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Sample records for alcohol oxidoreductases

  1. Enantiocomplementary Yarrowia lipolytica Oxidoreductases: Alcohol Dehydrogenase 2 and Short Chain Dehydrogenase/Reductase

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Margit Winkler

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Enzymes of the non-conventional yeast Yarrowia lipolytica seem to be tailor-made for the conversion of lipophilic substrates. Herein, we cloned and overexpressed the Zn-dependent alcohol dehydrogenase ADH2 from Yarrowia lipolytica in Escherichia coli. The purified enzyme was characterized in vitro. The substrate scope for YlADH2 mediated oxidation and reduction was investigated spectrophotometrically and the enzyme showed a broader substrate range than its homolog from Saccharomyces cerevisiae. A preference for secondary compared to primary alcohols in oxidation direction was observed for YlADH2. 2-Octanone was investigated in reduction mode in detail. Remarkably, YlADH2 displays perfect (S-selectivity and together with a highly (R-selective short chain dehydrogenase/ reductase from Yarrowia lipolytica it is possible to access both enantiomers of 2-octanol in >99% ee with Yarrowia lipolytica oxidoreductases.

  2. Isolation and characterization of a Chinese hamster ovary cell line deficient in fatty alcohol:NAD+ oxidoreductase activity.

    OpenAIRE

    James, P F; Rizzo, W B; Lee, J.; Zoeller, R A

    1990-01-01

    We have isolated a mutant Chinese hamster ovary cell line that is defective in long-chain fatty alcohol oxidation. The ability of the mutant cells to convert labeled hexadecanol to the corresponding fatty acid in vivo was reduced to 5% of the parent strain. Whole-cell homogenates from the mutant strain, FAA.1, were deficient in long-chain fatty alcohol:NAD+ oxidoreductase (FAO; EC 1.1.1.192) activity, which catalyzes the oxidation of hexadecanol to hexadecanoic acid, although the intermediate...

  3. Sjögren-Larsson syndrome. Deficient activity of the fatty aldehyde dehydrogenase component of fatty alcohol:NAD+ oxidoreductase in cultured fibroblasts.

    OpenAIRE

    Rizzo, W B; Craft, D A

    1991-01-01

    Sjögren-Larsson syndrome (SLS) is an inherited disorder associated with impaired fatty alcohol oxidation due to deficient activity of fatty alcohol:NAD+ oxidoreductase (FAO). FAO is a complex enzyme which consists of two separate proteins that sequentially catalyze the oxidation of fatty alcohol to fatty aldehyde and fatty acid. To determine which enzymatic component of FAO was deficient in SLS, we assayed fatty aldehyde dehydrogenase (FALDH) and fatty alcohol dehydrogenase in cultured fibrob...

  4. Isolation and characterization of a Chinese hamster ovary cell line deficient in fatty alcohol:NAD+ oxidoreductase activity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The authors have isolated a mutant Chinese hamster ovary cell line that is defective in long-chain fatty alcohol oxidation. The ability of the mutant cells to convert labeled hexadecanol to the corresponding fatty acid in vivo was reduced to 5% of the parent strain. Whole-cell homogenates from the mutant strain, FAA.1, were deficient in long-chain fatty alcohol:NAD+ oxidoreductase activity, which catalyzes the oxidation of hexadecanol to hexadecanoic acid, although the intermediate fatty aldehyde was formed normally. A direct measurement of fatty aldehyde dehydrogenase showed that the FAA.1, strain was defective in this component of FAO activity. FAA.1 is a two-stage mutant that was selected from a previously described parent strain, ZR-82, which is defective in ether lipid biosynthesis and peroxisome assembly. Because of combined defects in ether lipid biosynthesis and fatty alcohol oxidation, the ability of the FAA.1 cells to incorporate hexadecanol into complex lipids was greatly impaired, resulting in a 60-fold increase in cellular fatty alcohol levels. As the FAO deficiency in FAA.1 cells appears to be identical to the defect associated with the human genetic disorder Sjoegren-Larsson syndrome, the FAA.1 cell line may be useful in studying this disease

  5. Activities of Secreted Aryl Alcohol Quinone Oxidoreductases from Pycnoporus cinnabarinus Provide Insights into Fungal Degradation of Plant Biomass.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mathieu, Yann; Piumi, Francois; Valli, Richard; Aramburu, Juan Carro; Ferreira, Patricia; Faulds, Craig B; Record, Eric

    2016-04-15

    Auxiliary activities family 3 subfamily 2 (AA3_2) from the CAZy database comprises various functions related to ligninolytic enzymes, such as fungal aryl alcohol oxidases (AAO) and glucose oxidases, both of which are flavoenzymes. The recent study of thePycnoporus cinnabarinusCIRM BRFM 137 genome combined with its secretome revealed that four AA3_2 enzymes are secreted during biomass degradation. One of these AA3_2 enzymes, scf184803.g17, has recently been produced heterologously inAspergillus niger Based on the enzyme's activity and specificity, it was assigned to the glucose dehydrogenases (PcinnabarinusGDH [PcGDH]). Here, we analyze the distribution of the other three AA3_2 enzymes (scf185002.g8, scf184611.g7, and scf184746.g13) to assess their putative functions. These proteins showed the highest homology with aryl alcohol oxidase fromPleurotus eryngii Biochemical characterization demonstrated that they were also flavoenzymes harboring flavin adenine dinucleotide (FAD) as a cofactor and able to oxidize a wide variety of phenolic and nonphenolic aryl alcohols and one aliphatic polyunsaturated primary alcohol. Though presenting homology with fungal AAOs, these enzymes exhibited greater efficiency in reducing electron acceptors (quinones and one artificial acceptor) than molecular oxygen and so were defined as aryl-alcohol:quinone oxidoreductases (AAQOs) with two enzymes possessing residual oxidase activity (PcAAQO2 andPcAAQO3). Structural comparison ofPcAAQO homology models withP. eryngiiAAO demonstrated a wider substrate access channel connecting the active-site cavity to the solvent, explaining the absence of activity with molecular oxygen. Finally, the ability ofPcAAQOs to reduce radical intermediates generated by laccase fromP. cinnabarinuswas demonstrated, shedding light on the ligninolytic system of this fungus. PMID:26873317

  6. The activity of some oxidoreductases in Hordeum vulgare L. plants treated with ethylmethanesulfonate and Rosmarinus officinalis L. hydro-alcoholic extracts

    OpenAIRE

    Gogu Gheorghita; Elena Ciornea; Ioana Daciana Mierlici

    2010-01-01

    This paper focuses on the activity of some oxidoreductases (catalase, peroxidase, superoxide- dismutase) in barley seedlings (Hordeum vulgare L.) after 6 hours of seeds treatment with different concentrations (0,01 – 0,50%) of ethyl-methane-sulfonate and 12 hours with hydro-alcoholic 0,5% rosemary (Rosmarinus officinalis L.) extract (EHR). The EMS treatments led to an obvious increase of the superoxide dismutase, catalase and peroxidase activity in plants, while the application of the hydro-a...

  7. The activity of some oxidoreductases in Hordeum vulgare L. plants treated with ethylmethanesulfonate and Rosmarinus officinalis L. hydro-alcoholic extracts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gogu Gheorghita

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available This paper focuses on the activity of some oxidoreductases (catalase, peroxidase, superoxide- dismutase in barley seedlings (Hordeum vulgare L. after 6 hours of seeds treatment with different concentrations (0,01 – 0,50% of ethyl-methane-sulfonate and 12 hours with hydro-alcoholic 0,5% rosemary (Rosmarinus officinalis L. extract (EHR. The EMS treatments led to an obvious increase of the superoxide dismutase, catalase and peroxidase activity in plants, while the application of the hydro-alcoholic rosemary extract, after the EMS treatment, led to a significant decrease of the activities of these enzymes, since the rosemary extract has an obvious antioxidant effect.

  8. Enantiocomplementary Yarrowia lipolytica Oxidoreductases: Alcohol Dehydrogenase 2 and Short Chain Dehydrogenase/Reductase

    OpenAIRE

    Margit Winkler; Manuela Avi; Karen Robins; Strohmeier, Gernot A; Sonavane, Manoj N.; Kamila Napora-Wijata

    2013-01-01

    Enzymes of the non-conventional yeast Yarrowia lipolytica seem to be tailor-made for the conversion of lipophilic substrates. Herein, we cloned and overexpressed the Zn-dependent alcohol dehydrogenase ADH2 from Yarrowia lipolytica in Escherichia coli. The purified enzyme was characterized in vitro. The substrate scope for YlADH2 mediated oxidation and reduction was investigated spectrophotometrically and the enzyme showed a broader substrate range than its homolog from Saccharomyces cerevisia...

  9. Sjögren-Larsson syndrome. Impaired fatty alcohol oxidation in cultured fibroblasts due to deficient fatty alcohol:nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide oxidoreductase activity.

    OpenAIRE

    Rizzo, W B; Dammann, A L; Craft, D A

    1988-01-01

    Lipid metabolism was studied in cultured skin fibroblasts from patients with the inherited disorder, Sjögren-Larsson syndrome (SLS). Intact SLS fibroblasts incubated in the presence of [1-14C]palmitate accumulated more radioactive hexadecanol than did normal cells, whereas incorporation of radioactivity into other cellular lipids was unaltered. The hexadecanol content of SLS fibroblasts was abnormally elevated. Hexadecanol accumulation was not due to increased fatty alcohol synthesis nor its ...

  10. Alcohol

    Science.gov (United States)

    If you are like many Americans, you drink alcohol at least occasionally. For many people, moderate drinking ... risky. Heavy drinking can lead to alcoholism and alcohol abuse, as well as injuries, liver disease, heart ...

  11. Alcohol

    OpenAIRE

    World Bank

    2003-01-01

    Alcohol abuse is one of the leading causes of death and disability worldwide. Alcohol abuse is responsible for 4 percent of global deaths and disability, nearly as much as tobacco and five times the burden of illicit drugs (WHO). In developing countries with low mortality, alcohol is the leading risk factor for males, causing 9.8 percent of years lost to death and disability. Alcohol abuse...

  12. Alcohol

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Date reviewed: January 2014 previous 1 • 2 For Teens For Kids For Parents MORE ON THIS TOPIC Word! Alcoholism What You Need to Know About Drugs What You Need to Know About Drugs: Depressants What Kids Say About: Drinking Alcohol Dealing With Peer Pressure Contact Us Print Resources Send to a friend ...

  13. Expansion and evolution of insect GMC oxidoreductases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ko Wen-Ya

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The GMC oxidoreductases comprise a large family of diverse FAD enzymes that share a homologous backbone. The relationship and origin of the GMC oxidoreductase genes, however, was unknown. Recent sequencing of entire genomes has allowed for the evolutionary analysis of the GMC oxidoreductase family. Results Although genes that encode enzyme families are rarely linked in higher eukaryotes, we discovered that the majority of the GMC oxidoreductase genes in the fruit fly (D. melanogaster, mosquito (A. gambiae, honeybee (A. mellifera, and flour beetle (T. castaneum are located in a highly conserved cluster contained within a large intron of the flotillin-2 (Flo-2 gene. In contrast, the genomes of vertebrates and the nematode C. elegans contain few GMC genes and lack a GMC cluster, suggesting that the GMC cluster and the function of its resident genes are unique to insects or arthropods. We found that the development patterns of expression of the GMC cluster genes are highly complex. Among the GMC oxidoreductases located outside of the GMC gene cluster, the identities of two related enzymes, glucose dehydrogenase (GLD and glucose oxidase (GOX, are known, and they play major roles in development and immunity. We have discovered that several additional GLD and GOX homologues exist in insects but are remotely similar to fungal GOX. Conclusion We speculate that the GMC oxidoreductase cluster has been conserved to coordinately regulate these genes for a common developmental or physiological function related to ecdysteroid metabolism. Furthermore, we propose that the GMC gene cluster may be the birthplace of the insect GMC oxidoreductase genes. Through tandem duplication and divergence within the cluster, new GMC genes evolved. Some of the GMC genes have been retained in the cluster for hundreds of millions of years while others might have transposed to other regions of the genome. Consistent with this hypothesis, our analysis indicates

  14. Soapwort oxidoreductase is involved in trinitrotoluene detoxification

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Podlipná, Radka; Nepovím, Aleš; Soudek, Petr; Vágner, Martin; Vaněk, Tomáš

    2007-01-01

    Roč. 51, č. 2 (2007), s. 367-371. ISSN 0006-3134 R&D Projects: GA MŠk 1P05OC042; GA MŠk 1P05ME730 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50380511; CEZ:AV0Z40550506 Source of funding: V - iné verejné zdroje ; V - iné verejné zdroje Keywords : flavoprotein * Old Yellow Enzyme * oxidoreductase Subject RIV: EF - Botanics Impact factor: 1.259, year: 2007

  15. Development of oxidoreductase based electrochemical biosensors

    OpenAIRE

    Rodrigues, Patrícia Raquel dos Santos

    2013-01-01

    Dissertação para obtenção do Grau de Mestre em Biotecnologia This thesis is divided in 2 sections, each describing the development of an oxidoreductase based biosensor. In the first part human Cytochrome P450 1A2 (CYP1A2) electrochemistry was studied, while the second is focused on the optimization of immobilization platforms and operation methods for amperometric biosensors, using cytochrome c nitrite reductase (ccNiR), (Desulfovibrio desulfuricans ATCC 27774) as a model enzyme. The...

  16. Alcoholism and Alcohol Abuse

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... their drinking causes distress and harm. It includes alcoholism and alcohol abuse. Alcoholism, or alcohol dependence, is a disease that causes ... groups. NIH: National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism

  17. Xanthine oxidoreductase and xantine oxidase in human cornea

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Čejková, Jitka; Ardan, Taras; Filipec, M.; Midelfart, A.

    2002-01-01

    Roč. 17, - (2002), s. 755-760. ISSN 0213-3911 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA304/00/1635; GA ČR GV307/96/K226 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z5039906 Keywords : human cornea * xanthine oxidoreductase in situ Subject RIV: FF - HEENT, Dentistry Impact factor: 1.881, year: 2002

  18. Cloning and expression of bacterial genes coding amino acid dehydrogenases (oxidoreductases)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: The synthesis of 15N-labeled amino acids from the corresponding α-ketoacids can be accomplished in vitro using bacterial NAD-dependent amino acid dehydrogenases. The example of alanine dehydrogenase (AlaDH) and leucine dehydrogenase (LeuDH) will be presented here. Both enzymes belong to NAD dependent oxidoreductase family. AlaDH or L-alanine NAD-oxidoreductase (EC 1.4.1.1) promotes the reversible oxidative deamination of L-alanine to pyruvate (pyruvic acid). LeuDH or L-leucine NAD-oxidoreductase (EC 1.4.1.9) catalyses the reversible oxidative deamination of many related L-amino acids to corresponding α-ketoacids. The bacterial genes encoding AlaDH from Bacillus subtilis and LeuDH from Bacillus stearothermophilus were cloned separately in pET21b vector, and overexpressed in Escherichia coli BL21(DE3) strain. The [15N]L-alanine was synthesized by reductive amination of pyruvate, in the presence of 15NH4Cl, NADH, AlaDH and glucose dehydrogenase. The [15N]L-leucine, [15N]L-isoleucine, [15N]L-norleucine, [15N]L-valine and [15N]L-norvaline were produced in the same conditions using LeuDH, as a catalyst, and α- ketoisocaproate, DL-α-keto-β-methyl-n-valerate, α-ketocaproate, α-ketoisovalerate and α-ketovalerate, respectively, as substrates. In all cases, the reaction mixtures included glucose dehydrogenase for NADH regeneration with glucose as electron donor. The NADH renewal is more convenient with glucose dehydrogenase than other methods described before using formate dehydrogenase or alcohol dehydrogenase. The glucose dehydrogenase is very active and do not inhibit 15N-labeled amino acid synthesis. As determined by mass spectroscopy, the 15N-labeled amino acids were synthesized with yields between 60% and 95%. Our results demonstrate the usefulness of recombinant amino acid dehydrogenases for in vitro synthesis of 15N-labeled amino acids. (author)

  19. A novel method for preparation of MNP@CS-tethered coenzyme for coupled oxidoreductase system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Guo; Wu, Zhichao; Ma, Yunhui

    2015-02-20

    The immobilized cofactor NAD(H) is easily recovered from the reaction bulk, which is essential for repeated use of NAD(H) in the bioprocess catalyzed by NAD(H)-dependent oxidoreductase. Here, a magnetic nanoparticle platform was designed to immobilize both of the NADH and the NAD(+). The design was based on chitosan-coated magnetic nanoparticles (MNP@CS) which was activated by the EDC/NHS with the aid of azelaic acid as spacer. Interestingly, the succinimide group at the end of spacer arm catalyzed direct coupling of a carboxyl-terminal to the 6-amino group of the adenine residue of NAD(H). Our results indicated that 150 μmol NADH and 50 μmol NAD(+) was effectively attached to 1g MNP@CS at 25°C in 120 min and the prepared MNP@CS-NAD(H) showed good activity according to the coupling reaction of benzyl alcohol and acetaldehyde catalyzed by alcohol dehydrogenase. PMID:25617681

  20. Selected chiral alcohols: Enzymic resolution and reduction of convenient substrates

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Jurček, Ondřej; Wimmerová, Martina; Wimmer, Zdeněk

    2008-01-01

    Roč. 252, - (2008), s. 767-781. ISSN 0010-8545 R&D Projects: GA MŠk 2B06024 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50380511 Keywords : Lipase * Oxido-reductase * Alcohol Subject RIV: CC - Organic Chemistry Impact factor: 10.566, year: 2008

  1. NADPH Cytochrome P-450 Oxidoreductase and Susceptibility to Ketoconazole

    OpenAIRE

    Venkateswarlu, K; Kelly, Diane E.; Manning, Nigel J.; Kelly, Steven L.

    1998-01-01

    The phenotype of a strain of Saccharomyces cerevisiae containing a disruption of the gene encoding NADPH cytochrome P-450 oxidoreductase (CPR) was quantified biochemically and microbiologically, as were those of various transformants of this strain after expression of native CPR, cytochrome P-45051 (CYP51), and a fusion protein of CYP51-CPR (FUS). Only a 4-fold decrease in ergosterol biosynthesis was observed for the cpr strain, but ketoconazole sensitivity increased 200-fold, indicating hype...

  2. CRYSTAL STRUCTURE ANALYSIS OF A PUTATIVE OXIDOREDUCTASE FROM KLEBSIELLA PNEUMONIAE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baig, M.; Brown, A.; Eswaramoorthy, S.; Swaminathan, S.

    2009-01-01

    Klebsiella pneumoniae, a gram-negative enteric bacterium, is found in nosocomial infections which are acquired during hospital stays for about 10% of hospital patients in the United States. The crystal structure of a putative oxidoreductase from K. pneumoniae has been determined. The structural information of this K. pneumoniae protein was used to understand its function. Crystals of the putative oxidoreductase enzyme were obtained by the sitting drop vapor diffusion method using Polyethylene glycol (PEG) 3350, Bis-Tris buffer, pH 5.5 as precipitant. These crystals were used to collect X-ray data at beam line X12C of the National Synchrotron Light Source (NSLS) at Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL). The crystal structure was determined using the SHELX program and refi ned with CNS 1.1. This protein, which is involved in the catalysis of an oxidation-reduction (redox) reaction, has an alpha/beta structure. It utilizes nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate (NADP) or nicotine adenine dinucleotide (NAD) to perform its function. This structure could be used to determine the active and co-factor binding sites of the protein, information that could help pharmaceutical companies in drug design and in determining the protein’s relationship to disease treatment such as that for pneumonia and other related pathologies.

  3. Alcoholism and Alcohol Abuse

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... drinking once you've started Physical dependence - withdrawal symptoms Tolerance - the need to drink more alcohol to feel the same effect With alcohol abuse, you are not physically dependent, but you still ...

  4. Alcohol fuels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1980-01-01

    This issue is devoted almost entirely to alcohol fuels, the following topics being presented: A History of Alcohol Fuels; In the Midwest - Focus on Alcohol Fuels; Gasohol - A DOE Priority; Alcohol Fuels Potential; Gasohol - The Nutritious Fuel; Energy from Agriculture; Alcohol and the Price of Food; A New Look at Economics and Energy Balance in Alcohol Production; Economics of small-scale alcohol producers; Get the Lead Out with Alcohol; Biomass and the Carbon Dioxide Buildup; Federal Agency Activity in Alcohol Fuels; Congressional Activity in Alchol Fuels; Licensing a Small Still; Funding Sources for Alcohol Facilities; Safety in Alcohol Production; Alcohol Fuels Information; State-by-State Guide to Alcohol Activity; Alcohol Fuels Glossary; Alcohol Fuels and Your Car; Alcohol Fuels Training Grants Progam; Citizen Action Plan for Gasohol; and Alcohol Fuels - a Path to Reconciliation.

  5. Differentially regulated NADPH: cytochrome p450 oxidoreductases in parsely

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Two NADPH:cytochrome P450 oxidoreductases (CPRs) from parsley (Petroselinum crispum) were cloned, and the complete proteins were expressed and functionally identified in yeast. The two enzymes, designated CPR1 and CPR2, are 80% identical in amino acid sequence with one another and about 75% identical with CPRs from several other plant species. The mRNA accumulation patterns for CPR1 and CPR2 in fungal elicitor-treated or UV-irradiated cultured parsley cells and in developing or infected parsley plants were compared with those for cinnamate 4-hydroxylase (C4H), one of the most abundant CPR-dependent P450 enzymes in plants. All treatments strongly induced the mRNAs for C4H and CPR1 but not for CPR2, suggesting distinct metabolic roles of CPR1 and CPR2 and a functional relationship between CPR1 and C4H

  6. Alcohol Alert

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Us You are here Home » Alcohol Alert Alcohol Alert The NIAAA Alcohol Alert is a quarterly bulletin that disseminates important research ... text. To order single copies of select Alcohol Alerts, see ordering Information . To view publications in PDF ...

  7. Alcohol Alert: Genetics of Alcoholism

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... and Reports » Alcohol Alert » Alcohol Alert Number 84 Alcohol Alert Number 84 Print Version The Genetics of ... immune defense system. Genes Encoding Enzymes Involved in Alcohol Breakdown Some of the first genes linked to ...

  8. Purification and characterization of a carbohydrate: acceptor oxidoreductase from Paraconiothyrium sp. that produces lactobionic acid efficiently.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiryu, Takaaki; Nakano, Hirofumi; Kiso, Taro; Murakami, Hiromi

    2008-03-01

    A carbohydrate:acceptor oxidoreductase from Paraconiothyrium sp. was purified and characterized. The enzyme efficiently oxidized beta-(1-->4) linked sugars, such as lactose, xylobiose, and cellooligosaccharides. The enzyme also oxidized maltooligosaccharides, D-glucose, D-xylose, D-galactose, L-arabinose, and 6-deoxy-D-glucose. It specifically oxidized the beta-anomer of lactose. Molecular oxygen and 2,6-dichlorophenol indophenol were reduced by the enzyme as electron acceptors. The Paraconiothyrium enzyme was identified as a carbohydrate:acceptor oxidoreductase according to its specificity for electron donors and acceptors, and its molecular properties, as well as the N-terminal amino acid sequence. Further comparison of the amino acid sequences of lactose oxidizing enzymes indicated that carbohydrate:acceptor oxidoreductases belong to the same group as glucooligosaccharide oxidase, while they differ from cellobiose dehydrogenases and cellobiose:quinone oxidoreductases. PMID:18323642

  9. Genotype-Phenotype Analysis in Congenital Adrenal Hyperplasia due to P450 Oxidoreductase Deficiency

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Krone, Nils; Reisch, Nicole; Idkowiak, Jan; Dhir, Vivek; Ivison, Hannah E.; Hughes, Beverly A.; Rose, Ian T.; O'Neil, Donna M.; Vijzelaar, Raymon; Smith, Matthew J.; MacDonald, Fiona; Cole, Trevor R.; Adolphs, Nicolai; Barton, John S.; Blair, Edward M.; Braddock, Stephen R.; Collins, Felicity; Cragun, Deborah L.; Dattani, Mehul T.; Day, Ruth; Dougan, Shelley; Feist, Miriam; Gottschalk, Michael E.; Gregory, John W.; Haim, Michaela; Harrison, Rachel; Olney, Ann Haskins; Hauffa, Berthold P.; Hindmarsh, Peter C.; Hopkin, Robert J.; Jira, Petr E.; Kempers, Marlies; Kerstens, Michiel N.; Khalifa, Mohamed M.; Koehler, Birgit; Maiter, Dominique; Nielsen, Shelly; O'Riordan, Stephen M.; Roth, Christian L.; Shane, Kate P.; Silink, Martin; Stikkelbroeck, Nike M. M. L.; Sweeney, Elizabeth; Szarras-Czapnik, Maria; Waterson, John R.; Williamson, Lori; Hartmann, Michaela F.; Taylor, Norman F.; Wudy, Stefan A.; Malunowicz, Ewa M.; Shackleton, Cedric H. L.; Arlt, Wiebke; Smith, M.J.

    2012-01-01

    Context: P450 oxidoreductase deficiency (PORD) is a unique congenital adrenal hyperplasia variant that manifests with glucocorticoid deficiency, disordered sex development (DSD), and skeletal malformations. No comprehensive data on genotype-phenotype correlations in Caucasian patients are available.

  10. Clinical, genetic, and enzymatic characterization of P450 oxidoreductase deficiency in four patients.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Sahakitrungruang, Taninee

    2009-12-01

    P450 oxidoreductase (POR) deficiency causes disordered steroidogenesis; severe mutations cause genital ambiguity in both sexes plus the Antley-Bixler skeletal malformation syndrome, whereas mild mutations can cause adult infertility.

  11. Coordination environment of the active-site metal ion of liver alcohol dehydrogenase.

    OpenAIRE

    Makinen, M W; Yim, M B

    1981-01-01

    The coordination environment of the catalytically active metal ion of horse liver alcohol dehydrogenase (alcohol:NAD+ oxidoreductase, EC 1.1.1.1) has been investigated by electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) methods with use of the active-site-specific Co2+-reconstituted enzyme. The EPR absorption spectrum of the metal-substituted enzyme is characteristic of a rhombically distorted environment. The spectrum of the enzyme--NAD+ complex shows approximate axial symmetry of the metal ion site, i...

  12. Biodesulfurization of dibenzothiophene in Escherichia coli is enhanced by expression of a Vibrio harveyi oxidoreductase gene

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reichmuth, D.S.; Hittle, J.L.; Blanch, H.W.; Keasling, J.D.

    2000-01-05

    One possible alternative to current fuel hydrodesulfurization methods is the use of microorganisms to remove sulfur compounds. Biodesulfurization requires much milder processing conditions, gives higher specificity, and does not require molecular hydrogen. In the present work the authors have produced two compatible plasmids: pDSR3, which allows Escherichia coli to convert dibenzothiophene (DBT) to hydroxybiphenyl (HBP), and pDSR2, which produces a Vibrio harveyi flavin oxidoreductase. The authors show that the flavin oxidoreductase enhances the rate of DBT removal when co-expressed in vivo with the desulfurization enzymes. The plasmids pDSR2 and pDSR3 were co-expressed in growing cultures. The expression of oxidoreductase caused an increase in the rate of DBT removal but a decrease in the rate of HBP production. The maximum rate of DBT removal was 8 mg/h {center{underscore}dot} g dry cell weight. Experiments were also conducted using resting cells with the addition of various carbon sources. It was found that the addition of glucose or glycerol to cultures with oxidoreductase expression produced the highest DBT removal rate. The culture with acetate and no oxidoreductase expression had the highest level of HBP production. For all carbon sources, the DBT removal rate was faster and the HBP generation rate slower with the expression of the oxidoreductase. Analysis of desulfurization intermediates indicates that the last enzyme in the pathway may be limiting.

  13. Characterization of apoptosis-related oxidoreductases from Neurospora crassa.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrícia Carneiro

    Full Text Available The genome from Neurospora crassa presented three open reading frames homologous to the genes coding for human AIF and AMID proteins, which are flavoproteins with oxidoreductase activities implicated in caspase-independent apoptosis. To investigate the role of these proteins, namely within the mitochondrial respiratory chain, we studied their cellular localization and characterized the respective null mutant strains. Efficiency of the respiratory chain was analyzed by oxygen consumption studies and supramolecular organization of the OXPHOS system was assessed through BN-PAGE analysis in the respective null mutant strains. The results demonstrate that, unlike in mammalian systems, disruption of AIF in Neurospora does not affect either complex I assembly or function. Furthermore, the mitochondrial respiratory chain complexes of the mutant strains display a similar supramolecular organization to that observed in the wild type strain. Further characterization revealed that N. crassa AIF appears localized to both the mitochondria and the cytoplasm, whereas AMID was found exclusively in the cytoplasm. AMID2 was detected in both mitochondria and cytoplasm of the amid mutant strain, but was barely discernible in wild type extracts, suggesting overlapping functions for the two proteins.

  14. Posttranslational modifications of FERREDOXIN-NADP+ OXIDOREDUCTASE in Arabidopsis chloroplasts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lehtimäki, Nina; Koskela, Minna M; Dahlström, Käthe M; Pakula, Eveliina; Lintala, Minna; Scholz, Martin; Hippler, Michael; Hanke, Guy T; Rokka, Anne; Battchikova, Natalia; Salminen, Tiina A; Mulo, Paula

    2014-12-01

    Rapid responses of chloroplast metabolism and adjustments to photosynthetic machinery are of utmost importance for plants' survival in a fluctuating environment. These changes may be achieved through posttranslational modifications of proteins, which are known to affect the activity, interactions, and localization of proteins. Recent studies have accumulated evidence about the crucial role of a multitude of modifications, including acetylation, methylation, and glycosylation, in the regulation of chloroplast proteins. Both of the Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) leaf-type FERREDOXIN-NADP(+) OXIDOREDUCTASE (FNR) isoforms, the key enzymes linking the light reactions of photosynthesis to carbon assimilation, exist as two distinct forms with different isoelectric points. We show that both AtFNR isoforms contain multiple alternative amino termini and undergo light-responsive addition of an acetyl group to the α-amino group of the amino-terminal amino acid of proteins, which causes the change in isoelectric point. Both isoforms were also found to contain acetylation of a conserved lysine residue near the active site, while no evidence for in vivo phosphorylation or glycosylation was detected. The dynamic, multilayer regulation of AtFNR exemplifies the complex regulatory network systems controlling chloroplast proteins by a range of posttranslational modifications, which continues to emerge as a novel area within photosynthesis research. PMID:25301888

  15. Xanthine Oxidoreductase-Derived Reactive Species: Physiological and Pathological Effects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Giulia Battelli

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Xanthine oxidoreductase (XOR is the enzyme that catalyzes the oxidation of hypoxanthine to xanthine and xanthine to uric acid and is widely distributed among species. In addition to this housekeeping function, mammalian XOR is a physiological source of superoxide ion, hydrogen peroxide, and nitric oxide, which can function as second messengers in the activation of various pathways. This review intends to address the physiological and pathological roles of XOR-derived oxidant molecules. The cytocidal action of XOR products has been claimed in relation to tissue damage, in particular damage induced by hypoxia and ischemia. Attempts to exploit this activity to eliminate unwanted cells via the construction of conjugates have also been reported. Moreover, different aspects of XOR activity related to phlogosis, endothelial activation, leukocyte activation, and vascular tone regulation, have been taken into consideration. Finally, the positive and negative outcomes concerning cancer pathology have been analyzed because XOR products may induce mutagenesis, cell proliferation, and tumor progression, but they are also associated with apoptosis and cell differentiation. In conclusion, XOR activity generates free radicals and other oxidant reactive species that may result in either harmful or beneficial outcomes.

  16. Xanthine Oxidoreductase-Derived Reactive Species: Physiological and Pathological Effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Battelli, Maria Giulia; Polito, Letizia; Bortolotti, Massimo; Bolognesi, Andrea

    2016-01-01

    Xanthine oxidoreductase (XOR) is the enzyme that catalyzes the oxidation of hypoxanthine to xanthine and xanthine to uric acid and is widely distributed among species. In addition to this housekeeping function, mammalian XOR is a physiological source of superoxide ion, hydrogen peroxide, and nitric oxide, which can function as second messengers in the activation of various pathways. This review intends to address the physiological and pathological roles of XOR-derived oxidant molecules. The cytocidal action of XOR products has been claimed in relation to tissue damage, in particular damage induced by hypoxia and ischemia. Attempts to exploit this activity to eliminate unwanted cells via the construction of conjugates have also been reported. Moreover, different aspects of XOR activity related to phlogosis, endothelial activation, leukocyte activation, and vascular tone regulation, have been taken into consideration. Finally, the positive and negative outcomes concerning cancer pathology have been analyzed because XOR products may induce mutagenesis, cell proliferation, and tumor progression, but they are also associated with apoptosis and cell differentiation. In conclusion, XOR activity generates free radicals and other oxidant reactive species that may result in either harmful or beneficial outcomes. PMID:26823950

  17. Dual targeted poplar ferredoxin NADP(+) oxidoreductase interacts with hemoglobin 1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jokipii-Lukkari, Soile; Kastaniotis, Alexander J; Parkash, Vimal; Sundström, Robin; Leiva-Eriksson, Nélida; Nymalm, Yvonne; Blokhina, Olga; Kukkola, Eija; Fagerstedt, Kurt V; Salminen, Tiina A; Läärä, Esa; Bülow, Leif; Ohlmeier, Steffen; Hiltunen, J Kalervo; Kallio, Pauli T; Häggman, Hely

    2016-06-01

    Previous reports have connected non-symbiotic and truncated hemoglobins (Hbs) to metabolism of nitric oxide (NO), an important signalling molecule involved in wood formation. We have studied the capability of poplar (Populus tremula×tremuloides) Hbs PttHb1 and PttTrHb proteins alone or with a flavin-protein reductase to relieve NO cytotoxicity in living cells. Complementation tests in a Hb-deficient, NO-sensitive yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae) Δyhb1 mutant showed that neither PttHb1 nor PttTrHb alone protected cells against NO. To study the ability of Hbs to interact with a reductase, ferredoxin NADP(+) oxidoreductase PtthFNR was characterized by sequencing and proteomics. To date, by far the greatest number of the known dual-targeted plant proteins are directed to chloroplasts and mitochondria. We discovered a novel variant of hFNR that lacks the plastid presequence and resides in cytosol. The coexpression of PttHb1 and PtthFNR partially restored NO resistance of the yeast Δyhb1 mutant, whereas PttTrHb coexpressed with PtthFNR failed to rescue growth. YFP fusion proteins confirmed the interaction between PttHb1 and PtthFNR in plant cells. The structural modelling results indicate that PttHb1 and PtthFNR are able to interact as NO dioxygenase. This is the first report on dual targeting of central plant enzyme FNR to plastids and cytosol. PMID:27095407

  18. Alcoholic neuropathy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... objects in the shoes Guarding the extremities to prevent injury from pressure Alcohol must be stopped to prevent the damage from ... The only way to prevent alcoholic neuropathy is not to drink excessive amounts of alcohol.

  19. An overview on alcohol oxidases and their potential applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goswami, Pranab; Chinnadayyala, Soma Sekhar R; Chakraborty, Mitun; Kumar, Adepu Kiran; Kakoti, Ankana

    2013-05-01

    Alcohol oxidases (Alcohol: O₂ Oxidoreductase; EC 1.1.3.x) are flavoenzymes that catalyze the oxidation of alcohols to the corresponding carbonyl compounds with a concomitant release of hydrogen peroxide. Based on substrate specificity, alcohol oxidases may be categorized broadly into four different groups namely, (a) short chain alcohol oxidase (SCAO), (b) long chain alcohol oxidase (LCAO), (c) aromatic alcohol oxidase (AAO), and (d) secondary alcohol oxidase (SAO). The sources reported for these enzymes are mostly limited to bacteria, yeast, fungi, plant, insect, and mollusks. However, the quantum of reports for each category of enzymes considerably varies across these sources. The enzymes belonging to SCAO and LCAO are intracellular in nature, whereas AAO and SAO are mostly secreted to the medium. SCAO and LCAO are invariably reported as multimeric proteins with very high holoenzyme molecular masses, but the molecular characteristics of these enzymes are yet to be clearly elucidated. One of the striking features of the alcohol oxidases that make them distinct from the widely known alcohol dehydrogenase is the avidly bound cofactor to the redox center of these enzymes that obviate the need to supplement cofactor during the catalytic reaction. These flavin-based redox enzymes have gained enormous importance in the development of various industrial processes and products primarily for developing biosensors and production of various industrially useful carbonyl compounds. The present review provides an overview on alcohol oxidases from different categories focusing research on these oxidases during the last decade along with their potential industrial applications. PMID:23525937

  20. Combinatorial application of two aldehyde oxidoreductases on isobutanol production in the presence of furfural.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seo, Hyung-Min; Jeon, Jong-Min; Lee, Ju Hee; Song, Hun-Suk; Joo, Han-Byul; Park, Sung-Hee; Choi, Kwon-Young; Kim, Yong Hyun; Park, Kyungmoon; Ahn, Jungoh; Lee, Hongweon; Yang, Yung-Hun

    2016-01-01

    Furfural is a toxic by-product formulated from pretreatment processes of lignocellulosic biomass. In order to utilize the lignocellulosic biomass on isobutanol production, inhibitory effect of the furfural on isobutanol production was investigated and combinatorial application of two oxidoreductases, FucO and YqhD, was suggested as an alternative strategy. Furfural decreased cell growth and isobutanol production when only YqhD or FucO was employed as an isobutyraldehyde oxidoreductase. However, combinatorial overexpression of FucO and YqhD could overcome the inhibitory effect of furfural giving higher isobutanol production by 110% compared with overexpression of YqhD. The combinatorial oxidoreductases increased furfural detoxification rate 2.1-fold and also accelerated glucose consumption 1.4-fold. When it compares to another known system increasing furfural tolerance, membrane-bound transhydrogenase (pntAB), the combinatorial aldehyde oxidoreductases were better on cell growth and production. Thus, to control oxidoreductases is important to produce isobutanol using furfural-containing biomass and the combinatorial overexpression of FucO and YqhD can be an alternative strategy. PMID:26660478

  1. A light-dependent complementation system for analysis of NADPH:protochlorophyllide oxidoreductase: Identification and mutagenesis of two conserved residues that are essential for enzyme activity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wilks, H.M.; Timko, M.P. [Univ. of Virginia, Charlottesville, VA (United States)

    1995-01-31

    Protochlorophyllide reductase (NADPH:protochlorophyllide oxidoreductase; EC 1.6.99.1) catalyzes the light-dependent reduction of protochlorophyllide to chlorophyllide, a key regulatory step in the chlorophyll biosynthetic pathway. We have developed an expression system in which the protochlorophyllide reductase from pea (Pisum sativum L.) is used to complement protochlorophyllide reduction mutants in the photosynthetic bacterium Rhodobacter capsulatus, allowing analysis of wild-type and mutant forms of the enzyme. By protein sequence comparisons, we have identified the plant protochlorophyllide reductases as belonging to the family of short-chain alcohol dehydrogenases. Based on our protein sequence alignments, we have identified and mutated two conserved residues (Tyr-275 and Lys-279) within the proposed active site of the enzyme and shown that they are critical for activity. A model of the enzyme reaction mechanism for light-dependent protochlorophyllide reduction is proposed. 33 refs., 5 figs.

  2. 40 CFR 174.524 - Glyphosate Oxidoreductase GOX or GOXv247 in all plants; exemption from the requirement of a...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 23 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Glyphosate Oxidoreductase GOX or... REQUIREMENTS FOR PLANT-INCORPORATED PROTECTANTS Tolerances and Tolerance Exemptions § 174.524 Glyphosate... Glyphosate Oxidoreductase GOX or GOXv247 enzyme in all plants are exempt from the requirement of a...

  3. Optimizing Cofactor Specificity of Oxidoreductase Enzymes for the Generation of Microbial Production Strains—OptSwap

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    King, Zachary A.; Feist, Adam

    2013-01-01

    Central oxidoreductase enzymes (eg, dehydrogenases, reductases) in microbial metabolism often have preferential binding specificity for one of the two major currency metabolites NAD(H) and NADP(H). These enzyme specificities result in a division of the metabolic functionality of the currency...... specificities of oxidoreductase enzyme and complementary reaction knockouts. Using the Escherichia coli genome-scale metabolic model iJO1366, OptSwap predicted eight growth-coupled production designs with significantly greater product yields or substrate-specific productivities than designs predicted with gene...

  4. Evolution of NADPH-cytochrome P450 oxidoreductases (POR) in Apiales - POR 1 is missing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Trine Bundgaard; Hansen, Niels Bjørn; Laursen, Tomas;

    2016-01-01

    The NADPH-dependent cytochrome P450 oxidoreductase (POR) is the obligate electron donor to eukaryotic microsomal cytochromes P450 enzymes. The number of PORs within plant species is limited to one to four isoforms, with the most common being two PORs per plant. These enzymes provide electrons to ...

  5. On the purification and preliminary crystallographic analysis of isoquinoline 1-oxidoreductase from Brevundimonas diminuta 7

    OpenAIRE

    Boer, D. Roeland; Müller, Axel; Fetzner, Susanne; Lowe, David J.; Romão, Maria João

    2004-01-01

    Crystallization of isoquinoline 1-oxidoreductase from B. diminuta was achieved using two different crystallization buffers. Streak-seeding and cross-linking were essential to obtain well diffracting crystals. Suitable cryo-conditions were found and a structure solution was obtained by molecular replacement.

  6. Comparative histochemical and immunohistochemical study on xanthine oxidoreductase/xanthine oxidase in mammalian corneal epithelium

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Ardan, Taras; Andonova, Janetta; Čejková, Jitka

    2004-01-01

    Roč. 106, - (2004), s. 69-75. ISSN 0065-1281 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA304/03/0419 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z5008914 Keywords : xanthine oxidoreductase * xanthine oxidase Subject RIV: FF - HEENT, Dentistry Impact factor: 0.895, year: 2004

  7. An investigation on the quinoprotein nature of some fungal and plant oxidoreductases

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vliegenthart, J.F.G.; Maccarrone, M.; Veldink, G.A.

    1991-01-01

    The presence of pyrroloquinoline quinone (PQQ) as the organic cofactor of Dactylium dendroides galactose oxidase and lentil (Lens culinaris) seedling amine oxidase, purported PQQ-containing oxidoreductases (Van der Meer, R. A., Jongejan, J. A., and Duine, J. A. (1989) J. Biol. Chem. 264, 7792-7794;

  8. Molecular Cloning and Characterization of a Broad Substrate Terpenoid Oxidoreductase from Artemisia annua

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ryden, Anna-Margareta; Ruyter-Spira, Carolien; Litjens, Ralph; Takahashi, Shunji; Quax, Wim; Osada, Hiroyuki; Bouwmeester, Harro; Kayser, Oliver

    2010-01-01

    From Artemisia annua L., a new oxidoreductase (Red 1) was cloned, sequenced and functionally characterized. Through bioinformatics, heterologous protein expression and enzyme substrate conversion assays, the elucidation of the enzymatic capacities of Red1 was achieved. Red1 acts on monoterpenoids, a

  9. Molecular cloning and characterization of a broad substrate terpenoid oxidoreductase from Artemisia annua.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ryden, A.M.; Ruyter-Spira, C.P.; Litjens, R.; Takahashi, S.; Quax, W.J.; Osada, H.; Bouwmeester, H.J.; Kayser, O.

    2010-01-01

    From Artemisia annua L., a new oxidoreductase (Red 1) was cloned, sequenced and functionally characterized. Through bioinformatics, heterologous protein expression, and enzyme substrate conversion assays, the elucidation of the enzymatic capacities of Red1 was achieved. Red1 acts on monoterpenoids,

  10. Alcohol Facts

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... alcohol. Alcohol is the ingredient that gets you drunk. Hard liquor—such as whiskey, rum, or gin— ... of malt liquor 12 ounces of beer Being drunk can make a person feel very silly, angry, ...

  11. Alcoholics Anonymous

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Banners Site Help What's New Welcome to Alcoholics Anonymous ® NEED HELP WITH A DRINKING PROBLEM? If you ... drinking problem, wish to learn more about Alcoholics Anonymous or want to find A.A. near you, ...

  12. Alcoholic hallucinosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhat, Pookala S; Ryali, Vssr; Srivastava, Kalpana; Kumar, Shashi R; Prakash, Jyoti; Singal, Ankit

    2012-07-01

    Alcoholic hallucinosis is a rare complication of chronic alcohol abuse characterized by predominantly auditory hallucinations that occur either during or after a period of heavy alcohol consumption. Bleuler (1916) termed the condition as alcohol hallucinosis and differentiated it from Delirium Tremens. Usually it presents with acoustic verbal hallucinations, delusions and mood disturbances arising in clear consciousness and sometimes may progress to a chronic form mimicking schizophrenia. One such case with multimodal hallucinations in a Defence Service Corps soldier is presented here. PMID:24250051

  13. Alcohol misuse

    OpenAIRE

    Robson, W

    2009-01-01

    Alcohol use is a leading cause of mortality and morbidity internationally, and is ranked by the WHO as one of the top five risk factors for disease burden. Without treatment, approximately 16% of hazardous or harmful alcohol users will progress to more dependent patterns of alcohol consumption.

  14. Alcohol Test

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    The recent alcohol tax increase poses a challenge to China’s white spirits makers Alcohol, rather than wine, is an in-dispensable component to Chinese table culture. The financial crisis has failed to affect white spirits sales, but an alcohol tax increase might.

