WorldWideScience

Sample records for alcohol prevention initiatives

  1. Testing Demographic Differences for Alcohol Use Initiation among Adolescents for the Decisional Balance and Situational Temptations Prevention Inventories

    OpenAIRE

    Sillice, Marie A.; Paiva, Andrea L.; Babbin, Steven F.; McGee, Heather A.; Rossi, Joseph R.; REDDING, Colleen A.; Meier, Kathryn S.; Oatley, Karin; Velicer, Wayne F.

    2014-01-01

    Alcohol use by middle school-aged students is a public health concern because of the numerous adverse social, health and psychological outcomes. Prevention programs attempt to intervene before alcohol use begins. A tailored, computer-delivered program for the prevention of alcohol use and a series of new transtheoretical model measures were developed, including decisional balance (Pros and Cons) of alcohol use and Situational Temptations to Try Alcohol. This study investigated if there were a...

  2. [Prevention of alcohol dependence].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trova, A C; Paparrigopoulos, Th; Liappas, I; Ginieri-Coccossis, M

    2015-01-01

    With the exception of cardiovascular diseases, no other medical condition causes more serious dysfunction or premature deaths than alcohol-related problems. Research results indicate that alcohol dependent individuals present an exceptionally poor level of quality of life. This is an outcome that highlights the necessity of planning and implementing preventive interventions on biological, psychological or social level, to be provided to individuals who make alcohol abuse, as well as to their families. Preventive interventions can be considered on three levels of prevention: (a) primary prevention, which is focused on the protection of healthy individuals from alcohol abuse and dependence, and may be provided on a universal, selective or indicated level, (b) secondary prevention, which aims at the prevention of deterioration regarding alcoholic dependence and relapse, in the cases of individuals already diagnosed with the condition and (c) tertiary prevention, which is focused at minimizing deterioration of functioning in chronically sufferers from alcoholic dependence. The term "quaternary prevention" can be used for the prevention of relapse. As for primary prevention, interventions focus on assessing the risk of falling into problematic use, enhancing protective factors and providing information and health education in general. These interventions can be delivered in schools or in places of work and recreation for young people. In this context, various programs have been applied in different countries, including Greece with positive results (Preventure, Alcolocks, LST, SFP, Alcohol Ignition Interlock Device). Secondary prevention includes counseling and structured help with the delivery of programs in schools and in high risk groups for alcohol dependence (SAP, LST). These programs aim at the development of alcohol refusal skills and behaviors, the adoption of models of behaviors resisting alcohol use, as well as reinforcement of general social skills. In the

  3. Children's Alcohol Initiation: An Analytic Overview

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ward, Bernadette; Snow, Pamela; Aroni, Rosalie

    2010-01-01

    Many parents support the "supervised introduction" of alcohol to children. While initiation to regular alcohol consumption in early adolescence has been linked with alcohol-related problems in adult life, the findings from these studies cannot be extrapolated to early childhood. The definition of initiation to alcohol in early childhood is often…

  4. Towards the Prevention of Alcohol Abuse

    Science.gov (United States)

    Facy, FranCoise; Rabaud, Myriam

    2006-01-01

    Mortality resulting from alcohol abuse in young French people is too high in spite of prevention campaigns for road safety in particular. There are problems in identifying alcohol abuse in young people in preventive medicine or alcohol care services. This study was carried out in alcohol centres; data from patients under 25 are analysed and…

  5. Initiatives for proliferation prevention

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Preventing the proliferation of weapons of mass destruction is a central part of US national security policy. A principal instrument of the Department of Energy's (DOE's) program for securing weapons of mass destruction technology and expertise and removing incentives for scientists, engineers and technicians in the newly independent states (NIS) of the former Soviet Union to go to rogue countries or assist terrorist groups is the Initiatives for Proliferation Prevention (IPP). IPP was initiated pursuant to the 1994 Foreign Operations Appropriations Act. IPP is a nonproliferation program with a commercialization strategy. IPP seeks to enhance US national security and to achieve nonproliferation objectives by engaging scientists, engineers and technicians from former NIS weapons institutes; redirecting their activities in cooperatively-developed, commercially viable non-weapons related projects. These projects lead to commercial and economic benefits for both the NIS and the US IPP projects are funded in Russian, Ukraine, Kazakhstan and Belarus. This booklet offers an overview of the IPP program as well as a sampling of some of the projects which are currently underway

  6. Initiatives for proliferation prevention

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-04-01

    Preventing the proliferation of weapons of mass destruction is a central part of US national security policy. A principal instrument of the Department of Energy`s (DOE`s) program for securing weapons of mass destruction technology and expertise and removing incentives for scientists, engineers and technicians in the newly independent states (NIS) of the former Soviet Union to go to rogue countries or assist terrorist groups is the Initiatives for Proliferation Prevention (IPP). IPP was initiated pursuant to the 1994 Foreign Operations Appropriations Act. IPP is a nonproliferation program with a commercialization strategy. IPP seeks to enhance US national security and to achieve nonproliferation objectives by engaging scientists, engineers and technicians from former NIS weapons institutes; redirecting their activities in cooperatively-developed, commercially viable non-weapons related projects. These projects lead to commercial and economic benefits for both the NIS and the US IPP projects are funded in Russian, Ukraine, Kazakhstan and Belarus. This booklet offers an overview of the IPP program as well as a sampling of some of the projects which are currently underway.

  7. Alcohol dependency prevention and early intervention.

    OpenAIRE

    Nathan, P E

    1988-01-01

    Current data on efforts to prevent alcoholism indicate that we are better able to prevent some of the consequences of alcohol misuse, such as alcohol-related car crashes and fetal alcohol syndrome, than chronic alcohol dependence itself. A review of data on outcomes of treatment for long-term alcohol dependence indicates that 9 of 10 alcohol dependent persons receive no treatment for the disorder in any given year. When treatment is provided for long-term alcohol dependent persons, it has onl...

  8. Alcohol-attributable and alcohol-preventable mortality in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eliasen, Marie; Becker, Ulrik; Grønbæk, Morten;

    2014-01-01

    The aim of the study was to quantify alcohol-attributable and -preventable mortality, totally and stratified on alcohol consumption in Denmark 2010, and to estimate alcohol-related mortality assuming different scenarios of changes in alcohol distribution in the population. We estimated alcohol......-attributable and -preventable fractions based on relative risks of conditions causally associated with alcohol from meta-analyses and information on alcohol consumption in Denmark obtained from 14,458 participants in the Danish National Health Survey 2010 and corrected for adult per capita consumption. Cause-specific mortality...... data were obtained from the Danish Register of Causes of Death. In total, 1,373 deaths among women (5.0 % of all deaths) and 2,522 deaths among men (9.5 % of all deaths) were attributable to alcohol, while an estimated number of 765 (2.8 %) and 583 (2.2 %) deaths were prevented by alcohol...

  9. Exploring Alcohol Policy Approaches to Prevent Sexual Violence Perpetration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lippy, Caroline; DeGue, Sarah

    2016-01-01

    Sexual violence continues to be a significant public health problem worldwide with serious consequences for individuals and communities. The implementation of prevention strategies that address risk and protective factors for sexual violence at the community level are important components of a comprehensive approach, but few such strategies have been identified or evaluated. The current review explores one potential opportunity for preventing sexual violence perpetration at the community level: alcohol policy. Alcohol policy has the potential to impact sexual violence perpetration through the direct effects of excessive alcohol consumption on behavior or through the impact of alcohol and alcohol outlets on social organization within communities. Policies affecting alcohol pricing, sale time, outlet density, drinking environment, marketing, and college environment are reviewed to identify existing evidence of impact on rates of sexual violence or related outcomes, including risk factors and related health behaviors. Several policy areas with initial evidence of an association with sexual violence outcomes were identified, including policies affecting alcohol pricing, alcohol outlet density, barroom management, sexist content in alcohol marketing, and policies banning alcohol on campus and in substance-free dorms. We identify other policy areas with evidence of an impact on related outcomes and risk factors that may also hold potential as a preventative approach for sexual violence perpetration. Evidence from the current review suggests that alcohol policy may represent one promising avenue for the prevention of sexual violence perpetration at the community level, but additional research is needed to directly examine effects on sexual violence outcomes. PMID:25403447

  10. Effects of a Stage-based Alcohol Preventive Intervention for Inner-City Youth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Werch, Chudley E.; Carlson, Joan M.; Owen, Deborah M.; DiClemente, Carlo C.; Carbonari, Joseph P.

    2001-01-01

    Examines first year outcomes of an alcohol preventive intervention within inner-city middle schools. Results reveal that significantly fewer neighborhood intervention students initiated alcohol use compared to control students. Suggests that a brief, stage-based preventive intervention may result in significant reductions in alcohol initiation and…

  11. Prevention of Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Floyd, R. Louise; Weber, Mary Kate; Denny, Clark; O'Connor, Mary J.

    2009-01-01

    Alcohol use among women of childbearing age is a leading, preventable cause of birth defects and developmental disabilities in the United States. Although most women reduce their alcohol use upon pregnancy recognition, some women report drinking during pregnancy and others may continue to drink prior to realizing they are pregnant. These findings…

  12. Effectiveness of alcohol prevention program for pre-adolescents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bobrowski, Krzysztof Jan

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Aim. The aim of this research was to assess the delayed effects of a two-year alcohol prevention program implemented in Polish primary schools. Method. The program comprised two curricula implemented the school and in family houses: Program Domowych Detektywów and Fantastyczne Możliwości. Both curricula were the Polish versions of two American school-based prevention programs which belonged to Project Northland. The initial study sample (N=802 comprised 10 to 11 years old pupils (fourth and fifth-grade from eight primary schools in Warsaw. Schools were randomly assigned to the intervention (n=421 and the reference group (n=381. A self-completion questionnaire was administered to students four times: at the baseline, seven, fifteen and twenty seven months after. Results. The program had an expected influence on the students’ attitudes, knowledge and resistance skills towards alcohol. The effects on the participants’ initiation of drunkenness and their first experience in alcohol use with their peers have also been reported. Most of the positive effects remained significant over time. Conclusions. The effectiveness of the program, as shown by the outcome evaluation, supports an argument for its wide implementation in Polish schools. Further progress in the fieldof alcohol and drug prevention in Poland depends on overcoming the existing barriers in this area of public health.

  13. Prevention of Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorder: Current Canadian Efforts and Analysis of Gaps

    OpenAIRE

    Nancy Poole; Rose A. Schmidt; Courtney Green; Natalie Hemsing

    2016-01-01

    Effective prevention of risky alcohol use in pregnancy involves much more than providing information about the risk of potential birth defects and developmental disabilities in children. To categorize the breadth of possible initiatives, Canadian experts have identified a four-part framework for fetal alcohol spectrum disorder (FASD) prevention: Level 1, public awareness and broad health promotion; Level 2, conversations about alcohol with women of childbearing age and their partners; Level 3...

  14. Alcohol Prevention Strategies on College Campuses and Student Alcohol Abuse and Related Problems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ringwalt, Christopher L.; Paschall, Mallie J.; Gitelman, Amy M.

    2011-01-01

    This study examined the relationship between colleges' alcohol abuse prevention strategies and students' alcohol abuse and related problems. Alcohol prevention coordinators and first year students in 22 colleges reported whether their schools were implementing 48 strategies in six domains, and students (N = 2041) completed another survey…

  15. Preventing Alcohol-Exposed Pregnancy among American-Indian Youth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jensen, Jamie; Kenyon, DenYelle Baete; Hanson, Jessica D.

    2016-01-01

    Research has determined that the prevention of alcohol-exposed pregnancies (AEP) must occur preconceptually, either by reducing alcohol intake in women planning pregnancy or at risk for becoming pregnant, or by preventing pregnancy in women drinking at risky levels. One such AEP prevention programme with non-pregnant American-Indian (AI) women is…

  16. Faculty Perceptions of Their Roles in Alcohol Education/Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walter, Katherine Ott; Paulo, Jonathan R.; Polacek, Georgia N. L. J.

    2013-01-01

    Alcohol use among college students continues to be a major public health threat to our nation. The purpose of this study was to explore faculty perceptions of their roles and responsibilities in alcohol education and prevention. The researchers adapted the Core Faculty and Staff Environmental Alcohol and Other Drug Survey to include only questions…

  17. Prevention of Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorders: Educational Needs in Academia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brems, Christiane; Boschma-Wynn, Rachel V.; Dewane, Sarah L.; Edwards, Alexandra; Robinson, Rebecca Volino

    2011-01-01

    As many as 4.5 live births per 1000 are affected by fetal alcohol spectrum disorders (FASDs), preventable birth defects with life-long consequences. Prevention of FASDs is gaining in importance, and recruitment of diverse disciplines in delivering prevention to women of childbearing age is essential. This needs assessment explored to what extent…

  18. What College Students Are Telling Us about Alcohol Abuse Prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griffith, Jeanne A.; Kile, Marilyn J.

    This paper describes the successful use of student focus groups by the University of Wisconsin--Whitewater Student Health Center to assess marketing strategies for alcohol abuse prevention. The focus group is a group of 13 students who met several times with a facilitator to share perceptions, feelings, and attitudes about alcohol abuse…

  19. The control-of-consumption approach to alcohol abuse prevention

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ravn, Ib

    1987-01-01

    The single-distribution theory of alcohol consumption and the derived prevention strategy, the control-of-consumption approach, are conceptualized as three probabilistic relationships between four variables, collectively called "the Ledermann string": availability, average consumption, proportion...

  20. Prevention of alcohol misuse among children, youths and young adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Korczak, Dieter

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Despite many activities to prevent risky alcohol consumption among adolescents and young adults there is an increase of alcohol intoxications in the group of ten to twenty year old juveniles. Objectives: This report gives an overview about the recent literature as well as the German federal prevention system regarding activities concerning behavioral and policy prevention of risky alcohol consumption among children, adolescents and young adults. Furthermore, effective components of prevention activities are identified and the efficiency and efficacy of ongoing prevention programs is evaluated. Methods: A systematic literature review is done in 34 databases using Bool’sche combinations of the key words alcohol, prevention, treatment, children, adolescents and young adults. Results: 401 studies were found and 59 studies were selected for the health technology assessment (HTA. Most of the studies are done in USA, nine in Germany. A family strengthening program, personalized computer based intervention at schools, colleges and universities, brief motivational interventions and policy elements like increase of prices and taxes proved effective. Discussion: Among the 59 studies there are three meta-analyses, 15 reviews, 17 randomized controlled trials (RCT and 18 cohort studies. Despite the overall high quality of the study design, many of them have methodological weaknesses (missing randomization, missing or too short follow-ups, not clearly defined measurement parameters. The transferability of US-results to the German context is problematic. Only a few prevention activities reach a sustainable reduction of frequency and/or amount of alcohol consumption. Conclusion: The HTA-report shows the need to develop specific and target group focused prevention activities for the German situation. Essential for that is the definition of target goals (reduction of consumption, change of behaviour as well as the definition and empirical validation

  1. What Schools Are Doing to Prevent Alcohol and Drug Abuse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buscemi, Michael

    1985-01-01

    Describes current trends in drug and alcohol abuse prevention programs, including decreased emphasis on the school's role in prevention, increased interest in forestalling rather than treating health problems, greater involvement of celebrities in antidrug programs, and improved peer support mechanisms. Noteworthy national programs are cited. (PGD)

  2. Health promotion: Alcohol and drug misuse prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1983-01-01

    Currently, average apparent consumption of alcohol for all persons older than 14 is 10 percent higher than 10 years ago, and is equivalent to about 2.75 gallons of ethanol per person per year. Approximately 10 million adult Americans (i.e., 7 percent of those 18 or older) can be considered problem drinkers. Youthful problem drinkers, aged 14 to 17, are estimated to number more than 3 million and comprise 19 percent of this age group. In addition to the social costs, the economic costs to society as a result of alcohol misuse are substantial--an estimated +49.4 billion in 1977. Ten percent of all deaths in the United States are alcohol-related. Cirrhosis, which is largely attributable to alcohol consumption, ranks among the 10 leading causes of death. Alcohol use also is associated with cancer of the liver, pancreas, esophagus, and mouth. Alcohol consumption during pregnancy is associated with a wide range of possible harmful effects to the fetus--among them decreased birth weight, spontaneous abortion, and physical and mental birth defects. Drug misuse is also an expanding problem. There are some 16 million current marijuana users. The popularity of cocaine continues to increase--over 10 million Americans have tried cocaine at least once and there are an estimated 1 to 2 million current users. Misuse of barbiturates remains a significant problem with at least 1 million persons believed to misuse these drugs and the 30,000 estimated to be addicted to them. In addition, heroin addiction is still considered by many to be the most serious drug problem in the United States. Drug misuse leads to a number of social and health problems. Excessive doses of depressants can result in both physical and psychological dependence. The toll from heroin includes premature death and severe disability, family disruption, and crime committed to maintain the habit. Misuse of hallucinogens often results in emergency room visits. A special problem is the relationship of marijuana to

  3. Predicting Post Treatment-Initiation Alcohol Use Among Patients With Severe Mental Illness and Alcohol Use Disorders

    OpenAIRE

    Bradizza, Clara M.; Maisto, Stephen A.; Vincent, Paula C.; Stasiewicz, Paul R.; Connors, Gerard J.; Mercer, Nicole D.

    2009-01-01

    Few studies examining alcohol abuse among individuals with a severe mental illness (SMI) have examined predictors of post-treatment alcohol outcomes. The present study uses a multivariate approach based on a theoretical model to study the relationship between psychosocial factors and post treatment-initiation alcohol use. Predictors of alcohol use outcomes were examined in 278 individuals diagnosed with a current DSM-IV schizophrenia-spectrum or bipolar disorder and an alcohol use disorder (A...

  4. Early initiation of alcohol consumption by adolescents in reconstructed families may be explained by parenting style

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iakunchykova, Olena

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND. Literature about risk factors of alcohol use points at the association between alcohol use and parenting style. This study investigates the relationship between family structure of adolescents in Ukraine and their initiation of alcohol use with parenting style as a mediating variable.METHODS: Pooled data from the repeated cross-sectional nationally representative survey of classes in Ukrainian secondary schools with target group of all 15-16 year old students, held in 1999, 2003, and 2007, were used for this analysis. Complete data were available for 11019 participants. Main exposures were family structure (full, single parent and reconstructed and perceptions of the relationships with mother and father, rule-setting, control, and support provided by parents. Outcome measure was age when students started consuming alcohol.RESULTS: In bivariate analysis, children in reconstructed families had higher risk for initiating alcohol use at age of 13 or younger (odds ratio 1.37, confidence interval 1,15-1,63 compared to full families. In reconstructed families, adolescents were more likely to be dissatisfied with their relationships with mother compared to intact family structure (8.7% vs. 4.7% and dissatisfied with their relationships with father compared to intact family structure (19,8% vs. 9,1%. Parental support was lacking in higher proportion of reconstructed families, compared to intact family structure (20.7% vs. 15.1%. In the multivariate analysis, controlling for relationship with mother and father, support received from parents, and socio-demographic characteristics, the association between family structure and alcohol drinking initiation was attenuated.CONCLUSIONS: Children in reconstructed families have higher risk of early drinking initiation. This study also supports the hypothesis that dissatisfaction with relationships with parents and lack of support received from parents may mediate the association between family structure

  5. Prevention of Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorder: Current Canadian Efforts and Analysis of Gaps.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poole, Nancy; Schmidt, Rose A; Green, Courtney; Hemsing, Natalie

    2016-01-01

    Effective prevention of risky alcohol use in pregnancy involves much more than providing information about the risk of potential birth defects and developmental disabilities in children. To categorize the breadth of possible initiatives, Canadian experts have identified a four-part framework for fetal alcohol spectrum disorder (FASD) prevention: Level 1, public awareness and broad health promotion; Level 2, conversations about alcohol with women of childbearing age and their partners; Level 3, specialized support for pregnant women; and Level 4, postpartum support for new mothers. In order to describe the level of services across Canada, 50 Canadian service providers, civil servants, and researchers working in the area of FASD prevention were involved in an online Delphi survey process to create a snapshot of current FASD prevention efforts, identify gaps, and provide ideas on how to close these gaps to improve FASD prevention. Promising Canadian practices and key areas for future action are described. Overall, Canadian FASD prevention programming reflects evidence-based practices; however, there are many opportunities to improve scope and availability of these initiatives. PMID:27199560

  6. Parental Divorce and Initiation of Alcohol Use in Early Adolescence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackson, Kristina M.; Rogers, Michelle L.; Sartor, Carolyn E.

    2016-01-01

    Parental divorce/separation is among the most commonly endorsed adverse childhood events and has been shown to increase subsequent risk of alcohol dependence and problems across adolescence and early adulthood, but its influence on early stages of alcohol involvement has only recently been explored. The present study examined whether time to first full drink was accelerated among youth who experienced parental divorce/separation. To determine specificity of risk, models controlled for perceived stress as well as family history of alcoholism, current parental drinking, and internalizing and externalizing problems. Developmental specificity in terms of timing of both parental divorce and first drink was also examined. Participants were 931 middle-school students who were enrolled in a prospective study on drinking initiation and progression (52% female; 23% non-White, 11% Hispanic). Students indicated whether and at what age they had consumed a full drink of alcohol. Parental divorce/separation was coded from a parent-reported life events inventory and was grouped based on age experienced (ages 0–5, ages 6–9, age 10+). Cox proportional-hazard models showed increased risk for onset of drinking as a function of divorce/separation, even controlling for stress, parental alcohol involvement, and psychopathology. There was no evidence for developmental specificity of the divorce/separation effect based on when it occurred nor in timing of first drink. However, the effect of parental divorce/separation on initiation was magnified at higher levels of parental drinking. Given the rates of parental divorce/separation and its association with increased risk of early drinking, investigation of the mechanisms underlying this link is clearly warranted. PMID:27322803

  7. Parental divorce and initiation of alcohol use in early adolescence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackson, Kristina M; Rogers, Michelle L; Sartor, Carolyn E

    2016-06-01

    Parental divorce/separation is among the most commonly endorsed adverse childhood events. It has been shown to increase subsequent risk of alcohol dependence and problems across adolescence and early adulthood, but its influence on early stages of alcohol involvement has only recently been explored. In the present study, we examined whether time to first full drink was accelerated among youth who experienced parental divorce/separation. To determine specificity of risk, models controlled for perceived stress as well as family history of alcoholism, current parental drinking, and internalizing and externalizing problems. Developmental specificity in terms of timing of both parental divorce and first drink was also examined. Participants were 931 middle-school students (488 girls, 443 boys) who were enrolled in a prospective study on drinking initiation and progression (52% female; 23% non-White, 11% Hispanic). Students indicated whether and at what age they had consumed a full drink of alcohol. Parental divorce/separation was coded from a parent-reported life-events inventory and was grouped based on age experienced (ages 0-5, ages 6-9, age 10+). Cox proportional hazard models showed increased risk for onset of drinking as a function of divorce/separation, even controlling for stress, parental alcohol involvement, and psychopathology. There was no evidence for developmental specificity of the divorce/separation effect based on when it occurred nor in timing of first drink. However, the effect of parental divorce/separation on initiation was magnified at higher levels of parental drinking. Given the rates of parental divorce/separation and its association with increased risk of early drinking, investigation of the mechanisms underlying this link is clearly warranted. (PsycINFO Database Record

  8. Parental divorce and initiation of alcohol use in early adolescence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackson, Kristina M; Rogers, Michelle L; Sartor, Carolyn E

    2016-06-01

    Parental divorce/separation is among the most commonly endorsed adverse childhood events. It has been shown to increase subsequent risk of alcohol dependence and problems across adolescence and early adulthood, but its influence on early stages of alcohol involvement has only recently been explored. In the present study, we examined whether time to first full drink was accelerated among youth who experienced parental divorce/separation. To determine specificity of risk, models controlled for perceived stress as well as family history of alcoholism, current parental drinking, and internalizing and externalizing problems. Developmental specificity in terms of timing of both parental divorce and first drink was also examined. Participants were 931 middle-school students (488 girls, 443 boys) who were enrolled in a prospective study on drinking initiation and progression (52% female; 23% non-White, 11% Hispanic). Students indicated whether and at what age they had consumed a full drink of alcohol. Parental divorce/separation was coded from a parent-reported life-events inventory and was grouped based on age experienced (ages 0-5, ages 6-9, age 10+). Cox proportional hazard models showed increased risk for onset of drinking as a function of divorce/separation, even controlling for stress, parental alcohol involvement, and psychopathology. There was no evidence for developmental specificity of the divorce/separation effect based on when it occurred nor in timing of first drink. However, the effect of parental divorce/separation on initiation was magnified at higher levels of parental drinking. Given the rates of parental divorce/separation and its association with increased risk of early drinking, investigation of the mechanisms underlying this link is clearly warranted. (PsycINFO Database Record PMID:27322803

  9. Predicting Post-Treatment-Initiation Alcohol Use among Patients with Severe Mental Illness and Alcohol Use Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bradizza, Clara M.; Maisto, Stephen A.; Vincent, Paula C.; Stasiewicz, Paul R.; Connors, Gerard J.; Mercer, Nicole D.

    2009-01-01

    Few investigators studying alcohol abuse among individuals with a severe mental illness (SMI) have examined predictors of posttreatment alcohol outcomes. In the present study, a multivariate approach based on a theoretical model was used to study the relationship between psychosocial factors and post-treatment-initiation alcohol use. Predictors of…

  10. Radiation initiated copolymerization of allyl alcohol with acrylonitrile

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Solpan, Dilek; Guven, Olgun [Hacettepe Univ., Ankara (Turkey). Dept. of Chemistry

    1996-07-01

    Copolymerization of allyl alcohol (AA) with acrylonitrile (AN) initiated by {gamma}-rays has been investigated to determine the respective reactivity ratios. Three different experimental techniques, namely Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR), Ultraviolet (UV/vis) and elemental analysis (EA) have been used for the determination of copolymer compositions. Fineman-Ross (FR), Kelen-Tudos (KT), Non-Linear Least Square (NLLS) Analysis and Q-e methods have been applied to the three sets of experimental data. It has been concluded that data obtained from elemental analysis as applied to the Non-Linear Least Square approach gave the most reliable reactivity ratios as 2.09 and 0.40 for acrylonitrile and allyl alcohol, respectively. (Author).

  11. Radiation initiated copolymerization of allyl alcohol with acrylonitrile

    Science.gov (United States)

    Şolpan, Dilek; Güven, Olgun

    1996-07-01

    Copolymerization of allyl alcohol (AA) with acrylonitrile (AN) initiated by γ-rays has been investigated to determine the respective reactivity ratios. Three different experimental techniques, namely Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR), Ultraviolet (UV/vis) and elemental analysis (EA) have been used for the determination of copolymer compositions. Fineman-Ross (FR), Kelen-Tüdös (KT), Non-Linear Least Square (NLLS) Analysis and Q-e methods have been applied to the three sets of experimental data. It has been concluded that data obtained from elemental analysis as applied to the Non-Linear Least Square approach gave the most reliable reactivity ratios as 2.09 and 0.40 for acrylonitrile and allyl alcohol, respectively.

  12. Good practices for the prevention of alcohol harmful use amongst the elderly in Europe, the VINTAGE project

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge Palacio-Vieira

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: There is a lack of information about initiatives aimed at preventing the harmful effects of alcohol amongst the elderly. OBJECTIVES: One of the objectives of the VINTAGE study was to collect the initiatives carried out in Europe and review the published grey literature about this topic. METHODS: Email-based survey addressed to researchers, professionals and policymakers, and internet search of grey literature. RESULTS: Three hundred nine contacts were finally made, and 21 of the 36 collected initiatives were considered as useful in preventing the harmful use of alcohol amongst the elderly. Out of the about 2900 references identified 96 were classified as relevant. CONCLUSIONS: Despite a growing interest, alcohol use in the elderly is not yet perceived as a major issue for prevention.

  13. Theories and models supporting prevention approaches to alcohol problems among youth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, E M; Amatetti, S; Funkhouser, J E; Johnson, S

    1988-01-01

    The Alcohol, Drug Abuse, and Mental Health Administration's Office for Substance Abuse Prevention (OSAP) was established to initiate programs to provide prevention and early intervention services for young people, especially high-risk youth. OSAP's starting point was the theories and models that provide the background body of knowledge. The models summarized here guide new prevention efforts and provide a framework for analyzing diverse experiences in the field. The goal has been to develop strategies based on theories and models of prevention that can reverse or prevent adolescent alcohol use. Among the psychosocial models, research in social learning theory is the theoretical basis for prevention efforts using the team approach among individuals, small groups, families, and communities. A prevention technique based on cognitive dissonance theory proposes verbal inoculations to establish or strengthen beliefs and attitudes, helping a young person to resist drinking, which may be in conflict with another, more desirable goal. In the developmental concept adolescence is a period of role confusion out of which the person's identity should emerge. Prevention efforts built on this view seek to help adolescents to form positive identities by achievement as students, athletes, and in community roles. Behavioral intention theory provides a framework for understanding the role of perceived social norms in directing behaviors. In the social development model, prevention programs should create positive peer groups and ensure that the social environment does not give mixed messages. Health behavior theory is the basis for prevention strategies directed toward a person's entire behavior instead of one aspect. The stages of the drug involvement model form the basis for prevention programs providing early intervention directed at the so-called gateway drugs.Among the communications models, the health promotion concept advocates a comprehensive approach in developing health

  14. The alcohol industry's way to discipline pleasure. Prevention campaigns aimed at Danish youth

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Demant, Jakob Johan; Houborg, Esben

    2011-01-01

    ) to analyze drug prevention campaigns in Sweden. After this a more detailed analysis of how the two campaigns articulate pleasure is done. Results – Both campaigns recognize recreational motives for consuming alcohol. In both campaigns pleasure is central to the regulation of alcohol consumption among young...... people. Both campaigns aim to associate alcohol consumption with a disciplined pleasure that does not involve intoxication. In this way alcohol policy becomes a politics of pleasure. Conclusion – Alcohol prevention that aims to moderate alcohol consumption among young people by associating alcohol......Aims – To analyze how two youth alcohol prevention campaigns funded by the Danish alcohol industry articulate the relationship between alcohol, intoxication and pleasure. Design – The two campaigns are first analyzed by applying an analytical model developed by Karlsson and Bergmark (2009...

  15. Secondary Prevention with College Drinkers: Evaluation of an Alcohol Skills Training Program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kivlahan, Daniel R.; And Others

    1990-01-01

    Evaluated prevention approaches for young adults (n=36) at risk for alcohol problems. Subjects were randomly assigned to cognitive-behavioral alcohol skills training, didactic alcohol information program, or assessment only. Found significant reduction over one year in alcohol consumption for total sample; directional findings consistently favored…

  16. New Technology Tools: Using Social Media for Alcohol, Drug Abuse, and Violence Prevention. Prevention Update

    Science.gov (United States)

    Higher Education Center for Alcohol, Drug Abuse, and Violence Prevention, 2011

    2011-01-01

    When it comes to using social media technology for alcohol, drug abuse, and violence prevention, Thomas Workman, at Baylor College of Medicine's John M. Eisenberg Center for Clinical Decisions and Communications Science, points out that social media is interactive. This means that a person is entering a conversation rather than a declaration, and…

  17. The control-of-consumption approach to alcohol abuse prevention

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ravn, Ib

    1987-01-01

    Key empirical studies of the postulates of the single-distribution theory and the associated control-of-consumption approach are reviewed. The review is organized in terms of the six links possible between the four variables of the "Ledermann string" (availability, average consumption, proportion...... of heavy consumers, and prevalence of damage) presented in Part I. It is concluded that, on the whole, the available evidence is too inconsistent to support the control-of-consumption approach and that a more comprehensive understanding of alcohol abuse and prevention is needed....

  18. The Duke Endowment Child Abuse Prevention Initiative: Durham Family Initiative Implementation Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daro, Deborah; Huang, Lee Ann; English, Brianna

    2009-01-01

    The Durham Family Initiative (DFI) is one of two community-based child abuse prevention efforts that comprise The Duke Endowment's Child Abuse Prevention Initiative. Beginning in 2002, the Endowment provided support to the Durham Family Initiative (DFI) in North Carolina and Strong Communities in South Carolina to develop a comprehensive approach…

  19. [Art, health and prevention: initial collaborations].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avila, Noemí; Orellana, Ana; Cano, Marta G; Antúnez, Noelia; Claver, Dolores

    2014-01-01

    This article presents a summary of the first 2 years of the collaboration between the Faculty of Fine Arts of the Universidad Complutense in Madrid and Madrid Health, an autonomous organism of Madrid Council. This collaboration has allowed the development of joint experiences and projects among distinct professionals with highly diverse profiles: health professionals (sexologists, psychiatrists, nurses, etc.), and teachers, researchers, artists and students in the Faculty of Fine Arts. As a result, these experiences could be the beginning of future collaborations between the arts, health and prevention. PMID:25156001

  20. 34 CFR 86.1 - What is the purpose of the Drug and Alcohol Abuse Prevention regulations?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 34 Education 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false What is the purpose of the Drug and Alcohol Abuse... ALCOHOL ABUSE PREVENTION General § 86.1 What is the purpose of the Drug and Alcohol Abuse Prevention regulations? The purpose of the Drug and Alcohol Abuse Prevention regulations is to implement section 22...

  1. Initial subjective reward: single-exposure conditioned place preference to alcohol in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grisel, Judith E; Beasley, John B; Bertram, Emma C; Decker, Brooke E; Duan, Chunyu A; Etuma, Mahder; Hand, Annie; Locklear, Mallory N; Whitmire, Matthew P

    2014-01-01

    Most adults consume alcohol with relative impunity, but about 10-20% of users persist (or progress) in their consumption, despite mounting and serious repercussions. Identifying at-risk individuals before neuroadaptative changes associated with chronic use become well ingrained is thus a key step in mitigating and preventing the end stage disease and its devastating impacts. Explaining liability has been impeded, in part, by the absence of animal models for assessing initial sensitivity to the drug's reinforcing properties, an important endophenotype in the trajectory toward excessive drinking. Here we assess the initial rewarding effects of the drug in a novel application of the conditioned place preference paradigm. In contrast to previous studies that have all employed repeated drug administration, we demonstrated a robust preference for a context paired with a single exposure to 1.5 g/kg EtOH in male and female subjects of three strains. This model validates an assay of initial sensitivity to the subjective rewarding effects of alcohol, a widely used drug with multifarious impacts on both brain and society, and provides a new tool for theory-driven endophenotypic pharmacogenetic approaches to understanding and treating addiction. PMID:25408633

  2. Initial subjective reward: Single-exposure conditioned place preference to alcohol in mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Judith E. Grisel

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Most adults consume alcohol with relative impunity, but about 10-20% of users persist (or progress in their consumption, despite mounting and serious repercussions. Identifying at-risk individuals before neuroadaptative changes associated with chronic use become well ingrained is thus a key step in mitigating and preventing the end stage disease and its devastating impacts. Explaining liability has been impeded, in part, by the absence of animal models for assessing initial sensitivity to the drug’s reinforcing properties, an important endophenotype in the trajectory toward excessive drinking. Here we assess the initial rewarding effects of the drug in a novel application of the conditioned place preference paradigm. In contrast to previous studies that have all employed repeated drug administration, we demonstrated a robust preference for a context paired with a single exposure to 1.5g/kg EtOH in male and female subjects of three strains. This model validates an assay of initial sensitivity to the subjective rewarding effects of alcohol, a widely used drug with multifarious impacts on both brain and society, and provides a new tool for theory-driven endophenotypic pharmacogenetic approaches to understanding and treating addiction.

  3. Development of a Student Engagement Approach to Alcohol Prevention: The Pragmatics Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buettner, Cynthia K.; Andrews, David W.; Glassman, Michael

    2009-01-01

    Significant involvement of students in the development and implementation of college alcohol prevention strategies is largely untested, despite recommendations by the National Institute of Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism and others. Objective: The purpose of the Pragmatics Project was to test a student engagement model for developing and implementing…

  4. White Matter Integrity Pre- and Post Marijuana and Alcohol Initiation in Adolescence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lindsay M. Squeglia

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Characterizing the effects of alcohol and marijuana use on adolescent brain development is important for understanding potential alterations in neurodevelopment. Several cross sectional studies have identified group differences in white matter integrity after initiation of heavy alcohol and marijuana use, however none have explored white matter trajectories in adolescents pre- and post initiation of use, particularly for marijuana users. This study followed 16 adolescents with minimal alcohol and marijuana use at ages 16–18 over three years. At follow-up, teens were 19–22 years old; half of the participants initiated heavy alcohol use and half initiated heavy alcohol and marijuana use. Repeated-measures ANOVA revealed 20 clusters in association and projection fibers tracts (p < 0.01 in which a group by time interaction was found. Most consistently, white matter integrity (i.e., fractional anisotropy decreased for those who initiated both heavy alcohol and marijuana use over the follow-up interval. No effect of time or change in white matter integrity was seen for those who initiated alcohol use only in the majority of clusters. In most regions, at the baseline time point, teens who would later initiate both alcohol and marijuana use demonstrated white matter integrity greater than or equal to teens that initiated alcohol use only. Findings suggest poorer tissue integrity associated with combined initiation of heavy alcohol and marijuana use in late adolescence. While pre-existing differences may also be related to likelihood of substance use, the present data suggest an effect on tissue integrity for these teens transitioning to combined alcohol and marijuana use in later adolescence.

  5. Cost-Effectiveness of Preventive Interventions to Reduce Alcohol Consumption in Denmark

    OpenAIRE

    Astrid Ledgaard Holm; Lennert Veerman; Linda Cobiac; Ola Ekholm; Finn Diderichsen

    2014-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Excessive alcohol consumption increases the risk of many diseases and injuries, and the Global Burden of Disease 2010 study estimated that 6% of the burden of disease in Denmark is due to alcohol consumption. Alcohol consumption thus places a considerable economic burden on society. METHODS: We analysed the cost-effectiveness of six interventions aimed at preventing alcohol abuse in the adult Danish population: 30% increased taxation, increased minimum legal drinking age, advert...

  6. The Duke Endowment Child Abuse Prevention Initiative: A Midpoint Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daro, Deborah; Huang, Lee Ann; English, Brianna

    2009-01-01

    The Duke Endowment launched its Child Abuse Prevention Initiative in 2002 by funding two program sites, the Durham Family Initiative in Durham, North Carolina, and Strong Communities in Greenville, South Carolina. Both sites aimed to reduce rates of child abuse, improve parenting practices and behaviors, strengthen community service systems, and…

  7. Interpersonal communication outcomes of a media literacy alcohol prevention curriculum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banerjee, Smita C; Greene, Kathryn; Magsamen-Conrad, Kate; Elek, Elvira; Hecht, Michael L

    2015-12-01

    Media literacy intervention efficacy literature has focused on media-relevant (e.g., knowledge and realism) and behavior-relevant outcomes (e.g., attitudes and behaviors), without much attention paid to interpersonal communication outcomes. This project examined interpersonal communication after participation in two versions (analysis plus analysis and analysis plus planning) of the Youth Message Development (YMD) intervention, a brief media literacy curriculum targeted at preventing high school student alcohol use. Participants attended a 75-mins media literacy YMD workshop and completed a delayed posttest questionnaire 3 to 4 months later. Overall, 68 % participants replied affirmatively to interpersonal communication about the YMD intervention. Communication about the workshop moderated the effects of the type of workshop (analysis plus analysis or analysis plus planning) on self-efficacy to counter-argue (but not critical thinking). Interpersonal communication moderated the effects of the YMD intervention on self-efficacy to counter-argue, thereby signaling the importance of including interpersonal communication behaviors in intervention evaluation.

  8. Communities Putting Prevention to Work: The Healthy Corner Store Initiative

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2013-07-18

    This podcast is an interview with Dr. Stephanie Jilcott Pitts, Associate Professor in the Department of Public Health at East Carolina University. Dr. Pitts answers questions about her study involving a healthy corner store initiative in North Carolina.  Created: 7/18/2013 by Preventing Chronic Disease (PCD), National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion (NCCDPHP).   Date Released: 7/18/2013.

  9. Milk osteopontin, a nutritional approach to prevent alcohol-induced liver injury

    OpenAIRE

    Ge, Xiaodong; Lu, Yongke; Leung, Tung-Ming; Sørensen, Esben S.; Nieto, Natalia

    2013-01-01

    Alcohol consumption is a leading cause of liver disease worldwide; thus, there is an urgent need to develop novel therapeutic interventions. Key events for the onset and progression of alcoholic liver disease result in part from the gut-to-liver interaction. Osteopontin is a cytokine present at high concentration in human milk, umbilical cord, and infants' plasma with beneficial potential. We hypothesized that dietary administration of milk osteopontin could prevent alcohol-induced liver inju...

  10. Natural Products for the Prevention and Treatment of Hangover and Alcohol Use Disorder

    OpenAIRE

    Fang Wang; Ya Li; Yu-Jie Zhang; Yue Zhou; Sha Li; Hua-Bin Li

    2016-01-01

    Alcoholic beverages such as beer, wine and spirits are widely consumed around the world. However, alcohol and its metabolite acetaldehyde are toxic and harmful to human beings. Chronic alcohol use disorder or occasional binge drinking can cause a wide range of health problems, such as hangover, liver damage and cancer. Some natural products such as traditional herbs, fruits, and vegetables might be potential dietary supplements or medicinal products for the prevention and treatment of the pro...

  11. Preventing Abuse of Drugs, Alcohol, and Tobacco by Adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Falco, Mathea

    From the mid-1960s until 1980, adolescent drug use rose sharply. Although use has declined somewhat since, adolescent cocaine use remains at peak levels, and crack presents a major threat. Treatment for compulsive drug or alcohol use is needed by 5 to 15 percent of the teenagers who experiment with drugs and alcohol. Drug abuse experts now believe…

  12. Effects of adverts from a drug and alcohol prevention campaign on willingness to engage in alcohol-related risky behaviors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Comello, Maria Leonora G; Slater, Michael D

    2011-11-01

    Behavioral willingness is conceptualized as a pathway to behavior that is non-deliberative, yet traditional measures require thoughtful deliberation to complete. This study explored non-deliberative measures of alcohol-related willingness to complement recent work on marijuana-related willingness. The study also examined whether adverts from a field-tested drug and alcohol prevention campaign may have operated by influencing alcohol-related willingness. Participants viewed campaign adverts or consumer adverts (control). Outcomes were reaction times to make speeded judgments about whether one would engage in risky alcohol-related behaviors. Results showed that campaign advertisements lowered willingness to play drinking games and (for males) to drive while intoxicated. PMID:21646292

  13. Prevention of alcohol use in early adolescents: A joint venture of school and parents

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koning, H.M.

    2011-01-01

    More than half of the Dutch adolescents start drinking before age 12 (Monshouwer et al., 2009). Early drinking is related to several developmental risks and to later alcohol and drug abuse (Behrendt et al., 2009). A Dutch alcohol prevention program (PAS) targets early adolescents and their parents i

  14. The role of the primary care provider in preventing and treating alcohol problems in adolescents

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Knight, [No Value

    2001-01-01

    Adolescents use alcohol more frequently and heavily than all other illicit drugs combined.(1) Given the myriad health, developmental, and social problems associated with alcohol use, it is not surprising that the American Medical Association's Guidelines for Adolescent Preventive Services recommends

  15. Evaluating Community Readiness to Implement Environmental and Policy-Based Alcohol Abuse Prevention Strategies in Wisconsin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paltzer, Jason; Black, Penny; Moberg, D. Paul

    2013-01-01

    Background: Matching evidence-based alcohol prevention strat- egies with a community's readiness to support those strategies is the basis for the Tri-Ethnic Community Readiness Model (CRM). The purpose of this evaluation was to assess the association of a community's readiness to address alcohol abuse in their community with the…

  16. Dropout Prevention Initiatives for Malaysian Indigenous Orang Asli Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nor, Sharifah Md; Roslan, Samsilah; Mohamed, Aminuddin; Hassan, Kamaruddin Hj. Abu; Ali, Mohamad Azhar Mat; Manaf, Jaimah Abdul

    2011-01-01

    This paper discusses dropout prevention initiatives by the Malaysian government for the disadvantaged indigenous Orang Asli people in the rural villages of Peninsular Malaysia. The roles of the Ministry of Education (MOE) as well as the Institutes of Teacher Education (ITEs) are highlighted pertaining to efforts at improving the quality of…

  17. Weaknesses in executive functioning predict the initiating of adolescents’ alcohol use

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Margot Peeters

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Recently, it has been suggested that impairments in executive functioning might be risk factors for the onset of alcohol use rather than a result of heavy alcohol use. In the present study, we examined whether two aspects of executive functioning, working memory and response inhibition, predicted the first alcoholic drink and first binge drinking episode in young adolescents using discrete survival analyses. Adolescents were selected from several Dutch secondary schools including both mainstream and special education (externalizing behavioral problems. Participants were 534 adolescents between 12 and 14 years at baseline. Executive functioning and alcohol use were assessed four times over a period of two years. Working memory uniquely predicted the onset of first drink (p = .01 and first binge drinking episode (p = .04 while response inhibition only uniquely predicted the initiating of the first drink (p = .01. These results suggest that the association of executive functioning and alcohol consumption found in former studies cannot simply be interpreted as an effect of alcohol consumption, as weaknesses in executive functioning, found in alcohol naïve adolescents, predict the initiating of (binge drinking. Though, prolonged and heavy alcohol use might further weaken already existing deficiencies.

  18. The use of acute and preventive medical services by a general population: relationship to alcohol consumption

    OpenAIRE

    Cryer, Colin; Jenkins, Linda M.; Cook, Adam; Ditchburn, James S.; Harris, Colin K.; Davis, Alison R.; Peters, Timothy J

    1999-01-01

    AIMS: To investigate the hypothesis that increasing alcohol consumption is accompanied by increasing use of acute, but decreasing use of preventative, medical services among the general population. DESIGN AND PARTICIPANTS: Health and life-style survey of 41,000 randomly-sampled adults in SE England who self-completed a validated questionnaire covering socio-demographics, alcohol and tobacco usage and use of acute (A&E department and general practitioner) and preventative (dental, optician, ma...

  19. Predictors of risky alcohol consumption in schoolchildren and their implications for preventing alcohol-related harm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Allen Tony

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background While alcohol-related health and social problems amongst youths are increasing internationally, both consumption and associated harms are particularly high in British youth. Youth drinking patterns, including bingeing, frequent drinking and drinking in public spaces, are associated with increased risks of acute (e.g. violence and long-term (e.g. alcohol-dependence health problems. Here we examine economic, behavioural and demographic factors that predict these risky drinking behaviours among 15–16 year old schoolchildren who consume alcohol. A cross-sectional survey was conducted among schoolchildren in North West England (n = 10,271 using an anonymous questionnaire delivered in school settings. Analysis utilised logistic regression to identify independent predictors of risky drinking behaviour. Results Of all respondents, 87.9% drank alcohol. Of drinkers, 38.0% usually binged when drinking, 24.4% were frequent drinkers and 49.8% drank in public spaces. Binge, frequent and public drinking were strongly related to expendable income and to individuals buying their own alcohol. Obtaining alcohol from friends, older siblings and adults outside shops were also predictors of risky drinking amongst drinkers. However, being bought alcohol by parents was associated with both lower bingeing and drinking in public places. Membership of youth groups/teams was in general protective despite some association with bingeing. Conclusion Although previous studies have examined predictors of risky drinking, our analyses of access to alcohol and youth income have highlighted eradicating underage alcohol sales and increased understanding of children's spending as key considerations in reducing risky alcohol use. Parental provision of alcohol to children in a family environment may also be important in establishing child-parent dialogues on alcohol and moderating youth consumption. However, this will require supporting parents to ensure they

  20. Natural Products for the Prevention and Treatment of Hangover and Alcohol Use Disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Fang; Li, Ya; Zhang, Yu-Jie; Zhou, Yue; Li, Sha; Li, Hua-Bin

    2016-01-07

    Alcoholic beverages such as beer, wine and spirits are widely consumed around the world. However, alcohol and its metabolite acetaldehyde are toxic and harmful to human beings. Chronic alcohol use disorder or occasional binge drinking can cause a wide range of health problems, such as hangover, liver damage and cancer. Some natural products such as traditional herbs, fruits, and vegetables might be potential dietary supplements or medicinal products for the prevention and treatment of the problems caused by excessive alcohol consumption. The aim of this review is to provide an overview of effective natural products for the prevention and treatment of hangover and alcohol use disorder, and special emphasis is paid to the possible functional component(s) and related mechanism(s) of action.

