WorldWideScience

Sample records for alcohol fuels program

  1. Alcohol fuels program technical review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1981-07-01

    The last issue of the Alcohol Fuels Process R/D Newsletter contained a work breakdown structure (WBS) of the SERI Alcohol Fuels Program that stressed the subcontracted portion of the program and discussed the SERI biotechnology in-house program. This issue shows the WBS for the in-house programs and contains highlights for the remaining in-house tasks, that is, methanol production research, alcohol utilization research, and membrane research. The methanol production research activity consists of two elements: development of a pressurized oxygen gasifier and synthesis of catalytic materials to more efficiently convert synthesis gas to methanol and higher alcohols. A report is included (Finegold et al. 1981) that details the experimental apparatus and recent results obtained from the gasifier. The catalysis research is principally directed toward producing novel organometallic compounds for use as a homogeneous catalyst. The utilization research is directed toward the development of novel engine systems that use pure alcohol for fuel. Reforming methanol and ethanol catalytically to produce H/sub 2/ and CO gas for use as a fuel offers performance and efficiency advantages over burning alcohol directly as fuel in an engine. An application of this approach is also detailed at the end of this section. Another area of utilization is the use of fuel cells in transportation. In-house researchers investigating alternate electrolyte systems are exploring the direct and indirect use of alcohols in fuel cells. A workshop is being organized to explore potential applications of fuel cells in the transportation sector. The membrane research group is equipping to evaluate alcohol/water separation membranes and is also establishing cost estimation and energy utilization figures for use in alcohol plant design.

  2. Future of alcohol fuels programs in Brasil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carvalho, A. V., Jr.; Rechtschaffen, E.; Goldstein, L., Jr.

    An updating is given of the Brazilian National Alcohol Program's production and utilization achievements to date in the substitution of ethanol and methanol for imported oil products. A series of Eucalyptus forestry and processing-industry projections are made for fuel output and jobs creation that may be expected by the year 2000. With few exceptions, methanol produced from wood grown on poorer soils than can now be used for sugarcane substitute for oil products and result in jobs creation several orders of magnitude higher than petroleum fuels.

  3. Alcohol Fuels Program technical review, Spring 1984

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1984-10-01

    The alcohol fuels program consists of in-house and subcontracted research for the conversion of lignocellulosic biomass into fuel alcohols via thermoconversion and bioconversion technologies. In the thermoconversion area, the SERI gasifier has been operated on a one-ton per day scale and produces a clean, medium-Btu gas that can be used to manufacture methanol with a relatively small gas-water shift reaction requirement. Recent research has produced catalysts that make methanol and a mixture of higher alcohols from the biomass-derived synthetic gas. Three hydrolysis processes have emerged as candidates for more focused research. They are: a high-temperature, dilute-acid, plug-flow approach based on the Dartmouth reactor; steam explosion pretreatment followed by hydrolysis using the RUT-C30 fungal organism; and direct microbial conversion of the cellulose to ethanol using bacteria in a single or mixed culture. Modeling studies, including parametric and sensitivity analyses, have recently been completed. The results of these studies will lead to a better definition of the present state-of-the-art for these processes and provide a framework for establishing the research and process engineering issues that still need resolution. In addition to these modeling studies, economic feasibility studies are being carried out by commercial engineering firms. Their results will supplement and add commercial validity to the program results. The feasibility contractors will provide input at two levels: Technical and economic assessment of the current state-of-the-art in alcohol production from lignocellulosic biomass via thermoconversion to produce methanol and higher alcohol mixtures and bioconversion to produce ethanol; and identification of research areas having the potential to significantly reduce the cost of production of alcohols.

  4. Alcohol fuels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1980-01-01

    This issue is devoted almost entirely to alcohol fuels, the following topics being presented: A History of Alcohol Fuels; In the Midwest - Focus on Alcohol Fuels; Gasohol - A DOE Priority; Alcohol Fuels Potential; Gasohol - The Nutritious Fuel; Energy from Agriculture; Alcohol and the Price of Food; A New Look at Economics and Energy Balance in Alcohol Production; Economics of small-scale alcohol producers; Get the Lead Out with Alcohol; Biomass and the Carbon Dioxide Buildup; Federal Agency Activity in Alcohol Fuels; Congressional Activity in Alchol Fuels; Licensing a Small Still; Funding Sources for Alcohol Facilities; Safety in Alcohol Production; Alcohol Fuels Information; State-by-State Guide to Alcohol Activity; Alcohol Fuels Glossary; Alcohol Fuels and Your Car; Alcohol Fuels Training Grants Progam; Citizen Action Plan for Gasohol; and Alcohol Fuels - a Path to Reconciliation.

  5. Alcohol fuels for developing countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The importance of alcohol as an alternative fuel has been slowly established. In countries such as Brazil, they are already used in transport and other sectors of economy. Other developing countries are also trying out experiments with alcohol fuels. Chances of improving the economy of many developing nations depends to a large extent on the application of this fuel. The potential for alcohol fuels in developing countries should be considered as part of a general biomass-use strategy. The final strategies for the development of alcohol fuel will necessarily reflect the needs, values, and conditions of the individual nations, regions, and societies that develop them. (author). 5 refs

  6. The alcohol program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The rationale for the launching of the Alcohol Program from sugarcane in Brazil in the mid-1970s is described as an answer to the first ''oil crisis'' as well as a solution to the problem of the fluctuating sugar prices in the international market. The technical characteristics of ethanol as a fuel are given as well as a discussion of the evolution of the cost of production, environmental and social consequences. Regarding costs, ethanol production was close to 100 dollars a barrel in the initial stages of the Program in 1980 falling rapidly due to economies of scale and technological progress to half that value in 1990, followed by a slower decline in recent years. Considering the hard currency saved by avoiding oil importation through the significant displacement of gasoline by ethanol and the decrease in the amount of external debt that the displaced oil importation was able to provide it is possible to demonstrate that the Alcohol Program has been an efficient way of exchanging dollar debt by national currency subsidies which are paid by the liquid fossil fuel users. Even with this economic gains for society, the continuity of the Program is difficult to maintain. Two solutions to this problem are discussed: internal expansion of the use of ethanol and exports to industrialized countries where it could be used as an octane enhancer. The main attractiveness of the Program - the reduction of CO2 emissions as compared to fossil fuels - is stressed, mainly as a solution for industrialized countries to fulfill their commitments with the United Nations Framework Climate Change Convention. (Author)

  7. The alcohol fuels in Guatemala

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This presentation shows the antecedents of the production of alcohol fuel in Guatemala as an alternative to imported gasoline, also presents current statistics of consumption, importation of liquid fossil fuels, production of alcohol fuel, consumption, and trends of consumption mixed with gasoline and yield data

  8. Origins of institutional change: Brazilian alcohol fuel program between 1975 and 2000

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ollinaho, O.I.

