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Sample records for alcohol outlet density

  1. Alcohol Outlet Density and Intimate Partner Violence in a Nonmetropolitan College Town: Accounting for Neighborhood Characteristics and Alcohol Outlet Types.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snowden, Aleksandra J

    2016-01-01

    There is a growing evidence of an ecological association between alcohol outlet density and intimate partner violence. It is reasonable to assume, however, that not all types of alcohol outlets contribute equally to criminal behavior, and to date, most ecological studies have been of large urban cities. Using Bloomington, Indiana, block groups as units of analysis and controlling for several structural characteristics associated with violence rates, I estimated spatially lagged regression models to determine if the variation in alcohol outlet density, including total outlets and disaggregating by on- and off-premise outlets, is related to intimate partner violence density. Results suggested that total alcohol outlet density and off-premise alcohol outlet density were significantly associated with intimate partner violence density. On-premise alcohol outlet density was not significantly associated with intimate partner violence density. These results not only extend the geographic scope of this relationship beyond large metropolitan areas but also have important policy implications. PMID:26646575

  2. Evaluation of alcohol outlet density and its relation with violence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laranjeira Ronaldo

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: The current study set out to investigate alcohol availability in a densely populated, residential area of suburban São Paulo associated with high levels of social deprivation and violence. Gun-related deaths and a heavy concentration of alcohol outlets are notable features of the area surveyed. Given the strong evidence for a link between alcohol availability and a number of alcohol-related problems, including violent crime, measures designed to reduce accessibility have become a favored choice for alcohol prevention programs in recent years. METHODS: The interviewers were 24 residents of the area who were trained for the study. It was selected an area of nineteen streets, covering a total distance of 3.7 km. A profile of each alcohol outlet available on the area was recorded. RESULTS: One hundred and seven alcohol outlets were recorded. The number of other properties in the same area was counted at 1,202. Two measures of outlet density may thus be calculated: the number of outlets per kilometer of roadway (29 outlets/km; and the proportion of all properties that sold alcohol (1 in 12. CONCLUSIONS: The results of this study is compared with others which are mainly from developed countries and shown that the area studied have the highest density of alcohol outlet density ever recorded in the medical literature. The implication of this data related to the violence of the region is discussed. By generating a profile of alcohol sales and selling points, it was hoped to gain a better understanding of alcohol access issues within the sample area. Future alcohol prevention policy would be well served by such knowledge.

  3. Evaluation of alcohol outlet density and its relation with violence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ronaldo Laranjeira

    2002-08-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: The current study set out to investigate alcohol availability in a densely populated, residential area of suburban São Paulo associated with high levels of social deprivation and violence. Gun-related deaths and a heavy concentration of alcohol outlets are notable features of the area surveyed. Given the strong evidence for a link between alcohol availability and a number of alcohol-related problems, including violent crime, measures designed to reduce accessibility have become a favored choice for alcohol prevention programs in recent years. METHODS: The interviewers were 24 residents of the area who were trained for the study. It was selected an area of nineteen streets, covering a total distance of 3.7 km. A profile of each alcohol outlet available on the area was recorded. RESULTS: One hundred and seven alcohol outlets were recorded. The number of other properties in the same area was counted at 1,202. Two measures of outlet density may thus be calculated: the number of outlets per kilometer of roadway (29 outlets/km; and the proportion of all properties that sold alcohol (1 in 12. CONCLUSIONS: The results of this study is compared with others which are mainly from developed countries and shown that the area studied have the highest density of alcohol outlet density ever recorded in the medical literature. The implication of this data related to the violence of the region is discussed. By generating a profile of alcohol sales and selling points, it was hoped to gain a better understanding of alcohol access issues within the sample area. Future alcohol prevention policy would be well served by such knowledge.

  4. Alcohol outlet density and alcohol consumption in Los Angeles county and southern Louisiana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthias Schonlau

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to assess the relationship between alcohol availability, as measured by the density of off-premise alcohol outlets, and alcohol consumption in Los Angeles county and southern Louisiana, USA. Consumption information was collected through a telephone survey of 2,881 households in Los Angeles county and pre-Katrina southern Louisiana, nested within 220 census tracts. Respondents’ addresses were geo-coded and both neighbourhood (census tracts and buffers of varying sizes and individual (network distance to the closest alcohol outlet estimates of off-sale alcohol outlet density were computed. Alcohol outlet density was not associated with the percentage of people who were drinkers in either site. Alcohol outlet density was associated with the quantity of consumption among drinkers in Louisiana but not in Los Angeles. Outlet density within a one-mile buffer of the respondent’s home was more strongly associated with alcohol consumption than outlet density in the respondent’s census tract. The conclusion is that the relationship between neighbourhood alcohol outlet density and alcohol consumption is complex and may vary due to differences in neighbourhood design and travel patterns.

  5. Evaluation of alcohol outlet density and its relation with violence

    OpenAIRE

    Ronaldo Laranjeira; David Hinkly

    2002-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: The current study set out to investigate alcohol availability in a densely populated, residential area of suburban São Paulo associated with high levels of social deprivation and violence. Gun-related deaths and a heavy concentration of alcohol outlets are notable features of the area surveyed. Given the strong evidence for a link between alcohol availability and a number of alcohol-related problems, including violent crime, measures designed to reduce accessibility have become a ...

  6. The ecology of domestic violence: the role of alcohol outlet density

    OpenAIRE

    Michael Livingston

    2010-01-01

    Studies have consistently found positive associations between the density of alcohol outlets and levels of violence in areas. Few studies have examined whether this relationship holds for domestic violence. This study assesses whether alcohol outlet density is related to domestic violence and whether this relationship is due to alcohol availability or to co-occurring economic disadvantage and social disorganisation. Cross-sectional data on family incidents, liquor outlets and socio-demographi...

  7. Relationships among Alcohol Outlet Density, Alcohol Use, and Intimate Partner Violence Victimization among Young Women in the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waller, Martha W.; Iritani, Bonita J.; Christ, Sharon L.; Clark, Heddy Kovach; Moracco, Kathryn E.; Halpern, Carolyn Tucker; Flewelling, Robert L.

    2012-01-01

    Greater access to alcohol has been widely found to be associated with many negative outcomes including violence perpetration. This study examines the relationship between alcohol outlet density, alcohol use, and intimate partner violence (IPV) victimization among young women in the United States. A direct association between alcohol outlet density…

  8. Change in alcohol outlet density and alcohol-related harm to population health (CHALICE

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    Fone David

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Excess alcohol consumption has serious adverse effects on health and violence-related harm. In the UK around 37% of men and 29% of women drink to excess and 20% and 13% report binge drinking. The potential impact on population health from a reduction in consumption is considerable. One proposed method to reduce consumption is to reduce availability through controls on alcohol outlet density. In this study we investigate the impact of a change in the density of alcohol outlets on alcohol consumption and alcohol-related harms to health in the community. Methods/Design A natural experiment of the effect of change in outlet density between 2005–09, in Wales, UK; population 2.4 million aged 16 years and over. Data on outlets are held by the 22 local authorities in Wales under The Licensing Act 2003. The study outcomes are change in (1 alcohol consumption using data from annual Welsh Health Surveys, (2 alcohol-related hospital admissions using the Patient Episode Database for Wales, (3 Accident & Emergency department attendances between midnight–6am, and (4 alcohol-related violent crime against the person, using Police data. The data will be anonymously record-linked within the Secure Anonymised Information Linkage Databank at individual and 2001 Census Lower Super Output Area levels. New methods of network analysis will be used to estimate outlet density. Longitudinal statistical analysis will use (1 multilevel ordinal models of consumption and logistic models of admissions and Accident & Emergency attendance as a function of change in individual outlet exposure, adjusting for confounding variables, and (2 spatial models of the change in counts/rates of each outcome measure and outlet density. We will assess the impact on health inequalities and will correct for population migration. Discussion This inter-disciplinary study requires expertise in epidemiology and public health, health informatics, medical statistics

  9. Alcohol Outlet Densities and Alcohol Price: The British Columbia Experiment in the Partial Privatization of Alcohol Sales Off-Premise

    Science.gov (United States)

    Treno, Andrew J.; Ponicki, William R.; Stockwell, Tim; Macdonald, Scott; Gruenewald, Paul J.; Zhao, Jinhui; Martin, Gina; Greer, Alissa

    2014-01-01

    Background Alcohol beverage prices or taxes have been shown to be related to alcohol sales and use and related problems. What is not clear are the mechanisms underlying these relationships. Methods This study examines the relationship between alcohol outlet density under conditions of the partial privatization of off-premise consumption in British Columbia (BC) occurring over the past decade. Two hypotheses are tested. First, reflecting basic supply–demand principles, greater geographic densities of alcohol outlets will be directly related to reductions in beverage prices in response to greater competition. Second, reflecting the effects of niche marketing and resulting market stratification, increased densities of private liquor stores will be especially related to reductions in beverage prices within this outlet category. Data were collected from: (i) a survey of BC private store prices and practices, (ii) alcohol outlet location information, and (iii) data on demographic characteristics. Multilevel models examine the relationships between prices at individual private liquor stores and the densities of government liquor stores, private liquor stores, bars, and restaurants, controlling for background demographics and geographic unit level effects. Spatial dependencies were also examined. Results Increased densities of private liquor stores were associated with lower mean prices of beer and all alcohol aggregated across brands at the store level. There appeared to be no outlet level effect on discounting patterns, however, with the mean price differences apparently reflecting differences in the quality of brands carried rather than unequal prices for any given brand. Conclusions Increased densities of private off-sale alcohol outlets appear to result in lower prices charged at said establishments independently of other types of alcohol outlets suggesting that they represent an emerging marketing niche in the context of off-sale outlet privatization. PMID:23316802

  10. Alcohol Outlet Density and Young Women’s Perpetration of Violence Toward Male Intimate Partners

    OpenAIRE

    Iritani, Bonita J.; Waller, Martha W.; Halpern, Carolyn Tucker; Moracco, Kathryn E; Christ, Sharon L.; Flewelling, Robert L.

    2013-01-01

    This paper examines the relationships between alcohol outlet density, alcohol use, and perpetration of intimate partner violence (IPV) among young adult women in the US. Data were from Wave III of the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health (Add Health; N = 4,430 in present analyses). Multinomial logistic regression was used to examine occurrence of past year IPV perpetration toward a male partner based on tract-level on-premise and off-premise alcohol outlet density, controlling for...

  11. Relationships Among Alcohol Outlet Density, Alcohol use, and Intimate Partner Violence Victimization Among Young Women in the United States

    OpenAIRE

    Waller, Martha W.; Iritani, Bonita J.; Christ, Sharon L.; Clark, Heddy Kovach; Moracco, Kathryn E; Halpern, Carolyn Tucker; Flewelling, Robert L.

    2011-01-01

    Greater access to alcohol has been widely found to be associated with many negative outcomes including violence perpetration. This study examines the relationship between alcohol outlet density, alcohol use, and intimate partner violence (IPV) victimization among young women in the United States. A direct association between alcohol outlet density in one’s neighborhood and the likelihood of IPV victimization was examined. Data were from Wave III of the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescen...

  12. Relationships among alcohol outlet density, alcohol use, and intimate partner violence victimization among young women in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waller, Martha W; Iritani, Bonita J; Christ, Sharon L; Clark, Heddy Kovach; Moracco, Kathryn E; Halpern, Carolyn Tucker; Flewelling, Robert L

    2012-07-01

    Greater access to alcohol has been widely found to be associated with many negative outcomes including violence perpetration. This study examines the relationship between alcohol outlet density, alcohol use, and intimate partner violence (IPV) victimization among young women in the United States. A direct association between alcohol outlet density in one's neighborhood and the likelihood of IPV victimization was examined. Data were from Wave III of the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health (Add Health), which followed a nationally representative sample of adolescents into adulthood. Participants were young adult females age 18 to 26 at Wave III. Of the 4,571 female respondents who reported a current heterosexual relationship and had IPV data, 13.2% reported having been the victim of physical violence only and 6.5% experienced sexual only or physical and sexual violence in the relationship during the past year. In the regression models tested, there was no significant direct association between neighborhood alcohol outlet density and IPV victimization nor was there an association between outlet density and drinking behaviors, thus eliminating the possibility of an indirect association. Results of fully adjusted models indicate females who drank heavily, whether infrequently or frequently, were at significant risk for experiencing sexual only IPV or sexual and physical IPV. Asians and Native Americans were at significantly greater odds of experiencing sexual only or sexual and physical IPV compared with non-Hispanic Whites, while non-Hispanic Blacks were at significantly greater odds for physical only IPV. We conclude that a continuous measure of alcohol outlet density was not associated with IPV in models controlling for individual and other neighborhood characteristics. Young women who drink heavily, whether infrequently or frequently, have greater odds of experiencing sexual only or sexual and physical compared to abstainers. Similar to previous study

  13. Neighborhood Alcohol Outlet Density and Rates of Child Abuse and Neglect: Moderating Effects of Access to Substance Abuse Services

    OpenAIRE

    Morton, Cory M.; Simmel, Cassandra; Peterson, N Andrew

    2014-01-01

    This study investigates the relationship between concentrations of on- and off-premises alcohol outlets and rates of child abuse and neglect. Additionally, the study seeks to locate protective features of a neighborhood's built environment by investigating the potentially moderating role that access to substance abuse treatment and prevention services plays in the relationship between alcohol outlet density and child maltreatment. Using a cross-sectional design, this ecological study utilized...

  14. Alcohol outlets, social disorganization, and robberies: accounting for neighborhood characteristics and alcohol outlet types.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snowden, Aleksandra J; Freiburger, Tina L

    2015-05-01

    We estimated spatially lagged regression and spatial regime models to determine if the variation in total, on-premise, and off-premise alcohol outlet(1) density is related to robbery density, while controlling for direct and moderating effects of social disorganization.(2) Results suggest that the relationship between alcohol outlet density and robbery density is sensitive to the measurement of social disorganization levels. Total alcohol outlet density and off-premise alcohol outlet density were significantly associated with robbery density when social disorganization variables were included separately in the models. However, when social disorganization levels were captured as a four item index, only the association between off-premise alcohol outlets and robbery density remained significant. More work is warranted in identifying the role of off-premise alcohol outlets and their characteristics in robbery incidents. PMID:25769858

  15. Alcohol availability and violence among inner-city adolescents: A multi-level analysis of the role of alcohol outlet density

    OpenAIRE

    Resko, Stella M.; Walton, Maureen A.; Bingham, C. Raymond; Shope, Jean T.; Zimmerman, Marc; Chermack, Stephen T.; Blow, Frederic C.; Cunningham, Rebecca M.

    2010-01-01

    Researchers recognize that the connection between alcohol and peer violence may relate to community level ecological factors, such as the location of businesses that sell alcohol. Building on previous research among adults, this study examines the relationship between alcohol outlet density and violent behaviors among adolescents, taking into account demographic characteristics, individual alcohol use, and neighborhood level socioeconomic indicators. Data drawn from a diverse Emergency Depart...

  16. Alcohol outlets and clusters of violence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pridemore William

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Alcohol related violence continues to be a major public health problem in the United States. In particular, there is substantial evidence of an association between alcohol outlets and assault. However, because the specific geographic relationships between alcohol outlets and the distribution of violence remains obscured, it is important to identify the spatial linkages that may exist, enhancing public health efforts to curb both violence and morbidity. Methods The present study utilizes police-recorded data on simple and aggravated assaults in Cincinnati, Ohio. Addresses of alcohol outlets for Cincinnati, including all bars, alcohol-serving restaurants, and off-premise liquor and convenience stores were obtained from the Ohio Division of Liquor Control and geocoded for analysis. A combination of proximity analysis, spatial cluster detection approaches and a geographic information system were used to identify clusters of alcohol outlets and the distribution of violence around them. Results A brief review of the empirical work relating to alcohol outlet density and violence is provided, noting that the majority of this literature is cross-sectional and ecological in nature, yielding a somewhat haphazard and aggregate view of how outlet type(s and neighborhood characteristics like social organization and land use are related to assaultive violence. The results of the statistical analysis for Cincinnati suggest that while alcohol outlets are not problematic per se, assaultive violence has a propensity to cluster around agglomerations of alcohol outlets. This spatial relationship varies by distance and is also related to the characteristics of the alcohol outlet agglomeration. Specifically, spatially dense distributions of outlets appear to be more prone to clusters of assaultive violence when compared to agglomerations with a lower density of outlets. Conclusion With a more thorough understanding of the spatial relationships

  17. Alcohol Outlet Density, Drinking Contexts and Intimate Partner Violence: A Review of Environmental Risk Factors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cunradi, Carol B.; Mair, Christina; Todd, Michael

    2014-01-01

    Alcohol use is a robust predictor of intimate partner violence (IPV). A critical barrier to progress in preventing alcohol-related IPV is that little is known about how an individual's specific drinking contexts (where, how often, and with whom one drinks) are related to IPV, or how these contexts are affected by environmental characteristics,…

  18. Alcohol Outlets and Violent Crime in Washington D.C.

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    Pan, William K

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Alcohol is more likely than any other drug to be involved in substance-related violence. In 2000 violence-related and self-directed injuries accounted for an estimated $37 billion and $33 billion in productivity losses and medical treatment, respectively. A review of emergency department data revealed violence and clinically identified trauma-related injuries have the strongest correlation among alcohol-dependent injuries. At the environmental level there is a relationship between alcohol outlet density and violent crime. A limited number of studies have examined the relationship between alcohol outlet type and the components of violent crime. The aim of this study is to examine the relationship between the aggregate components of violent crime and alcohol outlet density by type of outlet.Methods: For this study we used Washington, D.C. census tract data from the 2000 census to examine neighborhood characteristics. Alcohol outlet, violent crime, and population-level data for Washington, D.C. were drawn from various official yet publicly available sources. We developed an analytic database to examine the relationship between alcohol outlet category and four types of violent crime. After estimating spatial correlation and determining spatial dependence, we used a negative binomial regression analysis to assess the alcohol availability-violent crime association, while controlling for structural correlates of violence.Results: Independent of alternative structural correlates of violent crime, including the prevalence of weapons and illicit drugs, community-level alcohol outlet density is significantly associated with assaultive violence. Outlets were significantly related to robbery, assault, and sexual offenses. In addition, the relationship among on-premise and off-premise outlets varied across violent crime categories.Conclusion: In Washington, D.C., alcohol outlet density is significantly associated with the violent crimes. The

  19. Alcohol outlets and clusters of violence

    OpenAIRE

    Pridemore William; Grubesic Tony H

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Background Alcohol related violence continues to be a major public health problem in the United States. In particular, there is substantial evidence of an association between alcohol outlets and assault. However, because the specific geographic relationships between alcohol outlets and the distribution of violence remains obscured, it is important to identify the spatial linkages that may exist, enhancing public health efforts to curb both violence and morbidity. Methods The present ...

  20. Acute alcohol consumption, alcohol outlets, and gun suicide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Branas, Charles C; Richmond, Therese S; Ten Have, Thomas R; Wiebe, Douglas J

    2011-01-01

    A case-control study of 149 intentionally self-inflicted gun injury cases (including completed gun suicides) and 302 population-based controls was conducted from 2003 to 2006 in a major US city. Two focal independent variables, acute alcohol consumption and alcohol outlet availability, were measured. Conditional logistic regression was adjusted for confounding variables. Gun suicide risk to individuals in areas of high alcohol outlet availability was less than the gun suicide risk they incurred from acute alcohol consumption, especially to excess. This corroborates prior work but also uncovers new information about the relationships between acute alcohol consumption, alcohol outlets, and gun suicide. Study limitations and implications are discussed. PMID:21929327

  1. Socioeconomic Determinants of Exposure to Alcohol Outlets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morrison, Christopher; Gruenewald, Paul J.; Ponicki, William R.

    2015-01-01

    Objective: Alcohol outlets tend to be located in lower income areas, exposing lower income populations to excess risks associated with alcohol sales through these establishments. The objective of this study was to test two hypotheses about the etiology of these differential exposures based on theories of the economic geography of retail markets: (a) outlets will locate within or near areas of high alcohol demand, and (b) outlets will be excluded from areas with high land and structure rents. Method: Data from the 2010 National Drug Strategy Household Survey were used to develop a surrogate for alcohol demand (i.e., market potential) at two census geographies for the city of Melbourne, Australia. Bayesian conditional autoregressive Poisson models estimated multilevel spatial relationships between counts of bars, restaurants, and off-premise outlets and market potential, income, and zoning ordinances (Level 1: n = 8,914). Results: Market potentials were greatest in areas with larger older age, male, English-speaking, high-income populations. Independent of zoning characteristics, greater numbers of outlets appeared in areas with greater market potentials and the immediately surrounding areas. Greater income excluded outlets in local and surrounding areas. Conclusions: These findings are consistent with the hypothesis that alcohol outlets are located in areas with high demand and are excluded from high-income areas. These processes appear to take place at relatively small geographic scales, encourage the concentration of outlets in specific low-income areas, and represent a very general economic process likely to take place in communities throughout the world. PMID:25978830

  2. Acute Alcohol Consumption, Alcohol Outlets, and Gun Suicide

    OpenAIRE

    Branas, Charles C; Richmond, Therese S.; Ten Have, Thomas R.; Wiebe, Douglas J.

    2011-01-01

    A case–control study of 149 intentionally self-inflicted gun injury cases (including completed gun suicides) and 302 population-based controls was conducted from 2003 to 2006 in a major US city. Two focal independent variables, acute alcohol consumption and alcohol outlet availability, were measured. Conditional logistic regression was adjusted for confounding variables. Gun suicide risk to individuals in areas of high alcohol outlet availability was less than the gun suicide risk they incurr...

  3. Multilevel spatio-temporal dual changepoint models for relating alcohol outlet destruction and changes in neighbourhood rates of assaultive violence

    OpenAIRE

    Qingzhao Yu; Richard Scribner; Brad Carlin; Katherine Theall; Neal Simonsen; Bonnie Ghosh-Dastidar; Deborah Cohen; Karen Mason

    2008-01-01

    Many previous studies have suggested a link between alcohol outlets and assaultive violence. In this paper, we evaluate the impact of the “1992 Civil Unrest” in Los Angeles (which followed the “Rodney King incident”), in which many alcohol outlets were damaged leading to a decrease in alcohol outlet density, on crime. We leverage the natural experiment created by the closure of alcohol outlets in certain areas and not others to explore the effects of alcohol availability on assault crimes at ...

  4. Evaluation of alcohol outlet density and its relation with violence Avaliação da densidade de pontos de vendas de álcool e sua relação com a violência

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ronaldo Laranjeira

    2002-08-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: The current study set out to investigate alcohol availability in a densely populated, residential area of suburban São Paulo associated with high levels of social deprivation and violence. Gun-related deaths and a heavy concentration of alcohol outlets are notable features of the area surveyed. Given the strong evidence for a link between alcohol availability and a number of alcohol-related problems, including violent crime, measures designed to reduce accessibility have become a favored choice for alcohol prevention programs in recent years. METHODS: The interviewers were 24 residents of the area who were trained for the study. It was selected an area of nineteen streets, covering a total distance of 3.7 km. A profile of each alcohol outlet available on the area was recorded. RESULTS: One hundred and seven alcohol outlets were recorded. The number of other properties in the same area was counted at 1,202. Two measures of outlet density may thus be calculated: the number of outlets per kilometer of roadway (29 outlets/km; and the proportion of all properties that sold alcohol (1 in 12. CONCLUSIONS: The results of this study is compared with others which are mainly from developed countries and shown that the area studied have the highest density of alcohol outlet density ever recorded in the medical literature. The implication of this data related to the violence of the region is discussed. By generating a profile of alcohol sales and selling points, it was hoped to gain a better understanding of alcohol access issues within the sample area. Future alcohol prevention policy would be well served by such knowledge.OBJETIVOS: Devido às fortes evidências de ligação entre disponibilidade de álcool e números de problemas a ele relacionados, inclusive crimes violentos, medidas para reduzir o acesso ao álcool têm sido escolhidas em programas de prevenção. Ao obter informações sobre as vendas de álcool e os locais de venda

  5. Neighborhood Characteristics Associated with the Availability of Alcohol Outlets in Quebec, Canada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ngamini Ngui, André; Apparicio, Philippe; Philibert, Mathieu; Fleury, Marie-Josée

    2015-01-01

    Objectives. The objectives of this study were to examine the spatial accessibility to alcohol outlets in Quebec and to assess the association between neighborhood level characteristics and availability of alcohol outlets. Methods. The Tobit Model was used to assess the association between neighborhood level characteristics and the availability of alcohol outlets within 500, 1000, 2000, and 3000 metres, respectively. Results. Alcohol outlets were found to be most available in the two largest metropolitan areas of the province of Quebec (Montréal and Québec City). Within 1000 metres, alcohol outlets are more available in neighbourhoods with the following characteristics: highest concentration of men, least materially deprived highest concentration of persons aged 20 years or more, and location either in a metropolitan area or in a small town. Finally, the number of bars with video lottery terminals increases with the level of social and material deprivation. Conclusion. In Québec, there is no rule governing the location of alcohol outlets. Thus, there is an abundant literature indicating that the regulation of alcohol outlet density could be an effective means of controlling risk attributable to alcohol consumption. PMID:25810946

  6. Population Percentage Within A Quarter Mile Of Alcohol Outlets 2014

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — This table contains data on the percentage of the total population living within 1/4 mile of alcohol outlets (off-sale, on-sale, total) for California, its regions,...

  7. Alcohol outlets near schools in a midsize Romanian city : prevalence and characteristics

    OpenAIRE

    Hoof, van, P.A.M.; Reijlink, Lian M.J.; Dalen, van, J.A.

    2010-01-01

    Objective: alcohol availability is one of the strongest predictors of adolescent alcohol use, and subsequent harm. Alcohol outlets near schools are an important indicator of three types of availability related to adolescent alcohol use; physical (number), economic (price), and legal (compliance with age limits). Method: two teams with trained students (16 and 17 years old) visited all 37 schools in a 200,000 inhabitant Romanian city (Pitesti). On the spot all alcohol outlets were visited and ...

  8. Routine activities and alcohol use: constraints on outlet utilization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gruenewald, P J; Treno, A J; Nephew, T M; Ponicki, W R

    1995-02-01

    Studies of consumers' use of alcohol beverage outlets have provided a basis for understanding drinking behaviors in different drinking environments. These studies have shown that drinking environments are related to both demographic and drinking pattern measures. Absent from these studies has been a theoretical basis on which to make predictions regarding drinking patterns and choices of drinking environments under the various social, economic, and environmental constraints typically confronting alcohol consumers. This study presents one such theoretical approach. The approach assumes that, in the context of individual preferences for alcohol, drinking choices are constrained by consumers' economic and time-energy budgets for consumption. All other things being equal, it is suggested that greater budgets for consumption will be related to greater alcohol use, quality of beverages purchased, amenity values of purchase locations, or all three. Because on-premise drinking entails greater economic costs, greater drinking levels will be related to lower utilization of on-premise establishments. The predictions of this approach were tested using data obtained from telephone surveys of consumers conducted in 1990 and 1991. The results showed that controlling for income, variables related to greater time-energy budgets for consumption (i.e., marital status and household composition) were related to greater consumption levels and greater utilization of on-premise establishments. Controlling for demographic measures, greater income was related to greater utilization of restaurants and increased beverage quality. Controlling for all other measures, frequencies of consumption were inversely related to consumption at on-premise establishments, reflecting the expected moderation in costs for heavier consumers on a limited alcohol budget. PMID:7771662

  9. Alcohol outlets near schools in a midsize Romanian city : prevalence and characteristics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoof, van Joris J.; Reijlink, Lian M.J.; Dalen, van Wim E.

    2010-01-01

    Objective: alcohol availability is one of the strongest predictors of adolescent alcohol use, and subsequent harm. Alcohol outlets near schools are an important indicator of three types of availability related to adolescent alcohol use; physical (number), economic (price), and legal (compliance with

  10. Neighborhood Alcohol Outlets and the Association with Violent Crime in One Mid-Atlantic City: The Implications for Zoning Policy

    OpenAIRE

    Jennings, Jacky M.; Milam, Adam J.; Greiner, Amelia; Furr-Holden, C. Debra M.; Curriero, Frank C; Thornton, Rachel J.

    2013-01-01

    Violent crime such as homicide causes significant excess morbidity and mortality in US urban areas. A health impact assessment (HIA) identified zoning policy related to alcohol outlets as one way to decrease violent crime. The objectives were to determine the relationship between alcohol outlets including off-premise alcohol outlets and violent crime in one urban area to provide local public health evidence to inform a zoning code rewrite. An ecologic analysis of census tracts in Baltimore Ci...

  11. Have drivers at alcohol outlets changed their behavior after the new traffic law?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raquel B. De Boni

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Objective: In an attempt to reduce high levels of traffic crashes, a new legislation was approved in Brazil in 2008. This study aimed to assess behavioral change among drivers who had drunk at alcohol outlets (AO after implementation of the law. Method: A three-stage probability sampling survey was conducted in Porto Alegre, state of Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil. Individuals seen leaving AOs after drinking were approached (n=3,018. Selected drivers (n=683 answered a structured interview, were breathalyzed, and had saliva specimens collected for drug screening. Results: Overall, 60.3% (SE 4.5 of drivers reported they did not change their behavior. Among those who reported behavioral changes, most reported drinking less as their main strategy toward safer driving behavior. Variables independently associated with behavior change included having drunk at a high outlet density area (odds ratio [OR] 1.7 [1.1-2.8] and having a favorable opinion about the law (OR 4.3 [2.1-8.9]. Conclusions: Our findings suggest that awareness of the law has not been enough to promote behavioral change. As most drivers had a favorable opinion of the law and this variable was found to be the strongest predictor of behavior change, efforts to better integrate education and enforcement seem to be pivotal and might be well received by the population.

  12. Have drivers at alcohol outlets changed their behavior after the new traffic law?

    OpenAIRE

    Raquel B De Boni; Flavio Pechansky; Mauricio T. de Vasconcellos; Bastos, Francisco I

    2014-01-01

    Objective: In an attempt to reduce high levels of traffic crashes, a new legislation was approved in Brazil in 2008. This study aimed to assess behavioral change among drivers who had drunk at alcohol outlets (AO) after implementation of the law. Method: A three-stage probability sampling survey was conducted in Porto Alegre, state of Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil. Individuals seen leaving AOs after drinking were approached (n=3,018). Selected drivers (n=683) answered a structured interview, were...

  13. Neighborhoods, Alcohol Outlets and Intimate Partner Violence: Addressing Research Gaps in Explanatory Mechanisms

    OpenAIRE

    Cunradi, Carol B.

    2010-01-01

    Indices of heavy drinking have consistently been linked with increased risk for intimate partner violence (IPV) among couples in the general household population. Because IPV is a ‘private’ event, most IPV research has focused on individual-level risk factors, but current social ecological theory suggests that alcohol outlets can act with neighborhood conditions to increase risks for IPV. This paper reviews the theoretical and empirical literatures relevant to identifying specific social mech...

  14. The Neighborhood Alcohol Environment and Alcohol-Related Morbidity

    OpenAIRE

    Theall, Katherine P.; Scribner, Richard; Cohen, Deborah; Bluthenthal, Ricky N.; Schonlau, Matthias; Lynch, Sara; Farley, Thomas A.

    2009-01-01

    Aims: The aims of this study were (1) to examine the association between neighborhood alcohol outlet density and individual self-reported alcohol-related health outcomes in the last year—sexually transmitted infections (STI), motor vehicle accidents, injury, liver problems, hypertension and experienced violence; (2) to determine whether the relationship between morbidity and alcohol outlet density is mediated by individual alcohol consumption; and (3) to explore the role of alcohol outlet den...

  15. Brief report: Using global positioning system (GPS) enabled cell phones to examine adolescent travel patterns and time in proximity to alcohol outlets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Byrnes, Hilary F; Miller, Brenda A; Morrison, Christopher N; Wiebe, Douglas J; Remer, Lillian G; Wiehe, Sarah E

    2016-07-01

    As adolescents gain freedom to explore new environments unsupervised, more time in proximity to alcohol outlets may increase risks for alcohol and marijuana use. This pilot study: 1) Describes variations in adolescents' proximity to outlets by time of day and day of the week, 2) Examines variations in outlet proximity by drinking and marijuana use status, and 3) Tests feasibility of obtaining real-time data to study adolescent proximity to outlets. U.S. adolescents (N = 18) aged 16-17 (50% female) carried GPS-enabled smartphones for one week with their locations tracked. The geographic areas where adolescents spend time, activity spaces, were created by connecting GPS points sequentially and adding spatial buffers around routes. Proximity to outlets was greater during after school and evening hours. Drinkers and marijuana users were in proximity to outlets 1½ to 2 times more than non-users. Findings provide information about where adolescents spend time and times of greatest risk, informing prevention efforts. PMID:27214713

  16. A prospective study of alcohol consumption and bone mineral density.

    OpenAIRE

    Holbrook, T L; Barrett-Connor, E.

    1993-01-01

    OBJECTIVES--To study the effects of alcohol consumption on bone mineral density in a defined population. DESIGN--Prospective study of bone mineral density, measured during 1988-91, in a cohort who had given baseline data on alcohol intake in the previous week and in the previous 24 hours and other factors affecting bone mineral density during 1973-5. SETTING--Rancho Bernardo, California. SUBJECTS--182 men and 267 women aged 45 and over at baseline, half having been randomly selected and half ...

  17. Alcoholic liver disease and changes in bone mineral density

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Germán López-Larramona

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Osteoporosis and osteopenia are alterations in bone mineral density (BMD that frequently occur in the context of chronic liver disease (CLD. These alterations have been studied predominantly in chronic cholestatic disease and cirrhosis of the liver. Alcohol consumption is an independent risk factor for the onset of osteoporosis, whose estimated prevalence in patients with alcoholic liver disease (ALD ranges between 5 % and 40 %. The loss of BMD in ALD is the result of an imbalance between bone formation and resorption. Its pathogenesis is multifactorial and includes the toxic effects of alcohol on bone and endocrine and nutritional disorders secondary to alcoholism and a deficiency of osteocalcin, vitamin D and insulin growth factor-1. The diagnosis of BMD alterations in ALD is based on its measurement using bone densitometry. Treatment includes smoking and alcohol cessation and general measures such as changes in nutrition and exercise. Calcium and vitamin D supplements are recommended in all patients with ALD and osteoporosis. Bisphosphonates are the most commonly prescribed drugs for the specific treatment of this condition. Alternatives include raloxifene, hormone replacement therapy and calcitonin. This review will address the most important aspects involved in the clinical management of abnormal BMD in the context of ALD, including its prevalence, pathogenesis and diagnosis. We will also review the treatment of osteoporosis in CLD in general, focusing on specific aspects related to bone loss in ALD.

  18. An ecological analysis of food outlet density and prevalence of type II diabetes in South Carolina counties

    OpenAIRE

    AlHasan, Dana M.; Eberth, Jan Marie

    2016-01-01

    Background Studies suggest that the built environment with high numbers of fast food restaurants and convenience stores and low numbers of super stores and grocery stores are related to obesity, type II diabetes mellitus, and other chronic diseases. Since few studies assess these relationships at the county level, we aim to examine fast food restaurant density, convenience store density, super store density, and grocery store density and prevalence of type II diabetes among counties in South ...

  19. 7 CFR 993.108 - Non-human consumption outlet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... CALIFORNIA Administrative Rules and Regulations Definitions § 993.108 Non-human consumption outlet. Non-human consumption outlet means any livestock feeder or manufacturer of inedible syrup, industrial alcohol, animal... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Non-human consumption outlet. 993.108 Section...

  20. Double outlet right ventricle

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... medlineplus.gov/ency/article/007328.htm Double outlet right ventricle To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Double outlet right ventricle (DORV) is a heart disease that is ...

  1. Videodensitometric time-density curve change after alcohol septal ablation of obstructive hypertrophic cardiomyopathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nemes, A; Kalapos, A; Sasi, V; Ungi, T; Ungi, I; Forster, T; Sepp, R

    2015-02-01

    A recently developed computerized method for estimation of myocardial perfusion, based on the analysis of the time-density curves, is demonstrated to assess myocardial blush over a selected myocardial region of interest in a patient with obstructive hypertrophic cardiomyopathy before and after alcohol septal ablation. PMID:23184598

  2. Exploring Alcohol Policy Approaches to Prevent Sexual Violence Perpetration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lippy, Caroline; DeGue, Sarah

    2016-01-01

    Sexual violence continues to be a significant public health problem worldwide with serious consequences for individuals and communities. The implementation of prevention strategies that address risk and protective factors for sexual violence at the community level are important components of a comprehensive approach, but few such strategies have been identified or evaluated. The current review explores one potential opportunity for preventing sexual violence perpetration at the community level: alcohol policy. Alcohol policy has the potential to impact sexual violence perpetration through the direct effects of excessive alcohol consumption on behavior or through the impact of alcohol and alcohol outlets on social organization within communities. Policies affecting alcohol pricing, sale time, outlet density, drinking environment, marketing, and college environment are reviewed to identify existing evidence of impact on rates of sexual violence or related outcomes, including risk factors and related health behaviors. Several policy areas with initial evidence of an association with sexual violence outcomes were identified, including policies affecting alcohol pricing, alcohol outlet density, barroom management, sexist content in alcohol marketing, and policies banning alcohol on campus and in substance-free dorms. We identify other policy areas with evidence of an impact on related outcomes and risk factors that may also hold potential as a preventative approach for sexual violence perpetration. Evidence from the current review suggests that alcohol policy may represent one promising avenue for the prevention of sexual violence perpetration at the community level, but additional research is needed to directly examine effects on sexual violence outcomes. PMID:25403447

  3. Alcohol

    Science.gov (United States)

    If you are like many Americans, you drink alcohol at least occasionally. For many people, moderate drinking ... risky. Heavy drinking can lead to alcoholism and alcohol abuse, as well as injuries, liver disease, heart ...

  4. Communication: Linking the dielectric Debye process in mono-alcohols to density fluctuations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hecksher, Tina

    2016-04-28

    This work provides the first direct evidence that the puzzling dielectric Debye process observed in mono-alcohols is coupled to density fluctuations. The results open up for an explanation of the Debye process within the framework of conventional liquid-state theory. The spectral shape of the dynamical bulk modulus of the two studied mono-alcohols, 2-ethyl-1-hexanol and 4-methyl-3-heptanol, is nearly identical to that of their corresponding shear modulus, and thus the supramolecular structures believed to be responsible for the slow dielectric Debye process are manifested in the bulk modulus in the same way as in the shear modulus. PMID:27131521

  5. Communication: Linking the dielectric Debye process in mono-alcohols to density fluctuations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hecksher, Tina

    2016-04-01

    This work provides the first direct evidence that the puzzling dielectric Debye process observed in mono-alcohols is coupled to density fluctuations. The results open up for an explanation of the Debye process within the framework of conventional liquid-state theory. The spectral shape of the dynamical bulk modulus of the two studied mono-alcohols, 2-ethyl-1-hexanol and 4-methyl-3-heptanol, is nearly identical to that of their corresponding shear modulus, and thus the supramolecular structures believed to be responsible for the slow dielectric Debye process are manifested in the bulk modulus in the same way as in the shear modulus.

  6. Double Outlet Right Ventricle

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... closed during this surgery. Return to main topic: Congenital Heart Disease See on other sites: MedlinePlus https://medlineplus.gov/ency/article/007328.htm Double outlet right ventricle Texas Adult ...

  7. Thoracic outlet anatomy (image)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... spinal vertebra to the rib. There may be pain in the neck and shoulders, and numbess in the last 3 fingers and inner forearm. Thoracic outlet syndrome is usually treated with physical therapy which helps ...

  8. Is the Physical Availability of Alcohol and Illicit Drugs Related to Neighborhood Rates of Child Maltreatment?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freisthler, Bridget; Needell, Barbara; Gruenewald, Paul J.

    2005-01-01

    Objective: This study examines how the availability of alcohol and illicit drugs (as measured by alcohol outlet density and police incidents of drug sales and possessions) is related to neighborhood rates of child abuse and neglect, controlling for other neighborhood demographic characteristics. Method: Data from substantiated reports of child…

  9. Decreased GABA(A) benzodiazepine binding site densities in postmortem brains of Cloninger type 1 and 2 alcoholics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laukkanen, Virpi; Storvik, Markus; Häkkinen, Merja; Akamine, Yumiko; Tupala, Erkki; Virkkunen, Matti; Tiihonen, Jari

    2013-03-01

    Ethanol modulates the GABA(A) receptor to cause sedative, anxiolytic and hypnotic effects that are qualitatively similar to benzodiazepines and barbiturates. The aim of this study was to explore if GABA(A) receptor density is altered in post-mortem brains of anxiety-prone Cloninger type 1 and socially hostile type 2 alcoholic subtypes when compared to controls. The GABA(A) binding site density was measured by whole-hemisphere autoradiography with tritium labeled flunitrazepam ([(3)H]flunitrazepam) from 17 alcoholic (nine type 1, eight type 2) and 10 non-alcoholic post-mortem brains, using cold flumazepam as a competitive ligand. A total of eight specific brain areas were examined. Alcoholics displayed a significantly (p < 0.001, bootstrap type generalizing estimating equations model) reduced [(3)H]flunitrazepam binding site density when compared to controls. When localized, type 2 alcoholics displayed a significantly (p ≤ 0.05) reduced [(3)H]flunitrazepam binding site density in the internal globus pallidus, the gyrus dentatus and the hippocampus, whereas type 1 alcoholics differed from controls in the internal globus pallidus and the hippocampus. While previous reports have demonstrated significant alterations in dopaminergic and serotonergic receptors between type 1 and type 2 alcoholics among these same subjects, we observed no statistically significant difference in [(3)H]flunitrazepam binding site densities between the Cloninger type 1 and type 2 alcoholics. PMID:23332316

  10. Alcohol

    OpenAIRE

    World Bank

    2003-01-01

    Alcohol abuse is one of the leading causes of death and disability worldwide. Alcohol abuse is responsible for 4 percent of global deaths and disability, nearly as much as tobacco and five times the burden of illicit drugs (WHO). In developing countries with low mortality, alcohol is the leading risk factor for males, causing 9.8 percent of years lost to death and disability. Alcohol abuse...

  11. Study of effective atomic numbers and electron densities, kerma of alcohols, phantom and human organs, and tissues substitutes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Singh Vishwanath P.

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Effective atomic numbers (ZPIeff and electron densities of eighteen alcohols such as wood alcohol, CH3OH; grain alcohol, C2H5OH; rubbing alcohol, C3H7OH; butanol, C4H9OH; amyl alcohol, C5H11OH; cetyl alcohol, C16H33OH; ethylene glycol, C2H4(OH2; glycerin, C3H5(OH3; PVA, C2H4O; erythritol, C4H6(OH4; xylitol, C5H7(OH5; sorbitol, C6H8(OH6; volemitol, C7H9(OH7; allyl alcohol, C3H5OH; geraniol, C10H17OH; propargyl alcohol, C3H3OH; inositol, C6H6(OH6, and menthol, C10H19OH have been calculated in the photon energy region of 1 keV-100 GeV. The estimated values have been compared with experimental values wherever possible. The comparison of ZPIeff of the alcohols with water phantom and PMMA phantom indicate that the ethylene glycol, glycerin, and PVA are substitute for PMMA phantom and PVA is substitute of water phantom. ZPIeff of alcohols have also been compared with human organs and tissues. Ethylene glycol, glycerin and PVA, allyl alcohol, and wood alcohols are found tissue substitutes for most of human organs. Kerma which is the product of the energy fluence and mass energy-absorption coefficient, have been calculated in the energy region from 1 keV to 20 MeV for the alcohols. The results show the kerma is more or less independent of energy above 100 keV.

  12. Alcohol

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Date reviewed: January 2014 previous 1 • 2 For Teens For Kids For Parents MORE ON THIS TOPIC Word! Alcoholism What You Need to Know About Drugs What You Need to Know About Drugs: Depressants What Kids Say About: Drinking Alcohol Dealing With Peer Pressure Contact Us Print Resources Send to a friend ...

  13. DESIGN OF SEDIMENT FLUSHING OUTLETS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Prabhata K.SWAMEE

    2002-01-01

    Flushing pipe outlets are provided at the floor of sedimentation basins for flushing out of the deposited sediments. These outlets have to be positioned in such a way so as to remove the deposited sediments effectively. In the absence of rational method for the location, presently the outlets are located by judgment. A review of literature indicated that there is no judicious method available for obtaining the outlet diameter. Presented herein are the design equations for the flushing outlets. It is hoped that the equation will be useful to the design engineers.

  14. A review of existing studies reporting the negative effects of alcohol access and positive effects of alcohol control policies on interpersonal violence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jessica Laura Fitterer

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Alcohol consumption often leads to elevated rates of violence yet alcohol access policies continue to relax across the globe. Our review establishes the extent alcohol policy can moderate violent crime through alcohol availability restrictions. Results were informed from comprehensive selection of peer-reviewed journals from 1950 to October 2015. Our search identified 88 relevant studies on alcohol access and violence conducted across 12 countries. Seventeen studies included quasi-control design, and 23 conducted intervention analysis. Seventy-two (82% reported a significant relationship between alcohol access and violent offences. Alcohol outlet studies reported the greatest percentage of significant results (93%, with trading hours (63%, and alcohol price following (58%. Results from baseline studies indicated the effectiveness of increasing the price of commonly consumed alcohol, restricting the hours of alcohol trading, and limiting the number of alcohol outlets per region to prevent violent offences. Unclear are the effects of tax reductions, restriction of on-premises re-entry, and different outlet types on violent crime. Further, the generalization of statistics over broad areas and the low number of control/intervention studies poses some concern for confounding or correlated effects on study results, and amount of information for local level prevention of interpersonal violence. Future studies should focus on gathering longitudinal data, validating models, limiting crime data to peak drinking days and times, and wherever possible collecting the joint distribution between violent crime, intoxication, and place. A greater up take of local level analysis will benefit studies comparing the influence of multiple alcohol establishment types by relating the location of a crime to establishment proximity. Despite, some uncertainties particular studies showed that even modest policy changes such as 1% increases in alcohol price, one hour changes

  15. Higher density of serotonin-1A receptors in the hippocampus and cerebral cortex of alcohol-preferring P rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saturable [3H]-80HDPAT binding to 5HT-1A receptors in membranes prepared from hippocampus and frontal cerebral cortex of alcohol-preferring (P) rats and of alcohol-nonpreferring (NP) rats has been compared. The Bmax values or densities of recognition sites for 5HT-1A receptors in both brain areas of the P rats are 38 and 44 percent lower in the P rats than in the NP rats. The corresponding KD values are 38 and 44 percent lower in the P rats than in the NP rats, indicating higher affinities of the recognition sites for the 5HT-1A receptors in hippocampus and cerebral cortex of the P rats. These findings indicate either an enrichment of 5HT-1A receptor density during selective breeding for alcohol preference or an upregulation of 5HT-1A receptors of 5HT found in these brain areas of P rats as compared with the NP rats

  16. Thoracic outlet syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozoa, Glenn; Alves, Daniel; Fish, David E

    2011-08-01

    Of the many clinical entities involving the neck region, one of the most intriguing is thoracic outlet syndrome (TOS). TOS is an array of disorders that involves injury to the neurovascular structures in the cervicobrachial region. A classification system based on etiology, symptoms, clinical presentation, and anatomy is supported by most physicians. The first type of TOS is vascular, involving compression of either the subclavian artery or vein. The second type is true neurogenic TOS, which involves injury to the brachial plexus. Finally, the third and most controversial type is referred to as disputed neurogenic TOS. This article aims to provide the reader some understanding of the pathophysiology, workup, and treatment of this fascinating clinical entity. PMID:21824588

  17. Female Bladder Outlet Obstruction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoffman, Daniel S; Nitti, Victor W

    2016-04-01

    The non-specific symptoms the patients express upon the presentation of female bladder outlet obstruction make it a challenge to diagnose. There are subtle differences between the obstructed patient and those whose bladders are underactive and/or fail to mount a detrusor contraction. These disparities can be extracted through a thorough history and examination. At times, the clinician may utilize nomograms, non-invasive uroflow, and urodynamics with the addition of fluoroscopy to establish the diagnosis of obstruction. Management of the obstruction depends on the nature of the condition, whether functional or anatomical. The increase in the number of sling procedures performed to treat stress urinary incontinence has resulted in a rise in the number of iatrogenic obstructions. The temporal relationship between surgery and obstruction is the key to identifying the problem. PMID:26902625

  18. Hierarchical Bayesian spatial models for alcohol availability, drug "hot spots" and violent crime

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Horel Scott

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Ecologic studies have shown a relationship between alcohol outlet densities, illicit drug use and violence. The present study examined this relationship in the City of Houston, Texas, using a sample of 439 census tracts. Neighborhood sociostructural covariates, alcohol outlet density, drug crime density and violent crime data were collected for the year 2000, and analyzed using hierarchical Bayesian models. Model selection was accomplished by applying the Deviance Information Criterion. Results The counts of violent crime in each census tract were modelled as having a conditional Poisson distribution. Four neighbourhood explanatory variables were identified using principal component analysis. The best fitted model was selected as the one considering both unstructured and spatial dependence random effects. The results showed that drug-law violation explained a greater amount of variance in violent crime rates than alcohol outlet densities. The relative risk for drug-law violation was 2.49 and that for alcohol outlet density was 1.16. Of the neighbourhood sociostructural covariates, males of age 15 to 24 showed an effect on violence, with a 16% decrease in relative risk for each increase the size of its standard deviation. Both unstructured heterogeneity random effect and spatial dependence need to be included in the model. Conclusion The analysis presented suggests that activity around illicit drug markets is more strongly associated with violent crime than is alcohol outlet density. Unique among the ecological studies in this field, the present study not only shows the direction and magnitude of impact of neighbourhood sociostructural covariates as well as alcohol and illicit drug activities in a neighbourhood, it also reveals the importance of applying hierarchical Bayesian models in this research field as both spatial dependence and heterogeneity random effects need to be considered simultaneously.