  1. Natural Products for the Prevention and Treatment of Hangover and Alcohol Use Disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Fang; Li, Ya; Zhang, Yu-Jie; Zhou, Yue; Li, Sha; Li, Hua-Bin

    2016-01-01

    Alcoholic beverages such as beer, wine and spirits are widely consumed around the world. However, alcohol and its metabolite acetaldehyde are toxic and harmful to human beings. Chronic alcohol use disorder or occasional binge drinking can cause a wide range of health problems, such as hangover, liver damage and cancer. Some natural products such as traditional herbs, fruits, and vegetables might be potential dietary supplements or medicinal products for the prevention and treatment of the problems caused by excessive alcohol consumption. The aim of this review is to provide an overview of effective natural products for the prevention and treatment of hangover and alcohol use disorder, and special emphasis is paid to the possible functional component(s) and related mechanism(s) of action. PMID:26751438

  2. Natural Products for the Prevention and Treatment of Hangover and Alcohol Use Disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fang Wang

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Alcoholic beverages such as beer, wine and spirits are widely consumed around the world. However, alcohol and its metabolite acetaldehyde are toxic and harmful to human beings. Chronic alcohol use disorder or occasional binge drinking can cause a wide range of health problems, such as hangover, liver damage and cancer. Some natural products such as traditional herbs, fruits, and vegetables might be potential dietary supplements or medicinal products for the prevention and treatment of the problems caused by excessive alcohol consumption. The aim of this review is to provide an overview of effective natural products for the prevention and treatment of hangover and alcohol use disorder, and special emphasis is paid to the possible functional component(s and related mechanism(s of action.

  3. Why is adolescence a key period of alcohol initiation and who is prone to develop long-term problem use?: A review of current available data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Géraldine Petit

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Early adolescence is a key developmental period for the initiation of alcohol use, and consumption among adolescents is characterized by drinking in high quantities. At the same time, adolescence is characterized by rapid biological transformations including dramatic changes in the brain, particularly in the prefrontal cortex and the mesocorticolimbic dopamine system. Methods: This article begins with an overview of the unique neural and behavioural characteristics of adolescent development that predispose these individuals to seek rewards and take risks such as initiation of drinking and high levels of alcohol intake. The authors then outline important factors associated with an increased risk for developing alcohol problems in later adolescence and young adulthood. Thereafter they address causality and the complex interplay of risk factors that lead to the development of alcohol use problems in late adolescence and young adults. Conclusions: A few recommendations for the prevention of underage drinking are presented.

  4. The Quality and Accuracy of Mobile Apps to Prevent Driving After Drinking Alcohol

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stoyanov, Stoyan R; Gandabhai, Shailen; Baldwin, Alexander

    2016-01-01

    Background Driving after the consumption of alcohol represents a significant problem globally. Individual prevention countermeasures such as personalized mobile apps aimed at preventing such behavior are widespread, but there is little research on their accuracy and evidence base. There has been no known assessment investigating the quality of such apps. Objective This study aimed to determine the quality and accuracy of apps for drink driving prevention by conducting a review and evaluation of relevant mobile apps. Methods A systematic app search was conducted following PRISMA guidelines. App quality was assessed using the Mobile App Rating Scale (MARS). Apps providing blood alcohol calculators (hereafter “calculators”) were reviewed against current alcohol advice for accuracy. Results A total of 58 apps (30 iOS and 28 Android) met inclusion criteria and were included in the final analysis. Drink driving prevention apps had significantly lower engagement and overall quality scores than alcohol management apps. Most calculators provided conservative blood alcohol content (BAC) time until sober calculations. None of the apps had been evaluated to determine their efficacy in changing either drinking or driving behaviors. Conclusions This novel study demonstrates that most drink driving prevention apps are not engaging and lack accuracy. They could be improved by increasing engagement features, such as gamification. Further research should examine the context and motivations for using apps to prevent driving after drinking in at-risk populations. Development of drink driving prevention apps should incorporate evidence-based information and guidance, lacking in current apps. PMID:27502956

  5. An Intersectoral Intervention to Prevent Early Alcohol Use in Cuban Adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fabelo-Roche, Justo R; Iglesias-Moré, Serguei; Gómez-García, Ana M; Hernández-Domínguez, Heydi; García-Enríquez, Iovanny

    2016-07-01

    To encourage development of negative attitudes toward alcohol use and thus prevent early onset of alcohol use, an intersectoral intervention was conducted from 2014 to 2015 among Cuban adolescents in 14 schools in Havana. The intervention included 312 students (189 girls and 123 boys) aged 14 to 15 years in 10th grade of high school or vocational school. Workshops were conducted using participatory techniques and group dynamics. Qualitative methods were applied, including narrative, desiderative and projective techniques. Indicators included attitudes, motivation, interests and perception of risk. Following the intervention, 82.7% (258/312) of participants reported healthy cultural and recreational interests and 61.9% (193/312) reinforced negative attitudes toward drinking. Such interventions can help prevent early onset of alcohol use in school settings. Given the positive results, the intervention is slated to be reproduced in other Cuban provinces. KEYWORDS Adolescents, prevention, alcoholism, attitudes, Cuba. PMID:27510934

  6. Use of computer-assisted instruction in the prevention of alcohol abuse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meier, S T; Sampson, J P

    1989-01-01

    Recent critiques of and research with traditional alcohol prevention programs have revealed serious problems. Prevention programs typically increase knowledge and appropriate attitudes about alcohol while having little effect on drinking behavior. In this article several concepts are introduced in support of a technology which has the potential to revitalize alcohol education efforts. First, Bandura's self-efficacy theory offers a direction for re-conceptualizing the design of prevention programs as well as the measurement of their effects. Second, computer-assisted instruction (CAI) programs may provide a means for capturing attention, effectively educating about alcohol, and supplementing traditional approaches. One current CAI program is described in detail. Implications for research and practice and obstacles to effective CAI use are also discussed. PMID:2677296

  7. Graves' hyperthyroidism and moderate alcohol consumption: evidence for disease prevention

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Carle, A.; Bülow Pedersen, I.; Knudsen, N.;

    2013-01-01

    . CONCLUSIONS: Moderate alcohol consumption is associated with a considerable reduction in the risk of Graves' disease with hyperthyroidism - irrespective of age and sex. Autoimmune thyroid disease seems to be much more dependent on environmental factors than hitherto anticipated.......BACKGROUND: We recently demonstrated that moderate alcohol consumption is associated with a considerable reduction in the risk of autoimmune hypothyroidism, similar to findings in other autoimmune diseases such as systemic lupus erythematosus and rheumatoid arthritis. We aimed to study a possible...... with Graves' hyperthyroidism. For each patient, we recruited four age-sex-region-matched controls with normal thyroid function (n=1,088). MEASUREMENTS: Participants gave detailed information on current and previous alcohol intake as well as other factors to be used for analyses. The association between...

  8. Accident Prevention by Eye Blinking Sensor and Alcohol Detector

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deepa K B, Chaitra M

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available This system provides a unique method to curb drunken and drowsy people. This system has an alcohol sensor and eye blinking sensor embedded in the vehicles. Whenever the driver start vehicle, the sensors senses the eye blink and measures the content of alcohol in his breathe and automatically sends the signal to buzzer, gsm and lcd. In this system the outputs of sensors are given to the microcontroller for comparison. If the value reaches to fixed limit then automatically gsm will send the sms, buzzer will produces sound and lcd will display the message.

  9. Onset of Alcohol Use Disorders and Comorbid Psychiatric Disorders in a Military Cohort: Are there Critical Periods for Prevention of Alcohol Use Disorders?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fink, David S; Gallaway, M Shayne; Tamburrino, Marijo B; Liberzon, Israel; Chan, Philip; Cohen, Gregory H; Sampson, Laura; Shirley, Edwin; Goto, Toyomi; D'Arcangelo, Nicole; Fine, Thomas; Reed, Philip L; Calabrese, Joseph R; Galea, Sandro

    2016-04-01

    Alcohol use disorders (AUD) are commonly comorbid with anxiety and mood disorders; however, a strategy for AUD prevention remains unclear in the presence of three competing etiological models that each recommends different high-risk groups. Therefore, the investigation of the three hypotheses in a characteristically unique cohort is critical to identifying pervasive characteristics of AUD that can inform a universal prevention strategy. The current study evaluated the temporality and onset of comorbid AUD and psychiatric disorders in a representative sample of 528 Ohio Army National Guard soldiers using structured clinical interviews from 2009 to 2012. We examined temporality both statistically and graphically to identify patterns that could inform prevention. General estimating equations with dichotomous predictor variables were used to estimate odds ratios between comorbid psychiatric disorders and AUDs. An annualized rate of 13.5 % persons per year was diagnosed with any AUD between 2010 and 2012. About an equal proportion of participants with comorbid psychiatric disorders and AUD initiated the psychiatric disorder prior to the AUD and half initiated the psychiatric disorder after the AUD. Regardless of onset, however, the majority (80 %) AUD initiated during a short interval between the ages of 16 and 23. Focused primary prevention during this narrow age range (16-23 years) may have the greatest potential to reduce population mental health burden of AUD, irrespective of the sequencing of comorbid psychiatric disorder. PMID:26687202

  10. Is There Evidence To Show That Fetal Alcohol Syndrome Can Be Prevented?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murphy-Brennan, Majella G.; Oei, Tian P. S.

    1999-01-01

    Reviews the effectiveness of prevention programs in reducing Fetal Alcohol Syndrome (FAS). Results reveal that prevention programs, to date, have been successful in raising awareness of FAS; however this awareness has not been translated into behavioral changes in high-risk drinkers as consumption levels in this group have increased. (Author/MKA)

  11. Community Perspectives on Communication Strategies for Alcohol Abuse Prevention in Rural Central Kenya.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muturi, Nancy

    2016-01-01

    The current study explores community perspectives on alcohol abuse prevention strategies in rural Kenya. Data from focus group discussions with members of community organizations and in-depth interviews with a snowball sample of key informants revealed that rural communities view national alcohol abuse prevention interventions as ineffective and messages as unpersuasive in changing this high-risk behavior. The use of ethnic languages, stronger fear appeals, and visual aids were recommended for alcohol prevention messages aimed at communities with low literacy. Community members favored narratives and entertainment-education strategies, which are more engaging, and print media for their educational value. Health activism, although common, was viewed as less effective in motivating individuals to change drinking behavior but more effective in advocacy campaigns to pressure the government to enforce alcohol regulations. This study suggests further empirical research to inform evidence-based prevention campaigns and to understand how to communicate about alcohol-related health risks within communities that embrace alcohol consumption as a cultural norm. PMID:26192335

  12. The FIGO initiative for the prevention of unsafe abortion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaw, Dorothy

    2010-07-01

    Unsafe abortion is a recognized public health problem that contributes significantly to maternal mortality. At least 13% of maternal mortality is caused by unsafe abortion, mostly in poor and marginalized women. The International Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics (FIGO) launched an initiative in 2007 to prevent unsafe abortion and its consequences, building on its work on other major causes of maternal mortality. A Working Group was identified with collaborators from many international organizations and terms of reference provided direction from the FIGO Executive Board as to possible evidence-based interventions. A total of 54 member associations of FIGO, representing almost half its member societies, requested participation in the initiative, with 43 subsequently producing action plans that are country specific and involve the national government and multiple collaborators. Obstetrician/gynecologists have demonstrated the importance of the initiative by an unprecedented level of engagement in efforts to reduce maternal mortality and morbidity in country and by sharing experiences regionally.

  13. Initiation of esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC) in a murine 4-nitroquinoline-1-oxide and alcohol carcinogenesis model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osei-Sarfo, Kwame; Scognamiglio, Theresa; Gudas, Lorraine J.

    2015-01-01

    Esophageal squamous cell carcinomas (ESCCs) are very common, aggressive tumors, and are often associated with alcohol and tobacco abuse. Because ESCCs exhibit high recurrence rates and are diagnosed at late stages, identification of prognostic and drug targets for prevention and treatment is critical. We used the 4-nitroquinoline-1-oxide (4-NQO) murine model of oral carcinogenesis and the Meadows-Cook model of alcohol abuse to assess changes in the expression of molecular markers during the initial stages of ESCC. Combining these two models, which mimic chronic alcohol and tobacco abuse in humans, we detected increased cellular proliferation (EGFR and Ki67 expression), increased canonical Wnt signaling and downstream elements (β-catenin, FoxM1, and S100a4 protein levels), changes in cellular adhesive properties (reduced E-cadherin in the basal layer of the esophageal epithelium), and increased levels of phosphorylated ERK1/2 and p38. Additionally, we found that treatment with ethanol alone increased the numbers of epithelial cells expressing solute carrier family 2 (facilitated glucose transporter, member 1) (SLC2A1) and carbonic anhydrase IX (CAIX), and increased the phosphorylation of p38. Thus, we identified both 4-NQO- and ethanol-specific targets in the initial stages of esophageal carcinogenesis, which should lead to the development of potential markers and therapeutic targets for human ESCC. PMID:25714027

  14. Risk factors associated with problematic alcohol use in adolescence: The preventive role of mindfulness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Manuel Lerma-Cabrera

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Problematic alcohol consumption in youth is known to be related to social, health and financial problems, generating huge costs for the public health system. A number of studies describe early onset of drinking as being associated with an increased risk for developing alcohol dependence. However, this relationship is mediated by contextual (e.g. family history of alcoholism and individual (e.g. problems of impulse control risk factors. Therefore, prevention programs aim to reduce both problematic drinking and detriments of existing consumption. One of the most developed psychological approaches in recent years is mindfulness-based interventions (MBIs, also termed a part of third wave cognitive behavioral therapies. Recently, MBIs were applied in the treatment of substance dependence. Nevertheless, there are only a few studies which intend to analyze the role of mindfulness in the field of prevention, examining its effects on associated factors of risky alcohol use and related problems of this consumption in youth.

  15. Prevention of alcohol use in early adolescents: A joint venture of school and parents

    OpenAIRE

    Koning, H.M.

    2011-01-01

    More than half of the Dutch adolescents start drinking before age 12 (Monshouwer et al., 2009). Early drinking is related to several developmental risks and to later alcohol and drug abuse (Behrendt et al., 2009). A Dutch alcohol prevention program (PAS) targets early adolescents and their parents in the first three years of high school, until adolescents turn 15. In a cluster randomized trial, a total of 19 high schools, including nearly 3000 adolescents and their parents were followed for a...

  16. Enforcing regulations on alcohol sales and use as universal environmental prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villalbí, Joan R; Bartroli, Montserrat; Bosque-Prous, Marina; Guitart, Anna M; Serra-Batiste, Enric; Casas, Conrad; Brugal, M Teresa

    2015-01-01

    The informal social control over alcohol consumption that was traditional in Southern European countries has weakened. At the same time there is an increase in binge drinking and drunkenness among young people in Spain. To mitigate this problem, regulations on alcohol and driving and restrictions on the sale and consumption of alcohol have been adopted. This paper documents the current regulations in the city of Barcelona and describes efforts to enforce them and their outcomes. Data from the municipal information systems on infringements reported for the period 2008-13 are provided. There is an increasing pressure of municipal services to enforce the rules in two areas: a) alcohol sales at night (retailers); and b) consumption in the public space (citizens). An increase in the controls of drink-driving has also taken place, and the proportion above legal limits has decreased. The largest relative increase occurred in the control of retailers. In Barcelona interventions are made to limit the supply and consumption of alcohol at low cost and during the night, and of driving under the influence of alcohol. There have been no documented episodes of massive drinking in public spaces (known as 'botellón') in the city. These actions, which complement other preventive efforts based on health education, can change the social perceptions of alcohol by minors in a direction less favorable to consumption, promoting environmental prevention. PMID:26706811

  17. Alcohol Control in Cuba: Preventing Countervailing Cultural and Mass Media Influences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    González-Menéndez, Ricardo Á

    2016-07-01

    Harmful use of alcohol-the prime gateway drug to other addictions-is also a problem in Cuba, even though the National Program for Prevention of Harmful Use of Alcohol includes the most effective measures used in analogous programs around the world. As a participant in the program's committee and empirical observer of its accomplishments and unaccomplished goals, I draw attention to the community's attitude of tolerance toward intoxication manifested by the lack of proportional consequences, and I insist on the need to broaden the community's understanding of the risks of non-social drinking, which in Latin America is practically limited to alcoholism and its complications. This undervalues the damage wreaked by unpredictable and dangerous behavior under the influence, as well as the suffering of codependents and other "passive drinkers," and the adverse effects of even social drinking. KEYWORDS Alcohol abuse/prevention and control, alcohol consumption, alcohol drinking/culture, alcoholism, drinking behavior, behavior and behavior mechanisms, social determinants of health, social reinforcement, mass media, communication, Cuba. PMID:27510935

  18. Enforcing regulations on alcohol sales and use as universal environmental prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villalbí, Joan R; Bartroli, Montserrat; Bosque-Prous, Marina; Guitart, Anna M; Serra-Batiste, Enric; Casas, Conrad; Brugal, M Teresa

    2015-12-15

    The informal social control over alcohol consumption that was traditional in Southern European countries has weakened. At the same time there is an increase in binge drinking and drunkenness among young people in Spain. To mitigate this problem, regulations on alcohol and driving and restrictions on the sale and consumption of alcohol have been adopted. This paper documents the current regulations in the city of Barcelona and describes efforts to enforce them and their outcomes. Data from the municipal information systems on infringements reported for the period 2008-13 are provided. There is an increasing pressure of municipal services to enforce the rules in two areas: a) alcohol sales at night (retailers); and b) consumption in the public space (citizens). An increase in the controls of drink-driving has also taken place, and the proportion above legal limits has decreased. The largest relative increase occurred in the control of retailers. In Barcelona interventions are made to limit the supply and consumption of alcohol at low cost and during the night, and of driving under the influence of alcohol. There have been no documented episodes of massive drinking in public spaces (known as 'botellón') in the city. These actions, which complement other preventive efforts based on health education, can change the social perceptions of alcohol by minors in a direction less favorable to consumption, promoting environmental prevention.

  19. Effectiveness of ignition interlocks for preventing alcohol-impaired driving and alcohol-related crashes: a Community Guide systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elder, Randy W; Voas, Robert; Beirness, Doug; Shults, Ruth A; Sleet, David A; Nichols, James L; Compton, Richard

    2011-03-01

    A systematic review of the literature to assess the effectiveness of ignition interlocks for reducing alcohol-impaired driving and alcohol-related crashes was conducted for the Guide to Community Preventive Services (Community Guide). Because one of the primary research issues of interest--the degree to which the installation of interlocks in offenders' vehicles reduces alcohol-impaired driving in comparison to alternative sanctions (primarily license suspension)--was addressed by a 2004 systematic review conducted for the Cochrane Collaboration, the current review incorporates that previous work and extends it to include more recent literature and crash outcomes. The body of evidence evaluated includes the 11 studies from the prior review, plus four more recent studies published through December 2007. The installation of ignition interlocks was associated consistently with large reductions in re-arrest rates for alcohol-impaired driving within both the earlier and later bodies of evidence. Following removal of interlocks, re-arrest rates reverted to levels similar to those for comparison groups. The limited available evidence from three studies that evaluated crash rates suggests that alcohol-related crashes decrease while interlocks are installed in vehicles. According to Community Guide rules of evidence, these findings provide strong evidence that interlocks, while they are in use in offenders' vehicles, are effective in reducing re-arrest rates. However, the potential for interlock programs to reduce alcohol-related crashes is currently limited by the small proportion of offenders who participate in the programs and the lack of a persistent beneficial effect once the interlock is removed. Suggestions for facilitating more widespread and sustained use of ignition interlocks are provided. PMID:21335270

  20. An investigation of teachers’ perceptions of and attitudes towards alcohol and cannabis use among second level pupils and school based prevention

    OpenAIRE

    McCormack, Aoife

    2013-01-01

    The use of alcohol and drugs among adolescents is of increasing public health and social concern. The normative relationship between young Irish people and harmful substances must be challenged (United Nations International Children's Emergency Fund (UNICEF) Ireland, Changing the Future, 2011). Schools provide the perfect platform for the implementation of health education-prevention initiatives and must be facilitated with effective prevention programs (Fletcher et al., 2010). Irish school-b...

  1. Merging public relations with health communication in the context of university alcohol prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brummette, John

    2015-01-01

    The scope of this study is to determine whether social norms marketing should be further evaluated according to its ability to serve as a public relations tactic for universities. Based on a framework of social norms theory and strategic issues management, this study uses a web-based survey with university parents (N = 173) to identify relationships among exaggerated parental misperceptions of student binge drinking, parental awareness of alcohol prevention programs, and parental perceptions of organizational legitimacy. Findings from this study are used to make the argument that health communication and public relations should be viewed as interrelated concepts in the context of university alcohol prevention. PMID:25751319

  2. The role of the health services in the prevention of alcohol-related facial injury.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    McHugh, E E

    2009-10-01

    This paper outlines the preventive health strategic measures that are currently in place and it endeavours to consider how improvements can be made to our national preventive strategy with the goal of reducing alcohol-related facial injuries. It is based on a review of the literature sourced through PubMed, Ovid Medline and the Cochrane database. The main findings are that increased funding, legislative amendment and media involvement are key to improving the work of the health services in their struggle to limit the ever increasing alcohol-related incidents that are experienced by society today.

  3. Alcohol Abuse Prevention Among High-Risk Youth: Computer-Based Intervention

    OpenAIRE

    Schinke, Steven P.; Schwinn, Traci M.; Ozanian, Alfred J.

    2005-01-01

    This study examined the feasibility of a CD-ROM intervention to prevent alcohol abuse among high-risk youths. Youths from 41 community-based agencies in greater New York City participated in a randomized trial of a skills-based interactive CD-ROM. Outcome data were collected on 489 early adolescents in these agencies before and after a randomized subset of youths interacted with a 10-session alcohol abuse prevention program on CD-ROM. Compared to control participants, youths in the interventi...

  4. Merging public relations with health communication in the context of university alcohol prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brummette, John

    2015-01-01

    The scope of this study is to determine whether social norms marketing should be further evaluated according to its ability to serve as a public relations tactic for universities. Based on a framework of social norms theory and strategic issues management, this study uses a web-based survey with university parents (N = 173) to identify relationships among exaggerated parental misperceptions of student binge drinking, parental awareness of alcohol prevention programs, and parental perceptions of organizational legitimacy. Findings from this study are used to make the argument that health communication and public relations should be viewed as interrelated concepts in the context of university alcohol prevention.

  5. Can pricing deter adolescents and young adults from starting to drink: An analysis of the effect of alcohol taxation on drinking initiation among Thai adolescents and young adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sornpaisarn, Bundit; Shield, Kevin D; Cohen, Joanna E; Schwartz, Robert; Rehm, Jürgen

    2015-12-01

    The objective of this study is to assess the relationship between alcohol taxation changes and drinking initiation among adolescents and young adults (collectively "youth") in Thailand (a middle-income country). Using a survey panel, this study undertook an age-period-cohort analysis using four large-scale national cross-sectional surveys of alcohol consumption performed in Thailand in 2001, 2004, 2007 and 2011 (n=87,176 Thai youth, 15-24 years of age) to test the hypothesis that changes in the inflation-adjusted alcohol taxation rates are associated with drinking initiation. Regression analyses were used to examine the association between inflation-adjusted taxation increases and the prevalence of lifetime drinkers. After adjusting for potential confounders, clear cohort and age effects were observed. Furthermore, a 10% increase of the inflation-adjusted taxation rate of the total alcohol market was significantly associated with a 4.3% reduction in the prevalence of lifetime drinking among Thai youth. In conclusion, tax rate changes in Thailand from 2001 to 2011 were associated with drinking initiation among youth. Accordingly, increases in taxation may prevent drinking initiation among youth in countries with a high prevalence of abstainers and may reduce the harms caused by alcohol.

  6. A community prevention trial to reduce alcohol-involved accidental injury and death: overview.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holder, H D; Saltz, R F; Grube, J W; Voas, R B; Gruenewald, P J; Treno, A J

    1997-06-01

    The 5-year "Preventing Alcohol Trauma: A Community Trial" project in the United States was designed to reduce alcohol-involved injuries and death in three experimental communities. The project consisted of five mutually reinforcing components: (1) Community Mobilization Component to develop community organization and support, (2) Responsible Beverage Service Component to establish standards for servers and owner/managers of on-premise alcohol outlets to reduce their risk of having intoxicated and/or underage customers in bars and restaurants, (3) Drinking and Driving Component to increase local DWI enforcement efficiency and to increase the actual and perceived risk that drinking drivers would be detected, (4) Underage Drinking Component to reduce retail availability of alcohol to minors, and (5) Alcohol Access Component to use local zoning powers and other municipal controls of outlet number and density to reduce the availability of alcohol. This paper gives an overview of the rationale and causal model, the research design and outline of each intervention component for the entire prevention trial. PMID:9231442

  7. Alcohol

    Science.gov (United States)

    If you are like many Americans, you drink alcohol at least occasionally. For many people, moderate drinking ... risky. Heavy drinking can lead to alcoholism and alcohol abuse, as well as injuries, liver disease, heart ...

  8. A General Causal Model to Guide Alcohol, Tobacco, and Illicit Drug Prevention: Assessing the Research Evidence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Birckmayer, Johanna D.; Holder, Harold D.; Yacoubian, George S., Jr.; Friend, Karen B.

    2004-01-01

    The problems associated with the use of alcohol, tobacco, and other drugs (ATOD) extract a significant health, social, and economic toll on American society. While the field of substance abuse prevention has made great strides during the past decade, two major challenges remain. First, the field has been disorganized and fragmented with respect to…

  9. The role of parents in preventing adolescent alcohol and cannabis use

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vermeulen-Smit, Evelien

    2014-01-01

    This thesis aimed to investigate the role of parents in preventing adolescent alcohol and cannabis use. First, we investigated the association of specific parental drinking patterns with 12-15 year olds' drinking. Only two out of six parental drinking patterns, i.e. having a heavy drinking father o

  10. Preventing Alcohol-Related Problems on Campus: Acquaintance Rape. A Guide for Program Coordinators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finn, Peter

    This is a guide for college and university program coordinators and planning committees on how to establish, expand, or improve a program on the prevention of acquaintance rape. Information is given for Presidents, Vice Presidents, and Deans on the relationship between acquaintance rape and alcohol, reasons for top administrators to become…

  11. Non-alcohol fatty liver disease in Asia: Prevention andplanning

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2015-01-01

    AIM To review all of epidemiological aspects of nonalcoholicfatty liver disease (NAFLD) and also preventthis disease is examined.METHODS: We conducted a systematic reviewaccording to the PRISMA guidelines. All searches forwriting this review is based on the papers was foundin PubMed (MEDLINE), Cochrane database and Scopusin August and September 2014 for topic of NAFLD inAsia and the way of prevention of this disease, with nolanguage limitations. All relevant articles were accessedin full text and all relevant materials was evaluated andreviewed.RESULTS: NAFLD is the most common liver disorder inworldwide, with an estimated with 20%-30% prevalencein Western countries and 2%-4% worldwide. Theprevalence of NAFLD in Asia, depending on location(urban vs rural), gender, ethnicity, and age is variablebetween 15%-20%. According to the many studies inthe world, the relationship between NAFLD, obesity,diabetes mellitus, and metabolic syndrome (MS) isquiet obvious. Prevalence of NAFLD in Asian countriesseems to be lower than the Western countries but, ithas increased recently due to the rise of obesity, type 2diabetes and MS in this region. One of the main reasonsfor the increase in obesity, diabetes and MS in Asia isa lifestyle change and industrialization. Today, NAFLDis recognized as a major chronic liver disease in Asia.Therefore, prevention of this disease in Asian countriesis very important and the best strategy for preventionand control of NAFLD is lifestyle modifications. Lifestylemodification programs are typically designed to changebad eating habits and increase physical activity that isassociated with clinically significant improvements inobesity, type 2 diabetes and MS.CONCLUSION: Prevention of NAFLD is very important in Asian countries particularly in Arab countries becauseof high prevalence of obesity, diabetes and MS.

  12. Importance of social support in preventing alcohol-exposed pregnancies with American Indian communities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanson, Jessica D; Jensen, Jamie

    2015-02-01

    Recent research concludes that prevention of alcohol-exposed pregnancies (AEP) must occur with preconceptional women, either by reducing alcohol consumption in women at-risk or planning pregnancy or preventing pregnancy in women drinking at risky levels. One AEP prevention program currently underway with non-pregnant American Indian women is the Oglala Sioux Tribe (OST) Changing High-risk alcohOl use and Increasing Contraception Effectiveness Study (CHOICES) Program. The OST CHOICES Program shows promise in lowering the AEP risk in American Indian women, and it is a natural next step to evaluate the potential impact that social support can have on further encouraging behavioral changes. Focus groups with community members and key informant interviews with health and social service professionals were completed. To uncover and interpret interrelated themes, a conventional content analysis methodology was used. Eight focus groups were held with 58 American Indian participants, including adult women of child-bearing age, elder women, and adult men. Key informant interviews were completed with 25 health and social service professionals. Based on input from the focus groups and key informant interviews, several subthemes regarding social support in the prevention of AEP stood out, including the role of family (especially elders), the impact community can have, and the important function of culture. In this study, we highlighted the important influence that social support can have on AEP prevention, especially among the American Indian population, where social support has cultural and historical significance. PMID:24974087

  13. Boards of trustees must assume responsibility for making alcohol prevention on campus a top priority.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeJong, William

    2016-01-01

    Few colleges have made the prevention of alcohol-related injuries and deaths an institutional priority, and even fewer have implemented prevention strategies with a solid evidentiary base. We look to presidents to provide leadership on this issue, but those who do are atypical. Boards of trustees should step in by asserting that student wellness be a primary focus in the institution's strategic plan, with specific, measurable goals; holding the president accountable for progress in reducing high-risk drinking and its consequences; and mandating a line item in the annual budget, with adequate staffing and revenues to put evidence-based practices in place. Boards will be more likely to respond when led to focus on the cost implications of the campus alcohol problem; the link between high-risk drinking and mission-critical institutional objectives such as academic performance, student engagement, and retention; and the institution's potential liability if evidence-based prevention strategies are not in place. PMID:26158381

  14. The impact of alcohol on HIV prevention and treatment for South Africans in primary healthcare

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michelle Schneider

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Background: Antiretroviral treatment (ART has substantially reduced morbidity and mortality for HIV patients. In South Africa, with the largest ART programme globally, attention is needed not only on the further expansion of ART coverage, but also on factors which undermine its effectiveness, such as alcohol use. Objective: Given the decentralised approach of nurse-initiated and -sustained ART in the South African primary health sector, it is important to document key aspects of alcohol use to be conveyed to HIV-positive individuals and those at risk for HIV. Method: This study comprised a narrative review of relevant literature. Results: Alcohol acts through both behavioural and physiological pathways to impact on the acquisition, further transmission and then progression of HIV disease. Besides links to risky sex, alcohol undermines the immune system, raising susceptibility to contracting and then countering HIV and other infections. There are important drug interactions between alcohol and ART, or therapies for opportunistic infections and other co-morbidities. Moreover, alcohol undermines adherence to the medication which is essential for effective ART. Conclusion: Primary healthcare clinic attendees need evidence-based information on the detrimental effects of alcohol consumption on HIV infection, which ensue throughout the clinical course of HIV. This spans the role of alcohol consumption as a risk factor for HIV infection, HIV replication in infected individuals, a person’s response to HIV infection and HIV treatment. Primary healthcare workers, especially nurses and HIV counsellors, require training in order to screen for and provide appropriate interventions for HIV-positive patients, those on treatment and treatment-naïve patients, who will benefit from reduced alcohol consumption or the cessation thereof.

  15. Co-Occurring Physical Fighting and Suicide Attempts among U.S. High School Students: Examining Patterns of Early Alcohol Use Initiation and Current Binge Drinking

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monica H Swahn

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: A growing body of empirical research documents a significant co-occurrence of suicide attempts and interpersonal violence among youth. However, the potential role of early alcohol use initiation and current heavy alcohol use as correlates of this comorbidity has not been examined in a nationally representative sample of high school students.Methods: We based our analyses on cross-sectional data from the 2009 Youth Risk Behavior Survey, which includes a nationally representative sample (n=16,410 of high school students in grades 9 through 12 in the United States. Multinomial logistic regression analyses were conducted to test the associations between measures of alcohol use (early alcohol use initiation and heavy drinking and comorbid suicidal and violent behavior while controlling for potential confounders.Results: Among high school students, 3.6% reported comorbid physical fighting and suicide attempt in the past year. Early alcohol use (prior to age 13 and heavy drinking (5 or more drinks in a row were strongly associated with comorbid reports of physical fighting and suicide attempts (Adj. odds ratio [OR]=3.12; 95% confidence interval [CI]:2.49-3.89 and (Adj. OR=3.45; 95%CI:2.63-4.52.Conclusion: These findings underscore the importance of both early alcohol use initiation and heavy drinking as statistically significant correlates of comorbid fighting and suicide attempts among youth. While future research is needed to determine the temporal ordering between problem drinking and violent or suicidal behaviors, existing prevention programs may benefit from including components aimed at reducing and delaying alcohol use. [West J Emerg Med. 2013;14(4:341–346.

  16. Secondary Effects of an Alcohol Prevention Program Targeting Students and/or Parents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koning, Ina M; Vollebergh, Wilma A M

    2016-08-01

    The secondary effects of an alcohol prevention program (PAS) on onset of weekly smoking and monthly cannabis use are examined among >3000 Dutch early adolescents (M age=12.64) randomized over four conditions: 1) parent intervention (PI), 2) student intervention (SI), 3) combined intervention (CI) and 4) control condition (CC). Rules about alcohol, alcohol use, and adolescents' self-control were investigated as possible mediators. PI had a marginal aversive effect, slightly increasing the risk of beginning to smoke at T1, and increased the likelihood of beginning to use cannabis use at T1 and T2. SI delayed the onset of monthly cannabis use at T3. CI increased the risk to use cannabis at T3. No mediational processes were found. In conclusion, though this study show mixed results, negative side effects of the PI were found, particularly at earlier ages. Moreover, these results indicate the need for multi-target interventions. PMID:27296663

  17. Milk osteopontin, a nutritional approach to prevent alcohol-induced liver injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ge, Xiaodong; Lu, Yongke; Leung, Tung-Ming; Sørensen, Esben S; Nieto, Natalia

    2013-05-15

    Alcohol consumption is a leading cause of liver disease worldwide; thus, there is an urgent need to develop novel therapeutic interventions. Key events for the onset and progression of alcoholic liver disease result in part from the gut-to-liver interaction. Osteopontin is a cytokine present at high concentration in human milk, umbilical cord, and infants' plasma with beneficial potential. We hypothesized that dietary administration of milk osteopontin could prevent alcohol-induced liver injury perhaps by maintaining gut integrity and averting hepatic inflammation and steatosis. Wild-type mice were fed either the control or the ethanol Lieber-DeCarli diets alone or in combination with milk osteopontin for 3 wk, and parameters of gut and liver damage were measured. Milk osteopontin protected the stomach and the gut by increasing gland height, crypt cell plus enterocyte proliferation, and mucin content in addition to lowering macrophages, plasmacytes, lymphocytes, and neutrophils in the mucosa and submucosa in alcohol-fed mice. Milk osteopontin targeted the gut-liver axis, preserving the expression of tight-junction proteins in alcohol-fed mice thus maintaining intestinal integrity and permeability. There was protection from liver injury since transaminases, the activity scores, triglyceride levels, neutrophil infiltration, 3-nitrotyrosine residues, lipid peroxidation end products, translocation of gram-negative bacteria, lipopolysaccharide levels, and tumor necrosis factor-α were lower in cotreated than in ethanol-fed mice. Furthermore, milk osteopontin diminished ethanol-mediated liver injury in OPN knockout mice. Milk osteopontin could be a simple effective nutritional therapeutic strategy to prevent alcohol hepatotoxicity due, among others, to gut protective, anti-inflammatory, and anti-steatotic actions. PMID:23518682

  18. Cost-effectiveness of preventive interventions to reduce alcohol consumption in Denmark.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Astrid Ledgaard Holm

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Excessive alcohol consumption increases the risk of many diseases and injuries, and the Global Burden of Disease 2010 study estimated that 6% of the burden of disease in Denmark is due to alcohol consumption. Alcohol consumption thus places a considerable economic burden on society. METHODS: We analysed the cost-effectiveness of six interventions aimed at preventing alcohol abuse in the adult Danish population: 30% increased taxation, increased minimum legal drinking age, advertisement bans, limited hours of retail sales, and brief and longer individual interventions. Potential health effects were evaluated as changes in incidence, prevalence and mortality of alcohol-related diseases and injuries. Net costs were calculated as the sum of intervention costs and cost offsets related to treatment of alcohol-related outcomes, based on health care costs from Danish national registers. Cost-effectiveness was evaluated by calculating incremental cost-effectiveness ratios (ICERs for each intervention. We also created an intervention pathway to determine the optimal sequence of interventions and their combined effects. RESULTS: Three of the analysed interventions (advertising bans, limited hours of retail sales and taxation were cost-saving, and the remaining three interventions were all cost-effective. Net costs varied from € -17 million per year for advertisement ban to € 8 million for longer individual intervention. Effectiveness varied from 115 disability-adjusted life years (DALY per year for minimum legal drinking age to 2,900 DALY for advertisement ban. The total annual effect if all interventions were implemented would be 7,300 DALY, with a net cost of € -30 million. CONCLUSION: Our results show that interventions targeting the whole population were more effective than individual-focused interventions. A ban on alcohol advertising, limited hours of retail sale and increased taxation had the highest probability of being cost

  19. Indicated Prevention of Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorders in South Africa: Effectiveness of Case Management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marlene M. de Vries

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available In the Western Cape Province of South Africa (ZA a subculture of binge drinking produces the highest global documented prevalence of fetal alcohol spectrum disorders (FASD. FASD prevention research activities in ZA use the Comprehensive Prevention approach from the United States Institute of Medicine. Case management (CM was delivered as a method of indicated prevention to empower heavy drinking pregnant women to achieve cessation or a reduction in drinking. CM activities incorporated life management, Motivational Interviewing (MI techniques and the Community Reinforcement Approach (CRA. Data were collected at baseline, 6, 12 and 18 months. Mean drinking decreases 6 months into CM; but overall alcohol consumption rose significantly over time to levels higher than baseline at 12 and 18 months. Alcohol consumption drops significantly from before pregnancy to the second and third trimesters. AUDIT scores indicate that problematic drinking decreases significantly even after the vulnerable fetus/baby was born. CM significantly increases client happiness, which correlates with reduced weekend drinking. CM was successful for women with high-risk drinking behaviour, and was effective in helping women stop drinking, or drink less, while pregnant, reducing the risk of FASD.

  20. 'Why don’t they just do what we tell them?’ Different alcohol prevention discourses in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Elmeland, Karen; Kolind, Torsten

    2012-01-01

    In recent decades great focus has been placed on the excessive consumption of alcohol by young Danes. In this connection, Danish parents have been called upon by the national health authorities to function as prevention workers with a view to reducing their children’s alcohol intake. Parallel...... the prevention field: a public alcohol prevention discourse and an everyday discourse, respectively. The analysis is based on alcohol legislation, public health programmes and national alcohol recommendations, as well as on a qualitative study of a special Danish phenomenon: parties for young people organized...... to these efforts, and also responding to the increase in drinking by young people, efforts to reduce the harm caused by the drinking practices of adolescents have grown bottom-up among parents. In this article we identify and compare these two seemingly contrasting discourses, both of which influence...

  1. Sexual Risk Behaviors, Alcohol Abuse, and Intimate Partner Violence among Sex Workers in Mongolia: Implications for HIV Prevention Intervention Development

    OpenAIRE

    Witte, Susan S.; Batsukh, Altantsetseg; Chang, Mingway

    2010-01-01

    This study examines HIV/STI risk behaviors, alcohol abuse, intimate partner violence, and psychological distress among 48 female sex workers in Mongolia to inform the design of a gender-specific, HIV/STI prevention intervention for this population. Quantitative findings demonstrate that over 85% of women reported drinking alcohol at harmful levels; 70% reported using condoms inconsistently with any sexual partner; 83% reported using alcohol before engaging in sex with paying partners, and 38%...

  2. Immortal Ring-Opening Polymerization of rac-Lactide Using Polymeric Alcohol as Initiator to Prepare Graft Copolymer

    OpenAIRE

    Na Liu; Bo Liu; Changguang Yao; Dongmei Cui

    2016-01-01

    In the presence of a small molecular protic initiator, immortal ring-opening polymerization (ROP) of lactide (LA) is a highly efficient strategy to synthesize polylactide in a controllable manner, while using polymeric alcohol as an initiator has been less investigated. A series of polymeric alcohols (PS–OH) composed of styrene and 4.3%–18% hydroxyl functional styrene (diethyl(hydroxy(4-vinylphenyl)methyl)phosphonate, St–OH) were synthesized through reversible addition-fragmentation transfer ...

  3. Short-Term Evaluation of a Web-Based College Alcohol Misuse and Harm Prevention Course (College Alc)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paschal, Mallie J.; Bersamin, Melina; Fearnow-Kenney, Melodie; Wyrick, David; Currey, David

    2006-01-01

    This study examined the short-term effects of a web-based alcohol misuse and harm prevention course (College Alc) among incoming freshmen at a California public university. Analysis results indicated that at the end of the fall semester, students randomly assigned to College Alc (n = 173) had a higher level of alcohol-related knowledge and less…

  4. R-rated Movie Viewing, Growth in Sensation Seeking and Alcohol Initiation: Reciprocal and Moderation Effects

    OpenAIRE

    Stoolmiller, Mike; Gerrard, Meg; Sargent, James D.; Worth, Keilah A.; Gibbons, Frederick X.

    2010-01-01

    The current study employed parallel process and discrete time hazard regressions to examine the interplay among exposure to R-rated movies, sensation seeking, and initiation of alcohol use in a national U.S. sample (N=6255) of adolescents, ages 10–14, who were followed over four waves spanning 2 years. There was a short-term reciprocal relation between watching R-rated movies and sensation seeking, but over the 2-year observation period, exposure to R-rated movies was associated with increase...

  5. Initiating Moderate to Heavy Alcohol Use Predicts Changes in Neuropsychological Functioning for Adolescent Girls and Boys

    OpenAIRE

    Squeglia, L M; Spadoni, A D; Infante, M. A.; Myers, M. G.; Tapert, S. F.

    2009-01-01

    This study prospectively examines the influence of alcohol on neuropsychological functioning in a sample of boys and girls who were characterized prior to initiating drinking (N=76, ages 12–14). Adolescents who transitioned into heavy (n= 25; 11 female, 14 male) or moderate (n=11; 2 female, 9 male) drinking were compared to demographically-matched controls who remained non-users throughout the approximately 3-year follow-up period (n=40; 16 female, 24 male). For girls, more drinking days in t...

  6. An Empirical Case Study of a Child Sexual Abuse Prevention Initiative in Georgia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schober, Daniel J.; Fawcett, Stephen B.; Thigpen, Sally; Curtis, Anna; Wright, Renee

    2012-01-01

    Objective: This empirical case study describes Prevent Child Abuse Georgia's effort to prevent child sexual abuse (CSA) by educating communities throughout the state on supporting preventive behaviour. The initiative consisted of three major components: (1) dissemination of CSA prevention messages and materials; (2) a statewide helpline that…

  7. 77 FR 29351 - Disease, Disability, and Injury Prevention and Control; Special Interest Projects (SIPs): Initial...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-17

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Disease, Disability, and Injury Prevention and Control; Special Interest Projects (SIPs): Initial Review The meeting announced below concerns...

  8. 76 FR 32213 - Disease, Disability, and Injury Prevention and Control Special Emphasis Panel (SEP); Initial Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-03

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Disease, Disability, and Injury Prevention and Control Special Emphasis Panel (SEP); Initial Review The meeting announced below concerns...

  9. 76 FR 45575 - Disease, Disability, and Injury Prevention and Control Special Emphasis Panel (SEP): Initial Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-29

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office ] DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Disease, Disability, and Injury Prevention and Control Special Emphasis Panel (SEP): Initial Review The meeting announced below concerns...

  10. 78 FR 17412 - Disease, Disability, and Injury Prevention and Control Special Emphasis Panel (SEP): Initial Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-21

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Disease, Disability, and Injury Prevention and Control Special Emphasis Panel (SEP): Initial Review The meeting announced below concerns...

  11. 78 FR 62636 - Disease, Disability, and Injury Prevention and Control Special Emphasis Panel (SEP): Initial Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-10-22

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Disease, Disability, and Injury Prevention and Control Special Emphasis Panel (SEP): Initial Review The meeting announced below concerns...

  12. 76 FR 39879 - Disease, Disability, and Injury Prevention and Control Special Emphasis Panel (SEP): Initial Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-07

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Disease, Disability, and Injury Prevention and Control Special Emphasis Panel (SEP): Initial Review The meeting announced below concerns...

  13. 76 FR 28438 - Disease, Disability, and Injury Prevention and Control Special Emphasis Panel (SEP): Initial Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-17

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Disease, Disability, and Injury Prevention and Control Special Emphasis Panel (SEP): Initial Review The meeting announced below concerns...

  14. 77 FR 25180 - Disease, Disability, and Injury Prevention and Control Special Emphasis Panel (SEP): Initial Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-27

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Disease, Disability, and Injury Prevention and Control Special Emphasis Panel (SEP): Initial Review The meeting announced below concerns...

  15. 78 FR 13677 - Disease, Disability, and Injury Prevention and Control Special Emphasis Panels (SEP): Initial Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-28

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Disease, Disability, and Injury Prevention and Control Special Emphasis Panels (SEP): Initial Review The meeting announced below concerns...

  16. 77 FR 14806 - Disease, Disability, and Injury Prevention and Control Special Emphasis Panel (SEP): Initial Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-13

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Disease, Disability, and Injury Prevention and Control Special Emphasis Panel (SEP): Initial Review The meeting announced below concerns...

  17. 76 FR 18766 - Disease, Disability, and Injury Prevention and Control Special Emphasis Panel (SEP): Initial Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-05

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Disease, Disability, and Injury Prevention and Control Special Emphasis Panel (SEP): Initial Review The meeting announced below concerns...

  18. 76 FR 78263 - Disease, Disability, and Injury Prevention and Control Special Emphasis Panel (SEP): Initial Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-16

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Disease, Disability, and Injury Prevention and Control Special Emphasis Panel (SEP): Initial Review The meeting announced below concerns...

  19. 78 FR 60875 - Disease, Disability, and Injury Prevention and Control Special Emphasis Panel (SEP): Initial Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-10-02

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Disease, Disability, and Injury Prevention and Control Special Emphasis Panel (SEP): Initial Review The meeting announced below concerns...

  20. 78 FR 75923 - Disease, Disability, and Injury Prevention and Control Special Emphasis Panel (SEP): Initial Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-13

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Disease, Disability, and Injury Prevention and Control Special Emphasis Panel (SEP): Initial Review The meeting announced below concerns...

  1. 78 FR 60877 - Disease, Disability, and Injury Prevention and Control Special Emphasis Panel (SEP): Initial Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-10-02

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office ] DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Disease, Disability, and Injury Prevention and Control Special Emphasis Panel (SEP): Initial Review The meeting announced below concerns...

  2. 78 FR 9926 - Disease, Disability, and Injury Prevention and Control Special Emphasis Panel (SEP): Initial Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-12

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Disease, Disability, and Injury Prevention and Control Special Emphasis Panel (SEP): Initial Review The meeting announced below concerns...

  3. 76 FR 67458 - Disease, Disability, and Injury Prevention and Control Special Emphasis Panel (SEP): Initial Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-11-01

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Disease, Disability, and Injury Prevention and Control Special Emphasis Panel (SEP): Initial Review The meeting announced below concerns...

  4. 77 FR 73662 - Disease, Disability, and Injury Prevention and Control Special Emphasis Panel (SEP): Initial Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-12-11

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office ] DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Disease, Disability, and Injury Prevention and Control Special Emphasis Panel (SEP): Initial Review The meeting announced below concerns...

  5. 76 FR 59133 - Disease, Disability, and Injury Prevention and Control Special Emphasis Panel (SEP): Initial Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-23

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Disease, Disability, and Injury Prevention and Control Special Emphasis Panel (SEP): Initial Review The meeting announced below concerns...

  6. 77 FR 4047 - Disease, Disability, and Injury Prevention and Control Special Emphasis Panel (SEP): Initial Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-26

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Disease, Disability, and Injury Prevention and Control Special Emphasis Panel (SEP): Initial Review The meeting announced below concerns...

  7. 77 FR 12844 - Disease, Disability, and Injury Prevention and Control Special Emphasis Panel (SEP): Initial Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-02

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Disease, Disability, and Injury Prevention and Control Special Emphasis Panel (SEP): Initial Review The meeting announced below concerns...

  8. 78 FR 15015 - Disease, Disability, and Injury Prevention and Control Special Emphasis Panels (SEP): Initial Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-08

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Disease, Disability, and Injury Prevention and Control Special Emphasis Panels (SEP): Initial Review The meeting announced below concerns...

  9. 77 FR 61756 - Disease, Disability, and Injury Prevention and Control Special Emphasis Panel (SEP): Initial Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-11

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office ] DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Disease, Disability, and Injury Prevention and Control Special Emphasis Panel (SEP): Initial Review The meeting announced below concerns...

  10. 77 FR 30015 - Disease, Disability, and Injury Prevention and Control Special Emphasis Panel (SEP): Initial Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-21

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Disease, Disability, and Injury Prevention and Control Special Emphasis Panel (SEP): Initial Review The meeting announced below concerns...