    2012-07-01

    In this dissertation, I study the origins of institutional change. In organizational institutionalism institutional change is seen as being triggered either by exogenous shocks or by endogenous factors. I propose to see the origins of change instead through the dichotomy of cognitive versus material. One rationale for this is that, when addressing more broadly dispersed societal practices, the distinction between endogenous and exogenous loses its meaning. Another reason is that without taking materiality into account in a more comprehensive manner, institutional theory is toothless against the vast material fluxes that human activity, patterned as established practices, produces and consumes. Human activity is transforming the very basis of its foundation: raw material sources, ecosystems and even the climate of the planet. Not only does human activity have an impact on the planet, but the materiality in which we live, has its impact on our activity. I argue that changes in materiality affect our habitualized activities depending on how these changes are produced. This setting requires a more comprehensive relating of material and cognitive processes, something that I attempt to elucidate in this dissertation. I ground my conceptual development in the German sociology of knowledge, foremost in the writings of Alfred Schuetz and Thomas Luckmann. Established practices related to fossil fuels are central with regard to the adverse impacts of human activity. I study arguably the most successful attempt to deviate from these patterns: Proalcool. This ambitious Brazilian biofuel program was launched in 1975. Although alcohol was generally argued to be the definitive Brazilian solution and alcohol cars dominated the scene in the 1980s, by the end of the 1990s the program had lost its legitimacy and was seen as baggage to be done away with. I reconstruct the evolution of the program from 1975 to 2000 as a detailed narrative based on some 4000 news articles published in a

  9. Fuel alcohol opportunities for Indiana

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Greenglass, Bert

    1980-08-01

    Prepared at the request of US Senator Birch Bayh, Chairman of the National Alcohol Fuels Commission, this study may be best utilized as a guidebook and resource manual to foster the development of a statewide fuel alcohol plan. It examines sectors in Indiana which will impact or be impacted upon by the fuel alcohol industry. The study describes fuel alcohol technologies that could be pertinent to Indiana and also looks closely at how such a fuel alcohol industry may affect the economic and policy development of the State. Finally, the study presents options for Indiana, taking into account the national context of the developing fuel alcohol industry which, unlike many others, will be highly decentralized and more under the control of the lifeblood of our society - the agricultural community.

  10. Situational analysis as a tool for environmental impact assessment. The case of the Brazilian alcohol fuel program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lehtonen, M. [Univ. of Helsinki, Dept. of Limnology and Environmental Proctection (Finland)

    1994-11-01

    Situational analysis (SA) is a scheme for environmental planning and analysis which shares the premises of disaggregative evaluation methods. It starts from the assumption that the goal of planning and analysis is not to produce forecasts and prepare for the future, but to act in order to achieve the desired future. SA also stresses the importance of interdisciplinarity and citizen participation, which it sees as best served through the use of disaggregative evaluation methods. The most unique components of SA are the function-goal analysis (FGA) used for comparing the impacts of the alternatives and the power analysis, aimed at revealing the power structures that affect the choice of the alternative. SA was applied to the evaluation of the Brazilian alcohol fuel program, Proalcool, launched in 1975. The objectives were to analyse the impacts of the different alternatives of Proalcool especially in the northeastern state of Pernambuco and consider the political possibilities of implementing these alternative policies. On the basis of interviews with the participants relevant to Proalcool four different lines of action were outlined for the future of the program. The alternatives were compared with each other by means of function-goal analysis, dealing with the impacts in their characteristic form, without trying to press them into commensurate terms. A power analysis, applying a center-periphery approach, was carried out both at the level of the sugar and alcohol sector of Pernambuco and the entire planning and decision-making structure of Proalcool. The main merit of situational analysis its capacity to promote understanding between individuals having widely contrasting world-views by offering a broad, interdisciplinary framework of analysis as a basis for discussion and decision-making. The shortcomings of SA are related with the problems of condensing and illustrating the information and distinguishing the relevant information from the irrelevant. (au) 50 refs.

  11. Alcohol ignition interlock programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beirness, D J; Marques, P R

    2004-09-01

    The alcohol ignition interlock is an in-vehicle DWI control device that prevents a car from starting until the operator provides a breath alcohol concentration (BAC) test below a set level, usually .02% (20 mg/dl) to .04% (40 mg/dl). The first interlock program was begun as a pilot test in California 18 years ago; today all but a few US states, and Canadian provinces have interlock enabling legislation. Sweden has recently implemented a nationwide interlock program. Other nations of the European Union and as well as several Australian states are testing it on a small scale or through pilot research. This article describes the interlock device and reviews the development and current status of interlock programs including their public safety benefit and the public practice impediments to more widespread adoption of these DWI control devices. Included in this review are (1) a discussion of the technological breakthroughs and certification standards that gave rise to the design features of equipment that is in widespread use today; (2) a commentary on the growing level of adoption of interlocks by governments despite the judicial and legislative practices that prevent more widespread use of them; (3) a brief overview of the extant literature documenting a high degree of interlock efficacy while installed, and the rapid loss of their preventative effect on repeat DWI once they are removed from the vehicles; (4) a discussion of the representativeness of subjects in the current research studies; (5) a discussion of research innovations, including motivational intervention efforts that may extend the controlling effect of the interlock, and data mining research that has uncovered ways to use the stored interlock data record of BAC tests in order to predict high risk drivers; and (6) a discussion of communication barriers and conceptual rigidities that may be preventing the alcohol ignition interlock from taking a more prominent role in the arsenal of tools used to control

  12. Corrosion inhibitor for alcohol and gasohol fuels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, S.L.; Meyer, G.R.; Brinkman, K.C.

    1991-06-18

    This patent describes a fuel composition for internal combustion engines. It comprises a major portion of a fuel selected from gasohol or alcohol, and a corrosion inhibiting amount of a mixture of a substituted imidazoline (IM).

