WorldWideScience

Sample records for alcohol ignition interlock devices

  1. Alcohol ignition interlock programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beirness, D J; Marques, P R

    2004-09-01

    The alcohol ignition interlock is an in-vehicle DWI control device that prevents a car from starting until the operator provides a breath alcohol concentration (BAC) test below a set level, usually .02% (20 mg/dl) to .04% (40 mg/dl). The first interlock program was begun as a pilot test in California 18 years ago; today all but a few US states, and Canadian provinces have interlock enabling legislation. Sweden has recently implemented a nationwide interlock program. Other nations of the European Union and as well as several Australian states are testing it on a small scale or through pilot research. This article describes the interlock device and reviews the development and current status of interlock programs including their public safety benefit and the public practice impediments to more widespread adoption of these DWI control devices. Included in this review are (1) a discussion of the technological breakthroughs and certification standards that gave rise to the design features of equipment that is in widespread use today; (2) a commentary on the growing level of adoption of interlocks by governments despite the judicial and legislative practices that prevent more widespread use of them; (3) a brief overview of the extant literature documenting a high degree of interlock efficacy while installed, and the rapid loss of their preventative effect on repeat DWI once they are removed from the vehicles; (4) a discussion of the representativeness of subjects in the current research studies; (5) a discussion of research innovations, including motivational intervention efforts that may extend the controlling effect of the interlock, and data mining research that has uncovered ways to use the stored interlock data record of BAC tests in order to predict high risk drivers; and (6) a discussion of communication barriers and conceptual rigidities that may be preventing the alcohol ignition interlock from taking a more prominent role in the arsenal of tools used to control

  2. Breath Alcohol Ignition Interlock Devices : Policy and Implementing Implications [Mobile .MP4 (480x320/29.97fps/13.9MB)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    The goal of this project is to perform a systematic review of breath alcohol ignition interlock devices (BAIID or IID) to understand how other states have integrated such systems into administrative and judicial practice and to make recommendations f...

  3. Breath Alcohol Ignition Interlock Devices : Policy and Implementing Implications [SD .MP4 (640x424/29.97fps/22.6MB)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    The goal of this project is to perform a systematic review of breath alcohol ignition interlock devices (BAIID or IID) to understand how other states have integrated such systems into administrative and judicial practice and to make recommendations f...

  4. Alcohol ignition interlock programmes for reducing drink driving recidivism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willis, C; Lybrand, S; Bellamy, N

    2004-10-18

    An ignition interlock device is part of a multi-dimensional programme aimed at reducing recidivism in convicted drink drivers. To operate a vehicle equipped with an ignition interlock device, the driver must first provide a breath specimen. If the breath alcohol concentration of the specimen exceeds the predetermined level, the vehicle will not start. As a measure to reduce circumvention of the device (i.e. someone else blows into the mouthpiece), random retests are required while the vehicle is running. Other components of the drink driving programme include information seminars for the driver and downloading data from the device's data logger, which logs all test attempts and records all passes, warnings and failures. To systematically assess the effectiveness of ignition interlock programmes on recidivism rates of drink drivers, by examining rates of recidivism while the ignition interlock device was installed in the vehicle and after removal of the device. The Cochrane Controlled Trials Register was searched, in addition to relevant electronic databases and the Internet. Controlled trials in which offenders have been charged with drink driving and have either been sentenced to participate in an ignition interlock programme or the usual punishment (either licence suspension or some form of treatment programme). This study was not restricted by language or status of publication. One randomised controlled trial (RCT) and ten controlled trials were identified, and also three ongoing trials. Data regarding recidivism while the interlock is installed in the vehicle; after the interlock has been removed from the vehicle and total recidivism during the study were extracted and entered into analyses using RevMan. The RCT showed that the interlock programme was effective while the device was installed in the vehicle; relative risk 0.36 (95% confidence interval 0.21 to 0.63). Controlled trials support this conclusion, with a general trend - in both first-time and repeat

  5. Washington State's alcohol ignition interlock law: effects on recidivism among first-time DUI offenders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCartt, Anne T; Leaf, William A; Farmer, Charles M; Eichelberger, Angela H

    2013-01-01

    To examine the effects of changes to Washington State's ignition interlock laws: moving issuance of interlock orders from courts to the driver licensing department in July 2003 and extending the interlock order requirement to first-time offenders with blood alcohol concentrations (BACs) below 0.15 percent ("first simple driving under the influence [DUI]") in June 2004. Trends in conviction types, interlock installation rates, and 2-year cumulative recidivism rates were examined for first-time convictions (simple, high-BAC, test refusal DUI; deferred prosecution; alcohol-related negligent driving) stemming from DUI arrests between January 1999 and June 2006. Regression analyses examined recidivism effects of the law changes and interlock installation rates. To examine general deterrent effects, trends in single-vehicle late-night crashes in Washington were compared with trends in California and Oregon. After the 2004 law change, the proportion of simple DUIs declined somewhat, though the proportion of negligent driving convictions (no interlock order requirement) continued an upward trend. Interlock installation rates for first simple DUIs were 3 to 6 percent in the year before the law change and one third after. Recidivism declined by an estimated 12 percent (e.g., expected 10.6% without law change vs. 9.3% among offenders arrested between April and June 2006, the last study quarter) among first simple DUI offenders and an estimated 11 percent (expected 10.2% vs. 9.1%) among all first-time offenders. There was an estimated 0.06 percentage point decrease in the recidivism rate for each percentage point increase in the proportion of first simple DUI offenders with interlocks. If installation rates had been 100 vs. 34 percent for first simple DUI offenders arrested between April and June 2006, and if the linear relationship between rates of recidivism and installations continued, recidivism could have been reduced from 9.3 to 5.3 percent. With installation rates of

  6. Positive health-care effects of an alcohol ignition interlock programme among driving while impaired (DWI) offenders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bjerre, Bo; Kostela, Johan; Selén, Jan

    2007-11-01

    To compare the costs of hospital care and sick leave/disability pensions between two groups of driving while impaired (DWI) offenders: participants in an alcohol ignition interlock programme (AIIP) and controls with revoked licences, but with no comparable opportunity to participate in an AIIP. As an alternative to licence revocation DWI offenders can participate in a voluntary 2-year AIIP permitting the offender to drive under strict regulations entailing regular medical check-ups. The participants are forced to alter their alcohol habits and those who cannot demonstrate sobriety are dismissed from the programme. Participants are liable for all costs themselves. Quasi-experimental, with a non-equivalent control group used for comparison; intent-to-treat design. Based on the number of occasions/days in hospital and on sick leave/disability pension, the health-care costs for public insurance have been calculated. Average total health-care costs were 25% lower among AIIP participants (1156 individuals) than among controls (815 individuals) during the 2-year treatment period. This corresponds to over 1000 euros (SEK9610) less annual costs per average participant. For those who complete the 2-year programme the cost reduction was more pronounced; 37% during the treatment and 20% during the post-treatment period. The positive health-care effects were due apparently to reduced alcohol consumption. The social benefit of being allowed to drive while in the AIIP may also have contributed. The reduction in health-care costs was significant only during the 2-year treatment period, but among those who completed the entire AIIP sustained effects were also observed in the post-treatment period. The effects were comparable to those of regular alcoholism treatment programmes.

  7. 75 FR 61820 - Model Specifications for Breath Alcohol Ignition Interlock Devices (BAIIDs)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-06

    ...? (6) Circumvention testing. The 1992 Model Specifications offer a number of procedures for evaluating... believe that they represent a broad consensus in the industry. F. Tampering and Circumvention Testing There was some criticism that the 1992 Model Specifications for tampering and circumvention testing are...

  8. 78 FR 26849 - Model Specifications for Breath Alcohol Ignition Interlock Devices (BAIIDs)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-08

    ... recommend to their customers that the sensing head be taken inside to keep it warm or cool in inclement...,000-1,000,000 plus retests per day are not taken in this fashion, but rather safely delivered while... will continue to monitor the data and respond to any new trends that are identified. Draeger pointed...

  9. Surface breakdown igniter for mercury arc devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bayless, John R.

    1977-01-01

    Surface breakdown igniter comprises a semiconductor of medium resistivity which has the arc device cathode as one electrode and has an igniter anode electrode so that when voltage is applied between the electrodes a spark is generated when electrical breakdown occurs over the surface of the semiconductor. The geometry of the igniter anode and cathode electrodes causes the igniter discharge to be forced away from the semiconductor surface.

  10. 49 CFR 236.312 - Movable bridge, interlocking of signal appliances with bridge devices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Movable bridge, interlocking of signal appliances with bridge devices. 236.312 Section 236.312 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to... SYSTEMS, DEVICES, AND APPLIANCES Interlocking Standards § 236.312 Movable bridge, interlocking of signal...

  11. Ignition device for an internal combustion engine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tokura, N.; Kawa, H.; Goto, M.; Morino, S.; Soumiya, M.

    1987-10-27

    An ignition device for an internal combustion engine is described comprising: a direct current power source providing a direct current voltage; an ignition coil having first, second and third primary coils and a secondary coil; a first switching element forming a first closed circuit together with the direct current power source and the first primary coil; a second switching element forming a second closed circuit together with the direct current power source and the second primary coil; a reverse current-flow preventive element defining a current-flow direction in one direction in the first and second closed circuits; current detection elements for detecting current-flow in the first and second closed circuits; a third switching element forming a third closed circuit together with the direct current power source and the first and third primary coils; an ignition command signals and a control circuit for causing the first and second switching elements to push-pull operate.

  12. Application of Alcohols to Dual - Fuel Feeding the Spark-Ignition and Self-Ignition Engines

    OpenAIRE

    Stelmasiak Zdzisław

    2014-01-01

    This paper concerns analysis of possible use of alcohols for the feeding of self - ignition and spark-ignition engines operating in a dual- fuel mode, i.e. simultaneously combusting alcohol and diesel oil or alcohol and petrol. Issues associated with the requirements for application of bio-fuels were presented with taking into account National Index Targets, bio-ethanol production methods and dynamics of its production worldwide and in Poland. Te considerations are illustrated by results of t...

  13. Physics parameter space of tokamak ignition devices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Selcow, E.C.; Peng, Y.K.M.; Uckan, N.A.; Houlberg, W.A.

    1985-01-01

    This paper describes the results of a study to explore the physics parameter space of tokamak ignition experiments. A new physics systems code has been developed to perform the study. This code performs a global plasma analysis using steady-state, two-fluid, energy-transport models. In this paper, we discuss the models used in the code and their application to the analysis of compact ignition experiments. 8 refs., 8 figs., 1 tab

  14. The Feasibility of Voluntary Ignition Interlocks as a Prevention Strategy for Young Drivers

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-06-01

    Young drivers in the United States are at greater risk for alcohol-related crash deaths than any other age group of drivers in the general population. Though efforts have been made to reduce drinking and driving among young drivers (especially teens)...

  15. Utilization of Alcohol Fuel in Spark Ignition and Diesel Engines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berndt, Don; Stengel, Ron

    These five units comprise a course intended to prepare and train students to conduct alcohol fuel utilization seminars in spark ignition and diesel engines. Introductory materials include objectives and a list of instructor requirements. The first four units cover these topics: ethanol as an alternative fuel (technical and economic advantages,…

  16. Application of Alcohols to Dual - Fuel Feeding the Spark-Ignition and Self-Ignition Engines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stelmasiak Zdzisław

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper concerns analysis of possible use of alcohols for the feeding of self - ignition and spark-ignition engines operating in a dual- fuel mode, i.e. simultaneously combusting alcohol and diesel oil or alcohol and petrol. Issues associated with the requirements for application of bio-fuels were presented with taking into account National Index Targets, bio-ethanol production methods and dynamics of its production worldwide and in Poland. Te considerations are illustrated by results of the tests on spark- ignition and self- ignition engines fed with two fuels: petrol and methanol or diesel oil and methanol, respectively. Te tests were carried out on a 1100 MPI Fiat four- cylinder engine with multi-point injection and a prototype collector fitted with additional injectors in each cylinder. Te other tested engine was a SW 680 six- cylinder direct- injection diesel engine. Influence of a methanol addition on basic operational parameters of the engines and exhaust gas toxicity were analyzed. Te tests showed a favourable influence of methanol on combustion process of traditional fuels and on some operational parameters of engines. An addition of methanol resulted in a distinct rise of total efficiency of both types of engines at maintained output parameters (maximum power and torque. In the same time a radical drop in content of hydrocarbons and nitrogen oxides in exhaust gas was observed at high shares of methanol in feeding dose of ZI (petrol engine, and 2-3 fold lower smokiness in case of ZS (diesel engine. Among unfavourable phenomena, a rather insignificant rise of CO and NOx content for ZI engine, and THC and NOx - for ZS engine, should be numbered. It requires to carry out further research on optimum control parameters of the engines. Conclusions drawn from this work may be used for implementation of bio-fuels to feeding the combustion engines.

  17. An active interlock system for the NSLS x-ray ring insertion devices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nawrocky, R.J.; Biscardi, R.; Dabrowski, J.; Flannigan, J.; Ramamoorthy, S.; Rothman, J.; Smith, J.; So, I.; Thomas, M.; Decker, G.

    1991-01-01

    This paper describes the design and operation of an active interlock system which has been installed in the NSLS X-ray electron storage ing to protect the vacuum chamber from thermal damage by mis-steered high power photon beams from insertion devices (IDs). the system employs active beam position detectors to monitor beam motion in the ID straight sections and solid state logic circuitry to ''dump'' the stored beam in the event of a fault condition by interrupting the rf. To ensure a high degree of reliability, redundancy and continuous automatic checking has been incorporated into the design. Overall system integrity is checked periodically with beam at safe levels of beam current. 2 refs., 3 figs

  18. Active interlock system for high power insertion devices in the x-ray ring

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1991-01-01

    In modern synchrotron radiation rings photon beams generated by high power insertion devices (IDs) may be sufficiently intense to cause severe thermal damage to the machine vacuum chamber if mis-steered. Thus when operating a storage ring with the IDs, great care must be exercised to prevent mis-steering of the electron beam orbit. At present, the X-ray ring operates with three IDs, namely two hybrid wigglers (HBW) at X-21 and X-25,a nd a 5-Tesla superconducting wiggler at X-17. All wigglers are located in low-beta straight sections. In the straight sections. In the straight sections, beam orbit may be deflected by as much as ±8 mrad without scraping the chamber wall. For various reasons it was not possible to design the X-ray ring vacuum chamber to be safe under all possible operating conditions, however, the chamber is safe for i < 7 mA, all horizontal beam deflection angles and for vertical angles < ± 2.5 mrad. To protect the machine vacuum chamber from damage due to mis-steered beams, and interlock system has been developed and installed. This system utilizes active beam position detectors which continuously monitor beam motion in each of the ID straight sections and logic circuitry which interrupts the RF and dumps the stored beam in the case of a fault

  19. Compression-ignition engine performance with undoped and doped fuel oils and alcohol mixtures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, Charles S; Foster, Hampton H

    1939-01-01

    Several fuel oils, doped fuel oils, and mixtures of alcohol and fuel oil were tested in a high-speed, single-cylinder, compression-ignition engine to determine power output, fuel consumption, and ignition and combustion characteristics. Fuel oils or doped fuel oils of high octane number had shorter ignition lags, lower rates of pressure rise, and gave smoother engine operation than fuel oils or doped fuel oils of low octane number. Higher engine rotative speeds and boost pressures resulted in smoother engine operation and permitted the use of fuel oils of relatively low octane number. Although the addition of a dope to a fuel oil decreased the ignition lag and the rate of pressure rise, the ensuing rate of combustion was somewhat slower than for the undoped fuel oil so that the effectiveness of combustion was practically unchanged. Alcohol used as an auxiliary fuel, either as a mixture or by separate injection, increased the rates of pressure rise and induced roughness. In general, the power output decreased as the proportion of alcohol increased and, below maximum power, varied with the heating value of the total fuel charge.

  20. 21 CFR 876.4590 - Interlocking urethral sound.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Interlocking urethral sound. 876.4590 Section 876...) MEDICAL DEVICES GASTROENTEROLOGY-UROLOGY DEVICES Surgical Devices § 876.4590 Interlocking urethral sound. (a) Identification. An interlocking urethral sound is a device that consists of two metal sounds...

  1. Combustion Characteristics of C5 Alcohols and a Skeletal Mechanism for Homogeneous Charge Compression Ignition Combustion Simulation

    KAUST Repository

    Park, Sungwoo

    2015-10-27

    C5 alcohols are considered alternative fuels because they emit less greenhouse gases and fewer harmful pollutants. In this study, the combustion characteristics of 2-methylbutanol (2-methyl-1-butanol) and isopentanol (3-methyl-1-butanol) and their mixtures with primary reference fuels (PRFs) were studied using a detailed chemical kinetic model obtained from merging previously published mechanisms. Ignition delay times of the C5 alcohol/air mixtures were compared to PRFs at 20 and 40 atm. Reaction path analyses were conducted at intermediate and high temperatures to identify the most influential reactions controlling ignition of C5 alcohols. The direct relation graph with expert knowledge methodology was used to eliminate unimportant species and reactions in the detailed mechanism, and the resulting skeletal mechanism was tested at various homogeneous charge compression ignition (HCCI) engine combustion conditions. These simulations were used to investigate the heat release characteristics of the methyl-substituted C5 alcohols, and the results show relatively strong reactions at intermediate temperatures prior to hot ignition. C5 alcohol blending in PRF75 in HCCI combustion leads to a significant decrease of low-temperature heat release (LTHR) and a delay of the main combustion. The heat release features demonstrated by C5 alcohols can be used to improve the design and operation of advanced engine technologies.

  2. Identifying costs and funding alternatives for equipping operating while intoxicated (OWI) offenders with ignition interlock devices (IIDs).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-01

    From 2005-2009 there were over 200,000 arrests for Operating while intoxicated (OWI) in the State of : Wisconsin. The project had three primary goals. First, data on OWI offenders were analyzed to : determine if there existed any driver characteristi...

  3. One-dimensional Numerical Model of Transient Discharges in Air of a Spatial Plasma Ignition Device

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saceleanu, Florin N.

    This thesis examines the modes of discharge of a plasma ignition device. Oscilloscope data of the discharge voltage and current are analyzed for various pressures in air at ambient temperature. It is determined that the discharge operates in 2 modes: a glow discharge and a postulated streamer discharge. Subsequently, a 1-dimensional fluid simulation of plasma using the finite volume method (FVM) is developed to gain insight into the particle kinetics. Transient results of the simulation agree with theories of electric discharges; however, quasi-steady state results were not reached due to high diffusion time of ions in air. Next, an ordinary differential equation (ODE) is derived to understand the discharge transition. Simulated results were used to estimate the voltage waveform, which describes the ODE's forcing function; additional simulated results were used to estimate the discharge current and the ODE's non-linearity. It is found that the ODE's non-linearity increases exponentially for capacitive discharges. It is postulated that the non-linearity defines the mode transition observed experimentally. The research is motivated by Spatial Plasma Discharge Ignition (SPDI), an innovative ignition system postulated to increase combustion efficiency in automobile engines for up to 9%. The research thus far can only hypothesize SPDI's benefits on combustion, based on the literature review and the modes of discharge.

  4. Influences of ignition improver additive on ternary (diesel-biodiesel-higher alcohol) blends thermal stability and diesel engine performance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Imdadul, H.K.; Masjuki, H.H.; Kalam, M.A.; Zulkifli, N.W.M.; Alabdulkarem, Abdullah; Rashed, M.M.; Ashraful, A.M.

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Ignition improver additives makes the biodiesel-alcohol blends more thermally stable. • Density and cetane number improved significantly with EHN mixing. • BP and BSFC improved by adding ignition improver additives. • Nitric oxides and smoke of the EHN treated blends decreased. • CO and HC increased slightly with EHN addition. - Abstract: Pentanol is a long chain alcohol produced from renewable sources and considered as a promising biofuel as a blending component with diesel or biodiesel blends. However, the lower cetane number of alcohols is a limitation, and it is important to increase the overall cetane number of biodiesel fuel blends for efficient combustion and lower emission. In this consideration, ignition improver additive 2-ethylhexyl nitrate (EHN) were used at a proportion of 1000 and 2000 ppm to diesel-biodiesel-pentanol blends. Experiments were conducted in a single cylinder; water-cooled DI diesel engine operated at full throttle and varying speed condition. The thermal stability of the modified ternary fuel blends was evaluated through thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) analysis, and the physic-chemical properties of the fuel as well as engine characteristics were studied and compared. The addition of EHN to ternary fuel blends enhanced the cetane number significantly without any significant adverse effect on the other properties. TGA and DSC analysis reported about the improvement of thermal characteristics of the modified blends. It was found that, implementing ignition improver make the diesel-biodiesel-alcohol blends more thermally stable. Also, the brake specific fuel consumption (BSFC), nitric oxides (NO) and smoke emission reduced remarkably with the addition of EHN. Introducing EHN to diesel-biodiesel-alcohol blends increased the cetane number, shorten the ignition delay by increasing the diffusion rate and improve combustion. Hence, the NO and BSFC reduced while, carbon

  5. Reaching ignition in the tokamak

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Furth, H.P.

    1985-06-01

    This review covers the following areas: (1) the physics of burning plasmas, (2) plasma physics requirements for reaching ignition, (3) design studies for ignition devices, and (4) prospects for an ignition project

  6. Arthrodesis of the proximal interphalangeal joint of the 4th and 5th finger using an interlocking screw device to treat severe recurrence of Dupuytren's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Novoa-Parra, C D; Montaner-Alonso, D; Pérez-Correa, J I; Morales-Rodríguez, J; Rodrigo-Pérez, J L; Morales-Suarez-Varela, M

    2017-12-04

    To assess the radiological and functional outcome of arthrodesis of the 4th and 5th finger using the APEX™ (Extremity Medical, Parsippany,NJ)intermedullary interlocking screw system in patients with severe recurrence of Dupuytren's disease. The DASH questionnaire and the VAS scale were used to assess the clinical outcomes. The angle of arthrodesis, fusion time and implant fixation were evaluated on x-rays. The patients were monitored for complications during surgery and the follow-up period. The sample comprised 6 patients. Mean follow up was 19.6 months. All of the patients presented clinical and radiological evidence of fusion at 8 weeks, with fusion angles of 30° (3) and 45° (3). There were no complications and none of the implants had to be removed. The functional outcomes in these patients were poor. The system offers a reliable method for IPJ arthrodesis at a precise angle. It promotes stable fixation that does not require prolonged immobilisation. It can be used together with other procedures on the hand with severe recurrence of DD. The functional outcomes for this group of patients using this device were poor. Copyright © 2017 SECOT. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  7. Interlocking wettable ceramic tiles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tabereaux, Jr., Alton T.; Fredrickson, Guy L.; Groat, Eric; Mroz, Thomas; Ulicny, Alan; Walker, Mark F.

    2005-03-08

    An electrolytic cell for the reduction of aluminum having a layer of interlocking cathode tiles positioned on a cathode block. Each tile includes a main body and a vertical restraining member to prevent movement of the tiles away from the cathode block during operation of the cell. The anode of the electrolytic cell may be positioned about 1 inch from the interlocking cathode tiles.

  8. Beam-limiting and radiation-limiting interlocks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Macek, R.J.

    1996-01-01

    This paper reviews several aspects of beam-limiting and radiation- limiting interlocks used for personnel protection at high-intensity accelerators. It is based heavily on the experience at the Los Alamos Neutron Science Center (LANSCE) where instrumentation-based protection is used extensively. Topics include the need for ''active'' protection systems, system requirements, design criteria, and means of achieving and assessing acceptable reliability. The experience with several specific devices (ion chamber-based beam loss interlock, beam current limiter interlock, and neutron radiation interlock) designed and/or deployed to these requirements and criteria is evaluated

  9. Beam-limiting and radiation-limiting interlocks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Macek, R.J.

    1996-04-01

    This paper reviews several aspects of beam-limiting and radiation- limiting interlocks used for personnel protection at high-intensity accelerators. It is based heavily on the experience at the Los Alamos Neutron Science Center (LANSCE) where instrumentation-based protection is used extensively. Topics include the need for ``active`` protection systems, system requirements, design criteria, and means of achieving and assessing acceptable reliability. The experience with several specific devices (ion chamber-based beam loss interlock, beam current limiter interlock, and neutron radiation interlock) designed and/or deployed to these requirements and criteria is evaluated.

  10. Effectiveness of thermal ignition devices in lean hydrogen-air-steam mixtures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tamm, H.; McFarlane, R.; Liu, D.D.S.

    1985-03-01

    Deliberate ignition of hydrogen at low concentrations in reactor containment systems is one method of controlling hydrogen during degraded core accidents. Since many postulated accident conditions have substantial amounts of steam present, experiments have been performed to determine the hydrogen-air-steam concentration regimes in which ignitors would be effective. In these experiments, both a GM AC 7G thermal flow plug and a Tayco Model 3442 ignitor have been used. These ignitors have been installed in PWR containments with ice condensers and in BWR Mark III containments. This report presents the results of these ignitor effectiveness experiments, and gives the ignition limits and the effect of steam on the ignitor surface temperatures required for ignition

  11. 77 FR 35745 - Highway Safety Programs; Conforming Products List of Screening Devices To Measure Alcohol in...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-14

    ... the DRIVESAFE alcohol screening device. This is a handheld, battery powered device with a fuel cell...-0062] Highway Safety Programs; Conforming Products List of Screening Devices To Measure Alcohol in... Screening Devices to Measure Alcohol in Bodily Fluids dated, March 31, 2008 (73 FR 16956). DATES: Effective...

  12. Using alcohol fuels in dual fuel operation of compression ignition engines: a review

    OpenAIRE

    Coulier, Jakob; Verhelst, Sebastian

    2016-01-01

    Because of global warming and increasing air pollution, alternative fuels are increasingly being considered for use in internal combustion engines (ICEs). Among the alternatives, alcohol fuels seem very interesting. They can be produced in a renewable way and possess certain advantageous properties that give them the potential to lower pollutants and CO2 emissions from ICEs. Methanol and ethanol are the most researched alcohols today. In fact, in some areas of the world, gasoline is blended w...

  13. Modelling Railway Interlocking Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lindegaard, Morten Peter; Viuf, P.; Haxthausen, Anne Elisabeth

    2000-01-01

    In this report we present a model of interlocking systems, and describe how the model may be validated by simulation. Station topologies are modelled by graphs in which the nodes denote track segments, and the edges denote connectivity for train traÆc. Points and signals are modelled by annotatio...

  14. Interlocked systems in nanomedicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ornelas-Megiatto, Catia; Becher, Tiago B; Megiatto, Jackson D

    2015-01-01

    The concept of Nanomedicine emerged along with the new millennium, and it is expected to provide solutions to some of modern medicine's unsolved problems. Nanomedicine offers new hopes in several critical areas such as cancer treatment, viral and bacterial infections, medical imaging, tissue regeneration, and theranostics. To explore all these applications, a wide variety of nanomaterials have been developed which include liposomes, dendrimers, nanohydrogels and polymeric, metallic and inorganic nanoparticles. Recently, interlocked systems, namely rotaxanes and catenanes, have been incorporated into some of these chemical platforms in an attempt to improve their performance. This review focus on the nanomedicine applications of nanomaterials containing interlocked structures. The introduction gives an overview on the significance of interdisciplinary science in the progress of the nanomedicine field, and it explains the evolution of interlocked molecules until their application in nanomedicine. The following sections are organized by the type of interlocked structure, and it comprises details of the in vitro and/or in vivo experiments involving each material: rotaxanes as imaging agents, rotaxanes as cytotoxic agents, rotaxanes as peptide transporters, mechanized silica nanoparticles as stimuli responsive drug delivery systems, and polyrotaxanes as drug and gene delivery systems.

  15. 49 CFR 40.231 - What devices are used to conduct alcohol confirmation tests?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... Supplies Used in Alcohol Testing § 40.231 What devices are used to conduct alcohol confirmation tests? (a... section are the only devices you may use to conduct alcohol confirmation tests under this part. Note that... use in confirmation testing in the DOT alcohol testing program. (b) To conduct a confirmation test...

  16. Devices to improve the performance of a conventional two-stroke spark ignition engine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poola, R. B.; Nagalingam, B.; Gopalakrishnan, K. V.

    1995-08-01

    This paper presents research efforts made in three different phases with the objective of improving the fuel economy of and reducing exhaust emissions from conventional, carbureted, two-stroke spark ignition (SI) engines, which are widely employed in two-wheel transportation in India. A review concerning the existing two-stroke engine technology for this application is included. In the first phase, a new scavenging system was developed and tested to reduce the loss of fresh charge through the exhaust port. In the second phase, the following measures were carried out to improve the combustion process: (1) using an in-cylinder catalyst, such as copper, chromium, and nickel, in the form of coating; (2) providing moderate thermal insulation in the combustion chamber, either by depositing thin ceramic material or by metal inserts; (3) developing a high-energy ignition system; and (4) employing high-octane fuel, such as methanol, ethanol, eucalyptus oil, and orange oil, as a blending agent with gasoline. Based on the effectiveness of the above measures, an optimized design was developed in the final phase to achieve improved performance. Test results indicate that with an optimized two-stroke SI engine, the maximum percentage improvement in brake thermal efficiency is about 31%, together with a reduction of 3400 ppm in hydrocarbons (HC) and 3% by volume of carbon monoxide (CO) emissions over the normal engine (at 3 kW, 3000 rpm). Higher cylinder peak pressures (3-5 bar), lower ignition delay (2-4 degrees CA), and shorter combustion duration (4-10 degrees CA) are obtained. The knock-limited power output is also enhanced by 12.7% at a high compression ratio (CR) of 9:1. The proposed modifications in the optimized design are simple, low-cost, and easy to adopt for both production and existing engines.

  17. Devices to improve the performance of a conventional two-stroke spark ignition engine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Poola, R.B. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States); Nagalingam, B.; Gopalakrishnan, K.V. [Indian Inst. of Tech., Madras (India)

    1995-06-01

    This paper presents research efforts made in three different phases with the objective of improving the fuel economy of and reducing exhaust emissions from conventional, carbureted, two-stroke spark ignition (SI) engines, which are widely employed in two-wheel transportation in India. A review concerning the existing two-stroke engine technology for this application is included. In the first phase, a new scavenging system was developed and tested to reduce the loss of fresh charge through the exhaust port. In die second phase, the following measures were carried out to improve the combustion process: (1) using an in-cylinder catalyst, such as copper, chromium, and nickel, in the form of coating; (2) providing moderate thermal insulation in the combustion chamber, either by depositing thin ceramic material or by metal inserts; (3) developing a high-energy ignition system; and (4) employing high-octane fuel, such as methanol, ethanol, eucalyptus oil, and orange oil, as a blending agent with gasoline. Based on the effectiveness of the above measures, an optimized design was developed in the final phase to achieve improved performance. Test results indicate that with an optimized two-stroke SI engine, the maximum percentage improvement in brake thermal efficiency is about 31%, together with a reduction of 3400 ppm in hydrocarbons (HC) and 3% by volume of carbon monoxide (CO) emissions over the normal engine (at 3 kW, 3000 rpm). Higher cylinder peak pressures (3-5 bar), lower ignition delay (2-4{degrees}CA){degrees} and shorter combustion duration (4-10 {degrees}CA) are obtained. The knock-limited power output is also enhanced by 12.7% at a high compression ratio (CR) of 9:1. The proposed modifications in the optimized design are simple, low-cost and easy to adopt for both production and existing engines.

  18. Effects of substitution on counterflow ignition and extinction of C3 and C4 alcohols

    KAUST Repository

    Alfazazi, Adamu

    2016-06-17

    Dwindling reserves and inherent uncertainty in the price of conventional fuels necessitates a search for alternative fuels. Alcohols represent a potential source of energy for the future. The structural features of an alcohol fuel have a direct impact on combustion properties. In particular, substitution in alcohols can alter the global combustion reactivity. In this study, experiments and numerical simulations were conducted to investigate the critical conditions of extinction and autoignition of n-propanol, 1-butanol, iso-propanol and iso-butanol in non-premixed diffusion flames. Experiments were carried out in the counterflow configuration, while simulations were conducted using a skeletal chemical kinetic model for the C3 and C4 alcohols. The fuel stream consists of the pre-vaporized fuel diluted with nitrogen, while the oxidizer stream is air. The experimental results show that autoignition temperatures of the tested alcohols increase in the following order: iso-propanol > iso-butanol > 1-butanol ≈ n-propanol. The simulated results for the branched alcohols agree with the experiments, while the autoignition temperature of 1-butanol is slightly higher than that of n-propanol. For extinction, the experiments show that the extinction limits of the tested fuels increase in the following order: n-propanol ≈ 1-butanol > iso-butanol > iso-propanol. The model suggests that the extinction limits of 1-butanol is slightly higher than n-propanol with extinction strain rate of iso-butanol and iso-propanol maintaining the experimentally observed trend. The transport weighted enthalpy (TWE) and radical index (Ri) concepts were utilized to rationalize the observed reactivity trends for these fuels.

  19. Investigation of emissions characteristics of secondary butyl alcohol-gasoline blends in a port fuel injection spark ignition engine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yusri I.M.

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Exhaust emissions especially from light duty gasoline engine are a major contributor to air pollution due to the large number of vehicles on the road. The purpose of this study is to experimentally analyse the exhaust pollutant emissions of a four-stroke port fuel spark ignition engines operating using secondary butyl alcohol–gasoline blends by percentage volume of 5% (GBu5, 10% (GBu10 and 15% (GBu15 of secondary butyl- alcohol (2-butanol additives in gasoline fuels at 50% of wide throttle open. The exhaust emissions characteristics of the engine using blended fuels was compared to the exhaust emissions of the engine with gasoline fuels (G100 as a reference fuels. Exhaust emissions analysis results show that all of the blended fuels produced lower CO by 8.6%, 11.6% and 24.8% for GBu5, GBu10 and GBu15 respectively from 2500 to 4000 RPM, while for HC, both GBu10 and GBu15 were lower than that G100 fuels at all engine speeds. In general, when the engine was operated using blended fuels, the engine produced lower CO and HC, but higher CO2.

  20. 49 CFR 40.229 - What devices are used to conduct alcohol screening tests?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... Alcohol Testing § 40.229 What devices are used to conduct alcohol screening tests? EBTs and ASDs on the... are allowed to use to conduct alcohol screening tests under this part. You may use an ASD that is on the NHTSA CPL for DOT alcohol tests only if there are instructions for its use in this part. An ASD...

  1. Measure of the volumetric efficiency and evaporator device performance for a liquefied petroleum gas spark ignition engine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Masi, Massimo; Gobbato, Paolo

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► Measure of the effect of LPG fuel on volumetric efficiency of a SI petrol ICE. ► Steady-state and transient performance of a LPG evaporator device on a SI ICE. ► Volume displaced by LPG causes slight performance loss in SI petrol engines. ► LPG reveals peak efficiency and high-efficiency range wider than petrol in SI ICE’s. ► One-stage pressure reducer for LPG performs satisfactorily during SI ICE transients. - Abstract: The use of Liquefied Petroleum Gas (LPG) as fuel for spark ignition engines originally designed to be gasoline fuelled is common practice in many countries. Despite this, some questions remain still open. The present paper deals with the two main problems related to LPG port-fuel SI engines: the volumetric efficiency drop and the LPG evaporator device performance. A passengers car SI engine equipped with a “third generation” kit for the dual-fuel operation was tested using a dynamometer test rig. A single-stage pressure reducer was selected as LPG evaporator, to take advantage of an additional pre-heating of the liquid LPG that allows higher power output than a two-stage device of the same size. Engine performance, volumetric efficiency and change of LPG thermodynamic states in the evaporator were measured both in steady-state and transient operation of the engine. Steady-state measurements show the advantage of LPG in terms of engine efficiency, and quantify the drop in steady-state brake torque due to the volume swept by gaseous fuel in the fresh charge admission process. On the other hand, transient measurements show that a single-stage evaporator device is capable to match overall simplicity and satisfactory performance during strong changes in engine load.

  2. FRACTURE SHAFT HUMERUS: INTERLOCKING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deepak Kaladagi

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The incidence of humeral fracture has significantly increased during the present years due to the population growth and road traffic, domestic, industrial, automobile accidents & disasters like tsunami, earthquakes, head-on collisions, polytrauma etc. In order to achieve a stable fixation followed by early mobilization, numerous surgical implants have been devised. PURPOSE: The purpose of this study is to analyze the results of intramedullary fixation of proximal 2/3rd humeral shaft fractures using an unreamed interlocking intramedullary nail. INTRODUCTION: In 40 skeletally matured patients with fracture shaft of humerus admitted in our hospital, we used unreamed antegrade interlocking nails. MATERIAL: We carried out a prospective analysis of 40 patients randomly selected between 2001 to 2014 who were operated at JNMC Belgaum, MMC Mysore & Navodaya Medical College, Raichur. All cases were either RTAs, Domestic, Industrial, automobile accidents & also other modes of injury. METHOD: Routine investigations with pre-anaesthetic check-up & good quality X-rays of both sides of humerus was taken. Time of surgery ranged from 5-10 days from the time of admission. Only upper 1/3rd & middle 1/3rd humeral shaft fractures were included in the study. In all the cases antegrade locked unreamed humeral nails were inserted under C-arm. Patient was placed in supine position & the shoulder was kept elevated by placing a sandbag under the scapula. In all patients incision taken from tip of acromion to 3cm over deltoid longitudinally. Postoperatively sling applied with wrist & shoulder movements started after 24 hours. All the patients ranged between the age of 21-50 years. RESULTS: Total 40 patients were operated. Maximum fracture site were in the middle third- 76%, 14% upper 1/3rd. All 40 patients achieved union. The average time of union was 8-10 weeks. All patients regained full range of movements except in few cases, where there was shoulder

  3. Autoignition characterization of primary reference fuels and n-heptane/n-butanol mixtures in a constant volume combustion device and homogeneous charge compression ignition engine

    KAUST Repository

    Baumgardner, Marc E.

    2013-12-19

    In this study, the autoignition behavior of primary reference fuels (PRF) and blends of n-heptane/n-butanol were examined in a Waukesha Fuel Ignition Tester (FIT) and a Homogeneous Charge Compression Engine (HCCI). Fourteen different blends of iso-octane, n-heptane, and n-butanol were tested in the FIT - 28 test runs with 25 ignition measurements for each test run, totaling 350 individual tests in all. These experimental results supported previous findings that fuel blends with high alcohol content can exhibit very different ignition delay periods than similarly blended reference fuels. The experiments further showed that n-butanol blends behaved unlike PRF blends when comparing the autoignition behavior as a function of the percentage of low reactivity component. The HCCI and FIT experimental results favorably compared against single and multizone models with detailed chemical kinetic mechanisms - both an existing mechanism as well as one developed during this study were used. The experimental and modeling results suggest that that the FIT instrument is a valuable tool for analysis of high pressure, low temperature chemistry, and autoignition for future fuels in advanced combustion engines. Additionally, in both the FIT and engine experiments the fraction of low temperature heat release (fLTHR) was found to correlate very well with the crank angle of maximum heat release and shows promise as a useful metric for fuel reactivity in advanced combustion applications. © 2013 American Chemical Society.

  4. A DUAL NETWORK MODEL OF INTERLOCKING DIRECTORATES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Humphry Hung

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available The article proposes an integrative framework for the study of interlocking directorates by using an approach that encompasses the concepts of multiple networks and resource endowment. This serves to integrate the traditional views of interorganizational linkages and intra-class cohesion. Through appropriate strategic analysis of relevant resource endowment of internal environment and external networks of organizations and corporate elites, this article argues that the selection of directors, if used effectively, can be adopted as a strategic device to enhance the corporation's overall performance.

  5. Results of the first semi-annual qualification testing of devices to measure breath alcohol

    Science.gov (United States)

    1975-01-01

    Eight evidential breath testers were performance tested according to the Standard for Devices to Measure Breath Alcohol Federal Register, Vol 38, No. 212, November 5, 1973. In addition, a prototype breath tester not commercially available was tested....

  6. 49 CFR 236.751 - Interlocking, manual.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Interlocking, manual. 236.751 Section 236.751 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) FEDERAL RAILROAD ADMINISTRATION... Interlocking, manual. An arrangement of signals and signal appliances operated from an interlocking machine and...

  7. Laboratory testing of a saliva-alcohol test device by Enzymatics, Inc.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1992-12-01

    This study examined the accuracy of a new saliva-alcohol test device (Enzymatics, Inc. "Q.E.D.-A150") at nine different blood alcohol concentrations (BACs) under three temperature conditions. However, it did not assess the saliva collection procedure...

  8. RF generator interlock by plasma grid bias current - An alternate to Hα interlock

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bandyopadhyay, M.; Gahlaut, A.; Yadav, R. K.; Pandya, K.; Tyagi, H.; Vupugalla, M.; Bhuyan, M.; Bhagora, J.; Chakraborty, A.

    2017-08-01

    ROBIN is inductively coupled plasma (ICP) based negative hydrogen ion source, operated with a 100kW, 1MHz Tetrode based RF generator (RFG). Inductive plasma ignition by the RFG in ROBIN is associated with electron seeding by a hot filament and a gas puff. RFG is triggered by the control system to deliver power just at the peak pressure of the gas puff. Once plasma is ignited due to proper impedance matching, a bright light, dominated by Hα (˜656nm wavelength) radiation is available inside RF driver which is used as a feedback signal to the RFG to continue its operation. If impedance matching is not correct, plasma is not produced due to lack of power coupling and bright light is not available. During such condition, reflected RF power may damage the RFG. Therefore, to protect the RFG, it needs to be switched off automatically within 200ms by the control system in such cases. This plasma light based RFG interlock is adopted from BATMAN ion source. However, in case of vacuum immersed RF ion source in reactor grade NBI system, such plasma light based interlock may not be feasible due to lack of adequate optical fiber interfaces. In reactor grade NBI system, neutron and gamma radiations have impact on materials which may lead to frequent maintenance and machine down time. The present demonstration of RFG interlock by Bias Current (BC) in ROBIN testbed gives an alternate option in this regard. In ROBIN, a bias plate (BP) is placed in the plasma chamber near the plasma grid (PG). BP is electrically connected to the plasma chamber wall of the ion source and PG is isolated from the wall. A high current ˜85 A direct current (DC) power supply of voltage in the range of 0 - 33V is connected between the PG and the BP in such a way that PG can be biased positively with respect to the BP or plasma chamber. This arrangement is actually made to absorb electrons and correspondingly reduce co-extracted electron current during beam extraction. However, in case of normal plasma

  9. Interlocking directorships in Polish joint stock companies:

    OpenAIRE

    Pawlak, Marek

    2008-01-01

    Studies concerning interlocking directorships have been carried out among Polish joint stock corporations. The main source of data have been the announcements that are to be published by corporations regularly in a journal called Business and Court Gazette (BCG). Interlocking directorships constitute a network among corporations the use of which enables co-ordinated management of the whole group. The phenomenon of interlocking directorships in Polish joint stock companies can be compared to t...

  10. Thermal Ignition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boettcher, Philipp Andreas

    Accidental ignition of flammable gases is a critical safety concern in many industrial applications. Particularly in the aviation industry, the main areas of concern on an aircraft are the fuel tank and adjoining regions, where spilled fuel has a high likelihood of creating a flammable mixture. To this end, a fundamental understanding of the ignition phenomenon is necessary in order to develop more accurate test methods and standards as a means of designing safer air vehicles. The focus of this work is thermal ignition, particularly auto-ignition with emphasis on the effect of heating rate, hot surface ignition and flame propagation, and puffing flames. Combustion of hydrocarbon fuels is traditionally separated into slow reaction, cool flame, and ignition regimes based on pressure and temperature. Standard tests, such as the ASTM E659, are used to determine the lowest temperature required to ignite a specific fuel mixed with air at atmospheric pressure. It is expected that the initial pressure and the rate at which the mixture is heated also influences the limiting temperature and the type of combustion. This study investigates the effect of heating rate, between 4 and 15 K/min, and initial pressure, in the range of 25 to 100 kPa, on ignition of n-hexane air mixtures. Mixtures with equivalence ratio ranging from 0.6 to 1.2 were investigated. The problem is also modeled computationally using an extension of Semenov's classical auto-ignition theory with a detailed chemical mechanism. Experiments and simulations both show that in the same reactor either a slow reaction or an ignition event can take place depending on the heating rate. Analysis of the detailed chemistry demonstrates that a mixture which approaches the ignition region slowly undergoes a significant modification of its composition. This change in composition induces a progressive shift of the explosion limit until the mixture is no longer flammable. A mixture that approaches the ignition region

  11. Study of alcohol fuel of butanol and ethanol effect on the compression ignition (CI) engine performance, combustion and emission characteristic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aziz, M. A.; Yusop, A. F.; Mat Yasin, M. H.; Hamidi, M. A.; Alias, A.; Hussin, H.; Hamri, S.

    2017-10-01

    Diesel engine which is one of the larger contributors to total consumption for petroleum is an attractive power unit used widely in many fields. However, diesel engines are among the main contributors to air pollutions for the large amount of emissions, such as CO, CO2 and NOx lead to an adverse effect on human health. Many researches have been done to find alternative fuels that are clean and efficient. Biodiesel is preferred as an alternative source for diesel engine which produces lower emission of pollutants. This study has focused on the evaluation of diesel and alcohol-diesel fuel properties and also the performance, combustion and exhaust emission from diesel engine fuelled with diesel and alcohol. Butanol and ethanol is blend with diesel fuel at 1:9 ratio. There are three test fuel that is tested which Diesel (100% diesel), D90BU10 (10% Butanol and 90% diesel) and D90E10 (10% Ethanol and 90% diesel). The comparison between diesel and alcohol-diesel blend has been made in terms of fuel properties characterization, engine performance such as brake power (BP) and brake specific fuel consumption (BSFC) also the in cylinder maximum pressure characteristic. Thus, exhaust gas emission of CO, CO2, NOx and O2 emission also has been observed at constant load of 50% but in different operating engine speed (1100 rpm, 1400 rpm, 1700 rpm, 2000 rpm and 2300 rpm). The results show the addition of 10% of each butanol and ethanol to diesel fuel had decreased the fuel density about 0.3% to 0.5% compared to mineral diesel. In addition, viscosity and energy content are also decrease. The addition of 10% butanol had improved the fuel cetane number however the ethanol blends react differently. In term of engine performance, as the engine speed increased, BP output also increase respectively. Hence, the alcohol blends fuel generates lower BP compared to diesel, plus BSFC for all test fuel shows decreasing trend at low and medium speed, however increased gradually at higher engine

  12. Multi variable control of a switched ignition device: efficiency improvement under various constraints; Commande multivariable d`un moteur a allumage commande: Amelioration du rendement sous differentes contraintes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chaumerliac, V.

    1995-03-09

    Spark-ignition engine control needs substantial improvement for various reasons: a non-linear and multivariable process, the strictness of anti-pollution constraints, the necessity of fuel economy, the variable running conditions, the aging, the reliability and the cost. The improvement of engine efficiency will be involved in this context and with the pollution constraints. This work develops a system approach and its philosophy is based on a suitable description of the main dynamics. A compartmentalized model of a spark-ignition engine and the dynamic of the vehicle is presented. The aim of this modeling is to have a good representativeness in transients and to describe the behavior of the outputs useful for control. The multivariable control is split in two independent systems. The first one controls the spark advance control to obtain the maximum torque. The second one controls the throttle and the electronic fuel injection device to have lower pollutant emissions. The spark advance closed loop control uses information measured with either a cylinder pressure sensor or a torque sensor. These studies have achieved to an adaptive tuning on engine bench. A new actuator, the electronic throttle control, can provide a higher degree of precision for the fuel/air ratio regulation system, particularly during fast accelerations and decelerations. An intake manifold pressure control is developed to coordinate the air and fuel flows. A delay strategy and a simple compensation of fuel supply dynamics allow to obtain good results on engine bench. Uncoupling the acceleration pedal and the throttle command is a promising way to improve engine efficiency and reduce exhaust emission during transient phases. (author) 59 refs.

  13. Coastal protection using topological interlocking blocks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pasternak, Elena; Dyskin, Arcady; Pattiaratchi, Charitha; Pelinovsky, Efim

    2013-04-01

    The coastal protection systems mainly rely on the self-weight of armour blocks to ensure its stability. We propose a system of interlocking armour blocks, which form plate-shape assemblies. The shape and the position of the blocks are chosen in such a way as to impose kinematic constraints that prevent the blocks from being removed from the assembly. The topological interlocking shapes include simple convex blocks such as platonic solids, the most practical being tetrahedra, cubes and octahedra. Another class of topological interlocking blocks is so-called osteomorphic blocks, which form plate-like assemblies tolerant to random block removal (almost 25% of blocks need to be removed for the assembly to loose integrity). Both classes require peripheral constraint, which can be provided either by the weight of the blocks or post-tensioned internal cables. The interlocking assemblies provide increased stability because lifting one block involves lifting (and bending) the whole assembly. We model the effect of interlocking by introducing an equivalent additional self-weight of the armour blocks. This additional self-weight is proportional to the critical pressure needed to cause bending of the interlocking assembly when it loses stability. Using beam approximation we find an equivalent stability coefficient for interlocking. It is found to be greater than the stability coefficient of a structure with similar blocks without interlocking. In the case when the peripheral constraint is provided by the weight of the blocks and for the slope angle of 45o, the effective stability coefficient for a structure of 100 blocks is 33% higher than the one for a similar structure without interlocking. Further increase in the stability coefficient can be reached by a specially constructed peripheral constraint system, for instance by using post-tension cables.

  14. Intramedullary nailing of femoral shaft fractures. Part III: Long-term effects of static interlocking fixation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brumback, R J; Ellison, T S; Poka, A; Bathon, G H; Burgess, A R

    1992-01-01

    The results of treatment of fractures of the femoral shaft with static interlocking nailing were reviewed retrospectively to determine the clinical importance of any stress-riser or stress-shielding properties of the nail. These properties, if relevant, would have been manifested by refracture of the femur, either through a hole used for a locking screw or through the original site of fracture after extraction of the device. Two hundred and fourteen fractures that had been treated with static interlocking nailing and that had healed without conversion to dynamic intramedullary fixation were divided into two groups. In Group I, which comprised 111 fractures, the static interlocking-fixation device was retained and in Group II, which comprised 103 fractures, the static interlocking-fixation device was removed during one operative procedure at an average of fourteen months after the injury. The average duration of follow-up was thirty months from the time of the original fixation in both groups. All patients in Group II were followed for a minimum of six months after removal of the nail. No femur in Group I, in which the static interlocked nail remained in situ, refractured. No femur in either group fractured through the proximal or the distal holes used for the locking screws. No locking screws or nails broke. One patient (1 per cent) in Group II had a refracture of the femoral shaft through the site of the original fracture six weeks after removal of the nail.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  15. Reversed field pinch ignition requirements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Werley, K.A.

    1991-01-01

    Plasma models are described and used to calculated numerically the transport confinement (nτ E ) requirements and steady state operation points for both the reversed field pinch (RFP) and the tokamak. The models are used to examine the CIT tokamak ignition conditions and the RFP experimental and ignition conditions. Physics differences between RFPs and tokamaks and their consequences for a D-T ignition machine are discussed. Compared with a tokamak, the ignition RFP has many physics advantages, including Ohmic heating to ignition (no need for auxiliary heating systems), higher beta, lower ignition current, less sensitivity of ignition requirements to impurity effects, no hard disruptions (associated with beta or density limits) and successful operation with high radiation fractions (f RAD ∼ 0.95). These physics advantages, coupled with important engineering advantages associated with lower external magnetic field, larger aspect ratios and smaller plasma cross-sections, translate to significant cost reductions for both ignition and reactor applications. The primary drawback of the RFP is the uncertainty that the present scaling will extrapolate to reactor regimes. Devices that are under construction should go a long way toward resolving this scaling uncertainty. The 4 MA ZTH is expected to extend the nτ E transport scaling data by three orders of magnitude above the results of ZT-40M, and, if the present scaling holds, ZTH is expected to achieve a D-T equivalent scientific energy breakeven, Q = 1. A base case RFP ignition point is identified with a plasma current of 8.1 MA and no auxiliary heating. (author). 19 refs, 11 figs, 3 tabs

  16. Artificial nanomachines based on interlocked molecules

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Credi, Alberto

    2006-01-01

    The extension of the concept of machine to the molecular level is of great interest for the growth of nanoscience and the development of nanotechnology. A molecular machine can be defined as an assembly of a discrete number of molecular components (that is, a supramolecular structure) designed to perform a function through the mechanical movements of its components, which occur under appropriate external stimulation. Hence, molecular machines contain a motor part, that is a device capable of converting energy into mechanical work. Molecular motors and machines operate via nuclear rearrangements and, like their macroscopic counterparts, are characterized by the kind of energy input supplied to make them work, the manner in which their operation can be monitored, the possibility to repeat the operation at will, i.e., establishing a cyclic process, the timescale needed to complete a cycle of operation, and the performed function. Owing to the progresses made in several branches of chemistry, and to the better understanding of the operation mechanisms of molecular machines of the biological world, it has become possible to design and construct simple prototypes of artificial molecular motors and machines. Some examples based on rotaxanes, catenanes, and related interlocked molecules will be described

  17. Design of Control and Interlocking System for a Typical Radar Transmitter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nagabhushan Raju KONDURU

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents design and constructional features of CPLD based control and interlocking units for a typical MST radar transmitter. The conventional digital hardware used for controlling the radar transmitter and performing the interlock operations has been replaced by Xilinx’s XC9572C10PC84 CPLD device. The latest state of the art devices replace the front panel switches and LEDs display. This has resulted in miniaturizing the entire control and interlock subsystems. The necessary code is written in Verilog HDL. The newly designed system overcomes the design flaws in the earlier system hardware. The performance and results of the system have been verified with the simulation and real time testing at the plant. The unit testing is performed for more than four months with continuous operation of transmitter and the test report is highly encouraging.

  18. An absolute calibration method of an ethyl alcohol biosensor based on wavelength-modulated differential photothermal radiometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yi Jun; Mandelis, Andreas; Guo, Xinxin

    2015-11-01

    In this work, laser-based wavelength-modulated differential photothermal radiometry (WM-DPTR) is applied to develop a non-invasive in-vehicle alcohol biosensor. WM-DPTR features unprecedented ethanol-specificity and sensitivity by suppressing baseline variations through a differential measurement near the peak and baseline of the mid-infrared ethanol absorption spectrum. Biosensor signal calibration curves are obtained from WM-DPTR theory and from measurements in human blood serum and ethanol solutions diffused from skin. The results demonstrate that the WM-DPTR-based calibrated alcohol biosensor can achieve high precision and accuracy for the ethanol concentration range of 0-100 mg/dl. The high-performance alcohol biosensor can be incorporated into ignition interlocks that could be fitted as a universal accessory in vehicles in an effort to reduce incidents of drinking and driving.

  19. The Compact Ignition Tokamak

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schmidt, J.

    1987-01-01

    The author discusses his lab's plan for completing the Compact Ignition Tokamak (CIT) conceptual design during calendar year 1987. Around July 1 they froze the subsystem envelopes on the device to continue with the conceptual design. They did this by formalizing a general requirements document. They have been developing the management plan and submitted a version to the DOE July 10. He describes a group of management activities. They released the vacuum vessel Request For Proposals (RFP) on August 5. An RFP to do a major part of the system engineering on the device is being developed. They intend to assemble the device outside of the test cell, then move it into the the test cell, install it there, and bring to the test cell many of the auxiliary facilities from TFTR, for example, power supplies

  20. Investigation and demonstration of a rich combustor cold-start device for alcohol-fueled engines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hodgson, J W; Irick, D K [Univ. of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN (United States)

    1998-04-01

    The authors have completed a study in which they investigated the use of a rich combustor to aid in cold starting spark-ignition engines fueled with either neat ethanol or neat methanol. The rich combustor burns the alcohol fuel outside the engine under fuel-rich conditions to produce a combustible product stream that is fed to the engine for cold starting. The rich combustor approach significantly extends the cold starting capability of alcohol-fueled engines. A design tool was developed that simulates the operation of the combustor and couples it to an engine/vehicle model. This tool allows the user to determine the fuel requirements of the rich combustor as the vehicle executes a given driving mission. The design tool was used to design and fabricate a rich combustor for use on a 2.8 L automotive engine. The system was tested using a unique cold room that allows the engine to be coupled to an electric dynamometer. The engine was fitted with an aftermarket engine control system that permitted the fuel flow to the rich combustor to be programmed as a function of engine speed and intake manifold pressure. Testing indicated that reliable cold starts were achieved on both neat methanol and neat ethanol at temperatures as low as {minus}20 C. Although starts were experienced at temperatures as low as {minus}30 C, these were erratic. They believe that an important factor at the very low temperatures is the balance between the high mechanical friction of the engine and the low energy density of the combustible mixture fed to the engine from the rich combustor.