  11. Preventive effects of Flos Perariae (Gehua water extract and its active ingredient puerarin in rodent alcoholism models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wang Yuqiang

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Radix Puerariae is used in Chinese medicine to treat alcohol addiction and intoxication. The present study investigates the effects of Flos puerariae lobatae water extract (FPE and its active ingredient puerarin on alcoholism using rodent models. Methods Alcoholic animals were given FPE or puerarin by oral intubation prior or after alcohol treatment. The loss of righting reflex (LORR assay was used to evaluate sedative/hypnotic effects. Changes of gama-aminobutyric acid type A receptor (GABAAR subunits induced by alcohol treatment in hippocampus were measured with western blot. In alcoholic mice, body weight gain was monitored throughout the experiments. Alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH levels in liver were measured. Results FPE and puerarin pretreatment significantly prolonged the time of LORR induced by diazepam in acute alcoholic rat. Puerarin increased expression of gama-aminobutyric acid type A receptor alpha1 subunit and decreased expression of alpha4 subunit. In chronic alcoholic mice, puerarin pretreatment significantly increased body weight and liver ADH activity in a dose-dependent manner. Puerarin pretreatment, but not post-treatment, can reverse the changes of gama-aminobutyric acid type A receptor subunit expression and increase ADH activity in alcoholism models. Conclusion The present study demonstrates that FPE and its active ingredient puerarin have preventive effects on alcoholism related disorders.

  12. 78 FR 57391 - Disease, Disability, and Injury Prevention and Control Special Emphasis Panel (SEP): Initial Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-18

    ... Control Special Emphasis Panel (SEP): Initial Review The meeting announced below concerns Capacity...), the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) announces the aforementioned SEP: Times and...

  13. 77 FR 5026 - Disease, Disability, and Injury Prevention and Control Special Emphasis Panel (SEP): Initial Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-01

    ... Control Special Emphasis Panel (SEP): Initial Review The meeting announced below concerns Occupational..., Disability, and Injury Prevention and Control SEP: Occupational Safety and Health Education and...

  14. Alcohol

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hendriks, H.F.; Tol, A. van

    2005-01-01

    Alcohol consumption affects overall mortality. Light to moderate alcohol consumption reduces the risk of coronary heart disease; epidemiological, physiological and genetic data show a causal relationship. Light to moderate drinking is also associated with a reduced risk of other vascular diseases an

  15. Alcohol

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Date reviewed: January 2014 previous 1 • 2 For Teens For Kids For Parents MORE ON THIS TOPIC Word! Alcoholism What You Need to Know About Drugs What You Need to Know About Drugs: Depressants What Kids Say About: Drinking Alcohol Dealing With Peer Pressure Contact Us Print Resources Send to a friend ...

  16. The neuroeconomics of alcohol demand: an initial investigation of the neural correlates of alcohol cost-benefit decision making in heavy drinking men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacKillop, James; Amlung, Michael T; Acker, John; Gray, Joshua C; Brown, Courtney L; Murphy, James G; Ray, Lara A; Sweet, Lawrence H

    2014-07-01

    Neuroeconomics integrates concepts and methods from psychology, economics, and cognitive neuroscience to understand how the brain makes decisions. In economics, demand refers to the relationship between a commodity's consumption and its cost, and, in behavioral studies, high alcohol demand has been consistently associated with greater alcohol misuse. Relatively little is known about how the brain processes demand decision making, and the current study is an initial investigation of the neural correlates of alcohol demand among heavy drinkers. Using an event-related functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) paradigm, participants (N=24) selected how much they would drink under varying levels of price. These choices determined access to alcohol during a subsequent bar laboratory self-administration period. During decisions to drink in general, greater activity was present in multiple distinct subunits of the prefrontal and parietal cortices. In contrast, during decisions to drink that were demonstrably affected by the cost of alcohol, significantly greater activation was evident in frontostriatal regions, suggesting an active interplay between cognitive deliberation and subjective reward value. These choices were also characterized by significant deactivation in default mode network regions, suggesting suppression resulting from greater cognitive load. Across choice types, the anterior insula was notably recruited in diverse roles, further implicating the importance of interoceptive processing in decision-making behavior. These findings reveal the neural signatures subserving alcohol cost-benefit decision making, providing a foundation for future clinical applications of this paradigm and extending this approach to understanding the neural correlates of demand for other addictive commodities.

  17. A social marketing approach to involving Afghans in community-level alcohol problem prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cherry, L; Redmond, S P

    1994-06-01

    A program for preventing alcohol-related problems at the community level using environmentally-focused, public health approaches sought to involve a new segment of the community. That segment consisted of recently-immigrated Afghans from a traditionally abstinent culture. Social marketing research was employed to elicit value-based benefits to be used in promoting the product (involvement with environmental change efforts) to the target audience. While the channels of distribution for promotional messages were easily identified, special attention was required relative to effective spokespersons. Much was also learned about the immigration experience of Afghans in a San Francisco Bay Area community that has significance for other fields. PMID:24258928

  18. 78 FR 19489 - Disease, Disability, and Injury Prevention and Control Special Emphasis Panel (SEP): Initial Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-01

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Disease, Disability, and Injury Prevention and...--Based Prevention Activities SIP13-066, Panel A, initial review. In accordance with Section 10(a)(2) of the Federal Advisory Committee Act (Pub. L. 92-463), the Centers for Disease Control and...

  19. 78 FR 36785 - Disease, Disability, and Injury Prevention and Control Special Emphasis Panel (SEP): Initial Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-19

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Disease, Disability, and Injury Prevention and... Disease Control and Prevention Public Health Preparedness and Response Research to Aid Recovery from Hurricane Sandy, Request for Application (RFA) TP13-001, initial review. Correction: The notice...

  20. 78 FR 35035 - Disease, Disability, and Injury Prevention and Control Special Emphasis Panel (SEP): Initial review

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-11

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Disease, Disability, and Injury Prevention and... Disease Control and Prevention Public Health Preparedness and Response Research to Aid Recovery from Hurricane Sandy, Request for Application (RFA) TP13-001, initial review. In accordance with Section...

  1. 78 FR 17411 - Disease, Disability, and Injury Prevention and Control Special Emphasis Panel (SEP): Initial Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-21

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Disease, Disability, and Injury Prevention and... Evaluation of Malaria Control and Elimination Activities, FOA GH13-005, initial review. In accordance with... and Prevention (CDC) announces the aforementioned meeting: Time and Date: 11:00 a.m.-3:00 p.m., May...

  2. A Research Strategy Case Study of Alcohol and Drug Prevention by Non-Governmental Organizations in Sweden 2003-2009

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Larsson Madelene

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Alcohol and drug prevention is high on the public health agenda in many countries. An increasing trend is the call for evidence-based practice. In Sweden in 2002 an innovative project portfolio including an integrated research and competence-building strategy for non-governmental organisations (NGOs was designed by the National Board of Health and Welfare (NBHW. This research strategy case study is based on this initiative. Methods The embedded case study includes 135 projects in 69 organisations and 14 in-depth process or effect studies. The data in the case study has been compiled using multiple methods - administrative data; interviews and questionnaires to project leaders; focus group discussions and seminars; direct and participatory observations, interviews, and documentation of implementation; consultations with the NBHW and the NGOs; and a literature review. Annual reports have been submitted each year and three bi-national conferences Reflections on preventions have been held. Results A broad range of organisations have been included in the NBHW project portfolio. A minority of the project were run by Alcohol or drug organisations, while a majority has children or adolescents as target groups. In order to develop a trustful partnership between practitioners, national agencies and researchers a series of measures were developed and implemented: meeting with project leaders, project dialogues and consultations, competence strengthening, support to documentation, in-depth studies and national conferences. A common element was that the projects were program-driven and not research-driven interventions. The role of researchers-as-technical advisors was suitable for the fostering of a trustful partnership for research and development. The independence of the NGOs was regarded as important for the momentum in the project implementation. The research strategy also includes elements of participatory research. Conclusions This

  3. Preventing sales of alcohol to minors: results from a community trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grube, J W

    1997-06-01

    This paper reports an evaluation of a community-based approach to prevent underage sales of alcohol. The interventions focused on (a) enforcement of underage sales laws, (b) responsible beverage service (RBS) training and (c) media advocacy. The interventions were implemented in three experimental communities located in California and South Carolina. Purchase survey data were obtained before and after the interventions in each experimental community and in three matched comparison communities. Logistic regression analyses of the purchase survey data for the individual community pairs and for the combined communities showed that sales to apparent minors were significantly reduced in the experimental sites. The findings indicate that these environmental interventions are promising prevention tools for communities that seek to reduce underage drinking. PMID:9231448

  4. Prevention of alcohol and drug misuse in adolescents: An overview of systematic reviews

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emmers Elke

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND - Systematic reviews have evaluated a wide variety of programmes aiming to prevent, reduce or delay substance use in adolescents. This paper presents an overview of recent systematic reviews, summarising the evidence on the effectiveness of prevention strategies which target adolescents misusing alcohol and/or drugs. METHODS - We performed a comprehensive search in major electronic databases, consulted websites and checked reference lists of relevant articles. Studies that met our inclusion criteria were critically appraised using the AMSTAR instrument. The findings from the included systematic reviews were synthesised using a vote counting procedure. RESULTS - Twenty-one systematic reviews were identified. Ten of these were rated as of high quality. There was little overlap between reviews in terms of the target group, intervention, setting and outcome measures. The components or mechanisms of the prevention programmes were poorly described. Ten reviews evaluated school-based prevention. The effects of these prevention programmes are promising, while effects of community-based, family-based and multifaceted programmes were less convincing. CONCLUSION - Based on the current evidence, there is a small but consistent positive effect of school-based prevention programmes, but it is less clear what the “active ingredient” is. For example, which group should one target, in which setting and in which circumstances? A set of standardised process and outcome measures would allow us to better compare and statistically pool the results of original studies and reviews. This overview of reviews, like similar other overviews, should encourage researchers to increase uniformity and consistency between studies. This would improve the comparability of evidence, which is needed to formulate valid recommendations for practice

  5. Canadian Initiatives to Prevent Hypertension by Reducing Dietary Sodium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert Strang

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Hypertension is the leading risk for premature death in the world. High dietary sodium is an important contributor to increased blood pressure and is strongly associated with other important diseases (e.g., gastric cancer, calcium containing kidney stones, osteoporosis, asthma and obesity. The average dietary sodium intake in Canada is approximately 3400 mg/day. It is estimated that 30% of hypertension, more than 10% of cardiovascular events and 1.4 billion dollars/year in health care expenses are caused by this high level of intake in Canada. Since 2006, Canada has had a focused and evolving effort to reduce dietary sodium based on actions from Non Governmental Organizations (NGO, and Federal and Provincial/Territorial Government actions. NGOs initiated Canadian sodium reduction programs by developing a policy statement outlining the health issue and calling for governmental, NGO and industry action, developing and disseminating an extensive health care professional education program including resources for patient education, developing a public awareness campaign through extensive media releases and publications in the lay press. The Federal Government responded by striking a Intersectoral Sodium Work Group to develop recommendations on how to implement Canada’s dietary reference intake values for dietary sodium and by developing timelines and targets for foods to be reduced in sodium, assessing key research gaps with funding for targeted dietary sodium based research, developing plans for public education and for conducting evaluation of the program to reduce dietary sodium. While food regulation is a Federal Government responsibility Provincial and Territorial governments indicated reducing dietary sodium needed to be a priority. Federal and Provincial Ministers of Health have endorsed a target to reduce the average consumption of sodium to 2300 mg/day by 2016 and the Deputy Ministers of Health have tasked a joint committee to review the

  6. Understanding Race and Gender Differences in Delinquent Acts and Alcohol and Marijuana Use: A Developmental Analysis of Initiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, James Herbert; Van Dorn, Richard A.; Ayers, Charles D.; Bright, Charlotte L.; Abbott, Robert D.; Hawkins, J. David

    2007-01-01

    Guided by social development constructs, this article investigates race and gender differences in the initiation of various types of delinquent behavior and alcohol and marijuana use among African American and Caucasian adolescents in grades 7 through 12. In addition, this study examined the potential direct or indirect effects of parental…

  7. Personalised normative feedback for preventing alcohol misuse in university students: Solomon three-group randomised controlled trial.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria T Moreira

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Young people tend to over-estimate peer group drinking levels. Personalised normative feedback (PNF aims to correct this misperception by providing information about personal drinking levels and patterns compared with norms in similar aged peer groups. PNF is intended to raise motivation for behaviour change and has been highlighted for alcohol misuse prevention by the British Government Behavioural Insight Team. The objective of the trial was to assess the effectiveness of PNF with college students for the prevention of alcohol misuse. METHODOLOGY: Solomon three-group randomised controlled trial. 1751 students, from 22 British Universities, allocated to a PNF group, a normal control group, or a delayed measurement control group to allow assessment of any measurement effects. PNF was provided by email. Participants completed online questionnaires at baseline, 6- and 12-months (only 12-months for the delayed measurement controls. Drinking behaviour measures were (i alcohol disorders; (ii frequency; (iii typical quantity, (iv weekly consumption; (v alcohol-related problems; (vi perceived drinking norms; and (vii positive alcohol expectancies. Analyses focused on high-risk drinkers, as well as all students, because of research evidence for the prevention paradox in student drinkers. PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Follow-up rates were low, with only 50% and 40% responding at 6- and 12-months, respectively, though comparable to similar European studies. We found no evidence for any systematic attrition bias. Overall, statistical analyses with the high risk sub-sample, and for all students, showed no significant effects of the intervention, at either time-point, in a completed case analysis and a multiple imputation analysis. CONCLUSIONS: We found no evidence for the effectiveness of PNF for the prevention of alcohol misuse and alcohol-related problems in a UK student population. REGISTRATION: Controlled-Trials.com ISRCTN30784467.

  8. 77 FR 291 - Disease, Disability, and Injury Prevention and Control Special Emphasis Panel (SEP): Initial Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-04

    ... Positive Persons, Funding Opportunity Announcement (FOA), PS12-001, initial review. In accordance with... HIV Prevention with Positive Persons, FOA PS12-001.'' Contact Person for More Information:...

  9. 78 FR 23768 - Disease, Disability, and Injury Prevention and Control Special Emphasis Panel (SEP): Initial Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-22

    ... Control Special Emphasis Panel (SEP): Initial Review The meeting announced below concerns Developing... Prevention (CDC) announces the aforementioned SEP: Time and Date: 1:00 p.m.-4:00 p.m., June 18, 2013...

  10. 78 FR 28221 - Disease, Disability, and Injury Prevention and Control Special Emphasis Panel (SEP): Initial Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-14

    ... Control Special Emphasis Panel (SEP): Initial Review The meeting announced below concerns Youth Violence... Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) announces the aforementioned SEP: Time and Date: 12:30 p.m.-5:00...

  11. Effectiveness of a Web-Based Alcohol-Misuse and Harm-Prevention Course among High- and Low-Risk Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bersamin, Melina; Paschall, Mallie J.; Fearnow-Kenney, Melodie; Wyrick, David

    2007-01-01

    Objective: In the current study, the authors assessed whether a new online alcohol-misuse prevention course (College Alc) is more effective at reducing alcohol use and related consequences among drinkers and nondrinkers. Participants: The authors compared incoming college freshmen who reported any past 30-day alcohol use before the beginning of…

  12. Differential Impact of a Dutch Alcohol Prevention Program Targeting Adolescents and Parents Separately and Simultaneously: Low Self-Control and Lenient Parenting at Baseline Predict Effectiveness

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koning, I.M.; Verdurmen, J.E.E.; Engels, R.C.M.E.; Eijnden, R.J.J.M. van den; Vollebergh, W.A.M.

    2012-01-01

    To test whether baseline levels of the factors accountable for the impact of the Prevention of Alcohol use in Students (PAS) intervention (self-control, perceived rules about alcohol and parental attitudes about alcohol), moderate the effect of the intervention. A cluster randomized trial including

  13. Cytochrome P450 2E1 inhibition prevents hepatic carcinogenesis induced by diethylnitrosamine in alcohol-fed rats

    OpenAIRE

    Ye, Qinyuan; Lian, Fuzhi; Chavez, Pollyanna R. G.; Chung, Jayong; Ling, Wenhua; Qin, Hua; Seitz, Helmut K.; Wang, Xiang-Dong

    2012-01-01

    Chronic alcohol ingestion increases hepatic cytochrome P450 2E1 (CYP2E1), which is associated with hepatocarcinogenesis. We investigated whether treatment with chlormethiazole (CMZ), a CYP2E1 inhibitor, protects against alcohol-associated hepatic carcinogenesis in rats. Rats were fed either an ethanol liquid diet or a non-ethanol liquid diet, with or without CMZ for one and ten months. A single intraperitoneal injection of diethylnitrosamine (DEN, 20 mg/kg) was given to initiate hepatic carci...

  14. 77 FR 31358 - Disease, Disability, and Injury Prevention and Control Special Interest Projects (SIPs): Initial...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-25

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Disease, Disability, and Injury Prevention and Control Special Interest Projects (SIPs): Initial Review The meeting announced below concerns Research...

  15. 76 FR 28437 - Disease, Disability, and Injury Prevention and Control Special Interest Project (SIP): Initial...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-17

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office ] DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Disease, Disability, and Injury Prevention and Control Special Interest Project (SIP): Initial Review The meeting announced below concerns ``Case...

  16. 77 FR 31018 - Disease, Disability, and Injury Prevention and Control Special Emphasis Panel (SEP): Initial Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-24

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Disease, Disability, and Injury Prevention and Control Special Emphasis Panel (SEP): Initial Review The meeting announced below concerns Member...

  17. 77 FR 28393 - Disease, Disability, and Injury Prevention and Control Special Emphasis Panel (SEP): Initial Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-14

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office ] DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Disease, Disability, and Injury Prevention and Control Special Emphasis Panel (SEP): Initial Review The meeting announced below concerns Research...

  18. 78 FR 17410 - Disease, Disability, and Injury Prevention and Control Special Emphasis Panels (SEP): Initial review

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-21

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Disease, Disability, and Injury Prevention and Control Special Emphasis Panels (SEP): Initial review The meeting announced below concerns Epi-Centers...

  19. 78 FR 78964 - Disease, Disability, and Injury Prevention and Control Special Emphasis Panel (SEP): Initial Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-27

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Disease, Disability, and Injury Prevention and Control Special Emphasis Panel (SEP): Initial Review The meeting announced below concerns The...

  20. 76 FR 33305 - Disease, Disability, and Injury Prevention and Control Special Emphasis Panel (SEP): Initial Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-08

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office ] DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Disease, Disability, and Injury Prevention and Control Special Emphasis Panel (SEP): Initial Review The meeting announced below concerns Program...

  1. 77 FR 44618 - Disease, Disability, and Injury Prevention and Control Special Emphasis Panel (SEP): Initial Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-30

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Disease, Disability, and Injury Prevention and Control Special Emphasis Panel (SEP): Initial Review The meeting announced below concerns the World...

  2. 77 FR 39498 - Disease, Disability, and Injury Prevention and Control Special Emphasis Panel (SEP): Initial Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-03

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office ] DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Disease, Disability, and Injury Prevention and Control Special Emphasis Panel (SEP): Initial Review The meeting announced below concerns Special...

  3. 76 FR 28790 - Disease, Disability, and Injury Prevention and Control Special Emphasis Panel (SEP): Initial Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-18

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Disease, Disability, and Injury Prevention and Control Special Emphasis Panel (SEP): Initial Review The meeting announced below concerns Member...

  4. 78 FR 60878 - Disease, Disability, and Injury Prevention and Control Special Emphasis Panel (SEP): Initial Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-10-02

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Disease, Disability, and Injury Prevention and Control Special Emphasis Panel (SEP): Initial Review The meeting announced below concerns Health...

  5. 76 FR 29756 - Disease, Disability, and Injury Prevention and Control Special Emphasis Panel (SEP): Initial Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-23

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Disease, Disability, and Injury Prevention and Control Special Emphasis Panel (SEP): Initial Review The meeting announced below concerns Centers...

  6. 77 FR 48986 - Disease, Disability, and Injury Prevention and Control Special Emphasis Panel (SEP): Initial Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-15

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Disease, Disability, and Injury Prevention and Control Special Emphasis Panel (SEP): Initial Review The meeting announced below concerns Member...

  7. 78 FR 1212 - Disease, Disability, and Injury Prevention and Control Special Emphasis Panel (SEP): Initial Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-08

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Disease, Disability, and Injury Prevention and Control Special Emphasis Panel (SEP): Initial Review The meeting announced below concerns Natural...

  8. 76 FR 52330 - Disease, Disability, and Injury Prevention and Control Special Emphasis Panel (SEP): Initial Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-22

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Disease, Disability, and Injury Prevention and Control Special Emphasis Panel (SEP): Initial Review The meeting announced below concerns Member...

  9. 78 FR 60879 - Disease, Disability, and Injury Prevention and Control Special Emphasis Panel (SEP): Initial Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-10-02

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Disease, Disability, and Injury Prevention and Control Special Emphasis Panel (SEP): Initial Review The meeting announced below concerns National...

  10. 77 FR 291 - Disease, Disability, and Injury Prevention and Control Special Emphasis Panel (SEP): Initial Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-04

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Disease, Disability, and Injury Prevention and Control Special Emphasis Panel (SEP): Initial Review The meeting announced below concerns National...

  11. Effectiveness of alcohol prevention interventions based on the principles of social marketing: a systematic review

    OpenAIRE

    Janssen, M.M.; Mathijssen, J.J.P.; van Bon-Martens, M.J.H.; van Oers, J.A.M.; Garretsen, H F L

    2013-01-01

    Background Alcohol education aims to increase knowledge on the harm related to alcohol, and to change attitudes and drinking behaviour. However, little (lasting) evidence has been found for alcohol education, in changing alcohol-related attitudes and behaviour. Social marketing uses marketing techniques to achieve a social or healthy goal, and can be used in alcohol education. Social marketing consists of eight principles: customer orientation, insight, segmentation, behavioural goals, exchan...

  12. Maternal L-glutamine supplementation prevents prenatal alcohol exposure-induced fetal growth restriction in an ovine model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sawant, Onkar B; Wu, Guoyao; Washburn, Shannon E

    2015-06-01

    Prenatal alcohol exposure is known to cause fetal growth restriction and disturbances in amino acid bioavailability. Alterations in these parameters can persist into adulthood and low birth weight can lead to altered fetal programming. Glutamine has been associated with the synthesis of other amino acids, an increase in protein synthesis and it is used clinically as a nutrient supplement for low birth weight infants. The aim of this study was to explore the effect of repeated maternal alcohol exposure and L-glutamine supplementation on fetal growth and amino acid bioavailability during the third trimester-equivalent period in an ovine model. Pregnant sheep were randomly assigned to four groups, saline control, alcohol (1.75-2.5 g/kg), glutamine (100 mg/kg, three times daily) or alcohol + glutamine. In this study, a weekend binge drinking model was followed where treatment was done 3 days per week in succession from gestational day (GD) 109-132 (normal term ~147). Maternal alcohol exposure significantly reduced fetal body weight, height, length, thoracic girth and brain weight, and resulted in decreased amino acid bioavailability in fetal plasma and placental fluids. Maternal glutamine supplementation successfully mitigated alcohol-induced fetal growth restriction and improved the bioavailability of glutamine and glutamine-related amino acids such as glycine, arginine, and asparagine in the fetal compartment. All together, these findings show that L-glutamine supplementation enhances amino acid availability in the fetus and prevents alcohol-induced fetal growth restriction.

  13. Communities Putting Prevention to Work: Results of an Obesity Prevention Initiative in Child Care Facilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Natale, Ruby; Camejo, Stephanie; Sanders, Lee M.

    2016-01-01

    Obesity is a significant public health issue affecting even our youngest children. Given that a significant amount of young children are enrolled in child care, the goal of this project was to evaluate the effectiveness of a child care facility-based obesity prevention program. Over 1,000 facilities participated in the study. The intervention…

  14. 76 FR 28437 - Disease, Disability, and Injury Prevention and Control Special Interest Projects (SIPs): Initial...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-17

    ... Control Special Interest Projects (SIPs): Initial Review The meeting announced below concerns ``Systematic... Sustainability and Scalability, SIP 11-046, Panel D,'' initial review. In accordance with Section 10(a)(2) of the...- Component Interventions to Prevent Older Adult Falls and Assessing Sustainability and Scalability, SIP...

  15. 酒精依赖的危害和预防%Hazards and Prevention of Alcohol Dependence

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王丹姝

    2012-01-01

    the daily performance of alcohol dependence, its hazards on individuals, families and society, and its preventive measures were introduced.%介绍了酒精依赖的日常表现、对个人、家庭和社会的危害及预防方法。

  16. First-Year Students' Perspectives on Reasons for and Prevention of Their Own Alcohol Overdose

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reis, Janet

    2014-01-01

    Two hundred twenty-six first-year students enrolled at a large, public Midwest university and deemed to require an emergency transport for a potential alcohol overdose completed a brief questionnaire on the student's perceptions of why the event occurred, what might have happened to prevent the overdose situation, and personal assessment of…

  17. Sorafenib prevents liver fibrosis in a non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) rodent model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stefano, J.T.; Pereira, I.V.A.; Torres, M.M.; Bida, P.M. [Disciplina de Gastroenterologia Clínica (LIM-07), Faculdade de Medicina, Universidade de São Paulo, São Paulo, SP (Brazil); Coelho, A.M.M. [Disciplina de Transplante de Órgãos do Aparelho Digestivo (LIM-37), Faculdade de Medicina, Universidade de São Paulo, São Paulo, SP (Brazil); Xerfan, M.P. [Disciplina de Gastroenterologia Clínica (LIM-07), Faculdade de Medicina, Universidade de São Paulo, São Paulo, SP (Brazil); Cogliati, B. [Departamento de Patologia, Faculdade de Medicina Veterinária e Zootecnia, Universidade de São Paulo, São Paulo, SP (Brazil); Barbeiro, D.F. [Disciplina de Emergências Clínicas (LIM-51), Faculdade de Medicina, Universidade de São Paulo, São Paulo, SP (Brazil); Mazo, D.F.C. [Disciplina de Gastroenterologia Clínica (LIM-07), Faculdade de Medicina, Universidade de São Paulo, São Paulo, SP (Brazil); Kubrusly, M.S.; D' Albuquerque, L.A.C. [Disciplina de Transplante de Órgãos do Aparelho Digestivo (LIM-37), Faculdade de Medicina, Universidade de São Paulo, São Paulo, SP (Brazil); Souza, H.P. [Disciplina de Emergências Clínicas (LIM-51), Faculdade de Medicina, Universidade de São Paulo, São Paulo, SP (Brazil); Carrilho, F.J.; Oliveira, C.P. [Disciplina de Gastroenterologia Clínica (LIM-07), Faculdade de Medicina, Universidade de São Paulo, São Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2015-02-24

    Liver fibrosis occurring as an outcome of non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) can precede the development of cirrhosis. We investigated the effects of sorafenib in preventing liver fibrosis in a rodent model of NASH. Adult Sprague-Dawley rats were fed a choline-deficient high-fat diet and exposed to diethylnitrosamine for 6 weeks. The NASH group (n=10) received vehicle and the sorafenib group (n=10) received 2.5 mg·kg{sup -1}·day{sup -1} by gavage. A control group (n=4) received only standard diet and vehicle. Following treatment, animals were sacrificed and liver tissue was collected for histologic examination, mRNA isolation, and analysis of mitochondrial function. Genes related to fibrosis (MMP9, TIMP1, TIMP2), oxidative stress (HSP60, HSP90, GST), and mitochondrial biogenesis (PGC1α) were evaluated by real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction (RT-qPCR). Liver mitochondrial oxidation activity was measured by a polarographic method, and cytokines by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Sorafenib treatment restored mitochondrial function and reduced collagen deposition by nearly 63% compared to the NASH group. Sorafenib upregulated PGC1α and MMP9 and reduced TIMP1 and TIMP2 mRNA and IL-6 and IL-10 protein expression. There were no differences in HSP60, HSP90 and GST expression. Sorafenib modulated PGC1α expression, improved mitochondrial respiration and prevented collagen deposition. It may, therefore, be useful in the treatment of liver fibrosis in NASH.

  18. National Initiative to Prevent Suicide (NIPS): A New Proposal to Improve the Understanding and Prevention of Suicide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Preskorn, Sheldon H

    2016-09-01

    Suicide is a staggering, tragic, and growing cause of death in the United States. Despite a government-led 20-year effort, the suicide rate increased by 25% between 1999 and 2014. To prevent suicide, it is essential to understand the biological factors-genetic and epigenetic-and environmental factors that underlie it. To gain this increased understanding, the equivalent of the "War on Cancer" initiative is needed. The War on Cancer initiative, which began in the 1970s, has transformed the treatments and outcomes of cancer, and the same could occur with a similar initiative on suicide. This article proposes a National Initiative to Prevent Suicide (NIPS), with the first step being the establishment of a National Suicide Database (NSD). The NSD would be established by a government-private partnership much as was done by the National Cancer Institute in the War on Cancer. The NSD would be established under the auspices of the National Institute of Mental Health and the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Approximately $600 million are currently spent annually by taxpayers in the United States to support the medicolegal death investigation system, composed of 3137 county coroner or medical examiner offices across the country. In their investigation of deaths due to suicide, these offices collect extensive information, including biological samples, from the >40,000 deaths due to suicide that occur each year. The proposal presented in this column calls for this material to be stored in the NSD so that vetted government and public/private researchers can investigate the causes of suicide. This information will make possible the development of new methods, including laboratory evaluations, for assessing suicide risk as well as new treatments to prevent suicide. In support of this proposed new initiative, this article/proposal reviews the current medicolegal death investigation system and recent advances in our understanding of the biological basis of suicide. The

  19. Estimating Driver Risk Using Alcohol Biomarkers, Interlock BAC Tests and Psychometric Assessments: Initial Descriptives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marques, Paul; Tippetts, Scott; Allen, John; Javors, Martin; Alling, Christer; Yegles, Michel; Pragst, Fritz; Wurst, Friedrich

    2009-01-01

    Aim To identify alcohol biomarker and psychometric measures that relate to drivers’ blood alcohol concentration (BAC) patterns from ignition interlock devices (IIDs). Design, Setting, Participants, Measurements In Alberta, Canada, 534 drivers, convicted of driving under the influence of alcohol (DUI), installed IIDs and agreed to participate in a research study. IID BAC tests are an established proxy for predicting future DUI convictions. Three risk groups were defined by rates of failed BAC tests. Program entry and followup blood samples (n=302, 171) were used to measure phosphatidyl ethanol (PETH), carbohydrate deficient transferrin (%CDT), gamma glutamyltransferase (GGT) and other biomarkers. Program entry urine (n=130) was analyzed for ethyl glucuronide (ETG) and ethyl sulfate (ETS). Entry hair samples were tested for fatty acid ethyl esters (FAEE) (n=92) and ETG (n=146). Psychometric measures included the DSM-4 Diagnostic Interview Schedule Alcohol Module, Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test (AUDIT), the Timeline Followback (TLFB), the Drinker Inventory of Consequences (DRINC), and the Temptation and Restraint Inventory (TRI). Findings Except for FAEE, all alcohol biomarkers were significantly related to the interlock BAC test profiles; higher marker levels predicted higher rates of interlock BAC test failures. PETH, the strongest with an overall ANOVA F ratio of 35.5, had significant correlations with all nine of the other alcohol biomarkers and with 16 of 19 psychometric variables. Urine ETG and ETS were strongly correlated with the IID BAC tests. Conclusions The findings suggest several alcohol biomarkers and assessments could play an important role in the prediction and control of driver alcohol risk when relicensing. PMID:19922520

  20. Application of local policy to prevent alcohol problems: experiences from a community trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holder, H D; Reynolds, R I

    1997-06-01

    Alcohol policy conventionally has been established at the national or regional, state and provincial levels. Alcohol policy at any level is not actually limited to the regulation and control of alcohol production, wholesale distribution, and retail sales. There are a number of alternatives for setting alcohol policies within a local community. Building upon existing national and state/provincial laws, policy makers at the community level can set priorities for allocating resources and enforcing laws related to drinking and driving, underage alcohol sales, alcohol serving practices of bars and restaurants and geographical density of alcohol outlets in the community. This paper concludes from the Community Trials Project that policies established at the local level can reduce alcohol problems. PMID:9231451

  1. CAPP: A Comprehensive Preventative Program Model Addressing Alcohol Misuse among College Freshmen

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsotsis, Laura

    2012-01-01

    Alcohol consumption by college students in the United States has increased in quantity and frequency over the past five years. With this increase, there has come evidence of a rise in negative consequences caused by alcohol misuse. To help reduce these problems, colleges and universities nationwide have begun implementing alcohol programs for…

  2. Cost-effectiveness of preventive interventions to reduce alcohol consumption in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holm, Astrid Ledgaard; Veerman, Lennert; Cobiac, Linda;

    2014-01-01

    Excessive alcohol consumption increases the risk of many diseases and injuries, and the Global Burden of Disease 2010 study estimated that 6% of the burden of disease in Denmark is due to alcohol consumption. Alcohol consumption thus places a considerable economic burden on society....

  3. The Outcomes of an Alcohol Prevention Program on Parents' Rule Setting and Self-efficacy: a Bidirectional Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glatz, Terese; Koning, Ina M

    2016-04-01

    Most adolescents have their first encounter with alcohol in early or middle adolescence. Parents' rule setting about alcohol has been shown to be important to delay the onset and reduce the frequency of adolescents' alcohol drinking, but less is known about the potential role of parents' beliefs about their competence in and ability to influence their adolescents' drinking habits (i.e., parental self-efficacy [PSE], Bandura (Psychological Review, 84, 191-215, 1977). In this study, we examined the direction of influence between parents' rule setting and PSE as outcomes of the program "Prevention of Alcohol use in Students" (PAS), a prevention program aiming to reduce underage drinking by targeting parents and adolescents both separately and in a combined intervention. We tested two mediation processes in which the program would (a) have a direct effect on PSE, which in turn would increase parents' rule setting or (b) have a direct effect on parents' rule setting, which in turn would increase PSE. To examine these processes, we used a sample of 2562 parent-adolescent dyads (age 12 at baseline), followed annually over 3 years. The results showed that the combined intervention increased PSE via an increase in parents' rule setting. No significant effect of the intervention on rules about alcohol via PSE was found. This is the first study to test the mediation processes involving PSE and parental rule setting in an experimental context where parenting practices are being actively changed. The results suggest that giving parents concrete advice on how to deal with alcohol drinking in their adolescents and at the same time helping adolescents to develop healthy attitudes about alcohol drinking have a positive influence on parents' self-efficacy. PMID:26687204

  4. Advancing Behavioral HIV Prevention: Adapting an Evidence-Based Intervention for People Living with HIV and Alcohol Use Disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. L. Armstrong

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Alcohol use disorders (AUDs are highly prevalent among people living with HIV/AIDS (PLWHA and are associated with increased HIV risk behaviors, suboptimal treatment adherence, and greater risk for disease progression. We used the ADAPT-ITT strategy to adapt an evidence-based intervention (EBI, the Holistic Health Recovery Program (HHRP+, that focuses on secondary HIV prevention and antiretroviral therapy (ART adherence and apply it to PLWHA with problematic drinking. Focus groups (FGs were conducted with PLWHA who consume alcohol and with treatment providers at the largest HIV primary care clinic in New Orleans, LA. Overall themes that emerged from the FGs included the following: (1 negative mood states contribute to heavy alcohol consumption in PLWHA; (2 high levels of psychosocial stress, paired with few adaptive coping strategies, perpetuate the use of harmful alcohol consumption in PLWHA; (3 local cultural norms are related to the permissiveness and pervasiveness of drinking and contribute to heavy alcohol use; (4 healthcare providers unanimously stated that outpatient options for AUD intervention are scarce, (5 misperceptions about the relationships between alcohol and HIV are common; (6 PLWHA are interested in learning about alcohol’s impact on ART and HIV disease progression. These data were used to design the adapted EBI.

  5. Girls Just Want to Know Where to Have Fun: Preventing Substance Use Initiation in an Under-Resourced Community in South Africa Through HealthWise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Motamedi, Mojdeh; Caldwell, Linda; Wegner, Lisa; Smith, Edward; Jones, Damon

    2016-08-01

    This study examined how the perception of the availability of leisure opportunities may prevent substance use initiation through HealthWise, a school-based program focused on reducing risky behavior. In this study, we specifically focused on whether HealthWise increased student perceptions of leisure opportunities between 8th grade and 10th grade (N = 5610) in an under-resourced community in South Africa. Path analyses were used to test hypotheses. Given gender differences in substance use patterns, societal norms, and leisure opportunities in under-resourced communities, such as the townships of Cape Town, South Africa, it was especially important to examine associations within each gender. Results suggested that HealthWise directly reduced the likelihood of initiating alcohol and cigarette use and increased the amount of perceived leisure opportunities among girls but not boys. Perceived leisure opportunities mediated the effect of HealthWise on reducing the initiation of alcohol and cigarette use directly, and marijuana use indirectly, among girls but not boys. This is the first study to demonstrate how experimentally targeting leisure through an intervention can increase perceived leisure opportunities and thereby prevent early substance use initiation for a specific population. The importance of considering the context of gender, age, and location is discussed. PMID:27129478

  6. Using Systematic Reviews to Inform Policy Initiatives: Lessons from the HHS Teen Pregnancy Prevention Evidence Review.

    OpenAIRE

    Brian Goesling

    2012-01-01

    In fall 2009, the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services (HHS) launched a systematic review of the research literature on programs to prevent teen pregnancy, sexually transmitted infections, and associated sexual risk behaviors. Findings have been used to inform two new federal policy initiatives aimed at supporting evidence-based approaches to teen pregnancy prevention. This research brief highlights six key lessons from the review, intended to help the growing number of organizations ...

  7. Efficacy of a Web-based, Tailored, Alcohol Prevention/Intervention Program for College Students: Three-Month Follow-up

    OpenAIRE

    Bingham, C. Raymond; Barretto, Andrea Ippel; Walton, Maureen A.; Bryant, Christopher M.; Shope, Jean T.; Raghunathan, Trivellore E.

    2011-01-01

    This study presents the results of an efficacy evaluation of a Web-based brief motivational alcohol prevention/intervention program called Michigan Prevention and Alcohol Safety for Students (M-PASS). Four on-line sessions providing individually-tailored feedback were delivered to first-year college students over nine weeks. Non- and low-risk drinking participants received risk prevention, while high-risk drinking participants received a risk-reduction intervention. Both int...

  8. Detecting and Preventing Beacon Replay Attacks in Receiver-Initiated MAC Protocols for Energy Efficient WSNs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Di Mauro, Alessio; Fafoutis, Xenofon; Mödersheim, Sebastian Alexander;

    2013-01-01

    In receiver-initiated MAC protocols for Wireless Sensor Networks (WSNs), communication is initiated by the receiver of the data through beacons containing the receiver's identity. In this paper, we consider the case of a network intruder that captures and replays such beacons towards legitimate...... nodes, pretending to have a fake identity within the network. To prevent this attack we propose RAP, a challenge-response authentication protocol that is able to detect and prevent the beacon replay attack. The effectiveness of the protocol is formally verified using OFMC and ProVerif. Furthermore, we...

  9. Dietary agents in the prevention of alcohol-induced hepatotoxicty: preclinical observations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shivashankara, Arnadi Ramachandrayya; Azmidah, Aysha; Haniadka, Raghavendra; Rai, Manoj Ponadka; Arora, Rajesh; Baliga, Manjeshwar Shrinath

    2012-02-01

    Long term alcohol consumption is one of the important causes for liver failure and death. To complicate the existing problem there are no dependable hepatoprotective drugs and a large number of patients prefer using complementary and alternative medicines for treating and managing hepatic complications. Almost 25 centuries ago, Hippocrates, the father of medicine, proclaimed "Let food be thy medicine and medicine be thy food." Exploring the association between diet and health continues even today. Preclinical studies carried out in the recent past have shown that the commonly used dietary agents like Allium sativum (garlic), Camellia sinensis (tea), Curcuma longa (turmeric), Emblica officinalis (Indian gooseberry), Ferula asafoetida (asafoetida), Garcinia cambogia (Malabar tamarind), Glycine max (soyabean), Murraya koenigii (curry leaves), Piper betle (beetle leaf), Prunus armeniaca (apricot), Ocimum gratissimum (wild basil), Theobroma cacao (cocoa), Trigonella foenum-graecum (fenugreek) and Vitis vinifera (grapes) protect against ethanol-induced hepatotoxicity. Mechanistic studies have shown that the beneficial effects of these phytochemicals in preventing the ethanol-induced hepatotoxicity are mediated by the antioxidant, free radical scavenging, anti-inflammatory and anti-fibrotic effects. The present review for the first time collates the hepatoprotective effects of these agents and also emphasizes on aspects that need future research to establish their utility in humans. PMID:22119904

  10. Caries preventive efficiency of therapeutic complex accomponying orthodontic treatment of children with initial dental caries.

    OpenAIRE

    Denga A.E.

    2013-01-01

    The use of orthodontic non-removable appliance in orthodontic treatment inter¬feres with the process of teeth mineralization, worsens level of oral cavity hygiene, stimulates development of caries process. The situation is complicated when a patient has an initial tooth decay. The aim of this study was to determine genetic characteristics of children with initial caries and clinical evaluation of effectiveness of the developed caries preventive therapeutic complex accompanying treatment of j...

  11. The influence of socioeconomic environment on the effectiveness of alcohol prevention among European students: a cluster randomized controlled trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Faggiano Fabrizio

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Although social environments may influence alcohol-related behaviours in youth, the relationship between neighbourhood socioeconomic context and effectiveness of school-based prevention against underage drinking has been insufficiently investigated. We study whether the social environment affects the impact of a new school-based prevention programme on alcohol use among European students. Methods During the school year 2004-2005, 7079 students 12-14 years of age from 143 schools in nine European centres participated in this cluster randomised controlled trial. Schools were randomly assigned to either control or a 12-session standardised curriculum based on the comprehensive social influence model. Randomisation was blocked within socioeconomic levels of the school environment. Alcohol use and alcohol-related problem behaviours were investigated through a self-completed anonymous questionnaire at baseline and 18 months thereafter. Data were analysed using multilevel models, separately by socioeconomic level. Results At baseline, adolescents in schools of low socioeconomic level were more likely to report problem drinking than other students. Participation in the programme was associated in this group with a decreased odds of reporting episodes of drunkenness (OR = 0.60, 95% CI = 0.44-0.83, intention to get drunk (OR = 0.60, 95% CI = 0.45-0.79, and marginally alcohol-related problem behaviours (OR = 0.70, 95% CI = 0.46-1.06. No significant programme's effects emerged for students in schools of medium or high socioeconomic level. Effects on frequency of alcohol consumption were also stronger among students in disadvantaged schools, although the estimates did not attain statistical significance in any subgroup. Conclusions It is plausible that comprehensive social influence programmes have a more favourable effect on problematic drinking among students in underprivileged social environments. Trial registration ISRCTN: ISRCTN

  12. Preventive maintenance optimization at the Gentilly 2 NGS: initial results and lessons learned

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper presents a Preventive Maintenance Optimization Process developed at the Gentilly 2 Nuclear Power Plant, and summarizes preliminary results of its initial implementation. It is based on both Streamlined Reliability Centered Maintenance and AP-913 Equipment Reliability Process. Results achieved and lessons learned create a sound base for continuing activities on remained Systems, Structures and Components (SSC). (author)

  13. Los Alamos National Laboratory Training Capabilities (Possible Applications in the Global Initiatives for Proliferation Prevention Program)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martin, Olga [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2012-06-04

    The briefing provides an overview of the training capabilities at Los Alamos National Laboratory that can be applied to nonproliferation/responsible science education at nuclear institutes in the Former Soviet Union, as part of the programmatic effort under the Global Initiatives for Proliferation Prevention program (GIPP).

  14. Preventive maintenance optimization at the Gentilly 2 NGS: initial results and lessons learned

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Darragi, M.; Komljenovic, D.; Vaillancourt, R.; Croteau, M. [Nuclear Generating Station Gentilly-2, Becancour, Quebec (Canada)]. E-mail: komljenovic.dragan@hydro.qc.ca

    2006-07-01

    This paper presents a Preventive Maintenance Optimization Process developed at the Gentilly 2 Nuclear Power Plant, and summarizes preliminary results of its initial implementation. It is based on both Streamlined Reliability Centered Maintenance and AP-913 Equipment Reliability Process. Results achieved and lessons learned create a sound base for continuing activities on remained Systems, Structures and Components (SSC). (author)

  15. Are the Effects of Early Pubertal Timing on the Initiation of Weekly Alcohol Use Mediated by Peers and/or Parents? A Longitudinal Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schelleman-Offermans, Karen; Knibbe, Ronald A.; Kuntsche, Emmanuel

    2013-01-01

    We investigated whether the link between early pubertal timing and initiation of weekly alcohol use is mediated by changes in perceived parental alcohol-specific rule setting and changes in perceived proportion of drinkers in the peer group. Longitudinal data including 3 annual waves were used to estimate the hazard for adolescents to initiate…

  16. Personalised Normative Feedback for Preventing Alcohol Misuse in University Students: Solomon Three-Group Randomised Controlled Trial

    OpenAIRE

    Maria T Moreira; Reza Oskrochi; Foxcroft, David R

    2012-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Young people tend to over-estimate peer group drinking levels. Personalised normative feedback (PNF) aims to correct this misperception by providing information about personal drinking levels and patterns compared with norms in similar aged peer groups. PNF is intended to raise motivation for behaviour change and has been highlighted for alcohol misuse prevention by the British Government Behavioural Insight Team. The objective of the trial was to assess the effectiveness of PNF w...

  17. Alcohol-to-acid ratio and substrate concentration affect product structure in chain elongation reactions initiated by unacclimatized inoculum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yuhao; Lü, Fan; Shao, Liming; He, Pinjing

    2016-10-01

    The objective of the study was to investigate whether the ratio of ethanol to acetate affects yield and product structure in chain elongation initiated by unacclimatized mixed cultures. The effect of varying the substrate concentration, while maintaining the same ratio of alcohol to acid, was also investigated. With a high substrate concentration, an alcohol to acid ratio >2:1 provided sufficient electron donor capacity for the chain elongation reaction. With an ethanol to acetate ratio of 3:1 (300mM total carbon), the highest n-caproate concentration (3033±98mg/L) was achieved during the stable phase of the reaction. A lower substrate concentration (150mM total carbon) gave a lower yield of products and led to reduced carbon transformation efficiency compared with other reaction conditions. The use of unacclimatized inoculum in chain elongation can produce significant amounts of odd-carbon-number carboxylates as a result of protein hydrolysis.

  18. Sixth Grade Students Who Use Alcohol: Do We Need Primary Prevention Programs for "Tweens"?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pasch, Keryn E.; Perry, Cheryl L.; Stigler, Melissa H.; Komro, Kelli A.

    2009-01-01

    Young adolescent alcohol users drink at higher rates than their peers throughout adolescence and appear to be less amenable to intervention. This study compares those who reported alcohol use in the past year to those who reported no use in a multiethnic, urban sample of sixth graders in 61 schools in Chicago in 2002 (N = 4,150). Demographic,…

  19. Asian Americans and Pacific Islanders: Alcohol and Other Drug Use and Problems. Prevention Update

    Science.gov (United States)

    Higher Education Center for Alcohol, Drug Abuse, and Violence Prevention, 2011

    2011-01-01

    According to the National Center for Education Statistics, from 1976 to 2009, the percentage of Asian American/Pacific Islander (AAPI) college students rose from 2 percent to 7 percent. According to the National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism (NIAAA), although many surveys treat AAPIs as a single ethnic group, this population is in fact…

  20. Televised Entertainment-Education to Prevent Adolescent Alcohol Use: Perceived Realism, Enjoyment, and Impact

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Leeuwen, Lonneke; Renes, Reint Jan; Leeuwis, Cees

    2013-01-01

    Alcohol use among adolescents is a concern in the Netherlands because of its high prevalence and risks. To discourage adolescents from drinking alcohol, a televised entertainment-education (E-E) intervention was developed. This study investigated responses of adolescents on perceived realism and enjoyment of the E-E intervention, as well as its…

  1. Prioritizing Alcohol Prevention: Establishing Alcohol as the Gateway Drug and Linking Age of First Drink with Illicit Drug Use

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barry, Adam E.; King, Jessica; Sears, Cynthia; Harville, Cedric; Bondoc, Irina; Joseph, Kessy

    2016-01-01

    Background: Given ever-reducing budgets of community and school substance use prevention programs, there is a call for identifying the first substance in the sequence leading to polydrug use. Methods: Examining data from a nationally representative sample of 2835 United States 12th graders, we sought to determine (1) the first substance…

  2. Immortal Ring-Opening Polymerization of rac-Lactide Using Polymeric Alcohol as Initiator to Prepare Graft Copolymer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Na Liu

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In the presence of a small molecular protic initiator, immortal ring-opening polymerization (ROP of lactide (LA is a highly efficient strategy to synthesize polylactide in a controllable manner, while using polymeric alcohol as an initiator has been less investigated. A series of polymeric alcohols (PS–OH composed of styrene and 4.3%–18% hydroxyl functional styrene (diethyl(hydroxy(4-vinylphenylmethylphosphonate, St–OH were synthesized through reversible addition-fragmentation transfer (RAFT polymerization. Using PS–OH as an initiator, the immortal ROP of rac-LA was catalyzed by dibutylmagnesium (MgnBu2 under various ratios of monomer to hydroxyl group within PS–OH to generate polystyrene-g-polylactide (PS–g–PLA copolymers with different graft lengths. After thermal annealing at 115 °C, the PLA domain aggregated to nanospheres among the PS continuum. The size of the nanospheres, varying from 130.1 to 224.2 nm, was related to the graft density and length of PS–g–PLA. Nanoporous films were afforded through chemical etching of the PLA component.