  13. Production of alcohols and other oxygenates from fossil fuels and renewables : final report for IEA Alternative Motor Fuels Agreement Program of research and development on alternative motor fuels, Annex 4/Phase 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vancea, L. (comp.) [Natural Resources Canada, Ottawa, ON (Canada)

    1995-07-01

    The objective of the International Energy Agency's (IEA's) Alternative Motor Fuels Agreement Program was to exchange information on the production of alcohols and other oxygenates between 6 participating countries including Canada, Italy, Japan, New Zealand, Sweden and the United States. Various production methods were reviewed in an effort to identify potential areas of cooperative research programs. The original scope was to examine the production of alcohols and other oxygenates from fossil fuels only, but some participants examined their production from renewables. This report provided a brief description of the Annex and the list of participants. It presented the Operating Agent's Report and contained a summary of the contributions submitted by participating countries by topic. In Canada, Iogen of Ottawa, Ontario has conducted a study on the energy, carbon and economic budgets estimated for wheat grain, corn grain, wheat straw, and switchgrass. Iogen has developed a process for fermenting wheat straw and switchgrass into ethanol. Most research has focused on enzymatic hydrolysis processes because of the low yields inherent in dilute acid hydrolysis processes. Enzymes hydrolyze the cellulose to glucose without producing any degradation products, thereby yielding high quantity products with no toxicity. Future bioethanol production will probably be cellulosic-based rather than grain-based. refs., tabs., figs.

  14. 27 CFR 19.997 - Withdrawal of fuel alcohol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Withdrawal of fuel alcohol. 19.997 Section 19.997 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU... and Transfers § 19.997 Withdrawal of fuel alcohol. For each shipment or other removal of fuel...

  15. Fuel and Chemicals from Renewable Alcohols

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Jeppe Rass

    2008-01-01

    The present work entitled Fuel and Chemicals from Renewable Alcohols covers the idea of developing routes for producing sustainable fuel and chemicals from biomass resources. Some renewable alcohols are already readily available from biomass in significant amounts and thus the potential for these......, where it can compete with hydrogen production from natural gas. Similar substitution possibilities are emerging in the case of conversion of renewable alcohols to synthesis gas, which is used for instance in the manufacture of methanol and synthetic fuel. Here it is illustrated how glycerol can be...... converted directly to diesel fuel in a one pot reaction consisting of: conversion of glycerol to synthesis gas over a Pt-Re/C catalyst followed by conversion of the produced synthesis gas to liquid hydrocarbons by Fischer-Tropsch synthesis using a Ru/TiO2 catalyst. Oxidation of aqueous solutions of ethanol...

  16. Third international symposium on alcohol fuels technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1980-04-01

    At the opening of the Symposium, Dr. Sharrah, Senior Vice President of Continental Oil Company, addressed the attendees, and his remarks are included in this volume. The Symposium was concluded by workshops which addressed specific topics. The topical titles are as follows: alcohol uses; production; environment and safety; and socio-economic. The workshops reflected a growing confidence among the attendees that the alcohols from coal, remote natural gas and biomass do offer alternatives to petroleum fuels. Further, they may, in the long run, prove to be equal or superior to the petroleum fuels when the aspects of performance, environment, health and safety are combined with the renewable aspect of the biomass derived alcohols. Although considerable activity in the production and use of alcohols is now appearing in many parts of the world, the absence of strong, broad scale assessment and support for these fuels by the United States Federal Government was a noted point of concern by the attendees. The environmental consequence of using alcohols continues to be more benign in general than the petroleum based fuels. The exception is the family of aldehydes. Although the aldehydes are easily suppressed by catalysts, it is important to understand their production in the combustion process. Progress is being made in this regard. Of course, the goal is to burn the alcohols so cleanly that catalytic equipment can be eliminated. Separate abstracts are prepared for the Energy Data Base for individual presentations.

  17. 26 CFR 48.4041-18 - Fuels containing alcohol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 16 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 true Fuels containing alcohol. 48.4041-18 Section 48... EXCISE TAXES MANUFACTURERS AND RETAILERS EXCISE TAXES Special Fuels § 48.4041-18 Fuels containing alcohol..., of any liquid fuel described in section 4041(a) (1) or (2) which consists of at least 10% alcohol...

  18. Fuel alcohol extraction technology commercialization conference

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Compere, A. L.; Griffith, W. L.; Googin, J. M.

    1980-12-01

    The fualex, or fuel alcohol extraction process, uses a combination of hydrocarbon and surfactant to remove neutral solvents, such as butanol, ethanol, isopropanol, and acetone, from aqueous solution. The hydrocarbon extractants use may be fuels, such as gasoline, furnace oil, and diesel fuel. Surfactant concentrations ranging from 1 to 10 g/liter and hydrocarbon raning from 0.01 to 1 liter per liter aqueous alcohols solution have been investigated. The fualex process was tested on solutions which contain 5% w/v total neutral solvents, since this is near maximum for the fermentation product stream. The neutral solvents are removed in the form of an emulsion which is white to light bluish in the visible range. The emulsion has potential for direct use in fuels or as an intermediate for obtaining purified solvents.

  19. Electrocatalysts for direct alcohol fuel cells

    OpenAIRE

    Celorrio, V.

    2013-01-01

    The properties of CNC as well as their surface chemistry can be tuned by an adequate choice of synthesis conditions, favouring the formation of surface oxygen groups. Platinum-based catalysts have been supported on CNCs through different synthesis methods and their catalytic activity has been proven. These results prove that CNCs are promising candidates as alternative to replace Vulcan in order to improve the performance of the direct alcohol fuel cells. In addition, it can be affirmed that ...

  20. Nano-gold Catalyst for Direct Alcohol Fuel Cells

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Z.Ogumi; K.Miyazaki; Y.Iriyama; T.Abe

    2007-01-01

    1 Results Direct alcohol fuel cells have been regarded as attractive power sources for portable electric devices. One of the major roadblocks to the implementation of direct alcohol fuel cells is the exploration of the anode catalyst that can electrochemically oxidize alcohols at lower potentials. Carbon-monoxide (CO) produced through alcohol oxidation deteriorates catalytic activity of Pt, and therefore, the high tolerance for CO poisoning is an important issue to attain high voltage from direct alcoho...

  1. Using Alcohols as an Alternative Fuel in Internal Combustion Engines

    OpenAIRE

    Salih ÖZER

    2014-01-01

    This study summarizes the studies on alcohol use in internal combustion engines nature. Nowadays, alcohol is used in internal combustion engines sometimes in order to reduce emissions and sometimes as an alternative fuel. Even vehicle manufacturers are producing and launching vehicles that are running directly with alcohol. Many types of pure alcohol that can be used on vehicles are available on the world. Using all of these types of alcohol led to the formation of engine emissions and power ...

  2. Minimally refined biomass fuel. [carbohydrate-water-alcohol mixture

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pearson, R.K.; Hirschfeld, T.B.

    1981-03-26

    A minimally refined fluid composition, suitable as a fuel mixture and derived from biomass material, is comprised of one or more water-soluble carbohydrates such as sucrose, one or more alcohols having less than four carbons, and water. The carbohydrate provides the fuel source; water-solubilizes the carbohydrate; and the alcohol aids in the combustion of the carbohydrate and reduces the viscosity of the carbohydrate/water solution. Because less energy is required to obtain the carbohydrate from the raw biomass than alcohol, an overall energy savings is realized compared to fuels employing alcohol as the primary fuel.