  19. Higher alcohol intake may modify the association between mammographic density and breast cancer: An analysis of three case-control studies

    OpenAIRE

    Conroy, Shannon M; Koga, Karin; Woolcott, Christy G.; Dahl, Timothy; Byrne, Celia; Nagata, Chisato; Ursin, Giske; Yaffe, Martin J.; Vachon, Celine M.; Maskarinec, Gertraud

    2012-01-01

    Alcohol consumption and mammographic density are established risk factors for breast cancer. This study examined whether the association of mammographic density with breast cancer varies by alcohol intake. Mammographic density was assessed in digitized images for 1,207 cases and 1,663 controls from three populations (Japan, Hawaii, California) using a computer-assisted method. Associations were estimated by logistic regression. When comparing ever to never drinking, mean density was similar a...

  20. Fumed Silica Nanoparticles Incorporated in Quaternized Poly(Vinyl Alcohol Nanocomposite Membrane for Enhanced Power Densities in Direct Alcohol Alkaline Fuel Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Selvaraj Rajesh Kumar

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available A nanocomposite polymer membrane based on quaternized poly(vinyl alcohol/fumed silica (QPVA/FS was prepared via a quaternization process and solution casting method. The physico-chemical properties of the QPVA/FS membrane were investigated. Its high ionic conductivity was found to depend greatly on the concentration of fumed silica in the QPVA matrix. A maximum conductivity of 3.50 × 10−2 S/cm was obtained for QPVA/5%FS at 60 °C when it was doped with 6 M KOH. The permeabilities of methanol and ethanol were reduced with increasing fumed silica content. Cell voltage and peak power density were analyzed as functions of fumed silica concentration, temperature, methanol and ethanol concentrations. A maximum power density of 96.8 mW/cm2 was achieved with QPVA/5%FS electrolyte using 2 M methanol + 6 M KOH as fuel at 80 °C. A peak power density of 79 mW/cm2 was obtained using the QPVA/5%FS electrolyte with 3 M ethanol + 5 M KOH as fuel. The resulting peak power densities are higher than the majority of published reports. The results confirm that QPVA/FS exhibits promise as a future polymeric electrolyte for use in direct alkaline alcoholic fuel cells.

  1. Dopamine D(2)/D(3)-receptor and transporter densities in nucleus accumbens and amygdala of type 1 and 2 alcoholics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tupala, E; Hall, H; Bergström, K; Särkioja, T; Räsänen, P; Mantere, T; Callaway, J; Hiltunen, J; Tiihonen, J

    2001-05-01

    Alcohol acts through mechanisms involving the brain neurotransmitter dopamine (DA) with the nucleus accumbens as the key zone for mediating these effects. We evaluated the densities of DA D(2)/D(3) receptors and transporters in the nucleus accumbens and amygdala of post-mortem human brains by using [(125)l]epidepride and [(125)I]PE2I as radioligands in whole hemispheric autoradiography of Cloninger type 1 and 2 alcoholics and healthy controls. When compared with controls, the mean binding of [(125)I]epidepride to DA D(2)/D(3) receptors was 20% lower in the nucleus accumbens and 41% lower in the amygdala, and [(125)I]PE2I binding to DA transporters in the nucleus accumbens was 39% lower in type 1 alcoholics. These data indicate that dopaminergic functions in these limbic areas may be impaired among type 1 alcoholics, due to the substantially lower number of receptor sites. Our results suggest that such a reduction may result in the chronic overuse of alcohol as an attempt to stimulate DA function. PMID:11326293

  2. Tobacco Retail Outlets and Vulnerable Populations in Ontario, Canada

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael O. Chaiton

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Interest has been increasing in regulating the location and number of tobacco vendors as part of a comprehensive tobacco control program. The objective of this paper is to examine the distribution of tobacco outlets in a large jurisdiction, to assess: (1 whether tobacco outlets are more likely to be located in vulnerable areas; and (2 what proportion of tobacco outlets are located close to schools. Retail locations across the Province of Ontario from Ministry of Health Promotion data were linked to 2006 Census data at the neighbourhood level. There was one tobacco retail outlet for every 1,000 people over age 15 in Ontario. Density of outlets varied by public health unit, and was associated with the number of smokers. Tobacco outlets were more likely to be located in areas that had high neighbourhood deprivation, in both rural and urban areas. Outlets were less likely to be located in areas with high immigrant populations in urban areas, with the reverse being true for rural areas. Overall, 65% of tobacco retailers were located within 500 m of a school. The sale of tobacco products is ubiquitous, however, neighbourhoods with lower socio-economic status are more likely to have easier availability of tobacco products and most retailers are located within walking distance of a school. The results suggest the importance of policies to regulate the location of tobacco retail outlets.

  3. Effect of Chronic Alcohol Ingestion on Bone Mineral Density in Males without Liver Cirrhosis

    OpenAIRE

    Kim, Mi Jin; Shim, Myung Suk; Kim, Moon Kyu; Lee, Yeon; Shin, Young Goo; Chung, Choon Hee; Kwon, Sang Ok

    2003-01-01

    Background: Osteoporosis in men is an important public health problem. Because of the tendency of the numbers of the elderly population to increase, and age-specific incidence of fractures, it is inevitable that the health burden due to fractures will increase. Chronic alcoholism is associated with other risk factors, such as poor nutrition, leanness, liver disease, malabsorption, vitamin D deficiency, hypogonadism, hemosiderosis, parathyroid dysfunction and tobacco use, and these may contrib...

  4. Support Effects on Bronsted acid site densities and alcohol dehydration turnover rates on tungsten oxide domains

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Macht, Josef; Baertsch, Chelsey D.; May-Lozano, Marcos; Soled, Stuart L.; Wang, Yong; Iglesia, Enrique

    2005-03-01

    Initial activity and acid site density of several WAl, WSi (MCM41) and one WSn sample were determined. Trans/cis 2-butene selectivity is dependent on the support. Presumably, these differences are due to subtle differences in base strengths. 2-Butanol dehydration rates (per W-atom) reached maximum values at intermediate WOx surface densities on WAl, as reported for 2-butanol dehydration reactions on WZr. Titration results indicate that Bronsted acid sites are required for 2-butanol dehydration on WAl, WSi and WSn. UV-visible studies suggest that WAl is much more difficult to reduce than WZr. The detection of reduced centers on WAl, the number of which correlates to Bronsted acid site density and catalyst activity, as well as the temperature dependence of Bronsted acid site density indicate the in-situ formation of these active sites. We infer that this mechanism is common among all supported WOx samples described in this study. Turnover rates are a function of Bronsted acid site density only. High acid site densities lead to high turnover rates. Higher active site densities may cause stronger conjugate bases, as a higher electron density has to be stabilized, and thus weaker acidity, enabling a faster rate of product desorption. The maximum achievable active site density is dependent on the support. WZr reaches a higher active site density than WAl.

  5. Densities, Viscosities, Sound Speeds, Refractive Indices, and Excess Properties of Binary Mixtures of Isoamyl Alcohol with Some Alkoxyethanols

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roy, Mahendra Nath; Sah, Radhey Shyam; Pradhan, Prasanna

    2010-02-01

    Densities and viscosities were measured for binary mixtures of isoamyl alcohol with 2-methoxyethanol, 2-ethoxyethanol, and 2-butoxyethanol over the entire range of composition at 303.15 K, 313.15 K, and 323.15K and ultrasonic speeds and refractive indices at 303.15 K under atmospheric pressure. From the experimental values of density, viscosity, ultrasonic speed, and refractive index, the values of excess molar volume ( V E), viscosity deviations (Δ η), deviations in isentropic compressibility (Δ K S ), and excess molar refraction (Δ R) have been calculated. The excess or deviation properties were found to be either negative or positive, depending on the molecular interactions and the nature of liquid mixtures.

  6. Hydrologic Outlets of the Greenland Ice Sheet

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The Hydrologic Outlets of the Greenland Ice Sheet data set contains GIS point shapefiles that include 891 observed and potential hydrologic outlets of the Greenland...

  7. Outlets: the New Favorite of Apparel Industry

    OpenAIRE

    Yanhua Sun

    2009-01-01

    In recent years, along with the fast development of China retail industry, outlets, the brand-new retailing form has entered China. This paper briefly analyzes the advantages and disadvantages of outlets, and puts forward three tactics for its operation.

  8. Alcoholism and Alcohol Abuse

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... their drinking causes distress and harm. It includes alcoholism and alcohol abuse. Alcoholism, or alcohol dependence, is a disease that causes ... groups. NIH: National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism

  9. Topography, Power and Current Source Density of Theta Oscillations during Reward Processing as Markers for Alcohol Dependence

    OpenAIRE

    Kamarajan, Chella; Rangaswamy, Madhavi; Manz, Niklas; Chorlian, David B.; Pandey, Ashwini K.; Roopesh, Bangalore N; Porjesz, Bernice

    2011-01-01

    Recent studies have linked alcoholism with a dysfunctional neural reward system. Although several electrophysiological studies have explored reward processing in healthy individuals, such studies in alcohol dependent individuals are quite rare. The present study examines theta oscillations during reward processing in abstinent alcoholics. The electroencephalogram (EEG) was recorded in 38 abstinent alcoholics and 38 healthy controls as they performed a single outcome gambling task which involv...

  10. Density and surface tension of pure ionic liquid 1-butyl-3-methyl-imidazolium L-lactate and its binary mixture with alcohol and water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • Density and surface tension of [bmim][L-lactate] and its mixtures with alcohol/water were measured. • Physicochemical properties of pure ionic liquid and its mixtures were discussed. • The excess properties of [bmim][L-lactate] + alcohol show some differences with those of [bmim][L-lactate] + water. -- Abstract: The density and surface tension of the pure ionic liquid 1-butyl-3-methyl-imidazolium L-lactate were measured from T (293.15 to 343.15) K. The coefficient of thermal expansion, molecular volume, standard entropy, lattice energy, surface entropy, surface enthalpy, and enthalpy of vaporization were calculated from the experimental values. Density and surface tension were also determined for binary mixtures of {1-butyl-3-methyl-imidazolium L-lactate + water/alcohol (methanol, ethanol, and 1-butanol)} systems over the whole composition range from T (298.15 to 318.15) K at atmospheric pressure. The partial molar volume, excess partial molar volume and apparent molar volume of the component IL and alcohol/water in the binary mixtures were discussed as well as limiting properties at infinite dilution and the thermal expansion coefficients of the four binary mixtures. The surface properties of the four binary mixtures were also discussed

  11. Intelligent electrical outlet for collective load control

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lentine, Anthony L.; Ford, Justin R.; Spires, Shannon V.; Goldsmith, Steven Y.

    2015-10-27

    Various technologies described herein pertain to an electrical outlet that autonomously manages loads in a microgrid. The electrical outlet can provide autonomous load control in response to variations in electrical power generation supply in the microgrid. The electrical outlet includes a receptacle, a sensor operably coupled to the receptacle, and an actuator configured to selectively actuate the receptacle. The sensor measures electrical parameters at the receptacle. Further, a processor autonomously controls the actuator based at least in part on the electrical parameters measured at the receptacle, electrical parameters from one or more disparate electrical outlets in the microgrid, and a supply of generated electric power in the microgrid at a given time.

  12. Out-of-home food outlets and area deprivation: case study in Glasgow, UK

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cummins Steven

    2005-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background There is a popular belief that out-of-home eating outlets, which typically serve energy dense food, may be more commonly found in more deprived areas and that this may contribute to higher rates of obesity and related diseases in such areas. Methods We obtained a list of all 1301 out-of-home eating outlets in Glasgow, UK, in 2003 and mapped these at unit postcode level. We categorised them into quintiles of area deprivation using the 2004 Scottish Index of Multiple Deprivation and computed mean density of types of outlet (restaurants, fast food restaurants, cafes and takeaways, and all types combined, per 1000 population. We also estimated odds ratios for the presence of any outlets in small areas within the quintiles. Results The density of outlets, and the likelihood of having any outlets, was highest in the second most affluent quintile (Q2 and lowest in the second most deprived quintile (Q4. Mean outlets per 1,000 were 4.02 in Q2, 1.20 in Q4 and 2.03 in Q5. With Q2 as the reference, Odds Ratios for having any outlets were 0.52 (CI 0.32–0.84 in Q1, 0.50 (CI 0.31 – 0.80 in Q4 and 0.61 (CI 0.38 – 0.98 in Q5. Outlets were located in the City Centre, West End, and along arterial roads. Conclusion In Glasgow those living in poorer areas are not more likely to be exposed to out-of-home eating outlets in their neighbourhoods. Health improvement policies need to be based on empirical evidence about the location of fast food outlets in specific national and local contexts, rather than on popular 'factoids'.

  13. Macroporous poly(vinyl alcohol) microspheres bearing phosphate groups as a new adsorbent for low-density lipoprotein apheresis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang Weichao; Xie Hui; Ou Lailiang; Wang Lianyong; Yu Yaoting; Kong Deling [Key Laboratory of Bioactive Materials, Ministry of Education, College of Life Science, Nankai University, Tianjin 300071 (China); Sun Lisha, E-mail: wly@nankai.edu.c, E-mail: kongdeling@nankai.edu.c [General Hospital, Tianjin Medical University, Tianjin 300052 (China)

    2009-12-15

    A new low-density lipoprotein (LDL) adsorbent with phosphate groups as the ligand was prepared in this study. Macroporous poly(vinyl acetate-co-triallyl isocyanurate) microspheres were prepared using a free-radical suspension polymerization method. A hydrolysis reaction in sodium hydroxide/methanol changed the materials into poly(vinyl alcohol) (PVA) microspheres. Further reaction with phosphorus oxychloride in anhydrous DMF led to the LDL adsorbent PVA-phosphate microspheres. The preparation conditions such as reaction time, temperature and the amount of phosphorus oxychloride were optimized. The adsorption of plasma lipoproteins was examined by in vitro adsorption assays. The influence of adsorption time, plasma volume and ionic strength on the adsorption capacity was investigated. The circulation adsorption showed that the pathogenic lipoproteins in the plasma such as total cholesterol (TC), LDL and triglyceride (TG) could be removed markedly, in which the removal percentages were 42.9%, 45.0% and 44.74%, respectively. However, the reduction of high-density lipoprotein (HDL) and other normal plasma components was very slight. For in vivo experiment, rabbits were fed with high-cholesterol food to develop a hyperlipidemia model and treated by extracorporeal blood perfusion using the PVA-phosphate columns. Eight hyperlipidemia rabbits were treated with the PVA-phosphate adsorbent, and the removal of TC, LDL and TG was 45.03 +- 6.64%, 48.97 +- 9.92% and 35.42 +- 14.17%, respectively. The sterilization and storage tests showed that the adsorbent was chemically and functionally stable. It could be easily sterilized by a common method and stored for months without loss of adsorption capacity. Therefore, this new PVA-phosphate-based LDL adsorbent may have potential for application in LDL apheresis.

  14. The Neuroprotective Effect of Alcoholic Extract of Cannabis Sativa on Neuronal Density of Spinal Cord Alpha Motoneurons after Sciatic Nerve Injury in Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Tehranipour

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Injuries of the peripheral nerve system affect the neurons cell body leading to axon injury. Cannabis sativa plant has anti oxidant and anti apoptotic effects. Therefore the aim of present study was to study the neuroprotective effect of alcoholic extract of cannabis sativa leaves on neuronal density of alpha motoneurons in spinal cord after sciatic nerve injury in rats. Methods: In this experimental research, animals were divided into four groups; A: control, B: compression, C: compression+ treatment with 25 mg/kg alcoholic extract, D: compression + treatment with 50 mg/kg extract (n=8. At first, sciatic nerve compression in B, C and D groups was achieved for 60 seconds using locker pincers. Alcoholic extract was injected intra peritoneally in the first and second weeks after compression. Then 28 days after compression, under profusion method, the lumbar spinal cord was sampled and the numerical density in each group was compared with the compression group. The data was analyzed with the use of Minitab 14 software and ANOVA statistical test. Results: Neuronal density showed a meaningful difference in the compression and control groups(P<0.001. Neuronal density in treatment groups(25, 50 mg/kg also had a meaningful increase(P<0.001 as compared to the compression group. Conclusion: Alcoholic extract of cannabis sativa leaves has a neuroprotective effect on spinal cord alpha motoneurons after injury. This could be due to growth and regeneration factors present in the alcoholic extract of cannabis sativa leaves that induce regeneration process in injured neurons or prevent degeneration.

  15. Food prices, access to food outlets and child weight.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Powell, Lisa M; Bao, Yanjun

    2009-03-01

    This study examines the importance of food prices and restaurant and food store outlet availability for child body mass index (BMI). We use the 1998, 2000 and 2002 waves of the child-mother merged files from the 1979 cohort of the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth combined with fruit and vegetable and fast food price data obtained from the American Chamber of Commerce Researchers Association and outlet density data on fast food and full-service restaurants and supermarkets, grocery stores and convenience stores obtained from Dun & Bradstreet. Using a random effects estimation model, we found that a 10% increase in the price of fruits and vegetables was associated with a 0.7% increase in child BMI. Fast food prices were not found to be statistically significant in the full sample but were weakly negatively associated with BMI among adolescents with an estimated price elasticity of -0.12. The price estimates were robust to whether we controlled for outlet availability based on a per capita or per land area basis; however, the association between food outlets and child BMI differed depending on the definition. The associations of fruit and vegetable and fast food prices with BMI were significantly stronger both economically and statistically among low- versus high-socioeconomic status children. The estimated fruit and vegetable and fast food price elasticities were 0.14 and -0.26, respectively, among low-income children and 0.09 and -0.13, respectively, among children with less educated mothers. PMID:19231301

  16. Complex Greenland outlet glacier flow captured.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aschwanden, Andy; Fahnestock, Mark A; Truffer, Martin

    2016-01-01

    The Greenland Ice Sheet is losing mass at an accelerating rate due to increased surface melt and flow acceleration in outlet glaciers. Quantifying future dynamic contributions to sea level requires accurate portrayal of outlet glaciers in ice sheet simulations, but to date poor knowledge of subglacial topography and limited model resolution have prevented reproduction of complex spatial patterns of outlet flow. Here we combine a high-resolution ice-sheet model coupled to uniformly applied models of subglacial hydrology and basal sliding, and a new subglacial topography data set to simulate the flow of the Greenland Ice Sheet. Flow patterns of many outlet glaciers are well captured, illustrating fundamental commonalities in outlet glacier flow and highlighting the importance of efforts to map subglacial topography. Success in reproducing present day flow patterns shows the potential for prognostic modelling of ice sheets without the need for spatially varying parameters with uncertain time evolution. PMID:26830316

  17. Alcohol Use and Firearm Violence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Branas, Charles C; Han, SeungHoon; Wiebe, Douglas J

    2016-01-01

    Although the misuse of firearms is necessary to the occurrence of firearm violence, there are other contributing factors beyond simply firearms themselves that might also be modified to prevent firearm violence. Alcohol is one such key modifiable factor. To explore this, we undertook a 40-year (1975-2014) systematic literature review with meta-analysis. One large group of studies showed that over one third of firearm violence decedents had acutely consumed alcohol and over one fourth had heavily consumed alcohol prior to their deaths. Another large group of studies showed that alcohol was significantly associated with firearm use as a suicide means. Two controlled studies showed that gun injury after drinking, especially heavy drinking, was statistically significant among self-inflicted firearm injury victims. A small group of studies investigated the intersection of alcohol and firearms laws and alcohol outlets and firearm violence. One of these controlled studies found that off-premise outlets selling takeout alcohol were significantly associated with firearm assault. Additional controlled, population-level risk factor and intervention studies, including randomized trials of which only 1 was identified, are needed. Policies that rezone off-premise alcohol outlets, proscribe blood alcohol levels and enhance penalties for carrying or using firearms while intoxicated, and consider prior drunk driving convictions as a more precise criterion for disqualifying persons from the purchase or possession of firearms deserve further study. PMID:26811427

  18. The Neuroprotective Effect of Alcoholic Extract of Cannabis Sativa on Neuronal Density of Spinal Cord Alpha Motoneurons after Sciatic Nerve Injury in Rats

    OpenAIRE

    M Tehranipour; Z Javadmoosavi

    2011-01-01

    Introduction: Injuries of the peripheral nerve system affect the neurons cell body leading to axon injury. Cannabis sativa plant has anti oxidant and anti apoptotic effects. Therefore the aim of present study was to study the neuroprotective effect of alcoholic extract of cannabis sativa leaves on neuronal density of alpha motoneurons in spinal cord after sciatic nerve injury in rats. Methods: In this experimental research, animals were divided into four groups; A: control, B: compression, C:...

  19. Alcohol Availability and Neighborhood Characteristics in Los Angeles, California and Southern Louisiana

    OpenAIRE

    Bluthenthal, Ricky N.; Cohen, Deborah A.; Farley, Thomas A.; Scribner, Richard; Beighley, Christopher; Schonlau, Matthias; Robinson, Paul L.

    2008-01-01

    The objective of this study was to examine the associations between alcohol availability types and community characteristics in randomly selected census tracts in Southern California and Southeastern Louisiana. Outlet shelf space and price by beverage type was collected from all off-sale alcohol outlets in 189 census tracts by trained research personnel. Three aspects of alcohol availability at the census tract level were considered—outlets per roadway mile, shelf space, and least price by be...

  20. State Population Restrictions on Retail Alcoholic Beverage Licenses [updated Dec. 2006

    OpenAIRE

    Douglas Coate; Richard Schwester

    2005-01-01

    Many states of the U.S. use population formulas to limit the number of on premise or off premise retail alcoholic beverage consumption outlets. The purposes of these restrictions are to reduce the negative externalities from alcoholic beverage consumption and to limit the spillovers associated with the outlets themselves, such as noise, loitering, crime, and proximity to school children. State population restrictions on outlets may be superior to alcoholic beverage control systems that rely o...

  1. Serum low density lipoprotein of alcoholic patients is chemically modified in vivo and induces apolipoprotein E synthesis by macrophages.

    OpenAIRE

    Lin, R C; Dai, J; Lumeng, L; Zhang, M Y

    1995-01-01

    This work was carried out to investigate the effect of alcohol drinking on serum LDL. Agarose gel electrophoresis showed that LDL samples from alcoholic patients without serious liver disease were more negatively charged and moved faster toward the cathode than LDL from nondrinking control subjects. Rabbit antibodies raised by using keyhole limpet hemocyanin modified in vitro by 4-hydroxynonenal or by acetaldehyde as immunogens reacted more strongly with patients' LDL than with control LDL, i...

  2. Study the density, ultrasonic and compressibility of binary mixture of aqueous solution of isopropyl alcohol and mustard oil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monupal, Suthar, B.

    2016-05-01

    The ultrasonic velocities, compressibility and bulk modulus of binary mixtures of aqueous solution of isopropyl alcohol with mustard oil have been measured at different concentrations at room temperature. The results are varied with the concentration in such a way i.e. ultrasonic velocity and Bulk Modulus is decreases with the increase in concentration and compressibility is increases with the increase in concentration of aqueous isopropyl alcohol. It is due to molecular interactions present in the mixtures.

  3. Alcohol consumption, TaqIB polymorphism of cholesteryl ester transfer protein, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, and risk of coronary heart disease in men and women

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Majken K; Mukamal, Kenneth J; Overvad, Kim; Rimm, Eric B

    2008-01-01

    effects of alcohol among B2 carriers. In the NHS we did not find an inverse association between alcohol and CHD in B2 non-carriers (P trend: 0.5), but did among B2 carriers (P trend <0.01). Among non-carriers the odds ratio (OR) for CHD among women with an intake of 5-14 g/day was 1.4 (95% CI: 0......AIMS: To investigate whether a common polymorphism in the cholesteryl ester transfer protein (CETP) gene modifies the relationship of alcohol intake with high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) and risk of coronary heart disease (CHD). METHODS AND RESULTS: Parallel nested case-control studies...... among women [Nurses' Health Study (NHS)] and men [Health Professionals Follow-up Study (HPFS)] where 246 women and 259 men who developed incident CHD were matched to controls (1:2) on age and smoking. The TaqIB variant and alcohol consumption were associated with higher HDL-C, with the most pronounced...

  4. Structure and stability of acrolein and allyl alcohol networks on Ag(111) from density functional theory based calculations with dispersion corrections

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferullo, Ricardo M.; Branda, Maria Marta; Illas, Francesc

    2013-11-01

    The interaction of acrolein and allyl alcohol with the Ag(111) surface has been studied by means of periodic density functional theory based calculations including explicitly dispersion terms. Different coverage values have been explored going from isolated adsorbed molecules to isolated dimers, interacting dimers or ordered overlayers. The inclusion of the dispersion terms largely affects the calculated values of the adsorption energy and also the distance between adsorbed molecule and the metallic surface but much less the adsorbate-adsorbate interactions. Owing to the large dipole moment of acrolein, the present calculations predict that at high coverage this molecule forms a stable extensive two-dimensional network on the surface, caused by the alignment of the adsorbate dipoles. For the case of allyl alcohol, dimers and complex networks exhibit similar stability.

  5. Operativ behandling af thoracic outlet syndrome

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Birkeland, Peter; Stiasny, Jerzy

    2012-01-01

    We present three cases with longstanding true neurogenic thoracic outlet syndrome. All patients had aching pain in the shoulder, arm and ulnar border of the hand. On examination, we found atrophy of the hand muscles. Electromyography revealed signs of compromised function of the inferior trunk of...

  6. Hydrogen production from alcohol reforming in a microwave ‘tornado’-type plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this work, an experimental investigation of microwave plasma-assisted reforming of different alcohols is presented. A microwave (2.45 GHz) ‘tornado’-type plasma with a high-speed tangential gas injection (swirl) at atmospheric pressure is applied to decompose alcohol molecules, namely methanol, ethanol and propanol, and to produce hydrogen-rich gas. The reforming efficiency is investigated both in Ar and Ar+ water vapor plasma environments. The hydrogen yield dependence on the partial alcohol flux is analyzed. Mass spectrometry and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy are used to detect the outlet gas products from the decomposition process. Hydrogen, carbon monoxide, carbon dioxide and solid carbon are the main decomposition by-products. A significant increase in the hydrogen production rate is observed with the addition of a small amount of water. Furthermore, optical emission spectroscopy is applied to detect the radiation emitted by the plasma and to estimate the gas temperature and electron density. (paper)

  7. Method of tube plate outlet replacement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leaking or defective welded joints of tube plate outlets encountered during nuclear installation operation must be repaired. A method is suggested in which the defective tube plate outlets are first sealed below the cutting site to protect the tube plate from the penetration of dirt and then cut off. The remaining part of the tubes is cleaned. Extension tubes are then welded using argon arc electrode welding. They are shortened to required lengths and the cleaned tube plate is removed. The tube ends shall be calibration rolled and welded manually in two passes with a non-melting electrode using argon arc welding, the first pass without, the second pass with a filler wire. The ends of the tubes shall then be closed by rolling, leak tests shall be conducted and the plugs removed. (M.D.)

  8. Perancangan Aplikasi E-Commerce Outlet Buku

    OpenAIRE

    Hermanita, Anggi

    2013-01-01

    Pada penulisan tugas akhir ini, penulis membuat Perancangan Aplikasi E-Commerce Outlet Buku. Sistem ini merupakan Penjualan Buku secara Online dengan menggunakan CMS Prestashop yng merupakan gabungan dari Web Server PHP dan MySQL. Pembuatan sistem penjualan buku online ini bertujuan untuk mempermudah masyarakat dalam memperoleh informasi perbelanjaan (Online) sehingga menghemat waktu. Fasilitas-fasilitas yang terdapat dalam pembuatan website ini berupa data dan informasi terbaru,profil, ...

  9. Alcoholism and Alcohol Abuse

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... drinking once you've started Physical dependence - withdrawal symptoms Tolerance - the need to drink more alcohol to feel the same effect With alcohol abuse, you are not physically dependent, but you still ...

  10. Stratification in SNR-300 outlet plenum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the inner outlet plenum of the SNR-300 under steady state conditions a large toroidal vortex is expected. The main flow passes through the gap between dipplate and shield vessel to the outer annular space. Only 3% of the flow pass the 24 emergency cooling holes, situated in the shield vessel. The sodium leaves the reactor tank through the 3 symmetrically arranged outlet nozzles. For a scram flow rates and temperatures are decreased simultaneously, so it is expected, that stratification occurs in the inner outlet plenum. A measure of stratification effects is the Archimedes Number Ar, which is the relation of buoyancy forces (negative) to kinetic energy. (The Archimedes Number is nearly identical with the Richardson Number). For values Ar>1 stratification can occur. Under the assumption of stratification the code TIRE was developed, which is only applicable for the period of time after some 50 sec after scram. This code serves for long term calculations. As the equations are very simple, it is a very fast code which gives the possibility to calculate transients for some hours real time. This code mainly has to take into account the pressure difference between inner plenum and outlet annulus caused by geodatic pressure. That force is in equilibrium with the pressure drop over the gap and holes in the shield vessel. For more detailed calculations of flow pattern and temperature distribution the code MIX and INKO 2T are applied. MIX was developed and validated at ANL, INKO 2T is a development of INTERATOM. INKO 2T is under validation. Mock up experiments were carried out with water to simulate the transient behavior of the SNR-300 outlet plenum. Calculations obtained by INKO 2T for steady state and the transient are shown for the flow pattern. Results of measurements also prove that stratification begins after about 30 sec. Measurements and detailed calculations show that it is admissible to use the code TIRE for the long term calculations. Calculations for a scram

  11. Analysis of the Sales Promotion in Choice Retail Outlet

    OpenAIRE

    HUMPOLCOVÁ, Michaela

    2010-01-01

    My bachelor thesis is aimed at sales promotion in a retail outlet. The main aim of this thesis is evaluate the current state of sales promotion in a selected retail outlet and based on the analysis of the current state of sales promotion in the outlet to try to propose some measures of improve.

  12. Temporal Alcohol Availability Predicts First-Time Drunk Driving, but Not Repeat Offending

    OpenAIRE

    Schofield, Timothy P.; Denson, Thomas F.

    2013-01-01

    Alcohol availability has been linked to drunk driving, but research has not examined whether this relationship is the same for first-time and repeat offenses. We examined the relationship between the business hours of alcohol outlets licensed to serve alcohol for on-premises consumption and misdemeanor-level (first offense) and felony-level drunk driving (repeat offense) charges in New York State in 2009. Longer outlet business hours were associated with more misdemeanor drunk driving charges...

  13. Obesity-related eating behaviors are associated with higher food energy density and higher consumption of sugary and alcoholic beverages: a cross-sectional study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maritza Muñoz-Pareja

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: Obesity-related eating behaviors (OREB are associated with higher energy intake. Total energy intake can be decomposed into the following constituents: food portion size, food energy density, the number of eating occasions, and the energy intake from energy-rich beverages. To our knowledge this is the first study to examine the association between the OREB and these energy components. METHODS: Data were taken from a cross-sectional study conducted in 2008-2010 among 11,546 individuals representative of the Spanish population aged ≥ 18 years. Information was obtained on the following 8 self-reported OREB: not planning how much to eat before sitting down, eating precooked/canned food or snacks bought at vending machines or at fast-food restaurants, not choosing low-energy foods, not removing visible fat from meat or skin from chicken, and eating while watching TV. Usual diet was assessed with a validated diet history. Analyses were performed with linear regression with adjustment for main confounders. RESULTS: Compared to individuals with ≤ 1 OREB, those with ≥ 5 OREB had a higher food energy density (β 0.10; 95% CI 0.08, 0.12 kcal/g/day; p-trend<0.001 and a higher consumption of sugary drinks (β 7; 95% CI -7, 20 ml/day; p-trend<0.05 and of alcoholic beverages (β 24; 95% CI 10, 38 ml/day; p-trend<0.001. Specifically, a higher number of OREB was associated with higher intake of dairy products and red meat, and with lower consumption of fresh fruit, oily fish and white meat. No association was found between the number of OREB and food portion size or the number of eating occasions. CONCLUSIONS: OREB were associated with higher food energy density and higher consumption of sugary and alcoholic beverages. Avoiding OREB may prove difficult because they are firmly socially rooted, but these results may nevertheless serve to palliate the undesirable effects of OREB by reducing the associated energy intake.

  14. Low-Density Lipoprotein Receptor-Related Protein 6 (LRP6 Is a Novel Nutritional Therapeutic Target for Hyperlipidemia, Non-Alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease, and Atherosclerosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gwang-woong Go

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Low-density lipoprotein receptor-related protein 6 (LRP6 is a member of the low-density lipoprotein receptor family and has a unique structure, which facilitates its multiple functions as a co-receptor for Wnt/β-catenin signaling and as a ligand receptor for endocytosis. The role LRP6 plays in metabolic regulation, specifically in the nutrient-sensing pathway, has recently garnered considerable interest. Patients carrying an LRP6 mutation exhibit elevated levels of LDL cholesterol, triglycerides, and fasting glucose, which cooperatively constitute the risk factors of metabolic syndrome and atherosclerosis. Since the discovery of this mutation, the general role of LRP6 in lipid homeostasis, glucose metabolism, and atherosclerosis has been thoroughly researched. These studies have demonstrated that LRP6 plays a role in LDL receptor-mediated LDL uptake. In addition, when the LRP6 mutant impaired Wnt-LRP6 signaling, hyperlipidemia, non-alcoholic fatty liver disease, and atherosclerosis developed. LRP6 regulates lipid homeostasis and body fat mass via the nutrient-sensing mechanistic target of the rapamycin (mTOR pathway. Furthermore, the mutant LRP6 triggers atherosclerosis by activating platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF-dependent vascular smooth muscle cell differentiation. This review highlights the exceptional opportunities to study the pathophysiologic contributions of LRP6 to metabolic syndrome and cardiovascular diseases, which implicate LRP6 as a latent regulator of lipid metabolism and a novel therapeutic target for nutritional intervention.

  15. Alcohol fuels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1980-01-01

    This issue is devoted almost entirely to alcohol fuels, the following topics being presented: A History of Alcohol Fuels; In the Midwest - Focus on Alcohol Fuels; Gasohol - A DOE Priority; Alcohol Fuels Potential; Gasohol - The Nutritious Fuel; Energy from Agriculture; Alcohol and the Price of Food; A New Look at Economics and Energy Balance in Alcohol Production; Economics of small-scale alcohol producers; Get the Lead Out with Alcohol; Biomass and the Carbon Dioxide Buildup; Federal Agency Activity in Alcohol Fuels; Congressional Activity in Alchol Fuels; Licensing a Small Still; Funding Sources for Alcohol Facilities; Safety in Alcohol Production; Alcohol Fuels Information; State-by-State Guide to Alcohol Activity; Alcohol Fuels Glossary; Alcohol Fuels and Your Car; Alcohol Fuels Training Grants Progam; Citizen Action Plan for Gasohol; and Alcohol Fuels - a Path to Reconciliation.

  16. Diurnal Changes of Zooplankton Community Reduction Rate at Lake Outlets and Related Environmental Factors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Czerniawski, Robert; Sługocki, Łukasz

    2016-01-01

    The reduced zooplankton abundance at the outlet sections of lakes depends on the occurrence of preying fry. Therefore, light conditions can play a major role in the drift of zooplankton along river outlets. The aim of this study was to determine the influence of diurnal light conditions on the decline of zooplankton densities at lake outlets. Photosynthetically active radiation (PAR) levels were measured to determine their effect on the rate of reduced zooplankton abundance. Cladocerans and copepods showed a significantly greater reduction in abundance than rotifers and nauplii. A significant positive relationship was observed between the PAR levels and the reduced abundance of Asplanchna sp., small cladocerans, large cladocerans and Copepoda at the lake outlets. Among the rotifers, small pelagic rotifers drifted the farthest at all hours of the day. Large crustaceans, especially the large cladocerans and copepodites and adult copepods, had the lowest chance of dispersing over a wide area. Our results indicate that light conditions play an important role in the reduction of zooplankton abundance at lake outlets and have an indirect influence on the downstream food web. PMID:27392017

  17. Spatial patterning of supermarkets and fast food outlets with respect to neighborhood characteristics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lamichhane, Archana P; Warren, Joshua; Puett, Robin; Porter, Dwayne E; Bottai, Matteo; Mayer-Davis, Elizabeth J; Liese, Angela D

    2013-09-01

    A large body of literature has reported differences in exposure to environments supporting either healthy (e.g. supermarkets) or unhealthy (e.g. fast food outlets) dietary choices by neighborhood characteristics. We explored the associations of both supermarkets and fast food outlets availability with neighborhood characteristics, and clustering of these two outlet types in a largely rural state. Compared to block groups without a supermarket, those with a supermarket had a significantly higher income, higher housing value, larger population with high school education and above, lower minority population and lower population living below poverty even after controlling for urbanicity and population density of census block groups. Surprisingly, a similar relationship was found for block groups with and without fast food outlets. This was due to spatial co-occurrence and clustering of fast food outlets around supermarket locations. Hence, future studies exploring the associations of food environment with diet or diet-related health outcome should concurrently examine all aspects of food environment (healthy and unhealthy). PMID:23933445

  18. Spatial patterning of supermarkets and fast food outlets with respect to neighborhood characteristics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lamichhane, Archana P.; Warren, Joshua; Puett, Robin; Porter, Dwayne E.; Bottai, Matteo; Mayer-Davis, Elizabeth J.; Liese, Angela D.

    2013-01-01

    A large body of literature has reported differences in exposure to environments supporting either healthy (e.g. supermarkets) or unhealthy (e.g. fast food outlets) dietary choices by neighborhood characteristics. We explored the associations of both supermarkets and fast food outlets availability with neighborhood characteristics, and clustering of these two outlet types in a largely rural state. Compared to block groups without a supermarket, those with a supermarket had a significantly higher income, higher housing value, larger population with high school education and above, lower minority population and lower population living below poverty even after controlling for urbanicity and population density of census block groups. Surprisingly, a similar relationship was found for block groups with and without fast food outlets. This was due to spatial co-occurrence and clustering of fast food outlets around supermarket locations. Hence, future studies exploring the associations of food environment with diet or diet-related health outcome should concurrently examine all aspects of food environment (healthy and unhealthy). PMID:23933445

  19. Thoracic Outlet Syndrome Following Breast Implant Rupture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raakhi Mistry, MBChB

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Summary: We present a patient with bilateral breast implant rupture who developed severe locoregional silicone granulomatous lymphadenopathy. Poly Implant Prothese silicone implants had been used for bilateral breast augmentation 5 years prior. Extracapsular implant rupture and bilateral axillary lymphadenopathy indicated explantation, capsulectomy, and selective lymph node excision. Histology demonstrated silicone lymphadenopathy with no evidence of malignancy. Over the subsequent 12 months, she developed progressive locoregional lymphadenopathy involving bilateral cervical, axillary, and internal mammary groups, resulting in bilateral thoracic outlet syndrome. We report the unusual presentation, progression, and the ultimate surgical management of this patient.

  20. Hemiarthroplasty of the shoulder joint using a custom-designed high-density nano-hydroxyapatite/polyamide prosthesis with a polyvinyl alcohol hydrogel humeral head surface in rabbits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Yongwen; Guo, Jun; Bai, Ding; Wang, Hang; Zheng, Xiaohui; Guo, Weihua; Tian, Weidong

    2014-07-01

    In this study, a novel custom-designed high-density nano-hydroxyapatite/polyamide (n-HA/PA) prosthesis with a polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) hydrogel humeral head surface was employed to repair the shoulder joint head for hemiarthroplasty in rabbits. The prosthesis was fabricated using three-dimensional computed tomography and computer-aided design and computer-aided manufacturing systems for perfect fitting. Sixteen New Zealand white rabbits underwent humeral head excision, and received the composite prostheses for hemiarthroplasty. The implant sites were free from suppuration and necrosis at all periods. The X-ray results showed that there was a clear space between the prosthesis head and the glenoid surface, and the joint capsules and surfaces of the glenoid and PVA were well preserved without any damage during the whole inspection period. A high density of bone was observed around the firmware part of the prosthesis. Histological results revealed that significant osteogenesis was surrounding the firmware part, and the joint space was clear and the cartilage of the upper joint surface was basically intact. There was no visible absorption of the joint surfaces even after 3 months of continuous functional motions. The maximum tensile strength between the prosthesis and host bone reached 2.63 MPa at the 12th week postimplantation. In conclusion, the customized prosthesis by combination of PVA and high-density n-HA/PA has excellent biocompatibility and biological fixation, and offers a promising substitute for both the cartilage and the bone of the humeral head in a rabbit model as level V evidence. PMID:24404998

  1. Alcohol Alert

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Us You are here Home » Alcohol Alert Alcohol Alert The NIAAA Alcohol Alert is a quarterly bulletin that disseminates important research ... text. To order single copies of select Alcohol Alerts, see ordering Information . To view publications in PDF ...

  2. Alcohol Alert: Genetics of Alcoholism

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... and Reports » Alcohol Alert » Alcohol Alert Number 84 Alcohol Alert Number 84 Print Version The Genetics of ... immune defense system. Genes Encoding Enzymes Involved in Alcohol Breakdown Some of the first genes linked to ...

  3. Densities, Ultrasonic Speeds, Viscosities and Refractive Indices of Binary Mixtures of Benzene with Benzyl Alcohol,Benzonitrile, Benzoyl Chloride and Chlorobenzene at 303.15 K

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ALI,A.; PANDEY,J.D.; SONI,N.K.; NAIN,A.K.; LAL,B.; CHAND,D.

    2005-01-01

    Densities, p, ultrasonic speeds, u, viscosities, η, and refractive indices, n, of pure benzene, benzyl alcohol (BA),benzonitrile (BN), benzoyl chloride (BC), chlorobenzene (CB) and their thirty six binary mixtures, with benzene as common component, were measured at 303.15 K over the entire mole fraction range. From these experimental data the values of deviations in ultrasonic speed, Au, isentropic compressibility, Δks, excess acoustic impedance, ZE, deviation in viscosity, Δη, and excess Gibbs free energy of activation of viscous flow, G*E, and partial molar isentropic compressibility, Kφ,2 of BA, BN, BC and CB in benzene were computed. The variation of these derived functions with composition of the mixtures suggested the increased cohesion (molecular order) in the solution and that interaction (A-B)>(A-A) or (B-B). Moreover, theoretical prediction of ultrasonic speed, viscosity and refractive index of all the four binary mixtures was made on the basis of empirical and semi-empirical relations by using the experimental values of the pure components. Comparison of theoretical results with the experimental values was made in order to assess the suitability of these relations in reproducing the experimental values of u, η and n. Also, molecular radii of pure liquids and the average molecular radii of binary mixtures were evaluated using the corresponding refractive indices of pure liquids and binary mixtures. The average molecular radii of binary mixtures were found to be additive with respect to mole fraction of the pure component.

  4. Impedance plethysmographic observations in thoracic outlet syndrome.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nerurkar S

    1990-07-01

    Full Text Available Forty patients with symptoms of neuro-vascular compression in the upper extremities were subjected to impedance plethysmographic study using Parulkar′s method. Two patients recorded decreased blood flow (BFI in supine position and were diagnosed as having partial occlusion at subclavian level. Sixteen of the patients recorded decreased BFI on 90 degrees abduction and hyper-abduction. Twelve of these patients had radiological evidence of anomalous cervicle ribs. In remaining four patients extrinsic impression on the subclavian artery due to fibrous deposits was confirmed by arteriography. Remaining 22 patients recorded normal impedance plethysmograms. Impedance plethysmography thus provided a non-invasive modality for confirmation of vascular compression in thoracic outlet syndrome.

  5. Recent Canyon Heads at the Bosphorus Outlet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lericolais, G.; Le Drezen, E.; Nouze, H.; Gillet, H.; Ergun, M.; Cific, G.; Avci, M.; Dondurur, D.; Okay, S.

    2002-12-01

    The Black and Marmara Seas have witnessed increased scientific interest in last decade due to improved cooperation between the riparian countries and western scientific institutions but also due to the controversy existing about the origin of the reconnection of the Black Sea and Mediterranean seas after the last Glacial Maximum and its ensuing sea level rise. The Black Sea is linked to the global ocean only through the Bosphorus-Dardanelles system of straits. The Bosphorus is narrow (0.76 to 3.6 km wide) and shallow (32 m) at the sill, restricting the two-way water exchange between the brackish Black Sea and the very saline Mediterranean Sea. The Bosphorus sill was responsible for the behaviour of the Black Sea during the global glaciations and deglaciations, during which the Black Sea level followed the global sea level changes as long as they were higher than the sill. When global sea level was lower than the Bosphorus sill the variations of the Black Sea level reflected specific regional climate conditions without being coupled to the ocean changes. Recent studies suggest that a rapid flooding event may have occurred in the Black Sea during the Holocene. In 1998, a French-Romanian survey collected 4500 km of high-resolution seismic profiles, multibeam bathymetry, and sediment cores on the northern margin of the Black Sea where the shelf is sufficiently wide to preserve ancient shorelines in the vicinity of the shelf edge. If rapid flooding occurred through the Bosphorus Strait to drown these shorelines, it should have created a cataract. In August 2002, the French research vessel "Le Suroit" equipped with a EM 300 multibeam echosounder and a TritonElics Chirp Sonar mapped the Bosphorus outlet at the shelf edge. The results show a large retrogressive canyon deeply incised into the shelf which can be followed landward towards the Bosphorus outlet. Coring on the shelf and in the canyon revealed mega-ripples of shell debris of recent origin.

  6. OPTIMAL CHOICE OF GENERIC MILK ADVERTISING EXPENDITURES BY MEDIA OUTLET

    OpenAIRE

    Pritchett, James G.; Liu, Donald J.; Kaiser, Harry M.

    1998-01-01

    The largest portion of dairy and milk checkoff funds is spent on generic fluid milk advertising. These funds are distributed among four distinct media outlets-television, radio, print, and outdoor. Spending too little on one media outlet or too much on another constitutes a missed opportunity to garner higher returns. Using 1984-93 data, this study compares historical advertising expenditures in each media outlet to the advertising expenditure decision of an optimal control model. Results sho...

  7. The Geography of Fast Food Outlets: A Review

    OpenAIRE

    Fraser, Lorna K; Edwards, Kimberly L.; Janet Cade; Clarke, Graham P

    2010-01-01

    The availability of food high in fat, salt and sugar through Fast Food (FF) or takeaway outlets, is implicated in the causal pathway for the obesity epidemic. This review aims to summarise this body of research and highlight areas for future work. Thirty three studies were found that had assessed the geography of these outlets. Fourteen studies showed a positive association between availability of FF outlets and increasing deprivation. Another 13 studies also included overweight or obesity da...

  8. Field Validation of Secondary Data Sources for Enumerating Retail Tobacco Outlets in a State without Tobacco Outlet Licensing

    OpenAIRE

    D’Angelo, Heather; Fleischhacker, Sheila; Rose, Shyanika W; Ribisl, Kurt M.

    2014-01-01

    Identifying tobacco retail outlets for U.S. FDA compliance checks or calculating tobacco outlet is difficult in the 13 states without tobacco retail licensing or where licensing lists are unavailable for research. This study uses primary data collection to identify tobacco outlets in three counties in a non-licensing state and validate two commercial secondary data sources. We calculated sensitivity and positive predictive values (PPV) to validate the secondary data sources, and conducted a g...

  9. Steroid responsive eosinophilic gastric outlet obstruction in a child

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Richard Kellermayer; Nina Tatevian; William Klish; Robert J Shulman

    2008-01-01

    Gastric outlet obstruction is a rare complication of eosinophilic gastroenteritis, most commonly treated surgically. We report a case of eosinophilic gastric outlet obstruction in a child that responded to conservative medical management. A brief review of this clinical entity is also provided.

  10. Alcoholic neuropathy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... objects in the shoes Guarding the extremities to prevent injury from pressure Alcohol must be stopped to prevent the damage from ... The only way to prevent alcoholic neuropathy is not to drink excessive amounts of alcohol.

  11. Coolant mixing in the LMFBR outlet plenum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Small scale experiments involving water flows are used to provide mean flow and turbulence field data for LMFBR outlet plenum flows. Measurements are performed at Reynolds Number (Re) values of 33000 and 70000 in a 1/15-scale FFTF geometry and at Re = 35000 in a 3/80-scale CRBR geometry. The experimental behavior is predicted using two different turbulence model computer programs, TEACH-T and VARR-II. It is found that the qualitative nature of the flow field within the plenum depends strongly upon the distribution of the mean inlet velocity field, upon the degree of inlet turbulence, and upon the turbulence momentum exchange model used in the calculations. It is found in the FFTF geometry that the TEACH-T predictions are better than that of VARR-II, and in the CRBR geometry neither code provides a good prediction of the observed behavior. From the sensitivity analysis, it is found that the production and dissipation of turbulence are the dominant terms in the transport equations for turbulent kinetic energy and turbulent energy dissipation rate, and the diffusion terms are relatively small. From the same study a new set of empirical constants for the turbulence model is evolved for the prediction of plenum flows

  12. The Geography of Fast Food Outlets: A Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fraser, Lorna K.; Edwards, Kimberly L.; Cade, Janet; Clarke, Graham P.