  3. Prevention of Alcohol-Related Crime and Trauma (PACT: brief interventions in routine care pathway – a study protocol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jayaraj Rama

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Globally, alcohol-related injuries cause millions of deaths and huge economic loss each year . The incidence of facial (jawbone fractures in the Northern Territory of Australia is second only to Greenland, due to a strong involvement of alcohol in its aetiology, and high levels of alcohol consumption. The highest incidences of alcohol-related trauma in the Territory are observed amongst patients in the Maxillofacial Surgery Unit of the Royal Darwin Hospital. Accordingly, this project aims to introduce screening and brief interventions into this unit, with the aims of changing health service provider practice, improving access to care, and improving patient outcomes. Methods Establishment of Project Governance: The project governance team includes a project manager, project leader, an Indigenous Reference Group (IRG and an Expert Reference Group (ERG. Development of a best practice pathway: PACT project researchers collaborate with clinical staff to develop a best practice pathway suited to the setting of the surgical unit. The pathway provides clear guidelines for screening, assessment, intervention and referral. Implementation: The developed pathway is introduced to the unit through staff training workshops and associate resources and adapted in response to staff feedback. Evaluation: File audits, post workshop questionnaires and semi-structured interviews are administered. Discussion This project allows direct transfer of research findings into clinical practice and can inform future hospital-based injury prevention strategies.

  4. Global initiatives to prevent nuclear terrorism; Globalt initiativ for aa hindre nukleaer terrorisme

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2010-07-01

    The fight against nuclear and radiological terrorism - someone to blow up a nuclear weapon or spread radioactive material as a 'dirty bomb' that act of terrorism - is one of the most serious threats to international security. The Global Initiative to prevent nuclear terrorism is a Norwegian-sponsored initiative that is aimed directly at combating terrorism by non-state actors. NRPA follow up Norwegian measures, including in Kazakhstan, and verifies that they are implemented and functioning as intended. (AG)

  5. From a target group towards interaction group: Alcohol prevention policy regarding young people in Germany

    OpenAIRE

    Susanne Linden

    2015-01-01

    Background: Risk taking behaviour used to be a typical part of the adolescence period during which teenagers start learning to drink alcohol in their responsible way. Risky alcohol use has become a major concern among public health practioners in Europe. After years of increasing numbers of episodic binge drinking among young people, since 2010/2011 consumption levels of the male youth appear to be dropping, while we see no change in risky drinking patterns among young women, however at lower...

  6. Initial commitment to pre-exposure prophylaxis and circumcision for HIV prevention amongst Indian truck drivers.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John A Schneider

    Full Text Available Studies of HIV prevention interventions such as pre-exposure prophylaxis (PREP and circumcision in India are limited. The present study sought to investigate Indian truck-drivers initial commitment to PREP and circumcision utilizing the AIDS Risk Reduction Model. Ninety truck-drivers completed an in-depth qualitative interview and provided a blood sample for HIV and HSV-2 testing. Truck-drivers exhibited low levels of initial commitment towards PREP and even lower for circumcision. However, potential leverage points for increasing commitment were realized in fear of infecting family rather than self, self-perceptions of risk, and for PREP focusing on cultural beliefs towards medication and physicians. Cost was a major barrier to both HIV prevention interventions. Despite these barriers, our findings suggest that the ARRM may be useful in identifying several leverage points that may be used by peers, health care providers and public health field workers to enhance initial commitment to novel HIV prevention interventions in India.

  7. Statins Increase Mitochondrial and Peroxisomal Fatty Acid Oxidation in the Liver and Prevent Non-Alcoholic Steatohepatitis in Mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Han-Sol; Jang, Jung Eun; Ko, Myoung Seok; Woo, Sung Hoon; Kim, Bum Joong; Kim, Hyun Sik; Park, Hye Sun; Park, In-Sun; Koh, Eun Hee

    2016-01-01

    Background Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease is the most common form of chronic liver disease in industrialized countries. Recent studies have highlighted the association between peroxisomal dysfunction and hepatic steatosis. Peroxisomes are intracellular organelles that contribute to several crucial metabolic processes, such as facilitation of mitochondrial fatty acid oxidation (FAO) and removal of reactive oxygen species through catalase or plasmalogen synthesis. Statins are known to prevent hepatic steatosis and non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH), but underlying mechanisms of this prevention are largely unknown. Methods Seven-week-old C57BL/6J mice were given normal chow or a methionine- and choline-deficient diet (MCDD) with or without various statins, fluvastatin, pravastatin, simvastatin, atorvastatin, and rosuvastatin (15 mg/kg/day), for 6 weeks. Histological lesions were analyzed by grading and staging systems of NASH. We also measured mitochondrial and peroxisomal FAO in the liver. Results Statin treatment prevented the development of MCDD-induced NASH. Both steatosis and inflammation or fibrosis grades were significantly improved by statins compared with MCDD-fed mice. Gene expression levels of peroxisomal proliferator-activated receptor α (PPARα) were decreased by MCDD and recovered by statin treatment. MCDD-induced suppression of mitochondrial and peroxisomal FAO was restored by statins. Each statin's effect on increasing FAO and improving NASH was independent on its effect of decreasing cholesterol levels. Conclusion Statins prevented NASH and increased mitochondrial and peroxisomal FAO via induction of PPARα. The ability to increase hepatic FAO is likely the major determinant of NASH prevention by statins. Improvement of peroxisomal function by statins may contribute to the prevention of NASH.

  8. Violence prevention in schools and other community settings: the pediatrician as initiator, educator, collaborator, and advocate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson-Brewer, R; Spivak, H

    1994-10-01

    Attention to the problem of youth violence has resulted in a proliferation of violence prevention and intervention strategies. Examined in this paper are those strategies that can be categorized as educational, environmental/technological, and recreational. In the educational category are conflict resolution and mediation, crime prevention and law-related education, handgun violence education, life skills training, self-esteem development, public education, and media education. The environmental/technological category covers a range of strategies: metal detectors, school police, concrete barriers, dress codes, and safe corridor programs, among others. The rather broad recreational category is based upon the importance of physical activity as an outlet for stress and anger and as a component of a multicomponent program. Multi-intervention programs are described as well as some of the major gaps in current violence prevention programming. The suggested role of the pediatrician in violence prevention efforts is described as both initiator and collaborator, as counselor, and as advocate. Because of their great credibility with respect to issues related to children and youth, pediatricians can influence not only parents in their contacts with them in the health care setting, but also school administrators and community leaders. Pediatricians have access to the media, and they can speak to the issue in public forums as well. Furthermore, pediatricians can join existing community efforts to determine ways in which violence prevention and intervention strategies can be incorporated into agency activities. PMID:7936888

  9. Community Colleges--Prevention Challenges. Issues in Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Higher Education Center for Alcohol, Drug Abuse, and Violence Prevention, 2012

    2012-01-01

    This issue of "Issues in Prevention" focuses on prevention challenges facing community colleges. This issue contains the following articles: (1) Prevention at Community Colleges; (2) Q&A With William Auvenshine; (3) Chancellor's Initiative at the University of Wisconsin-Stout; (4) Alcohol Marketing in the Digital Age; and (5) Higher Education…

  10. La Esperanza del Valle: alcohol prevention novelas for Hispanic youth and their families.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lalonde, B; Rabinowitz, P; Shefsky, M L; Washienko, K

    1997-10-01

    With extensive Hispanic community involvement, a television, radio, and storybook novela were developed to improve Hispanic parent-youth communications and youth attitudes regarding alcohol. Focus groups with the target audiences determined the novelas' concentration on alcohol, their medium and language of choice for Hispanic youth versus parents, and the health messages and cultural values to be portrayed. Reactions to the novelas were obtained via self-report surveys, random street interviews, radio listener call-ins, and community group meetings. Favorable reactions were obtained regarding the novelas' cultural sensitivity and appropriateness, and their potential to affect future behavior change. The affect of the television novela on Hispanic youth was evaluated by a pre-post self-report survey administered to middle and high school students. Survey results indicated the television novela may have had some positive impact on Hispanic youth attitudes and behavioral intentions regarding alcohol. The evaluation time line was limiting, however, and further evaluation is required.

  11. Towards programs for alcohol consumption prevention in college students in Bogota, Colombia [Elementos para programas de prevención en consumo de alcohol en universitarios en Bogotá, Colombia

    OpenAIRE

    María Liliana Muñoz Ortega; Lucía Carolina Barbosa Ramírez; José Arturo Bríñez Horta; Claudia Consuelo Caycedo Espinel; Margarita Méndez Heilman; Raúl Oyuela Vargas

    2012-01-01

    This non–experimental study, aimed to propose from university students items for prevention programs of alcohol consumption obtain by examining levels, situations and characteristics of alcohol consumption of 2910 students in ten universities of Bogotá – Colombia who answered the features tab in consumption, the Ceal and the Isca, participating in 15 focus groups, 80 students. Consumption is high, begins at early ages, approved by parents, associated by academic pressures loneliness and cultu...

  12. The CAP study, evaluation of integrated universal and selective prevention strategies for youth alcohol misuse: study protocol of a cluster randomized controlled trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Newton Nicola C

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Alcohol misuse amongst young people is a serious concern. The need for effective prevention is clear, yet there appear to be few evidenced-based programs that prevent alcohol misuse and none that target both high and low-risk youth. The CAP study addresses this gap by evaluating the efficacy of an integrated approach to alcohol misuse prevention, which combines the effective universal internet-based Climate Schools program with the effective selective personality-targeted Preventure program. This article describes the development and protocol of the CAP study which aims to prevent alcohol misuse and related harms in Australian adolescents. Methods/Design A cluster randomized controlled trial (RCT is being conducted with Year 8 students aged 13 to 14-years-old from 27 secondary schools in New South Wales and Victoria, Australia. Blocked randomisation was used to assign schools to one of four groups; Climate Schools only, Preventure only, CAP (Climate Schools and Preventure, or Control (alcohol, drug and health education as usual. The primary outcomes of the trial will be the uptake and harmful use of alcohol and alcohol related harms. Secondary outcomes will include alcohol and cannabis related knowledge, cannabis related harms, intentions to use, and mental health symptomatology. All participants will complete assessments on five occasions; baseline; immediately post intervention, and at 12, 24 and 36 months post baseline. Discussion This study protocol presents the design and current implementation of a cluster RCT to evaluate the efficacy of the CAP study; an integrated universal and selective approach to prevent alcohol use and related harms among adolescents. Compared to students who receive the stand-alone universal Climate Schools program or alcohol and drug education as usual (Controls, we expect the students who receive the CAP intervention to have significantly less uptake of alcohol use, a reduction in average

  13. Environmental Management Approach to Improve College Student and Community Relations to Reduce Binge and High-Risk Alcohol Use and Other Drug Problems. Prevention Update

    Science.gov (United States)

    Higher Education Center for Alcohol, Drug Abuse, and Violence Prevention, 2011

    2011-01-01

    A central feature of the U.S. Department of Education's Higher Education Center for Alcohol, Drug Abuse, and Violence Prevention is the promotion of multiple prevention strategies that affect campus and surrounding community environments as a whole and can, thereby, have a large-scale effect on the entire campus community. In outlining the…

  14. Using PANDA (Preventing the Abuse of Tobacco, Narcotics, Drugs, and Alcohol) in a Baltimore City Head Start Setting: A Preliminary Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belcher, Harolyn M. E.; Lockhart, Paula J.; Perkins-Parks, Susan; McNally, Margaret

    2000-01-01

    Describes an evaluation of a substance abuse prevention curriculum, Preventing the Abuse of Tobacco, Narcotics, Drugs, and Alcohol (PANDA), taught to African American Head Start preschool students, examining changes in children's self-concept following participation. Overall, students demonstrated significantly improved self-concept, and PANDA…

  15. Caries preventive efficiency of therapeutic complex accomponying orthodontic treatment of children with initial dental caries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Denga A.E.

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The use of orthodontic non-removable appliance in orthodontic treatment inter¬feres with the process of teeth mineralization, worsens level of oral cavity hygiene, stimulates development of caries process. The situation is complicated when a patient has an initial tooth decay. The aim of this study was to determine genetic characteristics of children with initial caries and clinical evaluation of effectiveness of the developed caries preventive therapeutic complex accompanying treatment of jaw facial anomalies (JFA. 47 children aged 12-14 with initial tooth decay participated in the examination. Complex diagnostics, including molecular genetic studies was carried out. Therapeutic complex for children, of the main group included remineralizing, adaptogenic, biogenic agents, which increase non-specific resistance, as well as infiltration ICON therapy before fixing braces. Caries preventive complex accompanying JFA treatment in children with primary tooth decay developed with regard to revealed genetic disorders of amelogenesis, 2-nd of phase detoxification, collagen formation, functional responses in the oral cavity, state of hard tissues of teeth and periodontal tissues enabled to preserve existing carious process, normalize periodontal and hygienic indices at all stages of treatment.

  16. 76 FR 12559 - Antidrug and Alcohol Misuse Prevention Programs for Personnel Engaged in Specified Aviation...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-08

    ... testing regulations by amending the definition of employee (67 FR. 9366, 9377, Feb. 28, 2002). The FAA... and employee training costs, involve all employees, both supervisors and non- supervisors. For these... per employee for a drug test and $102 per employee for an alcohol test. Training and...

  17. Faculty Member's Handbook. Strategies for Preventing Alcohol and Other Drug Problems. The College Series.

    Science.gov (United States)

    CSR, Inc., Washington, DC.

    This handbook for higher education faculty is designed to inform them of the nature and extent of alcohol and other drug abuse on the nation's campuses and to enlist their involvement in responding to these problems. Based on the premise that each individual can make a difference, the faculty member is encouraged to help shape the campus…

  18. Program Administrator's Handbook. Strategies for Preventing Alcohol and Other Drug Problems. The College Series.

    Science.gov (United States)

    CSR, Inc., Washington, DC.

    This handbook is for administrators of programs in higher education settings which deal with alcohol and other drug (AOD) related problems. Chapter 1, "Defining the Problem, Issues, and Trends" examines the problem from various perspectives and presents the latest statistics on the extent of AOD use on campuses, specific problems affecting…

  19. Depression, Anxiety, and Alcohol or Other Drug Use among College Students. Prevention Updates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ross, Virginia

    2004-01-01

    Community studies and reports from clinicians reveal that significant numbers of students on U.S. college campuses suffer from depression and/or anxiety and use alcohol or other drugs (AOD). Counselors in both the drug abuse and mental health fields confirm that students who seek mental health treatment often report symptoms of substance abuse,…

  20. Impact of a smoking and alcohol intervention programme on lung and breast cancer incidence in Denmark: An example of dynamic modelling with Prevent

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Soerjomataram, Isabelle; de Vries, Esther; Engholm, Gerda;

    2010-01-01

    of risk factors because of a 10% increase in cigarette and alcohol beverage price, repeated every 5years). Danish data from the household surveys, cancer registration and Eurostat were used. RESULTS: Up to 49% less new lung cancer cases can be expected in 2050 if smoking were to be completely eliminated....... Five-yearly 10% price increases may prevent 521 new lung cancer cases in 2050 (21% less cases). An intervention that immediately reduces population alcohol consumption to the recommended level (below 12g/d) may lower breast cancer by 7%, preventing 445 out of the 6060 expected new cases in 2050. Five......-yearly 10% price increases in alcoholic beverages achieved a reduction of half as expected by the ideal scenario, i.e. 4% (262) preventable cases in 2050. CONCLUSIONS: The future burden of lung and breast cancer could be markedly reduced by intervening in their risk factors. Prevent illustrates the benefit...

  1. Initial rotor position estimation and sliding preventing for elevators with surface-mounted PMSMs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Feng; Shen, Anwen; Tang, Qipeng; Xu, Jinbang

    2016-03-01

    Improved methods of initial rotor position estimation and sliding prevention are presented in this paper for elevators with surface-mounted permanent magnet synchronous machines (SPMSMs). In contrast to most of the existing literature, in this paper, estimation errors caused by stator resistance and dead time are analysed in detail. The improved estimation method can reduce the errors greatly without dead-time compensations and knowledge of motor parameters. Besides, an observer-based feedforward compensation of load torque is introduced to elevator applications to prevent sliding during the starting process. Since the torque observer is widely used in other motor applications, we focus on the impact caused by the change in inertia. Finally, a series of experiments are performed on a testing system with two 13.4 kW SPMSMs and drivers to illustrate the effectiveness and improvement of the method.

  2. Initiating and continuing behaviour change within a weight gain prevention trial: a qualitative investigation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samantha Kozica

    Full Text Available Preventing obesity is an international health priority. In Australia, young women who live in rural communities are at high risk of unhealthy weight gain. Interventions which engage young women and support sustainable behaviour change are needed and comprehensive evaluation of such interventions generates knowledge for population scale-up. This qualitative sub-study aims to identify enablers and barriers to behaviour change initiation and continuation within a community weight gain prevention program.In-depth semi-structured interviews were conducted with program participants 6 months after baseline. All interviews were audio-taped and transcribed verbatim. Transcripts were analysed independently by two investigators via thematic analysis.A total of 28 women with a mean age of 39.9±6.2years and a BMI of 28.6±5.2kg/m2 were purposively recruited from the larger cohort (n = 649 that participated in the prevention trial.Four behaviour change groups emerged were identified from participant interviews: (i no change, (ii relapse, (iii intermittent and (iv continued change. Factors influencing behaviour change initiation and continuation included realistic program expectations and the participant's ability to apply the core program elements including: setting small, achievable behaviour change goals, problem solving and using self-management techniques. Personal knowledge, skills, motivation, self-efficacy, accountability and perceived social and environmental barriers also affected behaviour change. Satisfaction with personal program progress and the perceived amount of program supports required to achieve ongoing behaviour change varied amongst participants. Women who relapsed expressed a desire for more intensive and regular support from health professionals, identified more barriers unrelated to the program, anticipated significant weight loss and had lower satisfaction with their progress.Initiating and continuing behaviour change is a complex

  3. The African Vaccine-Preventable Diseases Network: a vaccine advocacy initiative

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Charles Shey Wiysonge

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Achieving high and equitable childhood immunisation coverage in Africa will not only protect children from disability and premature death, it will also boost productivity, reduce poverty and support the economic growth of the continent. Thus, Africa needs innovative and sustainable vaccine advocacy initiatives. One such initiative is the African Vaccine-Preventable Diseases Network, formed in 2009. This association of immunisation practitioners, vaccinologists, paediatricians, and infectious disease experts provides a platform to advocate for the introduction of newly available vaccines (e.g. 10-valent and 13-valent pneumococcal conjugate and rotavirus vaccines into the Expanded Programme on Immunisation (EPI as well as increased and equitable coverage for established EPI vaccines.

  4. 76 FR 26308 - National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-06

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice... personal privacy. Name of Committee: National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism Initial Review..., Scientific Review Administrator, National Institutes On Alcohol Abuse & Alcoholism National, Institutes...

  5. 75 FR 10291 - National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-05

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice... personal privacy. Name of Committee: National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism, Initial Review..., MBA, Scientific Review Officer, National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism, Office...

  6. 76 FR 78014 - National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-15

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice... personal privacy. Name of Committee: National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism Initial Review...., Scientific Review Administrator, National Institutes on Alcohol Abuse & Alcoholism, National Institutes...

  7. 76 FR 77841 - National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-14

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice... personal privacy. Name of Committee: National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism Initial Review..., Ph.D., Scientific Review Officer, National Institute on Alcohol Abuse & Alcoholism,...

  8. 77 FR 22794 - National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-17

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice... personal privacy. Name of Committee: National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism Initial Review..., Ph.D., Scientific Review Administrator, National Institutes on Alcohol Abuse & Alcoholism...

  9. 78 FR 42529 - National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-16

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice... personal privacy. Name of Committee: National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism Initial Review....D., Scientific Review Administrator, National Institutes on Alcohol Abuse & Alcoholism,...

  10. 78 FR 42530 - National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-16

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice... personal privacy. Name of Committee: National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism Initial Review..., Ph.D., Scientific Review Officer, National Institute on Alcohol Abuse & Alcoholism,...

  11. Breast cancer prevention with Morinda citrifolia (noni at the initiation stage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mian-Ying Wang

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACTBackground: It has been reported that noni has multiple health benefits for over 2000 years. In this study, the cancer preventive effects of Tahitian noni® juice (TNJ at the initiation stage on DMBA-induced mammary tumorigenesis in female SD rats was investigated.Objective: We took advantage of the DMBA-induced mammary carcinogenic model to study the preventive effects of TNJ at the initiation stage of mammary carcinogenesis in female SD rats by using clinical observation, pathological examination, and 32P-postlabeling assay.Methods: One hundred and sixty female SD rats were divided into eight groups with 20 rats in each group. Three doses of TNJ or placebo was given to the animals at the age of 35 days until the end of the experiment. When the animals were 55 days old, 25 mg/kg DMBA was fed to the animals in the DMBA group, placebo, and TNJ groups. The 20 rats were kept at age-matched controls. Palpable tumors were examined twice a week after DMBA administration in each group by an experienced professional. The size of tumor was measured by a graduated caliper. A piece of tumor, vascularization area, and mammary glands in the thoracic and abdomen areas of each rat were dissected respectively and fixed in 10% neutral buffered formalin for light microscope examination. The DMBA-DNA adduct formation in mammary tissues was detected by 32P-postlabeling assay.Results: The tumor latency in TNJ groups was delayed about 60-90 days when compared with positive controls. The number of palpable tumors per group was significantly reduced by 73%, 72% and 80% in 3%, 5%, and 10% TNJ groups respectively when compared with positive controls at the end of 330 days after DMBA administration. The number of palpable tumors in the placebo groups was slightly reduced in the early stage, but much less than that in the TNJ groups. The multiplicity and malignancy of lesions were significantly reduced and the survival rate of animals in the TNJ groups was

  12. Relapse Prevention for Alcohol and Drug Problems: That Was Zen, This Is Tao

    Science.gov (United States)

    Witkiewitz, Katie; Marlatt, Alan G.

    2004-01-01

    Relapse prevention, based on the cognitive-behavioral model of relapse, has become an adjunct to the treatment of numerous psychological problems, including (but not limited to) substance abuse, depression, sexual offending, and schizophrenia. This article provides an overview of the efficacy and effectiveness of relapse prevention in the…

  13. Genetic Deficiency in Neprilysin or Its Pharmacological Inhibition Initiate Excessive Stress-Induced Alcohol Consumption in Mice

    OpenAIRE

    Björn Maul; Matthias Becker; Florian Gembardt; Axel Becker; Heinz-Peter Schultheiss; Wolf-Eberhard Siems; Thomas Walther

    2012-01-01

    Both acquired and inherited genetic factors contribute to excessive alcohol consumption and the corresponding development of addiction. Here we show that the genetic deficiency in neprilysin [NEP] did not change the kinetics of alcohol degradation but led to an increase in alcohol intake in mice in a 2-bottle-free-choice paradigm after one single stress stimulus (intruder). A repetition of such stress led to an irreversible elevated alcohol consumption. This phenomenon could be also observed ...

  14. Is it time to ban alcohol advertising?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Peter

    2009-04-01

    Children and adolescents are particularly vulnerable to the harmful effects of alcohol, with heavy drinking risking impaired brain development and future alcohol dependence. Advertisements increase expectancies about alcohol, leading to a greater likelihood of drinking. A systematic review of 13 longitudinal studies of over 38,000 young people found convincing evidence of an impact of media exposure and alcohol advertising on subsequent alcohol use, including initiation of drinking and heavier drinking among existing drinkers. All European countries, with the exception of the UK, have a ban on one or more types of advertising. Since self-regulation is reported as failing to prevent marketing which has an impact on younger people, and since advertising commonly crosses country borders, there is an argument to approximate advertising rules across Europe banning alcohol advertising targeted at young people, a highly cost-effective measure to reduce harmful alcohol use, and one supported by European citizens and case law.

  15. Is it time to ban alcohol advertising?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Peter

    2009-04-01

    Children and adolescents are particularly vulnerable to the harmful effects of alcohol, with heavy drinking risking impaired brain development and future alcohol dependence. Advertisements increase expectancies about alcohol, leading to a greater likelihood of drinking. A systematic review of 13 longitudinal studies of over 38,000 young people found convincing evidence of an impact of media exposure and alcohol advertising on subsequent alcohol use, including initiation of drinking and heavier drinking among existing drinkers. All European countries, with the exception of the UK, have a ban on one or more types of advertising. Since self-regulation is reported as failing to prevent marketing which has an impact on younger people, and since advertising commonly crosses country borders, there is an argument to approximate advertising rules across Europe banning alcohol advertising targeted at young people, a highly cost-effective measure to reduce harmful alcohol use, and one supported by European citizens and case law. PMID:19435114

  16. Evolution and Initial Experience of a Statewide Care Transitions Quality Improvement Collaborative: Preventing Avoidable Readmissions Together.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Axon, R Neal; Cole, Laura; Moonan, Aunyika; Foster, Richard; Cawley, Patrick; Long, Laura; Turley, Christine B

    2016-02-01

    Increasing scrutiny of hospital readmission rates has spurred a wide variety of quality improvement initiatives. The Preventing Avoidable Readmissions Together (PART) initiative is a statewide quality improvement learning collaborative organized by stakeholder organizations in South Carolina. This descriptive report focused on initial interventions with hospitals. Eligible participants included all acute care hospitals plus home health organizations, nursing facilities, hospices, and other health care organizations. Measures were degree of statewide participation, curricular engagement, adoption of evidence-based improvement strategies, and readmission rate changes. Fifty-nine of 64 (92%) acute care hospitals and 9 of 10 (90%) hospital systems participated in collaborative events. Curricular engagement included: webinars and coaching calls (49/59, 83%), statewide in-person meetings (35/59, 59%), regional in-person meetings (44/59, 75%), and individualized consultations (46/59, 78%). Among 34 (58%) participating hospitals completing a survey at the completion of Year 1, respondents indicated complete implementation of multidisciplinary rounding (58%), post-discharge telephone calls (58%), and teach-back (32%), and implementation in process of high-quality transition records (52%), improved discharge summaries (45%), and timely follow-up appointments (39%). A higher proportion of hospitals had significant decreases (≥10% relative change) in all-cause readmission rates for acute myocardial infarction (55.6% vs. 30.4%, P=0.01), heart failure (54.2% vs. 31.7%, P=0.09), and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (41.7% vs. 33.3%, P=0.83) between 2011-2013 compared to earlier (2009-2011) trends. Focus on reducing readmissions is driving numerous, sometimes competing, quality improvement initiatives. PART successfully engaged the majority of acute care facilities in one state to harmonize and accelerate adoption of evidence-based care transitions strategies. PMID:26102592

  17. 77 FR 4048 - Disease, Disability, and Injury Prevention and Control Special Emphasis Panel (SEP): Initial Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-26

    ... Dengue Epidemiology, Outcomes, and Prevention in Sentinel Surveillance and Research Sites in Puerto Rico... to ``Evaluation of Dengue Epidemiology, Outcomes and Prevention in Sentinel Surveillance and...

  18. Cytochrome P450 2E1 inhibition prevents hepatic carcinogenesis induced by diethylnitrosamine in alcohol-fed rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ye, Qinyuan; Lian, Fuzhi; Chavez, Pollyanna R G; Chung, Jayong; Ling, Wenhua; Qin, Hua; Seitz, Helmut K; Wang, Xiang-Dong

    2012-12-01

    Chronic alcohol ingestion increases hepatic cytochrome P450 2E1 (CYP2E1), which is associated with hepatocarcinogenesis. We investigated whether treatment with chlormethiazole (CMZ), a CYP2E1 inhibitor, protects against alcohol-associated hepatic carcinogenesis in rats. Rats were fed either an ethanol liquid diet or a non-ethanol liquid diet, with or without CMZ for one and ten months. A single intraperitoneal injection of diethylnitrosamine (DEN, 20 mg/kg) was given to initiate hepatic carcinogenesis. CYP2E1 expression, inflammatory proteins, cell proliferation, protein-bound 4-HNE, etheno-DNA adducts, 8-hydroxy-2'-deoxyguanosine (8-OHdG), retinoid concentrations, and hepatic carcinogenesis were examined. Ethanol feeding for 1 month with DEN resulted in significantly increased hepatic CYP2E1 levels and increased nuclear accumulation of NF-κB protein and TNF-α expression, which were associated with increased cyclin D1 expression and p-GST positive altered hepatic foci. All of these changes induced by ethanol feeding were significantly inhibited by the one month CMZ treatment. At 10-months of treatment, hepatocellular adenomas were detected in ethanol-fed rats only, but neither in control rats nor in animals receiving ethanol and CMZ. The 8-OHdG formation was found to be significantly increased in ethanol fed animals and normalized with CMZ treatment. In addition, alcohol-reduced hepatic retinol and retinoic acid concentrations were restored by CMZ treatment to normal levels in the rats at 10 months of treatment. These data demonstrate that the inhibition of ethanol-induced CYP2E1 as a key pathogenic factor can counteract the tumor-promoting action of ethanol by decreasing TNF-α expression, NF-κB activation, and oxidative DNA damage as well as restoring normal hepatic levels of retinoic acid in DEN-treated rats. PMID:23543859

  19. A Comparison of Maternal Outcomes from an Alcohol, Tobacco, and Other Drug Prevention Program for Mothers Choosing an Intervention versus Being Randomized

    OpenAIRE

    Byrnes, Hilary F.; MILLER, BRENDA A.; Laborde, Nicole

    2012-01-01

    Self-determination theory and substantial research findings suggest that more desirable outcomes may occur when participants are able to choose their prevention or treatment interventions, as having a choice may lead to greater motivation and feelings of self-efficacy. The present study examined the influence of having a choice of family-based prevention programs for youth alcohol, tobacco, and drug use on mothers’ communication outcomes. Families (N=496) were those with an 11–12 year old enr...

  20. ‘Klar bleiben’: a school-based alcohol prevention programme for German adolescents—study protocol for a cluster randomised controlled trial

    OpenAIRE

    Tomczyk, Samuel; Hanewinkel, Reiner; Isensee, Barbara

    2015-01-01

    Introduction There is a noticeable increase in hazardous alcohol use during adolescence, which is significantly associated with adverse consequences. In Germany, up to 30% of adolescents report regular heavy episodic drinking. However, only a few German prevention programmes target adolescents of legal drinking age (16 years and above); thus, this trial aims to develop, implement and evaluate ‘Klar bleiben’ (‘Stay clearheaded’), a school-based prevention programme for grade 10 students. Metho...

  1. 77 FR 20822 - Disease, Disability, and Injury Prevention and Control Special Emphasis Panel (SEP): Initial Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-06

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Disease, Disability, and Injury Prevention and... both the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention and the Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease..., Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. BILLING CODE 4163-18-P...

  2. 78 FR 56236 - Disease, Disability, and Injury Prevention and Control Special Emphasis Panel (SEP): Initial Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-12

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Disease, Disability, and Injury Prevention and... Committee Act (Pub. L. 92-463), the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) announces the... Disease Control and Prevention and the Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry. Elaine L....

  3. 77 FR 7164 - Disease, Disability, and Injury Prevention and Control Special Emphasis Panel (SEP): Initial Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-10

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Disease, Disability, and Injury Prevention and... Federal Advisory Committee Act (Pub. L. 92-463), the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC... committee management activities, for both the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, and the Agency...

  4. 78 FR 19490 - Disease, Disability, and Injury Prevention and Control Special Emphasis Panels (SEP): Initial Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-01

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Disease, Disability, and Injury Prevention and... activities, for both the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention and the Agency for Toxic Substances and... Disease Control and Prevention. BILLING CODE 4163-18-P...

  5. 78 FR 19490 - Disease, Disability, and Injury Prevention and Control Special Emphasis Panel (SEP): Initial Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-01

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Disease, Disability, and Injury Prevention and... and Prevention and the Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry. Dana Redford, Acting Director, Management Analysis and Services Office, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. BILLING CODE 4163-18-P...

  6. 77 FR 19018 - Disease, Disability, and Injury Prevention and Control Special Emphasis Panel (SEP): Initial Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-29

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Disease, Disability, and Injury Prevention and... Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) announces the aforementioned meeting: Time and Date: 12 p..., for both the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention and the Agency for Toxic Substances...

  7. 77 FR 36544 - Disease, Disability, and Injury Prevention and Control Special Emphasis Panel (SEP): Initial Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-19

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Disease, Disability, and Injury Prevention and... Committee Act (Pub. L. 92-463), the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) announces the... management activities, for both the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention and the Agency for...

  8. 78 FR 25743 - Disease, Disability, and Injury Prevention and Control Special Emphasis Panel (SEP): Initial Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-02

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Disease, Disability, and Injury Prevention and... Federal Advisory Committee Act (Pub. L. 92-463), the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC... both the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention and the Agency for Toxic Substances and...

  9. 78 FR 24751 - Disease, Disability, and Injury Prevention and Control Special Emphasis Panel (SEP): Initial Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-26

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Disease, Disability, and Injury Prevention and... Advisory Committee Act (Pub. L. 92-463), the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) announces the... Disease Control and Prevention and the Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry. Elaine L....

  10. 78 FR 78966 - Disease, Disability, and Injury Prevention and Control Special Emphasis Panel (SEP): Initial Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-27

    ..., Prevention, and Treatment of Influenza and Other Respiratory Infections in a Malaria- Endemic Area of Malawi... HUMAN SERVICES Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Disease, Disability, and Injury Prevention and... Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) announces the aforementioned meeting: Time and Date: 1:00 p.m.-3:00...

  11. Project Self-Esteem: A Parent Involvement Program for Improving Self-Esteem and Preventing Drug and Alcohol Abuse, K-6. Revised.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDaniel, Sandy; Bielen, Peggy

    This guide presents Project Self-Esteem, a program for improving self-esteem and preventing drug and alcohol abuse in kindergarten through grade 6. Chapter I presents the team leader's guide and discusses introducing the program to the principal, school staff, and parents. Chapter II focuses on kindergarten and includes lessons on being a friend…

  12. Evaluating the impact of getting to outcomes-underage drinking on prevention capacity and alcohol merchant attitudes and selling behaviors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chinman, Matthew; Ebener, Patricia; Burkhart, Q; Osilla, Karen Chan; Imm, Pamela; Paddock, Susan M; Wright, Patricia Ann

    2014-08-01

    Underage drinking is a significant problem facing US communities. Several environmental alcohol prevention (EAP) strategies (laws, regulations, responsible beverage service training and practices) successfully address underage drinking. Communities, however, face challenges carrying out these EAP strategies effectively. This small-scale, 3-year, randomized controlled trial assessed whether providing prevention coalitions with Getting To Outcomes-Underage Drinking (GTO-UD), a tool kit and implementation support intervention, helped improve implementation of two common EAP strategies, responsible beverage service training (RBS) and compliance checks. Three coalitions in South Carolina and their RBS and compliance check programs received the 16-month GTO-UD intervention, including the GTO-UD manual, training, and onsite technical assistance, while another three in South Carolina maintained routine operations. The measures, collected at baseline and after the intervention, were a structured interview assessing how well coalitions carried out their work and a survey of merchant attitudes and practices in the six counties served by the participating coalitions. Over time, the quality of some RBS and compliance check activities improved more in GTO-UD coalitions than in the control sites. No changes in merchant practices or attitudes significantly differed between the GTO-UD and control groups, although merchants in the GTO-UD counties did significantly improve on refusing sales to minors while control merchants did not.

  13. Prevention of KLF4-mediated tumor initiation and malignant transformation by UAB30 rexinoid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Wen; Deng, Wentao; Bailey, Sarah K; Nail, Clint D; Frost, Andra R; Brouillette, Wayne J; Muccio, Donald D; Grubbs, Clinton J; Ruppert, J Michael; Lobo-Ruppert, Susan M

    2009-02-01

    The transcription factor KLF4 acts in post-mitotic epithelial cells to promote differentiation and functions in a context-dependent fashion as an oncogene. In the skin KLF4 is co-expressed with the nuclear receptors RARgamma and RXRalpha, and formation of the skin permeability barrier is a shared function of these three proteins. We utilized a KLF4-transgenic mouse model of skin cancer in combination with cultured epithelial cells to examine functional interactions between KLF4 and retinoic acid receptors. In cultured cells, activation of a conditional, KLF4-estrogen receptor fusion protein by 4-hydroxytamoxifen resulted in rapid upregulation of transcripts for nuclear receptors including RARgamma and RXRalpha. We tested retinoids in epithelial cell transformation assays, including an RAR-selective agonist (all-trans RA), an RXR-selective agonist (9-cis UAB30, rexinoid), and a pan agonist (9-cis RA). Unlike for several other genes, transformation by KLF4 was inhibited by each retinoid, implicating distinct nuclear receptor heterodimers as modulators of KLF4 transforming activity. When RXRalpha expression was suppressed by RNAi in cultured cells, transformation was promoted and the inhibitory effect of 9-cis UAB30 was attenuated. Similarly as shown for other mouse models of skin cancer, rexinoid prevented skin tumor initiation resulting from induction of KLF4 in basal keratinocytes. Rexinoid permitted KLF4 expression and KLF4-induced cell cycling, but attenuated the KLF4-induced misexpression of cytokeratin 1 in basal cells. Neoplastic lesions including hyperplasia, dysplasia and squamous cell carcinoma-like lesions were prevented for up to 30 days. Taken together, the results identify retinoid receptors including RXRalpha as ligand-dependent inhibitors of KLF4-mediated transformation or tumorigenesis. PMID:19197145

  14. Mortality for Alcohol-related Harm by Country of Birth in Scotland, 2000-2004: Potential Lessons for Prevention

    OpenAIRE

    Bhala, Neeraj; Fischbacher, Colin; Bhopal, Raj

    2010-01-01

    Aims: Deaths caused by alcohol have increased in the UK, and Scotland in particular, but the change in the rates of alcohol-related deaths for migrants are uncertain, and could yield insights for the general population. Methods: Alcohol-related mortality in immigrants among Scotland’s residents was assessed using 2001 census data and mortality data from 2000 to 2004. Results: Mortality from direct alcohol-related causes accounted for nearly 1500 deaths per year in Scotland. Age-stand...

  15. Progesterone for the prevention of preterm birth: indications, when to initiate, efficacy and safety

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helen Y How

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Helen Y How, Baha M SibaiDivision of Maternal Fetal Medicine, Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, University of Cincinnati, Cincinnati, OH USAAbstract: Preterm birth is the leading cause of neonatal mortality and morbidity and long-term disability of non-anomalous infants. Previous studies have identified a prior early spontaneous preterm birth as the risk factor with the highest predictive value for recurrence. Two recent double blind randomized placebo controlled trials reported lower preterm birth rate with the use of either intramuscular 17 alpha-hydroxyprogesterone caproate (IM 17OHP-C or intravaginal micronized progesterone suppositories in women at risk for preterm delivery. However, it is still unclear which high-risk women would truly benefit from this treatment in a general clinical setting and whether socio-cultural, racial and genetic differences play a role in patient’s response to supplemental progesterone. In addition the patient’s acceptance of such recommendation is also in question. More research is still required on identification of at risk group, the optimal gestational age at initiation, mode of administration, dose of progesterone and long-term safety.Keywords: preterm birth prevention, 17-alpha-hydroxyprogesterone caproate

  16. 78 FR 66937 - Disease, Disability, and Injury Prevention and Control Special Emphasis Panel (SEP): Initial Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-11-07

    ... Building Assistance for High Impact HIV Prevention, Funding Opportunity Announcement (FOA) PS14-1403... Impact HIV Prevention'' FOA PS14-1403. Contact Person for More Information: Harriette A. Lynch,...

  17. 78 FR 19490 - Disease, Disability, and Injury Prevention and Control Special Emphasis Panel (SEP): Initial Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-01

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Disease, Disability, and Injury Prevention and... Towards Cognitive Health, Cognitive Impairment, and Caregiving--Identifying Attitude Questions and... ``Attitudes Towards Cognitive Health, Cognitive Impairment, and Caregiving--Identifying Attitude Questions...

  18. Genetic deficiency in neprilysin or its pharmacological inhibition initiate excessive stress-induced alcohol consumption in mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Björn Maul

    Full Text Available Both acquired and inherited genetic factors contribute to excessive alcohol consumption and the corresponding development of addiction. Here we show that the genetic deficiency in neprilysin [NEP] did not change the kinetics of alcohol degradation but led to an increase in alcohol intake in mice in a 2-bottle-free-choice paradigm after one single stress stimulus (intruder. A repetition of such stress led to an irreversible elevated alcohol consumption. This phenomenon could be also observed in wild-type mice receiving an orally active NEP inhibitor. We therefore elucidated the stress behavior in NEP-deficient mice. In an Elevated Plus Maze, NEP knockouts crossed more often the area between the arms, implicating a significant stronger stress response. Furthermore, such animals showed a decreased locomotor activity under intense light in a locomotor activity test, identifying such mice to be more responsive in aversive situations than their wild-type controls. Since the reduction in NEP activity itself does not lead to significant signs of an altered alcohol preference in mice but requires an environmental stimulus, our findings build a bridge between stress components and genetic factors in the development of alcoholism. Therefore, targeting NEP activity might be a very attractive approach for the treatment of alcohol abuse in a society with increasing social and financial stress.

  19. 77 FR 31358 - Disease, Disability, and Injury Prevention and Control Special Interest Projects (SIPs): Initial...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-25

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Disease, Disability, and Injury Prevention and... Center for the Managing Epilepsy Well (MEW) Prevention Research Centers Network, SIP12-056, and Managing Epilepsy Well (MEW) Collaborating Center for Epilepsy Self-Management Intervention Research,...

  20. 77 FR 25180 - Disease, Disability, and Injury Prevention and Control Special Emphasis Panel (SEP): Initial Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-27

    ... Dengue Epidemiology, Outcomes, and Prevention in Sentinel Surveillance and Research Sites in Puerto Rico... HUMAN SERVICES Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Disease, Disability, and Injury Prevention and... meetings and other committee management activities, for both the Centers for Disease Control and...

  1. 76 FR 27649 - Disease, Disability, and Injury Prevention and Control Special Interest Projects (SIPs): Initial...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-12

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Disease, Disability, and Injury Prevention and... Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) announces the aforementioned meeting: Times And Dates: 8:30 a.m.-5:30....P.H., Director, Extramural Research Program Office, National Center for Chronic Disease...

  2. 77 FR 22326 - Disease, Disability, and Injury Prevention and Control Special Emphasis Panel (SEP): Initial Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-13

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Disease, Disability, and Injury Prevention and... Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) announces the aforementioned meeting: Time and Date: 1 p.m.-2 p.m... meetings and other committee management activities, for both the Centers for Disease Control and...

  3. 77 FR 25181 - Disease, Disability, and Injury Prevention and Control Special Emphasis Panel (SEP): Initial Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-27

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Disease, Disability, and Injury Prevention and... Technical Assistance To The Ministry Of Public Health Of Haiti To Support Post Earthquake Reconstruction... Federal Advisory Committee Act (Pub. L. 92-463), the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention...

  4. 78 FR 37542 - Disease, Disability, and Injury Prevention and Control Special Emphasis Panel (SEP): Initial Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-21

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Disease, Disability, and Injury Prevention and... Cooperative Agreement Research to Aid Recovery from Hurricane Sandy, Request for Applications (RFA) OH13-002...), the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) announces the aforementioned meeting: Time...

  5. 78 FR 40744 - Disease, Disability, and Injury Prevention and Control Special Emphasis Panel (SEP): Initial Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-08

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Disease, Disability, and Injury Prevention and... Disease Control and Prevention Public Health Preparedness and Response Research to Aid Recovery from Hurricane Sandy, Request for Applications (RFA) TP13-001 (republished on www.Grants.gov on June 28,...

  6. From a target group towards interaction group: Alcohol prevention policy regarding young people in Germany

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susanne Linden

    2015-10-01

    Conclusion: Not only the content matters to promote participation, interactive communication, but also context and style of the communication. To enhance self reflection and deeper understanding it is essential to deliver the information in an attractive context, which has been found relevant for the target group. Just providing information may be important but is not sufficient in order to change the behaviour. Information which is elaborated through discussion – even online – may transform information into deeper understanding respectively knowledge. Thus it is more likely to have an impact on future behaviour. The target group should be recognized as interaction group. This will help to improve the adaptation and intervention continuously. Nevertheless, prevention and behaviour change will take their time and will need continuous effort at high level. Future research is needed to measure the impact of vivid discussion on people who take part in these discussions in an active way, compared to those who only follow the conversation thread.

  7. Towards programs for alcohol consumption prevention in college students in Bogota, Colombia [Elementos para programas de prevención en consumo de alcohol en universitarios en Bogotá, Colombia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Liliana Muñoz Ortega

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available This non–experimental study, aimed to propose from university students items for prevention programs of alcohol consumption obtain by examining levels, situations and characteristics of alcohol consumption of 2910 students in ten universities of Bogotá – Colombia who answered the features tab in consumption, the Ceal and the Isca, participating in 15 focus groups, 80 students. Consumption is high, begins at early ages, approved by parents, associated by academic pressures loneliness and culture. There are indexes of abuse and dependence. The situations associated with consumption are emotions and good times, the urge to consume and social pressure. Preventive programs should be implemented by youth-oriented, responsible consumption using a variety of activities with responsibility from the actors.

  8. Alcohol and liver disease in Europe--Simple measures have the potential to prevent tens of thousands of premature deaths.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheron, Nick

    2016-04-01

    In the World Health Organisation European Region, more than 2,370,000 years of life are lost from liver disease before the age of 50; more than lung cancer, trachea, bronchus, oesophageal, stomach, colon, rectum and pancreatic cancer combined. Between 60-80% of these deaths are alcohol related, a disease for which no pharmaceutical therapy has yet been shown to improve long-term survival. The toxicity of alcohol is dose related at an individual level, and is dose related at a population level; overall liver mortality is largely determined by population alcohol consumption. Trends in alcohol consumption correlate closely with trends in overall liver mortality, with 3-5-fold decreases or increases in liver mortality in different European countries over the last few decades. The evidence base for alcohol control measures aimed at reducing population alcohol consumption has been subjected to rigorous evaluation; most recently by the Organisation for Economic Co-Operation and Development (OECD). Effective alcohol policy measures reduce alcohol mortality, including mortality from liver disease. The most effective and cost effective measures have been summarised by the OECD and the World Health Organisation: regular incremental above inflation tax increases, a minimum price for alcohol, effective protection of children from alcohol marketing and low level interventions from clinicians. Simple, cheap and effective changes to alcohol policy by European Institutions and member states have the potential to dramatically reduce liver mortality in Europe. PMID:26592352

  9. 78 FR 21615 - National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-11

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice... personal privacy. Name of Committee: National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism Initial ] Review... Foster, Ph.D., Scientific Review Administrator, National Institutes on Alcohol Abuse &...

  10. Atmospheric chemistry of 4 : 2 fluorotelomer alcohol (CF3(CF2)(3)CH2CH2OH): Products and mechanism of Cl atom initiated oxidation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hurley, MD; Ball, JC; Wallington, TJ;

    2004-01-01

    Smog chamber/FTIR techniques were used to study the products and mechanism of the Cl atom initiated oxidation of 4:2 fluorotelomer alcohol (CF3(CF2)(3)CH2CH2OH) in 700 Torr of N-2/O-2 diluent at 296 K. CF3(CF2)(3)CH2CHO is the sole primary oxidation product. CF3(CF2)(3)CHO, CF3(CF2)(3)CH2COOH, an...

  11. Why is adolescence a key period of alcohol initiation and who is prone to develop long-term problem use?: A review of current available data

    OpenAIRE

    Campanella, Salvatore; Petit, Géraldine; Kornreich, Charles; Verbanck, Paul; Cimochowska, Agnieska

    2013-01-01

    Background: Early adolescence is a key developmental period for the initiation of alcohol use, and consumption among adolescents is characterized by drinking in high quantities. At the same time, adolescence is characterized by rapid biological transformations including dramatic changes in the brain, particularly in the prefrontal cortex and the mesocorticolimbic dopamine system. Methods: This article begins with an overview of the unique neural and behavioural characteristics of adolescent d...

  12. Alcohol and Cancer Risk

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Overview Cancer Prevention Overview–for health professionals Research Alcohol and Cancer Risk On This Page What is ... in the risk of colorectal cancer. Research on alcohol consumption and other cancers: Numerous studies have examined ...