  15. Alcoholic cardiomyopathy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Gonzalo; Guzzo-Merello; Marta; Cobo-Marcos; Maria; Gallego-Delgado; Pablo; Garcia-Pavia

    2014-01-01

    Alcohol is the most frequently consumed toxic substance in the world. Low to moderate daily intake of alcohol has been shown to have beneficial effects on the cardiovascular system. In contrast, exposure to high levels of alcohol for a long period could lead to progressive cardiac dysfunction and heart failure. Cardiac dysfunction associated with chronic and excessive alcohol intake is a specific cardiac disease known as alcoholic cardiomyopathy(ACM). In spite of its clinical importance, data on ACM and how alcohol damages the heart are limited. In this review, we evaluate available evidence linking excessive alcohol consumption with heart failure and dilated cardiomyopathy. Additionally, we discuss the clinical presentation, prognosis and treatment of ACM.

  16. Lactic acid-producing yeast cells having nonfunctional L- or D-lactate:ferricytochrome C oxidoreductase cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Matthew; Suominen, Pirkko; Aristidou, Aristos; Hause, Benjamin Matthew; Van Hoek, Pim; Dundon, Catherine Asleson

    2012-03-20

    Yeast cells having an exogenous lactate dehydrogenase gene ae modified by reducing L- or D-lactate:ferricytochrome c oxidoreductase activity in the cell. This leads to reduced consumption of lactate by the cell and can increase overall lactate yields in a fermentation process. Cells having the reduced L- or D-lactate:ferricytochrome c oxidoreductase activity can be screened for by resistance to organic acids such as lactic or glycolic acid.

  17. The effect of inhibitors of plasma membrane H+ - ATPase and oxidoreductases on NH4+ uptake by Pisum arvense roots

    OpenAIRE

    Genowefa Kubik-Dobosz; Aleksandra Turska; Halina Lekacz; Waldemar Karcz; Józef Buczek

    2014-01-01

    The effect of inhibitors of plasma membrane oxidoreductases (quinacrine and dicumarol) and H+-ATPase (dicyclohexylcarbodiimide and orthovanadate) on ammonium uptake by Pisum arvense seedlings and the activities of H+-ATPase and NADH-ferricyanide oxidoreductase was investigated. The uptake solution contained 50 µM NH4+. In I h experiments, quinacrine and dicumarol depressed strongly and irreversibly the rate of NH4+ uptake and markedly inhibited the activity of NADH-ferri-cyanide oxidoreductas...

  18. Correlation of Cytochrome P450 Oxidoreductase Expression with the Expression of 10 Isoforms of Cytochrome P450 in Human Liver.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Hai-Feng; Li, Zhi-Hui; Liu, Jia-Yu; Liu, Ting-Ting; Wang, Ping; Fang, Yan; Zhou, Jun; Cui, Ming-Zhu; Gao, Na; Tian, Xin; Gao, Jie; Wen, Qiang; Jia, Lin-Jing; Qiao, Hai-Ling

    2016-08-01

    Human cytochrome P450 oxidoreductase (POR) provides electrons for all microsomal cytochromes P450 (P450s) and plays an indispensable role in drug metabolism catalyzed by this family of enzymes. We evaluated 100 human liver samples and found that POR protein content varied 12.8-fold, from 12.59 to 160.97 pmol/mg, with a median value of 67.99 pmol/mg; POR mRNA expression varied by 26.4-fold. POR activity was less variable with a median value of 56.05 nmol/min per milligram. Cigarette smoking and alcohol consumption clearly influenced POR activity. Liver samples with a 2286822 TT genotype had significantly higher POR mRNA expression than samples with CT genotype. Homozygous carriers of POR2286822C>T, 2286823G>A, and 3823884A>C had significantly lower POR protein levels compared with the corresponding heterozygous carriers. Liver samples from individuals homozygous at 286823G>A, 1135612A>G, and 10954732G>A generally had lower POR activity levels than those from heterozygous or wild-type samples, whereas the common variant POR*28 significantly increased POR activity. There was a strong association between POR and the expression of P450 isoforms at the mRNA and protein level, whereas the relationship at the activity level, as well as the effect of POR protein content on P450 activity, was less pronounced. POR transcription was strongly correlated with both hepatocyte nuclear factor 4 alpha and pregnane X receptor mRNA levels. In conclusion, we have elucidated some potentially important correlations between POR single-nucleotide polymorphisms and POR expression in the Chinese population and have developed a database that correlates POR expression with the expression and activity of 10 P450s important in drug metabolism. PMID:27271371

  19. Correlation of Cytochrome P450 Oxidoreductase Expression with the Expression of 10 Isoforms of Cytochrome P450 in Human Liver

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Hai-Feng; Li, Zhi-Hui; Liu, Jia-Yu; Liu, Ting-Ting; Wang, Ping; Fang, Yan; Zhou, Jun; Cui, Ming-Zhu; Gao, Na; Tian, Xin; Gao, Jie; Wen, Qiang; Jia, Lin-Jing

    2016-01-01

    Human cytochrome P450 oxidoreductase (POR) provides electrons for all microsomal cytochromes P450 (P450s) and plays an indispensable role in drug metabolism catalyzed by this family of enzymes. We evaluated 100 human liver samples and found that POR protein content varied 12.8-fold, from 12.59 to 160.97 pmol/mg, with a median value of 67.99 pmol/mg; POR mRNA expression varied by 26.4-fold. POR activity was less variable with a median value of 56.05 nmol/min per milligram. Cigarette smoking and alcohol consumption clearly influenced POR activity. Liver samples with a 2286822 TT genotype had significantly higher POR mRNA expression than samples with CT genotype. Homozygous carriers of POR2286822C>T, 2286823G>A, and 3823884A>C had significantly lower POR protein levels compared with the corresponding heterozygous carriers. Liver samples from individuals homozygous at 286823G>A, 1135612A>G, and 10954732G>A generally had lower POR activity levels than those from heterozygous or wild-type samples, whereas the common variant POR*28 significantly increased POR activity. There was a strong association between POR and the expression of P450 isoforms at the mRNA and protein level, whereas the relationship at the activity level, as well as the effect of POR protein content on P450 activity, was less pronounced. POR transcription was strongly correlated with both hepatocyte nuclear factor 4 alpha and pregnane X receptor mRNA levels. In conclusion, we have elucidated some potentially important correlations between POR single-nucleotide polymorphisms and POR expression in the Chinese population and have developed a database that correlates POR expression with the expression and activity of 10 P450s important in drug metabolism. PMID:27271371

  20. Alcoholic hallucinosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pookala S Bhat

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Alcoholic hallucinosis is a rare complication of chronic alcohol abuse characterized by predominantly auditory hallucinations that occur either during or after a period of heavy alcohol consumption. Bleuler (1916 termed the condition as alcohol hallucinosis and differentiated it from Delirium Tremens. Usually it presents with acoustic verbal hallucinations, delusions and mood disturbances arising in clear consciousness and sometimes may progress to a chronic form mimicking schizophrenia. One such case with multimodal hallucinations in a Defence Service Corps soldier is presented here.

  1. Allosteric nucleotide-binding site in the mitochondrial NADH:ubiquinone oxidoreductase (respiratory complex I)

    OpenAIRE

    Grivennikova, Vera G.; Gladyshev, Grigory V.; Vinogradov, Andrei D.

    2011-01-01

    The rotenone-insensitive NADH:hexaammineruthenium III (HAR) oxidoreductase reactions catalyzed by bovine heart and Yarrowia lipolytica submitochondrial particles or purified bovine complex I are stimulated by ATP and other purine nucleotides. The soluble fraction of mammalian complex I (FP) and prokaryotic complex I homolog NDH-1 in Paracoccus denitrificans plasma membrane lack stimulation of their activities by ATP. The stimulation appears as a decrease in apparent Km values for NADH and HAR...

  2. Structural and functional studies of mitochondrial NADH:ubiquinone oxidoreductase (complex I)

    OpenAIRE

    King, Martin

    2010-01-01

    NADH:ubiquinone oxidoreductase (complex I) is the largest and most complicated enzyme in the mitochondrial electron transfer chain. It catalyses the oxidation of NADH and the reduction of ubiquinone, coupled to the translocation of protons across the mitochondrial inner membrane, maintaining the proton motive force used for ATP synthesis. Complex I is the least understood of the respiratory enzymes; although the mechanisms of NADH oxidation and intramolecular electron transfer are gradually b...

  3. The Subunit Composition of Mitochondrial NADH:Ubiquinone Oxidoreductase (Complex I) From Pichia pastoris

    OpenAIRE

    Bridges, Hannah R.; Fearnley, Ian M.; Hirst, Judy

    2010-01-01

    Respiratory complex I (NADH:quinone oxidoreductase) is an entry point to the electron transport chain in the mitochondria of many eukaryotes. It is a large, multisubunit enzyme with a hydrophilic domain in the matrix and a hydrophobic domain in the mitochondrial inner membrane. Here we present a comprehensive analysis of the protein composition and post-translational modifications of complex I from Pichia pastoris, using a combination of proteomic and bioinformatic approaches. Forty-one subun...

  4. The role of WW domain-containing oxidoreductase in lymphocyte development

    OpenAIRE

    Jui Yen Lo; Li-Jin Hsu

    2013-01-01

    WW domain-containing oxidoreductase (WOX1) is a newly isolated tumor suppressor protein. Downregulation of WOX1 protein expression has been found in many types of human cancers. Previous studies have suggested that WOX1 is involved in many signaling pathways that regulate cell apoptosis. Ectopic WOX1 increases tumor necrosis factor, staurosporine, UV or p53-induced cell death. Conversely, functional suppression of WOX1 by dominant negative mutants or siRNA protects cells from apoptosis. ...

  5. Functional Analysis of Three Sulfide:Quinone Oxidoreductase Homologs in Chlorobaculum tepidum▿ †

    OpenAIRE

    Chan, Leong-Keat; Morgan-Kiss, Rachael M; Hanson, Thomas E.

    2008-01-01

    Sulfide:quinone oxidoreductase (SQR) catalyzes sulfide oxidation during sulfide-dependent chemo- and phototrophic growth in bacteria. The green sulfur bacterium Chlorobaculum tepidum (formerly Chlorobium tepidum) can grow on sulfide as the sole electron donor and sulfur source. C. tepidum contains genes encoding three SQR homologs: CT0117, CT0876, and CT1087. This study examined which, if any, of the SQR homologs possess sulfide-dependent ubiquinone reduction activity and are required for gro...

  6. The Saccharomyces cerevisiae quinone oxidoreductase Lot6p: stability, inhibition and cooperativity

    OpenAIRE

    Megarity, Clare F.; Looi, Hong Keat; Timson, David J

    2014-01-01

    Lot6p (EC 1.5.1.39; Ylr011wp) is the sole quinone oxidoreductase in the budding yeast, Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Using hexahistidine tagged, recombinant Lot6p, we determined the steady-state enzyme kinetic parameters with both NADH and NADPH as electron donors; no cooperativity was observed with these substrates. The NQO1 inhibitor curcumin, the NQO2 inhibitor resveratrol, the bacterial nitroreductase inhibitor nicotinamide and the phosphate mimic vanadate all stabilise the enzyme towards the...

  7. Investigation of aldehyde oxidase and xanthine oxidoreductase in rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss)

    OpenAIRE

    Aburas, Omaro A Emhmed

    2014-01-01

    Molybdo-flavoenzymes (MFEs), aldehyde oxidase (AOX) and xanthine oxidoreductase (XOR) are involved in the oxidation of N-heterocyclic compounds and aldehydes, many of which are environmental pollutants, drugs and vitamins. This biotransformation generally generates more polar compounds that are more easily excreted, thus MFEs have been classed as detoxication enzymes. To date there has been scant study of the properties, substrate and inhibitor specificities of MFEs in non-mammalian vert...

  8. Regulation of P450 oxidoreductase by gonadotropins in rat ovary and its effect on estrogen production

    OpenAIRE

    Uesaka Miki; Kangawa Kenji; Kokame Koichi; Mizutani Tetsuya; Yazawa Takashi; Inaoka Yoshihiko; Umezawa Akihiro; Miyamoto Kaoru

    2008-01-01

    Abstract Background P450 oxidoreductase (POR) catalyzes electron transfer to microsomal P450 enzymes. Its deficiency causes Antley-Bixler syndrome (ABS), and about half the patients with ABS have ambiguous genitalia and/or impaired steroidogenesis. POR mRNA expression is up-regulated when mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) differentiate into steroidogenic cells, suggesting that the regulation of POR gene expression is important for steroidogenesis. In this context we examined the regulation of POR...

  9. Xanthine oxidoreductase in cancer: more than a differentiation marker.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Battelli, Maria Giulia; Polito, Letizia; Bortolotti, Massimo; Bolognesi, Andrea

    2016-03-01

    Human xanthine oxidoreductase (XOR) catalyzes the last two steps of purine catabolism and is present in two interconvertible forms, which may utilize O2 or NAD(+) as electron acceptors. In addition to uric acid, XOR products may comprise reactive oxygen and nitrogen species that have many biologic effects, including inflammation, endothelial dysfunction, and cytotoxicity, as well as mutagenesis and induction of proliferation. XOR is strictly modulated at the transcriptional and post-translational levels, and its expression and activity are highly variable in cancer. Xanthine oxidoreductase (XOR) expression has been negatively associated with a high malignity grade and a worse prognosis in neoplasms of the breast, liver, gastrointestinal tract, and kidney, which normally express a high level of XOR protein. However, the level of XOR expression may be associated with a worse outcome in cancer of low XOR-expressing cells, in relation to the inflammatory response elicited through the tissue damage induced by tumor growth. Xanthine oxidoreductase (XOR) has been implicated in the process of oncogenesis either directly because it is able to catalyze the metabolic activation of carcinogenic substances or indirectly through the action of XOR-derived reactive oxygen and nitrogen species. The role of uric acid is characterized by both oxidant and antioxidant action; thus, it is still debatable whether control of uricemia may be helpful to improve the outcomes of tumor illness. PMID:26687331

  10. Differences in the secretion pattern of oxidoreductases from Bjerkandera adusta induced by a phenolic olive mill extract.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reina, Rocío; Kellner, Harald; Jehmlich, Nico; Ullrich, René; García-Romera, Inmaculada; Aranda, Elisabet; Liers, Christiane

    2014-11-01

    The secretome of the white-rot fungus Bjerkandera adusta produced in synthetic Kirk medium was compared to that supplemented with an aqueous phenol-rich extract of dry olive mill residues (ADOR). Distinct changes in the protein composition of oxidoreductases, namely diverse class-II peroxidases and aryl alcohol oxidases were found. In the ADOR-supplemented medium (ASC), 157 distinct proteins were identified by the secretome analysis, whereas only 59 of them were identified without ADOR supplementation (Kirk medium culture; KM). Proteome analysis indicated that the number of peroxidases produced in ASC was more than doubled (from 4 to 11) compared to KM. Two short manganese peroxidases (MnP1 and MnP6) and one versatile peroxidase (VP1) represented 29% of the relative abundance (NSAF) in ASC. Two of them (MnP1 and VP1) were also detected in KM at a relative abundance (NSAF) of only 3%. Further peroxidases present in ASC were one lignin peroxidase (LiP2), one generic peroxidase (GP) and three dye-decolorizing peroxidases (DyPs). The relative abundance of DyPs and aryl alcohol oxidases (AAO) were lower in ASC in comparison to KM. In addition to peptide sequence analysis, the secretion of Mn(2+)-oxidizing peroxidases as well as AAOs were followed by enzyme measurement. The Mn(2+)-oxidizing activity increased nearly 30-fold (from 10 to 281Ul(-1)) after ADOR addition. Two enzymes responsible for that activity were successfully purified (BadVPI and BadVPII). To prove a potential involvement of these enzymes in the degradation of aromatic compounds, BadVPI was tested for its ability to degrade the recalcitrant dehydrogenated polymer (DHP, synthetic lignin). These results show that natural phenol-rich materials act as secretome-stimulating additives. Applying these substances enables us to investigate fungal degradation and detoxification processes and gives more insight into the complexity of fungal secretomes, e.g. of white-rot fungi. PMID:25069088

  11. Neutral metal-bound water is the base catalyst in liver alcohol dehydrogenase.

    OpenAIRE

    Makinen, M W; Maret, W.; Yim, M B

    1983-01-01

    The catalytic role of the active site metal-water complex in horse liver alcohol dehydrogenase (alcohol:NAD+ oxidoreductase, EC 1.1.1.1) is investigated on the basis of a comparative analysis of the pH dependence of steady-state kinetic parameters of the native and active-site-specific Co2+-reconstituted enzyme and on the basis of assignment of the coordination environment of the Co2+ by electron paramagnetic resonance methods. The pH dependence of the kinetic parameters for the oxidation of ...

  12. Alcohol Energy Drinks

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Home / About Addiction / Alcohol / Alcohol Energy Drinks Alcohol Energy Drinks Read 17728 times font size decrease font size increase font size Print Email Alcohol energy drinks (AEDs) or Caffeinated alcoholic beverages (CABs) are ...

  13. Alcohol during Pregnancy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Home > Pregnancy > Is it safe? > Alcohol during pregnancy Alcohol during pregnancy E-mail to a friend Please ... and fetal alcohol spectrum disorders. How does drinking alcohol during pregnancy affect your baby's health? Drinking alcohol ...

  14. Alcohol Energy Drinks

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Home / About Addiction / Alcohol / Alcohol Energy Drinks Alcohol Energy Drinks Read 14466 times font size decrease font size increase font size Print Email Alcohol energy drinks (AEDs) or Caffeinated alcoholic beverages (CABs) are ...

  15. Alcoholism (image)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... that interferes with physical or mental health, and social, family or job responsibilities. This addiction can lead to liver, circulatory and neurological problems. Pregnant women who drink alcohol in any amount ...

  16. Alcohol withdrawal

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... parts A severe form of alcohol withdrawal called delirium tremens can cause: Agitation Fever Seeing or feeling things ... watched closely for hallucinations and other signs of delirium tremens. Treatment may include: Monitoring of blood pressure, body ...

  17. Tetrazolium-dye-linked alcohol dehydrogenase of the methylotrophic actinomycete Amycolatopsis methanolica is a three-component complex

    OpenAIRE

    Bystrykh, LV; GOVORUKHINA, NI; Dijkhuizen, L.; Duine, JA; Govorukhina, Natalya I.; Duine, Johannis A.

    1997-01-01

    Tetrazolium-dye-linked alcohol dehydrogenase (TD-ADH) of Amycolatopsis methanolica could be resolved into three protein components, which have been purified. Each of the components has the ability to reconstitute TD-ADH activity when combined with the other two. Component I is identical to the previously characterized methanol :N:N'-dimethyl-4-nitrosoaniline oxidoreductase (MNO), a decameric protein with 50-kDa subunits, each carrying a tightly bound NADPH. Component 2 is a high molecular mas...

  18. Functional study of WW domain-containing oxidoreductase in T cells

    OpenAIRE

    Tsung-Hao Chang; Li-Jin Hsu

    2013-01-01

    WW domain-containing oxidoreductase (known as WOX1) has been shown to promote stress-induced cancer cell death and function as a tumor suppressor. Previous studies indicated that WOX1-deficient mice exhibit preweaning lethality, abnormal bone formation and growth retardation. However, whether WOX1 plays a role in the immune system is unknown. In this study, we investigated the functional role of WOX1 in lymphoid organs and found thymus atrophy in WOX1-deficient mice. Using cleaved caspase-3 s...

  19. Differentially regulated NADPH:cytochrome P450 oxidoreductases in parsley

    OpenAIRE

    Koopmann, Edda; Hahlbrock, Klaus

    1997-01-01

    Two NADPH:cytochrome P450 oxidoreductases (CPRs) from parsley (Petroselinum crispum) were cloned, and the complete proteins were expressed and functionally identified in yeast. The two enzymes, designated CPR1 and CPR2, are 80% identical in amino acid sequence with one another and about 75% identical with CPRs from several other plant species. The mRNA accumulation patterns for CPR1 and CPR2 in fungal elicitor-treated or UV-irradiated cultured parsley cells and in developing or infected parsl...

  20. Lactobionic acid production by glucose–fructose oxidoreductase from Zymomonas mobilis expressed in Escherichia coli

    OpenAIRE

    Goderska, Kamila; Juzwa, Wojciech; Szwengiel, Artur; Czarnecki, Zbigniew

    2015-01-01

    Objectives To use the glucose–fructose oxidoreductase (GFOR) from Zymomonas mobilis and expressed in Escherichia coli for lactobionic acid production by conversion of lactose from whey. Results The highest concentrations of lactobionic acid (3.2 mg ml−1) during oxidation of whey-derived lactose by E. coli was at 24 h. Introduction of GFOR gene from Z. mobilis, into E. coli improved enzyme yields compared to what is obtainable by fermentation of the donor strain. The production of lactobionic ...

  1. The effect of inhibitors of plasma membrane H+ - ATPase and oxidoreductases on NH4+ uptake by Pisum arvense roots

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Genowefa Kubik-Dobosz

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available The effect of inhibitors of plasma membrane oxidoreductases (quinacrine and dicumarol and H+-ATPase (dicyclohexylcarbodiimide and orthovanadate on ammonium uptake by Pisum arvense seedlings and the activities of H+-ATPase and NADH-ferricyanide oxidoreductase was investigated. The uptake solution contained 50 µM NH4+. In I h experiments, quinacrine and dicumarol depressed strongly and irreversibly the rate of NH4+ uptake and markedly inhibited the activity of NADH-ferri-cyanide oxidoreductase in the plasma membrane vesicles prepared from root cells. Simultaneously, sodium orthovanadate inhibited the activity of plasma membrane H+-ATPase increased the rate of NH4+ uptake. Dicyclohexylcarbodiimide inhibited H+-ATPase activity and increased efflux of NH4+ from roots to ambient solution. The results indicate on the lack of direct connection between uptake rate of 50 µM NH4+ and H+-ATPase activity, and suggest that membrane redox systems play a predominant role in this process.

  2. Single molecule activity measurements of cytochrome P450 oxidoreductase reveal the existence of two discrete functional states

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Laursen, Tomas; Singha, Aparajita; Rantzau, Nicolai;

    2014-01-01

    Electron transfer between membrane spanning oxi-doreductase enzymes crucially controls vital meta-bolic processes. Here we studied for the first time with single molecule resolution the function of P450 oxidoreductase (POR), the canonical membrane spanning activator of all microsomal cytochrome P......450 enzymes. Measurements and statistical analy-sis of individual catalytic turnover cycles shows POR to sample at least two major functional states. This phenotype may underlie regulatory interactions with different cytochromes P450 but to date remained masked in bulk kinetics. To ensure that we...

  3. Crystal structures of Pseudomonas syringae pv. tomato DC3000 quinone oxidoreductase and its complex with NADPH

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zeta-crystallin-like quinone oxidoreductase is NAD(P)H-dependent and catalyzes one-electron reduction of certain quinones to generate semiquinone. Here we present the crystal structures of zeta-crystallin-like quinone oxidoreductase from Pseudomonas syringae pv. tomato DC3000 (PtoQOR) and its complexes with NADPH determined at 2.4 and 2.01 A resolutions, respectively. PtoQOR forms as a homologous dimer, each monomer containing two domains. In the structure of the PtoQOR-NADPH complex, NADPH locates in the groove between the two domains. NADPH binding causes obvious conformational changes in the structure of PtoQOR. The putative substrate-binding site of PtoQOR is wider than that of Escherichia coli and Thermus thermophilus HB8. Activity assays show that PtoQOR has weak 1,4-benzoquinone catalytic activity, and very strong reduction activity towards large substrates such as 9,10-phenanthrenequinone. We propose a model to explain the conformational changes which take place during reduction reactions catalyzed by PtoQOR.

  4. NADH-ubiquinone oxidoreductase activity in the kinetoplasts of the plant trypanosomatid Phytomonas serpens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    González-Halphen, Diego; Maslov, Dmitri A

    2004-03-01

    NADH-ubiquinone oxidoreductase activity is present in mitochondrial lysates of Phytomonas serpens. Rotenone at 2-10 microM inhibited the activity 50-75%, indicating that it belongs to respiratory complex I. The activity was also inhibited 50-60% in the presence of 10-30 nM atovaquone suggesting that inhibition of complex I represents a likely mechanism of the known antileishmanial activity of this drug. The complex was partially purified by chromatography on DEAE-Sepharose CL-6B and gel-filtration on Sepharose CL-2B. The NADH:ubiquinone oxidoreductase activity in this preparation was completely inactivated by 20 nM atovaquone. The partially purified complex was present in a low amount and its subunits could not be discerned by staining with Coomassie. However, one of its components, a homologue of the 39 kDa subunit of the bovine complex I, was identified immunochemically in the original lysate and in the partially purified material. PMID:14727190

  5. Mass Transfer in Amperometric Biosensors Based on Nanocomposite Thin Films of Redox Polymers and Oxidoreductases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aleksandr L. Simonian

    2002-03-01

    Full Text Available Mass transfer in nanocomposite hydrogel thin films consisting of alternating layers of an organometallic redox polymer (RP and oxidoreductase enzymes was investigated. Multilayer nanostructures were fabricated on gold surfaces by the deposition of an anionic self-assembled monolayer of 11-mercaptoundecanoic acid, followed by the electrostatic binding of a cationic redox polymer, poly[vinylpyridine Os(bis-bipyridine2Clco-allylamine], and an anionic oxidoreductase. Surface plasmon resonance spectroscopy, Fourier transform infrared external reflection spectroscopy (FTIR-ERS, ellipsometry and electrochemistry were employed to characterize the assembly of these nanocomposite films. Simultaneous SPR/electrochemistry enabled real time observation of the assembly of sensing components, changes in film structure with electrode potential, and the immediate, in situ electrochemical verification of substrate-dependent current upon the addition of enzyme to the multilayer structure. SPR and FTIR-ERS studies also showed no desorption of polymer or enzyme from the nanocomposite structure when stored in aqueous environment occurred over the period of three weeks, suggesting that decreasing in substrate sensitivity were due to loss of enzymatic activity rather than loss of film compounds from the nanostructure.

  6. On the purification and preliminary crystallographic analysis of isoquinoline 1-oxidoreductase from Brevundimonas diminuta 7

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boer, D. Roeland; Müller, Axel [REQUIMTE/CQFB, Departamento de Química, Faculdade de Ciências e Tecnologia, Universidade Nova de Lisboa, 2829-516 Caparica (Portugal); Fetzner, Susanne [Westfälische Wilhelms-Universität Münster, Institut für Molekulare Mikrobiologie und Biotechnologie, Corrensstrasse 3, D-48149 Münster (Germany); Lowe, David J. [Biological Chemistry Department, John Innes Centre, Colney, Norwich NR4 7UH (United Kingdom); Romão, Maria João, E-mail: mromao@dq.fct.unl.pt [REQUIMTE/CQFB, Departamento de Química, Faculdade de Ciências e Tecnologia, Universidade Nova de Lisboa, 2829-516 Caparica (Portugal)

    2005-01-01

    Crystallization of isoquinoline 1-oxidoreductase from B. diminuta was achieved using two different crystallization buffers. Streak-seeding and cross-linking were essential to obtain well diffracting crystals. Suitable cryo-conditions were found and a structure solution was obtained by molecular replacement. Isoquinoline 1-oxidoreductase (IOR) from Brevundimonas diminuta is a mononuclear molybdoenzyme of the xanthine-dehydrogenase family of proteins and catalyzes the conversion of isoquinoline to isoquinoline-1-one. Its primary sequence and behaviour, specifically in its substrate specificity and lipophilicity, differ from other members of the family. A crystal structure of the enzyme is expected to provide an explanation for these differences. This paper describes the crystallization and preliminary X-ray diffraction experiments as well as an optimized purification protocol for IOR. Crystallization of IOR was achieved using two different crystallization buffers. Streak-seeding and cross-linking were essential to obtain well diffracting crystals. Suitable cryo-conditions were found and a structure solution was obtained by molecular replacement. However, phases need to be improved in order to obtain a more interpretable electron-density map.

  7. Crystal structures of Pseudomonas syringae pv. tomato DC3000 quinone oxidoreductase and its complex with NADPH

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pan, Xiaowei [National Laboratory of Biomacromolecules, Institute of Biophysics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, 15 Datun Road, Chaoyang District, Beijing 100101 (China); Graduate University of the Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049 (China); Zhang, Hongmei; Gao, Yu; Li, Mei [National Laboratory of Biomacromolecules, Institute of Biophysics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, 15 Datun Road, Chaoyang District, Beijing 100101 (China); Chang, Wenrui, E-mail: wrchang@sun5.ibp.ac.cn [National Laboratory of Biomacromolecules, Institute of Biophysics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, 15 Datun Road, Chaoyang District, Beijing 100101 (China)

    2009-12-18

    Zeta-crystallin-like quinone oxidoreductase is NAD(P)H-dependent and catalyzes one-electron reduction of certain quinones to generate semiquinone. Here we present the crystal structures of zeta-crystallin-like quinone oxidoreductase from Pseudomonas syringae pv. tomato DC3000 (PtoQOR) and its complexes with NADPH determined at 2.4 and 2.01 A resolutions, respectively. PtoQOR forms as a homologous dimer, each monomer containing two domains. In the structure of the PtoQOR-NADPH complex, NADPH locates in the groove between the two domains. NADPH binding causes obvious conformational changes in the structure of PtoQOR. The putative substrate-binding site of PtoQOR is wider than that of Escherichia coli and Thermus thermophilus HB8. Activity assays show that PtoQOR has weak 1,4-benzoquinone catalytic activity, and very strong reduction activity towards large substrates such as 9,10-phenanthrenequinone. We propose a model to explain the conformational changes which take place during reduction reactions catalyzed by PtoQOR.

  8. Alcohol and Hepatitis C

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... code here Enter ZIP code here Daily Living: Alcohol for Veterans and the Public Alcohol and Hepatitis: Entire Lesson Overview Alcohol is one ... related to choices you make about your lifestyle . Alcohol and fibrosis Fibrosis is the medical term for ...

  9. Alcohol use disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alcohol dependence; Alcohol abuse; Problem drinking; Drinking problem; Alcohol addiction ... No one knows what causes problems with alcohol. Health experts think that ... Psychology, such as being impulsive or having low self- ...

  10. Alcohol and pregnancy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drinking alcohol during pregnancy ... When a pregnant woman drinks alcohol, the alcohol travels through her blood and into the baby's blood, tissues, and organs. Alcohol breaks down much more slowly in ...

  11. Fetal Alcohol Syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Condiciones Chinese Conditions Fetal Alcohol Syndrome Read in Chinese What is Fetal Alcohol Syndrome (FAS)? Fetal Alcohol Syndrome (FAS) describes changes in a baby born to a mother whose pregnancy was complicated by alcohol consumption. A broader term ...

  12. Pyruvate Oxidoreductases Involved in Glycolytic Anaerobic Metabolism of Polychaetes from the Continental Shelf off Central-South Chile

    Science.gov (United States)

    González, R. R.; Quiñones, R. A.

    2000-10-01

    The presence of low oxygen conditions in extensive areas of the continental shelf off central-south Chile has important effects on the biochemical adaptations of the organisms living in this ecosystem. Polychaetes assemblages cohabit on the shelf with an extensively distributed prokaryotic community made up of giant filamentous sulfur bacteria (mainly Thioploca sp.). The aim of this research was to characterize the pyruvate oxidoreductases enzymes involved in the biochemical adaptation of these benthic polychaetes. Nine polychaete species ( Paraprionospio pinnata, Nephtys ferruginea, Glycera americana, Haploscoloplos sp., Lumbrineris composita, Sigambra bassi, Aricidea pigmentata , Cossura chilensis, and Pectinaria chilensis) were assayed for lactic dehydrogenase (LDH), octopine dehydrogenase (OPDH), strombine dehydrogenase (STRDH) and alanopine dehydrogenase (ALPDH). Each species had a characteristic number of the pyruvate oxidoreductases assayed ranging from 4 in Paraprionospio pinnata to 1 in Pectinaria chilensis . The pyruvate saturation curves obtained for the enzymes from all species analysed, except L. composita, suggest that NADH can be oxidized at different rates depending on the amino acid used in the reaction with pyruvate. Our results indicate that organisms having more that one pyruvate oxidoreductase present a greater metabolic capacity to cope with functional and environmental hypoxia because these enzymes would better regulate the pyruvate consumption rate during the transition period. Thus, the dominance of Paraprionospio pinnata in the study area and its worldwide distribution is consistent with its higher number of pyruvate oxidoreductases with different pyruvate consumption rates involved in anaerobic metabolism. Finally, a positive allometric relationship was found between body size and the specific activity of ALPDH, STRDH, and maximum pyruvate oxidoreductase specific activity. This latter result suggests a positive scaling of the specific

  13. Structural domains in NADPH: Protochlorophyllide oxidoreductases involved in catalysis and substrate binding. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Timko, Michael P.

    1999-09-24

    Until recently little direct information was available about specific structural determinants within the light-dependent NADPH: protochlorophyllide oxidoreductases (PORs) required for substrate and cofactor binding, catalytic activity, and thylakoid membrane localization. Based on our previous DOE-funded studies, during the past year we brought to fruition a number of ongoing experiments, initiated several new avenues of investigations, and overall have made considerable progress towards establishing the basic structural parameters governing POR function. Our studies to date have defined residues and domains involved in substrate and cofactor binding and catalysis, and elaborated on the mechanism for membrane localization of POR in developing plastids. Our results and their significance, as well as our work in progress, are detailed.

  14. Characterization of the NADH:ubiquinone oxidoreductase (complex I) in the trypanosomatid Phytomonas serpens (Kinetoplastida).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cermáková, Petra; Verner, Zdenek; Man, Petr; Lukes, Julius; Horváth, Anton

    2007-06-01

    NADH dehydrogenase activity was characterized in the mitochondrial lysates of Phytomonas serpens, a trypanosomatid flagellate parasitizing plants. Two different high molecular weight NADH dehydrogenases were characterized by native PAGE and detected by direct in-gel activity staining. The association of NADH dehydrogenase activities with two distinct multisubunit complexes was revealed in the second dimension performed under denaturing conditions. One subunit present in both complexes cross-reacted with the antibody against the 39 kDa subunit of bovine complex I. Out of several subunits analyzed by MS, one contained a domain characteristic for the LYR family subunit of the NADH:ubiquinone oxidoreductases. Spectrophotometric measurement of the NADH:ubiquinone 10 and NADH:ferricyanide dehydrogenase activities revealed their different sensitivities to rotenone, piericidin, and diphenyl iodonium. PMID:17521330

  15. Discovery of Potent Succinate-Ubiquinone Oxidoreductase Inhibitors via Pharmacophore-linked Fragment Virtual Screening Approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiong, Li; Zhu, Xiao-Lei; Gao, Hua-Wei; Fu, Yu; Hu, Sheng-Quan; Jiang, Li-Na; Yang, Wen-Chao; Yang, Guang-Fu

    2016-06-22

    Succinate-ubiquinone oxidoreductase (SQR) is an attractive target for fungicide discovery. Herein, we report the discovery of novel SQR inhibitors using a pharmacophore-linked fragment virtual screening approach, a new drug design method developed in our laboratory. Among newly designed compounds, compound 9s was identified as the most potent inhibitor with a Ki value of 34 nM against porcine SQR, displaying approximately 10-fold higher potency than that of the commercial control penthiopyrad. Further inhibitory kinetics studies revealed that compound 9s is a noncompetitive inhibitor with respect to the substrate cytochrome c and DCIP. Interestingly, compounds 8a, 9h, 9j, and 9k exhibited good in vivo preventive effects against Rhizoctonia solani. The results obtained from molecular modeling showed that the orientation of the R(2) group had a significant effect on binding with the protein. PMID:27225833

  16. Substrate-Protein Interactions of Type II NADH:Quinone Oxidoreductase from Escherichia coli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salewski, Johannes; Batista, Ana P; Sena, Filipa V; Millo, Diego; Zebger, Ingo; Pereira, Manuela M; Hildebrandt, Peter

    2016-05-17

    Type II NADH:quinone oxidoreductases (NDH-2s) are membrane proteins involved in respiratory chains and responsible for the maintenance of NADH/NAD(+) balance in cells. NDH-2s are the only enzymes with NADH dehydrogenase activity present in the respiratory chain of many pathogens, and thus, they were proposed as suitable targets for antimicrobial therapies. In addition, NDH-2s were also considered key players for the treatment of complex I-related neurodegenerative disorders. In this work, we explored substrate-protein interaction in NDH-2 from Escherichia coli (EcNDH-2) combining surface-enhanced infrared absorption spectroscopic studies with electrochemical experiments, fluorescence spectroscopy assays, and quantum chemical calculations. Because of the specific stabilization of substrate complexes of EcNDH-2 immobilized on electrodes, it was possible to demonstrate the presence of two distinct substrate binding sites for NADH and the quinone and to identify a bound semiprotonated quinol as a catalytic intermediate. PMID:27109164

  17. Tethering of ferredoxin:NADP+ oxidoreductase to thylakoid membranes is mediated by novel chloroplast protein TROL.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jurić, Snjezana; Hazler-Pilepić, Kroata; Tomasić, Ana; Lepedus, Hrvoje; Jelicić, Branka; Puthiyaveetil, Sujith; Bionda, Tihana; Vojta, Lea; Allen, John F; Schleiff, Enrico; Fulgosi, Hrvoje

    2009-12-01

    Working in tandem, two photosystems in the chloroplast thylakoid membranes produce a linear electron flow from H(2)O to NADP(+). Final electron transfer from ferredoxin to NADP(+) is accomplished by a flavoenzyme ferredoxin:NADP(+) oxidoreductase (FNR). Here we describe TROL (thylakoid rhodanese-like protein), a nuclear-encoded component of thylakoid membranes that is required for tethering of FNR and sustaining efficient linear electron flow (LEF) in vascular plants. TROL consists of two distinct modules; a centrally positioned rhodanese-like domain and a C-terminal hydrophobic FNR binding region. Analysis of Arabidopsis mutant lines indicates that, in the absence of TROL, relative electron transport rates at high-light intensities are severely lowered accompanied with significant increase in non-photochemical quenching (NPQ). Thus, TROL might represent a missing thylakoid membrane docking site for a complex between FNR, ferredoxin and NADP(+). Such association might be necessary for maintaining photosynthetic redox poise and enhancement of the NPQ. PMID:19682289

  18. NADPH: Protochlorophyllide Oxidoreductase-Structure, Catalytic Function, and Role in Prolamellar Body Formation and Morphogenesis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Timko, Michael P

    2013-02-01

    The biosynthesis of chlorophyll is a critical biochemical step in the development of photosynthetic vascular plants and green algae. From photosynthetic bacteria (cyanobacteria) to algae, non-vascular plants, gymnosperms and vascular plants, mechanisms have evolved for protochlorophyllide reduction a key step in chlorophyll synthesis. Protochlorophyllide reduction is carried out by both a light-dependent (POR) and light-independent (LIPOR) mechanisms. NADPH: protochlorophyllide oxidoreductase (EC 1.3.1.33, abbreviated POR) catalyzes the light-dependent reduction of protochlorophyllide (PChlide) to chlorophyllide (Chlide). In contrast, a light-independent protochlorophyllide reductase (LIPOR) involves three plastid gene products (chlL, chlN, and chlB) and several nuclear factors. Our work focused on characterization of both the POR and LIPOR catalyzed processes.

  19. Regulation of gap junction function and Connexin 43 expression by cytochrome P450 oxidoreductase (CYPOR)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: → Humans with severe forms of cytochrome P450 oxidoreductase (CYPOR) mutations show bone defects as observed in Antley-Bixler Syndrome. → First report showing knockdown of CYPOR in osteoblasts decreased Connexin 43 (Cx43) protein levels. Cx43 is known to play an important role in bone modeling. → Knockdown of CYPOR decreased Gap Junctional Intercellular Communication and hemichannel activity. → Knockdown of CYPOR decreased Cx43 in mouse primary calvarial osteoblasts. → Decreased Cx43 expression was observed at the transcriptional level. -- Abstract: Cytochrome P450 oxidoreductase (CYPOR) is a microsomal electron-transferring enzyme containing both FAD and FMN as co-factors, which provides the reducing equivalents to various redox partners, such as cytochromes P450 (CYPs), heme oxygenase (HO), cytochrome b5 and squalene monooxygenase. Human patients with severe forms of CYPOR mutation show bone defects such as cranio- and humeroradial synostoses and long bone fractures, known as Antley-Bixler-like Syndrome (ABS). To elucidate the role of CYPOR in bone, we knocked-down CYPOR in multiple osteoblast cell lines using RNAi technology. In this study, knock-down of CYPOR decreased the expression of Connexin 43 (Cx43), known to play a critical role in bone formation, modeling, and remodeling. Knock-down of CYPOR also decreased Gap Junction Intercellular Communication (GJIC) and hemichannel activity. Promoter luciferase assays revealed that the decrease in expression of Cx43 in CYPOR knock-down cells was due to transcriptional repression. Primary osteoblasts isolated from bone specific Por knock-down mice calvariae confirmed the findings in the cell lines. Taken together, our study provides novel insights into the regulation of gap junction function by CYPOR and suggests that Cx43 may play an important role(s) in CYPOR-mediated bone defects seen in patients.

  20. Cloning and molecular characterization of a flavin-dependent oxidoreductase gene from barley.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Momany, Bayan; Abu-Romman, Saeid

    2014-11-01

    Oxophytodienoate reductases (OPRs) are a small group of flavin-dependent oxidoreductases in plants. In this study, a new member of the OPR gene family (HvOPR2) was cloned from barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) using reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). The full-length cDNA of HvOPR2 was 1,206 bp with an open reading frame of 1,101 bp, encoding a 366 amino acids long polypeptide with a predicted molecular weight of 40.52 and a theoretical isoelectric point of 6.21. The corresponding genomic clone of HvOPR2 was isolated using the PCR amplification technique and was found to consist of five exons and four introns. Bioinformatic analysis revealed that the deduced HvOPR2 has a considerable homology with other plant OPRs and possessed the flavin oxidoreductase/NADH oxidase substrate-binding domain. Phylogenetic analysis showed that HvOPR2 codes for the OPR of subgroup I, which contains enzymes that are not required for jasmonic acid biosynthesis. Time-course transcriptional profiling of HvOPR2 was analyzed in response to a variety of abiotic stresses and hormonal treatments by semi-quantitative RT-PCR. The HvOPR2 gene was induced in response to drought, hydrogen peroxide, and wounding. Moreover, the corresponding mRNA transcripts were increased in response to jasmonic acid and salicylic acid, but not in response to abscisic acid. These results strongly suggested a role for HvOPR2 in barley defense/response to abiotic stresses and signaling molecules. PMID:24961571

  1. Alcohol Consumption and Alcohol Advertising Bans

    OpenAIRE

    Henry Saffer

    2000-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to empirically examine the relationship between alcohol advertising bans and alcohol consumption. Most prior studies have found no effect of advertising on total alcohol consumption. A simple economic model is provided which explains these prior results. The data set used in this study is a pooled time series of data from 20 countries over 26 years. The empirical model is a simultaneous equations system which treats both alcohol consumption and alcohol advertising...

  2. Alcohol Use Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this Section Genetics of Alcohol Use Disorder Alcohol Use Disorder Problem drinking that becomes severe is given the medical diagnosis of “alcohol use disorder” or AUD. Approximately 7.2 percent or ...

  3. Breath alcohol test

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alcohol test - breath ... There are various brands of breath alcohol tests. Each one uses a different method to test the level of alcohol in the breath. The machine may be electronic or manual. One ...

  4. Alcoholic liver disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liver disease due to alcohol; Cirrhosis or hepatitis - alcoholic; Laennec's cirrhosis ... Alcoholic liver disease occurs after years of heavy drinking. Over time, scarring and cirrhosis can occur. Cirrhosis is the ...

  5. Fetal alcohol syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alcohol in pregnancy; Alcohol-related birth defects; Fetal alcohol effects; FAS ... the baby is in the womb and after birth Decreased muscle tone and ... Heart defects such as ventricular septal defect (VSD) or atrial ...

  6. Genetics and alcoholism

    OpenAIRE

    Edenberg, Howard J.; Foroud, Tatiana

    2013-01-01

    Alcohol is widely consumed, but excessive use creates serious physical, psychological and social problems and contributes to many diseases. Alcoholism (alcohol dependence, alcohol use disorders) is a maladaptive pattern of excessive drinking leading to serious problems. Abundant evidence indicates that alcoholism is a complex genetic disease, with variations in a large number of genes affecting risk. Some of these genes have been identified, including two genes of alcohol me...

  7. ALCOHOL AND ARTERIAL HYPERTENSION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. D. Ostroumova

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The article considers the questions of the relationship between the amount of the consumed alcohol, the type of alcoholic beverage, pattern of alcohol consumption and the blood pressure level. The article presents data on the positive effect of alcohol intake restrictions and recommendations for permissible limits of alcohol consumption. New possibilities of drug therapy aimed at limiting alcohol consumption are being reported.

  8. Alcoholism and alcohol drinking habits predicted from alcohol dehydrogenase genes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tolstrup, Janne Schurmann; Nordestgaard, Børge Grønne; Rasmussen, Søren;

    2008-01-01

    Alcohol drinking habits and alcoholism are partly genetically determined. Alcohol is degraded primarily by alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH) wherein genetic variation that affects the rate of alcohol degradation is found in ADH1B and ADH1C. It is biologically plausible that these variations may...... be associated with alcohol drinking habits and alcoholism. By genotyping 9080 white men and women from the general population, we found that men and women with ADH1B slow vs fast alcohol degradation drank more alcohol and had a higher risk of everyday drinking, heavy drinking, excessive drinking...... and of alcoholism. For example, the weekly alcohol intake was 9.8 drinks (95% confidence interval (CI): 9.1-11) among men with the ADH1B.1/1 genotype compared to 7.5 drinks (95% CI: 6.4-8.7) among men with the ADH1B.1/2 genotype, and the odds ratio (OR) for heavy drinking was 3.1 (95% CI: 1.7-5.7) among men...