  3. Canadian fuel development program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    CANDU power reactor fuel has demonstrated an enviable operational record. More than 99.9% of the bundles irradiated have provided defect-free service. Defect excursions are responsible for the majority of reported defects. In some cases research and development effort is necessary to resolve these problems. In addition, development initiatives are also directed at improvements of the current design or reduction of fueling cost. The majority of the funding for this effort has been provided by COG (CANDU Owners' Group) over the past 10 to 15 years. This paper contains an overview of some key fuel technology programs within COG. The CANDU reactor is unique among the world's power reactors in its flexibility and its ability to use a number of different fuel cycles. An active program of analysis and development, to demonstrate the viability of different fuel cycles in CANDU, has been funded by AECL in parallel with the work on the natural uranium cycle. Market forces and advances in technology have obliged us to reassess and refocus some parts of our effort in this area, and significant success has been achieved in integrating all the Canadian efforts in this area. This paper contains a brief summary of some key components of the advanced fuel cycle program. (Author) 4 figs., tab., 18 refs

  4. Direct alcohol fuel cells materials, performance, durability and applications

    CERN Document Server

    Corti, Horacio R

    2013-01-01

    Direct Alcohol Fuel Cells: Materials, Performance, Durability and Applications begins with an introductory overview of direct alcohol fuel cells (DAFC); it focuses on the main goals and challenges in the areas of materials development, performance, and commercialization. The preparation and the properties of the anodic catalysts used for the oxidation of methanol, higher alcohols, and alcohol tolerant cathodes are then described. The membranes used as proton conductors in DAFC are examined, as well as alkaline membranes, focusing on the electrical conductivity and alcohol permeability. The use

  5. Electrocatalysts for direct alcohol fuel cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Celorrio

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The properties of CNC as well as their surface chemistry can be tuned by an adequate choice of synthesis conditions, favouring the formation of surface oxygen groups. Platinum-based catalysts have been supported on CNCs through different synthesis methods and their catalytic activity has been proven. These results prove that CNCs are promising candidates as alternative to replace Vulcan in order to improve the performance of the direct alcohol fuel cells. In addition, it can be affirmed that the reactivity of Au-Pd core-shell nanostructures toward CO and HCOOH electro-oxidation is not only determined by the composition and structure of Pd overlayer but also by interaction with the support.

  6. The brazilian alcohol program in the national energy context

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The new national as well as international energy context demands revision of the Brazilian Alcohol Program. This revision should aim at the preservation of alcohol as an energy source while reducing subsidies. To this end a moratorium on new distilleries should be enforced till the middle of the next decade, accompanied by a policy focusing on cost reductions and improvements in productivity aimed at making alcohol competitive in the middle term, as well as a motor fuel policy which acts on demand and makes this moratorium viable while preserving the existing production structure. Concrete mechanisms to implement such a policy are proposed which segment the market for new vehicles and preserve the stability of alcohol and gasoline markets for existing vehicles. The effects of this policy were analyzed through simulation of 7 scenarios through the year 2005, which showed its feasibility; the continuation of the present policy, on the other hand, implies heavy additional subsidies. (author)

  7. Physical properties of gasoline/alcohol automotive fuels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cox, F W

    1979-01-01

    Non-petroleum derived alcohols are likely candidates for near-future use as alternative automotive fuels. Low molecular weight alcohols may be used alone or in combination with gasoline, but either usage presents its own unique set of advantages and disadvantages. This report addresses the physical property changes (both beneficial and detrimental) which occur when alcohols are added to gasoline as fuel extenders. The experimental data and discussion of results cover four physical property areas: water tolerance, vapor pressure, distillation characteristics, and octane quality. The alcohols include methanol, ethanol, n-propanol, i-butanol, and synthetic methyl fuel. Several additional alcohols were tested, but only as gasoline/methanol cosolvents. The major objective of the physical properties study was to determine the interdependency among the variables which are responsible for the significant property changes so that, where possible, gasoline/alcohol properties can be estimated from blend composition. Trends are also discussed in terms of the general influences of system variables.

  8. Mixed fuel based on hydrocarbon-alcohol compositions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    В.В. Єфіменко

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available  Due to oil production slowdown that is causing increasing cost of petroleum products there is a need to find alternative fuels, their production methods and usage. There are three groups of conditional fuel differentiated by origin and properties, which determine their application: petroleum fuels with additive of non oil origin components, with operation properties similar to conventional petroleum fuel; synthetic liquid fuel similar to conventional petroleum fuels; non oil fuels – all they differ considerably in physical-chemical and operation properties from traditional fuels. This article deals with mixed fuels based on ethanol and petroleum fuel. The problems of their usage and ways to improve theirs physical and chemical properties were solved by adding stabilizers. One of the main problems of using ethanol as a component that increases the octane number of motor gasoline is low physical stability of the alcohol-gasoline fuel at low temperatures. Therefore, an introduction of ethanol in gasoline required a compulsory inclusion in its composition stabilizing additives that allow to homogenate the gasoline-water-alcohol system. As stabilizers of alcohol-gasoline mixtures were studied: aliphatic alcohols of  C3 - C12 row, normal and iso-structure, simple ethers and esters and their organometallic derivatives, ketones, amines, and mixtures of these compounds. Adding these compounds prevents separation of gasoline that contains alcohol, to a temperature of -40 …-23 oC.

  9. Ambiguities of fighting inflation: structure of alcohol fuel prices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The control of consumer prices of alcohol fuel and gasoline has been used by the Brazilian government as a tool for fighting inflation. The production of alcohol fuel from biomass and the use of its by-products is one of the few strategies that will permit economic development and environmental preservation at the same time. While the pricing policy continues to determine the energy policy, it will be almost impossible to promote the production and the use of alcohol fuel in the country

  10. Tough Economy, Alcohol Fuels Suicide Risk in Men

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... https://medlineplus.gov/news/fullstory_159057.html Tough Economy, Alcohol Fuels Suicide Risk in Men: Study But ... the risk of suicide among men when the economy is sinking, new research suggests. Previous studies found ...

  11. Tough Economy, Alcohol Fuels Suicide Risk in Men

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... nih.gov/medlineplus/news/fullstory_159057.html Tough Economy, Alcohol Fuels Suicide Risk in Men: Study But ... the risk of suicide among men when the economy is sinking, new research suggests. Previous studies found ...