  13. Preventive Effects of Forced Exercise against Alcohol-induced Physical Dependency and Reduction of Pain Perception Threshold

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Majid Motaghinejad

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Treatment of postabstinence syndrome of alcohol is one of the major strategies of alcoholism treatment. Exercise can be modulated major brain pathways such as a reward system and pain perception centers. The aim of this study was to evaluation the effects of forced exercise in the management of alcohol dependence and pain perception alteration which induced by alcoholism. Methods: 72 adult male rats were divided into 2 major groups: (1 40 of them was divided into groups of positive control (alcohol dependent negative control and alcohol dependent groups under treatment by forced exercise, diazepam (0.4 mg/kg and forced exercise in combination with diazepam and alcohol withdrawal signs, and blood cortisols, were measured in this groups. (2 32 rats were divided into control, alcohol dependent (without treatment, and alcohol-dependent groups under treatment by forced exercise or indometacin (5 mg/kg and then pain perception was assessed by using writhing test, tail-flick and hot plate test. Results: Forced exercise, diazepam, and their combinations significantly attenuates withdrawal syndrome to 20 ± 2, 22 ± 1.3 and 16 ± 2 and blood cortisol level to 6.8 ± 1.3,7.9 ± 1.2 and 5.8 ± 1.1, respectively, in comparison with the positive control group (P < 0.05 and P < 0.001. In alcohol dependent animal under treatment by forced exercise, pain response significantly inhibited with 37%, 57% and 38% decreases in writhing test, hot plate, and tail-flick test, respectively, in comparison with alcohol dependent (without treatment group (P < 0.05. Conclusions: This study suggested that forced exercise can be useful as adjunct therapy in alcoholism patient and also can be effective in modulation of pain threshold reduction that was induced by alcohol dependency.

  14. Heme oxygenase-1 prevents non-alcoholic steatohepatitis through suppressing hepatocyte apoptosis in mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fu Na

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Objective Heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1, the rate-limiting enzyme in heme catabolism, has been reported to have potential antioxidant properties. However, the role of HO-1 on hepatocyte apoptosis remains unclear. We aim to elucidate the effects of HO-1 on oxidative stress related hepatocellular apoptosis in nutritional steatohepatitis in mice. Methods C57BL/6J mice were fed with methionine-choline deficient (MCD diet for four weeks to induce hepatic steatohepatitis. HO-1 chemical inducer (hemin, HO-1 chemical inhibitor zinc protoporphyrin IX (ZnPP-IX and/or adenovirus carrying HO-1 gene (Ad-HO-1 were administered to mice, respectively. Hepatocyte apoptosis was evaluated by terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase dUTP nick-end labeling (TUNEL assay, the mRNA and protein expression of apoptosis related genes were assayed by quantitative real-time PCR and Western blot. Results Hepatocyte signs of oxidative related apoptotic injury were presented in mice fed with MCD diet for 4 weeks. Induction of HO-1 by hemin or Ad-HO-1 significantly attenuated the severity of liver histology, which was associated with decreased hepatic lipid peroxidation content, reduced number of apoptotic cells by TUNEL staining, down-regulated expression of pro-apoptosis related genes including Fas/FasL, Bax, caspase-3 and caspase-9, reduced expression of cytochrome p4502E1 (CYP2E1, inhibited cytochrome c (Cyt-c release, and up-regulated expression of anti-apoptosis gene Bcl-2. Whereas, inhibition of HO-1 by ZnPP-IX caused oxidative stress related hepatic injury, which concomitant with increased number of TUNEL positive cells and up-regulated expression of pro-apoptosis related genes. Conclusions The present study provided evidences for the protective role of HO-1 in preventing nutritional steatohepatitis through suppressing hepatocyte apoptosis in mice.

  15. Preventing seasonal influenza worldwide through vaccination, education, and international cooperation: research, findings, and recommendations from the Global Influenza Initiative.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Paget, J.

    2015-01-01

    This supplement to IORV, dedicated to the Global Influenza Initiative (GII) and associated research, covers many of the key challenges involved in influenza disease prevention, management, and treatment. This supplement shares the latest data and current thinking on a range of issues including epide

  16. 75 FR 21301 - Office of Clinical and Preventive Services; Elder Care Initiative Long-Term Care Grant Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-23

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Indian Health Service Office of Clinical and Preventive Services; Elder Care Initiative... Service (IHS) announces the availability of up to $600,000 for competitive grants through the Elder Care...-term care services for American Indians and Alaska Native (AI/AN) elders. This program is...

  17. 75 FR 19983 - National Center for Injury Prevention and Control Initial Review Group

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-16

    ... applications received from academic institutions and other public and private profit and nonprofit... Preventing Violence and Violence- Related Injury (R01) Agenda items are subject to change as...

  18. Personalized feedback as a universal prevention approach for college drinking: a randomized trial of an e-mail linked universal web-based alcohol intervention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palfai, Tibor P; Winter, Michael; Lu, John; Rosenbloom, David; Saitz, Richard

    2014-04-01

    Alcohol use among first-year university students continues to be a central health concern. Efforts to address drinking in this population have increasingly relied on web-based interventions, which have the capacity to reach large numbers of students through a convenient and highly utilized medium. Despite evidence for the utility of this approach for reducing hazardous drinking, recent studies that have examined the effectiveness of this approach as a universal prevention strategy in campus-wide studies have produced mixed results. We sought to test the effectiveness of a web-based alcohol intervention as a universal prevention strategy for first-year students. An e-mail invitation linked to a brief, web-based survey on health behaviors was sent to all first-year students during the fall semester. Those who completed the baseline assessment were randomized to receive either a feedback-based alcohol intervention (intervention condition) or feedback about other health-related behaviors such as sleep and nutrition (control condition). A second web-based survey was used to collect follow-up drinking data 5 months later. The number of heavy drinking episodes in the previous month and alcohol-related consequences in the previous 3 months served as the primary dependent variables. Negative binomial regression analyses did not indicate a significant effect of the intervention at follow-up on either heavy drinking episodes or alcohol-related consequences. Analyses of additional drinking outcomes among the subsample of students who reported that they did not drink at baseline showed that those who received the alcohol intervention were subsequently less likely to drink alcohol. These results suggest that web-based alcohol interventions may be a potentially useful method of maintaining abstinence among underage, non-drinking students. Overall, however, results indicate that an e-mail-linked, campus-wide, web-intervention approach to address alcohol use among first

  19. Meeting the needs of women who use drugs and alcohol in North-east India – a challenge for HIV prevention services

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kermode Michelle

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The North-east Indian states of Manipur and Nagaland consistently report relatively high HIV prevalence. The targeted HIV prevention interventions in these two states are mostly delivered by non-government organizations (NGOs, and prevention of HIV transmission by injecting drug use is their main focus. Most injecting drug users (IDUs are male, and the services are primarily tailored to meet their needs, which are not necessarily the same as those for women. This qualitative study describes the health service needs of women who use drugs and alcohol in Manipur and Nagaland, with the goal of identifying strategies and activities that can be implemented by NGOs wanting to improve their reach among vulnerable women. Methods In 2009-10, semi-structured in-depth interviews were conducted with 27 key informants and nine focus group discussions (FGDs with women who use drugs and alcohol, and two FGDs with male IDUs. The thematic areas covered included: the context of female drug and alcohol use; drug and alcohol use patterns; HIV risk behaviours; barriers and facilitators of service use; perceived health needs; and expressed health service needs. The data were recorded, transcribed, translated and thematically analysed. Results The most problematic substance for women from Nagaland was alcohol, and for women from Manipur it was heroin. The most commonly identified health problems were primarily related to the women’s drug and alcohol use, reproductive health and mental health. Other problems of major concern included social exclusion, violence, children’s welfare, and financial difficulties. The expressed service needs of these women were women-only integrated health services, women-only detoxification and rehabilitation services, mental health services, desensitization of mainstream health workers, free access to medicines, assistance to meet basic needs, and a safe place for engaging in sex work. Conclusion The expressed

  20. The relevance of age at first alcohol and nicotine use for initiation of cannabis use and progression to cannabis use disorders

    OpenAIRE

    Behrendt, Silke; Beesdo-Baum, Katja; Höfler, Michael; Perkonigg, Axel; BÜHRINGER, GERHARD; Lieb, Roselind; Wittchen, Hans-Ulrich

    2013-01-01

    Background: A younger age at onset of use of a specific substance is a well-documented risk-factor for a substance use disorder (SUD) related to that specific substance. However, the cross-substance relationship between a younger age at onset of alcohol use (AU) and nicotine use (NU) and the risk of cannabis use disorders (CUD) in adolescence and early adulthood remains unclear. Aims: To identify the sequence of and latency between initial AU/NU and initial cannabis use (CU). To investiga...

  1. 77 FR 21778 - Disease, Disability, and Injury Prevention and Control Special Emphasis Panel (SEP): Initial Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-11

    ... among High Risk Female Teens, FOA DP12- 001, initial review. In accordance with Section 10(a)(2) of the... among High Risk Female Teens, FOA DP12-001, initial review.'' Contact Person For More Information:...

  2. 77 FR 28392 - Disease, Disability, and Injury Prevention and Control Special Emphasis Panel (SEP): Initial Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-14

    ... Motor Vehicle Injury Research, FOA CE12-006, initial review. In accordance with Section 10(a)(2) of the...-related Motor Vehicle Injury Research, FOA CE12-006, initial review.'' Contact Person for More...

  3. 76 FR 71568 - Disease, Disability, and Injury Prevention and Control Special Emphasis Panel (SEP): Initial Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-11-18

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Disease, Disability, and Injury Prevention and... Behavioral Surveillance For Young Men Who Have Sex With Men, Funding Opportunity Announcement (FOA), PS11... Young Men Who Have Sex With Men, FOA PS11-0010201SUPP12.'' Contact Person for More Information: Amy...

  4. 78 FR 20319 - Disease, Disability, and Injury Prevention and Control Special Emphasis Panel (SEP): Initial Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-04

    ... for Preventing Violence and Violence Related Injury, Funding Opportunity Announcement (FOA) CE13-002...: 9:00 a.m.-6:00 p.m., May 15-16, 2013 (Closed). Place: Georgian Terrace, 659 Peachtree Street NE... Grants for Preventing Violence and Violence Related Injury, FOA CE13-002''. Contact Person for...

  5. 77 FR 25485 - Disease, Disability, and Injury Prevention and Control Special Emphasis Panel (SEP): Initial Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-30

    ... for Preventing Violence and Violence Related Injury, Funding Opportunity Announcement (FOA) CE12-002... Street NE., Atlanta Georgia 30308. Status: The meeting will be closed to the public in accordance with... to ``Research Grants for Preventing Violence and Violence Related Injury, FOA CE12-002,...

  6. Oncogenic signaling pathways and origins of tumor-initiating stem-like cells of hepatocellular carcinomas induced by hepatitis C virus, alcohol and/or obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Chia-Lin; Tsukamoto, Hidekazu; Machida, Keigo

    2014-07-01

    This review article discusses the importance and oncogenic signaling pathways of tumor-initiating cells (TICs) in several etiologies of hepatocellular carcinomas (HCCs) induced by hepatitis C virus (HCV), alcohol, obesity and/or chemicals. Stem cells may be present in cancer tissue, and a hierarchy of cells is formed, as is the case for normal tissue. Tumor formation, growth and propagation are maintained by a small proportion of cells with stem cell-like properties. TICs are present in alcohol-fed HCV transgenic mice, diethylnitrosamine/phenobarbital-treated mice (chemical carcinogenesis) and Spnb2 +/- mice (defective TGF-β signal). Alcohol/obesity-associated endotoxemia induces the stem cell marker Nanog through TLR4 signaling to generate TICs and liver tumors in several HCC models. The oncogenic pathway (such as the STAT3 and TLR4-NANOG pathway) and mechanism of generation of TICs of HCCs associated with HCV, alcohol and obesity are discussed. Understanding the molecular stemness signaling and cellular hierarchy and defining key TIC-specific genes will accelerate the development of novel biomarkers and treatment strategies. This review highlights recent advances in understanding the pathogenesis of liver TICs and discusses unanswered questions about the concept of liver TICs. (This project was supported by NIH grants 1R01AA018857 and P50AA11999).

  7. Further research needed to support a policy of antiretroviral therapy as an HIV prevention initiative

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rodger, Alison J; Bruun, Tina; Vernazza, Pietro;

    2013-01-01

    The results from the HPTN 052 trial have increased the focus on use of antiretroviral therapy (ART) for prevention of HIV transmission; however, condom use also effectively prevents HIV transmission. Studies in heterosexual serodiscordant couples with viral suppression have so far only reported...... follow-up data for 330 couple-years when condoms were not being used. Data are even more limited for anal sex in men who have sex with men. Additional data on the effectiveness of ART as prevention when practicing condom-less sex is urgently needed....

  8. A Propensity Scoring Approach to Characterizing the Effects of Maternal Smoking During Pregnancy on Offspring's Initial Responses to Cigarettes and Alcohol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bidwell, L Cinnamon; Palmer, Rohan H C; Brick, Leslie; Madden, Pamela A F; Heath, Andrew C; Knopik, Valerie S

    2016-05-01

    When examining the effects of prenatal exposure to maternal smoking during pregnancy (MSDP) on later offspring substance use, it is critical to consider familial environments confounded with MSDP. The purpose of this study was to examine the effect of MSDP on offspring's initial reactions to cigarettes and alcohol, which are indicators of future substance-use related problems. We tested these effects using two propensity score approaches (1) by controlling for confounding using the MSDP propensity score and (2) examining effects of MSDP across the MSDP risk distribution by grouping individuals into quantiles based on their MSDP propensity score. This study used data from 829 unrelated mothers with a reported lifetime history of smoking to determine the propensity for smoking only during their first trimester (MSDP-E) or throughout their entire pregnancy (MSDP-T). Propensity score analyses focused on the offspring (N = 1616 female twins) of a large subset of these mothers. We examined the effects of levels of MSDP-E/T on offspring initial reactions to their first experiences with alcohol and cigarettes, across the distribution of liability for MSDP-E/T. MSDP-E/T emerged as significant predictors of offspring reactions to alcohol and cigarettes, but the effects were confounded by the familial liability for MSDP. Further, the unique MSDP effects that emerged were not uniform across the MSDP familial risk distribution. Our findings underscore the importance of properly accounting for correlated familial risk factors when examining the effects of MSDP on substance related outcomes. PMID:27098899

  9. Preventing industrial pollution at its source: the final report of the Michigan source reduction initiative

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1999-09-01

    This report describes a collaborative effort between NRDC, Dow Chemical, and Michigan Environmental Groups. The effort resulted in the identification and implementation of 17 pollution prevention projects that reduced substantial quantities of wastes and emissions and saved Dow considerable money.

  10. 77 FR 31358 - Disease, Disability, and Injury Prevention and Control Special Interest Projects (SIPs): Initial...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-25

    ... Resident Knowledge and Practice in Physical Activity, Nutrition, and Obesity Counseling for Primary... Activity, Nutrition, and Obesity Counseling for Primary Prevention of Cancer, SIP12-053, Panel C,...

  11. Alcohol, Marijuana, and Tobacco Use among Canadian Youth: Do We Need More Multi-Substance Prevention Programming?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leatherdale, Scott T.; Ahmed, Rashid

    2010-01-01

    Data from the Canadian Youth Smoking Survey (n = 27,030 in 2006; n = 16,705 in 2004; n = 11,757 in 2002) were used to examine changes in the prevalence and comorbid use of alcohol, tobacco, and marijuana over time and examine if demographic factors and binge drinking are associated with comorbid substance use among youth. Alcohol was the most…

  12. Cost Benefit Analyses of Behavioral Marital Therapy with and without Relapse Prevention Sessions for Alcoholics and Their Wives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Farrell, Timothy J.; And Others

    Several studies have indicated that costs of alcoholism treatment are partially or completely offset by monetary benefits of reduced health and legal system costs after such treatment, although most of these studies have been conducted in the private rather than the public alcoholism treatment system. This study examined the health and legal…

  13. Factors Predisposing, Enabling and Reinforcing Routine Screening of Patients for Preventing Fetal Alcohol Syndrome: A Survey of New Jersey Physicians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donovan, Carole L.

    1991-01-01

    Survey of 58 physicians revealed that they did not routinely ask their pregnant patients about alcohol consumption for several reasons: physician bias resulting from own abuse, lack of training, poor awareness of problem and effects, denial that Fetal Alcohol Syndrome occurs in private practice, time limitations, disinterest, fear of offending…

  14. Electrical amygdala kindling in alcohol-withdrawal kindled rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ulrichsen, J; Woldbye, D P; Madsen, T M; Clemmesen, L; Haugbøl, S; Olsen, C H; Laursen, H; Bolwig, T G; Hemmingsen, R

    1998-01-01

    Repeated alcohol withdrawal has been shown to kindle seizure activity. The purpose of the present investigation was to study electrical amygdala kindling in rats previously exposed to alcohol-withdrawal kindling. In three independent experiments, male Wistar rats were subjected to multiple episodes each consisting of 2 days of severe alcohol intoxication and 5 days of alcohol withdrawal. In the first experiment, the alcohol-withdrawal kindled animals were divided into two groups depending on whether spontaneous alcohol-withdrawal seizures were observed in episodes 10-13. In the second and third experiments, the alcohol-withdrawal kindled animals were compared to a group in which alcohol-withdrawal kindling was prevented by diazepam treatment during the withdrawal reactions in order to discriminate between the effect of withdrawal and intoxication. Electrical kindling was initiated 28-35 days after the last alcohol dose by exposing the animals to daily electrical stimulations of the right amygdala. The results showed that amygdala kindling was facilitated in alcohol-withdrawal kindled animals which showed spontaneous withdrawal seizure activity, compared with animals exposed to multiple episodes of alcohol withdrawal which did not develop withdrawal seizures or with animals exposed to a single episode of alcohol intoxication. When compared to the control group, the alcohol-withdrawal kindled group with seizures also kindled at a faster rate, but the difference did not reach statistical significance and therefore the results must be regarded as preliminary at present.

  15. Negative Emotions and Alcohol Use Initiation in High-Risk Boys: The Moderating Effect of Good Inhibitory Control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pardini, Dustin; Lochman, John; Wells, Karen

    2004-01-01

    Studies on the relation between negative affect and later alcohol use have provided mixed results. Because definitions of negative affect often include diverse emotions, researchers have begun to dismantle this higher-order construct in an attempt to explain these inconsistent findings. More recent evidence also indicates that good inhibitory…

  16. Initial Stages in the Rhodium(III)-Catalyzed C-H Bond Activation of Primary Alcohols in Aqueous Solution

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eriksen, J.; Monsted, L.; Monsted, O.;

    2010-01-01

    The mechanism of the catalytic HID exchange in primary alcohol substrates derived from aldopentoses, promoted by a macrocyclic rhodium(III) complex, has been shown to occur by a reversible redox reaction that gives aldehyde and a rhodium hydride complex. Hydride exchange in the latter complex pro...

  17. 10 CFR 26.91 - Acceptable devices for conducting initial and confirmatory tests for alcohol and methods of use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... or that has passed its expiration date. (3) For ASDs that test breath specimens and meet EBT.... Alcohol screening devices (ASDs), including devices that test specimens of oral fluids or breath, must be...) Acceptable evidential breath testing devices. Evidential breath testing devices listed in the NHTSA CPL...

  18. Sex and the Lab: An Alcohol-Focused Commentary on the NIH Initiative to Balance Sex in Cell and Animal Studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guizzetti, Marina; Davies, Daryl L; Egli, Mark; Finn, Deborah A; Molina, Patricia; Regunathan, Soundar; Robinson, Donita L; Sohrabji, Farida

    2016-06-01

    In May 2014, Dr. Francis Collins, the director of U.S. National Institutes of Health (NIH), and Dr. Janine Clayton, the director of the U.S. National Institutes of Health Office of Research on Women's Health, published a commentary in the journal Nature announcing new policies to ensure that preclinical research funded by the NIH considers both males and females. While these policies are still developing, they have already generated great interest by the scientific community and triggered both criticism and applause. This review provides a description and interpretation of the NIH guidelines, and it traces the history that led to their implementation. As expected, this NIH initiative generated some anxiety in the scientific community. The use of female animals in the investigation of basic mechanisms is perceived to increase variability in the results, and the use of both sexes has been claimed to slow the pace of scientific discoveries and to increase the cost at a time characterized by declining research support. This review discusses issues related to the study of sex as a biological variable (SABV) in alcohol studies and provides examples of how researchers have successfully addressed some of them. A practical strategy is provided to include both sexes in biomedical research while maintaining control of the research direction. The inclusion of sex as an important biological variable in experimental design, analysis, and reporting of preclinical alcohol research is likely to lead to a better understanding of alcohol pharmacology and the development of alcohol use disorder, may promote drug discovery for new pharmacotherapies by increasing scientific rigor, and may provide clinical benefit to women's health. This review aims to promote the understanding of the NIH's SABV guidelines and to provide alcohol researchers with a theoretical and practical framework for working with both sexes in preclinical research. PMID:27154003

  19. Sex and the Lab: An Alcohol-Focused Commentary on the NIH Initiative to Balance Sex in Cell and Animal Studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guizzetti, Marina; Davies, Daryl L; Egli, Mark; Finn, Deborah A; Molina, Patricia; Regunathan, Soundar; Robinson, Donita L; Sohrabji, Farida

    2016-06-01

    In May 2014, Dr. Francis Collins, the director of U.S. National Institutes of Health (NIH), and Dr. Janine Clayton, the director of the U.S. National Institutes of Health Office of Research on Women's Health, published a commentary in the journal Nature announcing new policies to ensure that preclinical research funded by the NIH considers both males and females. While these policies are still developing, they have already generated great interest by the scientific community and triggered both criticism and applause. This review provides a description and interpretation of the NIH guidelines, and it traces the history that led to their implementation. As expected, this NIH initiative generated some anxiety in the scientific community. The use of female animals in the investigation of basic mechanisms is perceived to increase variability in the results, and the use of both sexes has been claimed to slow the pace of scientific discoveries and to increase the cost at a time characterized by declining research support. This review discusses issues related to the study of sex as a biological variable (SABV) in alcohol studies and provides examples of how researchers have successfully addressed some of them. A practical strategy is provided to include both sexes in biomedical research while maintaining control of the research direction. The inclusion of sex as an important biological variable in experimental design, analysis, and reporting of preclinical alcohol research is likely to lead to a better understanding of alcohol pharmacology and the development of alcohol use disorder, may promote drug discovery for new pharmacotherapies by increasing scientific rigor, and may provide clinical benefit to women's health. This review aims to promote the understanding of the NIH's SABV guidelines and to provide alcohol researchers with a theoretical and practical framework for working with both sexes in preclinical research.

  20. Study on Relieving Alcoholism and Preventing Drunkenness Effect of Taurine%牛磺酸解酒防醉作用的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨建成; 吴高峰; 刘梅; 胡建民

    2012-01-01

    [目的]探讨牛磺酸的解酒防醉效果.[方法]通过防醉和解酒试验,检测牛磺酸对醉酒后小鼠血液乙醇含量、肝脏中ADH和ALDH活性的影响.[结果]牛磺酸可显著延长小鼠对酒精的耐受时间,缩短醉酒的维持时间,并可明显降低醉酒小鼠血液中乙醇浓度,显著提高肝脏中ADH和ALDH的活性.[结论]牛磺酸具有良好的解酒防醉效果,其作用机制可能是牛磺酸提高肝脏内ADH和ALDH的活性,加速乙醇和乙醛的代谢,减轻了二者对机体的毒性反应.%[Objective] The study aimed to discuss the relieving alcoholism and preventing drunkenness effect of taurine. [ Method ] The effects of the taurine on the ethanol concentration in the blood and the activities of ADH and ALDH in the liver of the drunken mice were detected in the relieving alcoholism and preventing drunkenness experiment. [ Result] The taurine could significantly postpone the tolerance time of mice to the alcohol and shorten the duration of drunkenness, obviously decrease the ethanol concentration in the blood of the drunken mice and significantly increase the ADH and ALDH activities in the liver of the drunken mice. [ Conclusion ] The taurine had good effects of relieving alcoholism and preventing drunkenness and its action mechanism might be to increase the activities of ADH and ALDH activities in liver and speed up the metabolism of the ethanol and acetaldehyde, so as to relief their toxicity reaction to the organism.

  1. 78 FR 732 - Disease, Disability, and Injury Prevention and Control Special Emphasis Panel (SEP): Initial Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-04

    ... Announcement (FOA) CK13-001, initial review. In accordance with Section 10(a)(2) of the Federal Advisory... Control of Vector- Borne and Zoonotic Infectious Diseases in Uganda, FOA CK13-001.'' Contact Person...

  2. 78 FR 9926 - Disease, Disability, and Injury Prevention and Control Special Emphasis Panel (SEP): Initial Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-12

    ... Incentive- based Smoking Cessation for Pregnant Women, FOA DP 13-003, initial review. In accordance with... applications received in response to ``Cost-Benefit of Incentive-based Smoking Cessation for Pregnant...

  3. 78 FR 66937 - Disease, Disability, and Injury Prevention and Control Special Emphasis Panel (SEP): Initial Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-11-07

    ..., initial review, published in the Federal Register on October 2, 2013 (FR Volume 78, Number 191, Page 60877.... Contact Person for More Information: Joan F. Karr, Ph.D., Scientific Review Officer, CDC/NIOSH,...

  4. 77 FR 30292 - Disease, Disability, and Injury Prevention and Control Special Interest Project (SIP): Initial...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-22

    ... Barriers to Receiving Breast and Cervical Cancer Screening Among Muslim Women Living in the United States... Cancer Screening Among Muslim Women Living in the United Sates, SIP12-052, Panel B, initial...

  5. 78 FR 19269 - Disease, Disability, and Injury Prevention and Control Special Emphasis Panel (SEP): Initial Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-29

    ... Control Special Emphasis Panel (SEP): Initial Review Notice of Cancellation: This document corrects a notice that was published in the Federal Register on March 21, 2013 (78 FR 06434), announcing...

  6. Initial Behavior Outcomes for the PeaceBuilders Universal School-Based Violence Prevention Program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flannery, Daniel J.; And Others

    2003-01-01

    Assigned elementary schools to either immediate postbaseline intervention (PBI) with PeaceBuilders, a school-based violence prevention program, or to intervention 1 year later (PBD). Found significant gains in social competence for kindergarten through second-graders in Year 1, in peace-building behavior in Grades K to 5, and reduced aggression in…

  7. Policy options to stimulate social innovation initiatives addressing food waste prevention and reduction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vittuari, Matteo; Gaiani, Silvia; Politano, Alessandro; Timmermans, A.J.M.; Bos-Brouwers, H.E.J.

    2016-01-01

    The report builds on the knowledge created by the FUSIONS position paper “Stimulating social innovation through policy measures” that uses as key inputs the range of existing social innovation initiatives catalogued by FUSIONS WP4 in the inventory and draws on the outcomes of the WP3 Social Camp eve

  8. 77 FR 39497 - Disease, Disability, and Injury Prevention and Control Special Emphasis Panel (SEP): Initial Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-03

    ... Projects (SIPs): Nutrition and Obesity Policy Research and Evaluation Network (NOPREN)--Coordinating Center, SIP12-061 and Nutrition and Obesity Policy Research and Evaluation Network (NOPREN)--Collaborating... initial review, discussion, and evaluation of applications received in response to ``Nutrition and...

  9. 76 FR 33304 - Disease, Disability, and Injury Prevention and Control Special Emphasis Panel (SEP): Initial Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-08

    ... Announcement (FOA) IP11-006; Strategies to Increase Health Care Providers Use of Population-Based Immunization Information Systems, FOA IP11-008; Effectiveness in an Intervention to Promote a Targeted Vaccination program in the Obstetrician-Gynecologist Setting, FOA IP11-009; initial review. Correction: The notice...

  10. 77 FR 27460 - Disease, Disability, and Injury Prevention and Control Special Emphasis Panel (SEP): Initial Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-10

    ... Ministry of Public Health (MOPH) (FOA)GH-11-002, initial review. In accordance with Section 10(a)(2) of the... ``Conducting Public Health Research in China FOA GH-12-005'', and ``Conducting Public Health Research in Thailand by the Ministry of Public Health (MOPH) FOA GH-11-002.'' Contact Person for More Information:...

  11. 78 FR 9055 - Disease, Disability, and Injury Prevention and Control Special Emphasis Panel (SEP): Initial review

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-07

    ..., Funding Opportunity Announcement (FOA) IP13- 002; and Strengthening Global Animal-Human Interface Activities for Avian Influenza and other Zoonotic Diseases, FOA CK13-002, initial review. In accordance with... Infections in Panama and Central America Region, FOA IP13-002; and Strengthening Global...

  12. 76 FR 24031 - Disease, Disability, and Injury Prevention and Control Special Emphasis Panel (SEP): Initial Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-29

    ... Announcement (FOA) IP11-006; Strategies to Increase Health Care Providers Use of Population-Based Immunization Information Systems, FOA IP11-008; and Effectiveness in an Intervention to Promote a Targeted Vaccination program in the Obstetrician- Gynecologist Setting, FOA IP11-009, initial review. In accordance...

  13. 78 FR 66938 - Disease, Disability, and Injury Prevention and Control Special Emphasis Panel (SEP): Initial Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-11-07

    ... review, published in the Federal Register on September 18, 2013 (FR Volume 78, Number 181, Page 57391). This SEP, scheduled to convene on November 12-15, 2013, is canceled. Notice will be provided if the... Control Special Emphasis Panel (SEP): Initial Review Notice of Cancellation: This notice...

  14. Using the Concept of "Population Dose" in Planning and Evaluating Community-Level Obesity Prevention Initiatives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheadle, Allen; Schwartz, Pamela M.; Rauzon, Suzanne; Bourcier, Emily; Senter, Sandra; Spring, Rebecca; Beery, William L.

    2013-01-01

    When planning and evaluating community-level initiatives focused on policy and environment change, it is useful to have estimates of the impact on behavioral outcomes of particular strategies (e.g., building a new walking trail to promote physical activity). We have created a measure of estimated strategy-level impact--"population dose"--based on…

  15. GM`s PICOS initiative on resource conservation and pollution prevention: Greening the supply chain

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pritchett, T. [General Motors Corp., Detroit, MI (United States)

    1997-12-31

    This paper is comprised of reprints of several related articles from business publications. The first article, on supply-side economics, describes efforts by General Motors to cut costs by encouraging suppliers to reduce the environmental impacts of their products. The PICOS{trademark} program of General Motors helps industrial identify and implement energy efficiency and pollution prevention projects that lower operating costs while reducing emissions linked to global climate change. The second article also describes the program, focusing on aspects of global competition.

  16. Policy options to stimulate social innovation initiatives addressing food waste prevention and reduction

    OpenAIRE

    Vittuari, Matteo; Gaiani, Silvia; Politano, Alessandro; Timmermans, A.J.M.; Bos-Brouwers, H.E.J.

    2016-01-01

    The report builds on the knowledge created by the FUSIONS position paper “Stimulating social innovation through policy measures” that uses as key inputs the range of existing social innovation initiatives catalogued by FUSIONS WP4 in the inventory and draws on the outcomes of the WP3 Social Camp event that gathered together a number of social innovators to discuss the major challenges and policy barriers they encounter. The position paper identified a preliminary set of policies aimed to stim...

  17. Feasibility and Initial Efficacy Testing of an HIV Prevention Intervention for Black Adolescent Girls

    OpenAIRE

    Bartlett, Robin; Shelton, Terri

    2010-01-01

    HIV is disproportionately prevalent among Blacks. Black women most often contract HIV from having risky sex, and adolescence is a time when risky sex behaviors peak. This study tested the feasibility and initial efficacy of an intervention designed to help Black adolescent girls avoid risky sex behaviors. The intervention included group education for girls followed by a service learning opportunity in which the girls practiced the assertiveness and communication skills they had learned in the...

  18. Positive Prevention: Successful Approaches To Preventing Youthful Drug and Alcohol Use [and] La Prevencion Positiva: Metodos que han tenido exito en la prevencion del uso de drogas y alcohol entre la juventud.

    Science.gov (United States)

    American Association of School Administrators, Arlington, VA.

    The United States has the highest rate of youthful drug abuse of any industrialized country in the world. There is a growing awareness that drug and alcohol use are closely connected to other problems such as teenage suicide, adolescent pregnancy, traffic fatalities, juvenile delinquency, poor school performance, runaways, and dropouts. Youthful…

  19. Osteopontin binding to lipopolysaccharide lowers tumor necrosis factor-α and prevents early alcohol-induced liver injury in mice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ge, Xiadong; Leung, Tung-Ming; Arriazu, Elena;

    2014-01-01

    Although osteopontin (OPN) is induced in alcoholic patients, its role in the pathophysiology of alcoholic liver disease (ALD) remains unclear. Increased translocation of lipopolysaccharide (LPS) from the gut is key for the onset of ALD because it promotes macrophage infiltration and activation......, tumor necrosis factor-α (TNFα) production, and liver injury. Since OPN is protective for the intestinal mucosa, we postulated that enhancing OPN expression in the liver and consequently in the blood and/or in the gut could protect from early alcohol-induced liver injury. Wild-type (WT), OPN knockout...... by decreased liver-to-body weight ratio, hepatic triglycerides, the steatosis score, oil red-O staining, and lipid peroxidation. There was also less inflammation and liver injury as demonstrated by lower alanine aminotransferase (ALT) activity, hepatocyte ballooning degeneration, LPS levels, the inflammation...

  20. Librarian-initiated HIV/AIDS prevention intervention program outcome in rural communities in Oyo State, Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ajuwon, G A; Komolafe-Opadeji, H O; Ikhizama, B

    2013-01-01

    The objective of this study was to meet the HIV/AIDS information and service needs of citizens living in selected rural, underserved communities in Oyo State, Nigeria. This was a librarian-initiated intervention program (pre-post) study of heads of rural households in Oyo State. A questionnaire was used for pre- and post-intervention assessment. The education covered knowledge about HIV/AIDS, routes of transmission, prevention strategies, and attitude toward persons living with HIV. It increased participants' knowledge about AIDS and improved attitude toward those living with HIV. Provision and dissemination of information on HIV/AIDS through librarians to rural settlers is an important prevention strategy and librarians can make major contributions. PMID:25228485

  1. Early initiation of smoking and alcohol drinking as a predictor of lower forearm bone mineral density in late adolescence: a cohort study in girls.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raquel Lucas

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Adolescence is a critical stage for bone accrual. It is also decisive for the establishment of behaviors such as smoking and alcohol drinking. OBJECTIVE: To quantify the short- and long-term associations between smoking and drinking initiation and bone mineral density in adolescent girls. METHODS: We used prospective data from 731 girls identified in public and private schools in Porto, Portugal. Evaluations were conducted when participants were 13 and 17 years old. Bone mineral density (BMD was measured at the forearm by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry and weight, height and fat-free mass were measured. Pubertal development status was estimated using menarche age. Self-administered questionnaires were used to collect data on smoking and alcohol drinking, physical exercise and calcium and vitamin D intakes. BMD in early and late adolescence was analyzed as a continuous or dichotomous (Z-score cutoff: -1.0 variable. Associations were calculated using linear or logistic regression. RESULTS: Over one quarter of these girls had tried smoking by 13, while 59% had drunk alcoholic beverages and 20% had experienced both behaviors by that age. Lower mean BMD at 17 years of age was observed in girls who had ever smoked by 13, as well as in those who reported drinking at that age. There were no significant cross-sectional associations between experience and frequency of smoking or drinking and BMD at 13 years of age. However, we observed significant associations between BMD z-score<-1 in late adolescence and having ever smoked by 13, after adjustment for menarche age and sports practice, (OR = 1.92; 95% CI: 1.21, 3.05 and with ever smoking and drinking in the same period (OR = 2.33; 95% CI: 1.36, 4.00. CONCLUSION: Our study adds prospective evidence to the role of early initiation of smoking and alcohol drinking as relevant markers of lower bone mineral density in late adolescence.

  2. Diagnosing and quantification of acute alcohol intoxication. Comparison of dual-energy CT with biochemical analysis. Initial experience

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Korkusuz, H. [Frankfurt Univ. Hospital (Germany). Dept. of Nuclear Medicine; Abbas Raschidi, B.; Keese, D.; Kromen, W.; Bauer, R.W.; Vogl, T.J. [Frankfurt Univ. Hospital (Germany). Dept. of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology; Namgaladze, D. [Frankfurt Univ. (Germany). Dept. of Biochemistry

    2012-12-15

    Purpose: To quantify the correlation between fat content of an acute alcohol intoxication and the difference of computer tomography attenuation value in dual-energy CT in comparison to biochemical triglyceride analysis and to evaluate qualitatively the value of DECT in the diagnosis of fatty liver caused by ethanol-dosage in rats. Materials and Methods: DECT at 140 kV and 80 kV was performed on 20 rats before and two days after the administration of 3 ml of 50 % ethanol. The CT attenuation value in the livers at 140 kV, 80 kV and the differences between them in Hounsfield units ({Delta}H) were collected. Parts of the liver (100 mg) were measured in biochemical triglyceride analysis as the reference standard. A blood sample was also taken to measure specific liver enzymes. Results: Linear correlation between biochemical triglyceride analysis and CT density of {Delta}H was found (r = 0.949). 140 kV attenuation data were between 44 HU and 61.3 HU, 80 kV attenuation data were between 58.4 HU and 64.7 HU, and {Delta}H data were between 3.4 HU and 14.4 HU (p {<=} 0.037). The biochemical triglyceride analysis data were between 7.1 mg/g and 41.1 mg/g. The hepatic enzymes serum aspartate (ASAT) aminotransferase and alanine aminotransferase (ALAT) were elevated in all rats. ASAT correlated directly with {Delta}HU (r = -0.86). Conclusion: DECT provides a non-invasive method to determine and evaluate hepatic fat content after acute alcohol intoxication. It provides the possibility to detect and quantify the hepatic fat content of liver graft. (orig.)

  3. Genistein supplementation increases bone turnover but does not prevent alcohol-induced bone loss in male mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chronic alcohol consumption results in bone loss through increased bone resorption and decreased bone formation. These effects can be reversed by estradiol (E2) supplementation. Soy diets are suggested to have protective effects on bone loss in men and women, as a result of the presence of soy prote...

  4. The control of abstinence in the treatment of alcohol dependence: the use of acamprosate in relapse prevention

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabio Venturella

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Treatment with acamprosate is a valid tool to complement psychotherapy as it does not cause addiction, abuse or withdrawal of its suspension and does not interfere with other medications that patients often alcoholics must take. To evaluate the effectiveness, our study evaluated the effects of Acamprosate compared to γ-hydroxybutyrate in clinical-physiological and social health in a way indicator of a possible therapeutic success in terms of abstinence from alcohol and social reintegration. A total of 36 patients were observed, of which 5, 4 men and 1 woman at the Drug Addiction Service (Servizio Tossicodipendenze, Ser.T Alcamo, and 31, 21 men and 10 women at the Ser.T of Palermo. As regards the craving, during the period of treatment with acamprosate, there has been a change, in the sense of reduction, of craving for alcohol: if before therapy was in 68% of cases, medium-high, it becomes after 3-4 months of therapy in low-nil in 89% of patients observed. It has been recorded that, after 3-4 months after receiving acamprosate, the clinical picture of the patient is greatly improved by referring to biological markers. In particular, the strong point seems to be the ability for the user to experience a new sense of normalcy and to remove the desire for significant periods of alcohol.

  5. Perceptions of Drinking among Hispanic College Students: How Qualitative Research Can Inform the Development of Collegiate Alcohol Abuse Prevention Programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quintero, Gilbert A.; Young, Kathleen J.; Mier, Nelda; Jenks, Shepard, Jr.

    2005-01-01

    Alcohol abuse on college campuses continues to be a significant public health issue and health promotion strategies are being directed at changing the culture of collegiate drinking. From a qualitative research perspective such efforts remain uniformed since this area of research is currently dominated by large-scale surveys that illuminate little…

  6. Contrasts between the Perceptions of Parents and Their Adolescent Children Regarding Drug and Alcohol Use and Prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDuffie, Thomas E., Jr.; Bernt, Francis M.

    1993-01-01

    Surveyed 212 parent-adolescent pairs to examine their perceptions of adolescent drug use. Compared to adolescents, parents were more likely to list reasons for drug use with negative connotations. Parents underestimated use of alcohol and marijuana and frequency with which teenagers' friends became drunk or high relative to adolescents' estimates.…

  7. Medium chain triglycerides dose-dependently prevent liver pathology in a rat model of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Metabolic syndrome is often accompanied by development of hepatic steatosis and less frequently by nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) leading to nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH). Replacement of corn oil with medium chain triacylglycerols (MCT) in the diets of alcohol-fed rats has been show...

  8. Family time, parental behaviour model and the initiation of smoking and alcohol use by ten-year-old children: an epidemiological study in Kaunas, Lithuania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zaborskis Apolinaras

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Family is considered to be the first and the most important child development and socialization bond. Nevertheless, parental behaviour model importance for the children, as well as family time for shared activity amount influence upon the child's health-related behaviour habit development has not been yet thoroughly examined. The aim of this paper is to indicate the advanced health-hazardous behaviour modelling possibilities in the families, as well as time spent for joint family activities, and to examine the importance of time spent for joint family activities for the smoking and alcohol use habit initiation among children. Methods This research was carried out in Kaunas, Lithuania, during the school year 2004–2005. The research population consisted of 369 fifth-grade schoolchildren (211 (57.2% boys and 158 (42.8% girls and 565 parents: 323 (57.2% mothers and 242 (48.2% fathers. The response rate was 80.7% for children; 96.1% and 90.6% for mothers and fathers correspondingly. Results Eating a meal together was the most frequent joint family activity, whereas visiting friends or relatives together, going for a walk, or playing sports were the most infrequent joint family activities. More than two thirds (81.5% of parents (248 (77.0% mothers and 207 (85.9% fathers (p Conclusion Joint family activity time deficit together with frequent parental examples of smoking and alcohol use underlie the development of alcohol and smoking addictions in children to some extent. The above-mentioned issues are suggested to be widely addressed in the comprehensive family health education programs.

  9. Preventing alcohol misuse in young people aged 9-11 years through promoting family communication: an exploratory evaluation of the Kids, Adults Together (KAT Programme

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Segrott Jeremy

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Alcohol misuse by young people is an important public health issue, and has led to the development of a range of prevention interventions. Evidence concerning the most effective approaches to intervention design and implementation is limited. Parental involvement in school-based interventions is important, but many programmes fail to recruit large numbers of parents. This paper reports findings from an exploratory evaluation of a new alcohol misuse prevention programme - Kids, Adults Together (KAT, which comprised a classroom component, engagement with parents through a fun evening for families with children aged 9-11 years, and a DVD. The evaluation aimed to establish the programme's theoretical basis, explore implementation processes and acceptability, and identify plausible precursors of the intended long-term outcomes. Methods Documentary analysis and interviews with key personnel examined the programme's development. Classroom preparation and KAT family events in two schools were observed. Focus groups with children, and interviews with parents who attended KAT family events were held immediately after programme delivery, and again after three months. Interviews with head teachers and with teachers who delivered the classroom preparation were conducted. Follow-up interviews with programme personnel were undertaken. Questionnaires were sent to parents of all children involved in classroom preparation. Results KAT achieved high levels of acceptability and involvement among both children and parents. Main perceived impacts of the programme were increased pro-social communication within families (including discussions about harmful parental alcohol consumption, heightened knowledge and awareness of the effects of alcohol consumption and key legal and health issues, and changes in parental drinking behaviours. Conclusions KAT demonstrated promise as a prevention intervention, primarily through its impact on knowledge and

  10. Triterpene alcohols and sterols from rice bran lower postprandial glucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide release and prevent diet-induced obesity in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fukuoka, Daisuke; Okahara, Fumiaki; Hashizume, Kohjiro; Yanagawa, Kiyotaka; Osaki, Noriko; Shimotoyodome, Akira

    2014-12-01

    Obesity is now a worldwide health problem. Glucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide (GIP) is a gut hormone that is secreted following the ingestion of food and modulates energy metabolism. Previous studies reported that lowering diet-induced GIP secretion improved energy homeostasis in animals and humans, and attenuated diet-induced obesity in mice. Therefore, food-derived GIP regulators may be used in the development of foods that prevent obesity. Rice bran oil and its components are known to have beneficial effects on health. Therefore, the aim of the present study was to clarify the effects of the oil-soluble components of rice bran on postprandial GIP secretion and obesity in mice. Triterpene alcohols [cycloartenol (CA) and 24-methylene cycloartanol (24Me)], β-sitosterol, and campesterol decreased the diet-induced secretion of GIP in C57BL/6J mice. Mice fed a high-fat diet supplemented with a triterpene alcohol and sterol preparation (TASP) from rice bran for 23 wk gained less weight than control mice. Indirect calorimetry revealed that fat utilization was higher in TASP-fed mice than in control mice. Fatty acid oxidation-related gene expression in the muscles of mice fed a TASP-supplemented diet was enhanced, whereas fatty acid synthesis-related gene expression in the liver was suppressed. The treatment of HepG2 cells with CA and 24Me decreased the gene expression of sterol regulatory element-binding protein (SREBP)-1c. In conclusion, we clarified for the first time that triterpene alcohols and sterols from rice bran prevented diet-induced obesity by increasing fatty acid oxidation in muscles and decreasing fatty acid synthesis in the liver through GIP-dependent and GIP-independent mechanisms. PMID:25257874

  11. Myosin VI deafness mutation prevents the initiation of processive runs on actin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pylypenko, Olena; Song, Lin; Shima, Ai; Yang, Zhaohui; Houdusse, Anne M; Sweeney, H Lee

    2015-03-17

    Mutations in the reverse-direction myosin, myosin VI, are associated with deafness in humans and mice. A myosin VI deafness mutation, D179Y, which is in the transducer of the motor, uncoupled the release of the ATP hydrolysis product, inorganic phosphate (Pi), from dependency on actin binding and destroyed the ability of single dimeric molecules to move processively on actin filaments. We observed that processive movement is rescued if ATP is added to the mutant dimer following binding of both heads to actin in the absence of ATP, demonstrating that the mutation selectively destroys the initiation of processive runs at physiological ATP levels. A drug (omecamtiv) that accelerates the actin-activated activity of cardiac myosin was able to rescue processivity of the D179Y mutant dimers at physiological ATP concentrations by slowing the actin-independent release of Pi. Thus, it may be possible to create myosin VI-specific drugs that rescue the function of deafness-causing mutations.

  12. Parents' socialization of children's injury prevention: description and some initial parameters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peterson, L; Bartelstone, J; Kern, T; Gillies, R

    1995-02-01

    In a year-long participant observation study of remediative action following actual injury, 61 8- and 9-year-old children and their 27-46-year-old mothers wrote records and reported on more than 1,000 minor injuries in branching biweekly interviews. Mothers reported that 80.1% of injuries received no parent-initiated remediation, 14% received only a lecture, and less than 3% of injuries were followed by parental action. Children reported that 96.1% of their injuries were followed by no remediative action and recalled lectures after only 1.2% of injuries. Remediative action was related to type of child activity (e.g., unstructured play was followed by remediation more often than more purposive behavior) and to mother's affect (e.g., anger) and beliefs (e.g., that injury was the child's fault or due to rule violation). The parameters that influenced remediative consequences, and thus that may influence future injury, are discussed.

  13. Rapid Antiretroviral Therapy Initiation for Women in an HIV-1 Prevention Clinical Trial Experiencing Primary HIV-1 Infection during Pregnancy or Breastfeeding.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susan Morrison

    Full Text Available During an HIV-1 prevention clinical trial in East Africa, we observed 16 cases of primary HIV-1 infection in women coincident with pregnancy or breastfeeding. Nine of eleven pregnant women initiated rapid combination antiretroviral therapy (ART, despite having CD4 counts exceeding national criteria for ART initiation; breastfeeding women initiated ART or replacement feeding. Rapid ART initiation during primary HIV-1 infection during pregnancy and breastfeeding is feasible in this setting.

  14. Rapid Antiretroviral Therapy Initiation for Women in an HIV-1 Prevention Clinical Trial Experiencing Primary HIV-1 Infection during Pregnancy or Breastfeeding

    OpenAIRE

    Susan Morrison; Grace John-Stewart; John J Egessa; Sezi Mubezi; Sylvia Kusemererwa; Dennis K Bii; Nulu Bulya; Francis Mugume; Campbell, James D.; Jonathan Wangisi; Bukusi, Elizabeth A.; Connie Celum; Baeten, Jared M.

    2015-01-01

    During an HIV-1 prevention clinical trial in East Africa, we observed 16 cases of primary HIV-1 infection in women coincident with pregnancy or breastfeeding. Nine of eleven pregnant women initiated rapid combination antiretroviral therapy (ART), despite having CD4 counts exceeding national criteria for ART initiation; breastfeeding women initiated ART or replacement feeding. Rapid ART initiation during primary HIV-1 infection during pregnancy and breastfeeding is feasible in this setting.

  15. Discovering Genes Involved in Alcohol Dependence and Other Alcohol Responses

    OpenAIRE

    Buck, Kari J.; Milner, Lauren C.; Denmark, Deaunne L.; Grant, Seth G.N.; Kozell, Laura B.

    2012-01-01

    The genetic determinants of alcoholism still are largely unknown, hindering effective treatment and prevention. Systematic approaches to gene discovery are critical if novel genes and mechanisms involved in alcohol dependence are to be identified. Although no animal model can duplicate all aspects of alcoholism in humans, robust animal models for specific alcohol-related traits, including physiological alcohol dependence and associated withdrawal, have been invaluable resources. Using a varie...

