Initiating Cells: Implications for Breast Cancer Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-01

    carcinoma 25 15 Cribriform carcinoma 5 Adenosquamous carcinoma 5 5 Glandular carcinoma 5 Mammary carcinoma in situ 5 Lymph node hyperplasia 5... Glandular carcinoma 7.14 Mammary carcinoma in situ 5.00 Lymph node hyperplasia 5.00 14.29 Lymph node with metastasis 5.00 7.14 a n...2010. Bidirectional signaling of mammary epithelium and stroma: implications for breast cancer- preventive actions of dietary factors. J Nutr Biochem

  1. Using the Army Medical Cost Avoidance Model to prioritize preventive medicine initiatives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Cindy; McCoskey, Kelsey; Clasing, Jay; Kluchinsky, Timothy A

    2014-01-01

    The MCAM's ICD-9 Analysis Tool provides preventive medicine program developers with a powerful tool to demonstrate ROI. Previously disjointed cost components have been brought together in the MCAM to calculate the total medical cost avoided. Users are required to make 4 data entries. In response, the user receives the highly coveted medical cost avoidance that should be realized. The SPHMP example demonstrates how simple it is to use the MCAM to determine the expected ROI.

  2. Disposition of d-penicillamine, a promising drug for preventing alcohol-relapse. Influence of dose, chronic alcohol consumption and age: studies in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orrico, Alejandro; Martí-Prats, Lucía; Cano-Cebrián, M José; Polache, Ana; Zornoza, Teodoro; Granero, Luis

    2014-07-01

    Pharmacokinetic studies concerning d-penicillamine (an acetaldehyde sequestering agent) are scarce and have not evaluated the influence of chronic ethanol consumption and age on its disposition. Since recent preclinical studies propose d-penicillamine as a promising treatment for alcohol relapse, the main aim of the present work was to evaluate the influence of these two factors on d-penicillamine disposition in order to guide future clinical studies on the anti-relapse efficacy of this drug in alcoholism. Additionally, the effect of the administered dose was also evaluated. To this end, three studies were carried out. Study 1 assessed the influence of dose on d-penicillamine disposition, whereas studies 2 and 3 evaluated, respectively, the influence of chronic alcohol consumption and age. Rapid intravenous administrations of 2, 10 and 30 mg/kg of d-penicillamine were performed using young or adult ethanol-naïve rats or adult ethanol-experienced (subjected to a long-term ethanol self-administration protocol) rats. Pharmacokinetic parameters were derived from the biexponential model. Statistical analysis of CL, normalized AUC0 (∞) , V1 and k10 revealed that disposition, in the range plasma concentrations assayed, is non-linear both in young ethanol-naïve and in adult ethanol-experienced rats. Notably, no significant changes in t1/2 were detected. Chronic ethanol consumption significantly reduced CL values by 35% without affecting t1/2 . d-Penicillamine disposition was equivalent in young and adult animals. In conclusion, although DP pharmacokinetics is non-linear, the lack of significant alterations of the t1/2 would potentially simplify the clinical use of this drug. Chronic consumption of ethanol also alters d-penicillamine disposition but, again, does not modify t1/2.

  3. Interactive Voice Response for Relapse Prevention Following Cognitive-Behavioral Therapy for Alcohol Use Disorders: A Pilot Study

    OpenAIRE

    Rose, Gail L.; Skelly, Joan M.; Gary J Badger; Magdalena R. Naylor; HELZER, JOHN E.

    2012-01-01

    Relapse after alcoholism treatment is high. Alcohol Therapeutic Interactive Voice Response (ATIVR) is an automated telephone program for posttreatment self-monitoring, skills practice, and feedback. This pilot study examined feasibility of ATIVR. Participants (n = 21; 57% male) had access to ATIVR for 90 days following outpatient group cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT) to make daily reports of mood, confidence in sobriety, urges to use substances, and actual use. Reports of relapse or risk w...

  4. 77 FR 21778 - Disease, Disability, and Injury Prevention and Control Special Emphasis Panel (SEP): Initial Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-11

    ... Testing of a Clinic-Based Intervention to Increase Dual Protection against Unintended Pregnancy and STDs among High Risk Female Teens, FOA DP12- 001, initial review. In accordance with Section 10(a)(2) of the... Testing of a Clinic-Based Intervention to Increase Dual Protection against Unintended Pregnancy and...

  5. 76 FR 33304 - Disease, Disability, and Injury Prevention and Control Special Emphasis Panel (SEP): Initial Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-08

    ... Announcement (FOA) IP11-006; Strategies to Increase Health Care Providers Use of Population-Based Immunization Information Systems, FOA IP11-008; Effectiveness in an Intervention to Promote a Targeted Vaccination program in the Obstetrician-Gynecologist Setting, FOA IP11-009; initial review. Correction: The notice...

  6. 76 FR 24031 - Disease, Disability, and Injury Prevention and Control Special Emphasis Panel (SEP): Initial Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-29

    ... Announcement (FOA) IP11-006; Strategies to Increase Health Care Providers Use of Population-Based Immunization Information Systems, FOA IP11-008; and Effectiveness in an Intervention to Promote a Targeted Vaccination program in the Obstetrician- Gynecologist Setting, FOA IP11-009, initial review. In accordance...

  7. Policy options to stimulate social innovation initiatives addressing food waste prevention and reduction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vittuari, Matteo; Gaiani, Silvia; Politano, Alessandro; Timmermans, A.J.M.; Bos-Brouwers, H.E.J.

    2016-01-01

    The report builds on the knowledge created by the FUSIONS position paper “Stimulating social innovation through policy measures” that uses as key inputs the range of existing social innovation initiatives catalogued by FUSIONS WP4 in the inventory and draws on the outcomes of the WP3 Social Camp eve

  8. GM`s PICOS initiative on resource conservation and pollution prevention: Greening the supply chain

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pritchett, T. [General Motors Corp., Detroit, MI (United States)

    1997-12-31

    This paper is comprised of reprints of several related articles from business publications. The first article, on supply-side economics, describes efforts by General Motors to cut costs by encouraging suppliers to reduce the environmental impacts of their products. The PICOS{trademark} program of General Motors helps industrial identify and implement energy efficiency and pollution prevention projects that lower operating costs while reducing emissions linked to global climate change. The second article also describes the program, focusing on aspects of global competition.

  9. Behavior problems in children with mild intellectual disabilities: an initial step towards prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Embregts, Petri J C M; du Bois, Marleen Grimbel; Graef, Nathalie

    2010-01-01

    To develop prevention activities, an analysis is conducted of child and parent characteristics that occur significantly more often among children with a mild intellectual disability and behavior problems than among children with a mild intellectual disability and no behavior problems and their families. The sample consisted of 45 children attending schools for special education. Data were collected from the children, their parents, and their teachers. The instruments used are the Dutch version of the Parenting Stress Index, the Nijmegen Child-Rearing Situation Questionnaire and the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire for parents, teachers and children. On the basis of the results of parents on the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire, the research sample was divided into one group of children with behavior problems and one group without behavior problems. Parents of the children with behavior problems were found to feel less competent, more socially isolated, less satisfied about their relationship with their partner, and indicate more negative life occurrences than the parents of the children without behavior problems. Characteristics in the area of adaptability, mood, distractibility/hyperactivity, demandingness, reinforcement of parents, and acceptability were found to contribute to the total stress in the child-parent relationship for those children with behavior problems and their parents. On the basis of these results prevention activities will be developed and tested on their effectiveness.

  10. Librarian-initiated HIV/AIDS prevention intervention program outcome in rural communities in Oyo State, Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ajuwon, G A; Komolafe-Opadeji, H O; Ikhizama, B

    2013-01-01

    The objective of this study was to meet the HIV/AIDS information and service needs of citizens living in selected rural, underserved communities in Oyo State, Nigeria. This was a librarian-initiated intervention program (pre-post) study of heads of rural households in Oyo State. A questionnaire was used for pre- and post-intervention assessment. The education covered knowledge about HIV/AIDS, routes of transmission, prevention strategies, and attitude toward persons living with HIV. It increased participants' knowledge about AIDS and improved attitude toward those living with HIV. Provision and dissemination of information on HIV/AIDS through librarians to rural settlers is an important prevention strategy and librarians can make major contributions.

  11. Positive Prevention: Successful Approaches To Preventing Youthful Drug and Alcohol Use [and] La Prevencion Positiva: Metodos que han tenido exito en la prevencion del uso de drogas y alcohol entre la juventud.

    Science.gov (United States)

    American Association of School Administrators, Arlington, VA.

    The United States has the highest rate of youthful drug abuse of any industrialized country in the world. There is a growing awareness that drug and alcohol use are closely connected to other problems such as teenage suicide, adolescent pregnancy, traffic fatalities, juvenile delinquency, poor school performance, runaways, and dropouts. Youthful…

  12. Outpatient management of alcohol withdrawal syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muncie, Herbert L; Yasinian, Yasmin; Oge', Linda

    2013-11-01

    Approximately 2% to 9% of patients seen in a family physician's office have alcohol dependence. These patients are at risk of developing alcohol withdrawal syndrome if they abruptly abstain from alcohol use. Alcohol withdrawal syndrome begins six to 24 hours after the last intake of alcohol, and the signs and symptoms include tremors, agitation, nausea, sweating, vomiting, hallucinations, insomnia, tachycardia, hypertension, delirium, and seizures. Treatment aims to minimize symptoms, prevent complications, and facilitate continued abstinence from alcohol. Patients with mild or moderate alcohol withdrawal syndrome can be treated as outpatients, which minimizes expense and allows for less interruption of work and family life. Patients with severe symptoms or who are at high risk of complications should receive inpatient treatment. In addition to supportive therapy, benzodiazepines, either in a fixed-dose or symptom-triggered schedule, are recommended. Medication should be given at the onset of symptoms and continued until symptoms subside. Other medications, including carbamazepine, oxcarbazepine, valproic acid, and gabapentin, have less abuse potential but do not prevent seizures. Typically, physicians should see these patients daily until symptoms subside. Although effective treatment is an initial step in recovery, long-term success depends on facilitating the patient's entry into ongoing treatment.

  13. Early initiation of smoking and alcohol drinking as a predictor of lower forearm bone mineral density in late adolescence: a cohort study in girls.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raquel Lucas

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Adolescence is a critical stage for bone accrual. It is also decisive for the establishment of behaviors such as smoking and alcohol drinking. OBJECTIVE: To quantify the short- and long-term associations between smoking and drinking initiation and bone mineral density in adolescent girls. METHODS: We used prospective data from 731 girls identified in public and private schools in Porto, Portugal. Evaluations were conducted when participants were 13 and 17 years old. Bone mineral density (BMD was measured at the forearm by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry and weight, height and fat-free mass were measured. Pubertal development status was estimated using menarche age. Self-administered questionnaires were used to collect data on smoking and alcohol drinking, physical exercise and calcium and vitamin D intakes. BMD in early and late adolescence was analyzed as a continuous or dichotomous (Z-score cutoff: -1.0 variable. Associations were calculated using linear or logistic regression. RESULTS: Over one quarter of these girls had tried smoking by 13, while 59% had drunk alcoholic beverages and 20% had experienced both behaviors by that age. Lower mean BMD at 17 years of age was observed in girls who had ever smoked by 13, as well as in those who reported drinking at that age. There were no significant cross-sectional associations between experience and frequency of smoking or drinking and BMD at 13 years of age. However, we observed significant associations between BMD z-score<-1 in late adolescence and having ever smoked by 13, after adjustment for menarche age and sports practice, (OR = 1.92; 95% CI: 1.21, 3.05 and with ever smoking and drinking in the same period (OR = 2.33; 95% CI: 1.36, 4.00. CONCLUSION: Our study adds prospective evidence to the role of early initiation of smoking and alcohol drinking as relevant markers of lower bone mineral density in late adolescence.

  14. Diagnosing and quantification of acute alcohol intoxication. Comparison of dual-energy CT with biochemical analysis. Initial experience

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Korkusuz, H. [Frankfurt Univ. Hospital (Germany). Dept. of Nuclear Medicine; Abbas Raschidi, B.; Keese, D.; Kromen, W.; Bauer, R.W.; Vogl, T.J. [Frankfurt Univ. Hospital (Germany). Dept. of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology; Namgaladze, D. [Frankfurt Univ. (Germany). Dept. of Biochemistry

    2012-12-15

    Purpose: To quantify the correlation between fat content of an acute alcohol intoxication and the difference of computer tomography attenuation value in dual-energy CT in comparison to biochemical triglyceride analysis and to evaluate qualitatively the value of DECT in the diagnosis of fatty liver caused by ethanol-dosage in rats. Materials and Methods: DECT at 140 kV and 80 kV was performed on 20 rats before and two days after the administration of 3 ml of 50 % ethanol. The CT attenuation value in the livers at 140 kV, 80 kV and the differences between them in Hounsfield units ({Delta}H) were collected. Parts of the liver (100 mg) were measured in biochemical triglyceride analysis as the reference standard. A blood sample was also taken to measure specific liver enzymes. Results: Linear correlation between biochemical triglyceride analysis and CT density of {Delta}H was found (r = 0.949). 140 kV attenuation data were between 44 HU and 61.3 HU, 80 kV attenuation data were between 58.4 HU and 64.7 HU, and {Delta}H data were between 3.4 HU and 14.4 HU (p {<=} 0.037). The biochemical triglyceride analysis data were between 7.1 mg/g and 41.1 mg/g. The hepatic enzymes serum aspartate (ASAT) aminotransferase and alanine aminotransferase (ALAT) were elevated in all rats. ASAT correlated directly with {Delta}HU (r = -0.86). Conclusion: DECT provides a non-invasive method to determine and evaluate hepatic fat content after acute alcohol intoxication. It provides the possibility to detect and quantify the hepatic fat content of liver graft. (orig.)

  15. Economic Analysis of a Pediatric Ventilator-Associated Pneumonia Prevention Initiative in Nicaragua

    Science.gov (United States)

    Broughton, Edward I.; López, Sergio R.; Aguilar, María Nela; Somarriba, María Mercedes; Pérez, Magaly; Sánchez, Nieves

    2012-01-01

    We performed an economic analysis of an intervention to decrease ventilator-associated pneumonia (VAP) prevalence in pediatric intensive care units (PICUs) at two Nicaraguan hospitals to determine the cost of the intervention and how effective it needs to be in order to be cost-neutral. A matched cohort study determined differences in costs and outcomes among ventilated patients. VAP cases were matched by sex and age for children older than 28 days and by weight for infants under 28 days old to controls without VAP. Intervention costs were determined from accounting and PICU staff records. The intervention cost was approximately $7,000 for one year. If VAP prevalence decreased by 0.5%, hospitals would save $7,000 and the strategy would be cost-neutral. The finding that the intervention required only modest effectiveness to be cost-neutral and has potential to generate substantial cost savings argues for implementation of VAP prevention strategies in low-income countries like Nicaragua on a broader scale. PMID:22518174

  16. Economic Analysis of a Pediatric Ventilator-Associated Pneumonia Prevention Initiative in Nicaragua

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edward I. Broughton

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available We performed an economic analysis of an intervention to decrease ventilator-associated pneumonia (VAP prevalence in pediatric intensive care units (PICUs at two Nicaraguan hospitals to determine the cost of the intervention and how effective it needs to be in order to be cost-neutral. A matched cohort study determined differences in costs and outcomes among ventilated patients. VAP cases were matched by sex and age for children older than 28 days and by weight for infants under 28 days old to controls without VAP. Intervention costs were determined from accounting and PICU staff records. The intervention cost was approximately $7,000 for one year. If VAP prevalence decreased by 0.5%, hospitals would save $7,000 and the strategy would be cost-neutral. The finding that the intervention required only modest effectiveness to be cost-neutral and has potential to generate substantial cost savings argues for implementation of VAP prevention strategies in low-income countries like Nicaragua on a broader scale.

  17. Family time, parental behaviour model and the initiation of smoking and alcohol use by ten-year-old children: an epidemiological study in Kaunas, Lithuania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zaborskis Apolinaras

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Family is considered to be the first and the most important child development and socialization bond. Nevertheless, parental behaviour model importance for the children, as well as family time for shared activity amount influence upon the child's health-related behaviour habit development has not been yet thoroughly examined. The aim of this paper is to indicate the advanced health-hazardous behaviour modelling possibilities in the families, as well as time spent for joint family activities, and to examine the importance of time spent for joint family activities for the smoking and alcohol use habit initiation among children. Methods This research was carried out in Kaunas, Lithuania, during the school year 2004–2005. The research population consisted of 369 fifth-grade schoolchildren (211 (57.2% boys and 158 (42.8% girls and 565 parents: 323 (57.2% mothers and 242 (48.2% fathers. The response rate was 80.7% for children; 96.1% and 90.6% for mothers and fathers correspondingly. Results Eating a meal together was the most frequent joint family activity, whereas visiting friends or relatives together, going for a walk, or playing sports were the most infrequent joint family activities. More than two thirds (81.5% of parents (248 (77.0% mothers and 207 (85.9% fathers (p Conclusion Joint family activity time deficit together with frequent parental examples of smoking and alcohol use underlie the development of alcohol and smoking addictions in children to some extent. The above-mentioned issues are suggested to be widely addressed in the comprehensive family health education programs.

  18. Medium chain triglycerides dose-dependently prevent liver pathology in a rat model of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Metabolic syndrome is often accompanied by development of hepatic steatosis and less frequently by nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) leading to nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH). Replacement of corn oil with medium chain triacylglycerols (MCT) in the diets of alcohol-fed rats has been show...

  19. Perceptions of Drinking among Hispanic College Students: How Qualitative Research Can Inform the Development of Collegiate Alcohol Abuse Prevention Programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quintero, Gilbert A.; Young, Kathleen J.; Mier, Nelda; Jenks, Shepard, Jr.

    2005-01-01

    Alcohol abuse on college campuses continues to be a significant public health issue and health promotion strategies are being directed at changing the culture of collegiate drinking. From a qualitative research perspective such efforts remain uniformed since this area of research is currently dominated by large-scale surveys that illuminate little…

  20. Contrasts between the Perceptions of Parents and Their Adolescent Children Regarding Drug and Alcohol Use and Prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDuffie, Thomas E., Jr.; Bernt, Francis M.

    1993-01-01

    Surveyed 212 parent-adolescent pairs to examine their perceptions of adolescent drug use. Compared to adolescents, parents were more likely to list reasons for drug use with negative connotations. Parents underestimated use of alcohol and marijuana and frequency with which teenagers' friends became drunk or high relative to adolescents' estimates.…

  1. Risk moderation of a parent and student preventive alcohol intervention by adolescent and family factors : A cluster randomized trial

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verdurmen, Jacqueline E E; Koning, Ina M.; Vollebergh, Wilma A M; van den Eijnden, Regina J J M; Engels, Rutger C M E

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To examine risk moderation of an alcohol intervention targeting parents and adolescents. Design: A cluster randomized trial including 2937 Dutch early adolescents (m=12.68. years, SD=0.51) and their parents randomized over four conditions: parent intervention, student intervention, combin

  2. Myosin VI deafness mutation prevents the initiation of processive runs on actin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pylypenko, Olena; Song, Lin; Shima, Ai; Yang, Zhaohui; Houdusse, Anne M; Sweeney, H Lee

    2015-03-17

    Mutations in the reverse-direction myosin, myosin VI, are associated with deafness in humans and mice. A myosin VI deafness mutation, D179Y, which is in the transducer of the motor, uncoupled the release of the ATP hydrolysis product, inorganic phosphate (Pi), from dependency on actin binding and destroyed the ability of single dimeric molecules to move processively on actin filaments. We observed that processive movement is rescued if ATP is added to the mutant dimer following binding of both heads to actin in the absence of ATP, demonstrating that the mutation selectively destroys the initiation of processive runs at physiological ATP levels. A drug (omecamtiv) that accelerates the actin-activated activity of cardiac myosin was able to rescue processivity of the D179Y mutant dimers at physiological ATP concentrations by slowing the actin-independent release of Pi. Thus, it may be possible to create myosin VI-specific drugs that rescue the function of deafness-causing mutations.

  3. Parents' socialization of children's injury prevention: description and some initial parameters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peterson, L; Bartelstone, J; Kern, T; Gillies, R

    1995-02-01

    In a year-long participant observation study of remediative action following actual injury, 61 8- and 9-year-old children and their 27-46-year-old mothers wrote records and reported on more than 1,000 minor injuries in branching biweekly interviews. Mothers reported that 80.1% of injuries received no parent-initiated remediation, 14% received only a lecture, and less than 3% of injuries were followed by parental action. Children reported that 96.1% of their injuries were followed by no remediative action and recalled lectures after only 1.2% of injuries. Remediative action was related to type of child activity (e.g., unstructured play was followed by remediation more often than more purposive behavior) and to mother's affect (e.g., anger) and beliefs (e.g., that injury was the child's fault or due to rule violation). The parameters that influenced remediative consequences, and thus that may influence future injury, are discussed.

  4. Rapid Antiretroviral Therapy Initiation for Women in an HIV-1 Prevention Clinical Trial Experiencing Primary HIV-1 Infection during Pregnancy or Breastfeeding.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susan Morrison

    Full Text Available During an HIV-1 prevention clinical trial in East Africa, we observed 16 cases of primary HIV-1 infection in women coincident with pregnancy or breastfeeding. Nine of eleven pregnant women initiated rapid combination antiretroviral therapy (ART, despite having CD4 counts exceeding national criteria for ART initiation; breastfeeding women initiated ART or replacement feeding. Rapid ART initiation during primary HIV-1 infection during pregnancy and breastfeeding is feasible in this setting.

  5. Barriers to and acceptability of provider-initiated HIV testing and counselling and adopting HIV-prevention behaviours in rural Uganda: a qualitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiene, Susan M; Sileo, Katelyn; Wanyenze, Rhoda K; Lule, Haruna; Bateganya, Moses H; Jasperse, Joseph; Nantaba, Harriet; Jayaratne, Kia

    2015-02-01

    In Uganda, a nationwide scale-up of provider-initiated HIV testing and counselling presents an opportunity to deliver HIV-prevention services to large numbers of people. In a rural Ugandan hospital, focus group discussions and key informant interviews were conducted with outpatients receiving provider-initiated HIV testing and counselling and staff to explore the HIV-prevention information, motivation and behavioural skills strengths and weaknesses, and community-level and structural barriers to provider-initiated HIV testing and counselling acceptability and HIV prevention among this population. Strengths and weakness occurred at all levels, and results suggest brief client-centred interventions during provider-initiated HIV testing and counselling may be an effective approach to increase prevention behaviours in outpatient settings.

  6. Microcomputer-Based Approaches for Preventing Drug and Alcohol Abuse Among Adolescents from Ethnic-Racial Minority Backgrounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moncher, Michael S; Parms, Clifford A; Orlandi, Mario A; Schinke, Steven P; Miller, Samuel O; Palleja, Josephine; Schinke, Mary B

    1989-01-01

    This study was designed to empirically assess the potential of microcomputer-based intervention with black adolescents from economically disadvantaged backgrounds. Subjects were 26, 11 through 14-year-old black females and males recruited from three boroughs in New York City. A sample task was administered via microcomputer system followed by a postintervention measurement battery. Observational measures were also employed to assess interactional variables. Subjects' attitudes toward educational content in general, and toward drug and alcohol information delivery in particular, appeared to be a significant intervening variable that could alter the overall efficacy of computer-delivered interventions. Both observational and postintervention measures indicated an overall positive subject response to computer-administered instruction. In contrast, however, respondents indicated a negative response to microcomputer delivery of drug and alcohol related materials. Results of the experiment are discussed along with rationales and future research directions.

  7. Interactive voice response for relapse prevention following cognitive-behavioral therapy for alcohol use disorders: a pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rose, Gail L; Skelly, Joan M; Badger, Gary J; Naylor, Magdalena R; Helzer, John E

    2012-05-01

    Relapse after alcoholism treatment is high. Alcohol Therapeutic Interactive Voice Response (ATIVR) is an automated telephone program for posttreatment self-monitoring, skills practice, and feedback. This pilot study examined feasibility of ATIVR. Participants (n = 21; 57% male) had access to ATIVR for 90 days following outpatient group cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT) to make daily reports of mood, confidence in sobriety, urges to use substances, and actual use. Reports of relapse or risk were followed with additional questions. Participants received personalized therapist feedback based on responses, and could access recorded CBT skill reviews. Pre-post assessments included: alcohol consumption (Timeline Follow-Back), self-efficacy (Situational Confidence Questionnaire), and perceived coping ability (Effectiveness of Coping Behaviors Inventory). Participants called on 59% of scheduled days and continued making calls for an average of 84 days. Following ATIVR, participants gave feedback that ATIVR was easy to use and increased self-awareness. Participants particularly liked the therapist feedback component. Abstinence rate increased significantly during ATIVR (p = .03), and both self-efficacy and coping significantly improved from pre-CBT to post-ATIVR (p efficacy should be evaluated in a randomized controlled trial.

  8. Alcohol Alert

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... main content National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism (NIAAA) Main Menu Search Search form Search Alcohol & ... on a single aspect of alcohol abuse and alcoholism. Please click on the desired publication for full ...

  9. A Retrofit Theory to Prevent Fatigue Crack Initiation in Aging Riveted Bridges Using Carbon Fiber-Reinforced Polymer Materials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elyas Ghafoori

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Most research on fatigue strengthening of steel has focused on carbon fiber-reinforced polymer (CFRP strengthening of steel members with existing cracks. However, in many practical cases, aging steel members do not yet have existing cracks but rather are nearing the end of their designed fatigue life. Therefore, there is a need to develop a “proactive” retrofit solution that can prevent fatigue crack initiation in aging bridge members. Such a proactive retrofit approach can be applied to bridge members that have been identified to be deficient, based on structural standards, to enhance their safety margins by extending the design service life. This paper explains a proactive retrofit design approach based on constant life diagram (CLD methodology. The CLD approach is a method that can take into account the combined effect of alternating and mean stress magnitudes to predict the high-cycle fatigue life of a material. To validate the retrofit model, a series of new fatigue tests on steel I-beams retrofitted by the non-prestressed un-bonded CFRP plates have been conducted. Furthermore, this paper attempts to provide a better understanding of the behavior of un-bonded retrofit (UR and bonded retrofit (BR systems. Retrofitting the steel beams using the UR system took less than half of the time that was needed for strengthening with the BR system. The results show that the non-prestressed un-bonded ultra-high modulus (UHM CFRP plates can be effective in preventing fatigue crack initiation in steel members.

  10. P2X4 receptors (P2X4Rs represent a novel target for the development of drugs to prevent and/or treat alcohol use disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kelle M. Franklin

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Alcohol use disorders (AUDs have a staggering socioeconomic impact. Few therapeutic options are available, and they are largely inadequate. These shortcomings highlight the urgent need to develop effective medications to prevent and/or treat AUDs. A critical barrier is the lack of information regarding the molecular target(s by which ethanol (EtOH exerts its pharmacological activity. This review highlights findings implicating P2X4 receptors (P2X4Rs as a target for the development of therapeutics to treat AUDs and discusses the use of ivermectin (IVM as a potential clinical tool for treatment of AUDs. P2XRs are a family of ligand-gated ion channels activated by extracellular ATP. Of the P2XR subtypes, P2X4Rs are expressed the most abundantly in the CNS. Converging evidence suggests that P2X4Rs are involved in the development and progression of AUDs. First, in vitro studies report that pharmacologically relevant EtOH concentrations can negatively modulate ATP-activated currents. Second, P2X4Rs in the mesocorticolimbic dopamine system are thought to play a role in synaptic plasticity and are located ideally to modulate brain reward systems. Third, alcohol-preferring (P rats have lower functional expression of the p2rx4 gene than alcohol-non-preferring (NP rats suggesting an inverse relationship between alcohol intake and P2X4R expression. Similarly, whole brain p2rx4 expression has been shown to relate inversely to innate 24 hr alcohol preference across 28 strains of rats. Fourth, mice lacking the p2rx4 gene drink more EtOH than wildtype controls. Fifth, IVM, a positive modulator of P2X4Rs, antagonizes EtOH-mediated inhibition of P2X4Rs in vitro and reduces EtOH intake and preference in vivo. These findings suggest that P2X4Rs contribute to EtOH intake. The present review summarizes recent findings focusing on the P2X4R as a molecular target of EtOH action, its role in EtOH drinking behavior and modulation of its activity by IVM as a potential

  11. Increases in Recent HIV Testing Among Men Who Have Sex With Men Coincide With the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention's Expanded Testing Initiative

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooley, Laura A.; Wejnert, Cyprian; Rose, Charles E.; Paz-Bailey, Gabriela; Taussig, Jennifer; Gern, Robert; Hoyte, Tamika; Salazar, Laura; White, Jianglan; Todd, Jeff; Bautista, Greg; Flynn, Colin; Sifakis, Frangiscos; German, Danielle; Isenberg, Debbie; Driscoll, Maura; Hurwitz, Elizabeth; Doherty, Rose; Wittke, Chris; Prachand, Nikhil; Benbow, Nanette; Melville, Sharon; Pannala, Praveen; Yeager, Richard; Sayegh, Aaron; Dyer, Jim; Sheu, Shane; Novoa, Alicia; Thrun, Mark; Al-Tayyib, Alia; Wilmoth, Ralph; Higgins, Emily; Griffin, Vivian; Mokotoff, Eve; MacMaster, Karen; Wolverton, Marcia; Risser, Jan; Rehman, Hafeez; Padgett, Paige; Bingham, Trista; Sey, Ekow Kwa; LaLota, Marlene; Metsch, Lisa; Forrest, David; Beck, Dano; Cardenas, Gabriel; Nemeth, Chris; Anderson, Bridget J.; Watson, Carol-Ann; Smith, Lou; Robinson, William T.; Gruber, DeAnn; Barak, Narquis; Murrill, Chris; Neaigus, Alan; Jenness, Samuel; Hagan, Holly; Reilly, Kathleen H.; Wendel, Travis; Cross, Helene; Bolden, Barbara; D'Errico, Sally; Wogayehu, Afework; Godette, Henry; Brady, Kathleen A.; Kirkland, Althea; Sifferman, Andrea; Miguelino-Keasling, Vanessa; Velasco, Al; Tovar, Veronica; Raymond, H. Fisher; De León, Sandra Miranda; Rolón-Colón, Yadira; Marzan, Melissa; Courogen, Maria; Jaenicke, Tom; Thiede, Hanne; Burt, Richard; Jia, Yujiang; Opoku, Jenevieve; Sansone, Marie; West, Tiffany; Magnus, Manya; Kuo, Irene

    2015-01-01

    According to National HIV Behavioral Surveillance system data, human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) testing increased among gay, bisexual, and other men who have sex with men from 2008 to 2011 in cities funded by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention's Expanded Testing Initiative, suggesting that focused HIV testing initiatives might have positive effects. PMID:25352589

  12. Increases in Recent HIV Testing Among Men Who Have Sex With Men Coincide With the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention's Expanded Testing Initiative

    OpenAIRE

    2014-01-01

    According to National HIV Behavioral Surveillance system data, human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) testing increased among gay, bisexual, and other men who have sex with men from 2008 to 2011 in cities funded by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention's Expanded Testing Initiative, suggesting that focused HIV testing initiatives might have positive effects.