  12. The Brazilian experience with alcohol fuel: microeconomic and environmental issues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Producers and consumers in Brazil are not longer regarding alcohol (ethanol) as a valuable fuel choice. Although the falling of oil prices has contributed to this situation, the lack of concern on microeconomic behaviour has also played an important role. Furthermore, environmental gains derived from the use of a mixture of alcohol and gasoline have been forgotten when alcohol fuel is evaluated. From the Brazilian experience some fruitful lessons can be learnt, to support research efforts for renewable energy programmes in Europe and the U.S.A. (author)

  13. EPRI fuel cladding integrity program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang, R. [Electric Power Research Institute, Palo Alto, CA (United States)

    1997-01-01

    The objectives of the EPRI fuel program is to supplement the fuel vendor research to assure that utility economic and operational interests are met. To accomplish such objectives, EPRI has conducted research and development efforts to (1) reduce fuel failure rates and mitigate the impact of fuel failures on plant operation, (2) provide technology to extend burnup and reduce fuel cycle cost. The scope of R&D includes fuel and cladding. In this paper, only R&D related to cladding integrity will be covered. Specific areas aimed at improving fuel cladding integrity include: (1) Fuel Reliability Data Base; (2) Operational Guidance for Defective Fuel; (3) Impact of Water Chemistry on Cladding Integrity; (4) Cladding Corrosion Data and Model; (5) Cladding Mechanical Properties; and (6) Transient Fuel Cladding Response.

  14. Using Alcohols as an Alternative Fuel in Internal Combustion Engines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salih ÖZER

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available This study summarizes the studies on alcohol use in internal combustion engines nature. Nowadays, alcohol is used in internal combustion engines sometimes in order to reduce emissions and sometimes as an alternative fuel. Even vehicle manufacturers are producing and launching vehicles that are running directly with alcohol. Many types of pure alcohol that can be used on vehicles are available on the world. Using all of these types of alcohol led to the formation of engine emissions and power curves. The studies reveal that these changes are because of the physical and chemical characteristics of alcohols. Thıs study tries to explain what kind of conclusions the physical and chemical properties cause

  15. Alkaline direct alcohol fuel cells using an anion exchange membrane

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Matsuoka, Koji; Iriyama, Yasutoshi; Abe, Takeshi; Ogumi, Zempachi [Department of Energy and Hydrocarbon Chemistry, Graduate School of Engineering, Kyoto University, Katsura, Nishikyo-ku, Kyoto 615-8510 (Japan); Matsuoka, Masao [Faculty of Science and Engineering, Ritsumeikan University, Kusatsu, Shiga 525-8577 (Japan)

    2005-10-04

    Alkaline direct alcohol fuel cells using an OH-form anion exchange membrane and polyhydric alcohols were studied. A high open circuit voltage of ca. 800mV was obtained for a cell using Pt-Ru/C (anode) and Pt/C (cathode) at 323K, which was about 100-200mV higher than that for a DMFC using Nafion{sup R}. The maximum power densities were in the order of ethylene glycol>glycerol>methanol>erythritol>xylitol. Silver catalysts were used as a cathode catalyst to fabricate alkaline fuel cells, since silver catalyst is almost inactive in the oxidation of polyhydric alcohols. Alkaline direct ethylene glycol fuel cells using silver as a cathode catalyst gave excellent performance because higher concentrations of fuel could be supplied to the anode. (author)

  16. Plutonium fuel program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1975 was the first of two years planned to allow the fuel development project to move from lab-scale fuel production and scouting irradiation tests to larger scale production supplying fuel for parameter testing. The first stages of this re-direction are reported. (Auth.)

  17. Plutonium fuel program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A review is presented of the development of the (UPu)C sphere-pac fuel project during 1978. In particular, the problems encountered in obtaining good fuel quality in the fabrication process and their solution is discussed. The development of a fabrication pilot plant is considered, and the post-irradiation examination of fuel pins is presented. (Auth.)

  18. The element technology of clean fuel alcohol plant construction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, D.S; Lee, D.S. [Sam-Sung Engineering Technical Institute (Korea, Republic of); Choi, C.Y [Seoul National University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)] [and others

    1996-02-01

    The fuel alcohol has been highlighted as a clean energy among new renewable energy sources. However, the production of the fuel alcohol has following problems; (i)bulk distillate remains is generated and (ii) benzene to be used as a entertainer in the azeotropic distillation causes the environmental problem. Thus, we started this research on the ground of preserving the cleanness in the production of fuel alcohol, a clean energy. We examined the schemes of replacing the azotropic distillation column which causes the problems with MSDP(Molecular Sieve Dehydration Process) system using adsorption technology and of treating the bulk distillate remains to be generated as by-products. In addition, we need to develop the continuous yea station technology for the continuous operation of fuel alcohol plant as a side goal. Thus, we try to develop a continuous ethanol fermentation process by high-density cell culture from tapioca, a industrial substrate, using cohesive yeast. For this purpose, we intend to examine the problem of tapioca, a industrial substrate, where a solid is existed and develop a new process which can solve the problem. Ultimately, the object of this project is to develop each element technology for the construction of fuel alcohol plant and obtain the ability to design the whole plant. (author) 54 refs., 143 figs., 34 tabs.

  19. Plutonium fuel program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The work of the project Fuel Development in 1976 was marked by three important developments. Firstly, the reproduceability of the process to produce sphere pac carbide fuel by a gelation process was established. Secondly, in the post irradiation examination of the fuel pins from the BR-2 reactor, the fuel reached approximately 5.5% FIMA without failure. Thirdly, outside interest in sphere pac material became more apparent. These developments are discussed, and plans to construct a fuel pilot plant to go into operation in the 1980's are revealed. (Auth.)

  20. The KFB Program on Biobased Fuels for Vehicles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    KFB supports research and demonstration projects for bio-based transport fuels, alcohols and biogas. The program started in 1991 and will continue through 1997. The program focuses on heavy vehicles, e.g. buses for public transportation. Projects and intermediate results are described in the brochure. Information is also available at the KFB homepage. //www.kfb.se

  1. Modeling and cold start in alcohol-fueled engines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Markel, A.J.; Bailey, B.K.

    1998-05-01

    Neat alcohol fuels offer several benefits over conventional gasoline in automotive applications. However, their low vapor pressure and high heat of vaporization make it difficult to produce a flammable vapor composition from a neat alcohol fuel during a start under cold ambient conditions. Various methods have been introduced to compensate for this deficiency. In this study, the authors applied computer modeling and simulation to evaluate the potential of four cold-start technologies for engines fueled by near-neat alcohol. The four technologies were a rich combustor device, a partial oxidation reactor, a catalytic reformer, and an enhanced ignition system. The authors ranked the competing technologies by their ability to meet two primary criteria for cold starting an engine at {minus}25 deg C and also by several secondary parameters related to commercialization. Their analysis results suggest that of the four technologies evaluated, the enhanced ignition system is the best option for further development.