  16. Acute Alcohol Intoxication-Induced Microvascular Leakage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doggett, Travis M.; Breslin, Jerome W.

    2014-01-01

    Background Alcohol intoxication can increase inflammation and worsen injury, yet the mechanisms involved are not clear. We investigated whether acute alcohol intoxication elevates microvascular permeability, and investigated potential signaling mechanisms in endothelial cells that may be involved. Methods Conscious rats received a 2.5 g/kg alcohol bolus via gastric catheters to produce acute intoxication. Microvascular leakage of intravenously administered FITC-albumin from the mesenteric microcirculation was assessed by intravital microscopy. Endothelial-specific mechanisms were studied using cultured endothelial cell monolayers. Transendothelial electrical resistance (TER) served as an index of barrier function, before and after treatment with alcohol or its metabolite acetaldehyde. Pharmacologic agents were used to test the roles of alcohol metabolism, oxidative stress, p38 mitogen-activated protein (MAP) kinase, myosin light chain kinase (MLCK), rho kinase (ROCK), and exchange protein activated by cAMP (Epac). VE-cadherin localization was investigated to assess junctional integrity. Rac1 and RhoA activation were assessed by ELISA assays. Results Alcohol significantly increased FITC-albumin extravasation from the mesenteric microcirculation. Alcohol also significantly decreased TER and disrupted VE-cadherin organization at junctions. Acetaldehyde significantly decreased TER, but inhibition of ADH or application of a superoxide dismutase mimetic failed to prevent alcohol-induced decreases in TER. Inhibition of p38 MAP kinase, but not MLCK or ROCK, significantly attenuated the alcohol-induced barrier dysfunction. Alcohol rapidly decreased GTP-bound Rac1 but not RhoA during the drop in TER. Activation of Epac increased TER, but did not prevent alcohol from decreasing TER. However, activation of Epac after initiation of alcohol-induced barrier dysfunction quickly resolved TER to baseline levels. Conclusions Our results suggest that alcohol intoxication increases

  17. Internet Alcohol Marketing and Underage Alcohol Use

    Science.gov (United States)

    McClure, Auden C.; Tanski, Susanne E.; Li, Zhigang; Jackson, Kristina; Morgenstern, Matthis; Li, Zhongze; Sargent, James D.

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE Internet alcohol marketing is not well studied despite its prevalence and potential accessibility and attractiveness to youth. The objective was to examine longitudinal associations between self-reported engagement with Internet alcohol marketing and alcohol use transitions in youth. METHODS A US sample of 2012 youths aged 15 to 20 was surveyed in 2011. An Internet alcohol marketing receptivity score was developed, based on number of positive responses to seeing alcohol advertising on the Internet, visiting alcohol brand Web sites, being an online alcohol brand fan, and cued recall of alcohol brand home page images. We assessed the association between baseline marketing receptivity and both ever drinking and binge drinking (≥6 drinks per occasion) at 1-year follow-up with multiple logistic regression, controlling for baseline drinking status, Internet use, sociodemographics, personality characteristics, and peer or parent drinking. RESULTS At baseline, ever-drinking and binge-drinking prevalence was 55% and 27%, respectively. Many (59%) reported seeing Internet alcohol advertising, but few reported going to an alcohol Web site (6%) or being an online fan (3%). Higher Internet use, sensation seeking, having family or peers who drank, and past alcohol use were associated with Internet alcohol marketing receptivity, and a score of 1 or 2 was independently associated with greater adjusted odds of initiating binge drinking (odds ratio 1.77; 95% confidence interval, 1.13–2.78 and odds ratio 2.15; 95% confidence interval, 1.06–4.37 respectively) but not with initiation of ever drinking. CONCLUSIONS Although high levels of engagement with Internet alcohol marketing were uncommon, most underage youths reported seeing it, and we found a prospective association between receptivity to this type of alcohol marketing and future problem drinking, making additional research and ongoing surveillance important. PMID:26738886

  18. Preventive sparing of spinal cord and brain stem in the initial irradiation of locally advanced head and neck cancers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farace, Paolo; Piras, Sara; Porru, Sergio; Massazza, Federica; Fadda, Giuseppina; Solla, Ignazio; Piras, Denise; Deidda, Maria Assunta; Amichetti, Maurizio; Possanzini, Marco

    2014-01-01

    Since reirradiation in recurrent head and neck patients is limited by previous treatment, a marked reduction of maximum doses to spinal cord and brain stem was investigated in the initial irradiation of stage III/IV head and neck cancers. Eighteen patients were planned by simultaneous integrated boost, prescribing 69.3 Gy to PTV1 and 56.1 Gy to PTV2. Nine 6 MV coplanar photon beams at equispaced gantry angles were chosen for each patient. Step-and-shoot IMRT was calculated by direct machine parameter optimization, with the maximum number of segments limited to 80. In the standard plan, optimization considered organs at risk (OAR), dose conformity, maximum dose < 45 Gy to spinal cord and < 50 Gy to brain stem. In the sparing plans, a marked reduction to spinal cord and brain stem were investigated, with/without changes in dose conformity. In the sparing plans, the maximum doses to spinal cord and brain stem were reduced from the initial values (43.5 ± 2.2 Gy and 36.7 ± 14.0 Gy), without significant changes on the other OARs. A marked difference (-15.9 ± 1.9 Gy and -10.1 ± 5.7 Gy) was obtained at the expense of a small difference (-1.3% ± 0.9%) from initial PTV195% coverage (96.6% ± 0.9%). Similar difference (-15.7 ± 2.2 Gy and -10.2 ± 6.1 Gy) was obtained compromising dose conformity, but unaffecting PTV195% and with negligible decrease in PTV295% (-0.3% ± 0.3% from the initial 98.3% ± 0.8%). A marked spinal cord and brain stem preventive sparing was feasible at the expense of a decrease in dose conformity or slightly compromising target coverage. A sparing should be recommended in highly recurrent tumors, to make potential reirradiation safer. PMID:24423836

  19. 77 FR 22795 - National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-17

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice... personal privacy. Name of Committee: National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism Initial Review... National Institutes of Health, National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism, 5635 Fishers Lane,...

  20. 76 FR 69746 - National Institute On Alcohol Abuse And Alcoholism; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-11-09

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute On Alcohol Abuse And Alcoholism; Notice... personal privacy. Name of Committee: National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism Initial Review... National Institutes Of Health, National Institute On Alcohol Abuse And Alcoholism, 5635 Fishers Lane,...

  1. 75 FR 69090 - National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-11-10

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice... personal privacy. Name of Committee: National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Initial Review... Officer, National Institutes of Health, National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism, 5635...

  2. 76 FR 16798 - National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-25

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice... personal privacy. Name of Committee: National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism Initial Review... Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism, National Institutes of Health, 5635 Fishers Lane, Room...

  3. 75 FR 10293 - National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-05

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice... personal privacy. Name of Committee: National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism, Initial Review... Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism, National Institutes of Health, 5635 Fishers Lane, Rm...

  4. 76 FR 26735 - National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-09

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice... personal privacy. Name of Committee: National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism Initial Review..., PhD, Scientific Review Officer, National Institute on Alcohol Abuse & Alcoholism, National...

  5. 75 FR 69091 - National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-11-10

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice... personal privacy. Name of Committee: National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism Initial Review... Officer, National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism, National Institutes of Health, 5635...

  6. 78 FR 21616 - National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-11

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice... personal privacy. Name of Committee: National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism Initial Review... Foster, Ph.D., Scientific Review Officer, National Institute on Alcohol Abuse & Alcoholism,...

  7. 77 FR 1706 - National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-11

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice... personal privacy. Name of Committee: National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism Initial Review... Buzas, Ph.D., Scientific Review Officer, National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism,...

  8. 76 FR 44599 - National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-26

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice... personal privacy. Name of Committee: National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism Initial Review.... Foster, PhD, Scientific Review officer, National Institute on Alcohol Abuse & Alcoholism,...

  9. 77 FR 52337 - National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice of Closed Meetings

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-29

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice... personal privacy. Name of Committee: National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism Initial Review... Foster, Ph.D., Scientific Review Officer, National Institute on Alcohol Abuse & Alcoholism,...

  10. 75 FR 42451 - National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-21

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice... personal privacy. Name of Committee: National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism, Initial Review... Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism, National Institutes of Health, 5635 Fishers Lane, Room...

  11. 75 FR 43534 - National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-26

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice... personal privacy. Name of Committee: National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Initial Review... Officer, National Institutes of Health, National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism, 5635...

  12. 76 FR 2128 - National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-12

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice... personal privacy. Name of Committee: National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism Initial Review.... Srinivas, PhD, Scientific Review Officer, National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism,...

  13. 75 FR 13293 - National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-19

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice... personal privacy. Name of Committee: National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism, Initial Review... Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism, 5635 Fishers Lane, Rm. 2019, Bethesda, MD 20892. 301-443-2861....

  14. 78 FR 41940 - National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-12

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice... personal privacy. Name of Committee: National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism Initial Review... Health, National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism, 5635 Fishers Lane, RM 2019, Bethesda,...

  15. 77 FR 22793 - National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-17

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice... personal privacy. Name of Committee: National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism Initial Review... Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism, National Institutes of Health, 5635 Fishers Lane, RM...

  16. 78 FR 75929 - National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-13

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice... personal privacy. Name of Committee: National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism Initial Review... review and evaluate grant applications. Place: National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism,...

  17. 76 FR 44600 - National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-26

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice... personal privacy. Name of Committee: National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism Initial Review... Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism, National Institutes of Health, 5635 Fishers Lane, RM...

  18. 75 FR 42450 - National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-21

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice... personal privacy. Name of Committee: National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism Initial Review... Gunzerath, PhD, MBA, Scientific Review Officer, National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism,...

  19. 75 FR 10489 - National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-08

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice... personal privacy. Name of Committee: National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism, Initial Review..., PhD, Scientific Review Officer, National Institute on Alcohol Abuse & Alcoholism, National...

  20. Preventing HIV transmission among Iranian prisoners: Initial support for providing education on the benefits of harm reduction practices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Millson Peggy

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Harm reduction is a health-centred approach that seeks to reduce the health and social harms associated with high-risk behaviors, such as illicit drug use. The objective of this study is to determine the association between the beliefs of a group of adult, male prisoners in Iran about the transmission of HIV and their high-risk practices while in prison. Methods A cross-sectional study was conducted in 2004. The study population was a random selection of 100 men incarcerated at Rajaei-Shahr prison. The data were collected through a self-administered questionnaire. Focus group discussions were held at the prison to guide the design of the questionnaire. The relationship between components of the Health Belief Model (HBM and prisoners' risky HIV-related behaviors was examined. Results Calculating Pearson's correlation coefficient, a significant, positive association was found between the benefit component of the HBM and prisoners not engaging in HIV high-risk behaviors. Conclusion Educational harm reduction initiatives that promote the effectiveness of strategies designed to reduce the risk of HIV transmission may decrease prisoners' high-risk behaviors. This finding provides initial support for the Iran prison system's current offering of HIV/AIDS harm reduction programming and suggests the need to offer increased education about the effectiveness of HIV prevention practices.

  1. 急性乙醇中毒时猝死原因及防范%The Causes and Prevention Measures for the Sudden Death in Acute Alcoholic Intoxication

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    许静; 孟庆义

    2011-01-01

    This paper discussed the causes and prevention measures for the sudden death in acute alcoholic intoxication. The main causes included the mis - aspiration, acute pancreatitis, cardiac emergencies, cerebral hemorrhage, disulfiram - like reaction, hypothermia, rhabdomyolysis, and hypotonic state after gastric lavage. That was instructive for the clinician to diagnosis and treatment for acute alcoholic intoxication and to avoid the medical malpractice in the clinical work.%本文对急性乙醇中毒时猝死的原因及防范措施进行了分析阐述,主要猝死原因有误吸、急性胰腺炎、心脏急症、脑出血、双硫仑样反应、低体温、横纹肌溶解和洗胃后低渗.希望能为临床医生正确地诊断与治疗急性乙醇中毒及避免医疗失误提供借鉴.

  2. Effectiveness of the Strengthening Families Programme 10–14 in Poland for the prevention of alcohol and drug misuse: protocol for a randomized controlled trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Okulicz-Kozaryn Katarzyna

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Alcohol and other drug use and misuse is a significant problem amongst Polish youth. The SFP10-14 is a family-based prevention intervention that has positive results in US trials, but questions remain about the generalizability of these results to other countries and settings. Methods/Design A cluster randomized controlled trial in community settings across Poland. Communities will be randomized to a SFP10-14 trial arm or to a control arm. Recruitment and consent of families, and delivery of the SFP10-14, will be undertaken by community workers. The primary outcomes are alcohol and other drug use and misuse. Secondary (or intermediate outcomes include parenting practices, parent–child relations, and child problem behaviour. Interview-based questionnaires will be administered at baseline, 12 and 24 months. Discussion The trial will provide information about the effectiveness of the SFP10-14 in Poland. Trial registration International Standard Randomised Controlled Trial Number: ISRCTN89673828

  3. The progress in developing natural drugs for prevention and cure of alcoholic intoxication%解酒天然药物研究进展

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张若明; 李经才

    2001-01-01

    It has been found that excessive ingestion of ethanol usuallybrings about physical dyfunction,even death. The article reviewed the characterization of ethanol metabolism,the kinds of drugs for prevention and cure of alcoholic intoxication,the mechanism for lowering blood alcoholic level,the structure-activity relationships from some natural drugs,and the effects of complex prescriptions of traditional Chinese medicines.%过量饮酒可引起人体生理功能紊乱乃至死亡,开发有效的解酒药物具有重要的意义和广阔的市场前景。当前天然解酒药物的作用机制是通过抑制乙醇胃肠吸收和加速代谢以降低机体血醇浓度,解除醉酒状态。文章论述了人参、葛花、枳木具子等多种天然解酒药物的单方和复方解酒作用药理研究的最新进展,探讨其活性成分的构效关系;并对此类药物今后的研制方向提出浅见。

  4. Relationship between alcohol craving levels and sleep disorders in the initial stage of withdrawal of alcohol dependence patients%酒依赖患者戒断初期酒精渴求程度与睡眠障碍的关系

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杜好瑞; 李拴荣; 穆俊林; 徐建强; 王传升; 崔二龙; 李冲

    2014-01-01

    Objective To explore the characteristic of sleep disorders in the initial stage of withdrawal and their relationships with alcohol craving levels in alcohol dependence (AD) patients,and provide support for diagnosis and prevention of re-drinking.Methods Thirty-two AD inpatients were assigned to AD group and 20 male healthy volunteers to control group.Alcohol craving was assessed with the Pennsylvania Alcohol Craving Scale (PACS) within the 2nd week after alcohol withdrawal for AD patients,and then the whole-night polysomnogram (PSG) tracings were conducted on the day of the night.Results The five item scores of the PACS were from 3.48 to 4.26 in AD patients.The sleep latency was(42.48±22.42) min,total sleep time was(289.61± 103.22)min,sleep efficiency was(71.45± 19.86) %,S1 sleep was (23.47± 11.07) %,arousal frequencies was (8.01 ± 2.77),S3+4 sleep was(6.26±5.35)% in AD group.Compared with control group((19.65±8.57) min,(407.33±21.29) min,(81.52 ± 6.46) %,(8.79± 1.83) %,(2.17 ± 1.04),(15.87 ± 5.24) % respectively),the differences had statistical significances(t=2.206-9.082,P< 0.05-0.001).Alcohol craving levels were positively related to sleep latency,arousal frequencies and S1 sleep (r=0.424-0.898,P<0.05-0.01) and negatively to total sleep time,sleep efficiency and S3+4 sleep (r=-0.416--0.662,P<0.05-0.01) in AD group.Conclusion AD patients have sleep continuity and structure disturbances in the initial stage of alcohol withdrawal,sleep continuity and structure disturbances are related to alcohol craving.Improvements of sleep disorders should be paid during clinical alcohol dependence treatment.%目的 探讨酒依赖患者酒精戒断初期睡眠障碍的特点,及其与饮酒渴求程度的关系,为临床诊治和防止复饮提供帮助.方法 以32例住院治疗的酒依赖患者为酒依赖组,20例男性健康志愿者为对照组,在酒精戒断后第2周内,酒依赖组采用宾夕

  5. Prevention

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Halken, S; Høst, A

    2001-01-01

    populations. These theories remain to be documented in proper, controlled and prospective studies. Breastfeeding and the late introduction of solid foods (>4 months) is associated with a reduced risk of food allergy, atopic dermatitis, and recurrent wheezing and asthma in early childhood. In all infants......, breastfeeding should be encouraged for 4-6 months. In high-risk infants a documented extensively hydrolysed formula is recommended if exclusive breastfeeding is not possible for the first 4 months of life. There is no evidence for preventive dietary intervention neither during pregnancy nor lactation...

  6. An Effective Family Skills-based Intervention for the Prevention of Health Problems in Children of Alcohol and Drug-Abusing Parents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karol l. Kumpfer

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. There is a need forwide-scale dissemination of effective family-focused skills trainingprograms for the prevention of multiple developmental problems and later substance misuse amonghigh-risk children. Independent reviews have found the author’s Strengthening Families Program (SFP tobe the most effective substance abuse prevention intervention. Cultural adaptations have resulted in successful SFP outcomes in many countries, including in Spain as detailed in the Orte article. This article reviews 30 year history of implementation and outcomes of SFP in different cultures with cultural adaptations. Methods: The SEM-tested Social Ecology Model (Kumpfer, Alvarado, &Whiteside, 2003 is presented and reveals that family factors (bonding, supervision, and communication are the most protective of later substanceuse.Hence, this causal theory served as the etiological theory behind the design of the 14-session SFP.Social cognitive behavior theory (Bandura, 1989 is the intervention theory. The Strengthening Families Program(SFP was the first family skills training program developed and found effective in a randomized control trial (RCT to improve outcomes for children of dug abusers.Many countries requested to replicate SFP; hence, staff training systems were developed and a cultural adaptation process. Results: Eight RCTs, four conducted by independent research teams, and hundreds of quasi-experimental studies in different countrieshave demonstrated SFP’s effectiveness in reducing substance use in adolescents with up to 10-yearfollow-ups. Comparative effectiveness reviews including ones using statistical meta-analysis by theOxford University Cochrane Collaboration Reviews, found SFP to be the most effective alcohol and drug prevention program (Foxcroft, et al., 2003. A cost-benefit analysis by Miller and Hendrie (2008 found SFP prevented the highest percentage of youth from using alcohol and drugs. Cultural adaptation is a mandated

  7. Preventive effects of citrulline on Western diet-induced non-alcoholic fatty liver disease in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jegatheesan, Prasanthi; Beutheu, Stéphanie; Freese, Kim; Waligora-Dupriet, Anne-Judith; Nubret, Esther; Butel, Marie-Jo; Bergheim, Ina; De Bandt, Jean-Pascal

    2016-07-01

    A Western diet induces insulin resistance, liver steatosis (non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD)) and intestinal dysbiosis, leading to increased gut permeability and bacterial translocation, thus contributing to the progression of NAFLD to non-alcoholic steatohepatitis. In the present study, we sought, in a model of Western diet-induced NAFLD, to determine whether citrulline (Cit), an amino acid that regulates protein and energy metabolism, could decrease Western diet-induced liver injuries, as well as the mechanisms involved. Sprague-Dawley rats were fed a high-fat diet (45 %) and fructose (30 %) in drinking water or a control diet associated with water (group C) for 8 weeks. The high-fat, high-fructose diet (Western diet) was fed either alone (group WD) or with Cit (1 g/kg per d) (group WDC) or an isonitrogenous amount of non-essential amino acids (group WDA). We evaluated nutritional and metabolic status, liver function, intestinal barrier function, gut microbiota and splanchnic inflammatory status. Cit led to a lower level of hepatic TAG restricted to microvesicular lipid droplets and to a lower mRNA expression of CCAAT-enhancer-binding protein homologous protein, a marker of endoplasmic reticulum stress, of pro-inflammatory cytokines Il6 (Plevels. In the colon, it decreased inflammation (Tnfα and Tlr4 expressions) and increased claudin-1 protein expression. This was associated with higher levels of Bacteroides/Prevotella compared with rats fed the Western diet alone. Cit improves Western diet-induced liver injuries via decreased lipid deposition, increased insulin sensitivity, lower inflammatory process and preserved antioxidant status. This may be related in part to its protective effects at the gut level. PMID:27197843

  8. Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caley, Linda M.; Kramer, Charlotte; Robinson, Luther K.

    2005-01-01

    Fetal alcohol spectrum disorder (FASD) is a serious and widespread problem in this country. Positioned within the community with links to children, families, and healthcare systems, school nurses are a critical element in the prevention and treatment of those affected by fetal alcohol spectrum disorder. Although most school nurses are familiar…

  9. An integrated approach to preventing cardiovascular disease: community-based approaches, health system initiatives, and public health policy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tina Karwalajtys

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Tina Karwalajtys1, Janusz Kaczorowski2,31Department of Family Medicine, McMaster University, Hamilton, ON, Canada; 2Primary Care & Community Research, Child & Family Research Institute, Vancouver, BC, Canada; 3Department of Family Practice, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, BC, CanadaAbstract: Cardiovascular disease (CVD is largely the product of interactions among modifiable risk factors that are common in developed nations and increasingly of concern in developing countries. Hypertension is an important precursor to the development of CVD, and although detection and treatment rates have improved in recent years in some jurisdictions, effective strategies and policies supporting a shift in distribution of risk factors at the population level remain paramount. Challenges in managing cardiovascular health more effectively include factors at the patient, provider, and system level. Strategies to reduce hypertension and CVD should be population based, incorporate multilevel, multicomponent, and socioenvironmental approaches, and integrate community resources with public health and clinical care. There is an urgent need to improve monitoring and management of risk factors through community-wide, primary care-linked initiatives, increase the evidence base for community-based prevention strategies, further develop and evaluate promising program components, and develop new approaches to support healthy lifestyle behaviors in diverse age, socioeconomic, and ethnocultural groups. Policy and system changes are critical to reduce risk in populations, including legislation and public education to reduce dietary sodium and trans-fatty acids, food pricing policies, and changes to health care delivery systems to explicitly support prevention and management of CVD.Keywords: risk factors, blood pressure determination, community health services, community health planning, public health practice

  10. Alcohol and Pregnancy

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... and premature birth Zika virus and pregnancy Microcephaly Medicine safety and pregnancy Birth defects prevention Learn how ... a healthy weight and avoiding alcohol and street drugs . Featured articles March of Dimes Premature Birth Report ...

  11. Alcoholism - resources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Resources - alcoholism ... The following organizations are good resources for information on alcoholism : Alcoholics Anonymous -- www.aa.org Al-Anon/Alateen -- www.al-anon.org/home National Institute on Alcohol ...

  12. Alcohol Alert

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Us You are here Home » Alcohol Alert Alcohol Alert The NIAAA Alcohol Alert is a quarterly bulletin that disseminates important research ... text. To order single copies of select Alcohol Alerts, see ordering Information . To view publications in PDF ...

  13. 5-azacytidine promotes microspore embryogenesis initiation by decreasing global DNA methylation, but prevents subsequent embryo development in rapeseed and barley

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solís, María-Teresa; El-Tantawy, Ahmed-Abdalla; Cano, Vanesa; Risueño, María C.; Testillano, Pilar S.

    2015-01-01

    Microspores are reprogrammed by stress in vitro toward embryogenesis. This process is an important tool in breeding to obtain double-haploid plants. DNA methylation is a major epigenetic modification that changes in differentiation and proliferation. We have shown changes in global DNA methylation during microspore reprogramming. 5-Azacytidine (AzaC) cannot be methylated and leads to DNA hypomethylation. AzaC is a useful demethylating agent to study DNA dynamics, with a potential application in microspore embryogenesis. This work analyzes the effects of short and long AzaC treatments on microspore embryogenesis initiation and progression in two species, the dicot Brassica napus and the monocot Hordeum vulgare. This involved the quantitative analyses of proembryo and embryo production, the quantification of DNA methylation, 5-methyl-deoxy-cytidine (5mdC) immunofluorescence and confocal microscopy, and the analysis of chromatin organization (condensation/decondensation) by light and electron microscopy. Four days of AzaC treatments (2.5 μM) increased embryo induction, response associated with a decrease of DNA methylation, modified 5mdC, and heterochromatin patterns compared to untreated embryos. By contrast, longer AzaC treatments diminished embryo production. Similar effects were found in both species, indicating that DNA demethylation promotes microspore reprogramming, totipotency acquisition, and embryogenesis initiation, while embryo differentiation requires de novo DNA methylation and is prevented by AzaC. This suggests a role for DNA methylation in the repression of microspore reprogramming and possibly totipotency acquisition. Results provide new insights into the role of epigenetic modifications in microspore embryogenesis and suggest a potential benefit of inhibitors, such as AzaC, to improve the process efficiency in biotechnology and breeding programs. PMID:26161085

  14. 5-azacytidine promotes microspore embryogenesis initiation by decreasing global DNA methylation, but prevents subsequent embryo development in rapeseed and barley.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solís, María-Teresa; El-Tantawy, Ahmed-Abdalla; Cano, Vanesa; Risueño, María C; Testillano, Pilar S

    2015-01-01

    Microspores are reprogrammed by stress in vitro toward embryogenesis. This process is an important tool in breeding to obtain double-haploid plants. DNA methylation is a major epigenetic modification that changes in differentiation and proliferation. We have shown changes in global DNA methylation during microspore reprogramming. 5-Azacytidine (AzaC) cannot be methylated and leads to DNA hypomethylation. AzaC is a useful demethylating agent to study DNA dynamics, with a potential application in microspore embryogenesis. This work analyzes the effects of short and long AzaC treatments on microspore embryogenesis initiation and progression in two species, the dicot Brassica napus and the monocot Hordeum vulgare. This involved the quantitative analyses of proembryo and embryo production, the quantification of DNA methylation, 5-methyl-deoxy-cytidine (5mdC) immunofluorescence and confocal microscopy, and the analysis of chromatin organization (condensation/decondensation) by light and electron microscopy. Four days of AzaC treatments (2.5 μM) increased embryo induction, response associated with a decrease of DNA methylation, modified 5mdC, and heterochromatin patterns compared to untreated embryos. By contrast, longer AzaC treatments diminished embryo production. Similar effects were found in both species, indicating that DNA demethylation promotes microspore reprogramming, totipotency acquisition, and embryogenesis initiation, while embryo differentiation requires de novo DNA methylation and is prevented by AzaC. This suggests a role for DNA methylation in the repression of microspore reprogramming and possibly totipotency acquisition. Results provide new insights into the role of epigenetic modifications in microspore embryogenesis and suggest a potential benefit of inhibitors, such as AzaC, to improve the process efficiency in biotechnology and breeding programs. PMID:26161085

  15. 5-azacytidine promotes microspore embryogenesis initiation by decreasing global DNA methylation, but prevents subsequent embryo development in rapeseed and barley

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María-Teresa eSolís

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Microspores are reprogrammed by stress in vitro towards embryogenesis. This process is an important tool in breeding to obtain double-haploid plants. DNA methylation is a major epigenetic modification that changes in differentiation and proliferation. We have shown changes in global DNA methylation during microspore reprogramming. 5-Azacytidine (AzaC cannot be methylated and leads to DNA hypomethylation. AzaC is a useful demethylating agent to study DNA dynamics, with a potential application in microspore embryogenesis. This work analyzes the effects of short and long AzaC treatments on microspore embryogenesis initiation and progression in two species, the dicot Brassica napus and the monocot Hordeum vulgare. This involved the quantitative analyses of proembryo and embryo production, the quantification of DNA methylation, 5mdC immunofluorescence and confocal microscopy, and the analysis of chromatin organization (condensation/ decondensation by light and electron microscopy. Four days of AzaC treatments (2.5 µM increased embryo induction, response associated with a decrease of DNA methylation, modified 5mdC and heterochromatin patterns compared to untreated embryos. By contrast, longer AzaC treatments diminished embryo production. Similar effects were found in both species, indicating that DNA demethylation promotes microspore reprogramming, totipotency acquisition and embryogenesis initiation, while embryo differentiation requires de novo DNA methylation and is prevented by AzaC. This suggests a role for DNA methylation in the repression of microspore reprogramming and possibly totipotency acquisition.Results provide new insights into the role of epigenetic modifications in microspore embryogenesis and suggest a potential benefit of inhibitors, such as AzaC, to improve the process efficiency in biotechnology and breeding programs.

  16. U.S. Department of Energy's 'initiatives for proliferation prevention' program: solidification technologies for radioactive waste treatment in Russia - 16037

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Large amounts of liquid radioactive waste have existed in the U.S. and Russia since the 1950's as a result of the Cold War. Comprehensive action to treat and dispose of waste products has been lacking due to insufficient funding, ineffective technologies or no proven technologies, low priority by governments among others. Today the U.S. and Russian governments seek new, more reliable methods to treat liquid waste, in particular the legacy waste streams. A primary objective of waste generators and regulators is to find economical and proven technologies that can provide long-term stability for repository storage. In 2001, the V.G. Khlopin Radium Institute (Khlopin), St. Petersburg, Russia, and Pacific Nuclear Solutions (PNS), Indianapolis, Indiana, began extensive research and test programs to determine the validity of polymer technology for the absorption and immobilization of standard and complex waste streams. Over 60 liquid compositions have been tested including extensive irradiation tests to verify polymer stability and possible degradation. With conclusive scientific evidence of the polymer's effectiveness in treating liquid waste, both parties have decided to enter the Russian market and offer the solidification technology to nuclear sites for waste treatment and disposal. In conjunction with these efforts, the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) will join Khlopin and PNS to explore opportunities for direct application of the polymers at predetermined sites and to conduct research for new product development. Under DOE's 'Initiatives for Proliferation Prevention' (IPP) program, funding will be provided to the Russian participants over a three year period to implement the program plan. This paper will present updated details of U.S. DOE's IPP program, the project structure and its objectives both short and long-term, polymer tests and applications for LLW, ILW and HLW, and new product development initiatives. (authors)

  17. U.S. Department of Energy's initiatives for proliferation prevention program: solidification technologies for radioactive waste treatment in Russia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Large amounts of liquid radioactive waste have existed in the U.S. and Russia since the 1950's as a result of the Cold War. Comprehensive action to treat and dispose of waste products has been lacking due to insufficient funding, ineffective technologies or no proven technologies, low priority by governments among others. Today the U.S. and Russian governments seek new, more reliable methods to treat liquid waste, in particular the legacy waste streams. A primary objective of waste generators and regulators is to find economical and proven technologies that can provide long-term stability for repository storage. In 2001, the V.G. Khlopin Radium Institute (Khlopin), St. Petersburg, Russia, and Pacific Nuclear Solutions (PNS), Indianapolis, Indiana, began extensive research and test programs to determine the validity of polymer technology for the absorption and immobilization of standard and complex waste streams. Over 60 liquid compositions have been tested including extensive irradiation tests to verify polymer stability and possible degradation. With conclusive scientific evidence of the polymer's effectiveness in treating liquid waste, both parties have decided to enter the Russian market and offer the solidification technology to nuclear sites for waste treatment and disposal. In conjunction with these efforts, the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) will join Khlopin and PNS to explore opportunities for direct application of the polymers at predetermined sites and to conduct research for new product development. Under DOE's 'Initiatives for Proliferation Prevention'(IPP) program, funding will be provided to the Russian participants over a three year period to implement the program plan. This paper will present details of U.S. DOE's IPP program, the project structure and its objectives both short and long-term, training programs for scientists, polymer tests and applications for LLW, ILW and HLW, and new product development initiatives. (authors)

  18. Adolescent Alcohol Consumption in Romania: A Blueprint for Measuring Alcohol (mis)Use

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoof, van Joris J.; Moll, Marit

    2012-01-01

    In order to address the issues of adolescent alcohol (mis)use in Romanian cities and to develop local alcohol prevention policies comprised of interventions aimed at reducing alcohol consumption and alcohol related problems, information on the prevalence of alcohol use and relevant related topics is

  19. Perspectives on the neuroscience of alcohol from the National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reilly, Matthew T; Noronha, Antonio; Warren, Kenneth

    2014-01-01

    Mounting evidence over the last 40 years clearly indicates that alcoholism (alcohol dependence) is a disorder of the brain. The National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism (NIAAA) has taken significant steps to advance research into the neuroscience of alcohol. The Division of Neuroscience and Behavior (DNB) was formed within NIAAA in 2002 to oversee, fund, and direct all research areas that examine the effects of alcohol on the brain, the genetic underpinnings of alcohol dependence, the neuroadaptations resulting from excessive alcohol consumption, advanced behavioral models of the various stages of the addiction cycle, and preclinical medications development. This research portfolio has produced important discoveries in the etiology, treatment, and prevention of alcohol abuse and dependence. Several of these salient discoveries are highlighted and future areas of neuroscience research on alcohol are presented.

  20. Effects of initial pH value of the medium on the alcoholic fermentation performance of Saccharomyces cerevisiae cells immobilized on nipa leaf sheath pieces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hoang Duc Toan Le

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Immobilized yeast on nipa leaf sheath pieces was applied to ethanol fermentation using the medium with different initial pH values (5.1, 4.5, 4.0, and 3.5. Control samples with the free yeast were also carried out under the same conditions. Low pH value of 4.0 or 3.5 significantly reduced yeast growth and increased the residual sugar level in the fermentation broths for both the immobilized and free cells. In all cases, the ethanol content produced and ethanol formation rate of the immobilized yeast were 13-33% and 35-69%, respectively, higher than those of the free yeast. In addition, the residual sugar content in the immobilized yeast cultures was 2.1-20.5 times lower than that in the free yeast cultures. The yeast immobilized on nipa leaf stem pieces exhibited higher alcoholic fermentation performance than the free yeast in medium with low pH value. This support was potential for further research for application in ethanol industry.

  1. Barriers to a Career Focus in Cancer Prevention: A Report and Initial Recommendations From the American Society of Clinical Oncology Cancer Prevention Workforce Pipeline Work Group

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyskens, Frank L.; Bajorin, Dean F.; George, Thomas J.; Jeter, Joanne M.; Khan, Shakila; Tyne, Courtney A.; William, William N.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose To assist in determining barriers to an oncology career incorporating cancer prevention, the American Society of Clinical Oncology (ASCO) Cancer Prevention Workforce Pipeline Work Group sponsored surveys of training program directors and oncology fellows. Methods Separate surveys with parallel questions were administered to training program directors at their fall 2013 retreat and to oncology fellows as part of their February 2014 in-training examination survey. Forty-seven (67%) of 70 training directors and 1,306 (80%) of 1,634 oncology fellows taking the in-training examination survey answered questions. Results Training directors estimated that ≤ 10% of fellows starting an academic career or entering private practice would have a career focus in cancer prevention. Only 15% of fellows indicated they would likely be interested in cancer prevention as a career focus, although only 12% thought prevention was unimportant relative to treatment. Top fellow-listed barriers to an academic career were difficulty in obtaining funding and lower compensation. Additional barriers to an academic career with a prevention focus included unclear career model, lack of clinical mentors, lack of clinical training opportunities, and concerns about reimbursement. Conclusion Reluctance to incorporate cancer prevention into an oncology career seems to stem from lack of mentors and exposure during training, unclear career path, and uncertainty regarding reimbursement. Suggested approaches to begin to remedy this problem include: 1) more ASCO-led and other prevention educational resources for fellows, training directors, and practicing oncologists; 2) an increase in funded training and clinical research opportunities, including reintroduction of the R25T award; 3) an increase in the prevention content of accrediting examinations for clinical oncologists; and 4) interaction with policymakers to broaden the scope and depth of reimbursement for prevention counseling and

  2. Alcohol Alert: Genetics of Alcoholism

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... and Reports » Alcohol Alert » Alcohol Alert Number 84 Alcohol Alert Number 84 Print Version The Genetics of ... immune defense system. Genes Encoding Enzymes Involved in Alcohol Breakdown Some of the first genes linked to ...

  3. Initiation and Continuation of Best Friends and Adolescents' Alcohol Consumption: Do Self-Esteem and Self-Control Function as Moderators?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larsen, Helle; Overbeek, Geertjan; Vermulst, Ad A.; Granic, Isabela; Engels, Rutger C. M. E.

    2010-01-01

    In this three-wave longitudinal survey, we investigated bi-directional longitudinal associations between best friends and adolescents' alcohol consumption. Additionally, since the relation between best friends and adolescents' drinking may be stronger if adolescents have not consumed alcohol yet, we examined this relation not only with regard to…

  4. Protocol for a Controlled Experiment to Identify the Causal Role of Acute Alcohol Consumption in Condomless Sex among HIV-Positive MSM: Study Procedures, Ethical Considerations, and Implications for HIV Prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shuper, Paul A; Joharchi, Narges; Rehm, Jürgen

    2016-01-01

    Although alcohol consumption is frequently perceived as a driver of condomless sex and subsequent HIV acquisition, the causal nature of this relationship remains unclear, and little is known about alcohol's direct versus indirect impact on the sexual risk dynamics of those who are HIV-positive. To address this gap, we present the protocol for an in-progress NIAAA-funded controlled experiment, wherein a sample of HIV-positive men-who-have-sex-with-men (MSM) undergoes an alcohol consumption manipulation (alcohol/placebo/control) and sexual arousal induction (sexually aroused/non-aroused), and then reports intentions to engage in condom-protected and condomless sexual acts with hypothetical sexual partners differing in HIV serostatus (HIV+/HIV-/HIV status unknown), condom use preference (use/don't use/not stated), and physical attractiveness (attractive/unattractive). Study outcomes will identify alcohol's impact on HIV-positive MSM's condomless sex intentions in the context of experimentally-manipulated factors as well as risk-relevant personality traits and alcohol-related expectancies. Detailed experimental procedures, ethical considerations, and potential implications for HIV prevention are discussed. PMID:26163147

  5. Alcohol and atherosclerosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Murilo Foppa

    2001-02-01

    Full Text Available Observational studies have attributed a protective effect to alcohol consumption on the development of atherosclerosis and cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. Alcohol intake in the amount of one to two drinks per day results in an estimated 20-40% reduction in cardiovascular events. An additional protective effect, according to major cohort studies, has been attributed to wine, probably due to antioxidant effects and platelet antiaggregation agents. On the other hand, the influence of different patterns of alcohol consumption and environmental factors may explain a great part of the additional effect of wine. Protection may be mediated by modulation of other risk factors, because alcohol increases HDL-C, produces a biphasic response on blood pressure, and modulates the endothelial function, while it neither increases body weight nor impairs glucose-insulin homeostasis. Alcohol may also have a direct effect on atherogenesis. Despite these favorable effects, the current evidence is not enough to justify prescribing alcohol to prevent cardiovascular disease.

  6. Oral administration of S-nitroso-N-acetylcysteine prevents the onset of non alcoholic fatty liver disease in rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Claudia PMS de Oliveira; Marcelo G de Oliveira; Fernanda I Simplicio; Vicência MR de Lima; Katia Yuahasi; Fabio P Lopasso; Ven(a)ncio AF Alves; Dulcinéia SP Abdalla; Flair J Carrilho; Francisco RM Laurindo

    2006-01-01

    AIM: To evaluate the potential of S-nitroso-N-acetylcysteine (SNAC) in inhibition of lipid peroxidation and the effect of oral SNAC administration in the prevention of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) in an animal model.METHODS: NAFLD was induced in Wistar male rats by choline-deficient diet for 4 wk. SNAC-treated animals (n=6) (1.4 mg/kg/day of SNAC, orally) were compared to 2 control groups: one (n=6) received PBS solution and the other (n=6) received NAC solution (7 mg/kg/d).Histological variables were semiquantitated with respect to macro and microvacuolar fat changes, its zonal distribution, foci of necrosis, portal and perivenular fibrosis, and inflammatory infiltrate with zonal distribution.LOOHs from samples of liver homogenates were quantified by HPLC. Nitrate levels in plasma of portal vein were assessed by chemiluminescence. Aqueous low-density lipoprotein (LDL) suspensions (200 μg protein/mL) were incubated with CuCl2 (300 μmol/L) in the absence and presence of SNAC (300 μmol/L) for 15 h at 37 ℃. Extent of LDL oxidation was assessed by fluorimetry. Linoleic acid (LA) (18.8 μmol/L) oxidation was induced by soybean lipoxygenase (SLO) (0.056 μmol/L) at 37 ℃ in the presence and absence of N-acetylcysteine (NAC) and SNAC (56 and 560 μmol/L) and monitored at 234 nm.RESULTS: Animals in the control group developed moderate macro and microvesicular fatty changes in periportal area. SNAC-treated animals displayed only discrete histological alterations with absence of fatty changes and did not develop liver steatosis. The absence of NAFLD in the SNAC-treated group was positively correlated with a decrease in the concentration of LOOH in liver homogenate, compared to the control group (0.7±0.2 nmol/mg vs 3.2±0.4 nmol/mg protein, respectively, P<0.05), while serum levels of aminotransferases were unaltered. The ability of SNAC in preventing lipid peroxidation was confirmed in in vitro experiments using LA and LDL as model substrates

  7. A Novel Antihepatitis Drug, Bicyclol, Prevents Liver Carcinogenesis in Diethylnitrosamine-Initiated and Phenobarbital-Promoted Mice Tumor Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hua Sun

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Bicyclol, an antihepatitis drug developed by Chinese scientists, has been shown to prevent the malignant transformation induced by 3-methylcholanthrene and 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate in WB-F344 rat liver epithelial cells. This study provides further evidence on its role as a chemopreventive agent in experimental mice with diethylnitrosamine- (DEN- initiated and phenobarbital- (PB- promoted liver carcinoma. Liver tissue and serum were collected. In the two-stage model of hepatocarcinogenesis in mice, oral administration of bicyclol (100, 200 mg/kg before DEN injection showed significant reduction in the incidence of hepatocellular foci, nodules, or carcinoma. Histopathological examination revealed that there was no hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC and hepatoma formation in the mice pretreated with bicyclol (200 mg/kg at week 20, while the mice treated with DEN/PB developed 33.3% HCC and 55.6% hepatoma. Furthermore, the serum levels of alanine aminotransferase (ALT, alkaline phosphatase (ALP, and α-fetal protein (AFP in serum significantly increased in the DEN/PB model group in comparison with the control group. Pretreatment with bicyclol showed a marked reduction in the above condition. Bicyclol also decreased the expression of AFP and proliferating cell nuclear antigen level in the liver tissue and attenuated the decrease in body weight. In this study, we also found that 10 weeks after stopping the administration of PB and drugs, the control and bicyclol-treated (200 mg/kg animals showed no HCC and hepatoma formation at the time of termination whereas DEN/PB-induced mice developed 100% hepatoma and 50% HCC. These results further indicate that bicyclol has the chemopreventive potential for liver carcinogenesis induced by carcinogens.

  8. Development and Initial Testing of a Tailored Telephone Intervention Delivered by Peers to Prevent Recurring Opioid-Overdoses (TTIP-PRO)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winhusen, T.; Theobald, J.; Lewis, D.; Wilder, C. M.; Lyons, M. S.

    2016-01-01

    Individuals with opioid use disorder experiencing a non-fatal opioid-overdose (OOD) are at heightened risk for future OODs; there are no interventions to facilitate treatment enrollment for these patients. Our goal was to develop and initially test the "tailored telephone intervention delivered by peers to prevent recurring…

  9. Long-Term Effects of Smoke-free Kids on smoking initiation: A Randomized Home-based Smoking Prevention Program for Elementary School Aged Children.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hiemstra, Marieke; Ringlever, Linda; Otten, Roy; van Schayck, Onno; Engels, Rutger C M E

    2014-01-01

    Objective The aims of the study were to evaluate the long-term effects of a home-based smoking prevention program ‘Smoke-free Kids’ during preadolescence on smoking initiation during adolescence and to test the potential moderating role of parental smoking, socioeconomic status, and asthma. Method I

  10. Efficient initiation and strand transfer of polypurine tract-primed plus-strand DNA prevent strand transfer of internally initiated plus-strand DNA.

    OpenAIRE

    Bowman, E. H.; Pathak, V K; Hu, W S

    1996-01-01

    A critical step in retroviral reverse transcription is the initiation of plus-strand DNA synthesis at the polypurine tract (PPT) and strand transfer of the PPT-primed strong-stop DNA to the 5' end of the viral DNA. An attachment site (att) immediately 3' to the PPT is essential for proper integration of proviral DNA into the host chromosome. Plus-strand DNA synthesis is discontinuous in many retroviruses, indicating that sequences upstream of the PPT are also used to initiate plus-strand DNA ...

  11. 77 FR 70171 - National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-11-23

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice... personal privacy. Name of Committee: National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism Initial Review.... Contact Person: Beata Buzas, Ph.D. Scientific Review Officer, National Institute on Alcohol Abuse...

  12. 78 FR 41938 - National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-12

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice... personal privacy. Name of Committee: National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism Initial Review.... Contact Person: Beata Buzas, Ph.D., Scientific Review Officer, National Institute on Alcohol Abuse...

  13. Comparative Fingerprint of Aromatic Herbs and Yeast Alcoholic Extracts used as Ingredients for Promen, a Prostate Preventive Nutraceutical

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Florina Csernatoni

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to characterize and identify different bioactive compounds in plant sources and yeast powders  to obtain an original nutraceutical (Promen which has beneficial effects in prostate disease prevention. Seven plant and fruit sources, namely nettle (Urtica dioica, green tea (Camellia sinensis, fluff with small flowers (Epilobium parviplorum, tomato (Solanum licopersicum,  sea buckthorn (Hippophae rhamnoides, pumpkin (Cucurbita maxima, sunflower (Helianthus annus and lyophilized beer yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae were investigated. Methanolic extracts were prepared using 15% plant concentration and the purified fractions were analyzed using high throughput techniques like UV-VIS spectroscopy, high performance liquid chromatography coupled with photodiode array detection (HPLC-DAD and mass spectrometry LC-QTOF -MS. The majority of the investigated plants were rich in phenolic derivatives, polyphenols (flavonoid glucosides, while yeast was rich in aminoacids, peptides and vitamins B. The major compounds identified were: Juglone, Resveratrol, Quercetin, Epigallocatechin, Gallocatechin, Biochanin A, Isorhamnetin 3-O-glucoside 7-O-rhamnoside, Quercetin 3-O-galactoside 7-O-rhamnoside, Kaempferol 3,7-O-diglucoside and p-Coumaroylquinic acid. The specific biomarkers were identified for both plant extracts used as ingredients to obtain an nutraceutical  Promen. Combined UV-Vis spectroscopy, HPLC-PDA chromatography and LC-MS spectrometry are recommended as accurate, sensible and reliable tools to investigate the plants and nutraceutical fingerprints and to predict the relation between ingredients composition and their health effects.

  14. 75 FR 7284 - National Center for Injury Prevention and Control/Initial Review Group, (NCIPC/IRG)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-02-18

    ... cooperative agreement applications received from academic institutions and other public and private profit and... and advance the understanding of violence, its causes, and prevention strategies. Matters To Be... expand and advance the understanding of violence, its causes, and prevention strategies. Requests...

  15. Evaluation of a Statewide Initiative in the United States to Prevent/Reduce Sexual Harassment in Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weist, Mark D.; Bryant, Yaphet U.; Dantzler, Joyce; Martin, Saran; D'Amico, Marie; Griffith, Brian; Gallun, Betsy

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to identify best practices in the implementation of school-based sexual violence prevention education. Design/methodology/approach: A three-phase plan was implemented to evaluate the Sexual Harassment/Assault Prevention Project (SHAPP) in one state in the USA. First, a structured review of the prevention…

  16. Alcoholism and Alcohol Abuse

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... cancers. It can cause damage to the liver, brain, and other organs. Drinking during pregnancy can harm your baby. Alcohol also increases the risk of death from car crashes, injuries, homicide, and suicide. If you want to stop ...

  17. Communicating alcohol and drug prevention strategies and models across cultural boundaries: preliminary report on an ILO/WHO/UNDCP [International Labour Office/World Health Organization/United Nations International Drug Control Program] Interagency Program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fauske, S; Wilkinson, D A; Shain, M

    1996-01-01

    The joint ILO/WHO/UNDCP collaborative program "Prevention of Drug and Alcohol Problems among Workers and their Families" represents transfer of an innovative model to a culturally diverse group of nations: Egypt, Mexico, Namibia, Poland, and Sri Lanka. The concept is to move from reactive programs-led by alcohol and drug experts, reactive to problem employees-to proactive prevention led by management. Nontechnical language and metaphors have been developed to secure the commitment of managers in the private and public sectors. Participating countries and enterprises adapt the program to local conditions, fostering "local ownership" with the objective of creating self-sustaining activities. The objective is to describe elements of the program which may be readily transferable worldwide across the cultural borders that characterize nations, enterprises, and public sector workplaces.