  13. 76 FR 16798 - National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-25

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice... personal privacy. Name of Committee: National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism Initial Review... Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism, National Institutes of Health, 5635 Fishers Lane, Room...

  14. 75 FR 42450 - National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-21

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice... personal privacy. Name of Committee: National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism Initial Review... Gunzerath, PhD, MBA, Scientific Review Officer, National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism,...

  15. 78 FR 21616 - National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-11

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice... personal privacy. Name of Committee: National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism Initial Review... Foster, Ph.D., Scientific Review Officer, National Institute on Alcohol Abuse & Alcoholism,...

  16. 75 FR 42451 - National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-21

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice... personal privacy. Name of Committee: National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism, Initial Review... Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism, National Institutes of Health, 5635 Fishers Lane, Room...

  17. 77 FR 22795 - National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-17

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice... personal privacy. Name of Committee: National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism Initial Review... National Institutes of Health, National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism, 5635 Fishers Lane,...

  18. 77 FR 22793 - National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-17

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice... personal privacy. Name of Committee: National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism Initial Review... Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism, National Institutes of Health, 5635 Fishers Lane, RM...

  19. 75 FR 10293 - National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-05

    ... National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice of Closed Meeting Pursuant to section 10(d) of... Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism, Initial Review Group Neuroscience Review Subcommittee. Date: June... Buzas, PhD. Scientific Review Officer, National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism,...

  20. 75 FR 43534 - National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-26

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice... personal privacy. Name of Committee: National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Initial Review... Officer, National Institutes of Health, National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism, 5635...

  1. 76 FR 44600 - National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-26

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice... personal privacy. Name of Committee: National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism Initial Review... Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism, National Institutes of Health, 5635 Fishers Lane, RM...

  2. 77 FR 52337 - National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice of Closed Meetings

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-29

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice... personal privacy. Name of Committee: National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism Initial Review... Foster, Ph.D., Scientific Review Officer, National Institute on Alcohol Abuse & Alcoholism,...

  3. 78 FR 41940 - National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-12

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice... personal privacy. Name of Committee: National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism Initial Review... Health, National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism, 5635 Fishers Lane, RM 2019, Bethesda,...

  4. 77 FR 1706 - National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-11

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice... personal privacy. Name of Committee: National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism Initial Review... Buzas, Ph.D., Scientific Review Officer, National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism,...

  5. 76 FR 2128 - National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice of Closed Meeting

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    2011-01-12

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice... personal privacy. Name of Committee: National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism Initial Review.... Srinivas, PhD, Scientific Review Officer, National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism,...

  6. 75 FR 69091 - National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice of Closed Meeting

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    2010-11-10

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice... personal privacy. Name of Committee: National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism Initial Review... Officer, National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism, National Institutes of Health, 5635...

  7. 75 FR 69090 - National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice of Closed Meeting

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    2010-11-10

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice... personal privacy. Name of Committee: National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Initial Review... Officer, National Institutes of Health, National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism, 5635...

  8. 78 FR 75929 - National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice of Closed Meeting

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    2013-12-13

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice... personal privacy. Name of Committee: National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism Initial Review... review and evaluate grant applications. Place: National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism,...

  9. 75 FR 13293 - National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-19

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice... personal privacy. Name of Committee: National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism, Initial Review... Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism, 5635 Fishers Lane, Rm. 2019, Bethesda, MD 20892. 301-443-2861....

  10. 76 FR 44599 - National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice of Closed Meeting

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    2011-07-26

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice... personal privacy. Name of Committee: National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism Initial Review.... Foster, PhD, Scientific Review officer, National Institute on Alcohol Abuse & Alcoholism,...

  11. 75 FR 10489 - National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-08

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice... personal privacy. Name of Committee: National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism, Initial Review..., PhD, Scientific Review Officer, National Institute on Alcohol Abuse & Alcoholism, National...

  12. Preventing HIV transmission among Iranian prisoners: Initial support for providing education on the benefits of harm reduction practices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Millson Peggy

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Harm reduction is a health-centred approach that seeks to reduce the health and social harms associated with high-risk behaviors, such as illicit drug use. The objective of this study is to determine the association between the beliefs of a group of adult, male prisoners in Iran about the transmission of HIV and their high-risk practices while in prison. Methods A cross-sectional study was conducted in 2004. The study population was a random selection of 100 men incarcerated at Rajaei-Shahr prison. The data were collected through a self-administered questionnaire. Focus group discussions were held at the prison to guide the design of the questionnaire. The relationship between components of the Health Belief Model (HBM and prisoners' risky HIV-related behaviors was examined. Results Calculating Pearson's correlation coefficient, a significant, positive association was found between the benefit component of the HBM and prisoners not engaging in HIV high-risk behaviors. Conclusion Educational harm reduction initiatives that promote the effectiveness of strategies designed to reduce the risk of HIV transmission may decrease prisoners' high-risk behaviors. This finding provides initial support for the Iran prison system's current offering of HIV/AIDS harm reduction programming and suggests the need to offer increased education about the effectiveness of HIV prevention practices.

  13. Relationship between alcohol craving levels and sleep disorders in the initial stage of withdrawal of alcohol dependence patients%酒依赖患者戒断初期酒精渴求程度与睡眠障碍的关系

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杜好瑞; 李拴荣; 穆俊林; 徐建强; 王传升; 崔二龙; 李冲

    2014-01-01

    Objective To explore the characteristic of sleep disorders in the initial stage of withdrawal and their relationships with alcohol craving levels in alcohol dependence (AD) patients,and provide support for diagnosis and prevention of re-drinking.Methods Thirty-two AD inpatients were assigned to AD group and 20 male healthy volunteers to control group.Alcohol craving was assessed with the Pennsylvania Alcohol Craving Scale (PACS) within the 2nd week after alcohol withdrawal for AD patients,and then the whole-night polysomnogram (PSG) tracings were conducted on the day of the night.Results The five item scores of the PACS were from 3.48 to 4.26 in AD patients.The sleep latency was(42.48±22.42) min,total sleep time was(289.61± 103.22)min,sleep efficiency was(71.45± 19.86) %,S1 sleep was (23.47± 11.07) %,arousal frequencies was (8.01 ± 2.77),S3+4 sleep was(6.26±5.35)% in AD group.Compared with control group((19.65±8.57) min,(407.33±21.29) min,(81.52 ± 6.46) %,(8.79± 1.83) %,(2.17 ± 1.04),(15.87 ± 5.24) % respectively),the differences had statistical significances(t=2.206-9.082,P< 0.05-0.001).Alcohol craving levels were positively related to sleep latency,arousal frequencies and S1 sleep (r=0.424-0.898,P<0.05-0.01) and negatively to total sleep time,sleep efficiency and S3+4 sleep (r=-0.416--0.662,P<0.05-0.01) in AD group.Conclusion AD patients have sleep continuity and structure disturbances in the initial stage of alcohol withdrawal,sleep continuity and structure disturbances are related to alcohol craving.Improvements of sleep disorders should be paid during clinical alcohol dependence treatment.%目的 探讨酒依赖患者酒精戒断初期睡眠障碍的特点,及其与饮酒渴求程度的关系,为临床诊治和防止复饮提供帮助.方法 以32例住院治疗的酒依赖患者为酒依赖组,20例男性健康志愿者为对照组,在酒精戒断后第2周内,酒依赖组采用宾夕

  14. Early age alcohol use and later alcohol problems in adolescents: individual and peer mediators in a bi-national study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mason, W Alex; Toumbourou, John W; Herrenkohl, Todd I; Hemphill, Sheryl A; Catalano, Richard F; Patton, George C

    2011-12-01

    This paper examines whether there is cross-national similarity in the longitudinal relationship between early age alcohol use and adolescent alcohol problems. Potential mechanisms underlying this relationship also are examined, testing adolescent alcohol use, low self-regulation, and peer deviance as possible mediators. Students (N = 1,945) participating in the International Youth Development Study, a longitudinal panel survey study, responded to questions on alcohol use and influencing factors, and were followed annually over a 3-year period from 2002 to 2004 (98% retention rate). State-representative, community student samples were recruited in grade 7 in Washington State, United States (US, n = 961, 78% of those eligible; Mage = 13.09, SD = .44) and Victoria, Australia (n = 984, 76% of those eligible; Mage = 12.93, SD = .41). Analyses were conducted using multiple-group structural equation modeling. In both states, early age alcohol use (age 13) had a small but statistically significant association with subsequent alcohol problems (age 15). Overall, there was little evidence for mediation of early alcohol effects. Low self-regulation prospectively predicted peer deviance, alcohol use, and alcohol problems in both states. Peer deviance was more positively related to alcohol use and low self-regulation among students in Victoria compared to students in Washington State. The small but persistent association of early age alcohol use with alcohol problems across both samples is consistent with efforts to delay alcohol initiation to help prevent problematic alcohol use. Self-regulation was an important influence, supporting the need to further investigate the developmental contribution of neurobehavioral disinhibition.

  15. Effectiveness of the Strengthening Families Programme 10–14 in Poland for the prevention of alcohol and drug misuse: protocol for a randomized controlled trial

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    Okulicz-Kozaryn Katarzyna

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Alcohol and other drug use and misuse is a significant problem amongst Polish youth. The SFP10-14 is a family-based prevention intervention that has positive results in US trials, but questions remain about the generalizability of these results to other countries and settings. Methods/Design A cluster randomized controlled trial in community settings across Poland. Communities will be randomized to a SFP10-14 trial arm or to a control arm. Recruitment and consent of families, and delivery of the SFP10-14, will be undertaken by community workers. The primary outcomes are alcohol and other drug use and misuse. Secondary (or intermediate outcomes include parenting practices, parent–child relations, and child problem behaviour. Interview-based questionnaires will be administered at baseline, 12 and 24 months. Discussion The trial will provide information about the effectiveness of the SFP10-14 in Poland. Trial registration International Standard Randomised Controlled Trial Number: ISRCTN89673828

  16. The progress in developing natural drugs for prevention and cure of alcoholic intoxication%解酒天然药物研究进展

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张若明; 李经才

    2001-01-01

    It has been found that excessive ingestion of ethanol usuallybrings about physical dyfunction,even death. The article reviewed the characterization of ethanol metabolism,the kinds of drugs for prevention and cure of alcoholic intoxication,the mechanism for lowering blood alcoholic level,the structure-activity relationships from some natural drugs,and the effects of complex prescriptions of traditional Chinese medicines.%过量饮酒可引起人体生理功能紊乱乃至死亡,开发有效的解酒药物具有重要的意义和广阔的市场前景。当前天然解酒药物的作用机制是通过抑制乙醇胃肠吸收和加速代谢以降低机体血醇浓度,解除醉酒状态。文章论述了人参、葛花、枳木具子等多种天然解酒药物的单方和复方解酒作用药理研究的最新进展,探讨其活性成分的构效关系;并对此类药物今后的研制方向提出浅见。

  17. An integrated approach to preventing cardiovascular disease: community-based approaches, health system initiatives, and public health policy

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    Tina Karwalajtys

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Tina Karwalajtys1, Janusz Kaczorowski2,31Department of Family Medicine, McMaster University, Hamilton, ON, Canada; 2Primary Care & Community Research, Child & Family Research Institute, Vancouver, BC, Canada; 3Department of Family Practice, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, BC, CanadaAbstract: Cardiovascular disease (CVD is largely the product of interactions among modifiable risk factors that are common in developed nations and increasingly of concern in developing countries. Hypertension is an important precursor to the development of CVD, and although detection and treatment rates have improved in recent years in some jurisdictions, effective strategies and policies supporting a shift in distribution of risk factors at the population level remain paramount. Challenges in managing cardiovascular health more effectively include factors at the patient, provider, and system level. Strategies to reduce hypertension and CVD should be population based, incorporate multilevel, multicomponent, and socioenvironmental approaches, and integrate community resources with public health and clinical care. There is an urgent need to improve monitoring and management of risk factors through community-wide, primary care-linked initiatives, increase the evidence base for community-based prevention strategies, further develop and evaluate promising program components, and develop new approaches to support healthy lifestyle behaviors in diverse age, socioeconomic, and ethnocultural groups. Policy and system changes are critical to reduce risk in populations, including legislation and public education to reduce dietary sodium and trans-fatty acids, food pricing policies, and changes to health care delivery systems to explicitly support prevention and management of CVD.Keywords: risk factors, blood pressure determination, community health services, community health planning, public health practice

  18. An Effective Family Skills-based Intervention for the Prevention of Health Problems in Children of Alcohol and Drug-Abusing Parents

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    Karol l. Kumpfer

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. There is a need forwide-scale dissemination of effective family-focused skills trainingprograms for the prevention of multiple developmental problems and later substance misuse amonghigh-risk children. Independent reviews have found the author’s Strengthening Families Program (SFP tobe the most effective substance abuse prevention intervention. Cultural adaptations have resulted in successful SFP outcomes in many countries, including in Spain as detailed in the Orte article. This article reviews 30 year history of implementation and outcomes of SFP in different cultures with cultural adaptations. Methods: The SEM-tested Social Ecology Model (Kumpfer, Alvarado, &Whiteside, 2003 is presented and reveals that family factors (bonding, supervision, and communication are the most protective of later substanceuse.Hence, this causal theory served as the etiological theory behind the design of the 14-session SFP.Social cognitive behavior theory (Bandura, 1989 is the intervention theory. The Strengthening Families Program(SFP was the first family skills training program developed and found effective in a randomized control trial (RCT to improve outcomes for children of dug abusers.Many countries requested to replicate SFP; hence, staff training systems were developed and a cultural adaptation process. Results: Eight RCTs, four conducted by independent research teams, and hundreds of quasi-experimental studies in different countrieshave demonstrated SFP’s effectiveness in reducing substance use in adolescents with up to 10-yearfollow-ups. Comparative effectiveness reviews including ones using statistical meta-analysis by theOxford University Cochrane Collaboration Reviews, found SFP to be the most effective alcohol and drug prevention program (Foxcroft, et al., 2003. A cost-benefit analysis by Miller and Hendrie (2008 found SFP prevented the highest percentage of youth from using alcohol and drugs. Cultural adaptation is a mandated

  19. Dietary phytochemicals and cancer prevention: Nrf2 signaling, epigenetics, and cell death mechanisms in blocking cancer initiation and progression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jong Hun; Khor, Tin Oo; Shu, Limin; Su, Zheng-Yuan; Fuentes, Francisco; Kong, Ah-Ng Tony

    2013-01-01

    Reactive metabolites from carcinogens and oxidative stress can drive genetic mutations, genomic instability, neoplastic transformation, and ultimately carcinogenesis. Numerous dietary phytochemicals in vegetables/fruits have been shown to possess cancer chemopreventive effects in both preclinical animal models and human epidemiological studies. These phytochemicals could prevent the initiation of carcinogenesis via either direct scavenging of reactive oxygen species/reactive nitrogen species (ROS/RNS) or, more importantly, the induction of cellular defense detoxifying/antioxidant enzymes. These defense enzymes mediated by Nrf2-antioxidative stress and anti-inflammatory signaling pathways can contribute to cellular protection against ROS/RNS and reactive metabolites of carcinogens. In addition, these compounds would kill initiated/transformed cancer cells in vitro and in in vivo xenografts via diverse anti-cancer mechanisms. These mechanisms include the activation of signaling kinases (e.g., JNK), caspases and the mitochondria damage/cytochrome c pathways. Phytochemicals may also have anti-cancer effects by inhibiting the IKK/NF-κB pathway, inhibiting STAT3, and causing cell cycle arrest. In addition, other mechanisms may include epigenetic alterations (e.g., inhibition of HDACs, miRNAs, and the modification of the CpG methylation of cancer-related genes). In this review, we will discuss: the current advances in the study of Nrf2 signaling; Nrf2-deficient tumor mouse models; the epigenetic control of Nrf2 in tumorigenesis and chemoprevention; Nrf2-mediated cancer chemoprevention by naturally occurring dietary phytochemicals; and the mutation or hyper-expression of the Nrf2–Keap1 signaling pathway in advanced tumor cells. The future development of dietary phytochemicals for chemoprevention must integrate in vitro signaling mechanisms, relevant biomarkers of human diseases, and combinations of different phytochemicals and/or non-toxic therapeutic drugs, including

  20. Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caley, Linda M.; Kramer, Charlotte; Robinson, Luther K.

    2005-01-01

    Fetal alcohol spectrum disorder (FASD) is a serious and widespread problem in this country. Positioned within the community with links to children, families, and healthcare systems, school nurses are a critical element in the prevention and treatment of those affected by fetal alcohol spectrum disorder. Although most school nurses are familiar…

  1. Preventive effect of D-002, a mixture of long-chain alcohols from beeswax, on the liver damage induced with CCl4 in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mendoza, Sarahí; Noa, Miriam; Pérez, Yohani; Mas, Rosa

    2007-06-01

    D-002 is a mixture of higher aliphatic primary alcohols purified from beeswax with antioxidant effects. Acute hepatotoxicity induced with CCl4 in rats has been related to increased hepatic lipid peroxidation and prevented with some antioxidants. This study investigated whether D-002 could prevent the acute CCl4-induced hepatotoxicity in rats. Animals were randomly distributed into four groups: a negative control treated orally with the vehicle and three groups injected with CCl4 (1 mL/kg) and treated orally either with the vehicle (positive control) or with D-002 (25 and 100 mg/kg). Eighteen hours after CCl4 dosing, rats were anesthetized, and livers were removed for histopathological studies. Some portions were taken and homogenized for assessing malondialdehyde (MDA) concentrations. Positive, but not negative, controls showed ballooned cells, swollen hepatocytes, and lipid-included hepatocytes, as well as necrotic areas and inflammatory infiltrates. D-002 (25 and 100 mg/kg) dose-dependently and significantly (P < .01) decreased the frequency of all abnormal liver cell types and increased that of normal hepatocytes compared with the positive controls, not showing necrotic areas or inflammatory infiltrates. D-002 dose-dependently decreased hepatic MDA levels, but only in the highest dose group were these levels significantly lower than in the positive control. In conclusion, D-002 effectively prevented the histological liver disturbances and lowered MDA levels, a marker of cellular lipid peroxidation, in rats treated with CCl4. Since increased liver lipid peroxidation has been postulated as a cause of CCl4-induced liver damage in rats, the preventive effects of D-002 could be due to its antioxidant action, but such a proposal still requires further research.

  2. Evaluation of the CASPAR alcohol education curriculum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DiCicco, L; Biron, R; Carifio, J; Deutsch, C; Mills, D J; Orenstein, A; Re, A; Unterberger, H; White, R E

    1984-03-01

    The CASPAR education-prevention program was initiated when experimental results indicated that a 5-hr alcohol education curriculum at a Catholic high school was able to reduce frequent intoxication among teenagers. Attempts to institutionalize such a program in the public schools shows that (1) alcohol education can generate widespread community and school support; (2) workshops can successfully train teachers to adopt a decision-making approach, though close supervision is needed to ensure that this approach is adhered to in classroom teaching; (3) the CASPAR model of alcohol education produces classroom situations conducive to many children feeling free to express alcohol-related concerns; (4) trained teachers can serve as intermediaries between students with alcohol-related concerns and community resources, in particular those resources that are designed to help children from families with alcoholism; (5) the CASPAR curriculum, implemented by trained teachers, produces statistically significant knowledge and attitude gains, whereas alternate programs such as a special-events approach produce smaller knowledge gains and little attitude change; and (6) to a considerable extent, knowledge and attitude gains persist over time, although retention is greater on knowledge items and among older students. The results suggest that there may be a behavioral impact of instruction in the form of reduced alcohol misuse among teenagers, although if there is, it requires intensive and repeated exposure and can be demonstrated in these data only among younger students while they remain in junior high school. Although such results may be viewed as less supportive than the original experiment with which this work began, they do suggest that alcohol education remains an effective prevention strategy.

  3. Effects of initial pH value of the medium on the alcoholic fermentation performance of Saccharomyces cerevisiae cells immobilized on nipa leaf sheath pieces

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    Hoang Duc Toan Le

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Immobilized yeast on nipa leaf sheath pieces was applied to ethanol fermentation using the medium with different initial pH values (5.1, 4.5, 4.0, and 3.5. Control samples with the free yeast were also carried out under the same conditions. Low pH value of 4.0 or 3.5 significantly reduced yeast growth and increased the residual sugar level in the fermentation broths for both the immobilized and free cells. In all cases, the ethanol content produced and ethanol formation rate of the immobilized yeast were 13-33% and 35-69%, respectively, higher than those of the free yeast. In addition, the residual sugar content in the immobilized yeast cultures was 2.1-20.5 times lower than that in the free yeast cultures. The yeast immobilized on nipa leaf stem pieces exhibited higher alcoholic fermentation performance than the free yeast in medium with low pH value. This support was potential for further research for application in ethanol industry.

  4. Alcohol Intolerance

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... beer-alcohol.aspx. Accessed Jan. 16, 2015. Alcohol angioedema and uticaria. American Academy of Allergy, Asthma & Immunology. http://www.aaaai.org/ask-the-expert/alcohol-angioedema-urticaria.aspx. Accessed Jan. 16, 2015. Alcohol and ...

  5. Adolescent Alcohol Consumption in Romania: A Blueprint for Measuring Alcohol (mis)Use

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoof, van Joris J.; Moll, Marit

    2012-01-01

    In order to address the issues of adolescent alcohol (mis)use in Romanian cities and to develop local alcohol prevention policies comprised of interventions aimed at reducing alcohol consumption and alcohol related problems, information on the prevalence of alcohol use and relevant related topics is

  6. Docosahexaenoic acid prevents trans-10, cis-12 conjugated linoleic acid-induced non-alcoholic fatty liver disease in mice by altering expression of hepatic genes regulating fatty acid synthesis and oxidation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Background: Concomitant supplementation with docosahexaenoic acid (22:6 n-3; DHA) prevented t10, c12- conjugated linoleic acid (CLA)-induced non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) and insulin resistance. Effective dose of DHA and mechanisms involved are poorly understood. Methods: We examined abi...

  7. Barriers to a Career Focus in Cancer Prevention: A Report and Initial Recommendations From the American Society of Clinical Oncology Cancer Prevention Workforce Pipeline Work Group

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyskens, Frank L.; Bajorin, Dean F.; George, Thomas J.; Jeter, Joanne M.; Khan, Shakila; Tyne, Courtney A.; William, William N.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose To assist in determining barriers to an oncology career incorporating cancer prevention, the American Society of Clinical Oncology (ASCO) Cancer Prevention Workforce Pipeline Work Group sponsored surveys of training program directors and oncology fellows. Methods Separate surveys with parallel questions were administered to training program directors at their fall 2013 retreat and to oncology fellows as part of their February 2014 in-training examination survey. Forty-seven (67%) of 70 training directors and 1,306 (80%) of 1,634 oncology fellows taking the in-training examination survey answered questions. Results Training directors estimated that ≤ 10% of fellows starting an academic career or entering private practice would have a career focus in cancer prevention. Only 15% of fellows indicated they would likely be interested in cancer prevention as a career focus, although only 12% thought prevention was unimportant relative to treatment. Top fellow-listed barriers to an academic career were difficulty in obtaining funding and lower compensation. Additional barriers to an academic career with a prevention focus included unclear career model, lack of clinical mentors, lack of clinical training opportunities, and concerns about reimbursement. Conclusion Reluctance to incorporate cancer prevention into an oncology career seems to stem from lack of mentors and exposure during training, unclear career path, and uncertainty regarding reimbursement. Suggested approaches to begin to remedy this problem include: 1) more ASCO-led and other prevention educational resources for fellows, training directors, and practicing oncologists; 2) an increase in funded training and clinical research opportunities, including reintroduction of the R25T award; 3) an increase in the prevention content of accrediting examinations for clinical oncologists; and 4) interaction with policymakers to broaden the scope and depth of reimbursement for prevention counseling and

  8. Feasibility of a community intervention for the prevention of suicide and alcohol abuse with Yup'ik Alaska Native youth: the Elluam Tungiinun and Yupiucimta Asvairtuumallerkaa studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohatt, Gerald V; Fok, Carlotta Ching Ting; Henry, David; Allen, James

    2014-09-01

    The Elluam Tungiinun and Yupiucimta Asvairtuumallerkaa studies evaluated the feasibility of a community intervention to prevent suicide and alcohol abuse among rural Yup'ik Alaska Native youth in two remote communities. The intervention originated in an Indigenous model of protection, and its development used a community based participatory research process. Feasibility assessment aimed to assess the extent to which (1) the intervention could be implemented in rural Alaska Native communities, and (2) the intervention was capable of producing measurable effects. Scales maximally sensitive to change were derived from earlier measurement work, and the study contrasted implementation process and outcomes across the two communities. In one community, medium dose response effects (d = .30-.50), with dose defined as number of intervention activities attended, were observed in the growth of intermediate protective factors and ultimate variables. In the other community, medium dose effects were observed for one intermediate protective factor variable, and small dose effects were observed in ultimate variables. Differences across communities in resources supporting intervention explain these contrasting outcomes. Results suggest implementation in these rural Alaska settings is feasible when sufficient resources are available to sustain high levels of local commitment. In such cases, measureable effects are sufficient to warrant a prevention trial.

  9. Perspectives on the neuroscience of alcohol from the National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reilly, Matthew T; Noronha, Antonio; Warren, Kenneth

    2014-01-01

    Mounting evidence over the last 40 years clearly indicates that alcoholism (alcohol dependence) is a disorder of the brain. The National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism (NIAAA) has taken significant steps to advance research into the neuroscience of alcohol. The Division of Neuroscience and Behavior (DNB) was formed within NIAAA in 2002 to oversee, fund, and direct all research areas that examine the effects of alcohol on the brain, the genetic underpinnings of alcohol dependence, the neuroadaptations resulting from excessive alcohol consumption, advanced behavioral models of the various stages of the addiction cycle, and preclinical medications development. This research portfolio has produced important discoveries in the etiology, treatment, and prevention of alcohol abuse and dependence. Several of these salient discoveries are highlighted and future areas of neuroscience research on alcohol are presented.

  10. Initiation and Continuation of Best Friends and Adolescents' Alcohol Consumption: Do Self-Esteem and Self-Control Function as Moderators?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larsen, Helle; Overbeek, Geertjan; Vermulst, Ad A.; Granic, Isabela; Engels, Rutger C. M. E.

    2010-01-01

    In this three-wave longitudinal survey, we investigated bi-directional longitudinal associations between best friends and adolescents' alcohol consumption. Additionally, since the relation between best friends and adolescents' drinking may be stronger if adolescents have not consumed alcohol yet, we examined this relation not only with regard to…

  11. Development Review of Breath-based Alcohol Detecting Technology and Its Applications to Prevent Drunk Driving%呼气式酒检技术及其防醉驾应用的发展综述

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    段富海; 孙丹; 赵奎兵; 王成瑞; 母刚

    2012-01-01

    According to the domestic and foreign development status, reviews on breath-based alcohol detecting technology and its applications to prevent drunk driving are given from breath alcohol testing standards, expiratory gas sample collection methods, influence the accuracy of alcohol detection factors, advantages and disadvantages and usage restrictions of various expiratory type alcohol testing technology, some practical application measures of prevent alcohol-impaired drivingdevice, et al. Finally, several suggestions on further development are given.%根据国内外发展现状,从呼气酒检标准和气样采集方法、影响酒检结果准确性的因素、各种酒检技术优缺点、防酒驾应用的若干实用措施等方面,对呼气酒检技术及其防醉驾应用做出综述,并给出发展建议。

  12. A Novel Antihepatitis Drug, Bicyclol, Prevents Liver Carcinogenesis in Diethylnitrosamine-Initiated and Phenobarbital-Promoted Mice Tumor Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hua Sun

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Bicyclol, an antihepatitis drug developed by Chinese scientists, has been shown to prevent the malignant transformation induced by 3-methylcholanthrene and 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate in WB-F344 rat liver epithelial cells. This study provides further evidence on its role as a chemopreventive agent in experimental mice with diethylnitrosamine- (DEN- initiated and phenobarbital- (PB- promoted liver carcinoma. Liver tissue and serum were collected. In the two-stage model of hepatocarcinogenesis in mice, oral administration of bicyclol (100, 200 mg/kg before DEN injection showed significant reduction in the incidence of hepatocellular foci, nodules, or carcinoma. Histopathological examination revealed that there was no hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC and hepatoma formation in the mice pretreated with bicyclol (200 mg/kg at week 20, while the mice treated with DEN/PB developed 33.3% HCC and 55.6% hepatoma. Furthermore, the serum levels of alanine aminotransferase (ALT, alkaline phosphatase (ALP, and α-fetal protein (AFP in serum significantly increased in the DEN/PB model group in comparison with the control group. Pretreatment with bicyclol showed a marked reduction in the above condition. Bicyclol also decreased the expression of AFP and proliferating cell nuclear antigen level in the liver tissue and attenuated the decrease in body weight. In this study, we also found that 10 weeks after stopping the administration of PB and drugs, the control and bicyclol-treated (200 mg/kg animals showed no HCC and hepatoma formation at the time of termination whereas DEN/PB-induced mice developed 100% hepatoma and 50% HCC. These results further indicate that bicyclol has the chemopreventive potential for liver carcinogenesis induced by carcinogens.

  13. Hand disinfection: how irritant are alcohols?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Löffler, Harald; Kampf, Günter

    2008-10-01

    Irritant contact dermatitis is commonly found on hands of healthcare employees and is often explained by contact to water and detergents. Studies on the dermal tolerance clearly show that the degree of skin irritation is significantly lower after application of alcohol in comparison to detergents. It has also been shown in standardised wash tests using a foam roller that the application of alcohol or water immediately after a detergent-based wash can significantly decrease the degree of skin irritation, probably due to a wash-off of residual detergent. If evidence-based hand hygiene is taught early during nurses training it can substantially reduce irritant contact dermatitis supporting initiatives of primary prevention among healthcare employees. The irritant potential of commonly used alcohols in hand antiseptics is very low. If the skin is pre-irritated, e.g. by detergents or water, alcohols can cause a burning sensation which is, however, not an allergic reaction and does not further harm the skin. True allergic reactions to alcohols have so far not been confirmed. From the dermatological point of view the use of alcohols for hand hygiene has clear advantages over washing with water and detergents.