  2. Plutonium fuel program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The project is concerned with developing an advanced method to produce nuclear reactor fuels. Since 1968 EIR has worked successfully on the production of uranium-plutonium mixed carbide using wet gelation chemistry. An important part of the development is irradiating the fuel in materials test reactors and evaluating its performance. During 1979 the programme continued with principal activities of fuel fabrication development, preparation for irradiation testing, performance evaluation, and modelling and plant engineering. (Auth.)

  3. 32 CFR 634.13 - Alcohol and drug abuse programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 4 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Alcohol and drug abuse programs. 634.13 Section... and drug abuse programs. (a) Commanders will refer military personnel suspected of drug or alcohol abuse for evaluation in the following circumstances: (1) Behavior indicative of alcohol or drug...

  4. Brazil's alcohol program gets World Bank loan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1981-05-27

    The World Bank has approved its first loan for alcohol production - a $250 million credit for Brazil's government program. Brazil's National Alcohol Commission has approved construction of 388 projects of an estimated 500 needed to reach the alcohol program's 1985 output target of 10.7 billion litres/year.

  5. Experimental Investigation of Using Fuel Additives - Alcohol

    OpenAIRE

    S.M. Fayyad

    2010-01-01

    This research presents an investigation of the effects of ethanol addition to low octane numbergasoline, on the fuel octane number and on the performance of the engine. In this study, the tested gasoline(octane number = 90) is blended with five different percentages of ethanol, namely 3, 6, 9, 12 and 15% onvolume basis. Then these fuel blends, as well as the base gasoline fuel, w ere burnt in the tested engine. It isfound that the octane number of gasoline increases continuously and linearly ...

  6. Alcohol fuels bibliography, 1901-March 1980

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1981-04-01

    This annotated bibliography is subdivided by subjects, as follows: general; feedstocks-general; feedstocks-sugar; feedstocks-starch; feedstocks-cellulose crops and residues; production; coproducts; economics; use as vehicle fuel; government policies; and environmental effects and safety. (MHR)

  7. Plutonium fuel program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The work of the Project-Fuel Development reached the apex of its current programme during the course of the year. Notable success was recorded in the area of irradiation testing with the completion of the examination of the MFBS-7 irradiation. The irradiation group also prepared the seventh Filos experiment and this, as well as the DIDO-III test, began irradiation at the end of the year. Consideration was given and plans prepared for a revised pin filling line for bundle tests. Work also began on the conceptual design study for a pilot production line having a nominal capacity of 500 kg fuel per year. (Auth.)

  8. Experimental Investigation of Using Fuel Additives - Alcohol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S.M. Fayyad

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available This research presents an investigation of the effects of ethanol addition to low octane numbergasoline, on the fuel octane number and on the performance of the engine. In this study, the tested gasoline(octane number = 90 is blended with five different percentages of ethanol, namely 3, 6, 9, 12 and 15% onvolume basis. Then these fuel blends, as well as the base gasoline fuel, w ere burnt in the tested engine. It isfound that the octane number of gasoline increases continuously and linearly with increasing the ethanolpercentage in gasoline. Hence, ethanol is an effective compound for increasing the value of the octane numberof gasoline. Also, it is also noticed that the best performance of the engine was obtained when 15% of ethanolwas used in the gasoline blend.

  9. Synthetic Fuels Program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Studies on waste water derived from synthetic fuel processes included acute toxicity of coal conversion effluent components and acute toxicity of aqueous waste and wastewater components of the ORNL Bench-Scale hydrocarbonization process. The potential hazards of synthetic fuels technology development to terrestrial ecosystems were studied with regard to toxicity of PAH and azaarenes. Aquatic transport studies included the following: aquatic transport of PAH and rates of PAH photolysis at the Bethlehem, Pennsylvania, coking plant site; microbial transformations of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in water and sediment samples; persistence of azaarenes in aquatic systems; bioaccumulation of pathways of azaarenes; sorption of PAH to suspended particles in natural waters; and transport and fate of anthracene in pond microcosms. Studies were also conducted on environmental characterization of solid waste from a Lurgi facility

  10. A novel alcohol/iron (III) fuel cell

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yi, Qingfeng; Zou, Tao; Zhang, Yuanyuan; Liu, Xiaoping; Xu, Guorong; Nie, Huidong; Zhou, Xiulin

    2016-07-01

    A novel alcohol fuel cell is constructed by using Fe3+ as the oxidation agent instead of the conventional O2. Various alcohols as the fuels are tested, including methanol, ethanol, n-propanol and iso-propanol. In this fuel cell, the anode catalysts tested are PdSn/β-cd-CNT, PdSn/CNT, Pd/β-cd-CNT, Pd/CNT and Pd/β-cd-C, prepared by using multi-walled carbon nanotube (CNT) and carbon powder (C), as well as β-cyclodexdrin (β-cd) modified CNT (β-cd-CNT) and β-cd modified C (β-cd-C), as the substrates to immobilize PdSn and Pd nanoparticles in glycol solvent. The as-synthesized PdSn/β-cd-CNT catalyst presents significantly higher electroactivity for alcohol oxidation than the conventional Pd/C catalyst. Fe3+ reduction reaction is carried out on the cathode made of carbon powder. The anolyte (alcohols in 1 mol L-1 NaOH) and catholyte (Fe3+ in 0.5 mol L-1 NaCl) are separated with a Nafion 117 membrane. Open circuit voltage (OCV) of the cell with the anode PdSn/β-cd-CNT is 1.14-1.22 V, depending upon the used alcohol. The maximum power densities with methanol, ethanol, n-propanol and iso-propanol fuels are 15.2, 16.1, 19.9 and 12.2 mW cm-2, respectively.