    2010-01-01

    The availability of food high in fat, salt and sugar through Fast Food (FF) or takeaway outlets, is implicated in the causal pathway for the obesity epidemic. This review aims to summarise this body of research and highlight areas for future work. Thirty three studies were found that had assessed the geography of these outlets. Fourteen studies showed a positive association between availability of FF outlets and increasing deprivation. Another 13 studies also included overweight or obesity data and showed conflicting results between obesity/overweight and FF outlet availability. There is some evidence that FF availability is associated with lower fruit and vegetable intake. There is potential for land use policies to have an influence on the location of new FF outlets. Further research should incorporate good quality data on FF consumption, weight and physical activity. PMID:20623025

  13. The Geography of Fast Food Outlets: A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lorna K. Fraser

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available The availability of food high in fat, salt and sugar through Fast Food (FF or takeaway outlets, is implicated in the causal pathway for the obesity epidemic. This review aims to summarise this body of research and highlight areas for future work. Thirty three studies were found that had assessed the geography of these outlets. Fourteen studies showed a positive association between availability of FF outlets and increasing deprivation. Another 13 studies also included overweight or obesity data and showed conflicting results between obesity/overweight and FF outlet availability. There is some evidence that FF availability is associated with lower fruit and vegetable intake. There is potential for land use policies to have an influence on the location of new FF outlets. Further research should incorporate good quality data on FF consumption, weight and physical activity.

  14. Nanoscale intracellular mass-density alteration as a signature of the effect of alcohol on early carcinogenesis: A transmission electron microscopy (TEM) study

    CERN Document Server

    Ghimire, Hemendra M; Sahay, Peeyush; Almabadi, Huda; Tripathi, Vibha; Skalli, Omar; Rao, R K; Pradhan, Prabhakar

    2015-01-01

    Alcohol consumption interferes with the functioning of multiple organ systems, causing changes in the chemistry, physiology and pathology of tissues and cellular organelles. Although epigenetic modifications underlie the development of cancer, exposure to carcinogenic chemicals, such as alcohol, can also contribute to disease development. However, the effects of chronic alcoholism on normal or pre-carcinogenic cells/tissues in different organelles are not well understood. Therefore, we herein study the effect of alcohol consumption on colonic nucleus using control and azoxymethane (AOM) and dextran sulfate sodium (DSS) treated carcinogenic mice. Previous studies showed that progression of carcinogenesis is associated with increase in the degree of intranuclear nanoscale structural disorder. In the present work, we quantify the degree of nanostructural disorder as a measure of carcinogenesis. To accomplish this, transmission electron microscopy (TEM) imaging of respective colonic epithelial cell nuclei are use...

  15. MRI findings in thoracic outlet syndrome

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aralasmak, Ayse; Sharifov, Rasul; Kilicarslan, Rukiye; Alkan, Alpay [Bezmialem Vakif University, Department of Radiology, Fatih/Istanbul (Turkey); Cevikol, Can; Karaali, Kamil; Senol, Utku [Akdeniz University, Department of Radiology, Antalya (Turkey)

    2012-11-15

    We discuss MRI findings in patients with thoracic outlet syndrome (TOS). A total of 100 neurovascular bundles were evaluated in the interscalene triangle (IS), costoclavicular (CC), and retropectoralis minor (RPM) spaces. To exclude neurogenic abnormality, MRIs of the cervical spine and brachial plexus (BPL) were obtained in neutral. To exclude compression on neurovascular bundles, sagittal T1W images were obtained vertical to the longitudinal axis of BPL from spinal cord to the medial part of the humerus, in abduction and neutral. To exclude vascular TOS, MR angiography (MRA) and venography (MRV) of the subclavian artery (SA) and vein (SV) in abduction were obtained. If there is compression on the vessels, MRA and MRV of the subclavian vessels were repeated in neutral. Seventy-one neurovascular bundles were found to be abnormal: 16 arterial-venous-neurogenic, 20 neurogenic, 1 arterial, 15 venous, 8 arterial-venous, 3 arterial-neurogenic, and 8 venous-neurogenic TOS. Overall, neurogenic TOS was noted in 69%, venous TOS in 66%, and arterial TOS in 39%. The neurovascular bundle was most commonly compressed in the CC, mostly secondary to position, and very rarely compressed in the RPM. The cause of TOS was congenital bone variations in 36%, congenital fibromuscular anomalies in 11%, and position in 53%. In 5%, there was unilateral brachial plexitis in addition to compression of the neurovascular bundle. Severe cervical spondylosis was noted in 14%, contributing to TOS symptoms. For evaluation of patients with TOS, visualization of the brachial plexus and cervical spine and dynamic evaluation of neurovascular bundles in the cervicothoracobrachial region are mandatory. (orig.)

  16. PIV measurement at the blowdown pipe outlet

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report summarizes the findings of the PIV measurement tests carried out in January - February 2013 with the scaled down PPOOLEX test facility at LUT. The main objective of the tests was to find out the operational limits of the PIV system regarding suitable test conditions and correct values of different adjustable PIV parameters. An additional objective was to gather CFD grade data for verification/validation of numerical models. Both water and steam injection tests were carried out. PIV measurements with cold water injection succeeded well. Raw images were of high quality, averaging over the whole measurement period could be done and flow fields close to the blowdown pipe outlet could be determined. In the warm water injection cases the obtained averaged velocity field images were harder to interpret, especially if the blowdown pipe was also filled with warm water in the beginning of the measurement period. The absolute values of the velocity vectors seemed to be smaller than in the cold water injection cases. With very small steam flow rates the steam/water interface was inside the blowdown pipe and quite stable in nature. The raw images were of good quality but due to some fluctuation in the velocity field averaging of the velocity images over the whole measured period couldn't be done. Condensation of steam in the vicinity of the pipe exit probably caused these fluctuations. A constant outflow was usually followed by a constant inflow towards the pipe exit. Vector field images corresponding to a certain phase of the test could be extracted and averaged but this would require a very careful analysis so that the images could be correctly categorized. With higher steam flow rates rapid condensation of large steam bubbles created small gas bubbles which were in front of the measurement area of the PIV system. They disturbed the measurements by reflecting laser light like seeding particles and therefore the raw images were of poor quality and they couldn't be

  17. Rating of new outlet structures for MacFarlane Reservoir

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Memorandum explaining the new work on the outlet structure at MacFarlane Reservoir. Flow measurements were taken at different staff gage elevations and this data is...

  18. Inlet and outlet devices for rotary blood pumps.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Xinwei; Wood, Houston G; Allaire, Paul E; Antaki, James F; Olsen, Don B

    2004-10-01

    The purposes of inlet and outlet devices for rotary blood pumps, including inducers and diffusers for axial pumps, inlet and exit volutes for centrifugal pumps, and inlet and outlet cannulas, are to guide the blood into the impeller, where the blood is accelerated, and to convert the high kinetic energy into pressure after the impeller discharge, respectively. The designs of the inlet and outlet devices have an important bearing on the pump performance. Their designs are highly dependent on computational fluid dynamics (CFD) analysis, guided by intuition and experience. For inlet devices, the design objectives are to eliminate separated flow, to minimize recirculation, and to equalize the radial components of velocity. For outlet devices, the design goals are to reduce speed, to minimize energy loss, and to avoid flow separation and whirl. CFD analyses indicate the velocity field and pressure distribution. Geometrical optimization of these components has been implemented in order to improve the flow pattern. PMID:15384997

  19. Supermarket and fast-food outlet exposure in Copenhagen

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Svastisalee, Chalida Mae; Jensen, Helene Nordahl; Glumer, Charlotte;

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To investigate whether exposure to fast-food outlets and supermarkets is socio-economically patterned in the city of Copenhagen. Design: The study was based on a cross-sectional multivariate approach to examine the association between the number of fast-food outlets and supermarkets and...... neighbourhood-level socio-economic indicators. Food business addresses were obtained from commercial and public business locators and geocoded using a geographic information system for all neighbourhoods in the city of Copenhagen (n 400). The regression of counts of fast-food outlets and supermarkets v...... analysis was neighbourhood (n 400). Results: In the fully adjusted models, income was not a significant predictor for supermarket exposure. However, neighbourhoods with low and mid-low income were associated with significantly fewer fast-food outlets. Using backwise deletion from the fully adjusted models...

  20. 7 CFR 987.55 - Outlets for restricted dates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... IN RIVERSIDE COUNTY, CALIFORNIA Order Regulating Handling Disposition of Other Than Free Dates § 987... countries as the Committee may approve or by diversion in product outlets described in § 987.43 which...

  1. TARGET MARKETS FOR RETAIL OUTLETS OF LANDSCAPE PLANTS

    OpenAIRE

    Turner, Steven C.; Dorfman, Jeffrey H.; Fletcher, Stanley M.

    1990-01-01

    Merchandisers of landscape plants can increase the effectiveness of their marketing strategies by identifying target markets. Using a full information maximum likelihood tobit procedure on a system of three equations, target markets for different types of retail outlets in Georgia were identified. The results lend support and empirical evidence to the premise that different retail outlet types have different target markets and thus should develop different market strategies. The estimated tar...

  2. Granular flow and clog in silo with moving outlet

    Science.gov (United States)

    To, Kiwing; Tai, Hsiang-Ting

    2015-11-01

    When grains flow out of a silo, the flow rate increases with the outlet size d. If d is too small, an arch may form and blocks the flow at the outlet. To recover from clogging, the arch have to be destroyed. Oscillating the outlet mechanically is one simple way of destroying the arch. In this paper, we report the effect of oscillating the outlet on the processes of clogging as well as recovery from clogging in two-dimensional silo equipped with movable outlet. We measure the flow rate Q (d) and find that, in the presence of outlet oscillation, Q (d) may remain finite even when d is only slightly larger than the grain diameter. Transition from continuous flow to intermittent flow occurs by decreasing d or by reducing the oscillation speed. In addition, at small d when the flow is intermittent, the flow time (duration of flow before clogged) follows Poisson distribution whereas the recovery time (duration of clog before flow recovery) follows power law distribution.

  3. Alcohol Sales to Youth: Data from Rural Communities Within the Cherokee Nation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lynne-Landsman, Sarah D; Kominsky, Terrence K; Livingston, Melvin D; Wagenaar, Alexander C; Komro, Kelli A

    2016-01-01

    Access to alcohol among individuals under 21 years of age continues to be a public health concern with approximately 5000 youth deaths attributable to alcohol each year (US Department of Health and Human Services 2007). To date, there is no research on youth access to alcohol from commercial sources within rural communities with large populations of Native American families. We evaluated commercial access to alcohol by underage-appearing female confederates in 4 rural towns within the Cherokee Nation, a non-reservation tribal jurisdiction that includes a high proportion of Native Americans embedded within a predominately White population. Alcohol purchase attempts were conducted approximately every 4 weeks on 10 occasions for a total of 997 alcohol purchase attempts. In addition to purchase attempt outcome, we collected data on characteristics of the outlets and clerks. Alcohol was sold to confederates without use of age identification on 23 % of all purchase attempts. Across repeated attempts, 76 % of outlets sold alcohol to a confederate at least once. Males and younger clerks were more likely to sell alcohol to the confederates. Grocery stores and gas stations were more likely to sell alcohol to the confederate than liquor stores, but this effect was no longer significant once seller age was accounted for in a multivariable model. Three out of 4 outlets sold alcohol to young-appearing buyers at least once across repeated attempts. Results reinforce the continuing need for regular enforcement of laws against selling alcohol to minors. PMID:26228479

  4. Alcohol Facts

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... alcohol. Alcohol is the ingredient that gets you drunk. Hard liquor—such as whiskey, rum, or gin— ... of malt liquor 12 ounces of beer Being drunk can make a person feel very silly, angry, ...

  5. Alcoholics Anonymous

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Banners Site Help What's New Welcome to Alcoholics Anonymous ® NEED HELP WITH A DRINKING PROBLEM? If you ... drinking problem, wish to learn more about Alcoholics Anonymous or want to find A.A. near you, ...

  6. Improving data accuracy of commercial food outlet databases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohri-Vachaspati, Punam; Martinez, Diane; Yedidia, Michael J; Petlick, Nirvana

    2011-01-01

    PURPOSE. Assessing food environments often requires using commercially available data. Disparate methods used for classifying food outlets in these databases call for creating a classification approach using common definitions. A systematic strategy for reclassifying food stores and restaurants, as they appear in commercial databases, into categories that differentiate the availability of healthy options is described here. DESIGN AND SETTING. Commercially available data on food outlets including names, addresses, North American Industry Classification System codes, and associated characteristics was obtained for five New Jersey communities. ANALYSIS. A reclassification methodology was developed using criteria and definitions from the literature to categorize food outlets based on availability of healthy options. Information in the database was supplemented by systematic Internet and key word searches, and from phone calls to food outlets. RESULTS. The methodology resulted in 622 supermarket/grocery stores, 183 convenience stores, and 148 specialty stores in the original data to be reclassified into 58 supermarkets, 30 grocery stores, 692 convenience stores, and 115 specialty stores. Outlets from the original list of 1485 full-service restaurants and 506 limited-service restaurants were reclassified as 563 full-service restaurants and 1247 limited-service restaurants. Reclassification resulted in less than one-seventh the number of supermarkets and grocery stores, more than three times the number of convenience stores, and twice as many limited-service restaurants-a much less healthy profile than the one generated by using exclusively the commercial databases. CONCLUSION. An explicit and replicable strategy is proposed for reclassifying food outlets in commercial databases into categories that differentiate on the basis of healthy food availability. The intent is to contribute towards building a consensus among researchers on definitions used in public health

  7. Alcoholic hallucinosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhat, Pookala S; Ryali, Vssr; Srivastava, Kalpana; Kumar, Shashi R; Prakash, Jyoti; Singal, Ankit

    2012-07-01

    Alcoholic hallucinosis is a rare complication of chronic alcohol abuse characterized by predominantly auditory hallucinations that occur either during or after a period of heavy alcohol consumption. Bleuler (1916) termed the condition as alcohol hallucinosis and differentiated it from Delirium Tremens. Usually it presents with acoustic verbal hallucinations, delusions and mood disturbances arising in clear consciousness and sometimes may progress to a chronic form mimicking schizophrenia. One such case with multimodal hallucinations in a Defence Service Corps soldier is presented here. PMID:24250051

  8. Alcohol misuse

    OpenAIRE

    Robson, W

    2009-01-01

    Alcohol use is a leading cause of mortality and morbidity internationally, and is ranked by the WHO as one of the top five risk factors for disease burden. Without treatment, approximately 16% of hazardous or harmful alcohol users will progress to more dependent patterns of alcohol consumption.

  9. Alcohol Test

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    The recent alcohol tax increase poses a challenge to China’s white spirits makers Alcohol, rather than wine, is an in-dispensable component to Chinese table culture. The financial crisis has failed to affect white spirits sales, but an alcohol tax increase might.

  10. Alcoholic cardiomyopathy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Gonzalo; Guzzo-Merello; Marta; Cobo-Marcos; Maria; Gallego-Delgado; Pablo; Garcia-Pavia

    2014-01-01

    Alcohol is the most frequently consumed toxic substance in the world. Low to moderate daily intake of alcohol has been shown to have beneficial effects on the cardiovascular system. In contrast, exposure to high levels of alcohol for a long period could lead to progressive cardiac dysfunction and heart failure. Cardiac dysfunction associated with chronic and excessive alcohol intake is a specific cardiac disease known as alcoholic cardiomyopathy(ACM). In spite of its clinical importance, data on ACM and how alcohol damages the heart are limited. In this review, we evaluate available evidence linking excessive alcohol consumption with heart failure and dilated cardiomyopathy. Additionally, we discuss the clinical presentation, prognosis and treatment of ACM.

  11. Melting beneath Greenland outlet glaciers and ice streams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alexander, David; Perrette, Mahé; Beckmann, Johanna

    2015-04-01

    Basal melting of fast-flowing Greenland outlet glaciers and ice streams due to frictional heating at the ice-bed interface contributes significantly to total glacier mass balance and subglacial meltwater flux, yet modelling this basal melt process in Greenland has received minimal research attention. A one-dimensional dynamic ice-flow model is calibrated to the present day longitudinal profiles of 10 major Greenland outlet glaciers and ice streams (including the Jakobshavn Isbrae, Petermann Glacier and Helheim Glacier) and is validated against published ice flow and surface elevation measurements. Along each longitudinal profile, basal melt is calculated as a function of ice flow velocity and basal shear stress. The basal shear stress is dependent on the effective pressure (difference between ice overburden pressure and water pressure), basal roughness and a sliding parametrization. Model output indicates that where outlet glaciers and ice streams terminate into the ocean with either a small floating ice tongue or no floating tongue whatsoever, the proportion of basal melt to total melt (surface, basal and submarine melt) is 5-10% (e.g. Jakobshavn Isbrae; Daugaard-Jensen Glacier). This proportion is, however, negligible where larger ice tongues lose mass mostly by submarine melt (~1%; e.g. Nioghalvfjerdsfjorden Glacier). Modelled basal melt is highest immediately upvalley of the grounding line, with contributions typically up to 20-40% of the total melt for slippery beds and up to 30-70% for resistant beds. Additionally, modelled grounding line and calving front migration inland for all outlet glaciers and ice streams of hundreds of metres to several kilometres occurs. Including basal melt due to frictional heating in outlet glacier and ice stream models is important for more accurately modelling mass balance and subglacial meltwater flux, and therefore, more accurately modelling outlet glacier and ice stream dynamics and responses to future climate change.

  12. Thoracic outlet syndrome after corrective surgery for pectus excavatum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donders, H P; Geelen, J A

    1988-02-01

    Two patients are described who developed a thoracic outlet syndrome (TOS) after undergoing Ravitch's operation for the correction of pectus excavatum. In one case the syndrome developed a few days after surgery, whereas in the second patient it manifested more gradually. A third patient presented with latent TOS and pectus excavatum. It is recommended that prior to the correction of pectus excavatum, the patient should be examined to detect signs of neurovascular compression due to latent thoracic outlet syndrome. After surgery the possibility of this complication should be kept in mind to avoid permanent lesions of the cervicobrachial plexus. PMID:3352940

  13. FCC catalyst finds three safe reuse outlets in Europe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper reports on three usages in the area of construction materials which offer a potential outlet for the reuse of spent fluid catalytic cracking (FCC) catalyst that far exceeds the supply from European refineries. The proximity of the spent catalyst source to the point-of-use is critical because this determines the transportation cost-the major element in the cost of disposal/reuse. This is why a balance geographical spread of reuse outlets throughout Europe is sought. Asphalt, cement, and red bricks containing spent fluid catalytic cracking catalyst, have all passed environmental acceptability tests

  14. Silo clogging reduction by placing an obstacle above the outlet

    OpenAIRE

    Maza, D.; Arévalo, R.; Garcimartin, A.; Janda, A.; Zuriguel, I.; Lozano, C.

    2013-01-01

    We present an experimental study of the effect that an obstacle above the outlet of a silo has on the clogging probability. Both, the size of the ori ce and the obstacle position are varied for a chosen obstacle size and shape. If the position of the obstacle is properly selected the clogging probability can be importantly reduced. Indeed, as the outlet size is increased – and we approach the critical size above which there is not clogging – the obstacle effect is enhanced. For the ...

  15. Do flexible alcohol trading hours reduce violence? A theory-based natural experiment in alcohol policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Humphreys, David K; Eisner, Manuel P

    2014-02-01

    Alcohol-related violence is a pressing public health concern. In 2005, the government of England and Wales took a controversial approach to preventing violence by removing restrictions on opening hours for alcohol outlets, thus increasing the availability of alcohol. The policy aimed to remove fixed closing times, which it claimed was contributing to urban violence occurring at peak closing times. It proposed to reduce violence and disorder by installing systems of 'staggered closing times'. This policy was criticised for overlooking established public health principles prioritising the control of alcohol availability in the prevention of alcohol-related harm. In this study, we treated the removal of trading hour restrictions as a natural experiment to test competing theoretical principles about the relationship between alcohol availability and violence. Our study took place in the City of Manchester over a four-year period 2004-2008. Detailed trading records for over 600 alcohol outlets were obtained, as were police records for all violent incidents. We found considerable variation in the implementation of extended trading hours across the city, which affected area-level exposure of changes in alcohol availability and staggered closing times. To isolate the effect of these changes on violence, we performed a dose-response analysis to examine whether improved staggering of closing hours (or increased alcohol availability) was associated with decreases in violence. We found no evidence to support the government-proposed hypothesis that staggered closing reduces violence. We also found no support for the alternative hypothesis; that increase alcohol availability would result in increased violence. This study provides an example of how better evidence can be generated from natural experiments by placing added emphasis on theory, causal mechanisms and implementation science. PMID:24565135

  16. 49 CFR 179.200-17 - Bottom outlets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... connection to the valve shall be closed by a plug, cap, or approved quick coupling device. The bottom outlet... including a minimum 1-inch NPT pipe plug (see Fig. E17.1) or including an auxiliary valve with a threaded closure. (ii) A threaded cap closure arrangement including a minimum 1-inch NPT pipe plug (see Fig....

  17. 49 CFR 179.220-18 - Bottom outlets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... closure is of the combination cap and valve type, the pipe connection to the valve shall be closed by a... thereto, must be provided with threaded cap closure arrangement or bolted flange closure arrangement having minimum 1-inch threaded pipe plug. (6) If outlet nozzle and its closure extends below the...

  18. Identifying Target Markets for Landscape Plant Retail Outlets

    OpenAIRE

    McClellan, Chandler; Turner, Steven C.; Gunter, Lewell F.; Stegelin, Forrest E.

    2003-01-01

    Landscape plant retailers must identify target markets to maximize marketing effectiveness. A tobit process is used on a system of three equations with fourteen years of data identifies target markets for different retail outlets. Results, compared with a previous study, show effects of time on target markets.

  19. Using marine sediment archives to reconstruct past outlet glacier variability

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andresen, Camilla Snowman; Straneo, Fiamma; Ribergaard, Mads;

    2013-01-01

    Ice-rafted debris in fjord sediment cores provides information about outlet glacier activity beyond the instrumental time period. It tells us that the Helheim Glacier, Greenland’s third most productive glacier, responds rapidly to short-term (3 to 10 years) climate changes....

  20. Surgical treatment of double outlet ventricle: report on 72 cases

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YANG Jin-fu; HU Dong-xu; HU Jian-guo; YIN Bang-liang; ZHOU Xin-min; ZHOU Wen-wu; TAN Si-chuang; YIN Ni

    2005-01-01

    @@ Double outlet ventricle (DOV) is defined as a congenital heart disease with: (1) both great arteries arising completely, or almost completely (≥90%), from a single ventricle (usually, right ventricle); (2) an aortic valve having no fibre connection with mitral valve; and (3) the only outlet of the other ventricle is a ventricular septal defect (VSD). The incidence of DOV accounts for 1% of all congenital heart disease.1 Clinically there are three common types: Fallot type or double outlet right ventricle (DORV) with subaortic VSD with pulmonary stenosis; Eisenmenger type or DORV with subaortic VSD without pulmonary stenosis and Taussig-Bing type or DORV with subpulmonary VSD. Operative techniques are different according to the position of the VSD and great arteries and the presence or absence of ventricular outflow tract obstruction. The operative difficulty increases in the presence of coronary artery malformation. Recently, our research centre has treated 72 cases of patients suffering from double outlet ventricle. This article is the report of the operative methods and the outcomes.

  1. Working with Media Outlets To Communicate with the Public.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wallace, Mark L.

    2000-01-01

    Offers suggestions from a veteran public relations practitioner on how colleges can effectively use media resources to advertise academic programs, workforce training, and continuing education opportunities. Focuses on maximizing the benefits of using these five media outlets: newspapers, radio and TV, direct mail, the Internet, and cable…

  2. Alcoholic hallucinosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pookala S Bhat

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Alcoholic hallucinosis is a rare complication of chronic alcohol abuse characterized by predominantly auditory hallucinations that occur either during or after a period of heavy alcohol consumption. Bleuler (1916 termed the condition as alcohol hallucinosis and differentiated it from Delirium Tremens. Usually it presents with acoustic verbal hallucinations, delusions and mood disturbances arising in clear consciousness and sometimes may progress to a chronic form mimicking schizophrenia. One such case with multimodal hallucinations in a Defence Service Corps soldier is presented here.

  3. Reliability of a Store Observation Tool in Measuring Availability of Alcohol and Selected Foods

    OpenAIRE

    Cohen, Deborah A.; Schoeff, Diane; Farley, Thomas A.; Bluthenthal, Ricky; Scribner, Richard; Overton, Adrian

    2007-01-01

    Alcohol and food items can compromise or contribute to health, depending on the quantity and frequency with which they are consumed. How much people consume may be influenced by product availability and promotion in local retail stores. We developed and tested an observational tool to objectively measure in-store availability and promotion of alcoholic beverages and selected food items that have an impact on health. Trained observers visited 51 alcohol outlets in Los Angeles and southeastern ...

  4. Microstructure of neat alcohols

    CERN Document Server

    Perera, A; Zoranic, L; Perera, Aurelien; Sokolic, Franjo; Zoranic, Larisa

    2007-01-01

    Formation of microstructure in homogeneous associated liquids is analysed through the density-density pair correlation functions, both in direct and reciprocal space, as well as an effective local one-body density function. This is illustrated through a molecular dynamics study of two neat alcohols, namely methanol and \\emph{tert}-butanol, which have a rich microstructure: chain-like molecular association for the former and micelle-like for the latter. The relation to hydrogen bonding interaction is demonstrated. The apparent failure to find microstructure in water -a stronger hydrogen bonding liquid- with the same tools, is discussed.

  5. Alcohol Energy Drinks

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Home / About Addiction / Alcohol / Alcohol Energy Drinks Alcohol Energy Drinks Read 17728 times font size decrease font size increase font size Print Email Alcohol energy drinks (AEDs) or Caffeinated alcoholic beverages (CABs) are ...

  6. Alcohol during Pregnancy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Home > Pregnancy > Is it safe? > Alcohol during pregnancy Alcohol during pregnancy E-mail to a friend Please ... and fetal alcohol spectrum disorders. How does drinking alcohol during pregnancy affect your baby's health? Drinking alcohol ...

  7. Alcohol Energy Drinks

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Home / About Addiction / Alcohol / Alcohol Energy Drinks Alcohol Energy Drinks Read 14466 times font size decrease font size increase font size Print Email Alcohol energy drinks (AEDs) or Caffeinated alcoholic beverages (CABs) are ...

  8. Turbofan gas turbine engine with variable fan outlet guide vanes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wood, Peter John (Inventor); Zenon, Ruby Lasandra (Inventor); LaChapelle, Donald George (Inventor); Mielke, Mark Joseph (Inventor); Grant, Carl (Inventor)

    2010-01-01

    A turbofan gas turbine engine includes a forward fan section with a row of fan rotor blades, a core engine, and a fan bypass duct downstream of the forward fan section and radially outwardly of the core engine. The forward fan section has only a single stage of variable fan guide vanes which are variable fan outlet guide vanes downstream of the forward fan rotor blades. An exemplary embodiment of the engine includes an afterburner downstream of the fan bypass duct between the core engine and an exhaust nozzle. The variable fan outlet guide vanes are operable to pivot from a nominal OGV position at take-off to an open OGV position at a high flight Mach Number which may be in a range of between about 2.5-4+. Struts extend radially across a radially inwardly curved portion of a flowpath of the engine between the forward fan section and the core engine.

  9. Giant hepatic hemangioma presenting as gastric outlet obstruction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aydin, Cemalettin; Akbulut, Sami; Kutluturk, Koray; Kahraman, Aysegul; Kayaalp, Cuneyt; Yilmaz, Sezai

    2013-01-01

    Hemangioma, a most frequently encountered primary benign tumor of the liver, is generally determined incidentally during the course of radiologic tests for other reasons. Most lesions are less than 3 cm and a significant proportion of patients are asymptomatic, although the size and location of the lesion in some patients may be associated with the onset of symptoms. Pressure on the stomach and duodenum of giant hemagiomas developing in the left lobe of the liver, in particular, may result in the development of abdominal pain, nausea, vomiting, and feeling bloated, which are characteristic of a gastric outlet obstruction. A 42-year-old man presented with findings of gastric outlet obstruction and weight loss as a result of a giant hepatic hemangioma. PMID:23438272

  10. Basal resistance for three of the largest Greenland outlet glaciers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shapero, Daniel R.; Joughin, Ian R.; Poinar, Kristin; Morlighem, Mathieu; Gillet-Chaulet, Fabien

    2016-01-01

    Resistance at the ice-bed interface provides a strong control on the response of ice streams and outlet glaciers to external forcing, yet it is not observable by remote sensing. We used inverse methods constrained by satellite observations to infer the basal resistance to flow underneath three of the Greenland Ice Sheet's largest outlet glaciers. In regions of fast ice flow and high (>250 kPa) driving stresses, ice is often assumed to flow over a strong bed. We found, however, that the beds of these three glaciers provide almost no resistance under the fast-flowing trunk. Instead, resistance to flow is provided by the lateral margins and stronger beds underlying slower-moving ice upstream. Additionally, we found isolated patches of high basal resistivity within the predominantly weak beds. Because these small-scale (tested their robustness to different degrees of regularization.

  11. STILLING BASINS BELOW OUTLET WORKS – AN OVERVIEW

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H L Tiwari,

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available A stilling basins are transition structures constructed to dissipate excess energy confined by high velocity flow at the outlet of conduit or tunnel so that the flow beyond the basin does not endanger the stability of bed and banks of downstream channel. In a stilling basin kinetic energy causes turbulences and it is ultimately lost as heat and sound energy. there are several types of stilling basins which are used in various hydraulic structures like dam, canal, culvert etc. The type of stilling basin most suitable at a particular location mainly depends upon initial Froude Number and initial velocity of flow. This paper covers design principles and features of various stilling basins used for outlet works.

  12. Airshuffler implementation at freezer air outlets for heat transfer enhancement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ćerezci, Gökhan; Darka, Murat; Şenman, Ozan

    2016-06-01

    A study which is composed of computational simulation and experimental validation has been conducted for implementation of small, vane type geometries at freezer air outlets, similar to microvortex generators used in aircraft wings, in order to improve the heat transfer efficiency inside the freezer compartment by decreasing airside thermal resistance and improving the air distribution. Both simulation and experimental validation were performed in a loaded condition which was prepared according to `Household refrigerating appliances - characteristics and test methods - IEC 62552 [1]. Solutions for the incompressible K-epsilon (k-ɛ) turbulence model obtained for Bosch KDN 49 refrigerator freezer both with and without airshufflers at air outlets, which are similar to vane type microvortex generators with different geometric dimensions. The airshuffler dimensions were chosen with design of experiment (DOE) principles for finding the optimum geometry. The best combinations were tested according to cooling rate inside freezer compartment. Results were evaluated for feasibility of implementing of vortex generating surfaces (airshufflers) for cooling appliances.

  13. Boundary conditions for free surface inlet and outlet problems

    KAUST Repository

    Taroni, M.

    2012-08-10

    We investigate and compare the boundary conditions that are to be applied to free-surface problems involving inlet and outlets of Newtonian fluid, typically found in coating processes. The flux of fluid is a priori known at an inlet, but unknown at an outlet, where it is governed by the local behaviour near the film-forming meniscus. In the limit of vanishing capillary number Ca it is well known that the flux scales with Ca 2/3, but this classical result is non-uniform as the contact angle approaches π. By examining this limit we find a solution that is uniformly valid for all contact angles. Furthermore, by considering the far-field behaviour of the free surface we show that there exists a critical capillary number above which the problem at an inlet becomes over-determined. The implications of this result for the modelling of coating flows are discussed. © 2012 Cambridge University Press.

  14. Monitoring the availability of healthy and unhealthy foods and non-alcoholic beverages in community and consumer retail food environments globally.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ni Mhurchu, C; Vandevijvere, S; Waterlander, W; Thornton, L E; Kelly, B; Cameron, A J; Snowdon, W; Swinburn, B

    2013-10-01

    Retail food environments are increasingly considered influential in determining dietary behaviours and health outcomes. We reviewed the available evidence on associations between community (type, availability and accessibility of food outlets) and consumer (product availability, prices, promotions and nutritional quality within stores) food environments and dietary outcomes in order to develop an evidence-based framework for monitoring the availability of healthy and unhealthy foods and non-alcoholic beverages in retail food environments. Current evidence is suggestive of an association between community and consumer food environments and dietary outcomes; however, substantial heterogeneity in study designs, methods and measurement tools makes it difficult to draw firm conclusions. The use of standardized tools to monitor local food environments within and across countries may help to validate this relationship. We propose a step-wise framework to monitor and benchmark community and consumer retail food environments that can be used to assess density of healthy and unhealthy food outlets; measure proximity of healthy and unhealthy food outlets to homes/schools; evaluate availability of healthy and unhealthy foods in-store; compare food environments over time and between regions and countries; evaluate compliance with local policies, guidelines or voluntary codes of practice; and determine the impact of changes to retail food environments on health outcomes, such as obesity. PMID:24074215

  15. CONSUMER SELECTION OF RETAIL OUTLETS IN BUYING PECANS

    OpenAIRE

    Florkowski, Wojciech J.; You, Zhikang; Chung L. Huang

    1999-01-01

    The study identifies differences in consumer characteristics and the selection of the type of a retail outlet in pecan purchases. Within the framework of utility maximization, an empirical model is specified and estimated using multinomial logit. The estimation is based on data collected through a nationwide survey. Calculated marginal probabilities show the importance of age, household income, and household size among the important consumer characteristics that influence the selection of a r...

  16. Simulation of water flows in multiple columns with small outlets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    High-pressure die casting such as thixocasting and rheocasting is an effective process in the manufacturing automotive parts. Following the recent trend in the automotive manufacturing technologies, the product design subject to the die casting becomes more and more complex. Simultaneously the injection speed is also designed to be very high to establish a short cycle-time. Thus, the requirement of the die design becomes more demanding than ever before. In some cases the product's shape can have multiple slender manifolds. In such cases, design of the inlet and outlet parts of the die is very important in the whole manufacturing process. The main issues required for the qualified products are to attain gentle and uniform flow of the molten liquid within the passages of the die. To satisfy such issues, the inlet cylinder ('bed cylinder' in this paper) must be as large as possible and simultaneously the outlet opening at the end of each passage must be as small as possible. However these in turn obviously bring additional manufacturing costs caused by re-melting of the bed cylinder and increased power due to the small outlet-openings. The purpose of this paper is to develop effective simulation methods of calculation for fluid flows in multiple columns, which mimic the actual complex design, and to get some useful information which can give some contributions to the die-casting industry. We have used a commercial code CFX in the numerical simulation. The primary parameter involved is the size of the bed cylinder. We will show how the very small opening of the outlet can be treated with the aid of the porous model provided in the code. To check the validity of the numerical results we have also conducted a simple experiment by using water

  17. Measurement of the Consumer Benefit of Competition in Retail Outlets

    OpenAIRE

    MATSUURA Toshiyuki; SUNADA Mitsuru

    2009-01-01

    In this paper, we estimate the consumer benefits of competition in the retail industry. In our analysis, we incorporated the service quality of retail outlets as outputs. In Japan, in the process of the deregulation of entry restriction on large-scale retail stores, specialty supermarkets have increased their market share with a low price strategy. At the same time, despite their high prices, convenience stores have increased their market share through 1990s. We demonstrate changes in market ...

  18. Embryonic Origin and Remodeling of the Urinary and Digestive Outlets

    OpenAIRE

    Chen Wang; JingYing Wang; Borer, Joseph G.; Xue Li

    2013-01-01

    Separating digestive and urinary outlets is a critical step during mammalian embryogenesis. However, the natural history of these structures is poorly studied, and little is known about their embryonic origin. Here, we show that peri-cloacal mesenchymal (PCM) progenitors are the major source of these structures. Surprisingly, PCM progenitors also contribute to perineum, a structural barrier separating the urinary and digestive tracts, suggesting a potential role of PCM progenitors in establis...

  19. Obesity-Related Eating Behaviors Are Associated with Higher Food Energy Density and Higher Consumption of Sugary and Alcoholic Beverages: A Cross-Sectional Study

    OpenAIRE

    Muñoz-Pareja, Maritza; Guallar-Castillón, Pilar; Mesas, Arthur Eumann; López-García, Esther; Rodriguez Artalejo, Fernando

    2013-01-01

    Objectives Obesity-related eating behaviors (OREB) are associated with higher energy intake. Total energy intake can be decomposed into the following constituents: food portion size, food energy density, the number of eating occasions, and the energy intake from energy-rich beverages. To our knowledge this is the first study to examine the association between the OREB and these energy components. Methods Data were taken from a cross-sectional study conducted in 2008–2010 among 11,546 individu...

  20. Female outlet obstruction constipation: assessment with MR defecography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Objective: Using MR defecography to assess the morphological and functional anorectal anomalies related to female outlet obstruction constipation, and evaluate the joint disease of' anterior and mid pelvic. Methods: One hundred and seven female patients, aged 20 to 84 years (average, 55 years), were diagnosed as outlet obstruction constipation based on clinical symptoms and signs. They all received MR defecography in our institution. The high compliance homemade balloon was inserted into rectum to simulate stool. Then relevant measurements were obtained during rest, squeezing and straining, respectively. Results: In all the 107 cases, 70 (65.4%) presented rectocele on dynamic MRI; 28 (26.2%) presented anismus; 60 (56.1%) presented cystocele; 59 presented vaginal or cervical prolapse(55.1%); and, 54 (50.5%) presented descending perineum. In 85 females (79.4%) multiple disorders were detected, involving more than one pelvic compartment. Conclusion: MR defecography allowed to accurately evaluate the morphological and functional anorectal anomalies related to female outlet obstruction constipation, and the joint disease of anterior and mid pelvic. (authors)

  1. Metal halogen battery system with multiple outlet nozzle for hydrate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bjorkman, Jr., Harry K.

    1983-06-21

    A metal halogen battery system, including at least one cell having a positive electrode and a negative electrode contacted by aqueous electrolyte containing the material of said metal and halogen, store means whereby halogen hydrate is formed and stored as part of an aqueous material, means for circulating electrolyte through the cell and to the store means, and conduit means for transmitting halogen gas formed in the cell to a hydrate former whereby the hydrate is formed in association with the store means, said store means being constructed in the form of a container which includes a filter means, said filter means being inoperative to separate the hydrate formed from the electrolyte, said system having, a hydrate former pump means associated with the store means and being operative to intermix halogen gas with aqueous electrolyte to form halogen hydrate, said hydrate former means including, multiple outlet nozzle means connected with the outlet side of said pump means and being operative to minimize plugging, said nozzle means being comprised of at least one divider means which is generally perpendicular to the rotational axes of gears within the pump means, said divider means acting to divide the flow from the pump means into multiple outlet flow paths.

  2. Alcoholism (image)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... that interferes with physical or mental health, and social, family or job responsibilities. This addiction can lead to liver, circulatory and neurological problems. Pregnant women who drink alcohol in any amount ...

  3. Alcohol withdrawal

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... parts A severe form of alcohol withdrawal called delirium tremens can cause: Agitation Fever Seeing or feeling things ... watched closely for hallucinations and other signs of delirium tremens. Treatment may include: Monitoring of blood pressure, body ...

  4. Evaluación de Modelos de Predicción de Densidades Líquidas de Saturación de Aldehídos, Cetonas y Alcoholes Evaluation of Predictive Models for the Liquid Saturation Density of Aldehydes, Ketones, and Alcohols

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ángel Mulero

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Se ha diseñado un programa de ordenador que permite estudiar la validez de expresiones empíricas para predecir la densidad de líquidos saturados puros. El programa incluye una base de datos con valores aceptados de literatura a fin de comparar los calculados con los modelos. Para cada dato, el programa indica la desviación absoluta y porcentual. Para cada fluido y para cada familia de fluidos se lista el intervalo de temperaturas y se obtienen desviaciones absolutas y porcentuales, indicando a qué temperatura se produce la máxima desviación. Además se generan gráficas que permiten visualizar los datos junto a las predicciones de los modelos. Se ha estudiado la validez y exactitud de ocho expresiones analíticas, basadas en el principio de estados correspondientes, para predecir la densidad líquida de saturación de aldehídos, cetonas y cuatro familias de alcoholes.A computer program to study the validity of empirical correlations for the prediction of saturation liquid densities of pure fluids has been designed. The program includes a database with accepted values from the literature in order to compare the values calculated with the models. For each datum point the program gives the absolute and relative deviations. For each fluid and family of fluids, the temperature range is listed, the absolute and relative deviations are obtained, and the temperature at which the highest deviation is found is indicated. Besides, graphics are generated to display the data together with the model predictions. The validity and accuracy of eight analytical expressions based on the corresponding state principle to predict the saturation liquid density of aldehydes, ketones, and four alcohol families have been tested .

  5. EFFECT OF GENERIC PROMOTION OF FLOWERS ON THE USE OF RETAIL FLOWER OUTLETS

    OpenAIRE

    Rimal, Arbindra; Ward, Ronald W.

    1998-01-01

    AIDs demand models are used to test if the generic promotion of fresh-cut flowers influenced the market shares for florists, supermarkets, and other retail outlets. Were the generic efforts outlet neutral? Generic promotions of fresh-cut flowers is shown to be outlet neutral while the brand advertising increased florists' market share.

  6. GASTRIC OUTLET OBSTRUCTION CAUSED BY CYSTIC HETEROTOPIC PANCREAS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Târcoveanu

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Heterotopic (ectopic pancreas is relatively rare and is defined as abnormally situated pancreatic tissue has no contact with the normal pancreas and has its own ductal system and blood supply. It is usually an incidental finding in clinical practice. It most often occurs in the proximal gastrointestinal tract – gastric heterotopic pancreas. It may become clinically evident when complicated by pathological changes such as pancreatitis, cystic dystrophy with obstruction as especially gastric outlet obstruction. In this report a 29 – year old man with nausea, recurrent vomiting an abdominal pain is described. Gastroduodenal endoscopic examination, upper GI barium X-ray, ultrasonography revealed a submucosal tumor at the prepyloric area on the posterior wall of the stomach with gastric outlet obstruction. A degenerated gastrointestinal stromal tumor was suspected. Limitated distal antrectomy was performed and a histological diagnosis of gastric heterotopic pancreas was confirmed. The patient had an uneventful postoperative course and was discharged 5 days after operation and remains healthy and symptom-free in the follow-up of 6 months. This is a report of a case of gastric outlet obstruction resulting for pancreatic heterotopia in the gastric antrum with cystic dystrophy after acute pancreatitis in an adult man. The incidence of symptomatic heterotopic pancreas is low and preoperative diagnosis is difficult. Although endoscopy ultrasound is helpful for diagnosis, it is difficult to distinguish from stromal tumor. Frozen section should be taken so as to distinguish heterotopic pancreas from malignant tumors. Surgical excision by minimally invasive approach provides symptomatic relief and is recommended.

  7. PPOOLEX experiments with a modified blowdown pipe outlet

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report summarizes the results of the experiments with a modified blowdown pipe outlet carried out with the PPOOLEX test facility designed and constructed at Lappeenranta University of Technology. Steam was blown into the dry well compartment and from there through a vertical DN200 blowdown pipe to the condensation pool. Four reference experiments with a straight pipe and ten with the Forsmark type collar were carried out. The main purpose of the experiment series was to study the effect of a blowdown pipe outlet collar design on loads caused by chugging phenomena (rapid condensation) while steam is discharged into the condensation pool. The PPOOLEX test facility is a closed stainless steel vessel divided into two compartments, dry well and wet well. During the experiments the initial temperature level of the condensation pool water was either 20-25 or 50-55 deg. C. The steam flow rate varied from 400 to 1200 g/s and the temperature of incoming steam from 142 to 185 deg. C. In the experiments with 20-25 deg. C pool water, even 10 times higher pressure pulses were measured inside the blowdown pipe in the case of the straight pipe than with the collar. In this respect, the collar design worked as planned and removed the high pressure spikes from the blowdown pipe. Meanwhile, there seemed to be no suppressing effect on the loads due to the collar in the pool side in this temperature range. Registered loads in the pool were approximately in the same range (or even a little higher) with the collar as with the straight pipe. In the experiments with 50-55 deg. C pool water no high pressure pulses were measured inside the blowdown pipe either with the straight pipe or with the collar. In this case, more of the suppressing effect is probably due to the warmer pool water than due to the modified pipe outlet. It has been observed already in the earlier experiments with a straight pipe in the POOLEX and PPOOLEX facilities that warm pool water has a diminishing effect on

  8. PPOOLEX experiments with a modified blowdown pipe outlet

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Laine, J.; Puustinen, M.; Raesaenen, A. (Lappeenranta Univ. of Technology, Nuclear Safety Research Unit (Finland))

    2009-08-15

    This report summarizes the results of the experiments with a modified blowdown pipe outlet carried out with the PPOOLEX test facility designed and constructed at Lappeenranta University of Technology. Steam was blown into the dry well compartment and from there through a vertical DN200 blowdown pipe to the condensation pool. Four reference experiments with a straight pipe and ten with the Forsmark type collar were carried out. The main purpose of the experiment series was to study the effect of a blowdown pipe outlet collar design on loads caused by chugging phenomena (rapid condensation) while steam is discharged into the condensation pool. The PPOOLEX test facility is a closed stainless steel vessel divided into two compartments, dry well and wet well. During the experiments the initial temperature level of the condensation pool water was either 20-25 or 50-55 deg. C. The steam flow rate varied from 400 to 1200 g/s and the temperature of incoming steam from 142 to 185 deg. C. In the experiments with 20-25 deg. C pool water, even 10 times higher pressure pulses were measured inside the blowdown pipe in the case of the straight pipe than with the collar. In this respect, the collar design worked as planned and removed the high pressure spikes from the blowdown pipe. Meanwhile, there seemed to be no suppressing effect on the loads due to the collar in the pool side in this temperature range. Registered loads in the pool were approximately in the same range (or even a little higher) with the collar as with the straight pipe. In the experiments with 50-55 deg. C pool water no high pressure pulses were measured inside the blowdown pipe either with the straight pipe or with the collar. In this case, more of the suppressing effect is probably due to the warmer pool water than due to the modified pipe outlet. It has been observed already in the earlier experiments with a straight pipe in the POOLEX and PPOOLEX facilities that warm pool water has a diminishing effect on

  9. Congenital pseudarthrosis of the clavicle causing thoracic outlet syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watson, Hannah Isabella; Hopper, Graeme Philip; Kovacs, Peter

    2013-01-01

    A 7-year-old girl presented with an asymptomatic right supraclavicular swelling. Radiographs were interpreted as showing a non-union of her clavicle. No treatment was given at this time. However, she represented 12 years later with right upper limb pain and altered sensation. Examination revealed a positive Allen's test on the right. Repeat radiographs demonstrated a pseudarthrosis of the clavicle, associated with a secondary complication of thoracic outlet syndrome with vascular and neurological complications present. Non-operative management failed to relieve her symptoms. Operative intervention successfully treated her symptoms. PMID:23975919

  10. Primary Eosinophilic Gastritis in a Child with Gastric Outlet Obstruction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katiyar, Richa; Patne, Shashikant C U; Dixit, Vinod Kumar; Sharma, Shiv Prasad

    2016-06-01

    A 3-year-old girl presented with multiple episodes of vomiting, fever, and hematemesis for the past 2 months. Except for hemoglobin, her rests of the laboratory tests were unremarkable. Her barium X-ray showed absence of the duodenal bulb and the C-loop. Her endoscopy showed deformed stomach with multiple ulcers and diverticuli. The gastric outlet was not visualized. Distal gastrectomy with gastro-duodenal anastomosis was performed. Histopathological findings revealed transmural dense infiltrates of eosinophils, consistent with eosinophilic gastritis. PMID:26768007

  11. Early Adolescent, Multi-ethnic, Urban Youth’s Exposure To Patterns Of Alcohol-related Neighborhood Characteristics

    OpenAIRE

    Tobler, Amy L; Komro, Kelli A.; Maldonado-Molina, Mildred M.

    2009-01-01

    This study identified heterogeneous classes of alcohol-related neighborhood characteristics to which multi-ethnic, early adolescents in urban communities are exposed. The sample comprised 4,215 youth from 42 community areas in Chicago, Illinois who completed surveys at the beginning of 6th grade (2002). Neighborhood measures included: (1) mean number of alcohol outlets per 1,000 population per community area; (2) alcohol purchase attempt rate by pseudo-underage youth; (3) average number of al...

  12. Exploring Spatial Associations between On-Sale Alcohol Availability, Neighborhood Population Characteristics, and Violent Crime in a Geographically Isolated City

    OpenAIRE

    Daikwon Han; Gorman, Dennis M.

    2013-01-01

    Objectives. Despite the increasing evidence of the associations between alcohol availability and violence, there are still inconsistent findings on the effects of on- and off-sale alcohol outlets on violent crime. The aim of this study was to examine spatial associations between on-sale alcohol availability, neighborhood characteristics, and violent crime in a geographically isolated city in Texas. Methods. Geographically weighted regression (GWR) and global regression models were employed to...

  13. Alcohol and Hepatitis C

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... code here Enter ZIP code here Daily Living: Alcohol for Veterans and the Public Alcohol and Hepatitis: Entire Lesson Overview Alcohol is one ... related to choices you make about your lifestyle . Alcohol and fibrosis Fibrosis is the medical term for ...