  14. 食管癌术后酒精戒断综合征的防治%Prevention and Treatment of Alcohol Withdrawal Syndrome after Esophageal Cancer Surgery

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    薛杨; 罗澍; 孙小康; 赵长明; 郭向东

    2012-01-01

    Objective To investigate the causes, prevention and treatment of alcohol withdrawal syndrome after esophageal cancer surgery. Methods From January 2000 to October 2011, 935 surgeries for esophageal cancer were performed, among which 16 patients had postoperative complications of alcohol withdrawal syndrome. All the 16 patients were male, aged between 41 to 67 years old, averaging at 54. Drinking histories ranged from 16 to 47 years with an average of 27.8 years. Daily liquor quantity ranged from 250 to 1 000 g, and the alcohol content was from 162 to 590 g, averaging 321.5 g. All patients were in accordance with the diagnosis standard of alcohol withdrawal syndrome in the Chinese Spirit Disease Classification and Diagnosis Standard Third Edition (CCMD-3). In addition to conventional treatment, based on the delirium, irritability, mental disorders, and coma of the patients, we administered B vitamins, naloxone, haloperidol, chlorpromazine, and diazepam to promote brain cell metabolism and energy of the patients, and when necessary, endotracheal intubation for assisted mechanical ventilation was used after sedation. Results The withdrawal symptoms totally disappeared after treatment. The treatment time varied from 2 to 10 days with an average of 3.5 days. Thirteen patients were followed up with a time period from 4 to 18 months. All of them achieved abstinence from alcohol. One patient died from acute myocardial infarction eight months after surgery. All the other twelve patients recovered well with complete abstinence from alcohol and no recurrence of withdrawal symptoms. Conclusions Reasonable and effective perioperative treatment can significantly lower the incidence of alcohol withdrawal syndrome. Detailed history of the patients, preoperative and postoperative active prevention and timely and effective treatment are the key to healing%目的 探讨食管癌术后酒精戒断综合征的原因及有效预防治疗措施.方法 2000年1月-2011年10

  15. Alcohol and atherosclerosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Murilo Foppa

    2001-02-01

    Full Text Available Observational studies have attributed a protective effect to alcohol consumption on the development of atherosclerosis and cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. Alcohol intake in the amount of one to two drinks per day results in an estimated 20-40% reduction in cardiovascular events. An additional protective effect, according to major cohort studies, has been attributed to wine, probably due to antioxidant effects and platelet antiaggregation agents. On the other hand, the influence of different patterns of alcohol consumption and environmental factors may explain a great part of the additional effect of wine. Protection may be mediated by modulation of other risk factors, because alcohol increases HDL-C, produces a biphasic response on blood pressure, and modulates the endothelial function, while it neither increases body weight nor impairs glucose-insulin homeostasis. Alcohol may also have a direct effect on atherogenesis. Despite these favorable effects, the current evidence is not enough to justify prescribing alcohol to prevent cardiovascular disease.

  16. Long-Term Effects of Smoke-free Kids on smoking initiation: A Randomized Home-based Smoking Prevention Program for Elementary School Aged Children.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hiemstra, Marieke; Ringlever, Linda; Otten, Roy; van Schayck, Onno; Engels, Rutger C M E

    2014-01-01

    Objective The aims of the study were to evaluate the long-term effects of a home-based smoking prevention program ‘Smoke-free Kids’ during preadolescence on smoking initiation during adolescence and to test the potential moderating role of parental smoking, socioeconomic status, and asthma. Method I

  17. Oral administration of S-nitroso-N-acetylcysteine prevents the onset of non alcoholic fatty liver disease in rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Claudia PMS de Oliveira; Marcelo G de Oliveira; Fernanda I Simplicio; Vicência MR de Lima; Katia Yuahasi; Fabio P Lopasso; Ven(a)ncio AF Alves; Dulcinéia SP Abdalla; Flair J Carrilho; Francisco RM Laurindo

    2006-01-01

    AIM: To evaluate the potential of S-nitroso-N-acetylcysteine (SNAC) in inhibition of lipid peroxidation and the effect of oral SNAC administration in the prevention of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) in an animal model.METHODS: NAFLD was induced in Wistar male rats by choline-deficient diet for 4 wk. SNAC-treated animals (n=6) (1.4 mg/kg/day of SNAC, orally) were compared to 2 control groups: one (n=6) received PBS solution and the other (n=6) received NAC solution (7 mg/kg/d).Histological variables were semiquantitated with respect to macro and microvacuolar fat changes, its zonal distribution, foci of necrosis, portal and perivenular fibrosis, and inflammatory infiltrate with zonal distribution.LOOHs from samples of liver homogenates were quantified by HPLC. Nitrate levels in plasma of portal vein were assessed by chemiluminescence. Aqueous low-density lipoprotein (LDL) suspensions (200 μg protein/mL) were incubated with CuCl2 (300 μmol/L) in the absence and presence of SNAC (300 μmol/L) for 15 h at 37 ℃. Extent of LDL oxidation was assessed by fluorimetry. Linoleic acid (LA) (18.8 μmol/L) oxidation was induced by soybean lipoxygenase (SLO) (0.056 μmol/L) at 37 ℃ in the presence and absence of N-acetylcysteine (NAC) and SNAC (56 and 560 μmol/L) and monitored at 234 nm.RESULTS: Animals in the control group developed moderate macro and microvesicular fatty changes in periportal area. SNAC-treated animals displayed only discrete histological alterations with absence of fatty changes and did not develop liver steatosis. The absence of NAFLD in the SNAC-treated group was positively correlated with a decrease in the concentration of LOOH in liver homogenate, compared to the control group (0.7±0.2 nmol/mg vs 3.2±0.4 nmol/mg protein, respectively, P<0.05), while serum levels of aminotransferases were unaltered. The ability of SNAC in preventing lipid peroxidation was confirmed in in vitro experiments using LA and LDL as model substrates

  18. 77 FR 70171 - National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-11-23

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice... personal privacy. Name of Committee: National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism Initial Review.... Contact Person: Beata Buzas, Ph.D. Scientific Review Officer, National Institute on Alcohol Abuse...

  19. 78 FR 41938 - National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-12

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice... personal privacy. Name of Committee: National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism Initial Review.... Contact Person: Beata Buzas, Ph.D., Scientific Review Officer, National Institute on Alcohol Abuse...

  20. Are the opportunities to prevent alcohol related liver deaths in the UK in primary or secondary care? A retrospective clinical review and prospective interview study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sheron Nick

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Deaths from liver cirrhosis have increased at least 8 fold since the 1970's in the UK and further increases are anticipated, whereas in the rest of Europe liver deaths are decreasing. In the UK, we urgently need strategies to detect those who misuse alcohol and are at risk of developing alcoholic liver disease before they get to that point. One potential strategy is to screen admissions to hospital with alcohol related conditions for evidence of alcohol misuse. Surprisingly, there has been no research into the important question of where the opportunities are to detect those who misuse alcohol – primary or secondary care. We attempted to answer this firstly by conducting a retrospective analysis of the medical notes of 94 patients diagnosed with alcohol induced liver cirrhosis between 1st January 1995 and 31st December 2000 at Southampton General Hospital with the purpose of identifying admissions to hospital prior to a diagnosis of alcoholic liver disease. In the second part of the study, we interviewed patients with alcoholic liver disease about their contact with health services. Results Before diagnosis of alcoholic liver disease, 33% (31/94 of the patients had had an admission to hospital for an alcohol related condition. There was a mean of 7 years and 1 month (SD 6 years 3 months between the first alcohol-related admission and presentation with alcoholic liver disease (in those who had had admissions. The commonest reason for alcohol related admission was falls/fractures/injuries, followed by non-variceal gastro-intestinal bleeds. Patients with alcoholic liver disease who were interviewed had seen their General Practitioner on average at least 2 times per year. Conclusion Most patients who develop alcohol-induced cirrhosis do not have an admission to hospital with an alcohol related condition before developing alcoholic liver disease. Therefore, if we screen patients admitted to hospital with alcohol related

  1. Comparative Fingerprint of Aromatic Herbs and Yeast Alcoholic Extracts used as Ingredients for Promen, a Prostate Preventive Nutraceutical

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Florina Csernatoni

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to characterize and identify different bioactive compounds in plant sources and yeast powders  to obtain an original nutraceutical (Promen which has beneficial effects in prostate disease prevention. Seven plant and fruit sources, namely nettle (Urtica dioica, green tea (Camellia sinensis, fluff with small flowers (Epilobium parviplorum, tomato (Solanum licopersicum,  sea buckthorn (Hippophae rhamnoides, pumpkin (Cucurbita maxima, sunflower (Helianthus annus and lyophilized beer yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae were investigated. Methanolic extracts were prepared using 15% plant concentration and the purified fractions were analyzed using high throughput techniques like UV-VIS spectroscopy, high performance liquid chromatography coupled with photodiode array detection (HPLC-DAD and mass spectrometry LC-QTOF -MS. The majority of the investigated plants were rich in phenolic derivatives, polyphenols (flavonoid glucosides, while yeast was rich in aminoacids, peptides and vitamins B. The major compounds identified were: Juglone, Resveratrol, Quercetin, Epigallocatechin, Gallocatechin, Biochanin A, Isorhamnetin 3-O-glucoside 7-O-rhamnoside, Quercetin 3-O-galactoside 7-O-rhamnoside, Kaempferol 3,7-O-diglucoside and p-Coumaroylquinic acid. The specific biomarkers were identified for both plant extracts used as ingredients to obtain an nutraceutical  Promen. Combined UV-Vis spectroscopy, HPLC-PDA chromatography and LC-MS spectrometry are recommended as accurate, sensible and reliable tools to investigate the plants and nutraceutical fingerprints and to predict the relation between ingredients composition and their health effects.

  2. Rosuvastatin as a potential preventive drug for the development of hepatocellular carcinoma associated with non-alcoholic fatty liver disease in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yokohama, Keisuke; Fukunishi, Shinya; Ii, Masaaki; Nakamura, Ken; Ohama, Hideko; Tsuchimoto, Yusuke; Asai, Akira; Tsuda, Yasuhiro; Higuchi, Kazuhide

    2016-11-01

    Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) represents approximately 85% of all primary liver cancer cases. Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is one of the risk factors for HCC. NAFLD occurs in patients with components of metabolic syndrome, such as type 2 diabetes mellitus, obesity, hypertension and hyperlipidemia. Therefore, hyperlipidemia also represents a patient population at risk for HCC that can readily be identified. Rosuvastatin, a 3-hydroxy-3-methyl-glutaryl coenzyme A (HMG-CoA) reductase inhibitor, has exhibited a more potent affinity for the active site of HMG-CoA reductase than other statins. In addition, the hepatic uptake of rosuvastatin in rats has been found to be more selective and efficient than that with other drugs. Furthermore, the cytoprotective effects of rosuvastatin against ischemic injury have been clearly reported. Thus, in this study, we aimed to determine the role of rosuvastatin as a preventive drug in HCC associated with NAFLD. STAM mice, which developed HCC from NAFLD by being fed a high-fat diet (HFD), were divided into a group in which a HFD was given to the mice for 15 weeks (n=8) and another in which a HFD supplemented with 0.00125% rosuvastatin was given to the mice for 15 weeks (n=8). Rosuvastatin inhibited the development of hepatic tumors in the mice with NAFLD induced by a specific diet both macroscopically and histologically. Rosuvastatin significantly decreased the expression levels of pro-inflammatry cytokines, such as tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α, interleukin (IL)-6 and transforming growth factor (TGF)-β1. Tumor aggressiveness is mediated by angiogenic factors. Therefore, we examined the hepatic mRNA expression of vascular endothelial growth factor receptor (VEGFR), epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) and platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF). The hepatic expression of these factors significantly decreased in the rousvastin-fed mice. Our results thus suggest rosuvastatin that prevents carcinogenesis

  3. Communicating alcohol and drug prevention strategies and models across cultural boundaries: preliminary report on an ILO/WHO/UNDCP [International Labour Office/World Health Organization/United Nations International Drug Control Program] Interagency Program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fauske, S; Wilkinson, D A; Shain, M

    1996-01-01

    The joint ILO/WHO/UNDCP collaborative program "Prevention of Drug and Alcohol Problems among Workers and their Families" represents transfer of an innovative model to a culturally diverse group of nations: Egypt, Mexico, Namibia, Poland, and Sri Lanka. The concept is to move from reactive programs-led by alcohol and drug experts, reactive to problem employees-to proactive prevention led by management. Nontechnical language and metaphors have been developed to secure the commitment of managers in the private and public sectors. Participating countries and enterprises adapt the program to local conditions, fostering "local ownership" with the objective of creating self-sustaining activities. The objective is to describe elements of the program which may be readily transferable worldwide across the cultural borders that characterize nations, enterprises, and public sector workplaces.

  4. Secondary prevention lifestyle interventions initiated within 90 days after TIA or ‘minor’ stroke: a systematic review and meta-analysis of rehabilitation programmes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heron, Neil; Kee, Frank; Cardwell, Christopher; Tully, Mark A; Donnelly, Michael; Cupples, Margaret E

    2017-01-01

    Background Strokes are often preceded by a transient ischaemic attack (TIA) or ‘minor’ stroke. The immediate period after a TIA/minor stroke is a crucial time to initiate secondary prevention. However, the optimal approach to prevention, including non-pharmacological measures, after TIA is not clear. Aim To systematically review evidence about the effectiveness of delivering secondary prevention, with lifestyle interventions, in comprehensive rehabilitation programmes, initiated within 90 days of a TIA/minor stroke. Also, to categorise the specific behaviour change techniques used. Design and setting The review identified randomised controlled trials by searching the Cochrane Library, Ovid MEDLINE, Ovid EMBASE, Web of Science, EBSCO CINAHL and Ovid PsycINFO. Method Two review authors independently screened titles and abstracts for eligibility (programmes initiated within 90 days of event; outcomes reported for TIA/minor stroke) and extracted relevant data from appraised studies; a meta-analysis was used to synthesise the results. Results A total of 31 potentially eligible papers were identified and four studies, comprising 774 patients post-TIA or minor stroke, met the inclusion criteria; two had poor methodological quality. Individual studies reported increased aerobic capacity but meta-analysis found no significant change in resting and peak systolic blood pressure, resting heart rate, aerobic capacity, falls, or mortality. The main behaviour change techniques were goal setting and instructions about how to perform given behaviours. Conclusion There is limited evidence of the effectiveness of early post-TIA rehabilitation programmes with preventive lifestyle interventions. Further robust randomised controlled trials of comprehensive rehabilitation programmes that promote secondary prevention and lifestyle modification immediately after a TIA are needed. PMID:27919935

  5. Remote age verification to prevent underage alcohol sales. First results from Dutch liquor stores and the economic viability of national adoption

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoof, van J.J.; Velthoven, Ben C.J.

    2015-01-01

    Objectives Alcohol consumption among minors is a popular topic in the public health debate, also in the Netherlands. Compliance with the legal age limits for selling alcohol proves to be rather low. Some Dutch liquor stores (outlets with an exclusive license to sell off-premise drinks with 15% alcoh

  6. Initial impact of the Fast Track prevention trial for conduct problems: I. The high-risk sample. Conduct Problems Prevention Research Group.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1999-10-01

    Fast Track is a multisite, multicomponent preventive intervention for young children at high risk for long-term antisocial behavior. Based on a comprehensive developmental model, intervention included a universal-level classroom program plus social skills training, academic tutoring, parent training, and home visiting to improve competencies and reduce problems in a high-risk group of children selected in kindergarten. At the end of Grade 1, there were moderate positive effects on children's social, emotional, and academic skills; peer interactions and social status; and conduct problems and special-education use. Parents reported less physical discipline and greater parenting satisfaction/ease of parenting and engaged in more appropriate/consistent discipline, warmth/positive involvement, and involvement with the school. Evidence of differential intervention effects across child gender, race, site, and cohort was minimal.

  7. The Healthy Weight Collaborative: Using Learning Collaboratives to Enhance Community-Based Prevention Initiatives Addressing Childhood Obesity

    OpenAIRE

    2013-01-01

    This report from the field describes the design, implementation, and early evaluation results of the Healthy Weight Collaborative, a federally supported learning collaborative to develop, test, and disseminate an integrated change package of six promising, evidence-based clinical and community-based strategies to prevent and treat obesity for children and families.

  8. The role of parental alcohol-specific communication in early adolescents’ alcohol use

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vorst, H. van der; Burk, W.J.; Engels, R.C.M.E.

    2010-01-01

    Many alcohol prevention programs advocate conversations about alcohol between parents and children because verbal communication is the most direct way for parents to express their thoughts, rules, and concerns about alcohol to their children, so called alcohol-specific communication. Nevertheless, r

  9. Differences among college women for breast cancer prevention acquired information-seeking, desired apps and texts, and daughter-initiated information to mothers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kratzke, Cynthia; Amatya, Anup; Vilchis, Hugo

    2014-04-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine among college women acquired breast cancer prevention information-seeking, desired apps and texts, and information given to mothers. Using a cross-sectional study, a survey was administered to college women at a southwestern university. College women (n = 546) used the Internet (44 %) for active breast cancer prevention information-seeking and used the Internet (74 %), magazines (69 %), and television (59 %) for passive information receipt. Over half of the participants desired breast cancer prevention apps (54 %) and texts (51 %). Logistic regression analyses revealed predictors for interest to receive apps were ethnicity (Hispanic), lower self-efficacy, actively seeking online information, and older age and predictors for interest to receive texts were lower self-efficacy and higher university level. Eighteen percent of college women (n = 99) reported giving information to mothers and reported in an open-ended item the types of information given to mothers. Predictors for giving information to mothers were actively and passively seeking online information, breast self-exam practice, and higher university level. Screenings were the most frequent types of information given to mothers. Breast cancer prevention information using apps, texts, or Internet and daughter-initiated information for mothers should be considered in health promotion targeting college students or young women in communities. Future research is needed to examine the quality of apps, texts, and online information and cultural differences for breast cancer prevention sources.

  10. 低酸度酒精阳性乳产生的原因及控制措施%Study on the Cause of Low Acidity Alcohol Positive Raw Milk and Prevention Measures

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    苏景辉

    2015-01-01

    酒精检测是乳品企业接收原料奶时的一项重要检测指标,只有酒精试验检测结果呈阴性的原料奶,乳企才能正常接收并使用。酒精试验结果呈阳性的原料奶中有一部分是低酸度酒精阳性乳,这部分产生低酸度酒精阳性的原料奶,从乳房挤出来时便可能发生。低酸度酒精阳性乳产生的原因很复杂,它是牛体对各种不良应激因素所产生的一种应激反应。本文对不同条件下致使原料奶低酸度酒精阳性产生的因素进行了分析,并针对分析结果提出防控建议。%Alcohol detection of raw milk is an important detection index in receiving by milk dairy enterprises, only alcohol test results were negative, the milk companies can receive and use properly. A portion of alcohol test positive milk is low acidity alcohol positive milk, they may occur when come out from the breast, the causes of low acidity alcohol positive milk is very complex, it is a stress reaction from a variety of adverse stress factors. The different conditions to cause low raw milk acidity alcohol positive factors were analyzed, prevention and control were put forward based on the results of the analysis.

  11. Alcoholism and diabetes mellitus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Soo-Jeong; Kim, Dai-Jin

    2012-04-01

    Chronic use of alcohol is considered to be a potential risk factor for the incidence of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM), which causes insulin resistance and pancreatic β-cell dysfunction that is a prerequisite for the development of diabetes. However, alcohol consumption in diabetes has been controversial and more detailed information on the diabetogenic impact of alcohol seems warranted. Diabetes, especially T2DM, causes dysregulation of various metabolic processes, which includes a defect in the insulin-mediated glucose function of adipocytes, and an impaired insulin action in the liver. In addition, neurobiological profiles of alcoholism are linked to the effects of a disruption of glucose homeostasis and of insulin resistance, which are affected by altered appetite that regulates the peptides and neurotrophic factors. Since conditions, which precede the onset of diabetes that are associated with alcoholism is one of the crucial public problems, researches in efforts to prevent and treat diabetes with alcohol dependence, receives special clinical interest. Therefore, the purpose of this mini-review is to provide the recent progress and current theories in the interplay between alcoholism and diabetes. Further, the purpose of this study also includes summarizing the pathophysiological mechanisms in the neurobiology of alcoholism.

  12. Alcoholism and Diabetes Mellitus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soo-Jeong Kim

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Chronic use of alcohol is considered to be a potential risk factor for the incidence of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM, which causes insulin resistance and pancreatic β-cell dysfunction that is a prerequisite for the development of diabetes. However, alcohol consumption in diabetes has been controversial and more detailed information on the diabetogenic impact of alcohol seems warranted. Diabetes, especially T2DM, causes dysregulation of various metabolic processes, which includes a defect in the insulin-mediated glucose function of adipocytes, and an impaired insulin action in the liver. In addition, neurobiological profiles of alcoholism are linked to the effects of a disruption of glucose homeostasis and of insulin resistance, which are affected by altered appetite that regulates the peptides and neurotrophic factors. Since conditions, which precede the onset of diabetes that are associated with alcoholism is one of the crucial public problems, researches in efforts to prevent and treat diabetes with alcohol dependence, receives special clinical interest. Therefore, the purpose of this mini-review is to provide the recent progress and current theories in the interplay between alcoholism and diabetes. Further, the purpose of this study also includes summarizing the pathophysiological mechanisms in the neurobiology of alcoholism.

  13. National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skip to main content National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism (NIAAA) Main Menu Search Search form Search Alcohol & Your Health Overview of Alcohol Consumption Alcohol's Effects on the Body Alcohol Use ...

  14. Alcohol Consumption, Craving, and Craving Control Efforts Assessed Daily in the Context of Readiness to Change Among Individuals with Alcohol Dependence and PTSD.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Browne, Kendall C; Wray, Tyler B; Stappenbeck, Cynthia A; Krenek, Marketa; Simpson, Tracy L

    2016-02-01

    Research has demonstrated the positive association between alcohol craving and alcohol use and has identified craving as a central component of alcohol use disorders (AUD). Despite potential clinical implications, few studies have examined the relationship between craving and alcohol use in individuals with AUD and common psychiatric comorbidities or explored possible moderators of the craving-alcohol use relationship. The current study used daily monitoring data to: 1) replicate previous findings detecting a positive relationship between craving and alcohol use in individuals with AUD and co-occurring posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and 2) extend these findings by examining the influence of initial change motivation on the craving-use relationship and within-day associations among craving, efforts to control craving, and alcohol consumption. Participants were 84 individuals with alcohol dependence and PTSD enrolled in an intervention study. Generalized estimating equations using pre-treatment baseline daily data revealed significant main effects for craving, craving control, and motivation to change alcohol use. Daily craving was positively related to alcohol use. Greater change motivation and craving control (i.e., efforts to resist craving, avoidance of thoughts and feelings related to craving) were negatively related to alcohol use. A significant interaction was detected between baseline change motivation and daily craving indicating that the association between craving and alcohol use was significantly stronger for those with low baseline change motivation. A significant interaction was also detected between craving control and daily craving, suggesting that participants were more likely to consume alcohol when experiencing high levels of craving if they reported low levels of craving control. Findings bolster the idea that efforts to prevent or ameliorate craving are critical to treatment success for individuals with AUD and PTSD who are seeking to

  15. Initial Impact of the Fast Track Prevention Trial for Conduct Problems: I. The High-Risk Sample

    OpenAIRE

    1999-01-01

    Fast Track is a multisite, multicomponent preventive intervention for young children at high risk for long-term antisocial behavior. Based on a comprehensive developmental model intervention included a universal-level classroom program plus social skills training, academic tutoring, parent training, and home visiting to improve competencies and reduce problems in a high-risk group of children selected in kindergarten. At the end of Grade 1, there were moderate positive effects on children's s...

  16. Different digital paths to the keg? How exposure to peers' alcohol-related social media content influences drinking among male and female first-year college students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boyle, Sarah C; LaBrie, Joseph W; Froidevaux, Nicole M; Witkovic, Yong D

    2016-06-01

    Despite speculation that peers' alcohol-related content on social media sites (SMS) may influence the alcohol use behaviors of SMS frequenting college students, this relationship has not been investigated longitudinally. The current prospective study assesses the relationship between exposure to peers' alcohol-related SMS content and later-drinking among first-year college students. Among 408 first-year students, total exposure to peers' alcohol-related content on Facebook, Instagram, and Snapchat during the initial 6 weeks of college predicted alcohol consumption 6 months later. The rather robust relationship persisted even after students' and close friends drinking were accounted for, indicating that alcohol references on SMS do not simply reflect alcohol use behaviors that would otherwise be observed in the absence of SMS and be predictive of later alcohol use. Findings also illuminate important gender differences in the degree to which peers' alcohol-related SMS content influenced later drinking behavior as well as psychological mediators of this relationship. Among females, enhancement drinking motives and beliefs about the role of alcohol in the college experience fully mediated the relationship between SMS alcohol exposure and later drinking. Males, however, evidenced a much stronger predictive relationship between SMS alcohol exposure and second semester drinking, with this relationship only partially explained by perceptions of drinking norms, enhancement drinking motives, and beliefs about the role of alcohol in the college experience. Implications of these findings for college drinking prevention efforts and directions for future research are discussed.

  17. The risks associated with alcohol use and alcoholism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rehm, Jürgen

    2011-01-01

    Alcohol consumption, particularly heavier drinking, is an important risk factor for many health problems and, thus, is a major contributor to the global burden of disease. In fact, alcohol is a necessary underlying cause for more than 30 conditions and a contributing factor to many more. The most common disease categories that are entirely or partly caused by alcohol consumption include infectious diseases, cancer, diabetes, neuropsychiatric diseases (including alcohol use disorders), cardiovascular disease, liver and pancreas disease, and unintentional and intentional injury. Knowledge of these disease risks has helped in the development of low-risk drinking guidelines. In addition to these disease risks that affect the drinker, alcohol consumption also can affect the health of others and cause social harm both to the drinker and to others, adding to the overall cost associated with alcohol consumption. These findings underscore the need to develop effective prevention efforts to reduce the pain and suffering, and the associated costs, resulting from excessive alcohol use.

  18. Analysis of the representation of alcohol consumption and its prevention, from the perspective of framing theory, in the Spanish press: El País, El Mundo, Abc and La Razón

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María-José Rabadán-Zaragoza

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This article presents the results of the analysis of 103 alcohol-related texts published from January to June, 2009, by four Spanish newspapers: El País (22, El Mundo (35, Abc (24, and La Razón (22. Two methods were used to examine the representation of alcohol: structural analysis based on Kayser’s model (1982 and content analysis based on framing theory. The latter method has been used to examine the journalistic treatment of biotechnology (Durant, Bauer, and Gaskell, 1998; Nisbet, M.C., Brossard, and Kroepsch, 2003; Rodríguez-Luque, 2009, which has been adapted to examine the subject of drugs (Paricio, 2010. A reliability of 90% was achieved in the Cohen’s Kappa coefficient test for the 67 variables examined in this study. The genre most dedicated to the subject of alcohol was news articles (66.9%, whose main theme was related conflict (19 texts, particularly the consequences of drunk driving (9 texts. The most used frames by journalists were, in decreasing order, crime (identified in 62 texts, new research results (in 11 texts, and epidemiology (in 15 texts. However, only few texts were dedicated to the prevention of alcohol consumption (a theme in only 4.85% of the sample and the legal institutions dedicated to this activity (2.91%.

  19. Protocol for a Controlled Experiment to Identify the Causal Role of Acute Alcohol Consumption in Condomless Sex among HIV-Positive MSM: Study Procedures, Ethical Considerations, and Implications for HIV Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shuper, Paul A.; Joharchi, Narges; Rehm, Jürgen

    2015-01-01

    Although alcohol consumption is frequently perceived as a driver of condomless sex and subsequent HIV acquisition, the causal nature of this relationship remains unclear, and little is known about alcohol’s direct versus indirect impact on the sexual risk dynamics of those who are HIV-positive. To address this gap, we present the protocol for an in-progress NIAAA-funded controlled experiment, wherein a sample of HIV-positive men-who-have-sex-with-men (MSM) undergoes an alcohol consumption manipulation (alcohol/placebo/control) and sexual arousal induction (sexually aroused/non-aroused), and then reports intentions to engage in condom-protected and condomless sexual acts with hypothetical sexual partners differing in HIV serostatus (HIV+/HIV−/HIV status unknown), condom use preference (use/don’t use/not stated), and physical attractiveness (attractive/unattractive). Study outcomes will identify alcohol’s impact on HIV-positive MSM’s condomless sex intentions in the context of experimentally-manipulated factors as well as risk-relevant personality traits and alcohol-related expectancies. Detailed experimental procedures, ethical considerations, and potential implications for HIV prevention are discussed. PMID:26163147

  20. A study on socio-demographic characteristics of alcoholics attending the de-addiction center at Burdwan medical college and hospital in West Bengal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aditya Prasad Sarkar

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Prevalence of alcohol use in India is reported to be 21.4% and there is increasing alcohol intake among the young people. The present study was undertaken to study the socio-demographic characteristics of patients having alcohol-related disorders attending the de-addiction center at Burdwan Medical College in West Bengal and to find out some factors responsible for that. A clinic-based descriptive cross-sectional study was conducted among 187 patients with the help of pre-tested pre-designed schedule after obtaining informed consent. Data analysis was carried out with the help of Epi info software version 6. Majority of the patients were male, in productive age group and married. Age of initiation and amount of alcohol intake were significantly associated with positive family history of alcoholism. Children having family history of alcoholism should be counseled to prevent development of alcoholism.

  1. The methyl donor S-adenosylmethionine prevents liver hypoxia and dysregulation of mitochondrial bioenergetic function in a rat model of alcohol-induced fatty liver disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adrienne L. King

    2016-10-01

    Conclusion: Collectively, these findings indicate that the hepato-protective effects of SAM against alcohol toxicity are mediated, in part, through a mitochondrial mechanism involving preservation of key mitochondrial bioenergetic parameters and the attenuation of hypoxic stress.

  2. Alcohol-Related Violence among the Australian Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islanders of the Northern Territory: Prioritizing an Agenda for Prevention-Narrative Review Article.

    OpenAIRE

    Ramya Ramamoorthi; Rama Jayaraj; Leonard Notaras; Mahiban Thomas

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Alcohol - related violence among Australian Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islanders (also called as “Indigenous”) is a major public health concern in Northern Territory of Australia. There is dearth of epidemiological data that link three contributing epidemics: alcohol misuse, violence, and trauma in the Northern Territory. In this review, we aimed to concentrate on how these epidemics intersect among the Indigenous people in the Northern Territory. In our descriptive review, we have...

  3. [Concentration of endogenous ethanol and alcoholic motivation].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burov, Iu V; Treskov, V G; Kampov-Polevoĭ, A B; Kovalenko, A E; Rodionov, A P

    1983-11-01

    Trials with patients suffering from stage II chronic alcoholism and normal test subjects as well as experiments made on male C57BL mice (with genetically determined alcoholic motivation) and CBA mice (with genetically determined alcoholic aversion) and random-bred male rats with different levels of initial alcoholic motivation have shown the presence of reverse proportional dependence between blood plasma endogenous ethanol and alcoholic motivation.

  4. 77 FR 54919 - National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-09-06

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice... personal privacy. Name of Committee: National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism Initial Review... 20892. Contact Person: Beata Buzas, Ph.D., Scientific Review Officer, National Institute on...