  9. Role of cysteine-58 and cysteine-95 residues in the thiol di-sulfide oxidoreductase activity of Macrophage Migration Inhibitory Factor-2 of Wuchereria bancrofti.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chauhan, Nikhil; Hoti, S L

    2016-01-01

    Macrophage Migration Inhibitory Factor (MIF) is the first human cytokine reported and was thought to have a central role in the regulation of inflammatory responses. Homologs of this molecule have been reported in bacteria, invertebrates and plants. Apart from cytokine activity, it also has two catalytic activities viz., tautomerase and di-sulfide oxidoreductase, which appear to be involved in immunological functions. The CXXC catalytic site is responsible for di-sulfide oxidoreductase activity of MIF. We have recently reported thiol-disulfide oxidoreductase activity of Macrophage Migration Inhibitory Factor-2 of Wuchereria bancrofti (Wba-MIF-2), although it lacks the CXXC motif. We hypothesized that three conserved cysteine residues might be involved in the formation of di-sulfide oxidoreductase catalytic site. Homology modeling of Wba-MIF-2 showed that among the three cysteine residues, Cys58 and Cys95 residues came in close proximity (3.23Å) in the tertiary structure with pKa value 9, indicating that these residues might play a role in the di-sulfide oxidoreductase catalytic activity. We carried out site directed mutagenesis of these residues (Cys58Ser & Cys95Ser) and expressed mutant proteins in Escherichia coli. The mutant proteins did not show any oxidoreductase activity in the insulin reduction assay, thus indicating that these two cysteine residues are vital for the catalytic activity of Wba-MIF-2. PMID:26432350

  10. National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... begins January 23 Event registration opens today; new teacher resources... New & Noteworthy August 22, 2016 Fact Sheet: ... Events Sep 15 National Advisory Council on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism Nov 11 Frontiers in Addiction Research ...

  11. Over-expression of NADH-dependent oxidoreductase (fucO) for increasing furfural or 5-hydroxymethylfurfural tolerance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Elliot N.; Zhang, Xueli; Yomano, Lorraine P.; Wang, Xuan; Shanmugam, Keelnatham T.; Ingram, Lonnie O'Neal

    2015-10-13

    The subject invention pertains to the discovery that the NADH-dependent propanediol oxidoreductase (FucO) can reduce furfural. This allows for a new approach to improve furfural tolerance in bacterial and/or yeast cells used to produce desired products. Thus, novel biocatalysts (bacterial, fungal or yeast cells) exhibiting increased tolerance to furfural and 5-hydroxymethylfurfural (5-HMF) are provided as are methods of making and using such biocatalysts for the production of a desired product.

  12. Over-expression of a putative oxidoreductase (UcpA) for increasing furfural or 5-hydroxymethylfurfural tolerance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xuan; Miller, Elliot N.; Yomano, Lorraine P.; Shanmugam, Keelnatham T.; Ingram, Lonnie O'Neal

    2016-05-24

    The subject invention pertains to overexpression of a putative oxidoreductase (ucpA) for increasing furfural tolerance in genetically modified microorganisms. Genetically modified microorganisms capable of overexpressing UcpA are also provided. Increased expression of ucpA was shown to increase furfural tolerance by 50%, and to permit the fermentation of sugars to products in the presence of 15 mM furfural.

  13. Phylogenomic Analysis and Predicted Physiological Role of the Proton-Translocating NADH:Quinone Oxidoreductase (Complex I) Across Bacteria

    OpenAIRE

    Spero, Melanie A.; Aylward, Frank O.; Currie, Cameron R.; Donohue, Timothy J.

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT The proton-translocating NADH:quinone oxidoreductase (complex I) is a multisubunit integral membrane enzyme found in the respiratory chains of both bacteria and eukaryotic organelles. Although much research has focused on the enzyme’s central role in the mitochondrial respiratory chain, comparatively little is known about its role in the diverse energetic lifestyles of different bacteria. Here, we used a phylogenomic approach to better understand the distribution of complex I across ...

  14. Health risks of alcohol use

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alcoholism - risks; Alcohol abuse - risks; Alcohol dependence - risks; Risky drinking ... Beer, wine, and liquor all contain alcohol. If you are drinking any of these, you are using alcohol. Your drinking patterns may vary, depending on who you are with ...

  15. Health risks of alcohol use

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alcoholism - risks; Alcohol abuse - risks; Alcohol dependence - risks; Risky drinking - risks ... Beer, wine, and liquor all contain alcohol. If you are drinking any of these, you are using alcohol. Your drinking patterns may vary, depending on who you are with ...

  16. Alcoholism and alcohol drinking habits predicted from alcohol dehydrogenase genes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tolstrup, J.S.; Nordestgaard, Børge; Rasmussen, S.;

    2008-01-01

    Alcohol is degraded primarily by alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH) wherein genetic variation that affects the rate of alcohol degradation is found in ADH1B and ADH1C. It is biologically plausible that these variations may be associated with alcohol drinking habits and alcoholism. By genotyping 9080 white...... men and women from the general population, we found that men and women with ADH1B slow vs fast alcohol degradation drank more alcohol and had a higher risk of everyday drinking, heavy drinking, excessive drinking and of alcoholism. For example, the weekly alcohol intake was 9.8 drinks (95% confidence......, individuals with ADH1C slow vs fast alcohol degradation had a higher risk of heavy and excessive drinking. For example, the OR for heavy drinking was 1.4 (95% CI: 1.1-1.8) among men with the ADH1C.1/2 genotype and 1.4 (95% CI: 1.0-1.9) among men with the ADH1B.2/2 genotype, compared with men with the ADH1C.1...

  17. Mutations Associated with Functional Disorder of Xanthine Oxidoreductase and Hereditary Xanthinuria in Humans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takeshi Nishino

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Xanthine oxidoreductase (XOR catalyzes the conversion of hypoxanthine to xanthine and xanthine to uric acid with concomitant reduction of either NAD+ or O2. The enzyme is a target of drugs to treat hyperuricemia, gout and reactive oxygen-related diseases. Human diseases associated with genetically determined dysfunction of XOR are termed xanthinuria, because of the excretion of xanthine in urine. Xanthinuria is classified into two subtypes, type I and type II. Type I xanthinuria involves XOR deficiency due to genetic defect of XOR, whereas type II xanthinuria involves dual deficiency of XOR and aldehyde oxidase (AO, a molybdoflavo enzyme similar to XOR due to genetic defect in the molybdenum cofactor sulfurase. Molybdenum cofactor deficiency is associated with triple deficiency of XOR, AO and sulfite oxidase, due to defective synthesis of molybdopterin, which is a precursor of molybdenum cofactor for all three enzymes. The present review focuses on mutation or chemical modification studies of mammalian XOR, as well as on XOR mutations identified in humans, aimed at understanding the reaction mechanism of XOR and the relevance of mutated XORs as models to estimate the possible side effects of clinical application of XOR inhibitors.

  18. Posttranslational Modifications of FERREDOXIN-NADP+ OXIDOREDUCTASE in Arabidopsis Chloroplasts1[W][OPEN

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lehtimäki, Nina; Koskela, Minna M.; Dahlström, Käthe M.; Pakula, Eveliina; Lintala, Minna; Scholz, Martin; Hippler, Michael; Hanke, Guy T.; Rokka, Anne; Battchikova, Natalia; Salminen, Tiina A.; Mulo, Paula

    2014-01-01

    Rapid responses of chloroplast metabolism and adjustments to photosynthetic machinery are of utmost importance for plants’ survival in a fluctuating environment. These changes may be achieved through posttranslational modifications of proteins, which are known to affect the activity, interactions, and localization of proteins. Recent studies have accumulated evidence about the crucial role of a multitude of modifications, including acetylation, methylation, and glycosylation, in the regulation of chloroplast proteins. Both of the Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) leaf-type FERREDOXIN-NADP+ OXIDOREDUCTASE (FNR) isoforms, the key enzymes linking the light reactions of photosynthesis to carbon assimilation, exist as two distinct forms with different isoelectric points. We show that both AtFNR isoforms contain multiple alternative amino termini and undergo light-responsive addition of an acetyl group to the α-amino group of the amino-terminal amino acid of proteins, which causes the change in isoelectric point. Both isoforms were also found to contain acetylation of a conserved lysine residue near the active site, while no evidence for in vivo phosphorylation or glycosylation was detected. The dynamic, multilayer regulation of AtFNR exemplifies the complex regulatory network systems controlling chloroplast proteins by a range of posttranslational modifications, which continues to emerge as a novel area within photosynthesis research. PMID:25301888

  19. One-carbon chemistry of oxalate oxidoreductase captured by X-ray crystallography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Percival Yang-Ting; Johnson, Aileen C.; Pierce, Elizabeth; Can, Mehmet; Ragsdale, Stephen W.; Drennan, Catherine L.

    2016-01-01

    Thiamine pyrophosphate (TPP)-dependent oxalate oxidoreductase (OOR) metabolizes oxalate, generating two molecules of CO2 and two low-potential electrons, thus providing both the carbon and reducing equivalents for operation of the Wood−Ljungdahl pathway of acetogenesis. Here we present structures of OOR in which two different reaction intermediate bound states have been trapped: the covalent adducts between TPP and oxalate and between TPP and CO2. These structures, along with the previously determined structure of substrate-free OOR, allow us to visualize how active site rearrangements can drive catalysis. Our results suggest that OOR operates via a bait-and-switch mechanism, attracting substrate into the active site through the presence of positively charged and polar residues, and then altering the electrostatic environment through loop and side chain movements to drive catalysis. This simple but elegant mechanism explains how oxalate, a molecule that humans and most animals cannot break down, can be used for growth by acetogenic bacteria. PMID:26712008

  20. One-carbon chemistry of oxalate oxidoreductase captured by X-ray crystallography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibson, Marcus I; Chen, Percival Yang-Ting; Johnson, Aileen C; Pierce, Elizabeth; Can, Mehmet; Ragsdale, Stephen W; Drennan, Catherine L

    2016-01-12

    Thiamine pyrophosphate (TPP)-dependent oxalate oxidoreductase (OOR) metabolizes oxalate, generating two molecules of CO2 and two low-potential electrons, thus providing both the carbon and reducing equivalents for operation of the Wood-Ljungdahl pathway of acetogenesis. Here we present structures of OOR in which two different reaction intermediate bound states have been trapped: the covalent adducts between TPP and oxalate and between TPP and CO2. These structures, along with the previously determined structure of substrate-free OOR, allow us to visualize how active site rearrangements can drive catalysis. Our results suggest that OOR operates via a bait-and-switch mechanism, attracting substrate into the active site through the presence of positively charged and polar residues, and then altering the electrostatic environment through loop and side chain movements to drive catalysis. This simple but elegant mechanism explains how oxalate, a molecule that humans and most animals cannot break down, can be used for growth by acetogenic bacteria. PMID:26712008

  1. GltX from Clostridium saccharobutylicum NCP262: glutamate synthase or oxidoreductase?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stutz, Helen E; Reid, Sharon J

    2004-01-01

    A full-length gene encoding a homologue of the small subunit of the glutamate synthase (GOGAT) enzyme was isolated from the anaerobic bacterium, Clostridium saccharobutylicum NCP262, which has been used extensively for the commercial production of solvents. Using a screening system designed to isolate genes involved in electron transport, plasmid pMET13C1 was isolated. Analysis of this plasmid identified a gene (1245 bp) with a predicted approximately 46-kDa product, which was associated with reductive activation of the pro-drug metronidazole. The deduced 414-amino-acid sequence was not typical of electron transport proteins, but rather shared striking homology to the small (beta) subunit of the GOGAT enzyme and other beta subunit-like polypeptides, and was thus designated gltX. Although all the functional domains typical of GOGAT beta subunits were conserved in this GltX protein, certain sequence features were not conserved. Furthermore, it was independently transcribed, did not lie adjacent to a GOGAT large subunit (alpha) domain, and its expression was not regulated by nitrogen conditions. These results provide additional support for current theories on the evolutionary relationships of GOGAT beta subunit domains in bacteria, and suggest that GltX belongs to a more general family of oxidoreductases, which is used in a context other than glutamate biosynthesis to transfer electrons to a currently unknown protein domain. PMID:14732492

  2. Influence of 120 kDa Pyruvate:Ferredoxin Oxidoreductase on Pathogenicity of Trichomonas vaginalis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Hyun-Ouk

    2016-02-01

    Trichomonas vaginalis is a flagellate protozoan parasite and commonly infected the lower genital tract in women and men. Iron is a known nutrient for growth of various pathogens, and also reported to be involved in establishment of trichomoniasis. However, the exact mechanism was not clarified. In this study, the author investigated whether the 120 kDa protein of T. vaginalis may be involved in pathogenicity of trichomonads. Antibodies against 120 kDa protein of T. vaginalis, which was identified as pyruvate:ferredoxin oxidoreductase (PFOR) by peptide analysis of MALDI-TOF-MS, were prepared in rabbits. Pretreatment of T. vaginalis with anti-120 kDa Ab decreased the proliferation and adherence to vaginal epithelial cells (MS74) of T. vaginalis. Subcutaneous tissue abscess in anti-120 kDa Ab-treated T. vaginalis-injected mice was smaller in size than that of untreated T. vaginalis-infected mice. Collectively, the 120 kDa protein expressed by iron may be involved in proliferation, adhesion to host cells, and abscess formation, thereby may influence on the pathogenicity of T. vaginalis. PMID:26951982

  3. Staphylococcus aureus lactate- and malate-quinone oxidoreductases contribute to nitric oxide resistance and virulence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spahich, Nicole A; Vitko, Nicholas P; Thurlow, Lance R; Temple, Brenda; Richardson, Anthony R

    2016-06-01

    Staphylococcus aureus is a Gram-positive pathogen that resists many facets of innate immunity including nitric oxide (NO·). Staphylococcus aureus NO-resistance stems from its ability to evoke a metabolic state that circumvents the negative effects of reactive nitrogen species. The combination of l-lactate and peptides promotes S. aureus growth at moderate NO-levels, however, neither nutrient alone suffices. Here, we investigate the staphylococcal malate-quinone and l-lactate-quinone oxidoreductases (Mqo and Lqo), both of which are critical during NO-stress for the combined utilization of peptides and l-lactate. We address the specific contributions of Lqo-mediated l-lactate utilization and Mqo-dependent amino acid consumption during NO-stress. We show that Lqo conversion of l-lactate to pyruvate is required for the formation of ATP, an essential energy source for peptide utilization. Thus, both Lqo and Mqo are essential for growth under these conditions making them attractive candidates for targeted therapeutics. Accordingly, we exploited a modelled Mqo/Lqo structure to define the catalytic and substrate-binding residues.We also compare the S. aureus Mqo/Lqo enzymes to their close relatives throughout the staphylococci and explore the substrate specificities of each enzyme. This study provides the initial characterization of the mechanism of action and the immunometabolic roles for a newly defined staphylococcal enzyme family. PMID:26851155

  4. Structural and Biochemical Characterization of the Oxidoreductase NmDsbA3 from Neisseria meningitidis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vivian, Julian P.; Scoullar, Jessica; Robertson, Amy L.; Bottomley, Stephen P.; Horne, James; Chin, Yanni; Wielens, Jerome; Thompson, Philip E.; Velkov, Tony; Piek, Susannah; Byres, Emma; Beddoe, Travis; Wilce, Matthew C.J.; Kahler, Charlene M.; Rossjohn, Jamie; Scanlon, Martin J. (UWA); (Monash)

    2009-09-02

    DsbA is an enzyme found in the periplasm of Gram-negative bacteria that catalyzes the formation of disulfide bonds in a diverse array of protein substrates, many of which are involved in bacterial pathogenesis. Although most bacteria possess only a single essential DsbA, Neisseria meningitidis is unusual in that it possesses three DsbAs, although the reason for this additional redundancy is unclear. Two of these N. meningitidis enzymes (NmDsbA1 and NmDsbA2) play an important role in meningococcal attachment to human epithelial cells, whereas NmDsbA3 is considered to have a narrow substrate repertoire. To begin to address the role of DsbAs in the pathogenesis of N. meningitidis, we have determined the structure of NmDsbA3 to 2.3-{angstrom} resolution. Although the sequence identity between NmDsbA3 and other DsbAs is low, the NmDsbA3 structure adopted a DsbA-like fold. Consistent with this finding, we demonstrated that NmDsbA3 acts as a thiol-disulfide oxidoreductase in vitro and is reoxidized by Escherichia coli DsbB (EcDsbB). However, pronounced differences in the structures between DsbA3 and EcDsbA, which are clustered around the active site of the enzyme, suggested a structural basis for the unusual substrate specificity that is observed for NmDsbA3.

  5. Structural and biochemical characterization of the oxidoreductase NmDsbA3 from Neisseria meningitidis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vivian, Julian P; Scoullar, Jessica; Robertson, Amy L; Bottomley, Stephen P; Horne, James; Chin, Yanni; Wielens, Jerome; Thompson, Philip E; Velkov, Tony; Piek, Susannah; Byres, Emma; Beddoe, Travis; Wilce, Matthew C J; Kahler, Charlene M; Rossjohn, Jamie; Scanlon, Martin J

    2008-11-21

    DsbA is an enzyme found in the periplasm of Gram-negative bacteria that catalyzes the formation of disulfide bonds in a diverse array of protein substrates, many of which are involved in bacterial pathogenesis. Although most bacteria possess only a single essential DsbA, Neisseria meningitidis is unusual in that it possesses three DsbAs, although the reason for this additional redundancy is unclear. Two of these N. meningitidis enzymes (NmDsbA1 and NmDsbA2) play an important role in meningococcal attachment to human epithelial cells, whereas NmDsbA3 is considered to have a narrow substrate repertoire. To begin to address the role of DsbAs in the pathogenesis of N. meningitidis, we have determined the structure of NmDsbA3 to 2.3-A resolution. Although the sequence identity between NmDsbA3 and other DsbAs is low, the NmDsbA3 structure adopted a DsbA-like fold. Consistent with this finding, we demonstrated that NmDsbA3 acts as a thiol-disulfide oxidoreductase in vitro and is reoxidized by Escherichia coli DsbB (EcDsbB). However, pronounced differences in the structures between DsbA3 and EcDsbA, which are clustered around the active site of the enzyme, suggested a structural basis for the unusual substrate specificity that is observed for NmDsbA3. PMID:18715864

  6. Turning to alcohol?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brazil is examining whether turning to alcohol could solve its problems. The fuel alcohol producers are lobbying hard for the government to increase the use of alcohol to fuel the country's cars. Not only does using alcohol reduce CO2, runs the argument, but the Kyoto agreement might just attract international financing for the project. (author)

  7. Internet Alcohol Marketing and Underage Alcohol Use

    Science.gov (United States)

    McClure, Auden C.; Tanski, Susanne E.; Li, Zhigang; Jackson, Kristina; Morgenstern, Matthis; Li, Zhongze; Sargent, James D.

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE Internet alcohol marketing is not well studied despite its prevalence and potential accessibility and attractiveness to youth. The objective was to examine longitudinal associations between self-reported engagement with Internet alcohol marketing and alcohol use transitions in youth. METHODS A US sample of 2012 youths aged 15 to 20 was surveyed in 2011. An Internet alcohol marketing receptivity score was developed, based on number of positive responses to seeing alcohol advertising on the Internet, visiting alcohol brand Web sites, being an online alcohol brand fan, and cued recall of alcohol brand home page images. We assessed the association between baseline marketing receptivity and both ever drinking and binge drinking (≥6 drinks per occasion) at 1-year follow-up with multiple logistic regression, controlling for baseline drinking status, Internet use, sociodemographics, personality characteristics, and peer or parent drinking. RESULTS At baseline, ever-drinking and binge-drinking prevalence was 55% and 27%, respectively. Many (59%) reported seeing Internet alcohol advertising, but few reported going to an alcohol Web site (6%) or being an online fan (3%). Higher Internet use, sensation seeking, having family or peers who drank, and past alcohol use were associated with Internet alcohol marketing receptivity, and a score of 1 or 2 was independently associated with greater adjusted odds of initiating binge drinking (odds ratio 1.77; 95% confidence interval, 1.13–2.78 and odds ratio 2.15; 95% confidence interval, 1.06–4.37 respectively) but not with initiation of ever drinking. CONCLUSIONS Although high levels of engagement with Internet alcohol marketing were uncommon, most underage youths reported seeing it, and we found a prospective association between receptivity to this type of alcohol marketing and future problem drinking, making additional research and ongoing surveillance important. PMID:26738886

  8. Alcohol and Breastfeeding

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Haastrup, Maija Bruun; Pottegård, Anton; Damkier, Per

    2014-01-01

    While the harmful effects of alcohol during pregnancy are well-established, the consequences of alcohol intake during lactation have been far less examined. We reviewed available data on the prevalence of alcohol intake during lactation, the influence of alcohol on breastfeeding......, the pharmacokinetics of alcohol in lactating women and nursing infants and the effects of alcohol intake on nursing infants. A systematic search was performed in PubMed from origin to May 2013, and 41 publications were included in the review. Approximately half of all lactating women in Western countries consume...... alcohol while breastfeeding. Alcohol intake inhibits the milk ejection reflex, causing a temporary decrease in milk yield. The alcohol concentrations in breast milk closely resemble those in maternal blood. The amount of alcohol presented to nursing infants through breast milk is approximately 5...

  9. [Alcohol and psychiatric disorders].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bouzyk-Szutkiewicz, Joanna; Waszkiewicz, Napoleon; Szulc, Agata

    2012-09-01

    Alcohol dependence and abuse is one of the most costly health problems in the world from both a social and an economic point of view. It is a widespread problem, focusing attention not only psychiatrists but also doctors of other specialties. Patterns of drinking appear to be changing throughout the world, with more women and young people drinking heavily. Even risky drinking is a potential health risk, while chronic alcohol abuse contribute to the serious physical and mental complications. Alcohol used disorders associated with alcohol-induced brain damage include: withdrawal state, delirium tremens, alcoholic hallucinosis, alcoholic paranoia, Korsakoffs psychosis, alcoholic dementia, alcoholic depression. On the other hand, mental disorders as panic disorder, social anxiety disorder, agoraphobia, depression, bipolar disorder, schizophrenia, personality disorder most frequently comorbid with alcohol abuse or they trigger alcohol. PMID:23157139

  10. Alcoholic liver disease: Treatment

    OpenAIRE

    Suk, Ki Tae; Kim, Moon Young; Baik, Soon Koo

    2014-01-01

    The excess consumption of alcohol is associated with alcoholic liver diseases (ALD). ALD is a major healthcare problem, personal and social burden, and significant reason for economic loss worldwide. The ALD spectrum includes alcoholic fatty liver, alcoholic hepatitis, cirrhosis, and the development of hepatocellular carcinoma. The diagnosis of ALD is based on a combination of clinical features, including a history of significant alcohol intake, evidence of liver disease, and laboratory findi...

  11. Alcohol and pregnancy

    OpenAIRE

    Anna Maria Paoletti; Ileana Atzeni; Marisa Orrù; Monica Pilloni; Alessandro Loddo; Martina Zirone; Maria Francesca Marotto; Pierina Zedda; Maria Francesca Fais; Emanuela Stochino Loi; Graziella Boi; Gian Benedetto Melis

    2013-01-01

    Alcohol exerts teratogenic effects in all the gestation times, with peculiar features in relationship to the trimester of pregnancy in which alcohol is assumed. Alcohol itself and its metabolites modify DNA synthesis, cellular division, cellular migration and the fetal development. The characteristic facies of feto-alcoholic syndrome (FAS)-affected baby depends on the alcohol impact on skull facial development during the first trimester of pregnancy. In association there are cerebral damages ...

  12. Perillyl Alcohol (Monoterpene Alcohol), Limonene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shojaei, Shahla; Kiumarsi, Amir; Moghadam, Adel Rezaei; Alizadeh, Javad; Marzban, Hassan; Ghavami, Saeid

    2014-01-01

    Natural products have a long history of use in traditional medicines and their activities against different diseases have been the focus of many basic and clinical researches in past few decades. The essential oils, volatile liquid containing aroma compound from plants, are known as active ingredients in the herbal medicine. Perillyl alcohol (POH) is usually available through dietary sources and is being explored for its cancer chemoprevention, tumor growth suppression, and regression. Citrus peels are the waste product of juice manufacturing industries and have been considered as a critical problem for environmental green ecology policies for years. One of the most well-known approaches to overcome this problem is transformation of these monoterpene by the use of specific strains of bacteria or yeasts. Limonene (1-methyl-4-isopropyl-cyclohexene) is a monoterpene, as other monoterpenes consists of two isoprene units, that comprises more than 90% of citrus essential oil and it exists in many fruits and vegetables. Although, the anticancer activity of d-limonene has identified nearly two decades ago, it has recently attracted much more attention in translational medicine. In this chapter, we will overview the anticancer effects of POH and d-limonene. Later, we will address the pharmacokinetics of these compounds, highlight the signaling pathways which are targeted by these proteins, review the clinical trials which have been done for these compounds in different cancer models, and finally discuss the future directions of the research in this field that might be more applicable in future cancer therapy strategies. PMID:27102697

  13. Structural basis for human NADPH-cytochrome P450 oxidoreductase deficiency

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xia, Chuanwu; Panda, Satya P.; Marohnic, Christopher C.; Martásek, Pavel; Masters, Bettie Sue; Kim, Jung-Ja P. (MCW); (Charles U); (UTSMC)

    2012-03-15

    NADPH-cytochrome P450 oxidoreductase (CYPOR) is essential for electron donation to microsomal cytochrome P450-mediated monooxygenation in such diverse physiological processes as drug metabolism (approximately 85-90% of therapeutic drugs), steroid biosynthesis, and bioactive metabolite production (vitamin D and retinoic acid metabolites). Expressed by a single gene, CYPOR's role with these multiple redox partners renders it a model for understanding protein-protein interactions at the structural level. Polymorphisms in human CYPOR have been shown to lead to defects in bone development and steroidogenesis, resulting in sexual dimorphisms, the severity of which differs significantly depending on the degree of CYPOR impairment. The atomic structure of human CYPOR is presented, with structures of two naturally occurring missense mutations, V492E and R457H. The overall structures of these CYPOR variants are similar to wild type. However, in both variants, local disruption of H bonding and salt bridging, involving the FAD pyrophosphate moiety, leads to weaker FAD binding, unstable protein, and loss of catalytic activity, which can be rescued by cofactor addition. The modes of polypeptide unfolding in these two variants differ significantly, as revealed by limited trypsin digestion: V492E is less stable but unfolds locally and gradually, whereas R457H is more stable but unfolds globally. FAD addition to either variant prevents trypsin digestion, supporting the role of the cofactor in conferring stability to CYPOR structure. Thus, CYPOR dysfunction in patients harboring these particular mutations may possibly be prevented by riboflavin therapy in utero, if predicted prenatally, or rescued postnatally in less severe cases.

  14. Renoprotective effect of the xanthine oxidoreductase inhibitor topiroxostat on adenine-induced renal injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamijo-Ikemori, Atsuko; Sugaya, Takeshi; Hibi, Chihiro; Nakamura, Takashi; Murase, Takayo; Oikawa, Tsuyoshi; Hoshino, Seiko; Hisamichi, Mikako; Hirata, Kazuaki; Kimura, Kenjiro; Shibagaki, Yugo

    2016-06-01

    The aim of the present study was to reveal the effect of a xanthine oxidoreductase (XOR) inhibitor, topiroxostat (Top), compared with another inhibitor, febuxostat (Feb), in an adenine-induced renal injury model. We used human liver-type fatty acid-binding protein (L-FABP) chromosomal transgenic mice, and urinary L-FABP, a biomarker of tubulointerstitial damage, was used to evaluate tubulointerstitial damage. Male transgenic mice (n = 24) were fed a 0.2% (wt/wt) adenine-containing diet. Two weeks after the start of this diet, renal dysfunction was confirmed, and the mice were divided into the following four groups: the adenine group was given only the diet containing adenine, and the Feb, high-dose Top (Top-H), and low-dose Top (Top-L) groups were given diets containing Feb (3 mg/kg), Top-H (3 mg/kg), and Top-L (1 mg/kg) in addition to adenine for another 2 wk. After withdrawal of the adenine diet, each medication was continued for 2 wk. Serum creatinine levels, the degree of macrophage infiltration, tubulointerstitial damage, renal fibrosis, urinary 15-F2t-isoprostane levels, and renal XOR activity were significantly attenuated in the kidneys of the Feb, Top-L, and Top-H groups compared with the adenine group. Serum creatinine levels in the Top-L and Top-H groups as well as renal XOR in the Top-H group were significantly lower than those in the Feb group. Urinary excretion of L-FABP in both the Top-H and Top-L groups was significantly lower than in the adenine and Feb groups. In conclusion, Top attenuated renal damage in an adenine-induced renal injury model. PMID:27029427

  15. Coregulated genes link sulfide:quinone oxidoreductase and arsenic metabolism in Synechocystis sp. strain PCC6803.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagy, Csaba I; Vass, Imre; Rákhely, Gábor; Vass, István Zoltán; Tóth, András; Duzs, Agnes; Peca, Loredana; Kruk, Jerzy; Kós, Péter B

    2014-10-01

    Although the biogeochemistry of the two environmentally hazardous compounds arsenic and sulfide has been extensively investigated, the biological interference of these two toxic but potentially energy-rich compounds has only been hypothesized and indirectly proven. Here we provide direct evidence for the first time that in the photosynthetic model organism Synechocystis sp. strain PCC6803 the two metabolic pathways are linked by coregulated genes that are involved in arsenic transport, sulfide oxidation, and probably in sulfide-based alternative photosynthesis. Although Synechocystis sp. strain PCC6803 is an obligate photoautotrophic cyanobacterium that grows via oxygenic photosynthesis, we discovered that specific genes are activated in the presence of sulfide or arsenite to exploit the energy potentials of these chemicals. These genes form an operon that we termed suoRSCT, located on a transposable element of type IS4 on the plasmid pSYSM of the cyanobacterium. suoS (sll5036) encodes a light-dependent, type I sulfide:quinone oxidoreductase. The suoR (sll5035) gene downstream of suoS encodes a regulatory protein that belongs to the ArsR-type repressors that are normally involved in arsenic resistance. We found that this repressor has dual specificity, resulting in 200-fold induction of the operon upon either arsenite or sulfide exposure. The suoT gene encodes a transmembrane protein similar to chromate transporters but in fact functioning as an arsenite importer at permissive concentrations. We propose that the proteins encoded by the suoRSCT operon might have played an important role under anaerobic, reducing conditions on primordial Earth and that the operon was acquired by the cyanobacterium via horizontal gene transfer. PMID:25022856

  16. Modulatory role of allopurinol on xanthine oxidoreductase system and antioxidant status in irradiated rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Allopurinol is a xanthine oxidase (XO) inhibitor, used for management of hyperuricaema. It acts on purine catabolism without disrupting the biosynthesis of purine. The present work was conducted to examine the role of xanthine oxidase inhibitor (allopurinol) in minimizing radiation injuries in male albino rats. Allopurinol was given to rats via intraperitoneal (i.p) injection at a dose of 30 mg/kg body wt/day for 7 successive days before starting irradiation and 14 successive days during and in between exposure to gamma radiation. Rats were exposed to whole body gamma radiation, delivered as 1 Gy every other day up to total dose 8 Gy. Results demonstrate that treatment with allopurinol by the regime assumed in the present study minimized significantly the amount of thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS), product of lipid peroxidation, in liver, intestine and plasma. This effect was associated with significant amelioration in xanthine oxidoreductase (XOR) system as observed on the 1st and 7th days post last radiation fraction. The severity of changes in antioxidant parameters namely: superoxide dismutase (SOD), Catalase (CAT) and reduced glutathione (GSH) were less manifested in liver, intestine and blood as compared to irradiated rats. The levels of nitric oxide (NO) were significantly improved in plasma and the two investigated tissues as compared to irradiated rats. A significant decrease in plasma uric acid concentration was recorded on the 1st and 7th days post last allopurinol dose. However, significant amelioration was recorded in the plasma uric acid of rats treated with allopurinol before and during radiation exposure as compared to irradiated rats. Accordingly, it could be concluded that XO inhibitor (allopurinol) play a significant role in minimizing the tissue damages upon exposure to ionizing radiation via preventing the over production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in irradiated cells through the XOR system of irradiation rats

  17. Chlamydomonas reinhardtii chloroplasts contain a homodimeric pyruvate:ferredoxin oxidoreductase that functions with FDX1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Lis, Robert; Baffert, Carole; Couté, Yohann; Nitschke, Wolfgang; Atteia, Ariane

    2013-01-01

    Eukaryotic algae have long been known to live in anoxic environments, but interest in their anaerobic energy metabolism has only recently gained momentum, largely due to their utility in biofuel production. Chlamydomonas reinhardtii figures remarkably in this respect, because it efficiently produces hydrogen and its genome harbors many genes for anaerobic metabolic routes. Central to anaerobic energy metabolism in many unicellular eukaryotes (protists) is pyruvate:ferredoxin oxidoreductase (PFO), which decarboxylates pyruvate and forms acetyl-coenzyme A with concomitant reduction of low-potential ferredoxins or flavodoxins. Here, we report the biochemical properties of the homodimeric PFO of C. reinhardtii expressed in Escherichia coli. Electron paramagnetic resonance spectroscopy of the recombinant enzyme (Cr-rPFO) showed three distinct [4Fe-4S] iron-sulfur clusters and a thiamine pyrophosphate radical upon reduction by pyruvate. Purified Cr-rPFO exhibits a specific decarboxylase activity of 12 µmol pyruvate min⁻¹ mg⁻¹ protein using benzyl viologen as electron acceptor. Despite the fact that the enzyme is very oxygen sensitive, it localizes to the chloroplast. Among the six known chloroplast ferredoxins (FDX1-FDX6) in C. reinhardtii, FDX1 and FDX2 were the most efficient electron acceptors from Cr-rPFO, with comparable apparent K(m) values of approximately 4 µm. As revealed by immunoblotting, anaerobic conditions that lead to the induction of CrPFO did not increase levels of either FDX1 or FDX2. FDX1, being by far the most abundant ferredoxin, is thus likely the partner of PFO in C. reinhardtii. This finding postulates a direct link between CrPFO and hydrogenase and provides new opportunities to better study and engineer hydrogen production in this protist. PMID:23154536

  18. Update of the NAD(PH:quinone oxidoreductase (NQO gene family

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vasiliou Vasilis

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The NAD(PH:quinone acceptor oxidoreductase (NQO gene family belongs to the flavoprotein clan and, in the human genome, consists of two genes (NQO1 and NQO2. These two genes encode cytosolic flavoenzymes that catalyse the beneficial two-electron reduction of quinones to hydroquinones. This reaction prevents the unwanted one-electron reduction of quinones by other quinone reductases; one-electron reduction results in the formation of reactive oxygen species, generated by redox cycling of semiquinones in the presence of molecular oxygen. Both the mammalian NQO1 and NQO2 genes are upregulated as a part of the oxidative stress response and are inexplicably overexpressed in particular types of tumours. A non-synonymous mutation in the NQO1 gene, leading to absence of enzyme activity, has been associated with an increased risk of myeloid leukaemia and other types of blood dyscrasia in workers exposed to benzene. NQO2 has a melatonin-binding site, which may explain the anti-oxidant role of melatonin. An ancient NQO3 subfamily exists in eubacteria and the authors suggest that there should be additional divisions of the NQO family to include the NQO4 subfamily in fungi and NQO5 subfamily in archaebacteria. Interestingly, no NQO genes could be identified in the worm, fly, sea squirt or plants; because these taxa carry quinone reductases capable of one- and two-electron reductions, there has been either convergent evolution or redundancy to account for the appearance of these enzyme functions whenever they have been needed during evolution.

  19. Enzyme activation and catalysis: characterisation of the vibrational modes of substrate and product in protochlorophyllide oxidoreductase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sytina, Olga A; Alexandre, Maxime T; Heyes, Derren J; Hunter, C Neil; Robert, Bruno; van Grondelle, Rienk; Groot, Marie Louise

    2011-02-14

    The light-dependent reduction of protochlorophyllide, a key step in the synthesis of chlorophyll, is catalyzed by the enzyme protochlorophyllide oxidoreductase (POR) and requires two photons (O. A. Sytina et al., Nature, 2008, 456, 1001-1008). The first photon activates the enzyme-substrate complex, a subsequent second photon initiates the photochemistry by triggering the formation of a catalytic intermediate. These two events are characterized by different spectral changes in the infra-red spectral region. Here, we investigate the vibrational frequencies of the POR-bound and unbound substrate, and product, and thus provide a detailed assignment of the spectral changes in the 1800-1250 cm(-1) region associated with the catalytic conversion of PChlide:NADPH:TyrOH into Chlide:NADP(+):TyrO(-). Fluorescence line narrowed spectra of the POR-bound Pchlide reveal a C=O keto group downshifted by more than 20 cm(-1) to a relatively low vibrational frequency of 1653 cm(-1), as compared to the unbound Pchlide, indicating that binding of the chromophore to the protein occurs via strong hydrogen bond(s). The frequencies of the C=C vibrational modes are consistent with a six-coordinated state of the POR-bound Pchlide, suggesting that there are two coordination interactions between the central Mg atom of the chromophore and protein residues, and/or a water molecule. The frequencies of the C=C vibrational modes of Chlide are consistent with a five-coordinated state, indicating a single interaction between the central Mg atom of the chromophore and a water molecule. Rapid-scan FTIR measurements on the Pchlide:POR:NADPH complex at 4 cm(-1) spectral resolution reveal a new band in the 1670 cm(-1) region. The FTIR spectra of the enzyme activation phase indicate involvement of a nucleotide-binding structural motif, and an increased exposure of the protein to solvent after activation. PMID:21103538

  20. Xanthine crystals induced by topiroxostat, a xanthine oxidoreductase inhibitor, in rats, cause transitional cell tumors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shimo, Takeo; Moto, Mitsuyoshi; Ashizawa, Naoki; Matsumoto, Koji; Iwanaga, Takashi; Saito, Kazuhiro

    2014-04-01

    The present study was performed to elucidate the underlying mechanism of transitional cell tumors found in the carcinogenicity testing of topiroxostat, a xanthine oxidoreductase inhibitor, in which topiroxostat was orally given to F344 rats at 0.3, 1, and 3 mg/kg for 2 years. In the urinary bladder, transitional cell papillomas and/or carcinomas were seen in males receiving 0.3, 1, and 3 mg/kg (1/49, 3/49, and 10/50, respectively). In the kidney, transitional cell papillomas and/or carcinomas in the pelvis were seen in 2/50 males and 1/50 females receiving 3 mg/kg. In the mechanistic study by 52-week oral treatment with topiroxostat at 3 mg/kg to F344 male rats, with and without citrate, simple and papillary transitional cell hyperplasias of the urinary bladder epithelium were observed in 5/17 in the topiroxostat-alone treatment group, along with xanthine-induced nephropathy, in contrast to neither xanthine crystals nor lesions in urinary organs by co-treatment group with citrate. As for sex differences of urinary bladder tumors, the BrdU labeling index for epithelial cells of the urinary bladder by 5-week oral treatment with topiroxostat at 10 mg/kg to F344 rats was increased in males only, showing consistency with histopathological findings. Therefore, the present study indicates that transitional cell tumors induced by topiroxostat in rats were due to physical stimulation to transitional cells of xanthine crystals/calculi and provides that other factors were not implicated in this tumorigenesis. Furthermore, the present study suggests that such tumors do not predict for humans since topiroxostat-induced xanthine deposition is a rodent-specific event. PMID:24448833

  1. Role of NAD(P)H:quinone oxidoreductase 1 in clofibrate-mediated hepatoprotection from acetaminophen

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mice pretreated with the peroxisome proliferator clofibrate (CFB) are resistant to acetaminophen (APAP) hepatotoxicity. Whereas the mechanism of protection is not entirely known, CFB decreases protein adducts formed by the reactive metabolite of APAP, N-acetyl-p-benzoquinone imine (NAPQI). NAD(P)H:quinone oxidoreductase 1 (NQO1) is an enzyme with antioxidant properties that is responsible for the reduction of cellular quinones. We hypothesized that CFB increases NQO1 activity, which in turn enhances the conversion of NAPQI back to the parent APAP. This could explain the decreases in APAP covalent binding and glutathione depletion produced by CFB without affecting APAP bioactivation to NAPQI. Administration of CFB (500 mg/kg, i.p.) to male CD-1 mice for 5 or 10 days increased NQO1 protein and activity levels. To evaluate the capacity of NQO1 to reduce NAPQI back to APAP, we utilized a microsomal activating system. Cytochrome P450 enzymes present in microsomes bioactivate APAP to NAPQI, which binds the electrophile trapping agent, N-acetyl cysteine (NAC). We analyzed the formation of APAP-NAC metabolite in the presence of human recombinant NQO1. Results indicate that NQO1 is capable of reducing NAPQI. The capacity of NQO1 to amelioriate APAP toxicity was then evaluated in primary hepatocytes. Primary hepatocytes isolated from mice dosed with CFB are resistant to APAP toxicity. These hepatocytes were also exposed to ES936, a high affinity, and irreversible inhibitor of NQO1 in the presence of APAP. Concentrations of ES936 that resulted in over 94% inhibition of NQO1 activity did not increase the susceptibility of hepatocytes from CFB treated mice to APAP. Whereas NQO1 is mechanistically capable of reducing NAPQI, CFB-mediated hepatoprotection does not appear to be dependent upon enhanced expression of NQO1

  2. Mechanistic reappraisal of early stage photochemistry in the light-driven enzyme protochlorophyllide oxidoreductase.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Derren J Heyes

    Full Text Available The light-driven enzyme protochlorophyllide oxidoreductase (POR catalyzes the reduction of protochlorophyllide (Pchlide to chlorophyllide (Chlide. This reaction is a key step in the biosynthesis of chlorophyll. Ultrafast photochemical processes within the Pchlide molecule are required for catalysis and previous studies have suggested that a short-lived excited-state species, known as I675*, is the first catalytic intermediate in the reaction and is essential for capturing excitation energy to drive subsequent hydride and proton transfers. The chemical nature of the I675* excited state species and its role in catalysis are not known. Here, we report time-resolved pump-probe spectroscopy measurements to study the involvement of the I675* intermediate in POR photochemistry. We show that I675* is not unique to the POR-catalyzed photoreduction of Pchlide as it is also formed in the absence of the POR enzyme. The I675* species is only produced in samples that contain both Pchlide substrate and Chlide product and its formation is dependent on the pump excitation wavelength. The rate of formation and the quantum yield is maximized in 50∶50 mixtures of the two pigments (Pchlide and Chlide and is caused by direct energy transfer between Pchlide and neighboring Chlide molecules, which is inhibited in the polar solvent methanol. Consequently, we have re-evaluated the mechanism for early stage photochemistry in the light-driven reduction of Pchlide and propose that I675* represents an excited state species formed in Pchlide-Chlide dimers, possibly an excimer. Contrary to previous reports, we conclude that this excited state species has no direct mechanistic relevance to the POR-catalyzed reduction of Pchlide.

  3. The structure of Aquifex aeolicus sulfide:quinone oxidoreductase, a basis to understand sulfide detoxification and respiration

    OpenAIRE

    Marcia, Marco; Ermler, Ulrich; Peng, Guohong; Michel, Hartmut

    2009-01-01

    Sulfide:quinone oxidoreductase (SQR) is a flavoprotein with homologues in all domains of life except plants. It plays a physiological role both in sulfide detoxification and in energy transduction. We isolated the protein from native membranes of the hyperthermophilic bacterium Aquifex aeolicus, and we determined its X-ray structure in the “as-purified,” substrate-bound, and inhibitor-bound forms at resolutions of 2.3, 2.0, and 2.9 Å, respectively. The structure is composed of 2 Rossmann doma...

  4. Gmca is a putative glucose-methanol-choline oxidoreductase required for the induction of asexual development in aspergillus nidulans

    OpenAIRE

    Oier Etxebeste; Erika Herrero-García; Cortese, Marc S.; Aitor Garzia; Elixabet Oiartzabal-Arano; Vivian de los Ríos; Unai Ugalde; Espeso, Eduardo A.

    2012-01-01

    Aspergillus nidulans asexual differentiation is induced by Upstream Developmental Activators (UDAs) that include the bZIP-type Transcription Factor (TF) FlbB. A 2D-PAGE/MS-MS-coupled screen for proteins differentially expressed in the presence and absence of FlbB identified 18 candidates. Most candidates belong to GO term classes involved in osmotic and/or oxidative stress response. Among these, we focused on GmcA, a putative glucose-methanol-choline oxidoreductase which is upregulated in a Δ...

  5. Noncoupled NADH:Ubiquinone Oxidoreductase of Azotobacter vinelandii Is Required for Diazotrophic Growth at High Oxygen Concentrations

    OpenAIRE

    Bertsova, Yulia V.; Alexander V. Bogachev; Skulachev, Vladimir P.

    2001-01-01

    The gene encoding the noncoupled NADH:ubiquinone oxidoreductase (NDH II) from Azotobacter vinelandii was cloned, sequenced, and used to construct an NDH II-deficient mutant strain. Compared to the wild type, this strain showed a marked decrease in respiratory activity. It was unable to grow diazotrophically at high aeration, while it was fully capable of growth at low aeration or in the presence of NH4+. This result suggests that the role of NDH II is as a vital component of the respiratory p...