  14. Alcohol use disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alcohol dependence; Alcohol abuse; Problem drinking; Drinking problem; Alcohol addiction ... No one knows what causes problems with alcohol. Health experts think that ... Psychology, such as being impulsive or having low self- ...

  15. Alcohol and pregnancy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drinking alcohol during pregnancy ... When a pregnant woman drinks alcohol, the alcohol travels through her blood and into the baby's blood, tissues, and organs. Alcohol breaks down much more slowly in ...

  16. Fetal Alcohol Syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Condiciones Chinese Conditions Fetal Alcohol Syndrome Read in Chinese What is Fetal Alcohol Syndrome (FAS)? Fetal Alcohol Syndrome (FAS) describes changes in a baby born to a mother whose pregnancy was complicated by alcohol consumption. A broader term ...

  17. Technologies for Upgrading Light Water Reactor Outlet Temperature

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Daniel S. Wendt; Piyush Sabharwall; Vivek Utgikar

    2013-07-01

    Nuclear energy could potentially be utilized in hybrid energy systems to produce synthetic fuels and feedstocks from indigenous carbon sources such as coal and biomass. First generation nuclear hybrid energy system (NHES) technology will most likely be based on conventional light water reactors (LWRs). However, these LWRs provide thermal energy at temperatures of approximately 300°C, while the desired temperatures for many chemical processes are much higher. In order to realize the benefits of nuclear hybrid energy systems with the current LWR reactor fleets, selection and development of a complimentary temperature upgrading technology is necessary. This paper provides an initial assessment of technologies that may be well suited toward LWR outlet temperature upgrading for powering elevated temperature industrial and chemical processes during periods of off-peak power demand. Chemical heat transformers (CHTs) are a technology with the potential to meet LWR temperature upgrading requirements for NHESs. CHTs utilize chemical heat of reaction to change the temperature at which selected heat sources supply or consume thermal energy. CHTs could directly utilize LWR heat output without intermediate mechanical or electrical power conversion operations and the associated thermodynamic losses. CHT thermal characteristics are determined by selection of the chemical working pair and operating conditions. This paper discusses the chemical working pairs applicable to LWR outlet temperature upgrading and the CHT operating conditions required for providing process heat in NHES applications.

  18. Antral hyperplastic polyp causing intermittent gastric outlet obstruction: Case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kurtkaya-Yapicier Ozlem

    2003-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Hyperplastic polyps are the most common polypoid lesions of the stomach. Rarely, they cause gastric outlet obstruction by prolapsing through the pyloric channel, when they arise in the prepyloric antrum. Case presentation A 62-year-old woman presented with intermittent nausea and vomiting of 4 months duration. Upper gastrointestinal endoscopy revealed a 30 mm prepyloric sessile polyp causing intermittent gastric outlet obstruction. Following submucosal injection of diluted adrenaline solution, the polyp was removed with a snare. Multiple biopsies were taken from the greater curvature of the antrum and the corpus. Rapid urease test for Helicobacter pylori yielded a negative result. Histopathologic examination showed a hyperplastic polyp without any evidence of malignancy. Biopsies of the antrum and the corpus revealed gastritis with neither atrophic changes nor Helicobacter pylori infection. Follow-up endoscopy after a 12-week course of proton pomp inhibitor therapy showed a complete healing without any remnant tissue at the polypectomy site. The patient has been symptom-free during 8 months of follow-up. Conclusions Symptomatic gastric polyps should be removed preferentially when they are detected at the initial diagnostic endoscopy. Polypectomy not only provides tissue to determine the exact histopathologic type of the polyp, but also achieves radical treatment.

  19. [TOS (thoracic outlet syndrome)--a challenge to conservative treatment].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindgren, K A

    1997-10-01

    Functional impairment and pain in the upper extremities may indicate a functional deficit in the thoracic outlet. Static work posture, trauma and whiplash injury may be predisposing factors. The younger generation who often spend long hours in front of a computer are in danger of becoming a future risk group. The primary care physician should be familiar with the syndrome which can be identified by careful clinical examination. Timely intervention can prevent much of the disabling symptomatology. Treatment is primarily conservative and should be aimed at the restoration of functional capacity. As in other disorders, the individual constellation of symptoms is dependent on circumstantial factors, an aspect meriting particular attention in treatment and follow-up. Optimisation of ergonomic conditions is important feature of treatment, and long-term follow-up is necessary. Transient exacerbation is not an indication for surgical treatment. If cervical and thoracic outlet function has normalised but the patient still has symptoms, then the differential diagnosis should be reconsidered. Examination and treatment of patients with pain in the upper extremities requires the collaboration of the physician and physical and occupational therapists. Treatment can be delivered in the primary care setting. PMID:9411397

  20. Integrating Tobacco Control and Obesity Prevention Initiatives at Retail Outlets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ribisl, Kurt M; D'Angelo, Heather; Evenson, Kelly R; Fleischhacker, Sheila; Myers, Allison E; Rose, Shyanika W

    2016-01-01

    Tobacco products are sold in approximately 375,000 US retail outlets, including convenience stores and pharmacies, which often sell energy-dense, low-nutrient foods and beverages. The Food and Drug Administration's (FDA's) increased authority over tobacco product sales and marketing, combined with declining smoking rates, provides an opportunity to transition tobacco retailers toward healthier retail environments. Unfortunately, research into improving consumer retail environments is often conducted in isolation by researchers working in tobacco control, nutrition, and physical activity. Interdisciplinary efforts are needed to transform tobacco retailers from stores that are dependent on a declining product category, to the sale and promotion of healthful foods and creating environments conducive to active living. The objective of this article is to describe the potential for interdisciplinary efforts to transition retailers away from selling and promoting tobacco products and toward creating retail environments that promote healthful eating and active living. PMID:26963859

  1. Outlet plug for recirculation loop of nuclear reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A stopper apparatus for use in blocking the unvalved nozzle of a cooling fluid filled nuclear reactor pressure vessel includes a plug, typically in the shape of a frustoconical member having inflatable gaskets for sealing against a seat of generally unknown surface characteristics and means for positioning and urging the plug into position to seal the nozzle. The plug is typically positioned by suspension cables whereby the apparatus can be temporarily inserted and removed from the pressure vessel. The urging means is generally a two-way hydraulically driven jack controlled by remotely-actuated hydraulic lines. The apparatus is a tool which permits temporary sealing of a submerged outlet in a reactor vessel to permit maintenance on a fluid recirculation loop

  2. Rare causes of gastric outlet obstruction in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Jiexiong; Gu, Weizhong; Li, Minju; Yuan, Jiyan; Weng, Yizhen; Wei, Minfa; Zhou, Xuefeng

    2005-08-01

    Gastric outlet obstruction (GOO) presenting beyond the newborn period is a relatively rare condition, when infantile hypertrophic pyloric stenosis (IHPS) is excluded. This report describes the clinical features, evaluation and management of 18 patients with GOO which was not caused by IHPS. The sex, age, and main presenting features were recorded on admission. Hemoglobin estimation, serum chemistry and blood gas analysis were also assessed in these patients. The diagnosis was confirmed with gastrointestinal barium, B ultrasound, gastroscopy, or at surgery. Some of them underwent gastroscopy with biopsy sampling for rapid urease test or histologic examination with Giemsa stains for Helicobacter pylori. Thirteen patients had peptic ulcer disease, of which six were successfully treated with medications. While the other seven needed operative management which included Heineke-Mikulicz pyloroplasty, gastroduodenostomy or gastrojejunostomy, respectively. All the patients who had Heineke-Mikulicz pyloroplasty or gastrojejunostomy developed bile reflux gastritis that could be alleviated with omeprazol. None of the patients developed dumping syndrome, failing to thrive, or anemia. Three children with antral diaphragm recovered without any complications by diaphragm excision with Heineke-Mikulicz pyloroplasty. The pylorus was compressed by fibrotic band in one 30-month boy, and he recovered uneventfully with Heineke-Mikulicz pyloroplasty during 10-year follow-up. Gastric outlet obstruction secondary to ingestion of sulfuric acid was noted in one patient, and he was successfully treated with gastroduodenostomy. Our data suggests that the satisfactory results could be expected in children with GOO with different therapeutic modalities based on the specific cause and degree of obstruction. PMID:16041609

  3. Bacteriological Analysis and Hygine Level of Food Outlets within Rufus Giwa Polytechnic, Owo, Ondo State, Nigeria.

    OpenAIRE

    Ibrahim TA; Akenroye OM; Osabiya OJ

    2013-01-01

    The bacteriological quality of three major food outlets in Rufus Giwa Polytechnic, Owo, was assessed using standard bacteriological methods. Swabs of hands of food vendors, table and plates in these outlets were assessed for total bacterial count, total coliform count and total E. coli count. A total of 789 bacterial colonies were isolated from hands of food handlers, tables and plates used for eating in the outlets. Eleven genera of bacteria were isolated and identified, they were; klebsiell...

  4. Spatial patterning of supermarkets and fast food outlets with respect to neighborhood characteristics

    OpenAIRE

    Lamichhane, Archana P.; Warren, Joshua; Puett, Robin; Porter, Dwayne E.; Bottai, Matteo; Mayer-Davis, Elizabeth J.; Liese, Angela D.

    2013-01-01

    A large body of literature has reported differences in exposure to environments supporting either healthy (e.g. supermarkets) or unhealthy (e.g. fast food outlets) dietary choices by neighborhood characteristics. We explored the associations of both supermarkets and fast food outlets availability with neighborhood characteristics, and clustering of these two outlet types in a largely rural state. Compared to block groups without a supermarket, those with a supermarket had a significantly high...

  5. Availability of healthier options in traditional and nontraditional rural fast-food outlets

    OpenAIRE

    McIntosh Alex; Sharkey Joseph R; Creel Jennifer S; Anding Jenna; Huber J

    2008-01-01

    Abstract Background Food prepared away from home has become increasingly popular to U.S. families, and may contribute to obesity. Sales have been dominated by fast food outlets, where meals are purchased for dining away from home or in the home. Although national chain affiliated fast-food outlets are considered the main source for fast food, fast foods are increasingly available in convenience stores and supermarkets/grocery stores. In rural areas, these nontraditional fast-food outlets may ...

  6. Pengaruh Store Atmosphere Terhadap Keputusan Pembelian Pada Outlet Tivona International Fragrance Cabang Pasar Merah Medan

    OpenAIRE

    Harahap, Suci Annisaa Fitrieyanti

    2015-01-01

    This research is motivated by the sale of perfumes at Tivona International Fragrance outlet still fluctuated despite of repairing efforts store atmospheres at these outlets has made. This study aims to determine the effect instore and outstore atmosphere partially and store atmosphere on purchasing decisions in Tivona International Fragrance outlet. Store Atmosphere is the design environment through visual communication, lighting, colors, music and fragrances to design an emotional respons...

  7. Effects of outlets on cracking risk and integral stability of super-high arch dams.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Peng; Liu, Hongyuan; Li, Qingbin; Hu, Hang

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, case study on outlet cracking is first conducted for the Goupitan and Xiaowan arch dams. A nonlinear FEM method is then implemented to study effects of the outlets on integral stability of the Xiluodu arch dam under two loading conditions, i.e., normal loading and overloading conditions. On the basis of the case study and the numerical modelling, the outlet cracking mechanism, risk, and corresponding reinforcement measures are discussed. Furthermore, the numerical simulation reveals that (1) under the normal loading conditions, the optimal distribution of the outlets will contribute to the tensile stress release in the local zone of the dam stream surface and decrease the outlet cracking risk during the operation period. (2) Under the overloading conditions, the cracks initiate around the outlets, then propagate along the horizontal direction, and finally coalesce with those in adjacent outlets, where the yield zone of the dam has a shape of butterfly. Throughout this study, a dam outlet cracking risk control and reinforcement principle is proposed to optimize the outlet design, select the appropriate concrete material, strengthen the temperature control during construction period, design reasonable impounding scheme, and repair the cracks according to their classification. PMID:25152907

  8. Parametric study of containment emergency-sump performance: results of vertical-outlet sump tests

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report presents the results of a test program designed to characterize the hydraulic performance of sumps with vertical outlets. The tests were performed for a wide range of geometric and flow variables typical of ECCS sumps. The work on vertical outlet sumps presented here supplements a broader test program characterizing sumps with horizontal outlets. In addition to a parametric evaluation of the operating characteristics of vertical outlet sumps under normal approach flow conditions, the effects of perturbations to the approach flow have been considered. The effectiveness of two vortex suppression devices was demonstrated

  9. Supraclavicular scalenectomy for thoracic outlet syndrome--functional outcomes assessed using the DASH scoring system.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Glynn, Ronan W

    2012-02-01

    To evaluate supraclavicular scalenectomy ± cervical rib excision for thoracic outlet syndrome (TOS), employing Disability of Arm, Shoulder, and Hand (DASH) scoring for functional assessment post-decompression.

  10. Alcohol Consumption and Alcohol Advertising Bans

    OpenAIRE

    Henry Saffer

    2000-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to empirically examine the relationship between alcohol advertising bans and alcohol consumption. Most prior studies have found no effect of advertising on total alcohol consumption. A simple economic model is provided which explains these prior results. The data set used in this study is a pooled time series of data from 20 countries over 26 years. The empirical model is a simultaneous equations system which treats both alcohol consumption and alcohol advertising...

  11. Pathways of warm water to the Northeast Greenland outlet glaciers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schaffer, Janin; Timmermann, Ralph; Kanzow, Torsten; Arndt, Jan Erik; Mayer, Christoph; Schauer, Ursula

    2015-04-01

    The ocean plays an important role in modulating the mass balance of the Greenland Ice Sheet by delivering heat to the marine-terminating outlet glaciers surrounding the Greenland coast. The warming and accumulation of Atlantic Water in the subpolar North Atlantic has been suggested to be a potential driver of the glaciers' retreat over the last decades. The shelf regions thus play a critical role for the transport of Atlantic Water towards the glaciers, but also for the transfer of freshwater towards the deep ocean. A key region for the mass balance of the Greenland Ice Sheet is the Northeast Greenland Ice Stream. This large ice stream drains the second-largest basin of the Greenland Ice Sheet and feeds three outlet glaciers. The largest one is Nioghalvfjerdsfjorden (79°N-Glacier) featuring an 80 km long floating ice tongue. Both the ocean circulation on the continental shelf off Northeast Greenland and the circulation in the cavity below the ice tongue are weakly constrained so far. In order to study the relevant processes of glacier-ocean interaction we combine observations and model work. Here we focus on historic and recent hydrographic observations and on the complex bathymetry in the Northeast Greenland shelf region, which is thought to steer the flux of warm Atlantic water onto the continental shelf and into the sub-ice cavity beneath the 79°N-Glacier. We present a new global topography data set, RTopo-2, which includes the most recent surveys on the Northeast Greenland continental shelf and provides a detailed bathymetry for all around Greenland. In addition, RTopo-2 contains ice and bedrock surface topographies for Greenland and Antarctica. Based on the updated ocean bathymetry and a variety of hydrographic observations we show the water mass distribution on the continental shelf off Northeast Greenland. These maps enable us to discuss possible supply pathways of warm modified Atlantic waters on the continental shelf and thus potential ways of heat

  12. 24 CFR 3280.813 - Outdoor outlets, fixtures, air-conditioning equipment, etc.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 5 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Outdoor outlets, fixtures, air-conditioning equipment, etc. 3280.813 Section 3280.813 Housing and Urban Development Regulations Relating to... Electrical Systems § 3280.813 Outdoor outlets, fixtures, air-conditioning equipment, etc. (a)...

  13. Contamination of faecal coliforms in ice cubes sampled from food outlets in Kubang Kerian, Kelantan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noor Izani, N J; Zulaikha, A R; Mohamad Noor, M R; Amri, M A; Mahat, N A

    2012-03-01

    The use of ice cubes in beverages is common among patrons of food outlets in Malaysia although its safety for human consumption remains unclear. Hence, this study was designed to determine the presence of faecal coliforms and several useful water physicochemical parameters viz. free residual chlorine concentration, turbidity and pH in ice cubes from 30 randomly selected food outlets in Kubang Kerian, Kelantan. Faecal coliforms were found in ice cubes in 16 (53%) food outlets ranging between 1 CFU/100mL to >50 CFU/ 100mL, while in the remaining 14 (47%) food outlets, in samples of tap water as well as in commercially bottled drinking water, faecal coliforms were not detected. The highest faecal coliform counts of >50 CFU/100mL were observed in 3 (10%) food outlets followed by 11-50 CFU/100mL and 1-10 CFU/100mL in 7 (23%) and 6 (20%) food outlets, respectively. All samples recorded low free residual chlorine concentration (food outlets or (2) they may not be the water sources used for making ice cubes. Since low free residual chlorine concentrations were observed (food outlets, including that of ice cube is crucial in ensuring better food and water for human consumption. PMID:22543605

  14. Validation of presence of supermarkets and fast-food outlets in Copenhagen

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Svastisalee, Chalida M; Holstein, Bjørn E; Due, Pernille

    2012-01-01

    We examined the quality of food outlet addresses provided by secondary sources and determined whether they could be physically located in the field.......We examined the quality of food outlet addresses provided by secondary sources and determined whether they could be physically located in the field....

  15. 12 CFR 7.1014 - Sale of money orders at nonbanking outlets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Sale of money orders at nonbanking outlets. 7.1014 Section 7.1014 Banks and Banking COMPTROLLER OF THE CURRENCY, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY BANK ACTIVITIES AND OPERATIONS Bank Powers § 7.1014 Sale of money orders at nonbanking outlets. A national...

  16. Resolving wall loss in Candu outlet feeder pipes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The primary circuit carbon steel feeder piping of CANDU reactors with Cr content in the range 0.02-0.04 wt% has been found to show wall thinning at the exit of the fuel channels as a result of a flow accelerated corrosion mechanism. The observed wall thinning correlates well with the coolant velocity in the fuel channels and is dependent on the pHa of the coolant. The pHa is the room temperature pH reading of a heavy water sample measured using a glass electrode calibrated using light water standards. Based on the results of recent low velocity corrosion tests, operation at the low end of the original pHa specification will allow the feeder pipes in existing CANDU reactors to achieve their design life. For reactors under construction and for future CANDU reactors, the feeder pipe material is now specified to have a minimum Cr content of 0.20 wt%, and available information indicates that the presence of Cr at these concentrations will eliminate concerns regarding flow accelerated corrosion of CANDU outlet feeder piping. (authors)

  17. [Neurological Signs and Symptoms of True Neurogenic Thoracic Outlet Syndrome].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Higashihara, Mana; Konoeda, Fumie; Sonoo, Masahiro

    2016-05-01

    Thoracic outlet syndrome (TOS) is a well-known disorder, but many aspects of its pathology, including its definition, has been disputed. True neurogenic TOS (TN-TOS) is a rare but well-defined clinical condition. TN-TOS results from the compression of the C8/T1 roots (dominant for the T1 root) or the proximal lower trunk of the brachial plexus by a fibrous band. The band extends from the first rib to either the tip of an elongated C7 transverse process or a rudimentary cervical rib. The most common presenting symptoms of TN-TOS are insidious-onset atrophy and weakness of the intrinsic hand muscles, predominantly in the thenar eminence and radial digit flexors. Nerve conduction studies demonstrate pathognomonic findings: severely attenuated compound muscle action potential of the abductor pollicis brevis muscle, and usually, loss of the sensory nerve action potential of the medial antebrachial cutaneous nerve. Numbness and sensory loss are typically observed, mainly in the medial forearm, although they are usually mild, and may be absent in some patients. Severe pain or paresthesia proximal to the elbow is not observed. The classical concept of TOS underlie nonspecific neurogenic TOS. It has been primarily diagnosed using provocative maneuvers. However, there is controversy regarding its pathological conceptualization and existence, as objective evidence of the disease is still lacking. PMID:27156505

  18. Alcohol Use Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this Section Genetics of Alcohol Use Disorder Alcohol Use Disorder Problem drinking that becomes severe is given the medical diagnosis of “alcohol use disorder” or AUD. Approximately 7.2 percent or ...

  19. Breath alcohol test

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alcohol test - breath ... There are various brands of breath alcohol tests. Each one uses a different method to test the level of alcohol in the breath. The machine may be electronic or manual. One ...

  20. Alcoholic liver disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liver disease due to alcohol; Cirrhosis or hepatitis - alcoholic; Laennec's cirrhosis ... Alcoholic liver disease occurs after years of heavy drinking. Over time, scarring and cirrhosis can occur. Cirrhosis is the ...

  1. Fetal alcohol syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alcohol in pregnancy; Alcohol-related birth defects; Fetal alcohol effects; FAS ... the baby is in the womb and after birth Decreased muscle tone and ... Heart defects such as ventricular septal defect (VSD) or atrial ...

  2. Genetics and alcoholism

    OpenAIRE

    Edenberg, Howard J.; Foroud, Tatiana

    2013-01-01

    Alcohol is widely consumed, but excessive use creates serious physical, psychological and social problems and contributes to many diseases. Alcoholism (alcohol dependence, alcohol use disorders) is a maladaptive pattern of excessive drinking leading to serious problems. Abundant evidence indicates that alcoholism is a complex genetic disease, with variations in a large number of genes affecting risk. Some of these genes have been identified, including two genes of alcohol me...

  3. ALCOHOL AND ARTERIAL HYPERTENSION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. D. Ostroumova

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The article considers the questions of the relationship between the amount of the consumed alcohol, the type of alcoholic beverage, pattern of alcohol consumption and the blood pressure level. The article presents data on the positive effect of alcohol intake restrictions and recommendations for permissible limits of alcohol consumption. New possibilities of drug therapy aimed at limiting alcohol consumption are being reported.

  4. Alcoholism and alcohol drinking habits predicted from alcohol dehydrogenase genes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tolstrup, Janne Schurmann; Nordestgaard, Børge Grønne; Rasmussen, Søren;

    2008-01-01

    Alcohol drinking habits and alcoholism are partly genetically determined. Alcohol is degraded primarily by alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH) wherein genetic variation that affects the rate of alcohol degradation is found in ADH1B and ADH1C. It is biologically plausible that these variations may...... be associated with alcohol drinking habits and alcoholism. By genotyping 9080 white men and women from the general population, we found that men and women with ADH1B slow vs fast alcohol degradation drank more alcohol and had a higher risk of everyday drinking, heavy drinking, excessive drinking...... and of alcoholism. For example, the weekly alcohol intake was 9.8 drinks (95% confidence interval (CI): 9.1-11) among men with the ADH1B.1/1 genotype compared to 7.5 drinks (95% CI: 6.4-8.7) among men with the ADH1B.1/2 genotype, and the odds ratio (OR) for heavy drinking was 3.1 (95% CI: 1.7-5.7) among men...

  5. Local and global alcohol supply: economic and geographic models of community systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gruenewald, P J; Treno, A J

    2000-12-01

    This paper discusses how economic and geographic distributions of local supply affect patterns of alcohol problems in state and community settings. It is argued that characteristics of local supply directly affect the economic and social behaviors of consumers when purchasing and using alcohol. For example, although taxes may be raised in order to lower alcohol use, the manner in which tax increases are translated into price increases, and the way consumers respond to price increases through alterations in purchase patterns, may strongly mitigate price effects. Similarly, although overall alcohol availability may be reduced in order to lower alcohol use, the tendency for greater numbers of outlets to be focused in low-income areas and the manner in which consumers bundle alcohol purchases with other routine activities (e.g. shopping) may also strongly mitigate such effects. PMID:11218350

  6. National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... begins January 23 Event registration opens today; new teacher resources... New & Noteworthy August 22, 2016 Fact Sheet: ... Events Sep 15 National Advisory Council on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism Nov 11 Frontiers in Addiction Research ...

  7. Health risks of alcohol use

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alcoholism - risks; Alcohol abuse - risks; Alcohol dependence - risks; Risky drinking ... Beer, wine, and liquor all contain alcohol. If you are drinking any of these, you are using alcohol. Your drinking patterns may vary, depending on who you are with ...

  8. Health risks of alcohol use

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alcoholism - risks; Alcohol abuse - risks; Alcohol dependence - risks; Risky drinking - risks ... Beer, wine, and liquor all contain alcohol. If you are drinking any of these, you are using alcohol. Your drinking patterns may vary, depending on who you are with ...

  9. Alcoholism and alcohol drinking habits predicted from alcohol dehydrogenase genes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tolstrup, J.S.; Nordestgaard, Børge; Rasmussen, S.;

    2008-01-01

    Alcohol is degraded primarily by alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH) wherein genetic variation that affects the rate of alcohol degradation is found in ADH1B and ADH1C. It is biologically plausible that these variations may be associated with alcohol drinking habits and alcoholism. By genotyping 9080 white...... men and women from the general population, we found that men and women with ADH1B slow vs fast alcohol degradation drank more alcohol and had a higher risk of everyday drinking, heavy drinking, excessive drinking and of alcoholism. For example, the weekly alcohol intake was 9.8 drinks (95% confidence......, individuals with ADH1C slow vs fast alcohol degradation had a higher risk of heavy and excessive drinking. For example, the OR for heavy drinking was 1.4 (95% CI: 1.1-1.8) among men with the ADH1C.1/2 genotype and 1.4 (95% CI: 1.0-1.9) among men with the ADH1B.2/2 genotype, compared with men with the ADH1C.1...

  10. Availability of healthier options in traditional and nontraditional rural fast-food outlets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    McIntosh Alex

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Food prepared away from home has become increasingly popular to U.S. families, and may contribute to obesity. Sales have been dominated by fast food outlets, where meals are purchased for dining away from home or in the home. Although national chain affiliated fast-food outlets are considered the main source for fast food, fast foods are increasingly available in convenience stores and supermarkets/grocery stores. In rural areas, these nontraditional fast-food outlets may provide most of the opportunities for procurement of fast foods. Methods Using all traditional and nontraditio nal fast-food outlets identified in six counties in rural Texas, the type and number of regular and healthiermenu options were surveyed using on-site observation in all food venues that were primarily fast food, supermarket/grocery store, and convenience store and compared with 2005 Dietary Guidelines. Results Traditional fast-food outlets represented 84 (41% of the 205 opportunities for procurement of fast food; 109 (53.2% were convenience stores and 12 (5.8% supermarkets/grocery stores. Although a s imilar variety of regular breakfast and lunch/dinner entrées were available in traditional fast-food outlets and convenience stores, the variety of healthier breakfast and lunch/dinner entrées was significantly greater in fast food outlets. Compared with convenience stores, supermarkets/grocery stores provided a greater variety of regular and healthier entrées and lunch/dinner side dishes. Conclusion Convenience stores and supermarkets/grocery stores more than double the potential access to fast foods in this rural area than traditional fast-food outlets alone; however, traditional fast food outlets offer greater opportunity for healthier fast food options than convenience stores. A complete picture of fast food environment and the availability of healthier fast food options are essential to understand environmental influences on diet and health

  11. Turning to alcohol?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brazil is examining whether turning to alcohol could solve its problems. The fuel alcohol producers are lobbying hard for the government to increase the use of alcohol to fuel the country's cars. Not only does using alcohol reduce CO2, runs the argument, but the Kyoto agreement might just attract international financing for the project. (author)

  12. Hydraulic nonuniformities on outlet from axisymmetric header systems of NPP heat exchangers and reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The results of experimental study of header system (HS) flow path hydrodynamics on plane and cylindric models are presented. The unknown earlier regularity of hydraulic nonuniformities formation on reactor installation HS outlet is found out: the position of maximum coolant rate on grid outlet coincides with maximum rate in core of jet falling on it, and maximum average coolant rate in grid holes is proportional to average coolant rate in falling jet. The semiempirical correlations for determination of coolant mass flow on HS outlet are obtained

  13. The main social media outlets used in business to business marketing : Case Study: Viexpo

    OpenAIRE

    Liuski, Emma

    2013-01-01

    This study was made in collaboration with a company called Viexpo, which operates in the field of internationalization. Also the author was employed at the firm. The aim of this thesis was to find out how B2B companies are utilizing social media marketing through the main social media outlets, such as Facebook and LinkedIn and how they are engaging their audience in these social media outlets. The results will help Viexpo perceive how these different social media outlets can be utilized in ma...

  14. The “School Foodshed”: schools and fast-food outlets in a London borough

    OpenAIRE

    Caraher, M.; S. Lloyd; Madelin, T.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to explore the location of fast-food outlets around secondary schools and the influence of fast-food availability on the food choices of school children in an inner-London borough. Design/methodology/approach – A number of methods including: mapping of outlets relative to schools; sampling food; gathering data on secondary school food policies; observing food behaviour in fast food outlets and focus groups with young people. Findings were fed back t...

  15. Regularities of hydraulic nonuniformities formation on reactor installation header system outlet

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The results of experimental study of header system (HS) flow path hydrodynamics on plane and cylindric models are presented. The unknown earlier regularity of hydraulic nonuniformities formation on reactor installation HS outlet is found out: the position of maximum coolant rate on grid outlet coincide with maximum rate in core of jet falling on it, and maximum average coolant rate in grid holes is proportional to average coolant rate in falling jet. The semiempirical correlations for determination of coolant mass flow on HS outlet are obtained

  16. An Intelligent Power Outlet System for the Smart Home of the Internet of Things

    OpenAIRE

    Tiago M. Fernández-Caramés

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents an intelligent power outlet system that can be controlled wirelessly and that has been specifically designed to monitor electrical events in low-current loads. Each power outlet of the system embeds a microcontroller, a 2.4 GHz ZigBee interface, RFID (Radio Frequency Identification) reader, a relay, and a current sensor. The main features of the system include the remote control of the power outlet, real-time monitoring of the current consumption, the customization and pro...

  17. Internet Alcohol Marketing and Underage Alcohol Use

    Science.gov (United States)

    McClure, Auden C.; Tanski, Susanne E.; Li, Zhigang; Jackson, Kristina; Morgenstern, Matthis; Li, Zhongze; Sargent, James D.

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE Internet alcohol marketing is not well studied despite its prevalence and potential accessibility and attractiveness to youth. The objective was to examine longitudinal associations between self-reported engagement with Internet alcohol marketing and alcohol use transitions in youth. METHODS A US sample of 2012 youths aged 15 to 20 was surveyed in 2011. An Internet alcohol marketing receptivity score was developed, based on number of positive responses to seeing alcohol advertising on the Internet, visiting alcohol brand Web sites, being an online alcohol brand fan, and cued recall of alcohol brand home page images. We assessed the association between baseline marketing receptivity and both ever drinking and binge drinking (≥6 drinks per occasion) at 1-year follow-up with multiple logistic regression, controlling for baseline drinking status, Internet use, sociodemographics, personality characteristics, and peer or parent drinking. RESULTS At baseline, ever-drinking and binge-drinking prevalence was 55% and 27%, respectively. Many (59%) reported seeing Internet alcohol advertising, but few reported going to an alcohol Web site (6%) or being an online fan (3%). Higher Internet use, sensation seeking, having family or peers who drank, and past alcohol use were associated with Internet alcohol marketing receptivity, and a score of 1 or 2 was independently associated with greater adjusted odds of initiating binge drinking (odds ratio 1.77; 95% confidence interval, 1.13–2.78 and odds ratio 2.15; 95% confidence interval, 1.06–4.37 respectively) but not with initiation of ever drinking. CONCLUSIONS Although high levels of engagement with Internet alcohol marketing were uncommon, most underage youths reported seeing it, and we found a prospective association between receptivity to this type of alcohol marketing and future problem drinking, making additional research and ongoing surveillance important. PMID:26738886

  18. Effect of the inlet outlet positions on the hydraulic performance of horizontal subsurface-flow wetlands constructed with heterogeneous porous media

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suliman, F.; Futsaether, C.; Oxaal, U.; Haugen, L. E.; Jenssen, P.

    2006-09-01

    Effects of the inlet and outlet position on flow patterns of saturated fluids in a horizontal subsurface-flow constructed wetland were investigated experimentally using a quasi two-dimensional flow cell representing a vertical cross-section in the longitudinal direction of the wetland. The filter medium consisted of glass beads that were either uniformly sized or a mixture of sizes with a distribution corresponding to wetland filter media. Flow through the filter bed was visualized by injecting dyed fluid into the water-saturated model. Next, breakthrough curves were obtained using chloride tracer. Flow through the homogeneous filter formed by uniformly sized beads displayed a clear density-driven component. Using mixed sizes, finer and coarser beads tended to separate into alternating and incomplete layers. Flow occurred preferentially along roughly horizontal high-conductivity paths of coarser filter material. Density-driven vertical flow was much slower than the horizontal flow. Nevertheless, appropriate positioning of the inlet and less importantly the outlet could to some extent mitigate the dominant effect of the medium stratification on the flow patterns. Using inlet-outlet configurations that forced the flow through larger portions of the filter bed by injecting into low-conductivity layers and opposing the gravity-driven flow increased the treatment efficiency.

  19. Access to food outlets and children's nutritional intake in urban China: a difference-in-difference analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wang Rui

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In recent years supermarkets and fast food restaurants have been replacing those “wet markets” of independent vendors as the major food sources in urban China. Yet how these food outlets relate to children’s nutritional intake remains largely unexplored. Method Using a longitudinal survey of households and communities in China, this study examines the effect of the urban built food environment (density of wet markets, density of supermarkets, and density of fast food restaurants on children’s nutritional intake (daily caloric intake, daily carbohydrate intake, daily protein intake, and daily fat intake. Children aged 6–18 (n = 185 living in cities were followed from 2004 to 2006, and difference-in-difference models are used to address the potential issue of omitted variable bias. Results Results suggest that the density of wet markets, rather than that of supermarkets, positively predicts children’s four dimensions of nutritional intake. In the caloric intake model and the fat intake model, the positive effect of neighborhood wet market density on children’s nutritional intake is stronger with children from households of lower income. Conclusion With their cheaper prices and/or fresher food supply, wet markets are likely to contribute a substantial amount of nutritional intake for children living nearby, especially those in households with lower socioeconomic status. For health officials and urban planners, this study signals a sign of warning as wet markets are disappearing from urban China’s food environment.

  20. Alcohol and Breastfeeding

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Haastrup, Maija Bruun; Pottegård, Anton; Damkier, Per

    2014-01-01

    While the harmful effects of alcohol during pregnancy are well-established, the consequences of alcohol intake during lactation have been far less examined. We reviewed available data on the prevalence of alcohol intake during lactation, the influence of alcohol on breastfeeding......, the pharmacokinetics of alcohol in lactating women and nursing infants and the effects of alcohol intake on nursing infants. A systematic search was performed in PubMed from origin to May 2013, and 41 publications were included in the review. Approximately half of all lactating women in Western countries consume...... alcohol while breastfeeding. Alcohol intake inhibits the milk ejection reflex, causing a temporary decrease in milk yield. The alcohol concentrations in breast milk closely resemble those in maternal blood. The amount of alcohol presented to nursing infants through breast milk is approximately 5...

  1. [Alcohol and psychiatric disorders].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bouzyk-Szutkiewicz, Joanna; Waszkiewicz, Napoleon; Szulc, Agata

    2012-09-01

    Alcohol dependence and abuse is one of the most costly health problems in the world from both a social and an economic point of view. It is a widespread problem, focusing attention not only psychiatrists but also doctors of other specialties. Patterns of drinking appear to be changing throughout the world, with more women and young people drinking heavily. Even risky drinking is a potential health risk, while chronic alcohol abuse contribute to the serious physical and mental complications. Alcohol used disorders associated with alcohol-induced brain damage include: withdrawal state, delirium tremens, alcoholic hallucinosis, alcoholic paranoia, Korsakoffs psychosis, alcoholic dementia, alcoholic depression. On the other hand, mental disorders as panic disorder, social anxiety disorder, agoraphobia, depression, bipolar disorder, schizophrenia, personality disorder most frequently comorbid with alcohol abuse or they trigger alcohol. PMID:23157139

  2. PIV measurement at the blowdown pipe outlet. [Particle Image Velocimetry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Puustinen, M.; Laine, J.; Raesaenen, A.; Pyy, L.; Telkkae, J. [Lappeenranta Univ. of Technology, Lappeenranta (Finland)

    2013-04-15

    This report summarizes the findings of the PIV measurement tests carried out in January - February 2013 with the scaled down PPOOLEX test facility at LUT. The main objective of the tests was to find out the operational limits of the PIV system regarding suitable test conditions and correct values of different adjustable PIV parameters. An additional objective was to gather CFD grade data for verification/validation of numerical models. Both water and steam injection tests were carried out. PIV measurements with cold water injection succeeded well. Raw images were of high quality, averaging over the whole measurement period could be done and flow fields close to the blowdown pipe outlet could be determined. In the warm water injection cases the obtained averaged velocity field images were harder to interpret, especially if the blowdown pipe was also filled with warm water in the beginning of the measurement period. The absolute values of the velocity vectors seemed to be smaller than in the cold water injection cases. With very small steam flow rates the steam/water interface was inside the blowdown pipe and quite stable in nature. The raw images were of good quality but due to some fluctuation in the velocity field averaging of the velocity images over the whole measured period couldn't be done. Condensation of steam in the vicinity of the pipe exit probably caused these fluctuations. A constant outflow was usually followed by a constant inflow towards the pipe exit. Vector field images corresponding to a certain phase of the test could be extracted and averaged but this would require a very careful analysis so that the images could be correctly categorized. With higher steam flow rates rapid condensation of large steam bubbles created small gas bubbles which were in front of the measurement area of the PIV system. They disturbed the measurements by reflecting laser light like seeding particles and therefore the raw images were of poor quality and they couldn

  3. 26 CFR 48.4071-3 - Imposition of tax on tires and tubes delivered to manufacturer's retail outlet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... to manufacturer's retail outlet. 48.4071-3 Section 48.4071-3 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE... § 48.4071-3 Imposition of tax on tires and tubes delivered to manufacturer's retail outlet. (a) General... a retail outlet of the manufacturer, the manufacturer is liable for tax in respect of the tire...

  4. 16 CFR Appendix D to Part 436 - Sample Item 20(3) Table-Status of Franchise Outlets

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Sample Item 20(3) Table-Status of Franchise Outlets D Appendix D to Part 436 Commercial Practices FEDERAL TRADE COMMISSION TRADE REGULATION RULES... Item 20(3) Table—Status of Franchise Outlets Status of Franchise Outlets For years 2004 to 2006...

  5. Impact of remodeling and rehabilitation of irrigation outlets on water distribution of a canal in Punjab, Pakistan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The study was undertaken to investigate water distribution along a distributary canal located in the southern part of the Punjab Province. It is a large size distributary having 353 cusecs of authorized discharge. This distributary was subjected to a series of problems including but not limited to (i) withdrawal of water by illegal means, (ii) design and construction flaws in the outlets, (iii) improper selection of the type of outlets and many others. The outlets were intentionally designed wrongly by using fictitious hydraulics data to provide undue benefits to the irrigators. During construction, setting of the outlets was also intentionally fixed at lower level than the designed. Investigations were carried out to evaluate hydraulic performance of all the outlets of the channel. Based on the observed data capacity statements of all the outlets were revised. The outlets were redesigned on the basis of actual hydraulic data of each outlet. Most of the non-modular outlets (Pipe and Scratchley) were converted to semi-modular outlets (OFRB and APM). With implementation of new and modified design of the outlets at the site, equity of water distribution has been improved. The results revealed that design of the outlets had a significant impact on equitable distribution of water along the distribution. (author)

  6. Alcoholic liver disease: Treatment

    OpenAIRE

    Suk, Ki Tae; Kim, Moon Young; Baik, Soon Koo

    2014-01-01

    The excess consumption of alcohol is associated with alcoholic liver diseases (ALD). ALD is a major healthcare problem, personal and social burden, and significant reason for economic loss worldwide. The ALD spectrum includes alcoholic fatty liver, alcoholic hepatitis, cirrhosis, and the development of hepatocellular carcinoma. The diagnosis of ALD is based on a combination of clinical features, including a history of significant alcohol intake, evidence of liver disease, and laboratory findi...

  7. Alcohol and pregnancy

    OpenAIRE

    Anna Maria Paoletti; Ileana Atzeni; Marisa Orrù; Monica Pilloni; Alessandro Loddo; Martina Zirone; Maria Francesca Marotto; Pierina Zedda; Maria Francesca Fais; Emanuela Stochino Loi; Graziella Boi; Gian Benedetto Melis

    2013-01-01

    Alcohol exerts teratogenic effects in all the gestation times, with peculiar features in relationship to the trimester of pregnancy in which alcohol is assumed. Alcohol itself and its metabolites modify DNA synthesis, cellular division, cellular migration and the fetal development. The characteristic facies of feto-alcoholic syndrome (FAS)-affected baby depends on the alcohol impact on skull facial development during the first trimester of pregnancy. In association there are cerebral damages ...

  8. Congenital pseudarthrosis of the clavicle and thoracic outlet syndrome in adolescence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sales de Gauzy, J; Baunin, C; Puget, C; Fajadet, P; Cahuzac, J P

    1999-10-01

    A 15-year-old girl with thoracic outlet syndrome associated with congenital pseudarthrosis of the clavicle was examined. The indication for treatment of congenital pseudarthrosis of the clavicle is discussed. PMID:10513368

  9. Analytical Verification of Outlet Devices Capacity of LUBACHÓW Storage Reservoir on the Bystrzyca River

    Science.gov (United States)

    Machajski, Jerzy; Olearczyk, Dorota

    2013-06-01

    The Lubachów storage reservoir was built in the 1920's. It is equipped with a relatively complex outlet installation, operating in variable hydraulic regime. The discharge deviations curves elaborated by German engineers for individual devices, after verification turned out to be burdened with a comparatively big error. This concerns especially the front spillway as well as intermediate outlets, and to a smaller degree the bottom outlets. The authors made a detailed analytical verification of the outlet installations and found great deviations from the currently valid discharge curves for these devices. Based on the analysis of conditions of computational discharges passage through the reservoir, they proved a high potential threat of water flow over the dam crest.

  10. Heat transfer from the evaporator outlet to the charge of thermostatic expansion valves

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Langmaack, Lasse Nicolai; Knudsen, Hans-Jørgen Høgaard

    2006-01-01

    outlet with a special mounting strap. The heat transfer is quite complex because it takes place both directly through the contact points between bulb and pipe and indirectly through the mounting strap The TXV has to react to temperature changes at the evaporator outlet. Therefore, the dynamic behavior of...... the valve (and thereby the whole refrigeration system) depends greatly on the heat transfer between the evaporator outlet tube and the charge in the bulb. In this paper a model for the overall heat transfer between the pipe and the charge is presented. Geometrical data and material properties have......The bulb of a thermostatic expansion valve (TXV) is basically a temperature-pressure converter. It senses the temperature at the outlet of the evaporator, and the substance in the bulb (charge) generates the corresponding saturation pressure inside the bulb. The bulb is mounted on the evaporator...

  11. Consumer Benefits from Increased Competition in Shopping Outlets: Measuring the Effect of Wal-Mart

    OpenAIRE

    Hausman, Jerry A.; Leibtag, Ephraim

    2006-01-01

    Consumers often benefit from increased competition in differentiated product settings. In previous research Hausman (1997a, 1997b, 1999, 2002) has estimated the increased consumer welfare from the introduction of new brand, e.g. Apple Cinnamon Cheerios, and new products, e.g. mobile telephones. In this paper we consider consumer benefits from increased competition in a differentiated product setting: the spread of nontraditional retail outlets. Non-traditional outlets, including supercenters,...

  12. Optimized Design of Outlets Layout in Thermal Pressure Naturally Ventilated Rooms

    OpenAIRE

    Xuemin Sui; Jianping Ma; Yanling Guan

    2013-01-01

    Using thermal pressure ventilation principles to achieve passive ventilation in buildings is an important way to promote green and low consumption building strategy. The reasonable vents layout design can fully tap the potential of thermal pressure ventilation. Aimed to civil buildings with internal heating source, using Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) technology, the effects of outlets layout on thermal natural ventilation in rooms were studied. Three types of typical air outlets distribu...

  13. Studi tentang Jumlah Sudu Impeier dan Diameter Pipa Outlet Pompa Sentrifugal Buatan Lokal

    OpenAIRE

    Syahrani, Lely

    2012-01-01

    Lely Syahrani, "Studi Tentang Jumlah Sudu Impeler dan Diameter Pipa Outlet Pompa Sentrifugal Buatan Lokal", dibawah bimbingan Ir. Darun, MSi, sebagai Ketua Komisi Pembimbing dan Ir. Edi Susanto, MSi. sebagai Anggota Komisi Pembimbing. Penelitian ini dilakukan di Bengkel Dinas Pertanian Sumatera Utara dengan menggunakan Rancangan Acak Lengkap (RAL) faktorial. Pengujian dilakukan dengan dua faktor yaitu jumlah sudu impeler dan diameter pipa outlet masing-masing 4 kali ulangan. Perlakuan j...

  14. Non-uniform changes in membrane receptors in the rat urinary bladder following outlet obstruction.

    OpenAIRE

    Zeng, Jianwen; Ekman, Mari; Jiang, Chonghe; Uvelius, Bengt; Swärd, Karl

    2015-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate the expression and distribution of membrane receptors after bladder outlet obstruction (BOO). Partial bladder outlet obstruction (BOO) was induced in female rats and bladders were harvested after either 10 days or 6 weeks of BOO. The expression of different receptors was surveyed by microarrays and corroborated by immunohistochemistry and western blotting. A microarray experiment identified 10 membrane receptors that were differentially expresse...

  15. Perillyl Alcohol (Monoterpene Alcohol), Limonene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shojaei, Shahla; Kiumarsi, Amir; Moghadam, Adel Rezaei; Alizadeh, Javad; Marzban, Hassan; Ghavami, Saeid

    2014-01-01

    Natural products have a long history of use in traditional medicines and their activities against different diseases have been the focus of many basic and clinical researches in past few decades. The essential oils, volatile liquid containing aroma compound from plants, are known as active ingredients in the herbal medicine. Perillyl alcohol (POH) is usually available through dietary sources and is being explored for its cancer chemoprevention, tumor growth suppression, and regression. Citrus peels are the waste product of juice manufacturing industries and have been considered as a critical problem for environmental green ecology policies for years. One of the most well-known approaches to overcome this problem is transformation of these monoterpene by the use of specific strains of bacteria or yeasts. Limonene (1-methyl-4-isopropyl-cyclohexene) is a monoterpene, as other monoterpenes consists of two isoprene units, that comprises more than 90% of citrus essential oil and it exists in many fruits and vegetables. Although, the anticancer activity of d-limonene has identified nearly two decades ago, it has recently attracted much more attention in translational medicine. In this chapter, we will overview the anticancer effects of POH and d-limonene. Later, we will address the pharmacokinetics of these compounds, highlight the signaling pathways which are targeted by these proteins, review the clinical trials which have been done for these compounds in different cancer models, and finally discuss the future directions of the research in this field that might be more applicable in future cancer therapy strategies. PMID:27102697

  16. Development of a solenoid actuated planar valveless micropump with single and multiple inlet–outlet arrangements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, N.; George, D.; Sajeesh, P.; Manivannan, P. V.; Sen, A. K.

    2016-07-01

    We report a planar solenoid actuated valveless micropump with multiple inlet–outlet configurations. The self-priming characteristics of the multiple inlet–multiple outlet micropump are studied. The filling dynamics of the micropump chamber during start-up and the effects of fluid viscosity, voltage and frequency on the dynamics are investigated. Numerical simulations for multiple inlet–multiple outlet micropumps are carried out using fluid structure algorithm. With DI water and at 5.0 Vp-p, 20 Hz frequency, the two inlet–two outlet micropump provides a maximum flow rate of 336 μl min‑1 and maximum back pressure of 441 Pa. Performance characteristics of the two inlet–two outlet micropump are studied for aqueous fluids of different viscosity. Transport of biological cell lines and diluted blood samples are demonstrated; the flow rate-frequency characteristics are studied. Viability of cells during pumping with multiple inlet multiple outlet configuration is also studied in this work, which shows 100% of cells are viable. Application of the proposed micropump for simultaneous pumping, mixing and distribution of fluids is demonstrated. The proposed integrated, standalone and portable micropump is suitable for drug delivery, lab-on-chip and micro-total-analysis applications.

  17. Influence of blade outlet angle on performance of low-specific-speed centrifugal pump

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cui, Baoling; Wang, Canfei; Zhu, Zuchao; Jin, Yingzi

    2013-04-01

    In order to analyze the influence of blade outlet angle on inner flow field and performance of low-specific-speed centrifugal pump, the flow field in the pump with different blade outlet angles 32.5° and 39° was numerically calculated. The external performance experiment was also carried out on the pump. Based on SIMPLEC algorithm, time-average N-S equation and the rectified k-ɛ turbulent model were adopted during the process of computation. The distributions of velocity and pressure in pumps with different blade outlet angles were obtained by calculation. The numerical results show that backflow areas exist in the two impellers, while the inner flow has a little improvement in the impeller with larger blade outlet angle. Blade outlet angle has a certain influence on the static pressure near the long-blade leading edge and tongue, but it has little influence on the distribution of static pressure in the passages of impeller. The experiment results show that the low-specific-speed centrifugal pump with larger blade outlet angle has better hydraulic performance.

  18. An installation for the intake of coke and the outlet of gases during unloading of coke furnaces

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marapulets, G.N.; Butko, A.V.; Likhogub, Ye.P.; Nayman, A.M.; Pevnyy, V.P.; Yatsura, V.A.; Zinchenko, V.I.