  1. Macro-Micro Interlocked Simulator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sato, Tetsuya

    2005-01-01

    Simulation Science is now standing on a turning point. After the appearance of the Earth Simulator, HEC is struggling with several severe difficulties due to the physical limit of LSI technologies and the so-called latency problem. In this paper I would like to propose one clever way to overcome these difficulties from the simulation algorithm viewpoint. Nature and artificial products are usually organized with several nearly autonomously working internal systems (organizations, or layers). The Earth Simulator has gifted us with a really useful scientific tool that can deal with the entire evolution of one internal system with a sufficient soundness. In order to make a leap jump of Simulation Science, therefore, it is desired to design an innovative simulator that enables us to deal with simultaneously and as consistently as possible a real system that evolves cooperatively with several internal autonomous systems. Three years experience of the Earth Simulator Project has stimulated to come up with one innovative simulation algorithm to get rid of the technological barrier standing in front of us, which I would like to call 'Macro-Micro Interlocked Algorithm', or 'Macro-Micro Multiplying Algorithm', and present a couple of such examples to validate the proposed algorithm. The first example is an aurora-arc formation as a result of the mutual interaction between the macroscopic magnetosphere-ionosphere system and the microscopic field-aligned electron and ion system. The second example is the local heavy rain fall resulting from the interaction between the global climate evolution and the microscopic raindrop growth process. Based on this innovative feasible algorithm, I came up with a Macro-Micro Multiplying Simulator

  2. Comparing formal verification approaches of interlocking systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Haxthausen, Anne Elisabeth; Nguyen, Hoang Nga; Roggenbach, Markus

    2016-01-01

    The verification of railway interlocking systems is a challenging task, and therefore several research groups have suggested to improve this task by using formal methods, but they use different modelling and verification approaches. To advance this research, there is a need to compare...... these approaches. As a first step towards this, in this paper we suggest a way to compare different formal approaches for verifying designs of route-based interlocking systems and we demonstrate it on modelling and verification approaches developed within the research groups at DTU/Bremen and at Surrey...

  3. An analytical hierarchical model explaining the robustness and flaw-tolerance of the interlocking barb-barbule structure of bird feathers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Qiang; Gorb, Stanislav; Kovalev, Alexander; Li, Zhiyong; Pugno, Nicola

    2016-10-01

    Feathers can fulfill their aerodynamic function only if the pennaceous vane forms an airfoil stabilized by robust interlocking between barbules. Thus, revealing the robustness of the interlocking mechanical behavior of the barbules is very important to understand the function and long-term resilience of bird feathers. This paper, basing on the small- and large-beam deflection solutions, presents a hierarchical mechanical model for deriving the critical delamination conditions of the interlocking barbules between two adjacent barbs in bird feathers. The results indicate a high robustness and flaw-tolerant design of the structure. This work contributes to the understanding of the mechanical behavior of the robust interlocking barb-barbule structure of the bird feather, and provides a basis for design of feather-inspired materials with robust interlocking mechanism, such as advanced bio-inspired micro-zipping devices.

  4. SaRDIn - A Safe Reconfigurable Distributed Interlocking

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fantechi, Alessandro; Gnesi, S.; Haxthausen, Anne Elisabeth

    2016-01-01

    Current computer-based interlocking systems most often have a centralized design, with all logic residing in a single computer. Centralized interlockings are complex to design. Following the general trend in Cyber-Physical Systems, the SaRDIn (Safe Reconfigurable Distributed Interlockings) concept...

  5. Automated generation of formal safety conditions from railway interlocking tables

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Haxthausen, Anne Elisabeth

    2014-01-01

    This paper describes a tool for extracting formal safety conditions from interlocking tables for railway interlocking systems. The tool has been applied to generate safety conditions for the interlocking system at Stenstrup station in Denmark, and the SAL model checker tool has been used to check...

  6. Alcohol

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... because that's how many accidents occur. What Is Alcoholism? What can be confusing about alcohol is that ... develop a problem with it. Sometimes, that's called alcoholism (say: al-kuh-HOL - ism) or being an ...

  7. Alcohol

    Science.gov (United States)

    If you are like many Americans, you drink alcohol at least occasionally. For many people, moderate drinking ... risky. Heavy drinking can lead to alcoholism and alcohol abuse, as well as injuries, liver disease, heart ...

  8. Alcohol

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Navarro Junior, L.

    1988-01-01

    The alcohol production as a secondary energy source, the participation of the alcohol in Brazilian national economic and social aspects are presented. Statistical data of alcohol demand compared with petroleum by-products and electricity are also included. (author)

  9. Control interlock and monitoring system for 80 KW IOT based RF power amplifier system at 505.812 MHz for Indus-2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kumar, Gautam; Deo, R.K.; Jain, M.K.; Bagre, Sunil; Hannurkar, P.R.

    2013-01-01

    For 80 kW inductive output tube (IOT) based RF power amplifier system at 505.812 MHz for Indus-2, a control, interlock and monitoring system is realized. This is to facilitate proper start-up and shutdown of the amplifier system, monitor various parameters to detect any malfunction during its operation and to bring the system in a safe stage, thereby assuring reliable operation of the amplifier system. This high power amplifier system incorporates interlocks such as cooling interlocks, various voltage and current interlocks and time critical RF interlocks. Processing of operation sequence, cooling interlocks and various voltage and current interlocks have been realized by using Siemens make S7-CPU-315-2DP (CPU) based programmable logic controller (PLC) system. While time critical or fast interlocks have been realized by using Siemens make FPGA based Boolean Co-processor FM-352-5 which operates in standalone mode. Siemens make operating panel OP277 6'' is being used as a human machine interface (HMI) device for command, data, alarm generation and process parameter monitoring. (author)

  10. Modelling and Verification of Relay Interlocking Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Haxthausen, Anne Elisabeth; Bliguet, Marie Le; Kjær, Andreas

    2010-01-01

    This paper describes how relay interlocking systems as used by the Danish railways can be formally modelled and verified. Such systems are documented by circuit diagrams describing their static layout. It is explained how to derive a state transition system model for the dynamic behaviour of a re...

  11. Effectiveness and complications of SIGN intramedullary interlocking ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Interlocking intramedullary nailing is the current state-of-the-art management of the shaft fractures of long bones. Objective: To assess the functional outcome of SIGN nailing of femoral and tibial fractures at Moi Teaching and Referral Hospital. Design: Retrospective analytical, study over a three year period ...

  12. Radiation safety interlocks at the NSLS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dickinson, T.

    1985-07-01

    The function of the NSLS interlock systems is to insure that no one is in an area where there is hazardous radiation, and to turn off the radiation source if a person somehow gains access to such an area. The interlock systems for the high hazard areas meet the following design requirements: (1) The system is redundant, that is no single failure can render the system unsafe. This is done by providing 2 independent systems or circuits; (2) In so far as possible, the two circuits are physically different. This minimizes the possibility of related coincident failures; (3) The design is fail safe. This means that the most likely failure modes leave the system in a safe condition. For example, the following failures are safe: Loss of power in any part of the system, any combination of shorts to ground, and any combination of open circuits; and (4) The interlock system must be testable. Redundancy sometimes makes testing difficult, but testing schemes must be worked out, since an untested interlock is undependable

  13. Any Monotone Function Is Realized by Interlocked Polygons

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erik D. Demaine

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Suppose there is a collection of n simple polygons in the plane, none of which overlap each other. The polygons are interlocked if no subset can be separated arbitrarily far from the rest. It is natural to ask the characterization of the subsets that makes the set of interlocked polygons free (not interlocked. This abstracts the essence of a kind of sliding block puzzle. We show that any monotone Boolean function ƒ on n variables can be described by m = O(n interlocked polygons. We also show that the decision problem that asks if given polygons are interlocked is PSPACE-complete.

  14. Ignition of an automobile engine by high-peak power Nd:YAG/Cr⁴⁺:YAG laser-spark devices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pavel, Nicolaie; Dascalu, Traian; Salamu, Gabriela; Dinca, Mihai; Boicea, Niculae; Birtas, Adrian

    2015-12-28

    Laser sparks that were built with high-peak power passively Q-switched Nd:YAG/Cr(4+):YAG lasers have been used to operate a Renault automobile engine. The design of such a laser spark igniter is discussed. The Nd:YAG/Cr(4+):YAG laser delivered pulses with energy of 4 mJ and 0.8-ns duration, corresponding to pulse peak power of 5 MW. The coefficients of variability of maximum pressure (COV(Pmax)) and of indicated mean effective pressure (COV(IMEP)) and specific emissions like hydrocarbons (HC), carbon monoxide (CO), nitrogen oxides (NO(x)) and carbon dioxide (CO2) were measured at various engine speeds and high loads. Improved engine stability in terms of COV(Pmax) and COV(Pmax) and decreased emissions of CO and HC were obtained for the engine that was run by laser sparks in comparison with classical ignition by electrical spark plugs.

  15. Alcohol

    OpenAIRE

    World Bank

    2003-01-01

    Alcohol abuse is one of the leading causes of death and disability worldwide. Alcohol abuse is responsible for 4 percent of global deaths and disability, nearly as much as tobacco and five times the burden of illicit drugs (WHO). In developing countries with low mortality, alcohol is the leading risk factor for males, causing 9.8 percent of years lost to death and disability. Alcohol abuse...

  16. Application software for new BEPC interlock system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tang Shuming; Na Xiangyin; Chen Jiansong; Yu Yulan

    1997-01-01

    New BEPC (Beijing electron Positron collider) interlock system has been built in order to improve the reliability of personnel safety and interlock functions. Moreover, the system updates BEPC operation message once every 6 seconds, which are displayed on TV screens at the major entrances. Since March of 1996, new BEPC interlock system has been operating reliably. The hardware of the system is based on Programmable Logic Controllers (PLC). A multimedia IBM/PC-586 as the host computer of the PLCs, monitors the PLC system via serial port COM2. The PC communicates with the central computer VAX-4500 of BEPC control system and gets operating massage of the accelerator through serial port COM3. The application software on the host computer has been developed. Visual C++ for MS-Windows 3.2 TM is selected as the work bench. It provides nice tools for building programs, such as APP STUDIO, CLASS WIZARD, APP WIZARD and debugger tool. The author describes the design idea and the structure of the application software. Error tolerance is taken into consideration. The author also presents a small database and its data structure for the application

  17. Beam Interlocks for LHC and SPS

    CERN Document Server

    Dinius, A; Gimeno-Vicente, J; Nouchi, P; Puccio, B; Schmidt, R; Wenninger, J

    2003-01-01

    The Large Hadron Collider at CERN (LHC) will operate at 7 TeV/c with a luminosity of 10 cms. This requires two beams with about 3^10 protons/beam, corresponding to a stored energy of about 350 MJ, sufficient to heat and melt 500 kg of copper. Protection of equipment from damage in case of uncontrolled beam losses is challenging. Injection of the beam from the SPS to the LHC could already damage equipment and is only permitted when all LHC systems are correctly prepared. In case of an uncontrolled loss of the circulating LHC beams, it is required to extract the beams into a specially designed target as soon as possible. Beam loss monitors and equipment for hardware surveillance are distributed around the 26 km long accelerator. In case of failures or beam losses, the beam interlock system is informed and sends a dump request to the beam dumping system. The beam interlock system also inhibits injection when the LHC is not ready for beam. In this paper the requirements for the beam interlock system are discussed...

  18. INTERFIRM COOPERATION AND INFORMATION SHARING THROUGH INTERLOCKING DIRECTORATES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammed Belal UDDIN

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available When firms engage in cooperative efforts, interfirm relations get particular interest to be studied. A direct interlock occurs when an executive or director of one firm sits on the board of another firm, and an indirect interlock occurs when two firms have directors or executives who sit on the board of a third firm. The three commonly used theoretical models such as social network theory, learning theory, and theory of strategic choice are more relevant for the formation and management of interlocking directorates. Uncertainty, resource scarcity, mutual trust, dependency, etc. influence the formation of interlocking directorates. Consequently, interlocking directorates allow sharing of information and overall cooperation between partners through learning, collaboration, networking, and effective relationship, etc. Proper management of interlocking directorates requires communication and collaboration among partners that enhance exchange of knowledge and cooperation.

  19. Formal modelling and verification of interlocking systems featuring sequential release

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vu, Linh Hong; Haxthausen, Anne Elisabeth; Peleska, Jan

    2017-01-01

    In this article, we present a method and an associated toolchain for the formal verification of the new Danish railway interlocking systems that are compatible with the European Train Control System (ETCS) Level 2. We have made a generic and reconfigurable model of the system behaviour and generic...... safety properties. This model accommodates sequential release - a feature in the new Danish interlocking systems. To verify the safety of an interlocking system, first a domain-specific description of interlocking configuration data is constructed and validated. Then the generic model and safety...

  20. Hands-on robotic distal interlocking in intramedullary nail fixation of femoral shaft fractures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oszwald, Markus; Westphal, Ralf; Stier, Rebecca; Gaulke, Ralph; Calafi, Afshin; Müller, Christian W; Wahl, Friedrich; Krettek, Christian; Gösling, Thomas

    2010-01-01

    Intramedullary nailing has become the gold standard in the treatment of femoral shaft fractures. This procedure involves the placement of distal interlocking bolts using the freehand technique. Accurate placement of distal interlocks can be a challenging task, especially in inexperienced hands. Misplacement of distal interlocking bolts can lead to iatrogenic fracture, instability of the bone-implant construct, or even malalignment of the extremity. Repeated drilling attempts increase radiation exposure and can cause additional bony and soft tissue trauma. We hypothesize that robot-guided placement of distal interlocks is more accurate, precise, and efficient than the freehand technique. A custom-designed drill guide was mounted onto the arm of an industrial robot. We developed a special device to secure a generic block (Synbone, Malans, Switzerland) into which an intramedullary nail could be inserted in a standardized way. A metric scale allowed later measurements of the drillings. Digital images were taken from each side of the block for analysis of the drilling trajectories. The fluoroscope was adjusted to obtain perfect circles of the distal interlocking holes. The number of images necessary to achieve this was recorded. The axis was recognized automatically by using the differences in contrast between the matrix of the generic bone and the implant (intramedullary nail). The drill trajectories were then computed. The robot with the mounted drill-guide automatically moved onto the calculated trajectory. The surgeon then executed the drilling. We performed 40 robot assisted drillings in generic blocks. Freehand drilling served as our control group. Analysis of the digital images revealed a mean deviation of 0.94 mm and 2.7° off the ideal trajectory using robotic assistance. In 100% of the cases (n = 40), the distal locking hole was hit. A mean of 8.8 images was acquired. After manual drilling, 92.5% of the distal interlocks were hit. A mean deviation of 3.66 mm

  1. Recent progress on the Compact Ignition Tokamak (CIT)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ignat, D.W.

    1987-01-01

    This report describes work done on the Compact Ignition Tokamak (CIT), both at the Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory (PPPL) and at other fusion laboratories in the United States. The goal of CIT is to reach ignition in a tokamak fusion device in the mid-1990's. Scientific and engineering features of the design are described, as well as projected cost and schedule

  2. Interlocking Nailing Versus Interlocking Plating in Intra-articular Calcaneal Fractures: A Biomechanical Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reinhardt, Sophia; Martin, Heiner; Ulmar, Benjamin; Döbele, Stefan; Zwipp, Hans; Rammelt, Stefan; Richter, Martinus; Pompach, Martin; Mittlmeier, Thomas

    2016-08-01

    Open reduction and internal fixation with a plate is deemed to represent the gold standard of surgical treatment for displaced intra-articular calcaneal fractures. Standard plate fixation is usually placed through an extended lateral approach with high risk for wound complications. Minimally invasive techniques might avoid wound complications but provide limited construct stability. Therefore, 2 different types of locking nails were developed to allow for minimally invasive technique with sufficient stability. The aim of this study was to quantify primary stability of minimally invasive calcaneal interlocking nail systems in comparison to a variable-angle interlocking plate. After quantitative CT analysis, a standardized Sanders type IIB fracture model was created in 21 fresh-frozen cadavers. For osteosynthesis, 2 different interlocking nail systems (C-Nail; Medin, Nov. Město n. Moravě, Czech Republic; Calcanail; FH Orthopedics SAS; Heimsbrunn, France) as well as a polyaxial interlocking plate (Rimbus; Intercus GmbH; Rudolstadt, Germany) were used. Biomechanical testing consisted of a dynamic load sequence (preload 20 N, 1000 N up to 2500 N, stepwise increase of 100 N every 100 cycles, 0.5 mm/s) and a load to failure sequence (max. load 5000 N, 0.5 mm/s). Interfragmentary movement was detected via a 3-D optical measurement system. Boehler angle was measured after osteosynthesis and after failure occurred. No significant difference regarding load to failure, stiffness, Boehler angle, or interfragmentary motion was found between the different fixation systems. A significant difference was found with the dynamic failure testing sequence where 87.5% of the Calcanail implants failed in contrast to 14% of the C-Nail group (P plate. The highest load to failure was observed for the C-Nail. Boehler angle showed physiologic range with all implants before and after the biomechanical tests. Both minimally invasive interlocking nail systems displayed a high primary stability

  3. Alcohol

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hendriks, H.F.; Tol, A. van

    2005-01-01

    Alcohol consumption affects overall mortality. Light to moderate alcohol consumption reduces the risk of coronary heart disease; epidemiological, physiological and genetic data show a causal relationship. Light to moderate drinking is also associated with a reduced risk of other vascular diseases

  4. The SDUV-FEL vacuum interlock system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Qi Binchuan; Zhu Haijun; Ding Jiangguo

    2011-01-01

    Shanghai Deep Ultraviolet Free Electron Laser (SDUV-FEL) test facility is an integrated multi-purpose test bed for FEL principles. In this paper, we focus on the development of an interlock system for SDUV-FEL vacuum protection. Hardware and software of the system implementations are introduced. A distributed control system composed of a PLC, an embedded computer and consoles based on EPICS toolkit is described in details. The system has been used for cascaded HGHG FEL experiment. Stability and reliability has been demonstrated. (authors)

  5. Ignition probabilities for Compact Ignition Tokamak designs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stotler, D.P.; Goldston, R.J.

    1989-09-01

    A global power balance code employing Monte Carlo techniques had been developed to study the ''probability of ignition'' and has been applied to several different configurations of the Compact Ignition Tokamak (CIT). Probability distributions for the critical physics parameters in the code were estimated using existing experimental data. This included a statistical evaluation of the uncertainty in extrapolating the energy confinement time. A substantial probability of ignition is predicted for CIT if peaked density profiles can be achieved or if one of the two higher plasma current configurations is employed. In other cases, values of the energy multiplication factor Q of order 10 are generally obtained. The Ignitor-U and ARIES designs are also examined briefly. Comparisons of our empirically based confinement assumptions with two theory-based transport models yield conflicting results. 41 refs., 11 figs

  6. The Overview of the National Ignition Facility Distributed Computer Control System

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lagin, L.J.; Bettenhausen, R.C.; Carey, R.A.; Estes, C.M.; Fisher, J.M.; Krammen, J.E.; Reed, R.K.; VanArsdall, P.J.; Woodruff, J.P.

    2001-01-01

    The Integrated Computer Control System (ICCS) for the National Ignition Facility (NIF) is a layered architecture of 300 front-end processors (FEP) coordinated by supervisor subsystems including automatic beam alignment and wavefront control, laser and target diagnostics, pulse power, and shot control timed to 30 ps. FEP computers incorporate either VxWorks on PowerPC or Solaris on UltraSPARC processors that interface to over 45,000 control points attached to VME-bus or PCI-bus crates respectively. Typical devices are stepping motors, transient digitizers, calorimeters, and photodiodes. The front-end layer is divided into another segment comprised of an additional 14,000 control points for industrial controls including vacuum, argon, synthetic air, and safety interlocks implemented with Allen-Bradley programmable logic controllers (PLCs). The computer network is augmented asynchronous transfer mode (ATM) that delivers video streams from 500 sensor cameras monitoring the 192 laser beams to operator workstations. Software is based on an object-oriented framework using CORBA distribution that incorporates services for archiving, machine configuration, graphical user interface, monitoring, event logging, scripting, alert management, and access control. Software coding using a mixed language environment of Ada95 and Java is one-third complete at over 300 thousand source lines. Control system installation is currently under way for the first 8 beams, with project completion scheduled for 2008

  7. The Overview of the National Ignition Facility Distributed Computer Control System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lagin, L J; Bettenhausen, R C; Carey, R A; Estes, C M; Fisher, J M; Krammen, J E; Reed, R K; VanArsdall, P J; Woodruff, J P

    2001-10-15

    The Integrated Computer Control System (ICCS) for the National Ignition Facility (NIF) is a layered architecture of 300 front-end processors (FEP) coordinated by supervisor subsystems including automatic beam alignment and wavefront control, laser and target diagnostics, pulse power, and shot control timed to 30 ps. FEP computers incorporate either VxWorks on PowerPC or Solaris on UltraSPARC processors that interface to over 45,000 control points attached to VME-bus or PCI-bus crates respectively. Typical devices are stepping motors, transient digitizers, calorimeters, and photodiodes. The front-end layer is divided into another segment comprised of an additional 14,000 control points for industrial controls including vacuum, argon, synthetic air, and safety interlocks implemented with Allen-Bradley programmable logic controllers (PLCs). The computer network is augmented asynchronous transfer mode (ATM) that delivers video streams from 500 sensor cameras monitoring the 192 laser beams to operator workstations. Software is based on an object-oriented framework using CORBA distribution that incorporates services for archiving, machine configuration, graphical user interface, monitoring, event logging, scripting, alert management, and access control. Software coding using a mixed language environment of Ada95 and Java is one-third complete at over 300 thousand source lines. Control system installation is currently under way for the first 8 beams, with project completion scheduled for 2008.

  8. Extending DIII-D Neutral Beam Modulated Operations with a Camac Based Total on Time Interlock

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baggest, D.S.; Broesch, J.D.; Phillips, J.C.

    1999-01-01

    A new total-on-time interlock has increased the operational time limits of the Neutral Beam systems at DIII-D. The interlock, called the Neutral Beam On-Time-Limiter (NBOTL), is a custom built CAMAC module utilizing a Xilinx 9572 Complex Programmable Logic Device (CPLD) as its primary circuit. The Neutral Beam Injection Systems are the primary source of auxiliary heating for DIII-D plasma discharges and contain eight sources capable of delivering 20MW of power. The delivered power is typically limited to 3.5 s per source to protect beam-line components, while a DIII-D plasma discharge usually exceeds 5 s. Implemented as a hardware interlock within the neutral beam power supplies, the NBOTL limits the beam injection time. With a continuing emphasis on modulated beam injections, the NBOTL guards against command faults and allows the beam injection to be safely spread over a longer plasma discharge time. The NBOTL design is an example of incorporating modern circuit design techniques (CPLD) within an established format (CAMAC). The CPLD is the heart of the NBOTL and contains 90% of the circuitry, including a loadable, 1 MHz, 28 bit, BCD count down timer, buffers, and CAMAC communication circuitry. This paper discusses the circuit design and implementation. Of particular interest is the melding of flexible modern programmable logic devices with the CAMAC format

  9. Formal Verification of the Danish Railway Interlocking Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vu, Linh Hong; Haxthausen, Anne Elisabeth; Peleska, Jan

    2014-01-01

    in the new Danish interlocking systems. Instantiating the generic model with interlocking configuration data results in a concrete model and high-level safety properties. Using bounded model checking and inductive reasoning, we are able to verify safety properties for model instances corresponding to railway...

  10. Applied Bounded Model Checking for Interlocking System Designs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Haxthausen, Anne Elisabeth; Peleska, Jan; Pinger, Ralf

    2014-01-01

    In this paper the verification and validation of interlocking systems is investigated. Reviewing both geographical and route-related interlocking, the verification objectives can be structured from a perspective of computer science into (1) verification of static semantics, and (2) verification...

  11. Dual Interlocked Logic for Single-Event Transient Mitigation

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-03-01

    Dual Interlocked Logic for Single -Event Transient Mitigation Jeffrey Maharrey, Jeffrey Kauppila, Dennis Ball, Timothy Holman, Lloyd Massengill...is shown to be robust to single event transients. Keywords: SET; CVSL; DIL; single event transient; hardened logic; cascode voltage switch; dual...interlocked Introduction Single event transients (SETs) generated in combinational logic are a major, often dominant, contributor to soft errors in

  12. Ignition tuning for the National Ignition Campaign

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Landen O.

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available The overall goal of the indirect-drive inertial confinement fusion [1] tuning campaigns [2] is to maximize the probability of ignition by experimentally correcting for likely residual uncertainties in the implosion and hohlraum physics [3] used in our radiation-hydrodynamic computational models, and by checking for and resolving unexpected shot-to-shot variability in performance [4]. This has been started successfully using a variety of surrogate capsules that set key laser, hohlraum and capsule parameters to maximize ignition capsule implosion velocity, while minimizing fuel adiabat, core shape asymmetry and ablator-fuel mix.

  13. Tests of an experimental slash ignition unit

    Science.gov (United States)

    James L. Murphy; Harry E. Schimke

    1965-01-01

    A prototype ignition package containing an incendiary powder and designed for slash and brush burning jobs showed some promise, but the unit tested was not superior to such conventional devices as fusees, diesel backpack type flamethrowers, Very pistols, and drip torches.

  14. Alcohol

    OpenAIRE

    Philip J. Cook; Michael J. Moore

    1999-01-01

    Excess drinking is associated with lost productivity, accidents, disability, early death, crime, neglect of family responsibilities, and personality deterioration. These and related concerns have justified special restrictions on alcoholic-beverage commerce and consumption. The nature and extent of government involvement in this arena vary widely over time and place, and are often controversial. Economists have contributed to the evaluation of alcohol policy through empirical work on the effe...

  15. Thermonuclear ignition in the next generation tokamaks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johner, J.

    1989-04-01

    The extrapolation of experimental rules describing energy confinement and magnetohydrodynamic - stability limits, in known tokamaks, allow to show that stable thermonuclear ignition equilibria should exist in this configuration, if the product aB t x of the dimensions by a magnetic-field power is large enough. Quantitative application of this result to several next-generation tokamak projects show that those kinds of equilibria could exist in such devices, which would also have enough additional heating power to promote an effective accessible ignition

  16. EMC Specific Problems of Frequency Converters Used at Interlocking Device

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Novak

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available The paper deals with problems of electromagnetic compatibility (EMC of frequency control drive of electromotive switch actuator of railway switch. The frequency converter with Pulse Width Modulation (PWM and the output sinus filter are used for feeding of the asynchronous motor of the switch actuator. This drive is operated in an insulated system of feeding voltages. The drive is fed by a frequency converter with an unshielded cable with length up to 1.2 km. The EMC problems occurring at development and operating of the drive are analyzed in this paper. The used solution of these problems and experience with EMC of the given system from real operation are described in this paper as well.

  17. Reviewed approach to defining the Active Interlock Envelope for Front End ray tracing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seletskiy, S. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Shaftan, T. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States)

    2015-09-24

    To protect the NSLS-II Storage Ring (SR) components from damage from synchrotron radiation produced by insertion devices (IDs) the Active Interlock (AI) keeps electron beam within some safe envelope (a.k.a Active Interlock Envelope or AIE) in the transverse phase space. The beamline Front Ends (FEs) are designed under assumption that above certain beam current (typically 2 mA) the ID synchrotron radiation (IDSR) fan is produced by the interlocked e-beam. These assumptions also define how the ray tracing for FE is done. To simplify the FE ray tracing for typical uncanted ID it was decided to provide the Mechanical Engineering group with a single set of numbers (x,x’,y,y’) for the AIE at the center of the long (or short) ID straight section. Such unified approach to the design of the beamline Front Ends will accelerate the design process and save valuable human resources. In this paper we describe our new approach to defining the AI envelope and provide the resulting numbers required for design of the typical Front End.

  18. Acoustic Igniter, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — An acoustic igniter eliminates the need to use electrical energy to drive spark systems to initiate combustion in liquid-propellant rockets. It does not involve the...

  19. Acoustic Igniter Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — An acoustic igniter eliminates the need to use electrical energy to drive spark systems to initiate combustion in liquid-propellant rockets. It does not involve the...

  20. A Domain-Specific Language for Railway Interlocking Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vu, Linh Hong; Haxthausen, Anne Elisabeth; Peleska, Jan

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents a domain-specific language (DSL) for describing route-based interlocking systems which are compatible with European Train Control System ETCS Level 2. The abstract syntax and static semantics of the language are formally defined using the RAISE Specification Language (RSL......). Furthermore, the paper describes an interlocking table generator (ITG) that generates automatically a well-formed interlocking table from a well-formed railway network layout. Experiments with the DSL and ITG using the RAISE tools and the C++ implementation show that the use of the DSL and ITG can increase...

  1. Thermonuclear microdetonation macron accelerator for impact ignition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winterberg, F.

    2008-03-01

    It is proposed to replace the expensive ~150 kJ petawatt laser as a means for the fast ignition of a highly compressed dense DT target by a small flyer plate propelled to high velocities by a thermonuclear microdetonation ignited at one end of a super-pinch. It appears that this can most efficiently be done with the previously proposed modification of the dense plasma focus device, adding a high voltage relativistic electron beam emitting diode inside the coaxial plasma focus discharge tube, igniting at the end of the plasma focus pinch column a thermonuclear detonation wave, propagating in the axial direction and accelerating at the end of the pinch a flyer plate to a velocity of 103 km s-1.

  2. [Proximal interlocking of humeral intramedullary nails and risk of axillary nerve injury].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blum, J; Rommens, P M

    2002-01-01

    Possible injuries to the axillary nerve are criticised in antegrade and retrograde endomedullary nailing of the humeral shaft during proximal interlocking. Clinical experience seems not to support the theory of a high risk of nerve injury. The real risk although remains unknown under anatomical-morphological aspects. Eight complete human cadaveric shoulder-arm regions with original soft-tissue coverage had been used. Four times the unreamed humeral nail (UHN) had been inserted retrograde, and four times antegrade, distributed in each pair. Antegrade interlocking was performed after skin incision and spreading of soft tissues through the aiming devices. This involved one oblique bolt from lateral to medial. Retrograde proximal interlocking was performed under image intensifier. This involved triple interlocking, once dorso-ventrally and twice latero-medially. The incision paths have been marked. After preparation of the nerve stem in the lateral axillary portal the different branches have been searched and exposed. The spatial relations of bolts and nerve branches have been measured and the insertion path of the bolts has been revised, finally lesions of nerve structures have been documented. We found the latero-medially inserted bolt heads of the retrograde approach and the oblique bolt head of the antegrade approach being placed in a safe distance from the medio-dorsally positioned stem of the axillary nerve. On the other hand the dorsoventrally inserted bolt head (retrograde approach) showed in most cases a very tight relation to the nerve stem. Exploring the axillary nerve and its branches showed in no case a direct nerve lesion. We suggest to perform only a sharp cutaneous incision and then to prepare the muscle only by careful spreading until touching bone, with tissue retraction during drilling. In retrograde nailing the dorso-ventral bolt should only be used in extreme proximal fractures.

  3. Organometallic rotaxane dendrimers with fourth-generation mechanically interlocked branches

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Wei; Chen, Li-Jun; Wang, Xu-Qing; Sun, Bin; Li, Xiaopeng; Zhang, Yanyan; Shi, Jiameng; Yu, Yihua; Zhang, Li; Liu, Minghua; Yang, Hai-Bo

    2015-01-01

    Mechanically interlocked molecules, such as catenanes, rotaxanes, and knots, have applications in information storage, switching devices, and chemical catalysis. Rotaxanes are dumbbell-shaped molecules that are threaded through a large ring, and the relative motion of the two components along each other can respond to external stimuli. Multiple rotaxane units can amplify responsiveness, and repetitively branched molecules—dendrimers—can serve as vehicles for assembly of many rotaxanes on single, monodisperse compounds. Here, we report the synthesis of higher-generation rotaxane dendrimers by a divergent approach. Linkages were introduced as spacer elements to reduce crowding and to facilitate rotaxane motion, even at the congested periphery of the compounds up to the fourth generation. The structures were characterized by 1D multinuclear (1H, 13C, and 31P) and 2D NMR spectroscopy, MALDI-TOF-MS, gel permeation chromatography (GPC), and microscopy-based methods including atomic force microscopy (AFM) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). AFM and TEM studies of rotaxane dendrimers vs. model dendrimers show that the rotaxane units enhance the rigidity and reduce the tendency of these assemblies to collapse by self-folding. Surface functionalization of the dendrimers with ferrocenes as termini produced electrochemically active assemblies. The preparation of dendrimers with a well-defined topological structure, enhanced rigidity, and diverse functional groups opens previously unidentified avenues for the application of these materials in molecular electronics and materials science. PMID:25902491

  4. The Feasibility of Voluntary Ignition Interlocks As a Prevention Strategy for Young Drivers : Traffic Tech

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-06-01

    Motor vehicle crashes are the leading cause of death for all 15- to 20-year-olds. In 2014, there were 1,717 young drivers (15 to 20 years old) who died in motor vehicle crashes. In 2014, even though it was illegal for drivers under age 21 to operate ...

  5. Synthesis of interlocked molecules by olefin metathesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, Paul Gregory

    A large body of work in the Grubbs group has focused on the development of functional-group tolerant ruthenium alkylidene catalysts that perform a number of olefin metathesis reactions. These catalysts have seen application in a wide range of fields, including classic total synthesis as well as polymer and materials chemistry. One particular family of compounds, interlocked molecules, has benefitted greatly from these advances in catalyst stability and activity. This thesis describes several elusive and challenging interlocked architectures whose syntheses have been realized through the utilization of different types of ruthenium-catalyzed olefin metathesis reactions. Ring-closing olefin metathesis has enabled the synthesis of a [c2]daisy-chain dimer with the ammonium binding site near the cap of the dimer. A deprotonated DCD possessing such a structural attribute will more forcefully seek to restore coordinating interactions upon reprotonation, enhancing its utility as a synthetic molecular actuator. Dimer functionalization facilitated incorporation into linear polymers, with a 48% size increase of an unbound, extended analogue of the polymer demonstrating slippage of the dimer units. Ongoing work is directed at further materials studies, in particular, exploring the synthesis of macroscopic networks containing the DCD units and analyzing the correlation between molecular-scale extension-contraction manipulations and resulting macro-scale changes. A "clipping" approach to a polycatenated cyclic polymer, a structure that resembles a molecular "charm bracelet", has been described. The use of ring-opening metathesis polymerization of a carbamate monomer in the presence of a chain transfer agent allowed for the synthesis of a linear polymer that was subsequently functionalized and cyclized to the corresponding cyclic analogue. This cyclic polymer was characterized through a variety of techniques, and subjected to further functionalization reactions, affording a cyclic

  6. Fracture Union in Closed Interlocking Nail in Humeral Shaft Fractures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramji Lal Sahu

    2015-01-01

    Conclusions: The results of the present study indicates that in the presence of proper indications, reamed antegrade intramedullary interlocked nailing appears to be a method of choice for internal fixation of osteoporotic and pathologic fractures.

  7. Compositional Verification of Multi-Station Interlocking Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Macedo, Hugo Daniel dos Santos; Fantechi, Alessandro; Haxthausen, Anne Elisabeth

    2016-01-01

    Because interlocking systems are highly safety-critical complex systems, their automated safety verification is an active research topic investigated by several groups, employing verification techniques to produce important cost and time savings in their certification. However, such systems also...

  8. Solvent effect on device performances of small molecule based solution processed blue phosphorescent organic light-emitting diodes using aromatic and alcohol solvents

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Soo Yook, Kyoung; Yeob Lee, Jun, E-mail: leej17@dankook.ac.kr

    2014-02-15

    Device performances of solution processed blue phosphorescent organic light-emitting diodes were studied using a high triplet energy host material soluble both in alcohol and aromatic solvents. 6-(Carbazole-9-yl)benzofuro[2,3-b]pyridine was used as the alcohol and aromatic solvent compatible triplet host material and the effect of solvent on the device performances of blue phosphorescent organic light-emitting diodes was investigated. Toluene and 2-propanol were effective as the solvent materials for the host and high external quantum efficiencies of 11.0% and 11.1% were achieved in the blue devices processed from toluene and 2-propanol, respectively. -- Highlights: • Effect of aromatic and alcohol solvents on the film morphology of emitting layer. • High quantum efficiency in blue devices using toluene and 2-propanol solvents. • Aggregation of host and dopant materials according to processing solvents.

  9. Poly(vinyl alcohol)/hydroxyapatite Monolithic In-Needle Extraction (MINE) device: Preparation and examination of drug affinity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pietrzyńska, Monika; Czerwiński, Michał; Voelkel, Adam

    2017-07-15

    Polymer-ceramic materials based on poly(vinyl alcohol) (PVA) and hydroxyapatite were applied as sorption material in Monolithic In-Needle Extraction (MINE) device. The presented device provides new possibilities for the examination of bisphosphonates affinity for bone and will be a helpful tool in evaluation of potential antiresorptive drugs suitability. A ceramic part of monoliths was prepared by incorporation of hydroxyapatite (HA) into the reaction mixture or by using a soaking method (mineralization of HA on the PVA). The parameters of synthesis conditions were optimized to achieve a monolithic material having the appropriate dimensions after the soaking process enabling placing of the monolithic material inside the needle. Furthermore, the material must have had optimal dimensions after the re-soaking process to fit perfectly to the needle. Among the sixteen monolithic materials, eight of them were selected for further study, and then four of them were selected as a sorbent material for the MINE device. The material properties were examined on the basis of several parameters: swelling ratio, initial mass reversion and initial diameter reversion, mass growth due to the HA formation, and antiresorptive drug sorption. The MINE device might be then used as a tool for examination of interactions between bisphosphonate and bone. The simulated body fluid containing sodium risedronate (RSD) as a standard compound was passed through the MINE device. The obtained device allowed for sorption about 0.38mg of RSD. The desorption process was carried out in five steps allowing insightful analysis. The MINE device turned out to be a helpful tool for determination of the bisphosphonates affinity to the ceramic part of sorbent (hydroxyapatite) and to assess the usefulness of them as antiresorptive drugs in the future. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Interlock system for the COMPASS tokamak

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Hron, Martin; Sova, J.; Šíba, J.; Kovář, J.; Adámek, Jiří; Pánek, Radomír; Havlíček, Josef; Písačka, Jan; Mlynář, Jan; Stöckel, Jan

    2010-01-01

    Roč. 85, 3-4 (2010), s. 505-508 ISSN 0920-3796. [IAEA Technical Meeting on Control, Data Acquisition and Remote Participation for Fusion Research/7th./. Aix – en – Provence, 15.06.2009-19.06.2009] R&D Projects: GA MŠk 7G09042; GA ČR GD202/08/H057 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z20430508 Keywords : Tokamak operation * Interlock * Personnel safety Subject RIV: BL - Plasma and Gas Discharge Physics Impact factor: 1.143, year: 2010 http://www.sciencedirect.com/science?_ob=ArticleURL&_udi=B6V3C-5003BXW-1&_user=6542793&_coverDate=07%2F31%2F2010&_rdoc=1&_fmt=high&_orig=search&_origin=search&_sort=d&_docanchor=&view=c&_acct=C000070123&_version=1&_urlVersion=0&_userid=6542793&md5=ef5794d05cc6530a905d1de43aa0ac6a&searchtype=a

  11. Fabrication of solution processed carbon nanotube embedded polyvinyl alcohol composite film for non-volatile memory device.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kishore, S Chandra; Pandurangan, A

    2014-03-01

    Carbon nanotubes (CNTs) were synthesized by chemical vapor deposition using nickel coated stainless steel prepared by electrophoretic deposition. CNTs were embedded in polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) which acts as an organic insulator to fabricate Si/PVA/CNT/PVA/Al Metal-Insulator-Semiconductor type memory devices. The effect of CNT content in the charge storage capacity of PVA-CNT composite film was investigated. The hysteresis obtained from the capacitance-voltage (CV) measurement resulted in a memory window of 1.9 V with 3% CNT loading with the gate voltage sweep of +/- 6 V at 1 MHz under room temperature. The memory window of the devices was due to electron injection into the CNT charge storage elements from the top electrode through PVA. The extensive pi-conjugation along the CNT axis traps the electrons in the CNT network. The ON/OFF state current ratio of Si/Al/PVA-CNT/AI device with 3% CNT in PVA demonstrated significantly a lower turn-on voltage of -1 V and a higher ON/OFF state current ratio of 10(7). The non-volatile and reprogrammable switching behavior of the device demonstrated the characteristic of a rewritable memory.

  12. Reinforcing the role of the conventional C-arm - a novel method for simplified distal interlocking

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Windolf Markus

    2012-01-01

    .018. Conclusions In an experimental setting, the newly developed guided freehand technique for distal interlocking has proven to markedly reduce radiation exposure when compared to the conventional freehand technique. The method utilizes established clinical workflows and does not require cost intensive add-on devices or extensive training. The underlying principle carries potential to assist implant positioning in numerous other applications within orthopedics and trauma from screw insertions to placement of plates, nails or prostheses.

  13. A STUDY OF EXCHANGE OF FAILED IMPLANT WITH INTRAMEDULLARY INTERLOCKING NAIL IN FRACTURES OF FEMUR AND TIBIA

    OpenAIRE

    Rapaka; Maheshwar; Gouru

    2015-01-01

    The aim of the fracture treatment is to achieve union with timely functional recovery. Internal fixation with adherence to strict biomechanical principles is often required to achieve this. However, a fixation device may fail to hold a redu ced fracture until union, giving rise to non - union or delayed union with implant failure. The aim of this study was to see the efficacy of exchange of failed implant with an intra - medullary interlocking nail. PATIENTS AND ...

  14. Transport simulations of ohmic ignition experiment: IGNITEX

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Uckan, N.A.; Howe, H.C.

    1987-12-01

    The IGNITEX device, proposed by Rosenbluth et al., is a compact, super-high-field, high-current, copper-coil tokamak envisioned to reach ignition with ohmic (OH) heating alone. Several simulations of IGNITEX were made with a 0-D global model and with the 1-D PROCTR transport code. It is shown that OH ignition is a sensitive function of the assumptions about density profile, wall reflectivity of synchrotron radiation, impurity radiation, plasma edge conditions, and additional anomalous losses. In IGNITEX, OH ignition is accessible with nearly all scalings based on favorable OH confinement (such as neo-Alcator). Also, OH ignition appears to be accessible for most (not all) L-mode scalings (such as Kaye-Goldston), provided that the density profile is not too broad (parabolic or more peaked profiles are needed), Z/sub eff/ is not too large, and anomalous radiation and alpha losses and/or other enhanced transport losses (eta/sub i/ modes, edge convective energy losses, etc.) are not present. In IGNITEX, because the figure-of-merit parameters are large, ignition can be accessed (either with OH heating alone or with the aid of a small amount of auxiliary power) at relatively low beta, far from stability limits. Once the plasma is ignited, thermal runaway is prevented naturally by a combination of increased synchrotron radiation, burnout of the fuel in the plasma core and replacement by thermal alphas, and the reduction in the thermal plasma confinement assumed in L-mode-like scalings. 12 refs., 5 figs., 1 tab

  15. Transport simulations of ohmic ignition experiment: IGNITEX

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Uckan, N.A.; Howe, H.C.

    1987-01-01

    The IGNITEX device, proposed by Rosenbluth et al., is a compact, super-high-field, high-current, copper-coil tokamak envisioned to reach ignition with ohmic (OH) heating alone. Several simulations of IGNITEX were made with a 0-D global model and with the 1-D PROCTR transport code. It is shown that OH ignition is a sensitive function of the assumptions about density profile, wall reflectivity of synchrotron radiation, impurity radiation, plasma edge conditions, and additional anomalous losses. In IGNITEX, OH ignition is accessible with nearly all scalings based on favorable OH confinement (such as neo-Alcator). Also, OH ignition appears to be accessible for most (not all) L-mode scalings (such as Kaye-Goldston), provided that the density profile is not too broad (parabolic or more peaked profiles are needed), Z/sub eff/ is not too large (≤2), and anomalous radiation and alpha losses and/or other enhanced transport losses (/eta//sub i/ modes, edge convective energy losses, etc.) are not present. In IGNITEX, because the figure-of-merit parameters (aB 0 2 /q* /approximately/ IB 0 , etc.) are large, ignition can be accessed (either with OH heating alone or with the aid of a small amount of auxiliary power) at relatively low beta, far from stability limits. Once the plasma is ignited, thermal runaway is prevented naturally by a combination of increased synchrotron radiation, burnout of the fuel in the plasma core and replacement by thermal alphas, and the reduction in the thermal plasma confinement assumed in L-mode-like scalings. 12 refs., 5 figs., 1 tab

  16. Proton Fast Ignition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Key, M H; Freeman, R R; Hatchett, S P; MacKinnon, A J; Patel, P K; Snavely, R A; Stephens, R B

    2006-04-01

    Fast ignition (FI) by a laser generated ballistically focused proton beam is a more recently proposed alternative to the original concept of FI by a laser generated beam of relativistic electrons. It has potential advantages in less complex energy transport into dense plasma. Recent successful target heating experiments motivate further investigation of the feasibility of proton fast ignition. The concept, the physics and characteristics of the proton beams, the recent experimental work on focusing of the beams and heating of solid targets and the overall prospects for proton FI are discussed

  17. Evaluation of plasma jet ignition for improved performance of alternate fuels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grant, J. F.; Golenko, Z.; McIlwain, M. E.

    1982-08-01

    Alcohols, such as ethanol and methanol, are potential substitutes for gasolines during periods of fuel shortages. The pure alcohols have been reported to cause performance and starting problems when used to fuel internal combustion engines. This study characterized how three modes of ignition, OEM magneto, high energy conventional spark (CI) and plasma jet ignition (PJI) influenced the engine combustion properties of ethanol, methanol and gasoline alcohol blends. Specific combustion properties examined in these measurement were burning velocity and lean limit. In addition, the engine performance was determined for 30% alcohol gasoline containing blends. These engine performance measurements determined brake power, brake specific fuel consumption and brake emissions of carbon monoxide and hydrocarbons. The findings of this study suggest that high energy ignition systems, such as plasma jet ignition, will improve both fuel combustion properties and engine performance.

  18. Activation analysis of the compact ignition tokamak

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Selcow, E.C.

    1986-01-01

    The US fusion program has completed the conceptual design of a compact tokamak device that achieves ignition. The high neutron wall loadings associated with this compact deuterium-tritium-burning device indicate that radiation-related issues may be significant considerations in the overall system design. Sufficient shielding will be requied for the radiation protection of both reactor components and occupational personnel. A close-in igloo shield has been designed around the periphery of the tokamak structure to permit personnel access into the test cell after shutdown and limit the total activation of the test cell components. This paper describes the conceptual design of the igloo shield system and discusses the major neutronic concerns related to the design of the Compact Ignition Tokamak

  19. Outcome of intramedullary interlocking SIGN nail in tibial diaphyseal fracture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khan, I.; Javed, S.; Khan, G.N.; Aziz, A.

    2013-01-01

    Objective: To determine the outcome of intramedullary interlocking surgical implant generation network (SIGN) nail in diaphyseal tibial fractures in terms of union and failure of implant (breakage of nail or interlocking screws). Study Design: Case series. Place and Duration of Study: Orthopaedics and Spinal Surgery, Ghurki Trust Teaching Hospital, Lahore Medical and Dental College, Lahore, from September 2008 to August 2009. Methodology: Fifty patients aged 14 - 60 years, of either gender were included, who had closed and Gustilo type I and II open fractures reported in 2 weeks, whose closed reduction was not possible or was unsatisfactory and fracture was located 7 cm below knee joint to 7 cm above ankle joint. Fractures previously treated with external fixator, infected fractures and unfit patients were excluded. All fractures were fixed with intramedullary interlocking SIGN nail and were followed clinically and radiographically for union and for any implant failure. Results: Forty one (88%) patients had united fracture within 6 months, 5 (10%) patients had delayed union while 4 (8%) patients had non-union. Mean duration for achieving union was 163 + 30.6 days. Interlocking screws were broken in 2 patients while no nail was broken in any patient. Conclusion: Intramedullary interlocking nailing is an effective measure in treating closed and grade I and II open tibial fractures. It provides a high rate of union less complications and early return to function. (author)

  20. Adaptive mechanical properties of topologically interlocking material systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khandelwal, S; Siegmund, T; Cipra, R J; Bolton, J S

    2015-01-01

    Topologically interlocked material systems are two-dimensional granular crystals created as ordered and adhesion-less assemblies of unit elements of the shape of platonic solids. The assembly resists transverse forces due to the interlocking geometric arrangement of the unit elements. Topologically interlocked material systems yet require an external constraint to provide resistance under the action of external load. Past work considered fixed and passive constraints only. The objective of the present study is to consider active and adaptive external constraints with the goal to achieve variable stiffness and energy absorption characteristics of the topologically interlocked material system through an active control of the in-plane constraint conditions. Experiments and corresponding model analysis are used to demonstrate control of system stiffness over a wide range, including negative stiffness, and energy absorption characteristics. The adaptive characteristics of the topologically interlocked material system are shown to solve conflicting requirements of simultaneously providing energy absorption while keeping loads controlled. Potential applications can be envisioned in smart structure enhanced response characteristics as desired in shock absorption, protective packaging and catching mechanisms. (paper)

  1. A Statistical Representation of Pyrotechnic Igniter Output

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Shuyue; Cooper, Marcia

    2017-06-01

    The output of simplified pyrotechnic igniters for research investigations is statistically characterized by monitoring the post-ignition external flow field with Schlieren imaging. Unique to this work is a detailed quantification of all measurable manufacturing parameters (e.g., bridgewire length, charge cavity dimensions, powder bed density) and associated shock-motion variability in the tested igniters. To demonstrate experimental precision of the recorded Schlieren images and developed image processing methodologies, commercial exploding bridgewires using wires of different parameters were tested. Finally, a statistically-significant population of manufactured igniters were tested within the Schlieren arrangement resulting in a characterization of the nominal output. Comparisons between the variances measured throughout the manufacturing processes and the calculated output variance provide insight into the critical device phenomena that dominate performance. Sandia National Laboratories is a multi-mission laboratory managed and operated by Sandia Corporation, a wholly owned subsidiary of Lockheed Martin Corporation, for the U.S. Department of Energy's NNSA under contract DE-AC04-94AL85000.

  2. Ground-state kinetics of bistable redox-active donor-acceptor mechanically interlocked molecules.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fahrenbach, Albert C; Bruns, Carson J; Li, Hao; Trabolsi, Ali; Coskun, Ali; Stoddart, J Fraser

    2014-02-18

    The ability to design and confer control over the kinetics of theprocesses involved in the mechanisms of artificial molecular machines is at the heart of the challenge to create ones that can carry out useful work on their environment, just as Nature is wont to do. As one of the more promising forerunners of prototypical artificial molecular machines, chemists have developed bistable redox-active donor-acceptor mechanically interlocked molecules (MIMs) over the past couple of decades. These bistable MIMs generally come in the form of [2]rotaxanes, molecular compounds that constitute a ring mechanically interlocked around a dumbbell-shaped component, or [2]catenanes, which are composed of two mechanically interlocked rings. As a result of their interlocked nature, bistable MIMs possess the inherent propensity to express controllable intramolecular, large-amplitude, and reversible motions in response to redox stimuli. In this Account, we rationalize the kinetic behavior in the ground state for a large assortment of these types of bistable MIMs, including both rotaxanes and catenanes. These structures have proven useful in a variety of applications ranging from drug delivery to molecular electronic devices. These bistable donor-acceptor MIMs can switch between two different isomeric states. The favored isomer, known as the ground-state co-conformation (GSCC) is in equilibrium with the less favored metastable state co-conformation (MSCC). The forward (kf) and backward (kb) rate constants associated with this ground-state equilibrium are intimately connected to each other through the ground-state distribution constant, KGS. Knowing the rate constants that govern the kinetics and bring about the equilibration between the MSCC and GSCC, allows researchers to understand the operation of these bistable MIMs in a device setting and apply them toward the construction of artificial molecular machines. The three biggest influences on the ground-state rate constants arise from

  3. Applied Bounded Model Checking for Interlocking System Designs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Haxthausen, Anne Elisabeth; Peleska, Jan; Pinger, Ralf

    2013-01-01

    In this article the verification and validation of interlocking systems is investigated. Reviewing both geographical and route-related interlocking, the verification objectives can be structured from a perspective of computer science into (1) verification of static semantics, and (2) verification...... of behavioural (operational) semantics. The former checks that the plant model – that is, the software components reflecting the physical components of the interlocking system – has been set up in an adequate way. The latter investigates trains moving through the network, with the objective to uncover potential...... safety violations. From a formal methods perspective, these verification objectives can be approached by theorem proving, global, or bounded model checking. This article explains the techniques for application of bounded model checking techniques, and discusses their advantages in comparison...

  4. Poly[n]catenanes: Synthesis of molecular interlocked chains

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Qiong; Rauscher, Phillip M.; Lang, Xiaolong; Wojtecki, Rudy J.; de Pablo, Juan J.; Hore, Michael J. A.; Rowan, Stuart J.

    2017-12-01

    As the macromolecular version of mechanically interlocked molecules, mechanically interlocked polymers are promising candidates for the creation of sophisticated molecular machines and smart soft materials. Poly[n]catenanes, where the molecular chains consist solely of interlocked macrocycles, contain one of the highest concentrations of topological bonds. We report, herein, a synthetic approach toward this distinctive polymer architecture in high yield (~75%) via efficient ring closing of rationally designed metallosupramolecular polymers. Light-scattering, mass spectrometric, and nuclear magnetic resonance characterization of fractionated samples support assignment of the high-molar mass product (number-average molar mass ~21.4 kilograms per mole) to a mixture of linear poly[7-26]catenanes, branched poly[13-130]catenanes, and cyclic poly[4-7]catenanes. Increased hydrodynamic radius (in solution) and glass transition temperature (in bulk materials) were observed upon metallation with Zn2+.

  5. Design of a dependable Interlock System for linear colliders

    CERN Document Server

    Nouvel, Patrice

    For high energy accelerators, the interlock system is a key part of the machine protection. The interlock principle is to inhibit the beam either on failure of critical equipment and/or on low beam quality evaluation. The dependability of such a system is the most critical parameter. This thesis presents the design of an dependable interlock system for linear collider with an application to the CLIC (Compact Linear Collider) project. This design process is based on the IEEE 1220 standard and is is divided in four steps. First, the specifications are established, with a focus on the dependability, more precisely the reliability and the availability of the system. The second step is the design proposal based on a functional analysis, the CLIC and interfaced systems architecture. Third, the feasibility study is performed, applying the concepts in an accelerator facility. Finally, the last step is the hardware verification. Its aim is to prove that the proposed design is able to reach the requirements.

  6. 75 FR 11624 - Highway Safety Programs; Conforming Products List of Evidential Breath Alcohol Measurement Devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-11

    ..., respectively. These devices are identified on the CPL with an asterisk. Additionally, that notice includes a... Datamaster X X BAC Verifier Datamaster II *...... X X * Instruments marked with an asterisk (*) meet the....050, 0.101, and 0.151 BAC.) Instruments not marked with an asterisk meet the Model Specifications...

  7. Burner ignition system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carignan, Forest J.

    1986-01-21

    An electronic ignition system for a gas burner is battery operated. The battery voltage is applied through a DC-DC chopper to a step-up transformer to charge a capacitor which provides the ignition spark. The step-up transformer has a significant leakage reactance in order to limit current flow from the battery during initial charging of the capacitor. A tank circuit at the input of the transformer returns magnetizing current resulting from the leakage reactance to the primary in succeeding cycles. An SCR in the output circuit is gated through a voltage divider which senses current flow through a flame. Once the flame is sensed, further sparks are precluded. The same flame sensor enables a thermopile driven main valve actuating circuit. A safety valve in series with the main gas valve responds to a control pressure thermostatically applied through a diaphragm. The valve closes after a predetermined delay determined by a time delay orifice if the pilot gas is not ignited.

  8. 12 CFR 212.9 - Effect of Interlocks Act on Clayton Act.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... MANAGEMENT OFFICIAL INTERLOCKS § 212.9 Effect of Interlocks Act on Clayton Act. The Board regards the provisions of the first three paragraphs of section 8 of the Clayton Act (15 U.S.C. 19) to have been... 12 Banks and Banking 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Effect of Interlocks Act on Clayton Act. 212.9...

  9. Shock Tube Ignition Delay Data Affected by Localized Ignition Phenomena

    KAUST Repository

    Javed, Tamour

    2016-12-29

    Shock tubes have conventionally been used for measuring high-temperature ignition delay times ~ O(1 ms). In the last decade or so, the operating regime of shock tubes has been extended to lower temperatures by accessing longer observation times. Such measurements may potentially be affected by some non-ideal phenomena. The purpose of this work is to measure long ignition delay times for fuels exhibiting negative temperature coefficient (NTC) and to assess the impact of shock tube non-idealities on ignition delay data. Ignition delay times of n-heptane and n-hexane were measured over the temperature range of 650 – 1250 K and pressures near 1.5 atm. Driver gas tailoring and long length of shock tube driver section were utilized to measure ignition delay times as long as 32 ms. Measured ignition delay times agree with chemical kinetic models at high (> 1100 K) and low (< 700 K) temperatures. In the intermediate temperature range (700 – 1100 K), however, significant discrepancies are observed between the measurements and homogeneous ignition delay simulations. It is postulated, based on experimental observations, that localized ignition kernels could affect the ignition delay times at the intermediate temperatures, which lead to compression (and heating) of the bulk gas and result in expediting the overall ignition event. The postulate is validated through simple representative computational fluid dynamic simulations of post-shock gas mixtures which exhibit ignition advancement via a hot spot. The results of the current work show that ignition delay times measured by shock tubes may be affected by non-ideal phenomena for certain conditions of temperature, pressure and fuel reactivity. Care must, therefore, be exercised in using such data for chemical kinetic model development and validation.