  5. A single dose of caffeic acid phenethyl ester prevents initiation in a medium-term rat hepatocarcinogenesis model

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Claudia Esther Carrasco-Legleu; Yesennia Sánchez-Pérez; Lucrecia Márquez-Rosado; Samia Fattel-Fazenda; Evelia Arce-Popoca; Sergio Hernández-García; Saú1 Villa-Trevi(n)o

    2006-01-01

    AIM:To study of the effect of caffeic acid phenethyl ester (CAPE) on the initiation period in a medium-term assay of hepatocarcinogenesis.METHODS: Male Wistar rats were subjected to a carcinogenic treatment (CT) and sacrificed at 25th d;altered hepatic foci (AHF) were generated efficiently.To a second group of rats a single 20 mg/kg doses of CAPE was given 12 h before initiation with CT and were sacrificed at 25th d. We evaluated the expression of preneoplastic markers as y-glutamyltranspeptidase (GGT) and glutathione S-transferase type pi protein (GSTp) by histochemistry, RT-PCR and Western blot analyses, respectively. We measured thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) in homogenates of liver and used Unscheduled DNA Synthesis (UDS) assay by incorporation of [3H] thymidine (3HdT) in primary hepatocyte cultures (PHC).RESULTS:At 25th d after CT CAPE reduced the observed increase of GGT+AHF by 84% and liver expression of ggt mRNA by 100%. In case of the GSTp protein, the level was reduced by 90%. As indicative of oxidative stress generated by diethylnitrosamine (DEN) 12 h after its administration, we detected a 68% increase of TBARS.When CAPE was administered before DEN, it completely protected from liver TBARS induction. To have an indication of the sole effect of CAPE on initiation, two carcinogens were tested in a UDS assay in PHC, we used methyl-n-nitrosoguanidine as a direct carcinogen and DEN, as indirect carcinogen. In this assay, genotoxic damage caused by carcinogens was abolished at 5μM CAPE concentration.CONCLUSION:Our results demonstrated that CAPE possesses anti-genotoxic and antineoplastic capabilities,by an anti-oxidative and free-radical scavenging mechanism.

  6. Emergency Prevention System (EMPRES) for transboundary animal and plant pests and diseases. The EMPRES-livestock: an FAO initiative.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Welte, Valdir Roberto; Vargas Terán, Moisés

    2004-10-01

    The Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO) decided that the Organization should be focusing on the goal of enhancing world food security and the fight against transboundary animal diseases and plant pests. A mandate was obtained from the Governing Council and Conference to establish two new Special Programmes to address these fundamental issues. The first is the Special Programme on Food Security and the second is the Emergency Prevention System against transboundary animal and plant pests and diseases (EMPRES). EMPRES has two components, created after 1994 by a new policy of the Director-General of the FAO to better direct the FAO: the plant pest component focuses on the desert locust, whereas the animal diseases component focuses primarily on rinderpest but also on other epidemic diseases (e.g., contagious bovine pleuropneumonia, foot-and-mouth disease, peste de petit ruminants). For the program as a whole, a high-level EMPRES Steering Committee was established. This is chaired by the FAO Director-General and consists of the heads of key departments (Assistant Directors-General) and Divisional Directors. For the animal diseases component (hereafter referred to as EMPRES-Livestock Programme), FAO established a management unit within its Animal Health Service (AGAH), that is, the Infectious Diseases-EMPRES Group, to be responsible for implementation, including liaison with the Joint FAO-International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) Division in Vienna for some of the functions suballocated there. This paper briefly describes FAO EMPRES Livestock, its vision, its mission, and its activities to assist FAO developing member countries and regions in improving the ability of veterinary services to reduce the risks of introduction and/or dissemination of transboundary animal disease, by preventing, controlling, and eradicating those diseases, assisting countries in building their own surveillance/early warning systems, establishing contingency plans

  7. Initial evidence of reduction of malaria cases and deaths in Rwanda and Ethiopia due to rapid scale-up of malaria prevention and treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gausi Khoti

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background An increasing number of malaria-endemic African countries are rapidly scaling up malaria prevention and treatment. To have an initial estimate of the impact of these efforts, time trends in health facility records were evaluated in selected districts in Ethiopia and Rwanda, where long-lasting insecticidal nets (LLIN and artemisinin-based combination therapy (ACT had been distributed nationwide by 2007. Methods In Ethiopia, a stratified convenience sample covered four major regions where (moderately endemic malaria occurs. In Rwanda, two districts were sampled in all five provinces, with one rural health centre and one rural hospital selected in each district. The main impact indicator was percentage change in number of in-patient malaria cases and deaths in children Results In-patient malaria cases and deaths in children Conclusion Initial evidence indicated that the combination of mass distribution of LLIN to all children

  8. Alcohol Abuse

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... even small amounts of alcohol may hurt an unborn child)Drink alcohol while you are looking after ... shakes, being very suspicious), and can even include death. This is why you need your doctor’s care ...

  9. Enhancing global control of alcohol to reduce unsafe sex and HIV in sub-Saharan Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rees Helen V

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Sub-Saharan Africa carries a massive dual burden of HIV and alcohol disease, and these pandemics are inextricably linked. Physiological and behavioural research indicates that alcohol independently affects decision-making concerning sex, and skills for negotiating condoms and their correct use. More than 20 studies in Africa have reported higher occurrence of HIV among people with problem drinking; a finding strongly consistent across studies and similar among women and men. Conflation of HIV and alcohol disease in these setting is not surprising given patterns of heavy-episodic drinking and that drinking contexts are often coterminous with opportunities for sexual encounters. HIV and alcohol also share common ground with sexual violence. Both perpetrators and victims of sexual violence have a high likelihood of having drunk alcohol prior to the incident, as with most forms of violence and injury in sub-Saharan Africa. Reducing alcohol harms necessitates multi-level interventions and should be considered a key component of structural interventions to alleviate the burden of HIV and sexual violence. Brief interventions for people with problem drinking (an important component of primary health care, must incorporate specific discussion of links between alcohol and unsafe sex, and consequences thereof. Interventions to reduce alcohol harm among HIV-infected persons are also an important element in positive-prevention initiatives. Most importantly, implementation of known effective interventions could alleviate a large portion of the alcohol-attributable burden of disease, including its effects on unsafe sex, unintended pregnancy and HIV transmission.

  10. Harmful Use of Alcohol: A Shadow over Sub-Saharan Africa in Need of Workable Solutions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferreira-Borges, Carina; Parry, Charles D H; Babor, Thomas F

    2017-03-27

    Alcohol consumption and alcohol-attributable burden of disease in Africa are expected to rise in the near future, yet. increasing alcohol-related harm receives little attention from policymakers and from the population in general. Even where new legislation is proposed it is rarely enacted into law. Being at the center of social and cultural activities in many countries, alcohol's negative role in society and contribution to countries' burden of disease are rarely questioned. After the momentum created by the adoption in 2010 of the WHO Global Strategy and the WHO Regional Strategy (for Africa) to Reduce the Harmful Use of Alcohol, and the WHO Global Action Plan for the Prevention and Control of Non-Communicable Diseases, in 2013, little seems to have been done to address the increasing use of alcohol, its associated burden and the new challenges that derive from the growing influence of the alcohol industry in Africa. In this review, we argue that to have a positive impact on the health of African populations, action addressing specific features of alcohol policy in the continent is needed, namely focusing on particularities linked to alcohol availability, like unrecorded and illicit production, outlet licensing, the expansion of formal production, marketing initiatives and taxation policies.

  11. Adolescent Alcohol Use: Protective and Predictive Parent, Peer, and Self-Related Factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Handren, Lindsay M; Donaldson, Candice D; Crano, William D

    2016-10-01

    Adolescent alcohol use has been linked with a multitude of problems and a trajectory predictive of problematic use in adulthood. Thus, targeting factors that enhance early prevention efforts is vital. The current study highlights variables that mitigate or predict alcohol use and heavy episodic drinking. Using Monitoring the Future (MTF) data, multiple path analytic models revealed links between parental involvement and alcohol abstinence and initiation. Parental involvement predicted enhanced self-esteem and less self-derogation and was negatively associated with peer alcohol norms for each MTF grade sampled, with stronger associations for 8th and 10th graders than 12th graders. For younger groups, self-esteem predicted increased perceptions of alcohol risk and reduced drinking. Self-derogation was associated with peers' pro-alcohol norms, which was linked to lower risk perceptions, lower personal disapproval of use, and increased drinking. Peer influence had a stronger association with consumption for 8th and 10th graders, whereas 12th graders' drinking was related to personal factors of alcohol risk perception and disapproval. In all grades, general alcohol use had a strong connection to heavy episodic drinking within the past 2 weeks. Across-grade variations in association of parent, peer, and personal factors suggest the desirability of tailored interventions focused on specific factors for each grade level, with the overall goal of attenuating adolescent alcohol use.

  12. Demographic Predictors of Event-Level Associations between Alcohol Consumption and Sexual Behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wells, Brooke E; Rendina, H Jonathon; Kelly, Brian C; Golub, Sarit A; Parsons, Jeffrey T

    2016-02-01

    Alcohol consumption is associated with sexual behavior and outcomes, though research indicates a variety of moderating factors, including demographic characteristics. To better target interventions aimed at alcohol-related sexual risk behavior, our analyses simultaneously examine demographic predictors of both day- and event-level associations between alcohol consumption and sexual behavior in a sample of young adults (N = 301) who are sexually active and consume alcohol. Young adults (aged 18-29) recruited using time-space sampling and incentivized snowball sampling completed a survey and a timeline follow-back calendar reporting alcohol consumption and sexual behavior in the past 30 days. On a given day, a greater number of drinks consumed was associated with higher likelihood of sex occurring, particularly for women and single participants. During a given sexual event, number of drinks consumed was not associated with condom use, nor did any demographic predictors predict that association. Findings highlight associations between alcohol and sexual behavior, though not between alcohol and sexual risk behavior, highlighting the need for additional research exploring the complex role of alcohol in sexual risk behavior and the need to develop prevention efforts to minimize the role of alcohol in the initiation of sexual encounters.

  13. Association of Khat and alcohol use with HIV infection and age at first sexual initiation among youths visiting HIV testing and counseling centers in Gamo-Gofa Zone, South West Ethiopia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Malaju Marelign Tilahun

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background HIV/AIDS is the major problem and an obstacle to both the health and development of people in Ethiopia today. It is also indicated that the use of substances have dramatically increased despite the serious concern about HIV infection. Methods Unmatched case control study was conducted in South West Ethiopia using a sample of 105 cases and 305 controls. Multivariate logistic regression was used to assess the degree of association between dependent and independent variables. Result HIV infection was positively associated with being in the age of 20 – 24 years [OR & (95% CI = 2.892 (1.266, 6.607], being female [OR & (95% CI = 2.013 (1.061, 3.822], alcohol use [OR & (95% CI = 5.883 (3.034, 11.408], having no education [OR & (95% CI = 3.193 (1.523, 6.695] and primary education level [OR & (95% CI = 3.160 (1.351, 7.388]. Early sexual initiation was also positively associated with being not employed Adj. HR & (95% CI = 7.372 (1.455, 37.357], not having comprehensive knowledge on HIV/AIDS [Adj. HR & (95% CI = 8.247 (2.121, 32.067], alcohol use [Adj. HR & (95% CI = 3.815 (1.315, 11.070] and khat use [Adj. HR & (95% CI = 7.241 (1.871, 28.016]. Conclusion Strategies should be designed to control the use of alcohol and khat which were found to be predictors of HIV infection and early sexual initiation in this study.

  14. Alcohol Poisoning Deaths PSA (:60)

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2015-01-06

    This 60 second Public Service Announcement is based on the January 2015 CDC Vital Signs report. In the United States, an average of six people die every day from alcohol poisoning. Learn what you can do to prevent binge drinking and alcohol poisoning.  Created: 1/6/2015 by National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion (NCCDPHP).   Date Released: 1/6/2015.

  15. Alcohol-Related Violence among the Australian Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islanders of the Northern Territory: Prioritizing an Agenda for Prevention-Narrative Review Article.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramamoorthi, Ramya; Jayaraj, Rama; Notaras, Leonard; Thomas, Mahiban

    2014-05-01

    Alcohol - related violence among Australian Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islanders (also called as "Indigenous") is a major public health concern in Northern Territory of Australia. There is dearth of epidemiological data that link three contributing epidemics: alcohol misuse, violence, and trauma in the Northern Territory. In this review, we aimed to concentrate on how these epidemics intersect among the Indigenous people in the Northern Territory. In our descriptive review, we have searched published papers, publicly available government and health department reports web sites reporting relevant data on these three risk factors in the Northern Territory. The high rate of family and domestic violence and assaults in the Australian Territory indicates an increased correlation with high risk alcohol use compared to unintentional injuries. Heavy drinking pattern and harmful use of alcohol among Indigenous people are more likely to be associated with the incidence of violent assaults and physical injuries in the Northern Territory. We are trying to emphasize our understanding of co-occurring risk factors on the alcohol - violence relationship and urging a need for interventional approaches to reduce the public health issues in the Northern Territory.

  16. Alcohol-Related Violence among the Australian Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islanders of the Northern Territory: Prioritizing an Agenda for Prevention-Narrative Review Article.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramya Ramamoorthi

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Alcohol - related violence among Australian Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islanders (also called as "Indigenous" is a major public health concern in Northern Territory of Australia. There is dearth of epidemiological data that link three contributing epidemics: alcohol misuse, violence, and trauma in the Northern Territory. In this review, we aimed to concentrate on how these epidemics intersect among the Indigenous people in the Northern Territory. In our descriptive review, we have searched published papers, publicly available government and health department reports web sites reporting relevant data on these three risk factors in the Northern Territory. The high rate of family and domestic violence and assaults in the Australian Territory indicates an increased correlation with high risk alcohol use compared to unintentional injuries. Heavy drinking pattern and harmful use of alcohol among Indigenous people are more likely to be associated with the incidence of violent assaults and physical injuries in the Northern Territory. We are trying to emphasize our understanding of co-occurring risk factors on the alcohol - violence relationship and urging a need for interventional approaches to reduce the public health issues in the Northern Territory.

  17. Alcohol Test

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    The recent alcohol tax increase poses a challenge to China’s white spirits makers Alcohol, rather than wine, is an in-dispensable component to Chinese table culture. The financial crisis has failed to affect white spirits sales, but an alcohol tax increase might.

  18. Alcohol Poisoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... t be awakened is at risk of dying. Alcohol poisoning is an emergency If you suspect that someone has alcohol poisoning — even if you don't see the ... immediately. Never assume the person will sleep off alcohol poisoning. Be prepared to provide information. If you ...

  19. Antiretroviral Therapy Interruption Among HIV Postive People Who Use Drugs in a Setting with a Community-Wide HIV Treatment-as-Prevention Initiative.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McNeil, Ryan; Kerr, Thomas; Coleman, Bill; Maher, Lisa; Milloy, M J; Small, Will

    2017-02-01

    HIV Treatment as Prevention (TasP) initiatives promote antiretroviral therapy (ART) access and optimal adherence (≥95 %) to produce viral suppression among people living with HIV (PLHIV) and prevent the onward transmission of HIV. ART treatment interruptions are common among PLHIV who use drugs and undermine the effectiveness of TasP. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with 39 PLHIV who use drugs who had experienced treatment ART interruptions in a setting with a community-wide TasP initiative (Vancouver, Canada) to examine influences on these outcomes. While study participants attributed ART interruptions to "treatment fatigue," our analysis revealed individual, social, and structural influences on these events, including: (1) prior adverse ART-related experiences among those with long-term treatment histories; (2) experiences of social isolation; and, (3) breakdowns in the continuity of HIV care following disruptive events (e.g., eviction, incarceration). Findings reconceptualise 'treatment fatigue' by focusing attention on its underlying mechanisms, while demonstrating the need for comprehensive structural reforms and targeted interventions to optimize TasP among drug-using PLHIV.

  20. Preventing smoking initiation or relapse following 8.5 weeks of involuntary smoking abstinence in basic military training: trial design, interventions, and baseline data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brandon, Thomas H; Klesges, Robert C; Ebbert, Jon O; Talcott, Gerald W; Thomas, Fridtjof; Leroy, Karen; Richey, Phyllis A; Colvin, Lauren

    2014-05-01

    Smoking cessation is a primary method of reducing excess mortality and morbidity. Unfortunately, the vast majority of cessation attempts end in eventual relapse. Relapse-prevention interventions have shown some success at improving the long-term maintenance of tobacco abstinence among individuals motivated to abstain. However, involuntary tobacco abstinence (e.g., military training, hospitalization, incarceration) presents another opportunity for intervention to prevent relapse. During basic military training (BMT), tobacco use is strictly forbidden in all service branches, but tobacco relapse (and initiation) following BMT is extremely high. This paper reports on the design, intervention development, and baseline characteristics of a randomized controlled trial testing minimal interventions designed to prevent tobacco relapse among United States Air Force (USAF) personnel following BMT. Participants are randomized by squadron to receive either a standard smoking-cessation booklet, a new motivation-based booklet designed specifically for USAF personal, or the latter booklet combined with a brief, face-to-face motivational session. Primary outcomes will be self-reported tobacco use at 12 and 24month follow-up. Given that the Department of Defense is the world's largest employer, the potential of leveraging involuntary tobacco abstinence during BMT into extended abstinence has substantial public health significance.

  1. Impact of a Drug Abuse Resistance Education (D.A.R.E) program in preventing the initiation of cigarette smoking in fifth- and sixth-grade students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmed, Nasar U; Ahmed, Noushin S; Bennett, C Ray; Hinds, Joseph E

    2002-04-01

    An alarmingly high number of children become addicted to tobacco use. To teach children the skills to resist the influences surrounding the initiation of tobacco and other drug use, a Drug Abuse Resistance Education (D.A.R.E.) program is being implemented in three fourths of the schools in the United States. The purpose of this study is to examine the impact of this program in preventing smoking. A survey was conducted among 236 fifth and sixth graders in Nashville, Tennessee. Of the students included in the survey, 88% graduated from D.A.R.E. Approximately 11.6% of respondents had ever smoked cigarettes; 86% of them continued to smoke. The D.A.R.E. group had a significantly lower rate of smoking compared with their non-D.A.R.E. counterparts (8.7% vs. 28.0%; p = 0.0001). Logistic regression analysis shows that the D.A.R.E. group was five times (odds 4.9; p = 0.003; 95% CI: 1.7, 14.0) less likely to initiate smoking compared with the non-D.A.R.E. group. The D.A.R.E. group had a significantly (p = 0.002) higher knowledge score on the risk of smoking. The knowledge score has strong opposite correlation to smoking behavior (p = 0.00001). Students with top-quartile knowledge scores had a substantially lower rates of smoking (1.4% vs. 14.4%; p = 0.001). This finding is consistent for both African-American (0% vs. 19.6%; p = 0.001) and white children (1.9% vs. 13%; p = 0.001). The D.A.R.E. program may have an impact in preventing the initiation of smoking behavior.

  2. Is alcohol consumption associated with poor academic achievement in university students?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Walid El Ansari

    2013-01-01

    Conclusions: Alcohol consumption showed negative associations with motivation for and subjectively achieved academic performance. University alcohol prevention activities might have positive impact on students′ academic success.

  3. Alcoholic cardiomyopathy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Gonzalo; Guzzo-Merello; Marta; Cobo-Marcos; Maria; Gallego-Delgado; Pablo; Garcia-Pavia

    2014-01-01

    Alcohol is the most frequently consumed toxic substance in the world. Low to moderate daily intake of alcohol has been shown to have beneficial effects on the cardiovascular system. In contrast, exposure to high levels of alcohol for a long period could lead to progressive cardiac dysfunction and heart failure. Cardiac dysfunction associated with chronic and excessive alcohol intake is a specific cardiac disease known as alcoholic cardiomyopathy(ACM). In spite of its clinical importance, data on ACM and how alcohol damages the heart are limited. In this review, we evaluate available evidence linking excessive alcohol consumption with heart failure and dilated cardiomyopathy. Additionally, we discuss the clinical presentation, prognosis and treatment of ACM.

  4. Alcohol abuse and related disorders treatment of alcohol dependence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu. P. Sivolap

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Alcohol abuse and alcoholism are the leading causes of worse health and increased mortality rates. Excessive alcohol consumption is the third leading cause of the global burden of diseases and a leading factor for lower lifespan and higher mortality. Alcohol abuse decreases working capacity and efficiency and requires the increased cost of the treatment of alcohol-induced disorders, which entails serious economic losses. The unfavorable medical and social consequences of excessive alcohol use determine the importance of effective treatment for alcoholism. The goals of rational pharmacotherapy of alcohol dependence are to enhance GABA neurotransmission, to suppress glutamate neurotransmission, to act on serotonin neurotransmission, to correct water-electrolyte balance, and to compensate for thiamine deficiency. Alcoholism treatment consists of two steps: 1 the prevention and treatment of alcohol withdrawal syndrome and its complications (withdrawal convulsions and delirium alcoholicum; 2 antirecurrent (maintenance therapy. Benzodiazepines are the drugs of choice in alleviating alcohol withdrawal and preventing its convulsive attacks and delirium alcoholicum. Diazepam and chlordiazepoxide are most commonly used for this purpose; the safer drugs oxazepam and lorazepam are given to the elderly and patients with severe liver lesions. Anticonvulsants having normothymic properties, such as carbamazepine, valproic acid, topiramate, and lamotrigine, are a definite alternative to benzodiazepines. The traditional Russian clinical practice (clearance detoxification has not a scientific base or significant impact on alcohol withdrawal-related states in addicts. Relapse prevention and maintenance therapy for alcohol dependence are performed using disulfiram, acamprosate, and naltrexone; since 2013 the European Union member countries have been using, besides these agents, nalmefene that is being registered in Russia. Memantine and a number of other

  5. The epigenetic landscape of alcoholism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krishnan, Harish R; Sakharkar, Amul J; Teppen, Tara L; Berkel, Tiffani D M; Pandey, Subhash C

    2014-01-01

    Alcoholism is a complex psychiatric disorder that has a multifactorial etiology. Epigenetic mechanisms are uniquely capable of accounting for the multifactorial nature of the disease in that they are highly stable and are affected by environmental factors, including alcohol itself. Chromatin remodeling causes changes in gene expression in specific brain regions contributing to the endophenotypes of alcoholism such as tolerance and dependence. The epigenetic mechanisms that regulate changes in gene expression observed in addictive behaviors respond not only to alcohol exposure but also to comorbid psychopathology such as the presence of anxiety and stress. This review summarizes recent developments in epigenetic research that may play a role in alcoholism. We propose that pharmacologically manipulating epigenetic targets, as demonstrated in various preclinical models, hold great therapeutic potential in the treatment and prevention of alcoholism.

  6. Alcohol and nicotinic acetylcholine receptors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jinsong Tang

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Background The frequent co-abuse of alcohol and tobacco may suggest that they share some common neurological mechanisms. For example, nicotine acts on Nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs in the brain to release dopamine to sustain addiction. Might nAChRs be entwined with alcohol? Objectives This review summarizes recent studies on the relationship between alcohol and nAChRs, including the role of nAChRs in molecular biological studies, genetic studies and pharmacological studies on alcohol, which indicate that nAChRs have been potently modulated by alcohol. Methods We performed a cross-referenced literature search on biological, genetic and pharmacological studies of alcohol and nAChRs. Results Molecular biological and genetic studies indicated that nAChR (genes may be important in mediating alcohol intake, but we still lack substantial evidence about how it works. Pharmacological studies proved the correlation between nAChRs and alcohol intake, and the association between nicotine and alcohol at the nAChRs. The positive findings of varenicline (a partial agonist at the _4_2 nAChR, smoking-cessation pharmaceutical treatment for alcoholism, provides a new insight for treating co-abuse of these two substances. >Conclusions Molecular biological, genetic and pharmacological studies of alcohol at the nAChR level, provide a new sight for preventing and treating the co-abuse of alcohol and nicotine. Given the important role of nAChRs in nicotine dependence, the interaction between alcohol and nAChRs would provide a new insight in finding effective pharmacological treatments, in decreasing or stopping alcohol consumption and cigarette smoking concurrently.

  7. Alcohol and pregnancy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drinking alcohol during pregnancy; Fetal alcohol syndrome - pregnancy; FAS - fetal alcohol syndrome ... When a pregnant woman drinks alcohol, the alcohol travels through her blood and into the baby's blood, tissues, and organs. Alcohol breaks down much more slowly in ...

  8. Alcohol and the work place

    CERN Multimedia

    2004-01-01

    The CERN Medical Service has observed an increase in the number of personnel suffering from alcohol-related problems in recent years, in spite of the implementation of stricter regulations concerning the consumption of alcohol on the site. The causes of alcohol-related problems are often complex and many-faceted. A family history of alcohol abuse can be a cofactor in excessive drinking. The effects on a person's work are not negligible and should not be ignored. "Alcohol and the work place" is the third part of a campaign designed to raise awareness of the risks of alcohol consumption, which has already dealt with "alcohol and health" and "alcohol and road safety".Many employers have taken steps to confront the problem, and CERN launched a campaign to help its employees suffering from alcohol-related problems over ten years ago. A standing SCC sub-group on the prevention of alcoholism has been set up and Operational Circular No. 8, which defines the role and responsibilities of all parties concerned in the m...

  9. Alcohol use, alcohol problems, and problem behavior engagement among students at two schools in northern Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mancha, Brent E; Rojas, Vanessa C; Latimer, William W

    2012-11-01

    This study examined the association between alcohol-use problem severity, defined by number of DSM-IV alcohol Abuse and Dependence symptoms and frequency of alcohol use, and problem behavior engagement among Mexican students. A confidential survey was administered to 1229 students in grades 7-12 at two schools in a northern border city in Mexico. Youths were categorized into five groups based on their alcohol use frequency and symptoms of DSM-IV alcohol Abuse and Dependence, specifically: no lifetime alcohol use, lifetime alcohol use but none in the past year, past year alcohol use, one or two alcohol Abuse or Dependence symptoms, and three or more alcohol Abuse or Dependence symptoms. The association between five levels of alcohol-use problem severity and three problem behaviors, lifetime marijuana use, lifetime sexual intercourse, and past year arrest/law trouble, was examined using chi-square or Fisher's exact tests. Several alcohol-use problem severity categories were significantly different with respect to rates of lifetime marijuana use, lifetime sexual intercourse, and past year arrest/law trouble. Higher alcohol-use problem severity was associated with greater endorsement of problem behaviors. Knowing about variations in adolescent alcohol use and alcohol problems may be instrumental in determining if youths are also engaging in a range of other risk behaviors. Considering varying levels of alcohol use and alcohol problems is important for effective targeted prevention and treatment interventions.

  10. Early adolescent, multi-ethnic, urban youth's exposure to patterns of alcohol-related neighborhood characteristics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tobler, Amy L; Komro, Kelli A; Maldonado-Molina, Mildred M

    2009-10-01

    This study identified heterogeneous classes of alcohol-related neighborhood characteristics to which multi-ethnic, early adolescents in urban communities are exposed. The sample comprised 4,215 youth from 42 community areas in Chicago, Illinois who completed surveys at the beginning of 6th grade (2002). Neighborhood measures included: (1) mean number of alcohol outlets per 1,000 population per community area; (2) alcohol purchase attempt rate by pseudo-underage youth; (3) average number of alcohol advertisements within 1,500 feet of each school per community; and (4) a Census 2000-based deprivation index. Parents and community leaders provided data on perceived neighborhood problems and parental prevention actions, and neighborhood strength and preventive action by communities, law enforcement, and community organizations, respectively. Multilevel latent class analysis identified the number and characteristics of heterogeneous latent neighborhood classes in which these youth are exposed. Five classes best described the heterogeneity among the sample: (1) Low social capital/low exposure/high access to alcohol (19.8%), (2) Low social capital/low exposure/low access to alcohol (24.5%), (3) Moderate social capital/low exposure/high access to alcohol (30.0%), (4) Moderate social capital/moderate exposure/low access to alcohol (20.1%), and (5) High social capital/moderate exposure/high access to alcohol (5.6%). The racial/ethnic distribution among the classes varied considerably. Results suggest there is substantive heterogeneity among this seemingly homogeneous urban population. Further, they highlight the socioeconomic disadvantage of these inner-city communities and the resource disparity across the racial/ethnic groups. Understanding the nuances among communities may lend to development of more efficacious preventive interventions and policy initiatives, inform theory, and help prioritize limited resources.

  11. Harmful Use of Alcohol: A Shadow over Sub-Saharan Africa in Need of Workable Solutions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carina Ferreira-Borges

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Alcohol consumption and alcohol-attributable burden of disease in Africa are expected to rise in the near future, yet. increasing alcohol-related harm receives little attention from policymakers and from the population in general. Even where new legislation is proposed it is rarely enacted into law. Being at the center of social and cultural activities in many countries, alcohol’s negative role in society and contribution to countries’ burden of disease are rarely questioned. After the momentum created by the adoption in 2010 of the WHO Global Strategy and the WHO Regional Strategy (for Africa to Reduce the Harmful Use of Alcohol, and the WHO Global Action Plan for the Prevention and Control of Non-Communicable Diseases, in 2013, little seems to have been done to address the increasing use of alcohol, its associated burden and the new challenges that derive from the growing influence of the alcohol industry in Africa. In this review, we argue that to have a positive impact on the health of African populations, action addressing specific features of alcohol policy in the continent is needed, namely focusing on particularities linked to alcohol availability, like unrecorded and illicit production, outlet licensing, the expansion of formal production, marketing initiatives and taxation policies.