  18. Communicating alcohol and drug prevention strategies and models across cultural boundaries: preliminary report on an ILO/WHO/UNDCP [International Labour Office/World Health Organization/United Nations International Drug Control Program] Interagency Program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fauske, S; Wilkinson, D A; Shain, M

    1996-01-01

    The joint ILO/WHO/UNDCP collaborative program "Prevention of Drug and Alcohol Problems among Workers and their Families" represents transfer of an innovative model to a culturally diverse group of nations: Egypt, Mexico, Namibia, Poland, and Sri Lanka. The concept is to move from reactive programs-led by alcohol and drug experts, reactive to problem employees-to proactive prevention led by management. Nontechnical language and metaphors have been developed to secure the commitment of managers in the private and public sectors. Participating countries and enterprises adapt the program to local conditions, fostering "local ownership" with the objective of creating self-sustaining activities. The objective is to describe elements of the program which may be readily transferable worldwide across the cultural borders that characterize nations, enterprises, and public sector workplaces. PMID:8908708

  19. Myths about drinking alcohol

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... to. I spend a lot of time getting alcohol, drinking alcohol, or recovering from the effects of alcohol. ... Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism. Overview of Alcohol Consumption. www.niaaa.nih.gov/alcohol-health/overview-alcohol- ...

  20. Phytotherapy of alcoholism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomczyk, Michał; Zovko-Koncić, Marijana; Chrostek, Lech

    2012-02-01

    Alcoholism is a medical, social, and economic problem where treatment methods mostly include difficult and long-lasting psychotherapy and, in some cases, quite controversial pharmacological approaches. A number of medicinal plants and pure natural compounds are reported to have preventive and therapeutic effects on alcoholism and alcohol dependency, but their constituents, efficacy and mechanism of action are mostly unknown so far. Recently, kudzu [Pueraria lobata (Willd.) Ohwi], St. John's wort (Hypericum perforatum L.), danshen (Salvia miltiorrhiza Bge.), ginseng (Panax ginseng C.A. Mey.), Japanese raisin tree (Hovenia dulcis Thunb.), ibogaine (Tabernanthe iboga H. Bn.), evening primrose (Oenothera biennis L.), prickly pear fruit (Opuntia ficus indica (L.) Mill.), purple passionflower (Passiflora incarnata L.), thyme (Thymus vulgaris L.), fenugreek seed (Trigonella foenum-graecum L.), ginger (Zingiber officinale Roscoe) and many others drew the attention of researchers. Can, therefore, drugs of natural origin be helpful in the treatment of alcoholism or in decreasing alcohol consumption? PMID:22474979

  1. Remote age verification to prevent underage alcohol sales. First results from Dutch liquor stores and the economic viability of national adoption

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoof, van J.J.; Velthoven, Ben C.J.

    2015-01-01

    Objectives Alcohol consumption among minors is a popular topic in the public health debate, also in the Netherlands. Compliance with the legal age limits for selling alcohol proves to be rather low. Some Dutch liquor stores (outlets with an exclusive license to sell off-premise drinks with 15% alcoh

  2. [Alcohol and working life].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaarne, Tiina; Aalto, Mauri

    2009-01-01

    Alcohol-related harm constitutes a significant factor decreasing work productivity. Of heavy alcohol users, most participate in working life. According to labour contract law, a person attending the workplace inebriated can be fired. If the employer applies a deferral to treatment practice, the drug- or alcohol-addicted person can be provided with the choice of therapy and rehabilitation instead of terminating the employment. According to the recent recommendation by the trade unions, organizations should have a program for preventing substance abuse. The employer should take care of the worker's intoxicant education and train the foremen to intervene in the situations on time. PMID:19492706

  3. The role of parental alcohol-specific communication in early adolescents’ alcohol use

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vorst, H. van der; Burk, W.J.; Engels, R.C.M.E.

    2010-01-01

    Many alcohol prevention programs advocate conversations about alcohol between parents and children because verbal communication is the most direct way for parents to express their thoughts, rules, and concerns about alcohol to their children, so called alcohol-specific communication. Nevertheless, r

  4. Points to consider for reporting, screening for and preventing selected comorbidities in chronic inflammatory rheumatic diseases in daily practice: a EULAR initiative.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baillet, Athan; Gossec, Laure; Carmona, Loreto; Wit, Maarten de; van Eijk-Hustings, Yvonne; Bertheussen, Heidi; Alison, Kent; Toft, Mette; Kouloumas, Marios; Ferreira, Ricardo J O; Oliver, Susan; Rubbert-Roth, Andrea; van Assen, Sander; Dixon, William G; Finckh, Axel; Zink, Angela; Kremer, Joel; Kvien, Tore K; Nurmohamed, Michael; van der Heijde, Desirée; Dougados, Maxime

    2016-06-01

    In chronic inflammatory rheumatic diseases, comorbidities such as cardiovascular diseases and infections are suboptimally prevented, screened for and managed. The objective of this European League Against Rheumatism (EULAR) initiative was to propose points to consider to collect comorbidities in patients with chronic inflammatory rheumatic diseases. We also aimed to develop a pragmatic reporting form to foster the implementation of the points to consider. In accordance with the EULAR Standardised Operating Procedures, the process comprised (1) a systematic literature review of existing recommendations on reporting, screening for or preventing six selected comorbidities: ischaemic cardiovascular diseases, malignancies, infections, gastrointestinal diseases, osteoporosis and depression and (2) a consensus process involving 21 experts (ie, rheumatologists, patients, health professionals). Recommendations on how to treat the comorbidities were not included in the document as they vary across countries. The literature review retrieved 42 articles, most of which were recommendations for reporting or screening for comorbidities in the general population. The consensus process led to three overarching principles and 15 points to consider, related to the six comorbidities, with three sections: (1) reporting (ie, occurrence of the comorbidity and current treatments); (2) screening for disease (eg, mammography) or for risk factors (eg, smoking) and (3) prevention (eg, vaccination). A reporting form (93 questions) corresponding to a practical application of the points to consider was developed. Using an evidence-based approach followed by expert consensus, this EULAR initiative aims to improve the reporting and prevention of comorbidities in chronic inflammatory rheumatic diseases. Next steps include dissemination and implementation. PMID:26984008

  5. Wayfinding the Live 5-2-1-0 Initiative-At the Intersection between Systems Thinking and Community-Based Childhood Obesity Prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amed, Shazhan; Shea, Stephanie; Pinkney, Susan; Wharf Higgins, Joan; Naylor, Patti-Jean

    2016-01-01

    Childhood obesity is complex and requires a 'systems approach' that collectively engages across multiple community settings. Sustainable Childhood Obesity Prevention through Community Engagement (SCOPE) has implemented Live 5-2-1-0-a multi-sector, multi-component childhood obesity prevention initiative informed by systems thinking and participatory research via an innovative knowledge translation (KT) model (RE-FRAME). This paper describes the protocol for implementing and evaluating RE-FRAME in two 'existing' (>2 years of implementation) and two 'new' Live 5-2-1-0 communities to understand how to facilitate and sustain systems/community-level change. In this mixed-methods study, RE-FRAME was implemented via online resources, webinars, a backbone organization (SCOPE) coordinating the initiative, and a linking system supporting KT. Qualitative and quantitative data were collected using surveys and stakeholder interviews, analyzed using thematic analysis and descriptive statistics, respectively. Existing communities described the consistency of Live 5-2-1-0 and extensive local partnerships/champions as catalysts for synergistic community-wide action; new communities felt that the simplicity of the message combined with the transfer of experiential learning would inform their own strategies and policies/programs to broadly disseminate Live 5-2-1-0. RE-FRAME effectively guided the refinement of the initiative and provided a framework upon which evaluation results described how to implement a community-based systems approach to childhood obesity prevention. PMID:27338432

  6. Initial impact of the Fast Track prevention trial for conduct problems: I. The high-risk sample. Conduct Problems Prevention Research Group.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1999-10-01

    Fast Track is a multisite, multicomponent preventive intervention for young children at high risk for long-term antisocial behavior. Based on a comprehensive developmental model, intervention included a universal-level classroom program plus social skills training, academic tutoring, parent training, and home visiting to improve competencies and reduce problems in a high-risk group of children selected in kindergarten. At the end of Grade 1, there were moderate positive effects on children's social, emotional, and academic skills; peer interactions and social status; and conduct problems and special-education use. Parents reported less physical discipline and greater parenting satisfaction/ease of parenting and engaged in more appropriate/consistent discipline, warmth/positive involvement, and involvement with the school. Evidence of differential intervention effects across child gender, race, site, and cohort was minimal. PMID:10535230

  7. Initial impact of the Fast Track prevention trial for conduct problems: I. The high-risk sample. Conduct Problems Prevention Research Group.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1999-10-01

    Fast Track is a multisite, multicomponent preventive intervention for young children at high risk for long-term antisocial behavior. Based on a comprehensive developmental model, intervention included a universal-level classroom program plus social skills training, academic tutoring, parent training, and home visiting to improve competencies and reduce problems in a high-risk group of children selected in kindergarten. At the end of Grade 1, there were moderate positive effects on children's social, emotional, and academic skills; peer interactions and social status; and conduct problems and special-education use. Parents reported less physical discipline and greater parenting satisfaction/ease of parenting and engaged in more appropriate/consistent discipline, warmth/positive involvement, and involvement with the school. Evidence of differential intervention effects across child gender, race, site, and cohort was minimal.

  8. Individual, Social, and Environmental Factors Associated with Initiating Methamphetamine Injection: Implications for Drug Use and HIV Prevention Strategies

    OpenAIRE

    Marshall, Brandon DL; Wood, Evan; Shoveller, Jean A.; Buxton, Jane A.; Montaner, Julio SG; Kerr, Thomas

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the incidence and predictors of initiating methamphetamine injection among a cohort of injection drug users (IDU). We conducted a longitudinal analysis of IDU participating in a prospective study between June 2001 and May 2008 in Vancouver, Canada. IDU who had never reported injecting methamphetamine at the study's commencement were eligible. We used Cox proportional hazards models to identify the predictors of initiating methamphetamine injection. T...

  9. 低酸度酒精阳性乳产生的原因及控制措施%Study on the Cause of Low Acidity Alcohol Positive Raw Milk and Prevention Measures

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    苏景辉

    2015-01-01

    酒精检测是乳品企业接收原料奶时的一项重要检测指标,只有酒精试验检测结果呈阴性的原料奶,乳企才能正常接收并使用。酒精试验结果呈阳性的原料奶中有一部分是低酸度酒精阳性乳,这部分产生低酸度酒精阳性的原料奶,从乳房挤出来时便可能发生。低酸度酒精阳性乳产生的原因很复杂,它是牛体对各种不良应激因素所产生的一种应激反应。本文对不同条件下致使原料奶低酸度酒精阳性产生的因素进行了分析,并针对分析结果提出防控建议。%Alcohol detection of raw milk is an important detection index in receiving by milk dairy enterprises, only alcohol test results were negative, the milk companies can receive and use properly. A portion of alcohol test positive milk is low acidity alcohol positive milk, they may occur when come out from the breast, the causes of low acidity alcohol positive milk is very complex, it is a stress reaction from a variety of adverse stress factors. The different conditions to cause low raw milk acidity alcohol positive factors were analyzed, prevention and control were put forward based on the results of the analysis.

  10. Alcoholism and Diabetes Mellitus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soo-Jeong Kim

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Chronic use of alcohol is considered to be a potential risk factor for the incidence of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM, which causes insulin resistance and pancreatic β-cell dysfunction that is a prerequisite for the development of diabetes. However, alcohol consumption in diabetes has been controversial and more detailed information on the diabetogenic impact of alcohol seems warranted. Diabetes, especially T2DM, causes dysregulation of various metabolic processes, which includes a defect in the insulin-mediated glucose function of adipocytes, and an impaired insulin action in the liver. In addition, neurobiological profiles of alcoholism are linked to the effects of a disruption of glucose homeostasis and of insulin resistance, which are affected by altered appetite that regulates the peptides and neurotrophic factors. Since conditions, which precede the onset of diabetes that are associated with alcoholism is one of the crucial public problems, researches in efforts to prevent and treat diabetes with alcohol dependence, receives special clinical interest. Therefore, the purpose of this mini-review is to provide the recent progress and current theories in the interplay between alcoholism and diabetes. Further, the purpose of this study also includes summarizing the pathophysiological mechanisms in the neurobiology of alcoholism.

  11. National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skip to main content National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism (NIAAA) Main Menu Search Search form Search Alcohol & Your Health Overview of Alcohol Consumption Alcohol's Effects on the Body Alcohol Use ...

  12. Differences among college women for breast cancer prevention acquired information-seeking, desired apps and texts, and daughter-initiated information to mothers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kratzke, Cynthia; Amatya, Anup; Vilchis, Hugo

    2014-04-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine among college women acquired breast cancer prevention information-seeking, desired apps and texts, and information given to mothers. Using a cross-sectional study, a survey was administered to college women at a southwestern university. College women (n = 546) used the Internet (44 %) for active breast cancer prevention information-seeking and used the Internet (74 %), magazines (69 %), and television (59 %) for passive information receipt. Over half of the participants desired breast cancer prevention apps (54 %) and texts (51 %). Logistic regression analyses revealed predictors for interest to receive apps were ethnicity (Hispanic), lower self-efficacy, actively seeking online information, and older age and predictors for interest to receive texts were lower self-efficacy and higher university level. Eighteen percent of college women (n = 99) reported giving information to mothers and reported in an open-ended item the types of information given to mothers. Predictors for giving information to mothers were actively and passively seeking online information, breast self-exam practice, and higher university level. Screenings were the most frequent types of information given to mothers. Breast cancer prevention information using apps, texts, or Internet and daughter-initiated information for mothers should be considered in health promotion targeting college students or young women in communities. Future research is needed to examine the quality of apps, texts, and online information and cultural differences for breast cancer prevention sources. PMID:23979671

  13. Alcohol Consumption, Craving, and Craving Control Efforts Assessed Daily in the Context of Readiness to Change Among Individuals with Alcohol Dependence and PTSD.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Browne, Kendall C; Wray, Tyler B; Stappenbeck, Cynthia A; Krenek, Marketa; Simpson, Tracy L

    2016-02-01

    Research has demonstrated the positive association between alcohol craving and alcohol use and has identified craving as a central component of alcohol use disorders (AUD). Despite potential clinical implications, few studies have examined the relationship between craving and alcohol use in individuals with AUD and common psychiatric comorbidities or explored possible moderators of the craving-alcohol use relationship. The current study used daily monitoring data to: 1) replicate previous findings detecting a positive relationship between craving and alcohol use in individuals with AUD and co-occurring posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and 2) extend these findings by examining the influence of initial change motivation on the craving-use relationship and within-day associations among craving, efforts to control craving, and alcohol consumption. Participants were 84 individuals with alcohol dependence and PTSD enrolled in an intervention study. Generalized estimating equations using pre-treatment baseline daily data revealed significant main effects for craving, craving control, and motivation to change alcohol use. Daily craving was positively related to alcohol use. Greater change motivation and craving control (i.e., efforts to resist craving, avoidance of thoughts and feelings related to craving) were negatively related to alcohol use. A significant interaction was detected between baseline change motivation and daily craving indicating that the association between craving and alcohol use was significantly stronger for those with low baseline change motivation. A significant interaction was also detected between craving control and daily craving, suggesting that participants were more likely to consume alcohol when experiencing high levels of craving if they reported low levels of craving control. Findings bolster the idea that efforts to prevent or ameliorate craving are critical to treatment success for individuals with AUD and PTSD who are seeking to

  14. Initial Impact of the Fast Track Prevention Trial for Conduct Problems: I. The High-Risk Sample

    OpenAIRE

    1999-01-01

    Fast Track is a multisite, multicomponent preventive intervention for young children at high risk for long-term antisocial behavior. Based on a comprehensive developmental model intervention included a universal-level classroom program plus social skills training, academic tutoring, parent training, and home visiting to improve competencies and reduce problems in a high-risk group of children selected in kindergarten. At the end of Grade 1, there were moderate positive effects on children's s...

  15. Different digital paths to the keg? How exposure to peers' alcohol-related social media content influences drinking among male and female first-year college students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boyle, Sarah C; LaBrie, Joseph W; Froidevaux, Nicole M; Witkovic, Yong D

    2016-06-01

    Despite speculation that peers' alcohol-related content on social media sites (SMS) may influence the alcohol use behaviors of SMS frequenting college students, this relationship has not been investigated longitudinally. The current prospective study assesses the relationship between exposure to peers' alcohol-related SMS content and later-drinking among first-year college students. Among 408 first-year students, total exposure to peers' alcohol-related content on Facebook, Instagram, and Snapchat during the initial 6 weeks of college predicted alcohol consumption 6 months later. The rather robust relationship persisted even after students' and close friends drinking were accounted for, indicating that alcohol references on SMS do not simply reflect alcohol use behaviors that would otherwise be observed in the absence of SMS and be predictive of later alcohol use. Findings also illuminate important gender differences in the degree to which peers' alcohol-related SMS content influenced later drinking behavior as well as psychological mediators of this relationship. Among females, enhancement drinking motives and beliefs about the role of alcohol in the college experience fully mediated the relationship between SMS alcohol exposure and later drinking. Males, however, evidenced a much stronger predictive relationship between SMS alcohol exposure and second semester drinking, with this relationship only partially explained by perceptions of drinking norms, enhancement drinking motives, and beliefs about the role of alcohol in the college experience. Implications of these findings for college drinking prevention efforts and directions for future research are discussed. PMID:26835604

  16. The Effectiveness of i.t.a. (Initial Teaching Alphabet) in the Prevention and Treatment of Dyslexia and Dysgraphia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Downing, John

    The Initial Teaching Alphabet (i.t.a.), devised by Sir James Pitman as a simplified alphabet for beginning readers, consists of 44 characters plus a set of rules for standard spellings of English words using these characters. The characters and rules are designed to ensure easy transition from i.t.a. to traditional orthography (T.O.). In September…

  17. A study on socio-demographic characteristics of alcoholics attending the de-addiction center at Burdwan medical college and hospital in West Bengal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aditya Prasad Sarkar

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Prevalence of alcohol use in India is reported to be 21.4% and there is increasing alcohol intake among the young people. The present study was undertaken to study the socio-demographic characteristics of patients having alcohol-related disorders attending the de-addiction center at Burdwan Medical College in West Bengal and to find out some factors responsible for that. A clinic-based descriptive cross-sectional study was conducted among 187 patients with the help of pre-tested pre-designed schedule after obtaining informed consent. Data analysis was carried out with the help of Epi info software version 6. Majority of the patients were male, in productive age group and married. Age of initiation and amount of alcohol intake were significantly associated with positive family history of alcoholism. Children having family history of alcoholism should be counseled to prevent development of alcoholism.

  18. Chemo-preventive effect of Star anise in N-nitrosodiethylamine initiated and phenobarbital promoted hepato-carcinogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yadav, Amit Singh; Bhatnagar, D

    2007-09-20

    The generation of free radicals is a cause of many pathological conditions like diabetes mellitus, cancer, stroke, etc. Free radicals cause damage to cellular DNA and initiate carcinogenesis. Free radicals also bring about proliferation of cells via cell signaling. An inverse relationship between the consumption of vegetable diets and the risk of cancer has been established. In the present study, Star anise (Illicium verum), which is a commonly used condiment in Indian cuisine, was assessed for its anti-carcinogenic potential in N-nitrosodiethylamine (NDEA) initiated and phenobarbital (PB) promoted hepato-carcinogenesis. Rats were randomly selected for eight experimental groups. The carcinogenesis was induced by injecting the rats, with a single dose of NDEA (200mg/kg body weight) intraperitoneally as initiator, followed by promotion with PB (0.05%) in drinking water for 14 consecutive weeks. The treatment with NDEA increased liver weight, while Star anise (Star) treatment reduced the liver weight of rats. The treatment with Star throughout for 20 weeks or during the promotion stage (6-20 weeks) significantly reduced the nodule incidence and nodule multiplicity in the rats, while the treatment with Star at the initiation phase (first 4 weeks) only could not reduce these parameters. The treatment with Star for 20 consecutive weeks significantly reduced the nodule size and nodule volume. The treatment with Star throughout as well as at the promotion stage lowered the lipid peroxidation (LPO) in liver and erythrocytes, while the LPO was not lowered, when Star was administered during initiation stage only. The treatment with Star restored the liver and erythrocyte super-oxide dismutase (SOD) activities to normal in the carcinogenesis-induced rats. The liver catalase (CAT) activity increased in all the treated groups. The erythrocyte CAT activity increased in the rats treated with Star during initiation and promotion stage only. The liver glutathione (GSH) level

  19. [Concentration of endogenous ethanol and alcoholic motivation].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burov, Iu V; Treskov, V G; Kampov-Polevoĭ, A B; Kovalenko, A E; Rodionov, A P

    1983-11-01

    Trials with patients suffering from stage II chronic alcoholism and normal test subjects as well as experiments made on male C57BL mice (with genetically determined alcoholic motivation) and CBA mice (with genetically determined alcoholic aversion) and random-bred male rats with different levels of initial alcoholic motivation have shown the presence of reverse proportional dependence between blood plasma endogenous ethanol and alcoholic motivation.

  20. 77 FR 54919 - National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-09-06

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice... personal privacy. Name of Committee: National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism Initial Review... 20892. Contact Person: Beata Buzas, Ph.D., Scientific Review Officer, National Institute on...

  1. The optimum time to initiate habitual xylitol gum-chewing for obtaining long-term caries prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hujoel, P P; Mäkinen, K K; Bennett, C A; Isotupa, K P; Isokangas, P J; Allen, P; Mäkinen, P L

    1999-03-01

    Habitual xylitol gum-chewing may have a long-term preventive effect by reducing the caries risk for several years after the habitual chewing has ended. The goal of this report was (1) to determine if sorbitol and sorbitol/xylitol mixtures provide a long-term benefit, and (2) to determine which teeth benefit most from two-year habitual gum-chewing - those erupting before, during, or after habitual gum-chewing. Children, on average 6 years old, chewed gums sweetened with xylitol, sorbitol, or xylitol/sorbitol mixtures. There was a "no-gum" control group. Five years after the two-year program of habitual gum-chewing ended, 288 children were re-examined. Compared with the no-gum group, sorbitol gums had no significant long-term effect (relative risk [RR], 0.65; 95% confidence interval [c.i.], 0.39 to 1.07; p Xylitol gum and, to a lesser extent, xylitol/sorbitol gum had a long-term preventive effect. During the 5 years after habitual gum-chewing ended, xylitol gums reduced the caries risk 59% (RR, 0.41; 95% c.i., 0.23 to 0.75; p Xylitol-sorbitol gums reduced the caries risk 44% (RR, 0.56; 95% c.i., 0.36 to 0.89; p xylitol strongly depended on when teeth erupted (p xylitol gum-chewing should be started at least one year before permanent teeth erupt. PMID:10096456

  2. A single dose of caffeic acid phenethyl ester prevents initiation in a medium-term rat hepatocarcinogenesis model

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Claudia Esther Carrasco-Legleu; Yesennia Sánchez-Pérez; Lucrecia Márquez-Rosado; Samia Fattel-Fazenda; Evelia Arce-Popoca; Sergio Hernández-García; Saú1 Villa-Trevi(n)o

    2006-01-01

    AIM:To study of the effect of caffeic acid phenethyl ester (CAPE) on the initiation period in a medium-term assay of hepatocarcinogenesis.METHODS: Male Wistar rats were subjected to a carcinogenic treatment (CT) and sacrificed at 25th d;altered hepatic foci (AHF) were generated efficiently.To a second group of rats a single 20 mg/kg doses of CAPE was given 12 h before initiation with CT and were sacrificed at 25th d. We evaluated the expression of preneoplastic markers as y-glutamyltranspeptidase (GGT) and glutathione S-transferase type pi protein (GSTp) by histochemistry, RT-PCR and Western blot analyses, respectively. We measured thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) in homogenates of liver and used Unscheduled DNA Synthesis (UDS) assay by incorporation of [3H] thymidine (3HdT) in primary hepatocyte cultures (PHC).RESULTS:At 25th d after CT CAPE reduced the observed increase of GGT+AHF by 84% and liver expression of ggt mRNA by 100%. In case of the GSTp protein, the level was reduced by 90%. As indicative of oxidative stress generated by diethylnitrosamine (DEN) 12 h after its administration, we detected a 68% increase of TBARS.When CAPE was administered before DEN, it completely protected from liver TBARS induction. To have an indication of the sole effect of CAPE on initiation, two carcinogens were tested in a UDS assay in PHC, we used methyl-n-nitrosoguanidine as a direct carcinogen and DEN, as indirect carcinogen. In this assay, genotoxic damage caused by carcinogens was abolished at 5μM CAPE concentration.CONCLUSION:Our results demonstrated that CAPE possesses anti-genotoxic and antineoplastic capabilities,by an anti-oxidative and free-radical scavenging mechanism.

  3. Alcohol Poisoning Deaths PSA (:60)

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2015-01-06

    This 60 second Public Service Announcement is based on the January 2015 CDC Vital Signs report. In the United States, an average of six people die every day from alcohol poisoning. Learn what you can do to prevent binge drinking and alcohol poisoning.  Created: 1/6/2015 by National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion (NCCDPHP).   Date Released: 1/6/2015.

  4. Alcohol Test

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    The recent alcohol tax increase poses a challenge to China’s white spirits makers Alcohol, rather than wine, is an in-dispensable component to Chinese table culture. The financial crisis has failed to affect white spirits sales, but an alcohol tax increase might.

  5. Initial evidence of reduction of malaria cases and deaths in Rwanda and Ethiopia due to rapid scale-up of malaria prevention and treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gausi Khoti

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background An increasing number of malaria-endemic African countries are rapidly scaling up malaria prevention and treatment. To have an initial estimate of the impact of these efforts, time trends in health facility records were evaluated in selected districts in Ethiopia and Rwanda, where long-lasting insecticidal nets (LLIN and artemisinin-based combination therapy (ACT had been distributed nationwide by 2007. Methods In Ethiopia, a stratified convenience sample covered four major regions where (moderately endemic malaria occurs. In Rwanda, two districts were sampled in all five provinces, with one rural health centre and one rural hospital selected in each district. The main impact indicator was percentage change in number of in-patient malaria cases and deaths in children Results In-patient malaria cases and deaths in children Conclusion Initial evidence indicated that the combination of mass distribution of LLIN to all children

  6. 49 CFR 199.215 - Alcohol concentration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Alcohol concentration. 199.215 Section 199.215... Prevention Program § 199.215 Alcohol concentration. Each operator shall prohibit a covered employee from... alcohol concentration of 0.04 or greater. No operator having actual knowledge that a covered employee...

  7. Adolescent Alcohol Use: Protective and Predictive Parent, Peer, and Self-Related Factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Handren, Lindsay M; Donaldson, Candice D; Crano, William D

    2016-10-01

    Adolescent alcohol use has been linked with a multitude of problems and a trajectory predictive of problematic use in adulthood. Thus, targeting factors that enhance early prevention efforts is vital. The current study highlights variables that mitigate or predict alcohol use and heavy episodic drinking. Using Monitoring the Future (MTF) data, multiple path analytic models revealed links between parental involvement and alcohol abstinence and initiation. Parental involvement predicted enhanced self-esteem and less self-derogation and was negatively associated with peer alcohol norms for each MTF grade sampled, with stronger associations for 8th and 10th graders than 12th graders. For younger groups, self-esteem predicted increased perceptions of alcohol risk and reduced drinking. Self-derogation was associated with peers' pro-alcohol norms, which was linked to lower risk perceptions, lower personal disapproval of use, and increased drinking. Peer influence had a stronger association with consumption for 8th and 10th graders, whereas 12th graders' drinking was related to personal factors of alcohol risk perception and disapproval. In all grades, general alcohol use had a strong connection to heavy episodic drinking within the past 2 weeks. Across-grade variations in association of parent, peer, and personal factors suggest the desirability of tailored interventions focused on specific factors for each grade level, with the overall goal of attenuating adolescent alcohol use. PMID:27562038

  8. Enhancing global control of alcohol to reduce unsafe sex and HIV in sub-Saharan Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rees Helen V

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Sub-Saharan Africa carries a massive dual burden of HIV and alcohol disease, and these pandemics are inextricably linked. Physiological and behavioural research indicates that alcohol independently affects decision-making concerning sex, and skills for negotiating condoms and their correct use. More than 20 studies in Africa have reported higher occurrence of HIV among people with problem drinking; a finding strongly consistent across studies and similar among women and men. Conflation of HIV and alcohol disease in these setting is not surprising given patterns of heavy-episodic drinking and that drinking contexts are often coterminous with opportunities for sexual encounters. HIV and alcohol also share common ground with sexual violence. Both perpetrators and victims of sexual violence have a high likelihood of having drunk alcohol prior to the incident, as with most forms of violence and injury in sub-Saharan Africa. Reducing alcohol harms necessitates multi-level interventions and should be considered a key component of structural interventions to alleviate the burden of HIV and sexual violence. Brief interventions for people with problem drinking (an important component of primary health care, must incorporate specific discussion of links between alcohol and unsafe sex, and consequences thereof. Interventions to reduce alcohol harm among HIV-infected persons are also an important element in positive-prevention initiatives. Most importantly, implementation of known effective interventions could alleviate a large portion of the alcohol-attributable burden of disease, including its effects on unsafe sex, unintended pregnancy and HIV transmission.

  9. Lack of efficacy of blueberry in nutritional prevention of azoxymethane-initiated cancers of rat small intestine and colon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wu Xianli

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Blueberries may lower relative risk for cancers of the gastrointestinal tract. Previous work indicated an inhibitory effect of consumed blueberry (BB on formation of aberrant crypt foci (ACF in colons of male Fisher F344 rats (inbred strain. However, effects of BB on colon tumors and in both genders are unknown. Methods We examined efficacy of BB in inhibition of azoxymethane (AOM-induced colon ACF and intestine tumors in male and female Sprague-Dawley rats (outbred strain. Pregnant rats were fed a diet with or without 10% BB powder; progeny were weaned to the same diet as their dam and received AOM as young adults. Results Male and female rats on control diet had similar numbers of ACF at 6 weeks after AOM administration. BB increased (P P P > 0.05 to reduce overall gastrointestinal tract tumor incidence in males, however, tumor incidence in females was unaffected (P > 0.1 by BB. There was a tendency (0.1 > P > 0.05 for fewer adenocarcinomas (relative to total of adenomatous polyps plus adenocarcinomas in colons of female than male tumor-bearing rats; in small intestine, this gender difference was significant (P P Conclusion Results did not indicate robust cancer-preventive effects of BB. Blueberry influenced ACF occurrence in distal colon and tumor progression in duodenum, in gender-specific fashion. Data indicate the potential for slowing tumor progression (adenomatous polyp to adenocarcinoma by BB.

  10.  Early initiation of MARS® dialysis in Amanita phalloides-induced acute liver injury prevents liver transplantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pillukat, Mike Hendrik; Schomacher, Tina; Baier, Peter; Gabriëls, Gert; Pavenstädt, Hermann; Schmidt, Hartmut H J

    2016-01-01

     Amanita phalloides is the most relevant mushroom intoxication leading to acute liver failure. The two principal groups of toxins, the amatoxins and the phallotoxins, are small oligopeptides highly resistant to chemical and physical influences. The amatoxins inhibit eukaryotic RNA polymerase II causing transcription arrest affecting mainly metabolically highly active cells like hepatocytes and renal cells. The clinically most characteristic symptom is a 6-40 h lag phase before onset of gastrointestinal symptoms and the rapid progression of acute liver failure leading to multi-organ failure and death within a week if left untreated. Extracorporeal albumin dialysis (ECAD) was reported to improve patient's outcome or facilitate bridging to transplantation. In our tertiary center, out of nine intoxicated individuals from five non-related families six patients presented with acute liver injury; all of them were treated with ECAD using the MARS® system. Four of them were listed on admission for high urgency liver transplantation. In addition to standard medical treatment for Amanita intoxication we initiated ECAD once patients were admitted to our center. Overall 16 dialysis sessions were performed. All patients survived with full native liver recovery without the need for transplantation. ECAD was well tolerated; no severe adverse events were reported during treatment. Coagulopathy resolved within days in all patients, and acute kidney injury in all but one individual. In conclusion, ECAD is highly effective in treating intoxication with Amanita phalloides. Based on these experiences we suggest early initiation and repeated sessions depending on response to ECAD with the chance of avoiding liver transplantation. PMID:27493118

  11. Alcohol harm reduction in Europe.

    OpenAIRE

    Herring, Rachel; Thom, Betsy; Beccaria, Franca; Kolind, Torsten; Moskalewicz, Jacek

    2010-01-01

    This chapter provides an overview of harm reduction approaches to alcohol in Europe. First, definitions ascribed to alcohol harm reduction are outlined. Then, evaluated alcohol harm reduction interventions in European countries are described and the evidence for their effectiveness examined. These include multi-component programmes, improvements to the drinking environment, and initiatives to reduce the harms associated with drink-driving. Third, harm reduction activities that have been re...

  12. Engaging Partners to Initiate Evaluation Efforts: Tactics Used and Lessons Learned From the Prevention Research Centers Program

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Demia Sundra Wright, MPH

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available BackgroundThe Centers for Disease Control and Prevention’s (CDC’s Prevention Research Centers (PRC Program underwent a 2-year evaluation planning project using a participatory process that allowed perspectives from the national community of PRC partners to be expressed and reflected in a national logic model.ContextThe PRC Program recognized the challenge in developing a feasible, useable, and relevant evaluation process for a large, diverse program. To address the challenge, participatory and utilization-focused evaluation models were used.MethodsFour tactics guided the evaluation planning process: 1 assessing stakeholders’ communication needs and existing communication mechanisms and infrastructure; 2 using existing mechanisms and establishing others as needed to inform, educate, and request feedback; 3 listening to and using feedback received; and 4 obtaining adequate resources and building flexibility into the project plan to support multifaceted mechanisms for data collection.ConsequencesParticipatory methods resulted in buy-in from stakeholders and the development of a national logic model. Benefits included CDC’s use of the logic model for program planning and development of a national evaluation protocol and increased expectations among PRC partners for involvement. Challenges included the time, effort, and investment of program resources required for the participatory approach and the identification of whom to engage and when to engage them for feedback on project decisions.InterpretationBy using a participatory and utilization-focused model, program partners positively influenced how CDC developed an evaluation plan. The tactics we used can guide the involvement of program stakeholders and help with decisions on appropriate methods and approaches for engaging partners.

  13. Alcoholic cardiomyopathy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Gonzalo; Guzzo-Merello; Marta; Cobo-Marcos; Maria; Gallego-Delgado; Pablo; Garcia-Pavia

    2014-01-01

    Alcohol is the most frequently consumed toxic substance in the world. Low to moderate daily intake of alcohol has been shown to have beneficial effects on the cardiovascular system. In contrast, exposure to high levels of alcohol for a long period could lead to progressive cardiac dysfunction and heart failure. Cardiac dysfunction associated with chronic and excessive alcohol intake is a specific cardiac disease known as alcoholic cardiomyopathy(ACM). In spite of its clinical importance, data on ACM and how alcohol damages the heart are limited. In this review, we evaluate available evidence linking excessive alcohol consumption with heart failure and dilated cardiomyopathy. Additionally, we discuss the clinical presentation, prognosis and treatment of ACM.

  14. Alcohol abuse and related disorders treatment of alcohol dependence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu. P. Sivolap

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Alcohol abuse and alcoholism are the leading causes of worse health and increased mortality rates. Excessive alcohol consumption is the third leading cause of the global burden of diseases and a leading factor for lower lifespan and higher mortality. Alcohol abuse decreases working capacity and efficiency and requires the increased cost of the treatment of alcohol-induced disorders, which entails serious economic losses. The unfavorable medical and social consequences of excessive alcohol use determine the importance of effective treatment for alcoholism. The goals of rational pharmacotherapy of alcohol dependence are to enhance GABA neurotransmission, to suppress glutamate neurotransmission, to act on serotonin neurotransmission, to correct water-electrolyte balance, and to compensate for thiamine deficiency. Alcoholism treatment consists of two steps: 1 the prevention and treatment of alcohol withdrawal syndrome and its complications (withdrawal convulsions and delirium alcoholicum; 2 antirecurrent (maintenance therapy. Benzodiazepines are the drugs of choice in alleviating alcohol withdrawal and preventing its convulsive attacks and delirium alcoholicum. Diazepam and chlordiazepoxide are most commonly used for this purpose; the safer drugs oxazepam and lorazepam are given to the elderly and patients with severe liver lesions. Anticonvulsants having normothymic properties, such as carbamazepine, valproic acid, topiramate, and lamotrigine, are a definite alternative to benzodiazepines. The traditional Russian clinical practice (clearance detoxification has not a scientific base or significant impact on alcohol withdrawal-related states in addicts. Relapse prevention and maintenance therapy for alcohol dependence are performed using disulfiram, acamprosate, and naltrexone; since 2013 the European Union member countries have been using, besides these agents, nalmefene that is being registered in Russia. Memantine and a number of other

  15. Parental Alcohol Involvement and Adolescent Alcohol Expectancies Predict Alcohol Involvement in Male Adolescents

    OpenAIRE

    Cranford, James A.; Zucker, Robert A.; Jester, Jennifer M.; Puttler, Leon I.; Fitzgerald, Hiram E.

    2010-01-01

    Current models of adolescent drinking behavior hypothesize that alcohol expectancies mediate the effects of other proximal and distal risk factors. This longitudinal study tested the hypothesis that the effects of parental alcohol involvement on their children’s drinking behavior in mid-adolescence are mediated by the children’s alcohol expectancies in early adolescence. A sample of 148 initially 9–11 year old boys and their parents from a high-risk population and a contrast group of communit...

  16. Alcoholic cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stickel, Felix

    2015-01-01

    Hepatocellular carcinoma shows a rising incidence worldwide, and the largest burden of disease in Western countries derives from patients with alcoholic liver disease (ALD) and cirrhosis, the latter being the premier premalignant factor for HCC. The present chapter addresses key issues including the epidemiology of alcohol-associated HCC, and its link to other coexisting non-alcoholic liver diseases, and additional host and environmental risk factors including the underlying genetics. Also discussed are molecular mechanisms of alcohol-associated liver cancer evolution involving the mediators of alcohol toxicity and carcinogenicity, acetaldehyde and reactive oxygen species, as well as the recently described mutagenic adducts which these mediators form with DNA. Specifically, interference of alcohol with retinoids and cofactors of transmethylation processes are outlined. Information presented in this chapter illustrates that the development of HCC in the context of ALD is multifaceted and suggests several molecular targets for prevention and markers for the screening of risk groups. PMID:25427904

  17. CHRONIC ALCOHOL NEUROADAPTATION AND STRESS CONTRIBUTE TO SUSCEPTIBILITY FOR ALCOHOL CRAVING AND RELAPSE

    OpenAIRE

    Breese, George R.; Sinha, Rajita; Heilig, Markus

    2010-01-01

    Alcoholism is a chronic relapsing disorder. Major characteristics observed in alcoholics during an initial period of alcohol abstinence are altered physiological functions and a negative emotional state. Evidence suggests that a persistent, cumulative adaptation involving a kindling/allostasis-like process occurs during the course of repeated chronic alcohol exposures that is critical for the negative symptoms observed during alcohol withdrawal. Basic studies have provided evidence for specif...

  18. Alcohol and the work place

    CERN Multimedia

    2004-01-01

    The CERN Medical Service has observed an increase in the number of personnel suffering from alcohol-related problems in recent years, in spite of the implementation of stricter regulations concerning the consumption of alcohol on the site. The causes of alcohol-related problems are often complex and many-faceted. A family history of alcohol abuse can be a cofactor in excessive drinking. The effects on a person's work are not negligible and should not be ignored. "Alcohol and the work place" is the third part of a campaign designed to raise awareness of the risks of alcohol consumption, which has already dealt with "alcohol and health" and "alcohol and road safety".Many employers have taken steps to confront the problem, and CERN launched a campaign to help its employees suffering from alcohol-related problems over ten years ago. A standing SCC sub-group on the prevention of alcoholism has been set up and Operational Circular No. 8, which defines the role and responsibilities of all parties concerned in the m...

  19. Early adolescent, multi-ethnic, urban youth's exposure to patterns of alcohol-related neighborhood characteristics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tobler, Amy L; Komro, Kelli A; Maldonado-Molina, Mildred M

    2009-10-01

    This study identified heterogeneous classes of alcohol-related neighborhood characteristics to which multi-ethnic, early adolescents in urban communities are exposed. The sample comprised 4,215 youth from 42 community areas in Chicago, Illinois who completed surveys at the beginning of 6th grade (2002). Neighborhood measures included: (1) mean number of alcohol outlets per 1,000 population per community area; (2) alcohol purchase attempt rate by pseudo-underage youth; (3) average number of alcohol advertisements within 1,500 feet of each school per community; and (4) a Census 2000-based deprivation index. Parents and community leaders provided data on perceived neighborhood problems and parental prevention actions, and neighborhood strength and preventive action by communities, law enforcement, and community organizations, respectively. Multilevel latent class analysis identified the number and characteristics of heterogeneous latent neighborhood classes in which these youth are exposed. Five classes best described the heterogeneity among the sample: (1) Low social capital/low exposure/high access to alcohol (19.8%), (2) Low social capital/low exposure/low access to alcohol (24.5%), (3) Moderate social capital/low exposure/high access to alcohol (30.0%), (4) Moderate social capital/moderate exposure/low access to alcohol (20.1%), and (5) High social capital/moderate exposure/high access to alcohol (5.6%). The racial/ethnic distribution among the classes varied considerably. Results suggest there is substantive heterogeneity among this seemingly homogeneous urban population. Further, they highlight the socioeconomic disadvantage of these inner-city communities and the resource disparity across the racial/ethnic groups. Understanding the nuances among communities may lend to development of more efficacious preventive interventions and policy initiatives, inform theory, and help prioritize limited resources.

  20. Saving Our Children from Alcoholism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foster, Dorothy

    1982-01-01

    Describes current efforts undertaken by the Catholic community to prevent alcoholism and drug abuse among young people. Outlines the objectives of such preventive programs and actions currently being taken. Highlights efforts including parent education programs, workshops for teachers, clergy, and community networks. (WL)

  1. Alcohol consumption and symptoms as predictors for relapse of DSM-5 alcohol use disorder.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tuithof, Marlous; ten Have, Margreet; van den Brink, Wim; Vollebergh, Wilma; de Graaf, Ron

    2014-01-01

    Background: Alcohol consumption levels and alcohol use disorder (AUD) symptoms may serve as easily quantifiable markers for AUD relapse after remission and might help prevention workers identify at-risk individuals. We investigated the predictive value of alcohol consumption and AUD symptoms on rela

  2. Academic Giftedness and Alcohol Use in Early Adolescence

    OpenAIRE

    Peairs, Kristen F.; Eichen, Dawn; Putallaz, Martha; COSTANZO, PHILIP R.; Grimes, Christina L.

    2011-01-01

    Adolescence is a period of development particularly vulnerable to the effects of alcohol use, with recent studies underscoring alcohol's effects on adolescent brain development. Despite the alarming rates and consequences of adolescent alcohol use, gifted adolescents are often overlooked as being at risk for early alcohol use. Although gifted adolescents may possess protective factors that likely inhibit the use of alcohol, some gifted youth may be vulnerable to initiating alcohol use during ...

  3. 魔芋葡甘聚糖对大鼠酒精性脂肪肝的预防效果%Study on the preventive effect of KGM on the rat with alcoholic fatty liver

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨芳

    2012-01-01

    【Objective】 The study was done to analyze the preventive effect of KGM on alcoholic fatty liver(AFL).【Method】 The male SD rats were divided into five groups,namely control group,drinking alcohol group,5% KGM preventive group,10% KGM preventive group,10% GSH preventive group.During the twelve weeks of experiment,rat hair,activity,and diet were observed.Body weight was weighed at the end of the test.The rat serum ALT,AST,γ-GT levels were evaluated using an assay kit and histopathology of liver tissue in rats was observed.【Result】 After 12 weeks,the body weight of three prevention group rats grew faster than drinking alcohol group(P0.05).KGM could reduce the activity of serum ALT,AST and γ-GT,which had statistically significant differences(P0.05) or very significant difference(P0.01)with rats of drinking alcohol group.There was a very significant difference(P0.01)between preventive group rats and rats of drinking alcohol group which had hepatic steatosis,organization of local inflammation and necrosis.ALT,AST,γ-GT,and liver index had no statistically significant differences between KGM preventive group and GSH preventive group.【Conclusion】 KGM could reduce the activity of serum ALT,AST and γ-GT.The KGM in alcohol continuing role is still effective in the prevention of the occurrence of AFL.Its preventive effect is similar to GSH.%【目的】探究魔芋葡甘聚糖(Konjac glucomannan,KGM)对大鼠酒精性脂肪肝的预防作用。【方法】将雄性SD大鼠随机分成空白对照组、酒精肝模型组、饮用酒精+质量分数5%KGM组、饮用酒精+质量分数10%KGM组、饮用酒精+质量分数10%谷胱甘肽(GSH)组,进行为期12周的饲养试验,期间观察大鼠被毛、活动、饮食等一般情况,试验结束时称体质量,并采集血清及肝脏样品,测定其血清谷丙转氨酶(Alanine aminotransferase,ALT)、谷草转氨酶(Aspartate aminotransferase,AST)、

  4. Negotiating the use of female-initiated HIV prevention methods in a context of gender-based violence: the narrative of rape.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartmann, Miriam; Montgomery, Elizabeth; Stadler, Jonathan; Laborde, Nicole; Magazi, Busisiwe; Mathebula, Florence; van der Straten, Ariane

    2016-06-01

    Female-initiated methods of HIV prevention are needed to address barriers to HIV prevention rooted in gender inequalities. Understanding the sociocultural context of pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) trials, including gender-based violence, is thus critical. MTN-003C (VOICE-C), a qualitative sub-study of the larger MTN-003 (VOICE) trial, examined sociocultural barriers and facilitators to PrEP amongst women in Johannesburg. We conducted focus-group discussions, in-depth interviews and ethnographic interviews with 102 trial participants, 22 male partners, 17 community advisory board members and 23 community stakeholders. We analysed how discussions of rape are emblematic of the gendered context in which HIV risk occurs. Rape emerged spontaneously in half of discussions with community advisory board members, two-thirds with stakeholders and among one-fifth of interviews/discussions with trial participants. Rape was used to reframe HIV risk as external to women's or partner's behaviour and to justify the importance of PrEP. Our research illustrates how women, in contexts of high levels of sexual violence, may use existing gender inequalities to negotiate PrEP use. This suggests that future interventions should simultaneously address harmful gender attitudes, as well as equip women with alternative means to negotiate product use, in order to more effectively empower women to protect themselves from HIV. PMID:26551920

  5. Responsible Hospitality. Prevention Updates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colthurst, Tom

    2004-01-01

    Responsible Hospitality (RH)--also called Responsible Beverage Service (RBS)--encompasses a variety of strategies for reducing risks associated with the sale and service of alcoholic beverages. RH programs have three goals: (1) to prevent illegal alcohol service to minors; (2) to reduce the likelihood of drinkers becoming intoxicated; and (3) to…

  6. gamma-Hydroxybutyric acid (GHB) suppresses alcohol's motivational properties in alcohol-preferring rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maccioni, Paola; Pes, Daniela; Fantini, Noemi; Carai, Mauro A M; Gessa, Gian Luigi; Colombo, Giancarlo

    2008-03-01

    gamma-Hydroxybutyric acid (GHB) reduces alcohol drinking, promotes abstinence from alcohol, suppresses craving for alcohol, and ameliorates alcohol withdrawal syndrome in alcoholics. At preclinical level, GHB suppresses alcohol withdrawal signs and alcohol intake in rats. The present study was designed to investigate whether GHB administration was capable of affecting alcohol's motivational properties (the possible animal correlate of human craving for alcohol) in selectively bred Sardinian alcohol-preferring rats. To this aim, rats were initially trained to lever press for alcohol (15%, vol/vol) under a procedure of operant, oral alcohol self-administration (fixed ratio 4 in 30-min daily sessions). Once responding for alcohol had stabilized, rats were divided into two groups and allocated to two independent experiments. Experiment 1 assessed the effect of GHB (0, 25, 50, and 100mg/kg, i.p.) on breakpoint for alcohol, defined as the lowest response requirement not achieved by each rat when exposed to a single-session progressive ratio schedule of reinforcement. Experiment 2 assessed the effect of GHB (0, 25, 50, and 100mg/kg, i.p.) on single-session extinction responding for alcohol (alcohol was absent and unreinforced responding was recorded). Breakpoint and extinction responding for alcohol are reliable indexes of alcohol's motivational strength. In Experiment 1, all doses of GHB reduced--by approximately 20% in comparison to saline-treated rats--breakpoint for alcohol. In Experiment 2, administration of 25, 50, and 100mg/kg GHB reduced--by approximately 25%, 40%, and 50%, respectively, in comparison to saline-treated rats--extinction responding for alcohol. Conversely, no dose of GHB altered breakpoint and extinction responding for sucrose (3%, wt/vol) in two independent subsets of Sardinian alcohol-preferring rats. Together, these data suggest that GHB administration specifically suppressed alcohol's motivational properties in Sardinian alcohol-preferring rats

  7. O enfermeiro no ensino fundamental: desafios na prevenção ao consumo de álcool El enfermero en la enseñanza general básica: desafíos en la prevención al consumo de alcohol The nurse in fundamental education: challenges in the prevention to alcohol consumption

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gertrudes Teixeira Lopes

    2007-12-01

    orientación a los jóvenes.This study comes from some questions made by drug researchers about insertion of the nurse as promotional health agent in the fundamental school. Objective: to reflect the acting of the nurse in the fundamental school as agent in the prevention to alcohol consumption. This work shows that the prevention, as a sum of actions that aim at preventing problems caused by improper use of the alcohol, is a field that enables the nurse to develop activities of prevention in different scopes, along with the students, their families and the teachers. The reflections in this text about the work of the nurse as agent educator in fundamental level schools aiming at to the prevention to the alcohol use do not make a vindication nor recriminates the consumption, but consider the school as a privileged territory for the incorporation of knowledge on health, replacing the repressor approach by the orientation one to the youth.