  10. Methane and hydrogen ignition with ethanol and butanol admixtures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eremin, A. V.; Matveeva, N. A.; Mikheyeva, E. Yu

    2018-01-01

    This work is devoted to the investigation of combustion of simple and complex gaseous fuels: methane and hydrogen with admixtures of the most promising alcohols: ethanol and butanol. The process of ignition of investigated blends behind reflected shock waves in the temperature range of 1000–1600 K and pressure range of 4.5–6 bar was studied. The temperature dependences of ignition delay times for stoichiometric methane–oxygen–ethanol (or butanol) and hydrogen–oxygen–ethanol (or butanol) mixtures diluted in argon were obtained. The possible kinetic description is discussed.

  11. A Domain-Specific Language for Railway Interlocking Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vu, Linh Hong; Haxthausen, Anne Elisabeth; Peleska, Jan

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents a domain-specific language (DSL) for describing route-based interlocking systems which are compatible with European Train Control System ETCS Level 2. The abstract syntax and static semantics of the language are formally defined using the RAISE Specification Language (RSL...

  12. Board and auditor interlocks and voluntary disclosure in annual reports

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Braam, G.J.M.; Borghans, L.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose – The purpose of this study is to explore whether interlock ties between the board of directors and the external auditors facilitate the cross-firm diffusion of voluntary disclosures in annual reports. Design/methodology/approach – Using a sample of 149 non-financial companies publicly

  13. Automatic Verification of Railway Interlocking Systems: A Case Study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Jakob Lyng

    1998-01-01

    This paper presents experiences in applying formal verification to a large industrial piece of software. The are of application is railway interlocking systems. We try to prove requirements of the program controlling the Swedish railway Station Alingsås by using the decision procedure which is ba...

  14. Charging/Safety-Interlock Connection For Capacitor Bank

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rippel, Wally E.

    1990-01-01

    Electrically controlled mechanical interlock apparatus prevents connection of bank of capacitors to battery or other dc power supply until capacitors precharged to nearly full supply voltage. Precharge eliminates excessive inrush current, which damages capacitors, wires, or connectors. Circuit in apparatus also discharges capacitors after power turned off or capacitors disconnected from power supply.

  15. Central ignition scenarios for TFTR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zweben, S.J.; Redi, M.H.; Bateman, G.

    1986-03-01

    The possibility of obtaining ignition in TFTR by means of very centrally peaked density profiles is examined. It is shown that local central alpha heating can be made to exceed local central energy losses (''central ignition'') under global conditions for which Q greater than or equal to 1. Time dependent 1-D transport simulations show that the normal global ignition requirements are substantially relaxed for plasmas with peaked density profiles. 18 refs., 18 figs.

  16. Central ignition scenarios for TFTR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zweben, S.J.; Redi, M.H.; Bateman, G.

    1986-03-01

    The possibility of obtaining ignition in TFTR by means of very centrally peaked density profiles is examined. It is shown that local central alpha heating can be made to exceed local central energy losses (''central ignition'') under global conditions for which Q greater than or equal to 1. Time dependent 1-D transport simulations show that the normal global ignition requirements are substantially relaxed for plasmas with peaked density profiles. 18 refs., 18 figs

  17. High-Gain Shock Ignition on the National Ignition Facility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perkins, L. J.; Lafortune, K.; Bailey, D.; Lambert, M.; MacKinnon, A.; Blackfield, D.; Comley, A.; Schurtz, G.; Ribeyre, X.; Lebel, E.; Casner, A.; Craxton, R. S.; Betti, R.; McKenty, P.; Anderson, K.; Theobald, W.; Schmitt, A.; Atzeni, S.; Schiavi, A.

    2010-11-01

    Shock ignition offers the possibility for a near-term test of high-gain ICF on the NIF at less than 1MJ drive energy and with day-1 laser hardware. We will summarize the status of target performance simulations, delineate the critical issues and describe the R&D program to be performed in order to test the potential of a shock-ignited target on NIF. In shock ignition, compressed fuel is separately ignited by a late-time laser-driven shock and, because capsule implosion velocities are significantly lower than those required for conventional hotpot ignition, simulations indicate that fusion energy gains of 60 may be achievable at laser energies around 0.5MJ. Like fast ignition, shock ignition offers high gain but requires only a single laser with less demanding timing and focusing requirements. Conventional symmetry and stability constraints apply, thus a key immediate step towards attempting shock ignition on NIF is to demonstrate adequacy of low-mode uniformity and shock symmetry under polar drive

  18. Rocket Ignition Demonstrations Using Silane

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pal, Sibtosh; Santoro, Robert; Watkins, William B.; Kincaid, Kevin

    1998-01-01

    Rocket ignition demonstration tests using silane were performed at the Penn State Combustion Research Laboratory. A heat sink combustor with one injection element was used with gaseous propellants. Mixtures of silane and hydrogen were used as fuel, and oxygen was used as oxidizer. Reliable ignition was demonstrated using fuel lead and and a swirl injection element.

  19. Fuel Class Higher Alcohols

    KAUST Repository

    Sarathy, Mani

    2016-08-17

    This chapter focuses on the production and combustion of alcohol fuels with four or more carbon atoms, which we classify as higher alcohols. It assesses the feasibility of utilizing various C4-C8 alcohols as fuels for internal combustion engines. Utilizing higher-molecular-weight alcohols as fuels requires careful analysis of their fuel properties. ASTM standards provide fuel property requirements for spark-ignition (SI) and compression-ignition (CI) engines such as the stability, lubricity, viscosity, and cold filter plugging point (CFPP) properties of blends of higher alcohols. Important combustion properties that are studied include laminar and turbulent flame speeds, flame blowout/extinction limits, ignition delay under various mixing conditions, and gas-phase and particulate emissions. The chapter focuses on the combustion of higher alcohols in reciprocating SI and CI engines and discusses higher alcohol performance in SI and CI engines. Finally, the chapter identifies the sources, production pathways, and technologies currently being pursued for production of some fuels, including n-butanol, iso-butanol, and n-octanol.

  20. The use of microprocessors at TRIUMF in the control of radiation safety interlock systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    King, L.

    1988-01-01

    At TRIUMF the cyclotron vault, all primary beam lines, and each experimental area has a dedicated control unit to manage the safety interlock control of the area lockup sequence, beam blocker drive and area access. Typically each area has 24 devices which are monitored to control 16 outputs. These control units (Area Safety Units) were first implemented through the use of relay logic. The relay logic was reliable but difficult to modify to incorporate changes to the areas. In 1979 it was decided to use microprocessors in the form of single board computers to control the Area Safety Units. The details of the hardware and software is discussed as well as the advantages of microprocessor control

  1. National synchrotron light source medical personnel protection interlock

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buda, S.; Gmur, N.F.; Larson, R.; Thomlinson, W.

    1998-01-01

    This report is founded on reports written in April 1987 by Robert Hettel for angiography operations at the Stanford Synchrotron Research Laboratory (SSRL) and a subsequent report covering angiography operations at the National Synchrotron Light Source (NSLS); BNL Informal Report 47681, June 1992. The latter report has now been rewritten in order to accurately reflect the design and installation of a new medical safety system at the NSLS X17B2 beamline Synchrotron Medical Research Facility (SMERF). Known originally as the Angiography Personnel Protection Interlock (APPI), this system has been modified to incorporate other medical imaging research programs on the same beamline and thus the name has been changed to the more generic Medical Personnel Protection Interlock (MPPI). This report will deal almost exclusively with the human imaging (angiography, bronchography, mammography) aspects of the safety system, but will briefly explain the modular aspects of the system allowing other medical experiments to be incorporated

  2. NATIONAL SYNCHROTRON LIGHT SOURCE MEDICAL PERSONNEL PROTECTION INTERLOCK

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    BUDA,S.; GMUR,N.F.; LARSON,R.; THOMLINSON,W.

    1998-11-03

    This report is founded on reports written in April 1987 by Robert Hettel for angiography operations at the Stanford Synchrotron Research Laboratory (SSRL) and a subsequent report covering angiography operations at the National Synchrotron Light Source (NSLS); BNL Informal Report 47681, June 1992. The latter report has now been rewritten in order to accurately reflect the design and installation of a new medical safety system at the NSLS X17B2 beamline Synchrotron Medical Research Facility (SMERF). Known originally as the Angiography Personnel Protection Interlock (APPI), this system has been modified to incorporate other medical imaging research programs on the same beamline and thus the name has been changed to the more generic Medical Personnel Protection Interlock (MPPI). This report will deal almost exclusively with the human imaging (angiography, bronchography, mammography) aspects of the safety system, but will briefly explain the modular aspects of the system allowing other medical experiments to be incorporated.

  3. Central system of Interlock of ITER, high integrity architecture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prieto, I.; Martinez, G.; Lopez, C.

    2014-01-01

    The CIS (Central Interlock System), along with the CODAC system and CSS (Central Safety System), form the central I and C systems of ITER. The CIS is responsible for implementing the core functions of protection (Central Interlock Functions) through different systems of plant (Plant Systems) within the overall strategy of investment protection for ITER. IBERDROLA supports engineering to define and develop the control architecture of CIS according to the stringent requirements of integrity, availability and response time. For functions with response times of the order of half a second is selected PLC High availability of industrial range. However, due to the nature of the machine itself, certain functions must be able to act under the millisecond, so it has had to develop a solution based on FPGA (Field Programmable Gate Array) capable of meeting the requirements architecture. In this article CIS architecture is described, as well as the process for the development and validation of the selected platforms. (Author)

  4. Design of modified safety interlock system for pelletron accelerator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yadav, M.L.; Lokare, R.N.; Matkar, U.V.; Ekambaram, M.; Gudekar, P.V.; Vishwakarma, Ramlal S.; Kulkarni, S.G.; Gore, J.A.; Gupta, A.K.; Datar, V.M.

    2013-01-01

    The BARC-TIFR Pelletron Accelerator Facility has been operational for last twenty four years progressively with increased efficiency, delivering energetic light and heavy ions at medium energy. The process of beam acceleration makes the accelerator tower and beam hall radiation prone areas. A modified Interlock system for Pelletron Accelerator has been designed and developed to ensure radiation safety of the personnel working in the accelerator premises. Radiation levels from monitors, status of search and secure switches and entry doors of the accelerator tower, are inputs to the interlock system. The system triggers if radiation level exceeds the set value or status of any search and secure switches and entry doors across the tower are changed, thus stopping the beam at ion source level. This system also incorporates new features like-audio visual alarm pertaining to each location. (author)

  5. Design of responsive materials using topologically interlocked elements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Molotnikov, A; Gerbrand, R; Qi, Y; Simon, G P; Estrin, Y

    2015-01-01

    In this work we present a novel approach to designing responsive structures by segmentation of monolithic plates into an assembly of topologically interlocked building blocks. The particular example considered is an assembly of interlocking osteomorphic blocks. The results of this study demonstrate that the constraining force, which is required to hold the blocks together, can be viewed as a design parameter that governs the bending stiffness and the load bearing capacity of the segmented structure. In the case where the constraining forces are provided laterally using an external frame, the maximum load the assembly can sustain and its stiffness increase linearly with the magnitude of the lateral load applied. Furthermore, we show that the segmented plate with integrated shape memory wires employed as tensioning cables can act as a smart structure that changes its flexural stiffness and load bearing capacity in response to external stimuli, such as heat generated by the switching on and off an electric current. (paper)

  6. Availability Analysis of the Ventilation Stack CAM Interlock System

    CERN Document Server

    Young, J

    2000-01-01

    Ventilation Stack Continuous Air Monitor (CAM) Interlock System failure modes, failure frequencies, and system availability have been evaluated for the RPP. The evaluation concludes that CAM availability is as high as assumed in the safety analysis and that the current routine system surveillance is adequate to maintain this availability credited in the safety analysis, nor is such an arrangement predicted to significantly improve system availability.

  7. Interlocked intramedullary nailing for treatment of open femoral shaft fractures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baixauli, F; Baixauli, E J; Sánchez-Alepuz, E; Baixauli, F

    1998-05-01

    Twenty-eight patients with open femoral shaft fractures treated by reamed intramedullary nailing were reviewed retrospectively. Nine patients had Gustilo Grade I injuries; 14, Grade II; and five, Grade IIIA. Twenty cases had static locking, two cases had dynamic locking, and six cases were not locked. Average time to union was 20 weeks. The infection and nonunion rates were 0%. The data suggest that interlocked reamed intramedullary nailing is a safe treatment option for treating open femoral shaft fractures.

  8. External jig in the placement of distal interlocking screws | Ikem ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Retrograde (52.2%) was the commonest surgical approach used for femur. The main indication for SIGN interlocking surgery was recent fracture 77.8%. Open reduction 97.8% was the commonest method of reduction used. The mean±SD bone union time was 3.58±0.56 months and range 3-5 months. Distal screw insertion ...

  9. Modular safety interlock system for high energy physics experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kieffer, J.; Golceff, B.V.

    1980-10-01

    A frequent problem in electronics systems for high energy physics experiments is to provide protection for personnel and equipment. Interlock systems are typically designed as an afterthought and as a result, the working environment around complex experiments with many independent high voltages or hazardous gas subsystems, and many different kinds of people involved, can be particularly dangerous. A set of modular hardware has been designed which makes possible a standardized, intergrated, hierarchical system's approach and which can be easily tailored to custom requirements

  10. Neutral beam interlock system on TFTR using infrared pyrometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Medley, S.S.; Kugel, H.W.; Kozub, T.A.; Lowrance, J.L.; Mastrocola, V.; Renda, G.; Young, K.M.

    1986-01-01

    Although the region of the Tokamak Fusion Test Reactor (TFTR) vacuum vessel wall which is susceptible to damage by neutral beam strike is armored with a mosaic of TiC-clad POCO graphite tiles, at power deposition levels above 2.5 kW/cm 2 the armor surface temperature exceeds 1200 0 C within 250 ms, and itself becomes susceptible to damage. In order to protect the wall armor, a neutral beam interlock system based on infrared pyrometry measurement of the armor surface temperature was installed on TFTR. For each beamline, a three-fiber-optic telescope views three areas of --30 cm diameter centered on the armor hot spots for the three ion sources. Each signal is fiber-optic coupled to a remote 900-nm pyrometer which feeds analog signals to the neutral beam interrupt circuits. The pyrometer interlock system is designed to interrupt each of the 12 ion sources independently within 10 ms of the temperature exceeding a threshold which can be set in the range of 500--2300 0 C. A description of the pyrometer interlock system and its performance will be presented

  11. Determinants of Board Interlocking in the Brazilian Capital Market

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Flávio Ribeiro

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available The objective in this article was to identify the main determinants of Board Interlocking in the Brazilian capital market. As the theoretical structure, the Agency theory and Corporate Governance, the Resource Dependence theory and the Board of Administrators and the Characteristics of Board Interlocking. The sample consists of 58 Brazilian companies that participate in the Bovespa Index (Ibovespa. An empirical analytic study was undertaken. With regard to the objectives, it is characterized as exploratory and, with regard to the procedures, a documentary research was undertaken. The data on the Boards of Administrators were collected from the Reference Forms available on the website of the São Paulo Stock Exchange (BM&FBOVESPA. The results found demonstrate the generalized presence of Board Interlocking in these companies, normally associated with four factors: (1 economic group formation; (2 governmental control; (3 formation of pension funds; and (4 presence of professionals with acknowledged market experience. The results also suggest that the first three factors give rise to long-lasting links and that these connections are hard to break. On the other hand, the links established through professionals with market experience tend to be more unstable because the presence of these professionals is highly demanded to serve on the board of different companies.

  12. Effects of Interlocking and Supporting Conditions on Concrete Block Pavements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahapatra, Geetimukta; Kalita, Kuldeep

    2018-02-01

    Concrete Block Paving (CBP) is widely used as wearing course in flexible pavements, preferably under light and medium vehicular loadings. Construction of CBP at site is quick and easy in quality control. Usually, flexible pavement design philosophy is followed in CBP construction, though it is structurally different in terms of small block elements with high strength concrete and their interlocking aspects, frequent joints and discontinuity, restrained edge etc. Analytical solution for such group action of concrete blocks under loading in a three dimensional multilayer structure is complex and thus, the need of conducting experimental studies is necessitated for extensive understanding of the load—deformation characteristics and behavior of concrete blocks in pavement. The present paper focuses on the experimental studies for load transfer characteristics of CBP under different interlocking and supporting conditions. It is observed that both interlocking and supporting conditions affect significantly on the load transfer behavior in CBP structures. Coro-lock block exhibits better performance in terms of load carrying capacity and distortion behavior under static loads. Plate load tests are performed over subgrade, granular sub-base (GSB), CBP with and without GSB using different block shapes. For an example case, the comparison of CBP with conventional flexible pavement section is also presented and it is found that CBP provides considerable benefit in terms of construction cost of the road structure.

  13. Achieving interlocking nails without using an image intensifier.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ikem, Innocent C; Ogunlusi, Johnson D; Ine, Henry R

    2007-08-01

    Interlocking nails are commonly performed using an image intensifier. These are expensive and are not readily available in most resource-poor countries of the world. The aim of this study was to achieve interlocking nailing without the use of an image intensifier. This is a prospective descriptive analysis of 40 consecutive cases seen with shaft fractures of the humerus, femur, and tibia. Fracture fixation was done using Surgical Implant Generation Network (SIGN) nails. Forty limbs in 34 patients were studied. There were 12 females and 22 males, giving a ratio of 1:2. The mean age (years) was 35.75+/-13.16 and the range was 17-70 years. The studied bones were: humerus 10%, femur 65%, and tibia 25%. The fracture lines were: transverse 40%, oblique 15%, and communited 45%. Fracture grades were: closed 90%, grade I, 5%, grade II, 2.5%, and grade IIIA, 2.5%. Surgical approaches were: antegrade 62.5% and retrograde 37.5%. Indications for fixation were: recent fracture 92.5%, non-union 5%, and malunion 3%. Methods of reductions were: open 85% and closed 15%. The mean follow-up period (years) was 1.50+/-0.78. The union time averaged 3 months. Complication was mainly screw loosening due to severe osteoporoses in one case. It is, therefore, concluded that, with the aid of external jigs and slot finders, interlocking can be achieved without an image intensifier.

  14. Plans for ignition experiments on the National Ignition Facility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moses, E.I.; Meier, W.R. [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Livermore, CA (United States)

    2007-07-01

    The National Ignition Facility (NIF) is a 192 beam Nd-glass laser facility presently under construction at LLNL for performing ignition experiments for inertial confinement fusion (ICF) and experiments studying high energy density (HED) science. NIF will produce 1.8 MJ, 500 TW of ultraviolet light making it the world's largest and most powerful laser system. NIF will be the world's preeminent facility for the study of matter at extreme temperatures and densities producing and for developing ICF. The ignition studies will be the next important step in developing inertial fusion energy. The NIF Project is over 90% complete and scheduled for completion in 2009. The building and nearly the entire beam path have been completed. The Project is presently installing the optics and electronics and commissioning the beams. Over half of the optical and electronics components needed to complete the Project have been installed. One cluster of 48 beams has been commissioned in the laser bay with the demonstrated capability of producing 1000 kJ of 1053 nm light (1), nearly ten times the capability of Nova or Omega, the previous largest laser systems. In addition, experiments using one beam have demonstrated that NIF can meet all of its performance goals. A detailed plan called the National Ignition Campaign (NIC) has been developed to begin ignition experiments in 2010. The plan includes the target physics and the equipment such as diagnostics, cryogenic target manipulator and user optics required for the ignition experiment. Target designs have been developed that calculate to ignite at energy as low as 1 MJ. Experiments using the OMEGA laser at the University of Rochester are validating these designs. Development of manufacturing capability is well under way for producing these targets to the required tolerances. Diagnostics and other support equipment is being designed and fabricated to perform the ignition experiments. (orig.)

  15. Fatigue behavior of Ilizarov frame versus tibial interlocking nail in a comminuted tibial fracture model: a biomechanical study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stahel Philip F

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Treatment options for comminuted tibial shaft fractures include plating, intramedullary nailing, and external fixation. No biomechanical comparison between an interlocking tibia nail with external fixation by an Ilizarov frame has been reported to date. In the present study, we compared the fatigue behaviour of Ilizarov frames to interlocking intramedullary nails in a comminuted tibial fracture model under a combined loading of axial compression, bending and torsion. Our goal was to determine the biomechanical characteristics, stability and durability for each device over a clinically relevant three month testing period. The study hypothesis was that differences in the mechanical properties may account for differing clinical results and provide information applicable to clinical decision making for comminuted tibia shaft fractures. Methods In this biomechanical study, 12 composite tibial bone models with a comminuted fracture and a 25 mm diaphyseal gap were investigated. Of these, six models were stabilized with a 180-mm four-ring Ilizarov frame, and six models were minimally reamed and stabilized with a 10 mm statically locked Russell-Taylor Delta™ tibial nail. After measuring the pre-fatigue axial compression bending and torsion stiffness, each model was loaded under a sinusoidal cyclic combined loading of axial compression (2.8/28 lbf; 12.46/124.6 N and torque (1.7/17 lbf-in; 0.19/1.92 Nm at a frequency of 3 Hz. The test was performed until failure (implant breakage or ≥ 5° angulations and/or 2 cm shortening occurred or until 252,000 cycles were completed, which corresponds to approximately three months testing period. Results In all 12 models, both the Ilizarov frame and the interlocking tibia nail were able to maintain fracture stability of the tibial defect and to complete the full 252,000 cycles during the entire study period of three months. A significantly higher stiffness to axial compression and torsion was

  16. Ignition of Aluminum Particles and Clouds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kuhl, A L; Boiko, V M

    2010-04-07

    Here we review experimental data and models of the ignition of aluminum (Al) particles and clouds in explosion fields. The review considers: (i) ignition temperatures measured for single Al particles in torch experiments; (ii) thermal explosion models of the ignition of single Al particles; and (iii) the unsteady ignition Al particles clouds in reflected shock environments. These are used to develop an empirical ignition model appropriate for numerical simulations of Al particle combustion in shock dispersed fuel explosions.

  17. Propellant Flow Actuated Piezoelectric Igniter for Combustion Engines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wollen, Mark A. (Inventor)

    2015-01-01

    A propellant flow actuated piezoelectric igniter device using one or more hammer balls retained by one or more magnets, or other retaining method, until sufficient fluid pressure is achieved to release and accelerate the hammer ball, such that it impacts a piezoelectric crystal to produce an ignition spark. Certain preferred embodiments provide a means for repetitively capturing and releasing the hammer ball after it impacts one or more piezoelectric crystals, thereby oscillating and producing multiple, repetitive ignition sparks. Furthermore, an embodiment is presented for which oscillation of the hammer ball and repetitive impact to the piezoelectric crystal is maintained without the need for a magnet or other retaining mechanism to achieve this oscillating impact process.

  18. The National Ignition Facility Project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Paisner, J.A.; Campbell, E.M.; Hogan, W.J.

    1994-01-01

    The mission of the National Ignition Facility is to achieve ignition and gain in inertial confinement fusion targets in the laboratory. The facility will be used for defense applications such as weapons physics and weapons effects testing, and for civilian applications such as fusion energy development and fundamental studies of matter at high temperatures and densities. This paper reviews the design, schedule, and costs associated with the construction project

  19. The National Ignition Facility Project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Paisner, J.A.; Campbell, E.M.; Hogan, W.J.

    1994-01-01

    The mission of the National Ignition Facility is to achieve ignition and gain in ICF targets in the laboratory. The facility will be used for defense applications such as weapons physics and weapons effect testing, and for civilian applications such as fusion energy development and fundamental studies of matter at high temperatures and densities. This paper reviews the design, schedule and costs associated with the construction project

  20. The influence of biocalcification on soil-cement interlocking block compressive strength

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yoosathaporn, S.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Description of the subject. Soil-cement interlocking block is used as the building block for many civil structures in Thailand. The addition of many alternative materials into interlocking block in order to improve compressive strength has been reported. However, there is currently no report on the influence of application of biocalcification or microbiologically induced calcite precipitation (MICP on interlocking block compressive strength. Objectives. This study aimed to investigate the effect of biocalcification on compressive strength of soil-cement interlocking block. Method. Soil bacterium, Bacillus pasteurii KCTC 3558, and Effective Microorganisms (EM were added into interlocking block before molding as the replacement of mixing water. The change of compressive strength in interlocking block at 3, 7, 14 and 28 days of incubation was determined. Results. At 28 days, the compressive strength of interlocking block supplemented with B. pasteurii KCTC 3558 and 5% EM were 7.38% and 9.79% significantly higher than control. Calcium carbonate crystals were also observed under scanning electron microscope which suggested that an increased compressive strength of interlocking block was caused by biocalcification. Conclusions. Our results showed that microbiologically induced calcite precipitation could help increasing the compressive strength of soil-cement interlocking block.

  1. Ignition inhibitors for cellulosic materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alvares, N.J.

    1976-01-01

    By exposing samples to various irradiance levels from a calibrated thermal radiation source, the ignition responses of blackened alpha-cellulose and cotton cloth with and without fire-retardant additives were compared. Samples treated with retardant compounds which showed the most promise were then isothermally pyrolyzed in air for comparisons between the pyrolysis rates. Alpha-cellulose samples containing a mixture of boric acid, borax, and ammonium di-hydrogen phosphate could not be ignited by irradiances up to 4.0 cal cm -2 s-1 (16.7 W/cm 2 ). At higher irradiances the specimens ignited, but flaming lasted only until the flammable gases were depleted. Cotton cloth containing a polymeric retardant with the designation THPC + MM was found to be ignition-resistant to all irradiances below 7.0 cal cm -2 s -1 (29.3 W/cm 2 ). Comparison of the pyrolysis rates of the retardant-treated alpha-cellulose and the retardant-treated cotton showed that the retardant mechanism is qualitatively the same. Similar ignition-response measurements were also made with specimens exposed to ionizing radiation. It was observed that gamma radiation results in ignition retardance of cellulose, while irradiation by neutrons does not

  2. Recent advances in polymer solar cells: realization of high device performance by incorporating water/alcohol-soluble conjugated polymers as electrode buffer layer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Zhicai; Wu, Hongbin; Cao, Yong

    2014-02-01

    This Progress Report highlights recent advances in polymer solar cells with special attention focused on the recent rapid-growing progress in methods that use a thin layer of alcohol/water-soluble conjugated polymers as key component to obtain optimized device performance, but also discusses novel materials and device architectures made by major prestigious institutions in this field. We anticipate that due to drastic improvements in efficiency and easy utilization, this method opens up new opportunities for PSCs from various material systems to improve towards 10% efficiency, and many novel device structures will emerge as suitable architectures for developing the ideal roll-to-roll type processing of polymer-based solar cells. © 2013 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  3. Alcoholism and Alcohol Abuse

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... their drinking causes distress and harm. It includes alcoholism and alcohol abuse. Alcoholism, or alcohol dependence, is a disease that causes ... referrals. NIH: National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism

  4. Fast ignition breakeven scaling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Slutz, Stephen A.; Vesey, Roger Alan

    2005-01-01

    A series of numerical simulations have been performed to determine scaling laws for fast ignition break even of a hot spot formed by energetic particles created by a short pulse laser. Hot spot break even is defined to be when the fusion yield is equal to the total energy deposited in the hot spot through both the initial compression and the subsequent heating. In these simulations, only a small portion of a previously compressed mass of deuterium-tritium fuel is heated on a short time scale, i.e., the hot spot is tamped by the cold dense fuel which surrounds it. The hot spot tamping reduces the minimum energy required to obtain break even as compared to the situation where the entire fuel mass is heated, as was assumed in a previous study [S. A. Slutz, R. A. Vesey, I. Shoemaker, T. A. Mehlhorn, and K. Cochrane, Phys. Plasmas 7, 3483 (2004)]. The minimum energy required to obtain hot spot break even is given approximately by the scaling law E T = 7.5(ρ/100) -1.87 kJ for tamped hot spots, as compared to the previously reported scaling of E UT = 15.3(ρ/100) -1.5 kJ for untamped hotspots. The size of the compressed fuel mass and the focusability of the particles generated by the short pulse laser determines which scaling law to use for an experiment designed to achieve hot spot break even

  5. National Synchrotron Light Source angiography personnel protection interlock

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gmuer, N.; Larson, R.; Thomlinson, W.

    1992-06-01

    This document has been written to describe the safety system operation at the NSLS X17B2 beamline Synchrotron Medical Research Facility (SMERF). The angiography exposure process involves scanning a patient up and down through dual fixed-position x-ray beams; exposure is controlled by opening and closing a fast-acting Safety Shutter mechanism at precise times in relation to the up and down motion of the scan chair. The fast-acting Safety Shutter mechanism is the primary radiation-stopping element protecting the patient while the chair is at rest and while it is reversing directions during the scan. Its fail-safe and fast operation is essential for the safety of the patient. Operation of X17B2 as a human subject angiography station necessitates the implementation of a personnel protection interlock system that, in conjunction with the Safety Shutters: permits safe access to the patient exposure area while the synchrotron radiation beam is illuminating the upstream dual energy monochromator; allows a patient to be imaged by the monochromatized beam under the supervision of a Responsible Physician, with scan chair motion and precision shutter actuation regulated by an angiography control computer, while providing a suitable number of safeguards against accidental radiation exposure; has different modes of operation to accommodate equipment set-up, test, and calibration; and patient exposure; and ensures the quick extinction of the beam if a potentially unsafe condition is detected. The interlock system which performs these safety functions is called the Angiography Personnel Protection Interlock (APPI). The APPI Document is organized such that the level of detail changes from a general overview to detailed engineering drawings of the hardware system

  6. National Synchrotron Light Source angiography personnel protection interlock

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gmuer, N.; Larson, R.; Thomlinson, W.

    1992-06-01

    This document has been written to describe the safety system operation at the NSLS X17B2 beamline Synchrotron Medical Research Facility (SMERF). The angiography exposure process involves scanning a patient up and down through dual fixed-position x-ray beams; exposure is controlled by opening and closing a fast-acting Safety Shutter mechanism at precise times in relation to the up and down motion of the scan chair. The fast-acting Safety Shutter mechanism is the primary radiation-stopping element protecting the patient while the chair is at rest and while it is reversing directions during the scan. Its fail-safe and fast operation is essential for the safety of the patient. Operation of X17B2 as a human subject angiography station necessitates the implementation of a personnel protection interlock system that, in conjunction with the Safety Shutters: permits safe access to the patient exposure area while the synchrotron radiation beam is illuminating the upstream dual energy monochromator; allows a patient to be imaged by the monochromatized beam under the supervision of a Responsible Physician, with scan chair motion and precision shutter actuation regulated by an angiography control computer, while providing a suitable number of safeguards against accidental radiation exposure; has different modes of operation to accommodate equipment set-up, test, and calibration; and patient exposure; and ensures the quick extinction of the beam if a potentially unsafe condition is detected. The interlock system which performs these safety functions is called the Angiography Personnel Protection Interlock (APPI). The APPI Document is organized such that the level of detail changes from a general overview to detailed engineering drawings of the hardware system.

  7. Model Checking Geographically Distributed Interlocking Systems Using UMC

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fantechi, Alessandro; Haxthausen, Anne Elisabeth; Nielsen, Michel Bøje Randahl

    2017-01-01

    The current trend of distributing computations over a network is here, as a novelty, applied to a safety critical system, namely a railway interlocking system. We show how the challenge of guaranteeing safety of the distributed application has been attacked by formally specifying and model checking...... the relevant distributed protocols. By doing that we obey the safety guidelines of the railway signalling domain, that require formal methods to support the certification of such products. We also show how formal modelling can help designing alternative distributed solutions, while maintaining adherence...

  8. Shutdown channels and fitted interlocks in atomic reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Furet, J.; Landauer, C.

    1968-01-01

    This catalogue consists of tables (one per reactor) giving the following information: number and type of detectors, range of the shutdown channels, nature of the associated electronics, thresholds setting off the alarms, fitted interlocks. These cards have been drawn up with a view to an examination of the reactors safety by the 'Reactor Safety Sub-Commission', they take into account the latest decisions. The reactors involved in this review are: Azur, Cabri, Castor-Pollux, Cesar-Marius-2, Edf-2, EL3, EL4, Eole, G1, G2-G3, Harmonie, Isis, Masurca, Melusine, Minerve, Osiris, Pegase, Peggy, PAT, Rapsodie, SENA, Siloe, Siloette, Triton-Nereide, and Ulysse. (authors) [fr

  9. Stable three-dimensional metallic carbon with interlocking hexagons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Shunhong; Wang, Qian; Chen, Xiaoshuang; Jena, Puru

    2013-11-19

    Design and synthesis of 3D metallic carbon that is stable under ambient conditions has been a long-standing dream. We predict the existence of such phases, T6- and T14-carbon, consisting of interlocking hexagons. Their dynamic, mechanical, and thermal stabilities are confirmed by carrying out a variety of state-of-the-art theoretical calculations. Unlike the previously studied K4 and the simple cubic high pressure metallic phases, the structures predicted in this work are stable under ambient conditions. Equally important, they may be synthesized chemically by using benzene or polyacenes molecules.

  10. Photovoltaic module and interlocked stack of photovoltaic modules

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wares, Brian S.

    2014-09-02

    One embodiment relates to an arrangement of photovoltaic modules configured for transportation. The arrangement includes a plurality of photovoltaic modules, each photovoltaic module including a frame. A plurality of individual male alignment features and a plurality of individual female alignment features are included on each frame. Adjacent photovoltaic modules are interlocked by multiple individual male alignment features on a first module of the adjacent photovoltaic modules fitting into and being surrounded by corresponding individual female alignment features on a second module of the adjacent photovoltaic modules. Other embodiments, features and aspects are also disclosed.

  11. Can progress in reducing alcohol-impaired driving fatalities be resumed? Results of a workshop sponsored by the Transportation Research Board, Alcohol, Other Drugs, and Transportation Committee (ANB50).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fell, James C; Beirness, Douglas J; Voas, Robert B; Smith, Gordon S; Jonah, Brian; Maxwell, Jane Carlisle; Price, Jana; Hedlund, James

    2016-11-16

    Despite successes in the 1980s and early 1990s, progress in reducing impaired driving fatalities in the United States has stagnated in recent years. Since 1997, the percentage of drivers involved in fatal crashes with illegal blood alcohol concentration (BAC) levels has remained at approximately 20 to 22%. Many experts believe that public complacency, competing social and public health issues, and the lack of political fortitude have all contributed to this stagnation. The number of alcohol-related crashes, injuries, and fatalities is still unacceptable, and most are preventable. The public needs to be aware that the problem presented by drinking drivers has not been solved. Political leaders need guidance on which measures will affect the problem, and stakeholders need to be motivated once again to implement effective strategies. The National Academy of Sciences (NAS) Transportation Research Board (TRB), Alcohol, Other Drugs, and Transportation Committee (ANB50) sponsored a workshop held at the NAS facility in Woods Hole, Massachusetts, on August 24-25, 2015, to discuss the lack of progress in reducing impaired driving and to make recommendations for future progress. A total of 26 experts in research and policy related to alcohol-impaired driving participated in the workshop. The workshop began by examining the static situation in the rate of alcohol-impaired driving fatal crashes to determine what factors may be inhibiting further progress. The workshop then discussed 8 effective strategies that have not been fully implemented in the United States. Workshop participants (16 of the 26) rated their top 3 strategies. 3 strategies received the most support: 1. Impose administrative sanctions for drivers with BACs = 0.05 to 0.08 g/dL. 2. Require alcohol ignition interlocks for all alcohol-impaired driving offenders. 3. Increase the frequency of sobriety checkpoints, including enacting legislation to allow them in the 11 states that currently prohibit them. 5 other

  12. Progress Toward Ignition on the National Ignition Facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kauffman, R.L.

    2011-01-01

    The principal approach to ignition on the National Ignition Facility (NIF) is indirect drive. A schematic of an ignition target is shown in Figure 1. The laser beams are focused through laser entrance holes at each end of a high-Z cylindrical case, or hohlraum. The lasers irradiate the hohlraum walls producing x-rays that ablate and compress the fuel capsule in the center of the hohlraum. The hohlraum is made of Au, U, or other high-Z material. For ignition targets, the hohlraum is ∼0.5 cm diameter by ∼1 cm in length. The hohlraum absorbs the incident laser energy producing x-rays for symmetrically imploding the capsule. The fuel capsule is a ∼2-mm-diameter spherical shell of CH, Be, or C filled with DT fuel. The DT fuel is in the form of a cryogenic layer on the inside of the capsule. X-rays ablate the outside of the capsule, producing a spherical implosion. The imploding shell stagnates in the center, igniting the DT fuel. NIC has overseen installation of all of the hardware for performing ignition experiments, including commissioning of approximately 50 diagnostic systems in NIF. The diagnostics measure scattered optical light, x-rays from the hohlraum over the energy range from 100 eV to 500 keV, and x-rays, neutrons, and charged particles from the implosion. An example of a diagnostic is the Magnetic Recoil Spectrometer (MRS) built by a collaboration of scientists from MIT, UR-LLE, and LLNL shown in Figure 2. MRS measures the neutron spectrum from the implosion, providing information on the neutron yield and areal density that are metrics of the quality of the implosion. Experiments on NIF extend ICF research to unexplored regimes in target physics. NIF can produce more than 50 times the laser energy and more than 20 times the power of any previous ICF facility. Ignition scale hohlraum targets are three to four times larger than targets used at smaller facilities, and the ignition drive pulses are two to five times longer. The larger targets and longer

  13. Review: laser ignition for aerospace propulsion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Steven A. O’Briant

    2016-03-01

    This paper aims to provide the reader an overview of advanced ignition methods, with an emphasis on laser ignition and its applications to aerospace propulsion. A comprehensive review of advanced ignition systems in aerospace applications is performed. This includes studies on gas turbine applications, ramjet and scramjet systems, and space and rocket applications. A brief overview of ignition and laser ignition phenomena is also provided in earlier sections of the report. Throughout the reading, research papers, which were presented at the 2nd Laser Ignition Conference in April 2014, are mentioned to indicate the vast array of projects that are currently being pursued.

  14. Progress Towards Ignition on the National Ignition Facility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edwards, John

    2012-10-01

    Since completion of the National Ignition Facility (NIF) construction project in March 2009, a wide variety of diagnostics, facility infrastructure, and experimental platforms have been commissioned in pursuit of generating the conditions necessary to reach thermonuclear ignition in the laboratory via the inertial confinement approach. NIF's capabilities and infrastructure include over 50 X-ray, optical, and nuclear diagnostics systems and the ability to shoot cryogenic DT layered capsules. There are two main approaches to ICF: direct drive in which laser light impinges directly on a capsule containing a solid layer of DT fuel, and indirect drive in which the laser light is first converted to thermal X-rays. To date NIF has been conducting experiments using the indirect drive approach, injecting up to 1.8MJ of ultraviolet light (0.35 micron) into 1 cm scale cylindrical gold or gold-coated uranium, gas-filled hohlraums, to implode 1mm radius plastic capsules containing solid DT fuel layers. In order to achieve ignition conditions the implosion must be precisely controlled. The National Ignition Campaign (NIC), an international effort with the goal of demonstrating thermonuclear burn in the laboratory, is making steady progress toward this. Utilizing precision pulse-shaping experiments in early 2012 the NIC achieve fuel rhoR of approximately 1.2 gm/cm^2 with densities of around 600-800 g/cm^3 along with neutron yields within about a factor of 5 necessary to enter a regime in which alpha particle heating will become important. To achieve these results, experimental platforms were developed to carefully control key attributes of the implosion. This talk will review NIF's capabilities and the progress toward ignition, as well as the physics of ignition targets on NIF and on other facilities. Acknowledgement: this work performed under the auspices of the U.S. Department of Energy by Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory under Contract DE-AC52-07NA27344.

  15. Enhanced Model for Fast Ignition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mason, Rodney J. [Research Applications Corporation, Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2010-10-12

    Laser Fusion is a prime candidate for alternate energy production, capable of serving a major portion of the nation's energy needs, once fusion fuel can be readily ignited. Fast Ignition may well speed achievement of this goal, by reducing net demands on laser pulse energy and timing precision. However, Fast Ignition has presented a major challenge to modeling. This project has enhanced the computer code ePLAS for the simulation of the many specialized phenomena, which arise with Fast Ignition. The improved code has helped researchers to understand better the consequences of laser absorption, energy transport, and laser target hydrodynamics. ePLAS uses efficient implicit methods to acquire solutions for the electromagnetic fields that govern the accelerations of electrons and ions in targets. In many cases, the code implements fluid modeling for these components. These combined features, "implicitness and fluid modeling," can greatly facilitate calculations, permitting the rapid scoping and evaluation of experiments. ePLAS can be used on PCs, Macs and Linux machines, providing researchers and students with rapid results. This project has improved the treatment of electromagnetics, hydrodynamics, and atomic physics in the code. It has simplified output graphics, and provided new input that avoids the need for source code access by users. The improved code can now aid university, business and national laboratory users in pursuit of an early path to success with Fast Ignition.

  16. Formal Development of a Tool for Automated Modelling and Verification of Relay Interlocking Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Haxthausen, Anne Elisabeth; Kjær, Andreas A.; Le Bliguet, Marie

    2011-01-01

    This paper describes a tool for formal modelling relay interlocking systems and explains how it has been stepwise, formally developed using the RAISE method. The developed tool takes the circuit diagrams of a relay interlocking system as input and gives as result a state transition system modelling...

  17. 30 CFR 75.819 - Motor-starter enclosures; barriers and interlocks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Motor-starter enclosures; barriers and...-Voltage Distribution High-Voltage Longwalls § 75.819 Motor-starter enclosures; barriers and interlocks. Compartment separation and cover interlock switches for motor-starter enclosures must be maintained in...

  18. 49 CFR 236.340 - Electromechanical interlocking machine; locking between electrical and mechanical levers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... between electrical and mechanical levers. 236.340 Section 236.340 Transportation Other Regulations... Electromechanical interlocking machine; locking between electrical and mechanical levers. In electro-mechanical interlocking machine, locking between electric and mechanical levers shall be maintained so that mechanical...

  19. Indus-2 machine safety interlock system - from design to commissioning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gothwal, Pankaj; Gupta, A.M.; Merh, B.; Fatnani, P.; Kumar, S.; Vaishnav, H.; Satheesan, T.V.

    2009-01-01

    INDUS-2 is a 2.5 GeV, 300 mA electron storage ring in operation at RRCAT, Indore. It is a one of its kind national facility with plans for 27 user beam lines from bending magnets. Any such large facility requires sufficient measures of machine safety besides occupational radiation safety during normal course of operation. In fact, machine safety is a major concern as any serious fault can cause expensive and extensive damage to machine components like magnets, vacuum chambers, vacuum valves etc. resulting in possibly long periods of machine shutdown. The machine has to clear many pre-checks to come to states of operation and certain conditions have to be maintained for operating it safely. The Machine Safety Interlock System (MSIS) must fulfil the normal requirements of a safety critical system. In the accelerator environment, such system must be easily configurable and expandable also. Therefore an intelligent computer based system has been developed and deployed. The INDUS-2 MSIS takes inputs from cooling water switches of photon absorbers and magnets, magnet coil temperatures, DCCT core temperature, vacuum sector valve status, door interlocks and search and scram system, integrated temperature status from vacuum chambers etc. The machine condition inputs to trip outputs relations are defined with equations. The paper presents the design basis, the system implementation details, performance issues and experiences. (author)

  20. Nonreamed interlocked intramedullary tibial nailing. One community's experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duwelius, P J; Schmidt, A H; Rubinstein, R A; Green, J M

    1995-06-01

    Forty-nine acute displaced tibial fractures (31 closed, 18 open: 5 Grade I, 7 Grade II, 4 Grade IIIA, and 2 Grade IIIB) were treated in 1 community with a standard operative protocol using a distractor without a fracture table, and an unreamed interlocked tibial nail. Forty-six fractures healed (94%). Complications included 3 nonunions (6%), 2 deep infections (4%), 9 delayed unions (18%), 4 angular malunions (8%), 2 rotatory malunions (4%), and 12 interlocking screws bent or broke (24%). Twenty-eight patients (57%) required at least 1 additional operation to obtain union, most commonly dynamization of a statically locked nail. The authors conclude that unreamed tibial nails provide adequate stabilization of displaced tibial fractures and can be used in the management of most open or closed tibial fractures. However, static locking is required in axially unstable fractures. Early dynamization or exchange nailing and bone grafting should be considered to hasten union and avoid screw failure. The distractor is an excellent adjunctive technique for reduction and alignment of tibial shaft fractures during intramedullary nailing.

  1. Fracture Union in Closed Interlocking Nail in Femoral Fracture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R L Sahu

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Fractures shaft femur is a major cause of morbidity and mortality in patients with lower extremity injuries. The objective of this study was to find out the outcome of Interlocking nail in fracture femur. METHODS: This study was conducted in the Department of Orthopaedic surgery in M. M. Medical College from July 2006 to November 2008. Seventy eight patients were recruited from Emergency and out patient department having closed fracture of femoral shaft. All patients were operated under general or spinal anesthesia. All patients were followed for nine months. RESULTS: Out of seventy eight patients, sixty nine patients underwent union in 90 to 150 days with a mean of 110.68 days. Touch down weight bearing was started on 2nd post-operative day. Complications found in four patients who had non-union, and five patients had delayed union which was treated with dynamization and bone graft. The results were excellent in 88.46% and good in 6.41% patients. CONCLUSIONS: We concluded that this technique is advantageous because of early mobilization (early weight bearing, less complication with good results and is economical. Keywords: close reamed interlocking nail, dynamization, femoral shaft fractures, union

  2. ROLES OF INTERLOCKING DIRECTORATES IN AN EMERGING COUNTRY: CONTROL AND COORDINATION IN FAMILY BUSINESS GROUPS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aylin Ataay

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Maman (1999 proposed that, in countries in which business groups are dominant forms for organizing economic activities, the interlocking directorate is a managerial tool that can be prioritized to control and coordinate activities of their affiliated firms within the same groups and align their business objectives. This organizational connection appears to be an intentional strategy on the part of the groups‟ headquarters. In order to study the interlocking ties in Turkish family business groups (FBG, this study focused on interlocking directorates among listed firms in Turkey. The findings of preliminary study reveal that almost all of the interlocking ties were within the business groups (BG in our sample. This is the result of assignment of familyaffiliated and/or professional inside directors to the various boards of companies in the BG. We also found that compare to vertical ties; business groups are using more horizontal interlocking connections to bond their affiliated companies together.

  3. Propellant-Flow-Actuated Rocket Engine Igniter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wollen, Mark

    2013-01-01

    A rocket engine igniter has been created that uses a pneumatically driven hammer that, by specialized geometry, is induced into an oscillatory state that can be used to either repeatedly impact a piezoelectric crystal with sufficient force to generate a spark capable of initiating combustion, or can be used with any other system capable of generating a spark from direct oscillatory motion. This innovation uses the energy of flowing gaseous propellant, which by means of pressure differentials and kinetic motion, causes a hammer object to oscillate. The concept works by mass flows being induced through orifices on both sides of a cylindrical tube with one or more vent paths. As the mass flow enters the chamber, the pressure differential is caused because the hammer object is supplied with flow on one side and the other side is opened with access to the vent path. The object then crosses the vent opening and begins to slow because the pressure differential across the ball reverses due to the geometry in the tube. Eventually, the object stops because of the increasing pressure differential on the object until all of the kinetic energy has been transferred to the gas via compression. This is the point where the object reverses direction because of the pressure differential. This behavior excites a piezoelectric crystal via direct impact from the hammer object. The hammer strikes a piezoelectric crystal, then reverses direction, and the resultant high voltage created from the crystal is transferred via an electrode to a spark gap in the ignition zone, thereby providing a spark to ignite the engine. Magnets, or other retention methods, might be employed to favorably position the hammer object prior to start, but are not necessary to maintain the oscillatory behavior. Various manifestations of the igniter have been developed and tested to improve device efficiency, and some improved designs are capable of operation at gas flow rates of a fraction of a gram per second (0

  4. Effect of the molecular adsorbent recirculating system and Prometheus devices on systemic haemodynamics and vasoactive agents in patients with acute-on-chronic alcoholic liver failure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laleman, Wim; Wilmer, Alexander; Evenepoel, Pieter; Elst, Ingrid Vander; Zeegers, Marcel; Zaman, Zahur; Verslype, Chris; Fevery, Johan; Nevens, Frederik

    2006-01-01

    Patients with acute-on-chronic liver failure show an aggravated hyperdynamic circulation. We evaluated, in a controlled manner, potential changes in systemic haemodynamics induced by the molecular adsorbent recirculating system (MARS) and the Prometheus system liver detoxification devices in a group of patients with acute-on-chronic liver failure. Eighteen patients (51.2 +/- 2.3 years old; Child-Pugh score, 12.5 +/- 0.2; Maddrey score, 63.1 +/- 5.0; hepatic venous pressure gradient, 17.6 +/- 0.9 mmHg) with biopsy-proven alcoholic cirrhosis and superimposed alcoholic hepatitis were either treated with standard medical therapy (SMT) combined with MARS (n = 6) or Prometheus (n = 6) or were treated with SMT alone (n = 6) on three consecutive days (6 hours/session). Liver tests, systemic haemodynamics and vasoactive substances were determined before and after each session. Groups were comparable for baseline haemodynamics and levels of vasoactive substances. Both MARS and Prometheus decreased serum bilirubin levels (P Prometheus device being more effective than MARS (P = 0.002). Only MARS showed significant improvement in the mean arterial pressure (Deltachange, +9 +/- 2.4 mmHg versus -0.3 +/- 2.4 mmHg with Prometheus and -5.2 +/- 2.1 mmHg with SMT, P Prometheus and -30.7 +/- 32.5 dyne x s/cm5/m2 with SMT; P Prometheus device, significantly attenuates the hyperdynamic circulation in acute-on-chronic liver failure, presumably by a difference in removal rate of certain vasoactive substances. These findings suggest conspicuous conceptual differences among the albumin dialysis devices.

  5. Büroo Ignite = Ignite office / Priit Põldme, Reet Sepp

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Põldme, Priit, 1971-

    2013-01-01

    Büroo Ignite (Tatari 25, Tallinn) sisekujundusest. Sisearhitektid Priit Põldme ja Reet Sepp (SAB Joonprojekt). Arhitektid Heiki Taras ja Ahti Luhaäär (Arhitektibüroo Pilter ja Taras). Sisearhitekti ja ESLi aastapreemiate žürii esimehe Kaido Kivi arvamus

  6. LASER IGNITION SYSTEM FOR INTERNAL COMBUSTION ENGINE

    OpenAIRE

    Mr.Utsav Kothari*; Mr.Pravin Bharane; Mr.Akash Modasara

    2016-01-01

    Laser ignition is considered to be one of the most promising future ignition concepts for internal combustion engines. It not only combines requirement of reduction of pollutant emissions but also improves engine efficiencies. In general, a well-defined ignition location and ignition time is of great importance for an IC engine. Spark plugs are well suited for such tasks but suffer from disadvantages, like erosion of electrodes & inflexible or un-optimal location of spark plug. Also the conv...

  7. Ignition of Propellants Through Nanostructured Materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-03-31

    The liquid fuel was injected at a rate of about 3 cm3/min through a programmable syringe pump . These images were captured at 2000 FPS and...and nano-energetics for ignition of fuel spray. There are a number of properties that are desirable for an ignition system. Ideally an ignition...of conditions in order to maximize the operational flexibility of energy and propulsion systems. We have studied the ignition of liquid fuel and

  8. National Ignition Facility Target Chamber

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wavrik, R W; Cox, J R; Fleming, P J

    2000-01-01

    On June 11, 1999 the Department of Energy dedicated the single largest piece of the National Ignition Facility (NIF) at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) in Livermore, California. The ten (10) meter diameter aluminum target high vacuum chamber will serve as the working end of the largest laser in the world. The output of 192 laser beams will converge at the precise center of the chamber. The laser beams will enter the chamber in two by two arrays to illuminate 10 millimeter long gold cylinders called hohlraums enclosing 2 millimeter capsule containing deuterium, tritium and isotopes of hydrogen. The two isotopes will fuse, thereby creating temperatures and pressures resembling those found only inside stars and in detonated nuclear weapons, but on a minute scale. The NIF Project will serve as an essential facility to insure safety and reliability of our nation's nuclear arsenal as well as demonstrating inertial fusion's contribution to creating electrical power. The paper will discuss the requirements that had to be addressed during the design, fabrication and testing of the target chamber. A team from Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) and LLNL with input from industry performed the configuration and basic design of the target chamber. The method of fabrication and construction of the aluminum target chamber was devised by Pitt-Des Moines, Inc. (PDM). PDM also participated in the design of the chamber in areas such as the Target Chamber Realignment and Adjustment System, which would allow realignment of the sphere laser beams in the event of earth settlement or movement from a seismic event. During the fabrication of the target chamber the sphericity tolerances had to be addressed for the individual plates. Procedures were developed for forming, edge preparation and welding of individual plates. Construction plans were developed to allow the field construction of the target chamber to occur parallel to other NIF construction activities. This was

  9. Structure ignition assessment model (SIAM)\\t

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jack D. Cohen

    1995-01-01

    Major wildland/urban interface fire losses, principally residences, continue to occur. Although the problem is not new, the specific mechanisms are not well known on how structures ignite in association with wildland fires. In response to the need for a better understanding of wildland/urban interface ignition mechanisms and a method of assessing the ignition risk,...

  10. Metal-organic and supramolecular architectures based on mechanically interlocked molecules

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernando, Isurika Rosini

    The focus of this work is on mechanically interlocked molecules (MIMs), which have unusual physicochemical and mechanical properties with potential applications in nano-scale/molecular devices and high strength materials. Rotaxanes, for example, consist of an axle-like molecule threaded through a wheel-like molecule, with bulky groups at the two ends of the axle preventing the wheel from dissociating. The position of the wheel along the axle can be switched in a controllable and reversible manner by applying external stimuli, a feature that might lead to the next generation of computers. Molecularly woven materials (MWMs), another example of molecules with mechanically interlocked features, are predicted to be unprecedentedly strong while being lightweight and flexible. With the ultimate goal of achieving control over the functioning of molecular devices in the solid state, a variety of pseudorotaxane building blocks were prepared and characterized, including a novel, rare blue-colored motif. The temperature-dependent assembly/disassembly of pseudorotaxanes was exploited for the construction of single-wavelength colorimetric temperature sensors over a 100 °C window. Pseudorotaxanes based on aromatic crown ether wheels and disubstituted 4,4'-bipyridinium axles were converted into rotaxanes upon binding to metal complexes (zinc, cadmium, mercury, copper, cobalt), and the formation of ordered crystalline arrays was studied in the solid state. The columnar organization of pseudorotaxanes by Hg2X6 2-- complexes (X = Cl, Br, I), leading to unprecedented dichroic (blue/red) rotaxane crystals, was demonstrated for the first time. From the crystal structures studied it became apparent that negatively charged metal complexes are needed for successful assembly with the positively charged pseudorotaxane units. To be able to use the more common, positively charged metal ions for rotaxane framework construction, neutral and negatively charged pseudorotaxanes were synthesized

  11. Tank farm potential ignition sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scaief, C.C. III.

    1996-01-01

    This document identifies equipment, instrumentation, and sensors that are located in-tank as well as ex-tank in areas that may have communication paths with the tank vapor space. For each item, and attempt is made to identify the potential for ignition of flammable vapors using a graded approach. The scope includes all 177 underground storage tanks

  12. Software Development for Auto-Generation of Interlocking Knowledge base using Artificial Intelligence Approach

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ko, Yun Seok [Nanseoul University (Korea); Kim, JOng Sun [Kwangwoon University (Korea)

    1999-06-01

    This paper proposes IIKBAG (Intelligent Interlocking Knowledge Base Generator) which can build automatically the interlocking knowledge base utilized as the real-time interlocking strategy of the electronic interlocking system in order to enhance it's reliability and expansion. The IIKBAG consists of the inference engine and the knowledge base. The former has an auto-learning function which searches all the train routes for the given station model based on heuristic search technique while dynamically searching the model, and then generates automatically the interlocking patterns obtained from the interlocking relations of signal facilities on the routes. The latter is designed as the structure which the real-time expert system embedded on IS (Interlocking System) can use directly in order to enhances the reliability and accuracy. The IIKBAG is implemented in C computer language for the purpose of the build and interface of the station structure database. And, a typical station model is simulated to prove the validity of the proposed IIKBAG. (author). 13 refs., 5 figs., 2 tabs.

  13. Compressibility effects on double tearing mode interlocking in differentially rotating plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Xian-Qu; Wang, Zheng-Xiong; Wei, Lai; Xu, Wen-Bin

    2012-01-01

    Effects of compressibility on the double tearing modes (DTMs) in rotating plasmas are numerically investigated by using a compressible magnetohydrodynamics (MHD) model. It is found that due to the compressibility effects, the threshold of the interlocking magnetic island width in the slow and intermediate rotation regimes is larger than the counterpart in the incompressible plasmas. In the fast rotation regime, the compressible effect makes the DTM islands interlock more easily and faster. Moreover, in the very fast rotation regime, the plasma rotation can more effectively suppress the DTM islands. The scalings of the interlocking threshold in the different rotation regimes are obtained. Effects of plasma viscosity and beta on the DTM interlocking in the compressible plasmas are also discussed. -- Highlights: ► The threshold of the interlocking island width is larger than the counterpart in the incompressible plasmas. ► Compressible effect makes the islands interlock more easily and faster. ► The plasma rotation can more effectively suppress the DTM islands in the very fast rotation regime. ► Plasma beta effect on DTM interlocking is discussed.