  6. Preliminary crystallographic data of the three homologues of the thiol–disulfide oxidoreductase DsbA in Neisseria meningitidis

    OpenAIRE

    Lafaye, Céline; Iwema, Thomas; Ferrer, Jean-Luc; Kroll, J. Simon; Griat, Mickael; Serre, Laurence

    2008-01-01

    Bacterial virulence depends on the correct folding of surface-exposed proteins, a process that is catalyzed by the thiol-disulfide oxidoreductase DsbA, which facilitates the synthesis of disulfide bonds in Gram-negative bacteria. Uniquely among bacteria, the Neisseria meningitidis genome possesses three genes encoding active DsbAs: DsbA1, DsbA2 and DsbA3. DsbA1 and DsbA2 have been characterized as lipoproteins involved in natural competence and in host-interactive biology, while the function ...

  7. Biochemical and structural study of the homologues of the thiol-disulfide oxidoreductase DsbA in Neisseria meningitidis.

    OpenAIRE

    Lafaye, Céline; Iwema, Thomas; Carpentier, Philippe; Jullian-Binard, Céline; Kroll, J. Simon; Collet, Jean-François; Serre, Laurence

    2009-01-01

    Bacterial virulence depends on the correct folding of surface-exposed proteins, a process catalyzed by the thiol-disulfide oxidoreductase DsbA, which facilitates the synthesis of disulfide bonds in Gram-negative bacteria. The Neisseria meningitidis genome possesses three genes encoding active DsbAs: DsbA1, DsbA2 and DsbA3. DsbA1 and DsbA2 have been characterized as lipoproteins involved in natural competence and in host interactive biology, while the function of DsbA3 remains unknown. This wo...

  8. Chemical constituents from the submerged plant Potamogeton crispus and their effects on NAD(P)H:quinone oxidoreductase 1

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Miao Ye; Jun Zhi Ma; Juan Xiong; Shu Ting Liu; Dong Wang; Chong Gang Yuan; Ji Yan Ma; Jin Feng Hu

    2012-01-01

    A new isopimarane-type diterpene (liwariverol,1) and eight known compounds were isolated and characterized from the EtOAc extract of the whole plant of Potamogeton crispus.The structure of 1 was elucidated to be 17-hydroxy-8αH-isopimara-9(11),15-diene by means of spectroscopic methods.Among the isolates,crenulatoside A (2),an acyclic sesquiterpene glycoside,was found to have anti-oxidative activity with enhancement of the expression of the NAD(P)H:quinone oxidoreductase 1 (NQO1) in human neuroblastoma SH-SY5Y cells at 100 μmol/L after a 24-h incubation.

  9. Desenvolupament de biosensors amb enzims oxidoreductases basats en transductors amperomètrics modificats químicament

    OpenAIRE

    Prieto Simón, Beatriu

    2006-01-01

    Consultable des del TDX Títol obtingut de la portada digitalitzada La present tesi doctoral recull l'estudi de diverses modificacions químiques de sensors amperomètrics, adreçades cap a cercar solucions per als problemes típicament implícits en el desenvolupament de biosensors basats en enzims oxidoreductases, alhora que es busca la compatibilitat d'aquestes modificacions amb les estratègies d'immobilització enzimàtica emprades. La primera part del treball inclou el desenvolupament de q...

  10. Fetal alcohol effects in alcoholic veteran patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tishler, P V; Henschel, C E; Ngo, T A; Walters, E E; Worobec, T G

    1998-11-01

    Fetal alcohol syndrome is often associated with severe physical and neuropsychiatric maldevelopment. On the other hand, some offspring of women who drank during pregnancy appear to be affected in minimal ways and function relatively well within society. We questioned whether this effect of prenatal alcohol in the adult is generally minimal. To bear on this, we determined whether we could distinguish alcohol-exposed from nonexposed individuals in a population of male veterans, selected because of both their accepted level of function within society (e.g., honorable discharge from the military) and their admission to an alcohol treatment unit (thus, a greater likelihood of parental alcoholism, because of its familial aggregation). Consecutively admitted alcoholics (cases; n = 77) with likely maternal alcohol ingestion during their pregnancy or the first 10 years of life were matched with alcoholics with no maternal alcohol exposure during these periods (controls; n = 161). Each subject completed questionnaires regarding personal birthweight, alcohol, drug, educational and work histories, and family (including parental) alcohol and drug histories. We measured height, weight, and head circumference; checked for facial and hand anomalies; and took a frontal facial photograph, from which measurements of features were made. Data were analyzed by univariate statistics and stepwise logistic regression. No case had bona fide fetal alcohol syndrome. With univariate statistical analyses, the cases differed from the controls in 10 variables, including duration of drinking, width of alae nasae, being hyperactive or having a short attention span, and being small at birth. By stepwise logistic regression, the variables marital status, small size at birth, duration of drinking, and the presence of a smooth philtrum were marginally (the first two) or definitely (the last two) significant predictors of case status. Analysis of only the 37 cases in whom maternal prenatal drinking was

  11. Effects of 5-azacytidine and methyl-group deficiency on NAD(P)H: quinone oxidoreductase and glutathione S-transferase in liver.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagner, G; Pott, U; Bruckschen, M; Sies, H

    1988-01-01

    Treatment with 5-azacytidine or dietary methyl-group deficiency effected DNA hypomethylation in mouse liver. With these treatments, NAD(P)H: quinone oxidoreductase (EC 1.6.99.2) and some glutathione S-transferase (EC 2.5.1.18) activities were over-expressed, lactate dehydrogenase (EC 1.1.1.27) activity was unaffected and the level of cytochrome P-450 was decreased. The 5-azacytidine induction of NAD(P)H: quinone oxidoreductase was significantly suppressed by puromycin, suggesting that increased enzyme activity results from an elevated level of enzyme-protein synthesis. Regulation at the transcriptional level was revealed by a substantial increase in mRNA of NAD(P)H: quinone oxidoreductase, as shown by Northern-blot analysis. The enzyme pattern observed with 5-azacytidine and with the (carcinogenic) dietary methyl-group deficiency resembles that found in hepatic nodules. Images Fig. 3. PMID:2458098

  12. Alcohol Use and Older Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... version of this page please turn Javascript on. Alcohol Use and Older Adults Alcohol and Aging Adults of any age can have ... Escape (Esc) button on your keyboard.) What Is Alcohol? Alcohol, also known as ethanol, is a chemical ...

  13. Alcohol: A Women's Health Issue

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... itself can cause serious long-term health consequences. Alcohol in Women’s Lives: Safe Drinking Over a Lifetime ... much, and how often to drink. What Are Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism? Alcohol abuse is a pattern ...

  14. Deciding to quit drinking alcohol

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alcohol use disorder - quitting drinking; Alcohol abuse - quitting drinking; Quitting drinking; Quitting alcohol ... a drinking problem when your body depends on alcohol to function and your drinking is causing problems ...

  15. Alcohol in moderation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mueller, Simone; Lockshin, Larry; Louviere, Jordan J.

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: The study examines the market potential for low and very low alcohol wine products under two different tax regimes. The penetration and market share of low alcohol wine are estimated under both tax conditions. Consumers’ alcoholic beverage purchase portfolios are analysed and those...... products identified, which are jointly purchased with low alcohol wines. The effect of a tax increase on substitution patterns between alcoholic beverages is examined. Methodology: In a discrete choice experiment, based on their last purchase, consumers select one or several different alcoholic beverages...... volume is estimated under the current tax regime. Between six to eight percent of consumers are expected to adopt low alcohol wine alternatives as part of their alcoholic beverage portfolio. Consumers of cask wine and light beer are more likely and consumers of medium-full strength beer and spirits...

  16. Myths about drinking alcohol

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... gov/ency/patientinstructions/000856.htm Myths about drinking alcohol To use the sharing features on this page, ... We know much more about the effects of alcohol today than in the past. Yet, myths remain ...

  17. Women and Alcohol

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... turn JavaScript on. Feature: Rethinking Drinking Women and Alcohol Past Issues / Spring 2014 Table of Contents Women react differently than men to alcohol and face higher risks from it. Pound for ...

  18. Benzyl Alcohol Topical

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benzyl alcohol lotion is used to treat head lice (small insects that attach themselves to the skin) in adults ... children less than 6 months of age. Benzyl alcohol is in a class of medications called pediculicides. ...

  19. Alcohol and Cancer Risk

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Overview Cancer Prevention Overview–for health professionals Research Alcohol and Cancer Risk On This Page What is ... in the risk of colorectal cancer. Research on alcohol consumption and other cancers: Numerous studies have examined ...

  20. Alcohol and Migraine

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... on Pinterest Follow us on Instagram DONATE TODAY Alcohol and Migraine Abuse, Maltreatment, and PTSD and Their ... to Migraine Altitude, Acute Mountain Sickness and Headache Alcohol and Migraine Anxiety and Depression Caffeine and Migraine ...

  1. Alcohol and pregnancy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... group of defects in the baby known as fetal alcohol syndrome. Symptoms can include: Behavior and attention problems Heart ... risk of giving birth to a child with fetal alcohol syndrome . The more you drink, the more you raise ...

  2. Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Daily life skills, such as feeding and bathing Fetal alcohol syndrome is the most serious type of FASD. People with fetal alcohol syndrome have facial abnormalities, including wide-set and narrow ...

  3. Alcohol use disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... have problems with alcohol if you: Are a young adult under peer pressure Have depression, bipolar disorder , anxiety disorders , or schizophrenia Can easily obtain alcohol Have low self-esteem Have problems with relationships Live a stressful lifestyle ...

  4. Alcohol and Pregnancy

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Your e-mail was sent. Save to my dashboard Sign in or Sign up to save this ... saved this page It's been added to your dashboard . Alcohol and pregnancy 3:07 Drinking alcohol while ...

  5. Children of alcoholics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert Oravecz

    2002-09-01

    Full Text Available The author briefly interprets the research – results, referring to the phenomenon of children of alcoholics, especially the psychological and psychopathological characteristics of children of alcoholics in adolescence and young adulthood. The author presents a screening study of adolescents. The sample contains 200 high school students at age 18. The aim of the survey was to discover the relationship between alcohol consumption of parents, PTSD - related psychopathological symptoms and reported life quality of their children. The study confirmed the hypothesis about a substantial correlation between high alcohol consumption of parents, higher psychopathological symptom - expression and lower reported life quality score of their children. Higher PTSD-related symptomatology in children of alcoholics is probably resulted by home violence, which is very often present in family of alcoholics. The article also evaluated the results regarding suicide ideation of children of alcoholics, which is definitely more frequent and more intense than in their peers living in non alcohol – dependent families.

  6. Fetal Alcohol Exposure

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... a woman drinks while pregnant. Alcohol can disrupt fetal development at any stage during a pregnancy—including at ... Clinical Diagnoses IOM Diagnoses Fetal Alcohol Syndrome ... pregnancy can disrupt normal development of the face and the brain. In fact, ...

  7. Overview of Alcohol Consumption

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... you drink, you increase your blood alcohol concentration (BAC) level, which is the amount of alcohol present in your bloodstream. The higher your BAC, the more impaired you become by alcohol’s effects. ...

  8. Alcohol Alert: Link Between Stress and Alcohol

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Hodgkinson, C.A.; Yuan, Q.; et al. The influence of GABrA2, childhood trauma, and their interaction on alcohol, heroin, and ... Articles examine different sources of stress, such as childhood abuse and ... stress influences the development of alcohol abuse and dependence, and ...

  9. Alcohol and Atherosclerosis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Gao Yinglan; Song Jingyu; Jin Junshuo; Zhong Xiuhong; Ren Xiangshan; Liu Shuangping

    2005-01-01

    Objectives To study the relationship between alcohol and atherosclerosis (AS).Methods The paper reviewed the mechanism of the alcohol leading to AS from four aspects such as the introduction of alcohol and AS, imbalance of oxidationantioxidation system, oxygen free radical (OFR) and endothelium cell (EC) apoptosis, apoptosis and AS.Results Excessive alcohol could lead to imbalance of oxidation-antioxidation system, and increase OFR, in the meanwhile, OFR could lead to EC apoptosis,which could lead to AS.

  10. Alcohol Saliva Strip Test

    OpenAIRE

    Thokala, Madhusudhana Rao; Dorankula, Shyam Prasad Reddy; Muddana, Keertrthi; Velidandla, Surekha Reddy

    2014-01-01

    Alcohol is a factor in many categories of injury. Alcohol intoxication is frequently associated with injuries from falls, fires, drowning, overdoses, physical and sexual abusements, occupational accidents, traffic accidents and domestic violence. In many instances, for forensic purpose, it may be necessary to establish whether the patients have consumed alcohol that would have been the reason for the injury/accidents. Combining rapidity and reliability, alcohol saliva strip test (AST) has bee...

  11. Regulation of P450 oxidoreductase by gonadotropins in rat ovary and its effect on estrogen production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Uesaka Miki

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background P450 oxidoreductase (POR catalyzes electron transfer to microsomal P450 enzymes. Its deficiency causes Antley-Bixler syndrome (ABS, and about half the patients with ABS have ambiguous genitalia and/or impaired steroidogenesis. POR mRNA expression is up-regulated when mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs differentiate into steroidogenic cells, suggesting that the regulation of POR gene expression is important for steroidogenesis. In this context we examined the regulation of POR expression in ovarian granulosa cells by gonadotropins, and its possible role in steroidogenesis. Methods Changes in gene expression in MSCs during differentiation into steroidogenic cells were examined by DNA microarray analysis. Changes in mRNA and protein expression of POR in the rat ovary or in granulosa cells induced by gonadotropin treatment were examined by reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction and western blotting. Effects of transient expression of wild-type or mutant (R457H or V492E POR proteins on the production of estrone in COS-7 cells were examined in vitro. Effects of POR knockdown were also examined in estrogen producing cell-line, KGN cells. Results POR mRNA was induced in MSCs following transduction with the SF-1 retrovirus, and was further increased by cAMP treatment. Expression of POR mRNA, as well as Cyp19 mRNA, in the rat ovary were induced by equine chorionic gonadotropin and human chorionic gonadotropin. POR mRNA and protein were also induced by follicle stimulating hormone in primary cultured rat granulosa cells, and the induction pattern was similar to that for aromatase. Transient expression of POR in COS-7 cells, which expressed a constant amount of aromatase protein, greatly increased the rate of conversion of androstenedione to estrone, in a dose-dependent manner. The expression of mutant POR proteins (R457H or V492E, such as those found in ABS patients, had much less effect on aromatase activity than expression of wild

  12. Differential Regulation of Duplicate Light-Dependent Protochlorophyllide Oxidoreductases in the Diatom Phaeodactylum tricornutum.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heather M Hunsperger

    Full Text Available Diatoms (Bacilliariophyceae encode two light-dependent protochlorophyllide oxidoreductases (POR1 and POR2 that catalyze the penultimate step of chlorophyll biosynthesis in the light. Algae live in dynamic environments whose changing light levels induce photoacclimative metabolic shifts, including altered cellular chlorophyll levels. We hypothesized that the two POR proteins may be differentially adaptive under varying light conditions. Using the diatom Phaeodactylum tricornutum as a test system, differences in POR protein abundance and por gene expression were examined when this organism was grown on an alternating light:dark cycles at different irradiances; exposed to continuous light; and challenged by a significant decrease in light availability.For cultures maintained on a 12h light: 12h dark photoperiod at 200μE m-2 s-1 (200L/D, both por genes were up-regulated during the light and down-regulated in the dark, though por1 transcript abundance rose and fell earlier than that of por2. Little concordance occurred between por1 mRNA and POR1 protein abundance. In contrast, por2 mRNA and POR2 protein abundances followed similar diurnal patterns. When 200L/D P. tricornutum cultures were transferred to continuous light (200L/L, the diurnal regulatory pattern of por1 mRNA abundance but not of por2 was disrupted, and POR1 but not POR2 protein abundance dropped steeply. Under 1200μE m-2 s-1 (1200L/D, both por1 mRNA and POR1 protein abundance displayed diurnal oscillations. A compromised diel por2 mRNA response under 1200L/D did not impact the oscillation in POR2 abundance. When cells grown at 1200L/D were then shifted to 50μE m-2 s-1 (50L/D, por1 and por2 mRNA levels decreased swiftly but briefly upon light reduction. Thereafter, POR1 but not POR2 protein levels rose significantly in response to this light stepdown.Given the sensitivity of diatom por1/POR1 to real-time light cues and adherence of por2/POR2 regulation to the diurnal cycle, we suggest

  13. Alcohol and liver

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Natalia Osna

    2009-01-01

    @@ Liver is a primary site of ethanol metabolism, which makes this organ susceptible to alcohol-induced damage.Alcoholic liver disease (ALD) has many manifestations and complicated pathogenesis. In this Topic Highlight, we included the key reviews that characterize new findings about the mechanisms of ALD development and might be of strong interest for clinicians and researchers involved in liver alcohol studies.

  14. Television: Alcohol's Vast Adland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2002

    Concern about how much television alcohol advertising reaches underage youth and how the advertising influences their attitudes and decisions about alcohol use has been widespread for many years. Lacking in the policy debate has been solid, reliable information about the extent of youth exposure to television alcohol advertising. To address this…

  15. Alcohol and Pregnancy

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... this page It's been added to your dashboard . Alcohol and pregnancy 3:07 Drinking alcohol while you are pregnant ... birth defects. Learn about the dangers of drinking alcohol during pregnancy. Stanford Prematurity Research Center Launch 3:25 Newborn ...

  16. Alcoholism's Hidden Curriculum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gress, James R.

    1988-01-01

    Discusses children of alcoholics as victims of fetal alcohol syndrome, family violence, retarded social development, and severe emotional scars. These children bring family roles to school that allow survival in the alcoholic home but are dysfunctional outside it. Educators can take certain steps to address these students' problems. Includes six…

  17. Genetic polymorphism of N-acetyltransferases, glutathione S-transferase M1 and NAD(P)H:quinone oxidoreductase in relation to malignant and benign pancreatic disease risk. The International Pancreatic Disease Study Group.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartsch, H; Malaveille, C; Lowenfels, A B; Maisonneuve, P; Hautefeuille, A; Boyle, P

    1998-06-01

    Carcinogens present in cigarette smoke and diet have been associated with pancreatic cancer. We hypothesized that heterocyclic and aromatic amines implicated in these exposures could be involved as causative agents and that therefore genetic variation in enzymes metabolizing these carcinogens could modify the risk of developing malignant and benign pancreatic disease. The effect of the genetic polymorphism of acetyltransferases (NAT1) and NAT2), glutathione S-transferase M1 (GSTM1) and NAD(P)H: quinone oxidoreductase 1 (NQO1) on the risk of pancreatic diseases (cancer, pancreatitis) was examined in a case-control study. PCR-based assays were used for genotype analysis of genomic DNA from whole blood cells. Samples collected from Caucasian patients with diagnosed pancreatic cancer (n = 81), with non-alcoholic (n = 41) and alcoholic pancreatitis (n = 73) and from asymptomatic control subjects (n = 78) were analysed. The prevalence of GSTM1 null genotype and of NAT2 fast and slow acetylator genotypes and the distribution of frequencies for NQO1 genotypes did not differ in subjects with pancreatic diseases vs controls. For NAT1 slow acetylators a non-significant excess (P = 0.18) was found among pancreatic cancer cases vs controls. There was a significant over-representation of the GSTM1 AB or B genotype in all pancreatic disease cases combined (OR = 2.6; P < 0.05). When concurrent controls were pooled with literature controls (n = 1427), OR was 1.4 (P = 0.08). The results of this study, requiring confirmation, suggest that the polymorphism of GSTM1 and NAT1 enzymes may be associated with a modest increase in susceptibility to pancreatic diseases. PMID:9696930

  18. Alcohol and atherosclerosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tolstrup, Janne; Grønbaek, Morten

    2007-01-01

    Light to moderate alcohol intake is known to have cardioprotective properties; however, the magnitude of protection depends on other factors and may be confined to some subsets of the population. This review focuses on factors that modify the relationship between alcohol and coronary heart disease...... (CHD). The cardioprotective effect of alcohol seems to be larger among middle-aged and elderly adults than among young adults, who do not have a net beneficial effect of a light to moderate alcohol intake in terms of reduced all-cause mortality. The levels of alcohol at which the risk of CHD is lowest...... and the levels of alcohol at which the risk of CHD exceeds the risk among abstainers are lower for women than for men. The pattern of drinking seems important for the apparent cardioprotective effect of alcohol, and the risk of CHD is generally lower for steady versus binge drinking. Finally, there is some...

  19. On molybdenum (6) alcoholates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Synthesis techniques for molybdenum (6) alcoholates of MoO(OR)4 (1) and MoO2(OR)2 (2) series by means of exchange interaction of corresponding oxychloride with MOR (M=Li, Na) are obtained. These techniques have allowed to prepare 1(R=Me, Et, i-Pr) and 2(R=Me, Et) with 70-98 % yield. Methylates are also prepared at ether interchange of ethylates by methyl alcohol. Metal anode oxidation in corresponding alcohol may be used for 1 synthesis. Physicochemical properties of both series alcoholates, solubility in alcohols in particular, depend on their formation conditions coordination polymerism. Alcoholates of 1 are rather unstable and tend to decomposition up to 2 and ether. It is suggested to introduce NaOR microquantities to stabilize those alcoholates

  20. National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... day 12 hours ago Areas of Interest Scientists & Researchers Certificates of Confidentiality Data and Safety Monitoring Guidelines NIAAA-Funded Research Centers Clinicians Helping Patients Who Drink Too Much Alcohol Screening and Brief Intervention for Youth Clinical Trials ...

  1. Alcohol Advertising and Alcohol Consumption by Adolescents

    OpenAIRE

    Henry Saffer; Dhaval Dave

    2003-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to empirically estimate the effects of alcohol advertising on adolescent alcohol consumption. The theory of brand capital is used to explain the effects of advertising on consumption. The industry response function and the evidence from prior studies indicate that the empirical strategy should maximize the variance in the advertising data. The approach in this paper to maximizing the variance in advertising data is to employ cross sectional data. The Monitoring th...

  2. Screening of detergents for solubilization, purification and crystallization of membrane proteins: a case study on succinate:ubiquinone oxidoreductase from Escherichia coli

    OpenAIRE

    Shimizu, Hironari; Nihei, Coh-ichi; Inaoka, Daniel Ken; Mogi, Tatushi; Kita, Kiyoshi; Harada, Shigeharu

    2008-01-01

    Succinate:ubiquinone oxidoreductase was solubilized and purified from E. coli inner membranes using several different detergents and the phospholipid content of each preparation was analyzed. The preparation with the lowest phospholipid content crystallized in two different crystal forms using detergent mixtures composed of n-alkyl-oligoethylene glycol monoether and n-alkyl-maltoside.

  3. The reaction of NADPH with bovine mitochondrial NADH:ubiquinone oxidoreductase revisited: II. Comparison of the proposed working hypothesis with literature data.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    S.P.J. Albracht

    2010-01-01

    The first purification of bovine NADH:ubiquinone oxidoreductase (Complex I) was reported nearly half a century ago (Hatefi et al. J Biol Chem 237:1676-1680, 1962). The pathway of electron-transfer through the enzyme is still under debate. A major obstacle is the assignment of EPR signals to the indi

  4. Identification and cloning of two immunogenic C. perfringens proteins, elongation factor Tu (EF-Tu) and pyruvate:ferredoxin oxidoreductase (PFO) of Clostridium perfringens

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clostridium related poultry diseases such as necrotic enteritis (NE) and gangrenous dermatitis (GD) cause substantial economic losses on a global scale. Two antigenic C. perfringens proteins, elongation factor Tu (EF-Tu) and pyruvate:ferredoxin oxidoreductase (PFO), were identified by reaction with...

  5. Alcohol and pregnancy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Maria Paoletti

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Alcohol exerts teratogenic effects in all the gestation times, with peculiar features in relationship to the trimester of pregnancy in which alcohol is assumed. Alcohol itself and its metabolites modify DNA synthesis, cellular division, cellular migration and the fetal development. The characteristic facies of feto-alcoholic syndrome (FAS-affected baby depends on the alcohol impact on skull facial development during the first trimester of pregnancy. In association there are cerebral damages with a strong defect of brain development up to the life incompatibility. Serious consequences on fetal health also depends on dangerous effects of alcohol exposure in the organogenesis of the heart, the bone, the kidney, sensorial organs, et al. It has been demonstrated that maternal binge drinking is a high factor risk of mental retardation and of delinquent behaviour. Unfortunately, a lower alcohol intake also exerts deleterious effects on fetal health. In several countries of the world there is a high alcohol use, and this habit is increased in the women. Therefore, correct information has to be given to avoid alcohol use by women in the preconceptional time and during the pregnancy. Preliminary results of a study performed by the authors show that over 80% of pregnant and puerperal women are not unaware that more than 2 glasses of alcohol/week ingested during pregnancy can create neurological abnormalities in the fetus. However, after the information provided on alcoholic fetopathy, all women are conscious of the damage caused by the use of alcohol to the fetus during pregnancy. This study confirms the need to provide detailed information on the negative effects of alcohol on fetal health. Proceedings of the 9th International Workshop on Neonatology · Cagliari (Italy · October 23rd-26th, 2013 · Learned lessons, changing practice and cutting-edge research

  6. [Upgrade on alcohol abuse].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bordini, L; Riboldi, L

    2010-01-01

    Problematic use of alcohol configures an element of interest in the context of preventive interventions aimed to ensuring the performance of any work in safety conditions. To contrast the acute alcohol abuse in the workplace the existing legislation provides alcoholimeters controls and prohibition of recruitment and administration of alcohol. Recent legislation (D.Lgs. 81/08) establishes health surveillance for alcohol dependence and appears still incomplete and difficult to apply. Clinical diagnostic tools available to the physician for alcohol dependence identification are well-defined and recently improved thanks to new laboratory markers with high sensitivity and specificity (CDT) and self-administered questionnaires. In this contest we are awaiting for legislative action to specify conditions and procedures for inspections in the workplace in order to face the problem of alcohol dependence without excessive bureaucracy and with more attention to preventive aspects. PMID:21438261

  7. Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorders

    OpenAIRE

    Warren, Kenneth R.; Hewitt, Brenda G.; Thomas, Jennifer D.

    2010-01-01

    The adverse effects of prenatal alcohol consumption have long been known; however, a formal description and clinical diagnosis of these effects was not introduced until 1973. Since then, the distinction of the wide range of effects that can be induced by prenatal alcohol exposure, and, consequently, the terminology to describe these effects has continued to evolve. Although much progress has been made in understanding the consequences of prenatal alcohol exposure, challenges still remain in p...

  8. Alcohol Consumption in Students

    OpenAIRE

    Tran, Cathy

    2010-01-01

    Drinking behaviour among university students is a serious public health concern. Reasons for drinking are complex and many factors contribute to this behaviour. Previous research has established links between personality factors and alcohol consumption and also between metacognitions and alcohol consumption. Few studies have looked into how personality traits and metacognitions interact. This study investigated the relationships between personality, metacognitions and alcohol consumption in a...

  9. ADOLESCENTS AND ALCOHOL

    OpenAIRE

    SPEAR, LINDA PATIA

    2013-01-01

    The high levels of alcohol consumption characteristic of adolescence may be in part biologically based, given that elevated consumption levels are also evident during this developmental transition in other mammalian species as well. Studies conducted using a simple animal model of adolescence in the rat has shown adolescents to be more sensitive than adults to social facilitatory and rewarding effects of alcohol, but less sensitive to numerous alcohol effects that may serve as cues to limit i...

  10. Children of alcoholics

    OpenAIRE

    Robert Oravecz

    2002-01-01

    The author briefly interprets the research – results, referring to the phenomenon of children of alcoholics, especially the psychological and psychopathological characteristics of children of alcoholics in adolescence and young adulthood. The author presents a screening study of adolescents. The sample contains 200 high school students at age 18. The aim of the survey was to discover the relationship between alcohol consumption of parents, PTSD - related psychopathological symptoms and ...

  11. Alcohol-Induced Blackout

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dai Jin Kim

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available For a long time, alcohol was thought to exert a general depressant effect on the central nervous system (CNS. However, currently the consensus is that specific regions of the brain are selectively vulnerable to the acute effects of alcohol. An alcohol-induced blackout is the classic example; the subject is temporarily unable to form new long-term memories while relatively maintaining other skills such as talking or even driving. A recent study showed that alcohol can cause retrograde memory impairment, that is, blackouts due to retrieval impairments as well as those due to deficits in encoding. Alcoholic blackouts may be complete (en bloc or partial (fragmentary depending on severity of memory impairment. In fragmentary blackouts, cueing often aids recall. Memory impairment during acute intoxication involves dysfunction of episodic memory, a type of memory encoded with spatial and social context. Recent studies have shown that there are multiple memory systems supported by discrete brain regions, and the acute effects of alcohol on learning and memory may result from alteration of the hippocampus and related structures on a cellular level. A rapid increase in blood alcohol concentration (BAC is most consistently associated with the likelihood of a blackout. However, not all subjects experience blackouts, implying that genetic factors play a role in determining CNS vulnerability to the effects of alcohol. This factor may predispose an individual to alcoholism, as altered memory function during intoxication may affect an individual‟s alcohol expectancy; one may perceive positive aspects of intoxication while unintentionally ignoring the negative aspects. Extensive research on memory and learning as well as findings related to the acute effects of alcohol on the brain may elucidate the mechanisms and impact associated with the alcohol- induced blackout.

  12. Fetal Alcohol Syndrome "Chemical Genocide."

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asetoyer, Charon

    In the Northern Plains of the United States, 100% of Indian reservations are affected by alcohol related problems. Approximately 90% of Native American adults are currently alcohol users or abusers or are recovering from alcohol abuse. Alcohol consumption has a devastating effect on the unborn. Fetal Alcohol Syndrome (FAS) is an irreversible birth…

  13. Purification and characterization of sulfide:quinone oxidoreductase from an acidophilic iron-oxidizing bacterium, Acidithiobacillus ferrooxidans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wakai, Satoshi; Tsujita, Mizuho; Kikumoto, Mei; Manchur, Mohammed A; Kanao, Tadayoshi; Kamimura, Kazuo

    2007-11-01

    Sulfide:quinone oxidoreductase (SQR) was purified from membrane of acidophilic chemolithotrophic bacterium Acidithiobacillus ferrooxidans NASF-1 cells grown on sulfur medium. It was composed of a single polypeptide with an apparent molecular mass of 47 kDa. The apparent K(m) values for sulfide and ubiquinone were 42 and 14 muM respectively. The apparent optimum pH for the SQR activity was about 7.0. A gene encoding a putative SQR of A. ferrooxidans NASF-1 was cloned and sequenced. The gene was expressed in Escherichia coli as a thioredoxin-fusion protein in inclusion bodies in an inactive form. A polyclonal antibody prepared against the recombinant protein reacted immunologically with the purified SQR. Western blotting analysis using the antibody revealed an increased level of SQR synthesis in sulfur-grown A. ferrooxidans NASF-1 cells, implying the involvement of SQR in elemental sulfur oxidation in sulfur-grown A. ferrooxidans NASF-1 cells. PMID:17986789

  14. Application of L-lactate-cytochrome c-oxidoreductase for development of amperometric biosensor for L-lactate determination

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dzyadevych S. V.

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Aim. Development of amperometric biosensor based on L-lactate-cytochrome c-oxidoreductase (flavocytochrome b2, FC b2 for lactate determination. Methods. All experiments were performed using the amperometric method of detection. The methods of electrochemical polymerization and immobilization in glutaraldehyde vapors were used for FC b2 immobilization on the surface of electrodes. Results. The FC b2 preparation, which demonstrated the best operational characteristics after immobilization in poly (3,4-ethylen dioxythiophene, was selected. The selectivity, operational and storage stability, and pH-optimum for operation of the created biosensor were determined. The analysis of L-lactate in the model solutions and wine samples was carried outusing the developed biosensor. Conclusion. The FC b2-based biosensor due to its high stability can be effectively used for lactate determination in blood and other liquids containing no ethanol. After the selectivity optimization, the devise can be also applied for wine analysis.

  15. [Doctors' alcohol problems].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Florkowski, Antoni; Gruszczyński, Wojciech; Gałecki, Piotr; Szubert, Sławomir; Klus, Marek; Zboralski, Krzysztof

    2008-01-01

    An overusing and an addiction to alcoholic drinks are important problems in a medical society. The studies made in the United States had documented that about 8-12% doctors were addicted to alcohol. In many cases the doctors are able to keep their problem as a secret and their activity is satisfied up to the moment when a decrease is noticed. Some factors--such as a high level of stress--predispose doctors to alcoholic problems especially surgeons. Alcohol problems should be identified as early as possible, and therapy ought to be given as well. There is no reason to hide the problem. PMID:19025048

  16. Treatment of alcoholism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jansson, B

    1994-01-01

    Special problems in the treatment of alcoholism are discussed. Risk groups, for instance children of alcoholics, should be identified as early as possible so that special attention can be paid to them. Treatment motivation plays a very central role, and motivating a patient for long-term treatment often is the most difficult part of the work. For alcohol dependent alcoholics, total abstinence should be the goal of treatment. To achieve this, psychotherapy consisting of supportive, behavioral and dynamic elements is recommended. To achieve effective therapy it should be carried out for a considerable length of time. PMID:8032164

  17. Alcoholic leukopenic pneumococcal sepsis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alraiyes, Abdul Hamid; Shaheen, Khaldoon; Alraies, M Chadi

    2013-04-01

    Alcohol abuse has been associated with an increased mortality and morbidity due to increased aspiration, delirium tremens, and seizures. The association of pneumococcal lung infections and leukopenia in the setting of alcohol abuse are rarely reported; however, when present, severe lung infections can happen with severe lung injury and poor response to conventional therapy and ultimately, death. We are reporting a case of 55-year-old-man presented with shortness of breath, cough and altered mental status and eventually found with severe pneumococcal lung infection in the setting of leukopenia and long-term alcohol abuse representing alcoholic leukopenic pneumococcal sepsis syndrome. PMID:23930244

  18. Mechanism of porcine liver xanthine oxidoreductase mediated N-oxide reduction of cyadox as revealed by docking and mutagenesis studies.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chigang Chen

    Full Text Available Xanthine oxidoreductase (XOR is a cytoplasmic molybdenum-containing oxidoreductase, catalyzing both endogenous purines and exogenous compounds. It is suggested that XOR in porcine hepatocytes catalyzes the N-oxide reduction of quinoxaline 1,4-di-N-oxides (QdNOs. To elucidate the molecular mechanism underlying this metabolism, the cDNA of porcine XOR was cloned and heterologously expressed in Spodoptera frugiperda insect cells. The bovine XOR, showing sequence identity of 91% to porcine XOR, was employed as template for homology modeling. By docking cyadox, a representative compound of QdNOs, into porcine XOR model, eight amino acid residues, Gly47, Asn352, Ser360, Arg427, Asp430, Asp431, Ser1227 and Lys1230, were located at distances of less than 4Å to cyadox. Site-directed mutagenesis was performed to analyze their catalytic functions. Compared with wild type porcine XOR, G47A, S360P, D431A, S1227A, and K1230A displayed altered kinetic parameters in cyadox reduction, similarly to that in xanthine oxidation, indicating these mutations influenced electron-donating process of xanthine before subsequent electron transfer to cyadox to fulfill the N-oxide reduction. Differently, R427E and D430H, both located in the 424-434 loop, exhibited a much lower K(m and a decreased V(max respectively in cyadox reduction. Arg427 may be related to the substrate binding of porcine XOR to cyadox, and Asp430 is suggested to be involved in the transfer of electron to cyadox. This study initially reveals the possible catalytic mechanism of porcine XOR in cyadox metabolism, providing with novel insights into the structure-function relationship of XOR in the reduction of exogenous di-N-oxides.

  19. FastStats: Alcohol Use

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this? Submit What's this? Submit Button NCHS Home Alcohol Use Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir Data ... alcoholic liver disease deaths: 18,146 Number of alcohol-induced deaths, excluding accidents and homicides: 29,001 ...

  20. Alcohol-Related Liver Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... to run events. Please support us. Donate | Volunteer Alcohol-Related Liver Disease Discussion on Inspire Support Community ... Liver > Liver Disease Information > Alcohol-Related Liver Disease Alcohol-Related Liver Disease Explore this section to learn ...

  1. Alcohol and atherosclerosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    DA LUZ PROTASIO L.

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available Atherosclerosis is manifested as coronary artery disease (CAD, ischemic stroke and peripheral vascular disease. Moderate alcohol consumption has been associated with reduction of CAD complications. Apparently, red wine offers more benefits than any other kind of drinks, probably due to flavonoids. Alcohol alters lipoproteins and the coagulation system. The flavonoids induce vascular relaxation by mechanisms that are both dependent and independent of nitric oxide, inhibits many of the cellular reactions associated with atherosclerosis and inflammation, such as endothelial expression of vascular adhesion molecules and release of cytokines from polymorphonuclear leukocytes. Hypertension is also influenced by the alcohol intake. Thus, heavy alcohol intake is almost always associated with systemic hypertension, and hence shall be avoided. In individuals that ingest excess alcohol, there is higher risk of coronary occlusion, arrhythmias, hepatic cirrhosis, upper gastrointestinal cancers, fetal alcohol syndrome, murders, sex crimes, traffic and industrial accidents, robberies, and psychosis. Alcohol is no treatment for atherosclerosis; but it doesn't need to be prohibited for everyone. Thus moderate amounts of alcohol (1-2 drinks/day, especially red wine, may be allowed for those at risk for atherosclerosis complications.

  2. Fetal Alcohol Syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zerrer, Peggy

    The paper reviews Fetal Alcohol Syndrome (FAS), a series of effects seen in children whose mothers drink alcohol to excess during pregnancy. The identification of FAS and its recognition as a major health problem in need of prevention are traced. Characteristics of children with FAS are described and resultant growth retardation, abnormal physical…

  3. Alcoholism and Diabetes Mellitus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soo-Jeong Kim

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Chronic use of alcohol is considered to be a potential risk factor for the incidence of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM, which causes insulin resistance and pancreatic β-cell dysfunction that is a prerequisite for the development of diabetes. However, alcohol consumption in diabetes has been controversial and more detailed information on the diabetogenic impact of alcohol seems warranted. Diabetes, especially T2DM, causes dysregulation of various metabolic processes, which includes a defect in the insulin-mediated glucose function of adipocytes, and an impaired insulin action in the liver. In addition, neurobiological profiles of alcoholism are linked to the effects of a disruption of glucose homeostasis and of insulin resistance, which are affected by altered appetite that regulates the peptides and neurotrophic factors. Since conditions, which precede the onset of diabetes that are associated with alcoholism is one of the crucial public problems, researches in efforts to prevent and treat diabetes with alcohol dependence, receives special clinical interest. Therefore, the purpose of this mini-review is to provide the recent progress and current theories in the interplay between alcoholism and diabetes. Further, the purpose of this study also includes summarizing the pathophysiological mechanisms in the neurobiology of alcoholism.

  4. Alcohol and atherosclerosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    daLuz, P L; Coimbra, S R

    2001-03-01

    Atherosclerosis is manifested as coronary artery disease (CAD), ischemic stroke and peripheral vascular disease. Moderate alcohol consumption has been associated with reduction of CAD complications. Apparently, red wine offers more benefits than any other kind of drinks, probably due to flavonoids. Alcohol alters lipoproteins and the coagulation system. The flavonoids induce vascular relaxation by mechanisms that are both dependent and independent of nitric oxide, inhibits many of the cellular reactions associated with atherosclerosis and inflammation, such as endothelial expression of vascular adhesion molecules and release of cytokines from polymorphonuclear leukocytes. Hypertension is also influenced by the alcohol intake. Thus, heavy alcohol intake is almost always associated with systemic hypertension, and hence shall be avoided. In individuals that ingest excess alcohol, there is higher risk of coronary occlusion, arrhythmias, hepatic cirrhosis, upper gastrointestinal cancers, fetal alcohol syndrome, murders, sex crimes, traffic and industrial accidents, robberies, and psychosis. Alcohol is no treatment for atherosclerosis; but it doesn't need to be prohibited for everyone. Thus moderate amounts of alcohol (1-2 drinks/day), especially red wine, may be allowed for those at risk for atherosclerosis complications. PMID:11246269

  5. Alcohol on wheels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDermott, F T

    1986-01-01

    Alcohol misuse remains the single most important contributing factor to road accident deaths and injuries in Australia. The results of compulsory blood alcohol tests on road casualties have shown that probationary licensed drivers have a threefold increased risk of road accident injury compared to fully licensed drivers and are additionally over-represented in alcohol-related crashes. These findings led the Victorian Road Trauma Committee to campaign for a zero blood alcohol limit for learner and probationary drivers and motorcyclists. In May 1984, zero blood alcohol legislation was enacted in Victoria. The present legislation applies to learner and first year probationary licence holders. For the first time we have evidence of a moderate reduction in alcohol-related road trauma in Victoria. Between 1977 and 1983 there has been a significant reduction in the proportion of driver casualties admitted to hospital with illegal blood alcohol concentrations and in the number of driver fatalities with blood alcohol concentrations in excess of 0.15 g%. An evaluation of the following recommended drink driver countermeasures is presented: improved driver education, increased penalties, re-education--rehabilitation programmes for convicted drink drivers, interlock devices and an increase in the legal drinking age. PMID:3461765

  6. Phytotherapy of alcoholism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomczyk, Michał; Zovko-Koncić, Marijana; Chrostek, Lech

    2012-02-01

    Alcoholism is a medical, social, and economic problem where treatment methods mostly include difficult and long-lasting psychotherapy and, in some cases, quite controversial pharmacological approaches. A number of medicinal plants and pure natural compounds are reported to have preventive and therapeutic effects on alcoholism and alcohol dependency, but their constituents, efficacy and mechanism of action are mostly unknown so far. Recently, kudzu [Pueraria lobata (Willd.) Ohwi], St. John's wort (Hypericum perforatum L.), danshen (Salvia miltiorrhiza Bge.), ginseng (Panax ginseng C.A. Mey.), Japanese raisin tree (Hovenia dulcis Thunb.), ibogaine (Tabernanthe iboga H. Bn.), evening primrose (Oenothera biennis L.), prickly pear fruit (Opuntia ficus indica (L.) Mill.), purple passionflower (Passiflora incarnata L.), thyme (Thymus vulgaris L.), fenugreek seed (Trigonella foenum-graecum L.), ginger (Zingiber officinale Roscoe) and many others drew the attention of researchers. Can, therefore, drugs of natural origin be helpful in the treatment of alcoholism or in decreasing alcohol consumption? PMID:22474979

  7. Pentoxifylline for alcoholic hepatitis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Whitfield, Kate; Rambaldi, Andrea; Wetterslev, Jørn;

    2009-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Alcoholic hepatitis is a life-threatening disease, with an average mortality of approximately 40%. There is no widely accepted, effective treatment for alcoholic hepatitis. Pentoxifylline is used to treat alcoholic hepatitis, but there has been no systematic review to assess its effects....... OBJECTIVES: To assess the benefits and harms of pentoxifylline in alcoholic hepatitis. SEARCH STRATEGY: The Cochrane Hepato-Biliary Group Controlled Trials Register, The Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL) in The Cochrane Library, MEDLINE, EMBASE, Science Citation Index Expanded, LILACS......, clinicaltrials.gov, and full text searches were conducted until August 2009. Manufacturers and authors were contacted. SELECTION CRITERIA: All randomised clinical trials of pentoxifylline in participants with alcoholic hepatitis compared to control were selected for inclusion. DATA COLLECTION AND ANALYSIS: Two...

  8. Alcohol consumption in adolescents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ilona Plevová

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Aim: To determine the level of alcohol consumption in a selected group of adolescents. Design: A descriptive cross-sectional study. Methods: The data were obtained using a part of the standardized ESPAD questionnaire for assessing consumption of alcoholic beverages. The sample comprised 422 students from seven secondary schools of different types in the city of Ostrava. For statistical analysis, the chi-squared test and Fisher's exact test (for n ≤ 5 were used. The data were processed using Stata v. 10. Results: More than half of respondents first tried alcohol before the age of 15. The most frequent alcohol-related problems were unprotected sex, decreased school performance and problems with parents or friends. Incomplete families were found to be an important factor in adolescents preferring and more frequently drinking beer. Conclusion: The study confirmed results reported by the Europe-wide survey ESPAD, namely that adolescents start to drink alcohol as early as before they turn fifteen.

  9. Monitoring prenatal alcohol exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Floyd, R Louise; Sidhu, Jasjeet S

    2004-05-15

    Alcohol use during pregnancy is a leading, preventable cause of birth defects and developmental disabilities in the United States, with fetal alcohol syndrome (FAS) being one of the most severe outcomes. Current survey statistics find that approximately one in eight pregnant women (500,000 per year) report alcohol use, with approximately 80,000 reporting binge drinking. While annual rates have fluctuated, trends analysis finds that there has been no significant change in rates of prenatal alcohol exposure over the past 10-year period. Development of effective programs to prevent FAS and to monitor the success of prevention efforts requires epidemiological data systems to inform these activities. This article describes alcohol use patterns among childbearing-age women and data sources that can be used in monitoring this behavior. PMID:15095466

  10. Alcohol Expectancies, Alcohol Use, and Hostility as Longitudinal Predictors of Alcohol-Related Aggression

    OpenAIRE

    Kachadourian, Lorig K.; Homish, Gregory G.; Quigley, Brian M; Leonard, Kenneth E.