    1982-01-01

    An installation is proposed for receiving coke and the outlet of gases during unloading of coke furnaces, which includes a coke directing dolly, a basket with a dust trapping hood attached to it, a gas outlet, telescopic branchpipe, whose fixed part is attached to the upper part of the hood and a collector for outlet of the gas in the device for purification located parallel to the battery of coking furnaces. To increase the reliability and effectiveness of outlet of the gases, the gas outlet branchpipe is installed horizontally and the telescopic branchpipe is connected by means of levers and linkages to the basket of the coke guide dolly. The dust trapping hood is equipped with an additional, horizontal, gas outlet branchpipe and the gas outlet branchpipes are installed at a distance equal to the distance between the coking furnaces.

  19. Associations between Food Outlets around Schools and BMI among Primary Students in England: A Cross-Classified Multi-Level Analysis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julianne Williams

    Full Text Available Researchers and policy-makers are interested in the influence that food retailing around schools may have on child obesity risk. Most previous research comes from North America, uses data aggregated at the school-level and focuses on associations between fast food outlets and school obesity rates. This study examines associations between food retailing and BMI among a large sample of primary school students in Berkshire, England. By controlling for individual, school and home characteristics and stratifying results across the primary school years, we aimed to identify if the food environment around schools had an effect on BMI, independent of socio-economic variables.We measured the densities of fast food outlets and food stores found within schoolchildren's home and school environments using Geographic Information Systems (GIS and data from local councils. We linked these data to measures from the 2010/11 National Child Measurement Programme and used a cross-classified multi-level approach to examine associations between food retailing and BMI z-scores. Analyses were stratified among Reception (aged 4-5 and Year 6 (aged 10-11 students to measure associations across the primary school years.Our multilevel model had three levels to account for individual (n = 16,956, home neighbourhood (n = 664 and school (n = 268 factors. After controlling for confounders, there were no significant associations between retailing near schools and student BMI, but significant positive associations between fast food outlets in home neighbourhood and BMI z-scores. Year 6 students living in areas with the highest density of fast food outlets had an average BMI z-score that was 0.12 (95% CI: 0.04, 0.20 higher than those living in areas with none.We found little evidence to suggest that food retailing around schools influences student BMI. There is some evidence to suggest that fast food outlet densities in a child's home neighbourhood may have an effect on BMI

  20. Fetal alcohol effects in alcoholic veteran patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tishler, P V; Henschel, C E; Ngo, T A; Walters, E E; Worobec, T G

    1998-11-01

    Fetal alcohol syndrome is often associated with severe physical and neuropsychiatric maldevelopment. On the other hand, some offspring of women who drank during pregnancy appear to be affected in minimal ways and function relatively well within society. We questioned whether this effect of prenatal alcohol in the adult is generally minimal. To bear on this, we determined whether we could distinguish alcohol-exposed from nonexposed individuals in a population of male veterans, selected because of both their accepted level of function within society (e.g., honorable discharge from the military) and their admission to an alcohol treatment unit (thus, a greater likelihood of parental alcoholism, because of its familial aggregation). Consecutively admitted alcoholics (cases; n = 77) with likely maternal alcohol ingestion during their pregnancy or the first 10 years of life were matched with alcoholics with no maternal alcohol exposure during these periods (controls; n = 161). Each subject completed questionnaires regarding personal birthweight, alcohol, drug, educational and work histories, and family (including parental) alcohol and drug histories. We measured height, weight, and head circumference; checked for facial and hand anomalies; and took a frontal facial photograph, from which measurements of features were made. Data were analyzed by univariate statistics and stepwise logistic regression. No case had bona fide fetal alcohol syndrome. With univariate statistical analyses, the cases differed from the controls in 10 variables, including duration of drinking, width of alae nasae, being hyperactive or having a short attention span, and being small at birth. By stepwise logistic regression, the variables marital status, small size at birth, duration of drinking, and the presence of a smooth philtrum were marginally (the first two) or definitely (the last two) significant predictors of case status. Analysis of only the 37 cases in whom maternal prenatal drinking was

  1. Assessment of uncertainty in suspended sediment load at constructed wetland inlet and outlet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eskelinen, Riku; Ronkanen, Anna-Kaisa; Marttila, Hannu; Kløve, Bjørn

    2016-04-01

    The use of constructed wetlands (CWs) for reducing pollution from different industries and land uses is common practice globally. Different countries have approached monitoring of CWs performance in several ways. For example, authorities can have different requirements in the flow measurement and sampling frequencies depending of the nature of the pollutant load. Typically, the load remaining after CW purification is estimated through concentration and flow measurements. As taking water samples comes with a cost, samples are taken with long intervals which can increase the uncertainty in the estimated loads. In 2012, a large water quality dataset was collected from CW inlet and outlet containing daily or twice a day water quality samples spanning from March until October. By sub-sampling the collected data with 1, 2, 3, or 4 weeks intervals we estimated the uncertainty range related to the sparse sampling. The results show large uncertainty remaining even with weekly sampling which suggests that increasing the sampling density from once in two weeks to once a week is not probably worth as the costs related to sampling would double. A method based on the flow duration curve (FDC) of the CW for reducing the uncertainty was also tested. The method divides the observed FDC to four equal parts and finds the mean or median concentration for each flow category. The load is then calculated by multiplying the observed flow with the mean or median concentration with the appropriate flow category. The FDC method was able to decrease the uncertainty, but much still remained, especially when concentrations of the measured variable showed large variation as it is typical case if annual nutrient and sediment loads from different land uses are monitored. Generally, continuous sensor technology might be a feasible option for further reducing the uncertainty in load estimation.

  2. Alcohol Use and Older Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... version of this page please turn Javascript on. Alcohol Use and Older Adults Alcohol and Aging Adults of any age can have ... Escape (Esc) button on your keyboard.) What Is Alcohol? Alcohol, also known as ethanol, is a chemical ...

  3. Alcohol: A Women's Health Issue

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... itself can cause serious long-term health consequences. Alcohol in Women’s Lives: Safe Drinking Over a Lifetime ... much, and how often to drink. What Are Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism? Alcohol abuse is a pattern ...

  4. Deciding to quit drinking alcohol

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alcohol use disorder - quitting drinking; Alcohol abuse - quitting drinking; Quitting drinking; Quitting alcohol ... a drinking problem when your body depends on alcohol to function and your drinking is causing problems ...

  5. Alcohol in moderation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mueller, Simone; Lockshin, Larry; Louviere, Jordan J.

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: The study examines the market potential for low and very low alcohol wine products under two different tax regimes. The penetration and market share of low alcohol wine are estimated under both tax conditions. Consumers’ alcoholic beverage purchase portfolios are analysed and those...... products identified, which are jointly purchased with low alcohol wines. The effect of a tax increase on substitution patterns between alcoholic beverages is examined. Methodology: In a discrete choice experiment, based on their last purchase, consumers select one or several different alcoholic beverages...... volume is estimated under the current tax regime. Between six to eight percent of consumers are expected to adopt low alcohol wine alternatives as part of their alcoholic beverage portfolio. Consumers of cask wine and light beer are more likely and consumers of medium-full strength beer and spirits...

  6. Myths about drinking alcohol

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... gov/ency/patientinstructions/000856.htm Myths about drinking alcohol To use the sharing features on this page, ... We know much more about the effects of alcohol today than in the past. Yet, myths remain ...

  7. Women and Alcohol

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... turn JavaScript on. Feature: Rethinking Drinking Women and Alcohol Past Issues / Spring 2014 Table of Contents Women react differently than men to alcohol and face higher risks from it. Pound for ...

  8. Benzyl Alcohol Topical

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benzyl alcohol lotion is used to treat head lice (small insects that attach themselves to the skin) in adults ... children less than 6 months of age. Benzyl alcohol is in a class of medications called pediculicides. ...

  9. Alcohol and Cancer Risk

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Overview Cancer Prevention Overview–for health professionals Research Alcohol and Cancer Risk On This Page What is ... in the risk of colorectal cancer. Research on alcohol consumption and other cancers: Numerous studies have examined ...

  10. Alcohol and Migraine

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... on Pinterest Follow us on Instagram DONATE TODAY Alcohol and Migraine Abuse, Maltreatment, and PTSD and Their ... to Migraine Altitude, Acute Mountain Sickness and Headache Alcohol and Migraine Anxiety and Depression Caffeine and Migraine ...

  11. Alcohol and pregnancy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... group of defects in the baby known as fetal alcohol syndrome. Symptoms can include: Behavior and attention problems Heart ... risk of giving birth to a child with fetal alcohol syndrome . The more you drink, the more you raise ...

  12. Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Daily life skills, such as feeding and bathing Fetal alcohol syndrome is the most serious type of FASD. People with fetal alcohol syndrome have facial abnormalities, including wide-set and narrow ...

  13. Alcohol use disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... have problems with alcohol if you: Are a young adult under peer pressure Have depression, bipolar disorder , anxiety disorders , or schizophrenia Can easily obtain alcohol Have low self-esteem Have problems with relationships Live a stressful lifestyle ...

  14. Alcohol and Pregnancy

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Your e-mail was sent. Save to my dashboard Sign in or Sign up to save this ... saved this page It's been added to your dashboard . Alcohol and pregnancy 3:07 Drinking alcohol while ...

  15. Children of alcoholics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert Oravecz

    2002-09-01

    Full Text Available The author briefly interprets the research – results, referring to the phenomenon of children of alcoholics, especially the psychological and psychopathological characteristics of children of alcoholics in adolescence and young adulthood. The author presents a screening study of adolescents. The sample contains 200 high school students at age 18. The aim of the survey was to discover the relationship between alcohol consumption of parents, PTSD - related psychopathological symptoms and reported life quality of their children. The study confirmed the hypothesis about a substantial correlation between high alcohol consumption of parents, higher psychopathological symptom - expression and lower reported life quality score of their children. Higher PTSD-related symptomatology in children of alcoholics is probably resulted by home violence, which is very often present in family of alcoholics. The article also evaluated the results regarding suicide ideation of children of alcoholics, which is definitely more frequent and more intense than in their peers living in non alcohol – dependent families.

  16. Fetal Alcohol Exposure

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... a woman drinks while pregnant. Alcohol can disrupt fetal development at any stage during a pregnancy—including at ... Clinical Diagnoses IOM Diagnoses Fetal Alcohol Syndrome ... pregnancy can disrupt normal development of the face and the brain. In fact, ...

  17. Overview of Alcohol Consumption

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... you drink, you increase your blood alcohol concentration (BAC) level, which is the amount of alcohol present in your bloodstream. The higher your BAC, the more impaired you become by alcohol’s effects. ...

  18. Alcohol Alert: Link Between Stress and Alcohol

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Hodgkinson, C.A.; Yuan, Q.; et al. The influence of GABrA2, childhood trauma, and their interaction on alcohol, heroin, and ... Articles examine different sources of stress, such as childhood abuse and ... stress influences the development of alcohol abuse and dependence, and ...

  19. Alcohol and Atherosclerosis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Gao Yinglan; Song Jingyu; Jin Junshuo; Zhong Xiuhong; Ren Xiangshan; Liu Shuangping

    2005-01-01

    Objectives To study the relationship between alcohol and atherosclerosis (AS).Methods The paper reviewed the mechanism of the alcohol leading to AS from four aspects such as the introduction of alcohol and AS, imbalance of oxidationantioxidation system, oxygen free radical (OFR) and endothelium cell (EC) apoptosis, apoptosis and AS.Results Excessive alcohol could lead to imbalance of oxidation-antioxidation system, and increase OFR, in the meanwhile, OFR could lead to EC apoptosis,which could lead to AS.

  20. Alcohol Saliva Strip Test

    OpenAIRE

    Thokala, Madhusudhana Rao; Dorankula, Shyam Prasad Reddy; Muddana, Keertrthi; Velidandla, Surekha Reddy

    2014-01-01

    Alcohol is a factor in many categories of injury. Alcohol intoxication is frequently associated with injuries from falls, fires, drowning, overdoses, physical and sexual abusements, occupational accidents, traffic accidents and domestic violence. In many instances, for forensic purpose, it may be necessary to establish whether the patients have consumed alcohol that would have been the reason for the injury/accidents. Combining rapidity and reliability, alcohol saliva strip test (AST) has bee...

  1. Alcohol and liver

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Natalia Osna

    2009-01-01

    @@ Liver is a primary site of ethanol metabolism, which makes this organ susceptible to alcohol-induced damage.Alcoholic liver disease (ALD) has many manifestations and complicated pathogenesis. In this Topic Highlight, we included the key reviews that characterize new findings about the mechanisms of ALD development and might be of strong interest for clinicians and researchers involved in liver alcohol studies.

  2. Television: Alcohol's Vast Adland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2002

    Concern about how much television alcohol advertising reaches underage youth and how the advertising influences their attitudes and decisions about alcohol use has been widespread for many years. Lacking in the policy debate has been solid, reliable information about the extent of youth exposure to television alcohol advertising. To address this…

  3. Alcohol and Pregnancy

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... this page It's been added to your dashboard . Alcohol and pregnancy 3:07 Drinking alcohol while you are pregnant ... birth defects. Learn about the dangers of drinking alcohol during pregnancy. Stanford Prematurity Research Center Launch 3:25 Newborn ...

  4. Alcoholism's Hidden Curriculum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gress, James R.

    1988-01-01

    Discusses children of alcoholics as victims of fetal alcohol syndrome, family violence, retarded social development, and severe emotional scars. These children bring family roles to school that allow survival in the alcoholic home but are dysfunctional outside it. Educators can take certain steps to address these students' problems. Includes six…

  5. Proposal for evaluation methods of reactor outlet coolant temperature in HTGRs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The High Temperature engineering Test Reactor (HTTR) is a graphite moderated and gas cooled reactor with the thermal power of 30 MW and the reactor outlet coolant temperature of 850degC/950degC. Rise-to-power test in the HTTR was performed from March 31th to May 1st in 2004 as phase 5 test up to 30 MW in the high temperature test operation mode. It was confirmed that the thermal reactor power and the reactor outlet coolant temperature reached to 30 MW and 950degC respectively on April 19th. Achievement of the reactor outlet coolant temperature of 950degC outside of the reactor pressure vessel is the first time in Japan as well as the world. It means to extend the HTGR use to various heat utilizations such as highly effective power generation with a high-temperature gas turbine and hydrogen production from water with a high-temperature. This report describes proposal for evaluation methods of reactor outlet coolant temperature in the HTGRs through the HTTR operation experiments. The equation is derived from relationships among PRM reading values, reactor outlet coolant temperature, reactor thermal power and heat removal by VCS. The deliberation processes in this study will be applicable to the research and developments of HTGRs in the future. (author)

  6. Communicating Ebola through social media and electronic news media outlets: A cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Househ, Mowafa

    2016-09-01

    Social media and electronic news media activity are an important source of information for the general public. Yet, there is a dearth of research exploring the use of Twitter and electronic news outlets during significant worldly events such as the recent Ebola Virus scare. The purpose of this article is to investigate the use of Twitter and electronic news media outlets in communicating Ebola Virus information. A cross-sectional survey of Twitter data and Google News Trend data from 30 September till 29 October, 2014 was conducted. Between 30 September and 29 October, there were approximately 26 million tweets (25,925,152) that contained the word Ebola. The highest number of correlated activity for Twitter and electronic news outlets occurred on 16 October 2014. Other important peaks in Twitter data occurred on 1 October, 6 October, 8 October, and 12 October, 2014. The main influencers of the Twitter feeds were news media outlets. The study reveals a relationship between electronic news media publishing and Twitter activity around significant events such as Ebola. Healthcare organizations should take advantage of the relationship between electronic news media and trending events on social media sites such as Twitter and should work on developing social media campaigns in co-operation with leading electronic news media outlets (e.g. CNN, Yahoo, Reuters) that can have an influence on social media activity. PMID:25656678

  7. Energy consumption of large space atrium under nozzle outlet during winter season

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵惠忠; 林志芬; 陈飞; 黄晨; 张敏; 王丽慧

    2009-01-01

    Based on the thermal and velocity layer’s theory,the experimental setup was established on large space atrium under nozzle outlet. A series of winter experiments were accomplished and the following conclusions could be drawn. At the sunny day of winter in Shanghai,the thermal and velocity layer are similar. The height of the both layer is 10-30 mm,and the temperature gratitude is 5-10 ℃ /m. Decreasing the angle of the nozzle outlet can increase the layer height dramatically. The maximum temperature difference of the occupant zone has relation with the angle of the nozzle outlet. The less the angle of the nozzle outlet is set,the greater the temperature difference is. The occupant temperature differences at these angles of the nozzle outlet are 5.1-4.4 ℃. The velocity of the wind is 0.02 and 0.17 m/s and they can accord with design demand. So,it can decrease the temperature gratitude by about 30% and it can save 10%-15% energy consumption.

  8. Alcohol consumption and blood lipids in elderly coronary patients

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jong, de H.J.I.; Goede, de J.; Oude Griep, L.M.; Geleijnse, J.M.

    2008-01-01

    Alcohol may have a beneficial effect on coronary heart disease (CHD) that could be mediated by elevation of high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDLC). Data on alcohol consumption and blood lipids in coronary patients are scarce. We studied whether total ethanol intake and consumption of specific t

  9. Clarifying the atrioventricular junctional anatomy in the setting of double outlet right atrium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saurabh Kumar Gupta

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Double outlet atrium is a rare cardiac anomaly wherein one of the atriums, most frequently the right atrium, opens into both the ventricles. Although seen more commonly in the setting of atrioventricular septal defect, this arrangement can also be found when one of the atrioventricular connections is atretic due to absence of the atrioventricular connection and the other atrioventricular valve straddles the muscular ventricular septum. It is the specific anatomy and connections of the atrioventricular junction that clarifies the situation and distinguishes between these two types of double outlet atrium. In this report, we present a case of double outlet right atrium co-existing with the absence of left atrioventricular connection. We then discuss the morphologic aspects of this interesting anomaly.

  10. Fruit and vegetable intake in adolescents: SES and exposure to supermarkets and fast food outlets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Svastisalee, Chalida; Holstein, Bjørn Evald; Due, Pernille

    Purpose Socioeconomic status and exposure to the neighbourhood food environment is separately associated with fruit and vegetable intake in youth. We investigated whether the association between food outlet concentration and fruit and vegetable intake differed among children from various social...... backgrounds. Methods Data from the Health Behavior in School Aged Children Study (n = 6,034) were supplemented with geocoded information regarding supermarkets and fast food outlets, 300 meters from each school (n = 80). We used multilevel logistic regression to examine the relationship between infrequent...... fruit and vegetable intake and supermarket and fast food outlet concentration, stratifying by levels of family social class. Results Examining supermarket exposure alone, children from low social class backgrounds had the greatest odds of infrequent vegetable (OR = 1.50; CI: 1.03-2.20) and fruit (OR = 1...

  11. Alcohol and atherosclerosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tolstrup, Janne; Grønbaek, Morten

    2007-01-01

    Light to moderate alcohol intake is known to have cardioprotective properties; however, the magnitude of protection depends on other factors and may be confined to some subsets of the population. This review focuses on factors that modify the relationship between alcohol and coronary heart disease...... (CHD). The cardioprotective effect of alcohol seems to be larger among middle-aged and elderly adults than among young adults, who do not have a net beneficial effect of a light to moderate alcohol intake in terms of reduced all-cause mortality. The levels of alcohol at which the risk of CHD is lowest...... and the levels of alcohol at which the risk of CHD exceeds the risk among abstainers are lower for women than for men. The pattern of drinking seems important for the apparent cardioprotective effect of alcohol, and the risk of CHD is generally lower for steady versus binge drinking. Finally, there is some...

  12. On molybdenum (6) alcoholates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Synthesis techniques for molybdenum (6) alcoholates of MoO(OR)4 (1) and MoO2(OR)2 (2) series by means of exchange interaction of corresponding oxychloride with MOR (M=Li, Na) are obtained. These techniques have allowed to prepare 1(R=Me, Et, i-Pr) and 2(R=Me, Et) with 70-98 % yield. Methylates are also prepared at ether interchange of ethylates by methyl alcohol. Metal anode oxidation in corresponding alcohol may be used for 1 synthesis. Physicochemical properties of both series alcoholates, solubility in alcohols in particular, depend on their formation conditions coordination polymerism. Alcoholates of 1 are rather unstable and tend to decomposition up to 2 and ether. It is suggested to introduce NaOR microquantities to stabilize those alcoholates

  13. What determines the profitability of a retail gasoline outlet? A study for the Competition Bureau of Canada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An independent study was conducted to better understand the key determinants of profitability in the retail gasoline industry. The economic and financial analysis was based on pricing and other financial data collected by the Competition Bureau from representative retail outlets owned by vertically-integrated firms and independent retailers in the Greater Toronto Area and adjoining areas. This study combined economic and accounting techniques to provide an objective opinion regarding allegations of anti-competitive behaviour on the part of vertically-integrated gasoline firms. It evaluated the validity of complaints such as predatory pricing, collusion, retail price-fixing, and forcing the exit of smaller independents from the industry. This document described LECG's distinctive business model that was used to evaluate complex business and organizational behavior. It included a literature review, as well as a comparative economic and profitability analysis of retail gasoline stations. The study showed that movements in both retail and wholesale prices are largely dictated by corresponding fluctuations in crude oil prices. It also showed that there is serious doubt on the possibility of strategic behaviour by vertically-integrated refiners. It was noted that the final evaluation of station efficiency is limited because of missing data on costs incurred by site operators and revenues from ancillary services such as car wash and convenience store sales. It was concluded that the critical factor driving profitability is throughput, which impacts both revenue and average total costs. Since throughput is related to population density, local traffic and degree of local competition, the loss incurred by a specific outlet can be due to poor business strategy or circumstances rather than anti-competitive behaviour. 5 refs., 17 tabs., 21 figs

  14. Statistical Approaches Used to Assess the Equity of Access to Food Outlets: A Systematic Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karen E. Lamb

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available BackgroundInequalities in eating behaviours are often linked to the types of food retailers accessible in neighbourhood environments. Numerous studies have aimed to identify if access to healthy and unhealthy food retailers is socioeconomically patterned across neighbourhoods, and thus a potential risk factor for dietary inequalities. Existing reviews have examined differences between methodologies, particularly focussing on neighbourhood and food outlet access measure definitions. However, no review has informatively discussed the suitability of the statistical methodologies employed; a key issue determining the validity of study findings. Our aim was to examine the suitability of statistical approaches adopted in these analyses.MethodsSearches were conducted for articles published from 2000-2014. Eligible studies included objective measures of the neighbourhood food environment and neighbourhood-level socio-economic status, with a statistical analysis of the association between food outlet access and socio-economic status.ResultsFifty-four papers were included. Outlet accessibility was typically defined as the distance to the nearest outlet from the neighbourhood centroid, or as the number of food outlets within a neighbourhood (or buffer. To assess if these measures were linked to neighbourhood disadvantage, common statistical methods included ANOVA, correlation, and Poisson or negative binomial regression. Although all studies involved spatial data, few considered spatial analysis techniques or spatial autocorrelation.ConclusionsWith advances in GIS software, sophisticated measures of neighbourhood outlet accessibility can be considered. However, approaches to statistical analysis often appear less sophisticated. Care should be taken to consider assumptions underlying the analysis and the possibility of spatially correlated residuals which could affect the results.

  15. Effects of inlet/outlet configurations on the electrostatic capture of airborne nanoparticles and viruses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Motivated by capture and detection of airborne biological agents in real time with a cantilever biosensor without introducing the agents into liquids, we present the effects of inlet/outlet configurations of a homemade particle collector on the electrostatic capture of airborne 100 nm diameter nanoparticles under swirling gas flows. This particle collector has three different inlet/outlet configurations: forward inlet/outlet (FO), backward inlet/outlet (BO) and straight inlet/outlet (SO) configurations. We also present the electrostatic capture of Vaccinia viruses using the same particle collector and compare these virus measurements with the nanoparticle cases. The most particles were collected in the FO configuration. The numbers of particles captured in the BO and SO configurations were close within their standard deviations. For all the three configurations tested, the number of particles captured in the center electrode C was much smaller than those captured in the other electrodes at a flow rate of 1.1 l min−1 and an applied potential of 2 kV. Using a commercial CFD code FLUENT, we also simulated the effects of the three inlet/outlet configurations on the particle capture in terms of particle trajectories, velocities and travel times. This simulation was in a good agreement with measurements that the FO configuration is the most favorable to particle capture among the tested configurations at a flow rate of 1.1 l min−1. The effects of particle diameters on the capture will also be discussed. This collector can be used for real-time monitoring of bioaerosols along with cantilever biosensors

  16. Influence on fluid dynamics of coronary artery outlet angle variation in artificial aortic root prosthesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Verhey Janko F

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Because of higher life expectancy, the number of elderly patients today with degenerative aortic diseases is on the increase. Often artificial aortic roots are needed to replace the native tissue. This surgical procedure requires re-implantation of the previous separated coronary arteries into the wall of the prosthesis. Regardless of the prosthesis type, changes in the reinsertion technique, e.g., the variation of the outlet angle of the coronary arteries, could influence the coronary blood flow. Whether the prosthesis type or the outlet angle variation significantly improves the blood circulation and lowers the risk of coronary insufficiency is still an open question. The numerical calculations presented can help to clear up these disputable questions. Methods Two simplified base geometries are used for simulating the blood flow in order to determine velocity and pressure distributions. One model uses a straight cylindrical tube to approximate the aortic root geometry; the other uses a sinus design with pseudosinuses of Valsalva. The coronary outlet angle of the right coronary artery was discretely modified in both models in the range from 60° to 120°. The pressure and velocity distributions of both models are compared in the ascending aorta as well as in the right and the left coronary artery. Results The potentially allowed and anatomic limited variation of the outlet angle influences the pressure only a little bit and shows a very slight relative maximum between 70° and 90°. The sinus design and variations of the outlet angle of the coronary arteries were able to minimally optimize the perfusion pressure and the velocities in the coronary circulation, although the degree of such changes is rather low and would probably not achieve any clinical influence. Conclusion Our results show that surgeons should feel relatively free to vary the outlet angle within the anatomic structural conditions when employing the technique

  17. Fruit and Vegetable Intake in Adolescents: Association with Socioeconomic Status and Exposure to Supermarkets and Fast Food Outlets

    OpenAIRE

    Svastisalee, Chalida M.; Holstein, Bjørn E.; Pernille Due

    2012-01-01

    Background. We investigated differences in family social class associations between food outlet exposure and fruit and vegetable intake. Methods. We supplemented data from the 2006 Health Behavior in School Aged Children Study (n = 6, 096) with geocoded food outlet information surrounding schools (n = 80). We used multilevel logistic regression to examine associations between infrequent fruit and vegetable intake and supermarket and fast food outlet concentration, stratified by family social ...

  18. CHEMICAL COMPOSITION OF EDIBLE POTATO TUBERS IN RETAIL OUTLETS IN EAST-CENTRAL POLAND

    OpenAIRE

    Krystyna Zarzecka; Marek Gugała; Iwona Mystkowska; Magdalena Zarzecka

    2014-01-01

    The work was an attempt to determine and describe certain quality characteristics of edible potato on sale in Siedlce and Międzyrzec Podlaski. Potato tubers for examination were purchased in 3 kinds of retail outlets (ten shops of each kind) in east-central Poland. A total of 90 samples were collected to determine tuber size, protein and vitamin C content, reducing sugars and sucrose content. Potatoes purchased in all kinds of outlets met the standards set for tuber size. Potatoes bought in s...

  19. National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... day 12 hours ago Areas of Interest Scientists & Researchers Certificates of Confidentiality Data and Safety Monitoring Guidelines NIAAA-Funded Research Centers Clinicians Helping Patients Who Drink Too Much Alcohol Screening and Brief Intervention for Youth Clinical Trials ...

  20. Alcohol Advertising and Alcohol Consumption by Adolescents

    OpenAIRE

    Henry Saffer; Dhaval Dave

    2003-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to empirically estimate the effects of alcohol advertising on adolescent alcohol consumption. The theory of brand capital is used to explain the effects of advertising on consumption. The industry response function and the evidence from prior studies indicate that the empirical strategy should maximize the variance in the advertising data. The approach in this paper to maximizing the variance in advertising data is to employ cross sectional data. The Monitoring th...

  1. Alcohol and pregnancy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Maria Paoletti

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Alcohol exerts teratogenic effects in all the gestation times, with peculiar features in relationship to the trimester of pregnancy in which alcohol is assumed. Alcohol itself and its metabolites modify DNA synthesis, cellular division, cellular migration and the fetal development. The characteristic facies of feto-alcoholic syndrome (FAS-affected baby depends on the alcohol impact on skull facial development during the first trimester of pregnancy. In association there are cerebral damages with a strong defect of brain development up to the life incompatibility. Serious consequences on fetal health also depends on dangerous effects of alcohol exposure in the organogenesis of the heart, the bone, the kidney, sensorial organs, et al. It has been demonstrated that maternal binge drinking is a high factor risk of mental retardation and of delinquent behaviour. Unfortunately, a lower alcohol intake also exerts deleterious effects on fetal health. In several countries of the world there is a high alcohol use, and this habit is increased in the women. Therefore, correct information has to be given to avoid alcohol use by women in the preconceptional time and during the pregnancy. Preliminary results of a study performed by the authors show that over 80% of pregnant and puerperal women are not unaware that more than 2 glasses of alcohol/week ingested during pregnancy can create neurological abnormalities in the fetus. However, after the information provided on alcoholic fetopathy, all women are conscious of the damage caused by the use of alcohol to the fetus during pregnancy. This study confirms the need to provide detailed information on the negative effects of alcohol on fetal health. Proceedings of the 9th International Workshop on Neonatology · Cagliari (Italy · October 23rd-26th, 2013 · Learned lessons, changing practice and cutting-edge research

  2. U-Pu-Zr metallic fuel core and fuel concept for SFR with 550deg.C core outlet temperature

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The primary interest of SFR design core and fuel study in JAEA is to achieve 550 deg. C of core outlet temperature. The U-Pu-Zr metal fuel is an attractive fuel of SFR, which realizes the superior neutronic characteristic of the core due to its high content of heavy metal nuclide with appropriate irradiation experience of Zr alloy metal fuel. It is well understood that U-Pu-Zr base metal fuel has its major drawback as steel cladding temperature limiting feature due to fuel cladding compatibility concerns. Its cladding inner surface maximum temperature is to be limited as 650 deg. C to avoid the liquid phase formation in the fuel during steady state operation due to the inter-diffusion of elements (atoms) in the cladding and fuel. It is inevitable for the core thermal hydraulic design to give cladding maximum temperature in the core higher than core outlet temperature. A typical example of oxide fuel core design has 550 deg. C of core outlet temperature with 700 deg. C of cladding maximum temperature with uncertainties to be considered in the engineering design. Therefore, a core and fuel design with 550 deg. C of core outlet temperature and with 650 deg. C of cladding maximum temperature is significant challenge of SFR metallic fuel core study. Such core has been designed by significantly reducing the metallic fuel pin power variation during the irradiation. The core concept has single Pu enrichment which achieves local neutronic conversion ratio as close as 1.0, which leads to stable fuel pin power distribution in the core and stable fuel pin power history of each fuel pin. An example of 1,785MWt core which corresponds to 750MWe is as follows: Fuel pin diameter: 7.5 to 8.5 mm; Core fuel column length: 900 tp 1000mm; Pu enrichment: 12 %; Zr content 6 to 10wt.%; Fuel smeared density: 70 to 75%TD; Reactor operation cycle length: 24-26 months; Burnup reactivity swing: 0.5 % del k/kk'; Breeding ratio: 1.0 (without blanket); Fuel average burnup: 90 GWd/t. The results of

  3. [Upgrade on alcohol abuse].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bordini, L; Riboldi, L

    2010-01-01

    Problematic use of alcohol configures an element of interest in the context of preventive interventions aimed to ensuring the performance of any work in safety conditions. To contrast the acute alcohol abuse in the workplace the existing legislation provides alcoholimeters controls and prohibition of recruitment and administration of alcohol. Recent legislation (D.Lgs. 81/08) establishes health surveillance for alcohol dependence and appears still incomplete and difficult to apply. Clinical diagnostic tools available to the physician for alcohol dependence identification are well-defined and recently improved thanks to new laboratory markers with high sensitivity and specificity (CDT) and self-administered questionnaires. In this contest we are awaiting for legislative action to specify conditions and procedures for inspections in the workplace in order to face the problem of alcohol dependence without excessive bureaucracy and with more attention to preventive aspects. PMID:21438261

  4. Seasonal and interannual phytoplankton production in a sub-arctic tidewater outlet glacier fjord, west Greenland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Juul-Pedersen, T.; Arendt, K.; Mortensen, J.;

    2015-01-01

    This study describes seasonal patterns and proposes likely drivers of an unusual phytoplankton primary production pattern in the outer-sill region of a tidewater outlet glacierinfluenced fjord (Godthåbsfjord) in SW Greenland. It is based on monthly measurements of pelagic primary production and h...

  5. 78 FR 21340 - Media Outlets for Publication of Legal and Action Notices in the Southern Region

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-10

    ... Forest Service Media Outlets for Publication of Legal and Action Notices in the Southern Region AGENCY: Forest Service, USDA. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: Deciding Officers in the Southern Region will publish... notice. The Southern Region consists of Alabama, Kentucky, Georgia, Tennessee, Florida,...

  6. 77 FR 21078 - Media Outlets for Publication of Legal and Action Notices in the Southern Region

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-09

    ... Forest Service Media Outlets for Publication of Legal and Action Notices in the Southern Region AGENCY: Forest Service, USDA. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: Deciding Officers in the Southern Region will publish... Region consists of Alabama, Kentucky, Georgia, Tennessee, Florida, Louisiana, Mississippi, Virginia,...

  7. Biomass bale stack and field outlet locations assessment for efficient infield logistics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harvested hay or biomass are traditionally baled for better handling and they are transported to the outlet for final utilization. For better management of bale logistics, producers often aggregate bales into stacks so that bale-hauling equipment can haul multiple bales for improved efficiency. Obje...

  8. Functional imaging of the thoracic outlet syndrome in an open MR scanner

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smedby, Oe.; Rostad, H.; Klaastad, Oe.; Lilleaas, F.; Tillung, T.; Fosse, E. [National Hospital, Oslo (Norway). Interventional Centre

    2000-04-01

    Symptoms due to thoracic outlet syndrome may present only in abduction, a position that cannot be investigated in conventional MR scanners. Therefore, this study was initiated to test MRI in an open magnet as a method for diagnosis of thoracic outlet syndrome. Ten volunteers and 7 patients with a clinical suspicion of thoracic outlet syndrome were investigated at 0.5 T in an open MR scanner. Sagittal 3D SPGR acquisitions were made in 0 and 90 abduction. In the patients, a similar data set was also obtained in maximal abduction. To assess compression, the minimum distance between the first rib and the clavicle, measured in a sagittal plane, was determined. In the neutral position, no significant difference was found between patients and controls. In 90 abduction, the patients had significantly smaller distance between rib and clavicle than the controls (14 vs 29 mm; p<0.01). On coronal reformatted images, the compression of the brachial plexus could often be visualised in abduction. Functional MR examination seems to be a useful diagnostic tool in thoracic outlet syndrome. Examination in abduction, which is feasible in an open scanner, is essential for the diagnosis. (orig.)

  9. Positioning invasive versus noninvasive urodynamics in the assessment of bladder outlet obstruction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M. Arnolds; M. Oelke

    2009-01-01

    Purpose of review To provide evidence of promising tests to noninvasively diagnose bladder outlet obstruction (800) in men with benign prostatic hyperplasia. Recent findings Pressure-flow studies are usually performed to prove BOO prior to prostatectomy. However, pressure-flow studies are invasive,

  10. A CLINICAL STUDY ON GASTRIC OUTLET OBSTRUCTION IN A SOUTH INDIAN TEACHING HOSPITAL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sailaja

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Gastric outlet obstruction is defined as a clinical and patho - physiological consequence of any disease process that produces a mechanical impediment to gastric emptying which may be extrinsic or intrinsic. Gastric outlet obstruction can be a diagnostic and treatment dilemma. Endoscopy of upper gastrointestinal tract has been a sensitive and specific investigation to study the status of gastric outlet - the pylorus and has enabled early detection of lesions of both stomach a nd duodenum. We undertook a prospective clinical study regarding incidence, etiology, investigation and management of cases of Gastric outlet obstruction in adults in a period of three years. In our study the m ost common cause of GOO is Carcinoma stomach a ntral region 46.6% , duodenal ulcer 33.3% , corrosive acid ingestion sequel 8.3%, peri ampullary carcinoma 6.6%, Ca pancreas 3.3%% , cholangio Carcinoma 1.6%. Males are more commonly involved in a ratio of M: F=3:1. Surgical procedures done varied from defini tive resections to palliative bypass or feeding jejunostomy for enteral feeding

  11. Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorders

    OpenAIRE

    Warren, Kenneth R.; Hewitt, Brenda G.; Thomas, Jennifer D.

    2010-01-01

    The adverse effects of prenatal alcohol consumption have long been known; however, a formal description and clinical diagnosis of these effects was not introduced until 1973. Since then, the distinction of the wide range of effects that can be induced by prenatal alcohol exposure, and, consequently, the terminology to describe these effects has continued to evolve. Although much progress has been made in understanding the consequences of prenatal alcohol exposure, challenges still remain in p...

  12. Alcohol Consumption in Students

    OpenAIRE

    Tran, Cathy

    2010-01-01

    Drinking behaviour among university students is a serious public health concern. Reasons for drinking are complex and many factors contribute to this behaviour. Previous research has established links between personality factors and alcohol consumption and also between metacognitions and alcohol consumption. Few studies have looked into how personality traits and metacognitions interact. This study investigated the relationships between personality, metacognitions and alcohol consumption in a...

  13. ADOLESCENTS AND ALCOHOL

    OpenAIRE

    SPEAR, LINDA PATIA

    2013-01-01

    The high levels of alcohol consumption characteristic of adolescence may be in part biologically based, given that elevated consumption levels are also evident during this developmental transition in other mammalian species as well. Studies conducted using a simple animal model of adolescence in the rat has shown adolescents to be more sensitive than adults to social facilitatory and rewarding effects of alcohol, but less sensitive to numerous alcohol effects that may serve as cues to limit i...

  14. Children of alcoholics

    OpenAIRE

    Robert Oravecz

    2002-01-01

    The author briefly interprets the research – results, referring to the phenomenon of children of alcoholics, especially the psychological and psychopathological characteristics of children of alcoholics in adolescence and young adulthood. The author presents a screening study of adolescents. The sample contains 200 high school students at age 18. The aim of the survey was to discover the relationship between alcohol consumption of parents, PTSD - related psychopathological symptoms and ...

  15. Alcohol-Induced Blackout

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dai Jin Kim

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available For a long time, alcohol was thought to exert a general depressant effect on the central nervous system (CNS. However, currently the consensus is that specific regions of the brain are selectively vulnerable to the acute effects of alcohol. An alcohol-induced blackout is the classic example; the subject is temporarily unable to form new long-term memories while relatively maintaining other skills such as talking or even driving. A recent study showed that alcohol can cause retrograde memory impairment, that is, blackouts due to retrieval impairments as well as those due to deficits in encoding. Alcoholic blackouts may be complete (en bloc or partial (fragmentary depending on severity of memory impairment. In fragmentary blackouts, cueing often aids recall. Memory impairment during acute intoxication involves dysfunction of episodic memory, a type of memory encoded with spatial and social context. Recent studies have shown that there are multiple memory systems supported by discrete brain regions, and the acute effects of alcohol on learning and memory may result from alteration of the hippocampus and related structures on a cellular level. A rapid increase in blood alcohol concentration (BAC is most consistently associated with the likelihood of a blackout. However, not all subjects experience blackouts, implying that genetic factors play a role in determining CNS vulnerability to the effects of alcohol. This factor may predispose an individual to alcoholism, as altered memory function during intoxication may affect an individual‟s alcohol expectancy; one may perceive positive aspects of intoxication while unintentionally ignoring the negative aspects. Extensive research on memory and learning as well as findings related to the acute effects of alcohol on the brain may elucidate the mechanisms and impact associated with the alcohol- induced blackout.

  16. Mir-29 repression in bladder outlet obstruction contributes to matrix remodeling and altered stiffness.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mari Ekman

    Full Text Available Recent work has uncovered a role of the microRNA (miRNA miR-29 in remodeling of the extracellular matrix. Partial bladder outlet obstruction is a prevalent condition in older men with prostate enlargement that leads to matrix synthesis in the lower urinary tract and increases bladder stiffness. Here we tested the hypothesis that miR-29 is repressed in the bladder in outlet obstruction and that this has an impact on protein synthesis and matrix remodeling leading to increased bladder stiffness. c-Myc, NF-κB and SMAD3, all of which repress miR-29, were activated in the rat detrusor following partial bladder outlet obstruction but at different times. c-Myc and NF-κB activation occurred early after obstruction, and SMAD3 phosphorylation increased later, with a significant elevation at 6 weeks. c-Myc, NF-κB and SMAD3 activation, respectively, correlated with repression of miR-29b and miR-29c at 10 days of obstruction and with repression of miR-29c at 6 weeks. An mRNA microarray analysis showed that the reduction of miR-29 following outlet obstruction was associated with increased levels of miR-29 target mRNAs, including mRNAs for tropoelastin, the matricellular protein Sparc and collagen IV. Outlet obstruction increased protein levels of eight out of eight examined miR-29 targets, including tropoelastin and Sparc. Transfection of human bladder smooth muscle cells with antimiR-29c and miR-29c mimic caused reciprocal changes in target protein levels in vitro. Tamoxifen inducible and smooth muscle-specific deletion of Dicer in mice reduced miR-29 expression and increased tropoelastin and the thickness of the basal lamina surrounding smooth muscle cells in the bladder. It also increased detrusor stiffness independent of outlet obstruction. Taken together, our study supports a model where the combined repressive influences of c-Myc, NF-κB and SMAD3 reduce miR-29 in bladder outlet obstruction, and where the resulting drop in miR-29 contributes to

  17. Effect of blade outlet angle on radial thrust of single-blade centrifugal pump

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nishi, Y.; Fukutomi, J.; Fujiwara, R.

    2012-11-01

    Single-blade centrifugal pumps are widely used as sewage pumps. However, a large radial thrust acts on a single blade during pump operation because of the geometrical axial asymmetry of the impeller. This radial thrust causes vibrations of the pump shaft, reducing the service life of bearings and shaft seal devices. Therefore, to ensure pump reliability, it is necessary to quantitatively understand the radial thrust and clarify the behavior and generation mechanism. This study investigated the radial thrust acting on two kinds of single-blade centrifugal impellers having different blade outlet angles by experiments and computational fluid dynamics (CFD) analysis. Furthermore, the radial thrust was modeled by a combination of three components, inertia, momentum, and pressure, by applying an unsteady conservation of momentum to this impeller. As a result, the effects of the blade outlet angle on both the radial thrust and the modeled components were clarified. The total head of the impeller with a blade outlet angle of 16 degrees increases more than the impeller with a blade outlet angle of 8 degrees at a large flow rate. In this case, since the static pressure of the circumference of the impeller increases uniformly, the time-averaged value of the radial thrust of both impellers does not change at every flow rate. On the other hand, since the impeller blade loading becomes large, the fluctuation component of the radial thrust of the impeller with the blade outlet angle of 16 degrees increases. If the blade outlet angle increases, the fluctuation component of the inertia component will increase, but the time-averaged value of the inertia component is located near the origin despite changes in the flow rate. The fluctuation component of the momentum component becomes large at all flow rates. Furthermore, although the time-averaged value of the pressure component is almost constant, the fluctuation component of the pressure component becomes large at a large flow rate

  18. CFD Analysis on a Core Outlet Flow through the Fuel Alignment Plant of SMART

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    CFD (Computational Fluid Dynamics) simulations were performed to confirm the core flow distribution for SMART, which acquired standard design approval in 2012. In this paper, CFD simulation is also used to calculate the pressure distribution of a core outlet, a Fuel Alignment Plate (FAP), for SMART. In SMART, the fluid discharged from the Steam Generator comes into a Flow Mixing Header Assembly (FMHA), and is rearranged and split into a very fine size. The FMHA is greatly important for enhancing the flow distribution of a downcomer during a normal operation, transient, and even accidents. Then, the fluid discharged from the FMHA flows into the core upstream through flow skirt holes. The Low Core Support Plate (LCSP) reallocates the flow introducing into the inlet core from the core upstream. The deviation of flow distribution becomes smaller or almost disappears by LCSP holes having relatively large loss coefficient compared to the downstream flow deviation. In an open core, the flow deviation at the core inlet region is diminished by cross flow as it goes upward. Near the core outlet, the flow distribution can be distorted by the influence of a Fuel Alignment Plate (FAP) installed above the fuels. In this paper, the effect of the core outlet flow structure such as the FAP holes of SMART is investigated. Before the calculation, the influences of mesh size and turbulence models are inspected. CFD simulations were performed to investigate the effect of FAP flow holes on the core outlet flow of SMART. As a preliminary study, the dependency of the mesh size and turbulence models was tested; a fine grid was applied, the effect of which is negligible, and the core outlet flow is not sensitive to the turbulence models. In brief, the flow resistance of FAP is less than 15% of that of the fuel assemblies. The flow resistance deviation between two flow path patterns is less than 1% of that of active core. Even two flow path patterns located at the downstream location of the

  19. Fetal Alcohol Syndrome "Chemical Genocide."

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asetoyer, Charon

    In the Northern Plains of the United States, 100% of Indian reservations are affected by alcohol related problems. Approximately 90% of Native American adults are currently alcohol users or abusers or are recovering from alcohol abuse. Alcohol consumption has a devastating effect on the unborn. Fetal Alcohol Syndrome (FAS) is an irreversible birth…

  20. [Doctors' alcohol problems].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Florkowski, Antoni; Gruszczyński, Wojciech; Gałecki, Piotr; Szubert, Sławomir; Klus, Marek; Zboralski, Krzysztof

    2008-01-01

    An overusing and an addiction to alcoholic drinks are important problems in a medical society. The studies made in the United States had documented that about 8-12% doctors were addicted to alcohol. In many cases the doctors are able to keep their problem as a secret and their activity is satisfied up to the moment when a decrease is noticed. Some factors--such as a high level of stress--predispose doctors to alcoholic problems especially surgeons. Alcohol problems should be identified as early as possible, and therapy ought to be given as well. There is no reason to hide the problem. PMID:19025048

  1. Treatment of alcoholism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jansson, B

    1994-01-01

    Special problems in the treatment of alcoholism are discussed. Risk groups, for instance children of alcoholics, should be identified as early as possible so that special attention can be paid to them. Treatment motivation plays a very central role, and motivating a patient for long-term treatment often is the most difficult part of the work. For alcohol dependent alcoholics, total abstinence should be the goal of treatment. To achieve this, psychotherapy consisting of supportive, behavioral and dynamic elements is recommended. To achieve effective therapy it should be carried out for a considerable length of time. PMID:8032164

  2. Alcoholic leukopenic pneumococcal sepsis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alraiyes, Abdul Hamid; Shaheen, Khaldoon; Alraies, M Chadi

    2013-04-01

    Alcohol abuse has been associated with an increased mortality and morbidity due to increased aspiration, delirium tremens, and seizures. The association of pneumococcal lung infections and leukopenia in the setting of alcohol abuse are rarely reported; however, when present, severe lung infections can happen with severe lung injury and poor response to conventional therapy and ultimately, death. We are reporting a case of 55-year-old-man presented with shortness of breath, cough and altered mental status and eventually found with severe pneumococcal lung infection in the setting of leukopenia and long-term alcohol abuse representing alcoholic leukopenic pneumococcal sepsis syndrome. PMID:23930244

  3. CHROMOPHOBE RENAL CELL CARCINOMA MASQUERADING AS OBSTRUCTIVE JAUNDICE AND GASTRIC OUTLET OBSTRUCTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suresh Kumar

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Chromophobe (Chr RCC is a distinctive entity of Renal Cell Carcinoma (RCC arising from cortical portion of collecting duct of kidneys with an incidence of 3 - 5% (1. Localized Cromophobe RCC suggests a better prognosis than other type of RCC but there is a poorer outcome with sarcomatoid features or metastatic disease (1 . Renal cell carcinoma is one of the few tumors known to metastasize to the pancreas (2 . Metastatic pancreatic cancer is rare, accounting for approximately 2% of all pancreatic malignancies, and most cases arise from renal cell carcinoma (3. Of patients with pancreatic metastases, 12% present with synchronous extra pancreatic metastasis, and they have a poor prognosis . Chromophobe RCC presenting as obstructive jaundice and gastric outlet obstruction has been cited infrequently in literature (3 . The purpose of this paper is two: first, a rare case ChRCC with atypical presentation with obstructive jaundice, gastric outlet obstruction and pancreatic metastasis. Second, multidisciplinary treatment involving General surgeon, Medical Gastroenterologist, Surgical Gastroenterologist, Urologist, Interventional Radiologist and a Medical oncologist. CASE PRESENTATION: A 43 years old female presenting with features of obstructive jaundice and gastric outlet obstruction in surgical outpatient. A multidisciplinary management approach found Metastatic ChRCC the cause for gastrointestinal manifestation . CONCLUSIONS: ChRCC can be local invasion or metastatic. There are multiple sites where metastases can occur. There are many specific investigations to confirm RCC and concomitant gastric outlet obstruction (GOO, obstructive jaundice and pancreatic secondaries. This patient was diagnosed early after presentation of acute symptoms, decompression of biliary system done early by PTBD, Radical nephrectomy done with Portahepatis node which was causing obstructive jaundice and gastric outlet obstruction. Frozen section biopsy from

  4. 33 CFR 207.330 - Mississippi River between Winnibigoshish and Pokegama dams, Leech River between outlet of Leech...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Mississippi River between Winnibigoshish and Pokegama dams, Leech River between outlet of Leech Lake and Mississippi River, and Pokegama... Winnibigoshish and Pokegama dams, Leech River between outlet of Leech Lake and Mississippi River, and...