  14. Availability Analysis of the Ventilation Stack CAM Interlock System

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    YOUNG, J.

    2000-01-01

    Ventilation Stack Continuous Air Monitor (CAM) Interlock System failure modes, failure frequencies and system availability have been evaluated for the RPP. The evaluation concludes that CAM availability is as high as assumed in the safety analysis and that the current routine system surveillance is adequate to maintain this availability. Further, requiring an alarm to actuate upon CAM failure is not necessary to maintain the availability credited in the safety analysis, nor is such an arrangement predicted to significantly improve system availability. However, if CAM failures were only detected by the 92-day functional tests required in the Authorization Basis (AB), CAM availability would be much less than that credited in the safety analysis. Therefore it is recommended that the current surveillance practice of daily simple system checks, 30-day source checks and 92-day functional tests be continued in order to maintain CAM availability

  15. Structural damage monitoring of harbor caissons with interlocking condition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huynh, Thanh Canh; Lee, So Young; Nauyen, Khac Duy; Kim, Jeong Tae [Pukyong National Univ., Busan (Korea, Republic of)

    2012-12-15

    The objective of this study is to monitor the health status of harbor caissons which have potential foundation damage. To obtain the objective, the following approaches are performed. Firstly, a structural damage monitoring(SDM) method is designed for interlocked multiple caisson structures. The SDM method utilizes the change in modal strain energy to monitor the foundation damage in a target caisson unit. Secondly, a finite element model of a caisson system which consists of three caisson units is established to verify the feasibility of the proposed method. In the finite element simulation, the caisson units are constrained each other by shear key connections. The health status of the caisson system against various levels of foundation damage is monitored by measuring relative modal displacements between the adjacent caissons.

  16. Structural damage monitoring of harbor caissons with interlocking condition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huynh, Thanh Canh; Lee, So Young; Nauyen, Khac Duy; Kim, Jeong Tae

    2012-01-01

    The objective of this study is to monitor the health status of harbor caissons which have potential foundation damage. To obtain the objective, the following approaches are performed. Firstly, a structural damage monitoring(SDM) method is designed for interlocked multiple caisson structures. The SDM method utilizes the change in modal strain energy to monitor the foundation damage in a target caisson unit. Secondly, a finite element model of a caisson system which consists of three caisson units is established to verify the feasibility of the proposed method. In the finite element simulation, the caisson units are constrained each other by shear key connections. The health status of the caisson system against various levels of foundation damage is monitored by measuring relative modal displacements between the adjacent caissons

  17. Ignition and burn control characteristics of thermonuclear plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chaniotakis, E.A.

    1990-01-01

    Achieving the long sought goal of fusion energy requires the attainment of an ignited and controlled thermonuclear plasma. Obtaining an ignited plasma in a tokamak device requires consideration of both the physics of the plasma and the engineering of the machine. With the aide of completely analytical procedure optimized and ignited tokamaks are obtained under various physics assumptions. These designs show the possible advantage of tokamaks characterized by high (∼4.5) aspect ratio, and high (∼15 T) toroidal magnetic field. The control of an ignited plasma is investigated by using auxiliary power modulation. With auxiliary power stable operating points can be created with Q ∼50. Recognizing the need for a fast 1 1/2-D transport model for studying profile effects the plasma transport equations are solved using variational methods. A computer model based on the variational method has been developed. This model solves the 1 1/2-D transport equation very fast with little loss of accuracy. 74 refs., 70 figs., 8 tabs

  18. Laser ignition application in a space experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liou, Larry C.; Culley, Dennis E.

    1993-01-01

    A laser ignition system is proposed for the Combustion Experiment Module on an orbiting spacecraft. The results of a design study are given using the scheduled 'Flame Ball Experiment' as the design guidelines. Three laser ignition mechanisms and wavelengths are evaluated. A prototype laser is chosen and its specifications are given, followed by consideration of the beam optical arrangement, the ignition power requirement, the laser ignition system weight, size, reliability, and laser cooling and power consumption. Electromagnetic interference to the onboard electronics caused by the laser ignition process is discussed. Finally, ground tests are suggested.

  19. Desensitizing nano powders to electrostatic discharge ignition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Steelman, Ryan [Texas Tech Univ., Lubbock, TX (United States). Dept. of Mechanical Engineering; Clark, Billy [Texas Tech Univ., Lubbock, TX (United States). Dept. of Mechanical Engineering; Pantoya, Michelle L. [Texas Tech Univ., Lubbock, TX (United States). Dept. of Mechanical Engineering; Heaps, Ronald J. [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Daniels, Michael A. [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States)

    2015-08-01

    Electrostatic discharge (ESD) is a main cause for ignition in powder media ranging from grain silos to fireworks. Nanoscale particles are orders of magnitude more ESD ignition sensitive than their micron scale counterparts. This study shows that at least 13 vol. % carbon nanotubes (CNT) added to nano-aluminum and nano-copper oxide particles (nAl + CuO) eliminates ESD ignition sensitivity. The CNT act as a conduit for electric energy and directs electric charge through the powder to desensitize the reactive mixture to ignition. For nanoparticles, the required CNT concentration for desensitizing ESD ignition acts as a diluent to quench energy propagation.

  20. Focus issue introduction: Laser Ignition Conference.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taira, Takunori; Furutani, Hirohide; Guo, Chunlei; Wintner, Ernst; Akamatsu, Fumiteru; Lucht, Robert; Washio, Kunihiko

    2014-03-10

    The purpose of this feature issue is to share information on laser ignition and related sciences and technologies. This feature offers five papers in the field that cover aspects of laser-induced laser ignition, including novel giant pulse micro-lasers, new phenomena of laser breakdown, advanced combustion systems and applications. These topics were chosen from the first Laser Ignition Conference (LIC) covering the topics of high brightness lasers for ignition and diagnostics, laser ignited engines for power generators and vehicles, and from a joint symposium with the Laser Display Conference covering applications of high brightness lasers.

  1. Communities detection as a tool to assess a reform of the Italian interlocking directorship network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drago, Carlo; Ricciuti, Roberto

    2017-01-01

    Interlocking directorships are important communication channels among companies and may have anticompetitive effect. A corporate governance reform was introduced in 2011 to prevent interlocking directorships in the financial sector. We apply community detection techniques to the analysis of the networks in 2009 and 2012 to ascertain the effect of such reform on the Italian directorship network. We find that, although the number of interlocking directorships decreases in 2012, the reduction takes place mainly at the periphery of the network. The network core is stable, allowing the most connected companies to keep their strategic position.

  2. Flaming alcoholic drinks: flirting with danger.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Alethea; Frew, Quentin; Yousif, Ali; Ueckermann, Nicola; Dziewulksi, Peter

    2014-01-01

    Alcohol-related burn injuries carry significant mortality and morbidity rates. Flaming alcoholic beverages served in trendy bars and clubs are becoming increasingly popular. The dangers associated with an ignited alcoholic drink are often underestimated by party goers whose risk assessment ability is already impaired by heavy alcohol consumption. The authors present two cases demonstrating the varied severity of burn injuries associated with flaming alcoholic drinks, and their clinical management. Consumption of flaming alcoholic drinks poses potential risks for burn injuries. Further support is required to enable national and local agencies to implement effective interventions in drinking environments.

  3. The effect of kerosene injection on ignition probability of local ignition in a scramjet combustor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bao, Heng; Zhou, Jin; Pan, Yu

    2017-03-01

    The spark ignition of kerosene is investigated in a scramjet combustor with a flight condition of Ma 4, 17 km. Based plentiful of experimental data, the ignition probabilities of the local ignition have been acquired for different injection setups. The ignition probability distributions show that the injection pressure and injection location have a distinct effect on spark ignition. The injection pressure has both upper and lower limit for local ignition. Generally, the larger mass flow rate will reduce the ignition probability. The ignition position also affects the ignition near the lower pressure limit. The reason is supposed to be the cavity swallow effect on upstream jet spray near the leading edge, which will make the cavity fuel rich. The corner recirculation zone near the front wall of the cavity plays a significant role in the stabilization of local flame.

  4. Tritium and ignition target management at the National Ignition Facility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Draggoo, Vaughn

    2013-06-01

    Isotopic mixtures of hydrogen constitute the basic fuel for fusion targets of the National Ignition Facility (NIF). A typical NIF fusion target shot requires approximately 0.5 mmoles of hydrogen gas and as much as 750 GBq (20 Ci) of 3H. Isotopic mix ratios are specified according to the experimental shot/test plan and the associated test objectives. The hydrogen isotopic concentrations, absolute amounts, gas purity, configuration of the target, and the physical configuration of the NIF facility are all parameters and conditions that must be managed to ensure the quality and safety of operations. An essential and key step in the preparation of an ignition target is the formation of a ~60 μm thick hydrogen "ice" layer on the inner surface of the target capsule. The Cryogenic Target Positioning System (Cryo-Tarpos) provides gas handling, cyro-cooling, x-ray imaging systems, and related instrumentation to control the volumes and temperatures of the multiphase (solid, liquid, and gas) hydrogen as the gas is condensed to liquid, admitted to the capsule, and frozen as a single spherical crystal of hydrogen in the capsule. The hydrogen fuel gas is prepared in discrete 1.7 cc aliquots in the LLNL Tritium Facility for each ignition shot. Post-shot hydrogen gas is recovered in the NIF Tritium Processing System (TPS). Gas handling systems, instrumentation and analytic equipment, material accounting information systems, and the shot planning systems must work together to ensure that operational and safety requirements are met.

  5. Investigating the outer-bulb discharge as ignition aid for automotive-HID lamps

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bergner, A; Groeger, S; Hoebing, T; Ruhrmann, C; Mentel, J; Awakowicz, P; Hechtfischer, U; Tochadse, G

    2014-01-01

    This work considers the ignition process of mercury-free high-intensity discharge lamps used for car headlights. These lamps have to run-up fast. This is achieved with a high xenon pressure of about 15 bar (cold) in the inner bulb. The high filling-gas pressure causes an increased ignition voltage compared with lower-pressure lamps used in general-lighting applications. In this paper the possibility is investigated to reduce the ignition voltage by optimizing a dielectric-barrier discharge (DBD) in the outer bulb working as ignition aid. A special outer bulb was built up allowing gas exchange and adjustment of the gas pressure. For diagnostic purposes different electrical and optical methods are used, namely the recording of ignition voltage, ignition current and light emission by a photo-diode signal on nanosecond time scale as well as short-time photography by a intensified charge-coupled device camera. It was found that the DBD mainly generates a potential distribution within the lamp which supports ignition by an increase in the E-field in front of the electrodes and the wall. It is shown that this effect is distinctly more effective than UV radiation potentially emitted by the DBD. (paper)

  6. Laboratory analysis of the infiltration capacity of interlocking concrete block pavements in car parks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sañudo-Fontaneda, Luis A; Rodriguez-Hernandez, Jorge; Vega-Zamanillo, Angel; Castro-Fresno, Daniel

    2013-01-01

    Interlocking concrete block pavements (ICBPs) have been widely used in car parks to reduce runoff. Researches have demonstrated that clogging is the most influential factor in the reduction of the infiltration capacity of this type of permeable pavement. Nevertheless, there is no laboratory study of the infiltration performance of ICBPs that combines clogging levels with variables related with the topography of car parks such as runoff surface length (R(SL)) and surface slope (S(S)). This paper studies the infiltration behaviour of ICBP during their operational life in a car park using an improved version of the Cantabrian Fixed (CF) Infiltrometer. This laboratory device simulates direct rainfall and runoff from adjacent impervious areas over an ICBPs surface of 0.25 m(2) for different slopes (0, 3, 5, 7 and 10%) and three scenarios of clogging (surface newly built, surface clogged and surface clogged with maintenance). This paper presents the results of the tests and a statistical analysis based on three regression models (corresponding to each clogging scenario) depending on the R(SL) and S(S) variables. All models passed a confidence level of 95%, presenting high R(2) values and showing that R(SL) is a more influential variable than the S(S) for all clogging scenarios.

  7. Development of Remote Control and Interlock System for the PEFP Microwave Ion Source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Song, Young Gi; Seol, Kyung Tae; Kwon, Hyeok Jung; Jang, Ji Ho; Cho, Yong Sub

    2011-01-01

    The control system for a microwave ion source as an isolated high voltage device is a main part of the PEFP distributed control system. The system is used to control two sets of microwave ion sources, the remote control and the interlock system. A VME system with an embedded Power PC CPU is used as main computer. The VME system is dedicated to control and monitoring of the ion source operation. An isolated control system has been designed and developed for remote control and monitoring of a microwave generator and various power supplies. As the source is placed on high voltage platform, optical fiber isolation has been used between the serial to optical fiber VME I/O board and the control system on the high voltage platform. These are connected through RS232 serial interface. A fast Ethernet is used to communicate between the microwave ion source control system and other control stations in the PEFP control system. EPICS toolkit is adopted to provide network programming and user interface by using EPICS Channel Access (CA)

  8. BIT: Biosignal Igniter Toolkit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    da Silva, Hugo Plácido; Lourenço, André; Fred, Ana; Martins, Raúl

    2014-06-01

    The study of biosignals has had a transforming role in multiple aspects of our society, which go well beyond the health sciences domains to which they were traditionally associated with. While biomedical engineering is a classical discipline where the topic is amply covered, today biosignals are a matter of interest for students, researchers and hobbyists in areas including computer science, informatics, electrical engineering, among others. Regardless of the context, the use of biosignals in experimental activities and practical projects is heavily bounded by the cost, and limited access to adequate support materials. In this paper we present an accessible, albeit versatile toolkit, composed of low-cost hardware and software, which was created to reinforce the engagement of different people in the field of biosignals. The hardware consists of a modular wireless biosignal acquisition system that can be used to support classroom activities, interface with other devices, or perform rapid prototyping of end-user applications. The software comprehends a set of programming APIs, a biosignal processing toolbox, and a framework for real time data acquisition and postprocessing. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Ground-state thermodynamics of bistable redox-active donor-acceptor mechanically interlocked molecules.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fahrenbach, Albert C; Bruns, Carson J; Cao, Dennis; Stoddart, J Fraser

    2012-09-18

    Fashioned through billions of years of evolution, biological molecular machines, such as ATP synthase, myosin, and kinesin, use the intricate relative motions of their components to drive some of life's most essential processes. Having control over the motions in molecules is imperative for life to function, and many chemists have designed, synthesized, and investigated artificial molecular systems that also express controllable motions within molecules. Using bistable mechanically interlocked molecules (MIMs), based on donor-acceptor recognition motifs, we have sought to imitate the sophisticated nanoscale machines present in living systems. In this Account, we analyze the thermodynamic characteristics of a series of redox-switchable [2]rotaxanes and [2]catenanes. Control and understanding of the relative intramolecular movements of components in MIMs have been vital in the development of a variety of applications of these compounds ranging from molecular electronic devices to drug delivery systems. These bistable donor-acceptor MIMs undergo redox-activated switching between two isomeric states. Under ambient conditions, the dominant translational isomer, the ground-state coconformation (GSCC), is in equilibrium with the less favored translational isomer, the metastable-state coconformation (MSCC). By manipulating the redox state of the recognition site associated with the GSCC, we can stimulate the relative movements of the components in these bistable MIMs. The thermodynamic parameters of model host-guest complexes provide a good starting point to rationalize the ratio of GSCC to MSCC at equilibrium. The bistable [2]rotaxanes show a strong correlation between the relative free energies of model complexes and the ground-state distribution constants (K(GS)). This relationship does not always hold for bistable [2]catenanes, most likely because of the additional steric and electronic constraints present when the two rings are mechanically interlocked with each other

  10. The Ignition Physics Study Group

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sheffield, J.

    1987-01-01

    In the US magnetic fusion program there have been relatively few standing committees of experts, with the mandate to review a particular sub-area on a continuing basis. Generally, ad hoc committees of experts have been assembled to advise on a particular issue. There has been a lack of broad, systematic and continuing review and analysis, combining the wisdom of experts in the field, in support of decision making. The Ignition Physics Study Group (IPSG) provides one forum for the systematic discussion of fusion science, complementing the other exchanges of information, and providing a most important continuity in this critical area. In a similar manner to the European program, this continuity of discussion and the focus provided by a national effort, Compact Ignition Tokamak (CIT), and international effort, Engineering Test Reactor (ETR), are helping to lower those barriers which previously were an impediment to rational debate

  11. Relative merits of size, field, and current on ignited tokamak performance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Uckan, N.A.

    1988-01-01

    A simple global analysis is developed to examine the relative merits of size (L = a or R/sub 0 /), field (B/sub 0 /), and current (I) on ignition regimes of tokamaks under various confinement scaling laws. Scalings of key parameters with L, B/sub 0 /, and I are presented at several operating points, including (a) optimal path to ignition (saddle point), (b) ignition at minimum beta, (c) ignition at 10 keV, and (d) maximum performance at the limits of density and beta. Expressions for the saddle point and the minimum conditions needed for ohmic ignition are derived analytically for any confinement model of the form tau/sub E/ ∼ n/sup x/T/sup y/. For a wide range of confinement models, the ''figure of merit'' parameters and I are found to give a good indication of the relative performance of the devices where q* is the cylindrical safety factor. As an illustration, the results are applied to representative ''CIT'' (as a class of compact, high-field ignition tokamaks) and ''Super-JETs'' [a class of large-size (few x JET), low-field, high-current (≥20-MA) devices.

  12. Interlock recovery during the drying, calcination and vitrification phase of Am/Cm processing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Snyder, T.K.

    2000-01-01

    This document summarizes the results of five CIM5 [5-inch Cylindrical Induction Melter] runs designed to demonstrate power interlock recovery methods during the drying, calcination and vitrification phases of the Am/Cm melter cycle

  13. Incorporation of safety interlocks in commercial robotics for handling of nuclear materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moore, F.W.

    1986-01-01

    The adaptation of commercial robotic systems to applications in the manufacturing of nuclear fuel has required the addition of safety interlocks as to the handling and accountability of nuclear materials. Also, additional safety interlocks are required when the robots are operated in containment enclosures that are environmentally sealed. Interlocks have been incorporated in a commercial robot which was modified and with additional interlocks into the existing robotic control system. The robotic system has been installed in the containment enclosure as part of the pellet storage subsystem in the Secure Automated Fabrication facility currently being built by Westinghouse Hanford Company for the US Department of Energy. The system has been installed in the Fuel Cycle Plant and is scheduled for initial operational testing in 1986

  14. 18 CFR 45.9 - Automatic authorization of certain interlocking positions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... owned, wholly or in part, by the other and, as its primary business, owns or operates transmission or... interlock involves affiliated public utilities. (b) Conditions of authorization. As a condition of...

  15. Compositional Model Checking of Interlocking Systems for Lines with Multiple Stations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Macedo, Hugo Daniel dos Santos; Fantechi, Alessandro; Haxthausen, Anne Elisabeth

    2017-01-01

    In the railway domain safety is guaranteed by an interlocking system which translates operational decisions into commands leading to field operations. Such a system is safety critical and demands thorough formal verification during its development process. Within this context, our work has focused...... on the extension of a compositional model checking approach to formally verify interlocking system models for lines with multiple stations. The idea of the approach is to decompose a model of the interlocking system by applying cuts at the network modelling level. The paper introduces an alternative cut (the...... linear cut) to a previously proposed cut (border cut). Powered with the linear cut, the model checking approach is then applied to the verification of an interlocking system controlling a real-world multiple station line....

  16. CAMAC-based interlock system for power-supply-hardware protection on MFTF

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Strauch, M.S.

    1981-01-01

    This interlock module accepts 16 inputs and generates, in conjunction with an internal PROM map, 8 outputs. This decision process is autonomous of the CAMAC dataway and host computer. The map is generated, burned and verified by a user interactive program written to accept input/output equations in Boolean algebra. The interlock module requires the host computer to periodically interrogate it to verify proper operation of the module, host computer and date link; otherwise, permissives are dropped. An internal mask register may be used to override interlock inputs. This mask is perishable and must be constantly refreshed. Output drivers may be operated in a latch/no latch mode. This prevents outputs, once dropped, from being reasserted even if the proper input sequence is reestablished. A first-out register may be utilized to determine which input has dropped first in the event that chain reactions are developed among the interlock inputs

  17. Low current approach to ignition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cenacchi, G.; Sugiyama, L.; Airoldi, A.; Coppi, B.

    1996-01-01

    The open-quotes standardclose quotes path to achieve ignition conditions so far has been that of producing plasmas with the maximum current and poloidal field that axe compatible with the applied toroidal field and the geometry of the adopted configuration (the low q a approach.) The other approach is that motivated by recent experiments with reversed shear configurations, with relatively low currents and high fields corresponding to high values of q a (e-g., q a ≅ 6). While the first approach can be pursued with ohmic heating alone, the second one necessarily involves an auxiliary heating system. One of the advantages of this approach is that the onset of large scale internal modes can be avoided as q(ψ) is kept above 1 over the entire plasma column. Since quite peaked density profiles are produced in the regimes where enhanced confinement is observed, the α-particle power levels for which ignition can be reached and therefore the thermal wall loading on the first wall, can be reduced relatively to the standard, low q a , approach. The possibility is considered that ignition is reached in the reversed shear, high q a , regime and that this is followed by a transition to non-reversed profiles, or even the low q a regime, assuming that the excitation of modes involving magnetic reconnection will not undermine the needed degree of confinement. These results have been demonstrated by numerical transport simulation for the Ignitor-Ult machine, but are applicable to all high field ignition experiments

  18. A STUDY OF THE MANAGEMENT OF OPEN FRACTURES OF TIBIA BY UNREAMED INTERLOCKING NAIL

    OpenAIRE

    Kuppa Srinivas; Yerukala Ramana; Dema Rajaiah; Mohammad Akbar Khan; Sujith Omkaram; Venkateswar Reddy

    2015-01-01

    AIMS AND OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the results of closed interlocking intramedullary nailing without reaming in the treatment of open fractures of t he tibial shaft and study the difficulties (complications) encountered during the operative study. To compare the efficacy of interlocking intramedullary nailing without reaming in treating open fractures of tibia, Time required for the union of fracture, Range of motion of ankle and knee joint, Rate of malunion and mal rota...

  19. Radiation-free Insertion of Distal Interlocking Screw in Tibial and Femur Nailing: A Simple Technique

    OpenAIRE

    Soni, Ritesh Kumar; Mehta, Surender Mohan; Awasthi, Bhanu; Singh, Janith Lal; Kumar, Amit; Thakur, Lokesh; Tripathy, Sujit Kumar

    2012-01-01

    Background: Distal interlocking screw insertion in intramedullary nailing of long-bone fracture is a challenging task for orthopedic surgeons. It is difficult particularly when the surgeon is in his learning stage or when image intensifier is not available. We describe a radiation-free technique of distal interlocking screw insertion which is easy and practicable. Materials and Methods: In this technique, a same length nail is placed over the skin (outer nail) and through its distal-most scre...

  20. Governance of pension funds: interlocking and compensation of Australian superannuation fund boards

    OpenAIRE

    Ooi, Elizabeth Meishan

    2017-01-01

    This thesis documents the incidence and determinants of board interlocking (where directors simultaneously sit on multiple boards) in pension funds and examines its effect on fund performance. It also investigates the determinants of pension fund director compensation. The motivation to examine these issues stems from the distinctive interlocking and compensation practices in pension funds. Data on a sample of 249 Australian pension funds from 2004 to 2011 is collected from fund documents ...

  1. 10 CFR 26.91 - Acceptable devices for conducting initial and confirmatory tests for alcohol and methods of use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... and quality control of ASDs. (1) Licensees and other entities shall implement the most recent version... version of NHTSA's Conforming Products List (CPL) for such devices. An ASD that is listed in the NHTSA CPL.... (2) Licensees and other entities may not use an ASD that fails the specified quality control checks...

  2. Study of measurement of the alcohol biomarker phosphatidylethanol (PEth) in dried blood spot (DBS) samples and application of a volumetric DBS device.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beck, Olof; Kenan Modén, Naama; Seferaj, Sabina; Lenk, Gabriel; Helander, Anders

    2018-04-01

    Phosphatidylethanol (PEth) is a group of phospholipids formed in cell membranes following alcohol consumption. PEth measurement in whole blood samples is established as a specific alcohol biomarker with clinical and medico-legal applications. This study further evaluated the usefulness of dried blood spot (DBS) samples collected on filter paper for PEth measurement. Specimens used were surplus volumes of venous whole blood sent for routine LC-MS/MS quantification of PEth 16:0/18:1, the major PEth homolog. DBS samples were prepared by pipetting blood on Whatman 903 Protein Saver Cards and onto a volumetric DBS device (Capitainer). The imprecision (CV) of the DBS sample amount based on area and weight measurements of spot punches were 23-28%. Investigation of the relationship between blood hematocrit and PEth concentration yielded a linear, positive correlation, and at around 1.0-1.5μmol/L PEth 16:0/18:1, the PEth concentration increased by ~0.1μmol/L for every 5% increase in hematocrit. There was a close agreement between the PEth concentrations obtained with whole blood samples and the corresponding results using Whatman 903 (PEth DBS =1.026 PEth WB +0.013) and volumetric device (PEth DBS =1.045 PEth WB +0.016) DBS samples. The CV of PEth quantification in DBS samples at concentrations≥0.05μmol/L were ≤15%. The present results further confirmed the usefulness of DBS samples for PEth measurement. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. The physics of an ignited tokamak

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Troyon, F.

    1990-10-01

    There appears to be a consensus that time has come to embark on the design and construction of the next generation of tokamaks which is at the origin of the ITER initiative. Different proposals have been made based on different appreciation as to the size of the step which can be taken, related to considerations of cost, risk and duration of construction. A class of devices which may be considered the last the very high-field, high density ALCATOR-Frascati line of tokamaks have been proposed for some years specifically for this purpose. Today there remain three such projects: Ignitor, Ignitex and CIT. The technology chosen limits the pulse length to a few seconds. These devices have evolved through the years becoming larger and much more expensive than originally anticipated, increasing the pressure to do more than just a simple demonstration of ignition. There is another class of more ambitious devices which aim at creating long burning plasmas in conditions as close as possible to those of a tokamak reactor in order to address all the plasma physics problems associated with long burn. Three such projects, NET, the european next step after JET, ITER and JIT are good examples of this approach. The ideal would be to design a device with sufficient margin to study burning plasmas over a wide range of parameters. The object of this didactic presentation is to describe the common physics basis of all these projects, compare their expected performance using present knowledge and list the physics problems associated with a burning plasma experiment. The comparison is not meant to be a judgement since the important parameter is the cost/benefit ratio which is a matter of appreciation at this stage. 6 refs., 3 figs., 1 tab

  4. Equilibrium system analysis in a tokamak ignition experiment. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carrera, R.; Weldon, W.F.; Woodson, H.H.

    1989-10-01

    The objective of the IGNITEX Project is to produce and control ignited plasmas for scientific study in the simplest and least expensive way possible. The original concept was proposed by both physics and engineering researchers along the following line of thought. Question: Is there any theoretically simple, compact and reliable way of achieving fusion ignition according to the results of the fusion research program for the last decades? Answer: Yes. An experiment to be carried out in an ohmically heated compact tokamak device with 20 T field on plasma axis. Question: Is there any practical way to carry out that experiment at low cost in the near term? Answer: Yes. Using a single-turn coil magnet system with homopolar power supplies.

  5. Equilibrium system analysis in a tokamak ignition experiment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carrera, R.; Weldon, W.F.; Woodson, H.H.

    1989-10-01

    The objective of the IGNITEX Project is to produce and control ignited plasmas for scientific study in the simplest and least expensive way possible. The original concept was proposed by both physics and engineering researchers along the following line of thought. Question: Is there any theoretically simple, compact and reliable way of achieving fusion ignition according to the results of the fusion research program for the last decades Answer: Yes. An experiment to be carried out in an ohmically heated compact tokamak device with 20 T field on plasma axis. Question: Is there any practical way to carry out that experiment at low cost in the near term Answer: Yes. Using a single-turn coil magnet system with homopolar power supplies.

  6. Alcohol Alert

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... of Alcohol Consumption Alcohol's Effects on the Body Alcohol Use Disorder Fetal Alcohol Exposure Support & Treatment Alcohol Policy Special ... 466 KB] No. 81: Exploring Treatment Options for Alcohol Use Disorders [ PDF - 539K] No. 80: Alcohol and HIV/AIDS: ...

  7. A sustained-arc ignition system for internal combustion engines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Birchenough, A. G.

    1977-01-01

    A sustained-arc ignition system was developed for internal combustion engines. It produces a very-long-duration ignition pulse with an energy in the order of 100 millijoules. The ignition pulse waveform can be controlled to predetermined actual ignition requirements. The design of the sustained-arc ignition system is presented in the report.

  8. Strength properties of interlocking compressed earth brick units

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saari, S.; Bakar, B. H. Abu; Surip, N. A.

    2017-10-01

    This study presents a laboratory investigation on the properties of interlocking compressed earth brick (ICEB) units. Compressive strength, which is one of the most important properties in masonry structures, is used to determine masonry performance. The compressive strength of the ICEB units was determined by applying a compressive strength test for 340 units from four types of ICEB. To analyze the strength of the ICEB units, each unit was capped by a steel plate at the top and bottom to create a flat surface, and then ICEB was loaded until failure. The average compressive strength of the corresponding ICEB units are as follows: wall brick, 19.15 N/mm2; beam brick, 16.99 N/mm2; column brick, 13.18 N/mm2; and half brick, 11.79 N/mm2. All the ICEB units had compressive strength of over 5 N/mm2, which is the minimum strength for a load-bearing brick. This study proves that ICEB units may be used as load-bearing bricks. The strength of ICEBs is equal to that of other common bricks and blocks that are currently available in the market.

  9. Water absorption characteristic of interlocking compressed earth brick units

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bakar, B. H. Abu; Saari, S.; Surip, N. A.

    2017-10-01

    This study aims to investigate the water absorption characteristic of interlocking compressed earth brick (ICEB) units. Apart from compressive strength, water absorption is an important property in masonry. This property can affect the quality of the brick itself and the bond strength between the brick and mortar in masonry structures and can result in reducing its strength properties. The units were tested for 24 h water absorption and 5 h boiling water absorption. A total of 170 ICEB units from four ICEB types underwent both tests. For the 24 h water absorption, the ICEB units were dried in the oven for 24 h and then cooled before being weighed. Thereafter, each brick was immersed in water for 24 h and weighed. The same specimens used for the 24 h water absorption test were re-used for the 5 h boiling water absorption test. After completing the 24 h water absorption test, the brick was boiled for 5-hours and weighed. The highest water absorption for the ICEBs in the 24-hour water absorption and 5 h boiling water absorption tests are 15.09% and 17.18%, respectively. The half brick has the highest water absorption (15.87%), whereas the beam brick has the lowest (13.20%). The water absorption of an ICEB unit is higher than that of normal bricks, although the water absorption of the former remains below the maximum rate of the brick water absorption (21%).

  10. Interlocked by nanoscale sculpturing: pure aluminum copper contacts (Conference Presentation)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerngross-Baytekin, Melike; Gerngross, Mark Daniel; Carstensen, Jürgen; Adelung, Rainer

    2017-06-01

    Connecting metals reliable with different corrosion potential is a well-known challenge. An extreme example are copper aluminum contacts. Galvanic corrosion occurs if the two different metals are in contact with each other and an electrolyte, the aluminum becomes susceptible to corrosion under current flow. Usually, antioxidant pastes containing metals are employed but create difficulties e.g. for fatigue resistant power electronic connections. The recently described process of nanoscale sculpturing [1] offers an alternative. Usually, if the surface of metals like aluminium are prepared they are just arbitrary cuts through the bulk. There is no optimization of the surface grain structure towards stability at all. Neither the crystalline facets in the grains are in their most stable orientation nor is the protective oxide shell the most stable one. The nanoscale sculpturing approach is carving out the most stable grains and planes by chemical or electrochemical treatment. The decisive trick is that the chemistry is targeting towards the instable oxide and not the metal. Aluminium sample surfaces including alloys like AA575 exhibit afterwards single crystalline surface facets covered with nanoscale stable oxide films. Galvanically deposited copper forms extremely reliable interlocked connections on top, even allowing for soldering on top of their surface.

  11. Interlocking Corporate Directorates and the Global City Hierarchy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeffrey Kentor

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available This paper examines the direct and indirect economic linkages of the most prominent cities in the world, those commonly referred to as “global cities”, in terms of the direct and indirect linkages of the boards of directors of Fortune Global 500 firms headquartered in a given city with boards of directors of other firms. Specifically, we identify the interlocks of corporate boards located within these major cities with other Fortune 500 boards of directors by degrees of separation, and present a new ranking for selected global cities based upon these direct and indirect ties. We find that New York clearly dominates these economic linkages, followed by London and Paris. This is most pronounced for financial companies. Contrary to other global city rankings, we locate Tokyo below Frankfurt and Chicago on this dimension. We argue that these multiple levels of indirect relationships reflect a significant, and until now unexplored, dimension of what it means to be a “global” city.

  12. Understanding Biomass Ignition in Power Plant Mills

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schwarzer, Lars; Jensen, Peter Arendt; Glarborg, Peter

    2017-01-01

    Converting existing coal fired power plants to biomass is a readily implemented strategy to increase the share of renewable energy. However, changing from one fuel to another is not straightforward: Experience shows that wood pellets ignite more readily than coal in power plant mills or storages....... This is not very well explained by apply-ing conventional thermal ignition theory. An experimental study at lab scale, using pinewood as an example fuel, was conducted to examine self-heating and self-ignition. Supplemental experiments were performed with bituminous coal. Instead of characterizing ignition...

  13. Electrostatic hazards of charging of bedclothes and ignition in medical facilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Endo, Yuta; Ohsawa, Atsushi; Yamaguma, Mizuki

    2018-02-26

    We investigated the charge generated on bedclothes (cotton and polyester) during bedding exchange with different humidities and the ignitability of an alcohol-based hand sanitizer (72.3 mass% ethanol) due to static spark with different temperatures to identify the hazards of electrostatic shocks and ignitions occurring previously in medical facilities. The results indicated that charging of the polyester bedclothes may induce a human body potential of over about 10 kV, resulting in shocks even at a relative humidity of 50%, and a human body potential of higher than about 8 kV can cause a risk for the ignition of the hand sanitizer. The grounding of human bodies via footwear and flooring, therefore, is essential to avoid such hazards (or to reduce such risks).

  14. Modelling piloted ignition of wood and plastics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Blijderveen, M. van; Bramer, E.A.; Brem, G.

    2012-01-01

    To gain insight in the startup of an incinerator, this article deals with piloted ignition. A newly developed model is described to predict the piloted ignition times of wood, PMMA and PVC. The model is based on the lower flammability limit and the adiabatic flame temperature at this limit. The

  15. 14 CFR 33.69 - Ignitions system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Ignitions system. 33.69 Section 33.69 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION AIRCRAFT AIRWORTHINESS STANDARDS: AIRCRAFT ENGINES Design and Construction; Turbine Aircraft Engines § 33.69 Ignitions system. Each...

  16. 14 CFR 33.37 - Ignition system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Ignition system. 33.37 Section 33.37 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION AIRCRAFT AIRWORTHINESS STANDARDS: AIRCRAFT ENGINES Design and Construction; Reciprocating Aircraft Engines § 33.37 Ignition system...

  17. Numerical simulation of spark ignition including ionization

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Thiele, M; Selle, S; Riedel, U; Warnatz, J; Maas, U

    2000-01-01

    A detailed understanding of the processes associated Midi spark ignition, as a first step during combustion, is of great importance fur clean operation of spark ignition engines. In the past 10 years. a growing concern for environmental protection, including low emission of pollutants, has increased

  18. A comparison of drivers with high versus low perceived risk of being caught and arrested for driving under the influence of alcohol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beck, Kenneth H; Fell, James C; Yan, Alice F

    2009-08-01

    To examine the beliefs, behaviors, and knowledge of drivers concerning drunk driving and to compare those with greater or lesser perceptions of risk of being caught driving while impaired. A random-digit-dial telephone survey was conducted of 850 licensed drivers throughout Maryland who reported their driving behaviors, crash history, beliefs about various alcohol countermeasures, and their knowledge of state alcohol laws. Most drivers (72%) did not feel that it was very likely that they would be stopped by the police if they drove after having too much to drink (low-risk perceivers). High-risk perceivers (28%) felt that it was very likely that they would be stopped and most (70%) felt that it was very likely that they would be arrested and convicted. Less than half (45%) of the low-risk perceivers felt that they would be arrested and convicted if they drove impaired. High-risk perceivers were significantly more likely to be non-white, less likely to drive 10 mph above the speed limit, but were more likely have five or more tickets in their lifetime and believed that sobriety checkpoints are effective. They were also more aware of laws regarding mandatory use of ignition interlocks for repeat driving under the influence (DUI) offenders and the zero tolerance law for under-21-year-old drivers. There is a need to elevate the perceived risk of being caught when driving while alcohol impaired. Despite several years of prevention programs, a substantial portion of Maryland drivers do not feel it very likely that they would be stopped by the police if they were to drive after drinking too much. Drivers who perceive these risks are more accepting of enforcement and treatment countermeasures and are more likely to report safer driving behaviors.

  19. Frictional Ignition Testing of Composite Materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peralta, Steve; Rosales, Keisa; Robinson, Michael J.; Stoltzfus, Joel

    2006-01-01

    The space flight community has been investigating lightweight composite materials for use in propellant tanks for both liquid and gaseous oxygen for space flight vehicles. The use of these materials presents some risks pertaining to ignition and burning hazards in the presence of oxygen. Through hazard analysis process, some ignition mechanisms have been identified as being potentially credible. One of the ignition mechanisms was reciprocal friction; however, test data do not exist that could be used to clear or fail these types of materials as "oxygen compatible" for the reciprocal friction ignition mechanism. Therefore, testing was performed at White Sands Test Facility (WSTF) to provide data to evaluate this ignition mechanism. This paper presents the test system, approach, data results, and findings of the reciprocal friction testing performed on composite sample materials being considered for propellant tanks.

  20. Shock ignition: modelling and target design robustness

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ribeyre, X; Lafon, M; Schurtz, G; Olazabal-Loume, M; Breil, J; Galera, S; Weber, S, E-mail: ribeyre@celia.u-bordeaux1.f [Centre Lasers Intenses et Applications, Universite Bordeaux 1, CNRS, CEA, Universite Bordeaux 1, 351, cours de la Liberation, 33405 Talence (France)

    2009-12-15

    Shock ignition of a pre-compressed deuterium tritium fuel is considered here. When properly timed, a converging shock launched in the target prior to stagnation time strongly enhances the hot spot pressure. This allows ignition to be reached in a nonisobaric configuration. We show in this work that the igniting mechanism is pressure amplification by shock convergence and shock collision. The shock ignition applied to the HiPER target allows one to study the robustness of this method. It is shown that the spike energy is not a critical parameter and that the spike power delivered on the target depends mainly on the shell implosion velocity. Finally, a family of homothetic targets ignited with a shock wave is studied.

  1. Understanding Biomass Ignition in Power Plant Mills

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schwarzer, Lars; Jensen, Peter Arendt; Glarborg, Peter

    2017-01-01

    % oxygen with those under inert atmosphere revealed two distinct pathways, pyrolysis and exothermic heterogeneous oxidation. At low temperatures and sufficient oxygen availability, heterogeneous oxidation of the solid seems to be favored over pyrolysis for wood, but not for coal. Current ignition models do......Converting existing coal fired power plants to biomass is a readily implemented strategy to increase the share of renewable energy. However, changing from one fuel to another is not straightforward: Experience shows that wood pellets ignite more readily than coal in power plant mills or storages....... This is not very well explained by apply-ing conventional thermal ignition theory. An experimental study at lab scale, using pinewood as an example fuel, was conducted to examine self-heating and self-ignition. Supplemental experiments were performed with bituminous coal. Instead of characterizing ignition...

  2. Fusion Ignition Research Experiment System Integration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brown, T.

    1999-01-01

    The FIRE (Fusion Ignition Research Experiment) configuration has been designed to meet the physics objectives and subsystem requirements in an arrangement that allows remote maintenance of in-vessel components and hands-on maintenance of components outside the TF (toroidal-field) boundary. The general arrangement consists of sixteen wedged-shaped TF coils that surround a free-standing central solenoid (CS), a double-wall vacuum vessel and internal plasma-facing components. A center tie rod is used to help support the vertical magnetic loads and a compression ring is used to maintain wedge pressure in the inboard corners of the TF coils. The magnets are liquid nitrogen cooled and the entire device is surrounded by a thermal enclosure. The double-wall vacuum vessel integrates cooling and shielding in a shape that maximizes shielding of ex-vessel components. The FIRE configuration development and integration process has evolved from an early stage of concept selection to a higher level of machine definition and component details. This paper describes the status of the configuration development and the integration of the major subsystem components

  3. Maintainability features of the compact ignition tokamak

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spampinato, P.T.; Bushnell, C.W.

    1986-01-01

    The Compact Ignition Tokamak (CIT) is a deuterium-tritium (D-T) device envisaged to be the next experimental reactor in the US Fusion Program. The reactor will initially operate in a nonactivated hydrogen phase for approximately two years. This will permit verification of the integrity of the total system and allow hands-on repair to equipment which has experienced shakedown and early operation failures. Once D-T operations commence, reactor maintenance will require remote handling techniques. An evaluation has been completed to determine what maintenance operations must be performed on the CIT. A maintenance philosophy has been developed which is based upon the use of manipulator systems and robotics in the test cell. Replacement of life-limited equipment will be accomplished using a modular design approach for components, with simple remotely operable interfaces. Examples of operations to be done remotely include: (1) replacing of rf antennae and Faraday shields, (2) uncoupling diagnostic and fueling penetrations, (3) removing of all port covers, and (4) replacing first wall armor tiles, optical mirrors, and vacuum windows

  4. Ca2+-sensors and ROS-GC: Interlocked sensory transduction elements: A review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rameshwar K Sharma

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available From its initial discovery that ROS-GC membrane guanylate cyclase is a mono-modal Ca2+-transduction system linked exclusively with the phototransduction machinery to the successive finding that it embodies a remarkable bimodal Ca2+signaling device, its widened transduction role in the general signaling mechanisms of the sensory neuron cells was envisioned. A theoretical concept was proposed where Ca2+-modulates ROS-GC through its generated cyclic GMP via a nearby cyclic nucleotide gated channel and creates a hyper- or depolarized sate in the neuron membrane (Ca2+ Binding Proteins 1:1, 7-11, 2006. The generated electric potential then becomes a mode of transmission of the parent [Ca2+]i signal. Ca2+ and ROS-GC are interlocked messengers in multiple sensory transduction mechanisms.This comprehensive review discusses the developmental stages to the present status of this concept and demonstrates how neuronal Ca2+-sensor proteins are the interconnected elements of this elegant ROS-GC transduction system. The focus is on the dynamism of the structural composition of this system, and how it accommodates selectivity and elasticity for the Ca2+ signals to perform multiple tasks linked with the SENSES of vision, smell and possibly of taste and the pineal gland. An intriguing illustration is provided for the Ca2+ sensor GCAP1 which displays its remarkable ability for its flexibility in function from being a photoreceptor sensor to an odorant receptor sensor. In doing so it reverses its function from an inhibitor of ROS-GC to the stimulator of ONE-GC membrane guanylate cyclase.

  5. Liquid nitrogen cooling considerations of the compact ignition tokamak

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dabiri, A.E.

    1986-01-01

    An analytical procedure was developed to estimate the cooldown time between pulses of the Compact Ignition Tokamak (CIT) utilizing liquid nitrogen. Fairly good agreement was obtained between the analysis results and those measured in the early fusion experimental devices. The cooldown time between pulses in the CIT is controlled by the energy disposition in the inner leg of the TF coil. A cooldown time of less than one hour is feasible for the CIT if fins are used in the cooling channels. An R and D experimental program is proposed to determine the actual cooldown time between pulses since this would be considered an issue in the conceptual design of the CIT

  6. Evaluation and application of a fast module in a PLC based interlock and control system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zaera-Sanz, M [Department of Physics, Mathematics and Computer Science, Higher School of Technical Sciences CEU, Universidad Cardenal Herrera, Valencia (Spain)], E-mail: manzaesan@yahoo.es

    2009-08-15

    The LHC Beam Interlock system requires a controller performing a simple matrix function to collect the different beam dump requests. To satisfy the expected safety level of the Interlock, the system should be robust and reliable. The PLC is a promising candidate to fulfil both aspects but too slow to meet the expected response time which is of the order of {mu}seconds. Siemens has introduced a 'so called' fast module (FM352-5 Boolean Processor). It provides independent and extremely fast control of a process within a larger control system using an onboard processor, a Field Programmable Gate Array (FPGA), to execute code in parallel which results in extremely fast scan times. It is interesting to investigate its features and to evaluate it as a possible candidate for the beam interlock system. This paper publishes the results of this study. As well, this paper could be useful for other applications requiring fast processing using a PLC.

  7. Evaluation of a fast PLC module in prospect of the LHC beam interlock system

    CERN Document Server

    Zaera-Sanz, Manuel

    2005-01-01

    The LHC Beam Interlock system requires a controller performing a simple matrix function to collect the different beam dump requests. To satisfy the expected safety level of the Interlock, the system should be robust and reliable. The PLC is a promising candidate to fulfil both aspects but too slow to meet the expected response time which is of the order of mseconds. Siemens has introduced a “so called” fast module (FM352-5 Boolean Processor) that provides independent and extremely fast control of a process within a larger control system using an onboard processor, a Field Programmable Gate Array (FPGA), to execute code in parallel which results in extremely fast scan times. It is interesting to investigate its features and to evaluate it as a possible candidate for the beam interlock system. This note publishes the results of this study. As well, this note could be useful for other applications requiring fast processing using a PLC.

  8. The Impact of Board Interlocks on Auditor Choice and Audit Fees

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Riise Johansen, Thomas; Pettersson, Kim

    2013-01-01

    Research Question/Issue This paper uses unique Danish data to examine whether non-executive directors draw on both direct and indirect ties in the network of interlocking directorates to impact auditor choice, and whether this impact has consequences for audit fees. Research Findings/Insight The ......Research Question/Issue This paper uses unique Danish data to examine whether non-executive directors draw on both direct and indirect ties in the network of interlocking directorates to impact auditor choice, and whether this impact has consequences for audit fees. Research Findings...... of the non-executive director–auditor relationship and the role that board networks have in governing auditor choice decisions. The study identifies interlocks as an infrastructure for differentiation in the audit market and determines that such differentiation is associated with an audit fee premium...

  9. Ulnar interlocking intramedullary nail stabilization of a proximal radio-ulnar fracture in a dog.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gatineau, Matthieu; Planté, Jérôme

    2010-12-01

    To report use of an ulnar interlocking intramedullary nail for repair of an open highly comminuted fracture of the proximal third of the antebrachium in a dog, caused by gunshot. Case report. 1.5-year old, 60 kg, neutered male Mastiff. An ulnar interlocking intramedullary nail was used to stabilize an open comminuted proximal antebrachial fracture and a cast applied for 4 weeks. Union by secondary bone healing occurred in 8 weeks. At 16 weeks, there was advanced remodeling of the radial and ulnar bony callus and fracture lines were no longer evident. Limb use was normal with normal pain free range of motion of the right elbow. Ulnar interlocking nail is a viable alternative treatment for highly comminuted fracture of the proximal third of the antebrachium in dogs. © Copyright 2010 by The American College of Veterinary Surgeons.

  10. Poly[ n ]catenanes: Synthesis of molecular interlocked chains

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wu, Qiong; Rauscher, Phillip M.; Lang, Xiaolong; Wojtecki, Rudy J.; de Pablo, Juan J.; Hore, Michael J. A.; Rowan, Stuart J.

    2017-11-30

    As the macromolecular version of mechanically interlocked molecules, mechanically interlocked polymers are promising candidates for the creation of sophisticated molecular machines and smart soft materials. Poly[n]catenanes, where the molecular chains consist solely of interlocked macrocycles, contain one of the highest concentrations of topological bonds. We report, herein, a synthetic approach toward this distinctive polymer architecture in high yield (similar to 75%) via efficient ring closing of rationally designed metallosupramolecular polymers. Light-scattering, mass spectrometric, and nuclear magnetic resonance characterization of fractionated samples support assignment of the high-molar mass product (number-average molar mass similar to 21.4 kilograms per mole) to a mixture of linear poly[7-26]catenanes, branched poly[13-130]catenanes, and cyclic poly[4-7]catenanes. Increased hydrodynamic radius (in solution) and glass transition temperature (in bulk materials) were observed upon metallation with Zn2+.

  11. Incorporation of safety interlocks in commercial robotics for handling of nuclear materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moore, F.W.

    1986-01-01

    Current robotic systems have been developed primarily for the automotive and electronic industry. The adaptation of these commercial robotic systems to applications in the manufacturing of nuclear fuel requires the addition of safety interlocks as to the handling and accountability of nuclear materials. Also, additional safety interlocks are required when the robots are operated in containment enclosures that are environmentally sealed. Interlocks have been incorporated into a commercial robot. The robotic system has been installed in the containment enclosure as part of the pellet storage subsystem into the Secure Automated Fabrication (SAF) facility currently being built by Westinghouse Hanford Company (WHC) for the US Department of Energy (DOE). The system has been installed in the Fuel Cycle Plant and is scheduled for initial operational testing in 1986

  12. National Ignition Facility site requirements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1996-07-01

    The Site Requirements (SR) provide bases for identification of candidate host sites for the National Ignition Facility (NIF) and for the generation of data regarding potential actual locations for the facilities. The SR supplements the NIF Functional Requirements (FR) with information needed for preparation of responses to queries for input to HQ DOE site evaluation. The queries are to include both documents and explicit requirements for the potential host site responses. The Sr includes information extracted from the NIF FR (for convenience), data based on design approaches, and needs for physical and organization infrastructure for a fully operational NIF. The FR and SR describe requirements that may require new construction or may be met by use or modification of existing facilities. The SR do not establish requirements for NIF design or construction project planning. The SR document does not constitute an element of the NIF technical baseline

  13. Modelling piloted ignition of wood and plastics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Blijderveen, Maarten; Bramer, Eddy A; Brem, Gerrit

    2012-09-01

    To gain insight in the startup of an incinerator, this article deals with piloted ignition. A newly developed model is described to predict the piloted ignition times of wood, PMMA and PVC. The model is based on the lower flammability limit and the adiabatic flame temperature at this limit. The incoming radiative heat flux, sample thickness and moisture content are some of the used variables. Not only the ignition time can be calculated with the model, but also the mass flux and surface temperature at ignition. The ignition times for softwoods and PMMA are mainly under-predicted. For hardwoods and PVC the predicted ignition times agree well with experimental results. Due to a significant scatter in the experimental data the mass flux and surface temperature calculated with the model are hard to validate. The model is applied on the startup of a municipal waste incineration plant. For this process a maximum allowable primary air flow is derived. When the primary air flow is above this maximum air flow, no ignition can be obtained. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Definition of Ignition in Inertial Confinement Fusion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christopherson, A. R.; Betti, R.

    2017-10-01

    Defining ignition in inertial confinement fusion (ICF) is an unresolved problem. In ICF, a distinction must be made between the ignition of the hot spot and the propagation of the burn wave in the surrounding dense fuel. Burn propagation requires that the hot spot is robustly ignited and the dense shell exhibits enough areal density. Since most of the energy gain comes from burning the dense shell, in a scale of increasing yields, hot-spot ignition comes before high gains. Identifying this transition from hot-spot ignition to burn-wave propagation is key to defining ignition in general terms applicable to all fusion approaches that use solid DT fuel. Ad hoc definitions such as gain = 1 or doubling the temperature are not generally valid. In this work, we show that it is possible to identify the onset of ignition through a unique value of the yield amplification defined as the ratio of the fusion yield including alpha-particle deposition to the fusion yield without alphas. Since the yield amplification is a function of the fractional alpha energy fα =EαEα 2Ehs 2Ehs (a measurable quantity), it appears possible not only to define ignition but also to measure the onset of ignition by the experimental inference of the fractional alpha energy and yield amplification. This material is based upon work supported by the Department of Energy Office of Fusion Energy Services under Award Number DE-FC02-04ER54789 and National Nuclear Security Administration under Award Number DE-NA0001944.

  15. Online visual inspection of self-piercing riveting to determine the quality of the mechanical interlock

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johnson, P; Cullen, J D; Al-Shamma'a, A I; Shaw, A

    2007-01-01

    Self-piercing riveting (SPR) has become a significant joining technique for the automotive applications of aluminium sheets. Quality control in this locale has progressed at an altogether more leisurely rate than other areas of mechanical joining (e.g. spotweld) and is underdeveloped. Testing the quality mechanical interlock is often achieved by destructive testing, which results in material and time wastage. The solution is online monitoring of the self-piercing riveting process to provide non-destructive testing of the mechanical interlock. Introducing sensors into the process facilitates real time data acquisition, which can be used to determine the quality of the joint

  16. The engineering project and reliability research of the safety interlock slow control system in BESIII

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Yinhong; Zhao Jingwei; Li Xiaonan; Xie Xiaoxi; Gao Cuishan; Bai Jingzhi; Chen Xihui; Min Jian; Nie Zhendong

    2008-01-01

    The new safety interlock slow control system of BESIII is designed to ensure that the BESIII interior equipments and the accelerator control center to work in coordination, and to guarantee the safety of the operating staff and all the important equipments at the same time. This paper introduces the hardware and software design of safety interlock system from the engineering requirements angle, including a detailed research on the software implementation technique of the state machine on PLC and the reliability of the system. (authors)

  17. Approach to ignition of tokamak reactors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sigmar, D.J.

    1981-02-01

    Recent transport modeling results for JET, INTOR, and ETF are reviewed and analyzed with respect to existing uncertainties in the underlying physics, the self-consistency of the very large numerical codes, and the margin for ignition. The codes show ignition to occur in ETF/INTOR-sized machines if empirical scaling can be extrapolated to ion temperatures (and beta values) much higher than those presently achieved, if there is no significant impurity accumulation over the first 7 s, and if the known ideal and resistive MHD instabilities remain controllable for the evolving plasma profiles during ignition startup.

  18. 30 CFR 35.20 - Autogenous-ignition temperature test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Autogenous-ignition temperature test. 35.20... Autogenous-ignition temperature test. (a) Purpose. The purpose of this test, referred to hereinafter as the ignition-temperature test, is to determine the lowest autogenous-ignition temperature of a hydraulic fluid...

  19. Development status of the ignition system for Vinci

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Frenken, G.; Vermeulen, E.; Bouquet, F.; Sanders, H.M.

    2002-01-01

    The development status of ignition system for the new cryogenic upper stage engine Vinci is presented. The concept differs from existing upper stage ignition systems as its functioning is engine independent. The system consists of a spark torch igniter, a highpressure igniter feed system and an

  20. Hydrogen mitigation by catalytic recombiners and ignition during severe accidents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rohde, J.; Chakraborty, A.K.; Heitsch, M.; Klein-Hebling, W.

    1994-01-01

    A large amount of hydrogen is expected to be released within a large dry containment of a PWR shortly after the onset of a severe accident, leading to core melting. According to local gas concentrations, turbulence and structural configurations within the containment, the released hydrogen can reach the boundary of deflagration or under certain conditions cause local detonations threatening the containment integrity. During the last few years, several concepts of mitigation have been developed to limit the hydrogen concentrations and extensive efforts have been given to investigate the use of catalytic recombiners as well as the use of deliberate ignition within the contemplated framework of a 'Dual-concept'. Although the recent recommendation of the German Reactor Safety Commission (RSK) foresees the sole application of catalytic recombiners to remove hydrogen during severe accident, a review is planned within two years for the partial and directed additional application of early ignitions or post dilution of the atmosphere of the compartments in conjunction with the recombiners installed. This presentation will review the results of large number of experiments performed both in small scale and large scale to qualify the recombiners. It is also the subject of the presentation to address the requirements for proper and secure functioning of the catalyzers under the existing boundary conditions during the severe accidents. These requirements ask for measures, starting from the proper selection of catalysts, multi purposed catalytic devices and their protection against contamination during the standby condition as well as against aerosol deposition and surface poisoning during the propagation of an accident. A short review of the results to large scale experiments with the combined application of catalytic devices and igniters form also a part of this presentation. (author). 8 refs., 2 tabs., 7 figs

  1. Biomass ignition in mills and storages – is it explained by conventional thermal ignition theory?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schwarzer, Lars; Jensen, Peter Arendt; Glarborg, Peter

    Self-ignition temperatures determined in the framework of conventional thermal ignition theory does not explain why biomass is much more susceptible to spontaneous ignition in power plant mills or storages. Examining the onset of reactions at low temperatures may provide a better understanding......, suggesting that a heterogeneous oxidation is the dominating mechanism in self-ignition. It could also be shown that both mechanisms compete for reactive material. While oxidation was exothermic, pyrolysis was largely thermally neutral in these experiments. Reaction behavior was seen to depend highly...

  2. A comparative experimental study on engine operating on premixed charge compression ignition and compression ignition mode

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bhiogade Girish E.