    2011-01-01

    The direct and interactive effects of alcohol expectancies for aggression, dispositional hostility, and heavy alcohol consumption on alcohol-related physical aggression were examined across the first four years of marriage in a sample of 634 newlywed couples. For husbands, alcohol aggression expectancies predicted increases in alcohol-related aggression; across husbands and wives however, aggression expectancies were not found to interact with hostility or alcohol consumption to predict physi...

  11. 75 FR 38533 - National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-02

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice... personal privacy. Name of Committee: National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism Special Emphasis... Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism, Office of Extramural Activities, Extramural Project Officer, 5635...

  12. 78 FR 42530 - National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-16

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice... personal privacy. Name of Committee: National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism Initial Review..., Ph.D., Scientific Review Officer, National Institute on Alcohol Abuse & Alcoholism,...

  13. 76 FR 26308 - National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-06

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice... personal privacy. Name of Committee: National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism Initial Review..., Scientific Review Administrator, National Institutes On Alcohol Abuse & Alcoholism National, Institutes...

  14. 75 FR 57473 - National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-21

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice... personal privacy. Name of Committee: National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism Special Emphasis... Officer, National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism, Office of Extramural Activities,...

  15. 76 FR 78014 - National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice of Closed Meeting

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    2011-12-15

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice... personal privacy. Name of Committee: National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism Initial Review...., Scientific Review Administrator, National Institutes on Alcohol Abuse & Alcoholism, National Institutes...

  16. 75 FR 10291 - National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-05

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice... personal privacy. Name of Committee: National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism, Initial Review..., MBA, Scientific Review Officer, National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism, Office...

  17. 75 FR 24961 - National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice of Closed Meetings

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    2010-05-06

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice... personal privacy. Name of Committee: National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism Special Emphasis... Extramural Activities, National Institutes of Health, National Institute on Alcohol Abuse & Alcoholism,...

  18. 75 FR 63494 - National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-15

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice... personal privacy. Name of Committee: National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism Special Emphasis..., Extramural Project Review Branch, EPRB, National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism,...

  19. 78 FR 42529 - National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-16

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice... personal privacy. Name of Committee: National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism Initial Review....D., Scientific Review Administrator, National Institutes on Alcohol Abuse & Alcoholism,...

  20. 77 FR 22794 - National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-17

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice... personal privacy. Name of Committee: National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism Initial Review..., Ph.D., Scientific Review Administrator, National Institutes on Alcohol Abuse & Alcoholism...

  1. Kinetic properties of the two alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH) isozymes of the Medfly Ceratitis capitata (Diptera: Tephritidae)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH; alcohol: NAD+ oxidoreductase; EC 1.1.1.1) catalyses the reversible interconversion of a variety of alcohols and their corresponding aldehydes and ketones. Among insects, the ADH gene-enzyme system has been extensively studied in several species of Drosophila (Chambers 1988, Heinstra 1993, Ashburner 1998). The best characterised ADH from a non-drosophilid insect is that of the Medfly, Ceratitis capitata (Wied.), based on data from molecular genetics (Malacrida et al. 1992, Gasperi et al. 1992, Brogna et al. 1999), biochemistry (Gasperi et al. 1994) and population genetics (Gasperi et al. 1992, Gomulski et al. 1998). The primary interest in studying this enzymatic function in the Medfly was that the ADH system has been proposed, on the model of Drosophila, as a useful tool for genetic sexing strategies addressed to the biological control of this pest (Robinson et al. 1988). Moreover, molecular characterisation of Adh in a species like C. capitata, that diverged from the Drosophilidae more than 100 million years ago (Beverley and Wilson 1984), is of interest for studying the evolution of this protein in higher diptera. The principal function of ADH in insect metabolism is to catabolise alcohols generated by microbial fermentation in larval and adult feeding sites; in Drosophila melanogaster Meigen, the presence of an active ADH is responsible for two different phenotypic traits, namely alcohol tolerance and alcohol utilisation (Van Delden 1982, David 1988). The ecological niche of C. capitata is different from that of Drosophila species, the first breeding on ripening fruits, the latter breeding on rotten plant material. Consequently, the physiological role of ADH may have diversified in these dipteran species

  2. Does Alcohol Education Prevent Alcohol Problems?: Need for Evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooper, A. Mitch; Sobell, Mark B.

    1979-01-01

    Examined evidence for the alleged failure of alcohol education to prevent alcohol problems among children and adolescents. Concluded that there is need for investigations of the effectiveness of alcohol education. Recommendations regarding methodological characteristics of an adequate test of effectiveness of alcohol education were presented and…

  3. [Genetic variations in alcohol dehydrogenase, drinking habits and alcoholism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tolstrup, J.S.; Rasmussen, S.; Tybjaerg-Hansen, A.;

    2008-01-01

    Alcohol is degraded primarily by alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH), and genetic variation that affects the rate of alcohol degradation is found in ADH1B and ADH1C. By genotyping 9,080 white men and women from the general population, we found that men and women with ADH1B slow versus fast alcohol...... degradation drank approximately 30% more alcohol per week and had a higher risk of everyday and heavy drinking, and of alcoholism. Individuals with ADH1C slow versus fast alcohol degradation had a higher risk of heavy drinking Udgivelsesdato: 2008/8/25...

  4. Clinical pathology of alcohol.

    OpenAIRE

    Marks, V.

    1983-01-01

    There is good though not conclusive evidence that a small to modest average daily intake of alcohol--that is, 20-30 g/day is associated with increased longevity due mainly to a reduction in death from cardiovascular disease. Larger average daily alcohol intakes--especially those in excess of 60 g/day for men and 40 g/day for women--are associated with gradually increasing morbidity and mortality rates from a variety of diseases. Alcohol may be unrecognised as the cause of somatic disease, whi...

  5. [Alcohol and working life].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaarne, Tiina; Aalto, Mauri

    2009-01-01

    Alcohol-related harm constitutes a significant factor decreasing work productivity. Of heavy alcohol users, most participate in working life. According to labour contract law, a person attending the workplace inebriated can be fired. If the employer applies a deferral to treatment practice, the drug- or alcohol-addicted person can be provided with the choice of therapy and rehabilitation instead of terminating the employment. According to the recent recommendation by the trade unions, organizations should have a program for preventing substance abuse. The employer should take care of the worker's intoxicant education and train the foremen to intervene in the situations on time. PMID:19492706

  6. Discovering Genes Involved in Alcohol Dependence and Other Alcohol Responses

    OpenAIRE

    Buck, Kari J.; Milner, Lauren C.; Denmark, Deaunne L.; Grant, Seth G.N.; Kozell, Laura B.

    2012-01-01

    The genetic determinants of alcoholism still are largely unknown, hindering effective treatment and prevention. Systematic approaches to gene discovery are critical if novel genes and mechanisms involved in alcohol dependence are to be identified. Although no animal model can duplicate all aspects of alcoholism in humans, robust animal models for specific alcohol-related traits, including physiological alcohol dependence and associated withdrawal, have been invaluable resources. Using a varie...

  7. The Neighborhood Alcohol Environment and Alcohol-Related Morbidity

    OpenAIRE

    Theall, Katherine P.; Scribner, Richard; Cohen, Deborah; Bluthenthal, Ricky N.; Schonlau, Matthias; Lynch, Sara; Farley, Thomas A.

    2009-01-01

    Aims: The aims of this study were (1) to examine the association between neighborhood alcohol outlet density and individual self-reported alcohol-related health outcomes in the last year—sexually transmitted infections (STI), motor vehicle accidents, injury, liver problems, hypertension and experienced violence; (2) to determine whether the relationship between morbidity and alcohol outlet density is mediated by individual alcohol consumption; and (3) to explore the role of alcohol outlet den...

  8. Characterization of Saccharomyces cerevisiae CYP51 and a CYP51 fusion protein with NADPH cytochrome P-450 oxidoreductase expressed in Escherichia coli.

    OpenAIRE

    Venkateswarlu, K; Kelly, D. E.; Kelly, S. L.

    1997-01-01

    Saccharomyces cerevisiae CYP51, target of azole antifungal agents, and CYP51 fused with S. cerevisiae cytochrome P-450 oxidoreductase (FUS protein) were expressed in active forms in Escherichia coli by cloning into pET15b. The expression was monitored immunologically, catalytically, and by using reduced carbon monoxide difference and type II binding spectra. CYP51 and FUS enzymes were located in membranes and produced a Soret peak at 448 nm in the reduced CO difference spectrum. The cytochrom...

  9. Moral judgment of alcohol addicts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mladenović Ivica

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Alcoholism could represent an important factor of crime and different forms of abuse of family members (physical and emotional exist in many alcohol-addict cases, as well as characteristics of immoral behaviour. Objective. The objective of our study was to determine the predominating forms in moral judgment of alcohol addicts, and to examine whether there was any statistically significant difference in moral judgment between alcohol addicted persons and non-alcoholics from general population. Methods. The sample consisted of 62 subjects, divided into a study (alcoholics and a control group (non-alcoholics from general population. The following instruments were used: social-demographic data, AUDIT, MMPI-201, cybernetic battery of IQ tests (KOG-3 and the TMR moral reasoning test. Results. Mature forms of moral judgment prevailed in both group of subjects, alcohol addicted persons and non-alcoholics. Regarding mature forms of moral judgment (driven by emotions and cognitive non-alcoholics from the general population had higher scores, but the difference was not statistically significant. Regarding socially adapted and egocentric orientation alcohol addicted persons had higher scores. However, only regarding intuitive-irrational orientation there was a statistically significant difference in the level of moral judgment (p<0.05 between alcoholics and non-alcoholics, in favour of the alcoholics. Conclusion. Moral judgment is not a category differing alcohol addicted persons from those who are not. Nevertheless, the potential destructivity of alcoholism is reflected in lower scores regarding mature orientations in moral judgment.

  10. ALCOHOL AND HEART RHYTHM DISORDERS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. O. Yusupova

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Alcohol abuse and particularly extension of alcohol consumption in alcohol diseas increases the risk of cardiac arrhythmias development and aggravates existing arrhythmias. Patients do not always receive the necessary specific treatment due to lack of detection of the ethanol genesis of these arrhythmias. Management of patients with alcohol abuse and alcohol dependence, including its cardiac complications among other cardiac arrhythmias should use both antiarrhythmic and anti-alcohol drugs and antidepressants. Such issues as diagnosis and management of patients with alcohol-induced cardiac arrhythmias are presented.

  11. Alcohol Facts and Statistics

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... other persons of the same age. 26 Consequences—Researchers estimate that each year: 1,825 college students between the ages of 18 and 24 die from alcohol-related unintentional injuries, including motor-vehicle crashes. 27 ...

  12. Alcohol and Migraine

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... tension-type headache. Cluster headache patients have higher alcohol sensitivity (about 50-80%). In a forward-looking study (PAMINA) published in 2007 Austrian researchers examined a large number of factors related to ...

  13. Alcohol and Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... In addition, the combined use of alcohol and tobacco greatly increases the risk of oral, laryngeal, pharyngeal, and esophageal cancers. Written January 2016 ©2007, American Cancer Society, Inc. ...

  14. When alcohol acts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Demant, Jakob

    2009-01-01

      Sociological studies into alcohol use seem to find it difficult to deal with the substance itself. Alcohol tends to be reduced to a symbol of a social process and in this way the sociological research loses sight of effects beyond the social. This paper suggests a new theoretical approach...... to the study of alcohol and teenagers' (romantic) relationships, inspired by actor-network theory (ANT). The central feature of ANT is to search for relationships, or rather networks, between all things relevant to the phenomenon. All material and semantic structures, things, persons, discourses, etc....... that influence a given situation are described as actants and are entered into the analysis. The aim of this paper is to propose a way of including materiality in sociological analyses of alcohol and to explore ways of using focus group interview material in ANT-inspired analysis. By analyzing a girl...

  15. Alcohol Facts and Statistics

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... deaths (31 percent of overall driving fatalities). 11 Economic Burden: In 2010, alcohol misuse problems cost the ... 18–24: Changes from 1998 to 2001. Annual Review of Public Health 26: 259–279, 2005. PMID: ...

  16. Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... can cause a group of conditions called fetal alcohol spectrum disorders (FASDs). Effects can include physical and behavioral problems such as trouble with Learning and remembering Understanding and following directions Controlling emotions Communicating and socializing Daily life skills, such as ...

  17. Alcohol advertising and youth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Susan E; Snyder, Leslie B; Hamilton, Mark; Fleming-Milici, Fran; Slater, Michael D; Stacy, Alan; Chen, Meng-Jinn; Grube, Joel W

    2002-06-01

    This article presents the proceedings of a symposium at the 2001 Research Society on Alcoholism meeting in Montreal, Canada. The symposium was organized and chaired by Joel W. Grube. The presentations and presenters were (1) Introduction and background, by Susan E. Martin; (2) The effect of alcohol ads on youth 15-26 years old, by Leslie Snyder, Mark Hamilton, Fran Fleming-Milici, and Michael D. Slater; (3) A comparison of exposure to alcohol advertising and drinking behavior in elementary versus middle school children, by Phyllis L. Ellickson and Rebecca L. Collins; (4) USC health and advertising project: assessment study on alcohol advertisement memory and exposure, by Alan Stacy; and (5) TV beer and soft drink advertising: what young people like and what effects? by Meng-Jinn Chen and Joel W. Grube. PMID:12068260

  18. Alcohol and Pregnancy

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Just a moment, please. You've saved this page It's been added to your dashboard . Alcohol and ... Map Premature birth report card Careers Archives Health Topics Pregnancy Before or between pregnancies Nutrition, weight & fitness ...

  19. Alcohol and Heart Health

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Restaurant Deciphering the Menu Ordering Your Meal Eating Fast Food Dining Out Tips by Cuisine Physical Activity Fitness ... other things. For example, excessive amounts of alcoholic consumption could be harmful by increasing the risk of ...

  20. Alcohol and Pregnancy

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... and premature birth Zika virus and pregnancy Microcephaly Medicine safety and pregnancy Birth defects prevention Learn how ... a healthy weight and avoiding alcohol and street drugs . Featured articles March of Dimes Premature Birth Report ...

  1. Inpatient alcohol withdrawal syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monte-Secades, R; Rabuñal-Rey, R; Guerrero-Sande, H

    2015-03-01

    A 55-year-old man was admitted for a femur fracture; an alcohol fetor was noted on admission. The following day, the patient began to experience tremors and nervousness. Intravenous haloperidol was administered. Shortly afterwards, the patient experienced two generalized seizures and then began to experience delirium and uncontrollable agitation. The patient was diagnosed with alcohol withdrawal syndrome; high doses of intravenous midazolam were prescribed and infused. A few hours later, the patient presented signs of respiratory depression, requiring a transfer to the intensive care unit. After a review of the medical history, it was determined that the patient had been admitted on 3 previous occasions due to alcohol withdrawal and had progressed to delirium tremens after experiencing seizures. Can the risk of alcohol withdrawal syndrome and the need for prophylactic treatment be assessed on admission? Were appropriate monitoring and treatment measures employed? Would it have been possible to change his outcome? PMID:25559647

  2. Fetal alcohol syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... development. There also may be problems with the face and bones. Tests include: Blood alcohol level in pregnant women who show signs of being drunk (intoxicated) Brain imaging studies (CT or MRI) after the child is born Pregnancy ultrasound

  3. Alcohol and Pregnancy

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Lead and pregnancy Zika virus and pregnancy Microcephaly Medicine safety and pregnancy Birth defects prevention Learn how ... a healthy weight and avoiding alcohol and street drugs . Featured articles March of Dimes Premature Birth Report ...

  4. Weight loss and alcohol

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... you are trying to lose weight, you can boost your efforts by cutting back on alcoholic drinks. ... goes in your drink. Many mixed drinks include juices, simple syrup, or liqueur, which all add extra ...

  5. Alcohol and Pregnancy

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... articles How long should you wait before getting pregnant again? Preterm labor and premature birth Lead and ... pregnancy 3:07 Drinking alcohol while you are pregnant can cause your baby to be born with ...

  6. [Prevention of alcohol dependence].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trova, A C; Paparrigopoulos, Th; Liappas, I; Ginieri-Coccossis, M

    2015-01-01

    With the exception of cardiovascular diseases, no other medical condition causes more serious dysfunction or premature deaths than alcohol-related problems. Research results indicate that alcohol dependent individuals present an exceptionally poor level of quality of life. This is an outcome that highlights the necessity of planning and implementing preventive interventions on biological, psychological or social level, to be provided to individuals who make alcohol abuse, as well as to their families. Preventive interventions can be considered on three levels of prevention: (a) primary prevention, which is focused on the protection of healthy individuals from alcohol abuse and dependence, and may be provided on a universal, selective or indicated level, (b) secondary prevention, which aims at the prevention of deterioration regarding alcoholic dependence and relapse, in the cases of individuals already diagnosed with the condition and (c) tertiary prevention, which is focused at minimizing deterioration of functioning in chronically sufferers from alcoholic dependence. The term "quaternary prevention" can be used for the prevention of relapse. As for primary prevention, interventions focus on assessing the risk of falling into problematic use, enhancing protective factors and providing information and health education in general. These interventions can be delivered in schools or in places of work and recreation for young people. In this context, various programs have been applied in different countries, including Greece with positive results (Preventure, Alcolocks, LST, SFP, Alcohol Ignition Interlock Device). Secondary prevention includes counseling and structured help with the delivery of programs in schools and in high risk groups for alcohol dependence (SAP, LST). These programs aim at the development of alcohol refusal skills and behaviors, the adoption of models of behaviors resisting alcohol use, as well as reinforcement of general social skills. In the

  7. Advances in Alcoholism Treatment

    OpenAIRE

    Huebner, Robert B.; Kantor, Lori Wolfgang

    2011-01-01

    Researchers are working on numerous and varied approaches to improving the accessibility, quality, effectiveness, and cost-effectiveness of treatment for alcohol use disorders (AUDs). This overview article summarizes the approaches reviewed in this issue, including potential future developments for alcoholism treatment, such as medications development, behavioral therapy, advances in technology that are being used to improve treatment, integrated care of patients with AUDs and co-occurring di...

  8. Alcohol and Sexual Assault

    OpenAIRE

    Abbey, Antonia; Zawacki, Tina; Buck, Philip O; Clinton, A. Monique; McAuslan, Pam

    2001-01-01

    Conservative estimates of sexual assault prevalence suggest that 25 percent of American women have experienced sexual assault, including rape. Approximately one-half of those cases involve alcohol consumption by the perpetrator, victim, or both. Alcohol contributes to sexual assault through multiple pathways, often exacerbating existing risk factors. Beliefs about alcohol’s effects on sexual and aggressive behavior, stereotypes about drinking women, and alcohol’s effects on cognitive and moto...

  9. Alcohol and liver, 2010

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Natalia; A; Osna

    2010-01-01

    Liver is known as an organ that is primarily affected by alcohol. Alcoholic liver disease (ALD) is the cause of an increased morbidity and mortality worldwide. Progression of ALD is driven by "second hits". These second hits include the complex of nutritional, pharmacological, genetic and viral factors, which aggravate liver pathology. However, in addition to liver failure, ethanol causes damage to other organs and systems. These extrahepatic manifestations are regulated via the similar hepatitis mechanisms...

  10. Preliminary crystallographic data of the three homologues of the thiol–disulfide oxidoreductase DsbA in Neisseria meningitidis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Neisseria meningitidis genome possesses three genes encoding active DsbAs. To throw light on the reason for this genetic multiplicity, the three enzymes have been purified and crystallized. Bacterial virulence depends on the correct folding of surface-exposed proteins, a process that is catalyzed by the thiol-disulfide oxidoreductase DsbA, which facilitates the synthesis of disulfide bonds in Gram-negative bacteria. Uniquely among bacteria, the Neisseria meningitidis genome possesses three genes encoding active DsbAs: DsbA1, DsbA2 and DsbA3. DsbA1 and DsbA2 have been characterized as lipoproteins involved in natural competence and in host-interactive biology, while the function of DsbA3 remains unknown. In an attempt to shed light on the reason for this multiplicity of dsbA genes, the three enzymes from N. meningitidis have been purified and crystallized in the presence of high concentrations of ammonium sulfate. The best crystals were obtained using DsbA1 and DsbA3; they belong to the orthorhombic and tetragonal systems and diffract to 1.5 and 2.7 Å resolution, respectively

  11. ArxA, a new clade of arsenite oxidase within the DMSO reductase family of molybdenum oxidoreductases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zargar, Kamrun; Conrad, Alison; Bernick, David L.; Lowe, Todd M.; Stolc, Viktor; Hoeft, Shelley; Oremland, Ronald S.; Stolz, John; Saltikov, Chad W.

    2012-01-01

    Arsenotrophy, growth coupled to autotrophic arsenite oxidation or arsenate respiratory reduction, occurs only in the prokaryotic domain of life. The enzymes responsible for arsenotrophy belong to distinct clades within the DMSO reductase family of molybdenum-containing oxidoreductases: specifically arsenate respiratory reductase, ArrA, and arsenite oxidase, AioA (formerly referred to as AroA and AoxB). A new arsenite oxidase clade, ArxA, represented by the haloalkaliphilic bacterium Alkalilimnicola ehrlichii strain MLHE-1 was also identified in the photosynthetic purple sulfur bacterium Ectothiorhodospira sp. strain PHS-1. A draft genome sequence of PHS-1 was completed and an arx operon similar to MLHE-1 was identified. Gene expression studies showed that arxA was strongly induced with arsenite. Microbial ecology investigation led to the identification of additional arxA-like sequences in Mono Lake and Hot Creek sediments, both arsenic-rich environments in California. Phylogenetic analyses placed these sequences as distinct members of the ArxA clade of arsenite oxidases. ArxA-like sequences were also identified in metagenome sequences of several alkaline microbial mat environments of Yellowstone National Park hot springs. These results suggest that ArxA-type arsenite oxidases appear to be widely distributed in the environment presenting an opportunity for further investigations of the contribution of Arx-dependent arsenotrophy to the arsenic biogeochemical cycle.

  12. Problematic detoxification of estrogen quinones by NAD(P)H-dependent quinone oxidoreductase and glutathione-S-transferase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chandrasena, R Esala P; Edirisinghe, Praneeth D; Bolton, Judy L; Thatcher, Gregory R J

    2008-07-01

    Estrogen exposure through early menarche, late menopause, and hormone replacement therapy increases the risk factor for hormone-dependent cancers. Although the molecular mechanisms are not completely established, DNA damage by quinone electrophilic reactive intermediates, derived from estrogen oxidative metabolism, is strongly implicated. A current hypothesis has 4-hydroxyestrone-o-quinone (4-OQE) acting as the proximal estrogen carcinogen, forming depurinating DNA adducts via Michael addition. One aspect of this hypothesis posits a key role for NAD(P)H-dependent quinone oxidoreductase (NQO1) in the reduction of 4-OQE and protection against estrogen carcinogenesis, despite two reports that 4-OQE is not a substrate for NQO1. 4-OQE is rapidly and efficiently trapped by GSH, allowing measurement of NADPH-dependent reduction of 4-OQE in the presence and absence of NQO1. 4-OQE was observed to be a substrate for NQO1, but the acceleration of NADPH-dependent reduction by NQO1 over the nonenzymic reaction is less than 10-fold and at more relevant nanomolar concentrations of substrate is less than 2-fold. An alternative detoxifying enzyme, glutathione-S-transferase, was observed to be a target for 4-OQE, rapidly undergoing covalent modification. These results indicate that a key role for NQO1 and GST in direct detoxification of 4-hydroxy-estrogen quinones is problematic. PMID:18588320

  13. Involvement of sulfide:quinone oxidoreductase in sulfur oxidation of an acidophilic iron-oxidizing bacterium, Acidithiobacillus ferrooxidans NASF-1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wakai, Satoshi; Kikumoto, Mei; Kanao, Tadayoshi; Kamimura, Kazuo

    2004-12-01

    The effects of cyanide, azide, and 2-n-Heptyl-4-hydroxy-quinoline-N-oxide (HQNO) on the oxidation of ferrous ion or elemental sulfur with Acidithiobacillus ferrooxidans NASF-1 cells grown in iron- or sulfur-medium were examined. The iron oxidation of both iron- and sulfur-grown cells was strongly inhibited by cyanide and azide, but not by HQNO. Sulfur oxidation was relatively resistant to cyanide and azide, and inhibited by HQNO. Higher sulfide oxidation, ubiquinol dehydrogenase activity, and sulfide:quinone oxidoreductase (SQR) activity were observed in sulfur-grown cells more than in iron-grown cells. Sulfide oxidation in the presence of ubiquinone with the membrane fraction was inhibited by HQNO, but not by cyanide, azide, antimycin A, and myxothiazol. The transcription of three genes, encoding an aa(3)-type cytochrome c oxidase (coxB), a bd-type ubiquinol oxidase (cydA), and an sqr, were measured by real-time reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction. The transcriptional levels of coxB and cydA genes were similar in sulfur- and iron-grown cells, but that of sqr was 3-fold higher in sulfur-grown cells than in iron-grown cells. A model is proposed for the oxidation of reduced inorganic sulfur compounds in A. ferrooxidans NASF-1 cells. PMID:15618623

  14. Synthesis and Antimicrobial Evaluation of Amixicile-Based Inhibitors of the Pyruvate-Ferredoxin Oxidoreductases of Anaerobic Bacteria and Epsilonproteobacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kennedy, Andrew J; Bruce, Alexandra M; Gineste, Catherine; Ballard, T Eric; Olekhnovich, Igor N; Macdonald, Timothy L; Hoffman, Paul S

    2016-07-01

    Amixicile is a promising derivative of nitazoxanide (an antiparasitic therapeutic) developed to treat systemic infections caused by anaerobic bacteria, anaerobic parasites, and members of the Epsilonproteobacteria (Campylobacter and Helicobacter). Amixicile selectively inhibits pyruvate-ferredoxin oxidoreductase (PFOR) and related enzymes by inhibiting the function of the vitamin B1 cofactor (thiamine pyrophosphate) by a novel mechanism. Here, we interrogate the amixicile scaffold, guided by docking simulations, direct PFOR inhibition assays, and MIC tests against Clostridium difficile, Campylobacter jejuni, and Helicobacter pylori Docking simulations revealed that the nitro group present in nitazoxanide interacts with the protonated N4'-aminopyrimidine of thiamine pyrophosphate (TPP). The ortho-propylamine on the benzene ring formed an electrostatic interaction with an aspartic acid moiety (B456) of PFOR that correlated with improved PFOR-inhibitory activity and potency by MIC tests. Aryl substitution with electron-withdrawing groups and substitutions of the propylamine with other alkyl amines or nitrogen-containing heterocycles both improved PFOR inhibition and, in many cases, biological activity against C. difficile Docking simulation results correlate well with mechanistic enzymology and nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) studies that show members of this class of antimicrobials to be specific inhibitors of vitamin B1 function by proton abstraction, which is both novel and likely to limit mutation-based drug resistance. PMID:27090174

  15. NAD(P)H quinone oxidoreductase 1 inhibits the proteasomal degradation of homocysteine-induced endoplasmic reticulum protein.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maeda, Tomoji; Tanabe-Fujimura, Chiaki; Fujita, Yu; Abe, Chihiro; Nanakida, Yoshino; Zou, Kun; Liu, Junjun; Liu, Shuyu; Nakajima, Toshihiro; Komano, Hiroto

    2016-05-13

    Homocysteine-induced endoplasmic reticulum (ER) protein (Herp) is an ER stress-inducible key regulatory component of ER-associated degradation (ERAD) that has been implicated in insulin hypersecretion in diabetic mouse models. Herp expression is tightly regulated. Additionally, Herp is a highly labile protein and interacts with various proteins, which are characteristic features of ubiquitinated protein. Previously, we reported that ubiquitination is not required for Herp degradation. In addition, we found that the lysine residues of Herp (which are ubiquitinated by E3 ubiquitin ligase) are not sufficient for regulation of Herp degradation. In this study, we found that NAD(P)H quinone oxidoreductase 1 (NQO1)-mediated targeting of Herp to the proteasome was involved in Herp degradation. In addition, we found that Herp protein levels were markedly elevated in synoviolin-null cells. The E3 ubiquitin ligase synoviolin is a central component of ERAD and is involved in the degradation of nuclear factor E2-related factor-2 (Nrf2), which regulates cellular reactive oxygen species. Additionally, NQO1 is a target of Nrf2. Thus, our findings indicated that NQO1 could stabilize Herp protein expression via indirect regulation of synoviolin. PMID:27084451

  16. Hybrid neural network model for simulating sorbitol synthesis by glucose-fructose oxidoreductase in Zymomonas mobilis CP4

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bravo S.

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available A hybrid neural network model for simulating the process of enzymatic reduction of fructose to sorbitol process catalyzed by glucose-fructose oxidoreductase in Zymomonas mobilis CP4 is presented. Data used to derive and validate the model was obtained from experiments carried out under different conditions of pH, temperature and concentrations of both substrates (glucose and fructose involved in the reaction. Sonicated and lyophilized cells were used as source of the enzyme. The optimal pH for sorbitol synthesis at 30º C is 6.5. For a value of pH of 6, the optimal temperature is 35º C. The neural network in the model computes the value of the kinetic relationship. The hybrid neural network model is able to simulate changes in the substrates and product concentrations during sorbitol synthesis under pH and temperature conditions ranging between 5 and 7.5 and 25 and 40º C, respectively. Under these conditions the rate of sorbitol synthesis shows important differences. Values computed using the hybrid neural network model have an average error of 1.7·10-3 mole.

  17. Role of the Na(+)-translocating NADH:quinone oxidoreductase in voltage generation and Na(+) extrusion in Vibrio cholerae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vorburger, Thomas; Nedielkov, Ruslan; Brosig, Alexander; Bok, Eva; Schunke, Emina; Steffen, Wojtek; Mayer, Sonja; Götz, Friedrich; Möller, Heiko M; Steuber, Julia

    2016-04-01

    For Vibrio cholerae, the coordinated import and export of Na(+) is crucial for adaptation to habitats with different osmolarities. We investigated the Na(+)-extruding branch of the sodium cycle in this human pathogen by in vivo (23)Na-NMR spectroscopy. The Na(+) extrusion activity of cells was monitored after adding glucose which stimulated respiration via the Na(+)-translocating NADH:quinone oxidoreductase (Na(+)-NQR). In a V. cholerae deletion mutant devoid of the Na(+)-NQR encoding genes (nqrA-F), rates of respiratory Na(+) extrusion were decreased by a factor of four, but the cytoplasmic Na(+) concentration was essentially unchanged. Furthermore, the mutant was impaired in formation of transmembrane voltage (ΔΨ, inside negative) and did not grow under hypoosmotic conditions at pH8.2 or above. This growth defect could be complemented by transformation with the plasmid encoded nqr operon. In an alkaline environment, Na(+)/H(+) antiporters acidify the cytoplasm at the expense of the transmembrane voltage. It is proposed that, at alkaline pH and limiting Na(+) concentrations, the Na(+)-NQR is crucial for generation of a transmembrane voltage to drive the import of H(+) by electrogenic Na(+)/H(+) antiporters. Our study provides the basis to understand the role of the Na(+)-NQR in pathogenicity of V. cholerae and other pathogens relying on this primary Na(+) pump for respiration. PMID:26721205

  18. Crystallization of the NADH-oxidizing domain of the Na{sup +}-translocating NADH:ubiquinone oxidoreductase from Vibrio cholerae

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tao, Minli [Department of Biochemistry, University of Zürich, Winterthurerstrasse 190, 8057 Zürich (Switzerland); Türk, Karin [School of Engineering and Science, International University Bremen, 28759 Bremen (Germany); Diez, Joachim [Swiss Light Source at Paul Scherrer Institut, 5232 Villigen PSI (Switzerland); Grütter, Markus G. [Department of Biochemistry, University of Zürich, Winterthurerstrasse 190, 8057 Zürich (Switzerland); Fritz, Günter, E-mail: guenter.fritz@uni-konstanz.de [Fachbereich Biologie, Universität Konstanz, Postfach M665, Universitätsstrasse 10, 78457 Konstanz (Germany); Steuber, Julia, E-mail: guenter.fritz@uni-konstanz.de [Department of Biochemistry, University of Zürich, Winterthurerstrasse 190, 8057 Zürich (Switzerland)

    2006-02-01

    The FAD domain of the NqrF subunit from the Na{sup +}-translocating NADH dehydrogenase from V. cholerae has been purified and crystallized. A complete data set was recorded at 3.1 Å. The Na{sup +}-translocating NADH:quinone oxidoreductase (Na{sup +}-NQR) from pathogenic and marine bacteria is a respiratory complex that couples the exergonic oxidation of NADH by quinone to the transport of Na{sup +} across the membrane. The NqrF subunit oxidizes NADH and transfers the electrons to other redox cofactors in the enzyme. The FAD-containing domain of NqrF has been expressed, purified and crystallized. The purified NqrF FAD domain exhibited high rates of NADH oxidation and contained stoichiometric amounts of the FAD cofactor. Initial crystallization of the flavin domain was achieved by the sitting-drop technique using a Cartesian MicroSys4000 robot. Optimization of the crystallization conditions yielded yellow hexagonal crystals with dimensions of 30 × 30 × 70 µm. The protein mainly crystallizes in long hexagonal needles with a diameter of up to 30 µm. Crystals diffract to 2.8 Å and belong to space group P622, with unit-cell parameters a = b = 145.3, c = 90.2 Å, α = β = 90, γ = 120°.

  19. Crystallization of the NADH-oxidizing domain of the Na+-translocating NADH:ubiquinone oxidoreductase from Vibrio cholerae

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tao, Minli; Türk, Karin; Diez, Joachim; Grütter, Markus G.; Fritz, Günter; Steuber, Julia

    2006-01-01

    The Na+-translocating NADH:quinone oxidoreductase (Na+-NQR) from pathogenic and marine bacteria is a respiratory complex that couples the exergonic oxidation of NADH by quinone to the transport of Na+ across the membrane. The NqrF subunit oxidizes NADH and transfers the electrons to other redox cofactors in the enzyme. The FAD-containing domain of NqrF has been expressed, purified and crystallized. The purified NqrF FAD domain exhibited high rates of NADH oxidation and contained stoichiometric amounts of the FAD cofactor. Initial crystallization of the flavin domain was achieved by the sitting-drop technique using a Cartesian MicroSys4000 robot. Optimization of the crystallization conditions yielded yellow hexagonal crystals with dimensions of 30 × 30 × 70 µm. The protein mainly crystallizes in long hexagonal needles with a diameter of up to 30 µm. Crystals diffract to 2.8 Å and belong to space group P622, with unit-cell parameters a = b = 145.3, c = 90.2 Å, α = β = 90, γ = 120°. PMID:16511277

  20. Upregulation of NAD(PH:Quinone Oxidoreductase By Radiation Potentiates the Effect of Bioreductive β-Lapachone on Cancer Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eun K. Choi

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available We found that (β-Lapachone ((β-Lap, a novel bioreductive drug, caused rapid apoptosis, clonogenic cell death in A549 human lung epithelial cancer cells in vitro in a dose-dependent manner. The clonogenic cell death caused by (β-Lap could be significantly inhibited by dicoumarol, an inhibitor of NAD(PH:quinone oxidoreductase (NO01, also by siRNA for NO01, demonstrating that N001-induced bioreduction of (β-Lap is an essential step in (β-Lap-induced cell death. Irradiation of A549 cells with 4 Gy caused a long-lasting upregulation of N001, thereby increasing N001mediated (β-Lap-induced cell deaths. Although the direct cause of (β-Lap-induced apoptosis is not yet clear, (β-Lap treatment reduced the expression of p53, NF-κB, whereas it increased cytochrome C release, caspase-3 activity, δ2AX foci formation. Importantly, (β-Lap treatment immediately after irradiation enhanced radiation-induced cell death, indicating that (β-Lap sensitizes cancer cells to radiation, in addition to directly killing some of the cells. The growth of A549 tumors induced in immunocompromised mice could be markedly suppressed by local radiation therapy when followed by (β-Lap treatment. This is the first study to demonstrate that combined radiotherapy, (β-Lap treatment can have a significant effect on human tumor xenografts.

  1. Preliminary crystallographic data of the three homologues of the thiol-disulfide oxidoreductase DsbA in Neisseria meningitidis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lafaye, Céline; Iwema, Thomas; Iwena, Thomas; Ferrer, Jean-Luc; Kroll, J Simon; Griat, Mickael; Serre, Laurence

    2008-02-01

    Bacterial virulence depends on the correct folding of surface-exposed proteins, a process that is catalyzed by the thiol-disulfide oxidoreductase DsbA, which facilitates the synthesis of disulfide bonds in Gram-negative bacteria. Uniquely among bacteria, the Neisseria meningitidis genome possesses three genes encoding active DsbAs: DsbA1, DsbA2 and DsbA3. DsbA1 and DsbA2 have been characterized as lipoproteins involved in natural competence and in host-interactive biology, while the function of DsbA3 remains unknown. In an attempt to shed light on the reason for this multiplicity of dsbA genes, the three enzymes from N. meningitidis have been purified and crystallized in the presence of high concentrations of ammonium sulfate. The best crystals were obtained using DsbA1 and DsbA3; they belong to the orthorhombic and tetragonal systems and diffract to 1.5 and 2.7 A resolution, respectively. PMID:18259062

  2. Preliminary crystallographic data of the three homologues of the thiol–disulfide oxidoreductase DsbA in Neisseria meningitidis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lafaye, Céline; Iwena, Thomas; Ferrer, Jean-Luc; Kroll, J. Simon; Griat, Mickael; Serre, Laurence

    2008-01-01

    Bacterial virulence depends on the correct folding of surface-exposed proteins, a process that is catalyzed by the thiol-disulfide oxidoreductase DsbA, which facilitates the synthesis of disulfide bonds in Gram-negative bacteria. Uniquely among bacteria, the Neisseria meningitidis genome possesses three genes encoding active DsbAs: DsbA1, DsbA2 and DsbA3. DsbA1 and DsbA2 have been characterized as lipoproteins involved in natural competence and in host-interactive biology, while the function of DsbA3 remains unknown. In an attempt to shed light on the reason for this multiplicity of dsbA genes, the three enzymes from N. meningitidis have been purified and crystallized in the presence of high concentrations of ammonium sulfate. The best crystals were obtained using DsbA1 and DsbA3; they belong to the orthorhombic and tetragonal systems and diffract to 1.5 and 2.7 Å resolution, respectively. PMID:18259062

  3. Biochemical and structural study of the homologues of the thiol-disulfide oxidoreductase DsbA in Neisseria meningitidis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lafaye, Céline; Iwema, Thomas; Carpentier, Philippe; Jullian-Binard, Céline; Kroll, J Simon; Collet, Jean-François; Serre, Laurence

    2009-10-01

    Bacterial virulence depends on the correct folding of surface-exposed proteins, a process catalyzed by the thiol-disulfide oxidoreductase DsbA, which facilitates the synthesis of disulfide bonds in Gram-negative bacteria. The Neisseria meningitidis genome possesses three genes encoding active DsbAs: DsbA1, DsbA2 and DsbA3. DsbA1 and DsbA2 have been characterized as lipoproteins involved in natural competence and in host interactive biology, while the function of DsbA3 remains unknown. This work reports the biochemical characterization of the three neisserial enzymes and the crystal structures of DsbA1 and DsbA3. As predicted by sequence homology, both enzymes adopt the classic Escherichia coli DsbA fold. The most striking feature shared by all three proteins is their exceptional oxidizing power. With a redox potential of -80 mV, the neisserial DsbAs are the most oxidizing thioredoxin-like enzymes known to date. Consistent with these findings, thermal studies indicate that their reduced form is also extremely stable. For each of these enzymes, this study shows that a threonine residue found within the active-site region plays a key role in dictating this extraordinary oxidizing power. This result highlights how residues located outside the CXXC motif may influence the redox potential of members of the thioredoxin family. PMID:19631659

  4. Preliminary crystallographic data of the three homologues of the thiol–disulfide oxidoreductase DsbA in Neisseria meningitidis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lafaye, Céline [Laboratoire des Protéines Membranaires, Institut de Biologie Structurale, CEA/CNRS/Université Joseph Fourier, 41 Rue Jules Horowitz, 38027 Grenoble CEDEX 01 (France); Iwena, Thomas; Ferrer, Jean-Luc [Laboratoire de Cristallogénèse et Cristallisation des Protéines, Institut de Biologie Structurale, CEA/CNRS/Université Joseph Fourier, 41 Rue Jules Horowitz, 38027 Grenoble CEDEX 01 (France); Kroll, J. Simon [Department of Paediatrics, Imperial College London, St Mary’s Hospital Campus, Norfolk Place, London W2 1PG (United Kingdom); Griat, Mickael; Serre, Laurence, E-mail: laurence.serre@ibs.fr [Laboratoire des Protéines Membranaires, Institut de Biologie Structurale, CEA/CNRS/Université Joseph Fourier, 41 Rue Jules Horowitz, 38027 Grenoble CEDEX 01 (France)

    2008-02-01

    The Neisseria meningitidis genome possesses three genes encoding active DsbAs. To throw light on the reason for this genetic multiplicity, the three enzymes have been purified and crystallized. Bacterial virulence depends on the correct folding of surface-exposed proteins, a process that is catalyzed by the thiol-disulfide oxidoreductase DsbA, which facilitates the synthesis of disulfide bonds in Gram-negative bacteria. Uniquely among bacteria, the Neisseria meningitidis genome possesses three genes encoding active DsbAs: DsbA1, DsbA2 and DsbA3. DsbA1 and DsbA2 have been characterized as lipoproteins involved in natural competence and in host-interactive biology, while the function of DsbA3 remains unknown. In an attempt to shed light on the reason for this multiplicity of dsbA genes, the three enzymes from N. meningitidis have been purified and crystallized in the presence of high concentrations of ammonium sulfate. The best crystals were obtained using DsbA1 and DsbA3; they belong to the orthorhombic and tetragonal systems and diffract to 1.5 and 2.7 Å resolution, respectively.

  5. Crystallization of the NADH-oxidizing domain of the Na+-translocating NADH:ubiquinone oxidoreductase from Vibrio cholerae

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The FAD domain of the NqrF subunit from the Na+-translocating NADH dehydrogenase from V. cholerae has been purified and crystallized. A complete data set was recorded at 3.1 Å. The Na+-translocating NADH:quinone oxidoreductase (Na+-NQR) from pathogenic and marine bacteria is a respiratory complex that couples the exergonic oxidation of NADH by quinone to the transport of Na+ across the membrane. The NqrF subunit oxidizes NADH and transfers the electrons to other redox cofactors in the enzyme. The FAD-containing domain of NqrF has been expressed, purified and crystallized. The purified NqrF FAD domain exhibited high rates of NADH oxidation and contained stoichiometric amounts of the FAD cofactor. Initial crystallization of the flavin domain was achieved by the sitting-drop technique using a Cartesian MicroSys4000 robot. Optimization of the crystallization conditions yielded yellow hexagonal crystals with dimensions of 30 × 30 × 70 µm. The protein mainly crystallizes in long hexagonal needles with a diameter of up to 30 µm. Crystals diffract to 2.8 Å and belong to space group P622, with unit-cell parameters a = b = 145.3, c = 90.2 Å, α = β = 90, γ = 120°

  6. Alcohol-attributable and alcohol-preventable mortality in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eliasen, Marie; Becker, Ulrik; Grønbæk, Morten;

    2014-01-01

    The aim of the study was to quantify alcohol-attributable and -preventable mortality, totally and stratified on alcohol consumption in Denmark 2010, and to estimate alcohol-related mortality assuming different scenarios of changes in alcohol distribution in the population. We estimated alcohol......-attributable and -preventable fractions based on relative risks of conditions causally associated with alcohol from meta-analyses and information on alcohol consumption in Denmark obtained from 14,458 participants in the Danish National Health Survey 2010 and corrected for adult per capita consumption. Cause......-specific mortality data were obtained from the Danish Register of Causes of Death. In total, 1,373 deaths among women (5.0 % of all deaths) and 2,522 deaths among men (9.5 % of all deaths) were attributable to alcohol, while an estimated number of 765 (2.8 %) and 583 (2.2 %) deaths were prevented by alcohol. Of the...