  12. Alcohol consumption and symptoms as predictors for relapse of DSM-5 alcohol use disorder.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tuithof, Marlous; ten Have, Margreet; van den Brink, Wim; Vollebergh, Wilma; de Graaf, Ron

    2014-01-01

    Background: Alcohol consumption levels and alcohol use disorder (AUD) symptoms may serve as easily quantifiable markers for AUD relapse after remission and might help prevention workers identify at-risk individuals. We investigated the predictive value of alcohol consumption and AUD symptoms on rela

  13. Saving Our Children from Alcoholism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foster, Dorothy

    1982-01-01

    Describes current efforts undertaken by the Catholic community to prevent alcoholism and drug abuse among young people. Outlines the objectives of such preventive programs and actions currently being taken. Highlights efforts including parent education programs, workshops for teachers, clergy, and community networks. (WL)

  14. 魔芋葡甘聚糖对大鼠酒精性脂肪肝的预防效果%Study on the preventive effect of KGM on the rat with alcoholic fatty liver

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨芳

    2012-01-01

    【Objective】 The study was done to analyze the preventive effect of KGM on alcoholic fatty liver(AFL).【Method】 The male SD rats were divided into five groups,namely control group,drinking alcohol group,5% KGM preventive group,10% KGM preventive group,10% GSH preventive group.During the twelve weeks of experiment,rat hair,activity,and diet were observed.Body weight was weighed at the end of the test.The rat serum ALT,AST,γ-GT levels were evaluated using an assay kit and histopathology of liver tissue in rats was observed.【Result】 After 12 weeks,the body weight of three prevention group rats grew faster than drinking alcohol group(P0.05).KGM could reduce the activity of serum ALT,AST and γ-GT,which had statistically significant differences(P0.05) or very significant difference(P0.01)with rats of drinking alcohol group.There was a very significant difference(P0.01)between preventive group rats and rats of drinking alcohol group which had hepatic steatosis,organization of local inflammation and necrosis.ALT,AST,γ-GT,and liver index had no statistically significant differences between KGM preventive group and GSH preventive group.【Conclusion】 KGM could reduce the activity of serum ALT,AST and γ-GT.The KGM in alcohol continuing role is still effective in the prevention of the occurrence of AFL.Its preventive effect is similar to GSH.%【目的】探究魔芋葡甘聚糖(Konjac glucomannan,KGM)对大鼠酒精性脂肪肝的预防作用。【方法】将雄性SD大鼠随机分成空白对照组、酒精肝模型组、饮用酒精+质量分数5%KGM组、饮用酒精+质量分数10%KGM组、饮用酒精+质量分数10%谷胱甘肽(GSH)组,进行为期12周的饲养试验,期间观察大鼠被毛、活动、饮食等一般情况,试验结束时称体质量,并采集血清及肝脏样品,测定其血清谷丙转氨酶(Alanine aminotransferase,ALT)、谷草转氨酶(Aspartate aminotransferase,AST)、

  15. Initial evidence of reduction of malaria cases and deaths in Rwanda and Ethiopia due to rapid scale-up of malaria prevention and treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Otten, Mac; Aregawi, Maru; Were, Wilson; Karema, Corine; Medin, Ambachew; Bekele, Worku; Jima, Daddi; Gausi, Khoti; Komatsu, Ryuichi; Korenromp, Eline; Low-Beer, Daniel; Grabowsky, Mark

    2009-01-01

    Background An increasing number of malaria-endemic African countries are rapidly scaling up malaria prevention and treatment. To have an initial estimate of the impact of these efforts, time trends in health facility records were evaluated in selected districts in Ethiopia and Rwanda, where long-lasting insecticidal nets (LLIN) and artemisinin-based combination therapy (ACT) had been distributed nationwide by 2007. Methods In Ethiopia, a stratified convenience sample covered four major regions where (moderately) endemic malaria occurs. In Rwanda, two districts were sampled in all five provinces, with one rural health centre and one rural hospital selected in each district. The main impact indicator was percentage change in number of in-patient malaria cases and deaths in children < 5 years old prior to (2001–2005/6) and after (2007) nationwide implementation of LLIN and ACT. Results In-patient malaria cases and deaths in children < 5 years old in Rwanda fell by 55% and 67%, respectively, and in Ethiopia by 73% and 62%. Over this same time period, non-malaria cases and deaths generally remained stable or increased. Conclusion Initial evidence indicated that the combination of mass distribution of LLIN to all children < 5 years or all households and nationwide distribution of ACT in the public sector was associated with substantial declines of in-patient malaria cases and deaths in Rwanda and Ethiopia. Clinic-based data was a useful tool for local monitoring of the impact of malaria programmes. PMID:19144183

  16. gamma-Hydroxybutyric acid (GHB) suppresses alcohol's motivational properties in alcohol-preferring rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maccioni, Paola; Pes, Daniela; Fantini, Noemi; Carai, Mauro A M; Gessa, Gian Luigi; Colombo, Giancarlo

    2008-03-01

    gamma-Hydroxybutyric acid (GHB) reduces alcohol drinking, promotes abstinence from alcohol, suppresses craving for alcohol, and ameliorates alcohol withdrawal syndrome in alcoholics. At preclinical level, GHB suppresses alcohol withdrawal signs and alcohol intake in rats. The present study was designed to investigate whether GHB administration was capable of affecting alcohol's motivational properties (the possible animal correlate of human craving for alcohol) in selectively bred Sardinian alcohol-preferring rats. To this aim, rats were initially trained to lever press for alcohol (15%, vol/vol) under a procedure of operant, oral alcohol self-administration (fixed ratio 4 in 30-min daily sessions). Once responding for alcohol had stabilized, rats were divided into two groups and allocated to two independent experiments. Experiment 1 assessed the effect of GHB (0, 25, 50, and 100mg/kg, i.p.) on breakpoint for alcohol, defined as the lowest response requirement not achieved by each rat when exposed to a single-session progressive ratio schedule of reinforcement. Experiment 2 assessed the effect of GHB (0, 25, 50, and 100mg/kg, i.p.) on single-session extinction responding for alcohol (alcohol was absent and unreinforced responding was recorded). Breakpoint and extinction responding for alcohol are reliable indexes of alcohol's motivational strength. In Experiment 1, all doses of GHB reduced--by approximately 20% in comparison to saline-treated rats--breakpoint for alcohol. In Experiment 2, administration of 25, 50, and 100mg/kg GHB reduced--by approximately 25%, 40%, and 50%, respectively, in comparison to saline-treated rats--extinction responding for alcohol. Conversely, no dose of GHB altered breakpoint and extinction responding for sucrose (3%, wt/vol) in two independent subsets of Sardinian alcohol-preferring rats. Together, these data suggest that GHB administration specifically suppressed alcohol's motivational properties in Sardinian alcohol-preferring rats

  17. Responsible Hospitality. Prevention Updates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colthurst, Tom

    2004-01-01

    Responsible Hospitality (RH)--also called Responsible Beverage Service (RBS)--encompasses a variety of strategies for reducing risks associated with the sale and service of alcoholic beverages. RH programs have three goals: (1) to prevent illegal alcohol service to minors; (2) to reduce the likelihood of drinkers becoming intoxicated; and (3) to…

  18. O enfermeiro no ensino fundamental: desafios na prevenção ao consumo de álcool El enfermero en la enseñanza general básica: desafíos en la prevención al consumo de alcohol The nurse in fundamental education: challenges in the prevention to alcohol consumption

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gertrudes Teixeira Lopes

    2007-12-01

    orientación a los jóvenes.This study comes from some questions made by drug researchers about insertion of the nurse as promotional health agent in the fundamental school. Objective: to reflect the acting of the nurse in the fundamental school as agent in the prevention to alcohol consumption. This work shows that the prevention, as a sum of actions that aim at preventing problems caused by improper use of the alcohol, is a field that enables the nurse to develop activities of prevention in different scopes, along with the students, their families and the teachers. The reflections in this text about the work of the nurse as agent educator in fundamental level schools aiming at to the prevention to the alcohol use do not make a vindication nor recriminates the consumption, but consider the school as a privileged territory for the incorporation of knowledge on health, replacing the repressor approach by the orientation one to the youth.

  19. Alcohol abuse and postoperative morbidity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tønnesen, Hanne

    2003-01-01

    Patients who drink too much have more complications after surgery. The aim of this thesis was to evaluate the evidence, possible mechanisms, and prevention of the increased postoperative morbidity in alcohol abusers, defined by a consumption of at least five drinks per day. The literature could...... be criticised for several methodological flaws. Nevertheless, the results are in agreement showing moderate to strong evidence of increased postoperative morbidity after surgical procedures on alcohol abusers. There is weak to moderate evidence of increased postoperative mortality, hospital stay, and re......-operation. The personal and economic consequences are tremendous. The incidence of alcohol abusers undergoing surgery was 7% to 49%, according to gender and diagnosis. They have been identified by a self-reported alcohol intake, which implies the possibility of underestimation. Alcohol markers could be used for a more...

  20. Alcohol during Pregnancy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Home > Pregnancy > Is it safe? > Alcohol during pregnancy Alcohol during pregnancy E-mail to a friend Please ... and fetal alcohol spectrum disorders. How does drinking alcohol during pregnancy affect your baby's health? Drinking alcohol ...

  1. Alcohol Energy Drinks

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Home / About Addiction / Alcohol / Alcohol Energy Drinks Alcohol Energy Drinks Read 24018 times font size decrease font size increase font size Print Email Alcohol energy drinks (AEDs) or Caffeinated alcoholic beverages (CABs) are ...

  2. Inhibition of pancreatic stellate cell activation by the vitamin A and vitamin E as a therapy for prevention fibrogenesis in experimental chronic alcoholic pancreatitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nichitaylo M. E.

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the study was to investigate the effects of Vitamin A and Vitamin E on activity of pancreatic stellate cells and fibrosis changes in pancreas after distal pancreatectomy in rats with experimental alcohol-induced chronic pancreatitis. Simultaneously Vitamin A and Vitamin E were administered after distal pancreatectomy in rats with experimental alcohol-induced chronic pancreatitis. The animals were treated withVitamin A at the dose of 33000 IU/kg body weight per day and Vitamin E at the dose of 100 mg/kg body weight per day for three weeks (21 days after operation. To estimate the efficacy of the treatment on activity and numbersof pancreatic stellate cells the immunohistochemicalinvestigation was made with alpha-smooth muscle actin, desmin, vimentin, glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP, matrix metalloproteinase 1 (MMP1, tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase 2 (TIMP2 using. The treatment of rats after operation with vitamin A and vitamin E inhibited activity of pancreatic stellate cells and characterized by significant decreasing of the alpha-smooth muscle actin, Desmin, Vimentin, MMP1 and TIMP2 expression. The ratio of MMP1/TIMP2 was greater in the group with treatment then in the control group. This therapy had a trend to decrease the expression of GFAPand alleviate the fibrotic changes in pancreas.

  3. Demographic and Academic Trends in Drinking Patterns and Alcohol-Related Problems on Dry College Campuses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Dexter M.; Johnson, Mark B.; Voas, Robert B.; Turrisi, Robert

    2006-01-01

    Restricting alcohol consumption on campus is a measure often used by college administrators to prevent alcohol abuse and-alcohol-related problems. The effect of dry campus policies on alcohol consumption and alcohol-related problems, however, remains poorly understood. This report will compare characteristics of two dry campuses with descriptions…

  4. Feasibility and Initial Efficacy Evaluation of a Community-Based Cognitive-Behavioral Lifestyle Intervention to Prevent Excessive Weight Gain During Pregnancy in Latina Women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gesell, Sabina B; Katula, Jeffrey A; Strickland, Carmen; Vitolins, Mara Z

    2015-08-01

    About 48 % of US women gain more weight during pregnancy than recommended by the Institute of Medicine (IOM). Excessive gestational weight gain is a major risk factor for obesity in both women and offspring over their lifetimes, and should be avoided. This study was designed to test the feasibility and initial efficacy of a prenatal behavioral intervention in a sample of low-income, predominantly Latina women. The intervention was delivered in groups of 8-10 women in a community recreation center, and structured to reduce the proportion of women who gained weight in excess of IOM guidelines. Recruitment targets were met in 3 months: 135 pregnant women (>10 and lifestyle intervention during pregnancy was feasible in a hard-to-reach, high-risk population of low-income Latina women, and showed efficacy in preventing excessive gestational weight gain. Due to frequently changing work schedules, strategies are needed to either increase attendance at group sessions (e.g., within a group prenatal care format) or to build core skills necessary for behavior change through other modalities.

  5. Diabetes mellitus and alcohol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van de Wiel, Albert

    2004-01-01

    Alcohol influences glucose metabolism in several ways in diabetic patients as well as in non-diabetic patients. Since alcohol inhibits both gluconeogenesis and glycogenolysis, its acute intake without food may provoke hypoglycaemia, especially in cases of depleted glycogen stores and in combination with sulphonylurea. Consumed with a meal including carbohydrates, it is the preferred fuel, which may initially lead to somewhat higher blood glucose levels and hence an insulin response in type 2 diabetic patients. Depending on the nature of the carbohydrates in the meal, this may be followed by reactive hypoglycaemia. Moderate consumption of alcohol is associated with a reduced risk of atherosclerotic disorders. Diabetic patients benefit from this favourable effect as much as non-diabetic patients. Apart from effects on lipid metabolism, haemostatic balance and blood pressure, alcohol improves insulin sensitivity. This improvement of insulin sensitivity may also be responsible for the lower incidence of type 2 diabetes mellitus reported to be associated with light-to-moderate drinking. In case of moderate and sensible use, risks of disturbances in glycaemic control, weight and blood pressure are limited. Excessive intake of alcohol, however, may not only cause loss of metabolic control, but also annihilate the favourable effects on the cardiovascular system.

  6. La escuela básica en la prevención del consumo de alcohol y tabaco: retrato de una realidad A escola fundamental na prevenção do consumo de álcool e tabaco: retrato de uma realidade Basic education in the prevention of alcohol consumption and smoking: a reality report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luz María Carvajal Chávez

    2005-10-01

    for the health, with personal, family and social consequences. The present study is exploratory-descriptive nature and its objective was to evaluate the primary school as a predicting factor in the prevention of the consumption of the school and tobacco in students. Interviews to students and professors were made by a pre-established guide, the results demonstrate that the 66,6% age is of 10 to 11 years. Exposed to factors of risks associated to scholastic problems, low self- esteem and familiar problems. Research shows that 15,6% have experienced alcohol and the 13,4% tobacco. The professors say that the children do not consume alcohol, tobacco or drugs, they say the children have conduct problems.

  7. A Comparison of Maternal Outcomes from an Alcohol, Tobacco, and Other Drug Prevention Program for Mothers Choosing an Intervention versus Being Randomized

    Science.gov (United States)

    Byrnes, Hilary F.; Miller, Brenda A.; Laborde, Nicole

    2013-01-01

    Self-determination theory and substantial research findings suggest that more desirable outcomes may occur when participants are able to choose their prevention or treatment interventions, as having a choice may lead to greater motivation and feelings of self-efficacy. The present study examined the influence of having a choice of family-based…

  8. Differential effects of baseline drinking status : Effects of an alcohol prevention program targeting students and/or parents (PAS) among weekly drinking students

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koning, Ina M.; Lugtig, Peter; Vollebergh, Wilma A M

    2014-01-01

    The effects of an intervention designed to prevent onset of weekly drinking in non drinking students (PAS) were investigated in the group of students that was already drinking at baseline. A cluster randomized trial was used including 3,490 Dutch early adolescents (M age. =. 12.66, SD=. 0.49) random

  9. Procedure of brewing alcohol as a staple food: case study of the fermented cereal liquor "Parshot" as a staple food in Dirashe special woreda, southern Ethiopia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sunano, Yui

    2016-07-01

    For most brews, alcohol fermentation and lactic fermentation take place simultaneously during the brewing process, and alcohol fermentation can progress smoothly because the propagation of various microorganisms is prevented by lactic fermentation. It is not necessary to cause lactic fermentation with a thing generated naturally and intentionally. The people living in the Dirashe area in southern Ethiopia drink three types of alcoholic beverages that are prepared from cereals. From these alcoholic beverages, parshot is prepared by the addition of plant leaves for lactic fermentation and nech chaka by adding cereal powder for lactic fermentation before alcohol fermentation. People living in the Dirashe area partake of parshot as part of their staple diet. The brewing process used for parshot and a food culture with alcoholic beverages as parts of the staple diet are rare worldwide. This article discusses the significance of using lactic fermentation before alcoholic fermentation and focuses on lactic fermentation in the brewing methods used for the three kinds of alcoholic beverages consumed in the Dirashe area. We initially observed the brewing process and obtained information about the process from the people in that area. Next, we determined the pH and analyzed the lactic acid (g/100 g) and ethanol (g/100 g) content during lactic fermentation of parshot and nech chaka; the ethyl acetate (mg/100 g) and volatile base nitrogen (mg/100 g) content during this period was also analyzed. In addition, we compared the ethanol (g/100 g) content of all three kinds of alcoholic beverages after completion of brewing. The results showed that it was possible to consume large quantities of these alcoholic beverages because of the use of lactic fermentation before alcoholic fermentation, which improved the safety and preservation characteristics of the beverages by preventing the propagation of various microorganisms, improving flavor, and controlling the alcohol level.

  10. Parental Alcoholism, Adverse Childhood Experiences, and Later Risk of Personal Alcohol Abuse among Chinese Medical Students

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    QIN XIAO; MA-XIA DONG; JIE YAO; WEN-XIAN LI; DONG-QING YE

    2008-01-01

    Objective To determine the status of adverse childhood experiences (ACEs) and the association of multiple ACEs with both parental alcoholism and later personal alcohol abuse among Chinese medical students with a view of improving adolescent health and reducing alcohol abuse among them. Methods In this cross-sectional study, 2073 Chinese medical students completed a survey on ten categories of ACEs in Anhui province of China. The association of parental alcoholism with ACEs and personal lcohol abuse was assessed by logistic regression analyses. Results The adjusted odds ratio (OR) for each category of ACEs in the subjects whose parents (either fathers or mothers or oth) had alcohol abuse was 2 to 14 times higher than that inthose with parental alcoholism (P<0.05). Subjects with i-parental alcoholism had the highest likelihood of ACEs. Compared with the subjects without ACEs, the risk of personal alcohol abuse was increased by 2-4-folds in the subjects with ACEs, irrespective of parental alcoholism (P<0.05). The total number of ACEs (ACE score) had a graded relationship to 4 categories of personal alcohol abuse with or without parental alcoholism. The prevalence of personal alcohol abuse among the subjects with parental alcoholism was higher, which was ndependent of ACE scores. Conclusion The prevalence of ACEs is generally serious in China. Efforts should be made to prevent and treat children with ACEs and subsequently to reduce alcohol abuse and later problems.

  11. Alcohol combustion chemistry

    KAUST Repository

    Sarathy, Mani

    2014-10-01

    , also emphasizing advanced engine concepts. Research results addressing combustion reaction mechanisms have been reported based on results from pyrolysis and oxidation reactors, shock tubes, rapid compression machines, and research engines. This work is complemented by the development of detailed combustion models with the support of chemical kinetics and quantum chemistry. This paper seeks to provide an introduction to and overview of recent results on alcohol combustion by highlighting pertinent aspects of this rich and rapidly increasing body of information. As such, this paper provides an initial source of references and guidance regarding the present status of combustion experiments on alcohols and models of alcohol combustion. © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Days La Familia community drug and alcohol prevention program: Family-centered model for working with inner-city Hispanic families.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernandez, L P; Lucero, E

    1996-03-01

    Substance abuse among Hispanics is on the increase despite national efforts toward reducing it. Researchers and service providers have recognized the specific need for better prevention models that address the issues of poor Hispanics. La Familia is a community-based ATOD prevention program that targets Hispanic families with high-risk youth from 6 to 11 years old, and attempts to reduce identified risk factors while building on culturally relevant protective factors. During the 2 years, the program has enrolled 219 youth and their families utilizing existing community networks and aggressive outreach. The program resulted in a 92% retention rate and over 80% attendance per session. As a result of the program, families became more willing to discuss ATOD issues openly and made positive steps toward empowerment.

  13. Eyeblink Classical Conditioning in Alcoholism and Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Dominic T; Jacobson, Sandra W; Jacobson, Joseph L; Molteno, Christopher D; Stanton, Mark E; Desmond, John E

    2015-01-01

    Alcoholism is a debilitating disorder that can take a significant toll on health and professional and personal relationships. Excessive alcohol consumption can have a serious impact on both drinkers and developing fetuses, leading to long-term learning impairments. Decades of research in laboratory animals and humans have demonstrated the value of eyeblink classical conditioning (EBC) as a well-characterized model system to study the neural mechanisms underlying associative learning. Behavioral EBC studies in adults with alcohol use disorders and in children with fetal alcohol spectrum disorders report a clear learning deficit in these two patient populations, suggesting alcohol-related damage to the cerebellum and associated structures. Insight into the neural mechanisms underlying these learning impairments has largely stemmed from laboratory animal studies. In this mini-review, we present and discuss exemplary animal findings and data from patient and neuroimaging studies. An improved understanding of the neural mechanisms underlying learning deficits in EBC related to alcoholism and prenatal alcohol exposure has the potential to advance the diagnoses, treatment, and prevention of these and other pediatric and adult disorders.

  14. Alcohol Related Problems and the Hispanic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia, Louis S.

    1977-01-01

    Although Hispanic women report high rates of abstinence, more Hispanic men report alcohol related problems than Anglos, Blacks, or Asians and report more heavy drinking. Yet little has been done to develop or fund culturally specific alcoholism prevention, treatment and rehabilitation programs for the Hispanics. (NQ)

  15. Suggestions for the New Social Entrepreneurship Initiative: Focus on Building a Body of Research-Proven Programs, Shown to Produce Major Gains in Education, Poverty Reduction, Crime Prevention, and Other Areas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coalition for Evidence-Based Policy, 2009

    2009-01-01

    This paper outlines a possible approach to implementing the Social Entrepreneurship initiative, focused on building a body of research-proven program models/strategies, and scaling them up, so as to produce major progress in education, poverty reduction, crime prevention, and other areas. The paper summarizes the rationale for this approach, then…

  16. A multidimensional model of mothers' perceptions of parent alcohol socialization and adolescent alcohol misuse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ennett, Susan T; Jackson, Christine; Cole, Veronica T; Haws, Susan; Foshee, Vangie A; Reyes, Heathe Luz McNaughton; Burns, Alison Reimuller; Cox, Melissa J; Cai, Li

    2016-02-01

    We assessed a multidimensional model of parent alcohol socialization in which key socialization factors were considered simultaneously to identify combinations of factors that increase or decrease risk for development of adolescent alcohol misuse. Of interest was the interplay between putative risk and protective factors, such as whether the typically detrimental effects on youth drinking of parenting practices tolerant of some adolescent alcohol use are mitigated by an effective overall approach to parenting and parental modeling of modest alcohol use. The sample included 1,530 adolescents and their mothers; adolescents' mean age was 13.0 (SD = .99) at the initial assessment. Latent profile analysis was conducted of mothers' reports of their attitude toward teen drinking, alcohol-specific parenting practices, parental alcohol use and problem use, and overall approach to parenting. The profiles were used to predict trajectories of adolescent alcohol misuse from early to middle adolescence. Four profiles were identified: 2 profiles reflected conservative alcohol-specific parenting practices and 2 reflected alcohol-tolerant practices, all in the context of other attributes. Alcohol misuse accelerated more rapidly from Grade 6 through 10 in the 2 alcohol-tolerant compared with conservative profiles. Results suggest that maternal tolerance of some youth alcohol use, even in the presence of dimensions of an effective parenting style and low parental alcohol use and problem use, is not an effective strategy for reducing risky adolescent alcohol use. (PsycINFO Database Record

  17. Facts About Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorders (FASDs)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... types of alcohol are equally harmful, including all wines and beer. To prevent FASDs, a woman should ... medication to help with some symptoms, behavior and education therapy, parent training, and other alternative approaches. No ...

  18. Prevention of diseases after menopause.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lobo, R A; Davis, S R; De Villiers, T J; Gompel, A; Henderson, V W; Hodis, H N; Lumsden, M A; Mack, W J; Shapiro, S; Baber, R J

    2014-10-01

    Women may expect to spend more than a third of their lives after menopause. Beginning in the sixth decade, many chronic diseases will begin to emerge, which will affect both the quality and quantity of a woman's life. Thus, the onset of menopause heralds an opportunity for prevention strategies to improve the quality of life and enhance longevity. Obesity, metabolic syndrome and diabetes, cardiovascular disease, osteoporosis and osteoarthritis, cognitive decline, dementia and depression, and cancer are the major diseases of concern. Prevention strategies at menopause have to begin with screening and careful assessment for risk factors, which should also include molecular and genetic diagnostics, as these become available. Identification of certain risks will then allow directed therapy. Evidence-based prevention for the diseases noted above include lifestyle management, cessation of smoking, curtailing excessive alcohol consumption, a healthy diet and moderate exercise, as well as mentally stimulating activities. Although the most recent publications from the follow-up studies of the Women's Health Initiative do not recommend menopause hormonal therapy as a prevention strategy, these conclusions may not be fully valid for midlife women, on the basis of the existing data. For healthy women aged 50-59 years, estrogen therapy decreases coronary heart disease and all-cause mortality; this interpretation is entirely consistent with results from other randomized, controlled trials and observational studies. Thus. as part of a comprehensive strategy to prevent chronic disease after menopause, menopausal hormone therapy, particularly estrogen therapy may be considered as part of the armamentarium.

  19. Alcohol and Hepatitis

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Home » Living with Hepatitis » Daily Living: Alcohol Viral Hepatitis Menu Menu Viral Hepatitis Viral Hepatitis Home For ... Alcohol for Veterans and the Public Alcohol and Hepatitis: Entire Lesson Overview Alcohol is one of the ...

  20. Alcohol and Hepatitis

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... code here Enter ZIP code here Daily Living: Alcohol for Veterans and the Public Alcohol and Hepatitis: Entire Lesson Overview Alcohol is one ... related to choices you make about your lifestyle . Alcohol and fibrosis Fibrosis is the medical term for ...

  1. Light alcohol intake during adolescence induces alcohol addiction in a neurodevelopmental model of schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeanblanc, Jérôme; Balguerie, Kevin; Coune, Fabien; Legastelois, Rémi; Jeanblanc, Virginie; Naassila, Mickaël

    2015-05-01

    Schizophrenia is a mental disorder characterized by a series of positive, negative or cognitive symptoms but with also the particularity of exhibiting a high rate of co-morbid use of drugs of abuse. While more than 80% of schizophrenics are smokers, the second most consumed drug is alcohol, with dramatic consequences on frequency and intensity of psychotic episodes and on life expectancy. Here we investigated the impact of light alcohol intake during adolescence on the subsequent occurrence of alcohol addiction-like behavior in neonatal ventral hippocampal lesion (NVHL) rats, a neurodevelopmental model of schizophrenia. Our findings demonstrated an increased liability to addictive behaviors in adult NVHL rats after voluntary alcohol intake during adolescence. NVHL rats displayed several signs of alcohol use disorder such as a loss of control over alcohol intake and high motivation to consume alcohol, associated with a higher resistance to extinction. In addition, once NVHL rats relapsed, they maintained higher drinking levels than controls. We finally showed that the anti-addictive drug naltrexone is efficient in reducing excessive alcohol intake in NVHL rats. Our results are in accordance with epidemiological studies underlying the particular vulnerability to alcohol addiction after adolescent exposure to alcohol and highlight the fact that schizophrenic subjects may be particularly at risk even after light alcohol consumption. Based on these results, it seems particularly relevant to prevent early onset of alcohol use in at-risk subjects and thus to reduce the incidence of co-morbid alcohol abuse in psychotic patients.

  2. Vital Signs-Alcohol Poisoning Deaths

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2015-01-06

    This podcast is based on the January 2015 CDC Vital Signs report. In the United States, an average of six people die every day from alcohol poisoning. Learn what you can do to prevent binge drinking and alcohol poisoning.  Created: 1/6/2015 by National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion (NCCDPHP).   Date Released: 1/6/2015.

  3. Alcohol attributable hospitalisations and costs in Ireland, 2000-2004.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Martin, J

    2011-05-01

    The aim of this study was to calculate the number and costs of hospital bed-days due to alcohol use in Ireland over the five year period 2000 to 2004. Age and sex specific Irish alcohol-attributable-fractions (AAFs) were developed by combining international risk estimates with Irish consumption data where available; where not available international AAFs were used. These were applied to national datasets to count the number and costs of bed-days wholly caused and prevented by alcohol and that proportion of bed-days that were partially caused and prevented by alcohol. Between 2000 and 2004, alcohol was estimated to have caused 3,428,973 (10.3%) and prevented 529,239 (1.6%) of hospital bed-days, giving a net number of bed-days due to alcohol of 2,899,734 (8.7%). Over this period the hospital inpatient costs attributed to the negative effects of alcohol were 953,126,381 euros, the costs attributed to hospitalisations prevented were 147,968,164 euros; giving net costs of alcohol-attributed bed-days of 805,158,217 euros. Chronic conditions accounted for 3,262,408 (95%) hospital bed-days due to the harmful effects of alcohol. Conditions not wholly due to alcohol accounted for 2,297,412 (67%) hospital bed-days due to the harmful effects of alcohol. The negative impacts of alcohol were greater than previously thought and spread across the whole population.

  4. Early prevention of obesity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudio Maffeis

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Childhood obesity is the metabolic disorder with the highest prevalence in both children and adults. Urgency to treat and prevent childhood obesity is based on the clear evidence that obesity tends to track from childhood to adulthood, is associated to morbidity also in childhood and to long-term mortality. Early life, i.e., intrauterine life and the first two years, is a sensitive window for prevention. Anatomical and functional maturation of the hypothalamic structures devoted to regulating energy intake and expenditure and body size mainly occurs in the first 1,000 days of life. Therefore, factors affecting the foetal exposition to maternal metabolic environment and early postnatal nutrition are crucial in modulating the definition of the metabolic programming processes in the brain. Maternal diseases, mainly malnutrition for defect or excess, obesity and diabetes, placental disorders and dysfunctions, maternal use of alcohol and drugs, smoking, affect long term metabolic programming of the foetus with lifelong consequences. Similarly, early nutrition contributes to complete the long-term metabolic regulating framework initiated in the uterus. Breastfeeding, adequate weaning, attention to portion size and diet composition are potential tools for reducing the obesity risk later in childhood. Longitudinal randomized controlled studies are needed for exploring the efficacy of obesity prevention strategies initiated after conception.Proceedings of the 10th International Workshop on Neonatology · Cagliari (Italy · October 22nd-25th, 2014 · The last ten years, the next ten years in Neonatology Guest Editors: Vassilios Fanos, Michele Mussap, Gavino Faa, Apostolos Papageorgiou

  5. Trends in alcohol-specific parenting practices and adolescent alcohol use between 2007 and 2011 in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Looze, M. de; Smit, E.; Bogt, T.F.M. ter; Dorsselaer, S.A.F.M. van; Verdurmen, J.E.E.; Schulten, I.; Engels, R.C.M.E.; Vollebergh, W.A.M.

    2014-01-01

    Background: Following increased research and policy attention on the harmful effects of alcohol use among adolescents and the implementation of prevention programs aimed at reducing adolescent alcohol use, this study examined whether alcohol-specific parenting practices have become stricter and whet

  6. Sugar and Alcoholic Fair Closed in Chengdu

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Li Zhen

    2009-01-01

    @@ The 80th China National Sugar and Alcoholic Commodities Fair was held in Chengdu (capital of Sichuan province) from March 24 to 28.Sponsored by China National Sugar and Alcohol Group Corp.,this is the 20th time for Chengdu to host such a big event.Since the fair was initially held in 1955,Sugar and Alcoholic Fair has become increasingly well-known in both China and abroad while sticking to the principle of serving enterprises.