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available New combustion concepts have been recently developed with the purpose to tackle the problem of high emissions level of traditional direct injection Diesel engines. A good example is the premixed charge compression ignition combustion. A strategy in which early injection is used causing a burning process in which the fuel burns in the premixed condition. In compression ignition engines, soot (particulate matter and NOx emissions are an extremely unsolved issue. Premixed charge compression ignition is one of the most promising solutions that combine the advantages of both spark ignition and compression ignition combustion modes. It gives thermal efficiency close to the compression ignition engines and resolves the associated issues of high NOx and particulate matter, simultaneously. Premixing of air and fuel preparation is the challenging part to achieve premixed charge compression ignition combustion. In the present experimental study a diesel vaporizer is used to achieve premixed charge compression ignition combustion. A vaporized diesel fuel was mixed with the air to form premixed charge and inducted into the cylinder during the intake stroke. Low diesel volatility remains the main obstacle in preparing premixed air-fuel mixture. Exhaust gas re-circulation can be used to control the rate of heat release. The objective of this study is to reduce exhaust emission levels with maintaining thermal efficiency close to compression ignition engine.

  3. Laser ignition of aluminum nanoparticles in air

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sandstrom, M. M. (Mary M.); Oschwald, D. M. (David M); Son, S. F. (Steven F.)

    2004-01-01

    This paper reports on recent experiments of the ignition of nanoaluminum in air by CO{sub 2} laser heating. Ignition time and temperature were measured as a function of Al particle size and laser power. The ignition time was determined by high-speed digital images and frrst light as determined by a photodiode. The ignition delay increases with increasing particle size, and the decreasing laser power. Two stage burning is observed. The first reaction takes place on the surface of the powder sample and moves from the center to the edges followed by the second reaction, which takes place within the bulk of the sample. As the particles size increases the material is less likely to burn through out, leaving behind unreacted Al powder.

  4. Compact Microtube Igniter for Methane Rockets

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This project seeks to facilitate the Evolvable Mars Campaign (EMC) LOX/Methane Propulsion Architecture by developing a reliable, compact, low power methane igniter....

  5. Plasma igniter for internal-combustion engines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Breshears, R. R.; Fitzgerald, D. J.

    1978-01-01

    Hot ionized gas (plasma) ignites air/fuel mixture in internal combustion engines more effectively than spark. Electromagnetic forces propel plasma into combustion zone. Combustion rate is not limited by flame-front speed.

  6. Microinstability-based models for confinement properties and ignition criteria in tokamaks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tang, W.M.; Bishop, C.M.; Coppi, B.; Kaye, S.M.; Perkins, F.W.; Redi, M.H.; Rewoldt, G.

    1987-02-01

    This paper reports on results of theoretical studies dealing with: (1) the use of microinstability-based thermal transport models to interpret the anomalous confinement properties observed in key tokamak experiments such as TFTR and (2) the likely consequences of the presence of such instabilities for future ignition devices. Transport code simulations using profile-consistent forms of anomalous thermal diffusivities due to drift-type instabilities have yielded good agreement with the confinement times and temperatures observed in TFTR under a large variety of operating conditions including pellet-fuelling in both ohmic- and neutral-beam-heated discharges. With regard to achieving an optimal ignition margin, the adverse temperature scaling of anomalous losses caused by drift modes leads to the conclusion that it is best to operate at the maximum allowable density while holding the temperature close to the minimum value required for ignition

  7. The National Ignition Facility Project. Revision 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Paisner, J.A.; Campbell, E.M.; Hogan, W.J.

    1994-01-01

    The mission of the National Ignition Facility is to achieve ignition and gain in inertial confinement fusion targets in the laboratory. The facility will be used for defense applications such as weapons physics and weapons effects testing, and for civilian applications such as fusion energy development and fundamental studies of matter at high temperatures and densities. This paper reviews the design, schedule, and costs associated with the construction project

  8. Computational Studies and Designs for Fast Ignition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagatomo, H.; Johzaki, T.; Nakamura, T.; Sakagami, H.; Mima, K.

    2006-12-01

    The fast ignition scheme is one of the most fascinating and feasible ignition schemes for the inertial fusion energy. At ILE Osaka University, FIREX (Fast Ignition Realization Experiment) project is in progress. Implosion experiments of the cryogenic target are scheduled in near future. There are two key issues for the fast ignition. One is controlling the implosion dynamics to form high density core plasma in non-spherical implosion, and the other is heating the core plasma efficiently by the short pulse high intense laser. The time and space scale in the fast ignition scheme vary widely from initial laser irradiation to solid target, to relativistic laser plasma interaction and final fusion burning. The numerical simulation plays an important role in demonstrating the performance of the fast ignition, designing the targets, and optimizing laser pulse shapes for the scheme. These all the physics are desired to be self-consistently described. In order to study these physics of FI, we have developed "Fast Ignition Integrated Interconnecting code" (FI3), which consists of collective Particle-in-Cell (PIC) code (FISCOF1D/2D), Relativistic Fokker-Planck with hydro code (FIBMET), and 2-dimensional Arbitrary-Lagrangian-Eulerian (ALE) radiation hydrodynamics code (PINOCO). Those codes are sophisticated in each suitable plasma parameters, and boundaries conditions and initial conditions for them are imported/exported to each other by way of DCCP, a simple and compact communication tool which enable these codes to communicate each others under executing different machines. We show the feature of the FI3 code, and numerical results of whole process of fast ignition. Individual important physics behind the FI are explained with the numerical results also.

  9. Confinement scaling and ignition in tokamaks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Perkins, F.W.; Sun, Y.C.

    1985-10-01

    A drift wave turbulence model is used to compute the scaling and magnitude of central electron temperature and confinement time of tokamak plasmas. The results are in accord with experiment. Application to ignition experiments shows that high density (1 to 2) . 10 15 cm -3 , high field, B/sub T/ > 10 T, but low temperature T approx. 6 keV constitute the optimum path to ignition

  10. Dynamic Regime of Ignition of Solid Propellant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zolotorev Nikolay

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This article presents a dynamic regime of exposure of the radiant flux on the sample of gun-cotton. Obtained time the ignition of gun-cotton in the heating conditions of increasing heat flux in the range from 0.2 W/cm2 to 22 W/cm2. A comparison of the delay times of the ignition when heated variable and constant heat flux.

  11. Concept of a Helias ignition experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wobig, H.; Andreeva, T.; Beidler, C. D.; Harmeyer, E.; Herrnegger, F.; Igitkhanov, Y.; Kisslinger, J.; Kolesnichenko, Ya. I.; Lutsenko, V. V.; Marchenko, V. S.; Nührenberg, C.; Sidorenko, I.; Turkin, Y.; Wieczorek, A.; Yakovenko, Yu. V.

    2003-09-01

    The Helias ignition experiment is an upgraded version of the Wendelstein 7-X experiment. The magnetic configuration is a four-period Helias configuration (major radius 18 m, plasma radius 2.0 m, B = 4.5 T), which presents a more compact option than the five-period configuration. Much effort has been focused on two versions of the four-period configuration. One option is the power reactor HSR4/18 providing at least 3 GW of fusion power and the second is the ignition experiment HSR 4/18i aiming at a minimum of fusion power and the demonstration of self-sustaining burn. The design criteria of the ignition experiment HSR 4/18i are the following: The experiment should demonstrate a safe and reliable route to ignition; self-sustained burn without external heating; steady-state operation during several hundred seconds; reliability of the technical components and tritium breeding in a test blanket. The paper discusses the technical issues of the coil system and describes the vacuum vessel and the shielding blanket. The power balance will be modelled with a transport code and the ignition conditions will be investigated using current scaling laws of energy confinement in stellarators. The plasma parameters of the ignition experiment are: peak density 2-3×1020 m-3, peak temperature 11-15 keV, average beta 3.6% and fusion power 1500-1700 MW.

  12. Tokamak two-fluid ignition conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guazzotto, L.; Betti, R.

    2017-08-01

    This work focuses on modeling the properties needed by a plasma to reach ignition, where ignition is the condition in which fusion power is produced at the steady state without any external input power. We extend the classic work by Lawson giving the ptotτE (product between density, temperature, and energy confinement time) needed for ignition [J. D. Lawson, Proc. Phys. Soc. London, Sect. B 70, 6 (1957)] by improving the original zero-dimensional, single fluid model. The effect of multi-fluid physics is included, by distinguishing ions, electrons, and α particles. The effects of one-dimensional density and temperature profiles are also considered. It is found that the multi-fluid model predicts a larger Lawson product required for ignition than the single-fluid one. A detailed analysis of the energy confinement times for each species and energy equilibration times between species shows that the electron energy confinement time is the parameter more strongly affecting the Lawson product needed for ignition. It is also found that peaked profiles (of either temperature or density) require a smaller Lawson product for ignition than flat profiles.

  13. Does charge transfer correlate with ignition probability?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Holdstock, Paul

    2008-01-01

    Flammable or explosive atmospheres exist in many industrial environments. The risk of ignition caused by electrostatic discharges is very real and there has been extensive study of the incendiary nature of sparks and brush discharges. It is clear that in order to ignite a gas, an amount of energy needs to be delivered to a certain volume of gas within a comparatively short time. It is difficult to measure the energy released in an electrostatic discharge directly, but it is possible to approximate the energy in a spark generated from a well defined electrical circuit. The spark energy required to ignite a gas, vapour or dust cloud can be determined by passing such sparks through them. There is a relationship between energy and charge in a capacitive circuit and so it is possible to predict whether or not a spark discharge will cause an ignition by measuring the charge transferred in the spark. Brush discharges are in many ways less well defined than sparks. Nevertheless, some work has been done that has established a relationship between charge transferred in brush discharges and the probability of igniting a flammable atmosphere. The question posed by this paper concerns whether such a relationship holds true in all circumstances and if there is a universal correlation between charge transfer and ignition probability. Data is presented on discharges from textile materials that go some way to answering this question.

  14. EXPERIMENTAL STUDY OF MINIMUM IGNITION TEMPERATURE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Igor WACHTER

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this scientific paper is an analysis of the minimum ignition temperature of dust layer and the minimum ignition temperatures of dust clouds. It could be used to identify the threats in industrial production and civil engineering, on which a layer of combustible dust could occure. Research was performed on spent coffee grounds. Tests were performed according to EN 50281-2-1:2002 Methods for determining the minimum ignition temperatures of dust (Method A. Objective of method A is to determine the minimum temperature at which ignition or decomposition of dust occurs during thermal straining on a hot plate at a constant temperature. The highest minimum smouldering and carbonating temperature of spent coffee grounds for 5 mm high layer was determined at the interval from 280 °C to 310 °C during 600 seconds. Method B is used to determine the minimum ignition temperature of a dust cloud. Minimum ignition temperature of studied dust was determined to 470 °C (air pressure – 50 kPa, sample weight 0.3 g.

  15. Towards a Framework for Modelling and Verification of Relay Interlocking Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Haxthausen, Anne Elisabeth

    2011-01-01

    This paper describes a framework currently under development for modelling, simulation, and verification of relay interlocking systems as used by the Danish railways. The framework is centred around a domain-specific language (DSL) for describing such systems, and provides (1) a graphical editor...

  16. 46 CFR 111.70-7 - Remote control, interlock, and indicator circuits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... ENGINEERING ELECTRIC SYSTEMS-GENERAL REQUIREMENTS Motor Circuits, Controllers, and Protection § 111.70-7..., interlock, or indicator circuit of a motor controller must be protected against overcurrent unless: (1) The... hazard. Note: For overcurrent protection of steering gear control and indicator circuits, see Subpart 111...

  17. Custom sectional impression trays with interlocking type handle for microstomia patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernandes Aquaviva

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Making impressions in microstomia patients is often cumbersome. A modification of standard impression procedure is often necessary while treating such patients. This article describes the fabrication of a custom sectional impression tray with interlocking type of a handle for definitive impression procedures in a microstomia patient.

  18. Development of Interlocking Masonry Bricks and its’ Structural Behaviour: A Review Paper

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Fakih, Amin; Mohammed, Bashar S.; Nuruddin, Fadhil; Nikbakht, Ehsan

    2018-04-01

    Conventional bricks are the most elementary building materials for houses construction. However, the rapid growth in today’s construction industry has obliged the civil engineers in searching for a new building technique that may result in even greater economy, more efficient and durable as an alternative for the conventional brick. Moreover, the high demands for having a speedy and less labour and cost building systems is one of the factor that cause the changes of the masonry conventional systems. These changes have led to improved constructability, performance, and cost as well. Several interlocking bricks has been developed and implemented in building constructions and a number of researches had studied the manufacturing of interlocking brick and its structural behaviour as load bearing and non-load bearing element. This technical paper aims to review the development of interlocking brick and its structural behaviour. In conclusion, the concept of interlocking system has been widely used as a replacement of the conventional system where it has been utilized either as load bearing or non-load bearing masonry system.

  19. The Utilisation of Shredded PET as Aggregate Replacement for Interlocking Concrete Block

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mokhtar, M.; Kaamin, M.; Sahat, S.; Hamid, N. B.

    2018-03-01

    The consumption of plastic has grown substantially all over the world in recent years and this has created huge quantities of plastic-based waste. Plastic waste is now a serious environmental threat to the modern way of living, although steps were taken to reduce its consumption. This creates substantial garbage every day, which is much unhealthy. Plastic bottles such as Polyethylene terephthalate (PET) was use as the partially component in this making of interlocking blocks concrete. This project investigates the strength and workability of the interlocking block concrete by replacing course aggregate with % PET. The suitability of recycled plastics (PET) as course aggregate in interlocking block concrete and its advantages are discussed here. Moreover, there were more benefits when using interlocking block than using conventional block such as it easy for construction because they are aligning, easy to place, high speed stacking and they offer more resistance to shear and buildings would be even stronger. Based on the test perform, the failure parameter were discussed .From the compressive strength test result, it shows that the strength of concrete block decreased with increased of PET used. From the results, it shows that higher compressive strength was found with 5% natural course aggregate replaced with PET compared to other percentages.

  20. Software Verification and Validation Test Report for the HEPA filter Differential Pressure Fan Interlock System

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    ERMI, A.M.

    2000-01-01

    The HEPA Filter Differential Pressure Fan Interlock System PLC ladder logic software was tested using a Software Verification and Validation (VandV) Test Plan as required by the ''Computer Software Quality Assurance Requirements''. The purpose of his document is to report on the results of the software qualification

  1. A STUDY OF THE MANAGEMENT OF OPEN FRACTURES OF TIBIA BY UNREAMED INTERLOCKING NAIL

    OpenAIRE

    Harsha Kumar

    2015-01-01

    AIMS AND OBJECTIVES : 1. To evaluate the results of closed interlocking intramedullary nailing without reaming in the treatment of open fractures of the tibial shaft. (Gustillo type 1, type 2, type 3a, type 3b) . 2. To study the difficulties ( C omplications) encountered during the operative study. 3. To mobilize the patient early. ...

  2. Control and Interlocking System for Bending Magnet Front-end at Indus-2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kane, Sanjeev R.; Garg, Chander Kant; Nandedkar, R. V.

    2007-01-01

    We present control and interlock system developed for Indus-2 bending magnet front-end. The paper describes in detail the control of various signals associated with the front-end and the interlocking scheme implemented for the installed front-end. The number of signals associated with each front-end is ˜ 75. A control system is designed for monitoring temperature, pressure, airflow, water flow and control of vacuum gauges, fast shutter, water cooled shutter, safety shutter, pneumatic gate valves, sputter ion pump power supplies, beam position monitor etc. Two independent signals are generated for critical components that are used for software interlock and hard-wired interlock. The front-end control system is VME based and window 2000/XP workstation as an operator console. The CPU used is Motorola 68000-processor board of the VME bus having OS-9 real time operating system. One VME crate serves a cluster of 2-3 front ends. The communication between the VME and the workstation is linked over RS232 serial communication. The sputter ion power supplies are connected over isolated RS485 network. Critical protection features are implemented so that no single failure can render the system unsafe. This is implemented by providing two independent chains of protection (1) Hard wired in which relay logic is used and (2) Software. A Graphical User Interface (GUI) is developed using Lab view Version 7.0.

  3. Förster resonance energy transfer by formation of a mechanically interlocked [2]rotaxane

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ogoshi, T.; Yamafuji, D.; Yamagishi, T.; Brouwer, A.M.

    2013-01-01

    A[2]rotaxane has been constructed from a di-pyrene appended pillar[5]arene wheel, a pyridinium axle, and a perylene stopper. It shows efficient Forster resonance energy transfer from pyrene to perylene by formation of a mechanically interlocked [2]rotaxane.

  4. 18 CFR 131.31 - FERC Form No. 561, Annual report of interlocking positions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... financial services or credit; mutual savings bank; or savings and loan association FINI Insurance company..., Annual report of interlocking positions. 131.31 Section 131.31 Conservation of Power and Water Resources... positions. (See section 46.4 of this chapter.) ER31DE98.003 INSTRUCTIONS FOR COMPLETING ANNUAL REPORT OF...

  5. Vertical interlocks of executives and performance of affiliated firms in state owned Chinese business groups

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Arnoldi, Jakob; Chen, Xin; Na, Chaohong

    increases. Our findings are consistent with the hypotheses that vertically interlocking executives can increase firm value by providing better protection against political interference and expropriation by the ultimate controllers of business groups. Our study sheds new light in the role and function...

  6. Internal Iliac Artery Embolization during an Endovascular Aneurysm Repair with Detachable Interlock Microcoils

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Woo ChuL; Jeon, Yong Sun; Hong, Kee Chun; Cho, Soon Gu; Park, Jae Young [Inha University Hospital, Inha University School of Medicine, Incheon (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Jang Yong [Dept. of Vascular and Endovascular Surgery, The Catholic University of Korea School of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-10-15

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of detachable interlock microcoils for an embolization of the internal iliac artery during an endovascular aneurysm repair (EVAR). A retrospective review was conducted on 40 patients with aortic aneurysms, who had undergone an EVAR between January 2010 and March 2012. Among them, 16 patients were referred for embolization of the internal iliac artery for the prevention of type II endoleaks. Among 16 patients, 13 patients underwent embolization using detachable interlock microcoils during an EVAR. Computed tomographic angiographies and clinical examinations were performed during the follow-up period. Technical success, clinical outcome, and complications were reviewed. Internal iliac artery embolizations using detachable interlock microcoils were technically successful in all 13 patients, with no occurrence of procedure-related complications. Follow-up imaging was accomplished in the 13 cases. In all cases, type II endoleak was not observed with computed tomographic angiography during the median follow-up of 3 months (range, 1-27 months) and the median clinical follow-up of 12 months (range, 1-27 months). Two of 13 (15%) patients had symptoms of buttock pain, and one patient died due to underlying stomach cancer. No significant clinical symptoms such as bowel ischemia were observed. Internal iliac artery embolization during an EVAR using detachable interlock microcoils to prevent type II endoleaks appears safe and effective, although this should be further proven in a larger population.

  7. Architecture for interlock systems: reliability analysis with regard to safety and availability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wagner, S.; Apollonio, A.; Schmidt, R.; Zerlauth, M.; Vergara-Fernandez, A.

    2012-01-01

    For particle accelerators like LHC and other large experimental physics facilities like ITER, the machine protection relies on complex interlock systems. In the design of interlock loops for the signal exchange in machine protection systems, the choice of the hardware architecture impacts on machine safety and availability. The reliable performance of a machine stop (leaving the machine in a safe state) in case of an emergency, is an inherent requirement. The constraints in terms of machine availability on the other hand may differ from one facility to another. Spurious machine stops, lowering machine availability, may to a certain extent be tolerated in facilities where they do not cause undue equipment wear-out. In order to compare various interlock loop architectures in terms of safety and availability, the occurrence frequencies of related scenarios have been calculated in a reliability analysis, using a generic analytical model. This paper presents the results and illustrates the potential of the analysis method for supporting the choice of interlock system architectures. The results show the advantages of a 2003 (3 redundant lines with 2-out-of-3 voting) over the 6 architectures under consideration for systems with high requirements in both safety and availability

  8. Preliminary design of safety and interlock system for indian test facility of diagnostic neutral beam

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tyagi, Himanshu, E-mail: htyagi@iter-india.org [ITER-India, Institute For Plasma Research, Bhat, Gandhinagar, Gujarat (India); Soni, Jignesh [Institute For Plasma Research, Bhat, Gandhinagar, Gujarat (India); Yadav, Ratnakar; Bandyopadhyay, Mainak; Rotti, Chandramouli [ITER-India, Institute For Plasma Research, Bhat, Gandhinagar, Gujarat (India); Gahlaut, Agrajit [Institute For Plasma Research, Bhat, Gandhinagar, Gujarat (India); Joshi, Jaydeep; Parmar, Deepak [ITER-India, Institute For Plasma Research, Bhat, Gandhinagar, Gujarat (India); Bansal, Gourab; Pandya, Kaushal; Chakraborty, Arun [Institute For Plasma Research, Bhat, Gandhinagar, Gujarat (India)

    2016-11-15

    Highlights: • Indian Test Facility being built to characterize DNB for ITER delivery. • Interlock system required to safeguard the investment incurred in building the facility and protecting ITER deliverable components. • Interlock levels upto 3IL-3 identified. • Safety instrumented system for occupational safety being designed. Safety I&C functions of SIL-2 identified. • The systems are based on ITER PIS and PSS design guidelines. - Abstract: Indian Test Facility (INTF) is being built in Institute For Plasma Research to characterize Diagnostic Neutral Beam in co-operation with ITER Organization. INTF is a complex system which consists of several plant systems like beam source, gas feed, vacuum, cryogenics, high voltage power supplies, high power RF generators, mechanical systems and diagnostics systems. Out of these, several INTF components are ITER deliverable, that is, beam source, beam line components and power supplies. To ensure successful operation of INTF involving integrated operation of all the constituent plant systems a matured Data Acquisition and Control System (DACS) is required. The INTF DACS is based on CODAC platform following on PCDH (Plant Control Design Handbook) guidelines. The experimental phases involve application of HV power supplies (100 KV) and High RF power (∼800 KW) which will produce energetic beam of maximum power 6MW within the facility for longer durations. Hence the entire facility will be exposed tohigh heat fluxes and RF radiations. To ensure investment protection and to provide occupational safety for working personnel a matured Safety and Interlock system is required for INTF. The Safety and Interlock systems are high-reliability I&C systems devoted completely to the specific functions. These systems will be separate from the conventional DACS of INTF which will handle the conventional control and acquisition functions. Both, the Safety and Interlock systems are based on IEC 61511 and IEC 61508 standards as

  9. Preliminary design of safety and interlock system for indian test facility of diagnostic neutral beam

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tyagi, Himanshu; Soni, Jignesh; Yadav, Ratnakar; Bandyopadhyay, Mainak; Rotti, Chandramouli; Gahlaut, Agrajit; Joshi, Jaydeep; Parmar, Deepak; Bansal, Gourab; Pandya, Kaushal; Chakraborty, Arun

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Indian Test Facility being built to characterize DNB for ITER delivery. • Interlock system required to safeguard the investment incurred in building the facility and protecting ITER deliverable components. • Interlock levels upto 3IL-3 identified. • Safety instrumented system for occupational safety being designed. Safety I&C functions of SIL-2 identified. • The systems are based on ITER PIS and PSS design guidelines. - Abstract: Indian Test Facility (INTF) is being built in Institute For Plasma Research to characterize Diagnostic Neutral Beam in co-operation with ITER Organization. INTF is a complex system which consists of several plant systems like beam source, gas feed, vacuum, cryogenics, high voltage power supplies, high power RF generators, mechanical systems and diagnostics systems. Out of these, several INTF components are ITER deliverable, that is, beam source, beam line components and power supplies. To ensure successful operation of INTF involving integrated operation of all the constituent plant systems a matured Data Acquisition and Control System (DACS) is required. The INTF DACS is based on CODAC platform following on PCDH (Plant Control Design Handbook) guidelines. The experimental phases involve application of HV power supplies (100 KV) and High RF power (∼800 KW) which will produce energetic beam of maximum power 6MW within the facility for longer durations. Hence the entire facility will be exposed tohigh heat fluxes and RF radiations. To ensure investment protection and to provide occupational safety for working personnel a matured Safety and Interlock system is required for INTF. The Safety and Interlock systems are high-reliability I&C systems devoted completely to the specific functions. These systems will be separate from the conventional DACS of INTF which will handle the conventional control and acquisition functions. Both, the Safety and Interlock systems are based on IEC 61511 and IEC 61508 standards as

  10. Ignition delay times of Gasoline Distillation Cuts measured with Ignition Quality Tester

    KAUST Repository

    Naser, Nimal

    2017-04-21

    Tailoring fuel properties to maximize the efficiency of internal combustion engines is a way towards achieving cleaner combustion systems. In this work, the ignition properties of various gasoline fuel distillation cuts are analyzed to better understand fuel properties of the full boiling range fuel. An advanced distillation column (ADC) provides a more realistic representation of volatility characteristics, which can be modeled using equilibrium thermodynamic methods. The temperature reported is that of the liquid, as opposed to the vapor temperature in conventional ASTM D86 distillation standard. Various FACE (fuels for advanced combustion engines) gasolines were distilled and various cuts were obtained. The separated fractions were then tested in an ignition quality tester (IQT) to see the effect of chemical composition of different fractions on their ignition delay time. Fuels with lower aromatic content showed decreasing ignition delay time with increasing boiling point (i.e., molecular weight). However, fuels with higher aromatic content showed an initial decrease in ignition delay time with increasing boiling point, followed by drastic increase in ignition delay time due to fractions containing aromatics. This study also provides an understanding on contribution of different fractions to the ignition delay time of the fuel, which provides insights into fuel stratification utilized in gasoline compression ignition (GCI) engines to tailor heat release rates.

  11. Aerospace Laser Ignition/Ablation Variable High Precision Thruster

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, Jonathan W. (Inventor); Edwards, David L. (Inventor); Campbell, Jason J. (Inventor)

    2015-01-01

    A laser ignition/ablation propulsion system that captures the advantages of both liquid and solid propulsion. A reel system is used to move a propellant tape containing a plurality of propellant material targets through an ignition chamber. When a propellant target is in the ignition chamber, a laser beam from a laser positioned above the ignition chamber strikes the propellant target, igniting the propellant material and resulting in a thrust impulse. The propellant tape is advanced, carrying another propellant target into the ignition chamber. The propellant tape and ignition chamber are designed to ensure that each ignition event is isolated from the remaining propellant targets. Thrust and specific impulse may by precisely controlled by varying the synchronized propellant tape/laser speed. The laser ignition/ablation propulsion system may be scaled for use in small and large applications.

  12. Ignition parameters and early flame kernel development of laser-ignited combustible gas mixtures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kopecek, H.; Wintner, E.; Ruedisser, D.; Iskra, K.; Neger, T.

    2002-01-01

    Full text: Laser induced breakdown of focused pulsed laser radiation, the subsequent plasma formation and thermalization offers a possibility of ignition of combustible gas mixtures free from electrode interferences, an arbitrary choice of the location within the medium and exact timing regardless of the degree of turbulence. The development and the decreasing costs of solid state laser technologies approach the pay-off for the higher complexity of such an ignition system due to several features unique to laser ignition. The feasability of laser ignition was demonstrated in an 1.5 MW(?) natural gas engine, and several investigations were performed to determine optimal ignition energies, focus shapes and laser wavelengths. The early flame kernel development was investigated by time resolved planar laser induced fluorescence of the OH-radical which occurs predominantly in the flame front. The flame front propagation showed typical features like toroidal initial flame development, flame front return and highly increased flame speed along the laser focus axis. (author)

  13. Advances in Modeling Direct-Drive Ignition at the National Ignition Facility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collins, T. J. B.; Marozas, J. A.

    2017-10-01

    Polar direct drive (PDD) makes it possible to perform direct-drive-ignition experiments at the National Ignition Facility (NIF) while the facility is configured for indirect drive. We present for the first time PDD ignition-relevant target designs with decreased laser intensities. These designs include the physical effects of cross-beam energy transfer (CBET) and nonlocal heat transport, both of which substantially affect the target drive. In the PDD configuration, a multiwavelength detuning strategy was found to be effective in mitigating the loss of coupling caused by CBET, allowing for implosion speeds comparable to those of previous designs. Target designs will be presented that span the region from alpha-particle heating to ignition. In addition, ignition-relevant designs will also be discussed for use in symmetric direct drive on the NIF. This material is based upon work supported by the Department of Energy National Nuclear Security Administration under Award Number DE-NA0001944.

  14. I: Hydrodynamic-focusing microreactor II: Mechanically interlocked molecules for functional materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coti, Karla Karina

    I: Microreactors, a class of microfluidics, offer numerous benefits -- such as small sample requirement, short analysis times and automations -- and have been used to study reactions of chemical and biological reagents. In order to understand the relationship between fast mixing, product regioselectivity, as well as the ability to separate, in time and space, the nanoparticle (NP) formation stages, a microreactor capable of fast and controllable mixing was developed (Chapter 1) based on multi-lamination and hydrodynamic-focusing. By taking advantage of the fast and controllable mixing properties of this novel microreactor one can control the time when chemical reactions commence inside the microchannels. These properties of the microreactor can be exploited to improve the product regioselectivity of a diazo-coupling reaction to attain a product distribution of monoazo to diazo product of ˜1:99, a selectivity unprecedented in both conventional, macroscopic reactors and other microfluidic systems. Additionally, the ability to separate different stages during the NP formation process inside the microreactor, allowed us to study the aggregation of polypyrrole NPs. II: Supramolecular actuators and molecular interlocked molecules, such as catenanes and rotaxanes, have attracted considerable attention because of their sophisticated topology and their application in functional molecular devices. The blending of supramolecular and mechanostereochemistry with mesoporous silica NPs has proven to be a powerful combination, leading to the development of a new class of materials -- mechanized silica nanoparticles ( Chapter 2). These new hybrid materials are designed to release their content in response to an external stimuli and their development is being driven by the need to improve current drug delivery technologies. In an effort to explore how the stimuli-controlled mechanical movement of switchable, bistable [2]rotaxanes -- based on a cyclobis(paraquat-p-phenylene) ring

  15. Design of test JIG for centralized interlock and protection module of ITER-India Gyrotron Test Facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rathod, Vipal; Rao, S.L.; Edappala, Praveenlal; Rajpal, Rachana

    2017-01-01

    Fast Interlock and protection system plays very crucial role in ensuring the safe and reliable operation of high power RF sources such as a Gyrotron system. Critical Protection Interlocks are generally implemented using hardwired components and are required to have a response time as fast as < 10 μs. In this context, an Industrial grade prototype Centralized Interlock and Protection Module (CIM) based on ITER-India design has been developed successfully with the help of local industry. This paper presents the complete requirements, approach, detailed design concept and current status of Test JIG in detail

  16. An Experimental and Numerical Study of N-Dodecane/Butanol Blends for Compression Ignition Engines

    KAUST Repository

    Wakale, Anil Bhaurao

    2018-04-03

    Alcohols are potential blending agents for diesel that can be effectively used in compression ignition engines. This work investigates the use of n-butanol as a blending component for diesel fuel using experiments and simulations. Dodecane was selected as a surrogate for diesel fuel and various concentrations of n-butanol were added to study ignition characteristics. Ignition delay times for different n-butanol/dodecane blends were measured using the ignition quality tester at KAUST (KR-IQT). The experiments were conducted at pressure of 21 and 18 bar, temperature ranging from 703-843 K and global equivalence ratio of 0.85. A skeletal mechanism for n-dodecane and n-butanol blends with 203 species was developed for numerical simulations. The mechanism was developed by combining n-dodecane skeletal mechanism containing 106 species and a detailed mechanism for all the butanol isomers. The new mixture mechanism was validated for various pressure, temperature and equivalence ratio using a 0-D homogeneous reactor model from CHEMKIN for pure base fuels (n-dodecane and butanol). Computational fluid dynamics (CFD) code, CONVERGE was used to further validate the new mechanism. The new mechanism was able to reproduce the experimental results from IQT at different pressure and temperature conditions.

  17. 3rd Conference on Ignition Systems for Gasoline Engines

    CERN Document Server

    Sens, Marc

    2017-01-01

    The volume includes selected and reviewed papers from the 3rd Conference on Ignition Systems for Gasoline Engines in Berlin in November 2016. Experts from industry and universities discuss in their papers the challenges to ignition systems in providing reliable, precise ignition in the light of a wide spread in mixture quality, high exhaust gas recirculation rates and high cylinder pressures. Classic spark plug ignition as well as alternative ignition systems are assessed, the ignition system being one of the key technologies to further optimizing the gasoline engine.

  18. Ion beam heating for fast ignition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gus'kov, S.Yu.; Limpouch, J.; Klimo, O.

    2010-01-01

    Complete text of publication follows. The characteristics features of the formation of the spatial distribution of the energy transferred to the plasma from a beam of ions with different initial energies, masses and charges under fast ignition conditions are determined. The motion of the Bragg peak is extended with respect to the spatial distribution of the temperature of the ion-beam-heated medium. The parameters of the ion beams are determined to initiate different regimes of fast ignition of thermonuclear fuel precompressed to a density of 300-500 g/cm 3 - the edge regime, in which the ignition region is formed at the outer boundary of the fuel, and the internal regime, in which the ignition region is formed in central parts of the fuel. The conclusion on the requirements for fast ignition by light and heavy ion beams is presented. It is shown that the edge heating with negative temperature gradient is described by a self-similar solution. Such a temperature distribution is the reason of the fact that the ignited beam energy at the edge heating is larger than the minimal ignition energy by factor 1.65. The temperature Bragg peak may be produced by ion beam heating in the reactor scale targets with pR-parameter larger than 3-4 g/cm 2 . In particular, for central ignition of the targets with pR-parameters in the range of 4-8 g/cm 2 the ion beam energy should be, respectively, from 5 to 7 times larger than the minimal ignition energy. The work by S.Ye. Gus'kov, D.V. Il'in, and V.E. Sherman was supported by the Ministry of Education and Science of the Russian Federation under the program 'Development of the Scientific Potential of High Education for 2009-2010' (project no. 2.1.1/1505) and the Russian Foundation for Basic Research (project no. 08-02-01394 a ). The work by J. Limpouch and O. Klimo was supported by the Czech Ministry of Education (project no. LC528, MSM6840770022).

  19. A hydrocode study of explosive shock ignition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butler, George; Horie, Yasuyuki

    2011-06-01

    This paper discusses the results of hydrocode simulations of shock-induced ignition of PBXN-109, Octol, and PETN, using the History Variable Reactive Burn model in the CTH hydrocode. The simulations began with small-scale sympathetic detonation experiments, from which normalized values of pressure and time were derived and used to define an upper bound for ignition. This upper bound corresponds to the well established Pop-plot data for supported detonation, i . e . detonations in which a constant shock pressure is applied to an explosive until full detonation is achieved. Subsequently, one-dimensional flyer-plate simulations were conducted where the response of constant-amplitude, limited-duration shock pulses into semi-infinite explosive samples was examined. These simulations confirmed not only the existence of an upper bound for ignition as expected, but also showed ignition by ``lower level'' shocks, in which full detonation is reached at a time longer than the input shock duration. These lower-level shocks can be used to define a distinct minimal ignition threshold, below which shock pulses do not result in detonation. Numerical experiments using these bounds offer a new framework for interpreting explosive initiation data.

  20. Low power arcjet thruster pulse ignition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarmiento, Charles J.; Gruber, Robert P.

    1987-01-01

    An investigation of the pulse ignition characteristics of a 1 kW class arcjet using an inductive energy storage pulse generator with a pulse width modulated power converter identified several thruster and pulse generator parameters that influence breakdown voltage including pulse generator rate of voltage rise. This work was conducted with an arcjet tested on hydrogen-nitrogen gas mixtures to simulate fully decomposed hydrazine. Over all ranges of thruster and pulser parameters investigated, the mean breakdown voltages varied from 1.4 to 2.7 kV. Ignition tests at elevated thruster temperatures under certain conditions revealed occasional breakdowns to thruster voltages higher than the power converter output voltage. These post breakdown discharges sometimes failed to transition to the lower voltage arc discharge mode and the thruster would not ignite. Under the same conditions, a transition to the arc mode would occur for a subsequent pulse and the thruster would ignite. An automated 11 600 cycle starting and transition to steady state test demonstrated ignition on the first pulse and required application of a second pulse only two times to initiate breakdown.

  1. Dark Matter Ignition of Type Ia Supernovae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bramante, Joseph

    2015-10-02

    Recent studies of low redshift type Ia supernovae (SN Ia) indicate that half explode from less than Chandrasekhar mass white dwarfs, implying ignition must proceed from something besides the canonical criticality of Chandrasekhar mass SN Ia progenitors. We show that 1-100 PeV mass asymmetric dark matter, with imminently detectable nucleon scattering interactions, can accumulate to the point of self-gravitation in a white dwarf and collapse, shedding gravitational potential energy by scattering off nuclei, thereby heating the white dwarf and igniting the flame front that precedes SN Ia. We combine data on SN Ia masses with data on the ages of SN Ia-adjacent stars. This combination reveals a 2.8σ inverse correlation between SN Ia masses and ignition ages, which could result from increased capture of dark matter in 1.4 vs 1.1 solar mass white dwarfs. Future studies of SN Ia in galactic centers will provide additional tests of dark-matter-induced type Ia ignition. Remarkably, both bosonic and fermionic SN Ia-igniting dark matter also resolve the missing pulsar problem by forming black holes in ≳10  Myr old pulsars at the center of the Milky Way.

  2. The National Ignition Facility and Industry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harri, J. G.; Paisner, J. A.; Lowdermilk, W. H.; Boyes, J. D.; Kumpan, S. A.; Sorem, M. S.

    1994-09-01

    The mission of the National Ignition Facility is to achieve ignition and gain in inertial confinement fusion targets in the laboratory. The facility will be used for defense applications such as weapons physics and weapons effects testing, and for civilian applications such as fusion energy development and fundamental studies of matter at high temperatures and densities. The National Ignition Facility construction project will require the best of our construction industries and its success will depend on the best products offered by hundreds of the nation's high technology companies. Three-fourths of the construction costs will be invested in industry. This article reviews the design, cost and schedule, and required industrial involvement associated with the construction project.

  3. The National Ignition Facility and industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harri, J.G.; Lowdermilk, W.H.; Paisner, J.A.; Boyes, J.D.; Kumpan, S.A.; Sorem, M.S.

    1994-01-01

    The mission of the National Ignition Facility is to achieve ignition and gain in inertial confinement fusion targets in the laboratory. The facility will be used for defense applications such as weapons physics and weapons effects testing, and for civilian applications such as fusion energy development and fundamental studies of matter at high temperatures and densities. The National Ignition Facility construction project will require the best of national construction industries and its success will depend on the best products offered by hundreds of the nation's high technology companies. Three-fourths of the construction costs will be invested in industry. This article reviews the design, cost and schedule, and required industrial involvement associated with the construction project

  4. Progress on LMJ targets for ignition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cherfils-Clerouin, C; Boniface, C; Bonnefille, M; Dattolo, E; Galmiche, D; Gauthier, P; Giorla, J; Laffite, S; Liberatore, S; Loiseau, P; Malinie, G; Masse, L; Masson-Laborde, P E; Monteil, M C; Poggi, F; Seytor, P; Wagon, F; Willien, J L

    2009-01-01

    Targets designed to produce ignition on the Laser Megajoule (LMJ) are being simulated in order to set specifications for target fabrication. The LMJ experimental plans include the attempt of ignition and burn of an ICF capsule with 160 laser beams, delivering up to 1.4 MJ and 380 TW. New targets needing reduced laser energy with only a small decrease in robustness have then been designed for this purpose. Working specifically on the coupling efficiency parameter, i.e. the ratio of the energy absorbed by the capsule to the laser energy, has led to the design of a rugby-ball shaped cocktail hohlraum; with these improvements, a target based on the 240-beam A1040 capsule can be included in the 160-beam laser energy-power space. Robustness evaluations of these different targets shed light on critical points for ignition, which can trade off by tightening some specifications or by preliminary experimental and numerical tuning experiments.

  5. Progress on LMJ targets for ignition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cherfils-Clerouin, C; Boniface, C; Bonnefille, M; Fremerye, P; Galmiche, D; Gauthier, P; Giorla, J; Lambert, F; Laffite, S; Liberatore, S; Loiseau, P; Malinie, G; Masse, L; Masson-Laborde, P E; Monteil, M C; Poggi, F; Seytor, P; Wagon, F; Willien, J L

    2010-01-01

    Targets designed to produce ignition on the Laser MegaJoule are presented. The LMJ experimental plans include the attempt of ignition and burn of an ICF capsule with 160 laser beams, delivering up to 1.4MJ and 380TW. New targets needing reduced laser energy with only a small decrease in robustness have then been designed for this purpose. Working specifically on the coupling efficiency parameter, i.e. the ratio of the energy absorbed by the capsule to the laser energy, has led to the design of a rugby-shaped cocktail hohlraum. 1D and 2D robustness evaluations of these different targets shed light on critical points for ignition, that can be traded off by tightening some specifications or by preliminary experimental and numerical tuning experiments.

  6. Progress on LMJ targets for ignition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cherfils-Clerouin, C; Boniface, C; Bonnefille, M; Dattolo, E; Galmiche, D; Gauthier, P; Giorla, J; Laffite, S; Liberatore, S; Loiseau, P; Malinie, G; Masse, L; Masson-Laborde, P E; Monteil, M C; Poggi, F; Seytor, P; Wagon, F; Willien, J L, E-mail: catherine.cherfils@cea.f [CEA, DAM, DIF, F-91297 Arpajon (France)

    2009-12-15

    Targets designed to produce ignition on the Laser Megajoule (LMJ) are being simulated in order to set specifications for target fabrication. The LMJ experimental plans include the attempt of ignition and burn of an ICF capsule with 160 laser beams, delivering up to 1.4 MJ and 380 TW. New targets needing reduced laser energy with only a small decrease in robustness have then been designed for this purpose. Working specifically on the coupling efficiency parameter, i.e. the ratio of the energy absorbed by the capsule to the laser energy, has led to the design of a rugby-ball shaped cocktail hohlraum; with these improvements, a target based on the 240-beam A1040 capsule can be included in the 160-beam laser energy-power space. Robustness evaluations of these different targets shed light on critical points for ignition, which can trade off by tightening some specifications or by preliminary experimental and numerical tuning experiments.

  7. Progress on LMJ targets for ignition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cherfils-Clerouin, C; Boniface, C; Bonnefille, M; Fremerye, P; Galmiche, D; Gauthier, P; Giorla, J; Lambert, F; Laffite, S; Liberatore, S; Loiseau, P; Malinie, G; Masse, L; Masson-Laborde, P E; Monteil, M C; Poggi, F; Seytor, P; Wagon, F; Willien, J L, E-mail: catherine.cherfils@cea.f [CEA, DAM, DIF, F-91297 Arpajon (France)

    2010-08-01

    Targets designed to produce ignition on the Laser MegaJoule are presented. The LMJ experimental plans include the attempt of ignition and burn of an ICF capsule with 160 laser beams, delivering up to 1.4MJ and 380TW. New targets needing reduced laser energy with only a small decrease in robustness have then been designed for this purpose. Working specifically on the coupling efficiency parameter, i.e. the ratio of the energy absorbed by the capsule to the laser energy, has led to the design of a rugby-shaped cocktail hohlraum. 1D and 2D robustness evaluations of these different targets shed light on critical points for ignition, that can be traded off by tightening some specifications or by preliminary experimental and numerical tuning experiments.

  8. Target Visualization at the National Ignition Facility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Potter, Daniel Abraham [Univ. of California, Davis, CA (United States)

    2011-01-01

    As the National Ignition Facility continues its campaign to achieve ignition, new methods and tools will be required to measure the quality of the targets used to achieve this goal. Techniques have been developed to measure target surface features using a phase-shifting diffraction interferometer and Leica Microsystems confocal microscope. Using these techniques we are able to produce a detailed view of the shell surface, which in turn allows us to refine target manufacturing and cleaning processes. However, the volume of data produced limits the methods by which this data can be effectively viewed by a user. This paper introduces an image-based visualization system for data exploration of target shells at the National Ignition Facility (NIF) at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory. It aims to combine multiple image sets into a single visualization to provide a method of navigating the data in ways that are not possible with existing tools.

  9. Improving the ignition quality of fuels

    KAUST Repository

    Sarathy, Mani

    2017-06-08

    Provided herein are compounds and methods of producing compounds for improving ignition quality and combustion efficiency of fuels, for example fossil fuels. In various aspects we generate highly oxygenated compounds from hydrocarbon feedstocks. The feedstock can be a branched alkane or n-alkane having a chain length greater than or equal to 6, a cycloalkane with a 5 or 6 membered ring structure, or a alkylated cycloalkane with 5 or more carbon atoms. The reactant can be fed in the gas- phase to a partial oxidation reactor (with or without a catalyst), and at a fixed temperature, mixture composition, and residence time. The reactant can be converted to a mixture of products including keto hydroperoxides, diketo hydroperoxides, keto dihydroperoxides, hydroperoxyl cyclic ethers, and alkenyl hydroperoxides. The compounds are inherently unstable and can quickly decompose to highly reactive radical species that can be used to improve the ignition quality of a fuel and advance ignition in an engine.

  10. Laser ignited engines: progress, challenges and prospects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dearden, Geoff; Shenton, Tom

    2013-11-04

    Laser ignition (LI) has been shown to offer many potential benefits compared to spark ignition (SI) for improving the performance of internal combustion (IC) engines. This paper outlines progress made in recent research on laser ignited IC engines, discusses the potential advantages and control opportunities and considers the challenges faced and prospects for its future implementation. An experimental research effort has been underway at the University of Liverpool (UoL) to extend the stratified speed/load operating region of the gasoline direct injection (GDI) engine through LI research, for which an overview of some of the approaches, testing and results to date are presented. These indicate how LI can be used to improve control of the engine for: leaner operation, reductions in emissions, lower idle speed and improved combustion stability.

  11. Final report on a cold climate permeable interlocking concrete pavement test facility at the University of New Hampshire Stormwater Center.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-01

    University of New Hampshire Stormwater Center (UNHSC) completed a two year field verification study of a permeable interlocking concrete pavement (PICP) stormwater management system. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the cold climate function...

  12. An overview of process instrumentation, protective safety interlocks and alarm system at the JET facilities active gas handling system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Skinner, N.; Brennan, P.; Brown, K.; Gibbons, C.; Jones, G.; Knipe, S.; Manning, C.; Perevezentsev, A.; Stagg, R.; Thomas, R.; Yorkshades, J.

    2003-01-01

    The Joint European Torus (JET) Facilities Active Gas Handling System (AGHS) comprises ten interconnected processing sub-systems that supply, process and recover tritium from gases used in the JET Machine. Operations require a diverse range of process instrumentation to carry out a multiplicity of monitoring and control tasks and approximately 500 process variables are measured. The different types and application of process instruments are presented with specially adapted or custom-built versions highlighted. Forming part of the Safety Case for tritium operations, a dedicated hardwired interlock and alarm system provides an essential safety function. In the event of failure modes, each hardwired interlock will back-up software interlocks and shutdown areas of plant to a failsafe condition. Design of the interlock and alarm system is outlined and general methodology described. Practical experience gained during plant operations is summarised and the methods employed for routine functional testing of essential instrument systems explained

  13. The multi-interlock and check of logical system for 5 MW low power reactor automatic rod

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Guangjian; Zhao Zengqiao

    1992-01-01

    The safety and reliability of the logical system for 5 MW LPR automatic rod are improved, because of using multi-interlock and manual check on line. The design character and function of the logical system are introduced

  14. On the assessment of performance and emissions characteristics of a SI engine provided with a laser ignition system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Birtas, A.; Boicea, N.; Draghici, F.; Chiriac, R.; Croitoru, G.; Dinca, M.; Dascalu, T.; Pavel, N.

    2017-10-01

    Performance and exhaust emissions of spark ignition engines are strongly dependent on the development of the combustion process. Controlling this process in order to improve the performance and to reduce emissions by ensuring rapid and robust combustion depends on how ignition stage is achieved. An ignition system that seems to be able for providing such an enhanced combustion process is that based on plasma generation using a Q-switched solid state laser that delivers pulses with high peak power (of MW-order level). The laser-spark devices used in the present investigations were realized using compact diffusion-bonded Nd:YAG/Cr4+:YAG ceramic media. The laser igniter was designed, integrated and built to resemble a classical spark plug and therefore it could be mounted directly on the cylinder head of a passenger car engine. In this study are reported the results obtained using such ignition system provided for a K7M 710 engine currently produced by Renault-Dacia, where the standard calibrations were changed towards the lean mixtures combustion zone. Results regarding the performance, the exhaust emissions and the combustion characteristics in optimized spark timing conditions, which demonstrate the potential of such an innovative ignition system, are presented.

  15. Failed fuel detection device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kasahara, Yoshiyuki; Soroi, Masatoshi.

    1992-01-01

    A pair of coil springs each of different spring rigidity are disposed independently to an interface mechanism which engages a reactor core fuel assembly. The springing reaction of the coil springs is utilized for providing a structure capable of detaching. A driving portion vertically movable in an inner cylinder of a system main body interlocking with the intrface mechanism is disposed, as well as a system separation mechanism is disposed for conducting electromotive remote control when it is required. With such a constitution, although it has been necessary so far that a plurality of operators access the reactor core upper mechanisms, it is not necessary according to the device of the present invention. Accordingly, the problem of operator's exposure can be overcome. (I.S.)

  16. Utilization of waste glycerin to fuelling of spark ignition engines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stelmasiak, Z.; Pietras, D.

    2016-09-01

    The paper discusses a possibilities of usage a simple alcohols to fuelling of spark ignition engines. Methanol and blends of methanol with glycerin, being a waste product from production of bio-components to fuels based on rapeseed oil, have been used in course of the investigations. The main objective of the research was to determine possibilities of utilization of glycerin to blending of engine fuels. The investigations have been performed using the Fiat 1100 MPI engine. Parameters obtained with the engine powered by pure methanol and by methanol- glycerin mixtures with 10÷30%vol content of glycerin were compared to parameters of the engine fuelled conventionally with the E95 gasoline. The investigations have shown increase of overall efficiency of the engine run on pure methanol with 2.5÷5.0%, and run on the mixture having 10% addition of glycerin with 2.0÷7.8%. Simultaneously, fuelling of the engine with the investigated alcohols results in reduced concentration of toxic components in exhaust gases like: CO, THC and NOx, as well as the greenhouse gas CO2.

  17. The Effects of Interlocking a Universal Hip Cementless Stem on Implant Subsidence and Mechanical Properties of Cadaveric Canine Femora.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buks, Yonathan; Wendelburg, Kirk L; Stover, Susan M; Garcia-Nolen, Tanya C

    2016-02-01

    To determine if an interlocking bolt would limit subsidence of the biological fixation universal hip (BFX(®)) femoral stem under cyclic loading and enhance construct stiffness, yield, and failure properties. Ex vivo biomechanical study. Cadaveric canine femora (10 pairs). Paired femora implanted with a traditional stem or an interlocking stem (constructs) were cyclically loaded at walk, trot, and gallop loads while implant and bone motions were captured using kinematic markers and high-speed video. Constructs were then loaded to failure to evaluate failure mechanical properties. Implant subsidence was greater (P = .037) for the traditional implant (4.19 mm) than the interlocking implant (0.78 mm) only after gallop cyclic loading, and cumulatively after walk, trot, and gallop cyclic loads (5.20 mm vs. 1.28 mm, P = .038). Yield and failure loads were greater (P = .029 and .002, respectively) for the interlocking stem construct (1155 N and 2337 N) than the traditional stem construct (816 N and 1405 N). Version angle change after cyclic loading was greater (P = .020) for the traditional implant (3.89 degrees) than for the interlocking implant (0.16 degrees), whereas stem varus displacement at failure was greater (P = .008) for the interlocking implant (1.5 degrees) than the traditional implant (0.17 degrees). Addition of a stabilizing bolt enhanced construct stability and limited subsidence of a BFX(®) femoral stem. Use of the interlocking implant may decrease postoperative subsidence. However, in vivo effects of the interlocking bolt on osseointegration, bone remodeling, and stress shielding are unknown. © Copyright 2016 by The American College of Veterinary Surgeons.

  18. Aqueous Ethanol Ignition and Engine Studies, Phase I

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-01

    Our objectives were to design a micro-dilution tunnel for monitoring engine emissions, measure ignition temperature and heat release from ethanol-water-air mixtures on platinum, and initiate a computational fluid dynamics model of a catalytic igniter...

  19. Low Energy Electronic Ignition System for NOFBX Thrusters, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — We propose to develop a miniature, low RF noise ignition module for NOFBX propulsion systems. This ignition module is designed utilizing unique properties of the...

  20. Highly Durable Catalysts for Ignition of Advanced Monopropellants Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Monopropellants are readily ignited or decomposed over a bed of solid catalyst. A serious limitation of existing catalysts in the ignition of advanced...

  1. National Ignition Facility project acquisition plan revision 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clobes, A.R.

    1996-01-01

    The purpose of this National Ignition Facility Acquisition Plan is to describe the overall procurement strategy planned for the National Ignition Facility M Project. It was prepared for the NIP Prood Office by the NIF Procurement Manager

  2. National Ignition Facility project acquisition plan revision 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Clobes, A.R.

    1996-10-01

    The purpose of this National Ignition Facility Acquisition Plan is to describe the overall procurement strategy planned for the National Ignition Facility M Project. It was prepared for the NIP Prood Office by the NIF Procurement Manager.

  3. An Additively Manufactured Torch Igniter for Liquid Propellants

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Consistent and reliable rocket engine ignition has yet to be proven through an additively manufactured torch igniter for liquid propellants. The coupling of additive...

  4. Nova Upgrade program: ignition and beyond

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Storm, E.; Campbell, E.M.; Hogan, W.J.; Lindl, J.D.

    1993-01-01

    The Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) Inertial Confinement Fusion (ICF) Program is addressing the critical physics and technology issues directed toward demonstrating and exploiting ignition and propagating burn to high gain with ICF targets for both defense and civilian applications. Nova is the primary U.S. facility employed in the study of the X-ray-driven (indirect drive) approach to ICF. Nova's principal objective is to demonstrate that laser-driven hohlraums can achieve the conditions of driver-target coupling efficiency, driver irradiation symmetry, driver pulseshaping, target preheat, and hydrodynamic stability required by hot-spot ignition and fuel compression to realize a fusion gain. (author)

  5. Plasma igniter for internal combustion engine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fitzgerald, D. J.; Breshears, R. R. (Inventor)

    1978-01-01

    An igniter for the air/fuel mixture used in the cylinders of an internal combustion engine is described. A conventional spark is used to initiate the discharge of a large amount of energy stored in a capacitor. A high current discharge of the energy in the capacitor switched on by a spark discharge produces a plasma and a magnetic field. The resultant combined electromagnetic current and magnetic field force accelerates the plasma deep into the combustion chamber thereby providing an improved ignition of the air/fuel mixture in the chamber.

  6. Chaotic combustion in spark ignition engines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wendeker, Miroslaw; Czarnigowski, Jacek; Litak, Grzegorz; Szabelski, Kazimierz

    2003-01-01

    We analyse the combustion process in a spark ignition engine using the experimental data of an internal pressure during the combustion process and show that the system can be driven to chaotic behaviour. Our conclusion is based on the observation of unperiodicity in the time series, suitable stroboscopic maps and a complex structure of a reconstructed strange attractor. This analysis can explain that in some circumstances the level of noise in spark ignition engines increases considerably due to nonlinear dynamics of a combustion process

  7. Effect of Oxygen Concentration on Autogenous Ignition Temperature and Pneumatic Impact Ignitability of Nonmetallic Materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Sarah

    2009-01-01

    Extensive test data exist on the ignitability of nonmetallic materials in pure oxygen, but these characteristics are not as well understood for lesser oxygen concentrations. In this study, autogenous ignition temperature testing and pneumatic impact testing were used to better understand the effects of oxygen concentration on ignition of nonmetallic materials. Tests were performed using oxygen concentrations of 21, 34, 45, and 100 %. The following materials were tested: PTFE Teflon(Registered Trademark), Buna-N, Silicone, Zytel(Registered Trademark) 42, Viton(registered Trademark) A, and Vespel(Registered Trademark) SP-21.

  8. NSTX Protection And Interlock Systems For Coil And Powers Supply Systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhao, X.; Ramakrishnan, S.; Lawson, J.; Neumeyer, C.; Marsala, R.; Schneider, H.

    2009-01-01

    NSTX at Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory (PPPL) requires sophisticated plasma positioning control system for stable plasma operation. TF magnetic coils and PF magnetic coils provide electromagnetic fields to position and shape the plasma vertically and horizontally respectively. NSTX utilizes twenty six coil power supplies to establish and initiate electromagnetic fields through the coil system for plasma control. A power protection and interlock system is utilized to detect power system faults and protect the TF coils and PF coils against excessive electromechanical forces, overheating, and over current. Upon detecting any fault condition the power system is restricted, and it is either prevented from initializing or suppressed to de-energize coil power during pulsing. Power fault status is immediately reported to the computer system. This paper describes the design and operation of NSTX's protection and interlocking system and possible future expansion.

  9. Design lessons from using programmable controllers in the MFTF-BETA Personnel Safety and Interlocks System

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Branum, J.D.