  11. Proceedings of the international symposium on alcohol fuel technology: methanol and ethanol

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1978-07-01

    The papers presented dealt with the following topics: international situation and economic and political aspects, use of alcohol fuels as automotive fuels, production of methanol and methyl fuels, production of ethanol, methanol application and modeling, alcohol fuel optimization, and environmental considerations. Each paper was prepared for introduction into the EDB data base. (JSR)

  12. Internal combustion engines for alcohol motor fuels: a compilation of background technical information

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blaser, Richard

    1980-11-01

    This compilation, a draft training manual containing technical background information on internal combustion engines and alcohol motor fuel technologies, is presented in 3 parts. The first is a compilation of facts from the state of the art on internal combustion engine fuels and their characteristics and requisites and provides an overview of fuel sources, fuels technology and future projections for availability and alternatives. Part two compiles facts about alcohol chemistry, alcohol identification, production, and use, examines ethanol as spirit and as fuel, and provides an overview of modern evaluation of alcohols as motor fuels and of the characteristics of alcohol fuels. The final section compiles cross references on the handling and combustion of fuels for I.C. engines, presents basic evaluations of events leading to the use of alcohols as motor fuels, reviews current applications of alcohols as motor fuels, describes the formulation of alcohol fuels for engines and engine and fuel handling hardware modifications for using alcohol fuels, and introduces the multifuel engines concept. (LCL)

  13. Pathway to fuel additives or designer fuels from bio-based alcohols

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Breitkreuz, Klaas; Menne, Andreas [Fraunhofer-Institut fuer Umwelt-, Sicherheits- und Energietechnik UMSICHT, Oberhausen (Germany); Kraft, Axel

    2013-06-01

    A continuous heterogeneous-catalytic gas-phase process developed by Fraunhofer UMSICHT makes it possible to condense small alcohols and ketones to larger hydrocarbon molecules containing only one atom of oxygen per molecule. After an optional oxygen-removing step such as hydrotreatment, fuel-identical hydrocarbons are yielded. The overall conversion of feedstock to fuel additives or fuels is depicted below: Alcohol - Conversion to higher alcohols - Condensation with acetone - Hydrotreatment (Schematic process flow for the production of fuel-identical hydrocarbons and additives). Depending on raw materials and process conditions, a tailor-made product distribution is possible. The products can be used as fuel additives or as drop-in fuel, matching either diesel or kerosene specifications. The intermediates - secondary alcohols - are valuable as raw materials for several chemical applications, i.e. plasticizer, surfactants, solvents or lubricants. This process offers an attractive alternative to other competing processes producing long-chain hydrocarbons, like Fischer-Tropsch or hydrotreatment of fats and oils. Being based on economical, stable and commercially available catalysts as well as on a wide range of possible raw materials, this method 1s ready for scale up and related process development. (orig.)

  14. Fuel development program of the nuclear fuel element centre

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fuel technology development program pf the nuclear fuel element centre is still devised into two main pillars, namely the research reactors fuel technology and the power reactor fuel technology taking into account the strategic influencing environment such as better access to global market of fuel cycle services, the state of the art and the general trend of the fuel technology in the world. Embarking on the twenty first century the fuel development program has to be directed toward strengthening measure to acquire and self-reliance in the field of fuel technology in support to the national energy program as well as to the utilisation of research reactor. A more strengthened acquisition of fuel cycle technology, in general, and particularly of fuel technology would improve the bargaining power when negotiation the commercial fuel technology transfer in the future

  15. Emergency fuels utilization guidebook. Alternative Fuels Utilization Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1980-08-01

    The basic concept of an emergency fuel is to safely and effectively use blends of specification fuels and hydrocarbon liquids which are free in the sense that they have been commandeered or volunteered from lower priority uses to provide critical transportation services for short-duration emergencies on the order of weeks, or perhaps months. A wide variety of liquid hydrocarbons not normally used as fuels for internal combustion engines have been categorized generically, including limited information on physical characteristics and chemical composition which might prove useful and instructive to fleet operators. Fuels covered are: gasoline and diesel fuel; alcohols; solvents; jet fuels; kerosene; heating oils; residual fuels; crude oils; vegetable oils; gaseous fuels.

  16. 1986 fuel cell seminar: Program and abstracts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1986-10-01

    Ninety nine brief papers are arranged under the following session headings: gas industry's 40 kw program, solid oxide fuel cell technology, phosphoric acid fuel cell technology, molten carbonate fuel cell technology, phosphoric acid fuel cell systems, power plants technology, fuel cell power plant designs, unconventional fuels, fuel cell application and economic assessments, and plans for commerical development. The papers are processed separately for the data base. (DLC)

  17. Canadian CANDU fuel development programs and recent fuel operating experience

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper summarizes the performance and operating experience of CANDU fuel in Canadian CANDU reactors in 1999 and 2000. The extremely low rate of fuel defects continues to demonstrate that CANDU fuel is performing exceptionally well. Over the 2-year period, the fuel bundle defect rate for all bundles irradiated in Canadian CANDU reactors has remained very low, between 0.011% (suspected defects) and 0.007% (confirmed defects). On a fuel element basis, this represents a rate of confirmed defects of about 0.0002%; this rate is approaching 2 defects per million fuel elements! This successful performance is the result of a number of contributing factors, including a simple and robust fuel design with conservative design margins, reliable and specialized manufacturing processes that have been developed over the years, and fuel operations that conform to the fuel operating limits. Strong linkages between plant operation, designers, and Canadian fuel research and development programs also contribute to the high performance of the current CANDU fuel. The Fuel Design and Performance program, funded by the CANDU Owners Group, addresses licensing and operational issues that are common to the Canadian CANDU utilities. In addition, AECL's Fuel and Fuel Cycles working group directs R and D to support evolutionary improvements to the fuel products, as well as longer-term R and D for advanced fuel concepts. This paper describes the development programs in 1999/2000. (author)

  18. Canadian CANDU fuel development programs and recent fuel operating experience

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper summarizes the performance and operating experience of CANDU fuel in Canadian CANDU reactors in 1999 and 2000. The extremely low rate of fuel defects continues to demonstrate that CANDU fuel is performing exceptionally well. Over the 2-year period, the fuel bundle defect rate for all bundles irradiated in Canadian CANDU reactors has remained very low, between 0.011% (suspected defects) and 0.007% (confirmed defects). On a fuel element basis, this represents a rate of confirmed defects of about 0.0002%; this rate is approaching 2 defects per million fuel elements. This successful performance is the result of a number of contributing factors, including a simple and robust fuel design with conservative design margins, reliable and specialized manufacturing processes that have been developed over the years, and fuel operations that conform to the fuel operating limits. Strong linkages between plant operation, designers, and Canadian fuel research and development programs also contribute to the high performance of the current CANDU fuel. The Fuel Design and Performance program, funded by the CANDU Owners Group, addresses licensing and operational issues that are common to the Canadian CANDU utilities. In addition, AECL's Fuel and Fuel Cycles working group directs R and D to support evolutionary improvements to the fuel products, as well as long-term R and D for advanced fuel concepts. This paper describes the development programs in 1999/2000. (author)

  19. Heterogeneous catalytic process for alcohol fuels from syngas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Minahan, D.M.; Nagaki, D.A.