  7. Prenatal Alcohol Exposure Selectively Enhances Young Adult Perceived Pleasantness of Alcohol Odors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hannigan, John H.; Chiodo, Lisa M.; Sokol, Robert J.; Janisse, James; Delaney-Black, Virginia

    2015-01-01

    Prenatal Alcohol Exposure (PAE) can lead to life-long neurobehavioral and social problems that can include a greater likelihood of early use and/or abuse of alcohol compared to older teens and young adults without PAE. Basic research in animals demonstrates that PAE influences later postnatal responses to chemosensory cues (i.e., odor & taste) associated with alcohol. We hypothesized that PAE would be related to poorer abilities to identify odors of alcohol-containing beverages, and would alter perceived alcohol odor intensity and pleasantness. To address this hypothesis we examined responses to alcohol and other odors in a small sample of young adults with detailed prenatal histories of exposure to alcohol and other drugs. The key finding from our controlled analyses is that higher levels of PAE were related to higher relative ratings of pleasantness for alcohol odors. As far as we are aware, this is the first published study to report the influence of PAE on responses to alcohol beverage odors in young adults. These findings are consistent with the hypothesis that positive associations (i.e., “pleasantness”) to the chemosensory properties of alcohol (i.e., odor) are acquired prenatally and are retained for many years despite myriad interceding postnatal experiences. Alternate hypotheses may also be supported by the results. There are potential implications of altered alcohol odor responses for understanding individual differences in initiation of drinking, and alcohol seeking and high-risk alcohol-related behaviors in young adults. PMID:25600468

  8. Specificity of early movie effects on adolescent sexual behavior and alcohol use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Hara, Ross E; Gibbons, Frederick X; Li, Zhigang; Gerrard, Meg; Sargent, James D

    2013-11-01

    Adolescents' movie sex exposure (MSE) and movie alcohol exposure (MAE) have been shown to influence later sexual behavior and drinking, respectively. No study to date, however, has tested whether these effects generalize across behaviors. This study examined the concurrent influences of early (i.e., before age 16) MSE and MAE on subsequent risky sex and alcohol use among a national sample of 1228 U.S. adolescents. Participants reported their health behaviors and movie viewing up to six times between 2003 and 2009 in telephone interviews. The Beach method was used to create a population-based estimate of each participant's MSE and MAE, which were then entered into a structural equation model (SEM) to predict lifetime risky sex and past month alcohol use at ages 18-21. For both men and women, MAE predicted alcohol use, mediated by age of initiation of heavy episodic drinking (HED) and age of sexual debut; MAE also predicted risky sex via age of sexual debut. Among men only, MSE indirectly predicted risky sex and alcohol use. Findings indicated that early exposure to risk content from movies had both specific and general effects on later risk-taking, but gender differences were evident: for men, MSE was a stronger predictor than MAE, but for women, only MAE predicted later risk behavior. These results have implications for future media research, prevention programs for adolescent sex and alcohol use, and movie ratings that can guide parents' decisions as to which movies are appropriate for their children.

  9. Reducing cultural and psychological barriers to Latino enrollment in HIV-prevention counseling: initial data on an enrollment meta-intervention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Kristina; Durantini, Marta R; Albarracín, Julia; Crause, Candi; Albarracín, Dolores

    2013-01-01

    Aspects of Latino culture (e.g., machismo, marianism) can act as barriers to enrollment in HIV-prevention programs. To lift these barriers, a culturally appropriate meta-intervention was designed to increase intentions to enroll in HIV-prevention counseling by Latinos. Latino participants (N=41) were recruited from the community and randomly assigned to either an experimental or control meta-intervention condition that varied the introduction to a HIV-prevention counseling program. Following the meta-intervention, participants were issued an invitation to take part in HIV-prevention counseling. The outcome measure was the intention to enroll in a HIV-prevention counseling session. Findings indicated that enrollment intentions were higher in the experimental meta-intervention condition (96%) than in the control meta-intervention condition (53%). In addition, the effects of the meta-intervention were comparable across genders and participant ages. Findings suggest that the use of a culturally appropriate meta-intervention may be an effective strategy for increasing Latino enrollment in HIV-prevention programs. These promising findings warrant further investigation into the efficacy and effectiveness of this meta-intervention.

  10. Neuroimaging and Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norman, Andria L.; Crocker, Nicole; Mattson, Sarah N.; Riley, Edward P.

    2009-01-01

    The detrimental effects of prenatal alcohol exposure on the developing brain include structural brain anomalies as well as cognitive and behavioral deficits. Initial neuroimaging studies of fetal alcohol spectrum disorders (FASD) using magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) confirmed previous autopsy reports of overall reduction in brain volume and…

  11. Branched-chain amino acids prevent hepatic fibrosis and development of hepatocellular carcinoma in a non-alcoholic steatohepatitis mouse model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takegoshi, Kai; Honda, Masao; Okada, Hikari; Takabatake, Riuta; Matsuzawa-Nagata, Naoto; Campbell, Jean S; Nishikawa, Masashi; Shimakami, Tetsuro; Shirasaki, Takayoshi; Sakai, Yoshio; Yamashita, Taro; Takamura, Toshinari; Tanaka, Takuji; Kaneko, Shuichi

    2017-02-13

    Oral supplementation with branched-chain amino acids (BCAA; leucine, isoleucine, and valine) in patients with liver cirrhosis potentially suppresses the incidence of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) and improves event-free survival. However, the detailed mechanisms of BCAA action have not been fully elucidated. BCAA were administered to atherogenic and high-fat (Ath+HF) diet-induced nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) model mice. Liver histology, tumor incidence, and gene expression profiles were evaluated. Ath+HF diet mice developed hepatic tumors at a high frequency at 68 weeks. BCAA supplementation significantly improved hepatic steatosis, inflammation, fibrosis, and tumors in Ath+HF mice at 68 weeks. GeneChip analysis demonstrated the significant resolution of pro-fibrotic gene expression by BCAA supplementation. The anti-fibrotic effect of BCAA was confirmed further using platelet-derived growth factor C transgenic mice, which develop hepatic fibrosis and tumors. In vitro, BCAA restored the transforming growth factor (TGF)-β1-stimulated expression of pro-fibrotic genes in hepatic stellate cells (HSC). In hepatocytes, BCAA restored TGF-β1-induced apoptosis, lipogenesis, and Wnt/β-Catenin signaling, and inhibited the transformation of WB-F344 rat liver epithelial stem-like cells. BCAA repressed the promoter activity of TGFβ1R1 by inhibiting the expression of the transcription factor NFY and histone acetyltransferase p300. Interestingly, the inhibitory effect of BCAA on TGF-β1 signaling was mTORC1 activity-dependent, suggesting the presence of negative feedback regulation from mTORC1 to TGF-β1 signaling. Thus, BCAA induce an anti-fibrotic effect in HSC, prevent apoptosis in hepatocytes, and decrease the incidence of HCC; therefore, BCAA supplementation would be beneficial for patients with advanced liver fibrosis with a high risk of HCC.

  12. Relationships between variable time, percentage of food restriction and liver histology: which alternative is the best for non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) prevention?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Makovicky, Peter; Tumova, Eva; Volek, Zdenek; Makovicky, Pavol; Sedlacek, Radislav

    2016-10-01

    The objective of this study was to analyse the hepatic effects of food restriction in an experimental rabbit model. The study comprised 105 rabbits divided into 6 groups. The two control groups were fed ad libitum (ADL) during the entire experiment (C1 and C2). The experimental groups were restricted between 42-49 days of age, where the rabbits received 50g (R1) or 65g (R2) of food per rabbit per day. Others were restricted between 35-42 days of age, where the rabbits received 50g (R3) or 65g (R4) of food per rabbit per day. For liver analysis, 5 rabbits per group were slaughtered at the ages of 49, 56, 63, 70 days from the R1, R2 groups and at 42, 49, 70 days from the R3, R4 groups. All animals from the C1 and C2 groups developed steatosis with inflammation. Animals from the R1 and R2 groups developed steatosis without inflammation while in the R3 and R4 groups steatosis was not visible. In C1 and C2 groups we observed mostly fatty deposit accumulations while in the R1, R2, R3 and R4 groups, more PAS-positive material accumulations were visible. Liver steatosis correlated with inflammation development and interstitial tissue growth. These results can be used in clinical praxis as signs of NAFLD progression. Early food restriction had intense effects on liver morphology and it seems promising that similar approaches could be applied as preventive treatment for NAFLD development.

  13. The glass is half full: evidence for efficacy of alcohol-wise at one university but not the other.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Croom, Katherine; Staiano-Coico, Lisa; Lesser, Martin L; Lewis, Deborah K; Reyna, Valerie F; Marchell, Timothy C; Frank, Jeremy; Ives, Stephanie

    2015-01-01

    This research extends the growing literature about online alcohol prevention programs for first-year college students. Two independent randomized control studies, conducted at separate universities, evaluated the short-term effectiveness of Alcohol-Wise, an online alcohol prevention program not previously studied. It was hypothesized the prevention program would increase alcohol knowledge and reduce alcohol consumption, including high-risk alcohol-related behaviors, among first-year college students. At both universities, the intervention significantly increased alcohol-related knowledge. At one university, the prevention program also significantly reduced alcohol consumption and high-risk drinking behaviors, such as playing drinking games, heavy drinking, and extreme ritualistic alcohol consumption. Implications for the use of online alcohol prevention programs and student affairs are discussed.

  14. Alcohol based surgical prep solution and the risk of fire in the operating room: a case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gupta Rajiv

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract A few cases of fire in the operating room are reported in the literature. The factors that may initiate these fires are many and include alcohol based surgical prep solutions, electrosurgical equipment, flammable drapes etc. We are reporting a case of fire in the operating room while operating on a patient with burst fracture C6 vertebra with quadriplegia. The cause of the fire was due to incomplete drying of the covering drapes with an alcohol based surgical prep solution. This paper discusses potential preventive measures to minimize the incidence of fire in the operating room.

  15. Alcoholism between Fiction and Reality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carota, Antonio; Calabrese, Pasquale

    2013-01-01

    Alcoholism has always been emphasized in literature, narratives, and theater as its prevalence and related disability are very high, is found throughout the world, and affects women and men of all ages and social classes. There is a tragic or romantic fascination in the deep sense of personal failure that drinking is able to relieve and in the uncontrollable inability to stop drinking. These aspects have been portrayed well by fictional alcoholics in movies and novels. It has become evident that biological traits together with a complex series of psychosocial factors (e.g. negative life events, depression, anxiety, and other psychiatric or personality disorders), which are also well represented in novels and movies, can lead to alcohol addiction. Behavioral (euphoria, disinhibiting behaviors, aggressiveness) and neurological changes (confusion, bradypsychism, slurred speech, ataxia, blackouts) related to alcohol intoxication are also well portrayed by fictional characters. Delirium tremens, epilepsy, alcohol dementia, and Wernicke-Korsakoff disease, however, find less representation in literature and on the stage and screen. The treatment of alcoholic dependence is very difficult (as often reported by fictional and real stories), but should never be considered hopeless. It should be initiated at any stage of the disease. The support offered by Alcoholics Anonymous has always had great appeal for the public. Fictional works can portray alcohol addiction superbly and show some dark sides of human nature (negative emotions and autodestructive thoughts and behaviors), and, at the same time, the severity and pervasiveness of mental illnesses. The psychiatric and psychosocial aspects of alcohol addiction in movies and novels could be an inspiring source for new psychological studies and rehabilitation programs.

  16. Secondary School Students: Alcohol, Tobacco, and Other Drugs Resource Guide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration (DHHS/PHS), Rockville, MD. Center for Substance Abuse Prevention.

    This resource guide contains a list of materials on drug and alcohol prevention for secondary school students. The information is divided into three sections: (1) prevention materials, including information on inhalants, AIDS, sports and drugs, and sex and alcohol; (2) studies, articles, and reports on secondary school students, including…

  17. Pollution Prevention through Peer Education: A Community Health Worker and Small and Home-Based Business Initiative on the Arizona-Sonora Border.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramírez, Denise Moreno; Ramírez-Andreotta, Mónica D; Vea, Lourdes; Estrella-Sánchez, Rocío; Wolf, Ann Marie A; Kilungo, Aminata; Spitz, Anna H; Betterton, Eric A

    2015-09-09

    Government-led pollution prevention programs tend to focus on large businesses due to their potential to pollute larger quantities, therefore leaving a gap in programs targeting small and home-based businesses. In light of this gap, we set out to determine if a voluntary, peer education approach led by female, Hispanic community health workers (promotoras) can influence small and home-based businesses to implement pollution prevention strategies on-site. This paper describes a partnership between promotoras from a non-profit organization and researchers from a university working together to reach these businesses in a predominately Hispanic area of Tucson, Arizona. From 2008 to 2011, the promotora-led pollution prevention program reached a total of 640 small and home-based businesses. Program activities include technical trainings for promotoras and businesses, generation of culturally and language appropriate educational materials, and face-to-face peer education via multiple on-site visits. To determine the overall effectiveness of the program, surveys were used to measure best practices implemented on-site, perceptions towards pollution prevention, and overall satisfaction with the industry-specific trainings. This paper demonstrates that promotoras can promote the implementation of pollution prevention best practices by Hispanic small and home-based businesses considered "hard-to-reach" by government-led programs.

  18. Pollution Prevention through Peer Education: A Community Health Worker and Small and Home-Based Business Initiative on the Arizona-Sonora Border

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Denise Moreno Ramírez

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Government-led pollution prevention programs tend to focus on large businesses due to their potential to pollute larger quantities, therefore leaving a gap in programs targeting small and home-based businesses. In light of this gap, we set out to determine if a voluntary, peer education approach led by female, Hispanic community health workers (promotoras can influence small and home-based businesses to implement pollution prevention strategies on-site. This paper describes a partnership between promotoras from a non-profit organization and researchers from a university working together to reach these businesses in a predominately Hispanic area of Tucson, Arizona. From 2008 to 2011, the promotora-led pollution prevention program reached a total of 640 small and home-based businesses. Program activities include technical trainings for promotoras and businesses, generation of culturally and language appropriate educational materials, and face-to-face peer education via multiple on-site visits. To determine the overall effectiveness of the program, surveys were used to measure best practices implemented on-site, perceptions towards pollution prevention, and overall satisfaction with the industry-specific trainings. This paper demonstrates that promotoras can promote the implementation of pollution prevention best practices by Hispanic small and home-based businesses considered “hard-to-reach” by government-led programs.

  19. Pollution Prevention through Peer Education: A Community Health Worker and Small and Home-Based Business Initiative on the Arizona-Sonora Border

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreno Ramírez, Denise; Ramírez-Andreotta, Mónica D.; Vea, Lourdes; Estrella-Sánchez, Rocío; Wolf, Ann Marie A.; Kilungo, Aminata; Spitz, Anna H.; Betterton, Eric A.

    2015-01-01

    Government-led pollution prevention programs tend to focus on large businesses due to their potential to pollute larger quantities, therefore leaving a gap in programs targeting small and home-based businesses. In light of this gap, we set out to determine if a voluntary, peer education approach led by female, Hispanic community health workers (promotoras) can influence small and home-based businesses to implement pollution prevention strategies on-site. This paper describes a partnership between promotoras from a non-profit organization and researchers from a university working together to reach these businesses in a predominately Hispanic area of Tucson, Arizona. From 2008 to 2011, the promotora-led pollution prevention program reached a total of 640 small and home-based businesses. Program activities include technical trainings for promotoras and businesses, generation of culturally and language appropriate educational materials, and face-to-face peer education via multiple on-site visits. To determine the overall effectiveness of the program, surveys were used to measure best practices implemented on-site, perceptions towards pollution prevention, and overall satisfaction with the industry-specific trainings. This paper demonstrates that promotoras can promote the implementation of pollution prevention best practices by Hispanic small and home-based businesses considered “hard-to-reach” by government-led programs. PMID:26371028

  20. [Maternal alcoholism and its impact on child health].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sivolap, Y P

    2015-01-01

    Maternal alcoholism hinders the normal development of child and threatens his mental and physical health due to three factors: the hereditary transmission of predisposition to alcohol abuse; alcohol consumption during pregnancy; adverse family environment. The children of mothers suffering from alcoholism revealed are characterized by increased risk of depression, anxiety and other mental disorders, including alcohol and substance dependence. The adverse impact of maternal alcoholism (or, to speak more widely, parents' alcoholism) on the child health requires special preventive and treatment programs for both parents and children. Separation from the mother (even if the mother is addicted to alcohol) seriously injures the child, and therefore treatment programs for alcohol abusing women should be focused on the possible continuation of the parental rights of patients.

  1. Parental Alcohol-Specific Rules and Alcohol Use from Early Adolescence to Young Adulthood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mares, Suzanne H. W.; Lichtwarck-Aschoff, Anna; Burk, William J.; van der Vorst, Haske; Engels, Rutger C. M. E.

    2012-01-01

    Background: Several studies stress the importance of alcohol-specific rules during adolescence to prevent them from drinking early and heavily. However, most studies have short follow-up periods and do not cover the relevant developmental period in which direct parental control diminishes and adolescent alcohol use increases. The current study…

  2. Strengthening the Canadian alcohol advertising regulatory system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heung, Carly M; Rempel, Benjamin; Krank, Marvin

    2012-05-24

    Research evidence points to harmful effects from alcohol advertising among children and youth. In particular, exposure to alcohol advertising has been associated with adolescents drinking both earlier and heavier. Although current federal and provincial guidelines have addressed advertising practices to prevent underage drinking, practice has not been supported by existing policy. While protective measures such as social marketing campaigns have the potential for counteracting the effects from alcohol advertising, the effectiveness of such measures can be easily drowned out with increasing advertising activities from the alcohol industry, especially without effective regulation. Research reviewed by the European Focus on Alcohol Safe Environment (FASE) Project has identified a set of key elements that are necessary to make alcohol advertising policy measures effective at protecting children and youth from the harmful effects of alcohol marketing. Using these key elements as an evaluation framework, there are critical components in the Canadian alcohol advertising regulatory system that clearly require strengthening. To protect impressionable children and youth against the harmful effects of alcohol advertising, 13 recommendations to strengthen current alcohol advertising regulations in Canada are provided for Canadian policy-makers, advertising standard agencies, and public health groups.

  3. Alcohol misuse, drinking contexts and intimate partner violence in St. Petersburg, Russia: results from a cross-sectional study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Skochilov Roman V

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Alcohol misuse has been linked to intimate partner violence (IPV. However, this association is not usually examined in Russia. Moreover, more investigation is required as to whether specific drinking contexts are also associated with IPV. The objectives of this study are: to investigate whether alcohol misuse is associated with IPV and to further examine whether specific drinking contexts among drinkers are associated with IPV. Methods A questionnaire was used to collect information on demographics, health status, alcohol use, and violence involving sexual partners among 440 participants who were recruited from an STI (sexually transmitted infection clinic center in St. Petersburg, Russia for a cross-sectional study from 2008 to 2009. Multivariate logistic regression was used for analysis. Results Overall, 47.0% participants were classified as misusing alcohol and 7.2% participants perpetrated IPV in the past three months. Participants with alcohol misuse were 3.28 times (OR: 3.28; 95% CI: 1.34-8.04 as likely as those without alcohol misuse to perpetrate IPV. Among participants who had consumed alcohol in the past three months, those who usually drank on the streets or in parks (OR: 5.62; 95% CI: 1.67-18.90 were more likely to perpetrate IPV. Conclusions Both alcohol misuse and certain drinking contexts (e.g., drinking on the streets or at parks were associated with IPV. The association between drinking contexts and IPV needs further investigation, as do the underlying mechanisms for this association. IPV prevention initiatives might benefit from reducing alcohol misuse. Drinking contexts such as drinking on the streets or at parks as well as the factors related to the use of alcohol in these contexts may also need to be addressed.

  4. Laboratory-evolved vanillyl-alcohol oxidase produces natural vanillin

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heuvel, van den R.H.H.; Berg, van den W.A.M.; Rovida, S.; Berkel, van W.J.H.

    2004-01-01

    The flavoenzyme vanillyl-alcohol oxidase was subjected to random mutagenesis to generate mutants with enhanced reactivity to creosol (2-methoxy-4-methylphenol). The vanillyl-alcohol oxidase-mediated conversion of creosol proceeds via a two-step process in which the initially formed vanillyl alcohol

  5. 德都红花-7味散对酒精性脂肪肝的预防和治疗作用%The Preventive and Therapeutic Effects of Deduhonghua-7 Flavor Powder on Alcoholic Fatty Liver

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    洪金凤; 巴图德力根; 韩志强; 那日苏

    2015-01-01

    目的:探讨德都红花-7味散及德都红花-7味散优化方对大鼠酒精性脂肪肝的预防和治疗作用.方法:将大鼠随机分为4组,正常组灌胃蒸馏水,其它组灌胃40度白酒15ml/kg.d-1,连续灌胃16周.正常组给予普通饲料,其它组给予高脂饲料,同时德都红花-7味散组和优化组予0.6g/kg.d-1灌胃给药,于第16周末,采集血清检测血脂四项及肝功能指标,HE染色观察肝组织病理变化,酶联免疫检测法检测NF-kB、IL-1活性和MDA水平变化.结果:与模型组比较,德都红花-7味散和德都红花-7味散优化方能够降低酒精结合高脂饮食引起的脂肪肝大鼠血清LDL-C、CHO,升高A/G,减轻肝组织病理损伤,降低NF-KB、IL-1的活性及MDA的水平.结论:德都红花-7味散对酒精结合高脂饮食引起的脂肪肝有一定的保护作用.%Objective:To investigate the preventive and therapeutic effects of Deduhonghua-7 flavor powder and its optimized prescription on alcoholic fatty liver. Methods:The rats were randomly divided into four groups, the normal group was given distilled water by gavage, the other groups were given 40℃white wines(15 ml/kg·d-1)by gavage, continued for 16 weeks. The normal group was fed with common feed;the other groups were fed with high-fat feed. At the same time, the Deduhonghua-7 flavor powder group and the optimized Deduhonghua-7 flavor powder group were given medicine by gavage(0.6 g/kg·d-1). At the 16th weekend, the rats’serum was collected to detect four items of blood lipid and liver function index, the liver tissue pathological changes were observed by HE staining, the NF-KB, IL-1 activity and MDA level changes were tested by enzyme-linked immunoassays. Results:Compared with model group, Deduhonghua-7 flavor powder and its optimized prescription can reduce the serum LDL- C and CHO level caused by high fat diet and alcohol in fatty liver rats, increase A/G, reduce hepatic tissue pathological

  6. Alcohol Consumption and Risky Sexual Behavior Among Persons Attending Alcohol Consumption Venues in Gaborone, Botswana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lama, Tsering Pema; Kumoji, E 'Kuor; Ketlogetswe, Ditsotlhe; Anderson, Marina; Brahmbhatt, Heena

    2016-02-01

    Alcohol use is a known key risk factor associated with risky sexual behavior that contributes to HIV transmission. This cross-sectional study used time location sampling to investigate alcohol use and risky sexual behaviors that occurred after ingesting alcohol among 609 patrons of alcohol venues in Gaborone, Botswana. Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test (AUDIT) scores were categorized as low (1-7), medium (8-15), and high (16+) for analysis. Logistic regression models stratified by gender assessed the association between alcohol use and condom use at last sex after drinking alcohol. Among females, the odds of condom use during last sex after drinking alcohol were significantly lower for high compared to low AUDIT scores (AOR = 0.17, 95% CI 0.06-0.54). Among males, factors significantly associated with condom use at last sex after alcohol use were low levels of education (primary level compared to university and above AOR = 0.13; 95% CI 0.03-0.55) and beliefs that alcohol use did not increase risky sexual behaviors (AOR = 0.26; 95% CI 0.11-0.62). HIV prevention interventions should target females and emphasize sexual risks associated with alcohol use.

  7. Analysis of Enzyme Activity of Alcohol Dehydrogenase and Alcohol Dehydrogenase 3 (ADH3 Gene Polymorphism of Alcoholics and Non-Alcoholics in Indonesia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    . Suhartini

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Alcohol is an addictive substance that is often misused worldwide, including in Indonesia. Ninety percent of the alcohol that enters the body will be metabolized in the liver using the alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH enzyme. It is important to determine the activity of ADH enzyme and ADH3 gene polymorphism on alcoholics and non-alcoholics in Yogyakarta, Indonesia. The aim of the study is  to determine ADH activity and identify ADH3 gene polymorphism of alcoholics and non-alcoholics in Yogyakarta, Indonesia. This study was an observational study with a cross-sectional design method. Blood samples were taken from 71 Javanese alcoholics and 71 non-alcoholics of Javanese descent in Yogyakarta, Indonesia. The participants were initially requested to sign an informed consent form. Examination of ADH enzyme activity used the spectrophotometry method and ADH3 gene polymorphism was assessed with PCR-RFLP using Ssp I restriction enzyme. The activity of ADH enzyme in all individuals appeared to be a slower type. The average of the ethanol value of alcoholics and non-alcoholics were 0.05554 mM and 0.0758 mM respectively. Gene type of alcoholics were ADH3*2(75.4%, ADH3*1/3*2(21.5%, and ADH3*1(3.1%, and non-alcoholics were ADH3*2(88.6%, ADH3*1/3*2(10.0%, and ADH3*1(1.4%. There were no significant differences between the activity of ADH with polymorphism of ADH3 gene in either alcoholics and non-alcoholics (p>0,05. Conclusion: The activity of ADH enzyme in all participants appeared to be a slower type. Most of the ADH3 gene polymorphism of alcoholics and non-alcoholics were both ADH3*2 (75.4% and 88.6%. There was no differences of ADH enzyme activity with ADH3 gene polymorphism between alcoholics and non-alcoholics of Javanese population in Yogyakarta, Indonesia.

  8. Academic Giftedness and Alcohol Use in Early Adolescence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peairs, Kristen F; Eichen, Dawn; Putallaz, Martha; Costanzo, Philip R; Grimes, Christina L

    2011-04-01

    Adolescence is a period of development particularly vulnerable to the effects of alcohol use, with recent studies underscoring alcohol's effects on adolescent brain development. Despite the alarming rates and consequences of adolescent alcohol use, gifted adolescents are often overlooked as being at risk for early alcohol use. Although gifted adolescents may possess protective factors that likely inhibit the use of alcohol, some gifted youth may be vulnerable to initiating alcohol use during adolescence as experimenting with alcohol may be one way gifted youth choose to compensate for the social price (whether real or perceived) of their academic talents. To address the dearth of research on alcohol use among gifted adolescents the current study (a) examined the extent to which gifted adolescents use alcohol relative to their nongifted peers and (b) examined the adjustment profile of gifted adolescents who had tried alcohol relative to nongifted adolescents who tried alcohol as well as gifted and nongifted abstainers. More than 300 students in seventh grade (42.5% gifted) participated in the present study. Results indicated gifted students have, in fact, tried alcohol at rates that do not differ from nongifted students. Although trying alcohol was generally associated with negative adjustment, giftedness served as a moderating factor such that gifted students who had tried alcohol were less at risk than their nongifted peers. However, evidence also suggests that gifted adolescents who tried alcohol may be a part of a peer context that promotes substance use, which may place these youth at risk for adjustment difficulties in the future.

  9. Alcohol abuse and postoperative morbidity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tønnesen, Hanne

    2003-01-01

    precise identification of alcohol abuse. However, the inability of the questionnaires to detect short-term changes in intake and abuse without dependence, the inconsistent predictive values of the biological markers, and the lack of evidence of an association to postoperative morbidity reduces......Patients who drink too much have more complications after surgery. The aim of this thesis was to evaluate the evidence, possible mechanisms, and prevention of the increased postoperative morbidity in alcohol abusers, defined by a consumption of at least five drinks per day. The literature could...... be criticised for several methodological flaws. Nevertheless, the results are in agreement showing moderate to strong evidence of increased postoperative morbidity after surgical procedures on alcohol abusers. There is weak to moderate evidence of increased postoperative mortality, hospital stay, and re...

  10. Drug and alcohol task force

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gordey, T. [ConocoPhillips Canada Resources Corp., Calgary, AB (Canada); Sunstrum, M. [Enform, Calgary, AB (Canada)

    2006-07-01

    Worker absenteeism due to substance abuse costs the Alberta economy approximately $720 million a year. It is estimated that 20 per cent of all drivers in fatal crashes were using alcohol, and the use of cannabis and cocaine in Alberta has more than doubled over the last 15 years. In addition, 1 in 10 Alberta workers have reported using alcohol while at work and 4 per cent have reported using alcohol 4 hours prior to coming to work during the previous 12 months. In an effort to ensure appropriate health and safety for workers in the Canadian petroleum industry, 6 trade associations in the sector have joined together as the Enform Alcohol and Drug Initiative and are now working to develop a common approach to drug and alcohol guidelines and workplace rules. The task group will determine if existing policies and guidelines are sufficient to ensure a safe workplace and will consider standardizing the testing, application and rehabilitation of workers with respect to the use of drugs and alcohol. In the past, disciplinary actions have often been reversed because employers have not been consistent or did not follow established alcohol and drug policies or test to specific standards. Various work rules for inappropriate alcohol and drug use were reviewed, as well as education and communication strategies regarding policy content. Standards for testing criteria were discussed, as well as issues concerning duty-to-accommodate circumstances. An excerpt of concentration standards was presented. It was concluded that a matrix for companies to assess and determine safety sensitive positions is needed. refs., tabs., figs.

  11. Alcoholic liver disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liver disease due to alcohol; Cirrhosis or hepatitis - alcoholic; Laennec's cirrhosis ... Alcoholic liver disease occurs after years of heavy drinking. Over time, scarring and cirrhosis can occur. Cirrhosis is the ...

  12. Breath alcohol test

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alcohol test - breath ... There are various brands of breath alcohol tests. Each one uses a different method to test the level of alcohol in the breath. The machine may be electronic or manual. One ...

  13. Behind the Label "Alcoholic."

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wright, Deborah M.

    1989-01-01

    Relates individual's personal story of her childhood influenced by her parent's alcoholism, her own alcoholism as a young adult, and her experiences with counseling. Asks others not to reject her because of the label "alcoholic." (ABL)

  14. Psychoanalytic treatment of psychological addiction to alcohol (alcohol abuse).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Brian

    2011-01-01

    The DSM-V Committee plans to abolish the distinction between Alcohol Abuse and Alcohol Dependence (dsm5.org). The author presents a case report as a proof of concept that this distinction should be retained. The author has asserted that Alcohol Abuse is a purely psychological addiction, while Alcohol Dependence involves capture of the ventral tegmental dopaminergic SEEKING system (Johnson, 2003). In psychological addiction the brain can be assumed to function normally, and ordinary psychoanalytic technique can be followed. For the patient described, transference interpretation was the fundamental key to recovery. Alcoholic drinking functioned to prevent this man from remembering overwhelming childhood events; events that were also lived out in his current relationships. Murders that occurred when he was a child were hidden in a screen memory. The patient had an obsessional style of relating where almost all feeling was left out of his associations. After he stopped drinking compulsively, he continued to work compulsively. The maternal transference had to be enacted and then interpreted in order for overwhelming memories to be allowed into conscious thought. After psychoanalysis, the patient resumed drinking and worked a normal schedule that allowed more fulfilling relationships. He had no further symptoms of distress from drinking over a 9-year followup. This case illustrates that Alcohol Abuse is a purely psychological illness, that it does not have the brain changes typical of Alcohol Dependence. Combining epidemiological, neurobiological, longitudinal, and psychoanalytic observations would allow multiple sources of information to be used in creating diagnostic categories. Losing details of human behavior by relying only on epidemiological studies is likely to cause errors in categorization of disorders. In turn, having faulty categories as the basis of further research is likely to impair identification of specific effective treatments.