    1983-01-01

    Applying programmable controllers in critical applications such as personnel safety and interlocks systems requires special considerations in the design of both hardware and software. All modern programmable controller systems feature extensive internal diagnostic capabilities to protect against problems such as program memory errors; however most, if not all present designs lack an intrinsic capability for detecting and countering failures on the ''field-side'' of their I/O modules. Many of the most common styles of I/O modules can also introduce potentially dangerous sneak circuits, even without component failure. This paper presents the most significant lessons learned to date in the design of the MFTF-BETA Personnel Safety and Interlocks System, which utilizes two non-redundant programmable controllers with over 800 I/O points each. Specific problems recognized during the design process as well as those discovered during initial testing and operation are discussed along with their specific solutions in hardware and software

  10. Design lessons from using programmable controllers in the MFTF-B personnel safety and interlocks system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Branum, J.D.

    1983-01-01

    Applying programmable controllers in critical applications such as personnel safety and interlocks systems requires special considerations in the design of both hardware and software. All modern programmable controller systems feature extensive internal diagnostic capabilities to protect against problems such as program memory errors; however most, if not all present designs lack an intrinsic capability for detecting and countering failures on the field-side of their I/O modules. Many of the most common styles of I/O modules can also introduce potentially dangerous sneak circuits, even without component failure. This paper presents the most significant lessons learned to date in the design of the MFTF-B Personnel Safety and Interlocks System, which utilizes two non-redundant programmable controllers with over 800 I/O points each. Specific problems recognized during the design process as well as those discovered during initial testing and operation are discussed along with their specific solutions in hardware and software

  11. Alcohol Alert: Genetics of Alcoholism

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... and Reports » Alcohol Alert » Alcohol Alert Number 84 Alcohol Alert Number 84 Print Version The Genetics of ... immune defense system. Genes Encoding Enzymes Involved in Alcohol Breakdown Some of the first genes linked to ...

  12. Shot Automation for the National Ignition Facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lagin, L J; Bettenhausen, R C; Beeler, R G; Bowers, G A; Carey, R.; Casavant, D.D.; Cline, B.D.; Demaret, R.D.; Domyancic, D.M.; Elko, S.D.; Fisher, J.M.; Hermann, M.R.; Krammen, J.E.; Kohut, T.R.; Marshall, C.D.; Mathisen, D.G.; Ludwigsen, A.P.; Patterson, Jr. R.W.; Sanchez, R.J.; Stout, E.A.; Van Arsdall, P.J.; Van Wonterghem, B.M.

    2005-01-01

    A shot automation framework has been developed and deployed during the past year to automate shots performed on the National Ignition Facility (NIF) using the Integrated Computer Control System This framework automates a 4-8 hour shot sequence, that includes inputting shot goals from a physics model, set up of the laser and diagnostics, automatic alignment of laser beams and verification of status. This sequence consists of set of preparatory verification shots, leading to amplified system shots using a 4-minute countdown, triggering during the last 2 seconds using a high-precision timing system, followed by post-shot analysis and archiving. The framework provides for a flexible, model-based execution driven of scriptable automation called macro steps. The framework is driven by high-level shot director software that provides a restricted set of shot life cycle state transitions to 25 collaboration supervisors that automate 8-laser beams (bundles) and a common set of shared resources. Each collaboration supervisor commands approximately 10 subsystem shot supervisors that perform automated control and status verification. Collaboration supervisors translate shot life cycle state commands from the shot director into sequences of ''macro steps'' to be distributed to each of its shot supervisors. Each Shot supervisor maintains order of macro steps for each subsystem and supports collaboration between macro steps. They also manage failure, restarts and rejoining into the shot cycle (if necessary) and manage auto/manual macro step execution and collaborations between other collaboration supervisors. Shot supervisors execute macro step shot functions commanded by collaboration supervisors. Each macro step has database-driven verification phases and a scripted perform phase. This provides for a highly flexible methodology for performing a variety of NIF shot types. Database tables define the order of work and dependencies (workflow) of macro steps to be performed for a

  13. A CLINICAL STUDY OF SURGICAL MANAGEMENT OF DIAPHYSEAL FRACTURES OF TIBIA WITH INTRAMEDULLARY INTERLOCKING NAIL

    OpenAIRE

    Radhakrishna; Shivananda; Santhosh Kumar

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Intramedullary interlocking is currently considered the treatment of choice for tibial shaft fractures, with high rates of fracture union, advantage of early stabilization which decreases the morbidity and mortality rate in patients, allows early mobilization, reduces the incidence of infection, malunion, non-union or implant failure. OBJECTIVES: To assess and study diaphyseal fractures of tibia and to evaluate the functional outcome of patients with tibial shaft fracture treated ...

  14. Development of an interlocked nail for segmental defects in the rabbit tibia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    LeCronier, David J; Papakonstantinou, John S; Gheevarughese, Vineetha; Beran, Casey D; Walter, Norman E; Atkinson, Patrick J

    2012-04-01

    Previous animal models have been developed to study intramedullary nailing for challenging segmental defects in the tibia. In large animals, interlocked nail fixation created a stable environment suitable to study new bone growth technologies placed in the defect. To our knowledge, there are no comparable interlocked tibial defect models for the rabbit in which new technologies could be evaluated. Such a model would be helpful since the rabbit is a popular initial model for orthopedic research studies owing to its wide availability and low cost. While numerous studies have nailed the rabbit tibia, all were non-locked implants that allowed some degree of instability between the fracture fragments. In addition, the non-locked nails were constructed of stainless steel, whereas human nails are increasingly made from titanium alloy. In the current study, an interlocked titanium nail was developed for the rabbit tibia. It was implanted in cadaver tibiae and subjected to fatigue cycling in combined compression and bending at physiologic levels to 21,061 cycles. This duration is estimated to represent 12 weeks of gait by the animal. Before and after fatigue cycling, monotonic testing was performed in compression and bending at physiologic levels. The intact contralateral limbs served as controls. All limbs completed the cycling; the instrumented limbs exhibited interfragmentary cyclic strain amplitudes during fatigue (616 +/- 139 micro-strain), which was significantly greater than the control limbs (136 +/- 35 microstrain). Monotonic strain amplitudes for the test limbs in bending and compression were 4839 +/- 1028 and 542 +/- 122 microstrain, respectively; corresponding values for the control bones were 407 +/- 118 and 95 +/- 38 microstrain, respectively. These data are similar to those presented in prior studies in larger bone models. The current study presents one method for interlocked nail fixation for this complex tibial shaft fracture in a small animal.

  15. Radiation-free Insertion of Distal Interlocking Screw in Tibial and Femur Nailing: A Simple Technique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soni, Ritesh Kumar; Mehta, Surender Mohan; Awasthi, Bhanu; Singh, Janith Lal; Kumar, Amit; Thakur, Lokesh; Tripathy, Sujit Kumar

    2012-01-01

    Distal interlocking screw insertion in intramedullary nailing of long-bone fracture is a challenging task for orthopedic surgeons. It is difficult particularly when the surgeon is in his learning stage or when image intensifier is not available. We describe a radiation-free technique of distal interlocking screw insertion which is easy and practicable. In this technique, a same length nail is placed over the skin (outer nail) and through its distal-most screw hole, a 3.2 mm drill bit is inserted to drill the distal locking screw hole of the intramedullary nail (inner nail). With a small skin incision over the distal screw holes, the distal-most screw hole is identified; the bone window overlying the screw hole is widened with an awl and a locking bolt is inserted with a washer under direct visualization. The other distal interlocking screw is simply drilled by matching the other three holes of the outer and inner nails. We have operated 86 patients (39 femoral shaft fracture and 47 tibial shaft fracture) in 1 year where this technique was used. There were 41 open fracture and 45 closed fracture. Within 6 months of follow-up, bony union was achieved in 36 of 39 femur fractures and 45 of 47 tibial fractures. No unwanted complications were observed during the postoperative period and in follow-up. This method of radiation-free distal interlocking screw insertion is simple and can be used in third world country where image intensifier facility is not available. However, surgeons are encouraged to use image intensifier facility where the facility is available.

  16. Half bridge resonant converter for ignition of thermal plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pena E, L.

    1997-01-01

    In this work the background, design, implementation and performance of a half bridge resonant converter (HBRC) used as an electronic ignition system for arc plasma torch generation is presented. The significance of the design lies in its simplicity, versatility and low cost. The system operates like a high voltage supply attached to electrodes before gaseous breakdown and like open circuit when electric arc is established. Resonant converter is implemented with a high voltage and high speed power driver intended for control the power MOSFET transistors connected in half bridge topology with L C load. The HBRC operates besides interference into domestic electric supply line (120 V, 60 Hz) as well electric measurement devices. Advantages and limitations of the converter are reviewed. Experimental impedance variation in the medium as a function of frequency operation and some experiences in striking arcs are also presented. (Author)

  17. Economic aspects of interlocking hollow brick system designed for industrialized building system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tahir, Mahmood Md.; Saggaff, Anis; Ngian, Shek Poi; Sulaiman, Arizu

    2017-11-01

    Construction industry has moved forward into a technology driven where a transition is in progress from conventional method to a more advanced and mechanised system known as the Industrialised Building System (IBS). However, the need to implement the IBS should be well understood by all construction players such as designer, architect, contraction, erectors and construction workers. Therefore, there is a need to educate all these construction players which should be spearheaded by authorities such as Construction Industrial Development Board where enforcement trough building by laws as well as initiative to those that adopt the IBS in their construction. This paper reports on economic aspects of using interlocking hollow brick system in construction as an alternative method offered for Industrialized Building System. The main objective is to address the economic aspects of using interlocking block system in terms of time, costs, and utilization of manpower and to present some of the experimental tests results related to Interlocking Hollow Brick System (IHBS). Example of savings from the use of IHBS is presented in this paper by comparing the construction of two storey terrace house with build-up area of about 200 square meter with conventional construction method of typical reinforced concrete construction (RCC) compared to IHBS. The comparison shows that the implementation of IHBS can reduce construction time, cost, and utilization of man power up to 26.6% compared to the conventional method. Moreover, the construction time using IHBS can also be reduced by up to 50% as compared to the conventional construction.

  18. A STUDY OF THE MANAGEMENT OF OPEN FRACTURES OF TIBIA BY UNREAMED INTERLOCKING NAIL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kuppa Srinivas

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available AIMS AND OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the results of closed interlocking intramedullary nailing without reaming in the treatment of open fractures of t he tibial shaft and study the difficulties (complications encountered during the operative study. To compare the efficacy of interlocking intramedullary nailing without reaming in treating open fractures of tibia, Time required for the union of fracture, Range of motion of ankle and knee joint, Rate of malunion and mal rotation and Pain at the knee joint. RESULTS: The average age of patient is 32 years,83.33% are males, road traffic accidents account for majority(79.16%,right side involved in 58.33%,gustillo type II and type I compound fractures are common, full range of movements is seen in 66.67% by 12 weeks and union occurred in 95.83% by 9 months. Thirteen (54.17% patients had excellent results, six (25% patients had good results, four (1 6.67% patients had fair results and one (4.16 patient had poor result. CONCLUSION: Unreamed interlocking intramedullary nailing with the help of image intensifier seems feasible in open diaphyseal fractures of tibia with the advantages of minimal blood l oss, low risk of infection, early mobilisation , earlier soft tissue coverage , Promotes early union , minimal hospital stay and early returns to activities

  19. Automatic generation and verification of railway interlocking control tables using FSM and NuSMV

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad B. YAZDI

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Due to their important role in providing safe conditions for train movements, railway interlocking systems are considered as safety critical systems. The reliability, safety and integrity of these systems, relies on reliability and integrity of all stages in their lifecycle including the design, verification, manufacture, test, operation and maintenance.In this paper, the Automatic generation and verification of interlocking control tables, as one of the most important stages in the interlocking design process has been focused on, by the safety critical research group in the School of Railway Engineering, SRE. Three different subsystems including a graphical signalling layout planner, a Control table generator and a Control table verifier, have been introduced. Using NuSMV model checker, the control table verifier analyses the contents of control table besides the safe train movement conditions and checks for any conflicting settings in the table. This includes settings for conflicting routes, signals, points and also settings for route isolation and single and multiple overlap situations. The latest two settings, as route isolation and multiple overlap situations are from new outcomes of the work comparing to works represented on the subject recently.

  20. Outcomes in closed reamed interlocking nail in fractures of shaft of femur

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mohammad, T.; Sawati, A.; Ahmed, A.

    2015-01-01

    Femoral shaft fracture is one of the common fractures seen in accident and emergency department of our hospital. Violent forces are required to break this and strongest of human bones. There are various treatment modalities for femoral shaft fractures in adults like traction, brace, platting, intramedullary nail (IMN), external fixators and inter locking nails. The study was done with an objective to evaluate the results of closed reamed interlocking nail in fractures of shaft of femur. Methods: A prospective study of 114 cases of femoral shaft fractures was carried out at orthopaedic unit of Ayub Teaching Hospital Abbottabad during 1 year. All these cases were treated with statically locked nails under spinal or general anaesthesia. These cases were followed up for up to one year and Results of the interlocking nail were observed in terms of union and complications. Results: Out of 114 patients, 95 underwent union in 90-150 days with a mean of 110.68 days. Ten patients had dynamization within six weeks because of obvious fracture gap in radiograph. There were 3 patients who had non-union, and 6 patients had delayed union which was treated with dynamization. Conclusion: Close reamed interlocking intramedullary nail in femoral shaft fractures is the treatment of choice. Patient rehabilitation is early, hospitalization is short, and fracture healing response is good. (author)

  1. OUTCOMES IN CLOSED REAMED INTERLOCKING NAIL IN FRACTURES OF SHAFT OF FEMUR.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohammad, Taj; Khan, Alamzeb; Sawati, Alamzeb; Ahmed, Ashfaq; Awan, Abdus Saboor; Saboor, Abdus; Siddique

    2015-01-01

    Femoral shaft fracture is one of the common fractures seen in accident and emergency department of our hospital. Violent forces are required to break this and strongest of human bones. There are various treatment modalities for femoral shaft fractures in adults like traction, brace, platting, intramedullary nail (IMN), external fixators and inter locking nails. The study was done with an objective to evaluate the results of closed reamed interlocking nail in fractures of shaft of femur. A prospective study of 114 cases of femoral shaft fractures was carried out at orthopaedic unit of Ayub Teaching Hospital Abbottabad during 1 year. All these cases were treated with statically locked nails under spinal or general anaesthesia. These cases were followed up for up to one year and Results of the interlocking nail were observed in terms of union and complications. Out of 114 patients, 95 underwent union in 90-150 days with a mean of 110.68 days. Ten patients had dynamization within six weeks because of obvious fracture gap in radiograph. There were 3 patients who had non-union, and 6 patients had delayed union which was treated with dynamization. Close reamed interlocking intramedullary nail in femoral shaft fractures is the treatment of choice. Patient rehabilitation is early, hospitalization is short, and fracture healing response is good.

  2. Comparison of non-compression and compression interlocking intramedullary nailing in rabbit femoral shaft osteotomy model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baki, Mehmet Emre; Aldemir, Cengiz; Duygun, Fatih; Doğan, Ali; Kerimoğlu, Gökçen

    2017-04-01

    This study aims to compare non-compression and compression intramedullary nailing in an experimental femoral shaft osteotomy model in terms of radiological, histological, and biomechanical aspects. Twenty-four white New Zealand rabbits (average weight 4.3 kg; range 4 to 4.8 kg) were divided into three groups. A right femoral osteotomy was performed in all rabbits and all femurs were fixed with titanium compression interlocking intramedullary nail. After locking of nails, no compression was performed in group 1 while 0.5 mm and 1 mm compressions were performed in group 2 and 3, respectively. All rabbits were sacrificed four weeks after operation. Fracture sites were examined histologically and radiologically. Finite element analyses were performed. Radiological scores of groups 2 and 3 were significantly higher than group 1. There was no significant difference between groups 2 and 3 radiologically. Best histological scores were achieved in group 2. According to finite element analyses, osteotomy site in group 2 was exposed to 1240 N of load and 34.5 MPa of mean stress. Compression interlocking intramedullary nailing provides faster fracture healing than non-compression interlocking intramedullary nailing. Best histological fracture healing scores were obtained with 0.5 mm compression performed at the fracture site.

  3. Bio-inspired design of geometrically interlocked 3D printed joints

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, S.; Oliva, Noel; Kumar's Lab Team

    The morphology of the adhesive-adherend interface significantly affects the mechanical behavior of adhesive joints. As seen in some biocomposites like human skull, or the nacre of some bivalve molluscs' shells, a geometrically interlocking architecture of interfaces creates toughening and strengthening mechanisms enhancing the mechanical properties of the joint. In an attempt to characterize this mechanical interlocking mechanism, this study is focused on computational and experimental investigation of a single-lap joint with a very simple geometrically interlocked interface design in which both adherends have a square waveform configuration of the joining surfaces. This square waveform configuration contains a positive and a negative rectangular teeth per cycle in such a way that the joint is symmetric about the mid-bondlength. Both physical tests performed on 3D printed prototypes of joints and computational results indicate that the joints with square waveform design have higher strength and damage tolerance than those of joints with flat interface. In order to identify an optimal design configuration of this interface, a systematic parametric study is conducted by varying the geometric and material properties of the non-flat interface. This work was supported by Lockheed Martin (Award No: 12NZZ1).

  4. 14 CFR 23.1165 - Engine ignition systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... supplemented by a generator that is automatically available as an alternate source of electrical energy to... ignition. (e) Each turbine engine ignition system must be independent of any electrical circuit that is not... generators must be large enough to meet the simultaneous demands of the engine ignition system and the...

  5. National Ignition Facility frequency converter development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barker, C.E.; Auerbach, J.M.; Adams, C.H.

    1996-01-01

    A preliminary error budget for the third harmonic converter for the National Ignition Facility (NIF) laser driver has been developed using a root-sum-square-accumulation of error sources. Such a budget sets an upper bound on the allowable magnitude of the various effects that reduce conversion efficiency. Development efforts on crystal mounting technology and crystal quality studies are discussed

  6. Power conditioning for the National Ignition Facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Larson, D.W.; Anderson, R.; Boyes, J.

    1994-01-01

    A cost-effective, 320-MJ power-conditioning system has been completed for the proposed National Ignition Facility (NIF). The design features include metallized dielectric capacitors, a simple topology, and large (1.6-MJ) module size. Experimental results address the technical risks associated with the design

  7. Impacts assessment for the National Ignition Facility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bay Area Economics

    1996-12-01

    This report documents the economic and other impacts that will be created by the National Ignition Facility (NIF) construction and ongoing operation, as well as the impacts that may be created by new technologies that may be developed as a result of NIF development and operation.

  8. Studying ignition schemes on European laser facilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacquemot, S.; Amiranoff, F.; Baton, S. D.; Chanteloup, J. C.; Labaune, C.; Koenig, M.; Michel, D. T.; Perez, F.; Schlenvoigt, H. P.; Canaud, B.; Cherfils Clérouin, C.; Debras, G.; Depierreux, S.; Ebrardt, J.; Juraszek, D.; Lafitte, S.; Loiseau, P.; Miquel, J. L.; Philippe, F.; Rousseaux, C.; Blanchot, N.; Edwards, C. B.; Norreys, P.; Atzeni, S.; Schiavi, A.; Breil, J.; Feugeas, J. L.; Hallo, L.; Lafon, M.; Ribeyre, X.; Santos, J. J.; Schurtz, G.; Tikhonchuk, V.; Debayle, A.; Honrubia, J. J.; Temporal, M.; Batani, D.; Davies, J. R.; Fiuza, F.; Fonseca, R. A.; Silva, L. O.; Gizzi, L. A.; Koester, P.; Labate, L.; Badziak, J.; Klimo, O.

    2011-09-01

    Demonstrating ignition and net energy gain in the near future on MJ-class laser facilities will be a major step towards determining the feasibility of Inertial Fusion Energy (IFE), in Europe as in the United States. The current status of the French Laser MégaJoule (LMJ) programme, from the laser facility construction to the indirectly driven central ignition target design, is presented, as well as validating experimental campaigns, conducted, as part of this programme, on various laser facilities. However, the viability of the IFE approach strongly depends on our ability to address the salient questions related to efficiency of the target design and laser driver performances. In the overall framework of the European HiPER project, two alternative schemes both relying on decoupling target compression and fuel heating—fast ignition (FI) and shock ignition (SI)—are currently considered. After a brief presentation of the HiPER project's objectives, FI and SI target designs are discussed. Theoretical analysis and 2D simulations will help to understand the unresolved key issues of the two schemes. Finally, the on-going European experimental effort to demonstrate their viability on currently operated laser facilities is described.

  9. Ignition of detonation in accreted helium envelopes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ami Glasner, S.; Livne, E.; Steinberg, E.; Yalinewich, A.; Truran, James W.

    2018-02-01

    Sub Chandrasekhar CO white dwarfs accreting helium have been considered as candidates for SNIa progenitors since the early 1980's (helium shell mass >0.1M⊙). These models, once detonated did not fit the observed spectra and light curve of typical SNIa observations. New theoretical work examined detonations on much less massive (<0.05M⊙) envelopes. They find stable detonations that lead to light curves, spectra and abundances that compare relatively well with the observational data. The exact mechanism leading to the ignition of helium detonation is a key issue, since it is a mandatory first step for the whole scenario. As the flow of the accreted envelope is unstable to convection long before any hydrodynamic phenomena develops, a multidimensional approach is needed in order to study the ignition process. The complex convective reactive flow is challenging to any hydrodynamical solver. According to our best knowledge all previous 2D studies ignited the detonation artificially. We present here, for the first time, fully consistent results from two hydrodynamical 2D solvers that adopt two independent accurate schemes. For both solvers an effort was made to overcome the problematics raised by the finite resolution and numerical diffusion by the advective terms. Our best models lead to the ignition of a detonation in a convective cell. Our results are robust and the agreement between the two different numerical approaches is very good.

  10. Ignition strength of 25 international cigarette brands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seidenberg, Andrew B; Rees, Vaughan W; Alpert, Hillel R; O'Connor, Richard J; Connolly, Gregory N

    2011-01-01

    Cigarette-ignited fires are a leading cause of fire death and injury throughout the world and remain a global public health and safety problem. To reduce this harm, a small number of countries now require cigarettes to have reduced ignition propensity (RIP). It is not known if cigarette manufacturers are voluntarily introducing RIP cigarettes in other countries to help save lives. Using the ASTM E2187-04 test method, per cent full length burn (%FLB) was measured for three popular brands from each of seven countries that did not have RIP legislation at the time of purchase. Results were compared with %FLB measurements from four popular US brands purchased in a jurisdiction (Vermont) with an RIP law. SRM 1082 reference cigarette was also tested to assure laboratory quality control. All cigarette brands purchased in countries not requiring fire safety standards for cigarettes exceeded 75% FLB. In contrast, none of the cigarette brands from the USA exceeded 10% FLB. The SRM 1082 reference cigarette demonstrated 5% FLB. Cigarette ignition propensity can be greatly reduced through legislation that requires cigarette fire safety standards. RIP cigarettes have the potential to significantly decrease the number of fire deaths, injuries and destruction of property caused by cigarette-ignited fires. Appropriate standards should be applied in cigarette markets globally.

  11. Physics evaluation of compact tokamak ignition experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Uckan, N.A.; Houlberg, W.A.; Sheffield, J.

    1985-01-01

    At present, several approaches for compact, high-field tokamak ignition experiments are being considered. A comprehensive method for analyzing the potential physics operating regimes and plasma performance characteristics of such ignition experiments with O-D (analytic) and 1-1/2-D (WHIST) transport models is presented. The results from both calculations are in agreement and show that there are regimes in parameter space in which a class of small (R/sub o/ approx. 1-2 m), high-field (B/sub o/ approx. 8-13 T) tokamaks with aB/sub o/ 2 /q/sub */ approx. 25 +- 5 and kappa = b/a approx. 1.6-2.0 appears ignitable for a reasonable range of transport assumptions. Considering both the density and beta limits, an evaluation of the performance is presented for various forms of chi/sub e/ and chi/sub i/, including degradation at high power and sawtooth activity. The prospects of ohmic ignition are also examined. 16 refs., 13 figs

  12. Dimethyl Ether as an Ignition Improver for Hydrous Methanol Fuelled Homogeneous Charge Compression Ignition (HCCI) Engine

    OpenAIRE

    M. Venkatesan; N. Shenbaga Vinayaga Moorthi; R. Karthikeyan; A. Manivannan

    2014-01-01

    Homogeneous Charge Compression (HCCI) Ignition technology has been around for a long time, but has recently received renewed attention and enthusiasm. This paper deals with experimental investigations of HCCI engine using hydrous methanol as a primary fuel and Dimethyl Ether (DME) as an ignition improver. A regular diesel engine has been modified to work as HCCI engine for this investigation. The hydrous methanol is inducted and DME is injected into a single cylinder engine. Hence, hydrous me...

  13. 21 CFR 862.3050 - Breath-alcohol test system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Breath-alcohol test system. 862.3050 Section 862...) MEDICAL DEVICES CLINICAL CHEMISTRY AND CLINICAL TOXICOLOGY DEVICES Clinical Toxicology Test Systems § 862.3050 Breath-alcohol test system. (a) Identification. A breath-alcohol test system is a device intened...

  14. Fundamental Studies of Ignition Process in Large Natural Gas Engines Using Laser Spark Ignition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Azer Yalin; Bryan Willson

    2008-06-30

    Past research has shown that laser ignition provides a potential means to reduce emissions and improve engine efficiency of gas-fired engines to meet longer-term DOE ARES (Advanced Reciprocating Engine Systems) targets. Despite the potential advantages of laser ignition, the technology is not seeing practical or commercial use. A major impediment in this regard has been the 'open-path' beam delivery used in much of the past research. This mode of delivery is not considered industrially practical owing to safety factors, as well as susceptibility to vibrations, thermal effects etc. The overall goal of our project has been to develop technologies and approaches for practical laser ignition systems. To this end, we are pursuing fiber optically coupled laser ignition system and multiplexing methods for multiple cylinder engine operation. This report summarizes our progress in this regard. A partial summary of our progress includes: development of a figure of merit to guide fiber selection, identification of hollow-core fibers as a potential means of fiber delivery, demonstration of bench-top sparking through hollow-core fibers, single-cylinder engine operation with fiber delivered laser ignition, demonstration of bench-top multiplexing, dual-cylinder engine operation via multiplexed fiber delivered laser ignition, and sparking with fiber lasers. To the best of our knowledge, each of these accomplishments was a first.

  15. Recent results of full-spatial scale modeling of fast ignition and shock ignition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tonge, J.; May, J.; Mori, W. B.; Fiuza, F.; Marti, M.; Fonseca, R. A.; Davies, J. R.; Silva, L. O.

    2010-11-01

    We show recent results of full-spatial scale modeling of fast ignition and shock ignition, from both full-PIC and the recently developed hybrid-PIC capability of OSIRIS 2.0. Our results show full-scale modeling of fast ignition over full density and time scales, where laser absorption, electron beam divergence, and energy deposition in the compressed core will be addressed in a self-consistent manner. Full-PIC and hybrid-PIC simulations of isolated targets will be presented, illustrating the importance of this type of modeling in order to accurately infer the beam divergence and transport properties. We will also demonstrate the possibility of performing full-scale simulations of shock ignition with the new hybrid-PIC capability, using compressed target profiles from hydrodynamic simulations, and studying the self-consistent laser absorption, electron transport, and energy deposition that can lead to the generation of the shock required for ignition. Work supported by DOE under DE-FC02-04-ER54789 and DE-FG52-09NA29552, and NSF under NSF-Phy-0904039, FCT (Portugal), and the HiPER project. Simulations performed on Hoffman at UCLA, Thresher at SDSC, and Intrepid at ANL supported by Incite grant FastIgnitionPIC.

  16. Ignition of organic explosives by an electron beam

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivanov Georgy A.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available A numerical simulation of the ignition of organic explosives (PETN, HMX, RDX, TATB with an electron beam was performed. A criterion for the ignition of energetic materials with a melting point below the temperature of ignition is obtained. The results of numerical calculations of the critical energy density of the electron beam are consistent with the criterion of ignition. Calculations of the critical energy density of PETN ignition in good agreement with the experiment. The most sensitive is PETN and the most heat-resistant is TATB.

  17. Ignition and timing a guide to rebuilding, repair and replacement

    CERN Document Server

    Beever, Colin

    2015-01-01

    An essential guide to ignition and timing, for classic car owners and restorers. Aimed at both keen amateurs and professionals alike, Ignition and Timing covers the history and evolution of the automotive ignition system, and how to fit, modify and maintain your system for optimum timing and maximum performance. Topics covered include understanding and fault-testing the coil ignition system; post-war distributors and aftermarket systems; how to fit electronic ignitions and modify the distributor, including twin-point distributors; rebuilding and maintenance; Lucas, Delco and Bosch systems

  18. Interlocking Directorships in Polish Joint Stock Companies = Medsebojna prepletenost članov nadzornih svetov v delniških družbah na Poljskem

    OpenAIRE

    Marek Pawlak

    2008-01-01

    Studies concerning interlocking directorships have been carried out among Polish joint stock corporations. The main source of data have been the announcements that are to be published by corporations regularly in a journal called Business and Court Gazette (BCG). Interlocking directorships constitute a network among corporations the use of which enables co-ordinated management of the whole group. The phenomenon of interlocking directorships in Polish joint stock companies can be compared to t...

  19. RF and dc desensitized electroexplosive device

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krainiak, John W.; Speaks, Paul D.; Cornett, Michael S.

    1989-07-01

    This patent application relates to electroexplosive devices (EEDs) such as detonators, blasting caps and squibs, in particular to a method and device for desensitizing EEDs to electromagnetic radiation and electrostatic charges with the added ability to desensitize the device to essentially dc currents. An insensitive electroexplosive device to electrically ignite explosive is disclosed. This device is inherently immune to radio frequency (RF) radiation, and also provides protection against dc or very low frequency RF induced by arcing. A central feature is use of zeners and capacitors to form a reactively balanced bridge circuit. When constructed in semiconductor form, as described in this application, the device is capable of incorporation in small caliber ordnance.

  20. Comprehensive study of ignition and combustion of single wooden particles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Momenikouchaksaraei, Maryam; Yin, Chungen; Kær, Søren Knudsen

    2013-01-01

    How quickly large biomass particles can ignite and burn out when transported into a pulverized-fuel (pf) furnace and suddenly exposed to a hot gas flow containing oxygen is very important in biomass co-firing design and optimization. In this paper, the ignition and burnout of the largest possible...... for all the test conditions. As the particle is further heated up and the volume-weighted average temperature reaches the onset of rapid decomposition of hemicellulose and cellulose, a secondary homogeneous ignition occurs. The model-predicted ignition delays and burnout times show a good agreement...... with the experimental results. Homogeneous ignition delays are found to scale with specific surface areas while heterogeneous ignition delays show less dependency on the areas. The ignition and burnout are also affected by the process conditions, in which the oxygen concentration is found to have a more pronounced...

  1. Alcohol Abuse

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Drinking to Excess U.S. National Library of Medicine, Alcoholism and Alcohol Abuse Last Updated: June 27, 2017 This article was contributed by: familydoctor.org editorial staff Categories: Family Health, Kids and Teens, Men, Seniors, WomenTags: alcohol, alcohol abuse, alcohol addiction ...

  2. Laser-induced ignition of gasoline direct-injection engines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liedl, Gerhard; Schuoecker, Dieter; Geringer, B.; Graf, J.; Klawatsch, D.; Lenz, H. P.; Piock, W. F.; Jetzinger, M.; Kapus, P.

    2005-03-01

    A q-switched Nd:YAG laser as well as an excimer laser with an unstable resonator have been used for ignition of combustion processes. Following first experiments with a combustion bomb a gasoline direct injection engine has been modified for laser ignition by installation of a focusing element and a beam entrance window. It was possible with the q-switched Nd:YAG laser which delivers short pulses with a duration of lesss than 6 ns to ignite the engine for several 100 hours without problems. Compared to conventional spark ignition, laser ignition allows a more flexible choice of the ignition location inside the combustion chamber with the possibility to ignite even inside the fuel spray. Measurements of fuel consumption and emissions prove that laser ignition has important advantages compared to conventional spark ignition systems. Experiments with the direct injection engine have been carried out at the fundamental wavelength of the Nd:YAG laser as well as with a frequency doubled system. No differences in the minimal pulse energy needed for ignition could be found, since the minimal pulse energy for ignition is mainly determined by the ablation thresholds of combustion deposits at the surface of the window to the combustion chamber. Such combustion deposits reduce the transparency of the window where the laser beam enters the combustion chamber and a "self-cleaning" mechanism of the window by ablation is essential for successful operation. Experiments show that above a certain threshold intensity of the laser beam at the window even highly polluted surfaces could be cleaned with teh first laser pulse which is important for operation in real-world engines. Theoretically calculated energy values for laser ignition are much lower since such mechanisms are usually not considered. Power and space requirements on possible future development of laser ignition systems are discussed briefly. Several concepts for laser ignition, like diode-pumped solid state lasers (DPSS

  3. Advances for laser ignition of internal combustion and rocket engines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schwarz, E.

    2011-01-01

    The scope of the PhD thesis presented here is the investigation of theoretical and practical aspects of laser-induced spark ignition and laser thermal ignition. Laser ignition systems are currently undergoing a rapidly development with growing intensity involving more and more research groups who mainly concentrate on the field of car and large combustion engines. This research is primarily driven by the engagement to meet the increasingly strict emission limits and by the intention to use the limited energy reserves more efficiently. For internal combustion engines, laser plasma-induced ignition will allow to combine the goals for legally required reductions of pollutant emissions and higher engine efficiencies. Also for rocket engines laser ignition turns out to be very attractive. A highly reliable ignition system like laser ignition would represent an option for introducing non-toxic propellants in order to replace highly toxic and carcinogenic hydrazine-based propellants commonly used in launch vehicle upper stages and satellites. The most important results on laser ignition and laser plasma generation, accomplished by the author and, in some respects, enriched by cooperation with colleagues are presented in the following. The emphasis of this thesis is placed on the following issues: - Two-color effects on laser plasma generation - Theoretical considerations about the focal volume concerning plasma generation - Plasma transmission experiments - Ignition experiments on laser-induced ignition - Ignition experiments on thermally-induced ignition - Feasibility study on laser ignition of rocket engines The purpose of the two-color laser plasma experiments is to investigate possible constructive interference effects of driving fields that are not monochromatic, but contain (second) harmonic radiation with respect to the goal of lowering the plasma generation threshold. Such effects have been found in a number of related processes, such as laser ablation or high

  4. How to Ignite an Atmospheric Pressure Microwave Plasma Torch without Any Additional Igniters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leins, Martina; Gaiser, Sandra; Schulz, Andreas; Walker, Matthias; Schumacher, Uwe; Hirth, Thomas

    2015-04-16

    This movie shows how an atmospheric pressure plasma torch can be ignited by microwave power with no additional igniters. After ignition of the plasma, a stable and continuous operation of the plasma is possible and the plasma torch can be used for many different applications. On one hand, the hot (3,600 K gas temperature) plasma can be used for chemical processes and on the other hand the cold afterglow (temperatures down to almost RT) can be applied for surface processes. For example chemical syntheses are interesting volume processes. Here the microwave plasma torch can be used for the decomposition of waste gases which are harmful and contribute to the global warming but are needed as etching gases in growing industry sectors like the semiconductor branch. Another application is the dissociation of CO2. Surplus electrical energy from renewable energy sources can be used to dissociate CO2 to CO and O2. The CO can be further processed to gaseous or liquid higher hydrocarbons thereby providing chemical storage of the energy, synthetic fuels or platform chemicals for the chemical industry. Applications of the afterglow of the plasma torch are the treatment of surfaces to increase the adhesion of lacquer, glue or paint, and the sterilization or decontamination of different kind of surfaces. The movie will explain how to ignite the plasma solely by microwave power without any additional igniters, e.g., electric sparks. The microwave plasma torch is based on a combination of two resonators - a coaxial one which provides the ignition of the plasma and a cylindrical one which guarantees a continuous and stable operation of the plasma after ignition. The plasma can be operated in a long microwave transparent tube for volume processes or shaped by orifices for surface treatment purposes.

  5. How to Ignite an Atmospheric Pressure Microwave Plasma Torch without Any Additional Igniters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leins, Martina; Gaiser, Sandra; Schulz, Andreas; Walker, Matthias; Schumacher, Uwe; Hirth, Thomas

    2015-01-01

    This movie shows how an atmospheric pressure plasma torch can be ignited by microwave power with no additional igniters. After ignition of the plasma, a stable and continuous operation of the plasma is possible and the plasma torch can be used for many different applications. On one hand, the hot (3,600 K gas temperature) plasma can be used for chemical processes and on the other hand the cold afterglow (temperatures down to almost RT) can be applied for surface processes. For example chemical syntheses are interesting volume processes. Here the microwave plasma torch can be used for the decomposition of waste gases which are harmful and contribute to the global warming but are needed as etching gases in growing industry sectors like the semiconductor branch. Another application is the dissociation of CO2. Surplus electrical energy from renewable energy sources can be used to dissociate CO2 to CO and O2. The CO can be further processed to gaseous or liquid higher hydrocarbons thereby providing chemical storage of the energy, synthetic fuels or platform chemicals for the chemical industry. Applications of the afterglow of the plasma torch are the treatment of surfaces to increase the adhesion of lacquer, glue or paint, and the sterilization or decontamination of different kind of surfaces. The movie will explain how to ignite the plasma solely by microwave power without any additional igniters, e.g., electric sparks. The microwave plasma torch is based on a combination of two resonators — a coaxial one which provides the ignition of the plasma and a cylindrical one which guarantees a continuous and stable operation of the plasma after ignition. The plasma can be operated in a long microwave transparent tube for volume processes or shaped by orifices for surface treatment purposes. PMID:25938699

  6. Assessing the prospects for achieving double-shell ignition on the National Ignition Facility using vacuum hohlraums

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Amendt, Peter; Cerjan, C.; Hamza, A.; Hinkel, D. E.; Milovich, J. L.; Robey, H. F.

    2007-01-01

    The goal of demonstrating ignition on the National Ignition Facility [J. D. Lindl et al., Phys. Plasmas 11, 339 (2003)] has motivated a revisit of double-shell (DS) targets as a complementary path to the cryogenic baseline approach. Expected benefits of DS ignition targets include noncryogenic deuterium-tritium (DT) fuel preparation, minimal hohlraum-plasma-mediated laser backscatter, low threshold-ignition temperatures (≅4 keV) for relaxed hohlraum x-ray flux asymmetry tolerances, and minimal (two-) shock timing requirements. On the other hand, DS ignition presents several formidable challenges, encompassing room-temperature containment of high-pressure DT (≅790 atm) in the inner shell, strict concentricity requirements on the two shells ( 2 nanoporous aerogels with suspended Cu particles. A prototype demonstration of an ignition DS is planned for 2008, incorporating the needed novel nanomaterials science developments and the required fabrication tolerances for a realistic ignition attempt after 2010

  7. Alcohol combustion chemistry

    KAUST Repository

    Sarathy, Mani

    2014-10-01

    Alternative transportation fuels, preferably from renewable sources, include alcohols with up to five or even more carbon atoms. They are considered promising because they can be derived from biological matter via established and new processes. In addition, many of their physical-chemical properties are compatible with the requirements of modern engines, which make them attractive either as replacements for fossil fuels or as fuel additives. Indeed, alcohol fuels have been used since the early years of automobile production, particularly in Brazil, where ethanol has a long history of use as an automobile fuel. Recently, increasing attention has been paid to the use of non-petroleum-based fuels made from biological sources, including alcohols (predominantly ethanol), as important liquid biofuels. Today, the ethanol fuel that is offered in the market is mainly made from sugar cane or corn. Its production as a first-generation biofuel, especially in North America, has been associated with publicly discussed drawbacks, such as reduction in the food supply, need for fertilization, extensive water usage, and other ecological concerns. More environmentally friendly processes are being considered to produce alcohols from inedible plants or plant parts on wasteland. While biofuel production and its use (especially ethanol and biodiesel) in internal combustion engines have been the focus of several recent reviews, a dedicated overview and summary of research on alcohol combustion chemistry is still lacking. Besides ethanol, many linear and branched members of the alcohol family, from methanol to hexanols, have been studied, with a particular emphasis on butanols. These fuels and their combustion properties, including their ignition, flame propagation, and extinction characteristics, their pyrolysis and oxidation reactions, and their potential to produce pollutant emissions have been intensively investigated in dedicated experiments on the laboratory and the engine scale

  8. Stud manipulating device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bunyan, T.W.

    1980-01-01

    A device for inserting and removing studs from bores in a workpiece, for example a nuclear reactor vessel, comprises manipulating devices for operating on individual studs, each capable of tensioning a stud slackening a working nut on the stud, and subsequently removing the stud from the bore. A ring has dogs which can engage working nut recesses to interlock with the nut against relative rotation. Motors coupled to the ring rotate the working nut. A top nut is coupled to the motors to rotate the nut and screw it onto the stud. The top nut with other device parts can be raised and lowered on a tube by a hydraulic actuator. A hydraulic load cell between the top nut and a stool on the workpiece is pressurised to tension the stud by means of the top nut and thus facilitate rotation of the working nut when tightening or slackening. A dog clutch mechanism engages a stud end fitting against relative axial and rotational movement. The mechanism is raised and lowered on a guide member by an actuator. The mechanism has a tubular member and the drive coupling for the motors to the top nut includes a tubular member. Tubular members carry teeth which are engaged when the top nut is raised and the clutch mechanism is lowered, to provide a coupling between the motors and the mechanism for rotating the stud. (U.K.)

  9. Magnetic field measuring device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hara, Shigemitsu; Takeuchi, Kazuhiro; Hirota, Jun-ichi.

    1996-01-01

    In order to directly measure the magnetic fields in the vicinity of plasmas in a thermonuclear device, electric current is supplied to a conductor intersecting magnetic fields, and the position of the conductor is changed by generated electromagnetic forces, and the positional change of the conductor is measured to determine the magnetic fields. Namely, if electric current is supplied to the conductor crossing the magnetic fields, electromagnetic forces directly in proportion to the magnetic fields exert on the object. If the forces are measured, magnetic fields can be determined directly without using an integrator. If springs are attached to the conductor undergoing electromagnetic forces, as a method of measuring electromagnetic forces, since the distortion is in proportion to the electromagnetic forces, magnetic fields can be determined, for example, by changing the position of a contact of a variable resistor interlocking with the positional change of the spring. Since a semiconductor device which is sensitive to radiation is not necessary and the magnetic fields can be measured directly in this method for the measurement of the magnetic fields, the measurement can be conducted at a constant accuracy even in a long period of time. The device of the present invention can measure magnetic fields with no drift components of the integrator, has excellent radiation-resistance and can improve the plant safety. (N.H.)

  10. Development of the alcohol waste processing equipment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Obara, Kiyoshi; Ooyama, Etsuo; Suzuki, Toshiaki; Oohara, Norikazu

    2004-01-01

    In the experimental fast Reactor JOYO, gripper of Fuel Handling Machine and Ex-Vessel Transfer Machine that the sodium adhered is being washed with alcohol. This radioactive alcohol waste that was used to the washing is stored to the tank. If it is able to separate the alcohol and sodium in the alcohol waste it becomes possible to dispose of the alcohol waste. Japan Nuclear Institute and Fuji Electric Systems CO., LTD. Developed the device that adds carbonic acid gas to the alcohol waste and cause the sodium in the alcohol waste separated as carbonate and remove this carbonate by using the thin film evaporator. (author)

  11. Incidence of Varus Malalignment Post Interlocking Nail in Proximal Femur Shaft Fractures Comparing Two Types of Entry Points.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadagatullah, A N; Nazeeb, M N; Ibrahim, S

    2017-11-01

    Introduction: Osteosynthesis of the femur using an interlocking nail is the gold standard for treating diaphyseal fractures of the femur. There are two established entry points for the antegrade interlocking nails which is the piriformis fossa or the greater trochanter. It has been reported that varus malalignment was frequently seen in proximal femur fracture which were treated with interlocking nail utilizing the greater trochanter entry point. The study was done to find out if the problem was of significance. Materials and Methods: This was a retrospective study which included 179 patients with femur fractures which were treated from January 2013 till September 2015 in one Hospital. They were treated with interlocking nail either by utilizing the piriformis fossa (PF) or the greater trochanter (GT) entry points. Post-operative radiographs of the femur were used to measure the varus deformity. Results: Out of 179 patients, there were 5 patients who were reported to have unacceptable varus malalignment (2.79%). These 5 patients were out of the 88 (5.68%) patients utilizing the greater trochanter as the entry point. The same 5 patients were out 90 patients that were diagnosed with proximal femur shaft fractures (5.55%). Analysis with logistic regression was statistically not significant. Conclusion: There was higher rate of varus malalignment seen in proximal femur shaft fractures treated with interlocking nails utilizing the greater trochanter entry point. The incidence of varus malalignment was not significant statistically.

  12. A comparative study of interlocking directorates at the end of the import-substituting industrialization period in Argentina and Chile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erica Salvaj, Andrea Lluch

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Research on interlocking directorates has been conducted primarily in the United States and European countries. Little work of either theoretical or empirical nature has been done to study the characteristics and the factors that affect this important business network in peripheral and turbulent economies. In this comparative and historical study, we focus on the effect of the political and economic turbulence and the ownership composition of the largest firms on shaping the structure of interlocking directorates in Argentina and Chile by the end of the sixties. Four main findings result from this analysis: 1 the interlocking directorate in Argentina is more fragmented than in Chile; 2 most relevant actors in the directorship interlock in Argentina are firms in industries considered strategic by the government; 3 multinational subsidiaries occupy a central position in Argentina; 4 banks and firms owned by local business groups played a central role in the interlocking directorates in Chile. This study shows how the institutional and economic factors shape the structure of relations between companies.

  13. Ignition on the National Ignition Facility: a path towards inertial fusion energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moses, Edward I.

    2009-01-01

    The National Ignition Facility (NIF), the world's largest and most powerful laser system for inertial confinement fusion (ICF) and experiments studying high-energy-density (HED) science, is nearing completion at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL). NIF, a 192-beam Nd-glass laser facility, will produce 1.8 MJ, 500 TW of light at the third-harmonic, ultraviolet light of 351 nm. The NIF project is scheduled for completion in March 2009. Currently, all 192 beams have been operationally qualified and have produced over 4.0 MJ of light at the fundamental wavelength of 1053 nm, making NIF the world's first megajoule laser. The principal goal of NIF is to achieve ignition of a deuterium-tritium (DT) fuel capsule and provide access to HED physics regimes needed for experiments related to national security, fusion energy and for broader scientific applications. The plan is to begin 96-beam symmetric indirect-drive ICF experiments early in FY2009. These first experiments represent the next phase of the National Ignition Campaign (NIC). This national effort to achieve fusion ignition is coordinated through a detailed plan that includes the science, technology and equipment such as diagnostics, cryogenic target manipulator and user optics required for ignition experiments. Participants in this effort include LLNL, General Atomics, Los Alamos National Laboratory, Sandia National Laboratory and the University of Rochester Laboratory for Energetics (LLE). The primary goal for NIC is to have all of the equipment operational and integrated into the facility soon after project completion and to conduct a credible ignition campaign in 2010. When the NIF is complete, the long-sought goal of achieving self-sustaining nuclear fusion and energy gain in the laboratory will be much closer to realization. Successful demonstration of ignition and net energy gain on NIF will be a major step towards demonstrating the feasibility of inertial fusion energy (IFE) and will likely focus

  14. Ignition on the National Ignition Facility: a path towards inertial fusion energy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moses, Edward I.

    2009-10-01

    The National Ignition Facility (NIF), the world's largest and most powerful laser system for inertial confinement fusion (ICF) and experiments studying high-energy-density (HED) science, is nearing completion at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL). NIF, a 192-beam Nd-glass laser facility, will produce 1.8 MJ, 500 TW of light at the third-harmonic, ultraviolet light of 351 nm. The NIF project is scheduled for completion in March 2009. Currently, all 192 beams have been operationally qualified and have produced over 4.0 MJ of light at the fundamental wavelength of 1053 nm, making NIF the world's first megajoule laser. The principal goal of NIF is to achieve ignition of a deuterium-tritium (DT) fuel capsule and provide access to HED physics regimes needed for experiments related to national security, fusion energy and for broader scientific applications. The plan is to begin 96-beam symmetric indirect-drive ICF experiments early in FY2009. These first experiments represent the next phase of the National Ignition Campaign (NIC). This national effort to achieve fusion ignition is coordinated through a detailed plan that includes the science, technology and equipment such as diagnostics, cryogenic target manipulator and user optics required for ignition experiments. Participants in this effort include LLNL, General Atomics, Los Alamos National Laboratory, Sandia National Laboratory and the University of Rochester Laboratory for Energetics (LLE). The primary goal for NIC is to have all of the equipment operational and integrated into the facility soon after project completion and to conduct a credible ignition campaign in 2010. When the NIF is complete, the long-sought goal of achieving self-sustaining nuclear fusion and energy gain in the laboratory will be much closer to realization. Successful demonstration of ignition and net energy gain on NIF will be a major step towards demonstrating the feasibility of inertial fusion energy (IFE) and will likely focus

  15. Transport Simulations for Fast Ignition on NIF

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Strozzi, D J; Tabak, M; Grote, D P; Cohen, B I; Shay, H D; Town, R J; Kemp, A J; Key, M

    2009-10-26

    We are designing a full hydro-scale cone-guided, indirect-drive FI coupling experiment, for NIF, with the ARC-FIDO short-pulse laser. Current rad-hydro designs with limited fuel jetting into cone tip are not yet adequate for ignition. Designs are improving. Electron beam transport simulations (implicit-PIC LSP) show: (1) Magnetic fields and smaller angular spreads increase coupling to ignition-relevant 'hot spot' (20 um radius); (2) Plastic CD (for a warm target) produces somewhat better coupling than pure D (cryogenic target) due to enhanced resistive B fields; and (3) The optimal T{sub hot} for this target is {approx} 1 MeV; coupling falls by 3x as T{sub hot} rises to 4 MeV.

  16. Conceptual Design - Polar Drive Ignition Campaign

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hansen, R

    2012-04-05

    The Laboratory for Laser Energetics (LLE) at the University of Rochester is proposing a collaborative effort with Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL), Los Alamos National Laboratories (LANL), the Naval Research Laboratory (NRL), and General Atomics (GA) with the goal of developing a cryogenic polar drive (PD) ignition platform on the National Ignition Facility (NIF). The scope of this proposed project requires close discourse among theorists, experimentalists, and laser and system engineers. This document describes how this proposed project can be broken into a series of parallel independent activities that, if implemented, could deliver this goal in the 2017 timeframe. This Conceptual Design document is arranged into two sections: mission need and design requirements. Design requirements are divided into four subsystems: (1) A point design that details the necessary target specifications and laser pulse requirements; (2) The beam smoothing subsystem that describes the MultiFM 1D smoothing by spectral dispersion (SSD); (3) New optical elements that include continuous phase plates (CPP's) and distributed polarization rotators (DPR's); and (4) The cryogenic target handling and insertion subsystem, which includes the design, fabrication, testing, and deployment of a dedicated PD ignition target insertion cryostat (PD-ITIC). This document includes appendices covering: the primary criteria and functional requirements, the system design requirements, the work breakdown structure, the target point design, the experimental implementation plan, the theoretical unknowns and technical implementation risks, the estimated cost and schedule, the development plan for the DPR's, the development plan for MultiFM 1D SSD, and a list of acronym definitions. While work on the facility modifications required for PD ignition has been in progress for some time, some of the technical details required to define the specific modifications for a Conceptual Design

  17. Ignitability and explosibility of gases and vapors

    CERN Document Server

    Ma, Tingguang

    2015-01-01

    The book provides a systematic view on flammability and a collection of solved engineering problems in the fields of dilution and purge, mine gas safety, clean burning safety and gas suppression modeling. For the first time, fundamental principles of energy conservation are used to develop theoretical flammability diagrams and are then explored to understand various safety-related mixing problems. This provides the basis for a fully-analytical solution to any flammability problem. Instead of the traditional view that flammability is a fundamental material property, here flammability is discovered to be a result of the explosibility of air and the ignitability of fuel, or a process property. By exploring the more fundamental concepts of explosibility and ignitability, the safety targets of dilution and purge can be better defined and utilized for guiding safe operations in process safety. This book provides various engineering approaches to mixture flammability, benefiting not only the safety students, but al...

  18. Integrated thermodynamic model for ignition target performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Springer P.T.

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available We have derived a 3-dimensional synthetic model for NIF implosion conditions, by predicting and optimizing fits to a broad set of x-ray and nuclear diagnostics obtained on each shot. By matching x-ray images, burn width, neutron time-of-flight ion temperature, yield, and fuel ρr, we obtain nearly unique constraints on conditions in the hotspot and fuel in a model that is entirely consistent with the observables. This model allows us to determine hotspot density, pressure, areal density (ρr, total energy, and other ignition-relevant parameters not available from any single diagnostic. This article describes the model and its application to National Ignition Facility (NIF tritium–hydrogen–deuterium (THD and DT implosion data, and provides an explanation for the large yield and ρr degradation compared to numerical code predictions.

  19. Ignition and emission characteristics of methane direct injection compression ignition combustion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu, N.; Davy, M.H.; Bushe, W.K.

    2006-01-01

    Engine performance and emissions for natural gas compression ignition engines was studied with reference to the advantages of diesel-cycle engine efficiency combined with low emission fuels, such as natural gas which lowers greenhouse gas emissions such as carbon dioxide, nitrogen oxides (NOx) and particulate matter. Measurements of ignition and emission characteristics were made in a shock tube facility operating at engine relevant conditions. Air was preheated and compressed using a reflected shock technique that produced run times of 4 to 5 ms. An electronically controlled prototype gaseous fuel injector was used to inject methane down the centerline of the shock tube. At nominal constant operating conditions, considerable run-to-run variability was found in the ignition kernel location, ignition timing and NOx emissions. Higher injection pressure and temperature also resulted in shorter ignition delay and higher NOx emissions. It was concluded that additional experiments are needed to further study the injection pressure's influence on NOx emissions and the relationship between the measured injection delay and NOx emissions. 5 refs., 3 tabs., 16 figs

  20. IGNITION IMPROVEMENT OF LEAN NATURAL GAS MIXTURES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jason M. Keith

    2005-02-01

    This report describes work performed during a thirty month project which involves the production of dimethyl ether (DME) on-site for use as an ignition-improving additive in a compression-ignition natural gas engine. A single cylinder spark ignition engine was converted to compression ignition operation. The engine was then fully instrumented with a cylinder pressure transducer, crank shaft position sensor, airflow meter, natural gas mass flow sensor, and an exhaust temperature sensor. Finally, the engine was interfaced with a control system for pilot injection of DME. The engine testing is currently in progress. In addition, a one-pass process to form DME from natural gas was simulated with chemical processing software. Natural gas is reformed to synthesis gas (a mixture of hydrogen and carbon monoxide), converted into methanol, and finally to DME in three steps. Of additional benefit to the internal combustion engine, the offgas from the pilot process can be mixed with the main natural gas charge and is expected to improve engine performance. Furthermore, a one-pass pilot facility was constructed to produce 3.7 liters/hour (0.98 gallons/hour) DME from methanol in order to characterize the effluent DME solution and determine suitability for engine use. Successful production of DME led to an economic estimate of completing a full natural gas-to-DME pilot process. Additional experimental work in constructing a synthesis gas to methanol reactor is in progress. The overall recommendation from this work is that natural gas to DME is not a suitable pathway to improved natural gas engine performance. The major reasons are difficulties in handling DME for pilot injection and the large capital costs associated with DME production from natural gas.

  1. Prechamber Compression-Ignition Engine Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, Charles S; Collins, John H , Jr

    1938-01-01

    Single-cylinder compression-ignition engine tests were made to investigate the performance characteristics of prechamber type of cylinder head. Certain fundamental variables influencing engine performance -- clearance distribution, size, shape, and direction of the passage connecting the cylinder and prechamber, shape of prechamber, cylinder clearance, compression ratio, and boosting -- were independently tested. Results of motoring and of power tests, including several typical indicator cards, are presented.

  2. Apparatus for igniting oil-bearing formations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McArthur, J.L.

    1968-01-30

    The described method of igniting a combustion well comprises the steps of lowering a receptable containing triethylborane, breaking it at bottom, and contacting it with air. To prevent a premature explosion, the reactant is encapsulated, placed in a burner assembly, and lowered to the bottom by wire line. A pin is then sheared by a jarring action, and the reactant liberated and contacted with air. (4 claims)

  3. Research on measurement of aviation magneto ignition strength and balance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Feng; He, Zhixiang; Zhang, Dingpeng

    2017-12-01

    Aviation magneto ignition system failure accounted for two-thirds of the total fault aviation piston engine and above. At present the method used for this failure diagnosis is often depended on the visual inspections in the civil aviation maintenance field. Due to human factors, the visual inspections cannot provide ignition intensity value and ignition equilibrium deviation value among the different spark plugs in the different cylinder of aviation piston engine. So air magneto ignition strength and balance testing has become an aviation piston engine maintenance technical problem needed to resolve. In this paper, the ultraviolet sensor with detection wavelength of 185~260nm and driving voltage of 320V DC is used as the core of ultraviolet detection to detect the ignition intensity of Aviation magneto ignition system and the balance deviation of the ignition intensity of each cylinder. The experimental results show that the rotational speed within the range 0 to 3500 RPM test error less than 0.34%, ignition strength analysis and calculation error is less than 0.13%, and measured the visual inspection is hard to distinguish between high voltage wire leakage failure of deviation value of 200 pulse ignition strength balance/Sec. The method to detect aviation piston engine maintenance of magneto ignition system fault has a certain reference value.