  7. Acute alcohol consumption, alcohol outlets, and gun suicide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Branas, Charles C; Richmond, Therese S; Ten Have, Thomas R; Wiebe, Douglas J

    2011-01-01

    A case-control study of 149 intentionally self-inflicted gun injury cases (including completed gun suicides) and 302 population-based controls was conducted from 2003 to 2006 in a major US city. Two focal independent variables, acute alcohol consumption and alcohol outlet availability, were measured. Conditional logistic regression was adjusted for confounding variables. Gun suicide risk to individuals in areas of high alcohol outlet availability was less than the gun suicide risk they incurred from acute alcohol consumption, especially to excess. This corroborates prior work but also uncovers new information about the relationships between acute alcohol consumption, alcohol outlets, and gun suicide. Study limitations and implications are discussed. PMID:21929327

  8. The influence of alcohol-specific communication on adolescent alcohol use and alcohol-related consequences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reimuller, Alison; Hussong, Andrea; Ennett, Susan T

    2011-12-01

    Alcohol-specific communication, a direct conversation between an adult and an adolescent regarding alcohol use, contains messages about alcohol relayed from the adult to the child. The current study examined the construct of alcohol-specific communication and the effect of messages on adolescent alcohol use and alcohol-related consequences. Parent-adolescent dyads were assessed biannually for 3 years (grades 9-11 at wave 6) to examine these relations in a large longitudinal study of adolescents initially in grades 6 through 8. An exploratory factor analysis identified two factors among alcohol-specific communication items, permissive messages and negative alcohol messages. Results showed previous level of adolescent alcohol use moderated the relation between permissive messages and alcohol use outcomes. Plotting of these interactions showed greater alcohol use and consequences with increasing permissive messages in adolescents with higher versus lower levels of previous alcohol use. Results suggest that parental messages regarding alcohol use may impact adolescent alcohol use beyond the effect of general parenting style and parental alcohol use. PMID:21667141

  9. Alcohol combustion chemistry

    KAUST Repository

    Sarathy, Mani

    2014-10-01

    Alternative transportation fuels, preferably from renewable sources, include alcohols with up to five or even more carbon atoms. They are considered promising because they can be derived from biological matter via established and new processes. In addition, many of their physical-chemical properties are compatible with the requirements of modern engines, which make them attractive either as replacements for fossil fuels or as fuel additives. Indeed, alcohol fuels have been used since the early years of automobile production, particularly in Brazil, where ethanol has a long history of use as an automobile fuel. Recently, increasing attention has been paid to the use of non-petroleum-based fuels made from biological sources, including alcohols (predominantly ethanol), as important liquid biofuels. Today, the ethanol fuel that is offered in the market is mainly made from sugar cane or corn. Its production as a first-generation biofuel, especially in North America, has been associated with publicly discussed drawbacks, such as reduction in the food supply, need for fertilization, extensive water usage, and other ecological concerns. More environmentally friendly processes are being considered to produce alcohols from inedible plants or plant parts on wasteland. While biofuel production and its use (especially ethanol and biodiesel) in internal combustion engines have been the focus of several recent reviews, a dedicated overview and summary of research on alcohol combustion chemistry is still lacking. Besides ethanol, many linear and branched members of the alcohol family, from methanol to hexanols, have been studied, with a particular emphasis on butanols. These fuels and their combustion properties, including their ignition, flame propagation, and extinction characteristics, their pyrolysis and oxidation reactions, and their potential to produce pollutant emissions have been intensively investigated in dedicated experiments on the laboratory and the engine scale

  10. The economics of alcohol abuse and alcohol-control policies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cook, Philip J; Moore, Michael J

    2002-01-01

    Economic research has contributed to the evaluation of alcohol policy through empirical analysis of the effects of alcohol-control measures on alcohol consumption and its consequences. It has also provided an accounting framework for defining and comparing costs and benefits of alcohol consumption and related policy interventions, including excise taxes. The most important finding from the economics literature is that consumers tend to drink less ethanol, and have fewer alcohol-related problems, when alcoholic beverage prices are increased or alcohol availability is restricted. That set of findings is relevant for policy purposes because alcohol abuse imposes large "external" costs on others. Important challenges remain, including developing a better understanding of the effects of drinking on labor-market productivity. PMID:11900152

  11. Alcohol Alert: Alcohol's Damaging Effects on the Brain

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... R.; et al. Gender differences in moderate drinking effects. Alcohol Research & Health 23:55–64, 1999. (5) Loft, S. ; ... A.; and Sullivan, E. Sex differences in the effects of alcohol on brain structure. American Journal of Psychiatry 158: ...

  12. Alcoholism and Alcohol Abuse - Multiple Languages: MedlinePlus

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Supplements Videos & Tools You Are Here: Home → Multiple Languages → All Health Topics → Alcoholism and Alcohol Abuse URL of this page: https://medlineplus.gov/languages/alcoholismandalcoholabuse.html Other topics A-Z A B ...

  13. 78 FR 65347 - National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-10-31

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice... personal privacy. Name of Committee: National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism Special Emphasis... Abuse and Alcoholism, 5635 Fishers Lane (Teleconference), Rockville, MD 20855. Contact Person:...

  14. 78 FR 21615 - National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-11

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice... personal privacy. Name of Committee: National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism Initial ] Review... Foster, Ph.D., Scientific Review Administrator, National Institutes on Alcohol Abuse &...

  15. Psychoanalytic Treatment of Psychological Addiction to Alcohol (Alcohol Abuse)

    OpenAIRE

    Johnson, Brian

    2011-01-01

    The DSM-V Committee plans to abolish the distinction between Alcohol Abuse and Alcohol Dependence (dsm5.org). The author presents a case report as a proof of concept that this distinction should be retained. The author has asserted that Alcohol Abuse is a purely psychological addiction, while Alcohol Dependence involves capture of the ventral tegmental dopaminergic SEEKING system (Johnson, 2003). In psychological addiction the brain can be assumed to function normally, and ordinary psychoanal...

  16. Alcoholic Lung Disease

    OpenAIRE

    Kershaw, Corey D.; Guidot, David M.

    2008-01-01

    In addition to its well-known association with lung infection (i.e., pneumonia), alcohol abuse now is recognized as an independent factor that increases by three- to four-fold the incidence of the acute respiratory distress syndrome, a severe form of acute lung injury with a mortality rate of 40 to 50 percent. This translates to tens of thousands of excess deaths in the United States each year from alcohol-mediated lung injury, which is comparable to scarring of the liver (i.e., cirrhosis) in...

  17. Alcohol, cannabis y accidentalidad

    OpenAIRE

    Olave Porrua, Leticia; Matos Larrinaga, Jesús; Salguero Noguera, Martín; Ramos Cejudo, Juan; Mae Wood, Cristina; Iruarrizaga Díez, Itziar

    2011-01-01

    Se ha desarrollado este trabajo de revisión con el objetivo de concentrar los últimos avances en investigación del consumo de alcohol y cannabis y su infl uencia en la conducción. Se realizaron tres búsquedas sistemáticas en la base de datos Psycinfo, introduciendo las palabras clave 'alcohol' AND 'traffi c'y 'cannabis' AND 'traffi c', restringida a los últimos cinco años (de enero de 2006 a diciembre de 2010). El presente trabajo incluye los datos más relevantes sobre prevalen...

  18. Chicano Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism in the Barrio.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jasso, Ricardo

    Conducted in January 1977, the community survey examined alcohol abuse and alcoholism among Chicanos in the barrios. Data were obtained from 160 respondents (119 females and 41 males) from 3 geographic areas in San Antonio: the Special Impact Area of Casa Del Sol (an alcoholism program) and the cities of San Antonio and Alamo Heights. Information…

  19. Information on Blood Alcohol Concentration: Evaluation of Two Alcohol Nomograms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Werch, Chudley E.

    1988-01-01

    Compared utility of two common alcohol nomograms on impacting decisions regarding drinking, driving after drinking, knowledge of relationship between personal alcohol consumption and the legal level of intoxication, and consumer evaluation measures, to utility of alcohol information warning card. Nomograms were no more effective than cards warning…

  20. Fetal Alcohol Syndrome and Fetal Alcohol Effects in Child Development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pancratz, Diane R.

    This literature review defines Fetal Alcohol Syndrome (FAS) and Fetal Alcohol Effects (FAE) and considers their causes, diagnoses, prevalence, and educational ramifications. Effects of alcohol during each of the trimesters of pregnancy are summarized. Specific diagnostic characteristics of FAS are listed: (1) growth deficiency, (2) a…

  1. Relationship between Alcohol Consumption and Alcohol Problems in Young Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Werch, Chudley E.; And Others

    1987-01-01

    Examined relationship among alcohol problems and alcohol consumption variables in 410 college students. Total alcohol-related problems, drinking and driving problems, and school problems increased significantly when subjects drank moderately. Physical illness problems increased during light drinking, while interpersonal and legal problems…

  2. Fetal Alcohol Syndrome and Fetal Alcohol Effects: Principles for Educators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burgess,Donna M.; Streissguth, Ann P.

    1992-01-01

    Fetal alcohol syndrome (FAS), the leading cause of mental retardation, often goes unrecognized because of social and emotional taboos about alcohol and alcoholism. This article describes medical and behavioral characteristics of FAS children and describes guiding principles for educators, based on early intervention, teaching communication and…

  3. Alcohol drinking pattern and risk of alcoholic liver cirrhosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Askgaard, Gro; Grønbæk, Morten; Kjær, Mette Skalshøi;

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND & AIMS: Alcohol is the main contributing factor of alcoholic cirrhosis, but less is known about the significance of drinking pattern. METHODS: We investigated the risk of alcoholic cirrhosis among 55,917 participants (aged 50-64 years) in the Danish Cancer, Diet, and Health study (1993...

  4. Optimized inhibition assays reveal different inhibitory responses of hydroxylamine oxidoreductases from beta- and gamma-proteobacterial ammonium-oxidizing bacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nishigaya, Yuki; Fujimoto, Zui; Yamazaki, Toshimasa

    2016-07-29

    Ammonia-oxidizing bacteria (AOB), ubiquitous chemoautotrophic bacteria, convert ammonia (NH3) to nitrite (NO2(-)) via hydroxylamine as energy source. Excessive growth of AOB, enhanced by applying large amounts of ammonium-fertilizer to the farmland, leads to nitrogen leaching and nitrous oxide gas emission. To suppress these unfavorable phenomena, nitrification inhibitors, AOB specific bactericides, are widely used in fertilized farmland. However, new nitrification inhibitors are desired because of toxicity and weak-effects of currently used inhibitors. Toward development of novel nitrification inhibitors that target hydroxylamine oxidoreductase (HAO), a key enzyme of nitrification in AOB, we established inhibitor evaluation systems that include simplified HAO purification procedure and high-throughput HAO activity assays for the purified enzymes and for the live AOB cells. The new assay systems allowed us to observe distinct inhibitory responses of HAOs from beta-proteobacterial AOB (βAOB) Nitrosomonas europaea (NeHAO) and gamma-proteobacterial AOB (γAOB) Nitrosococcus oceani (NoHAO) against phenylhydrazine, a well-known suicide inhibitor for NeHAO. Consistently, the live cells of N. europaea, Nitrosomonas sp. JPCCT2 and Nitrosospira multiformis of βAOB displayed higher responses to phenylhydrazine than those of γAOB N. oceani. Our homology modeling studies suggest that different inhibitory responses of βAOB and γAOB are originated from different local environments around the substrate-binding sites of HAOs in these two classes of bacteria due to substitutions of two residues. The results reported herein strongly recommend inhibitor screenings against both NeHAO of βAOB and NoHAO of γAOB to develop HAO-targeting nitrification inhibitors with wide anti-AOB spectra. PMID:27173879

  5. Deletion of P399E401 in NADPH cytochrome P450 oxidoreductase results in partial mixed oxidase deficiency

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: → Mutations in human POR cause congenital adrenal hyperplasia. → We are reporting a novel 3 amino acid deletion mutation in POR P399E401del. → POR mutation P399E401del decreased P450 activities by 60-85%. → Impairment of steroid metabolism may be caused by multiple hits. → Severity of aromatase inhibition is related to degree of in utero virilization. -- Abstract: P450 oxidoreductase (POR) is the electron donor for all microsomal P450s including steroidogenic enzymes CYP17A1, CYP19A1 and CYP21A2. We found a novel POR mutation P399E401del in two unrelated Turkish patients with 46,XX disorder of sexual development. Recombinant POR proteins were produced in yeast and tested for their ability to support steroid metabolizing P450 activities. In comparison to wild-type POR, the P399E401del protein was found to decrease catalytic efficiency of 21-hydroxylation of progesterone by 68%, 17α-hydroxylation of progesterone by 76%, 17,20-lyase action on 17OH-pregnenolone by 69%, aromatization of androstenedione by 85% and cytochrome c reduction activity by 80%. Protein structure analysis of the three amino acid deletion P399E401 revealed reduced stability and flexibility of the mutant. In conclusion, P399E401del is a novel mutation in POR that provides valuable genotype-phenotype and structure-function correlation for mutations in a different region of POR compared to previous studies. Characterization of P399E401del provides further insight into specificity of different P450s for interaction with POR as well as nature of metabolic disruptions caused by more pronounced effect on specific P450s like CYP17A1 and aromatase.

  6. Effects of topiroxostat and febuxostat on urinary albumin excretion and plasma xanthine oxidoreductase activity in db/db mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakamura, Takashi; Murase, Takayo; Nampei, Mai; Morimoto, Nobutaka; Ashizawa, Naoki; Iwanaga, Takashi; Sakamoto, Ryusuke

    2016-06-01

    Topiroxostat, a xanthine oxidoreductase (XOR) inhibitor, has been shown to decrease the urinary albumin-to-creatinine ratio compared with placebo in hyperuricemic patients with stage 3 chronic kidney disease. Thus, we aimed to ascertain the albuminuria-lowering effect of topiroxostat in diabetic mouse. Db/db mice were fed standard diets with or without topiroxostat (0.1, 0.3, 1, and 3mg/kg/day) and febuxostat (0.1, 0.3, and 1mg/kg/day) for four weeks. Urinary albumin and purine bodies levels, XOR activities, and drug concentrations in the liver, kidney, and plasma were measured. Moreover, the XOR inhibitory activity of each XOR inhibitor was evaluated with or without an exogenous protein in vitro. Topiroxostat decreased dose-dependently the urinary albumin excretion, but febuxostat did not show such a tendency. Treatment with topiroxostat inhibited plasma XOR activity with dose-dependent increase in plasma purine levels, which was not observed by febuxostat. Pharmacokinetic/pharmacodynamic analysis revealed that topiroxostat and febuxostat concentration in each tissue showed a good correlation with both the hypouricemic effect and plasma drug concentration, whereas the change in albuminuria correlated neither with the change in uric acid nor with drug concentration in plasma. However, the change in urinary albumin and plasma XOR activity showed good correlation in topiroxostat group. The 50% inhibitory concentration (IC50 value) of febuxostat against plasma XOR in vitro was 12-fold higher than that of topiroxostat, and increased by approximately 13-fold by interfering with an exogenous protein. Topiroxostat caused reduced urinary albumin excretion, in which potent inhibition of the plasma XOR activity might be involved. PMID:27038523

  7. Interplay Between the Oxidoreductase PDIA6 and microRNA-322 Controls the Response to Disrupted Endoplasmic Reticulum Calcium Homeostasis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Groenendyk, Jody; Peng, Zhenling; Dudek, Elzbieta; Fan, Xiao; Mizianty, Marcin J.; Dufey, Estefanie; Urra, Hery; Sepulveda, Denisse; Rojas-Rivera, Diego; Lim, Yunki; Kim, Do Han; Baretta, Kayla; Srikanth, Sonal; Gwack, Yousang; Ahnn, Joohong; Kaufman, Randal J.; Lee, Sun-Kyung; Hetz, Claudio; Kurgan, Lukasz; Michalak, Marek

    2016-01-01

    The disruption of the energy or nutrient balance triggers endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress, a process that mobilizes various strategies, collectively called the unfolded protein response (UPR), which reestablish homeostasis of the ER and cell. Activation of the UPR stress sensor IRE1α (inositol-requiring enzyme 1α) stimulates its endoribonuclease activity, leading to the generation of the mRNA encoding the transcription factor XBP1 (X-box binding protein 1), which regulates the transcription of genes encoding factors involved in controlling the quality and folding of proteins. We found that the activity of IRE1α was regulated by the ER oxidoreductase PDIA6 (protein disulfide isomerase A6) and the microRNA miR-322 in response to disruption of ER Ca2+ homeostasis. PDIA6 interacted with IRE1α and enhanced IRE1α activity as monitored by phosphorylation of IRE1α and XBP1 mRNA splicing, but PDIA6 did not substantially affect the activity of other pathways that mediate responses to ER stress. ER Ca2+ depletion and activation of store operated Ca2+ entry reduced the abundance of the microRNA miR-322, which increased PDIA6 mRNA stability and consequently IRE1α activity during the ER stress response. In vivo experiments with mice and worms showed that the induction of ER stress correlated with decreased miR-322 abundance, increased PDIA6 mRNA abundance, or both. Together these findings demonstrated that ER Ca2+, PDIA6, IRE1α, and miR-322 function in a dynamic feedback loop modulating the UPR under conditions of disrupted ER Ca2+ homeostasis. PMID:24917591

  8. Application of nanodisc technology for direct electrochemical investigation of plant cytochrome P450s and their NADPH P450 oxidoreductase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bavishi, Krutika; Laursen, Tomas; Martinez, Karen L; Møller, Birger Lindberg; Della Pia, Eduardo Antonio

    2016-01-01

    Direct electrochemistry of cytochrome P450 containing systems has primarily focused on investigating enzymes from microbes and animals for bio-sensing applications. Plant P450s receive electrons from NADPH P450 oxidoreductase (POR) to orchestrate the bio-synthesis of a plethora of commercially valuable compounds. In this report, full length CYP79A1, CYP71E1 and POR of the dhurrin pathway in Sorghum bicolor were reconstituted individually in nanoscale lipid patches, "nanodiscs", and directly immobilized on unmodified gold electrodes. Cyclic voltammograms of CYP79A1 and CYP71E1 revealed reversible redox peaks with average midpoint potentials of 80 ± 5 mV and 72 ± 5 mV vs. Ag/AgCl, respectively. POR yielded two pairs of redox peaks with midpoint potentials of 90 ± 5 mV and -300 ± 10 mV, respectively. The average heterogeneous electron transfer rate constant was calculated to be ~1.5 s(-1). POR was electro-catalytically active while the P450s generated hydrogen peroxide (H2O2). These nanodisc-based investigations lay the prospects and guidelines for construction of a simplified platform to perform mediator-free, direct electrochemistry of non-engineered cytochromes P450 under native-like conditions. It is also a prelude for driving plant P450 systems electronically for simplified and cost-effective screening of potential substrates/inhibitors and fabrication of nano-bioreactors for synthesis of high value natural products. PMID:27386958

  9. Legionella pneumophila utilizes a Single Player Disulfide-Bond Oxidoreductase System to Manage Disulfide Bond Formation and Isomerization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kpadeh, Zegbeh Z.; Day, Shandra R.; Mills, Brandy W.; Hoffman, Paul S.

    2015-01-01

    Legionella pneumophila uses a single homodimeric disulfide bond (DSB) oxidoreductase DsbA2 to catalyze extracytoplasmic protein folding and to correct DSB errors through protein-disulfide isomerase (PDI) activity. In Escherichia coli, these functions are separated to avoid futile cycling. In L. pneumophila, DsbA2 is maintained as a mixture of disulfides (S-S) and free thiols (SH), but when expressed in E. coli, only the SH form is observed. We provide evidence to suggest that structural differences in DsbB oxidases (LpDsbB1 and LpDsbB2) and DsbD reductases (LpDsbD1 and LpDsbD2) (compared to E. coli) permit bifunctional activities without creating a futile cycle. LpdsbB1 and LpdsbB2 partially complemented an EcdsbB mutant while neither LpdsbD1 nor LpdsbD2 complemented an EcdsbD mutant unless DsbA2 was also expressed. When the dsb genes of E. coli were replaced with those of L. pneumophila, motility was restored and DsbA2 was present as a mixture of redox forms. A dominant-negative approach to interfere with DsbA2 function in L. pneumophila determined that DSB oxidase activity was necessary for intracellular multiplication and assembly/function of the Dot/Icm Type IVb secretion system. Our studies show that a single-player system may escape the futile cycle trap by limiting transfer of reducing equivalents from LpDsbDs to DsbA2. PMID:25534767

  10. Men's Health: Alcohol and Drug Abuse

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... This information in Spanish ( en español ) Alcohol and drug abuse More information on alcohol and drug abuse Alcohol ... Return to top More information on Alcohol and drug abuse Explore other publications and websites Consequences of the ...

  11. Alcohol and Public Health: Frequently Asked Questions

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... it okay to drink when pregnant? What is alcohol? Ethyl alcohol, or ethanol, is an intoxicating ingredient ... sugars, and starches. Top of Page How does alcohol affect a person? Alcohol affects every organ in ...

  12. Propylthiouracil for alcoholic liver disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fede, Giuseppe; Germani, Giacomo; Gluud, Christian;

    2011-01-01

    Randomised clinical trials have addressed the question whether propylthiouracil has any beneficial effects in patients with alcoholic liver disease.......Randomised clinical trials have addressed the question whether propylthiouracil has any beneficial effects in patients with alcoholic liver disease....

  13. Alcohol use and safe drinking

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... considered "problem drinkers." This means that they: Get drunk Have accidents related to alcohol use Get into ... to legally define whether or not you are drunk. The legal limit for blood alcohol usually falls ...

  14. Alcohol use and safe drinking

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/001944.htm Alcohol use and safe drinking To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Alcohol use involves drinking beer, wine, or hard liquor. ...

  15. Propylthiouracil for alcoholic liver disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rambaldi, A; Gluud, C

    2002-01-01

    Alcohol is the most common cause of liver disease in the Western world today. Randomised clinical trials have addressed the question whether propylthiouracil has any efficacy in patients with alcoholic liver disease.......Alcohol is the most common cause of liver disease in the Western world today. Randomised clinical trials have addressed the question whether propylthiouracil has any efficacy in patients with alcoholic liver disease....

  16. [Alcoholism from the systemic viewpoint].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schweizer, V; Besson, J

    1999-10-14

    In this paper we attempt to view the phenomenon alcohol abuse and dependence within the family or partnership and to describe the important impact of alcoholism on social relation. Understating the role of alcohol in the familial structure may help to draw conclusions for competence and effectiveness of individual or familial psychotherapeutic interventions. PMID:10574037

  17. Alcohol, marihuana and youth

    OpenAIRE

    KREJČOVÁ, Iveta

    2012-01-01

    The subject of this work is misusing alcohol and illicit addicting substances (primarily marijuana) by students at high schools. The research was done at specifically chosen high school by questionnaires, that helped to uncover student?s experiences with illicit addicting substances.

  18. Saying No to Alcohol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abbey, Nancy; Wagman, Ellen

    This teacher guide is part of a series of three interactive books on tobacco, alcohol, and marijuana; three informational books containing parallel content; and three teacher guides designed to give students in grades five through eight practice in using the information and skills presented in the books. The guide provides teachers with a…

  19. Children of Alcoholics

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... at home: Failure in school; truancy Lack of friends; withdrawal from classmates Delinquent behavior, such as stealing or violence Frequent physical complaints, such as headaches or stomachaches Abuse of drugs or alcohol; or Aggression towards other children Risk taking behaviors Depression or ...

  20. Alcohol content variation in the assessment of alcohol consumption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, C S; Nirenberg, T D

    1991-01-01

    Most investigators have not adequately accounted for the alcohol content of different beverages when assessing alcohol consumption. Considerable research has assessed consumption in terms of the number of standard drinks. A problem with standard drink measures is that different distilled spirits, wines, and malt beverages vary considerably in alcohol content. State-to-state and brand-to-brand variations in the strength of different malt beverage brands are provided, as malt beverage alcohol contents are not contained on labels due to federal and state regulations. Ignoring alcohol content variation when estimating consumption can produce a large amount of error. Alcohol consumption should be assessed in terms of the number, size, and alcohol content of beverages. PMID:1801580

  1. Exploring the 49-kDa subunit as part of the catalytic core of complex I (NADH:ubiquinone oxidoreductase) from Yarrowia lipolytica

    OpenAIRE

    Grgic, Ljuban

    2004-01-01

    Ligands of Iron-Sulphur Cluster N2: In this work the ubiquinone reducing catalytic core of NADH:ubiquinone oxidoreductase (complex I) from Y. lipolytica was studied by a series of point mutations replacing conserved histidines or arginines in the 49-kDa subunit. Although the missing 4th ligand of cluster N2 could not be found in the 49-kDa subunit of complex I, it was clearly demonstrated that iron-sulphur cluster N2 resides directly on the interface between the PSST and 49-kDa subunits. The ...

  2. The reaction of NADPH with bovine mitochondrial NADH:ubiquinone oxidoreductase revisited: I. Proposed consequences for electron transfer in the enzyme

    OpenAIRE

    Albracht, S.P.J.

    2010-01-01

    Bovine NADH:ubiquinone oxidoreductase (Complex I) is the first complex in the mitochondrial respiratory chain. It has long been assumed that it contained only one FMN group. However, as demonstrated in 2003, the intact enzyme contains two FMN groups. The second FMN was proposed to be located in a conserved flavodoxin fold predicted to be present in the PSST subunit. The long-known reaction of Complex I with NADPH differs in many aspects from that with NADH. It was proposed that the second fla...

  3. Directed Evolution and Resolution Mechanism of 1, 3-Propanediol Oxidoreductase from Klebsiella pneumoniae toward Higher Activity by Error-Prone PCR and Bioinformatics

    OpenAIRE

    Jiang, Wei; Zhuang, Yuan; Wang, Shizhen; Fang, Baishan

    2015-01-01

    1, 3-propanediol oxidoreductase (PDOR) is a key enzyme in glycerol bioconversion to 1,3-propanediol (1, 3-PD) which is a valuable chemical and one of the six new petrochemical products. We used error-prone PCR and activity screening to identify mutants of Klebsiella pneumoniae (K. pneumoniae) PDOR with improved activity. The activity of one of the identified mutants, PDOR’-24, which includes a single mutation, A199S, was 48 U/mg, 4.9 times that of the wild-type enzyme. Molecular docking was p...

  4. A novel aldose-aldose oxidoreductase for co-production of D-xylonate and xylitol from D-xylose with Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    OpenAIRE

    Marilyn G. Wiebe; Nygård, Yvonne; Oja, Merja; Andberg, Martina; Ruohonen, Laura; Koivula, Anu; Penttilä, Merja; Toivari, Mervi

    2015-01-01

    An open reading frame CC1225 from the Caulobacter crescentus CB15 genome sequence belongs to the Gfo/Idh/MocA protein family and has 47 % amino acid sequence identity with the glucose-fructose oxidoreductase from Zymomonas mobilis (Zm GFOR). We expressed the ORF CC1225 in the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae and used a yeast strain expressing the gene coding for Zm GFOR as a reference. Cell extracts of strains overexpressing CC1225 (renamed as Cc aaor) showed some Zm GFOR type of activity, prod...

  5. Heterologous Expression of Equine CYP3A94 and Investigation of a Tunable System to Regulate Co-Expressed NADPH P450 Oxidoreductase Levels

    OpenAIRE

    Dettwiler, Ramona; Schmitz, Andrea; Plattet, Philippe; Zielinski, Jana; Mevissen, Meike

    2014-01-01

    The activity of cytochrome P450 enzymes depends on the enzyme NADPH P450 oxidoreductase (POR). The aim of this study was to investigate the activity of the equine CYP3A94 using a system that allows to regulate the POR protein levels in mammalian cells. CYP3A94 and the equine POR were heterologously expressed in V79 cells. In the system used, the POR protein regulation is based on a destabilizing domain (DD) that transfers its instability to a fused protein. The resulting fusion protein is the...

  6. Dual control of a common L-1,2-propanediol oxidoreductase by L-fucose and L-rhamnose in Escherichia coli.

    OpenAIRE

    Y.M. Chen; Lin, E C

    1984-01-01

    Anaerobic growth of Escherichia coli on L-fucose or L-rhamnose as the sole source of carbon and energy depends on the regeneration of NAD from NADH by disposing the intermediate L-lactaldehyde as L-1,2-propanediol. The two parallel pathways, with their own permeases and enzymes encoded by two widely separated gene clusters, appear to share a single enzyme that catalyzes the formation of L-1,2-propanediol. Although this oxidoreductase is encoded by a gene at the fuc locus, the enzyme is induci...

  7. Alcohol use following an alcohol challenge and a brief intervention among alcohol-dependent individuals

    OpenAIRE

    Bacio, GA; Lunny, KF; Webb, JN; Ray, LA

    2014-01-01

    Background and Objectives The study examined the effects of an alcohol challenge on naturalistic drinking among alcohol-dependent individuals and explored brief motivational interviewing (MI) as a potential intervention for these participants. Method Alcohol-dependent individuals (n = 32, eight females) completed the intake assessment, alcohol challenge, one MI session, and 1-month follow-up (87.5% retention) where they completed measures of drinking and motivation for change. Results As expe...

  8. Body composition in detoxified alcoholics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    York, J L; Pendergast, D E

    1990-04-01

    Body composition was evaluated in healthy detoxified alcoholics (aged 20-39) and lifestyle controls, with the expectation that prolonged, excessive consumption of alcohol may bring about nutritional or toxicologic alterations in the relationship between body fat and lean body mass. Body fat was assessed by measurements of skin-fold thickness and by means of bioelectric impedance methodology. No noteworthy differences were observed between alcoholics and controls with regard to the relationship between lean body mass and body fat or in the relationship between extracellular and intracellular water. It would appear that 15-20 years of heavy alcohol consumption does not necessarily alter body composition in healthy, young alcoholics. PMID:2190482

  9. Genetic studies in alcohol research

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Karp, R.W. [National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism, Rockville, MD (United States)

    1994-12-15

    The National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism (NIAAA) supports research to elucidate the specific genetic factors, now largely unknown, which underlie susceptibility to alcoholism and its medical complications (including fetal alcohol syndrome). Because of the genetic complexity and heterogeneity of alcoholism, identification of the multiple underlying factors will require the development of new study designs and methods of analysis of data from human families. While techniques of genetic analysis of animal behavioral traits (e.g., targeted gene disruption, quantitative trait locus (QTL) mapping) are more powerful that those applicable to humans (e.g., linkage and allelic association studies), the validation of animal behaviors as models of aspects of human alcoholism has been problematic. Newly developed methods for mapping QTL influencing animal behavioral traits can not only permit analyses of human family data to be directly informed by the results of animal studies, but can also serve as a novel means of validating animal models of aspects of alcoholism. 55 refs.

  10. Preoperative alcoholism and postoperative morbidity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tonnesen, H; Kehlet, H

    1999-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Preoperative risk assessment has become part of daily clinical practice, but preoperative alcohol abuse has not received much attention. METHODS: A Medline search was carried out to identify original papers published from 1967 to 1998. Relevant articles on postoperative morbidity in...... alcohol abusers were used to evaluate the evidence. RESULTS: Prospective and retrospective studies demonstrate a twofold to threefold increase in postoperative morbidity in alcohol abusers, the most frequent complications being infections, bleeding and cardiopulmonary insufficiency. Wound complications...... postoperative morbidity. CONCLUSION: Alcohol consumption should be included in the preoperative assessment of likely postoperative outcome. Reduction of postoperative morbidity in alcohol abusers may include preoperative alcohol abstinence to improve organ function, or perioperative alcohol administration to...

  11. [Alcohol and women: clinical aspects].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ceccanti, Mauro; Romeo, Marina; Fiorentino, Daniela

    2004-01-01

    Alcohol-related pathologies lead to most serious expressions, both at clinical and social level. The diffused social acceptance of consumption and abuse behavior and the lack of alcohol education for professionals (physicians, psychologists, social workers etc.) make difficult to put in the right frame this issue. Just a multidimensional approach can make the problem understandable. The history of alcohol consumption during the time gives us an exhaustive picture of the negative consequences of alcohol consumption. Alcohol consumption during pregnancy is a problem still underestimated and represents a serious risk for the health of the newborns: children alcohol-exposed in uterus are at risk to develop many pathologies and even the fetal-alcohol syndrome (FAS) that leads to facial anomalies, growth deficiencies and neurological damages. Therefore interventions coping with this kind of issues are needed in order to enhance people's health. PMID:15269446

  12. Functional and bioinformatics analysis of two Campylobacter jejuni homologs of the thiol-disulfide oxidoreductase, DsbA.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna D Grabowska

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Bacterial Dsb enzymes are involved in the oxidative folding of many proteins, through the formation of disulfide bonds between their cysteine residues. The Dsb protein network has been well characterized in cells of the model microorganism Escherichia coli. To gain insight into the functioning of the Dsb system in epsilon-Proteobacteria, where it plays an important role in the colonization process, we studied two homologs of the main Escherichia coli Dsb oxidase (EcDsbA that are present in the cells of the enteric pathogen Campylobacter jejuni, the most frequently reported bacterial cause of human enteritis in the world. METHODS AND RESULTS: Phylogenetic analysis suggests the horizontal transfer of the epsilon-Proteobacterial DsbAs from a common ancestor to gamma-Proteobacteria, which then gave rise to the DsbL lineage. Phenotype and enzymatic assays suggest that the two C. jejuni DsbAs play different roles in bacterial cells and have divergent substrate spectra. CjDsbA1 is essential for the motility and autoagglutination phenotypes, while CjDsbA2 has no impact on those processes. CjDsbA1 plays a critical role in the oxidative folding that ensures the activity of alkaline phosphatase CjPhoX, whereas CjDsbA2 is crucial for the activity of arylsulfotransferase CjAstA, encoded within the dsbA2-dsbB-astA operon. CONCLUSIONS: Our results show that CjDsbA1 is the primary thiol-oxidoreductase affecting life processes associated with bacterial spread and host colonization, as well as ensuring the oxidative folding of particular protein substrates. In contrast, CjDsbA2 activity does not affect the same processes and so far its oxidative folding activity has been demonstrated for one substrate, arylsulfotransferase CjAstA. The results suggest the cooperation between CjDsbA2 and CjDsbB. In the case of the CjDsbA1, this cooperation is not exclusive and there is probably another protein to be identified in C. jejuni cells that acts to re

  13. Dry alcohol production plant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stanković Mirjana S.

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available The IGPC Engineering Department designed basic projects for dry alcohol production plant, using technology developed in the IGPC laboratories. Several projects were completed: technological, machine, electrical, automation. On the basis of these projects a production plant with a capacity of 40 m3/y was manufactured, at "Zorka Pharma", Šabac in 1995-1996. The product meets all quality demands, as well as environmental regulations. The dry alcohol production process is fully automatized. There is no waste in the process, neither gaseous, nor liquid. The chosen process provides safe operation according to temperature regime and resistance in the pipes, air purification columns and filters. Working at increased pressure is suitable for evaporation and condensation at increased temperatures. The production process can be controlled manually, which is necessary during start-up, and repairs.

  14. Method for recovering alcohol

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dahlstrom, R.A.; Rubin, J.N.

    1980-04-17

    In this method for extraction of alcohol from fermented material, insoluble organic matter is first removed before the ferment enters the distillation column and tried spent grains then recovered by drying under pressure. Excess steam from the drying stage is used to heat the distillation column. In addition, excess water vapour produced as a result of further heating by head vapour from the first distillation column, is drawn off from the evaporation step, condensed and fed into the distillation columns and evaporation step.

  15. Alcoholism in the Elderly

    OpenAIRE

    Cohen, Saul

    1988-01-01

    This article concentrates on the identification confrontation, and treatment of the elderly with late-onset alcohol-abuse problems. The author reviews signs and symptoms that are common both to the aging process and to late-onset problem drinking. He also provides a list of laboratory “markers” that may be helpful for the diagnosis and follow-up of this not infrequent problem.

  16. A thiol-disulfide oxidoreductase of the Gram-positive pathogen Corynebacterium diphtheriae is essential for viability, pilus assembly, toxin production and virulence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reardon-Robinson, Melissa E.; Osipiuk, Jerzy; Jooya, Neda; Chang, Chungyu; Joachimiak, Andrzej; Das, Asis; Ton-That, Hung

    2016-01-01

    Summary The Gram-positive pathogen Corynebacterium diphtheriae exports through the Sec apparatus many extracellular proteins that include the key virulence factors diphtheria toxin and the adhesive pili. How these proteins attain their native conformations after translocation as unfolded precursors remains elusive. The fact that the majority of these exported proteins contain multiple cysteine residues and that several membrane-bound oxidoreductases are encoded in the corynebacterial genome suggests the existence of an oxidative protein-folding pathway in this organism. Here we show that the shaft pilin SpaA harbors a disulfide bond in vivo and alanine substitution of these cysteines abrogates SpaA polymerization and leads to the secretion of degraded SpaA peptides. We then identified a thiol-disulfide oxidoreductase (MdbA), whose structure exhibits a conserved thioredoxin-like domain with a CPHC active site. Remarkably, deletion of mdbA results in a severe temperature-sensitive cell division phenotype. This mutant also fails to assemble pilus structures and is greatly defective in toxin production. Consistent with these defects, the ΔmdbA mutant is attenuated in a guinea pig model of diphtheritic toxemia. Given its diverse cellular functions in cell division, pilus assembly and toxin production, we propose that MdbA is a component of the general oxidative folding machine in C. diphtheriae. PMID:26294390

  17. Directed Evolution and Resolution Mechanism of 1, 3-Propanediol Oxidoreductase from Klebsiella pneumoniae toward Higher Activity by Error-Prone PCR and Bioinformatics.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei Jiang

    Full Text Available 1, 3-propanediol oxidoreductase (PDOR is a key enzyme in glycerol bioconversion to 1,3-propanediol (1, 3-PD which is a valuable chemical and one of the six new petrochemical products. We used error-prone PCR and activity screening to identify mutants of Klebsiella pneumoniae (K. pneumoniae PDOR with improved activity. The activity of one of the identified mutants, PDOR'-24, which includes a single mutation, A199S, was 48 U/mg, 4.9 times that of the wild-type enzyme. Molecular docking was performed to analyze the identified mutants; and amino acids S103, H271, N366, D106, N262 and D364 were predicted to bond with NADH. The origins of the improved activity of PDOR'-24, as well as three other mutants were analyzed by simulating the interaction mechanism of the mutants with the substrate and coenzyme, respectively. This research provides useful information about the use of safranine O plate screening for the directed evolution of oxidoreductases, identifies interesting sites for improving PDOR activity, and demonstrates the utility of using molecular docking to analyze the interaction mechanism of the mutants with the substrate and coenzyme, respectively.

  18. Progesterone Exerts a Neuromodulatory Effect on Turning Behavior of Hemiparkinsonian Male Rats: Expression of 3α-Hydroxysteroid Oxidoreductase and Allopregnanolone as Suggestive of GABAA Receptors Involvement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberto Yunes

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available There is a growing amount of evidence for a neuroprotective role of progesterone and its neuroactive metabolite, allopregnanolone, in animal models of neurodegenerative diseases. By using a model of hemiparkinsonism in male rats, injection of the neurotoxic 6-OHDA in left striatum, we studied progesterone’s effects on rotational behavior induced by amphetamine or apomorphine. Also, in order to find potential explanatory mechanisms, we studied expression and activity of nigrostriatal 3α-hydroxysteroid oxidoreductase, the enzyme that catalyzes progesterone to its active metabolite allopregnanolone. Coherently, we tested allopregnanolone for a possible neuromodulatory effect on rotational behavior. Also, since allopregnanolone is known as a GABAA modulator, we finally examined the action of GABAA antagonist bicuculline. We found that progesterone, in addition to an apparent neuroprotective effect, also increased ipsilateral expression and activity of 3α-hydroxysteroid oxidoreductase. It was interesting to note that ipsilateral administration of allopregnanolone reversed a clear sign of motor neurodegeneration, that is, contralateral rotational behavior. A possible GABAA involvement modulated by allopregnanolone was shown by the blocking effect of bicuculline. Our results suggest that early administration of progesterone possibly activates genomic mechanisms that promote neuroprotection subchronically. This, in turn, could be partially mediated by fast, nongenomic, actions of allopregnanolone acting as an acute modulator of GABAergic transmission.

  19. Structure-function analysis of the endoplasmic reticulum oxidoreductase TMX3 reveals interdomain stabilization of the n-terminal redox-active domain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Haugstetter, J.; Maurer, M.A.; Blicher, Thomas; Pagac, M.; Wider, G.; Ellgaard, L.

    2007-01-01

    Disulfide bond formation in the endoplasmic reticulum is catalyzed by enzymes of the protein disulfide-isomerase family that harbor one or more thioredoxin-like domains. We recently discovered the transmembrane protein TMX3, a thiol-disulfide oxidoreductase of the protein disulfide-isomerase fami...... enzyme. Overall, the data indicate that in addition to their role as substrate and co-factor binding domains, redox-inactive thioredoxin-like domains also function in stabilizing neighboring redox-active domains.......Disulfide bond formation in the endoplasmic reticulum is catalyzed by enzymes of the protein disulfide-isomerase family that harbor one or more thioredoxin-like domains. We recently discovered the transmembrane protein TMX3, a thiol-disulfide oxidoreductase of the protein disulfide-isomerase family...... more resistant toward chemical denaturation and proteolysis in both the oxidized and reduced form. In combination with molecular modeling studies of TMX3 abb', the experimental results provide a new understanding of the relationship between the multidomain structure of TMX3 and its function as a redox...

  20. [DGRW update: alcohol addiction].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vogelgesang, M

    2011-10-01

    First, epidemiological data and socioeconomic consequences of alcohol addiction are summarized. Research findings, in particular in intervention and evaluation, from 2009-2011 in the field of alcohol addiction treatment are then discussed concerning their relevance for rehabilitation practice. The search was based on PubMed and PSYNDEX. The interventions most frequently evaluated and found most effective in alcohol addiction treatment are cognitive-behavioural interventions. Further topics dealt with are: pharmacological relapse prevention; technologically based therapies (e. g. e-therapy); systemic interventions; 12-steps; effectiveness of addiction treatment as confirmed in large-scale catamnestic studies; treatment of addiction and comorbidity; various subgroups (like elderly people and women); as well as other new and interesting developments such as rehab case management, dovetailing of medical and vocational interventions, stepped-care interventions, rehab management category groups as well as a new focus on individual treatment experiences and the pre-eminence of the therapeutic relationship. Finally, priority areas of future research are described. PMID:21976262

  1. Adolescent alcohol use

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bendtsen, Pernille; Damsgaard, Mogens Trab; Huckle, Taisia;

    2014-01-01

    AIMS: To analyse how adolescent drunkenness and frequency of drinking were associated with adult drinking patterns and alcohol control policies. DESIGN, SETTING AND PARTICIPANTS: Cross-sectional survey data on 13- and 15-year-olds in 37 countries who participated in the Health Behaviour in School......-Aged Children (HBSC) Study in 2010 (n = 144 788) were linked to national-level indicators on alcohol control policies and adult drinking patterns. MEASUREMENTS: Outcome measures were self-reported weekly drinking and life-time drunkenness (drunk once or more). Data were analysed using multi-level logistic...... regression models. FINDINGS: In the mutually adjusted models, adolescent drunkenness was associated significantly with high adult alcohol consumption [odds ratio (OR) = 3.15 among boys, 95% confidence interval (CI) = 2.13-4.64, OR girls = 2.44, CI = 1.57-3.80] and risky drinking patterns in the adult...

  2. Physician's information about alcohol problems at hospitalisation of alcohol misusers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, S D; Gluud, C

    1992-01-01

    Information was gathered on recognition and treatment of alcohol problems in the primary and secondary health sectors, the latter represented by a department of hepatology. The general practitioner finds in most cases (18/26, 69%) that it is relevant to advise about a patient's alcohol misuse...... on admission forms when the patient previously has been discharged from another department with this diagnosis. However, if the patient has not previously been hospitalised due to alcohol misuse, information on the diagnosis is only rarely (30/114, 26%) available. This difference is highly significant (P = 0.......0001). The case-recording hospital physician at admission recognises 73% of alcohol misusers who are admitted with a non-alcohol-related diagnosis. When the patient had been evaluated by both the admitting physician and the case-recording hospital physician, information on the alcohol problem occurred...

  3. Alcohol and the work place

    CERN Document Server

    2004-01-01

    The CERN Medical Service has observed an increase in the number of personnel suffering from alcohol-related problems in recent years, in spite of the implementation of stricter regulations concerning the consumption of alcohol on the site. The causes of alcohol-related problems are often complex and many-faceted. A family history of alcohol abuse can be a cofactor in excessive drinking. The effects on a person's work are not negligible and should not be ignored. "Alcohol and the work place" is the third part of a campaign designed to raise awareness of the risks of alcohol consumption, which has already dealt with "alcohol and health" and "alcohol and road safety".Many employers have taken steps to confront the problem, and CERN launched a campaign to help its employees suffering from alcohol-related problems over ten years ago. A standing SCC sub-group on the prevention of alcoholism has been set up and Operational Circular No. 8, which defines the role and responsibilities of all parties concerned in the m...

  4. [Current peculiarities of alcoholic psychosis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aleksin, D S; Egorov, A Iu

    2011-01-01

    The follow-up study of alcoholic psychoses in male patients admitted to a clinical department of a psychiatric hospital in 2005-2007 was carried out. Patients with alcoholic psychoses made up from 15 to 30% of all patients. The number of psychosis had seasonal variations with the elevations in spring and autumn, peaks in January, lune and October. Alcoholic delirium morbidity made up from 69 to 82% of the total number of alcoholic psychoses, alcoholic hallucinosis varied from 14 to 27%. Other forms were presented by single cases. In alcoholic delirium hallucinations had brighter, sated character. The most specific were visual hallucinations in the form of zoohallucinations, hallucinations of an oral cavity ("sensation of threads, hair etc"). The most often observable characters were "extraneous people, animal, demons". In alcoholic hallucinosis, verbal contrast hallucinations, making comment hallucinations, visual illusions were most frequent. The family history of mental disorders and alcoholism was noted in 30% of patients with alcoholic psychosis. The probability of occurrence of alcoholic psychoses depended on the quality of consumed drinks. The presence of a cranial-brain injury in the anamnesis considerably aggravated the disease forecast and increased the risk of seizure syndrome. PMID:22611692

  5. Circulating Cytokines as Biomarkers of Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism

    OpenAIRE

    Rajeshwara N. Achur; Freeman, Willard M.; Vrana, Kent E.

    2009-01-01

    There are currently no consistent objective biochemical markers of alcohol abuse and alcoholism. Development of reliable diagnostic biomarkers that permit accurate assessment of alcohol intake and patterns of drinking is of prime importance to treatment and research fields. Diagnostic biomarker development in other diseases has demonstrated the utility of both open, systems biology, screening for biomarkers and more rational focused efforts on specific biomolecules or families of biomolecules...