  15. Alcohol use patterns, problems and policies in Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jernigan, D H; Indran, S K

    1997-12-01

    The roots of Malaysia's drinking patterns lie in the introduction of most forms of alcohol by Europeans. Although Malaysia today has relatively low per capita alcohol consumption, available studies and interviews with alcohol industry officials point to a small segment of the population that drinks heavily and causes and experiences substantial alcohol related-problems. Indians are over-represented in this sub-population, but studies also reveal substantial drinking problems among Chinese and Malays. Government officials categorize alcohol as an Indian problem. The government devotes little resources to monitoring drinking patterns, use or problems; or to preventing, treating or educating the public about alcohol-related problems. Alcohol-producing transnational corporations own shares of all of Malaysia's major alcohol producers. In the face of high alcohol taxes and a ban on broadcast advertising of alcoholic beverages, these companies market alcohol aggressively, making health claims, targeting heavy drinkers and encouraging heavy drinking, employing indirect advertising, and using women in seductive poses and occupations to attract the mostly male drinking population. Monitoring of the country's alcohol problems is greatly needed in order to establish alcohol consumption more clearly as a national health and safety issue, while stronger controls and greater corporate responsibility are required to control alcohol marketing.

  16. Associação tabagismo-alcoolismo: introdução às grandes dependências humanas Association between smoking and alcoholism: initiation into the major human dependencies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José A . Chaieb

    1998-06-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Verificar a existência da associação tabagismo-alcoolismo em amostra da população geral e comparar uma amostra alcoolista com outra abstêmia, pareadas pela idade e sexo. MATERIAL E MÉTODO: Na Unidade Sanitária Murialdo de Porto Alegre, RS numa área delimitada, com uma população estimada de 65.000 habitantes, foi feito estudo por corte transversal em que se definiu uma amostra representativa de indivíduos com 35 anos e mais. Através da Escala CAGE, identificou-se a população alcoolista que foi comparada a uma amostra aleatória de não-alcoolistas, pareada à alcoolista pela idade e sexo. Dentre 1.387 adultos com 35 anos ou mais, identificaram-se 129 indivíduos alcoolistas. Da listagem geral, selecionou-se aleatoriamente, uma amostra-controle de 129 indivíduos não-alcoolistas, criando-se, assim, dois grupos comparativos. Foram obtidos dados comparativos através de 19 itens de um questionário. As informações de caráter genérico eram pessoais ou familiares, como renda e hábito tabágico. O grau de escolaridade, ocupação, doenças e sintomas respiratórios, medida do fluxo expiratório (Pico do Fluxo e história de alcoolismo eram exclusivas dos indivíduos com 35 anos ou mais que responderam ao questionário. RESULTADOS: Dos 129 indivíduos (9,3% alcoolistas, 109 (84,4% eram do sexo masculino e 20 (25,6% do feminino. Entre alcoolistas, é maior a prevalência de fumantes (67% se comparada com a prevalência entre os não-alcoolistas (43% (pOBJECTIVE: To establish the existence of an association between smoking and alcoholism in a general population sample and to compare two samples of alcoholics and non alcoholics matched by age and sex. MATERIAL AND METHOD: Health Teaching Unit Murialdo - State Health Department - RS - Brazil in a limited area of 65,000 predicted population a cross-sectional study was undertaken in which adults of 35 y.o. or more were sampled. Of this sample, the alcoholics were selected by

  17. Genetics and alcoholism

    OpenAIRE

    Edenberg, Howard J; Foroud, Tatiana

    2013-01-01

    Alcohol is widely consumed, but excessive use creates serious physical, psychological and social problems and contributes to many diseases. Alcoholism (alcohol dependence, alcohol use disorders) is a maladaptive pattern of excessive drinking leading to serious problems. Abundant evidence indicates that alcoholism is a complex genetic disease, with variations in a large number of genes affecting risk. Some of these genes have been identified, including two genes of alcohol me...

  18. ALCOHOL AND ARTERIAL HYPERTENSION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. D. Ostroumova

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The article considers the questions of the relationship between the amount of the consumed alcohol, the type of alcoholic beverage, pattern of alcohol consumption and the blood pressure level. The article presents data on the positive effect of alcohol intake restrictions and recommendations for permissible limits of alcohol consumption. New possibilities of drug therapy aimed at limiting alcohol consumption are being reported.

  19. REMINDER: Alcohol and the work place

    CERN Multimedia

    2004-01-01

    The CERN Medical Service has observed an increase in the number of personnel suffering from alcohol-related problems in recent years, in spite of the implementation of stricter regulations concerning the consumption of alcohol on the site. The causes of alcohol-related problems are often complex and many-faceted. A family history of alcohol abuse can be a cofactor in excessive drinking. The effects on a person's work are not negligible and should not be ignored. "Alcohol and the work place" is the third part of a campaign designed to raise awareness of the risks of alcohol consumption, which has already dealt with "alcohol and health" and "alcohol and road safety". Our campaign this year will be rounded off by three information sessions in which a representative of the ISPA (Swiss Institute for the Prevention of Alcoholism) will participate. The last of these sessions will take place in: the Main Building Auditorium on Wednesday, 8 December 2004 from 14:00 to 15:30. Sessions are open to everyone. For m...

  20. Female alcoholism: Gender differences as victimogenic predispositions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Konstantinović-Vilić Slobodanka

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The subject matter of this paper is an analysis of stereotypical social reactions to women’s alcoholism in the micro and macro social and cultural environment. The social stigma and blame that female alcohol abusers are exposed to have become part of deeply rooted gender-related labels. In a broader social context, they lead to discrimination and social exclusion. In the contemporary society, female alcoholism is turning into a growing social and health problem and because of that it is essential to make the social environment more sensitive to the issue of female alcoholism in order to eliminate the causes of female alcoholism and fully support women’s medical treatment,. It would have a preventive effect in suppressing female alcoholism and it would significantly reduce victimization of women who are, in such circumstances, much more vulnerable and exposed to physical and sexual violence. The aim of this paper is to point out to the basic phenomenological and etiological feature of female alcoholism, prejudices and stereotypical attitudes they are exposed to, social and cultural implications of female alcoholism, which is perceived as a predisposition for women’s victimization and exposure to violence, so as to promote a different social approach to female alcoholism and advocate for instituting social and educational policy based on the concept of gender equality and support of social control measures.

  1. Alcoholism and alcohol drinking habits predicted from alcohol dehydrogenase genes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tolstrup, Janne Schurmann; Nordestgaard, Børge Grønne; Rasmussen, Søren

    2008-01-01

    Alcohol drinking habits and alcoholism are partly genetically determined. Alcohol is degraded primarily by alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH) wherein genetic variation that affects the rate of alcohol degradation is found in ADH1B and ADH1C. It is biologically plausible that these variations may...... be associated with alcohol drinking habits and alcoholism. By genotyping 9080 white men and women from the general population, we found that men and women with ADH1B slow vs fast alcohol degradation drank more alcohol and had a higher risk of everyday drinking, heavy drinking, excessive drinking...... and of alcoholism. For example, the weekly alcohol intake was 9.8 drinks (95% confidence interval (CI): 9.1-11) among men with the ADH1B.1/1 genotype compared to 7.5 drinks (95% CI: 6.4-8.7) among men with the ADH1B.1/2 genotype, and the odds ratio (OR) for heavy drinking was 3.1 (95% CI: 1.7-5.7) among men...

  2. Alcohol Alert: Link Between Stress and Alcohol

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... body at even greater risk for harm. Ongoing stress, or chronic, heavy alcohol use, may impair the body’s ability ... J.A., and Chard, K.M. Alcohol and stress in the military. Alcohol Research: ... suicide ideation and attempts associated with adverse childhood experiences. ...

  3. Parenting to Prevent Childhood Alcohol Use

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... shifts toward resistance as teens prepare for the autonomy of adulthood. With open, respectful communication and explanations ... 2016 . Ann Arbor, MI: Institute for Social Research, University of Michigan, 2016. Available at: http://www.monitoringthefuture. ...

  4. Health risks of alcohol use

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alcoholism - risks; Alcohol abuse - risks; Alcohol dependence - risks; Risky drinking ... Beer, wine, and liquor all contain alcohol. If you are drinking any of these, you are using alcohol. Your drinking patterns may vary, depending on who you are with ...

  5. Initial basal cell carcinomas diagnosed in the National Campaign for Skin Cancer Prevention are smaller than those identified by the conventional medical referral system*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wakiyama, Thweicyka Pinheiro; França, Maria Laura Marconi; Carvalho, Larissa Pierri; Marques, Mariangela Esther Alencar; Miot, Hélio Amante; Schmitt, Juliano Vilaverde

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND Basal cell carcinoma is the malignant tumor most often diagnosed in the National Campaign for Skin Cancer Prevention (NCSCP). Little is known about the profile of these lesions compared to the profile of lesions diagnosed by conventional routes of public dermatological care. OBJECTIVE To identify if basal cell carcinomas identified in prevention campaigns and referred to surgery are smaller than those routinely removed in a same medical institution. METHODS Cross-sectional study including tumors routed from 2011-2014 campaigns and 84 anatomopathological reports of outpatients. RESULTS The campaigns identified 223 individuals with suspicious lesions among 2,531 examinations (9%), with 116 basal cell carcinomas removed. Anatomopathological examinations revealed that the primary lesions identified in the national campaigns were smaller than those referred to surgery by the conventional routes of public health care (28 [13-50] x 38 [20-113] mm2, p <0.01). On the other hand, after a mean follow-up of 15.6 ± 10.3 months, 31% of cases identified in campaigns showed new basal cell carcinoma lesions. STUDY LIMITATIONS Retrospective study and inaccuracies in the measurements of the lesions. CONCLUSIONS The NCSCP promotes an earlier treatment of basal cell carcinomas compared to patients referred to surgery by the conventional routes of public health care, which can result in lower morbidity rates and better prognosis. PMID:28225952

  6. Alcoholism and alcohol drinking habits predicted from alcohol dehydrogenase genes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tolstrup, J.S.; Nordestgaard, Børge; Rasmussen, S.

    2008-01-01

    Alcohol is degraded primarily by alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH) wherein genetic variation that affects the rate of alcohol degradation is found in ADH1B and ADH1C. It is biologically plausible that these variations may be associated with alcohol drinking habits and alcoholism. By genotyping 9080 white...... men and women from the general population, we found that men and women with ADH1B slow vs fast alcohol degradation drank more alcohol and had a higher risk of everyday drinking, heavy drinking, excessive drinking and of alcoholism. For example, the weekly alcohol intake was 9.8 drinks (95% confidence......, individuals with ADH1C slow vs fast alcohol degradation had a higher risk of heavy and excessive drinking. For example, the OR for heavy drinking was 1.4 (95% CI: 1.1-1.8) among men with the ADH1C.1/2 genotype and 1.4 (95% CI: 1.0-1.9) among men with the ADH1B.2/2 genotype, compared with men with the ADH1C.1...

  7. Targeting young drinkers online: the effectiveness of a web-based brief alcohol intervention in reducing heavy drinking among college students: study protocol of a two-arm parallel group randomized controlled trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lemmers Lex ACJ

    2011-04-01

    alcohol intervention. We expect a reduction of mean weekly alcohol consumption and frequency of binge drinking in the experimental condition compared to the control condition as a direct result of the intervention. If the website is effective, it will be implemented in alcohol prevention initiatives, which will facilitate the implementation of the protocol. Trial registration Netherlands Trial Register NTR2665.

  8. Community influences on adolescents’ use of home-brewed alcohol in rural South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Onya Hans

    2012-08-01

    contrast, perceptions of high levels of adult anti-social behavior and crime and violence in the community are significant risks for early alcohol initiation. Implications of these findings for the prevention of alcohol use among adolescents in rural communities are discussed.

  9. Acute alcohol-induced liver injury

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gavin Edward Arteel

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Alcohol consumption is customary in most cultures and alcohol abuse is common worldwide. For example, more than 50% of Americans consume alcohol, with an estimated 23.1% of Americans participating in heavy and/or binge drinking at least once a month. A safe and effective therapy for alcoholic liver disease (ALD in humans is still elusive, despite significant advances in our understanding of how the disease is initiated and progresses. It is now clear that acute alcohol binges not only can be acutely toxic to the liver, but also can contribute to the chronicity of ALD. Potential mechanisms by which acute alcohol causes damage include steatosis, dysregulated immunity and inflammation and altered gut permeability. Recent interest in modeling acute alcohol exposure has yielded new insights into potential mechanisms of acute injury, that also may well be relevant for chronic ALD. Recent work by this group on the role of PAI-1 and fibrin metabolism in mediating acute alcohol-induced liver damage serve as an example of possible new targets that may be useful for alcohol abuse, be it acute or chronic.

  10. Experimental optimisation of a solar still: application to alcohol distillation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meukam, P. [Laboratoire d' Energetique, ENSP, Universite de Yaounde, Yaounde (Cameroon); Njomo, D. [Laboratoire de Thermique Energetique, Faculte des Sciences, Universite de Yaounde, Yaounde (Cameroon); Gbane, A.; Toure, S. [Laboratoire d' Energie Solaire, Universite de Cocody, Abidjan, Cote d' Ivoire (Ivory Coast)

    2004-07-01

    This paper presents an experimental study of two solar stills, a single-compartment model and a two-compartment type. The single-compartment still is optimized under local climatic conditions. An experimental study of the cover slope shows that a cover angle of 16{sup o} ensures a very good transmission of solar radiation within the still while preventing the drops of the distillate to fall into the basin. In the prototype using two compartments, the glass of the illuminated compartment is a transparent cover with a part of the condensation happening on it, while the other compartment, also made of glass, is covered with a non-transparent material, which shades the sun; it is used only as a condenser. It has been observed that the distillation of a 38% alcohol initial solution yields a product containing 48% of alcohol when using the single-cover model, while under the same climatic conditions the two-compartment still gives a 71% alcohol distillate. (author)

  11. Guidance for evaluating mass communication health initiatives: summary of an expert panel discussion sponsored by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abbatangelo-Gray, Jodie; Cole, Galen E; Kennedy, May G

    2007-09-01

    In May 2004, 12 experts in evaluating large-scale health communication programs came to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention to participate in an electronic focus group discussion. They offered advice on topics ranging from the role of logic models to the best strategies for controlling for self-selection bias in surveys regarding outcomes of exposure to mass media health messages. The experts also highlighted health communication evaluation topics that have received too little scientific attention. Finally, they made strategic policy recommendations. Use of the state-of-the-art evaluation methods that they recommended could improve the communication of factual and persuasive health messages and help to guard the public health of the nation. Their advice may also advance evaluation practice in other substantive areas, especially where it is difficult or impossible to implement randomized designs.

  12. Alcohol and Breastfeeding

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Haastrup, Maija Bruun; Pottegård, Anton; Damkier, Per

    2014-01-01

    While the harmful effects of alcohol during pregnancy are well-established, the consequences of alcohol intake during lactation have been far less examined. We reviewed available data on the prevalence of alcohol intake during lactation, the influence of alcohol on breastfeeding......, the pharmacokinetics of alcohol in lactating women and nursing infants and the effects of alcohol intake on nursing infants. A systematic search was performed in PubMed from origin to May 2013, and 41 publications were included in the review. Approximately half of all lactating women in Western countries consume...... alcohol while breastfeeding. Alcohol intake inhibits the milk ejection reflex, causing a temporary decrease in milk yield. The alcohol concentrations in breast milk closely resemble those in maternal blood. The amount of alcohol presented to nursing infants through breast milk is approximately 5...

  13. Alcohol, binge drinking and associated mental health problems in young urban Chileans.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amanda J Mason-Jones

    Full Text Available To explore the link between alcohol use, binge drinking and mental health problems in a representative sample of adolescent and young adult Chileans.Age and sex-adjusted Odds Ratios (OR for four mental wellbeing measures were estimated with separate conditional logistic regression models for adolescents aged 15-20 years, and young adults aged 21-25 years, using population-based estimates of alcohol use prevalence rates from the Chilean National Health Survey 2010.Sixty five per cent of adolescents and 85% of young adults reported drinking alcohol in the last year and of those 83% per cent of adolescents and 86% of young adults reported binge drinking in the previous month. Adolescents who reported binging alcohol were also more likely, compared to young adults, to report being always or almost always depressed (OR 12.97 [95% CI, 1.86-19.54] or to feel very anxious in the last month (OR 9.37 [1.77-19.54]. Adolescent females were more likely to report poor life satisfaction in the previous year than adolescent males (OR 8.50 [1.61-15.78], feel always or almost always depressed (OR 3.41 [1.25-9.58]. Being female was also associated with a self-reported diagnosis of depression for both age groups (adolescents, OR 4.74 [1.49-15.08] and young adults, OR 4.08 [1.65-10.05].Young people in Chile self-report a high prevalence of alcohol use, binge drinking and associated mental health problems. The harms associated with alcohol consumption need to be highlighted through evidence-based prevention programs. Health and education systems need to be strengthened to screen and support young people. Focussing on policy initiatives to limit beverage companies targeting alcohol to young people will also be needed.

  14. Alcohol consumption, helmet use and head trauma in cycling collisions in Germany.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orsi, Chiara; Ferraro, Ottavia E; Montomoli, Cristina; Otte, Dietmar; Morandi, Anna

    2014-04-01

    Cycling, being easy, inexpensive and healthy, is becoming one of the most popular means of transport. Cyclists, however, are among the most vulnerable road users in traffic collisions. The aims of this study were to establish which cyclist and cycling accident characteristics are associated with alcohol consumption and helmet use in Germany and to identify risk factors related to head trauma sustained in cycling accidents. The source used for the present analysis was the database of the German in-depth accident study (GIDAS). All cyclists who had been involved in a road accident between 2000 and 2010 and submitted to an alcohol test were selected. Logistic regression analyses were carried out to evaluate various aspects: alcohol consumption, helmet use, head trauma, and cyclist/accident characteristics. Female riders were less likely to have consumed alcohol (OR=0.23, 95% CI: 0.08-0.66); cyclists who did not wear a helmet were more likely to have consumed alcohol (OR=2.41, 95% CI: 1.08-5.38); cyclists who were not responsible for the collision were less likely to have consumed alcohol than those who were partially responsible for the accident (OR=0.22, 95% CI: 0.08-0.61). Cyclists involved in collisions with another vehicle, motorised or not, had a lower risk of suffering a head injury compared with those involved in single-vehicle accidents (OR=0.27, 95% CI: 0.12-0.62, and OR=0.08, 95% CI: 0.03-0.22, respectively). The prevention or limiting of alcohol consumption among cyclists and the corresponding testing of cyclists must be improved. Training initiatives on helmet protection should be encouraged.

  15. 49 CFR 40.367 - Who initiates a PIE proceeding?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Who initiates a PIE proceeding? 40.367 Section 40... DRUG AND ALCOHOL TESTING PROGRAMS Public Interest Exclusions § 40.367 Who initiates a PIE proceeding? The following DOT officials may initiate a PIE proceeding: (a) The drug and alcohol program manager...

  16. Reversibility of alcohol-induced immune depression

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tønnesen, H; Kaiser, A H; Nielsen, B B;

    1992-01-01

    Alcohol abusers have suppressed cellular immune function. The aim of the study was to investigate the time of sobriety required to normalize immune function. Delayed hypersensitivity was investigated during disulfiram controlled abstinence in ten heavy alcoholics and in seven moderate drinkers...... without liver diseases. For comparison a control group of eight previous drinkers was tested. The skin test responses were modest initially with a median area of response of 12 mm2 (range 0-31) in the heavy alcoholics and 3 mm2 (0-15) in the moderate drinkers. It improved significantly in both groups...... after two weeks of sobriety. The responses stabilized after 8 weeks at 74 mm2 (54-102) in the heavy alcoholics and after 9 weeks at 63 mm2 (42-76) in the moderate drinking group. The control group had skin test responses of 70 mm2 (46-87), not different from the responses of the alcohol groups after two...

  17. Cannabidiol protects liver from binge alcohol-induced steatosis by mechanisms including inhibition of oxidative stress and increase in autophagy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Lili; Rozenfeld, Raphael; Wu, Defeng; Devi, Lakshmi A; Zhang, Zhenfeng; Cederbaum, Arthur

    2014-03-01

    Acute alcohol drinking induces steatosis, and effective prevention of steatosis can protect liver from progressive damage caused by alcohol. Increased oxidative stress has been reported as one mechanism underlying alcohol-induced steatosis. We evaluated whether cannabidiol, which has been reported to function as an antioxidant, can protect the liver from alcohol-generated oxidative stress-induced steatosis. Cannabidiol can prevent acute alcohol-induced liver steatosis in mice, possibly by preventing the increase in oxidative stress and the activation of the JNK MAPK pathway. Cannabidiol per se can increase autophagy both in CYP2E1-expressing HepG2 cells and in mouse liver. Importantly, cannabidiol can prevent the decrease in autophagy induced by alcohol. In conclusion, these results show that cannabidiol protects mouse liver from acute alcohol-induced steatosis through multiple mechanisms including attenuation of alcohol-mediated oxidative stress, prevention of JNK MAPK activation, and increasing autophagy.

  18. Early Substance Use Initiation and Suicide Ideation and Attempts among School-Aged Adolescents in Four Pacific Island Countries in Oceania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karl Peltzer

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to investigate the correlations between early initiation (<12 years of smoking cigarettes, alcohol use, and drug use (cannabis with suicidal ideation and suicide attempts in school-aged adolescents in four Pacific Island countries in Oceania. The sample included 6540 adolescents (≤13 to ≥16 years old from Kiribati, Samoa, Solomon Islands, and Vanuatu. Bivariate and multivariable analyses were conducted to assess the association between pre-adolescent substance use initiation and suicidal ideation and suicide attempts. Results indicate a prevalence of 25.8% suicidal ideation in the past 12 months (ranging from 17.2% in Vanuatu to 34.7% in Kiribati and 34.9% suicide attempts in the past 12 months (ranging from 23.5% in Vanuatu to 62.0% in Samoa. The prevalence of early cigarette smoking initiation was 15.7%, early alcohol initiation 13.8%, and early drug use initiation was 12.9%. Students who reported pre-adolescent substance use initiation, compared with non-substance users, were more likely reporting suicidal ideation and suicide attempts. The concurrent initiation of cigarette smoking, alcohol, and drug use should be targeted in early prevention programmes in order to prevent possible subsequent suicidal behaviours.

  19. A Guide for College Presidents and Governing Boards: Strategies for Eliminating Alcohol and Other Drug Abuse on Campuses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Upcraft, M. Lee; Welty, John D.

    This guide outlines the extent of drug use and alcohol problems on college campuses and recommends five strategies for institutions of higher education: (1) develop clear policies concerning alcohol and other drugs; (2) enforce alcohol and other drug regulations; (3) provide alcohol and other drug education and prevention programs; (4) ensure…

  20. Relationship between neighborhood context, family management practices and alcohol use among urban, multi-ethnic, young adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tobler, Amy L; Komro, Kelli A; Maldonado-Molina, Mildred M

    2009-12-01

    We examined relationships between alcohol-related neighborhood context, protective home and family management practices, and alcohol use among urban, racial/ethnic minority, adolescents. The sample comprised 5,655 youth who were primarily low SES (72%), African American (43%) and Hispanic (29%). Participants completed surveys in 2002-2005 (ages 11-14 years). Items assessed alcohol use, accessibility of alcohol at home and parental family management practices. Neighborhood context measures included: (1) alcohol outlet density; (2) commercial alcohol accessibility; (3) alcohol advertisement exposure; and (4) perceived neighborhood strength, reported by parents and community leaders. Structural equation modeling was used to assess direct and indirect relationships between alcohol-related neighborhood context at baseline, home alcohol access and family management practices in seventh grade, and alcohol use in eighth grade. Neighborhood strength was negatively associated with alcohol use (beta = -0.078, p alcohol advertisements was positively associated with alcohol use (beta = 0.043, p alcohol access were associated with home alcohol access (beta = 0.050, p alcohol access showed a positive association with alcohol use (beta = 0.401, p alcohol access may partially mediate the relationship between neighborhood strength and alcohol use (beta = 0.025, p alcohol access and improving family management practices may be key to preventive efforts to reduce alcohol use.

  1. Antibacterial inorganic-organic hybrid coatings on stainless steel via consecutive surface-initiated atom transfer radical polymerization for biocorrosion prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, S J; Pehkonen, S O; Ting, Y P; Neoh, K G; Kang, E T

    2010-05-04

    To enhance the corrosion resistance of stainless steel (SS) and to impart its surface with antibacterial functionality for inhibiting biofilm formation and biocorrosion, well-defined inorganic-organic hybrid coatings, consisting of a polysilsesquioxane inner layer and quaternized poly(2-(dimethyamino)ethyl methacrylate) (P(DMAEMA)) outer blocks, were prepared via successive surface-initiated atom transfer radical polymerization (ATRP) of 3-(trimethoxysilyl)propyl methacrylate (TMSPMA) and 2-(dimethylamino)ethyl methacrylate (DMAEMA). The cross-linked P(TMASPMA), or polysilsesquioxane, inner layer provided a durable and resistant coating to electrolytes. The pendant tertiary amino groups of the P(DMAEMA) outer block were quaternized with alkyl halide to produce a high concentration of quaternary ammonium groups with biocidal functionality. The so-synthesized inorganic-organic hybrid coatings on the SS substrates exhibited good anticorrosion and antibacterial effects and inhibited biocorrosion induced by sulfate-reducing bacteria (SRB) in seawater media, as revealed by antibacterial assay and electrochemical analyses, and they are potentially useful to steel-based equipment under harsh industrial and marine environments.

  2. Alcoholism and alcohol drinking habits predicted from alcohol dehydrogenase genes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tolstrup, Janne Schurmann; Nordestgaard, Børge Grønne; Rasmussen, Søren; Tybjaerg-Hansen, Anne; Grønbaek, Morten

    2008-06-01

    Alcohol drinking habits and alcoholism are partly genetically determined. Alcohol is degraded primarily by alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH) wherein genetic variation that affects the rate of alcohol degradation is found in ADH1B and ADH1C. It is biologically plausible that these variations may be associated with alcohol drinking habits and alcoholism. By genotyping 9080 white men and women from the general population, we found that men and women with ADH1B slow vs fast alcohol degradation drank more alcohol and had a higher risk of everyday drinking, heavy drinking, excessive drinking and of alcoholism. For example, the weekly alcohol intake was 9.8 drinks (95% confidence interval (CI): 9.1-11) among men with the ADH1B.1/1 genotype compared to 7.5 drinks (95% CI: 6.4-8.7) among men with the ADH1B.1/2 genotype, and the odds ratio (OR) for heavy drinking was 3.1 (95% CI: 1.7-5.7) among men with the ADH1B.1/1 genotype compared to men with the ADH1B.1/2 genotype. Furthermore, individuals with ADH1C slow vs fast alcohol degradation had a higher risk of heavy and excessive drinking. For example, the OR for heavy drinking was 1.4 (95% CI: 1.1-1.8) among men with the ADH1C.1/2 genotype and 1.4 (95% CI: 1.0-1.9) among men with the ADH1B.2/2 genotype, compared with men with the ADH1C.1/1 genotype. Results for ADH1B and ADH1C genotypes among men and women were similar. Finally, because slow ADH1B alcohol degradation is found in more than 90% of the white population compared to less than 10% of East Asians, the population attributable risk of heavy drinking and alcoholism by ADH1B.1/1 genotype was 67 and 62% among the white population compared with 9 and 24% among the East Asian population.

  3. Study on the development of high yielding alcohol resistant strain of Saccharomyces cerevisiae and the Influence of Magnetic field on Saccharomyces cerevisiae Inoculum for the production of Alcohol and Vinegar from apple juice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rabiul Haque

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Natural vinegar is one of the fermented products which has some potentiality with respect to a nutraceutical standpoint. The present study is an optimization of the fermentation conditions for apple juice vinegar production from aple juice wine, this biochemical process being aided by Acetobacter aceti.We have studied on the development of high yielding alcohol resistant strain of Saccharomyces cerevisiae for the production of alcohol. Overflow metabolism is an undesirable characteristic of aerobic cultures of Saccharomyces cerevisiae during biomassdirected processes. It results from elevated apple juice containing sugar consumption rates that cause a high substrate conversion to ethanol and other bi-products, severely affecting cell physiology, bioprocess performance, and biomass yields. Fed-batch culture, where sucrose consumption rates are controlled by the external addition of sugar aiming at its low concentrations in the fermentor, is the classical bioprocessing alternative to prevent sugar fermentation by yeasts. However, fed-batch fermentations present drawbacks that could be overcome by simpler batch cultures at relatively high initial sugar concentrations From the results it is clear that strain T2. which has been exposed to 15% alcohol for 18 hrs is the high yielding strain, as it gives 16% alcohol after distillation. We also find that as the exposure is increased, that is, with increasing exposure to 20% alcohol for 5 hrs, 18 hrs, and 20 hrs, the production of alcohol decreases. Saccharomyces cerevisiae yeast cells strain T2. which has been exposed to 15% alcohol for 18 hrs were exposed to a homogenous static magnetic field of 125 mT for periods of 24, 48 or 72 hours and then used as inoculum for the alcoholic fermentation. The exposure to the magnetic field improved the fermentation process kinetics. Biomass and ethanol yields of fermentations inoculated with treated inoculum were higher than those in the control fermentation, which

  4. The Epidemiology of Alcohol Use and Alcohol Use Disorders among Young People in Northern Tanzania.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joel M Francis

    Full Text Available Alcohol use is a global public health problem, including as a risk factor for HIV infection, but few data are available on the epidemiology of alcohol use and alcohol use disorders (AUD among young people in sub-Saharan Africa.We conducted a cross-sectional survey among 4 groups of young people aged 15-24 years old (secondary school students, college/university students, employees of local industries and casual labourers in two regions (Kilimanjaro and Mwanza of northern Tanzania. Using a multistage stratified random sampling strategy, we collected information on demographics, alcohol use, and behavioural factors. We screened severity of alcohol use using the Alcohol Use Disorder Identification Test (AUDIT and estimated the quantity and frequency of alcohol consumption using the timeline-follow-back-calendar (TLFB method.A total of 1954 young people were surveyed. The prevalence of reported alcohol use was higher among males (47-70% ever users and 20-45% current users than females (24-54% ever users and 12-47% current users. Prevalence of use was substantially higher in Kilimanjaro than Mwanza region. In both regions, participants reported high exposure to alcohol advertisements, and wide alcohol availability. College students reported the highest prevalence of current alcohol use (45% among males; 26% among females and of heavy episodic drinking (71% among males; 27% among females followed by casual labourers. Males were more likely to have AUD (an AUDIT score ≥8 than females, with 11-28% of males screening positive for AUD. Alcohol use was associated with male gender, being in a relationship, greater disposable income, non-Muslim religion and a higher number of sexual partners.Alcohol use is a significant problem among young people in northern Tanzania. There is an urgent need to develop, pilot and deliver interventions to help young people delay initiation and reduce levels of harmful drinking, particularly among college students and casual

  5. The Molecular Circadian Clock and Alcohol-Induced Liver Injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Udoh, Uduak S; Valcin, Jennifer A; Gamble, Karen L; Bailey, Shannon M

    2015-10-14

    Emerging evidence from both experimental animal studies and clinical human investigations demonstrates strong connections among circadian processes, alcohol use, and alcohol-induced tissue injury. Components of the circadian clock have been shown to influence the pathophysiological effects of alcohol. Conversely, alcohol may alter the expression of circadian clock genes and the rhythmic behavioral and metabolic processes they regulate. Therefore, we propose that alcohol-mediated disruption in circadian rhythms likely underpins many adverse health effects of alcohol that cut across multiple organ systems. In this review, we provide an overview of the circadian clock mechanism and showcase results from new studies in the alcohol field implicating the circadian clock as a key target of alcohol action and toxicity in the liver. We discuss various molecular events through which alcohol may work to negatively impact circadian clock-mediated processes in the liver, and contribute to tissue pathology. Illuminating the mechanistic connections between the circadian clock and alcohol will be critical to the development of new preventative and pharmacological treatments for alcohol use disorders and alcohol-mediated organ diseases.