  5. FastStats: Alcohol Use

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this? Submit What's this? Submit Button NCHS Home Alcohol Use Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir Data ... alcoholic liver disease deaths: 18,146 Number of alcohol-induced deaths, excluding accidents and homicides: 29,001 ...

  6. Alcohol-Related Liver Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... to run events. Please support us. Donate | Volunteer Alcohol-Related Liver Disease Discussion on Inspire Support Community ... Liver > Liver Disease Information > Alcohol-Related Liver Disease Alcohol-Related Liver Disease Explore this section to learn ...

  7. Benefit of chromium in reducing the rates of flow accelerated corrosion of carbon steel outlet feeders in CANDU reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the mid 1990's, wall thinning of outlet feeders due to flow accelerated corrosion (FAC) was recognized as an active mechanism in the outlet feeders of CANDU reactors. To address wall thinning of outlet feeders in new reactor construction and refurbishment projects, AECL introduced a minimum Cr concentration in its specification for the SA-106 carbon steel feeder pipe. The effectiveness of Cr in reducing FAC was subsequently demonstrated in in-reactor and out-reactor loops at AECL's Chalk River Laboratories. More recently, wall-thinning rates have been determined from wall thickness data collected from outlet feeders, containing a specified minimum Cr concentration, installed in the Point Lepreau Generating Station in 2001. This paper presents the FAC rates determined from in-service outlet feeders and compares the rates with data from previous in-reactor and out-reactor test loops, highlighting the consistency observed in results from the three sources. (author)

  8. Alcohol and atherosclerosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    DA LUZ PROTASIO L.

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available Atherosclerosis is manifested as coronary artery disease (CAD, ischemic stroke and peripheral vascular disease. Moderate alcohol consumption has been associated with reduction of CAD complications. Apparently, red wine offers more benefits than any other kind of drinks, probably due to flavonoids. Alcohol alters lipoproteins and the coagulation system. The flavonoids induce vascular relaxation by mechanisms that are both dependent and independent of nitric oxide, inhibits many of the cellular reactions associated with atherosclerosis and inflammation, such as endothelial expression of vascular adhesion molecules and release of cytokines from polymorphonuclear leukocytes. Hypertension is also influenced by the alcohol intake. Thus, heavy alcohol intake is almost always associated with systemic hypertension, and hence shall be avoided. In individuals that ingest excess alcohol, there is higher risk of coronary occlusion, arrhythmias, hepatic cirrhosis, upper gastrointestinal cancers, fetal alcohol syndrome, murders, sex crimes, traffic and industrial accidents, robberies, and psychosis. Alcohol is no treatment for atherosclerosis; but it doesn't need to be prohibited for everyone. Thus moderate amounts of alcohol (1-2 drinks/day, especially red wine, may be allowed for those at risk for atherosclerosis complications.

  9. Fetal Alcohol Syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zerrer, Peggy

    The paper reviews Fetal Alcohol Syndrome (FAS), a series of effects seen in children whose mothers drink alcohol to excess during pregnancy. The identification of FAS and its recognition as a major health problem in need of prevention are traced. Characteristics of children with FAS are described and resultant growth retardation, abnormal physical…

  10. Alcoholism and Diabetes Mellitus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soo-Jeong Kim

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Chronic use of alcohol is considered to be a potential risk factor for the incidence of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM, which causes insulin resistance and pancreatic β-cell dysfunction that is a prerequisite for the development of diabetes. However, alcohol consumption in diabetes has been controversial and more detailed information on the diabetogenic impact of alcohol seems warranted. Diabetes, especially T2DM, causes dysregulation of various metabolic processes, which includes a defect in the insulin-mediated glucose function of adipocytes, and an impaired insulin action in the liver. In addition, neurobiological profiles of alcoholism are linked to the effects of a disruption of glucose homeostasis and of insulin resistance, which are affected by altered appetite that regulates the peptides and neurotrophic factors. Since conditions, which precede the onset of diabetes that are associated with alcoholism is one of the crucial public problems, researches in efforts to prevent and treat diabetes with alcohol dependence, receives special clinical interest. Therefore, the purpose of this mini-review is to provide the recent progress and current theories in the interplay between alcoholism and diabetes. Further, the purpose of this study also includes summarizing the pathophysiological mechanisms in the neurobiology of alcoholism.

  11. Alcohol and atherosclerosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    daLuz, P L; Coimbra, S R

    2001-03-01

    Atherosclerosis is manifested as coronary artery disease (CAD), ischemic stroke and peripheral vascular disease. Moderate alcohol consumption has been associated with reduction of CAD complications. Apparently, red wine offers more benefits than any other kind of drinks, probably due to flavonoids. Alcohol alters lipoproteins and the coagulation system. The flavonoids induce vascular relaxation by mechanisms that are both dependent and independent of nitric oxide, inhibits many of the cellular reactions associated with atherosclerosis and inflammation, such as endothelial expression of vascular adhesion molecules and release of cytokines from polymorphonuclear leukocytes. Hypertension is also influenced by the alcohol intake. Thus, heavy alcohol intake is almost always associated with systemic hypertension, and hence shall be avoided. In individuals that ingest excess alcohol, there is higher risk of coronary occlusion, arrhythmias, hepatic cirrhosis, upper gastrointestinal cancers, fetal alcohol syndrome, murders, sex crimes, traffic and industrial accidents, robberies, and psychosis. Alcohol is no treatment for atherosclerosis; but it doesn't need to be prohibited for everyone. Thus moderate amounts of alcohol (1-2 drinks/day), especially red wine, may be allowed for those at risk for atherosclerosis complications. PMID:11246269

  12. Alcohol on wheels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDermott, F T

    1986-01-01

    Alcohol misuse remains the single most important contributing factor to road accident deaths and injuries in Australia. The results of compulsory blood alcohol tests on road casualties have shown that probationary licensed drivers have a threefold increased risk of road accident injury compared to fully licensed drivers and are additionally over-represented in alcohol-related crashes. These findings led the Victorian Road Trauma Committee to campaign for a zero blood alcohol limit for learner and probationary drivers and motorcyclists. In May 1984, zero blood alcohol legislation was enacted in Victoria. The present legislation applies to learner and first year probationary licence holders. For the first time we have evidence of a moderate reduction in alcohol-related road trauma in Victoria. Between 1977 and 1983 there has been a significant reduction in the proportion of driver casualties admitted to hospital with illegal blood alcohol concentrations and in the number of driver fatalities with blood alcohol concentrations in excess of 0.15 g%. An evaluation of the following recommended drink driver countermeasures is presented: improved driver education, increased penalties, re-education--rehabilitation programmes for convicted drink drivers, interlock devices and an increase in the legal drinking age. PMID:3461765

  13. Mulberry Fruit Mitigates Alcohol Neurotoxicity and Memory Impairment Induced by Chronic Alcohol Intake

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jintanaporn Wattanathorn

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: To date, the therapeutic strategy efficacy against memory impairment induced by alcohol intoxication is still limited. The novel therapeutic strategy which is easy to approach, less toxic and less cost is required. Based on the role of oxidative stress in memory impairment induced by alcohol, the neuroprotective effect of substance possessing antioxidant has gained much attention. Therefore, we aimed to determine the effect of Morus alba fruits, substance possessing antioxidant, on spatial memory and brain damage in hippocampus. Approach: Male Wistar rats were induced alcoholism by increasing the alcohol concentration in drinking water gradually increased to 30% within 15-week period. Then, the alcoholic rats were orally given mulberry fruits powder at doses of 2, 10 and 50 mg kg-1 BW at a period of 14 days. The memory was assessed using Morris water maze after single administration and every 7 days until the end of the experimental period and at the end of experiment, hippocampus was isolated and determined the neuron density. In addition, the evaluation of Acetylcholinesterase (AChE activity and Malondialdehyde (MDA level were also performed. Results: Our results showed that all doses of mulberry fruits enhanced spatial memory and neurons density in hippocampus. The suppression of both AChE activity and MDA level were also observed. These results suggested that the neuroprotection of mulberry fruits might occur partly via the decreased oxidative stress damage while the cognitive enhancing effect might occur partly via the increased hippocampal neuron density and the suppression of AChE activity. Conclusion: Mulberry fruits can protect against brain damage and memory impairment induced by alcoholism. Therefore, mulberry fruits may be served as natural resource for developing food supplement against alcoholism. However, further researches about possible active ingredient and pharmacokinetic are required before moving forward

  14. Phytotherapy of alcoholism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomczyk, Michał; Zovko-Koncić, Marijana; Chrostek, Lech

    2012-02-01

    Alcoholism is a medical, social, and economic problem where treatment methods mostly include difficult and long-lasting psychotherapy and, in some cases, quite controversial pharmacological approaches. A number of medicinal plants and pure natural compounds are reported to have preventive and therapeutic effects on alcoholism and alcohol dependency, but their constituents, efficacy and mechanism of action are mostly unknown so far. Recently, kudzu [Pueraria lobata (Willd.) Ohwi], St. John's wort (Hypericum perforatum L.), danshen (Salvia miltiorrhiza Bge.), ginseng (Panax ginseng C.A. Mey.), Japanese raisin tree (Hovenia dulcis Thunb.), ibogaine (Tabernanthe iboga H. Bn.), evening primrose (Oenothera biennis L.), prickly pear fruit (Opuntia ficus indica (L.) Mill.), purple passionflower (Passiflora incarnata L.), thyme (Thymus vulgaris L.), fenugreek seed (Trigonella foenum-graecum L.), ginger (Zingiber officinale Roscoe) and many others drew the attention of researchers. Can, therefore, drugs of natural origin be helpful in the treatment of alcoholism or in decreasing alcohol consumption? PMID:22474979

  15. Pentoxifylline for alcoholic hepatitis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Whitfield, Kate; Rambaldi, Andrea; Wetterslev, Jørn;

    2009-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Alcoholic hepatitis is a life-threatening disease, with an average mortality of approximately 40%. There is no widely accepted, effective treatment for alcoholic hepatitis. Pentoxifylline is used to treat alcoholic hepatitis, but there has been no systematic review to assess its effects....... OBJECTIVES: To assess the benefits and harms of pentoxifylline in alcoholic hepatitis. SEARCH STRATEGY: The Cochrane Hepato-Biliary Group Controlled Trials Register, The Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL) in The Cochrane Library, MEDLINE, EMBASE, Science Citation Index Expanded, LILACS......, clinicaltrials.gov, and full text searches were conducted until August 2009. Manufacturers and authors were contacted. SELECTION CRITERIA: All randomised clinical trials of pentoxifylline in participants with alcoholic hepatitis compared to control were selected for inclusion. DATA COLLECTION AND ANALYSIS: Two...

  16. Alcohol consumption in adolescents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ilona Plevová

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Aim: To determine the level of alcohol consumption in a selected group of adolescents. Design: A descriptive cross-sectional study. Methods: The data were obtained using a part of the standardized ESPAD questionnaire for assessing consumption of alcoholic beverages. The sample comprised 422 students from seven secondary schools of different types in the city of Ostrava. For statistical analysis, the chi-squared test and Fisher's exact test (for n ≤ 5 were used. The data were processed using Stata v. 10. Results: More than half of respondents first tried alcohol before the age of 15. The most frequent alcohol-related problems were unprotected sex, decreased school performance and problems with parents or friends. Incomplete families were found to be an important factor in adolescents preferring and more frequently drinking beer. Conclusion: The study confirmed results reported by the Europe-wide survey ESPAD, namely that adolescents start to drink alcohol as early as before they turn fifteen.

  17. Monitoring prenatal alcohol exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Floyd, R Louise; Sidhu, Jasjeet S

    2004-05-15

    Alcohol use during pregnancy is a leading, preventable cause of birth defects and developmental disabilities in the United States, with fetal alcohol syndrome (FAS) being one of the most severe outcomes. Current survey statistics find that approximately one in eight pregnant women (500,000 per year) report alcohol use, with approximately 80,000 reporting binge drinking. While annual rates have fluctuated, trends analysis finds that there has been no significant change in rates of prenatal alcohol exposure over the past 10-year period. Development of effective programs to prevent FAS and to monitor the success of prevention efforts requires epidemiological data systems to inform these activities. This article describes alcohol use patterns among childbearing-age women and data sources that can be used in monitoring this behavior. PMID:15095466

  18. Road density

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Road density is generally highly correlated with amount of developed land cover. High road densities usually indicate high levels of ecological disturbance. More...

  19. Alcohol Expectancies, Alcohol Use, and Hostility as Longitudinal Predictors of Alcohol-Related Aggression

    OpenAIRE

    Kachadourian, Lorig K.; Homish, Gregory G.; Quigley, Brian M; Leonard, Kenneth E.

    2011-01-01

    The direct and interactive effects of alcohol expectancies for aggression, dispositional hostility, and heavy alcohol consumption on alcohol-related physical aggression were examined across the first four years of marriage in a sample of 634 newlywed couples. For husbands, alcohol aggression expectancies predicted increases in alcohol-related aggression; across husbands and wives however, aggression expectancies were not found to interact with hostility or alcohol consumption to predict physi...

  20. 75 FR 38533 - National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-02

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice... personal privacy. Name of Committee: National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism Special Emphasis... Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism, Office of Extramural Activities, Extramural Project Officer, 5635...

  1. 78 FR 42530 - National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-16

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice... personal privacy. Name of Committee: National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism Initial Review..., Ph.D., Scientific Review Officer, National Institute on Alcohol Abuse & Alcoholism,...

  2. 76 FR 26308 - National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-06

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice... personal privacy. Name of Committee: National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism Initial Review..., Scientific Review Administrator, National Institutes On Alcohol Abuse & Alcoholism National, Institutes...

  3. 75 FR 57473 - National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-21

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice... personal privacy. Name of Committee: National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism Special Emphasis... Officer, National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism, Office of Extramural Activities,...

  4. 76 FR 78014 - National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-15

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice... personal privacy. Name of Committee: National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism Initial Review...., Scientific Review Administrator, National Institutes on Alcohol Abuse & Alcoholism, National Institutes...

  5. 75 FR 10291 - National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-05

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice... personal privacy. Name of Committee: National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism, Initial Review..., MBA, Scientific Review Officer, National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism, Office...

  6. 75 FR 24961 - National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice of Closed Meetings

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-06

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice... personal privacy. Name of Committee: National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism Special Emphasis... Extramural Activities, National Institutes of Health, National Institute on Alcohol Abuse & Alcoholism,...

  7. 75 FR 63494 - National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-15

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice... personal privacy. Name of Committee: National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism Special Emphasis..., Extramural Project Review Branch, EPRB, National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism,...

  8. 78 FR 42529 - National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-16

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice... personal privacy. Name of Committee: National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism Initial Review....D., Scientific Review Administrator, National Institutes on Alcohol Abuse & Alcoholism,...

  9. 77 FR 22794 - National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-17

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice... personal privacy. Name of Committee: National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism Initial Review..., Ph.D., Scientific Review Administrator, National Institutes on Alcohol Abuse & Alcoholism...

  10. Lung density

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Garnett, E S; Webber, C E; Coates, G;

    1977-01-01

    The density of a defined volume of the human lung can be measured in vivo by a new noninvasive technique. A beam of gamma-rays is directed at the lung and, by measuring the scattered gamma-rays, lung density is calculated. The density in the lower lobe of the right lung in normal man during quiet...

  11. A Comparative Analysis of the Distributions of KFC and McDonald’s Outlets in China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yikang Rui

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Mainland China has become one of the most important markets for international fast-food chains over the past decade. To study the regional spread of KFC and McDonald’s outlets in Chinese cities, the correlation of their distributions and degree of market expansion were explored and compared to analyze both the local and the global spatial autocorrelations. A geographically weighted Poisson regression model was also used to examine the influence of demographic, economic, and geographic factors on their spatial distributions. The findings of this comparative study reveal the site selection criteria at the city level by studying the differences and similarities in outlet distributions for KFC and McDonald’s. The presented results can guide other chains to enhance business location planning and formulate regional development policy.

  12. Thoracic outlet syndrome caused by hydatid cyst of the first rib-rare but important.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levy Faber, Dan; Best, Lael-Anson; Militianu, Daniela; Ben Nun, Alon

    2010-12-01

    Hydatid cysts are usually located in the liver and lungs. Skeletal echinococcosis is relatively rare and that of the rib is exceptional. Less than 50 cases of costal echinococcosis have been reported in the literature so far. To our knowledge, only one case report of thoracic outlet syndrome due to echinococcal cyst in the first rib was described in 1995. Accurate pre-operative diagnosis is important but may be challenging in some cases. Reported here is a case of echinococcosis of the first rib in a young adult who was presented with thoracic outlet syndrome. Plain chest radiograph, CT scan and MRI were performed. The imaging features were suggestive of a solitary aneurysmal bone cyst and the differential diagnosis included echinococcosis of the first rib. The lesion was completely resected and the histopathological examination confirmed the diagnosis of echinococcosis. PMID:22131660

  13. Modeling the acoustical and airflow performance of natural ventilation inlet and outlet units

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oldham, David J.; Kang, Jian; Brocklesby, Martin

    2005-04-01

    One aspect of the trend towards designing green buildings has been the increasing use of natural ventilation for buildings which otherwise might have required mechanical ventilation or even full air conditioning. However, the pressure differentials available to drive the natural ventilation process are small and hence relatively large inlets and outlets with low resistance to flow are required. These apertures constitute significant acoustic weak points on building facades and hence need to be treated to reduce noise ingress. Although there are a number of natural ventilation units available they have frequently been designed from the application of simple principles without any attempt to optimise both their airflow and acoustical performance. In this paper the results of a series of computer modeling exercises are described using acoustic FEM and BEM plus Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) which seeks to establish recommendations for the optimum design of natural ventilation inlet and outlet devices for both acoustical and airflow performance.

  14. CFD Study of Industrial FCC Risers: The Effect of Outlet Configurations on Hydrodynamics and Reactions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriela C. Lopes

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Fluid catalytic cracking (FCC riser reactors have complex hydrodynamics, which depend not only on operating conditions, feedstock quality, and catalyst particles characteristics, but also on the geometric configurations of the reactor. This paper presents a numerical study of the influence of different riser outlet designs on the dynamic of the flow and reactor efficiency. A three-dimensional, three-phase flow model and a four-lump kinetic scheme were used to predict the performance of the reactor. The phenomenon of vaporization of the liquid oil droplets was also analyzed. Results showed that small changes in the outlet configuration had a significant effect on the flow patterns and consequently, on the reaction yields.

  15. Influence of the outlet air temperature on the thermohydraulic behaviour of air coolers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Đorđević Emila M.

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available The determination of the optimal process conditions for the operation of air coolers demands a detailed analysis of their thermohydraulic behaviour on the one hand, and the estimation of the operating costs, on the other. One of the main parameters of the thermohydraulic behaviour of this type of equipment, is the outlet air temperature. The influence of the outlet air temperature on the performance of air coolers (heat transfer coefficient overall heat transfer coefficient, required surface area for heat transfer air-side pressure drop, fan power consumption and sound pressure level was investigated in this study. All the computations, using AirCooler software [1], were applied to cooling of the process fluid and the condensation of a multicomponent vapour mixture on two industrial devices of known geometries.

  16. A Comparative Analysis of the Distributions of KFC and McDonald’s Outlets in China

    OpenAIRE

    Yikang Rui; Huang Huang; Min Lu; Bao Wang; Jiechen Wang

    2016-01-01

    Mainland China has become one of the most important markets for international fast-food chains over the past decade. To study the regional spread of KFC and McDonald’s outlets in Chinese cities, the correlation of their distributions and degree of market expansion were explored and compared to analyze both the local and the global spatial autocorrelations. A geographically weighted Poisson regression model was also used to examine the influence of demographic, economic, and geographic factors...

  17. Marketing Communications Research On Food & Beverage Outlets Of Moevenpick Hotel Saigon

    OpenAIRE

    Hoang Minh, Tam

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this thesis was to conduct a marketing communications research on Food & Beverage Outlets of Moevenpick hotel Saigon. Besides, a short description of consumer rating on F&B service quality was other mission specifically assigned by the commissioned party. The research provided general information about both targeted potential customers from surrounding areas and current hotel guest and restaurant diner. Next was the analysis derived from the customer survey’s result, the ran...

  18. NUMERICAL SIMULATION ON 2-D WATER-AIR TWO-PHASE FLOW OVER TOP OUTLET

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    Flood discharge over top outlet of dam is simu-lated by 2-dimension water-air two-phase mathematical model.Distribution of dynamic pressure, turbulent kinetic energy (k), turbulent dissipation rate (ε) , free water surface and veloci-ty field have been obtained. The simulated results were testedby physical model, which shows that the computed results areidentical with that of the physical model.

  19. Effects of Non Ideal Inlet and Outlet Pipes on Measured Compressor Efficiency

    OpenAIRE

    Ekberg, Kristoffer

    2015-01-01

    The thesis is about investigating the inlet and outlet pipes effect on the compressors measured performance. From measurements made in a gas stand, a thermodynamic model is to be created and the compressor efficiency further investigated. The temperatures and pressures entering and leaving the compressor does not have to be the same as the temperatures measured in the gasstand, because of the thermodynamics of the pipes that connects the measurement equipment and the compressor. During a gass...

  20. Neighborhood Food Outlets, Diet, and Obesity Among California Adults, 2007 and 2009

    OpenAIRE

    Hattori, Aiko; An, Ruopeng; Sturm, Roland

    2013-01-01

    Introduction Varying neighborhood definitions may affect research on the association between food environments and diet and weight status. The objective of this study was to examine the association between number and type of neighborhood food outlets and dietary intake and body mass index (BMI) measures among California adults according to the geographic size of a neighborhood or food environment. Methods We analyzed data from 97,678 respondents aged 18 years or older from the 2007 and 2009 C...

  1. AERODYNAMICS OF SWIRLING FLOWS IN GAS OUTLET PIPES OF HEAT GENERATING PLANTS

    OpenAIRE

    Vadim Kajumovich Ahmetov

    2012-01-01

    The intermixing of hot turbulent gases in an axisymmetric channel with lateral surfaces of arbitrary shape and a pre-swirled flow is considered in the paper. This problem is relevant in connection with the development of new high-tech designs of natural fuel combustion facilities. Any designs are to comply with specific requirements. The temperature of the flue gas must not fall below a certain limit to prevent promotion of condensation that facilitates pipe corrosion. The gas outlet velocity...

  2. Gastrojejunostomy followed by induction chemotherapy for incurable gastric cancer with outlet obstruction

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yasuhiro; Okumura; Manabu; Ohashi; Souya; Nunobe; Tomohiro; Iwanaga; Tatsuo; Kanda; Yoshiaki; Iwasaki

    2010-01-01

    A 72-year-old male gastric cancer patient with outlet obstruction underwent laparoscopic exploration. The examination disclosed intraperitoneal free cancer cells with no overt peritoneal, lymphatic, or hepatic metastasis. The patient underwent laparoscopy-assisted gastroje-junostomy (LAGJ) and started chemotherapy with S-1 plus cisplatin on postoperative day 13. Three course of the chemotherapy shrank the tumor markedly. Then, the patient underwent gastrectomy with a curative intent. Laparotomy revealed no ...

  3. Outlet device to limit excess pressure in nuclear power plants, in particular BWR reactor plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The outlet flow side of a condensation pipe immersed into a water reservoir is equipped with internals. These are a concentric orifice tube with an annular gap, a perforated hollow cone, or a multitude of annular diaphragms. The annular diaphragms have sections of perforated orifices. The internals can be used to initiate a spray action at the overflow edges multiplying the heat transfer area of the cooling water relative to the steam flow. (DG)

  4. The planning system and fast food outlets in London: lessons for health promotion practice

    OpenAIRE

    Caraher, M.; O'Keefe, E; S. Lloyd; Madelin, T.

    2013-01-01

    This article considers how health promotion can use planning as a tool to enhance healthy eating choices. It draws on research in relation to the availability and concentration of fast food outlets in a London borough. Current public health policy is confining planning to local settings within a narrow framework drawing on discourses from social psychology and libertarian economics. Policy is focusing on behaviour change, voluntary agreements and devolution of the public health function to lo...

  5. Innertkirchen compensation basin outlets – Flap gate combined with small stilling basin

    OpenAIRE

    Zeimetz, Fränz; Pfister, Michael; Gehri, Matthias; Kost, Markus

    2013-01-01

    In the context of an update of their hydropower plants, the Hydroelectric Company KWO plans an adaption of their powerhouses Innertkirchen 1 and 2. One aim of the project is, among many others, an optimized restitution regime of the turbined water to the Aare River. Therefore, a compensation basin is planned to reduce the currently pronounced hydro-peaking. The basin is situated downstream of the Hasliaare and the Gadmerwasser confluence, next to the outlets of the two powerhouses. The spatia...

  6. Spatial accessibility to physical activity facilities and to food outlets and overweight in French youth

    OpenAIRE

    Casey, R.; Chaix, B.; Weber, C.; Schweitzer, B; Charreire, H.; Salze, P; Badariotti, D; Banos, A.; Oppert, J-M; Simon, C

    2012-01-01

    Objective: Some characteristics of the built environment have been associated with obesity in youth. Our aim was to determine whether individual and environmental socio-economic characteristics modulate the relation between youth overweight and spatial accessibility to physical activity (PA) facilities and to food outlets. Design: Cross-sectional study. Subjects: 3293 students, aged 12±0.6 years, randomly selected from eastern France middle schools. Measurements and methods: Using geographica...

  7. Consumer Preferences for Animal Source Foods in Uganda: Quality, Retail Forms and Retail Outlets

    OpenAIRE

    Nadhem Mtimet; Derek Baker; Ugo Pica-Ciamarra; John Jagwe

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents the results of a rapid consumer survey undertaken in Uganda. The survey aimed at identifying preferred quality and safety attributes, retail forms and retail outlets for major livestock products and by type of consumers. Results of the survey, combined with nationally representative household datasets, allows description of both the quantitative and qualitative dimensions of the developing market for animal-source foods, which is anticipated to provide major business oppor...

  8. Aerodynamic Performance of Scale-Model Turbofan Outlet Guide Vanes Designed for Low Noise

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hughes, Christopher E.

    2001-01-01

    The design of effective new technologies to reduce aircraft propulsion noise is dependent on an understanding of the noise sources and noise generation mechanisms in the modern turbofan engine. In order to more fully understand the physics of noise in a turbofan engine, a comprehensive aeroacoustic wind tunnel test programs was conducted called the 'Source Diagnostic Test.' The text was cooperative effort between NASA and General Electric Aircraft Engines, as part of the NASA Advanced Subsonic Technology Noise Reduction Program. A 1/5-scale model simulator representing the bypass stage of a current technology high bypass ratio turbofan engine was used in the test. The test article consisted of the bypass fan and outlet guide vanes in a flight-type nacelle. The fan used was a medium pressure ratio design with 22 individual, wide chord blades. Three outlet guide vane design configurations were investigated, representing a 54-vane radial Baseline configuration, a 26-vane radial, wide chord Low Count configuration and a 26-vane, wide chord Low Noise configuration with 30 deg of aft sweep. The test was conducted in the NASA Glenn Research Center 9 by 15-Foot Low Speed Wind Tunnel at velocities simulating the takeoff and approach phases of the aircraft flight envelope. The Source Diagnostic Test had several acoustic and aerodynamic technical objectives: (1) establish the performance of a scale model fan selected to represent the current technology turbofan product; (2) assess the performance of the fan stage with each of the three distinct outlet guide vane designs; (3) determine the effect of the outlet guide vane configuration on the fan baseline performance; and (4) conduct detailed flowfield diagnostic surveys, both acoustic and aerodynamic, to characterize and understand the noise generation mechanisms in a turbofan engine. This paper addresses the fan and stage aerodynamic performance results from the Source Diagnostic Test.

  9. Effects of mild bladder outlet obstruction on rabbit bladder structure and function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuo, H C

    1995-09-01

    Mild bladder outlet obstruction was created in 42 New Zealand white rabbits by placing a 5-mm inner diameter polyethylene tube around the urethra. Periods of obstruction lasted for 1 day (7 rabbits), 3 days (7 rabbits), 1 week (7 rabbits), 2 weeks (6 rabbits), 4 weeks (7 rabbits), 6 weeks (4 rabbits) and 8 weeks (4 rabbits). Whole bladder functional study was performed in control (5 rabbits) and the obstructed bladders. The obstructed bladders increased in weight two-to threefold. There was no significant difference in bladder weight after different periods of obstruction. Electric stimulation showed a diminished response after 3 days of obstruction. Pharmacologic stimulation with 500 microM carbachol revealed a decreased response after obstruction, but intravesical pressure returned to the control level at 6 and 8 weeks of obstruction. However, the bladder weight and the expelling function of the obstructed bladders remained the same as on day 1 of obstruction. Histologic study of control and obstructed bladders revealed that: 1) dense submucosal fibrous tissue developed after 3 days of obstruction, 2) detrusor muscle hypertrophy and hyperplasia were noted with intermuscular collagenous fiber deposition after 2 weeks of obstruction, 3) trabeculation of the bladder wall with hyperplasia of muscular bundles was noted after 2 weeks of obstruction, 4) acute edematous and inflammatory reaction were apparent after 3 days and 1 week of obstruction, but resolved later and 5) degenerative changes of muscular cells were noted at 8 weeks of obstruction. The results show that despite apparent morphologic changes after outlet obstruction, no significant difference was observed in bladder expelling between short-term and long-term infravesical mild outlet obstruction. The bladder contractile apparatus appears to have a compensatory ability after mild outlet obstruction. PMID:8696170

  10. Bouveret's syndrome as an unusual cause of gastric outlet obstruction: a case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joshi Deepak

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract An 83 year old caucasian gentleman presented with vomiting and left sided abdominal pain. A subsequent upper GI endoscopy demonstrated a large smooth mass impacted within the duodenum. A cholecysto-duodenal fistula was discovered at laparotomy, with a large gallstone impacted in the duodenum. A diagnosis of Bouveret's syndrome was made. The management of this rare cause of gastric outlet obstruction is discussed.

  11. Does Alcohol Education Prevent Alcohol Problems?: Need for Evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooper, A. Mitch; Sobell, Mark B.

    1979-01-01

    Examined evidence for the alleged failure of alcohol education to prevent alcohol problems among children and adolescents. Concluded that there is need for investigations of the effectiveness of alcohol education. Recommendations regarding methodological characteristics of an adequate test of effectiveness of alcohol education were presented and…

  12. Correct quantitative determination of ethanol and volatile compounds in alcohol products

    CERN Document Server

    Charapitsa, Siarhei; Sytova, Svetlana; Yakuba, Yurii

    2014-01-01

    Determination of the volume content of ethanol in the alcohol products in practice is usually determined by pycnometry, electronic densimetry, or densimetry using a hydrostatic balance in accordance with Commission Regulation No 2870/2000. However, these methods determine directly only density of the tested liquid sample and does not take into account the effects of other volatile components such as aldehydes, esters and higher alcohols. So they are appropriate only for binary water-ethanol solutions in accordance with international table adopted by the International Legal Metrology Organization in its Recommendation No 22. Availability notable concentrations of the higher alcohols and ethers in different alcohol-based products, e. g. in whisky, cognac, brandy, wine as well as in waste alcohol and alcohol beverage production, leads to the significant contribution of these compounds in the value of the density of tested alcohol-containing sample. As a result, determination of the volume of ethanol content for ...

  13. Fruit and Vegetable Intake in Adolescents: Association with Socioeconomic Status and Exposure to Supermarkets and Fast Food Outlets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Svastisalee, Chalida M.; Holstein, Bjørn E.; Due, Pernille

    2012-01-01

    Background. We investigated differences in family social class associations between food outlet exposure and fruit and vegetable intake. Methods. We supplemented data from the 2006 Health Behavior in School Aged Children Study (n = 6, 096) with geocoded food outlet information surrounding schools (n = 80). We used multilevel logistic regression to examine associations between infrequent fruit and vegetable intake and supermarket and fast food outlet concentration, stratified by family social class. Results. Boys and older children were most likely to eat fruit and vegetables infrequently. High fast food outlet exposure was marginally significant for low fruit intake in low social class children only. Children from middle and low social class backgrounds attending schools with combined high fast food outlet/low supermarket exposure were most likely to report infrequent fruit intake (ORlow = 1.60; CI:  1.02–2.45; ORmid = 1.40; CI:  1.03–190). Children from low social class backgrounds were also likely to report infrequent vegetable intake, given low supermarket and high fast food outlet exposure (OR = 1.79; CI:  0.99–3.21). Conclusion. Our findings suggest social class modifies the relationship between intake and food outlet concentration. School interventions improving fruit and vegetable intake should consider neighborhood surroundings, targetting older children from low social class backgrounds. PMID:22988491

  14. Fruit and Vegetable Intake in Adolescents: Association with Socioeconomic Status and Exposure to Supermarkets and Fast Food Outlets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chalida M. Svastisalee

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. We investigated differences in family social class associations between food outlet exposure and fruit and vegetable intake. Methods. We supplemented data from the 2006 Health Behavior in School Aged Children Study (n=6,096 with geocoded food outlet information surrounding schools (n=80. We used multilevel logistic regression to examine associations between infrequent fruit and vegetable intake and supermarket and fast food outlet concentration, stratified by family social class. Results. Boys and older children were most likely to eat fruit and vegetables infrequently. High fast food outlet exposure was marginally significant for low fruit intake in low social class children only. Children from middle and low social class backgrounds attending schools with combined high fast food outlet/low supermarket exposure were most likely to report infrequent fruit intake (ORlow=1.60; CI:  1.02–2.45; ORmid=1.40; CI:  1.03–190. Children from low social class backgrounds were also likely to report infrequent vegetable intake, given low supermarket and high fast food outlet exposure (OR=1.79; CI:  0.99–3.21. Conclusion. Our findings suggest social class modifies the relationship between intake and food outlet concentration. School interventions improving fruit and vegetable intake should consider neighborhood surroundings, targetting older children from low social class backgrounds.

  15. Climatology, hydrology, and simulation of an emergency outlet, Devils Lake basin, North Dakota

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiche, Gregg J.; Vecchia, A.V.; Osborne, Leon; Wood, Carrie M.; Fay, James T.

    2000-01-01

    Devils Lake is a natural lake in northeastern North Dakota that is the terminus of a nearly 4,000-square-mile subbasin in the Red River of the North Basin. The lake has not reached its natural spill elevation to the Sheyenne River (a tributary of the Red River of the North) in recorded history. However, geologic evidence indicates a spill occurred sometime within the last 1,800 years. From 1993 to 1999, Devils Lake rose 24.5 feet and, at the present (August 2000), is about 13 feet below the natural spill elevation. The recent lake-level rise has caused flood damages exceeding $300 million and triggered development of future flood-control options to prevent further infrastructure damage and reduce the risk of a potentially catastrophic uncontrolled spill. Construction of an emergency outlet from the west end of Devils Lake to the Sheyenne River is one flood-control option being considered. This report describes the climatologic and hydrologic causes of the recent lake level rise, provides information on the potential for continued lake-level rises during the next 15 years, and describes the potential effectiveness of an emergency outlet in reducing future lake levels and in reducing the risk of an uncontrolled spill. The potential effects of an outlet on downstream water quantity and quality in the upper Sheyenne River also are described.

  16. Optimized Design of Outlets Layout in Thermal Pressure Naturally Ventilated Rooms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xuemin Sui

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Using thermal pressure ventilation principles to achieve passive ventilation in buildings is an important way to promote green and low consumption building strategy. The reasonable vents layout design can fully tap the potential of thermal pressure ventilation. Aimed to civil buildings with internal heating source, using Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD technology, the effects of outlets layout on thermal natural ventilation in rooms were studied. Three types of typical air outlets distribution patterns were considered and the airflow distribution of thermal natural ventilation in rooms was simulated. The ventilation rates and the average workspace temperatures of different simulated conditions were given. The velocity and temperature fields of different simulated conditions were analyzed and the indoor thermal stratification characteristics were discussed. In addition, the effective heat coefficients of different simulated conditions were analyzed and compared. The results show that the strategy of dispersed outlets on ceiling can achieve the optimal natural ventilation effect. The results can provide theoretical references for the design of natural ventilation system in civil buildings.

  17. Air demand estimation in bottom outlets with the particle finite element method - Susqueda Dam case study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salazar, Fernando; San-Mauro, Javier; Celigueta, Miguel Ángel; Oñate, Eugenio

    2016-06-01

    Dam bottom outlets play a vital role in dam operation and safety, as they allow controlling the water surface elevation below the spillway level. For partial openings, water flows under the gate lip at high velocity and drags the air downstream of the gate, which may cause damages due to cavitation and vibration. The convenience of installing air vents in dam bottom outlets is well known by practitioners. The design of this element depends basically on the maximum air flow through the air vent, which in turn is a function of the specific geometry and the boundary conditions. The intrinsic features of this phenomenon makes it hard to analyse either on site or in full scaled experimental facilities. As a consequence, empirical formulas are frequently employed, which offer a conservative estimate of the maximum air flow. In this work, the particle finite element method was used to model the air-water interaction in Susqueda Dam bottom outlet, with different gate openings. Specific enhancements of the formulation were developed to consider air-water interaction. The results were analysed as compared to the conventional design criteria and to information gathered on site during the gate operation tests. This analysis suggests that numerical modelling with the PFEM can be helpful for the design of this kind of hydraulic works.

  18. Use of Mobile Pipeline with Self-regulated Water Outlets for Furrow Irrigation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vysochkina L.I.

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Surface irrigation is one of the most common irrigation methods, but it has its own significant drawbacks. A mobile pipeline for furrow irrigation from closed irrigation network was designed and its parameters were proved in order to improve furrow irrigation. The mobile pipeline consists of plastic pipes based on 10 pairs of spring skis connected in the middle by a flexible connection. It is known that water flow into the furrow decreases along the pipeline due to pressure losses along the length of the pipeline. It was proposed to use water outlets ensuring uniform supply of water to each furrow by the presence of the butterfly valve in housing of the water outlet in the mobile pipeline. In order to ensure sustainable valve position, an equation was derived and values of the area of the upper and bottom parts of the valve were obtained. According to the pipeline field test results, water distribution uniformity coefficient through the outlets was 0.98, at a flow rate of 1.0-3.0 l∙s-1 and hydraulic slopes along the pipeline of 0.001−0.005.

  19. Review of recent developments and applications in low-pressure (vacuum outlet) gas chromatography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sapozhnikova, Yelena; Lehotay, Steven J

    2015-10-29

    The concept of low pressure (LP) vacuum outlet gas chromatography (GC) was introduced more than 50 years ago, but it was not until the 2000s that its theoretical applicability to fast analysis of GC-amenable chemicals was realized. In practice, LPGC is implemented by placing the outlet of a short, wide (typically 10-15 m, 0.53 mm inner diameter) analytical column under vacuum conditions, which speeds the separation by reducing viscosity of the carrier gas, thereby leading to a higher optimal flow rate for the most separation efficiency. To keep the inlet at normal operating pressures, the analytical column is commonly coupled to a short, narrow uncoated restriction capillary that also acts as a guard column. The faster separations in LPGC usually result in worse separation efficiency relative to conventional GC, but selective detection usually overcomes this drawback. Mass spectrometry (MS) provides highly selective and sensitive universal detection, and nearly all GC-MS instruments provide vacuum outlet conditions for implementation of LPGC-MS(/MS) without need for adaptations. In addition to higher sample throughput, LPGC provides other benefits, including lower detection limits, less chance of analyte degradation, reduced peak tailing, increased sample loadability, and more ruggedness without overly narrow peaks that would necessitate excessively fast data acquisition rates. This critical review summarizes recent developments in the application of LPGC with MS and other detectors in the analysis of pesticides, environmental contaminants, explosives, phytosterols, and other semi-volatile compounds. PMID:26547491

  20. Bacteriological Analysis and Hygine Level of Food Outlets within Rufus Giwa Polytechnic, Owo, Ondo State, Nigeria.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ibrahim TA

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The bacteriological quality of three major food outlets in Rufus Giwa Polytechnic, Owo, was assessed using standard bacteriological methods. Swabs of hands of food vendors, table and plates in these outlets were assessed for total bacterial count, total coliform count and total E. coli count. A total of 789 bacterial colonies were isolated from hands of food handlers, tables and plates used for eating in the outlets. Eleven genera of bacteria were isolated and identified, they were; klebsiella sp, Enterobacter sp , Staphylococcus sp, Proteus sp, E. coli Salmonella sp, Micrococcus sp, Bacillus sp, Pseudomonas sp, Streptococcus sp and Serratia sp when their morphology and biochemical characteristics were compared with standard reference organisms. The presence of these bacterial isolates has been attributed to ineffective washing technique , rare changing of water used for washing plates and poor personal hygiene of the food handlers which could be enhanced by regular monitoring and supervision of the canteens by the authorities on food safety practices and regular education on food and personal hygiene.

  1. [Genetic variations in alcohol dehydrogenase, drinking habits and alcoholism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tolstrup, J.S.; Rasmussen, S.; Tybjaerg-Hansen, A.;

    2008-01-01

    Alcohol is degraded primarily by alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH), and genetic variation that affects the rate of alcohol degradation is found in ADH1B and ADH1C. By genotyping 9,080 white men and women from the general population, we found that men and women with ADH1B slow versus fast alcohol...... degradation drank approximately 30% more alcohol per week and had a higher risk of everyday and heavy drinking, and of alcoholism. Individuals with ADH1C slow versus fast alcohol degradation had a higher risk of heavy drinking Udgivelsesdato: 2008/8/25...

  2. Clinical pathology of alcohol.

    OpenAIRE

    Marks, V.

    1983-01-01

    There is good though not conclusive evidence that a small to modest average daily intake of alcohol--that is, 20-30 g/day is associated with increased longevity due mainly to a reduction in death from cardiovascular disease. Larger average daily alcohol intakes--especially those in excess of 60 g/day for men and 40 g/day for women--are associated with gradually increasing morbidity and mortality rates from a variety of diseases. Alcohol may be unrecognised as the cause of somatic disease, whi...

  3. [Alcohol and working life].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaarne, Tiina; Aalto, Mauri

    2009-01-01

    Alcohol-related harm constitutes a significant factor decreasing work productivity. Of heavy alcohol users, most participate in working life. According to labour contract law, a person attending the workplace inebriated can be fired. If the employer applies a deferral to treatment practice, the drug- or alcohol-addicted person can be provided with the choice of therapy and rehabilitation instead of terminating the employment. According to the recent recommendation by the trade unions, organizations should have a program for preventing substance abuse. The employer should take care of the worker's intoxicant education and train the foremen to intervene in the situations on time. PMID:19492706

  4. Discovering Genes Involved in Alcohol Dependence and Other Alcohol Responses

    OpenAIRE

    Buck, Kari J.; Milner, Lauren C.; Denmark, Deaunne L.; Grant, Seth G.N.; Kozell, Laura B.

    2012-01-01

    The genetic determinants of alcoholism still are largely unknown, hindering effective treatment and prevention. Systematic approaches to gene discovery are critical if novel genes and mechanisms involved in alcohol dependence are to be identified. Although no animal model can duplicate all aspects of alcoholism in humans, robust animal models for specific alcohol-related traits, including physiological alcohol dependence and associated withdrawal, have been invaluable resources. Using a varie...

  5. Do State Minimum Wage Laws Reduce Employment? Mixed Messages from Fast Food Outlets in Illinois and Indiana

    OpenAIRE

    Persky, Joseph J.; Baiman, Ron

    2010-01-01

    In January 2004 and January 2005 the state of Illinois increased its minimum wage to $5.50 and then $6.50, well above the national minimum of $5.15. This study, comparing the impacts on Illinois fast food outlets to a control group of Indiana outlets, was conceived as a repetition of the Card-Krueger study of a similar situation in New Jersey. The central question is whether the Illinois outlets demonstrated a substantial reduction in employment in response to the higher legislated wage rates...

  6. Moral judgment of alcohol addicts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mladenović Ivica

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Alcoholism could represent an important factor of crime and different forms of abuse of family members (physical and emotional exist in many alcohol-addict cases, as well as characteristics of immoral behaviour. Objective. The objective of our study was to determine the predominating forms in moral judgment of alcohol addicts, and to examine whether there was any statistically significant difference in moral judgment between alcohol addicted persons and non-alcoholics from general population. Methods. The sample consisted of 62 subjects, divided into a study (alcoholics and a control group (non-alcoholics from general population. The following instruments were used: social-demographic data, AUDIT, MMPI-201, cybernetic battery of IQ tests (KOG-3 and the TMR moral reasoning test. Results. Mature forms of moral judgment prevailed in both group of subjects, alcohol addicted persons and non-alcoholics. Regarding mature forms of moral judgment (driven by emotions and cognitive non-alcoholics from the general population had higher scores, but the difference was not statistically significant. Regarding socially adapted and egocentric orientation alcohol addicted persons had higher scores. However, only regarding intuitive-irrational orientation there was a statistically significant difference in the level of moral judgment (p<0.05 between alcoholics and non-alcoholics, in favour of the alcoholics. Conclusion. Moral judgment is not a category differing alcohol addicted persons from those who are not. Nevertheless, the potential destructivity of alcoholism is reflected in lower scores regarding mature orientations in moral judgment.

  7. Monitoring of suspended sediments, sediment conditions and aquatic biota during the functional check of bottom outlets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haun, Stefan; Seitz, Lydia; Stockinger, Wolfram; Riedl, Martin; Schletterer, Martin

    2016-04-01

    Reservoirs are used to store water for multiple purposes and are therefore of great importance for our society. Regularly inspections of the dam structure and the bottom outlets are necessary to ensure a safe operation of these structures. The release of water from the reservoirs for this procedure often results in high suspended sediment concentrations downstream by the remobilization of deposited sediments, which may result further in negative effects on the downstream located habitats. Due to a careful elaborated monitoring concept, e.g. regarding the opening procedure of the bottom outlets, it is possible to change the management strategy and to avoid or to minimize ecological impacts. Within this study a monitoring concept is developed and implemented to observe occurring suspended sediment concentrations during the opening of the bottom outlets of a small reservoir in the alpine region. The measurement concept includes suspended sediment concentration and discharge measurements at the two upstream located tributaries as well as suspended sediment concentration measurements downstream. Two stations are selected downstream with a distance of 750 m and 2,000 m from the dam. To ensure a complete series of concentrations over time bottom samples, Imhoff-cones as well as turbidity meters are implemented. Whereas the turbidity meters ensure a permanent observation of the conditions (will be calibrated with laboratory results from the bottle samples), the Imhoff-cones make it possible to intervene right away into the process of releasing water. A second focus lies on the downstream located river bed, which is monitored before and after the opening of the bottom outlets in order to assess morphodynamical changes such as river bed clogging occurs. Therefore sediment samples with the so called freeze-panel technique are collected before and after the opening of the bottom outlets to quantify possible changes of the bed material. The results show that downstream habitats

  8. Frequency, triggering factors and possible consequences of mass movements on outlet glaciers in Iceland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saemundsson, Thorsteinn; Margeirsson, Guðbjörn

    2016-04-01

    During the last 15 years several mass movements of various size and origin, e.g. rock avalanches, rock slides and debris slides have been observed to have fall on outlet glaciers in Iceland. This should not come as a surprise in this type of glacial environment, but in a way it does. When looking at the history only few mass movements are recorded to have fall on outlet glaciers in Iceland, during the decades before the year 2000 or since 1960. This "lack of mass movements" can be explained by the fact that fewer observations and monitoring were done in the past, but is it so or are we seeing increasing activity? Looking at the distribution of the known mass movements, two activity periods cam be identified. The former one around 1970 and the second one starting around 2000 and is still ongoing. Both of these periods are characterized by warmer climate leading to retreating phases of glaciers. Two larger mass movements are known from these two retreating periods. The former one occurred in January 1967. Then a large rockslide fell on the snout and into the glacial lake of the Steinholtsjökull outlet glacier in the northern side of the Eyjafjallajökull ice cap. The rockslide broke up the snout of the glacier and caused large floodwave bursting down the Steinholtsdalur valley transporting large volume of sediments down its path. The later one occurred in 2007, when a large rockavalanche fell on the Morsárjökull outlet glacier, in the southern side of the Vatnajökull ice cap. The avalanche debris covered around 1/5 of the glacier surface. Today the retreat and thinning of glaciers in Iceland are extremely rapid. The consequences of such a rapid retreat are e.g. unstable valley slopes surrounding the outlet glaciers, both in loose sediments and bedrock, thawing of mountain permafrost and not least formation of glacial lakes in front of the rapid retreating ice margins. Such conditions can become extremely hazardous, as seen by the above mentioned examples, both

  9. Teenage drinking, alcohol availability and pricing: a cross-sectional study of risk and protective factors for alcohol-related harms in school children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hannon Kerin

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background There is a lack of empirical analyses examining how alcohol consumption patterns in children relate to harms. Such intelligence is required to inform parents, children and policy relating to the provision and use of alcohol during childhood. Here, we examine drinking habits and associated harms in 15-16 year olds and explore how this can inform public health advice on child drinking. Methods An opportunistic survey of 15-16 year olds (n = 9,833 in North West England was undertaken to determine alcohol consumption patterns, drink types consumed, drinking locations, methods of access and harms encountered. Cost per unit of alcohol was estimated based on a second survey of 29 retail outlets. Associations between demographics, drinking behaviours, alcohol pricing and negative outcomes (public drinking, forgetting things after drinking, violence when drunk and alcohol-related regretted sex were examined. Results Proportions of drinkers having experienced violence when drunk (28.8%, alcohol-related regretted sex (12.5% and forgetting things (45.3%, or reporting drinking in public places (35.8%, increased with drinking frequency, binge frequency and units consumed per week. At similar levels of consumption, experiencing any negative alcohol-related outcome was lower in those whose parents provided alcohol. Drunken violence was disproportionately associated with being male and greater deprivation while regretted sex and forgetting things after drinking were associated with being female. Independent of drinking behaviours, consuming cheaper alcohol was related to experiencing violence when drunk, forgetting things after drinking and drinking in public places. Conclusion There is no safe level of alcohol consumption for 15-16 year olds. However, while abstinence removes risk of harms from personal alcohol consumption, its promotion may also push children into accessing drink outside family environments and contribute to higher risks of

  10. ALCOHOL AND HEART RHYTHM DISORDERS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. O. Yusupova

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Alcohol abuse and particularly extension of alcohol consumption in alcohol diseas increases the risk of cardiac arrhythmias development and aggravates existing arrhythmias. Patients do not always receive the necessary specific treatment due to lack of detection of the ethanol genesis of these arrhythmias. Management of patients with alcohol abuse and alcohol dependence, including its cardiac complications among other cardiac arrhythmias should use both antiarrhythmic and anti-alcohol drugs and antidepressants. Such issues as diagnosis and management of patients with alcohol-induced cardiac arrhythmias are presented.