  6. Diagnostic challenges in alcohol use disorder and alcoholic liver disease

    OpenAIRE

    Vonghia, Luisa; Michielsen, Peter; Dom, Geert; Francque, Sven

    2014-01-01

    Alcohol use disorders represent a heterogeneous spectrum of clinical manifestations that have been defined by the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders-5. Excessive alcohol intake can lead to damage of various organs, including the liver. Alcoholic liver disease includes different injuries ranging from steatosis to cirrhosis and implicates a diagnostic assessment of the liver disease and of its possible complications. There is growing interest in the possible different tools f...

  7. Acute Alcohol Consumption, Alcohol Outlets, and Gun Suicide

    OpenAIRE

    Branas, Charles C; Richmond, Therese S.; Ten Have, Thomas R.; Wiebe, Douglas J.

    2011-01-01

    A case–control study of 149 intentionally self-inflicted gun injury cases (including completed gun suicides) and 302 population-based controls was conducted from 2003 to 2006 in a major US city. Two focal independent variables, acute alcohol consumption and alcohol outlet availability, were measured. Conditional logistic regression was adjusted for confounding variables. Gun suicide risk to individuals in areas of high alcohol outlet availability was less than the gun suicide risk they incurr...

  8. Alcohol-specific parenting, adolescent alcohol use and the mediating effect of adolescent alcohol-related cognitions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mares, S.H.W.; Lichtwarck-Aschoff, A.; Engels, R.C.M.E.

    2013-01-01

    Objectives : Previous research indicated that alcohol-specific parenting is an important precursor of adolescent alcohol use, but failed to define the underlying mechanism. Based on social cognitive theory, alcohol-related cognitions such as alcohol refusal self-efficacy and alcohol-related expectan

  9. Alcohol abuse and related disorders treatment of alcohol dependence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu. P. Sivolap

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Alcohol abuse and alcoholism are the leading causes of worse health and increased mortality rates. Excessive alcohol consumption is the third leading cause of the global burden of diseases and a leading factor for lower lifespan and higher mortality. Alcohol abuse decreases working capacity and efficiency and requires the increased cost of the treatment of alcohol-induced disorders, which entails serious economic losses. The unfavorable medical and social consequences of excessive alcohol use determine the importance of effective treatment for alcoholism. The goals of rational pharmacotherapy of alcohol dependence are to enhance GABA neurotransmission, to suppress glutamate neurotransmission, to act on serotonin neurotransmission, to correct water-electrolyte balance, and to compensate for thiamine deficiency. Alcoholism treatment consists of two steps: 1 the prevention and treatment of alcohol withdrawal syndrome and its complications (withdrawal convulsions and delirium alcoholicum; 2 antirecurrent (maintenance therapy. Benzodiazepines are the drugs of choice in alleviating alcohol withdrawal and preventing its convulsive attacks and delirium alcoholicum. Diazepam and chlordiazepoxide are most commonly used for this purpose; the safer drugs oxazepam and lorazepam are given to the elderly and patients with severe liver lesions. Anticonvulsants having normothymic properties, such as carbamazepine, valproic acid, topiramate, and lamotrigine, are a definite alternative to benzodiazepines. The traditional Russian clinical practice (clearance detoxification has not a scientific base or significant impact on alcohol withdrawal-related states in addicts. Relapse prevention and maintenance therapy for alcohol dependence are performed using disulfiram, acamprosate, and naltrexone; since 2013 the European Union member countries have been using, besides these agents, nalmefene that is being registered in Russia. Memantine and a number of other

  10. Alcoholic cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stickel, Felix

    2015-01-01

    Hepatocellular carcinoma shows a rising incidence worldwide, and the largest burden of disease in Western countries derives from patients with alcoholic liver disease (ALD) and cirrhosis, the latter being the premier premalignant factor for HCC. The present chapter addresses key issues including the epidemiology of alcohol-associated HCC, and its link to other coexisting non-alcoholic liver diseases, and additional host and environmental risk factors including the underlying genetics. Also discussed are molecular mechanisms of alcohol-associated liver cancer evolution involving the mediators of alcohol toxicity and carcinogenicity, acetaldehyde and reactive oxygen species, as well as the recently described mutagenic adducts which these mediators form with DNA. Specifically, interference of alcohol with retinoids and cofactors of transmethylation processes are outlined. Information presented in this chapter illustrates that the development of HCC in the context of ALD is multifaceted and suggests several molecular targets for prevention and markers for the screening of risk groups. PMID:25427904

  11. Fuel alcohol opportunities for Indiana

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Greenglass, Bert

    1980-08-01

    Prepared at the request of US Senator Birch Bayh, Chairman of the National Alcohol Fuels Commission, this study may be best utilized as a guidebook and resource manual to foster the development of a statewide fuel alcohol plan. It examines sectors in Indiana which will impact or be impacted upon by the fuel alcohol industry. The study describes fuel alcohol technologies that could be pertinent to Indiana and also looks closely at how such a fuel alcohol industry may affect the economic and policy development of the State. Finally, the study presents options for Indiana, taking into account the national context of the developing fuel alcohol industry which, unlike many others, will be highly decentralized and more under the control of the lifeblood of our society - the agricultural community.

  12. Alcohol Use and Abuse: Understanding Alcohol Use Across Your Lifespan | NIH MedlinePlus the Magazine

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... of this page please turn Javascript on. Feature: Alcohol Use and Abuse Understanding Alcohol Use Across Your Lifespan Past Issues / Winter 2013 Table of Contents Alcohol use and the risk for alcohol-related problems ...

  13. Alcohol harm reduction in Europe.

    OpenAIRE

    Herring, Rachel; Thom, Betsy; Beccaria, Franca; Kolind, Torsten; Moskalewicz, Jacek

    2010-01-01

    This chapter provides an overview of harm reduction approaches to alcohol in Europe. First, definitions ascribed to alcohol harm reduction are outlined. Then, evaluated alcohol harm reduction interventions in European countries are described and the evidence for their effectiveness examined. These include multi-component programmes, improvements to the drinking environment, and initiatives to reduce the harms associated with drink-driving. Third, harm reduction activities that have been re...

  14. Alcohol, Athletic Performance and Recovery

    OpenAIRE

    David Cameron-Smith; Vella, Luke D.

    2010-01-01

    Alcohol consumption within elite sport has been continually reported both anecdotally within the media and quantitatively in the literature. The detrimental effects of alcohol on human physiology have been well documented, adversely influencing neural function, metabolism, cardiovascular physiology, thermoregulation and skeletal muscle myopathy. Remarkably, the downstream effects of alcohol consumption on exercise performance and recovery, has received less attention and as such is not well u...

  15. Decerebrate posturing in alcoholic coma.

    OpenAIRE

    Ireland, A J; Grant, P T

    1994-01-01

    Two cases of alcoholic coma are presented where extensor responses to noxious stimuli are demonstrated. Decerebrate posturing normally indicates severe structural or functional depression of midbrain function but can be caused by depressant drugs. Blood alcohol measurements are a vital test in the comatose patient as the clinical picture may be caused, or temporarily significantly worsened, by severe alcohol intoxication. The preservation of pupillary light reflexes in the presence of deep co...

  16. Suicidal Behavior and Alcohol Abuse

    OpenAIRE

    Maurizio Pompili; Gianluca Serafini; Marco Innamorati; Giovanni Dominici; Stefano Ferracuti; Kotzalidis, Giorgio D.; Giulia Serra; Paolo Girardi; Luigi Janiri; Roberto Tatarelli; Leo Sher; David Lester

    2010-01-01

    Suicide is an escalating public health problem, and alcohol use has consistently been implicated in the precipitation of suicidal behavior. Alcohol abuse may lead to suicidality through disinhibition, impulsiveness and impaired judgment, but it may also be used as a means to ease the distress associated with committing an act of suicide. We reviewed evidence of the relationship between alcohol use and suicide through a search of MedLine and PsychInfo electronic databases. Multiple genetically...

  17. Alcohol and the Asian Glow

    OpenAIRE

    Young, Brian

    1999-01-01

    Facial flushing is a common hypersensitivity reaction that may be observed in many Asians following low to moderate alcohol consumption. Flushing can be accompanied by other symptoms such as tachycardia, nausea, and dizziness. Recent studies have shown that this flushing reaction is due to the presence of ALDH2*2, an inactive allele for the alcohol dehydrogenase gene found in approximately 50% of Asians. Aldehyde dehydrogenase (ALDH) is an important enzyme in alcohol metabolism, and deficienc...

  18. Alcohol Dependence, Withdrawal, and Relapse

    OpenAIRE

    Howard C Becker

    2008-01-01

    Continued excessive alcohol consumption can lead to the development of dependence that is associated with a withdrawal syndrome when alcohol consumption is ceased or substantially reduced. This syndrome comprises physical signs as well as psychological symptoms that contribute to distress and psychological discomfort. For some people the fear of withdrawal symptoms may help perpetuate alcohol abuse; moreover, the presence of withdrawal symptoms may contribute to relapse after periods of absti...

  19. Alcohol Dependency in Indian Dentists

    OpenAIRE

    Gaurav Solanki

    2012-01-01

    Alcohol consumption has widely increased through out the world. This all is due to a stressful life style and emotional load on a person. Dentistry is not excluded from the stress phenomenon. Dentists experience stressful situations every day, and have to deal with these in a very professional manner. The dentists participated were told about the hazard and ill-effect of alcohol consumption. There need to be a reduction in consumption of alcohol in dentistry for the upliftment of general mass...

  20. Human alcohol-related neuropathology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de la Monte, Suzanne M; Kril, Jillian J

    2014-01-01

    Alcohol-related diseases of the nervous system are caused by excessive exposures to alcohol, with or without co-existing nutritional or vitamin deficiencies. Toxic and metabolic effects of alcohol (ethanol) vary with brain region, age/developmental stage, dose, and duration of exposures. In the mature brain, heavy chronic or binge alcohol exposures can cause severe debilitating diseases of the central and peripheral nervous systems, and skeletal muscle. Most commonly, long-standing heavy alcohol abuse leads to disproportionate loss of cerebral white matter and impairments in executive function. The cerebellum (especially the vermis), cortical-limbic circuits, skeletal muscle, and peripheral nerves are also important targets of chronic alcohol-related metabolic injury and degeneration. Although all cell types within the nervous system are vulnerable to the toxic, metabolic, and degenerative effects of alcohol, astrocytes, oligodendrocytes, and synaptic terminals are major targets, accounting for the white matter atrophy, neural inflammation and toxicity, and impairments in synaptogenesis. Besides chronic degenerative neuropathology, alcoholics are predisposed to develop severe potentially life-threatening acute or subacute symmetrical hemorrhagic injury in the diencephalon and brainstem due to thiamine deficiency, which exerts toxic/metabolic effects on glia, myelin, and the microvasculature. Alcohol also has devastating neurotoxic and teratogenic effects on the developing brain in association with fetal alcohol spectrum disorder/fetal alcohol syndrome. Alcohol impairs function of neurons and glia, disrupting a broad array of functions including neuronal survival, cell migration, and glial cell (astrocytes and oligodendrocytes) differentiation. Further progress is needed to better understand the pathophysiology of this exposure-related constellation of nervous system diseases and better correlate the underlying pathology with in vivo imaging and biochemical lesions

  1. A prospective toxicology analysis in alcoholics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomsen, Jørgen Lange; Simonsen, Kirsten Wiese; Felby, Søren;

    1997-01-01

    A prospective and comprehensive investigation was done on 73 medico–legal autopsies in alcoholics. The results of the toxicology analyses are described. Alcohol intoxication was the cause of death in 8%, combined alcohol/drug intoxication in 15% and drugs alone in 19%. Alcoholic ketoacidosis was...... than the exception in deaths in alcoholics....

  2. 27 CFR 21.113 - Isopropyl alcohol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Isopropyl alcohol. 21.113 Section 21.113 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS FORMULAS FOR DENATURED ALCOHOL AND RUM Specifications for Denaturants §...

  3. 27 CFR 21.116 - Methyl alcohol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Methyl alcohol. 21.116 Section 21.116 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS FORMULAS FOR DENATURED ALCOHOL AND RUM Specifications for Denaturants §...

  4. 27 CFR 19.398 - Alcohol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Alcohol. 19.398 Section 19.398 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE... Articles Bottling, Packaging, and Removal of Products § 19.398 Alcohol. (a) Containers. Subject to...

  5. Deciding to quit drinking alcohol

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Alcoholism - deciding to quit References American Psychiatric Association. Diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders . 5th ed. Arlington, VA: American Psychiatric Association, 2013. ...

  6. Alcohol Use and Firearm Violence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Branas, Charles C; Han, SeungHoon; Wiebe, Douglas J

    2016-01-01

    Although the misuse of firearms is necessary to the occurrence of firearm violence, there are other contributing factors beyond simply firearms themselves that might also be modified to prevent firearm violence. Alcohol is one such key modifiable factor. To explore this, we undertook a 40-year (1975-2014) systematic literature review with meta-analysis. One large group of studies showed that over one third of firearm violence decedents had acutely consumed alcohol and over one fourth had heavily consumed alcohol prior to their deaths. Another large group of studies showed that alcohol was significantly associated with firearm use as a suicide means. Two controlled studies showed that gun injury after drinking, especially heavy drinking, was statistically significant among self-inflicted firearm injury victims. A small group of studies investigated the intersection of alcohol and firearms laws and alcohol outlets and firearm violence. One of these controlled studies found that off-premise outlets selling takeout alcohol were significantly associated with firearm assault. Additional controlled, population-level risk factor and intervention studies, including randomized trials of which only 1 was identified, are needed. Policies that rezone off-premise alcohol outlets, proscribe blood alcohol levels and enhance penalties for carrying or using firearms while intoxicated, and consider prior drunk driving convictions as a more precise criterion for disqualifying persons from the purchase or possession of firearms deserve further study. PMID:26811427

  7. Alcohol, Athletic Performance and Recovery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Cameron-Smith

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Alcohol consumption within elite sport has been continually reported both anecdotally within the media and quantitatively in the literature. The detrimental effects of alcohol on human physiology have been well documented, adversely influencing neural function, metabolism, cardiovascular physiology, thermoregulation and skeletal muscle myopathy. Remarkably, the downstream effects of alcohol consumption on exercise performance and recovery, has received less attention and as such is not well understood. The focus of this review is to identify the acute effects of alcohol on exercise performance and give a brief insight into explanatory factors.

  8. Alcohol fuels for developing countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The importance of alcohol as an alternative fuel has been slowly established. In countries such as Brazil, they are already used in transport and other sectors of economy. Other developing countries are also trying out experiments with alcohol fuels. Chances of improving the economy of many developing nations depends to a large extent on the application of this fuel. The potential for alcohol fuels in developing countries should be considered as part of a general biomass-use strategy. The final strategies for the development of alcohol fuel will necessarily reflect the needs, values, and conditions of the individual nations, regions, and societies that develop them. (author). 5 refs

  9. Alcohol myopia and goal commitment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.TimurSevincer

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available According to alcohol-myopia theory, acute alcohol consumption leads people to disproportionally focus on the salient rather than the peripheral aspects of a situation. We summarize various studies exploring how myopic processes resulting from acute alcohol intake affect goal commitment. After consuming alcohol student participants felt strongly committed to an important personal goal even though they had low expectations of successfully attaining the goal. However, once intoxicated participants were sober again (i.e., not myopic anymore they failed to act on their goal commitment. In line with alcohol-myopia theory, strong goal commitment as a result of alcohol intake was mediated by intoxicated (vs. sober participants disproportionally focusing on the desirability rather than the feasibility of their goal. Further supporting alcohol-myopia theory, when the low feasibility of attaining a particular goal was experimentally made salient (either explicitly or implicitly by subliminal priming, intoxicated participants felt less committed than those who consumed a placebo. We discuss these effects of acute alcohol intake in the context of research on the effects of chronic alcohol consumption on goal commitment.

  10. Selectively tritiated primary alcohols

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A procedure is suggested for the preparation of aliphatic primary alcohols selectively tritiated in the alpha position. The tritium donor is HTO; out of the catalysts tested, dichlorotris(triphenylphosphine)ruthenium(VI) gave the best results. The isotopic exchange can be performed over the temperature region of 130-200 degC. The amount of side products formed is negligible. The specific activity of the product is determined by the specific activity of HTO used and by the reactant ratio. The method is analogous to the reaction with D2O described by S.L. Regen in 1974. (author). 2 figs., 2 tabs., 17 refs

  11. The alcohol withdrawal syndrome.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    McKeon, A

    2008-08-01

    The alcohol withdrawal syndrome (AWS) is a common management problem in hospital practice for neurologists, psychiatrists and general physicians alike. Although some patients have mild symptoms and may even be managed in the outpatient setting, others have more severe symptoms or a history of adverse outcomes that requires close inpatient supervision and benzodiazepine therapy. Many patients with AWS have multiple management issues (withdrawal symptoms, delirium tremens, the Wernicke-Korsakoff syndrome, seizures, depression, polysubstance abuse, electrolyte disturbances and liver disease), which requires a coordinated, multidisciplinary approach. Although AWS may be complex, careful evaluation and available treatments should ensure safe detoxification for most patients.

  12. Microstructure of neat alcohols

    CERN Document Server

    Perera, A; Zoranic, L; Perera, Aurelien; Sokolic, Franjo; Zoranic, Larisa

    2007-01-01

    Formation of microstructure in homogeneous associated liquids is analysed through the density-density pair correlation functions, both in direct and reciprocal space, as well as an effective local one-body density function. This is illustrated through a molecular dynamics study of two neat alcohols, namely methanol and \\emph{tert}-butanol, which have a rich microstructure: chain-like molecular association for the former and micelle-like for the latter. The relation to hydrogen bonding interaction is demonstrated. The apparent failure to find microstructure in water -a stronger hydrogen bonding liquid- with the same tools, is discussed.

  13. Do premorbid predictors of alcohol dependence also predict the failure to recover from alcoholism?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Penick, Elizabeth C; Knop, Joachim; Nickel, Elizabeth J; Jensen, Per; Manzardo, Ann M; Mortensen, Erik Lykke; Gabrielli, William F

    2010-01-01

    In a search for viable endophenotypes of alcoholism, this longitudinal study attempted to identify premorbid predictors of alcohol dependence that also predicted the course of alcoholism.......In a search for viable endophenotypes of alcoholism, this longitudinal study attempted to identify premorbid predictors of alcohol dependence that also predicted the course of alcoholism....

  14. 75 FR 20852 - National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice of Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-21

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice....), notice is hereby given of a meeting of the National Advisory Council on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism. The...: Abraham P. Bautista, PhD, Executive Secretary, National Institute on Alcohol Abuse & Alcoholism,...

  15. 75 FR 46949 - National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice of Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-04

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice... conducted by the National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism, including consideration of personnel... Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism, 5635 Fishers Lane, Room 3061, Rockville, MD 20852, 301-443-6076....

  16. 76 FR 2128 - National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-12

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice... personal privacy. Name of Committee: National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism Initial Review.... Srinivas, PhD, Scientific Review Officer, National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism,...

  17. 78 FR 71628 - National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice of Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-11-29

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice....), notice is hereby given of a meeting of the National Advisory Council on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism. The..., Ph.D., Executive Secretary, National Institute on Alcohol Abuse & Alcoholism National, Institutes...

  18. 76 FR 44600 - National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-26

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice... personal privacy. Name of Committee: National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism Initial Review... Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism, National Institutes of Health, 5635 Fishers Lane, RM...

  19. 76 FR 39406 - National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice of Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-06

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice....), notice is hereby given of a meeting of the National Advisory Council on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism. The... Institute on Alcohol Abuse & Alcoholism, National Institutes of Health, 5635 Fishers Lane, RM...

  20. 76 FR 50743 - National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-16

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice... personal privacy. Name of Committee: National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism Special Emphasis... Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism, 5635 Fishers Lane, Room 2109, Rockville, MD 20852,...

  1. 78 FR 75929 - National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-13

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice... personal privacy. Name of Committee: National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism Initial Review... review and evaluate grant applications. Place: National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism,...

  2. 77 FR 33477 - National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-06

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice... personal privacy. Name of Committee: National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism Special Emphasis... Institutes of Health National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism, 5635 Fishers Lane, Rm 2017,...

  3. 77 FR 64117 - National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-18

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice... of personal privacy. Name of Committee: National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism Special..., National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism, 5635 Fishers Lane, Room 2109, Rockville, MD 20852,...

  4. 75 FR 13293 - National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-19

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice... personal privacy. Name of Committee: National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism, Initial Review... Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism, 5635 Fishers Lane, Rm. 2019, Bethesda, MD 20892. 301-443-2861....

  5. 77 FR 43603 - National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-25

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice... personal privacy. Name of Committee: National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism Special Emphasis... Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism, National Institutes of Health, 5635 Fishers Lane, Room 2081, Rockville,...

  6. 76 FR 22715 - National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-22

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice... personal privacy. Name of Committee: National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism Initial Review... Officer, National Institutes of Health, National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism, 5635...

  7. 75 FR 10293 - National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-05

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice... personal privacy. Name of Committee: National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism, Initial Review... Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism, National Institutes of Health, 5635 Fishers Lane, Rm...

  8. 77 FR 2304 - National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-17

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice... personal privacy. Name of Committee: National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Special Emphasis..., Ph.D., Scientific Review Officer, National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism,...

  9. 76 FR 34718 - National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-14

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice... personal privacy. Name of Committee: National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism Special Emphasis... Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism, 5635 Fishers Lane, Room 2109, Rockville, MD 20852,...

  10. 76 FR 49494 - National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-10

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice... intramural programs and projects conducted by the NATIONAL INSTITUTE ON ALCOHOL ABUSE AND ALCOHOLISM... Neuroimaging. Place: National Institutes of Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism, 5635 Fishers Lane, Terrance...

  11. 76 FR 26311 - National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-06

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice... personal privacy. Name of Committee: National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism Special Emphasis... on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism, 5635 Fishers Lane, Room 2109, Rockville, MD 20852,...

  12. 76 FR 26308 - National Institute on Alcohol Abuse And Alcoholism; Notice of Meeting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-06

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute on Alcohol Abuse And Alcoholism; Notice....), notice is hereby given of a meeting of the National Advisory Council on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism. The.... Bautista, PhD, Executive Secretary, National Institute on Alcohol Abuse & Alcoholism National Institutes...

  13. 76 FR 44597 - National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-26

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice... personal privacy. Name of Committee: National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism Initial Review... Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism, 5635 Fishers Lane, RM 2019, Bethesda, MD 20892,...

  14. 76 FR 78015 - National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice of Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-15

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice....), notice is hereby given of a meeting of the National Advisory Council on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism. The... Alcohol Abuse & Alcoholism National Institutes of Health, 5635 Fishers Lane, Rm 2085, Rockville, MD...

  15. 75 FR 47819 - National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-09

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice... on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism. Date: September 22-23, 2010. Closed: September 22, 2010, 5:30 p.m... Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism, National Institutes of Health, 5635 Fishers Lane, Room 2085, Rockville,...

  16. 78 FR 41940 - National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-12

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice... personal privacy. Name of Committee: National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism Initial Review... Health, National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism, 5635 Fishers Lane, RM 2019, Bethesda,...

  17. 75 FR 80511 - National Institute on Alcohol Abuse And Alcoholism; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-22

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute on Alcohol Abuse And Alcoholism; Notice... on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism. Date: February 16-17, 2011. Closed: February 16, 2011, 5:30 p.m. to... Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism, National Institutes of Health, 5635 Fishers Lane, Room 2085, Rockville,...

  18. 77 FR 43098 - National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-23

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice... personal privacy. Name of Committee: National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism Special Emphasis...., Scientific Review Officer, National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism, 5635 Fishers Lane, Room...

  19. 75 FR 69090 - National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-11-10

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice... personal privacy. Name of Committee: National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Initial Review... Officer, National Institutes of Health, National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism, 5635...

  20. 75 FR 53320 - National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-31

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice... personal privacy. Name of Committee: National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism, Special Emphasis... Review Officer, National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism, National Institutes of Health,...

  1. 76 FR 34719 - National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-14

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice... personal privacy. Name of Committee: National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism Special Emphasis... on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism, 5635 Fishers Lane, Room 2109, Rockville, MD 20852,...

  2. 76 FR 17140 - National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-28

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice... personal privacy. Name of Committee: National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism Special Emphasis... Officer, National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism, National Institutes of Health, 5635...

  3. 77 FR 52337 - National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice of Closed Meetings

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-29

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice... personal privacy. Name of Committee: National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism Initial Review... Foster, Ph.D., Scientific Review Officer, National Institute on Alcohol Abuse & Alcoholism,...

  4. 76 FR 69746 - National Institute On Alcohol Abuse And Alcoholism; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-11-09

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute On Alcohol Abuse And Alcoholism; Notice... personal privacy. Name of Committee: National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism Initial Review... National Institutes Of Health, National Institute On Alcohol Abuse And Alcoholism, 5635 Fishers Lane,...

  5. 75 FR 10489 - National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-08

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice... personal privacy. Name of Committee: National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism, Initial Review..., PhD, Scientific Review Officer, National Institute on Alcohol Abuse & Alcoholism, National...

  6. 75 FR 42450 - National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-21

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice... personal privacy. Name of Committee: National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism Initial Review... Gunzerath, PhD, MBA, Scientific Review Officer, National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism,...

  7. 78 FR 66015 - National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-11-04

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice... personal privacy. Name of Committee: National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism Special Emphasis.... Scientific Review Officer, National Inst on Alcohol Abuse & Alcoholism, National Institutes of Health,...

  8. 78 FR 21616 - National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-11

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice... personal privacy. Name of Committee: National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism Initial Review... Foster, Ph.D., Scientific Review Officer, National Institute on Alcohol Abuse & Alcoholism,...

  9. 78 FR 45541 - National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice of Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-29

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice....), notice is hereby given of a meeting of the National Advisory Council on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism. The... Alcohol Abuse & Alcoholism, National Institutes of Health, 5635 Fishers Lane, Rm 2085, Rockville, MD...

  10. 77 FR 43604 - National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice of Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-25

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice....), notice is hereby given of a meeting of the National Advisory Council on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism. The... Alcohol Abuse & Alcoholism National Institutes of Health, 5635 Fishers Lane, Room 2085, Rockville,...

  11. 77 FR 22795 - National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-17

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice... personal privacy. Name of Committee: National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism Initial Review... National Institutes of Health, National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism, 5635 Fishers Lane,...

  12. 75 FR 9421 - National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-02

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice... personal privacy. Name of Committee: National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism Special Emphasis..., National Institute on Alcohol Abuse & Alcoholism, 5635 Fishers Lane, Room 2085, Rockville, MD...

  13. 78 FR 75927 - National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-13

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice... personal privacy. Name of Committee: National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism Special Emphasis...., Scientific Review Officer, National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism, 5635 Fishers Lane, Room...

  14. 76 FR 26735 - National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-09

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice... personal privacy. Name of Committee: National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism Initial Review..., PhD, Scientific Review Officer, National Institute on Alcohol Abuse & Alcoholism, National...

  15. 78 FR 25755 - National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-02

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice... personal privacy. Name of Committee: National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism Special Emphasis... Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism, 5635 Fishers Lane, Room 2109, Rockville, MD 20852,...

  16. 78 FR 35042 - National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-11

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice... intramural programs and projects conducted by the National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism... Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism, 5635 Fishers Lane, Room 3061, Rockville, MD 20852, 301- 443-6076....

  17. 77 FR 68135 - National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice of Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-11-15

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice....), notice is hereby given of a meeting of the National Advisory Council on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism. The... Alcohol Abuse & Alcoholism National Institutes of Health, 5635 Fishers Lane, Room 2085, Rockville,...

  18. 77 FR 1706 - National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-11

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice... personal privacy. Name of Committee: National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism Initial Review... Buzas, Ph.D., Scientific Review Officer, National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism,...

  19. 75 FR 69091 - National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-11-10

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice... personal privacy. Name of Committee: National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism Initial Review... Officer, National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism, National Institutes of Health, 5635...

  20. 77 FR 22793 - National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-17

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice... personal privacy. Name of Committee: National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism Initial Review... Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism, National Institutes of Health, 5635 Fishers Lane, RM...

  1. 76 FR 44599 - National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-26

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice... personal privacy. Name of Committee: National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism Initial Review.... Foster, PhD, Scientific Review officer, National Institute on Alcohol Abuse & Alcoholism,...

  2. 75 FR 42451 - National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-21

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice... personal privacy. Name of Committee: National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism, Initial Review... Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism, National Institutes of Health, 5635 Fishers Lane, Room...

  3. NEUROBIOLOGICAL BASES OF ALCOHOL ADDICTION.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matošić, Ana; Marušić, Srđan; Vidrih, Branka; Kovak-Mufić, Ana; Cicin-Šain, Lipa

    2016-03-01

    Alcohol addiction is a heterogeneous psychiatric disorder according to both phenotype and etiology. Difference in phenotype characteristics manifests in the manner the addiction arises, history of the alcoholic and history of drinking, comorbid disorders, and the phenomenon of abstinence difficulties. Concerning the etiology of alcoholism, the disease itself is considered to be a consequence of an interactive influence of the environment and genetic factors. Numerous researches conducted in the last decades discovered many aspects of the biochemical, cell and molecular bases of alcohol addiction, leading to a conclusion that alcoholism is, like many other addictions, a brain disease. By recognizing alcoholism as a disease which basically implies changes of the neurobiological mechanisms, as well as a clear genetic basis, it was supposed that the disease, having its basis solely in the symptomatology, is essentially heterogeneous. By trying to solve the problem of a clinically heterogeneous nature of the disease during the last fifty years, various sub-classifications of such patients have been suggested. According to Cloninger, subtypes of alcoholism differ also according to changes in the brain neurotransmission systems, i.e. it is supposed that patients suffering from alcoholism type 1 have a more pronounced dopaminergic transmission deficit, while dopaminergic transmission is not disturbed significantly in patients diagnosed with alcoholism type 2, who, however, have a significant lack of serotonergic transmission. In such a way, Cloninger actually presented the basis of the so-called neurobiological alcoholism model. Since he has connected differences in neurotransmission with differences in personality characteristics, this model is also known as the psychobiological model of alcoholism. The characteristic of alcoholism type 1 is avoiding damage (Harm Avoidance, HA) decreased dopamine transmission and increased serotonin transmission, while the significant

  4. Parental Alcohol Involvement and Adolescent Alcohol Expectancies Predict Alcohol Involvement in Male Adolescents

    OpenAIRE

    Cranford, James A.; Zucker, Robert A.; Jester, Jennifer M.; Puttler, Leon I.; Fitzgerald, Hiram E.

    2010-01-01

    Current models of adolescent drinking behavior hypothesize that alcohol expectancies mediate the effects of other proximal and distal risk factors. This longitudinal study tested the hypothesis that the effects of parental alcohol involvement on their children’s drinking behavior in mid-adolescence are mediated by the children’s alcohol expectancies in early adolescence. A sample of 148 initially 9–11 year old boys and their parents from a high-risk population and a contrast group of communit...

  5. Mortality from alcohol consumption and alcohol use disorder

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lundin, Andreas; Mortensen, Laust Hvas

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: To examine the relationship of alcohol consumption, alcohol use disorder and mortality. METHOD: A cohort of 4316 male former Vietnam-era US army personnel participating in telephone survey and medical examination in middle age (mean age 38.3 years) in 1985-1986 was used. Alcohol...... consumption was reported in face-to-face interview on medical history and information on DSM-III alcohol use disorder was obtained from structured psychiatric interview (using the Diagnostic Interview Schedule). Mortality hazard during 15 years of follow-up was assessed with Cox proportional hazard regression...... modeling. RESULT: A total of 4251 individuals participated in the psychiatric interview and the medical history interview. Of these 998 were abstainers, and for the remaining 3253 we calculated weekly average consumption and monthly frequency of binge drinking. A total of 1988 had alcohol dependence, abuse...

  6. Microbial alcohol dehydrogenases: identification, characterization and engineering

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Machielsen, M.P.

    2007-01-01

    Keywords: alcohol dehydrogenase, laboratory evolution, rational protein engineering, Pyrococcus furiosus, biocatalysis, characterization, computational design, thermostability.   Alcohol dehydrogeases (ADHs) catalyze the interconversion of alcohols, aldehydes and ketones. They display a wide variety

  7. Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorders (FASDs): Diagnosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... through Biomarkers International Research National Task Force on Fetal Alcohol Syndrome and Fetal Alcohol Effect Training & Education Past Activities ... review the research and develop guidelines for diagnosing fetal alcohol syndrome (FAS) . The guidelines were developed for FAS only. ...

  8. [Adolescence and alcohol].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giorgi, Pier Luigi

    2005-01-01

    Anna Freud defined adolescence "evolutional disorder", meaning also a compulsory and temporary shift. Corresponding, biologically, to the puberty, it is an age full of expectations and hopes, nevertheless not free from psychological and social risks: because of a changing relation with family, of the searching of new models, of the coming in contact with less protective contexts, of the differentiation of affective expectations. Therefore it can be that the passing from childhood to active subjectivity brings on anxiety, conflicts and deviance; and it can suggest illusory remedies as overindulgence in alcohol, alarming phenomenon denounced by WHO and by many other international and Italian institutions. After these preliminary remarks, the A. reminds as alcohol and its by-products reached Europe, describes its metabolism and its biological effects, the genetic factors which could predispose to the tolerance and/or to the addiction, the environmental and social ones, and the costs, both individual and public. Conclusions want suggest two omens: the reclamation of a new kind of family relation, based on listening and dialogue; and the achievement of a concrete alliance between society and young adult, which could conjugate the expectations of the community with the rights of the new subject for a free and integrated growing up. PMID:16209112

  9. Translating Alcohol Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Batman, Angela M.; Miles, Michael F.

    2015-01-01

    Alcohol use disorder (AUD) and its sequelae impose a major burden on the public health of the United States, and adequate long-term control of this disorder has not been achieved. Molecular and behavioral basic science research findings are providing the groundwork for understanding the mechanisms underlying AUD and have identified multiple candidate targets for ongoing clinical trials. However, the translation of basic research or clinical findings into improved therapeutic approaches for AUD must become more efficient. Translational research is a multistage process of streamlining the movement of basic biomedical research findings into clinical research and then to the clinical target populations. This process demands efficient bidirectional communication across basic, applied, and clinical science as well as with clinical practitioners. Ongoing work suggests rapid progress is being made with an evolving translational framework within the alcohol research field. This is helped by multiple interdisciplinary collaborative research structures that have been developed to advance translational work on AUD. Moreover, the integration of systems biology approaches with collaborative clinical studies may yield novel insights for future translational success. Finally, appreciation of genetic variation in pharmacological or behavioral treatment responses and optimal communication from bench to bedside and back may strengthen the success of translational research applications to AUD. PMID:26259085

  10. [Influence of alcohol beverage vending machine on alcohol dependence syndrome].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ino, A; Fujita, S

    1994-12-01

    The vending machines which sell alcohol beverages (AVM) can be found quite easily in front of shops or on the roadside in this country. Although it is easily supposed that these vending machines might have badly influenced on developing alcohol dependence syndrome, no scientific study has been reported in this regard so far. In this study, we analyzed the present status of alcoholics (n = 759) and their family members (n = 512) and of ordinary people (n = 334) in terms of their "relation" and "attitudes" to the vending machines by a questionnaire method. The results obtained show as follows: The majority of alcoholics (60%) had used AVM a couple of times or more often in a week, and 18% of alcoholics had not used AVM at all. It was found that the natures of AVM such as "machine," "long time operation," "easy accessibility," are closely related to the development of their alcohol seeking behavior, resulting in forming unfavorable drinking patterns such as concealed drinking, gulping, early morning drinking or binge drinking. Unusual patterns of using AVM were also noticed among them, such as, go to AVM before 5 a.m. and wait until it starts to work, go to a far away AVM deliberately, or, visiting AVM one after another. It was noticed that these drinking habits affected seriously not only the alcoholics but their families also. The number of the family members who insisted that AVM affected badly on the course of alcohol dependence syndrome is larger than that of alcoholics who admit the same thing. As for the future abolition of AVM, 91% of the family members, 70% of alcoholics and 39% of ordinary persons agreed with. The rate of "agreed with abolition" is higher than that of "disagreed with abolition" among ordinary persons. PMID:7695515

  11. Neural mechanisms of pain and alcohol dependence☆

    OpenAIRE

    Apkarian, A. Vania; Neugebauer, Volker; Koob, George; Edwards, Scott; Levine, Jon D.; Ferrari, Luiz; Egli, Mark; Regunathan, Soundar

    2013-01-01

    An association between chronic pain conditions and alcohol dependence has been revealed in numerous studies with episodes of alcohol abuse antedating chronic pain in some people and alcohol dependence emerging after the onset of chronic pain in others. Alcohol dependence and chronic pain share common neural circuits giving rise to the possibility that chronic pain states could significantly affect alcohol use patterns and that alcohol dependence could influence pain sensitivity. The reward an...

  12. Alcohol use and burn injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, J D; Barber, B; Engrav, L; Heimbach, D

    1991-01-01

    Charts of 108 consecutive adult patients with flame burns of 20% to 70% total body surface area were reviewed to determine the incidence of acute alcohol intoxication and the likelihood that intoxicated patients were chronic alcohol abusers, to assess morbidity and mortality in the alcoholic patient with burns, and to characterize the intervention used in postdischarge treatment of the alcoholic patient with burns who survives. Twenty-seven percent of patients were acutely intoxicated at the time of injury. Evidence for chronic alcohol abuse was apparent in 90% of intoxicated patients, compared to only 11% of nonintoxicated patients (p = 0.0001). Alcoholic patients with burns not only had an overall mortality rate three times that of nonalcoholics (p = 0.001) but also died of smaller burns (p less than 0.05). Surviving alcoholic patients with burns required significantly more intravenous antibiotics and a longer hospitalization. Social service evaluation of use of alcohol was made in 84% of the cases of surviving intoxicated burn victims. Further intervention was undertaken in two thirds of these cases, usually involving an outpatient treatment program. PMID:2050723

  13. Elderly alcoholics in outpatient treatment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Bent; Nielsen, Anette Søgaard; Lolk, Anette;

    2010-01-01

    In Denmark, the treatment of alcoholics is provided by public outpatient alcohol clinics. The purpose of this study was to investigate whether elderly patients differ from younger patients with regards to sociodemographic data, drinking pattern and psychiatric comorbidity which may affect the...

  14. Job strain and alcohol intake

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heikkilä, Katriina; Nyberg, Solja T; Fransson, Eleonor I;

    2012-01-01

    The relationship between work-related stress and alcohol intake is uncertain. In order to add to the thus far inconsistent evidence from relatively small studies, we conducted individual-participant meta-analyses of the association between work-related stress (operationalised as self-reported job...... strain) and alcohol intake....

  15. The alcohol patient and surgery

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tønnesen, H

    1999-01-01

    Alcohol abusers have a threefold increased risk of post-operative morbidity after surgery. The most frequent complications are infections, cardiopulmonary insufficiency, and bleeding episodes. Pathogenesis is suppressed immune capacity, subclinical cardiac dysfunction, and haemostatic imbalance....... The economic implications of alcohol abuse in surgical patients are tremendous. Interventional studies are required to reduce future increases in post-operative morbidity....

  16. Alcoholism, Alpha Production, and Biofeedback

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Frances W.; Holmes, David S.

    1976-01-01

    Electroencephalograms of 20 alcoholics and 20 nonalcoholics were obtained. Data indicated that alcoholics produced less alpha than nonalcoholics. In one training condition subjects were given accurate biofeedback, whereas in the other condition subjects were given random (noncontingent) feedback. Accurate biofeedback did not result in greater…

  17. The concept of alcohol craving.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katarzyna Agnieszka Iwanicka

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the article was to assess how the perception of alcohol craving, which is one of the symptoms of alcohol dependence, evolved, as well as how it was reflected in the diagnostic classifications. The purpose of this article was also a discussion of the models of the origins of craving, explaining the etiology of this phenomenon and the tools for measuring this concept. The concept of craving, defined as a strong need or compulsion to drink alcohol, functioned for many years, not only in the clinical practice but also as a concept inherently associated with alcohol dependence. However, among experts and researchers, there was no consensus about the etiology of this phenomenon and its development. Some emphasize the emotional – motivational aspect of it, while in the literature also its cognitive – behavioral nature is highlighted. Craving as a symptom has been recognized as a diagnostic criterion of alcohol dependence in the International Statistical Classification of Diseases and Related Health Problems – ICD 10. In the year 2013, it was also indicated as a symptom of disorder resulting from alcohol abuse in the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders – DSM 5. It seems to be significant also to discuss the tools used to measure craving, both in clinical trials and therapeutic practice, among them: the Alcohol Specific Role Play Test, Obsessive Compulsive Drinking Scale (OCDS Lubeck Craving Scale (LCRR and Alcohol Urge Questionnaire (AUQ.

  18. The alcohol fuels in Guatemala

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This presentation shows the antecedents of the production of alcohol fuel in Guatemala as an alternative to imported gasoline, also presents current statistics of consumption, importation of liquid fossil fuels, production of alcohol fuel, consumption, and trends of consumption mixed with gasoline and yield data

  19. Alcohol misuse and renal damage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cecchin, E; De Marchi, S

    1996-01-01

    Recent clinical and experimental studies have demonstrated that the habitual consumption of large amounts of ethanol has deleterious effects on the kidney. A variety of tubular defects have been described in patients with chronic alcoholism. Evidence is emerging that tubular dysfunction has an important pathophysiological role in a wide range of electrolyte and acid-base disturbances commonly observed in these patients, and possibly in alcohol-induced bone disease. These renal abnormalities are often reversible, disappearing with abstinence. However, since 1990 a few cases of a syndrome of acute tubular necrosis due to binge drinking of ethanol in the absence of other evident nephrotoxic mechanisms, or in association with the use of nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, have been reported. A link between glomerulonephritis and alcoholism has become evident. IgA nephropathy has been demonstrated at autopsy in 64% of chronic alcoholics and, more recently, the association between alcoholism and postinfectious glomerulonephritis has been described. Structural and functional abnormalities of the kidney are reported with increasing frequency in the fetal alcohol syndrome seen in children who have been prenatally exposed to ethanol. In addition, over the last few years experimental studies in vitro or in animal models have provided information about the biochemical and molecular basis of alcohol-induced injury to kidney. It is hoped that future experimental and clinical research will provide us with a more comprehensive knowledge of the mechanisms of renal damage in alcohol misuse. PMID:12893483

  20. Wiring of the aldehyde oxidoreductase PaoABC to electrode surfaces via entrapment in low potential phenothiazine-modified redox polymers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinyou, Piyanut; Ruff, Adrian; Pöller, Sascha; Alsaoub, Sabine; Leimkühler, Silke; Wollenberger, Ulla; Schuhmann, Wolfgang

    2016-06-01

    Phenothiazine-modified redox hydrogels were synthesized and used for the wiring of the aldehyde oxidoreductase PaoABC to electrode surfaces. The effects of the pH value and electrode surface modification on the biocatalytic activity of the layers were studied in the presence of vanillin as the substrate. The enzyme electrodes were successfully employed as bioanodes in vanillin/O2 biofuel cells in combination with a high potential bilirubin oxidase biocathode. Open circuit voltages of around 700 mV could be obtained in a two compartment biofuel cell setup. Moreover, the use of a rather hydrophobic polymer with a high degree of crosslinking sites ensures the formation of stable polymer/enzyme films which were successfully used as bioanode in membrane-less biofuel cells. PMID:26775204

  1. Nanosecond ligand migration and functional protein relaxation in ba3 oxidoreductase: Structures of the B0, B1 and B2 intermediate states.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicolaides, Antonis; Soulimane, Tewfik; Varotsis, Constantinos

    2016-09-01

    Nanosecond time-resolved step-scan FTIR spectroscopy (nTRS (2) -FTIR) has been applied to literally probe the active site of the carbon monoxide (CO)-bound thermophilic ba3 heme-copper oxidoreductase as it executes its function. The nTRS (2) - snapshots of the photolysed heme a3 Fe-CO/CuB species captured a "transition state" whose side chains prevent the photolysed CO to enter the docking cavity. There are three sets of ba3 photoproduct bands of docked CO with different orientation exhibiting different kinetics. The trajectories of the "docked" CO at 2122, 2129 and 2137cm(-1) is referred to in the literature as B2, B1 and B0 intermediate states, respectively. The present data provided direct evidence for the role of water in controlling ligand orientation in an intracavity protein environment. PMID:27207588

  2. Alcohol: taking a population perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilmore, William; Chikritzhs, Tanya; Stockwell, Tim; Jernigan, David; Naimi, Timothy; Gilmore, Ian

    2016-07-01

    Alcohol consumption is a global phenomenon, as is the resultant health, social and economic harm. The nature of these harms varies with different drinking patterns and with the societal and political responses to the burden of harm; nevertheless, alcohol-related chronic diseases have a major effect on health. Strong evidence exists for the effectiveness of different strategies to minimize this damage and those policies that target price, availability and marketing of alcohol come out best, whereas those using education and information are much less effective. However, these policies can be portrayed as anti-libertarian and so viewing them in the context of alcohol-related harm to those other than the drinker, such as the most vulnerable in society, is important. When this strategy is successful, as in Scotland, it has been possible to pass strong and effective legislation, such as for a minimum unit price for alcohol. PMID:27188823

  3. Alcohol and male reproductive health

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Tina Kold; Swan, Shanna; Jørgensen, Niels;

    2014-01-01

    STUDY QUESTION: Is there an association between alcohol intake and semen quality and serum reproductive hormones among healthy men from the USA and Europe? SUMMARY ANSWER: Moderate alcohol intake is not adversely associated with semen quality in healthy men, whereas it was associated with higher...... serum testosterone levels. WHAT IS KNOWN ALREADY: High alcohol intake has been associated with a wide range of diseases. However, few studies have examined the correlation between alcohol and reproductive function and most have been conducted in selected populations of infertile men or have a small...... examined. MAIN RESULTS AND THE ROLE OF CHANCE: The participation rate for our populations was 20-30%. We found no consistent association between any semen variable and alcohol consumption, which was low/moderate in this group (median weekly intake 8 units), either for total consumption or consumption...