  4. A mechanistic approach to safe igniter implementation for hydrogen mitigation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Breitung, W.; Dorofeev, S.B.; Travis, J.R.

    1997-01-01

    A new methodology for safe igniter implementation in a full-scale 3-d containment is described. The method consists of the following steps: determination of bounding H 2 /steam sources; high-resolution analysis of the 3-d transport and mixing processes; evaluation of the detonation potential at the time of ignition; optimization of the igniter system such that only early ignition and nonenergetic combustion occurs; and modelling of the continuous deflagration processes during H 2 -release. The method was implemented into the GASFLOW code. The principle and the feasibility is demonstrated for a single room geometry. A full-scale 3-d reactor case is analyzed without and with deliberate ignition, assuming a severe dry H 2 release sequence (1200 kg). In the unmitigated case significant DDT potential in the whole containment develops, including the possibility of global detonations. The analysis with igniters in different positions predicted deflagration or detonation in the break compartment, depending on the igniter location. Igniter positions were found which lead to early ignition, effective H 2 -removal, and negligible pressure loads. The approach can be used to determine number, position and frequency of a safe igniter system for a given large dry containment. (author)

  5. Comparative study between reamed versus unreamed interlocking intramedullary nailing in compound fractures of shaft tibia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Subhash Puri

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Tibia is the commonest bones to sustain open injury because of subcutaneous position. Treatment of open fractures requires simultaneous management of both skeletal and soft tissue injury. Intramedullary nailing with reaming is generally considered to be contraindicated for open fractures tibia, because it damages the endosteal blood supply which will lead to non-union, deep infection. However, recent studies with or without reaming in open fracture tibia shows no influence in healing of fracture. Purpose: To compare the clinical and radiological results of intramedullary interlocking nailing of open fractures of the tibial shaft after reaming versus unreamed medullary canal. Materials and Methods: Between 2008 and 2011, we have treated 40 patients with compound tibia fracture (type I, II, IIIA by simultaneous care of wound and skeletal injury. Primary fixation for fracture stabilization was done by closed intramedullary interlock nailing either reamed or unreamed; the allocation to the two groups made on alternating basis. Wound was managed by thorough debridement with primary/delayed primary closure by suturing, split thickness skin grafting or fasciocutaneous flap cover. Active, non-weight bearing exercises were started from next post-op day. Partial weight bearing after suture removal was started on 12 th day. Further follow-up was done at 6 weeks interval for union. Results: Open fractures of shaft of tibia treated with unreamed/reamed interlocking nailing gave excellent results. In present series, 19 fractures (95% treated by unreamed and 19 (95% fractures treated by reamed technique, united within 6 months of injury. Delay in union was noticed in one patient treated by unreamed technique who had segmental and extensive soft tissue injury and in reamed nailing there was one patient with deep infection, which was treated with antibiotic coated nail. Conclusion: Time to complete union was similar in both groups. Adequate

  6. Intramedullary nailing without interlocking screws for femoral and tibial shaft fractures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kreb, Dieuwertje L; Blokhuis, Taco J; van Wessem, Karlijn J P; Bemelman, Mike; Lansink, Koen W W; Leenen, Luke P H

    2013-08-01

    Intramedullary fixation is the treatment of choice for diaphyseal fractures of the femur and tibia. Locking the implant can sometimes be cumbersome and time consuming. In our institution, fractures with axial and rotational stability are treated with intramedullary nailing without interlocking. All consecutive patients presented in the University Medical Center Utrecht from October 2003 to August 2009 with acute traumatic diaphyseal fractures of the tibia or femur that were considered axial and rotational stable were included. They underwent internal fixation using intramedullary nails without interlocking. Patient records were evaluated for duration of surgery, perioperative complications, consolidation time and re-operations. Twenty-nine long bone fractures were treated in 27 patients: 20 men and 7 women, with an average age of 28.9 years (range 15.6-54.4). There were 12 femoral fractures and 17 tibial fractures. Sixteen fractures were closed and 13 were open (10 Gustilo 1, 3 Gustilo 2). The mean operating time was 43 min (range 18-68 min) for tibial fractures and 55 min (range 47-150 min) for femoral fractures. Postoperative complications occurred in six patients. Two patients (three fractures) were lost to follow-up. Healing occurred in 25 of the 26 remaining fractures (96 %) without additional interventions. One tibia was secondarily converted to a standard locked nail because of axial and rotational instability. All patients returned to their pre-injury level of activity. The use of intramedullary nailing without interlocking is associated with minimal complications in selected fractures. The advantages include a short operating time and the simplicity of its application.

  7. Ignition and burn in inertially confined magnetized fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kirkpatrick, R.C.; Lindemuth, I.R.

    1991-01-01

    At the third International Conference on Emerging Nuclear Energy Systems, we presented computational results which suggested that ''breakeven'' experiments in inertial confinement fusion (ICF) may be possible with existing driver technology. We recently used the ICF simulation code LASNEX to calculate the performance of an idealized magnetized fuel target. The parameter space in which magnetized fuel operates is remote from that of both ''conventional'' ICF and magnetic confinement fusion devices. In particular, the plasma has a very high β and is wall confined, not magnetically confined. The role of the field is to reduce the electron thermal conductivity and to partially trap the DT alphas. The plasma is contained in a pusher which is imploded to compress and adiabatically heat the plasma from an initial condition of preheat and pre-magnetization to the conditions necessary for fusion ignition. The initial density must be quite low by ICF standards in order to insure that the electron thermal conductivity is suppressed and to minimize the generation of radiation from the plasma. Because the energy loss terms are effectively suppressed, the implosion may proceed at a relatively slow rate of about 1 to 3 cm/μs. Also, the need for low density fuel dictates a much larger target, so that magnetized fuel can use drivers with much lower power and power density. Therefore, magnetized fuel allows the use of efficient drivers that are not suitable for laser or particle beam fusion due to insufficient focus or too long pulse length. The ignition and burn of magnetized fuel involves very different dominant physical processes than does ''conventional'' ICF. The fusion time scale becomes comparable to the hydrodynamic time scale, but other processes that limit the burn in unmagnetized fuel are of no consequence. The idealized low gain magnetized fuel target presented here is large and requires a very low implosion velocity. 11 refs

  8. Magnetic booster fast ignition macron accelerator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winterberg, F.

    2006-11-01

    A new fast ignition scheme was recently proposed where the ignition is done by the impact of a small solid projectile accelerated to velocities in excess of 108cm/s, with the acceleration done in two steps: first, by laser ablation of a flyer plate, and second by injecting the flyer plate into a conical duct. The two principal difficulties of this scheme are as follows: first, the required large mass ratio for the laser ablation rocket propelled flyer plate, and second, the Rayleigh-Taylor instability of the flyer plate during its implosive compression in the conical duct. To overcome these difficulties, it is suggested to accelerate a projectile by a magnetic fusion booster stage, made up of a dense, wall-confined magnetized plasma brought to thermonuclear temperatures. After ignition, this plasma undergoes a thermonuclear excursion greatly increasing its pressure, resulting in the explosion of a weakened segment of the wall, with the segment becoming a fast moving projectile. The maximum velocity this projectile can reach is the velocity of sound of the booster stage plasma, which at a temperature of 108K is of the order 108cm/s.

  9. Plasma engineering assessments of compact ignition experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Houlberg, W.A.

    1985-01-01

    Confinement, startup sequences, and fast-alpha particle effects are assessed for a class of compact tokamak ignition experiments having high toroidal magnetic fields (8 to 12 T) and high toroidal currents (7 to 10 MA). The uncertainties in confinement scaling are spanned through examples of performance with an optimistic model based on ohmically heated plasmas and a pessimistic model that includes confinement degradation by both auxiliary and alpha heating. The roles of neoclassical resistivity enhancement and sawtooth behavior are also evaluated. Copper toroidal field coils place restrictions on pulse lengths due to resistive heating, so a simultaneous rampup of the toroidal field and plasma current is proposed as a means of compressing the startup phase and lengthening the burn phase. If the ignition window is small, fast-alpha particle physics is restricted to the high-density regime where a short slowing-down time leads to low fast-particle density and pressure contributions. Under more optimistic confinement, a larger ignition margin broadens the range of alpha particle physics that can be addressed. These issues are illustrated through examples of transport simulations for a set of machine parameters called BRAND-X, which typify the designs under study

  10. Magnetic booster fast ignition macron accelerator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Winterberg, F.

    2006-01-01

    A new fast ignition scheme was recently proposed where the ignition is done by the impact of a small solid projectile accelerated to velocities in excess of 10 8 cm/s, with the acceleration done in two steps: first, by laser ablation of a flyer plate, and second by injecting the flyer plate into a conical duct. The two principal difficulties of this scheme are as follows: first, the required large mass ratio for the laser ablation rocket propelled flyer plate, and second, the Rayleigh-Taylor instability of the flyer plate during its implosive compression in the conical duct. To overcome these difficulties, it is suggested to accelerate a projectile by a magnetic fusion booster stage, made up of a dense, wall-confined magnetized plasma brought to thermonuclear temperatures. After ignition, this plasma undergoes a thermonuclear excursion greatly increasing its pressure, resulting in the explosion of a weakened segment of the wall, with the segment becoming a fast moving projectile. The maximum velocity this projectile can reach is the velocity of sound of the booster stage plasma, which at a temperature of 10 8 K is of the order 10 8 cm/s

  11. Laser spark distribution and ignition system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woodruff, Steven [Morgantown, WV; McIntyre, Dustin L [Morgantown, WV

    2008-09-02

    A laser spark distribution and ignition system that reduces the high power optical requirements for use in a laser ignition and distribution system allowing for the use of optical fibers for delivering the low peak energy pumping pulses to a laser amplifier or laser oscillator. An optical distributor distributes and delivers optical pumping energy from an optical pumping source to multiple combustion chambers incorporating laser oscillators or laser amplifiers for inducing a laser spark within a combustion chamber. The optical distributor preferably includes a single rotating mirror or lens which deflects the optical pumping energy from the axis of rotation and into a plurality of distinct optical fibers each connected to a respective laser media or amplifier coupled to an associated combustion chamber. The laser spark generators preferably produce a high peak power laser spark, from a single low power pulse. The laser spark distribution and ignition system has application in natural gas fueled reciprocating engines, turbine combustors, explosives and laser induced breakdown spectroscopy diagnostic sensors.

  12. The national ignition facility performance status

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haynam, C.; Auerbach, J.; Bowers, M.; Di-Nicola, J.M.; Dixit, S.; Erbert, G.; Heestand, G.; Henesian, M.; Jancaitis, K.; Manes, K.; Marshall, C.; Mehta, N.; Nostrand, M.; Orth, C.; Sacks, R.; Shaw, M.; Sutton, S.; Wegner, P.; Williams, W.; Widmayer, C.; White, R.; Yang, S.; Van Wonterghem, B. [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Livermore, CA (United States)

    2006-06-15

    The National Ignition Facility (NIF) laser has been designed to support high energy density science, including the demonstration of fusion ignition through Inertial Confinement. NIF operated a single 'quad' of 4 beams from December 2002 through October 2004 in order to gain laser operations experience, support target experiments, and demonstrate laser performance consistent with NIF's design requirement. During this two-year period, over 400 Main Laser shots were delivered at 1{omega} to calorimeters for diagnostic calibration purposes, at 3{omega} to the Target Chamber, and at 1{omega}, 2{omega}, and 3{omega} to the precision diagnostic system (PDS). The PDS includes its own independent single beam transport system, NIF design frequency conversion hardware and optics, and laser sampling optics that deliver light to a broad range of laser diagnostics. Highlights of NIF laser performance will be discussed including the results of high energy 2{omega} and 3{omega} experiments, the use of multiple focal spot beam conditioning techniques, the reproducibility of laser performance on multiple shots, the generation on a single beam of a 3{omega} temporally shaped ignition pulse at full energy and power, and recent results on full bundle (8 beamline) performance. NIF's first quad laser performance meets or exceeds NIF's design requirements. (authors)

  13. The National Ignition Facility Performance Status

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haynam, C; Auerbach, J; Nicola, J D; Dixit, S; Heestand, G; Henesian, M; Jancaitis, K; Manes, K; Marshall, C; Mehta, N; Nostrand, M; Orth, C; Sacks, R; Shaw, M; Sutton, S; Wegner, P; Williams, W; Widmayer, C; White, R; Yang, S; Van Wonterghem, B

    2005-08-30

    The National Ignition Facility (NIF) laser has been designed to support high energy density science (HEDS), including the demonstration of fusion ignition through Inertial Confinement. NIF operated a single ''quad'' of 4 beams from December 2002 through October 2004 in order to gain laser operations experience, support target experiments, and demonstrate laser performance consistent with NIF's design requirement. During this two-year period, over 400 Main Laser shots were delivered at 1{omega} to calorimeters for diagnostic calibration purposes, at 3{omega} to the Target Chamber, and at 1{omega}, 2{omega}, and 3{omega} to the Precision Diagnostics System (PDS). The PDS includes its own independent single beam transport system, NIF design frequency conversion hardware and optics, and laser sampling optics that deliver light to a broad range of laser diagnostics. Highlights of NIF laser performance will be discussed including the results of high energy 2{omega} and 3{omega} experiments, the use of multiple focal spot beam conditioning techniques, the reproducibility of laser performance on multiple shots, the generation on a single beam of a 3{omega} temporally shaped ignition pulse at full energy and power, and recent results on full bundle (8 beamline) performance. NIF's first quad laser performance meets or exceeds NIF's design requirements.

  14. Opportunities for Integrated Fast Ignition program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mackinnon, A. J.; Key, M. H.; Hatchett, S. P.; Tabak, M.; Town, R.; Gregori, G.; Patel, P. K.; Snavely, R.; Freeman, R. R.; Stephens, R. B.; Beg, F.

    2005-01-01

    Experiments designed to investigate the physics of particle transport and heating of dense plasmas have been carried out in an number of facilities around the world since the publication of the fast ignition concept in 1997. To date a number of integrated experiments, examining the capsule implosion and subsequent heating have been carried out on the Gekko facility at the Institute of Laser Engineering (ILE) Osaka, Japan. The coupling of energy by the short pulse into the pre-compressed core in these experiments was very encouraging. More facilities capable of carrying out integrated experiments are currently under construction: Firex at ILEm the Omega EP facility at the University of Rochester, Z PW at Sandia National Lab, LIL in France and eventually high energy PW beams on the NIF. This presentation will review the current status of experiments in this area and discuss the capabilities of integrated fast ignition research that will be required to design the proof of principle and scaling experiments for fast ignition to be carried on the NIF. (Author)

  15. Innovative ICF scheme-impact fast ignition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Murakami, M.; Nagatomo, H.; Sakaiya, T.; Karasik, M.; Gardner, J.; Bates, J.

    2007-01-01

    A totally new ignition scheme for ICF, impact fast ignition (IFI), is proposed [1], in which the compressed DT main fuel is to be ignited by impact collision of another fraction of separately imploded DT fuel, which is accelerated in the hollow conical target. Two-dimensional hydrodynamic simulation results in full geometry are presented, in which some key physical parameters for the impact shell dynamics such as 10 8 cm/s of the implosion velocity, 200- 300 g/cm 3 of the compressed density, and the converted temperature beyond 5 keV are demonstrated. As the first step toward the proof-of-principle of IFI, we have conducted preliminary experiments under the operation of GEKKO XII/HYPER laser system to achieve a hyper-velocity of the order of 108 cm/s. As a result we have observed a highest velocity, 6.5 x 10 7 cm/s, ever achieved. Furthermore, we have also done the first integrated experiments using the target and observed substantial amount of neutron yields. Reference: [1] M. Murakami and Nagatomo, Nucl. Instrum. Meth. Phys. Res. A 544(2005) 67

  16. Progress Towards Microwave Ignition of Explosives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Curling, Mark; Collins, Adam; Dima, Gabriel; Proud, William

    2009-06-01

    Microwaves could provide a method of propellant ignition that does away with a traditional primer, making ammunition safer and suitable for Insensitive Munitions (IM) applications. By embedding a suitable material inside a propellant, it is postulated that microwaves could be used to stimulate hotspots, through direct heating or electrostatic discharge (arcing) across the energetic material. This paper reports on progress in finding these suitable materials. Graphite rod, magnetite cubes and powders of graphite, aluminium, copper oxide, and iron were irradiated in a conventional microwave oven. Temperature measurements were made using a shielded thermocouple and thermal paints. Only graphite rod and magnetite showed significant heating upon microwave exposure. The light output from arcing of iron, steel, iron pyrite, magnetite and graphite was measured in the same microwave oven as above. Sample mass and shape were correlated with arcing intensity. A strategy is proposed to create a homogeneous igniter material by embedding arcing materials within an insulator, Polymethylpentene (TPX). External discharges were transmitted through TPX, however no embedded samples were successful in generating an electrical breakdown suitable for propellant ignition.

  17. Carbon footprint of automotive ignition coil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Huey-Ling; Chen, Chih-Ming; Sun, Chin-Huang; Lin, Hung-Di

    2015-07-01

    In recent years, environmental issues, such as climate change and global warming due to the excessive development of industry, have attracted increasing attention of citizens worldwide. It is known that CO2 accounts for the largest proportion of greenhouse gases. Therefore, how to reduce CO2 emissions during the life cycle of a product to lessen its impact on environment is an important topic in the industrial society. Furthermore, it is also of great significance to cut down the required energy so as to lower its production costs during the manufacturing process nowadays. This study presents the carbon footprint of an automotive ignition coil and its partial materials are defined to explore their carbon emissions and environmental impact. The model IPCC GWP100a calculates potential global greenhouse effect by converting them into CO2 equivalents. In this way, the overall carbon footprint of an ignition coil can be explored. By using IPCC GWP100a, the results display that the shell has the most carbon emissions. The results can help the industry reduce the carbon emissions of an ignition coil product.

  18. Testing the permeability and corrosion resistance of micro-mechanically interlocked joints

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Byskov-Nielsen, Jeppe; Holm, Allan Hjarbæk; Højsholt, Rune

    2011-01-01

    Micro-mechanical interlocking (MMI) can be applied to create new and interesting composite materials. We have employed laser structuring to achieve MMI between stainless steel and plastic with extremely high joint strength. However, the water permeability and corrosion resistance of the joint must...... be taken in order not to degrade the corrosion resistance of the sample to an unacceptable level....... is conducted. The permeability seems to be consistent with the Hagen–Poiseuille equation independent of the laser structuring technique and is orders of magnitudes larger than the diffusion rate through the plastic. Two different types of corrosion tests have been undertaken, and we show that care must...

  19. Facile route to an all-organic, triply threaded, interlocked structure by templated dynamic clipping.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pun, Andrew; Hanifi, David A; Kiel, Gavin; O'Brien, Evan; Liu, Yi

    2012-12-21

    Encaged! Three-terminal interlocked molecular species were obtained by dynamic (2+3) assembly of a cagelike macro-bicycle around a trifurcated trispyridinium π guest. The complex is stabilized by π-π interactions and multiple [C-H⋅⋅⋅O] and [C-H⋅⋅⋅N] interactions. Uncomplexed guest molecules cocrystallize alongside the threaded complexes in the solid state, thus giving extended π-stacked columns. Copyright © 2012 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  20. Buying intoformalization? State institutions and interlocked markets in African small-scale gold mining

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fold, Niels; Jønsson, Jesper Bosse; Yankson, Paul

    2014-01-01

    During recent decades, artisanal and small-scale mining (ASM) in Africa has increased tremendously. An unknown but significant part is constituted by activities that are not based on legally registered mining licenses. The division of formal and informal ASM is, however, dissolved in the marketing....... This paper argues that future research and design of policy mechanisms needs to focus on the inter-linkages of actors and material flows within the complex intertwinement of the formal and informal ASM sectors. Our point of departure is the findings on interlocked markets within the literature on rural...

  1. The Use of UML to Development of a Railway Interlocking System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karol Rastocny

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper deals with problems of using the Unifield Modeling Lanfuage (UML in developmentt of new railway interlocking and signalling systems. A simplifield example of the control circuit of a point machine is used to demonstrate an object-oriented approach to specifying the functional safety requirements. An informal specification given by the relevant technical standart is used as a starting point and results in semi-formal specification based on UML model. Advantages of the presented approach are discussed and new trends of increasing formality of UML models are indicated within conclusions.

  2. Successful Transcatheter Embolization of Penetrating Aortic Ulcer Using Interlocking Detachable Coils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hama, Yukihiro; Kaji, Tatsumi; Iwasaki, Yoshie; Hinokiyama, Kazuhiro; Shimizu, Masafumi; Kusano, Shoichi

    2000-01-01

    A 54-year-old man with persistent chest pain was hospitalized for hypertension and DeBakey type IIIb aortic dissection. The false lumen of the dissection was almost completely thrombosed; however, a penetrating atherosclerotic ulcer (PAU) was observed 5 weeks later. At that time, we successfully embolized the PAU with a microcatheter and interlocking detachable coils (IDCs). The patient is well with no episodes of relapse in 20 months of follow-up. This case suggests the utility of the microcatheter and IDC system as an alternative to surgery

  3. Effects of Ce concentrations on ignition temperature and surface tension of Mg-9wt.%Al alloy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deng Zhenghua

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Magnesium alloys are well known for their excellent properties, but the potential issues with oxidation and burning during melting and casting largely limit its industrial applications. The addition of Ce in magnesium alloys can significantly raise ignition-proof performance and change the structure of the oxide film on the surface of the molten metal as well as the surface tension values. Surface tension is an important physical parameter of the metal melts, and it plays an important role in the formation of surface oxide film. In this present work, the ignition temperature and the surface tension of Mg-9wt.%Al alloy with different Ce concentrations were studied. Surface tensions was measured using the maximum bubble pressure method (MBPM. Ignition temperature was measured using NiCr-NiSi type thermocouples and was monitored and recorded via a WXT-604 desk recording device. The results show that the ignition point of Mg-9wt.%Al alloy can be effectively elevated by adding Ce. The ignition temperature reaches its highest point of 720 ℃ when the addition of Ce is 1wt.%. The surface tension of the molten Mg-9wt.%Al alloy decreases exponentially with the increase of Ce addition at the same temperature. Similarly, the experiment also shows that the surface tension of Mg-9wt.%Al alloy decreases exponentially with the increase of temperature.

  4. Implementation of a near backscattering imaging system on the National Ignition Facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mackinnon, A.J.; McCarville, T.; Piston, K.; Niemann, C.; Jones, G.; Reinbachs, I.; Costa, R.; Celeste, J.; Holtmeier, G.; Griffith, R.; Kirkwood, R.; MacGowan, B.; Glenzer, S.H.; Latta, M.R.

    2004-01-01

    A near backscattering imaging diagnostic system is being implemented on the first quad of beams on the National Ignition Facility. This diagnostic images diffusing scatter plates, placed around the final focus lenses on the National Ignition Facility target chamber, to quantitatively measure the fraction of light backscattered outside of the focusing cone angle of incident laser beam. A wide-angle imaging system relays an image of light scattered outside the lens onto a gated charge coupled device camera, providing 3 mm resolution over a 2 m field of view. To account for changes of the system throughput due to exposure to target debris the system will be routinely calibrated in situ at 532 and 355 nm using a dedicated pulsed laser source

  5. Laser imprint and implications for direct drive ignition with the National Ignition Facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weber, S.V.; Glendinning, S.G.; Kalantar, D.H.; Remington, B.A.; Rothenberg, J.E.

    1996-01-01

    For direct drive ICF, nonuniformities in laser illumination can seed ripples at the ablation front in a process called imprint. Such nonuniformities will grow during the capsule implosion and can penetrate the capsule shell impede ignition, or degrade burn. We have simulated imprint for a number of experiments on tile Nova laser. Results are in generally good agreement with experimental data. We leave also simulated imprint upon National Ignition Facility (NIF) direct drive ignition capsules. Imprint modulation amplitude comparable to the intrinsic surface finish of ∼40 nm is predicted for a laser bandwidth of 0.5 THz. Ablation front modulations experience growth factors up to several thousand, carrying modulation well into the nonlinear regime. Saturation modeling predicts that the shell should remain intact at the time of peak velocity, but penetration at earlier times appears more marginal

  6. The Layer of Kevlar Angle-interlock Woven Fabric Effect on the Tensile Properties of Composite Materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Wan-Chen; Guo, Xu-Yi; Yan, Tao; Zhang, Shang-Yong

    2017-09-01

    This article is based on the structure of three-dimensional angle-interlock longitudinal.The 3-layer, 5-layer, 7-layer and 9-layer of angle-interlock 3D fabrics are woven on sample weaving machine respectively with the 1500D Kevlar fiber twist filament produced by United States DuPont. At the same time, Kevlar plain weave fabric is woven, and three, five, seven and nine layers’ fabric are to be compared. In the process of VARTM composite technology, epoxy resin is matrix material, acetone is diluent, triethylene tetramine is curing agent and the five different fabrics are the reinforced materials respectively. Finally, eight different three-dimensional woven fabric composites were prepared. In this paper, the tensile properties of eight kinds of three-dimensional woven fabric composites were tested respectively.Finally, it is concluded that the five-layer angle-interlock woven fabric prepared by Kevlar fiber shows the best tensile property.

  7. A Comparative Study of Cycle Variability of Laser Plug Ignition vs Classical Spark Plug Ignition in Combustion Engines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Done, Bogdan

    2017-10-01

    Over the past 30 years numerous studies and laboratory experiments have researched the use of laser energy to ignite gas and fuel-air mixtures. The actual implementation of this laser application has still to be fully achieved in a commercial automotive application. Laser Plug Ignition as a replacement for Spark Plug Ignition in the internal combustion engines of automotive vehicles, offers several potential benefits such as extending lean burn capability, reducing the cyclic variability between combustion cycles and decreasing the total amount of ignition costs, and implicitly weight and energy requirements. The paper presents preliminary results of cycle variability study carried on a SI Engine equipped with laser Plug Ignition system. Versus classic ignition system, the use of the laser Plug Ignition system assures the reduction of the combustion process variability, reflected in the lower values of the coefficient of variability evaluated for indicated mean effective pressure, maximum pressure, maximum pressure angle and maximum pressure rise rate. The laser plug ignition system was mounted on an experimental spark ignition engine and tested at the regime of 90% load and 2800 rev/min, at dosage of λ=1.1. Compared to conventional spark plug, laser ignition assures the efficiency at lean dosage.

  8. Experimental investigations of the minimum ignition energy and the minimum ignition temperature of inert and combustible dust cloud mixtures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Addai, Emmanuel Kwasi, E-mail: emmanueladdai41@yahoo.com; Gabel, Dieter; Krause, Ulrich

    2016-04-15

    Highlights: • Ignition sensitivity of a highly flammable dust decreases upon addition of inert dust. • Minimum ignition temperature of a highly flammable dust increases when inert concentration increase. • Minimum ignition energy of a highly flammable dust increases when inert concentration increase. • The permissible range for the inert mixture to minimize the ignition risk lies between 60 to 80%. - Abstract: The risks associated with dust explosions still exist in industries that either process or handle combustible dust. This explosion risk could be prevented or mitigated by applying the principle of inherent safety (moderation). This is achieved by adding an inert material to a highly combustible material in order to decrease the ignition sensitivity of the combustible dust. The presented paper deals with the experimental investigation of the influence of adding an inert dust on the minimum ignition energy and the minimum ignition temperature of the combustible/inert dust mixtures. The experimental investigation was done in two laboratory scale equipment: the Hartmann apparatus and the Godbert-Greenwald furnace for the minimum ignition energy and the minimum ignition temperature test respectively. This was achieved by mixing various amounts of three inert materials (magnesium oxide, ammonium sulphate and sand) and six combustible dusts (brown coal, lycopodium, toner, niacin, corn starch and high density polyethylene). Generally, increasing the inert materials concentration increases the minimum ignition energy as well as the minimum ignition temperatures until a threshold is reached where no ignition was obtained. The permissible range for the inert mixture to minimize the ignition risk lies between 60 to 80%.

  9. The National Ignition Facility. The path to ignition and inertial fusion energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eric Storm

    2010-01-01

    Complete text of publication follows. The National Ignition Facility (NIF), the world's largest and most energetic laser system built for studying inertial confinement fusion (ICF) and high-energy-density (HED) science, is now operational at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL). NIF's 192 beams are capable of producing 1.8 MJ and 500 TW of ultraviolet light and are configured to create pressures as high as 100 GB, matter temperatures approaching 10 9 and densities over 1000 g/cm 3 . With these capabis70lities, the NIF will enable exploring scientific problems in strategic defense, basic science and fusion energy. One of the early NIF campaigns is focusing on demonstrating laboratory-scale thermonuclear ignition and burn to produce net fusion energy gains of 10-20 with 1.2 to 1.4 MJ of 0.35 μm light. NIF ignition experiments began late in FY2009 as part of the National Ignition Campaign (NIC). Participants of NIC include LLNL, General Atomics, Los Alamos National Laboratory, Sandia National Laboratory, and the University of Rochester Laboratory for Energetics (LLE) as well as variety of national and international collaborators. The results from these initial experiments show great promise for the relatively near-term achievement of ignition. Capsule implosion experiments at energies up to 1.2 MJ have demonstrated laser energetics, radiation temperatures, and symmetry control that scale to ignition conditions. Of particular importance is the demonstration of peak hohlraum temperatures near 300 eV with low overall backscatter less than 10%. Cryogenic target capability and additional diagnostics are being installed in preparation for layered target deuterium-tritium implosions to be conducted later in 2010. The goal for NIC is to demonstrate a predictable fusion experimental platform by the end of 2012. Successful demonstration of ignition and net energy gain on NIF will be a major step towards demonstrating the feasibility of Inertial Fusion Energy (IFE) and

  10. Black Alcoholism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watts, Thomas D.; Wright, Roosevelt

    1988-01-01

    Examines some aspects of the problem of alcoholism among Blacks, asserting that Black alcoholism can best be considered in an ecological, environmental, sociocultural, and public health context. Notes need for further research on alcoholism among Blacks and for action to reduce the problem of Black alcoholism. (NB)

  11. Alcohol withdrawal

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... so they can monitor you for symptoms of alcohol withdrawal. Prevention Reduce or avoid alcohol. If you have a drinking problem, you should ... team. 02-05-18: Editorial update. Alcoholism and Alcohol Abuse Read more ... HealthCare Commission (www.urac.org). URAC's accreditation program is an independent audit to verify that A. ...

  12. Changes in microgaps, micromotion, and trabecular strain from interlocked cement-trabecular bone interfaces in total knee replacements with in vivo service

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Miller, M.A.; Goodheart, J.R.; Khechen, B.; Janssen, D.W.; Mann, K.A.

    2016-01-01

    The initial fixation of cemented Total Knee Replacements (TKRs) relies on mechanical interlock between cement and bone, but loss of interlock occurs with in vivo service. In this study, cement-trabeculae gap morphology and micromechanics were measured for lab prepared (representing post-operative

  13. Successful commissioning of an electronic interlocking system, taking the example of Plochingen; Erfolgreiche Inbetriebnahme eines elektronischen Stellwerks - Beispiel ESTW Plochingen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Woerner, C.; Rosenberger, H. [DB ProjektBau GmbH, Stuttgart (Germany); Kuehnle, T. [THOST Projektmanagement GmbH, Pforzheim (Germany)

    2007-03-15

    It was essential to draw up a precise commissioning concept for the new electronic interlocking system in Plochingen, given the scale of the measure and the high frequency of trains passing through. The authors describe the detailed documents that were compiled to begin with, dealing, in particular, with technical and operational feasibility and time requirements. Such an input was a precondition for the commissioning operation to be completed smoothly. Thanks to this concept and the committed work of all those involved at first hand, commissioning the new electronic interlocking system in Plochingen was completed within the five night-time line closures planned for it between 13 and 18 April 2006. (orig.)

  14. Full Load Performance of a Spark Ignition Engine Fueled with Gasoline-Isobutanol Blends

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adrian Irimescu

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available With fossil fuels reserves coming ever closer to depletion and the issue of air pollution caused by automotive transport becoming more and more important, mankind has looked for various solutions in the field of internal combustion engines. One of these solutions is using biofuels, and while the internal combustion engine will most likely disappear along with the last fossil fuel source, studying biofuels and their impact on automotive power-trains is a necessity even if only on a the short term basis. While engines built to run on alcohol-gasoline blends offer good performance levels even at high concentrations of alcohol, unmodified engines fueled with blends of biofuels and fossil fuels can exhibit a drop in power. The object of this study is evaluating such phenomena when a spark ignition engine is operated at full load.

  15. Periareolar augmentation mastopexy with interlocking gore-tex suture, retrospective review of 50 consecutive patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franco, Johnny; Kelly, Emma; Kelly, Michael

    2014-11-01

    Periareolar Augmentation Mastopexy is one of the most challenging operations in plastic surgery. Problems with scar quality, areolar widening, and distortion are frequent problems that interfere with a predictable result. A retrospective review was performed on fifty consecutive patients who underwent a periareolar augmentation mastopexy with the interlocking approach. Of the 50 patients, 30 had both preoperative and postoperative photographs and were the basis of the study. The age of the patients ranged from 19 to 56 years with the average age being 39 years. The postoperative follow-up averaged 9.5 months and the implants averaged 316 mL. There were no deaths, pulmonary embolism, deep vein thrombosis, or infected implants. Four patients had complications following surgery for an overall complication rate of 13%. Two patients developed an infected Gore-Tex suture. Two of these complications were treated with revision surgery. Five patients required reoperation for an overall reoperative rate of 16% (one patient was converted to a full mastopexy). As a result of this retrospective study, we have found the interlocking approach to periareolar augmentation/mastopexy to be a safe and reliable operation.

  16. Periareolar Augmentation Mastopexy with Interlocking Gore-Tex Suture, Retrospective Review of 50 Consecutive Patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Johnny Franco

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available BackgroundPeriareolar Augmentation Mastopexy is one of the most challenging operations in plastic surgery. Problems with scar quality, areolar widening, and distortion are frequent problems that interfere with a predictable result.MethodsA retrospective review was performed on fifty consecutive patients who underwent a periareolar augmentation mastopexy with the interlocking approach. Of the 50 patients, 30 had both preoperative and postoperative photographs and were the basis of the study.ResultsThe age of the patients ranged from 19 to 56 years with the average age being 39 years. The postoperative follow-up averaged 9.5 months and the implants averaged 316 mL. There were no deaths, pulmonary embolism, deep vein thrombosis, or infected implants. Four patients had complications following surgery for an overall complication rate of 13%. Two patients developed an infected Gore-Tex suture. Two of these complications were treated with revision surgery. Five patients required reoperation for an overall reoperative rate of 16% (one patient was converted to a full mastopexy.ConclusionsAs a result of this retrospective study, we have found the interlocking approach to periareolar augmentation/mastopexy to be a safe and reliable operation.

  17. Patología de pavimentos articulados Pathology of interlocking pavements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Hernando Higuera Sandoval

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Este artículo presenta los resultados de un proyecto de grado sobre patología de pavimentos articulados, el cual fue elaborado con el propósito de hacer una recolección de los deterioros típicos de los pavimentos articulados construidos con adoquines de concreto o de ladrillo; y de esta forma, elaborar un catálogo de deterioros para este tipo de estructuras que facilitará la identificación y cuantificación de los deterioros en una inspección visual. El segundo propósito de este proyecto, es la formulación para Colombia de una metodología que permita determinar el Índice de Condición de las estructuras de pavimentos articulados.This article presents the results of a thesis on pathology of interlocking pavements, which objective was to make a compilation of typical damages of interlocking pavements constructed with concrete or brick pavers and, in this way, to elaborate a catalogue of damages for this kind of structures which will make the identification and quantification of deteriorations possible in a visual inspection. The second purpose of this project is the formulation of a methodology which allows determining the Index of pavement conditions for Colombia.

  18. A review on past and present development on the interlocking loadbearing hollow block (ILHB) system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bosro, M. Z. M.; Samad, A. A. A.; Mohamad, N.; Goh, W. I.; Tambichik, M. A.; Iman, M. A.

    2018-04-01

    Massive migration and increasing population in Malaysia has contributed to the increasing demand of quality and affordable housing. Over the past 50 years, the Malaysian housing industry has seen the growth of using conventional construction system such as reinforced concrete frame structures and bricks. The conventional system, as agreed by many researchers, causes delays and other disadvantages in some of the construction projects. Thus, the utilization of interlocking loadbearing hollow block (ILHB) system is needed to address these issues. This system has been identified as an alternative and sustainable building system for the construction industry in Malaysia which the PUTRA block system is the latest example of the ILHB developed. The system offers various advantages in terms of speed and cost in construction, strength, environmentally friendly and aesthetic qualities. Despite these advantages, this system has not been practically applied and develop in Malaysia. Therefore, this paper aims to review the past and present development of the interlocking loadbearing hollow block (ILHB) system that available locally and globally.

  19. On the modeling and characterization of an interlocked flexible electronic skin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khalili, Nazanin; Shen, Xuechen; Naguib, Hani E.

    2017-04-01

    Development of an electronic skin with ultra-high pressure sensitivity is now of critical importance due its broad range of applications including prosthetic skins and biomimetic robotics. Microstructured conductive composite elastomers can acquire mechanical and electrical properties analogous to those of natural skin. One of the most prominent features of human skin is its tactile sensing property which can be mimicked in an electronic skin. Herein, an electrically conductive composite comprising polydimethylsiloxane and conductive fillers is used as a flexible and stretchable piezoresistive sensor. The electrical conductivity is induced within the elastomer matrix via carbon nanotubes whereas the piezoresistivity is obtained by means of microstructuring the surface of the substrate. An interlocked array of pyramids in micro-scale allows the change in the contact resistance between two thin layers of the composite upon application of an external load. Deformation of the interlocked arrays endows the sensor with an ultra-high sensitivity to the external pressures within the range of human skin perception. Moreover, using finite element analysis, the change in the contact are between the two layers was captured for different geometries. The structure of the sensor can be optimized through an optimization model in order to acquire maximum sensitivity.

  20. Hierarchical Porous Interlocked Polymeric Microcapsules: Sulfonic Acid Functionalization as Acid Catalysts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xiaomei; Gu, Jinyan; Tian, Lei; Zhang, Xu

    2017-03-01

    Owing to their unique structural and surface properties, mesoporous microspheres are widely applied in the catalytic field. Generally, increasing the surface area of the specific active phase of the catalyst is a good method, which can achieve a higher catalytic activity through the fabrication of the corresponding catalytic microspheres with the smaller size and hollow structure. However, one of the major challenges in the use of hollow microspheres (microcapsules) as catalysts is their chemical and structural stability. Herein, the grape-like hypercrosslinked polystyrene hierarchical porous interlocked microcapsule (HPIM-HCL-PS) is fabricated by SiO2 colloidal crystals templates, whose structure is the combination of open mouthed structure, mesoporous nanostructure and interlocked architecture. Numerous microcapsules assembling together and forming the roughly grape-like microcapsule aggregates can enhance the structural stability and recyclability of these microcapsules. After undergoing the sulfonation, the sulfonated HPIM-HCL-PS is served as recyclable acid catalyst for condensation reaction between benzaldehyde and ethylene glycol (TOF = 793 h-1), moreover, exhibits superior activity, selectivity and recyclability.

  1. Tune resonance phenomena in the SPS and machine protection via fast position interlocking

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baer, Tobias [CERN, Genf (Switzerland); Universitaet Hamburg (Germany); DESY, Hamburg (Germany); Wenninger, Joerg; Bogey, Thierry; Araujo Meleiro, Berta [CERN, Genf (Switzerland)

    2010-07-01

    The 6911 m long Super Proton Synchrotron (SPS) at CERN with a peak energy of 450 GeV is at the top of the LHC preaccelerator-complex. Apart from the LHC, the SPS is with the Tevatron the accelerator with the largest stored beam energy of up to 2.5 MJ. The SPS has a known vulnerability to fast equipment failures that led to an uncontrolled loss of a high intensity beam in 2008, which resulted in major damage of a main dipole. The beam loss was caused by a fast tune decrease towards an integer resonance. Simulations and distinct experimental studies provide clear understanding of the beam dynamics at different SPS tune resonances. Diverging closed orbit oscillations, dispersion explosion and increased beta-beating are the driving effects that lead to a complete beam loss in as little as 10 turns (230 {mu}s) after reaching the stop band of the resonance. Dedicated experiments of fast failures of the main power converters reveal that the current interlock systems with a delay of 7-12 ms are much too slow for an adequate machine protection. To counteract the vulnerability of the SPS, current research focuses on a new fast position interlock system which is planned to become operational in the first quarter of 2010.

  2. Traction Converting Substation from Viewpoint of Feeding Interlocking Plant at Czech Railwayes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Radovan Dolecek

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents analyses current and voltage harmonic in traction converting substation 3 kV. It researches their rise and influence to three-phase cable line 6 kV, 50 Hz that is used for feeding interlocking plant. Processing of this task is arisen from requirement practice for line Pěčky - Poříčany - Rostoklaty where happened to adverse ratio in particular transmission line of feeding system. It is meant especially about backward influence traction substation rectifier Pečky to three - phase cable line 6 kV, 50 Hz. At the determinate lenght of the cable line, when resonace frequency of circuit transformer 22 kV/6 kV and the cable line 6 kV, 50 Hz is approached frequency 550 Hz and 650 Hz (i.e. 11 and 13 harmonic are happened to socalled "annulations input reactance of this circuit". That is caused by the leakage of current resonace frequency from traction converting substation to cable line. That proceduces additional losses and deformation waveform of voltage too. This deformation can be reflected on how interlocking plant is working. 

  3. Bacterial carbonate precipitation improves water absorption of interlocking compressed earth block (ICEB)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zamer, M. M.; Irwan, J. M.; Othman, N.; Faisal, S. K.; Anneza, L. H.; Alshalif, A. F.; Teddy, T.

    2017-11-01

    Interlocking compressed earth blocks (ICEB) are soil based blocks that allows for mortarless construction. The addition of many alternative materials into interlocking block in order to improve the durability has been reported. However there are currently lack of report and evidence on the application of biocalcification or microbiologically induced calcite precipitation (MICP) in improving the engineering properties of ICEB. This paper evaluate the effect of UB in improving the water absorption properties of ICEB. This paper also provide the results on SEM analysis of addition of 1%, 3% and 5% UB in ICEB. The bacteria were added as partial replacement of limestone water in ICEB. The results showed the reduction of 14.72% with 5% UB on initial water absorption followed by the results for water absorption by 24-hour soaking which also indicates reduction of 14.68% with 5% UB on 28th days of testing compared to control specimen. It was expected that the reduction of water absorption was due to the plugging of pores by the bacterial calcite which prevent ingression of water in ICEB samples. Therefore this study hopes that the positive results from the UB as improving in water absorption of ICEB will lead to improve others ICEB properties and others construction materials.

  4. An in vitro biomechanical investigation of an interlocking nail system developed for buffalo tibia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhat, S A; Aithal, H P; Kinjavdekar, P; Amarpal; Zama, M M S; Gope, P C; Pawde, A M; Ahmad, R A; Gugjoo, M B

    2014-01-01

    The objectives of the study were to determine the mechanical properties of a customized buffalo interlocking nail (BIN), intact buffalo tibia, and ostectomized tibia stabilized with BIN in different configurations, as well as to assess the convenience of interlocking nailing in buffalo tibia. The BIN (316L stainless steel, 12 mm diameter, 250 mm long, nine-hole solid nails with 10° proximal bend) alone was loaded in compression and three-point bending (n=4 each); intact tibiae and ostectomized tibiae (of buffaloes aged 5-8 years, weighing 300-350 kg) stabilized with BIN using 4.9 mm standard or modified locking bolts (4 or 8) in different configurations were subjected to axial compression, cranio-caudal three-point bending and torsion (n=4 each) using a universal testing machine. Mechanical parameters were determined from load-displacement curves and compared using Kruskal-Wallis test (ptesting modes. The strength of fixation constructs with eight locking bolts was significantly more than with four bolts. Overall strength of fixation with modified locking bolts was better than standard bolts. Based on technical ease and biomechanical properties, cranio-caudal insertion of bolts into the bone was found better than medio-lateral insertion. The eight bolt BIN-bone constructs could be useful to treat tibial fractures in large ruminants, especially buffaloes.

  5. Treatment of acute fractures of the femoral shaft with reamed intramedullary interlocking AO nails.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Umer, M; Niazi, A K; Hussain, D; Ahmad, M

    2004-08-01

    To review and audit our experience with closed intramedullary interlocking nailing for acute femoral shaft fractures. All patients admitted to The Aga Khan University Hospital, over the last six years and with a minimum follow-up of twelve months, with acute fractures of the femoral shaft were included in the study. All patients treated for established non-unions and infections or with pathological fractures were excluded from the study. There were 89 fractures, 74% of whom were closed and 50% were associated with other orthopedic injuries. Most of these were younger patients involved in high velocity road traffic accidents. The union rate was 88% with 4.4% of fractures going into non-union. The remaining 8% of the fractures went into a phase of delayed union, but ultimately united, making the overall success rate to be 95.6%. The mean time for union was 11.5 weeks. At the final clinical follow-up, 4% of the patients had minor pain, 7% had limp, 4% had leg length discrepancy of more than 2 cm and 4% had decreased range of motion at the hip or knee joints. We had a 4% rate of superficial infection. There were 3 cases of pudendal nerve neuropraxia and 2 cases of deep vein thrombosis. Intramedullary Interlocking nailing is a safe and effective treatment modality for acute fractures of the femoral shaft. Proper surgical decision making regarding static versus dynamic mode of locking can avoid problems of delayed union.

  6. Abating coal tar seepage into surface water bodies using sheet piles with sealed interlocks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Collingwood, B.I.; Boscardin, M.D.; Murdock, R.F.

    1995-01-01

    A former coal tar processing facility processed crude coal tar supplied from manufactured gas plants in the area. Coal-tar-contaminated ground water from the site was observed seeping through an existing timber bulkhead along a tidal river and producing a multicolored sheen on the surface of the river. As part of a short-term measure to abate the seepage into the river, 64-m long anchored sheet pile wall with sheet pile wing walls at each end was constructed inland of the of the timber bulkhead. The sheet piles extended to low-permeability soils at depth and the interlocks of the sheet piles were provided with polyurethane rubber seals. Based on postconstruction observations for leakage and sheens related to leakage, the steel sheet piles with polyurethane rubber interlock seals appeared to provide a successful seal and abate coal-tar-contaminated ground water seepage into the river. The tie rod penetration sealing proved to be a more problematic detail, but through several postconstruction grouting episodes, an effective seal was produced

  7. Effect of microtrichia on the interlocking mechanism in the Asian ladybeetle, Harmonia axyridis (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Jiyu; Liu, Chao; Bhushan, Bharat; Wu, Wei; Tong, Jin

    2018-01-01

    The hindwings of beetles are folded under the elytra when they are at rest but are extended during flight, which can provide bioinspiration for the design of deployable micro air vehicles (MAVs). Beetle hindwings must be able to be both securely locked under the elytra and freely extended for flight, depending on the required action. To investigate the locking mechanism, this study used environmental scanning electron microscopy (ESEM) to examine the microstructures of the elytra, hindwings and abdomen of the Asian ladybeetle, Harmonia axyridis (Pallas, 1773). On the ventral side (VS) of the elytra, the microtrichia show a transitional structure from the lateral edge to the medial edge. On the hindwing surface, the folded regions were observed on both the dorsal side (DS) and the VS. On the abdomen, the microtrichia between the abdominal segments show a cyclical change from sparse to dense in each segment in the middle of the abdomen. Furthermore, the different directions of microtrichia that lead to self-locking friction on the surfaces of the hindwing, elytron and abdomen appear to facilitate interlocking. A model for the interlocking of the hindwings of the H. axyridis was established, and its underlying mechanism is discussed.

  8. Bio-inspired ``jigsaw''-like interlocking sutures: Modeling, optimization, 3D printing and testing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malik, I. A.; Mirkhalaf, M.; Barthelat, F.

    2017-05-01

    Structural biological materials such as bone, teeth or mollusk shells draw their remarkable performance from a sophisticated interplay of architectures and weak interfaces. Pushed to the extreme, this concept leads to sutured materials, which contain thin lines with complex geometries. Sutured materials are prominent in nature, and have recently served as bioinspiration for toughened ceramics and glasses. Sutures can generate large deformations, toughness and damping in otherwise all brittle systems and materials. In this study we examine the design and optimization of sutures with a jigsaw puzzle-like geometry, focusing on the non-linear traction behavior generated by the frictional pullout of the jigsaw tabs. We present analytical models which accurately predict the entire pullout response. Pullout strength and energy absorption increase with higher interlocking angles and for higher coefficients of friction, but the associated high stresses in the solid may fracture the tabs. Systematic optimization reveals a counter-intuitive result: the best pullout performance is achieved with interfaces with low coefficient of friction and high interlocking angle. We finally use 3D printing and mechanical testing to verify the accuracy of the models and of the optimization. The models and guidelines we present here can be extended to other types of geometries and sutured materials subjected to other loading/boundary conditions. The nonlinear responses of sutures are particularly attractive to augment the properties and functionalities of inherently brittle materials such as ceramics and glasses.

  9. Elements of a method to scale ignition reactor Tokamak

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cotsaftis, M.

    1984-08-01

    Due to unavoidable uncertainties from present scaling laws when projected to thermonuclear regime, a method is proposed to minimize these uncertainties in order to figure out the main parameters of ignited tokamak. The method mainly consists in searching, if any, a domain in adapted parameters space which allows Ignition, but is the least sensitive to possible change in scaling laws. In other words, Ignition domain is researched which is the intersection of all possible Ignition domains corresponding to all possible scaling laws produced by all possible transports

  10. Review of the National Ignition Campaign 2009-2012

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lindl, John; Landen, Otto; Edwards, John; Moses, Ed

    2014-01-01

    The National Ignition Campaign (NIC) was a multi-institution effort established under the National Nuclear Security Administration of DOE in 2005, prior to the completion of the National Ignition Facility (NIF) in 2009. The scope of the NIC was the planning and preparation for and the execution of the first 3 yr of ignition experiments (through the end of September 2012) as well as the development, fielding, qualification, and integration of the wide range of capabilities required for ignition. Besides the operation and optimization of the use of NIF, these capabilities included over 50 optical, x-ray, and nuclear diagnostic systems, target fabrication facilities, experimental platforms, and a wide range of NIF facility infrastructure. The goal of ignition experiments on the NIF is to achieve, for the first time, ignition and thermonuclear burn in the laboratory via inertial confinement fusion and to develop a platform for ignition and high energy density applications on the NIF. The goal of the NIC was to develop and integrate all of the capabilities required for a precision ignition campaign and, if possible, to demonstrate ignition and gain by the end of FY12. The goal of achieving ignition can be divided into three main challenges. The first challenge is defining specifications for the target, laser, and diagnostics with the understanding that not all ignition physics is fully understood and not all material properties are known. The second challenge is designing experiments to systematically remove these uncertainties. The third challenge is translating these experimental results into metrics designed to determine how well the experimental implosions have performed relative to expectations and requirements and to advance those metrics toward the conditions required for ignition. This paper summarizes the approach taken to address these challenges, along with the progress achieved to date and the challenges that remain. At project completion in 2009, NIF lacked

  11. Hydrodynamic modeling and simulations of shock ignition thresholds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lafon M.

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available The Shock Ignition (SI scheme [1] offers to reduce the laser requirements by relaxing the implosion phase to sub-ignition velocities and later adding an intense laser spike. Depending on laser energy, target characteristics and implosion velocity, high gains are expected [2,3]. Relevant intensities for scaled targets imploded in the velocity range from 150 to 400 km/s are defined at ignition thresholds. A range of moderate implosion velocities is specified to match safe implosions. These conditions for target design are then inferred for relevant NIF and LMJ shock-ignited targets.

  12. Highly Durable Catalysts for Ignition of Advanced Monopropellants, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This proposed SBIR Phase I addresses the development of catalysts and technology for the ignition of advanced monopropellants consisting of mixtures of...

  13. A New Concept of Dual Fuelled SI Engines Run on Gasoline and Alcohol

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stelmasiak, Zdzisław

    2011-06-01

    The paper discusses tests results of dual-fuel spark ignition engine with multipoint injection of alcohol and gasoline, injected in area of inlet valve. Fuelling of the engine was accomplished via prototype inlet system comprising duplex injectors controlled electronically. Implemented system enables feeding of the engine with gasoline only or alcohol only, and simultaneous combustion of a mixture of the both fuels with any fraction of alcohol. The tests were performed on four cylinders, spark ignition engine of Fiat 1100 MPI type. The paper presents comparative results of dual-fuel engine test when the engine runs on changing fraction of methyl alcohol. The tests have demonstrated an advantageous effect of alcohol additive on efficiency and TCH and NOx emission of the engine, especially in case of bigger shares of the alcohol and higher engine loads.

  14. Initiation devices, initiation systems including initiation devices and related methods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Daniels, Michael A.; Condit, Reston A.; Rasmussen, Nikki; Wallace, Ronald S.

    2018-04-10

    Initiation devices may include at least one substrate, an initiation element positioned on a first side of the at least one substrate, and a spark gap electrically coupled to the initiation element and positioned on a second side of the at least one substrate. Initiation devices may include a plurality of substrates where at least one substrate of the plurality of substrates is electrically connected to at least one adjacent substrate of the plurality of substrates with at least one via extending through the at least one substrate. Initiation systems may include such initiation devices. Methods of igniting energetic materials include passing a current through a spark gap formed on at least one substrate of the initiation device, passing the current through at least one via formed through the at least one substrate, and passing the current through an explosive bridge wire of the initiation device.

  15. The business prestige: A preliminary study based on interlocks within companies El prestigi empresarial: Anàlisi a través de les conselleries creuades The business prestige: A preliminary study based on interlocks within companies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Gonzalez-Prieto

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: The literature on interlocked directorate or interlocks has proposed the presence of cross-directors as an influential factor in the prestige of a firm (Mizruchi, 1996. This theory is based on the fact that, by having multiple companies with interlocks within them, major stakeholders of the company ought to have a higher perception of prestige. The aim of this preliminary study is to present an exploratory study and suggest future research lines on this issue. Design/methodology/approach: In a first preliminary study, we evaluate the interlocks network comprising companies belonging to the ranking established by the MERCO report in Spain for the year 2010. This is a well-known ranking of corporate reputation in Spain used in recent articles (Luna & Fernandez, 2010. For further analysis, other variables are considered as being quoted in the Spanish market benchmark index, IBEX 35, and the location of the headquarters.Findings: Significant positive relationship was obtained between the number of directorships shared with other public companies and the perceived prestige that stakeholders perceive from the firm. Similarly, we obtain significant positive correlation between the prestige and being listed on the IBEX 35. Finally, we identified banking, construction and energy sectors as the ones that use interlocking directorates more intensively.Research limitations: The results of this preliminary study show the viability of future studies about prestige and interlocks (Mizruchi, 1996. For the validation of the theory described in this study, it should be replicated in different regions and, with larger samples, to observe the effect that interlocks have on the perception of prestige of the company.Practical implications / Originality/value: This is among the first studies showing the existence of a relationship between interlocks and business prestige. It highlights the importance of the composition of the boards for the perceived prestige

  16. Measuring channels for data transmission for on-line control systems of tokamak type thermonuclear devices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arsen'ev, V.A.; Bondarenko, I.M.; Gerasimov, V.P.; Repin, S.S.; Turkin, V.B.

    1982-01-01

    The experimental results are given of studying the measuring channel accuracy of automated control systems, automatic adjustment systems, interlocking and signalling control apparatus on tokamak-type devices. The diagram of the whole measuring channel is presented. It includes a measuring amplifier, a primary converter, a receiver-transmitter, secondary converters. Measurements of metrological characteristics of the measuring channels have shown that the design principles of the channels meet the measurement requarements of a tokamak device

  17. Hemispherical Capsule Implosions for Fast Ignition*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanson, D. L.; Vesey, R. A.; Sinars, D. B.; Adams, R. G.; Cuneo, M. E.; Porter, J. L.; Slutz, S. A.; Johnston, R. R.; Wenger, D. F.; Schroen, D. G.

    2003-10-01

    The fast ignitor approach to ICF ignition separates the fuel assembly and fast heating processes. After compressing the fuel with the main driver, the fuel is ignited using a focused electron or ion beam generated by a fast, ultra-high power laser pulse. This significantly relaxes the drive symmetry, energy, and shock timing requirements compared to hot spot ignition. A hemispherical capsule target is a fast ignitor geometry well-adapted to symmetric fuel compression by a single-ended z-pinch radiation drive. The hemispherical capsule implodes radially, constrained at its equator by a flat high-density surface (a special case of the spherical capsule "cone-focus" geometry). This glide plane is mounted on a hollow pedestal that provides a plasma-free, short-pulse laser path to the compressed fuel core region. In experiments on the Z accelerator at Sandia, we are studying implosions of 2.0-mm-diameter, 60-micron-thick hemispherical capsules in cylindrical secondary hohlraums heated to 90-100 eV from one end by a 120 TW wire-array z-pinch. Analysis of ZBL 6.7 keV point-projection backlighter images of pole-hot implosions in a tall secondary and 6.18 keV monochromatic crystal backlighter images of more symmetric implosions in a short secondary will be presented. We will also discuss progress on the development of a cryogenic liquid fuel target for this fast ignitor compression geometry. * Sandia is a multiprogram laboratory operated by Sandia Corporation, a Lockheed Martin Company, for the United States Department of Energy's National Nuclear Security Administration under Contract DE-AC04-94AL85000.