  11. Alcohol Facts and Statistics

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... other persons of the same age. 26 Consequences—Researchers estimate that each year: 1,825 college students between the ages of 18 and 24 die from alcohol-related unintentional injuries, including motor-vehicle crashes. 27 ...

  12. Alcohol and Migraine

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... tension-type headache. Cluster headache patients have higher alcohol sensitivity (about 50-80%). In a forward-looking study (PAMINA) published in 2007 Austrian researchers examined a large number of factors related to ...

  13. Alcohol and Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... In addition, the combined use of alcohol and tobacco greatly increases the risk of oral, laryngeal, pharyngeal, and esophageal cancers. Written January 2016 ©2007, American Cancer Society, Inc. ...

  14. When alcohol acts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Demant, Jakob

    2009-01-01

      Sociological studies into alcohol use seem to find it difficult to deal with the substance itself. Alcohol tends to be reduced to a symbol of a social process and in this way the sociological research loses sight of effects beyond the social. This paper suggests a new theoretical approach...... to the study of alcohol and teenagers' (romantic) relationships, inspired by actor-network theory (ANT). The central feature of ANT is to search for relationships, or rather networks, between all things relevant to the phenomenon. All material and semantic structures, things, persons, discourses, etc....... that influence a given situation are described as actants and are entered into the analysis. The aim of this paper is to propose a way of including materiality in sociological analyses of alcohol and to explore ways of using focus group interview material in ANT-inspired analysis. By analyzing a girl...

  15. Alcohol Facts and Statistics

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... deaths (31 percent of overall driving fatalities). 11 Economic Burden: In 2010, alcohol misuse problems cost the ... 18–24: Changes from 1998 to 2001. Annual Review of Public Health 26: 259–279, 2005. PMID: ...

  16. Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... can cause a group of conditions called fetal alcohol spectrum disorders (FASDs). Effects can include physical and behavioral problems such as trouble with Learning and remembering Understanding and following directions Controlling emotions Communicating and socializing Daily life skills, such as ...

  17. Alcohol advertising and youth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Susan E; Snyder, Leslie B; Hamilton, Mark; Fleming-Milici, Fran; Slater, Michael D; Stacy, Alan; Chen, Meng-Jinn; Grube, Joel W

    2002-06-01

    This article presents the proceedings of a symposium at the 2001 Research Society on Alcoholism meeting in Montreal, Canada. The symposium was organized and chaired by Joel W. Grube. The presentations and presenters were (1) Introduction and background, by Susan E. Martin; (2) The effect of alcohol ads on youth 15-26 years old, by Leslie Snyder, Mark Hamilton, Fran Fleming-Milici, and Michael D. Slater; (3) A comparison of exposure to alcohol advertising and drinking behavior in elementary versus middle school children, by Phyllis L. Ellickson and Rebecca L. Collins; (4) USC health and advertising project: assessment study on alcohol advertisement memory and exposure, by Alan Stacy; and (5) TV beer and soft drink advertising: what young people like and what effects? by Meng-Jinn Chen and Joel W. Grube. PMID:12068260

  18. Alcohol and Pregnancy

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Just a moment, please. You've saved this page It's been added to your dashboard . Alcohol and ... Map Premature birth report card Careers Archives Health Topics Pregnancy Before or between pregnancies Nutrition, weight & fitness ...

  19. Alcohol and Heart Health

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Restaurant Deciphering the Menu Ordering Your Meal Eating Fast Food Dining Out Tips by Cuisine Physical Activity Fitness ... other things. For example, excessive amounts of alcoholic consumption could be harmful by increasing the risk of ...

  20. Alcohol and Pregnancy

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... and premature birth Zika virus and pregnancy Microcephaly Medicine safety and pregnancy Birth defects prevention Learn how ... a healthy weight and avoiding alcohol and street drugs . Featured articles March of Dimes Premature Birth Report ...

  1. Inpatient alcohol withdrawal syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monte-Secades, R; Rabuñal-Rey, R; Guerrero-Sande, H

    2015-03-01

    A 55-year-old man was admitted for a femur fracture; an alcohol fetor was noted on admission. The following day, the patient began to experience tremors and nervousness. Intravenous haloperidol was administered. Shortly afterwards, the patient experienced two generalized seizures and then began to experience delirium and uncontrollable agitation. The patient was diagnosed with alcohol withdrawal syndrome; high doses of intravenous midazolam were prescribed and infused. A few hours later, the patient presented signs of respiratory depression, requiring a transfer to the intensive care unit. After a review of the medical history, it was determined that the patient had been admitted on 3 previous occasions due to alcohol withdrawal and had progressed to delirium tremens after experiencing seizures. Can the risk of alcohol withdrawal syndrome and the need for prophylactic treatment be assessed on admission? Were appropriate monitoring and treatment measures employed? Would it have been possible to change his outcome? PMID:25559647

  2. Fetal alcohol syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... development. There also may be problems with the face and bones. Tests include: Blood alcohol level in pregnant women who show signs of being drunk (intoxicated) Brain imaging studies (CT or MRI) after the child is born Pregnancy ultrasound

  3. Alcohol and Pregnancy

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Lead and pregnancy Zika virus and pregnancy Microcephaly Medicine safety and pregnancy Birth defects prevention Learn how ... a healthy weight and avoiding alcohol and street drugs . Featured articles March of Dimes Premature Birth Report ...

  4. Weight loss and alcohol

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... you are trying to lose weight, you can boost your efforts by cutting back on alcoholic drinks. ... goes in your drink. Many mixed drinks include juices, simple syrup, or liqueur, which all add extra ...

  5. Alcohol and Pregnancy

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... articles How long should you wait before getting pregnant again? Preterm labor and premature birth Lead and ... pregnancy 3:07 Drinking alcohol while you are pregnant can cause your baby to be born with ...

  6. [Prevention of alcohol dependence].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trova, A C; Paparrigopoulos, Th; Liappas, I; Ginieri-Coccossis, M

    2015-01-01

    With the exception of cardiovascular diseases, no other medical condition causes more serious dysfunction or premature deaths than alcohol-related problems. Research results indicate that alcohol dependent individuals present an exceptionally poor level of quality of life. This is an outcome that highlights the necessity of planning and implementing preventive interventions on biological, psychological or social level, to be provided to individuals who make alcohol abuse, as well as to their families. Preventive interventions can be considered on three levels of prevention: (a) primary prevention, which is focused on the protection of healthy individuals from alcohol abuse and dependence, and may be provided on a universal, selective or indicated level, (b) secondary prevention, which aims at the prevention of deterioration regarding alcoholic dependence and relapse, in the cases of individuals already diagnosed with the condition and (c) tertiary prevention, which is focused at minimizing deterioration of functioning in chronically sufferers from alcoholic dependence. The term "quaternary prevention" can be used for the prevention of relapse. As for primary prevention, interventions focus on assessing the risk of falling into problematic use, enhancing protective factors and providing information and health education in general. These interventions can be delivered in schools or in places of work and recreation for young people. In this context, various programs have been applied in different countries, including Greece with positive results (Preventure, Alcolocks, LST, SFP, Alcohol Ignition Interlock Device). Secondary prevention includes counseling and structured help with the delivery of programs in schools and in high risk groups for alcohol dependence (SAP, LST). These programs aim at the development of alcohol refusal skills and behaviors, the adoption of models of behaviors resisting alcohol use, as well as reinforcement of general social skills. In the

  7. Advances in Alcoholism Treatment

    OpenAIRE

    Huebner, Robert B.; Kantor, Lori Wolfgang

    2011-01-01

    Researchers are working on numerous and varied approaches to improving the accessibility, quality, effectiveness, and cost-effectiveness of treatment for alcohol use disorders (AUDs). This overview article summarizes the approaches reviewed in this issue, including potential future developments for alcoholism treatment, such as medications development, behavioral therapy, advances in technology that are being used to improve treatment, integrated care of patients with AUDs and co-occurring di...

  8. Alcohol and Sexual Assault

    OpenAIRE

    Abbey, Antonia; Zawacki, Tina; Buck, Philip O; Clinton, A. Monique; McAuslan, Pam

    2001-01-01

    Conservative estimates of sexual assault prevalence suggest that 25 percent of American women have experienced sexual assault, including rape. Approximately one-half of those cases involve alcohol consumption by the perpetrator, victim, or both. Alcohol contributes to sexual assault through multiple pathways, often exacerbating existing risk factors. Beliefs about alcohol’s effects on sexual and aggressive behavior, stereotypes about drinking women, and alcohol’s effects on cognitive and moto...

  9. Alcohol and liver, 2010

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Natalia; A; Osna

    2010-01-01

    Liver is known as an organ that is primarily affected by alcohol. Alcoholic liver disease (ALD) is the cause of an increased morbidity and mortality worldwide. Progression of ALD is driven by "second hits". These second hits include the complex of nutritional, pharmacological, genetic and viral factors, which aggravate liver pathology. However, in addition to liver failure, ethanol causes damage to other organs and systems. These extrahepatic manifestations are regulated via the similar hepatitis mechanisms...

  10. Hypernormal Densities

    OpenAIRE

    Giacomini, Raffaella; Gottschling, Andreas; Haefke, Christian; White, Halbert

    2002-01-01

    We derive a new family of probability densities that have the property of closed-form integrability. This flexible family finds a variety of applications, of which we illustrate density forecasting from models of the AR-ARCH class for U.S. inflation. We find that the hypernormal distribution for the model's disturbances leads to better density forecasts than the ones produced under the assumption that the disturbances are Normal or Student's t.

  11. GASTRIC OUTLET OBSTRUCTION IN PROTON PUMP INHIBITOR ERA: A PROSPECTIVE STUDY OF FIFTY CASES IN TERTIARY HOSPITAL IN SOUTH INDIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suresh Kumar

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND Gastric Outlet Obstruction implies complete or incomplete obstruction of the distal stomach pylorus or proximal duodenum. (1 Gastric outlet obstruction poses diagnostic and therapeutic challenges to general surgeons practicing in resource-limited countries. There is no sufficient data on this subject in our setting. Studies throughout the world shows drastic reduction in peptic ulcer disease (PUD after Proton Pump Inhibitor (PPI era. (1 This study was undertaken to highlight the etiology and treatment of Duodenal Ulcer (DU and its most important complication, gastric outlet obstruction in Tertiary Hospital in South India. This study was done in SRM Medical College Hospital and Research Centre, Chennai, where in for all Gastric Ulcer (GU and Duodenal Ulcer (DU patients, eradication of H. Pylori has become a standard treatment. Surgical treatment is required for complications of peptic ulcer disease. (1 The aim of the study are two: first to analyze sex and age distribution of GU and DU and second to study the various types of management. MATERIALS AND METHODS This study on PUD and Gastric Outlet Obstruction (GOO is based on a study of 50 cases that were admitted in SRM Medical College Hospital and Research Centre during the period of October 2014 to September 2015. The patients were evaluated by routine investigations like upper gastrointestinal endoscopy and ultrasonography of the abdomen. Barium meal and CECT abdomen in selected cases. All cases were taken up for curative/palliative surgery and operated depending upon the causes. All patients with a clinical diagnosis of gastric outlet obstruction were included after informed consent for the study, consecutively enrolled into the study. Statistical data analysis was done using SPSS computer software version 17.0. RESULTS In 37 cases, carcinoma of antrum with gastric outlet obstruction was found. Males are 25 (68% and females are 12 in numbers (32%. In 12 cases of chronic duodenal

  12. Coolant mixing in LMFBR rod bundles and outlet plenum mixing transients. Progress report, December 1, 1975--February 29, 1976

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Todreas, N.E.; Golay, M.W.

    1976-01-01

    Progress is summarized in the following task areas: assessment of available data, experimental water mixing investigations, analytic model development, and analytical and experimental investigation of velocity and temperature fields in outlet plenum flow mixing.

  13. Alcohol-attributable and alcohol-preventable mortality in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eliasen, Marie; Becker, Ulrik; Grønbæk, Morten;

    2014-01-01

    The aim of the study was to quantify alcohol-attributable and -preventable mortality, totally and stratified on alcohol consumption in Denmark 2010, and to estimate alcohol-related mortality assuming different scenarios of changes in alcohol distribution in the population. We estimated alcohol......-attributable and -preventable fractions based on relative risks of conditions causally associated with alcohol from meta-analyses and information on alcohol consumption in Denmark obtained from 14,458 participants in the Danish National Health Survey 2010 and corrected for adult per capita consumption. Cause......-specific mortality data were obtained from the Danish Register of Causes of Death. In total, 1,373 deaths among women (5.0 % of all deaths) and 2,522 deaths among men (9.5 % of all deaths) were attributable to alcohol, while an estimated number of 765 (2.8 %) and 583 (2.2 %) deaths were prevented by alcohol. Of the...

  14. Does neighborhood fast-food outlet exposure amplify inequalities in diet and obesity? A cross-sectional study 1 2

    OpenAIRE

    Burgoine, Thomas; Forouhi, Nita G; Simon J Griffin; Brage, Søren; Wareham, Nicholas J; Monsivais, Pablo

    2016-01-01

    Background: Greater exposures to fast-food outlets and lower levels of education are independently associated with less healthy diets and obesity. Little is known about the interplay between these environmental and individual factors. Objective: The purpose of this study was to test whether observed differences in fast-food consumption and obesity by fast-food outlet exposure are moderated by educational attainment. Design: In a population-based cohort of 5958 adults aged 29–62 y in Cambridge...

  15. Free WiFi as Strategic Competitive Advantage for Fast-Food Outlet in the Knowledge Era

    OpenAIRE

    N. I. Yusop; Tiong, L. K.; Z. M. Aji; M. K. Kasiran

    2011-01-01

    Problem statement: The growth of food outlets in Malaysia brings about the stiff competition among the players in food industry. To remain competitive, each outlet needs to adopt its own strategy in order to secure their return on investment and profitability. In knowledge era, technology has become an added value in achieving competitive advantage. The aim of this research is to assess whether providing free WiFi can be a strategy to remain competitive. Porter's 5forces&#...

  16. A Review of Thoracic Outlet Syndrome and the Possible Role of Botulinum Toxin in the Treatment of This Syndrome

    OpenAIRE

    Andrew Travlos; Jacqueline Mary Foley; Heather Finlayson

    2012-01-01

    The objective of this paper is to discuss the classification, diagnosis, pathophysiology and management of Thoracic outlet syndrome (TOS). Thoracic outlet syndrome (TOS) is a complex entity that is characterized by different neurovascular signs and symptoms involving the upper limb. TOS is defined as upper extremity symptoms due to compression of the neurovascular bundle in the area of the neck just above the first rib. Compression is thought to occur at one or more of the three anatomical co...

  17. The role of independent fast-food outlets in obesogenic environments: a case study of East London in the UK

    OpenAIRE

    Susan Bagwell

    2011-01-01

    In the battle to curb rising levels of obesity the focus has moved from individual interventions towards addressing factors within the ‘obesogenic environment’. Fast-food outlets are argued to be an increasingly important aspect of this environment and recent UK government policy has suggested that local authorities should use their planning powers to restrict the opening of new fast-food outlets in local neighbourhoods. This policy has a particular impact on the growing number of independent...

  18. Studies on the Influence of Various Blade Outlet Angles in a Centrifugal Pump when Handling Viscous Fluids

    OpenAIRE

    M. H.S. Fard; F. A. Boyaghchi

    2007-01-01

    In this study the centrifugal pump performances with different blade outlet angles are tested when handling water and viscous oils as Newtonian fluids. Also, this study shows a numerical simulation of the three-dimensional fluid flows inside the centrifugal pump with different blade outlet angles. For these numerical simulations the SIMPLEC algorithm is used for solving governing equations of incompressible viscous/turbulent flows through the pump at different operating conditions. The k-^...

  19. Does neighborhood fast-food outlet exposure amplify inequalities in diet and obesity? A cross-sectional study12

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forouhi, Nita G; Griffin, Simon J; Brage, Søren; Wareham, Nicholas J

    2016-01-01

    Background: Greater exposures to fast-food outlets and lower levels of education are independently associated with less healthy diets and obesity. Little is known about the interplay between these environmental and individual factors. Objective: The purpose of this study was to test whether observed differences in fast-food consumption and obesity by fast-food outlet exposure are moderated by educational attainment. Design: In a population-based cohort of 5958 adults aged 29–62 y in Cambridgeshire, United Kingdom, we used educational attainment–stratified regression models to estimate the food-frequency questionnaire–derived consumption of energy-dense “fast foods” (g/d) typically sold in fast-food restaurants and measured body mass index (BMI; in kg/m2) across geographic information system–derived home and work fast-food exposure quartiles. We used logistic regression to estimate the odds of obesity (BMI ≥30) and calculated relative excess risk due to interaction (RERI) on an additive scale. Participant data were collected during 2005–2013 and analyzed in 2015. Results: Greater fast-food consumption, BMI, and odds of obesity were associated with greater fast-food outlet exposure and a lower educational level. Fast-food consumption and BMI were significantly different across education groups at all levels of fast-food outlet exposure (P fast-food outlet exposure amplified differences in fast-food consumption across levels of education. The relation between fast-food outlet exposure and obesity was only significant among those who were least educated (OR: 2.05; 95% CI: 1.08, 3.87; RERI = 0.88), which suggested a positive additive interaction between education and fast-food outlet exposure. Conclusion: These findings suggest that efforts to improve diets and health through neighborhood-level fast-food outlet regulation might be effective across socioeconomic groups and may serve to reduce observed socioeconomic inequalities in diet and obesity. PMID

  20. Densities, Spectral Densities and Modality

    OpenAIRE

    Davies, PL Laurie; Kovac, A.

    2002-01-01

    This paper considers the problem of specifying a simple approximating density function for a given data set (x1,…,xn). Simplicity is measured by the number of modes but several different definitions of approximation are introduced. The taut string method is used to control the numbers of modes and to produce candidate approximating densities. Refinements are introduced that improve the local adaptivity of the procedures and the method is extended to spectral densities.

  1. Land uplift-driven shift of the outlet of Lake Ähtärinjärvi, western Finland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heikki Seppä

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Lake Ähtärinjärvi, at the northern end of the River Kokemäenjoki watercourse in northern central Finland, has been known to have an older outlet channel across the modern Suomenselkä watershed to the Bothnian Bay. The ancient connection over the watershed is indicatedby the existence of a conspicuously deep and wide palaeochannel that runs from the northern end of Lake Ähtärinjärvi to the headwaters of the River Ähtävänjoki. Radiocarbon datings of the basal sediments of the channel show that the flow in the old outlet channel ceased at about 1500 cal yr BP; the old channel therefore functioned as an outlet since the isolation of the lake at about 9900 cal yr BP to 1500 cal yr BP. Sedimentological studies of Lake Ouluvesi, located below the modern outlet of the lake system, suggest opening of the modern outlet at 3200 cal yr BP, indicating that the lake system had a 1700-year period of bifurcation before the final drying up of the old outlet channel. The reconstruction of the tilting of the lake level supports this pattern, and demonstrates further that during the early-Holocene the lake consisted of three basins located at different levels until the transgression caused by the tilting gradually brought the basins to the same level.

  2. The influence of alcohol-specific communication on adolescent alcohol use and alcohol-related consequences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reimuller, Alison; Hussong, Andrea; Ennett, Susan T

    2011-12-01

    Alcohol-specific communication, a direct conversation between an adult and an adolescent regarding alcohol use, contains messages about alcohol relayed from the adult to the child. The current study examined the construct of alcohol-specific communication and the effect of messages on adolescent alcohol use and alcohol-related consequences. Parent-adolescent dyads were assessed biannually for 3 years (grades 9-11 at wave 6) to examine these relations in a large longitudinal study of adolescents initially in grades 6 through 8. An exploratory factor analysis identified two factors among alcohol-specific communication items, permissive messages and negative alcohol messages. Results showed previous level of adolescent alcohol use moderated the relation between permissive messages and alcohol use outcomes. Plotting of these interactions showed greater alcohol use and consequences with increasing permissive messages in adolescents with higher versus lower levels of previous alcohol use. Results suggest that parental messages regarding alcohol use may impact adolescent alcohol use beyond the effect of general parenting style and parental alcohol use. PMID:21667141

  3. Investigating the flow and stress regime at the front of a tidewater outlet glacier

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mercenier, Rémy; Luethi, Martin; Vieli, Andreas; Rohner, Christoph; Small, David

    2016-04-01

    Dynamic changes in ocean-terminating glaciers are responsible for approximately half of the current high rate of mass loss of the Greenland ice sheet. The related calving process, which occurs when the stresses at the calving front exceed the fracture toughness of ice, is still not well understood and poorly represented in current generation ice-sheet models, but is a crucial requisite to understand and model dynamics and future mass loss of the ice sheet. Here, we use a two-dimensional finite-element model to compute the stress and flow fields near the front of a tidewater outlet glacier. First, we perform a sensitivity analysis for an idealized glacier exploring the effects of variable calving front slope, water depth and basal sliding. We then apply the model to two flowlines of Eqip Sermia, an ocean terminating outlet glacier in West Greenland. Detailed velocity and geometry measurements obtained from terrestrial radar interferometry serve as constraints to the model. These flowline geometries and velocities strongly differ. One flowline ends with a ˜ 50 meter vertical cliff, close to floatation, while the other has a 150-200 meter high grounded front with a ˜ 45° slope and for which extrusion flow is observed. These different geometry settings lead to substantial difference in stress and flow regimes. This stress analysis improves our understanding of how and where the ice is susceptible to failure and crevasse formation for different idealized as well as real conditions. In further work, we aim to use this information as a constraint to investigate the short-term and long-term processes related to outlet glacier calving.

  4. Non-uniform changes in membrane receptors in the rat urinary bladder following outlet obstruction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeng, Jianwen; Ekman, Mari; Jiang, Chonghe; Uvelius, Bengt; Swärd, Karl

    2015-09-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate the expression and distribution of membrane receptors after bladder outlet obstruction (BOO). Partial bladder outlet obstruction (BOO) was induced in female rats and bladders were harvested after either 10 days or 6 weeks of BOO. The expression of different receptors was surveyed by microarrays and corroborated by immunohistochemistry and western blotting. A microarray experiment identified 10 membrane receptors that were differentially expressed compared to sham-operated rats including both upregulated and downregulated receptors. Four of these were selected for functional experiments on the basis of magnitude of change and relevance to bladder physiology. At 6 weeks of BOO, maximal contraction was reduced for neuromedin B and vasopressin (AVP), consistent with reductions of receptor mRNA levels. Glycine receptor-induced contraction on the other hand was increased and receptor mRNA expression was accordingly upregulated. Maximal relaxation by the β3-adrenergic receptor agonist CL316243 was reduced as was the receptor mRNA level. Immunohistochemistry supported reduced expression of neuromedin B receptors, V1a receptors and β3-adrenergic receptors, but glycine receptor expression appeared unchanged. Western blotting confirmed repression of V1a receptors and induction of glycine receptors in BOO. mRNA for vasopressin was detectable in the bladder, suggesting local AVP production. We conclude that changes in receptor expression following bladder outlet obstruction are non-uniform. Some receptors are upregulated, conferring increased responsiveness to agonist, whereas others are downregulated, leading to decreased agonist-induced responses. This study might help to select pharmacological agents that are effective in modulating lower urinary tract symptoms in BOO. PMID:26004535

  5. Validation of subchannel code KAMUI: analysis of outlet temperature profiles of a 19-pin test assembly

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thermal hydraulic analysis of a Sodium-cooled Fast Reactor test assembly has been performed by employing subchannel analysis code KAMUI. The code has been updated by incorporating some recent physical models for pressure drop and coolant mixing. Performance of several conventional flow resistance and mixing models was assessed, by comparing predicted outlet temperature profiles against available experimental data. The calculations were carried out for high, transitional, and low Reynolds number regions. The prediction capability of the code for a wire-wrapped bundle has been successfully demonstrated in this paper. (author)

  6. Role of intrathecal tachykinins for micturition in unanaesthetized rats with and without bladder outlet obstruction.

    OpenAIRE

    Ishizuka, O; Igawa, Y.; Lecci, A.; Maggi, C. A.; Mattiasson, A.; Andersson, K. E.

    1994-01-01

    1. The effects on micturition of RP 67,580, a selective NK1 receptor antagonist, and SR 48,968, a highly, potent antagonist at NK2 receptor sites, given intrathecally (i.t.) or intra-arterially (i.a.) near the bladder, were investigated in unanaesthetized rats with and without bladder outlet obstruction. 2. In normal rats, RP 67,580, given i.t. in doses of 2 and 20 nmol per rat, decreased micturition pressure, but did not change other cystometric parameters. After 20 nmol of RP 67,580, dribbl...

  7. Employee Anonymous Online Dissent: Dynamics and Ethical Challenges for Employees, Targeted Organisations, Online Outlets and Audiences

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ravazzani, Silvia; Mazzei, Alessandra

    2015-01-01

    remaining accountable for them and avoiding emotion-focused and defensive disclosure. Targeted organisations need to prevent external disclosure while ensuring freedom of speech and employee privacy, and to respond effectively when overt criticism is found online. Other tensions concern online outlet......This paper aims to enhance understanding of dissent expressive acts that employees voice via anonymous online public contexts. Based on literature on organisational dissent, anonymity and online disclosure, we first point out key dynamics of employee anonymous online dissent, and then present...

  8. Consumer Preferences for Animal Source Foods in Uganda: Quality, Retail Forms and Retail Outlets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nadhem Mtimet

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the results of a rapid consumer survey undertaken in Uganda. The survey aimed at identifying preferred quality and safety attributes, retail forms and retail outlets for major livestock products and by type of consumers. Results of the survey, combined with nationally representative household datasets, allows description of both the quantitative and qualitative dimensions of the developing market for animal-source foods, which is anticipated to provide major business opportunities for small-scale livestock producers in the short and medium terms.

  9. Mathematical, numerical and experimental analysis of the swirling flow at a Kaplan runner outlet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muntean, S.; Ciocan, T.; Susan-Resiga, R. F.; Cervantes, M.; Nilsson, H.

    2012-11-01

    The paper presents a novel mathematical model for a-priori computation of the swirling flow at Kaplan runners outlet. The model is an extension of the initial version developed by Susan-Resiga et al [1], to include the contributions of non-negligible radial velocity and of the variable rothalpy. Simple analytical expressions are derived for these additional data from three-dimensional numerical simulations of the Kaplan turbine. The final results, i.e. velocity components profiles, are validated against experimental data at two operating points, with the same Kaplan runner blades opening, but variable discharge.

  10. Thoracic Outlet Syndrome Caused by Hydatid Cyst of the First Rib-Rare But Important

    OpenAIRE

    Levy Faber, Dan; Best, Lael-Anson; Militianu, Daniela; Ben Nun, Alon

    2010-01-01

    Hydatid cysts are usually located in the liver and lungs. Skeletal echinococcosis is relatively rare and that of the rib is exceptional. Less than 50 cases of costal echinococcosis have been reported in the literature so far. To our knowledge, only one case report of thoracic outlet syndrome due to echinococcal cyst in the first rib was described in 1995. Accurate pre-operative diagnosis is important but may be challenging in some cases. Reported here is a case of echinococcosis of the first ...

  11. A newly designed big cup nitinol stent for gastric outlet obstruction

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    AIM:To find out whether a newly designed big cup nitinol stent is suitable for treatment of patients with gastric outlet obstruction resulting from gastric cancer.METHODS:The new stent is composed of a proximal big cup segment(20 mm in length and 48-55 mm in diameter),a middle part(60 mm in length and 20 mm in diameter)covered by a polyethylene membrane and a distal sphericity(20 mm in length and 28 mm in diameter).Half of the proximal big cup segment is also covered by a polyethlene membrane,which is adjac...

  12. The changing food outlet distributions and local contextual factors in the United States

    OpenAIRE

    Chen, Hsin-Jen; Wang, Youfa

    2014-01-01

    Background Little is known about the dynamics of the food outlet distributions associated with local contextual factors in the U.S. This study examines the changes in food stores/services at the 5-digit Zip Code Tabulated Area (ZCTA5) level in the U.S., and assesses contextual factors associated with the changes. Methods Data from 27,878 ZCTA5s in the contiguous United States without an extreme change in the number of 6 types of food stores/services (supermarkets, small-size grocery stores, c...

  13. Alcohol combustion chemistry

    KAUST Repository

    Sarathy, Mani

    2014-10-01

    Alternative transportation fuels, preferably from renewable sources, include alcohols with up to five or even more carbon atoms. They are considered promising because they can be derived from biological matter via established and new processes. In addition, many of their physical-chemical properties are compatible with the requirements of modern engines, which make them attractive either as replacements for fossil fuels or as fuel additives. Indeed, alcohol fuels have been used since the early years of automobile production, particularly in Brazil, where ethanol has a long history of use as an automobile fuel. Recently, increasing attention has been paid to the use of non-petroleum-based fuels made from biological sources, including alcohols (predominantly ethanol), as important liquid biofuels. Today, the ethanol fuel that is offered in the market is mainly made from sugar cane or corn. Its production as a first-generation biofuel, especially in North America, has been associated with publicly discussed drawbacks, such as reduction in the food supply, need for fertilization, extensive water usage, and other ecological concerns. More environmentally friendly processes are being considered to produce alcohols from inedible plants or plant parts on wasteland. While biofuel production and its use (especially ethanol and biodiesel) in internal combustion engines have been the focus of several recent reviews, a dedicated overview and summary of research on alcohol combustion chemistry is still lacking. Besides ethanol, many linear and branched members of the alcohol family, from methanol to hexanols, have been studied, with a particular emphasis on butanols. These fuels and their combustion properties, including their ignition, flame propagation, and extinction characteristics, their pyrolysis and oxidation reactions, and their potential to produce pollutant emissions have been intensively investigated in dedicated experiments on the laboratory and the engine scale

  14. Arithmetic density

    CERN Document Server

    Garay, Mauricio

    2012-01-01

    Arithmetic class are closed subsets of the euclidean space which generalise arithmetical conditions encoutered in dynamical systems, such as diophantine conditions or Bruno type conditions. I prove density estimates for such sets using Dani-Kleinbock-Margulis techniques.

  15. The economics of alcohol abuse and alcohol-control policies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cook, Philip J; Moore, Michael J

    2002-01-01

    Economic research has contributed to the evaluation of alcohol policy through empirical analysis of the effects of alcohol-control measures on alcohol consumption and its consequences. It has also provided an accounting framework for defining and comparing costs and benefits of alcohol consumption and related policy interventions, including excise taxes. The most important finding from the economics literature is that consumers tend to drink less ethanol, and have fewer alcohol-related problems, when alcoholic beverage prices are increased or alcohol availability is restricted. That set of findings is relevant for policy purposes because alcohol abuse imposes large "external" costs on others. Important challenges remain, including developing a better understanding of the effects of drinking on labor-market productivity. PMID:11900152

  16. Alcohol Alert: Alcohol's Damaging Effects on the Brain

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... R.; et al. Gender differences in moderate drinking effects. Alcohol Research & Health 23:55–64, 1999. (5) Loft, S. ; ... A.; and Sullivan, E. Sex differences in the effects of alcohol on brain structure. American Journal of Psychiatry 158: ...

  17. Alcoholism and Alcohol Abuse - Multiple Languages: MedlinePlus

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Supplements Videos & Tools You Are Here: Home → Multiple Languages → All Health Topics → Alcoholism and Alcohol Abuse URL of this page: https://medlineplus.gov/languages/alcoholismandalcoholabuse.html Other topics A-Z A B ...

  18. 78 FR 65347 - National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-10-31

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice... personal privacy. Name of Committee: National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism Special Emphasis... Abuse and Alcoholism, 5635 Fishers Lane (Teleconference), Rockville, MD 20855. Contact Person:...

  19. 78 FR 21615 - National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-11

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice... personal privacy. Name of Committee: National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism Initial ] Review... Foster, Ph.D., Scientific Review Administrator, National Institutes on Alcohol Abuse &...

  20. Psychoanalytic Treatment of Psychological Addiction to Alcohol (Alcohol Abuse)

    OpenAIRE

    Johnson, Brian

    2011-01-01

    The DSM-V Committee plans to abolish the distinction between Alcohol Abuse and Alcohol Dependence (dsm5.org). The author presents a case report as a proof of concept that this distinction should be retained. The author has asserted that Alcohol Abuse is a purely psychological addiction, while Alcohol Dependence involves capture of the ventral tegmental dopaminergic SEEKING system (Johnson, 2003). In psychological addiction the brain can be assumed to function normally, and ordinary psychoanal...

  1. Alcoholic Lung Disease

    OpenAIRE

    Kershaw, Corey D.; Guidot, David M.

    2008-01-01

    In addition to its well-known association with lung infection (i.e., pneumonia), alcohol abuse now is recognized as an independent factor that increases by three- to four-fold the incidence of the acute respiratory distress syndrome, a severe form of acute lung injury with a mortality rate of 40 to 50 percent. This translates to tens of thousands of excess deaths in the United States each year from alcohol-mediated lung injury, which is comparable to scarring of the liver (i.e., cirrhosis) in...

  2. Alcohol, cannabis y accidentalidad

    OpenAIRE

    Olave Porrua, Leticia; Matos Larrinaga, Jesús; Salguero Noguera, Martín; Ramos Cejudo, Juan; Mae Wood, Cristina; Iruarrizaga Díez, Itziar

    2011-01-01

    Se ha desarrollado este trabajo de revisión con el objetivo de concentrar los últimos avances en investigación del consumo de alcohol y cannabis y su infl uencia en la conducción. Se realizaron tres búsquedas sistemáticas en la base de datos Psycinfo, introduciendo las palabras clave 'alcohol' AND 'traffi c'y 'cannabis' AND 'traffi c', restringida a los últimos cinco años (de enero de 2006 a diciembre de 2010). El presente trabajo incluye los datos más relevantes sobre prevalen...

  3. HEHEHP fractional extraction process with three outlets for separation of Am from rare earths

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    何培炯; 焦荣洲; 等

    1996-01-01

    Americium is similar to light rare earths in solvent extraction by HEHEHP.So the fractional extraction process with three outlets,which is widely used on rare earth industrial scale,can be applied to separate Am from La,Ce,Pr,Nd and Sm.The better process parameters can be calculated by the material and distribution balance equations stage by stage with given organic loading.In order to recover 0.99 mole fraction of Am and remove 0.90 mole fraction of light rare earths from the feed solution,in which the mole ratios of La Ce,Am,Pr,Nd,Sm are 0.140,0.199,0.005,0.109,0.487,0.060,the total number of stages needed is 43,that is the extraction sector 18,first scrubbing sector 2 and second scrubbing sector 23.The fractional extraction process with three outlets is simpler and more convenient than two fractional extraction processes with two outltes.

  4. Comparison of two inlet boundary approaches in numerical simulation of car ventilation outlet flow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Talanda, Tomáš; Niedoba, Pavel; Lízal, František; Jícha, Miroslav

    2016-03-01

    The paper is concerned with the comparison of two inlet boundary approaches of numerical simulations. The first approach is based on the simulation of a sufficiently long duct upstream the area of interest with known volumetric flow rate. The second approach rests on the experimental measurement of the section closer to the area of interest. The experimental measurement provides velocity profile and in addition turbulent intensity compared to the first approach where only a velocity profile can be computed according to known volumetric flow rate. A simplified model of car ventilation outlet was chosen as a test case. The model consists of circular and rectangular duct, area of interest (closing flap, vertical slats and horizontal slats) and outlet box. We have compared the two mentioned inlet boundary approaches for two distinct values of volumetric flow rate for which the experimental data of the section upstream of the area of interest are available. The velocity and the turbulent kinetic energy profiles downstream of the area of interest were chosen as comparative characteristics.

  5. Scour, Velocities and Pressures Evaluations Produced by Spillway and Outlets of Dam

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis G. Castillo

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Paute-Cardenillo (owned by Celec Ep-Hidropaute is a dam with maximum height 135 m located in the Paute River in Ecuador. Its hydroelectric production will be integrated at the National Electric System of Ecuador with an installed capacity of 600 MW which will produce 3300 GWh per year. To evaluate the stability and safety of the structure, it is necessary to ascertain the shape and dimensions of the scour generated downstream from the dam. We studied the scour, due to the operation of the free surface spillway (700 m3/s and half-height outlets (1760 m3/s, with three complementary procedures: empirical formulae obtained in models and prototypes, semi-empirical methodology based on pressure fluctuations-erodibility index and computational fluid dynamics simulations. The free surface weir could generate a scour around 21 m, while the intermediate outlet could reach the intact rock, located 34 m below the initial river bed. A pre-excavated basin is proposed and the velocities and pressures are analyzed. The results demonstrated the suitability of combining different methodologies to achieve an adequate resolution of this complex phenomenon.

  6. Epigastric heteropagus associated with an omphalocele and double outlet right ventricle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tatsuma Sakaguchi

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Incomplete or asymmetrical conjoined twins are extremely rare congenital anomalies. We report a case of epigastric heteropagus associated with an omphalocele and double outlet right ventricle. The cystic legion of the epigastrium was detected in our patient by an ultrasound scan at 28 weeks' gestation. He was born at 37 weeks' gestation by scheduled caesarean section. A parasite with an incomplete head and lower limb was attached to the epigastrium of the autosite. Surgical separation of the parasite and silo placement for an omphalocele was successfully performed on the 4th day of life. He underwent secondary surgical closure of the omphalocele on the 10th day. For treatment of the cardiac anomaly, he underwent an operation of Blalock–Taussig shunt because of pulmonary artery stenosis at the age of 3 months and correction of double outlet right ventricle at the age of 10 months. At the 20-month follow-up, he was alive and showed a normal growth pattern.

  7. Thermalhydraulic analysis of Candu 6 100% reactor outlet header break using RELAP5 code

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dupleac, D.; Prisecaru, I.; Ghitescu, P. [Power Plant Engineering Faculty, Politehnica University, Bucharest (Romania); Negut, G. [Institute for Nuclear Research, Pitesti (Romania)

    2007-07-01

    One of the postulated large break losses of coolant accident (LBLOCA) in a Candu reactor is the Reactor Outlet Header (ROH) break. After such an event, the normal coolant flow in the channels downstream the break is disrupted and late stagnation occurs after the pump head is degraded and before emergency core cooling (ECC) injection takes place. Given that the fuel decay and stored energy decreased significantly by that time, the heatup of the fuel sheath is much lower than in the case of 35% Reactor Inlet Header (RIH) break. However, the coolant pressure is much lower than the corresponding one at the 35% RIH break.The combination of a high fuel clad temperature and coolant low-pressure lead to more fuel failure events. Thus, the 100% ROH break has the highest potential for radioactivity release. The paper presents the thermal hydraulic analyses of a 100% reactor outlet header break. The study is done with RELAP5/SCDAP mod 3.4 and the results were compared with those of CATHENA. RELAP5 predicts a slightly faster inventory loss, an extended flow stagnation period and a higher clad temperature.

  8. Gastroduodenal outlet obstruction and palliative self-expandable metal stenting: a dual-centre experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, Nik S; Alexander, Sina; Swan, Michael P; Hair, Christopher; Wilson, Patrick; Clarebrough, Emma; Devonshire, David

    2013-01-01

    Background. Self-expandable metal stents (SEMs) are increasingly being utilised instead of invasive surgery for the palliation of patients with malignant gastroduodenal outlet obstruction. Aim. To review two tertiary centres' experience with placement of SEMs and clinical outcomes. Methods. Retrospective analysis of prospectively collected data over 12 years. Results. Ninety-four patients (mean age, 68; range 28-93 years) underwent enteral stenting during this period. The primary tumour was gastric adenocarcinoma in 27 (29%) patients, pancreatic adenocarcinoma in 45 (48%), primary duodenal adenocarcinoma in 8 (9%), and cholangiocarcinoma and other metastatic cancers in 14 (16%). A stent was successfully deployed in 95% of cases. There was an improvement in gastric outlet obstruction score (GOOS) in 84 (90%) of patients with the ability to tolerate an enteral diet. Median survival was 4.25 months (range 0-49) without any significant differences between types of primary malignancy. Mean hospital stay was 3 days (range 1-20). Reintervention rate for stent related complications was 5%. Conclusion. The successful deployment of enteral stents achieves excellent palliation often resulting in the prompt reintroduction of enteral diet and early hospital discharge with minimal complications and reintervention. PMID:24319458

  9. An ultrasonic technique for the remote measurement of breeder subassembly outlet temperature

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the Liquid Metal Fast Breeder Reactor (LMFBR) there has been concern to avoid positioning structural components in that region of the above core plenum which is directly above the core breeder boundary. This is because the temperature fluctuations in this region might cause fatigue. One consequence of this is that it is difficult to mount thermocouples in positions from which they can monitor the breeder element outlet temperatures accurately. In the UK a joint R and D programme involving NNC, CEGB, and UKAEA has been launched to develop a method of measuring the breeder outlet temperatures from a remote sensor using high frequency sound waves. This paper explains the principle of the technique and goes on to describe experiments in static sodium which illustrate it in operation over the temperature range from 200 deg. C to 600 deg. C. The turbulent mixing above the subassemblies has an adverse effect on the transmission of the sound waves and experiments to investigate this effect are described. Finally proposals for tests of measurement of mean temperature and temperature noise in flowing sodium are discussed. 1 ref., 9 figs

  10. Chicano Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism in the Barrio.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jasso, Ricardo

    Conducted in January 1977, the community survey examined alcohol abuse and alcoholism among Chicanos in the barrios. Data were obtained from 160 respondents (119 females and 41 males) from 3 geographic areas in San Antonio: the Special Impact Area of Casa Del Sol (an alcoholism program) and the cities of San Antonio and Alamo Heights. Information…

  11. Information on Blood Alcohol Concentration: Evaluation of Two Alcohol Nomograms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Werch, Chudley E.

    1988-01-01

    Compared utility of two common alcohol nomograms on impacting decisions regarding drinking, driving after drinking, knowledge of relationship between personal alcohol consumption and the legal level of intoxication, and consumer evaluation measures, to utility of alcohol information warning card. Nomograms were no more effective than cards warning…

  12. Fetal Alcohol Syndrome and Fetal Alcohol Effects in Child Development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pancratz, Diane R.

    This literature review defines Fetal Alcohol Syndrome (FAS) and Fetal Alcohol Effects (FAE) and considers their causes, diagnoses, prevalence, and educational ramifications. Effects of alcohol during each of the trimesters of pregnancy are summarized. Specific diagnostic characteristics of FAS are listed: (1) growth deficiency, (2) a…

  13. Relationship between Alcohol Consumption and Alcohol Problems in Young Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Werch, Chudley E.; And Others

    1987-01-01

    Examined relationship among alcohol problems and alcohol consumption variables in 410 college students. Total alcohol-related problems, drinking and driving problems, and school problems increased significantly when subjects drank moderately. Physical illness problems increased during light drinking, while interpersonal and legal problems…

  14. Fetal Alcohol Syndrome and Fetal Alcohol Effects: Principles for Educators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burgess,Donna M.; Streissguth, Ann P.

    1992-01-01

    Fetal alcohol syndrome (FAS), the leading cause of mental retardation, often goes unrecognized because of social and emotional taboos about alcohol and alcoholism. This article describes medical and behavioral characteristics of FAS children and describes guiding principles for educators, based on early intervention, teaching communication and…

  15. Alcohol drinking pattern and risk of alcoholic liver cirrhosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Askgaard, Gro; Grønbæk, Morten; Kjær, Mette Skalshøi;

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND & AIMS: Alcohol is the main contributing factor of alcoholic cirrhosis, but less is known about the significance of drinking pattern. METHODS: We investigated the risk of alcoholic cirrhosis among 55,917 participants (aged 50-64 years) in the Danish Cancer, Diet, and Health study (1993...

  16. Low Bone Density

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Density Exam/Testing › Low Bone Density Low Bone Density Low bone density is when your bone density ... people with normal bone density. Detecting Low Bone Density A bone density test will determine whether you ...

  17. Men's Health: Alcohol and Drug Abuse

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... This information in Spanish ( en español ) Alcohol and drug abuse More information on alcohol and drug abuse Alcohol ... Return to top More information on Alcohol and drug abuse Explore other publications and websites Consequences of the ...

  18. Alcohol and Public Health: Frequently Asked Questions

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... it okay to drink when pregnant? What is alcohol? Ethyl alcohol, or ethanol, is an intoxicating ingredient ... sugars, and starches. Top of Page How does alcohol affect a person? Alcohol affects every organ in ...

  19. Propylthiouracil for alcoholic liver disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fede, Giuseppe; Germani, Giacomo; Gluud, Christian;

    2011-01-01

    Randomised clinical trials have addressed the question whether propylthiouracil has any beneficial effects in patients with alcoholic liver disease.......Randomised clinical trials have addressed the question whether propylthiouracil has any beneficial effects in patients with alcoholic liver disease....

  20. Alcohol use and safe drinking

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... considered "problem drinkers." This means that they: Get drunk Have accidents related to alcohol use Get into ... to legally define whether or not you are drunk. The legal limit for blood alcohol usually falls ...

  1. Alcohol use and safe drinking

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/001944.htm Alcohol use and safe drinking To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Alcohol use involves drinking beer, wine, or hard liquor. ...

  2. Alcohol Binding to the Odorant Binding Protein LUSH: Multiple Factors Affecting Binding Affinities

    OpenAIRE

    Ader, Lauren; Jones, David N. M.; Lin, Hai

    2010-01-01

    Density function theory (DFT) calculations have been carried out to investigate the binding of alcohols to the odorant binding protein LUSH from Drosophila melanogaster. LUSH is one of the few proteins known to bind to ethanol at physiologically relevant concentrations and where high-resolution structural information is available for the protein bound to alcohol at these concentrations. The structures of the LUSH–alcohol complexes identify a set of specific hydrogen-bonding interactions as cr...

  3. Production, characterization and acceptability of pineapple liqueurs prepared with different alcoholic bases

    OpenAIRE

    Érica Resende Oliveira; Kátia Oliveira de Deus; Márcio Caliari

    2015-01-01

    Evaluation of physico-chemical parameters and the acceptability of liquors pineapple (Ananas comosus L. Merri), produced with different alcoholic bases: rum, flavored with pineapple peel and rum doubly distilled grain alcohol, were performed in this study. We conducted analyzes of alcoholic strength, density, pH, soluble solids, total fixed and volatile acidity, dry, and sensory analysis through the affective test of acceptability with 100 judges using 9-point hedonic scale to evaluate the at...

  4. Propylthiouracil for alcoholic liver disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rambaldi, A; Gluud, C

    2002-01-01

    Alcohol is the most common cause of liver disease in the Western world today. Randomised clinical trials have addressed the question whether propylthiouracil has any efficacy in patients with alcoholic liver disease.......Alcohol is the most common cause of liver disease in the Western world today. Randomised clinical trials have addressed the question whether propylthiouracil has any efficacy in patients with alcoholic liver disease....

  5. [Alcoholism from the systemic viewpoint].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schweizer, V; Besson, J

    1999-10-14

    In this paper we attempt to view the phenomenon alcohol abuse and dependence within the family or partnership and to describe the important impact of alcoholism on social relation. Understating the role of alcohol in the familial structure may help to draw conclusions for competence and effectiveness of individual or familial psychotherapeutic interventions. PMID:10574037

  6. Alcohol, marihuana and youth

    OpenAIRE

    KREJČOVÁ, Iveta

    2012-01-01

    The subject of this work is misusing alcohol and illicit addicting substances (primarily marijuana) by students at high schools. The research was done at specifically chosen high school by questionnaires, that helped to uncover student?s experiences with illicit addicting substances.