  4. Alcohol abuse and postoperative morbidity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tønnesen, Hanne

    2003-01-01

    Patients who drink too much have more complications after surgery. The aim of this thesis was to evaluate the evidence, possible mechanisms, and prevention of the increased postoperative morbidity in alcohol abusers, defined by a consumption of at least five drinks per day. The literature could...... be criticised for several methodological flaws. Nevertheless, the results are in agreement showing moderate to strong evidence of increased postoperative morbidity after surgical procedures on alcohol abusers. There is weak to moderate evidence of increased postoperative mortality, hospital stay, and re......-operation. The personal and economic consequences are tremendous. The incidence of alcohol abusers undergoing surgery was 7% to 49%, according to gender and diagnosis. They have been identified by a self-reported alcohol intake, which implies the possibility of underestimation. Alcohol markers could be used for a more...

  5. Alcohol dependency prevention and early intervention.

    OpenAIRE

    Nathan, P E

    1988-01-01

    Current data on efforts to prevent alcoholism indicate that we are better able to prevent some of the consequences of alcohol misuse, such as alcohol-related car crashes and fetal alcohol syndrome, than chronic alcohol dependence itself. A review of data on outcomes of treatment for long-term alcohol dependence indicates that 9 of 10 alcohol dependent persons receive no treatment for the disorder in any given year. When treatment is provided for long-term alcohol dependent persons, it has onl...

  6. Knockdown of human Oxa1l impairs the biogenesis of F1Fo-ATP synthase and NADH:ubiquinone oxidoreductase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stiburek, Lukas; Fornuskova, Daniela; Wenchich, Laszlo; Pejznochova, Martina; Hansikova, Hana; Zeman, Jiri

    2007-11-23

    The Oxa1 protein is a founding member of the evolutionarily conserved Oxa1/Alb3/YidC protein family, which is involved in the biogenesis of membrane proteins in mitochondria, chloroplasts and bacteria. The predicted human homologue, Oxa1l, was originally identified by partial functional complementation of the respiratory growth defect of the yeast oxa1 mutant. Here we demonstrate that both the endogenous human Oxa1l, with an apparent molecular mass of 42 kDa, and the Oxa1l-FLAG chimeric protein localize exclusively to mitochondria in HEK293 cells. Furthermore, human Oxa1l was found to be an integral membrane protein, and, using two-dimensional blue native/denaturing PAGE, the majority of the protein was identified as part of a 600-700 kDa complex. The stable short hairpin (sh)RNA-mediated knockdown of Oxa1l in HEK293 cells resulted in markedly decreased steady-state levels and ATP hydrolytic activity of the F(1)F(o)-ATP synthase and moderately reduced levels and activity of NADH:ubiquinone oxidoreductase (complex I). However, no significant accumulation of corresponding sub-complexes could be detected on blue native immunoblots. Intriguingly, the achieved depletion of Oxa1l protein did not adversely affect the assembly or activity of cytochrome c oxidase or the cytochrome bc(1) complex. Taken together, our results indicate that human Oxa1l represents a mitochondrial integral membrane protein required for the correct biogenesis of F(1)F(o)-ATP synthase and NADH:ubiquinone oxidoreductase. PMID:17936786

  7. Vibrio harveyi NADPH-flavin oxidoreductase: cloning, sequencing and overexpression of the gene and purification and characterization of the cloned enzyme.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lei, B; Liu, M; Huang, S; Tu, S C

    1994-01-01

    NAD(P)H-flavin oxidoreductases (flavin reductases) from luminous bacteria catalyze the reduction of flavin by NAD(P)H and are believed to provide the reduced form of flavin mononucleotide (FMN) for luciferase in the bioluminescence reaction. By using an oligonucleotide probe based on the partial N-terminal amino acid sequence of the Vibrio harveyi NADPH-FMN oxidoreductase (flavin reductase P), a recombinant plasmid, pFRP1, was obtained which contained the frp gene encoding this enzyme. The DNA sequence of the frp gene was determined; the deduced amino acid sequence for flavin reductase P consists of 240 amino acid residues with a molecular weight of 26,312. The frp gene was overexpressed, apparently through induction, in Escherichia coli JM109 cells harboring pFRP1. The cloned flavin reductase P was purified to homogeneity by following a new and simple procedure involving FMN-agarose chromatography as a key step. The same chromatography material was also highly effective in concentrating diluted flavin reductase P. The purified enzyme is a monomer and is unusual in having a tightly bound FMN cofactor. Distinct from the free FMN, the bound FMN cofactor showed a diminished A375 peak and a slightly increased 8-nm red-shifted A453 peak and was completely or nearly nonfluorescent. The Kms for FMN and NADPH and the turnover number of this flavin reductase were determined. In comparison with other flavin reductases and homologous proteins, this flavin reductase P shows a number of distinct features with respect to primary sequence, redox center, and/or kinetic mechanism. Images PMID:8206832

  8. Alcohol ignition interlock programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beirness, D J; Marques, P R

    2004-09-01

    The alcohol ignition interlock is an in-vehicle DWI control device that prevents a car from starting until the operator provides a breath alcohol concentration (BAC) test below a set level, usually .02% (20 mg/dl) to .04% (40 mg/dl). The first interlock program was begun as a pilot test in California 18 years ago; today all but a few US states, and Canadian provinces have interlock enabling legislation. Sweden has recently implemented a nationwide interlock program. Other nations of the European Union and as well as several Australian states are testing it on a small scale or through pilot research. This article describes the interlock device and reviews the development and current status of interlock programs including their public safety benefit and the public practice impediments to more widespread adoption of these DWI control devices. Included in this review are (1) a discussion of the technological breakthroughs and certification standards that gave rise to the design features of equipment that is in widespread use today; (2) a commentary on the growing level of adoption of interlocks by governments despite the judicial and legislative practices that prevent more widespread use of them; (3) a brief overview of the extant literature documenting a high degree of interlock efficacy while installed, and the rapid loss of their preventative effect on repeat DWI once they are removed from the vehicles; (4) a discussion of the representativeness of subjects in the current research studies; (5) a discussion of research innovations, including motivational intervention efforts that may extend the controlling effect of the interlock, and data mining research that has uncovered ways to use the stored interlock data record of BAC tests in order to predict high risk drivers; and (6) a discussion of communication barriers and conceptual rigidities that may be preventing the alcohol ignition interlock from taking a more prominent role in the arsenal of tools used to control

  9. Monoamine oxidases and alcoholism. II. Studies in alcoholic families

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Suarez, B.K.; Hampe, C.L.; Parsian, A.; Cloninger, C.R. [Washington Univ. School of Medicine, St. Louis, MO (United States)

    1995-10-09

    Thirty-five alcoholic families have been studied to investigate the relationship between DNA markers at the monoamine oxidase (MAO) loci and (1) platelet activity levels and (2) alcoholism. A quantitative linkage analysis failed to reveal any evidence that the variation in activity levels cosegregates with the DNA markers. A sib-pair analysis did not reveal a significant excess of MAO haplotype sharing among alcoholic sibs, although the deviation from random sharing was in the direction consistent with an X-linked component. A reanalysis of platelet MAO activity levels in a subset of these families revealed that the lower levels previously found in alcoholics is more likely due to the differences between males and females. Only among males and only when a {open_quotes}broad{close_quotes} definition of alcoholism is used (and MAO activity levels are transformed to normality) does it appear that alcoholics have depressed activities compared to nonalcoholics. Finally, when the confounding due to gender difference is removed, no differences between type I and type II alcoholics are found in these families. 63 refs., 6 tabs.

  10. Parental alcohol use, alcohol-related problems, and alcohol-specific attitudes, alcohol-specific communication, and adolescent excessive alcohol use and alcohol-related problems: An indirect path model

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mares, S.H.W.; Vorst, H. van der; Engels, R.C.M.E.; Lichtwarck-Aschoff, A.

    2011-01-01

    Alcohol-specific parent-child communication has often been studied in relation to regular alcohol use of adolescents. However, it might be as important to focus on adolescent problematic alcohol use. In addition, the way parents communicate with their children about alcohol might depend on their own

  11. Alcohol y otras drogas

    OpenAIRE

    Juan Carlos González Sánchez

    2006-01-01

    En el siguiente artículo hacemos un breve recorrido por la polidependencia que actualmente genera más demanda en la red asistencial específica, hablamos del abuso/dependencia al binomio Alcohol-Cocaína. Realizamos un análisis del mecanismo de acción de su principal metabolito el Cocaetileno y su tratamiento actual. También hacemos un análisis del nivel relacional de estas drogas, y reseñamos la asignación terapéutica como orientación al abordaje bio-psico-social.ción de la adicción al juego....

  12. Mutagenicity of alcoholic beverages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagao, M; Takahashi, Y; Wakabayashi, K; Sugimura, T

    1981-02-01

    The mutagenicities of evaporated residues of alcoholic beverages were tested by the Ames method with the modification of pre-incubation, by using Salmonella typhimurium TA100 and TA98. 12 of 13 brands of whisky were mutagenic to TA100 without S9 mix. Addition of S9 mix decreased or abolished these mutagenicities. 5 brands of brandy and 1 apple brandy were tested, and all showed a similar type of mutagenicity to that of whisky. A fraction of brand-K whisky, containing a major mutagen(s), eluted from XAD-2 column with water, gave 3800 revertants of TA100 per plate at a dose equivalent to 10 ml of whisky. PMID:7012607

  13. The alcohol program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The rationale for the launching of the Alcohol Program from sugarcane in Brazil in the mid-1970s is described as an answer to the first ''oil crisis'' as well as a solution to the problem of the fluctuating sugar prices in the international market. The technical characteristics of ethanol as a fuel are given as well as a discussion of the evolution of the cost of production, environmental and social consequences. Regarding costs, ethanol production was close to 100 dollars a barrel in the initial stages of the Program in 1980 falling rapidly due to economies of scale and technological progress to half that value in 1990, followed by a slower decline in recent years. Considering the hard currency saved by avoiding oil importation through the significant displacement of gasoline by ethanol and the decrease in the amount of external debt that the displaced oil importation was able to provide it is possible to demonstrate that the Alcohol Program has been an efficient way of exchanging dollar debt by national currency subsidies which are paid by the liquid fossil fuel users. Even with this economic gains for society, the continuity of the Program is difficult to maintain. Two solutions to this problem are discussed: internal expansion of the use of ethanol and exports to industrialized countries where it could be used as an octane enhancer. The main attractiveness of the Program - the reduction of CO2 emissions as compared to fossil fuels - is stressed, mainly as a solution for industrialized countries to fulfill their commitments with the United Nations Framework Climate Change Convention. (Author)

  14. Alcohol references on undergraduate males' Facebook profiles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Egan, Katie G; Moreno, Megan A

    2011-09-01

    Perceived peer alcohol use is a predictor of consumption in college males; frequent references to alcohol on Facebook may encourage alcohol consumption. Content analysis of college males' Facebook profiles identified references to alcohol. The average age of 225 identified profiles was 19.9 years. Alcohol references were present on 85.3% of the profiles; the prevalence of alcohol was similar across each undergraduate grade. The average number of alcohol references per profile was 8.5 but increased with undergraduate year (p = .003; confidence interval = 1.5, 7.5). Students who were of legal drinking age referenced alcohol 4.5 times more than underage students, and an increase in number of Facebook friends was associated with an increase in displayed alcohol references (p Facebook is widely used in the college population; widespread alcohol displays on Facebook may influence social norms and cause increases in male college students' alcohol use. PMID:21406490

  15. Differences of Photographs Inducing Craving Between Alcoholics and Non-alcoholics

    OpenAIRE

    Lee, Eun; Namkoong, Kee; Lee, Choong Heon; An, Suk Kyoon; Lee, Byung Ook

    2006-01-01

    Many researchers have used cue reactivity paradigm to study alcohol craving. But the difference of craving response to drinks between alcoholic patients and social drinkers was little evaluated. To investigate characteristics of alcohol-related visual cues which induce alcohol craving in alcoholism, we examined the response of subjects to alcohol-related cues considering qualitative aspects. The authors developed 27 photographs related to alcohol as candidate visual cues. Thirty five patients...

  16. Interrelationships among Individual Differences in Alcohol Demand, Impulsivity, and Alcohol Misuse

    OpenAIRE

    Gray, Joshua; MacKillop, James

    2013-01-01

    An Alcohol Purchase Task (APT) is a novel behavioral economic measure for characterizing the incentive value of alcohol to an individual (i.e., alcohol demand). Individual differences in alcohol demand have been associated with a number of alcohol-related outcomes and the current investigation sought to extend these previous findings in a number of ways. The goals of the study were: i) to examine the relationship between alcohol demand and alcohol misuse in a large sample of community adults;...

  17. Differential Brain Response to Alcohol Cue Distractors across Stages of Alcohol Dependence

    OpenAIRE

    Fryer, Susanna L.; Jorgensen, Kasper W.; Yetter, Elizabeth J.; Daurignac, Elsa C.; Watson, Todd D.; Shanbhag, Harshad; Krystal, John H.; Mathalon, Daniel H.

    2012-01-01

    Altered attention to alcohol-related cues is implicated in the craving and relapse cycle characteristic of alcohol dependence (ALC). Prior cue reactivity studies typically invoke explicit attention to alcohol cues, so the neural response underlying incidental cue exposure remains unclear. Here, we embed infrequent, task-irrelevant alcohol and non-alcohol cues in an attention-demanding task, enabling evaluation of brain responses to distracting alcohol cues. Alcohol dependent individuals, acro...

  18. The cognitive and behavioural impact of alcohol promoting and alcohol warning advertisements: An experimental study

    OpenAIRE

    Brown, Kyle; Stautz, Kaidy; Hollands, Gareth; Winpenny, Eleanor; Marteau, Theresa

    2015-01-01

    Aims: To assess the immediate effect of alcohol promoting and alcohol warning advertisements on implicit and explicit attitudes towards alcohol and on alcohol seeking behaviour. Methods: We conducted a between-participants online experiment in which participants were randomly assigned to view one of three sets of advertisements: i. alcohol promoting, ii. alcohol warning, or iii. unrelated to alcohol. A total of 373 participants (59.5% female) aged 18 to 40 (M = 28.03) living in t...

  19. Effects of alcohol intake on brain structure and function in non-alcohol-dependent drinkers

    OpenAIRE

    Bruin, Eveline Astrid de

    2005-01-01

    About 85% of the adult population in the Netherlands regularly drinks alcohol. Chronic excessive alcohol intake in alcohol-dependent individuals is known to have damaging effects on brain structure and function. Relatives of alcohol-dependent individuals display differences in brain function that are similar to those found in alcoholics, even if they have never been drinking alcohol. This suggests that brain damage in alcohol-dependent individuals is at least partly related to genetic factors...

  20. Suicidal Behavior and Alcohol Abuse

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maurizio Pompili

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Suicide is an escalating public health problem, and alcohol use has consistently been implicated in the precipitation of suicidal behavior. Alcohol abuse may lead to suicidality through disinhibition, impulsiveness and impaired judgment, but it may also be used as a means to ease the distress associated with committing an act of suicide. We reviewed evidence of the relationship between alcohol use and suicide through a search of MedLine and PsychInfo electronic databases. Multiple genetically-related intermediate phenotypes might influence the relationship between alcohol and suicide. Psychiatric disorders, including psychosis, mood disorders and anxiety disorders, as well as susceptibility to stress, might increase the risk of suicidal behavior, but may also have reciprocal influences with alcohol drinking patterns. Increased suicide risk may be heralded by social withdrawal, breakdown of social bonds, and social marginalization, which are common outcomes of untreated alcohol abuse and dependence. People with alcohol dependence or depression should be screened for other psychiatric symptoms and for suicidality. Programs for suicide prevention must take into account drinking habits and should reinforce healthy behavioral patterns.

  1. Emergency management of acute alcohol problems. Part 2: Alcohol-related seizures, delirium tremens, and toxic alcohol ingestion.

    OpenAIRE

    Etherington, J. M.

    1996-01-01

    Alcohol-related problems are common in patients frequenting emergency departments. Primary care physicians have to recognize and treat a variety of alcohol-related conditions. This paper outlines one approach to recognizing and managing alcohol-related seizures, delirium tremens, and toxic alcohol ingestion.

  2. Alcohol fuels program technical review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1981-07-01

    The last issue of the Alcohol Fuels Process R/D Newsletter contained a work breakdown structure (WBS) of the SERI Alcohol Fuels Program that stressed the subcontracted portion of the program and discussed the SERI biotechnology in-house program. This issue shows the WBS for the in-house programs and contains highlights for the remaining in-house tasks, that is, methanol production research, alcohol utilization research, and membrane research. The methanol production research activity consists of two elements: development of a pressurized oxygen gasifier and synthesis of catalytic materials to more efficiently convert synthesis gas to methanol and higher alcohols. A report is included (Finegold et al. 1981) that details the experimental apparatus and recent results obtained from the gasifier. The catalysis research is principally directed toward producing novel organometallic compounds for use as a homogeneous catalyst. The utilization research is directed toward the development of novel engine systems that use pure alcohol for fuel. Reforming methanol and ethanol catalytically to produce H/sub 2/ and CO gas for use as a fuel offers performance and efficiency advantages over burning alcohol directly as fuel in an engine. An application of this approach is also detailed at the end of this section. Another area of utilization is the use of fuel cells in transportation. In-house researchers investigating alternate electrolyte systems are exploring the direct and indirect use of alcohols in fuel cells. A workshop is being organized to explore potential applications of fuel cells in the transportation sector. The membrane research group is equipping to evaluate alcohol/water separation membranes and is also establishing cost estimation and energy utilization figures for use in alcohol plant design.

  3. Alcoholism between Fiction and Reality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carota, Antonio; Calabrese, Pasquale

    2013-01-01

    Alcoholism has always been emphasized in literature, narratives, and theater as its prevalence and related disability are very high, is found throughout the world, and affects women and men of all ages and social classes. There is a tragic or romantic fascination in the deep sense of personal failure that drinking is able to relieve and in the uncontrollable inability to stop drinking. These aspects have been portrayed well by fictional alcoholics in movies and novels. It has become evident that biological traits together with a complex series of psychosocial factors (e.g. negative life events, depression, anxiety, and other psychiatric or personality disorders), which are also well represented in novels and movies, can lead to alcohol addiction. Behavioral (euphoria, disinhibiting behaviors, aggressiveness) and neurological changes (confusion, bradypsychism, slurred speech, ataxia, blackouts) related to alcohol intoxication are also well portrayed by fictional characters. Delirium tremens, epilepsy, alcohol dementia, and Wernicke-Korsakoff disease, however, find less representation in literature and on the stage and screen. The treatment of alcoholic dependence is very difficult (as often reported by fictional and real stories), but should never be considered hopeless. It should be initiated at any stage of the disease. The support offered by Alcoholics Anonymous has always had great appeal for the public. Fictional works can portray alcohol addiction superbly and show some dark sides of human nature (negative emotions and autodestructive thoughts and behaviors), and, at the same time, the severity and pervasiveness of mental illnesses. The psychiatric and psychosocial aspects of alcohol addiction in movies and novels could be an inspiring source for new psychological studies and rehabilitation programs. PMID:23485899

  4. Fractures and alcohol abuse - patient opinion of alcohol intervention

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Bolette; Alva-Jørgensen, Peter; Raffing, Rie;

    2011-01-01

    PURPOSE: To clarify patient opinions about alcohol intervention in relation to surgery before investigating the effect in a Scandinavian multi-centre randomized trial. MATERIAL AND METHODS: A qualitative study. Thirteen consecutive alcohol patients with fractures participated after informed consent....... They were interviewed during their hospital stay. The number of participants was based on the criteria of data-saturation. The analysis followed the applied qualitative framework model aimed at evaluation of specific participant needs within a larger overall project. RESULTS: All patients regarded alcohol...... intervention in relation to surgery as a good idea. They did not consider quit drinking as a major problem during their hospital stay and had all remained abstinent in this period. About half of the patients were ready or partly ready to participate in an alcohol intervention. Patient opinions...

  5. The concept of alcohol craving.

    OpenAIRE

    Katarzyna Agnieszka Iwanicka; Marcin Olajossy

    2015-01-01

    The aim of the article was to assess how the perception of alcohol craving, which is one of the symptoms of alcohol dependence, evolved, as well as how it was reflected in the diagnostic classifications. The purpose of this article was also a discussion of the models of the origins of craving, explaining the etiology of this phenomenon and the tools for measuring this concept. The concept of craving, defined as a strong need or compulsion to drink alcohol, functioned for many years, not only ...

  6. Alcohol Dependency in Indian Dentists

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gaurav Solanki

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Alcohol consumption has widely increased through out the world. This all is due to a stressful life style and emotional load on a person. Dentistry is not excluded from the stress phenomenon. Dentists experience stressful situations every day, and have to deal with these in a very professional manner. The dentists participated were told about the hazard and ill-effect of alcohol consumption. There need to be a reduction in consumption of alcohol in dentistry for the upliftment of general masses as well as the dentist.

  7. Pathogenesis of Alcoholic Liver Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunn, Winston; Shah, Vijay H

    2016-08-01

    Alcoholic liver disease includes a broad clinical-histological spectrum from simple steatosis, cirrhosis, acute alcoholic hepatitis with or without cirrhosis to hepatocellular carcinoma as a complication of cirrhosis. The pathogenesis of alcoholic liver disease can be conceptually divided into (1) ethanol-mediated liver injury, (2) inflammatory immune response to injury, (3) intestinal permeability and microbiome changes. Corticosteroids may improve outcomes, but this is controversial and probably only impacts short-term survival. New pathophysiology-based therapies are under study, including antibiotics, caspase inhibition, interleukin-22, anakinra, FXR agonist and others. These studies provide hope for better future outcomes for this difficult disease. PMID:27373608

  8. Alcohol Withdrawal Mimicking Organophosphate Poisoning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nezihat Rana Disel

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Organophosphates, which can cause occupational poisoning due to inappropriate personal protective measures, are widely used insecticides in agricultural regions of southern Turkey. Therefore, the classical clinical findings of this cholinergic poisoning are myosis, excessive secretions, bradicardia and fasciculations are easy to be recognized by local medical stuff. Diseases and conditions related to alcoholism such as mental and social impairments, coma, toxicity, withdrawal, and delirium are frequent causes of emergency visits of chronic alcoholic patients. Here we present a case diagnosed and treated as organophosphate poisoning although it was an alcohol withdrawal in the beginning and became delirium tremens, due to similar symptoms.

  9. The economic impact of alcohol abuse and alcoholism.

    OpenAIRE

    Burke, T. R.

    1988-01-01

    The economic effects of alcohol abuse are as damaging to the nation as the health effects, affecting the family, the community, and persons of all ages. Underaged drinking is interfering with children's development, affecting the nation's ability to respond to economic challenge in the future. The college aged may be the most difficult to educate about alcohol abuse because of drinking patterns established at an early age and susceptibility to advertising inducements. Health care costs for fa...

  10. Alcohol Advertising Bans and Alcohol Abuse: An International Perspective

    OpenAIRE

    Henry Saffer

    1989-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to empirically examine the effect on alcohol abuse of banning broadcast advertising of alcoholic beverages. The effect of a ban cannot be studied using data from one country because the adoption of new advertising bans is an infrequent event and requires many years for adjustment. However, an international data set can be used since there is considerable variation in the use of advertising bans across countries. The data used in this study are a pooled time series...

  11. Youths and Alcohol Abuse: A Continuing Phenomenon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torres, Donald A.

    1982-01-01

    Defines problem drinking and alcoholism, and differentiates normal drinking escapes from alcohol abuse by teenagers and other youths. Suggests teenagers consume alcohol for a myriad of reasons and this behavior often leads to alcohol dependence which can cause interference in normal relationships with others. (Author)

  12. Carbon 14 and tritium radioactivity of alcohols

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The method of measuring carbon 14 radioactivity of alcohols has been perfected in order to establish the correct determination of synthetic alcohol added to fermentation alcohol. The specific carbon and tritium activity of alcohol of different origins have been determined for 1973 and 1974. The Suess effect and nuclear fall-out are observed

  13. Prevention of Alcohol Abuse among Black Americans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Journal of Alcohol and Drug Education, 1992

    1992-01-01

    Originally published in "Alcohol Health and Research World," this article is report of interview with Thomas D. Watts and Roosevelt Wright, Jr., conducted to explore solutions to complex problem of prevention of alcoholism among African Americans. Introduces readers to work of two experts in area of alcohol abuse and alcoholism among African…

  14. Cryptorchidism and maternal alcohol consumption during pregnancy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Damgaard, Ida N; Jensen, Tina Kold; Petersen, Jørgen H;

    2007-01-01

    Prenatal exposure to alcohol can adversely affect the fetus. We investigated the association between maternal alcohol consumption during pregnancy and cryptorchidism (undescended testis) among newborn boys.......Prenatal exposure to alcohol can adversely affect the fetus. We investigated the association between maternal alcohol consumption during pregnancy and cryptorchidism (undescended testis) among newborn boys....

  15. 21 CFR 173.240 - Isopropyl alcohol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Isopropyl alcohol. 173.240 Section 173.240 Food and..., Lubricants, Release Agents and Related Substances § 173.240 Isopropyl alcohol. Isopropyl alcohol may be... label of the hops extract specifies the presence of the isopropyl alcohol and provides for the use...

  16. 77 FR 14023 - National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-08

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice... personal privacy. Name of Committee: National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism Special Emphasis... Nos. 93.271, Alcohol Research Career Development Awards for Scientists and Clinicians; 93.272,...

  17. 78 FR 13361 - National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-27

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice... personal privacy. Name of Committee: National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism Special Emphasis.... 93.273, Alcohol Research Programs; National Institutes of Health, HHS) Dated: February 21,...

  18. 78 FR 63484 - National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-10-24

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice... personal privacy. Name of Committee: National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism Special Emphasis... 2013. (Catalogue of Federal Domestic Assistance Program No. 93.273, Alcohol Research Programs;...

  19. 77 FR 26770 - National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-07

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice... personal privacy. Name of Committee: National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism Special Emphasis....271, Alcohol Research Career Development Awards for Scientists and Clinicians; 93.272,...

  20. 75 FR 42449 - National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-21

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice... personal privacy. Name of Committee: National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism, Special Emphasis... Person: Philippe Marmillot, PhD, Scientific Review Officer, National Institute on Alcohol Abuse...

  1. 77 FR 59405 - National Institute On Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-09-27

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute On Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice... personal privacy. Name of Committee: National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism Special Emphasis...). Contact Person: Richard A Rippe, Ph.D., Scientific Review Officer, National Institute ] on Alcohol...

  2. 75 FR 8726 - National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-02-25

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice... personal privacy. Name of Committee: National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism Special Emphasis... Person: Lorraine Gunzerath, PhD, MBA, Scientific Review Officer, National Institute on Alcohol Abuse...

  3. 78 FR 41938 - National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-12

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice... personal privacy. Name of Committee: National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism Initial Review.... Contact Person: Beata Buzas, Ph.D., Scientific Review Officer, National Institute on Alcohol Abuse...

  4. 78 FR 63483 - National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-10-24

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice... of personal privacy. Name of Committee: National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism Special... shutdown of October 2013. (Catalogue of Federal Domestic Assistance Program No. 93.273, Alcohol...

  5. 78 FR 17680 - National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Closed Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-22

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Closed... of Committee: National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism, Special Emphasis Panel, NIAAA... . (Catalogue of Federal Domestic Assistance Program Nos. 93.273, Alcohol Research Programs; National...

  6. 77 FR 16246 - National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-20

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice... personal privacy. Name of Committee: National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism Special Emphasis... Abuse and Alcoholism, National Institutes of Health, 5635 Fishers Lane, Rm 2081, Rockville, MD...

  7. 75 FR 36660 - National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-28

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice... personal privacy. Name of Committee: National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism Special Emphasis... Program Nos. 93.271, Alcohol Research Career Development Awards for Scientists and Clinicians;...

  8. 75 FR 42756 - National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-22

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice... personal privacy. Name of Committee: National Advisory Council on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism. Date... Person: Abraham P. Bautista, PhD, Executive Secretary, National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and...

  9. 77 FR 54919 - National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-09-06

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice... personal privacy. Name of Committee: National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism Initial Review... Abuse and Alcoholism, National Institutes of Health, 5635 Fishers Lane, Rm 2081, Rockville, Md...

  10. 76 FR 2129 - National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-12

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice... personal privacy. Name of Committee: National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism, Special Emphasis... Abuse and Alcoholism, National Institutes of Health, 5635 Fishers Lane, Room 2109, Bethesda, MD...

  11. 77 FR 70171 - National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-11-23

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice... personal privacy. Name of Committee: National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism Initial Review.... Contact Person: Beata Buzas, Ph.D. Scientific Review Officer, National Institute on Alcohol Abuse...

  12. 77 FR 14024 - National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-08

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice... personal privacy. Name of Committee: National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism Special Emphasis... Assistance Program Nos. 93.271, Alcohol Research Career Development Awards for Scientists and Clinicians;...

  13. 76 FR 44596 - National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-26

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice... personal privacy. Name of Committee: National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism Special Emphasis.... Contact Person: Beata Buzas, PhD, Scientific Review Officer, National Institute on Alcohol Abuse...

  14. 77 FR 72873 - National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-12-06

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice... personal privacy. Name of Committee: National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism Special Emphasis... Domestic Assistance Program Nos. 93.273, Alcohol Research Programs; National Institutes of Health,...

  15. 76 FR 22717 - National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-22

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice... personal privacy. Name of Committee: National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism Special Emphasis... Federal Domestic Assistance Program Nos. 93.271, Alcohol Research Career Development Awards for...

  16. 77 FR 61769 - National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-11

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice... personal privacy. Name of Committee: National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism Special Emphasis... Federal Domestic Assistance Program Nos. 93.273, Alcohol Research Programs, National Institutes of...

  17. 78 FR 10185 - National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-13

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice... personal privacy. Name of Committee: National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism Special Emphasis....273, Alcohol Research Programs; National Institutes of Health, HHS) Dated: February 7, 2013. Carolyn...

  18. Alcohol Consumption and Harm among Adolescents in Sweden: Is Smuggled Alcohol More Harmful?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Svensson, Johan

    2012-01-01

    As a consequence of Sweden joining the European Union, privately imported alcohol is increasingly sold within illegal contexts (i.e., smuggled alcohol). One implication of the smuggled alcohol is that alcohol becomes more available to underage drinkers. In the Swedish debate, smuggled alcohol has been formulated as a youth problem. The aim of this…

  19. Adolescent Alcohol Consumption in Romania: A Blueprint for Measuring Alcohol (mis)Use

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoof, van Joris J.; Moll, Marit

    2012-01-01

    In order to address the issues of adolescent alcohol (mis)use in Romanian cities and to develop local alcohol prevention policies comprised of interventions aimed at reducing alcohol consumption and alcohol related problems, information on the prevalence of alcohol use and relevant related topics is

  20. Alcohol and Suicide: Neurobiological and Clinical Aspects

    OpenAIRE

    Leo Sher

    2006-01-01

    Alcohol, primarily in the form of ethyl alcohol (ethanol), has occupied an important place in the history of humankind for at least 8,000 years. In most Western societies, at least 90% of people consume alcohol at some time during their lives, and 30% or more of drinkers develop alcohol-related problems. Severe alcohol-related life impairment, alcohol dependence (alcoholism), is observed at some time during their lives in about 10% of men and 3—5% of women. An additional 5—10% of each sex dev...

  1. Breast-feeding and alcoholism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Goodwin, D W; Gabrielli, W F; Penick, E C;

    1999-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: The authors' goal was to determine whether early termination of breast-feeding contributes to later alcohol dependence, as proposed more than 200 years ago by the British physician Thomas Trotter. METHOD: In 1959-1961, a multiple-specialty group of physicians studied 9, 182 consecutive...... deliveries in a Danish hospital, obtaining data about prepartum and postpartum variables. The present study concentrates on perinatal variables obtained from 200 of the original babies who participated in a 30-year high-risk follow-up study of the antecedents of alcoholism. RESULTS: Of the 27 men who were...... diagnosed as alcohol dependent at age 30, 13 (48%) came from the group weaned from the breast before the age of 3 weeks; only 33 (19%) of the 173 non-alcohol-dependent subjects came from the early weaning group. When challenged by other perinatal variables in a multiple regression analysis, early weaning...

  2. Kids and Alcohol (For Parents)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Abuse Alcohol interferes with a person's perception of reality and ability to make good decisions. This can ... that kids know and understand. For example, watching TV with your child can provide a chance to ...

  3. Low-Pressure Alcohol Distillation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frazier, D. O.; Zur Burg, F. W.; Cody, J. C.

    1984-01-01

    Heat requirements lowered for process. Temperature requirements lowered enough to make solar heat absorbed by flat-plate collectors feasible energy source. Alcohol produced without adding other solvents, eliminating need for dehydration or hydrocarbon stripping as final step.

  4. Cancer morbidity in alcohol abusers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tønnesen, H; Møller, Henrik; Andersen, J R;

    1994-01-01

    = 1.5; 95% CI 1.3-1.8). Significantly increased incidences were found of cancer in the tongue, mouth, pharynx, oesophagus, liver, larynx, lung and pleura and secondary cancer. The women had significantly increased risk of cervical cancer (RR = 2.0; 95% CI 1.2-3.0). The men developed prostatic cancer...... and the liver are confirmed. In addition, this study indicates an increased occurrence of cancer of the prostate gland, pleura and uterine cervix in alcohol abusers.......Data on the association between alcohol abuse and cancer morbidity are scarce in large cohorts of non-hospitalised alcoholic men and women. Of 18,368 alcohol abusers who entered an outpatient clinic in Copenhagen during 1954-87, 18,307 were followed and their cancer incidence was compared...

  5. Neurobiological Basis of Alcohol Addiction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milagros Lisset León Regal

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Alcoholism is a serious social problem due to its impact on individual and collective health. In order to provide an update on the latest findings that explain the development and symptoms of alcohol addiction, the short and long term changes that this disorder causes in the central nervous system are shown in this paper. A total of 52 information sources were consulted, including 43 journal articles, 4 books and statistical reports. The main network managers were used. The interaction of ethanol with various structures of the neuronal membrane affects the cytoarchitecture and brain function associated with the reward system, motor processing, learning and memory, resulting in the development of alcohol dependence. In addition, ethanol-induced changes in excitation/inhibition explain the phenomena of alcohol tolerance and withdrawal.

  6. Alcohol in Greenland 1951-2010

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aage, Hans

    2012-01-01

    Background. Fluctuations in alcohol consumption in Greenland have been extreme since alcohol became available to the Greenland Inuit in the 1950s, increasing from low levels in the 1950s to very high levels in the 1980s about twice as high as alcohol consumption in Denmark. Since then, consumption...... has declined, and current consumption is slightly below alcohol consumption in Denmark, while alcohol prices are far above Danish prices. Objective. Description of historical trends and possible causal connections of alcohol prices, alcohol consumption and alcohol-related mortality in Greenland 1951......-2010 as a background for the evaluation of the impact of various types of policy. Design. Time series for Greenland 1951-2010 for alcohol prices, consumption and mortality are compiled, and variation and correlations are discussed in relation to various policies aimed at limiting alcohol consumption. Corresponding...

  7. Paracetamol, alcohol and the liver

    OpenAIRE

    Prescott, Laurie F

    2000-01-01

    It is claimed that chronic alcoholics are at increased risk of paracetamol (acetaminophen) hepatotoxicity not only following overdosage but also with its therapeutic use. Increased susceptibility is supposed to be due to induction of liver microsomal enzymes by ethanol with increased formation of the toxic metabolite of paracetamol. However, the clinical evidence in support of these claims is anecdotal and the same liver damage after overdosage occurs in patients who are not chronic alcoholic...

  8. The Burden of Alcohol Use

    OpenAIRE

    White, Aaron; Hingson, Ralph

    2014-01-01

    Research shows that multiple factors influence college drinking, from an individual’s genetic susceptibility to the positive and negative effects of alcohol, alcohol use during high school, campus norms related to drinking, expectations regarding the benefits and detrimental effects of drinking, penalties for underage drinking, parental attitudes about drinking while at college, whether one is member of a Greek organization or involved in athletics, and conditions within the larger community ...

  9. Alcohol polymerization using electron emission

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We report a means of instantaneous alcohol polymerization using electron emission at room temperature. We selected 1-butanol as a source of alcohol polymer. A 1-butanol molecule has a simple molecular structure and is a good candidate for analyzing reaction mechanisms. Direct electron emission onto the surface of volatile 1-butanol prevented intense discharge and gently composed 1-butanol-polymer at room temperature in air. The strategy enabled exciting liquids and instantaneously composing new materials at room temperature

  10. Regioselective hydroformylation of allylic alcohols.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lightburn, Thomas E; De Paolis, Omar A; Cheng, Ka H; Tan, Kian L

    2011-05-20

    A highly regioselective hydroformylation of allylic alcohols is reported toward the synthesis of β-hydroxy-acid and aldehyde products. The selectivity is achieved through the use of a ligand that reversibly binds to alcohols in situ, allowing for a directed hydroformylation to occur. The application to trisubstituted olefins was also demonstrated, which yields a single diastereomer product consistent with a stereospecific addition of CO and hydrogen. PMID:21504208

  11. Regioselective Hydroformylation of Allylic Alcohols

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lightburn, Thomas E.; De Paolis, Omar A.; Cheng, Ka H.; Tan, Kian L.

    2011-01-01

    A highly regioselective hydroformylation of allylic alcohols is reported towards the synthesis of β-hydroxy-acid and aldehyde products. The selectivity is achieved through the use of a ligand that reversibly binds to alcohols in situ, allowing for a directed hydroformylation to occur. The application to trisubstituted olefins was also demonstrated, which yields a single diastereomer product consistent with a stereospecific addition of CO and hydrogen. PMID:21504208

  12. Drug and alcohol task force

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gordey, T. [ConocoPhillips Canada Resources Corp., Calgary, AB (Canada); Sunstrum, M. [Enform, Calgary, AB (Canada)

    2006-07-01

    Worker absenteeism due to substance abuse costs the Alberta economy approximately $720 million a year. It is estimated that 20 per cent of all drivers in fatal crashes were using alcohol, and the use of cannabis and cocaine in Alberta has more than doubled over the last 15 years. In addition, 1 in 10 Alberta workers have reported using alcohol while at work and 4 per cent have reported using alcohol 4 hours prior to coming to work during the previous 12 months. In an effort to ensure appropriate health and safety for workers in the Canadian petroleum industry, 6 trade associations in the sector have joined together as the Enform Alcohol and Drug Initiative and are now working to develop a common approach to drug and alcohol guidelines and workplace rules. The task group will determine if existing policies and guidelines are sufficient to ensure a safe workplace and will consider standardizing the testing, application and rehabilitation of workers with respect to the use of drugs and alcohol. In the past, disciplinary actions have often been reversed because employers have not been consistent or did not follow established alcohol and drug policies or test to specific standards. Various work rules for inappropriate alcohol and drug use were reviewed, as well as education and communication strategies regarding policy content. Standards for testing criteria were discussed, as well as issues concerning duty-to-accommodate circumstances. An excerpt of concentration standards was presented. It was concluded that a matrix for companies to assess and determine safety sensitive positions is needed. refs., tabs., figs.

  13. Alcohol Poisoning Deaths PSA (:60)

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2015-01-06

    This 60 second Public Service Announcement is based on the January 2015 CDC Vital Signs report. In the United States, an average of six people die every day from alcohol poisoning. Learn what you can do to prevent binge drinking and alcohol poisoning.  Created: 1/6/2015 by National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion (NCCDPHP).   Date Released: 1/6/2015.

  14. Drug and alcohol task force

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Worker absenteeism due to substance abuse costs the Alberta economy approximately $720 million a year. It is estimated that 20 per cent of all drivers in fatal crashes were using alcohol, and the use of cannabis and cocaine in Alberta has more than doubled over the last 15 years. In addition, 1 in 10 Alberta workers have reported using alcohol while at work and 4 per cent have reported using alcohol 4 hours prior to coming to work during the previous 12 months. In an effort to ensure appropriate health and safety for workers in the Canadian petroleum industry, 6 trade associations in the sector have joined together as the Enform Alcohol and Drug Initiative and are now working to develop a common approach to drug and alcohol guidelines and workplace rules. The task group will determine if existing policies and guidelines are sufficient to ensure a safe workplace and will consider standardizing the testing, application and rehabilitation of workers with respect to the use of drugs and alcohol. In the past, disciplinary actions have often been reversed because employers have not been consistent or did not follow established alcohol and drug policies or test to specific standards. Various work rules for inappropriate alcohol and drug use were reviewed, as well as education and communication strategies regarding policy content. Standards for testing criteria were discussed, as well as issues concerning duty-to-accommodate circumstances. An excerpt of concentration standards was presented. It was concluded that a matrix for companies to assess and determine safety sensitive positions is needed. refs., tabs., figs

  15. Alcoholic Liver Disease and Malnutrition

    OpenAIRE

    McClain, Craig J.; Barve, Shirish S.; Barve, Ashutosh; Marsano, Luis

    2011-01-01

    Malnutrition, both protein energy malnutrition (PEM) and deficiencies in individual nutrients, is a frequent complication of alcoholic liver disease (ALD). Severity of malnutrition correlates with severity of ALD. Malnutrition also occurs in patients with cirrhosis due to etiologies other than alcohol. The mechanisms for malnutrition are multifactorial, and malnutrition frequently worsens in the hospital due to fasting for procedures and metabolic complications of liver disease, such as hepat...

  16. Definition, epidemiology and magnitude of alcoholic hepatitis

    OpenAIRE

    2011-01-01

    Alcoholic liver disease (ALD) is a major cause of alcohol-related morbidity and mortality. Its presentation ranges from fatty liver to alcoholic hepatitis (AH), cirrhosis, and hepatocellular carcinoma. Although the amount and pattern of alcohol consumption is a well recognized predisposing factor for the development of serious liver pathology, environmental factors and the host’s genetic make-up may also play significant roles that have not yet been entirely explored. Continuing alcohol consu...

  17. Pathophysiology of alcoholic pancreatitis: An overview

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Parimal Chowdhury; Priya Gupta

    2006-01-01

    Use of alcohol is a worldwide habit regardless of socioeconomic background. Heavy alcohol consumption is a potential risk factor for induction of pancreatitis. The current review cites the updated literature on the alcohol metabolism, its effects on gastrointestinal and pancreatic function and in causing pancreatic injury, genetic predisposition of alcohol induced pancreatitis. Reports describing prospective mechanisms of action of alcohol activating the signal transduction pathways, induction of oxidative stress parameters through the development of animal models are being presented.

  18. Update on Alcohol and Viral Hepatitis

    OpenAIRE

    Gitto, Stefano; Vitale, Giovanni; Villa, Erica; Andreone, Pietro

    2014-01-01

    Alcohol consumption is often associated with viral hepatitis. Although alcohol is known to worsen viral liver disease, the interactions between alcohol and viral hepatitis are not fully understood. Molecular alterations in the liver due to alcohol and viral hepatitis include effects on viral replication, increased oxidative stress, cytotoxicity, and a weakened immune response. Clinically, alcohol enhances disease progression and favors induction of primitive liver neoplasm. The use of new ant...

  19. Congenital malformations in newborns of alcoholic mothers

    OpenAIRE

    Maria dos Anjos Mesquita; Conceição Aparecida de Mattos Segre

    2010-01-01

    Objective: To identify the presence of fetal alcohol syndrome, other alcohol-related congenital defects, and/or neurodevelopment disorders in newborns of mothers who consumed alcohol during gestation. Methods: In a public maternity in the city of São Paulo, 1,964 puerperal women were interviewed and 654 had consumed alcohol at some point during gestation. The newborns were clinically and laboratorially examined in order to identify the occurrence of fetal alcohol syndrome, congenital defects ...

  20. Elderly Abuse and Alcohol Consumption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rusac, Silvia

    2015-12-01

    Excessive alcohol consumption and the exposure of the elderly to family violence are in close connection. They represent both a general and social problem from a legal, medical and social aspect. The objectives of this study were to 1) test the frequency of alcohol consumption in older persons with respect to certain social and demographic characteristics; and 2) test the correlation between alcohol consumption and family violence towards the elderly. The sample used in this study was constructed as probabilistic with a random selection of participants in order to ensure representativeness for the City of Zagreb population over 65 years. The study included 1000 persons older than 65, among which 38% were male (N = 380) and 62% female (N = 620). The results showed a significantly more frequent consumption of alcohol among older men aged between 65 and 74, elderly people with life partners (unmarried), and financially independent older persons. A correlation between alcohol consumption frequency and exposure to violence was also established, as well as that older persons who consume alcohol are more likely to commit acts of violence. Further research is needed on the risk and protective factors for specific forms of family violence so as to detect the causes of violence within families as well as mechanisms that al- leviate coping with violence. PMID:26987154