  18. Experimental investigations of the minimum ignition energy and the minimum ignition temperature of inert and combustible dust cloud mixtures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Addai, Emmanuel Kwasi; Gabel, Dieter; Krause, Ulrich

    2016-04-15

    The risks associated with dust explosions still exist in industries that either process or handle combustible dust. This explosion risk could be prevented or mitigated by applying the principle of inherent safety (moderation). This is achieved by adding an inert material to a highly combustible material in order to decrease the ignition sensitivity of the combustible dust. The presented paper deals with the experimental investigation of the influence of adding an inert dust on the minimum ignition energy and the minimum ignition temperature of the combustible/inert dust mixtures. The experimental investigation was done in two laboratory scale equipment: the Hartmann apparatus and the Godbert-Greenwald furnace for the minimum ignition energy and the minimum ignition temperature test respectively. This was achieved by mixing various amounts of three inert materials (magnesium oxide, ammonium sulphate and sand) and six combustible dusts (brown coal, lycopodium, toner, niacin, corn starch and high density polyethylene). Generally, increasing the inert materials concentration increases the minimum ignition energy as well as the minimum ignition temperatures until a threshold is reached where no ignition was obtained. The permissible range for the inert mixture to minimize the ignition risk lies between 60 to 80%. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Development of a simulation model for compression ignition engine running with ignition improved blend

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sudeshkumar Ponnusamy Moranahalli

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Department of Automobile Engineering, Anna University, Chennai, India. The present work describes the thermodynamic and heat transfer models used in a computer program which simulates the diesel fuel and ignition improver blend to predict the combustion and emission characteristics of a direct injection compression ignition engine fuelled with ignition improver blend using classical two zone approach. One zone consists of pure air called non burning zone and other zone consist of fuel and combustion products called burning zone. First law of thermodynamics and state equations are applied in each of the two zones to yield cylinder temperatures and cylinder pressure histories. Using the two zone combustion model the combustion parameters and the chemical equilibrium composition were determined. To validate the model an experimental investigation has been conducted on a single cylinder direct injection diesel engine fuelled with 12% by volume of 2- ethoxy ethanol blend with diesel fuel. Addition of ignition improver blend to diesel fuel decreases the exhaust smoke and increases the thermal efficiency for the power outputs. It was observed that there is a good agreement between simulated and experimental results and the proposed model requires low computational time for a complete run.

  20. A trial of ignition innovation of gasoline engine by nanosecond pulsed low temperature plasma ignition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shiraishi, Taisuke; Urushihara, Tomonori; Gundersen, Martin

    2009-01-01

    Application of nanosecond pulsed low temperature plasma as an ignition technique for automotive gasoline engines, which require a discharge under conditions of high back pressure, has been studied experimentally using a single-cylinder engine. The nanosecond pulsed plasma refers to the transient (non-equilibrated) phase of a plasma before the formation of an arc discharge; it was obtained by applying a high voltage with a nanosecond pulse (FWHM of approximately 80 or 25 ns) between coaxial cylindrical electrodes. It was confirmed that nanosecond pulsed plasma can form a volumetric multi-channel streamer discharge at an energy consumption of 60 mJ cycle -1 under a high back pressure of 1400 kPa. It was found that the initial combustion period was shortened compared with the conventional spark ignition. The initial flame visualization suggested that the nanosecond pulsed plasma ignition results in the formation of a spatially dispersed initial flame kernel at a position of high electric field strength around the central electrode. It was observed that the electric field strength in the air gap between the coaxial cylindrical electrodes was increased further by applying a shorter pulse. It was also clarified that the shorter pulse improved ignitability even further.

  1. Computational Prediction of Shock Ignition Thresholds and Ignition Probability of Polymer-Bonded Explosives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Yaochi; Kim, Seokpum; Horie, Yasuyuki; Zhou, Min

    2017-06-01

    A computational approach is developed to predict the probabilistic ignition thresholds of polymer-bonded explosives (PBXs). The simulations explicitly account for microstructure, constituent properties, and interfacial responses and capture processes responsible for the development of hotspots and damage. The specific damage mechanisms considered include viscoelasticity, viscoplasticity, fracture, post-fracture contact, frictional heating, and heat conduction. The probabilistic analysis uses sets of statistically similar microstructure samples to mimic relevant experiments for statistical variations of material behavior due to inherent material heterogeneities. The ignition thresholds and corresponding ignition probability maps are predicted for PBX 9404 and PBX 9501 for the impact loading regime of Up = 200 --1200 m/s. James and Walker-Wasley relations are utilized to establish explicit analytical expressions for the ignition probability as a function of load intensities. The predicted results are in good agreement with available experimental measurements. The capability to computationally predict the macroscopic response out of material microstructures and basic constituent properties lends itself to the design of new materials and the analysis of existing materials. The authors gratefully acknowledge the support from Air Force Office of Scientific Research (AFOSR) and the Defense Threat Reduction Agency (DTRA).

  2. Uncertainties associated with inertial-fusion ignition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McCall, G.H.

    1981-01-01

    An estimate is made of a worst case driving energy which is derived from analytic and computer calculations. It will be shown that the uncertainty can be reduced by a factor of 10 to 100 if certain physical effects are understood. That is not to say that the energy requirement can necessarily be reduced below that of the worst case, but it is possible to reduce the uncertainty associated with ignition energy. With laser costs in the $0.5 to 1 billion per MJ range, it can be seen that such an exercise is worthwhile

  3. 49 CFR 173.340 - Tear gas devices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... SHIPMENTS AND PACKAGINGS Gases; Preparation and Packaging § 173.340 Tear gas devices. (a) Packagings for...) Tear gas devices may not be assembled with, or packed in the same packaging with, mechanically- or manually-operated firing, igniting, bursting, or other functioning elements unless of a type and design...

  4. Alcohol Calorie Calculator

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Alcohol Calorie Calculator Weekly Total 0 Calories Alcohol Calorie Calculator Find out the number of beer and ... Calories College Alcohol Policies Interactive Body Calculators Alcohol Calorie Calculator Alcohol Cost Calculator Alcohol BAC Calculator Alcohol ...

  5. Interlocking Toy Building Blocks as Hands-On Learning Modules for Blind and Visually Impaired Chemistry Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melaku, Samuel; Schreck, James O.; Griffin, Kameron; Dabke, Rajeev B.

    2016-01-01

    Interlocking toy building blocks (e.g., Lego) as chemistry learning modules for blind and visually impaired (BVI) students in high school and undergraduate introductory or general chemistry courses are presented. Building blocks were assembled on a baseplate to depict the relative changes in the periodic properties of elements. Modules depicting…

  6. Analysis of operator support method based on intelligent dynamic interlock in lead-cooled fast reactor simulator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xu, Peng; Wang, Jianye; Yang, Minghan; Wang, Weitian; Bai, Yunqing; Song, Yong

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • We development an operator support method based on intelligent dynamic interlock. • We offer an integrated aid system to reduce the working strength of operators. • The method can help operators avoid dangerous, irreversible operation. • This method can be used in the fusion research reactor in the further. - Abstract: In nuclear systems, operators have to carry out corrective actions when abnormal situations occur. However, operators might make mistakes under pressure. In order to avoid serious consequences of the human errors, a new method for operators support based on intelligent dynamic interlock was proposed. The new method based on full digital instrumentation and control system, contains real-time alarm analysis process, decision support process and automatic safety interlock process. Once abnormal conditions occur, necessary safety interlock parameter based on analysis of real-time alarm and decision support process can be loaded into human-machine interfaces and controllers automatically, and avoid human errors effectively. Furthermore, the new method can make recommendations for further use and development of this technique in nuclear power plant or fusion research reactor.

  7. [Electromagnetic navigation interlocking intramedullary nail technology for treatment of femoral shaft fractures].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zuo, Kangkang; Qin, Wei; Guo, Qing; Palati-Ababaikeli; Qiao, Peiliu; Shen, Mingquan; Yin, Lele; Pan, Qilin; Xu, Xiaoxiong

    2014-10-01

    To explore the value of electromagnetic navigation interlocking intramedullary nail in the treatment of femoral shaft fracture. Between July 2012 and October 2013, 53 cases of femoral shaft fracture were treated. There were 40 males and 13 females, aged 16-52 years (mean, 38.3 years). The causes of injury were traffic accident in 28 cases, falling from height in 11 cases, falling in 7 cases, crush injury in 4 cases, and other in 3 cases. Of 53 cases, there were 3 cases of open fracture (Gustilo I degree) and 50 cases of closed fracture. Fracture was located in the proximal femur in 17 cases, middle femur in 29 cases, and distal femur in 7 cases. According to Winquist classification, 7 cases were rated as type I, 8 cases as type II, 22 cases as type III, and 16 cases as type IV; according to AO classification, 18 cases were rated as type 32-A, 28 cases as type 32-B, and 7 cases as type 32-C. The time from injury to operation was 3-11 days (mean, 5 days). Distal interlocking intramedullary nail was implanted using electromagnetic navigation. The distal locking nail operation with interlocking intramedullary nail was successfully completed under electromagnetic navigation; the one-time success rate of distal locking nail operation reached 100%; and the locking nail time was 5.0-9.5 minutes (mean, 7.0 minutes). Healing of incision by first intention was obtained after operation, and no complication of skin necrosis, infection, and sinus tract occurred. Fifty-three cases were all followed up 5-12 months (mean, 9 months). One case had hip pain and weaken middle gluteal muscle strength, and the symptoms disappeared after removing the nail. During the follow-up period, no broken nails, nail exit, infection, or re-fracture occurred. All fractures achieved clinical healing, and the healing time was 8-22 weeks (mean, 14.5 weeks). In 49 patients followed up 8 months, the Lysholm score was excellent in 44 cases, good in 4 cases, and acceptable in 1 case, with an excellent and

  8. Los Alamos contribution to target diagnostics on the National Ignition Facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mack, J.M.; Baker, D.A.; Caldwell, S.E.

    1994-01-01

    The National Ignition Facility (NIF) will have a large suite of sophisticated target diagnostics. This will allow thoroughly diagnosed experiments to be performed both at the ignition and pre-ignition levels. As part of the national effort Los Alamos National Laboratory will design, construct and implement a number of diagnostics for the NIF. This paper describes Los Alamos contributions to the ''phase I diagnostics.'' Phase I represents the most fundamental and basic measurement systems that will form the core for most work on the NIF. The Los Alamos effort falls into four categories: moderate to hard X-ray (time resolved imaging neutron spectroscopy- primarily with neutron time of flight devices; burn diagnostics utilizing gamma ray measurements; testing measurement concepts on the TRIDENT laser system at Los Alamos. Because of the high blast, debris and radiation environment, the design of high resolution X-ray imaging systems present significant challenges. Systems with close target proximity require special protection and methods for such protection is described. The system design specifications based on expected target performance parameters is also described. Diagnosis of nuclear yield and burn will be crucial to the NIF operation. Nuclear reaction diagnosis utilizing both neutron and gamma ray detection is discussed. The Los Alamos TRIDENT laser system will be used extensively for the development of new measurement concepts and diagnostic instrumentation. Some its potential roles in the development of diagnostics for NIF are given

  9. Los Alamos contribution to target diagnostics on the National Ignition Facility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mack, J.M.; Baker, D.A.; Caldwell, S.E. [and others

    1994-07-01

    The National Ignition Facility (NIF) will have a large suite of sophisticated target diagnostics. This will allow thoroughly diagnosed experiments to be performed both at the ignition and pre-ignition levels. As part of the national effort Los Alamos National Laboratory will design, construct and implement a number of diagnostics for the NIF. This paper describes Los Alamos contributions to the ``phase I diagnostics.`` Phase I represents the most fundamental and basic measurement systems that will form the core for most work on the NIF. The Los Alamos effort falls into four categories: moderate to hard X-ray (time resolved imaging neutron spectroscopy- primarily with neutron time of flight devices; burn diagnostics utilizing gamma ray measurements; testing measurement concepts on the TRIDENT laser system at Los Alamos. Because of the high blast, debris and radiation environment, the design of high resolution X-ray imaging systems present significant challenges. Systems with close target proximity require special protection and methods for such protection is described. The system design specifications based on expected target performance parameters is also described. Diagnosis of nuclear yield and burn will be crucial to the NIF operation. Nuclear reaction diagnosis utilizing both neutron and gamma ray detection is discussed. The Los Alamos TRIDENT laser system will be used extensively for the development of new measurement concepts and diagnostic instrumentation. Some its potential roles in the development of diagnostics for NIF are given.

  10. Polar Direct Drive Shock Ignition Design on LMJ

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le Bel, Edouard; Schurtz, Guy; Ribeyre, Xavier; Lafon, Marion

    2011-10-01

    A low aspect ratio target family is designed in order to demonstrate the potential of ignition conditions of hydrogen isotopes on the LMJ by Shock Ignition without major modification of the facility i.e. for low laser induced damage on optics in the range of laser energy of 400-600 kJ. The shock ignition scheme is divided in two steps: first the compression of the fuel at low velocities and secondly the launch of strong shock allows to ignite the central hot spot. The presented work reports on the use of LMJ indirect drive laser hardware to compress the fuel at low implosion velocity in using a possible polar direct drive irradiation of the target. The ignition condition are produced from the launch of a bipolar strong converging shock by dedicated LMJ beams. A 1D robustness study is also performed with CHIC code for different target sizes and spike power and timing. The figure of merit is the bandwidth of the shock ignition window. We present a solution for a LMJ PDD laser illumination for the target compression and for the spike. We show first 2D CHIC simulations using this new PDD configuration. This strategy for implementation of PDD shock ignition on LMJ participate of a first proof of principle of shock ignition scheme in the frame of HiPER future reactor design.

  11. Ignition delay of combustible materials in normoxic equivalent environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sara McAllister; Carlos Fernandez-Pello; Gary Ruff; David Urban

    2009-01-01

    Material flammability is an important factor in determining the pressure and composition (fraction of oxygen and nitrogen) of the atmosphere in the habitable volume of exploration vehicles and habitats. The method chosen in this work to quantify the flammability of a material is by its ease of ignition. The ignition delay time was defined as the time it takes a...

  12. 14 CFR 25.1165 - Engine ignition systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... turbine powered airplane must be considered an essential electrical load. ... Engine ignition systems. (a) Each battery ignition system must be supplemented by a generator that is automatically available as an alternate source of electrical energy to allow continued engine operation if any...

  13. Ignition studies in support of the European High Power Laser ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    The effects of different regions of the fusion target mixing prior to thermonuclear ignition have been investigated using the 1D Lagrangian radiation hydrodynamics simulation code HYADES. Results suggest that even low (few parts per million) levels of contamination of fuel by high-Z ion species may inhibit ignition due to.

  14. knock characteristics analysis of a supercharged spark ignition

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    user

    and manufacturing of spark ignition engines with improved performance. Understanding factors influencing knock in spark ignition engines will help designers understand how to manage knock in engines. Various designs over the years have been introduced in internal combustion engines with the aim of improving.

  15. National Ignition Facility project acquisition plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Callaghan, R.W.

    1996-04-01

    The purpose of this National Ignition Facility Acquisition Plan is to describe the overall procurement strategy planned for the National Ignition Facility (NIF) Project. The scope of the plan describes the procurement activities and acquisition strategy for the following phases of the NIF Project, each of which receives either plant and capital equipment (PACE) or other project cost (OPC) funds: Title 1 and 2 design and Title 3 engineering (PACE); Optics manufacturing facilitization and pilot production (OPC); Convention facility construction (PACE); Procurement, installation, and acceptance testing of equipment (PACE); and Start-up (OPC). Activities that are part of the base Inertial Confinement Fusion (ICF) Program are not included in this plan. The University of California (UC), operating Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) and Los Alamos National Laboratory, and Lockheed-Martin, which operates Sandia National Laboratory (SNL) and the University of Rochester Laboratory for Laser Energetics (UR-LLE), will conduct the acquisition of needed products and services in support of their assigned responsibilities within the NIF Project structure in accordance with their prime contracts with the Department of Energy (DOE). LLNL, designated as the lead Laboratory, will have responsibility for all procurements required for construction, installation, activation, and startup of the NIF

  16. Overview of the compact ignition tokamak

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Flanagan, C.A.

    1986-01-01

    A national team has developed a baseline concept for a Compact Ignition Tokamak (CIT). The CIT mission is to achieve ignition and provide experimental capability to study the behavior of burning plasma. The design uses large magnetic fields on axis (about 10 T) and large plasma currents (about 9-10 MA). The magnet structure derives high strength from the use of a copper-Inconel composite plate design in the nose of region of the toroidal field (TF) coil and in the ohmic heating solenoid. Inertial cooling is used;liquid nitrogen temperatures are established at the beginning of each pulse. Capability is provided to operate either with a divertor or limiter based plasma. The design is very compact (1.32-m major radius, 0.43-m plasma radius), has 16 TF coils, and has 16 major horizontal access ports, about 30 cm by 80 cm, located between TF coils. The schedule is for a construction project to be authorized for the period FY 1988-93

  17. Safety overview of the National Ignition Facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brereton, S.J.; McLouth, L.; Odell, B.; Singh, M.; Tobin, M.; Trent, M.

    1996-01-01

    The National Ignition Facility (NIF) is a proposed US Department of Energy inertial confinement laser fusion facility. The candidate sites for locating the NIF are: Los Alamos National Laboratory, Sandia National Laboratory, the Nevada Test Site, and Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL), the preferred site. The NIF will operate by focusing 192 laser beams onto a tiny deuterium- tritium target located at the center of a spherical target chamber. The NIF mission is to achieve inertial confinement fusion (ICF) ignition, access physical conditions in matter of interest to nuclear weapons physics, provide an above ground simulation capability for nuclear weapons effects testing, and contribute to the development of inertial fusion for electrical power production. The NIF has been classified as a radiological, low hazard facility on the basis of a preliminary hazards analysis and according to the DOE methodology for facility classification. This requires that a safety analysis be prepared under DOE Order 5481.1B, Safety Analysis and Review System. A draft Preliminary Safety Analysis Report (PSAR) has been written, and this will be finalized later in 1996. This paper summarizes the safety issues associated with the operation of the NIF. It provides an overview of the hazards, estimates maximum routine and accidental exposures for the preferred site of LLNL, and concludes that the risks from NIF operations are low

  18. Progress toward ignition with direct-drive

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McCrory, R.L. Jr.

    1993-01-01

    The goal of the direct-drive laser fusion program is to validate high-performance, direct-drive targets. A decision to construct a direct-drive capability on the proposed 1-to-2-MJ National Ignition Facility (NIF) in the USA will be based on target physics experiments conducted on the OMEGA Upgrade laser system now under construction at the LLE. The OMEGA Upgrade will provide up to 30 kJ of UV laser energy in precisely shaped pulses with irradiation nonuniformities in the range of 1 pc. to 2 pc. An understanding and predictive capability for direct-drive targets are required to assure reliable estimates of ignition and gain with 1-2 MJ of incident laser energy. This paper reviews the target physics efforts currently underway to assess the critical physics issues of direct-drive ICF; plans for the experimental program to be carried out on the OMEGA Upgrade laser are also presented. 14 figs., 15 refs

  19. National Ignition Facility project acquisition plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Callaghan, R.W.

    1996-04-01

    The purpose of this National Ignition Facility Acquisition Plan is to describe the overall procurement strategy planned for the National Ignition Facility (NIF) Project. The scope of the plan describes the procurement activities and acquisition strategy for the following phases of the NIF Project, each of which receives either plant and capital equipment (PACE) or other project cost (OPC) funds: Title 1 and 2 design and Title 3 engineering (PACE); Optics manufacturing facilitization and pilot production (OPC); Convention facility construction (PACE); Procurement, installation, and acceptance testing of equipment (PACE); and Start-up (OPC). Activities that are part of the base Inertial Confinement Fusion (ICF) Program are not included in this plan. The University of California (UC), operating Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) and Los Alamos National Laboratory, and Lockheed-Martin, which operates Sandia National Laboratory (SNL) and the University of Rochester Laboratory for Laser Energetics (UR-LLE), will conduct the acquisition of needed products and services in support of their assigned responsibilities within the NIF Project structure in accordance with their prime contracts with the Department of Energy (DOE). LLNL, designated as the lead Laboratory, will have responsibility for all procurements required for construction, installation, activation, and startup of the NIF.

  20. PBXN-9 Ignition Kinetics and Deflagration Rates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Glascoe, E; Maienschein, J; Burnham, A; Koerner, J; Hsu, P; Wemhoff, A

    2008-04-24

    The ignition kinetics and deflagration rates of PBXN-9 were measured using specially designed instruments at LLNL and compared with previous work on similar HMX based materials. Ignition kinetics were measured based on the One Dimensional Time-to-Explosion combined with ALE3D modeling. Results of these experiments indicate that PBXN-9 behaves much like other HMX based materials (i.e. LX-04, LX-07, LX-10 and PBX-9501) and the dominant factor in these experiments is the type of explosive, not the type of binder/plasticizer. In contrast, the deflagration behavior of PBXN-9 is quite different from similar high weight percent HMX based materials (i.e LX-10, LX-07 and PBX-9501). PBXN-9 burns in a laminar manner over the full pressure range studied (0-310 MPa) unlike LX-10, LX-07, and PBX-9501. The difference in deflagration behavior is attributed to the nature of the binder/plasticizer alone or in conjunction with the volume of binder present in PBXN-9.

  1. Ignition in net for different energy confinement time scalings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johner, J.; Prevot, F.

    1988-06-01

    A zero-dimensional profile dependent model is used to assess the feasibility of ignition in the extended version of NET. Five recent scalings for the energy confinement time (Goldston, Kaye All, Kaye Big, Shimomura-Odajima, Rebut-Lallia) are compared in the frame of two different scenarii, i.e., H-mode with a flat density profile or L-mode with a peaked density profile. For the flat density H-mode case, ignition is accessible with none of the scalings except Rebut-Lallia's. For the peaked density L-mode case, ignition is accessible with none of the scalings except Rebut-Lallia's. For the two Kaye's scalings, ignition is forbidden in H-mode even with the peaked density profile. For the Rebut-Lallia scaling, ignition is allowed in L-mode even with the flat density profile

  2. Variable valve timing in a homogenous charge compression ignition engine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawrence, Keith E.; Faletti, James J.; Funke, Steven J.; Maloney, Ronald P.

    2004-08-03

    The present invention relates generally to the field of homogenous charge compression ignition engines, in which fuel is injected when the cylinder piston is relatively close to the bottom dead center position for its compression stroke. The fuel mixes with air in the cylinder during the compression stroke to create a relatively lean homogeneous mixture that preferably ignites when the piston is relatively close to the top dead center position. However, if the ignition event occurs either earlier or later than desired, lowered performance, engine misfire, or even engine damage, can result. The present invention utilizes internal exhaust gas recirculation and/or compression ratio control to control the timing of ignition events and combustion duration in homogeneous charge compression ignition engines. Thus, at least one electro-hydraulic assist actuator is provided that is capable of mechanically engaging at least one cam actuated intake and/or exhaust valve.

  3. Alcoholic Hepatitis

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... avoid all alcohol. Protect yourself from hepatitis C. Hepatitis C is an infectious liver disease caused by a virus. Untreated, it can lead to cirrhosis. If you have hepatitis C and drink alcohol, you're far more likely ...

  4. Prompt ignition of a unipolar arc on helium irradiated tungsten

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kajita, Shin; Takamura, Shuichi; Ohno, Noriyasu

    2009-01-01

    A fibreform nanostructured layer is formed on a tungsten surface by helium plasma bombardment. The helium fluence was of the order of 10 26 m -2 , and the surface temperature and incident ion energy during helium irradiation were, respectively, 1900 K and 75 eV. By irradiating a laser pulse to the surface in the plasma, a unipolar arc, which many people have tried to verify in well-defined experiments, is promptly initiated and continued for a much longer time than the laser pulse width. The laser pulse width (∼0.6 ms) and power (∼5 MJ m -2 ) are similar to the heat load accompanied by type-I edge localized modes (ELMs) in ITER. The unipolar arc is verified from an increase in the floating potential, a moving arc spot detected by a fast camera and arcing traces on the surface. This result suggests that the nanostructure on the tungsten surface formed by the bombardment of helium, which is a fusion product, could significantly change the ignition property of arcing, and ELMs become a trigger of unipolar arcing, which would be a great impurity source in fusion devices. (letter)

  5. Nitromethane ignition observed with embedded PDV optical fibers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Crouzet B.

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available For a long time, the nitromethane (NM ignition has been observed with different means such as high-speed cameras, VISAR or optical pyrometry diagnostics. By 2000, David Goosmann (LLNL studied solid high-explosive detonation and shock loaded metal plates by measuring velocity (Fabry-Pérot interferometry in embedded optical fibers. For six years Photonic Doppler Velocimetry (PDV has become a major tool to better understand the phenomena occurring in shock physics experiments. In 2006, we began to use in turn this technique and studied shock-to-detonation transition in NM. Different kinds of bare optical fibers were set in the liquid; they provided two types of velocity information; those coming from phenomena located in front of the fibers (interface velocity, shock waves, overdriven detonation wave and those due to phenomena environing the fibers (shock or detonation waves. We achieved several shots; devices were composed of a high explosive plane wave generator ended by a metal barrier followed by a cylindrical vessel containing NM. We present results.

  6. Remote maintenance of Compact Ignition Tokamak ex-vessel systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    DePew, R.E.; Macdonald, D.

    1989-01-01

    The use of deuterium-tritium (D-T) fuel in the Compact Ignition Tokamak (CIT) will require applying remote handling technology for ex-vessel maintenance and replacement of machine components. Highly activated and contaminated components of the fusion device's auxiliary systems, such as diagnostics and RF heating, must be replaced using remotely operated maintenance equipment in the test cell. Throughout the CIT remote maintenance (RM) studies conducted to date, computer modeling has been used extensively to investigate manipulator access in these complex, tightly packed, and cluttered surroundings. A recent refinement of computer modeling involves the use of an intelligent engineering work station for realtime interactive display of task simulations. This paper discusses the use of three-dimensional (3-D) kinematic computer models of the CIT machines that are proving to be powerful tools in our efforts to evaluate RM requirements. This presentation includes a video-taped simulation of remote replacement of a plasma viewing assembly. The simulation illustrates some of the constraints associated with typical RM activities and the ways in which computer modeling enhances the design process. 1 ref., 3 figs

  7. The Community Structure of the European Network of Interlocking Directorates 2005–2010

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heemskerk, Eelke M.; Daolio, Fabio; Tomassini, Marco

    2013-01-01

    The boards of directors at large European companies overlap with each other to a sizable extent both within and across national borders. This could have important economic, political and management consequences. In this work we study in detail the topological structure of the networks that arise from this phenomenon. Using a comprehensive information database, we reconstruct the implicit networks of shared directorates among the top 300 European firms in 2005 and 2010, and suggest a number of novel ways to explore the trans-nationality of such business elite networks. Powerful community detection heuristics indicate that geography still plays an important role: there exist clear communities and they have a distinct national character. Nonetheless, from 2005 to 2010 we observe a densification of the boards interlocks network and a larger transnational orientation in its communities. Together with central actors and assortativity analyses, we provide statistical evidence that, at the level of corporate governance, Europe is getting closer. PMID:23894318

  8. Testing the permeability and corrosion resistance of micro-mechanically interlocked joints

    Science.gov (United States)

    Byskov-Nielsen, Jeppe; Holm, Allan H.; Højsholt, Rune; Sá, Pedro; Balling, Peter

    2011-09-01

    Micro-mechanical interlocking (MMI) can be applied to create new and interesting composite materials. We have employed laser structuring to achieve MMI between stainless steel and plastic with extremely high joint strength. However, the water permeability and corrosion resistance of the joint must be examined. For many industrially relevant applications it is important to keep water away from certain parts and to prevent the sample from corroding. A thorough study of the permeability of the interconnected samples at different temperatures and after employing different laser-structuring techniques is conducted. The permeability seems to be consistent with the Hagen-Poiseuille equation independent of the laser structuring technique and is orders of magnitudes larger than the diffusion rate through the plastic. Two different types of corrosion tests have been undertaken, and we show that care must be taken in order not to degrade the corrosion resistance of the sample to an unacceptable level.

  9. Reuse of mining dams waste for the processing of interlocking blocks for paving

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Machado, Raissa Ribeiro Lima; Ribeiro, Guilherme Borges; Silva, Sidney Nicodemos da

    2014-01-01

    The environmental impact of mining dam residues can be mitigated by their reuse in the production of interlocking blocks for pavements with a mechanical strength greater than 50 MPa. From the mixture of cement CPV-ARI, sand and gravel, the characterization of the mechanical and physicochemical properties was performed by the following procedures: SEM, FRX, XRD, compression tests and thermal analysis (DSC). These blocks produced from these residues can be considered an economical alternative for the mining depletion cycle in the State of Minas Gerais. This work sought to improve the traces with the replacement the sand of the rivers bed by residues of mining dams that can represent an opportunity for generation of employment and income

  10. The community structure of the European network of interlocking directorates 2005-2010.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heemskerk, Eelke M; Daolio, Fabio; Tomassini, Marco

    2013-01-01

    The boards of directors at large European companies overlap with each other to a sizable extent both within and across national borders. This could have important economic, political and management consequences. In this work we study in detail the topological structure of the networks that arise from this phenomenon. Using a comprehensive information database, we reconstruct the implicit networks of shared directorates among the top 300 European firms in 2005 and 2010, and suggest a number of novel ways to explore the trans-nationality of such business elite networks. Powerful community detection heuristics indicate that geography still plays an important role: there exist clear communities and they have a distinct national character. Nonetheless, from 2005 to 2010 we observe a densification of the boards interlocks network and a larger transnational orientation in its communities. Together with central actors and assortativity analyses, we provide statistical evidence that, at the level of corporate governance, Europe is getting closer.

  11. Tensile Damage Mechanism of 3-D Angle-Interlock Woven Composite using Acoustic Emission Events Monitoring

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ma Qian

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available The quasi-static tensile damage behavior of one type of layer-to-layer 3-Dimensional Angle-interlock Woven Composite (3DAWC was tested and analyzed in this paper. Incorporated with the acoustic emission (AE events monitoring, the mechanical behavior of the 3DAWC under tensile loading condition was characterized. The Load-Extension curve, Load/AE events-Time curves occurred during the entire testing process and tensile damage modes were recorded to characterize and summarize the mechanical properties and damage mechanism of the 3DAWC subjected to tensile loading. It was found that the tensile damage of the 3DAWC could be summarized into 3 steps. And each step has a distinct primary damage mode. Moreover, the resin cracks, resin-yarn interface debonding and yarn breakages were the main damage modes for the 3DAWC.

  12. Groovy as Domain-Specific Language in the Software Interlock System

    CERN Document Server

    Wozniak, J; Kruk, G

    2014-01-01

    After over 7 years in operation the Software Interlock System (SIS) has become an indispensable and mission critical controls tool covering many operational areas from general machine protection to diagnostics. The growing number of running instances as much as the size of existing configurations have increased both the complexity and maintenance cost of running the SIS infrastructure. In response to those issues, new ways of configuring the system have been investigated aiming at simplifying the configuration process by making it faster, more user-friendly and understandable for wider audiences and domain experts alike. As one of the possible choices the Groovy scripting language has been considered as being particularly well suited for writing a custom Domain-Specific Language (DSL) due to its built-in language features like native syntax constructs, command chain expressions, hierarchical structures with builders, closures or Abstract Syntax Tree (AST) transformations. This document explains best practices...

  13. Radiation interlocks: The choice between conventional hard-wired logic and computer-based systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Crook, K.F.

    1986-11-01

    During the past few years, the use of computers in radiation safety systems has become more widespread. This is not surprising given the ubiquitous nature of computers in the modern technological world. But is a computer a good choice for the central logic element of a personnel safety system. Recent accidents at computer controlled medical accelerators would indicate that extreme care must be exercised if malfunctions are to be avoided. The Department of Energy has recently established a sub-committee to formulate recommendations on the use of computers in safety systems for accelerators. This paper will review the status of the committee's recommendations, and describe radiation protection interlock systems as applied to both accelerators and to irradiation facilities. Comparisons are made between the conventional relay approach and designs using computers. 6 refs., 6 figs

  14. Transparent superhydrophobic coating application to the interlocking clay block for the microbial growth mitigation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nimittrakoolchai, O.; Suwan, M.; Supothina, S.

    2017-12-01

    Interlocking clay block is of widespread use in many countries due to its less labor-intensive design. The block comprises of considerable amount of pore structures; therefore water can easily penetrate into it causing deterioration by natural weathering as well as the growth of microbes on its surface. In this present work, a transparent, superhydrophobic coating was applied onto the block’s surface to prevent water absorption. The coating which is a poly(methyl hydrogensiloxane) base containing fumed SiO2 nanoparticle was designed to possess surface topographic feature similar to that of the lotus leaf. After coating the block with the superhydrophobic compound, its water absorption decreased from 11.5 to 4.8% and porosity substantially decreased from 22.5 to 9.2%, while bulk and apparent densities did not change. Accelerated weathering test revealed that the coating had good stability. The coated samples exhibited growth inhibition of algae.

  15. Metacarpophalangeal joint of the thumb arthrodesis using intramedullary interlocking screws XMCP™.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Novoa-Parra, C N; Montaner-Alonso, D; Morales-Rodríguez, J

    2017-09-04

    The study objective was to assess the results of a thumb metacarpophalangeal joint (MCPJ) arthrodesis using intramedullary interlocking screws at 25°, XMCP ™ (Extremity Medical, Parsippany, NJ). Radiographs evaluated the angle of arthrodesis, time of fusion and fixation of the implant. Clinical and functional outcomes were assessed using the DASH questionnaire and the VAS scale. Any complications found during surgery or the follow-up period were noted. We studied 9 patients. The mean follow-up was 27.6 months. Patients showed clinical and radiological evidence of fusion in an average of 8 weeks, the angle of fusion was 25°. There were no complications and no implant had to be removed. The XMCP™ system provides a reliable method for MCPJ arthrodesis for several indications and can be used with other procedures in the complex hand. Copyright © 2017 SECOT. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  16. Photoswitchable interlocked thiodiglycolamide as a cocatalyst of a chalcogeno-Baylis-Hillman reaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinez-Cuezva, Alberto; Saura-Sanmartin, Adrian; Nicolas-Garcia, Tomas; Navarro, Cristian; Orenes, Raul-Angel; Alajarin, Mateo; Berna, Jose

    2017-05-01

    En route to a photoswitchable interlocked catalyst we have proved the ability of thiodiglycolamide to act as a template in the formation of hydrogen-bonded [2]rotaxanes. X-ray diffraction studies reveal the shielding of the sulfide atom by the macrocycle. A series of molecular shuttles are described as having an isomerizable fumaramide and thiodiglycolamide binding sites for controlling the relative ring position at will. By employing these systems as photoregulated catalysts, the TiCl 4 -mediated chalcogeno-Morita-Baylis-Hillman reaction is tested. In the presence of the maleamide shuttle, in which the sulfide function is encapsulated by the macrocycle, a complete loss in control of the geometry of the produced aldol is observed. The E -aldol adduct is predominantly obtained when the photoisomerized fumaramide shuttle, in which the sulfide function is exposed, is used.

  17. D0 Central Tracking Solenoid Energization, Controls, Interlocks and Quench Protection Initial Validation Procedures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jaskierny, W.; Hance, R.

    1998-01-01

    This note presents the inspection and tests to be performed on the DZERO solenoid energization, controls, interlocks and quench protection system before it is energized for the first time. This test is to be performed with a 5000A jumper at the end of the bus instead of the solenoid. This system is based in DZERO room 511. A copy of this note shall be annotated, signed and dated by the person coordinating the procedure; and filed with the system maintenance records. Annotations shall include comments about any aspect of the procedure that is abnormal or unsuccessful. The following inspections and tests shall be performed by persons knowledgeable about the system. Each individual test step should be reviewed and understood before proceeding with that step.

  18. Control/interlock/display system for EBT-P using commercially-available hardware and firmware

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schmitt, R.J.

    1983-01-01

    For the EBT-P project, alternative commercially-available hardware, software and firmware have been employed for control, interlock and data display functions. This paper describes the criteria and rationale used to select that commercial equipment and discusses the important features of the equipment chosen, especially programmable controllers. Additional discussion is centered on interface problems which are encountered upon attempts to integrate equipment from several vendors. Some solutions to these problems are discussed. Details of software and hardware performance during tests are presented. The extent to which the EBT-P hardware and software configuration addresses and resolves various issues is discussed. Several areas have been uncovered in which relatively slight improvements/modifications of commercial programmable controller firmware would significantly improve the capability of this type of hardware in fusion control applications. These improvements are discussed in detail

  19. The community structure of the European network of interlocking directorates 2005-2010.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eelke M Heemskerk

    Full Text Available The boards of directors at large European companies overlap with each other to a sizable extent both within and across national borders. This could have important economic, political and management consequences. In this work we study in detail the topological structure of the networks that arise from this phenomenon. Using a comprehensive information database, we reconstruct the implicit networks of shared directorates among the top 300 European firms in 2005 and 2010, and suggest a number of novel ways to explore the trans-nationality of such business elite networks. Powerful community detection heuristics indicate that geography still plays an important role: there exist clear communities and they have a distinct national character. Nonetheless, from 2005 to 2010 we observe a densification of the boards interlocks network and a larger transnational orientation in its communities. Together with central actors and assortativity analyses, we provide statistical evidence that, at the level of corporate governance, Europe is getting closer.

  20. A pH-Dependent, Mechanically Interlocked Switch: Organometallic [2]Rotaxane vs. Organic [3]Rotaxane.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Altmann, Philipp J; Pöthig, Alexander

    2017-12-04

    We present the first [2]rotaxane featuring a functional organometallic host. In contrast to the known organic scaffolds, this assembly shows a high post-synthetic modifiability. The reactivity of the Ag 8 pillarplex host is fully retained, as is exemplified by the first transmetalation in a rotaxane framework to provide the respective Au 8 analogue. Additionally, a transformation under acidic conditions to give a purely organic [3]rotaxane is demonstrated which is reversible upon addition of a suitable base, rendering the assembly a pH-dependent switch. Hereby, it is shown that the mechanically interlocked nature of the system enhances the kinetic stability of the NHC host complex by a factor of >1000 and corresponds to the first observation of a stabilizing "rotaxand effect". © 2017 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  1. Study of the shock ignition scheme in inertial confinement fusion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lafon, M.

    2011-01-01

    The Shock Ignition (SI) scheme is an alternative to classical ignition schemes in Inertial Confinement Fusion. Its singularity relies on the relaxation of constraints during the compression phase and fulfilment of ignition conditions by launching a short and intense laser pulse (∼500 ps, ∼300 TW) on the pre-assembled fuel at the end of the implosion.In this thesis, it has been established that the SI process leads to a non-isobaric fuel configuration at the ignition time thus modifying the ignition criteria of Deuterium-Tritium (DT) against the conventional schemes. A gain model has been developed and gain curves have been inferred and numerically validated. This hydrodynamical modeling has demonstrated that the SI process allows higher gain and lower ignition energy threshold than conventional ignition due to the high hot spot pressure at ignition time resulting from the ignitor shock propagation.The radiative hydrodynamic CHIC code developed at the CELIA laboratory has been used to determine parametric dependences describing the optimal conditions for target design leading to ignition. These numerical studies have enlightened the potential of SI with regards to saving up laser energy, obtain high gains but also to safety margins and ignition robustness.Finally, the results of the first SI experiments performed in spherical geometry on the OMEGA laser facility (NY, USA) are presented. An interpretation of the experimental data is proposed from mono and bidimensional hydrodynamic simulations. Then, different trails are explored to account for the differences observed between experimental and numerical data and alternative solutions to improve performances are suggested. (author) [fr

  2. Modifying Poly(Vinyl Alcohol) (PVA) from Insulator to Small-Bandgap Polymer: A Novel Approach for Organic Solar Cells and Optoelectronic Devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aziz, Shujahadeen B.

    2016-01-01

    An innovative method has been used to reduce the bandgap of poly(vinyl alcohol) (PVA) polymer by addition of a nontoxic, inexpensive, and environmentally friendly material. The resulting materials are small-bandgap polymers, hence opening new frontiers in green chemistry. The doped PVA films showed a wide range of light absorption of the solar spectrum from 200 nm to above 800 nm. Nonsharp absorption behavior versus wavelength was observed for the samples. The refractive index exhibited a wide range of dispersion. Shift of the absorption edge from 6.2 eV to 1.5 eV was observed. The energy bandgap of PVA was diminished to 1.85 eV upon addition of black tea extract solution, lying in the range of small-bandgap polymers. Increase of the optical dielectric constant was observed with increasing tea solution addition. The results indicate that small-bandgap PVA with good film-forming ability could be useful in terms of cost-performance tradeoff, solving problems of short lifetime, cost, and flexibility associated with conjugated polymers. The decrease of the Urbach energy upon addition of black tea extract solution indicates modification of PVA from a disordered to ordered material. X-ray diffraction results confirm an increase of the crystalline fraction in the doped samples.

  3. Physics-based modeling of live wildland fuel ignition experiments in the Forced Ignition and Flame Spread Test apparatus

    Science.gov (United States)

    C. Anand; B. Shotorban; S. Mahalingam; S. McAllister; D. R. Weise

    2017-01-01

    A computational study was performed to improve our understanding of the ignition of live fuel in the forced ignition and flame spread test apparatus, a setup where the impact of the heating mode is investigated by subjecting the fuel to forced convection and radiation. An improvement was first made in the physics-based model WFDS where the fuel is treated as fixed...

  4. External jig-aided intramedullary interlocking nailing of diaphyseal fractures: experience from a tropical developing centre.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ikpeme, Ikpeme; Ngim, Ngim; Udosen, Anthony; Onuba, Obiora; Enembe, Okokon; Bello, Segun

    2011-01-01

    Intramedullary interlocking nailing for diaphyseal fractures is a standard treatment option in affluent societies. These procedures are often performed under image intensifier guidance. The cost of these gadgets precludes their common use in resource poor regions. External jig-aided intramedullary interlocking nailing is relatively cheap and offers the chance for performing these procedures in resource poor regions. The aim of this study was to document the advantages, challenges and outcome of this form of treatment in a resource poor setting. The Surgical Implant Generation Network (SIGN) implants and instrumentation were used for this study. Thirty-seven limbs in 35 patients were included. There were 30 males and five females giving a ratio of 6:1. The mean age was 35 ± 11.9 years with a range of 15-61 years. The femur and tibia were the bones studied with a total of 23 and 14 fractures, respectively (ratio 1.6:1). There were 14 comminuted fractures, two segmented fractures, six mal-unions, eight non-unions and seven simple fractures. Road traffic accidents were the most common cause of injuries with motorcycle accidents accounting for 19 (57.4%) cases. The mean follow-up period was 22 ± 5.32 months, mean time to union was 16.9 ± 5.4 weeks and the major complication was osteomyelitis (10.8%). We conclude that this is a viable treatment option for musculoskeletal injuries in resource poor regions. Education to encourage early acceptance of surgical intervention and reduced patronage of traditional bone setting for injudicious interventions can reduce the infective complication rates.

  5. Alcohol Intolerance

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... an alcoholic beverage — such as chemicals, grains or preservatives. Combining alcohol with certain medications also can cause reactions. In rare instances, an unpleasant reaction to alcohol can be a sign of a serious underlying health problem that requires diagnosis and treatment. Symptoms Signs ...

  6. Alcohol misuse

    OpenAIRE

    Coulton, Simon

    2011-01-01

    Alcohol use is a leading cause of mortality and morbidity internationally, and is ranked by the WHO as one of the top 5 risk factors for disease burden. Without treatment, approximately 16% of hazardous or harmful alcohol users will progress to more dependent patterns of alcohol consumption.

  7. 21 CFR 862.3040 - Alcohol test system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... alcohol (e.g., ethanol, methanol, isopropanol, etc.) in human body fluids (e.g., serum, whole blood, and urine). Measurements obtained by this device are used in the diagnosis and treatment of alcohol...

  8. Palladium-based nanocatalysts for alcohol electrooxidation in alkaline media

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Modibedi, RM

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Direct alcohol alkaline fuel cells (DAAFCs) are potential power sources for a variety of portable applications as they provide unique advantages over hydrogen-based fuel cell devices. Alcohols (such as methanol, ethanol, ethylene glycol...

  9. Effect of glycerol ethoxylate as an ignition improver on injection and combustion characteristics of hydrous ethanol under CI engine condition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Munsin, R.; Laoonual, Y.; Jugjai, S.; Matsuki, M.; Kosaka, H.

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Glycerol ethoxylate (GE) shows the similar results as the commercial additive. • GE decreases injection rate, but increases injection delay and duration of ethanol. • GE shortens ignition delay and decreases heat released in premixed burn of ethanol. • GE has a minor effect on flame temperature of ethanol. • KL factor and soot of ethanol are sensitive to both GE and the commercial additive. - Abstract: This paper investigates the effects of glycerol ethoxylate as an ignition improver on injection and combustion characteristics of hydrous ethanol under a CI engine condition. Injection characteristics were investigated by an in-house injection rate measurement device based on the Zeuch method, while spray combustion has been performed in the rapid compression and expansion machine (RCEM). The CI engine condition indicated as density, pressure and temperature of compressed synthetic gas, consisting of 80% argon and 20% oxygen, at fuel injection timing in RCEM of 21 kg/m 3 , 4.4 MPa and 900 K, respectively. This condition is equivalent to the isentropic compression of air of the actual CI engine with compression ratio of 22. Hydrous ethanol without ignition improver (Eh95) and the ethanol dedicated for heavy duty vehicles (ED95: composed of hydrous ethanol with the commercial additive for ED95) are reference fuels representing low and high quality ethanol fuel for CI engines, respectively. All test fuels are injected at constant heat input. The results indicate that the additional ignition improvers change injection characteristics, i.e. injection delay, injection rate and discharge coefficient of hydrous ethanol. The maximum injection rates at fully opened needle for the ethanol dedicated for heavy duty vehicles (ED95) and hydrous ethanol with 5% glycerol ethoxylate (5%GE) are lower than that of hydrous ethanol without ignition improver (Eh95) by approximately 10%. Additional injection duration is required for ED95 and 5%GE to maintain a

  10. Automatized target devices for radioisotope production at the RITs cyclotron

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bogdanov, P.V.; Ivanov, V.V.; Karasev, B.G.

    1981-01-01

    An automation target device intended for isotope production on the internal beam of the RITs cyclotron is decribed. The target device comprises the following main units: target head, vacuum lock, charging device, transport system for bringing the target for charging; mechanism of target discharge transport device, control interlocking and signalling control system of target radiation power. The automation target device permits radioisotope production on the cyclotron in commercial scales with automation substitution of irradiated targets. The time of substitution of one of six targets makes up only 5 min. The time of charging a new group of targets to the charge device - 60 min. Contact of the personnel with irradiated targets is practically excluded and the necessity of entering the cyclotron room for maintenance of the plant is reduced to the minimum [ru

  11. Preparing for polar-drive ignition on the National Ignition Facility

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    McKenty P.W.

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available The implementation of polar drive (PD at the National Ignition Facility (NIF will enable the execution of direct-drive implosions while the facility is configured for x-ray drive. The Laboratory for Laser Energetics (LLE, in collaboration with LLNL, LANL and GA, is implementing PD on the NIF. LLE has designed and participates in the use of PD implosions for diagnostic commissioning on the NIF. LLE has an active experimental campaign to develop PD in both warm and cryogenic target experiments on OMEGA. LLE and its partners are developing a Polar Drive Project Execution Plan, which will provide a detailed outline of the requirements, resources, and timetable leading to PD-ignition experiments on the NIF.

  12. Alcohols toxicology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wimer, W.W.; Russell, J.A.; Kaplan, H.L.

    1984-01-01

    A comprehensive reference volume which summarizes literature reports of the known consequences of human and animal contact with alcohols and alcohol-derived substances is presented. Following a discussion of alcohol nomenclature and a brief history of alcohols, the authors have provided detailed chapters on the toxicology of methanol, ethanol, normal and isopropanol, and the butanols. Properties of these alcohols are compared; industrial hygiene and exposure limits are discussed. Additional sections are included covering processing and production technology and exhaust emissions studies. Of particular interest are the section containing abstracts and synopses of principal works and the extensive bibliography of studies dating from the 1800s. 331 references, 26 figures, 56 tables

  13. Fuel quantity modulation in pilot ignited engines

    Science.gov (United States)

    May, Andrew

    2006-05-16

    An engine system includes a first fuel regulator adapted to control an amount of a first fuel supplied to the engine, a second fuel regulator adapted to control an amount of a second fuel supplied to the engine concurrently with the first fuel being supplied to the engine, and a controller coupled to at least the second fuel regulator. The controller is adapted to determine the amount of the second fuel supplied to the engine in a relationship to the amount of the first fuel supplied to the engine to operate in igniting the first fuel at a specified time in steady state engine operation and adapted to determine the amount of the second fuel supplied to the engine in a manner different from the relationship at steady state engine operation in transient engine operation.

  14. Instrumentation and controls of an ignited tokamak

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Becraft, W.R.; Golzy, J.; Houlberg, W.A.; Kukielka, C.A.; Onega R.J.; Raju, G.V.S.; Stone, R.S.

    1980-10-01

    The instrumentation and controls (I and C) of an ignited plasma magnetically confined in a tokamak configuration needs increased emphasis in the following areas: (1) physics implications for control; (2) plasma shaping/position control; and (3) control to prevent disruptive instabilities. This document reports on the FY 1979 efforts in these and other areas. Also presented are discusssions in the areas of: (1) diagnostics suitable for the Engineering Test Facility (ETF); and (2) future research and development (R and D) needs. The appendices focus attention on some preliminary ideas about the measurement of the deuteron-triton (D-T) ratio in the plasma, synchrotron radiation, and divertor control. Finally, an appendix documenting the thermal consequences to the first wall of a MPD is presented.

  15. National Ignition Facility environmental protection systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mintz, J.M.; Reitz, T.C.; Tobin, M.T.

    1994-06-01

    The conceptual design of Environmental Protection Systems (EPS) for the National Ignition Facility (NIF) is described. These systems encompass tritium and activated debris handling, chamber, debris shield and general decontamination, neutron and gamma monitoring, and radioactive, hazardous and mixed waste handling. Key performance specifications met by EPS designs include limiting the tritium inventory to 300 Ci and total tritium release from NIF facilities to less than 10 Ci/yr. Total radiation doses attributable to NIF shall remain below 10 mrem/yr for any member of the general public and 500 mrem/yr for NIF staff. ALARA-based design features and operational procedures will, in most cases, result in much lower measured exposures. Waste minimization, improved cycle time and reduced exposures all result from the proposed CO2 robotic arm cleaning and decontamination system, while effective tritium control is achieved through a modern system design based on double containment and the proven detritiation technology

  16. Treatment of Gait Ignition Failure with Ropinirole

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexis N. Cohen-Oram

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Gait ignition failure (GIF is a syndrome characterized by hesitation or inability to initiate gait from a static position. It may occur in a variety of conditions, including normal pressure hydrocephalus, subcortical vascular disease, parkinsonian syndromes and a variety of focal lesions. Previous information on the treatment of GIF has been primarily anecdotal, but there have been a few reports of response to dopamine agonists. We report a 63-year-old man with anoxic encephalopathy who developed GIF nine years after the initial anoxic insult. The patient’s GIF responded robustly, albeit transiently, to ropinirole. MRI was unrevealing, but a positron emission tomography scan showed hypometabolism in the deep frontal ACA/MCA watershed area; this may have disconnected the basal ganglia from the motor cortex and/or interrupted dopaminergic mesocortical transmission. Our understanding of the pathophysiology and the treatment of GIF remains limited, but there may be at least a limited therapeutic role for dopamine agonists.

  17. Conceptual design of the National Ignition Facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Paisner, J.A.; Kumpan, S.A.; Lowdermilk, W.H.; Boyes, J.D.; Sorem, M.

    1995-01-01

    DOE commissioned a Conceptual Design Report (CDR) for the National Ignition Facility (NIF) in January 1993 as part of a Key Decision Zero (KDO), justification of Mission Need. Motivated by the progress to date by the Inertial Confinement Fusion (ICF) program in meeting the Nova Technical Contract goals established by the National Academy of Sciences in 1989, the Secretary requested a design using a solid-state laser driver operating at the third harmonic (0.35 μm) of neodymium (Nd) glass. The participating ICF laboratories signed a Memorandum of Agreement in August 1993, and established a Project organization, including a technical team from the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL), Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL), Sandia National Laboratories (SNL), and the Laboratory for Laser Energetics at the University of Rochester. Since then, we completed the NIF conceptual design, based on standard construction at a generic DOE Defense Program's site, and issued a 7,000-page, 27-volume CDR in May 1994.2 Over the course of the conceptual design study, several other key documents were generated, including a Facilities Requirements Document, a Conceptual Design Scope and Plan, a Target Physics Design Document, a Laser Design Cost Basis Document, a Functional Requirements Document, an Experimental Plan for Indirect Drive Ignition, and a Preliminary Hazards Analysis (PHA) Document. DOE used the PHA to categorize the NIF as a low-hazard, non-nuclear facility. On October 21, 1994 the Secretary of Energy issued a Key Decision One (KD1) for the NIF, which approved the Project and authorized DOE to request Office of Management and Budget-approval for congressional line-item FY 1996 NIF funding for preliminary engineering design and for National Environmental Policy Act activities. In addition, the Secretary declared Livermore as the preferred site for constructing the NIF. The Project will cost approximately $1.1 billion and will be completed at the end of FY 2002

  18. Plasma diagnostics for the compact ignition tokamak

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Medley, S.S.; Young, K.M.

    1988-06-01

    The primary mission of the Compact Ignition Tokamak (CIT) is to study the physics of alpha-particle heating in an ignited D-T plasma. A burn time of about 10 /tau//sub E/ is projected in a divertor configuration with baseline machine design parameters of R=2.10 m, 1=0.65 m, b=1.30 m, I/sub p/=11 MA, B/sub T/=10 T and 10-20 MW of auxiliary rf heating. Plasma temperatures and density are expected to reach T/sub e/(O) /approximately/20 keV, T/sub i/(O) /approximately/30 keV, and n/sub e/(O) /approximately/ 1 /times/ 10 21 m/sup /minus/3/. The combined effects of restricted port access to the plasma, the presence of severe neutron and gamma radiation backgrounds, and the necessity for remote of in-cell components create challenging design problems for all of the conventional diagnostic associated with tokamak operations. In addition, new techniques must be developed to diagnose the evolution in space, time, and energy of the confined alpha distribution as well as potential plasma instabilities driven by collective alpha-particle effects. The design effort for CIT diagnostics is presently in the conceptual phase with activity being focused on the selection of a viable diagnostic set and the identification of essential research and development projects to support this process. A review of these design issues and other aspects impacting the selection of diagnostic techniques for the CIT experiment will be presented. 28 refs., 10 figs., 2 tabs

  19. Ignition in an Atomistic Model of Hydrogen Oxidation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alaghemandi, Mohammad; Newcomb, Lucas B; Green, Jason R

    2017-03-02

    Hydrogen is a potential substitute for fossil fuels that would reduce the combustive emission of carbon dioxide. However, the low ignition energy needed to initiate oxidation imposes constraints on the efficiency and safety of hydrogen-based technologies. Microscopic details of the combustion processes, ephemeral transient species, and complex reaction networks are necessary to control and optimize the use of hydrogen as a commercial fuel. Here, we report estimates of the ignition time of hydrogen-oxygen mixtures over a wide range of equivalence ratios from extensive reactive molecular dynamics simulations. These data show that the shortest ignition time corresponds to a fuel-lean mixture with an equivalence ratio of 0.5, where the number of hydrogen and oxygen molecules in the initial mixture are identical, in good agreement with a recent chemical kinetic model. We find two signatures in the simulation data precede ignition at pressures above 200 MPa. First, there is a peak in hydrogen peroxide that signals ignition is imminent in about 100 ps. Second, we find a strong anticorrelation between the ignition time and the rate of energy dissipation, suggesting the role of thermal feedback in stimulating ignition.

  20. Two-component spin-coated Ag/CNT composite films based on a silver heterogeneous nucleation mechanism adhesion-enhanced by mechanical interlocking and chemical grafting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yang; Kang, Zhixin; Bessho, Takeshi

    2017-03-01

    In this paper, a new method for the synthesis of silver carbon nanotube (Ag/CNT) composite films as conductive connection units for flexible electronic devices is presented. This method is about a two-component solution process by spin coating with an after-treatment annealing process. In this method, multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) act as the core of silver heterogeneous nucleation, which can be observed and analyzed by a field-emission scanning electron microscope. With the effects of mechanical interlocking, chemical grafting, and annealing, the interfacial adhesive strength between films and PET sheets was enhanced to 12 N cm-1. The tensile strength of the Ag/CNT composite films was observed to increase by 38% by adding 5 g l-1 MWCNTs. In the four-probe method, the resistivity of Ag/CNT-5 declined by 78.2% compared with pristine Ag films. The anti-fatigue performance of the Ag/CNT composite films was monitored by cyclic bending deformation and the results revealed that the growth rate of electrical resistance during the deformation was obviously retarded. As for industrial application, this method provides an efficient low-cost way to prepare Ag/CNT composite films and can be further applied to other coating systems.