  7. Saying No to Alcohol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abbey, Nancy; Wagman, Ellen

    This teacher guide is part of a series of three interactive books on tobacco, alcohol, and marijuana; three informational books containing parallel content; and three teacher guides designed to give students in grades five through eight practice in using the information and skills presented in the books. The guide provides teachers with a…

  8. Children of Alcoholics

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... at home: Failure in school; truancy Lack of friends; withdrawal from classmates Delinquent behavior, such as stealing or violence Frequent physical complaints, such as headaches or stomachaches Abuse of drugs or alcohol; or Aggression towards other children Risk taking behaviors Depression or ...

  9. Shifting densities

    OpenAIRE

    Mille, Matthieu

    2000-01-01

    In this paper, the author adopt a time-geography approach to examine the temporal variation of urban density by analysing spatial load changes at different times of the day at the communal and community level. The evolution of means of transport coupled with the abandon of the notion of direct proximity to the urban dwelling place provide the basis for this new approach to the study of urban densities. The shift towards spatial specialisation within cities has lead to radical changes in the f...

  10. Component Analysis of Unsteady Hydrodynamic Force of Closed-Type Centrifugal Pump with Single Blades of Different Blade Outlet Angles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yasuyuki Nishi

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Single-blade centrifugal impellers for sewage systems undergo both unsteady radial and axial thrusts. Therefore, it is extremely important for the improvement of pump reliability to quantitatively grasp these fluctuating hydrodynamic forces and determine the generation mechanism behind them. In this study, we conducted component analyses of radial and axial thrusts of closed, single-blade centrifugal pumps with different blade outlet angles by numerical analysis while considering leakage flow. The results revealed the effect of the blade outlet angle on the components of radial and axial thrusts. For increased flow rates, the time-averaged values of the pressure component were similar for all impellers, although its fluctuating components were higher for impellers with larger blade outlet angles. Moreover, the fluctuating inertia component of the impeller with a blade outlet angle of 8° decreased as the flow rate increased, whereas those with 16° and 24° angles increased. Therefore, the radial thrust on the hydraulic part was significantly higher for impellers with high blade outlet angles.

  11. Alcohol and the older adult: a comprehensive review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heuberger, Roschelle A

    2009-07-01

    Alcohol consumption in the older adult is of major concern with the advent of baby boomers coming into the over 65-age bracket. Alcohol consumption has been touted as beneficial for health, and while that may be accurate for moderate consumption in younger persons, there is considerable risk associated with increased alcohol intake in older adults. This increase is partially due to age-related physiological changes, existing diagnoses, number of comorbid conditions, and increased use of prescribed and/or over-the-counter medications, coupled with other concerns. This review addresses the current research regarding ethanol consumption in older adults and all-cause mortality as well as several conditions more frequently seen in the geriatric population. These conditions include vascular diseases, hypertension, type 2 diabetes, gastrointestinal disorders, hepatic disorders, dental and oro-facial problems, bone density decline, and falls and fractures. In addition, drug interactions and recent research into select vitamin and mineral considerations with increased alcohol intake in older persons are addressed. While recommendations for alcohol intake have not been specifically established for age ranges within the 65-year-and-older bracket, and practitioners do not routinely assess alcohol intake or ethanol related adverse events in this population, common sense approaches to monitoring will become increasingly important as the generation of "boomers" who believe that alcohol intake improves health comes of age. PMID:21184367

  12. Coupling and Reactions of 5-Hydroxyconiferyl Alcohol in Lignin Formation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Elder, Thomas; Berstis, Laura; Beckham, Gregg T.; Crowley, Michael F.

    2016-06-15

    The catechol alcohols, caffeyl and 5-hydroxyconiferyl alcohol, may be incorporated into lignin either naturally or through genetic manipulation. Due to the presence of o-OH groups, these compounds form benzodioxanes, a departure from the interunit connections found in lignins derived from the cinnamyl alcohols. In nature, lignins composed of caffeyl and 5-hydroxyconiferyl alcohol are linear homopolymers and, as such, may have properties that make them amenable for use in value-added products, such as lignin-based carbon fibers. In the current work, results from density functional theory calculations for the reactions of 5-hydroxyconiferyl alcohol, taking stereochemistry into account, are reported. Dehydrogenation and quinone methide formation are found to be thermodynamically favored for 5-hydroxyconiferyl alcohol, over coniferyl alcohol. The comparative energetics of the rearomatization reactions suggest that the formation of the benzodioxane linkage is under kinetic control. Ring-opening reactions of the benzodioxane groups show that the bond dissociation enthalpy of the ..alpha..-O cleavage reaction is lower than that of the ..beta..-O reaction. The catechol lignins represent a novel form of the polymer that may offer new opportunities for bioproducts and genetic targets.

  13. Alcohol content variation in the assessment of alcohol consumption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, C S; Nirenberg, T D

    1991-01-01

    Most investigators have not adequately accounted for the alcohol content of different beverages when assessing alcohol consumption. Considerable research has assessed consumption in terms of the number of standard drinks. A problem with standard drink measures is that different distilled spirits, wines, and malt beverages vary considerably in alcohol content. State-to-state and brand-to-brand variations in the strength of different malt beverage brands are provided, as malt beverage alcohol contents are not contained on labels due to federal and state regulations. Ignoring alcohol content variation when estimating consumption can produce a large amount of error. Alcohol consumption should be assessed in terms of the number, size, and alcohol content of beverages. PMID:1801580

  14. Influence of lifestyle factors on mammographic density in postmenopausal women.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Judith S Brand

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Mammographic density is a strong risk factor for breast cancer. Apart from hormone replacement therapy (HRT, little is known about lifestyle factors that influence breast density. METHODS: We examined the effect of smoking, alcohol and physical activity on mammographic density in a population-based sample of postmenopausal women without breast cancer. Lifestyle factors were assessed by a questionnaire and percentage and area measures of mammographic density were measured using computer-assisted software. General linear models were used to assess the association between lifestyle factors and mammographic density and effect modification by body mass index (BMI and HRT was studied. RESULTS: Overall, alcohol intake was positively associated with percent mammographic density (P trend  = 0.07. This association was modified by HRT use (P interaction  = 0.06: increasing alcohol intake was associated with increasing percent density in current HRT users (P trend  = 0.01 but not in non-current users (P trend  = 0.82. A similar interaction between alcohol and HRT was found for the absolute dense area, with a positive association being present in current HRT users only (P interaction  = 0.04. No differences in mammographic density were observed across categories of smoking and physical activity, neither overall nor in stratified analyses by BMI and HRT use. CONCLUSIONS: Increasing alcohol intake is associated with an increase in mammography density, whereas smoking and physical activity do not seem to influence density. The observed interaction between alcohol and HRT may pose an opportunity for HRT users to lower their mammographic density and breast cancer risk.

  15. Alcohol use following an alcohol challenge and a brief intervention among alcohol-dependent individuals

    OpenAIRE

    Bacio, GA; Lunny, KF; Webb, JN; Ray, LA

    2014-01-01

    Background and Objectives The study examined the effects of an alcohol challenge on naturalistic drinking among alcohol-dependent individuals and explored brief motivational interviewing (MI) as a potential intervention for these participants. Method Alcohol-dependent individuals (n = 32, eight females) completed the intake assessment, alcohol challenge, one MI session, and 1-month follow-up (87.5% retention) where they completed measures of drinking and motivation for change. Results As expe...

  16. Polyvinyl alcohol membranes as alkaline battery separators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheibley, D. W.; Gonzalez-Sanabria, O.; Manzo, M. A.

    1982-01-01

    Polyvinly alcohol (PVA) cross-linked with aldehyde reagents yields membranes that demonstrate properties that make them suitable for use as alkaline battery separators. Film properties can be controlled by the choice of cross-linker, cross-link density and the method of cross-linking. Three methods of cross-linking and their effects on film properties are discussed. Film properties can also be modified by using a copolymer of vinyl alcohol and acrylic acid as the base for the separator and cross-linking it similarly to the PVA. Fillers can be incorporated into the films to further modify film properties. Results of separator screening tests and cell tests for several variations of PBA films are discussed.

  17. Body composition in detoxified alcoholics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    York, J L; Pendergast, D E

    1990-04-01

    Body composition was evaluated in healthy detoxified alcoholics (aged 20-39) and lifestyle controls, with the expectation that prolonged, excessive consumption of alcohol may bring about nutritional or toxicologic alterations in the relationship between body fat and lean body mass. Body fat was assessed by measurements of skin-fold thickness and by means of bioelectric impedance methodology. No noteworthy differences were observed between alcoholics and controls with regard to the relationship between lean body mass and body fat or in the relationship between extracellular and intracellular water. It would appear that 15-20 years of heavy alcohol consumption does not necessarily alter body composition in healthy, young alcoholics. PMID:2190482

  18. Coolant mixing in LMFBR rod bundles and outlet plenum mixing transients. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This project principally undertook the investigation of the thermal hydraulic performance of wire wrapped fuel bundles of LMFBR configuration. Results obtained included phenomenological models for friction factors, flow split and mixing characteristics; correlations for predicting these characteristics suitable for insertion in design codes; numerical codes for analyzing bundle behavior both of the lumped subchannel and distributed parameter categories and experimental techniques for pressure velocity, flow split, salt conductivity and temperature measurement in water cooled mockups of bundles and subchannels. Flow regimes investigated included laminar, transition and turbulent flow under forced convection and mixed convection conditions. Forced convections conditions were emphasized. Continuing efforts are underway at MIT to complete the investigation of the mixed convection regime initiated here. A number of investigations on outlet plenum behavior were also made. The reports of these investigations are identified

  19. Unusual cause of shortness of breath after surgery for thoracic outlet syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schroeder, Jonathan Ryan; Kumar, Anjan; Savage, Edward; Rahaghi, Franck F

    2012-01-01

    A 31-year-old postal worker was diagnosed with bilateral thoracic outlet syndrome and scheduled for the first of two surgeries. The first procedure involved removal of the right first cervical rib, anterior and middle scalenes. On postoperative day 4, he developed shortness of breath. Chest radiograph showed a new pleural effusion on the right. Thoracentesis revealed a yellowish-red thick effusion. Based on the initial look of the fluid it was thought to be a haemorrhagic effusion with a purulent component, further testing revealed that he had developed a chylothorax. The patient was placed on a medium-chain triglyceride diet followed by chest tube drainage. After one day, the chest tube was removed due to minimal drainage, and he was discharged home the next day. Keeping this patient without food, on total parental nutrition, or pursuing surgical intervention was not necessary, as he had an excellent outcome from a very rare surgical complication. PMID:23047993

  20. [Vascular manifestation of thoracic outlet syndrome. Prospective study of 104 patients].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maisonneuve, H; Planchon, B; de Faucal, P; Mussini, J M; Patra, P

    1991-01-01

    On the basis of a prospective study of 104 patients, the authors discuss the diagnostic value of the clinical symptoms revealing the thoracic outlet syndrome (TOS), as well as the specificity of the vascular functional exploration carried out to establish the diagnosis. Non-systematized pain and dysesthesia in the upper limb, with a postural or nocturnal onset, and Raynaud's sign are the most frequently observed signs. The "candlestick" maneuver still is the most reliable clinical triggering maneuver. The clinical features and the vascular functional explorations (capillaroscopy and digital plethysmography) allow demonstrating the existence of a true Raynaud's syndrome secondary to the TOS. The results of the arterial Doppler study distinguish the symptomatic and asymptomatic sides in the same patient, though without any correlation with the symptoms observed. The Doppler examination therefore seems to be reliable to demonstrate an anatomical duct, but remains insufficient to establish a causal relationship with the signal symptoms in most cases. PMID:1940645

  1. Bilateral thoracic outlet syndrome: An uncommon presentation of a rare condition in children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arif Khan

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available We report an adolescent girl who had left-sided neurogenic thoracic outlet syndrome (TOS due to impingement of the scalenus anterior muscle with bilateral changes on nerve conduction studies and responded well to surgical decompression. A 13-year-old Caucasian girl presented with intermittent pain, swelling, erythema, tingling and numbness of the palmar aspect of her left hand. Nerve conduction studies revealed bilateral ulnar sensory and motor conduction abnormalities, suggesting early compressive neuropathy in the asymptomatic arm as well. She underwent surgical exploration when it was noted that the scalenus anterior itself was impinging on the brachial plexus. She had a good clinical response to scalenectomy. The diagnosis of neurogenic TOS remains difficult as no single test has been accepted as a gold standard. But, once diagnosed using clinical symptoms, nerve conduction studies, electromyography and radiological investigations, it is a treatable condition with good prognosis.

  2. Regularities of hydraulic irregularities formation at the reactor facility collector system outlet

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Theoretical and experimental studies of hydrodynamics of flow paths of axisymmetrical collector systems (CS) of cylindrical and plane forms with different variants of coolant input and output have been carried out. The regularities of hydraulic irregularities generation in the CS output of WWER type reactor facility have been ascertained. It is shown that position of the maximal coolant velocity in the outlet of the grid coincides with position of maximal velocity in the core of the jet falling on it, and the value of the maximal average coolant velocity in grid openings is proportional to the value of average coolant velocity in jet falling on it. It is pointed out that in CS flow paths coolant flow has complex hydrodynamic structure and is determined mainly by ratio of dimensions and CS design, coolant flow in its flow path and ratio of pressure drop in CS input and output. The data obtained make it possible to optimize hydrodynamics of considered CS without expensive experiments

  3. Complete transposition of the great arteries with double outlet right ventricle in a dog.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koo, S T; LeBlanc, N L; Scollan, K F; Sisson, D D

    2016-06-01

    A 2-year old intact male Collie dog presented to the cardiology service at Oregon State University for evaluation of cyanosis and suspected congenital cardiac disease. Echocardiography revealed a constellation of cardiac abnormalities including a single large vessel exiting the right ventricle with a diminutive left ventricular outflow tract, a ventricular septal defect, and marked concentric right ventricular hypertrophy with moderate right atrial dilation. Cardiac-gated computed tomography confirmed the previous anomalies in addition to supporting a diagnosis of complete transposition of the great arteries, double outlet right ventricle, and pulmonic hypoplasia with a single coronary ostium. Prominent bronchoesophageal collateral vessels were concurrently identified. Clinically, the dog was stable despite mild cyanosis that worsened with exercise; no intervention was elected at the time. This case report describes a rare combination of congenital cardiac defects and the usefulness of cardiac-gated cross-sectional imaging in the anatomic diagnosis. PMID:26936424

  4. The effect on engine performance of change in jacket-water outlet temperature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garlock, E A; Ellis, Greer

    1933-01-01

    Tests made on a Curtiss D-12 engine in the Altitude Laboratory at the Bureau of Standards show the following effects on engine performance of change in jacket-water outlet temperature: 1) Friction at all altitudes is a linear function of the jacket-water temperature, decreasing with increasing temperature. 2) The brake horsepower below an altitude of about 9,000 feet decreases, and at higher altitudes increases, with jacket-water temperature. 3) The brake specific fuel consumption tends to decrease, at all altitudes, with increasing jacket-water temperature. 4) The percentage change in brake power output is roughly equal to the algebraic sum of the percentage change in volumetric efficiency and mechanical efficiency.

  5. Novelty: Mixer with three inlets and one outlet; Neuheit: Heizungsmischer mit drei Eingaengen und einem Ausgang

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anon.

    2001-03-20

    A novel mixing system with three inlets and one outlet is presented. In combination with a high-efficiency boiler, the system improves the hydraulics and the overall efficiency of a heating system as it is able to feed warm water recirculated from the radiators into the floor heating system instead of hot boiler water. [German] Man kann bei Zweikreisanlagen nicht das meist noch genuegend warme Ruecklaufwasser aus den Radiatoren in den Fussbodenheizkreis einspeisen, anstatt das heissere Kesselwasser mit dem kalten Fussbodenruecklauf zu vermischen. Wuerde man sich nicht fuer den Mischer interessieren, der beides kann: den Mischkreis bevorzugt aus dem Radiatorenruecklauf zu speisen und ihm dennoch immer ausreichende Leistung zur Verfuegung zu stellen? Dabei liegt es auf der Hand, dass eine solche Vorrichtung die Hydraulik und den Wirkungsgrad der gesamten Anlage wesentlich verbesseren wuerde, besonders in Verbindung mit einem Brennwertgeraet. (orig.)

  6. Successful Multimodality Endoscopic Treatment of Gastric Outlet Obstruction Caused by an Impacted Gallstone (Bouveret's Syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jason N. Rogart

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Bouveret's syndrome is a rare condition of gastric outlet obstruction resulting from the migration of a gallstone through a choledochoduodenal fistula. Due to the large size of these stones and the difficult location in which they become impacted, endoscopic treatment is unsuccessful and most patients require surgery. We report the case of an elderly male who presented with nausea and hematemesis, and was found on CT scan and endoscopy to have an obstructing gallstone in his duodenal bulb. After several endoscopic sessions and the use of multiple instruments including a Holmium: YAG laser and electrohydraulic lithotripter, fragmentation and endoscopic removal of the stone were successful. We believe this to be the first case of Bouveret's syndrome successfully treated by endoscopy alone in the United States. We describe the difficulties encountered which necessitated varied and innovative therapeutic techniques.

  7. Radiological evaluation of double-outlet right ventricle - An analysis of cinecardioangiography in 44 cases -

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Cheong Hee; Yeon, Kyung Mo; Han, Man Chung [Seoul National University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1984-03-15

    Double-outlet right ventricle is defined as follows: both great arteries arise completely or nearly completely from the right ventricle; neither semilunar valve is in fibrous continuity with either atrioventricular valve; and usually a ventricular septal defect is present and the only outlet from the left ventricle. A total of 44 cases of double-outlet right ventricle is analyzed, in which cineangiocardiographies were done at the Department of Radiology, Seoul National University Hospital in recent 4 year and 6 months, with specific reference to the segmental combinations, the height of conus, the relationship of great arteries, the location of ventricular septal defects, and associated anomalies. The results were as follows; 1. Among 44 cases, 36 cases had normal cardiac position, 4 cases had dextrocardia with situs inversus 2 cases had dextrocardia with situs solitus, 1 case had levocardia with situs inversus, and another 1 case had mesocardia with situs ambiguus. 2. Segmental sets were [S,D,D] in 36 cases, [I,L,L] in 3 cases, [I,D,D] in 2 cases, [S,D,L], [S,L,L] and [A,D,D] in 1 case respectively. 3. All cases had bilateral conus. Aortic valve rings were same level as pulmonary valve rings in 25 cases, lower than pulmonary valve rings in 17 cases in which 15 cases were type A., and higher than pulmonary valve rings in 2 cases. 4. The relation of the great arteries were normal in 15 cases, side-by-side in 13 cases, dextromalposition in 13 cases, and levomal position in 3 cases. 5. The position of the ventricular septal defects with respect to the origins of the great arteries is subaortic (type A and type B) in 23 cases, subpulmonary (type C) in 13 cases, doubly committed (type D) in 3 cases, and uncommitted (type E) in 5 cases. 6. Associated cardiac malformations are pulmonary stenosis in 24 which had all cases of type A and type E, aortic stenosis in 6 which were only in type C, left SVC in 6, abnormality of atrioventricular valve in 5, single coronary artery

  8. Wind-Tunnel Investigation of Air Inlet and Outlet Openings for Aircraft, Special Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rogallo, Francis M.; Gauvain, William E.

    1938-01-01

    An investigation was made in the NACA 5-foot vertical wind tunnel of a large variety of duct inlets and outlets to obtain information relative to their design for the cooling or the ventilation systems on aircraft. Most of the tests were of openings in a flat plate but, in order to determine the best locations and the effects of interference, a few tests were made of openings in an airfoil. The best inlet location for a system not including a blower was found to be at the forward stagnation point; for one including a blower, the best location was found to be in the region of lowest total head, probably in the boundary layer near the trailing edge. Design recommendations are given, and it is shown that correct design demands a knowledge of the external flow and of the internal requirements in addition to that obtained from the results of the wind tunnel tests.

  9. Genetic studies in alcohol research

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Karp, R.W. [National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism, Rockville, MD (United States)

    1994-12-15

    The National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism (NIAAA) supports research to elucidate the specific genetic factors, now largely unknown, which underlie susceptibility to alcoholism and its medical complications (including fetal alcohol syndrome). Because of the genetic complexity and heterogeneity of alcoholism, identification of the multiple underlying factors will require the development of new study designs and methods of analysis of data from human families. While techniques of genetic analysis of animal behavioral traits (e.g., targeted gene disruption, quantitative trait locus (QTL) mapping) are more powerful that those applicable to humans (e.g., linkage and allelic association studies), the validation of animal behaviors as models of aspects of human alcoholism has been problematic. Newly developed methods for mapping QTL influencing animal behavioral traits can not only permit analyses of human family data to be directly informed by the results of animal studies, but can also serve as a novel means of validating animal models of aspects of alcoholism. 55 refs.

  10. Preoperative alcoholism and postoperative morbidity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tonnesen, H; Kehlet, H

    1999-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Preoperative risk assessment has become part of daily clinical practice, but preoperative alcohol abuse has not received much attention. METHODS: A Medline search was carried out to identify original papers published from 1967 to 1998. Relevant articles on postoperative morbidity in...... alcohol abusers were used to evaluate the evidence. RESULTS: Prospective and retrospective studies demonstrate a twofold to threefold increase in postoperative morbidity in alcohol abusers, the most frequent complications being infections, bleeding and cardiopulmonary insufficiency. Wound complications...... postoperative morbidity. CONCLUSION: Alcohol consumption should be included in the preoperative assessment of likely postoperative outcome. Reduction of postoperative morbidity in alcohol abusers may include preoperative alcohol abstinence to improve organ function, or perioperative alcohol administration to...

  11. [Alcohol and women: clinical aspects].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ceccanti, Mauro; Romeo, Marina; Fiorentino, Daniela

    2004-01-01

    Alcohol-related pathologies lead to most serious expressions, both at clinical and social level. The diffused social acceptance of consumption and abuse behavior and the lack of alcohol education for professionals (physicians, psychologists, social workers etc.) make difficult to put in the right frame this issue. Just a multidimensional approach can make the problem understandable. The history of alcohol consumption during the time gives us an exhaustive picture of the negative consequences of alcohol consumption. Alcohol consumption during pregnancy is a problem still underestimated and represents a serious risk for the health of the newborns: children alcohol-exposed in uterus are at risk to develop many pathologies and even the fetal-alcohol syndrome (FAS) that leads to facial anomalies, growth deficiencies and neurological damages. Therefore interventions coping with this kind of issues are needed in order to enhance people's health. PMID:15269446

  12. Statistical Evaluation of Wastewater Characteristics at the Inlet – Outlet of an Activated Sludge Process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rupali A. J

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Effluent to Influent concentration ratios for BOD, COD, TSS and Food-to-Microorganisms (F/M ratio are measure of treatment plant efficiency. Daily observed inlet and outlet concentrations at ASP in a plant are plotted as time series for Pre-monsoon (January – May and Post-monsoon (July – December, 2013 period. BOD vs TSS and BOD vs COD indicated that inlet concentrations are ~ 80 % reduced in treatment process. Correlation matrix indicated strong correlationbetween COD and TSS of post-monsoon raw sewage, while weak correlation among the rest. Principle Component Analysis (PCA and Factor Analysis (FA are used to characterize wastewater at the inlet and outlet of ASP. PCA & FA clustered wastewater quality parameters into strongly correlated groups - pH, COD and BOD as PC1 in pre-monsoon raw sewage while, DO and F/Maverageas PC1 in post-monsoon raw sewage. All parameters (pH, TSS, COD, BOD, O&G of treated effluent in premonsoon period are grouped into PC1. In post-monsoon period, for treated effluent, pH, DO, TSS and F/Maverageare clustered as PC1. Effluent BOD, COD and TSS are dependent variables with F/Maverage as independent variable for regression analysis. Regression fits developed with 2013 data for these effluent concentrations fit well with field samples (December 2013 – March 2014 and with routine monitored data (January – March, 2014, thus, validating the model. Effluent concentrations indicated 80 – 95% of removal efficiency. Thus, F/Maverage ratios obtained from regression fit can further be considered as design parameters for efficient functioning of ASP and can be used to design the inflow and outflow characteristics for any treatment plant with similar process conditions

  13. Compensatory Paracrine Mechanisms That Define The Urothelial Response to Injury in Partial Bladder Outlet Obstruction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bassuk, James; Lendvay, Thomas S.; Sweet, Robert; Han, Chang-Hee; Soygur, Tarkan; Cheng, Jan-Fang; Plaire, J. Chadwick; Charleston, Jay S.; Charleston, Lynne B.; Bagai, Shelly; Cochrane, Kimberly; Rubio, Eric; Bassuk, James A.; Fuchs, Elaine

    2007-06-21

    Diseases and conditions affecting the lower urinary tract are a leading cause of dysfunctional sexual health, incontinence, infection, and kidney failure. The growth, differentiation, and repair of the bladder's epithelial lining are regulated, in part, by fibroblast growth factor (FGF)-7 and -10 via a paracrine cascade originating in the mesenchyme (lamina propria) and targeting the receptor for FGF-7 and -10 within the transitional epithelium (urothelium). The FGF-7 gene is located at the 15q15-q21.1 locus on chromosome 15 and four exons generate a 3.852-kb mRNA. Five duplicated FGF-7 gene sequences that localized to chromosome 9 were predicted not to generate functional protein products, thus validating the use of FGF-7-null mice as an experimental model. Recombinant FGF-7 and -10 induced proliferation of human urothelial cells in vitro and transitional epithelium of wild-type and FGF-7-null mice in vivo.To determine the extent that induction of urothelial cell proliferation during the bladder response to injury is dependent on FGF-7, an animal model of partial bladder outlet obstruction was developed. Unbiased stereology was used to measure the percentage of proliferating urothelial cells between obstructed groups of wild-type and FGF-7-null mice. The stereological analysis indicated that a statistical significant difference did not exist between the two groups, suggesting that FGF-7 is not essential for urothelial cell proliferation in response to partial outlet obstruction. In contrast, a significant increase in FGF-10 expression was observed in the obstructed FGF-7-null group, indicating that the compensatory pathway that functions in this model results in urothelial repair.

  14. [Arterial complications of thoracic outlet syndrome and pseudarthrosis of the clavicle: three patients].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garnier, D; Chevalier, J; Ducasse, E; Modine, T; Espagne, P; Puppinck, P

    2003-04-01

    During a 3-year period, three patients developed arterial complications related to congenital or post-traumatic old pseudarthrosis of the clavicle. Arterial complications of pseudarthrosis of the clavicle presenting as a thoracic outlet syndrome are very rare. Symptoms are variable and occur late. Without treatment, the prognosis is poor with spontaneous development of gangrene. Arterial morphology investigations should be undertaken in patients with pseudarthrosis of the clavicle or isolated arterial symptoms involving the upper limb whose radial pulse disappears during postural tests. Duplex Doppler of the subclavian artery is an excellent screening exam but selective arteriography is the gold standard. It shows proximal arterial lesions (embolytic stenosis of the subclavian artery with post-stenotic dilatation), as well as distal embolic complications. Both static and postural tests must be performed to unmask subclavian restriction by the clavicle, proving its causal effect in the arterial complications. There are four clinical varieties: chronic thrombosis of the subclavian artery, distal arterial micro emboli, acute thrombosis of proximal arteries of the upper limb, and subclavian aneurysm. These lesions are thought to be due to chronic constriction and repeated arterial microtrauma. Congenital or post-traumatic pseudarthrosis, hypertrophic callus, arterial restriction by a screw in a clavicular plate, usually explain the arterial lesions. Bone tumors and Paget's disease are potential but exceptional clavicular etiologies. Surgical treatment is always necessary. Clavicular resection is usually needed in case of pseudarthrosis; there is no functional handicap. Plate fixation and autologous grafting, or open reduction and internal fixation are other valid surgical treatments; The embolytic lesions must be treated to prevent recurrence of distal embolization: graft resection and thromboendarteriectomy have been described. Neurological and venous decompression

  15. Map-based prediction of organic carbon in headwater streams improved by downstream observations from the river outlet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Temnerud, J.; von Brömssen, C.; Fölster, J.; Buffam, I.; Andersson, J.-O.; Nyberg, L.; Bishop, K.

    2016-01-01

    In spite of the great abundance and ecological importance of headwater streams, managers are usually limited by a lack of information about water chemistry in these headwaters. In this study we test whether river outlet chemistry can be used as an additional source of information to improve the prediction of the chemistry of upstream headwaters (size carried out 17 synoptic surveys in 9 mesoscale catchments (size 32-235 km2). Over 900 water samples were collected in total, primarily from headwater streams but also including each catchment's river outlet during every survey. First we used partial least square regression (PLS) to model the distribution (median, interquartile range (IQR)) of headwater stream TOC for a given catchment, based on a large number of candidate variables including sub-catchment characteristics from GIS, and measured river chemistry at the catchment outlet. The best candidate variables from the PLS models were then used in hierarchical linear mixed models (MM) to model TOC in individual headwater streams. Three predictor variables were consistently selected for the MM calibration sets: (1) proportion of forested wetlands in the sub-catchment (positively correlated with headwater stream TOC), (2) proportion of lake surface cover in the sub-catchment (negatively correlated with headwater stream TOC), and (3) river outlet TOC (positively correlated with headwater stream TOC). Including river outlet TOC improved predictions, with 5-15 % lower prediction errors than when using map information alone. Thus, data on water chemistry measured at river outlets offer information which can complement GIS-based modelling of headwater stream chemistry.

  16. Free WiFi as Strategic Competitive Advantage for Fast-Food Outlet in the Knowledge Era

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. I. Yusop

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: The growth of food outlets in Malaysia brings about the stiff competition among the players in food industry. To remain competitive, each outlet needs to adopt its own strategy in order to secure their return on investment and profitability. In knowledge era, technology has become an added value in achieving competitive advantage. The aim of this research is to assess whether providing free WiFi can be a strategy to remain competitive. Porter's 5forces competitive model is adopted as the basis for the assessment. Approach: Two phases of data collection using qualitative methodology were planned and rolled out. The first phase involved surveying and observing three regions within a selected state, while the second phase involved interviewing the identified food outlet’s manager. A set of interview questions was formulated based on the 5 areas of porter's model which includes bargaining power of suppliers, bargaining power of customers, threat of substitutions, threat of new entrants and existing rivalries. In addition to the existing five forces, information regarding government policy and initiatives was also collected. Results: Result has shown that by that offering free WiFi to meet the customers' needs, it can help to generate revenue increase of as high as 50% thus ensuring the food outlet to stay competitive. Conclusion: This is more visible when dealing with case of food outlets at same area are targeting the same group of customers as what had been observed in this research. This research provides a good reference to other food outlets that yet to adopt any strategy in order to stay competitive.

  17. A stratified random survey of the proportion of poor quality oral artesunate sold at medicine outlets in the Lao PDR – implications for therapeutic failure and drug resistance

    OpenAIRE

    Vongsack Latsamy; Khounsaknalath Lamphet; Hostetler Dana; Mildenhall Dallas C; Nyadong Leonard; Hampton Christina Y; Insixiengmay Vongsavanh; Phommavong Khamlieng; Manolin Ot; Fernández Facundo M; Green Michael D; Sengaloundeth Sivong; Phompida Samlane; Vanisaveth Viengxay; Syhakhang Lamphone

    2009-01-01

    Abstract Background Counterfeit oral artesunate has been a major public health problem in mainland SE Asia, impeding malaria control. A countrywide stratified random survey was performed to determine the availability and quality of oral artesunate in pharmacies and outlets (shops selling medicines) in the Lao PDR (Laos). Methods In 2003, 'mystery' shoppers were asked to buy artesunate tablets from 180 outlets in 12 of the 18 Lao provinces. Outlets were selected using stratified random samplin...

  18. A cross sectional study investigating the association between exposure to food outlets and childhood obesity in Leeds, UK

    OpenAIRE

    Griffiths, Claire; Frearson, Anna; Taylor, Adam; Radley, Duncan; Cooke, Carlton

    2014-01-01

    Background Current UK policy in relation to the influence of the ‘food environment’ on childhood obesity appears to be driven largely on assumptions or speculations because empirical evidence is lacking and findings from studies are inconsistent. The aim of this study was to investigate the number of food outlets and the proximity of food outlets in the same sample of children, without solely focusing on fast food. Methods Cross sectional study over 3 years (n = 13,291 data aggregated). Body ...

  19. Dry alcohol production plant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stanković Mirjana S.

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available The IGPC Engineering Department designed basic projects for dry alcohol production plant, using technology developed in the IGPC laboratories. Several projects were completed: technological, machine, electrical, automation. On the basis of these projects a production plant with a capacity of 40 m3/y was manufactured, at "Zorka Pharma", Šabac in 1995-1996. The product meets all quality demands, as well as environmental regulations. The dry alcohol production process is fully automatized. There is no waste in the process, neither gaseous, nor liquid. The chosen process provides safe operation according to temperature regime and resistance in the pipes, air purification columns and filters. Working at increased pressure is suitable for evaporation and condensation at increased temperatures. The production process can be controlled manually, which is necessary during start-up, and repairs.

  20. Method for recovering alcohol

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dahlstrom, R.A.; Rubin, J.N.

    1980-04-17

    In this method for extraction of alcohol from fermented material, insoluble organic matter is first removed before the ferment enters the distillation column and tried spent grains then recovered by drying under pressure. Excess steam from the drying stage is used to heat the distillation column. In addition, excess water vapour produced as a result of further heating by head vapour from the first distillation column, is drawn off from the evaporation step, condensed and fed into the distillation columns and evaporation step.

  1. Alcoholism in the Elderly

    OpenAIRE

    Cohen, Saul

    1988-01-01

    This article concentrates on the identification confrontation, and treatment of the elderly with late-onset alcohol-abuse problems. The author reviews signs and symptoms that are common both to the aging process and to late-onset problem drinking. He also provides a list of laboratory “markers” that may be helpful for the diagnosis and follow-up of this not infrequent problem.

  2. [DGRW update: alcohol addiction].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vogelgesang, M

    2011-10-01

    First, epidemiological data and socioeconomic consequences of alcohol addiction are summarized. Research findings, in particular in intervention and evaluation, from 2009-2011 in the field of alcohol addiction treatment are then discussed concerning their relevance for rehabilitation practice. The search was based on PubMed and PSYNDEX. The interventions most frequently evaluated and found most effective in alcohol addiction treatment are cognitive-behavioural interventions. Further topics dealt with are: pharmacological relapse prevention; technologically based therapies (e. g. e-therapy); systemic interventions; 12-steps; effectiveness of addiction treatment as confirmed in large-scale catamnestic studies; treatment of addiction and comorbidity; various subgroups (like elderly people and women); as well as other new and interesting developments such as rehab case management, dovetailing of medical and vocational interventions, stepped-care interventions, rehab management category groups as well as a new focus on individual treatment experiences and the pre-eminence of the therapeutic relationship. Finally, priority areas of future research are described. PMID:21976262

  3. Adolescent alcohol use

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bendtsen, Pernille; Damsgaard, Mogens Trab; Huckle, Taisia;

    2014-01-01

    AIMS: To analyse how adolescent drunkenness and frequency of drinking were associated with adult drinking patterns and alcohol control policies. DESIGN, SETTING AND PARTICIPANTS: Cross-sectional survey data on 13- and 15-year-olds in 37 countries who participated in the Health Behaviour in School......-Aged Children (HBSC) Study in 2010 (n = 144 788) were linked to national-level indicators on alcohol control policies and adult drinking patterns. MEASUREMENTS: Outcome measures were self-reported weekly drinking and life-time drunkenness (drunk once or more). Data were analysed using multi-level logistic...... regression models. FINDINGS: In the mutually adjusted models, adolescent drunkenness was associated significantly with high adult alcohol consumption [odds ratio (OR) = 3.15 among boys, 95% confidence interval (CI) = 2.13-4.64, OR girls = 2.44, CI = 1.57-3.80] and risky drinking patterns in the adult...

  4. Physician's information about alcohol problems at hospitalisation of alcohol misusers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, S D; Gluud, C

    1992-01-01

    Information was gathered on recognition and treatment of alcohol problems in the primary and secondary health sectors, the latter represented by a department of hepatology. The general practitioner finds in most cases (18/26, 69%) that it is relevant to advise about a patient's alcohol misuse...... on admission forms when the patient previously has been discharged from another department with this diagnosis. However, if the patient has not previously been hospitalised due to alcohol misuse, information on the diagnosis is only rarely (30/114, 26%) available. This difference is highly significant (P = 0.......0001). The case-recording hospital physician at admission recognises 73% of alcohol misusers who are admitted with a non-alcohol-related diagnosis. When the patient had been evaluated by both the admitting physician and the case-recording hospital physician, information on the alcohol problem occurred...

  5. Alcohol and the work place

    CERN Document Server

    2004-01-01

    The CERN Medical Service has observed an increase in the number of personnel suffering from alcohol-related problems in recent years, in spite of the implementation of stricter regulations concerning the consumption of alcohol on the site. The causes of alcohol-related problems are often complex and many-faceted. A family history of alcohol abuse can be a cofactor in excessive drinking. The effects on a person's work are not negligible and should not be ignored. "Alcohol and the work place" is the third part of a campaign designed to raise awareness of the risks of alcohol consumption, which has already dealt with "alcohol and health" and "alcohol and road safety".Many employers have taken steps to confront the problem, and CERN launched a campaign to help its employees suffering from alcohol-related problems over ten years ago. A standing SCC sub-group on the prevention of alcoholism has been set up and Operational Circular No. 8, which defines the role and responsibilities of all parties concerned in the m...

  6. [Current peculiarities of alcoholic psychosis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aleksin, D S; Egorov, A Iu

    2011-01-01

    The follow-up study of alcoholic psychoses in male patients admitted to a clinical department of a psychiatric hospital in 2005-2007 was carried out. Patients with alcoholic psychoses made up from 15 to 30% of all patients. The number of psychosis had seasonal variations with the elevations in spring and autumn, peaks in January, lune and October. Alcoholic delirium morbidity made up from 69 to 82% of the total number of alcoholic psychoses, alcoholic hallucinosis varied from 14 to 27%. Other forms were presented by single cases. In alcoholic delirium hallucinations had brighter, sated character. The most specific were visual hallucinations in the form of zoohallucinations, hallucinations of an oral cavity ("sensation of threads, hair etc"). The most often observable characters were "extraneous people, animal, demons". In alcoholic hallucinosis, verbal contrast hallucinations, making comment hallucinations, visual illusions were most frequent. The family history of mental disorders and alcoholism was noted in 30% of patients with alcoholic psychosis. The probability of occurrence of alcoholic psychoses depended on the quality of consumed drinks. The presence of a cranial-brain injury in the anamnesis considerably aggravated the disease forecast and increased the risk of seizure syndrome. PMID:22611692

  7. Circulating Cytokines as Biomarkers of Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism

    OpenAIRE

    Rajeshwara N. Achur; Freeman, Willard M.; Vrana, Kent E.

    2009-01-01

    There are currently no consistent objective biochemical markers of alcohol abuse and alcoholism. Development of reliable diagnostic biomarkers that permit accurate assessment of alcohol intake and patterns of drinking is of prime importance to treatment and research fields. Diagnostic biomarker development in other diseases has demonstrated the utility of both open, systems biology, screening for biomarkers and more rational focused efforts on specific biomolecules or families of biomolecules...

  8. Diagnostic challenges in alcohol use disorder and alcoholic liver disease

    OpenAIRE

    Vonghia, Luisa; Michielsen, Peter; Dom, Geert; Francque, Sven

    2014-01-01

    Alcohol use disorders represent a heterogeneous spectrum of clinical manifestations that have been defined by the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders-5. Excessive alcohol intake can lead to damage of various organs, including the liver. Alcoholic liver disease includes different injuries ranging from steatosis to cirrhosis and implicates a diagnostic assessment of the liver disease and of its possible complications. There is growing interest in the possible different tools f...

  9. Alcohol-specific parenting, adolescent alcohol use and the mediating effect of adolescent alcohol-related cognitions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mares, S.H.W.; Lichtwarck-Aschoff, A.; Engels, R.C.M.E.

    2013-01-01

    Objectives : Previous research indicated that alcohol-specific parenting is an important precursor of adolescent alcohol use, but failed to define the underlying mechanism. Based on social cognitive theory, alcohol-related cognitions such as alcohol refusal self-efficacy and alcohol-related expectan

  10. Alcohol abuse and related disorders treatment of alcohol dependence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu. P. Sivolap

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Alcohol abuse and alcoholism are the leading causes of worse health and increased mortality rates. Excessive alcohol consumption is the third leading cause of the global burden of diseases and a leading factor for lower lifespan and higher mortality. Alcohol abuse decreases working capacity and efficiency and requires the increased cost of the treatment of alcohol-induced disorders, which entails serious economic losses. The unfavorable medical and social consequences of excessive alcohol use determine the importance of effective treatment for alcoholism. The goals of rational pharmacotherapy of alcohol dependence are to enhance GABA neurotransmission, to suppress glutamate neurotransmission, to act on serotonin neurotransmission, to correct water-electrolyte balance, and to compensate for thiamine deficiency. Alcoholism treatment consists of two steps: 1 the prevention and treatment of alcohol withdrawal syndrome and its complications (withdrawal convulsions and delirium alcoholicum; 2 antirecurrent (maintenance therapy. Benzodiazepines are the drugs of choice in alleviating alcohol withdrawal and preventing its convulsive attacks and delirium alcoholicum. Diazepam and chlordiazepoxide are most commonly used for this purpose; the safer drugs oxazepam and lorazepam are given to the elderly and patients with severe liver lesions. Anticonvulsants having normothymic properties, such as carbamazepine, valproic acid, topiramate, and lamotrigine, are a definite alternative to benzodiazepines. The traditional Russian clinical practice (clearance detoxification has not a scientific base or significant impact on alcohol withdrawal-related states in addicts. Relapse prevention and maintenance therapy for alcohol dependence are performed using disulfiram, acamprosate, and naltrexone; since 2013 the European Union member countries have been using, besides these agents, nalmefene that is being registered in Russia. Memantine and a number of other

  11. Theoretical Investigation on Alcohol Sensing of Glycine-Coated Carbon Nanotubes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Tao; Kussow, Gary; Kwon, Young-Kyun

    2007-03-01

    It has been observed that single walled carbon nanotube field effect transistors (SWNT-FET) coated with glycine can be used as alcohol sensors. The original semiconducting glycine-coated SWNT-FET have been changed to be metalic in the presence of alcohol. Using ab initio density functional theory, we compute the structural and electronic properties of carbon nanotubes coated with glycine in the absence or in the presence of alcohol (Isopropanol) to investigate alcohol sensing mechanism. To demonstrate specificity of such glycine-coated SWNT-FETs on alcohol, we also study those properties in the presence of other molecules, such as acetone and water. Furthermore, we investigate the effect of an external fields on glycine-coated SWNT with IPA, and indentify the gate-electric-field screening in SWNT-FET to be a major role for alcohol sensing.

  12. COMPARISON OF SAMPLING METHODOLOGY FOR THE DETECTION OF SALMONELLA ON WHOLE BROILER CARCASSES PURCHASED FROM RETAIL OUTLETS

    Science.gov (United States)

    An experiment was conducted to compare two Salmonella recovery methods from the same carcass. One hundred fresh, whole broiler chickens were purchased from retail outlets over a 5-week period (20 carcasses per week). After carcasses were aseptically removed from the packages and giblets removed, th...

  13. Access to food outlets and children's nutritional intake in urban China: a difference-in-difference analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Wang Rui; Shi Lu

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Background In recent years supermarkets and fast food restaurants have been replacing those “wet markets” of independent vendors as the major food sources in urban China. Yet how these food outlets relate to children’s nutritional intake remains largely unexplored. Method Using a longitudinal survey of households and communities in China, this study examines the effect of the urban b...

  14. 7 CFR 987.164 - Shipments of product dates and disposition of restricted dates in approved product outlets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Shipments of product dates and disposition of restricted dates in approved product outlets. 987.164 Section 987.164 Agriculture Regulations of the..., Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE DOMESTIC DATES PRODUCED OR PACKED IN RIVERSIDE...

  15. Adhesions due to peritoneal carcinomatosis caused by a renal carcinoma leading to mechanical gastric outlet obstruction: a case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gruttadauria Salvatore

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction Gastric outlet obstruction is a clinical syndrome caused by a variety of mechanical obstructions. Peptic ulcer disease used to be responsible for most gastric outlet obstruction, but in the last 40 years the prevalence of malignant tumors has risen significantly. Adhesive disease is an infrequent and insidious cause of mechanical gastric outlet obstruction. Case presentation We report the case of a 78-year-old Caucasian man who had a clinical history of a right nephrectomy for malignancy three years earlier and who was admitted for a severe gastric outlet obstruction (score of 1 confirmed both by an upper endoscopy and by a fluoroscopic view after contrast injection. A computed tomography scan and a laparotomy, with omental biopsies, showed a peritoneal carcinomatosis with the development of abdominal adhesions that prompted an abnormal gastric rotation around the perpendicular axis of his antrum with a dislocation in the empty space of his right kidney. Symptoms disappeared after surgical bypass through a gastrojejunostomy. Conclusions Our patient experienced a very rare complication characterized by the development of adhesions due to peritoneal carcinomatosis caused by a renal carcinoma treated with nephrectomy. These adhesions prompted an abnormal dislocation of his antrum, as an internal hernia, in the empty space of his right kidney.

  16. Alcoholic cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stickel, Felix

    2015-01-01

    Hepatocellular carcinoma shows a rising incidence worldwide, and the largest burden of disease in Western countries derives from patients with alcoholic liver disease (ALD) and cirrhosis, the latter being the premier premalignant factor for HCC. The present chapter addresses key issues including the epidemiology of alcohol-associated HCC, and its link to other coexisting non-alcoholic liver diseases, and additional host and environmental risk factors including the underlying genetics. Also discussed are molecular mechanisms of alcohol-associated liver cancer evolution involving the mediators of alcohol toxicity and carcinogenicity, acetaldehyde and reactive oxygen species, as well as the recently described mutagenic adducts which these mediators form with DNA. Specifically, interference of alcohol with retinoids and cofactors of transmethylation processes are outlined. Information presented in this chapter illustrates that the development of HCC in the context of ALD is multifaceted and suggests several molecular targets for prevention and markers for the screening of risk groups. PMID:25427904

  17. Fuel alcohol opportunities for Indiana

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Greenglass, Bert

    1980-08-01

    Prepared at the request of US Senator Birch Bayh, Chairman of the National Alcohol Fuels Commission, this study may be best utilized as a guidebook and resource manual to foster the development of a statewide fuel alcohol plan. It examines sectors in Indiana which will impact or be impacted upon by the fuel alcohol industry. The study describes fuel alcohol technologies that could be pertinent to Indiana and also looks closely at how such a fuel alcohol industry may affect the economic and policy development of the State. Finally, the study presents options for Indiana, taking into account the national context of the developing fuel alcohol industry which, unlike many others, will be highly decentralized and more under the control of the lifeblood of our society - the agricultural community.

  18. Perturbation of dynamic response at short outlets glaciers of Jostedalsbreen, maritime South Norway?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winkler, Stefan

    2010-05-01

    Mountain glaciers are key indicators of global climate change. Changes in glacier volume, area, and length are determined by the climate and related mass flux/glacier flow. For several aspects of sustainable development in high-mountain regions (hydro-electric energy, water supply, tourism, etc.) it is crucial to estimate future glacier variations. Therefore, the interactions and relationships between individual meteorological and glaciological parameters need to be known before any model can be applied. Due to their steep mass balance gradient and high mass turnover, maritime mountain glaciers might respond very sensitively to changes of predominant weather or climate conditions. The steep outlet glaciers of Jostedalsbreen, western South Norway, underwent two fairly contrasting periods during the past 20 years. Interpretation of this ‘extreme' behaviour presented here deserved special attention. Detailed analysis of mass-balance, length variation, and climate data from maritime Southern Norway reveals their variations are not entirely determined by air temperature changes. A considerable increase in ice mass and related frontal advance during the AD 1990s was caused by increased winter precipitation. By contrast, a frontal retreat starting around AD 2000 continued and accelerated in recent years. Although above-average summer air temperatures unambiguously were responsible for this retreat, its proportion significantly exceeded the slight contemporary glacier mass loss. Since 2000, length variations at the short outlets of Jostedalsbreen seem to be decoupled from the net mass-balance data series. Additionally, the dynamic response of the glacier front to net balance and mass flux variations has been disturbed. Previously applicable terminus reaction times of 3 to 4 years have been replaced by an immediate response to higher summer air temperatures. The correlation of net balance to length variation dropped significant since AD 2000. Comparable changes between

  19. Alcohol Use and Abuse: Understanding Alcohol Use Across Your Lifespan | NIH MedlinePlus the Magazine

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... of this page please turn Javascript on. Feature: Alcohol Use and Abuse Understanding Alcohol Use Across Your Lifespan Past Issues / Winter 2013 Table of Contents Alcohol use and the risk for alcohol-related problems ...

  20. Alcohol harm reduction in Europe.

    OpenAIRE

    Herring, Rachel; Thom, Betsy; Beccaria, Franca; Kolind, Torsten; Moskalewicz, Jacek

    2010-01-01

    This chapter provides an overview of harm reduction approaches to alcohol in Europe. First, definitions ascribed to alcohol harm reduction are outlined. Then, evaluated alcohol harm reduction interventions in European countries are described and the evidence for their effectiveness examined. These include multi-component programmes, improvements to the drinking environment, and initiatives to reduce the harms associated with drink-driving. Third, harm reduction activities that have been re...