  6. The Molecular Circadian Clock and Alcohol-Induced Liver Injury

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Uduak S. Udoh

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Emerging evidence from both experimental animal studies and clinical human investigations demonstrates strong connections among circadian processes, alcohol use, and alcohol-induced tissue injury. Components of the circadian clock have been shown to influence the pathophysiological effects of alcohol. Conversely, alcohol may alter the expression of circadian clock genes and the rhythmic behavioral and metabolic processes they regulate. Therefore, we propose that alcohol-mediated disruption in circadian rhythms likely underpins many adverse health effects of alcohol that cut across multiple organ systems. In this review, we provide an overview of the circadian clock mechanism and showcase results from new studies in the alcohol field implicating the circadian clock as a key target of alcohol action and toxicity in the liver. We discuss various molecular events through which alcohol may work to negatively impact circadian clock-mediated processes in the liver, and contribute to tissue pathology. Illuminating the mechanistic connections between the circadian clock and alcohol will be critical to the development of new preventative and pharmacological treatments for alcohol use disorders and alcohol-mediated organ diseases.

  7. Deciding to quit drinking alcohol

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... quitting drinking; Quitting drinking; Quitting alcohol; Alcoholism - deciding to quit ... drinking problem when your body depends on alcohol to function and your drinking is causing problems with ...

  8. Alcohol, diabetes, and public health in the Americas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Babor, Thomas; Rehm, Jurgen; Jernigan, David; Vaeth, Patrice; Monteiro, Maristela; Lehman, Hallie

    2012-08-01

    This article describes epidemiological evidence on the association between alcohol use and diabetes, and the implications for clinical management and public health policies in the Americas. Heavy alcohol use is a risk factor for both diabetes and poor treatment adherence, despite evidence that moderate drinking can protect against type 2 diabetes under some circumstances. The burden of disease from diabetes associated with excessive alcohol consumption warrants both clinical and public health measures. On the clinical level, research on early interventions to prevent hazardous drinking shows that new screening, brief intervention, and referral techniques are effective ways to manage hazardous drinking in primary care settings. On the population level, restrictions on alcohol marketing and other alcohol control policies reduce the frequency and intensity of alcohol consumption in at-risk populations. These policy actions are recommended within the context of the World Health Organization's global strategy to reduce the harmful use of alcohol.

  9. Clinical laboratory stressors used to study alcohol-stress relationships.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Suzanne; Bacon, Amy K; Sinha, Rajita; Uhart, Magdalena; Adinoff, Bryon

    2012-01-01

    Understanding the biologic systems that underlie the relationship between stress and alcohol consumption may lead to better prevention efforts and more effective treatments for alcoholism. Clinical laboratory studies offer a unique opportunity to examine these relationships by using a controlled environment to study how an acute stressor affects alcohol drinking and alcohol craving, how individuals in recovery or those at risk for alcoholism may respond differently to stressors relative to control subjects, and how alcohol differentially affects stress reactivity in these groups. This article reviews some of the most common physical, psychological, and pharmacological stressors used in stress-induction studies designed to reveal details about the relationship between stress reactivity and alcohol use and abuse.

  10. Economic evaluation of participation in a voluntary Johne's disease prevention and control program from a farmer's perspective--The Alberta Johne's Disease Initiative.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolf, R; Clement, F; Barkema, H W; Orsel, K

    2014-05-01

    The Alberta Johne's Disease Initiative (AJDI) is a Johne's disease (JD) control program with the goal of reducing the spread of Mycobacterium avium ssp. paratuberculosis (MAP) through implementation of best management practices. The objective was to estimate the economic benefit of participation in the AJDI. A decision tree was constructed in which disease prevalence, test characteristics, and probabilities for implementation of best management practices suggested by herd veterinarians were implemented. Analysis was performed using a Markov analysis, and input data were assigned using estimates from the AJDI and published data. A cost-effectiveness analysis was performed and the net benefit of participation (from the perspective of a dairy farmer) in the AJDI compared with no participation was calculated. A series of 1-way sensitivity analyses were used to control for uncertainty. Farms participating in the AJDI were estimated to have a net benefit of Can$74 per cow over the course of 10 yr. If project costs were covered by the participating farm, the net benefit was Can$27. In addition to the effects on MAP infection, a reduction in calf diarrhea was modeled for farms that improved their calf management through the use of pasteurizers. In that case, the additional costs outweighed additional revenues compared with the baseline analysis, resulting in a reduced net benefit of Can$19. Participation would not be cost effective if cows in early stages of MAP infection did not have decreased production and if prevalence of MAP infection did not increase on farms with poor management. A limitation of the study, despite high uncertainty in some input parameters, was the lack of knowledge regarding changes in prevalence on farms with various management strategies. In conclusion, participation in the AJDI was cost effective for the average Alberta dairy farm.

  11. College Students' Alcohol Use and Their Adherence to Health Principles: Optimism, Values, Self-Care, Relationships, Community, Nature, and Service

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, April

    2009-01-01

    Prevention of high-risk use of alcohol by college students has been studied for over 20 years. Most prevention methodology has focused on reducing supply to students rather than addressing the root causes that students use alcohol in self-abusive manner. One holistic health approach that addresses the root causes of alcohol abuse promotes the…

  12. Transient activation of microglia following acute alcohol exposure in developing mouse neocortex is primarily driven by BAX-dependent neurodegeneration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahlers, Katelin E; Karaçay, Bahri; Fuller, Leah; Bonthius, Daniel J; Dailey, Michael E

    2015-10-01

    Fetal alcohol exposure is the most common known cause of preventable mental retardation, yet we know little about how microglia respond to, or are affected by, alcohol in the developing brain in vivo. Using an acute (single day) model of moderate (3 g/kg) to severe (5 g/kg) alcohol exposure in postnatal day (P) 7 or P8 mice, we found that alcohol-induced neuroapoptosis in the neocortex is closely correlated in space and time with the appearance of activated microglia near dead cells. The timing and molecular pattern of microglial activation varied with the level of cell death. Although microglia rapidly mobilized to contact and engulf late-stage apoptotic neurons, apoptotic bodies temporarily accumulated in neocortex, suggesting that in severe cases of alcohol toxicity the neurodegeneration rate exceeds the clearance capacity of endogenous microglia. Nevertheless, most dead cells were cleared and microglia began to deactivate within 1-2 days of the initial insult. Coincident with microglial activation and deactivation, there was a transient increase in expression of pro-inflammatory factors, TNFα and IL-1β, after severe (5 g/kg) but not moderate (3 g/kg) EtOH levels. Alcohol-induced microglial activation and pro-inflammatory factor expression were largely abolished in BAX null mice lacking neuroapoptosis, indicating that microglial activation is primarily triggered by apoptosis rather than the alcohol. Therefore, acute alcohol exposure in the developing neocortex causes transient microglial activation and mobilization, promoting clearance of dead cells and tissue recovery. Moreover, cortical microglia show a remarkable capacity to rapidly deactivate following even severe neurodegenerative insults in the developing brain.

  13. Alcohol Dependence and Alcoholic Liver Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karl Mann

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Alcohol dependence is a disabling condition that has a high prevalence, but in Europe only a small fraction of the people diagnosed with alcohol abuse and dependence are treated, representing the widest treatment gap, as compared with other mental disorders. Early diagnosis and monitoring of alcoholic liver disease (ALD is still insufficiently solved. Although ALD is the most common cause for liver disease in the Western world, it largely remains underestimated and underdiagnosed for many reasons. The recent introduction of non-invasive elastographic techniques such as transient elastography (TE has significantly improved the early diagnosis of alcoholic liver cirrhosis (ALC. As demonstrated in the literature, inflammation-associated liver stiffness (LS rapidly decreases during alcohol detoxification, and is also directly correlated to change in LS in both abstinent and relapsing patients. Newly published data show that LS could be used to monitor and validate hepatoprotective effects during nalmefene usage. Nalmefene is an opioid system modulator that diminishes the reinforcing effects of alcohol, helping the patient to reduce drinking. Three randomised, multicentre, double-blind, placebo-controlled, parallelgroup Phase III studies were designed to assess the efficacy and safety of nalmefene in reducing alcohol consumption. Patients with a high or very high drinking risk level (DRL at baseline and randomisation show a clinically significant effect from nalmefene treatment, which is generally well tolerated. Moreover, reduced alcohol consumption supported by nalmefene in combination with psychosocial support may indeed help to reduce the alcohol-related burden and the large treatment gap.

  14. 枳子、葛根花和苦参混合药物对小鼠急性酒精中毒的防治作用%Prevention and Cure of Acute Alcohol Intoxica-tion in Mice by Administration of Compound of Japanese Raisintree Fruit, Lobed Kudzuvine Flower Bud and Lightyellow Sophora Root

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孔玲; 李杰; 张秀珍

    2014-01-01

    Objective We aimed to investigate the preventive and therapeutical effect of compound of traditional Chinese drugs (Japanese raisintree fruit, lobed kudzuvine flower bud and lightyel ow sophora root) on acute alcohol intoxication in mice. [Method] Acute alcohol intoxication was induced by administering alcohol to mice. Three different doses (low, middle and high) of compound of traditional Chinese drugs were administered to mice before and after administering alcohol respectively to investigate the preventive and therapeutical effect of drugs on acute alcohol intox-ication through doing statistical analysis about drunk mice and their sleeping time. The concentration of malondialdehyde (MDA), reduced glutathione (GSH) and triglyc-erides (TG) in liver was also determined to investigate the protective effect of drugs on liver. [Result] The efficacy of compound of traditional Chinese drugs on acute al-cohol intoxication was dose-dependent. High-dose administration decreased the number of drunk mice significantly compared with control group; middle- and high-dose administration reduced the sleeping time of drunk mice and the concentration of MDA and TG in liver tissue; three doses al increased the concentration of GSH. [Conclusion] The compound of Japanese raisintree fruit, lobed kudzuvine flower bud and lightyel ow sophora root had preventive and therapeutical effect on hangover, and it also had certain preventive and therapeutical effect on liver damage caused by alcohol.%[目的]探讨中药枳子、葛根花和苦参混合药物对小鼠急性酒精中毒的防治作用。[方法]采用酒精灌胃法建立小鼠急性酒精中毒模型,灌喂低、中、高3种剂量的药物,进行先药后酒的预防醉酒和先酒后药的治疗醉酒试验,统计醉酒小鼠数目和小鼠睡眠时间,并通过检测小鼠肝组织中的丙二醛( MDA)、还原型谷胱甘肽(GSH)及血清甘油三酯(TG)的含量,研究药物对小鼠肝的保护作用

  15. Factors associated with alcohol intake and alcohol abuse among women in Belo Horizonte, Minas Gerais State, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ísis Eloah Machado

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available The main objective of this cross-sectional study was to analyze factors associated with alcohol consumption among adult women living in Belo Horizonte, Minas Gerais State, Brazil, in 2011. Data for Belo Horizonte were obtained from the VIGITEL system (Telephone-Based Surveillance of Risk and Protective Factors for Chronic Diseases. Alcohol use was defined as self-reported intake of at least one dose in the previous 30 days; alcohol abuse was defined as four or more doses on at least one occasion during the same period. Polytomous logistic regression was used to evaluate factors associated with alcohol use and abuse. Alcohol use was more prevalent among women 25 to 34 years of age. Alcohol abuse was associated with age, schooling, health status, and smoking. The results suggest the need for policies to prevent alcohol abuse among women, especially targeting those who are younger, single, smokers, and with more education.

  16. Guidelines for Assisting Athletes with Alcohol and Other Drug Problems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spang, Bruce P.

    This booklet shows how to adapt and implement a comprehensive program on alcohol and drug abuse prevention to the sports environment in schools. It describes how athletic directors, coaches, parents, and athletes can break the "no talk rule" about alcohol and drug problems with athletes. The preface claims that athletic directors and coaches can…

  17. The Effects of Learned Helplessness on Alcohol Consumption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noel, Nora E.; Lisman, Stephen A.

    Widely held cultural beliefs assert that alcohol can offer both an ameliorative and preventive solution to the problem of depression. This study attempted to assess the effects of learned helplessness--a possible laboratory analog to reactive depression--on alcohol consumption. Thirty-eight female undergraduates were randomly assigned (within…

  18. Stop the Tears of Drug and Alcohol Abuse

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shimon, Jane; Gibson, Terry-Ann; Spear, Caile

    2009-01-01

    Objectives: By participating in this Stop the Tears teaching strategy, students will be able to: (1) analyze how alcohol and drug abuse could affect their lives as well as the lives of their friends and family and, (2) create a media message, such as a poster, pamphlet, poem, or song, in which alcohol and drug prevention is advocated specific to…

  19. Do flexible alcohol trading hours reduce violence? A theory-based natural experiment in alcohol policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Humphreys, David K; Eisner, Manuel P

    2014-02-01

    Alcohol-related violence is a pressing public health concern. In 2005, the government of England and Wales took a controversial approach to preventing violence by removing restrictions on opening hours for alcohol outlets, thus increasing the availability of alcohol. The policy aimed to remove fixed closing times, which it claimed was contributing to urban violence occurring at peak closing times. It proposed to reduce violence and disorder by installing systems of 'staggered closing times'. This policy was criticised for overlooking established public health principles prioritising the control of alcohol availability in the prevention of alcohol-related harm. In this study, we treated the removal of trading hour restrictions as a natural experiment to test competing theoretical principles about the relationship between alcohol availability and violence. Our study took place in the City of Manchester over a four-year period 2004-2008. Detailed trading records for over 600 alcohol outlets were obtained, as were police records for all violent incidents. We found considerable variation in the implementation of extended trading hours across the city, which affected area-level exposure of changes in alcohol availability and staggered closing times. To isolate the effect of these changes on violence, we performed a dose-response analysis to examine whether improved staggering of closing hours (or increased alcohol availability) was associated with decreases in violence. We found no evidence to support the government-proposed hypothesis that staggered closing reduces violence. We also found no support for the alternative hypothesis; that increase alcohol availability would result in increased violence. This study provides an example of how better evidence can be generated from natural experiments by placing added emphasis on theory, causal mechanisms and implementation science.

  20. The role of alcohol in deaths presenting to the coroner's service in Cork City and County.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Bellis, M

    2009-01-01

    A retrospective study was conducted in order to determine the prevalence and concentration of alcohol in post-mortem blood samples sent for toxicological analysis in Cork City and County in 2003 and 2004. Post mortem reports of these deaths were reviewed for the presence or absence of alcohol at the time of autopsy, blood alcohol concentration (BAC) at time of death, age and sex of the decedents. Of samples sent for blood alcohol analysis (BAA), 38.4% were positive for alcohol. Significant differences were found between the proportions of alcohol positive cases by cause of death. Alcohol positive cases were significantly younger (44.3 +\\/- 17.8 years) than alcohol negative cases (51.9 +\\/- 19.4 years) and fifty two percent of drivers were positive for alcohol at the time of death. Awareness of the harmful and potentially fatal effects of alcohol should continue to be raised within the community, so as to prevent future fatalities.

  1. Baseline research for action: adolescent alcohol consumption in Los Palacios Municipality, Cuba.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Díaz, Yolanda; Espinosa, Yairelis

    2013-04-01

    In Cuba, alcohol is an important contributor to morbidity, mortality and social problems. The foundation of Cuba's universal primary health care coverage, family doctor-and-nurse offices play a critical role in prevention, early detection and treatment of alcohol abuse. Los Palacios Municipality of the westernmost province of Pinar del Río, Cuba, is a socially complex, periurban area where alcohol abuse and alcoholism have been identified as important health problems. Adolescents constitute a population at high risk for alcohol abuse because of their receptivity to social influences, but the precise extent of the problem is unknown. This paper reports baseline findings from a survey and direct observation of alcohol consumption in the catchment area of a primary care center, conducted to inform planning for an educational intervention. KEYWORDS Alcohol, alcoholism, alcohol abuse, alcohol dependence, adolescence, primary health care, Cuba.

  2. [Misuse of alcohol and new drug treatments].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paille, François

    2011-12-01

    Three drugs are currently marketed in France in the prevention of relapse in alcohol-dependent patients. Their efficacy though real remains limited and it is useful to develop other molecules. Some products are at present under evaluation, and are already or could be used in the near future in the treatment of alcohol dependence: baclofene, oxybate de sodium (GHB), nalmefene, topiramate, ondansetron and aripiprazole. The available studies on these molecules are still limited and the results sometimes clinically modest. Nevertheless, some of them open interesting future prospects. If there is no big revolution to wait in the short term in the treatment of alcohol dependence, we can consider some interesting orientations: better effectiveness on alcohol consumption, but also change of paradigm concerning the objectives and the methods of this treatment: reduction of consumption versus abstinence, treatment on request, choice of the molecule guided by objective criteria (psychosocial, biological, genetic...).

  3. [Alcohol consumption and self esteem in adolescents].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aguirre, Alicia Alvarez; Alonso Castillo, María Magdalena; Zanetti, Ana Carolina Guidorizzi

    2010-01-01

    The aim of this study was to analyze the relationship of levels of self esteem and alcohol consumption in adolescents, by carrying out a transversal, descriptive study, in a college of nursing of Queretaro in Mexico, in the month of July 2008, with a sample of 109 adolescents, between 17 and 20 years old. For attainment of the data two instruments were applied: AUDIT and the Rosemberg self esteem scale. The majority of the participating adolescents had high self esteem (94.5%) and none presented low self esteem. Of the adolescents in the study 80.7% did not consume alcohol hazardously. It was concluded that the adolescents presented high self esteem and low alcohol consumption. Therefore, it is necessary to implement preventive programs related to alcohol consumption and to identify the protective factors to guarantee the maintenance of healthy habits for the adolescents.

  4. Alcohol homograph priming in alcohol-dependent inpatients

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Woud, M.L.; Salemink, E.; Gladwin, T.E.; Wiers, R.W.H.J.; Becker, E.S.; Lindenmeyer, J.; Rinck, M.

    2016-01-01

    Aim: Alcohol dependency is characterized by alcohol-related interpretation biases (IBs): Individuals with high levels of alcohol consumption generate more alcohol-related than alcohol-unrelated interpretations in response to ambiguous alcohol-related cues. However, a response bias could be an altern

  5. Alcohol Use and Older Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... version of this page please turn Javascript on. Alcohol Use and Older Adults Alcohol and Aging Adults of any age can have ... Escape (Esc) button on your keyboard.) What Is Alcohol? Alcohol, also known as ethanol, is a chemical ...

  6. Alcohol consumption and the risk of morbidity and mortality for different stroke types - a systematic review and meta-analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roerecke Michael

    2010-05-01

    higher risks than men, and the risks for mortality were higher compared to the risks for morbidity. Conclusions These results indicate that heavy alcohol consumption increases the relative risk of any stroke while light or moderate alcohol consumption may be protective against ischemic stroke. Preventive measures that should be initiated are discussed.

  7. Compound formula Jiukele's efficacy and its mechanisms in prevention and treatment of experimental alcoholic liver fibrosis in rats%酒客乐对大鼠酒精性肝纤维化疗效及机制的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    甘爱萍; 李云桥; 陈宏慈

    2011-01-01

    目的:探讨中药复方酒客乐对大鼠酒精性肝纤维化的防治作用及其机制.方法:采用白酒-吡唑-橄榄油的混悬液灌胃建立酒精性肝纤维化大鼠模型.雄性Wistar大鼠随机分为正常对照组、造模组、治疗组及酒客乐高、低剂量预防组.实验第12周后,除治疗组外,采集标本;治疗组于实验第16周后采集标本,观察酒客乐对大鼠体重、肝功能、血清PⅢP、LN含量以及肝脏病理形态改变、肝脏表达TGF-β1水平的影响.结果:造模组大鼠体重、血清ALT、AST、PⅢP、LN、肝脏表达TGF-β1水平、肝脏病理形态改变与正常对照组比较差异有显著性意义(P<0.01).酒客乐高剂量预防组大鼠体重增长与正常对照组差异无显著性意义(P>0.05).酒客乐高、低剂量预防组、治疗组大鼠血清ALT、AST、PⅢP、LN含量明显低于造模组(P<0.01).酒客乐能减轻大鼠肝脏病理形态改变,抑制其肝脏TGF-β1产生,酒客乐高、低剂量预防组、治疗组大鼠TGF-β1水平含量明显低于造模组,差异有显著性意义(P<0.01).结论:酒客乐具有防治大鼠酒精性肝纤维化的作用,其作用机制可能为:①直接作用:抑制肝脏细胞外基质的沉积,减轻肝脏病理形态改变;②间接作用:保护肝功能,增强免疫功能,纠正肝脏代谢紊乱.%Objective: To investigate the efficacy of Chinese compound formula Jiukele in the prevention and treatment of ethanol - induced liver fibrosis in the rats and its mechanisms. Methods: Forty male Wistar rats were divided randomly into 5 groups: normal control group, model group, therapy group, high and low dose prophylactic group. The mixture of alcohol (55° ) , pyrazole and olive oils was fed to the stomach of the rats of model group every morning {!'■ 00 - 8: 00) . The rat model was successfully established in 12 weeks. The Jiukele was given to the rats of therapy group for another 4 weeks after rat model was established

  8. Alcohol in moderation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mueller, Simone; Lockshin, Larry; Louviere, Jordan J.

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: The study examines the market potential for low and very low alcohol wine products under two different tax regimes. The penetration and market share of low alcohol wine are estimated under both tax conditions. Consumers’ alcoholic beverage purchase portfolios are analysed and those...... products identified, which are jointly purchased with low alcohol wines. The effect of a tax increase on substitution patterns between alcoholic beverages is examined. Methodology: In a discrete choice experiment, based on their last purchase, consumers select one or several different alcoholic beverages...... volume is estimated under the current tax regime. Between six to eight percent of consumers are expected to adopt low alcohol wine alternatives as part of their alcoholic beverage portfolio. Consumers of cask wine and light beer are more likely and consumers of medium-full strength beer and spirits...

  9. Myths about drinking alcohol

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... gov/ency/patientinstructions/000856.htm Myths about drinking alcohol To use the sharing features on this page, ... We know much more about the effects of alcohol today than in the past. Yet, myths remain ...

  10. Benzyl Alcohol Topical

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benzyl alcohol lotion is used to treat head lice (small insects that attach themselves to the skin) in adults ... children less than 6 months of age. Benzyl alcohol is in a class of medications called pediculicides. ...

  11. Alcohol Use Screening

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Centers Diseases + Condition Centers Mental Health Medical Library Alcohol Use Screening (AUDIT-C) - Instructions The following questions ... this tool, there is also text-only version . Alcohol Use Screening (AUDIT-C) - Manual Instructions The following ...

  12. Women and Alcohol

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... turn JavaScript on. Feature: Rethinking Drinking Women and Alcohol Past Issues / Spring 2014 Table of Contents Women react differently than men to alcohol and face higher risks from it. Pound for ...

  13. Alcohol Facts and Statistics

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Standard Drink? Drinking Levels Defined Alcohol Facts and Statistics Print version Alcohol Use in the United States: ... 1245, 2004. PMID: 15010446 11 National Center for Statistics and Analysis. 2014 Crash Data Key Findings (Traffic ...

  14. Children of alcoholics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert Oravecz

    2002-09-01

    Full Text Available The author briefly interprets the research – results, referring to the phenomenon of children of alcoholics, especially the psychological and psychopathological characteristics of children of alcoholics in adolescence and young adulthood. The author presents a screening study of adolescents. The sample contains 200 high school students at age 18. The aim of the survey was to discover the relationship between alcohol consumption of parents, PTSD - related psychopathological symptoms and reported life quality of their children. The study confirmed the hypothesis about a substantial correlation between high alcohol consumption of parents, higher psychopathological symptom - expression and lower reported life quality score of their children. Higher PTSD-related symptomatology in children of alcoholics is probably resulted by home violence, which is very often present in family of alcoholics. The article also evaluated the results regarding suicide ideation of children of alcoholics, which is definitely more frequent and more intense than in their peers living in non alcohol – dependent families.

  15. The NASOROSSO (Rednose Project: An Italian Study on Alcohol Consumption in Recreational Places

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simona Pichini

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available The Nasorosso project of the Italian Youth Department and the National Institute of Health, aimed to raise awareness about drinking and driving under the influence of alcohol among club goers with a series of initiatives. Within the framework of the project, blood alcohol concentration (BAC was measured on 106,406 individuals before and after clubbing in 66 different recreational sites from 11 Italian provinces, over 16 months. Participating individuals were interviewed regarding sociodemographic and environmental characteristics and alcohol intoxicated people were offered to be taken home. The BAC median at the club entry was 0.26 g/L with 65.3% subjects showing a BAC value under the driving legal limit of 0.5g/L. At the exit from clubs, BAC median value rose to 0.44 g/L and subjects with BAC value under the legal limit decreased to 54.9%. Being male, aged between 18 and 34 years with a diploma, being a drinker and entering the disco with a BAC already beyond the legal limit predicted a BAC value beyond 0.5 g/L at exit from the recreational place. Conversely, being a driver, being a student and exiting from the disco before 4 a.m. reduced the probability of having a BAC higher than 0.5 g/L at the end of the night.  Health policies to prevent harmful use of alcohol in young people should continue to offer targeted information/ prevention; in order to steadily increase the awareness of the dangers and the damages of excessive use of alcohol.

  16. The NASOROSSO (Rednose) project: an Italian study on alcohol consumption in recreational places.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pacifici, Roberta; Pierantozzi, Andrea; Di Giovannandrea, Rita; Palmi, Ilaria; Mastrobattista, Luisa; Mortali, Claudia; Pichini, Simona

    2013-04-24

    The Nasorosso project of the Italian Youth Department and the National Institute of Health, aimed to raise awareness about drinking and driving under the influence of alcohol among club goers with a series of initiatives. Within the framework of the project, blood alcohol concentration (BAC) was measured on 106,406 individuals before and after clubbing in 66 different recreational sites from 11 Italian provinces, over 16 months. Participating individuals were interviewed regarding sociodemographic and environmental characteristics and alcohol intoxicated people were offered to be taken home. The BAC median at the club entry was 0.26 g/L with 65.3% subjects showing a BAC value under the driving legal limit of 0.5 g/L. At the exit from clubs, BAC median value rose to 0.44 g/L and subjects with BAC value under the legal limit decreased to 54.9%. Being male, aged between 18 and 34 years with a diploma, being a drinker and entering the disco with a BAC already beyond the legal limit predicted a BAC value beyond 0.5 g/L at exit from the recreational place. Conversely, being a driver, being a student and exiting from the disco before 4 a.m. reduced the probability of having a BAC higher than 0.5 g/L at the end of the night. Health policies to prevent harmful use of alcohol in young people should continue to offer targeted information/ prevention; in order to steadily increase the awareness of the dangers and the damages of excessive use of alcohol.

  17. SOME PERSONALITY FEATURES AS PREDICTIVE FACTORS OF DRUG AND ALCOHOL ABUSE AND DEPENDENCY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ksenija Butorac

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Similar to other behavioural disorders, models of drug and alcohol abuse stem from interaction of several factors such as social settings, biological and psychological configuration, individual’s personality dimensions as well as psychoactive effect of drug. To-date research predominantly targeted consequences of drug and alcohol abuse, treatment, rehabilitation and the explanation of dependent person’s behaviour. Much less effort and research addressed the issue of personality as a potent predisposition risk factor and its effect on this phenomenon. Although personality does not develop as a separate entity, drug abuse, amongst other factors, is initiated by different personality traits, cognitive processes, person’s expectancies and psychopathology. In the light of that, this article contains results of psychological research which indicate risk factors and their interactive relationships within general personality construct. These findings therefore relevantly contribute to the development of effective prevention programmes, risk groups identification and early treatment interventions.

  18. Alcohol and Atherosclerosis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Gao Yinglan; Song Jingyu; Jin Junshuo; Zhong Xiuhong; Ren Xiangshan; Liu Shuangping

    2005-01-01

    Objectives To study the relationship between alcohol and atherosclerosis (AS).Methods The paper reviewed the mechanism of the alcohol leading to AS from four aspects such as the introduction of alcohol and AS, imbalance of oxidationantioxidation system, oxygen free radical (OFR) and endothelium cell (EC) apoptosis, apoptosis and AS.Results Excessive alcohol could lead to imbalance of oxidation-antioxidation system, and increase OFR, in the meanwhile, OFR could lead to EC apoptosis,which could lead to AS.

  19. Cultural Perspectives Concerning Adolescent Use of Tobacco and Alcohol in the Appalachian Mountain Region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyer, Michael G.; Toborg, Mary A.; Denham, Sharon A.; Mande, Mary J.

    2008-01-01

    Context: Appalachia has high rates of tobacco use and related health problems, and despite significant impediments to alcohol use, alcohol abuse is common. Adolescents are exposed to sophisticated tobacco and alcohol advertising. Prevention messages, therefore, should reflect research concerning culturally influenced attitudes toward tobacco and…

  20. Consumption of Coprinus comatus polysaccharide extract causes recovery of alcoholic liver damage in rats

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ozalp, F.O.; Canbek, M.; Yamac, M.; Kanbak, G.; Griensven, van L.J.L.D.; Uyanoglu, M.; Senturk, H.; Karlkava, K.; Oglakci, A.

    2014-01-01

    Excess use of alcohol is known to be associated with liver diseases such as fatty liver, alcoholic hepatitis, and cirrhosis. Various practices may be applied to prevent or treat the damage caused by chronic alcoholism. Coprinus comatus (O.F. Müll.) Pers. (Agaricaceae) is a macrofungus that has been