  8. Initial evidence of reduction of malaria cases and deaths in Rwanda and Ethiopia due to rapid scale-up of malaria prevention and treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Otten, Mac; Aregawi, Maru; Were, Wilson; Karema, Corine; Medin, Ambachew; Bekele, Worku; Jima, Daddi; Gausi, Khoti; Komatsu, Ryuichi; Korenromp, Eline; Low-Beer, Daniel; Grabowsky, Mark

    2009-01-01

    Background An increasing number of malaria-endemic African countries are rapidly scaling up malaria prevention and treatment. To have an initial estimate of the impact of these efforts, time trends in health facility records were evaluated in selected districts in Ethiopia and Rwanda, where long-lasting insecticidal nets (LLIN) and artemisinin-based combination therapy (ACT) had been distributed nationwide by 2007. Methods In Ethiopia, a stratified convenience sample covered four major regions where (moderately) endemic malaria occurs. In Rwanda, two districts were sampled in all five provinces, with one rural health centre and one rural hospital selected in each district. The main impact indicator was percentage change in number of in-patient malaria cases and deaths in children < 5 years old prior to (2001–2005/6) and after (2007) nationwide implementation of LLIN and ACT. Results In-patient malaria cases and deaths in children < 5 years old in Rwanda fell by 55% and 67%, respectively, and in Ethiopia by 73% and 62%. Over this same time period, non-malaria cases and deaths generally remained stable or increased. Conclusion Initial evidence indicated that the combination of mass distribution of LLIN to all children < 5 years or all households and nationwide distribution of ACT in the public sector was associated with substantial declines of in-patient malaria cases and deaths in Rwanda and Ethiopia. Clinic-based data was a useful tool for local monitoring of the impact of malaria programmes. PMID:19144183

  9. Exploring the potential of a family-based prevention intervention to reduce alcohol use and violence within HIV-affected families in Rwanda.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaudhury, Sumona; Brown, Felicity L; Kirk, Catherine M; Mukunzi, Sylvere; Nyirandagijimana, Beatha; Mukandanga, Josee; Ukundineza, Christian; Godfrey, Kalisa; Ng, Lauren C; Brennan, Robert T; Betancourt, Theresa S

    2016-03-01

    HIV-affected families report higher rates of harmful alcohol use, intimate partner violence (IPV) and family conflict, which can have detrimental effects on children. Few evidence-based interventions exist to address these complex issues in Sub-Saharan Africa. This mixed methods study explores the potential of a family-based intervention to reduce IPV, family conflict and problems related to alcohol use to promote child mental health and family functioning within HIV-affected families in post-genocide Rwanda. A family home-visiting, evidence-based intervention designed to identify and enhance resilience and communication in families to promote mental health in children was adapted and developed for use in this context for families affected by caregiver HIV in Rwanda. The intervention was adapted and developed through a series of pilot study phases prior to being tested in open and randomized controlled trials (RCTs) in Rwanda for families affected by caregiver HIV. Quantitative and qualitative data from the RCT are explored here using a mixed methods approach to integrate findings. Reductions in alcohol use and IPV among caregivers are supported by qualitative reports of improved family functioning, lower levels of violence and problem drinking as well as improved child mental health, among the intervention group. This mixed methods analysis supports the potential of family-based interventions to reduce adverse caregiver behaviors as a major mechanism for improving child well-being. Further studies to examine these mechanisms in well-powered trials are needed to extend the evidence-base on the promise of family-based intervention for use in low- and middle-income countries. PMID:27392007

  10. Calpastatin overexpression prevents progression of S-1,2-dichlorovinyl-L-cysteine (DCVC)-initiated acute renal injury and renal failure (ARF) in diabetes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Previously we have shown that 90% of streptozotocin (STZ)-induced type-1 diabetic (DB) mice survive from acute renal failure (ARF) and death induced by a normally LD9 dose (75 mg/kg, i.p.) of the nephrotoxicant S-1,2-dichlorovinyl-L-cysteine (DCVC). This remarkable protection is due to a combination of slower progression of DCVC-initiated renal injury and increased compensatory nephrogenic tissue repair in the DB kidneys. BRDU immunohistochemistry revealed that the DB condition led to 4-fold higher number of proximal tubular cells (PTC) entering S-phase of cell cycle. In the present study, we tested the hypothesis that DB-induced augmentation of PTC into S-phase is accompanied by overexpression of the calpain-inhibitor calpastatin, which endogenously prevents the progression of DCVC-initiated renal injury mediated by the calpain escaping out of damaged PTCs. Immunohistochemical detection of renal calpain and its activity in the urine, over a time course after treatment with the LD9 dose of DCVC, indicated progressive increase in leakage of calpain into the extracellular spaces of the injured PTCs of the non-diabetic (NDB) kidneys as compared to the DB kidneys. Calpastatin expression was minimally detected in the NDB kidneys, using immunohistochemistry, over the time course. On the other hand, consistently higher number of tubules in the DB kidney showed calpastatin expression over the time course. The lower leakage of calpain in the DB kidneys was commensurate with constitutively higher expression of calpastatin in the S-phase-laden PTCs of these mice. To test the protective role of newly divided/dividing PTCs, DB mice were given the anti-mitotic agent colchicine (CLC) (2 mg/kg and 1.5 mg/kg, i.p., on days 8 and 10 after STZ injection) prior to challenge with a LD9 dose of DCVC, which led to 100% mortality by 48 h. Mortality was due to rapid progression of DCVC-initiated renal injury, suggesting that newly divided/dividing cells are instrumental in mitigating the

  11. Prevention of autoimmune hypothyroidism by modifying iodine intake and the use of tobacco and alcohol is manoeuvring between Scylla and Charybdis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Laurberg, Peter; Andersen, Stig; Pedersen, Inge Bülow;

    2012-01-01

    Although autoimmune hypothyroidism has generally been considered to be a disease that mainly develops because of genetic aberrations and for which adjustment of environment would bring about but slight risk modification, this understanding is increasingly appearing to be incorrect. We describe how...... deficiency, decrease or cessation of smoking, and moderate alcohol intake) is not incorporated within current public health promoting programs. Nevertheless, it is increasingly becoming evident that knowledge of the importance of these factors for disease development is likely to assist in the planning...

  12. Alcohol abuse and postoperative morbidity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tønnesen, Hanne

    2003-01-01

    Patients who drink too much have more complications after surgery. The aim of this thesis was to evaluate the evidence, possible mechanisms, and prevention of the increased postoperative morbidity in alcohol abusers, defined by a consumption of at least five drinks per day. The literature could...... be criticised for several methodological flaws. Nevertheless, the results are in agreement showing moderate to strong evidence of increased postoperative morbidity after surgical procedures on alcohol abusers. There is weak to moderate evidence of increased postoperative mortality, hospital stay, and re......-operation. The personal and economic consequences are tremendous. The incidence of alcohol abusers undergoing surgery was 7% to 49%, according to gender and diagnosis. They have been identified by a self-reported alcohol intake, which implies the possibility of underestimation. Alcohol markers could be used for a more...

  13. Inhibition of pancreatic stellate cell activation by the vitamin A and vitamin E as a therapy for prevention fibrogenesis in experimental chronic alcoholic pancreatitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nichitaylo M. E.

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the study was to investigate the effects of Vitamin A and Vitamin E on activity of pancreatic stellate cells and fibrosis changes in pancreas after distal pancreatectomy in rats with experimental alcohol-induced chronic pancreatitis. Simultaneously Vitamin A and Vitamin E were administered after distal pancreatectomy in rats with experimental alcohol-induced chronic pancreatitis. The animals were treated withVitamin A at the dose of 33000 IU/kg body weight per day and Vitamin E at the dose of 100 mg/kg body weight per day for three weeks (21 days after operation. To estimate the efficacy of the treatment on activity and numbersof pancreatic stellate cells the immunohistochemicalinvestigation was made with alpha-smooth muscle actin, desmin, vimentin, glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP, matrix metalloproteinase 1 (MMP1, tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase 2 (TIMP2 using. The treatment of rats after operation with vitamin A and vitamin E inhibited activity of pancreatic stellate cells and characterized by significant decreasing of the alpha-smooth muscle actin, Desmin, Vimentin, MMP1 and TIMP2 expression. The ratio of MMP1/TIMP2 was greater in the group with treatment then in the control group. This therapy had a trend to decrease the expression of GFAPand alleviate the fibrotic changes in pancreas.

  14. Alcohol Energy Drinks

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Home / About Addiction / Alcohol / Alcohol Energy Drinks Alcohol Energy Drinks Read 17728 times font size decrease font size increase font size Print Email Alcohol energy drinks (AEDs) or Caffeinated alcoholic beverages (CABs) are ...

  15. Alcohol during Pregnancy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Home > Pregnancy > Is it safe? > Alcohol during pregnancy Alcohol during pregnancy E-mail to a friend Please ... and fetal alcohol spectrum disorders. How does drinking alcohol during pregnancy affect your baby's health? Drinking alcohol ...

  16. Alcohol and pregnancy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drinking alcohol during pregnancy; Fetal alcohol syndrome - pregnancy; FAS - fetal alcohol syndrome ... lead to lifelong damage. DANGERS OF ALCOHOL DURING PREGNANCY Drinking a lot of alcohol during pregnancy can ...

  17. Effects of initial pH value of the medium on the alcoholic fermentation performance of Saccharomyces cerevisiae cells immobilized on nipa leaf sheath pieces

    OpenAIRE

    Hoang Duc Toan Le; Van Viet Man Le

    2014-01-01

    Immobilized yeast on nipa leaf sheath pieces was applied to ethanol fermentation using the medium with different initial pH values (5.1, 4.5, 4.0, and 3.5). Control samples with the free yeast were also carried out under the same conditions. Low pH value of 4.0 or 3.5 significantly reduced yeast growth and increased the residual sugar level in the fermentation broths for both the immobilized and free cells. In all cases, the ethanol content produced and ethanol formation rate of the ...

  18. A genome-wide association study of alcohol dependence

    OpenAIRE

    Laura J Bierut; Agrawal, Arpana; Bucholz, Kathleen K.; Doheny, Kimberly F.; Laurie, Cathy; Pugh, Elizabeth; Fisher, Sherri; Fox, Louis; Howells, William; Bertelsen, Sarah; Hinrichs, Anthony L.; Almasy, Laura; Breslau, Naomi; Culverhouse, Robert C; Dick, Danielle M

    2010-01-01

    Excessive alcohol consumption is one of the leading causes of preventable death in the United States. Approximately 14% of those who use alcohol meet criteria during their lifetime for alcohol dependence, which is characterized by tolerance, withdrawal, inability to stop drinking, and continued drinking despite serious psychological or physiological problems. We explored genetic influences on alcohol dependence among 1,897 European-American and African-American subjects with alcohol dependenc...

  19. Demographic and Academic Trends in Drinking Patterns and Alcohol-Related Problems on Dry College Campuses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Dexter M.; Johnson, Mark B.; Voas, Robert B.; Turrisi, Robert

    2006-01-01

    Restricting alcohol consumption on campus is a measure often used by college administrators to prevent alcohol abuse and-alcohol-related problems. The effect of dry campus policies on alcohol consumption and alcohol-related problems, however, remains poorly understood. This report will compare characteristics of two dry campuses with descriptions…

  20. Feasibility and Initial Efficacy Evaluation of a Community-Based Cognitive-Behavioral Lifestyle Intervention to Prevent Excessive Weight Gain During Pregnancy in Latina Women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gesell, Sabina B; Katula, Jeffrey A; Strickland, Carmen; Vitolins, Mara Z

    2015-08-01

    About 48 % of US women gain more weight during pregnancy than recommended by the Institute of Medicine (IOM). Excessive gestational weight gain is a major risk factor for obesity in both women and offspring over their lifetimes, and should be avoided. This study was designed to test the feasibility and initial efficacy of a prenatal behavioral intervention in a sample of low-income, predominantly Latina women. The intervention was delivered in groups of 8-10 women in a community recreation center, and structured to reduce the proportion of women who gained weight in excess of IOM guidelines. Recruitment targets were met in 3 months: 135 pregnant women (>10 and <28 weeks) were randomly assigned to receive a 12-week intervention (n = 68) or usual care (n = 67). Retention rate was 81 %. On average, women attended 4 of 12 group sessions, and each session had 4 of the 8-10 assigned participants in attendance. Initial efficacy analyses were based on 87 women. Compared to usual care, fewer normal-weight women in the intervention exceeded IOM recommendations (47.1 % usual care vs. 6.7 % intervention; absolute difference 40.4 %; p = .036). Recommendations for recruitment, retention, and delivery are discussed. A community-based cognitive-behavioral lifestyle intervention during pregnancy was feasible in a hard-to-reach, high-risk population of low-income Latina women, and showed efficacy in preventing excessive gestational weight gain. Due to frequently changing work schedules, strategies are needed to either increase attendance at group sessions (e.g., within a group prenatal care format) or to build core skills necessary for behavior change through other modalities.

  1. Alcoholism (image)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... that interferes with physical or mental health, and social, family or job responsibilities. This addiction can lead to liver, circulatory and neurological problems. Pregnant women who drink alcohol in any amount ...

  2. La escuela básica en la prevención del consumo de alcohol y tabaco: retrato de una realidad A escola fundamental na prevenção do consumo de álcool e tabaco: retrato de uma realidade Basic education in the prevention of alcohol consumption and smoking: a reality report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luz María Carvajal Chávez

    2005-10-01

    for the health, with personal, family and social consequences. The present study is exploratory-descriptive nature and its objective was to evaluate the primary school as a predicting factor in the prevention of the consumption of the school and tobacco in students. Interviews to students and professors were made by a pre-established guide, the results demonstrate that the 66,6% age is of 10 to 11 years. Exposed to factors of risks associated to scholastic problems, low self- esteem and familiar problems. Research shows that 15,6% have experienced alcohol and the 13,4% tobacco. The professors say that the children do not consume alcohol, tobacco or drugs, they say the children have conduct problems.

  3. Differential effects of baseline drinking status : Effects of an alcohol prevention program targeting students and/or parents (PAS) among weekly drinking students

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koning, Ina M.; Lugtig, Peter; Vollebergh, Wilma A M

    2014-01-01

    The effects of an intervention designed to prevent onset of weekly drinking in non drinking students (PAS) were investigated in the group of students that was already drinking at baseline. A cluster randomized trial was used including 3,490 Dutch early adolescents (M age. =. 12.66, SD=. 0.49) random

  4. Parental Alcoholism, Adverse Childhood Experiences, and Later Risk of Personal Alcohol Abuse among Chinese Medical Students

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    QIN XIAO; MA-XIA DONG; JIE YAO; WEN-XIAN LI; DONG-QING YE

    2008-01-01

    Objective To determine the status of adverse childhood experiences (ACEs) and the association of multiple ACEs with both parental alcoholism and later personal alcohol abuse among Chinese medical students with a view of improving adolescent health and reducing alcohol abuse among them. Methods In this cross-sectional study, 2073 Chinese medical students completed a survey on ten categories of ACEs in Anhui province of China. The association of parental alcoholism with ACEs and personal lcohol abuse was assessed by logistic regression analyses. Results The adjusted odds ratio (OR) for each category of ACEs in the subjects whose parents (either fathers or mothers or oth) had alcohol abuse was 2 to 14 times higher than that inthose with parental alcoholism (P<0.05). Subjects with i-parental alcoholism had the highest likelihood of ACEs. Compared with the subjects without ACEs, the risk of personal alcohol abuse was increased by 2-4-folds in the subjects with ACEs, irrespective of parental alcoholism (P<0.05). The total number of ACEs (ACE score) had a graded relationship to 4 categories of personal alcohol abuse with or without parental alcoholism. The prevalence of personal alcohol abuse among the subjects with parental alcoholism was higher, which was ndependent of ACE scores. Conclusion The prevalence of ACEs is generally serious in China. Efforts should be made to prevent and treat children with ACEs and subsequently to reduce alcohol abuse and later problems.

  5. Procedure of brewing alcohol as a staple food: case study of the fermented cereal liquor "Parshot" as a staple food in Dirashe special woreda, southern Ethiopia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sunano, Yui

    2016-07-01

    For most brews, alcohol fermentation and lactic fermentation take place simultaneously during the brewing process, and alcohol fermentation can progress smoothly because the propagation of various microorganisms is prevented by lactic fermentation. It is not necessary to cause lactic fermentation with a thing generated naturally and intentionally. The people living in the Dirashe area in southern Ethiopia drink three types of alcoholic beverages that are prepared from cereals. From these alcoholic beverages, parshot is prepared by the addition of plant leaves for lactic fermentation and nech chaka by adding cereal powder for lactic fermentation before alcohol fermentation. People living in the Dirashe area partake of parshot as part of their staple diet. The brewing process used for parshot and a food culture with alcoholic beverages as parts of the staple diet are rare worldwide. This article discusses the significance of using lactic fermentation before alcoholic fermentation and focuses on lactic fermentation in the brewing methods used for the three kinds of alcoholic beverages consumed in the Dirashe area. We initially observed the brewing process and obtained information about the process from the people in that area. Next, we determined the pH and analyzed the lactic acid (g/100 g) and ethanol (g/100 g) content during lactic fermentation of parshot and nech chaka; the ethyl acetate (mg/100 g) and volatile base nitrogen (mg/100 g) content during this period was also analyzed. In addition, we compared the ethanol (g/100 g) content of all three kinds of alcoholic beverages after completion of brewing. The results showed that it was possible to consume large quantities of these alcoholic beverages because of the use of lactic fermentation before alcoholic fermentation, which improved the safety and preservation characteristics of the beverages by preventing the propagation of various microorganisms, improving flavor, and controlling the alcohol level. PMID

  6. Days La Familia community drug and alcohol prevention program: Family-centered model for working with inner-city Hispanic families.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernandez, L P; Lucero, E

    1996-03-01

    Substance abuse among Hispanics is on the increase despite national efforts toward reducing it. Researchers and service providers have recognized the specific need for better prevention models that address the issues of poor Hispanics. La Familia is a community-based ATOD prevention program that targets Hispanic families with high-risk youth from 6 to 11 years old, and attempts to reduce identified risk factors while building on culturally relevant protective factors. During the 2 years, the program has enrolled 219 youth and their families utilizing existing community networks and aggressive outreach. The program resulted in a 92% retention rate and over 80% attendance per session. As a result of the program, families became more willing to discuss ATOD issues openly and made positive steps toward empowerment.

  7. Acute Alcoholic Hepatitis, the Clinical Aspects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dugum, Mohannad F; McCullough, Arthur J

    2016-08-01

    Alcoholic hepatitis is an acute form of alcoholic liver disease with variable severity that develops in patients who usually have a history of prolonged and recent alcohol abuse. The diagnosis is clinical and depends on history, physical examination, and laboratory derangements. Liver biopsy is diagnostic but not universally performed, and noninvasive diagnostic modalities are under development. Scoring systems are used to assess severity of disease, predict mortality, and guide decisions for initiation of specific therapies. The natural history and long-term outcomes of alcoholic hepatitis, including recurrence, progression to cirrhosis, and mortality, vary and depend partly on abstinence from alcohol use. PMID:27373612

  8. Alcohol combustion chemistry

    KAUST Repository

    Sarathy, Mani

    2014-10-01

    , also emphasizing advanced engine concepts. Research results addressing combustion reaction mechanisms have been reported based on results from pyrolysis and oxidation reactors, shock tubes, rapid compression machines, and research engines. This work is complemented by the development of detailed combustion models with the support of chemical kinetics and quantum chemistry. This paper seeks to provide an introduction to and overview of recent results on alcohol combustion by highlighting pertinent aspects of this rich and rapidly increasing body of information. As such, this paper provides an initial source of references and guidance regarding the present status of combustion experiments on alcohols and models of alcohol combustion. © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Effects of Alcohol Consumption on Hypertension

    OpenAIRE

    AYGEN, Bilge

    2015-01-01

    Prevention of hypertension and lowering blood pressure with non-pharmacological treatment and lifestyle changes may reduce cardiovascular morbidity and mortality associated with alcohol while they also play an important role in reducing the cost of medical treatment. Reduction of alcohol consumption is one of the recommended lifestyle changes in the JNC VII report. Excessive amounts of alcohol consumption leads to an increase in blood pressure in both normotensive and hypertensive individuals...

  10. Alcohol and self-harm in Anuradhapura

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Jane Brandt; Jayasena, Chandima; Agampodi, Thilini Chanchala;

    Background: Research has shown that alcohol use is associated with self-harm and suicide, which is also the case in Sri Lanka where high numbers of individuals admitted to hospitals after self-harming are under influence of alcohol. Internationally, it has been highlighted that alcohol use may harm...... the personal network of the drinker and lead to secondary traumatization. This can appear as emotional distress, financial difficulties and lead to domestic violence and in some cases self-harm and suicide. This interplay between alcohol and self-harm was investigated in individuals, families and communities...... that they have not or rarely seek assistance to overcome alcohol-related or other problems in their household. Conclusions and recommendations: Preliminary findings show that alcohol plays a significant role in self-harm – but in different ways. Strategies seeking to prevent alcohol-related self-harm should...

  11. Eyeblink Classical Conditioning in Alcoholism and Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Dominic T; Jacobson, Sandra W; Jacobson, Joseph L; Molteno, Christopher D; Stanton, Mark E; Desmond, John E

    2015-01-01

    Alcoholism is a debilitating disorder that can take a significant toll on health and professional and personal relationships. Excessive alcohol consumption can have a serious impact on both drinkers and developing fetuses, leading to long-term learning impairments. Decades of research in laboratory animals and humans have demonstrated the value of eyeblink classical conditioning (EBC) as a well-characterized model system to study the neural mechanisms underlying associative learning. Behavioral EBC studies in adults with alcohol use disorders and in children with fetal alcohol spectrum disorders report a clear learning deficit in these two patient populations, suggesting alcohol-related damage to the cerebellum and associated structures. Insight into the neural mechanisms underlying these learning impairments has largely stemmed from laboratory animal studies. In this mini-review, we present and discuss exemplary animal findings and data from patient and neuroimaging studies. An improved understanding of the neural mechanisms underlying learning deficits in EBC related to alcoholism and prenatal alcohol exposure has the potential to advance the diagnoses, treatment, and prevention of these and other pediatric and adult disorders.

  12. Alcohol Abuse and Depression in Teenagers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, Cheryl A.

    1993-01-01

    Examines issues of alcohol abuse and depression among teenagers, noting co-occurrence of these two problems and the special challenge co-occurrence poses for clinicians who must treat both problems aggressively. Looks at prevention of alcohol use and abuse among adolescents, considers assessment issues, and distinguishes between primary and…

  13. Effects of Blood Alcohol Concentration (BAC)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Strategies to Reduce or Prevent Drunk Driving Increasing Alcohol Ignition Interlock Use State Data & Maps Publications Distracted Driving Pedestrian Safety Tribal Road Safety Get the Facts Roadway to Safer Tribal Communities Toolkit Motorcycle Safety Bicycle ... Tweet Share Compartir ...

  14. A multidimensional model of mothers' perceptions of parent alcohol socialization and adolescent alcohol misuse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ennett, Susan T; Jackson, Christine; Cole, Veronica T; Haws, Susan; Foshee, Vangie A; Reyes, Heathe Luz McNaughton; Burns, Alison Reimuller; Cox, Melissa J; Cai, Li

    2016-02-01

    We assessed a multidimensional model of parent alcohol socialization in which key socialization factors were considered simultaneously to identify combinations of factors that increase or decrease risk for development of adolescent alcohol misuse. Of interest was the interplay between putative risk and protective factors, such as whether the typically detrimental effects on youth drinking of parenting practices tolerant of some adolescent alcohol use are mitigated by an effective overall approach to parenting and parental modeling of modest alcohol use. The sample included 1,530 adolescents and their mothers; adolescents' mean age was 13.0 (SD = .99) at the initial assessment. Latent profile analysis was conducted of mothers' reports of their attitude toward teen drinking, alcohol-specific parenting practices, parental alcohol use and problem use, and overall approach to parenting. The profiles were used to predict trajectories of adolescent alcohol misuse from early to middle adolescence. Four profiles were identified: 2 profiles reflected conservative alcohol-specific parenting practices and 2 reflected alcohol-tolerant practices, all in the context of other attributes. Alcohol misuse accelerated more rapidly from Grade 6 through 10 in the 2 alcohol-tolerant compared with conservative profiles. Results suggest that maternal tolerance of some youth alcohol use, even in the presence of dimensions of an effective parenting style and low parental alcohol use and problem use, is not an effective strategy for reducing risky adolescent alcohol use. (PsycINFO Database Record

  15. Alcohol and Hepatitis C

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... code here Enter ZIP code here Daily Living: Alcohol for Veterans and the Public Alcohol and Hepatitis: Entire Lesson Overview Alcohol is one ... related to choices you make about your lifestyle . Alcohol and fibrosis Fibrosis is the medical term for ...

  16. Alcohol use disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alcohol use disorder is when your drinking causes serious problems in your life, yet you keep drinking. You may ... alcohol content). If you have a parent with alcohol use disorder, you are more at risk for alcohol problems. ...

  17. Suggestions for the New Social Entrepreneurship Initiative: Focus on Building a Body of Research-Proven Programs, Shown to Produce Major Gains in Education, Poverty Reduction, Crime Prevention, and Other Areas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coalition for Evidence-Based Policy, 2009

    2009-01-01

    This paper outlines a possible approach to implementing the Social Entrepreneurship initiative, focused on building a body of research-proven program models/strategies, and scaling them up, so as to produce major progress in education, poverty reduction, crime prevention, and other areas. The paper summarizes the rationale for this approach, then…

  18. Light alcohol intake during adolescence induces alcohol addiction in a neurodevelopmental model of schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeanblanc, Jérôme; Balguerie, Kevin; Coune, Fabien; Legastelois, Rémi; Jeanblanc, Virginie; Naassila, Mickaël

    2015-05-01

    Schizophrenia is a mental disorder characterized by a series of positive, negative or cognitive symptoms but with also the particularity of exhibiting a high rate of co-morbid use of drugs of abuse. While more than 80% of schizophrenics are smokers, the second most consumed drug is alcohol, with dramatic consequences on frequency and intensity of psychotic episodes and on life expectancy. Here we investigated the impact of light alcohol intake during adolescence on the subsequent occurrence of alcohol addiction-like behavior in neonatal ventral hippocampal lesion (NVHL) rats, a neurodevelopmental model of schizophrenia. Our findings demonstrated an increased liability to addictive behaviors in adult NVHL rats after voluntary alcohol intake during adolescence. NVHL rats displayed several signs of alcohol use disorder such as a loss of control over alcohol intake and high motivation to consume alcohol, associated with a higher resistance to extinction. In addition, once NVHL rats relapsed, they maintained higher drinking levels than controls. We finally showed that the anti-addictive drug naltrexone is efficient in reducing excessive alcohol intake in NVHL rats. Our results are in accordance with epidemiological studies underlying the particular vulnerability to alcohol addiction after adolescent exposure to alcohol and highlight the fact that schizophrenic subjects may be particularly at risk even after light alcohol consumption. Based on these results, it seems particularly relevant to prevent early onset of alcohol use in at-risk subjects and thus to reduce the incidence of co-morbid alcohol abuse in psychotic patients.

  19. Vital Signs-Alcohol Poisoning Deaths

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2015-01-06

    This podcast is based on the January 2015 CDC Vital Signs report. In the United States, an average of six people die every day from alcohol poisoning. Learn what you can do to prevent binge drinking and alcohol poisoning.  Created: 1/6/2015 by National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion (NCCDPHP).   Date Released: 1/6/2015.

  20. Alcohol attributable hospitalisations and costs in Ireland, 2000-2004.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Martin, J

    2011-05-01

    The aim of this study was to calculate the number and costs of hospital bed-days due to alcohol use in Ireland over the five year period 2000 to 2004. Age and sex specific Irish alcohol-attributable-fractions (AAFs) were developed by combining international risk estimates with Irish consumption data where available; where not available international AAFs were used. These were applied to national datasets to count the number and costs of bed-days wholly caused and prevented by alcohol and that proportion of bed-days that were partially caused and prevented by alcohol. Between 2000 and 2004, alcohol was estimated to have caused 3,428,973 (10.3%) and prevented 529,239 (1.6%) of hospital bed-days, giving a net number of bed-days due to alcohol of 2,899,734 (8.7%). Over this period the hospital inpatient costs attributed to the negative effects of alcohol were 953,126,381 euros, the costs attributed to hospitalisations prevented were 147,968,164 euros; giving net costs of alcohol-attributed bed-days of 805,158,217 euros. Chronic conditions accounted for 3,262,408 (95%) hospital bed-days due to the harmful effects of alcohol. Conditions not wholly due to alcohol accounted for 2,297,412 (67%) hospital bed-days due to the harmful effects of alcohol. The negative impacts of alcohol were greater than previously thought and spread across the whole population.

  1. Individual susceptibility to alcoholic pancreatitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Apte, Minoti V; Pirola, Romano C; Wilson, Jeremy S

    2008-03-01

    The observation that only a minority of heavy drinkers develop pancreatitis has prompted an intensive search for a trigger factor/cofactor/susceptibility factor that may precipitate a clinical attack. Putative susceptibility factors examined so far include diet, smoking, amount and type of alcohol consumed, the pattern of drinking and lipid intolerance. In addition, a range of inherited factors have been assessed including blood group antigens, human leukocyte antigen serotypes, alpha-1-antitrypsin phenotypes and several genotypes. The latter group comprises mutations/polymorphisms in genes related to alcohol-metabolizing enzymes, detoxifying enzymes, pancreatic digestive enzymes, pancreatic enzyme inhibitors, cystic fibrosis and cytokines. Disappointingly, despite this concerted research effort, no clear association has been established between the above factors and alcoholic pancreatitis. Experimentally, the secretagogue cholecystokinin (CCK) has been investigated as a candidate 'trigger' for alcoholic pancreatitis. However, the clinical relevance of CCK as a trigger factor has to be questioned, as it is difficult to envisage a situation in humans where abnormally high levels of CCK would be released into the circulation to trigger pancreatitis in alcoholics. In contrast, bacterial endotoxemia is a candidate cofactor that does have relevance to the clinical situation. Plasma lipopolysaccharide (LPS, an endotoxin) levels are significantly higher in drinkers (either after chronic alcohol intake or a single binge) compared to non-drinkers. We have recently shown that alcohol-fed animals challenged with otherwise innocuous doses of LPS exhibit significant pancreatic injury. Moreover, repeated LPS exposure in alcohol-fed rats leads to progressive injury to the gland characterized by significant pancreatic fibrosis. These studies support the concept that endotoxin may be an important factor in the initiation and progression of alcoholic pancreatitis. Scope remains for

  2. Early prevention of obesity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudio Maffeis

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Childhood obesity is the metabolic disorder with the highest prevalence in both children and adults. Urgency to treat and prevent childhood obesity is based on the clear evidence that obesity tends to track from childhood to adulthood, is associated to morbidity also in childhood and to long-term mortality. Early life, i.e., intrauterine life and the first two years, is a sensitive window for prevention. Anatomical and functional maturation of the hypothalamic structures devoted to regulating energy intake and expenditure and body size mainly occurs in the first 1,000 days of life. Therefore, factors affecting the foetal exposition to maternal metabolic environment and early postnatal nutrition are crucial in modulating the definition of the metabolic programming processes in the brain. Maternal diseases, mainly malnutrition for defect or excess, obesity and diabetes, placental disorders and dysfunctions, maternal use of alcohol and drugs, smoking, affect long term metabolic programming of the foetus with lifelong consequences. Similarly, early nutrition contributes to complete the long-term metabolic regulating framework initiated in the uterus. Breastfeeding, adequate weaning, attention to portion size and diet composition are potential tools for reducing the obesity risk later in childhood. Longitudinal randomized controlled studies are needed for exploring the efficacy of obesity prevention strategies initiated after conception.Proceedings of the 10th International Workshop on Neonatology · Cagliari (Italy · October 22nd-25th, 2014 · The last ten years, the next ten years in Neonatology Guest Editors: Vassilios Fanos, Michele Mussap, Gavino Faa, Apostolos Papageorgiou

  3. Trends in alcohol-specific parenting practices and adolescent alcohol use between 2007 and 2011 in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Looze, Margreet; Vermeulen-Smit, Evelien; ter Bogt, Tom F M; van Dorsselaer, Saskia A F M; Verdurmen, Jacqueline; Schulten, Ingrid; Engels, Rutger C M E; Vollebergh, Wilma A M

    2014-01-01

    Background: Following increased research and policy attention on the harmful effects of alcohol use among adolescents and the implementation of prevention programs aimed at reducing adolescent alcohol use, this study examined whether alcohol-specific parenting practices have become stricter and whet

  4. Alcohol issues prior to training in the United States Air Force.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Derefinko, Karen J; Klesges, Robert C; Bursac, Zoran; Little, Melissa A; Hryshko-Mullen, Ann; Talcott, Gerald W

    2016-07-01

    The negative impact of alcohol is a significant concern to the US military given the costs associated with alcohol-related offenses. Despite considerable research in active duty personnel, relatively little is known about the current extent of alcohol use among incoming recruits. We examined the history of alcohol use and harmful patterns of alcohol consumption among recruits entering the United States Air Force (USAF; N=50,549) over the span of 4 years (2010-2014). Across all years, drinking rates reflected national average trends for those aged 18-24 (NIDA, 2014). However, when abstainers were excluded, those under 21 (n=10,568) reported an average of 18.4 drinks per week, whereas those age 21 and over (n=14,188) reported an average of 14.1 drinks per week, suggesting that for those who drink, those under 21 are exhibiting more risky drinking rates. Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Task (AUDIT) scores for drinkers reflected these same trends. For those under 21, 58% scored in risk categories of 2 or higher (risky drinking warranting attention), compared with 40% for those age 21 and over. These scores indicate that for recruits in the USAF, approximately half report alcohol use immediately prior to basic training, resulting in the inheritance of these potential alcohol related issues for those conducting training of these recruits. Based upon these numbers, brief alcohol interventions could have a potential positive impact on individuals in their initial training stages of the USAF to prevent these baseline issues from resulting in problems later in their military careers. PMID:26945450

  5. Alcohol, intestinal bacterial growth, intestinal permeability to endotoxin, and medical consequences: summary of a symposium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Purohit, Vishnudutt; Bode, J Christian; Bode, Christiane; Brenner, David A; Choudhry, Mashkoor A; Hamilton, Frank; Kang, Y James; Keshavarzian, Ali; Rao, Radhakrishna; Sartor, R Balfour; Swanson, Christine; Turner, Jerrold R

    2008-08-01

    This report is a summary of the symposium on Alcohol, Intestinal Bacterial Growth, Intestinal Permeability to Endotoxin, and Medical Consequences, organized by National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism, Office of Dietary Supplements, and National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases of National Institutes of Health in Rockville, Maryland, October 11, 2006. Alcohol exposure can promote the growth of Gram-negative bacteria in the intestine, which may result in accumulation of endotoxin. In addition, alcohol metabolism by Gram-negative bacteria and intestinal epithelial cells can result in accumulation of acetaldehyde, which in turn can increase intestinal permeability to endotoxin by increasing tyrosine phosphorylation of tight junction and adherens junction proteins. Alcohol-induced generation of nitric oxide may also contribute to increased permeability to endotoxin by reacting with tubulin, which may cause damage to microtubule cytoskeleton and subsequent disruption of intestinal barrier function. Increased intestinal permeability can lead to increased transfer of endotoxin from the intestine to the liver and general circulation where endotoxin may trigger inflammatory changes in the liver and other organs. Alcohol may also increase intestinal permeability to peptidoglycan, which can initiate inflammatory response in liver and other organs. In addition, acute alcohol exposure may potentiate the effect of burn injury on intestinal bacterial growth and permeability. Decreasing the number of Gram-negative bacteria in the intestine can result in decreased production of endotoxin as well as acetaldehyde which is expected to decrease intestinal permeability to endotoxin. In addition, intestinal permeability may be preserved by administering epidermal growth factor, l-glutamine, oats supplementation, or zinc, thereby preventing the transfer of endotoxin to the general circulation. Thus reducing the number of intestinal Gram-negative bacteria

  6. Identifying Genetic Variation for Alcohol Dependence

    OpenAIRE

    Agrawal, Arpana; Bierut, Laura J.

    2012-01-01

    Researchers are using various strategies to identify the genes that may be associated with alcoholism. The initial efforts primarily relied on candidate gene and linkage studies; more recently, however, modern advances in genotyping have resulted in widespread use of genome-wide association studies for alcohol dependence. The key findings of the earlier studies were that variations (i.e., polymorphisms) in the DNA sequences of the genes encoding alcohol dehydrogenase 1B (i.e., the ADH1B gene)...

  7. Sugar and Alcoholic Fair Closed in Chengdu

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Li Zhen

    2009-01-01

    @@ The 80th China National Sugar and Alcoholic Commodities Fair was held in Chengdu (capital of Sichuan province) from March 24 to 28.Sponsored by China National Sugar and Alcohol Group Corp.,this is the 20th time for Chengdu to host such a big event.Since the fair was initially held in 1955,Sugar and Alcoholic Fair has become increasingly well-known in both China and abroad while sticking to the principle of serving enterprises.

  8. Vested Interests in Addiction Research and Policy Alcohol policies out of context: drinks industry supplanting government role in alcohol policies in sub-Saharan Africa

    OpenAIRE

    Bakke, Øystein; Endal, Dag

    2010-01-01

    Background In this paper, we describe an analysis of alcohol policy initiatives sponsored by alcohol producer SABMiller and the International Center on Alcohol Policies, an alcohol industry-funded organization. In a number of sub-Saharan countries these bodies have promoted a ‘partnership’ role with governments to design national alcohol policies. Methodology A comparison was conducted of four draft National Alcohol Policy documents from Lesotho, Malawi, Uganda and Botswana using case study m...

  9. Relationships between variable time, percentage of food restriction and liver histology: which alternative is the best for non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) prevention?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Makovicky, Peter; Tumova, Eva; Volek, Zdenek; Makovicky, Pavol; Sedlacek, Radislav

    2016-10-01

    The objective of this study was to analyse the hepatic effects of food restriction in an experimental rabbit model. The study comprised 105 rabbits divided into 6 groups. The two control groups were fed ad libitum (ADL) during the entire experiment (C1 and C2). The experimental groups were restricted between 42-49 days of age, where the rabbits received 50g (R1) or 65g (R2) of food per rabbit per day. Others were restricted between 35-42 days of age, where the rabbits received 50g (R3) or 65g (R4) of food per rabbit per day. For liver analysis, 5 rabbits per group were slaughtered at the ages of 49, 56, 63, 70 days from the R1, R2 groups and at 42, 49, 70 days from the R3, R4 groups. All animals from the C1 and C2 groups developed steatosis with inflammation. Animals from the R1 and R2 groups developed steatosis without inflammation while in the R3 and R4 groups steatosis was not visible. In C1 and C2 groups we observed mostly fatty deposit accumulations while in the R1, R2, R3 and R4 groups, more PAS-positive material accumulations were visible. Liver steatosis correlated with inflammation development and interstitial tissue growth. These results can be used in clinical praxis as signs of NAFLD progression. Early food restriction had intense effects on liver morphology and it seems promising that similar approaches could be applied as preventive treatment for NAFLD development. PMID:26916089

  10. Relationships between variable time, percentage of food restriction and liver histology: which alternative is the best for non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) prevention?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Makovicky, Peter; Tumova, Eva; Volek, Zdenek; Makovicky, Pavol; Sedlacek, Radislav

    2016-10-01

    The objective of this study was to analyse the hepatic effects of food restriction in an experimental rabbit model. The study comprised 105 rabbits divided into 6 groups. The two control groups were fed ad libitum (ADL) during the entire experiment (C1 and C2). The experimental groups were restricted between 42-49 days of age, where the rabbits received 50g (R1) or 65g (R2) of food per rabbit per day. Others were restricted between 35-42 days of age, where the rabbits received 50g (R3) or 65g (R4) of food per rabbit per day. For liver analysis, 5 rabbits per group were slaughtered at the ages of 49, 56, 63, 70 days from the R1, R2 groups and at 42, 49, 70 days from the R3, R4 groups. All animals from the C1 and C2 groups developed steatosis with inflammation. Animals from the R1 and R2 groups developed steatosis without inflammation while in the R3 and R4 groups steatosis was not visible. In C1 and C2 groups we observed mostly fatty deposit accumulations while in the R1, R2, R3 and R4 groups, more PAS-positive material accumulations were visible. Liver steatosis correlated with inflammation development and interstitial tissue growth. These results can be used in clinical praxis as signs of NAFLD progression. Early food restriction had intense effects on liver morphology and it seems promising that similar approaches could be applied as preventive treatment for NAFLD development.

  11. Alcohol consumption among adolescents - Current results and trends

    OpenAIRE

    Kuntz, Benjamin; Lange, Cornelia; Lampert, Thomas

    2015-01-01

    Regular alcohol consumption endangers health and is associated with an increased risk of a variety of physical illnesses and mental disorders. This issue's interest is focused on alcohol consumption during adolescence since young people may be viewed as the most important target group for alcohol prevention measures. Attitudes toward alcohol, drinking motives and consumption patterns that form during adolescence often still exist in adulthood. Studies suggest that starting to drink early and ...

  12. Reducing cultural and psychological barriers to Latino enrollment in HIV-prevention counseling: initial data on an enrollment meta-intervention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Kristina; Durantini, Marta R; Albarracín, Julia; Crause, Candi; Albarracín, Dolores

    2013-01-01

    Aspects of Latino culture (e.g., machismo, marianism) can act as barriers to enrollment in HIV-prevention programs. To lift these barriers, a culturally appropriate meta-intervention was designed to increase intentions to enroll in HIV-prevention counseling by Latinos. Latino participants (N=41) were recruited from the community and randomly assigned to either an experimental or control meta-intervention condition that varied the introduction to a HIV-prevention counseling program. Following the meta-intervention, participants were issued an invitation to take part in HIV-prevention counseling. The outcome measure was the intention to enroll in a HIV-prevention counseling session. Findings indicated that enrollment intentions were higher in the experimental meta-intervention condition (96%) than in the control meta-intervention condition (53%). In addition, the effects of the meta-intervention were comparable across genders and participant ages. Findings suggest that the use of a culturally appropriate meta-intervention may be an effective strategy for increasing Latino enrollment in HIV-prevention programs. These promising findings warrant further investigation into the efficacy and effectiveness of this meta-intervention.

  13. The glass is half full: evidence for efficacy of alcohol-wise at one university but not the other.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Croom, Katherine; Staiano-Coico, Lisa; Lesser, Martin L; Lewis, Deborah K; Reyna, Valerie F; Marchell, Timothy C; Frank, Jeremy; Ives, Stephanie

    2015-01-01

    This research extends the growing literature about online alcohol prevention programs for first-year college students. Two independent randomized control studies, conducted at separate universities, evaluated the short-term effectiveness of Alcohol-Wise, an online alcohol prevention program not previously studied. It was hypothesized the prevention program would increase alcohol knowledge and reduce alcohol consumption, including high-risk alcohol-related behaviors, among first-year college students. At both universities, the intervention significantly increased alcohol-related knowledge. At one university, the prevention program also significantly reduced alcohol consumption and high-risk drinking behaviors, such as playing drinking games, heavy drinking, and extreme ritualistic alcohol consumption. Implications for the use of online alcohol prevention programs and student affairs are discussed.

  14. Neuroimaging and Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norman, Andria L.; Crocker, Nicole; Mattson, Sarah N.; Riley, Edward P.

    2009-01-01

    The detrimental effects of prenatal alcohol exposure on the developing brain include structural brain anomalies as well as cognitive and behavioral deficits. Initial neuroimaging studies of fetal alcohol spectrum disorders (FASD) using magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) confirmed previous autopsy reports of overall reduction in brain volume and…

  15. AOD Screening Tools for College Students. Prevention Update

    Science.gov (United States)

    Higher Education Center for Alcohol, Drug Abuse, and Violence Prevention, 2012

    2012-01-01

    According to the National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism (NIAAA), the goal of screening in student health or other college settings is to reduce alcohol-related harm. NIAAA points out that identifying those students at greatest risk for alcohol problems is the first step in prevention. Colleges and universities have used a number of…

  16. Alcohol Consumption and Alcohol Advertising Bans

    OpenAIRE

    Henry Saffer

    2000-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to empirically examine the relationship between alcohol advertising bans and alcohol consumption. Most prior studies have found no effect of advertising on total alcohol consumption. A simple economic model is provided which explains these prior results. The data set used in this study is a pooled time series of data from 20 countries over 26 years. The empirical model is a simultaneous equations system which treats both alcohol consumption and alcohol advertising...

  17. Secondary School Students: Alcohol, Tobacco, and Other Drugs Resource Guide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration (DHHS/PHS), Rockville, MD. Center for Substance Abuse Prevention.

    This resource guide contains a list of materials on drug and alcohol prevention for secondary school students. The information is divided into three sections: (1) prevention materials, including information on inhalants, AIDS, sports and drugs, and sex and alcohol; (2) studies, articles, and reports on secondary school students, including…

  18. Parental Alcohol-Specific Rules and Alcohol Use from Early Adolescence to Young Adulthood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mares, Suzanne H. W.; Lichtwarck-Aschoff, Anna; Burk, William J.; van der Vorst, Haske; Engels, Rutger C. M. E.

    2012-01-01

    Background: Several studies stress the importance of alcohol-specific rules during adolescence to prevent them from drinking early and heavily. However, most studies have short follow-up periods and do not cover the relevant developmental period in which direct parental control diminishes and adolescent alcohol use increases. The current study…

  19. Strengthening the Canadian alcohol advertising regulatory system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heung, Carly M; Rempel, Benjamin; Krank, Marvin

    2012-01-01

    Research evidence points to harmful effects from alcohol advertising among children and youth. In particular, exposure to alcohol advertising has been associated with adolescents drinking both earlier and heavier. Although current federal and provincial guidelines have addressed advertising practices to prevent underage drinking, practice has not been supported by existing policy. While protective measures such as social marketing campaigns have the potential for counteracting the effects from alcohol advertising, the effectiveness of such measures can be easily drowned out with increasing advertising activities from the alcohol industry, especially without effective regulation. Research reviewed by the European Focus on Alcohol Safe Environment (FASE) Project has identified a set of key elements that are necessary to make alcohol advertising policy measures effective at protecting children and youth from the harmful effects of alcohol marketing. Using these key elements as an evaluation framework, there are critical components in the Canadian alcohol advertising regulatory system that clearly require strengthening. To protect impressionable children and youth against the harmful effects of alcohol advertising, 13 recommendations to strengthen current alcohol advertising regulations in Canada are provided for Canadian policy-makers, advertising standard agencies, and public health groups. PMID:23618638

  20. Pollution Prevention through Peer Education: A Community Health Worker and Small and Home-Based Business Initiative on the Arizona-Sonora Border.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramírez, Denise Moreno; Ramírez-Andreotta, Mónica D; Vea, Lourdes; Estrella-Sánchez, Rocío; Wolf, Ann Marie A; Kilungo, Aminata; Spitz, Anna H; Betterton, Eric A

    2015-09-09

    Government-led pollution prevention programs tend to focus on large businesses due to their potential to pollute larger quantities, therefore leaving a gap in programs targeting small and home-based businesses. In light of this gap, we set out to determine if a voluntary, peer education approach led by female, Hispanic community health workers (promotoras) can influence small and home-based businesses to implement pollution prevention strategies on-site. This paper describes a partnership between promotoras from a non-profit organization and researchers from a university working together to reach these businesses in a predominately Hispanic area of Tucson, Arizona. From 2008 to 2011, the promotora-led pollution prevention program reached a total of 640 small and home-based businesses. Program activities include technical trainings for promotoras and businesses, generation of culturally and language appropriate educational materials, and face-to-face peer education via multiple on-site visits. To determine the overall effectiveness of the program, surveys were used to measure best practices implemented on-site, perceptions towards pollution prevention, and overall satisfaction with the industry-specific trainings. This paper demonstrates that promotoras can promote the implementation of pollution prevention best practices by Hispanic small and home-based businesses considered "hard-to-reach" by government-led programs.