    1995-12-31

    This project is focused on the discovery and evaluation of novel heterogeneous catalyst for the production of oxygenated fuel enhancers from synthesis gas. Catalysts have been studied and optimized for the production of methanol and isobutanol mixtures which may be used for the downstream synthesis of MTBE or related oxygenates. Higher alcohols synthesis (HAS) from syngas was studied; the alcohols that are produced in this process may be used for the downstream synthesis of MTBE or related oxygenates. This work has resulted in the discovery of a catalyst system that is highly selective for isobutanol compared with the prior art. The catalysts operate at high temperature (400{degrees}C), and consist of a spinel oxide support (general formula AB{sub 2}O{sub 4}, where A=M{sup 2+} and B = M{sup 3+}), promoted with various other elements. These catalysts operate by what is believed to be an aldol condensation mechanism, giving a product mix of mainly methanol and isobutanol. In this study, the effect of product feed/recycle (methanol, ethanol. n-propanol, isopropanol, carbon dioxide and water) on the performance of 10-DAN-55 (spinel oxide based catalyst) at 400{degrees}C, 1000 psi, GHSV = 12,000 and syngas (H{sub 2}/CO) ratio = 1:2 (alcohol addition) and 1:1 (carbon dioxide and water addition) was studied. The effect of operation at high temperatures and pressures on the performance of an improved catalyst formulation was also examined.

  20. Hallam fuel decladding. Program summary report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report summarizes the program of decladding the 150 Hallam fuel assemblies, removal of the sodium, and the packaging and shipment of the recovered fuel to Savannah River for eventual reprocessing

  1. Addendum: Tenth International Symposium on Alcohol Fuels, The road to commercialization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-05-01

    The Tenth International Symposium on ALCOHOL FUELS ``THE ROAD TO COMMERCIALIZATION`` was held at the Broadmoor Hotel, Colorado Springs, Colorado, USA November 7--10, 1993. Twenty-seven papers on the production of alcohol fuels, specifications, their use in automobiles, buses and trucks, emission control, and government policies were presented. Individual papers have been processed separately for entry into the data base.

  2. Fuel and Chemicals from Renewable Alcohols:Part 1+2

    OpenAIRE

    Hansen, Jeppe Rass; Madsen, Robert; Fehrmann, Rasmus; Christensen, Claus H.

    2008-01-01

    The present work entitled Fuel and Chemicals from Renewable Alcohols covers the idea of developing routes for producing sustainable fuel and chemicals from biomass resources. Some renewable alcohols are already readily available from biomass in significant amounts and thus the potential for these renewable alcohols, together with other primary renewable building blocks, has been highlighted in the introductory chapter. While the first chapter covers the general potential of a renewable chemic...

  3. Application of Alcohols to Dual - Fuel Feeding the Spark-Ignition and Self-Ignition Engines

    OpenAIRE

    Stelmasiak Zdzisław

    2014-01-01

    This paper concerns analysis of possible use of alcohols for the feeding of self - ignition and spark-ignition engines operating in a dual- fuel mode, i.e. simultaneously combusting alcohol and diesel oil or alcohol and petrol. Issues associated with the requirements for application of bio-fuels were presented with taking into account National Index Targets, bio-ethanol production methods and dynamics of its production worldwide and in Poland. Te considerations are illustrated by results of t...

  4. Energy balances in the production and end use of alcohols derived from biomass. A fuels-specific comparative analysis of alternate ethanol production cycles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1980-10-01

    Considerable public interest and debate have been focused on the so-called energy balance issue involved in the conversion of biomass materials into ethanol for fuel use. This report addresses questions of net gains in premium fuels that can be derived from the production and use of ethanol from biomass, and shows that for the US alcohol fuel program, energy balance need not be a concern. Three categories of fuel gain are discussed in the report: (1) Net petroleum gain; (2) Net premium fuel gain (petroleum and natural gas); and (3) Net energy gain (for all fuels). In this study the investment of energy (in the form of premium fuels) in alcohol production includes all investment from cultivating, harvesting, or gathering the feedstock and raw materials, through conversion of the feedstock to alcohol, to the delivery to the end-user. To determine the fuel gains in ethanol production, six cases, encompassing three feedstocks, five process fuels, and three process variations, have been examined. For each case, two end-uses (automotive fuel use and replacement of petrochemical feedstocks) were scrutinized. The end-uses were further divided into three variations in fuel economy and two different routes for production of ethanol from petrochemicals. Energy requirements calculated for the six process cycles accounted for fuels used directly and indirectly in all stages of alcohol production, from agriculture through distribution of product to the end-user. Energy credits were computed for byproducts according to the most appropriate current use.

  5. The Canadian nuclear fuel waste management program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Canadian Nuclear Fuel Waste Management Program involves research into the storage and transportation of used nuclear fuel, immobilization of fuel waste, and deep geological disposal of the immobilized waste. The program is now in the fourth year of a ten-year generic research and development phase. The objective of this phase of the program is to assess the safety and environmental aspects of the deep underground disposal of immobilized fuel waste in plutonic rock. The objectives of the research for each component of the program and the progress made to the end of 1983 are described in this report

  6. The Canadian fuel waste management program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report is the sixth in the series of annual reports on the research and development program for the safe management and disposal of Canada's nuclear fuel waste. The report summarizes progress in 1984 for the following activities: storage and transportation of used fuel, immobilization of nuclear fuel waste, geotechnical research, environmental research, and environmental and safety assessment. 186 refs

  7. US advanced LMFBR fuels development program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Following the oil crisis in 1974, a national Advanced LMFBR Fuels Development Program was initiated in the U. S. This program was developed on the basis of the experience obtained during the exploratory years. As a result, most aspects of advanced fuels development have been expanded in the U. S. in a unified national program. The experience obtained during the exploratory phase has been summarized previously. The purpose of this paper is to describe the new program and to summarize recent major findings

  8. Contribution to the microeconomics of fuel alcohol from agricultural crops

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koegl, H.

    1984-01-01

    A comprehensive evaluation of the economic viability of renewable resources presumes that at first micro- and macroeconomic aspects have been analysed. For this purpose the paper deals from a microeconomic point of view with one aspect that is the economics of supply of fuel alcohol. For those crops, which are currently of interest, the costs of production and conversion and the revenues from by-products are investigated. As the results suggest, the economics of supply are mostly affected by the following facts: at the crop production stage: output per unit of area, production management, utilization of crop by-products; at the plant stage: plant design, use of plant capacity, scale effects; at the stage of waste disposal: type of crop, type of processing, utilization. The partial economic analysis indicates that the minimum prices of ethanol are in the range from 1.06 to 1.38 DM per litre. This is higher than the prices of fossil fuel and ethylene. In the long run the competitiveness of renewable resources will depend on the change in price relations between agricultural raw materials and fossil energy, substitution possibilities and on the rate of technical progress. But already now another assessment of the competitiveness of renewable resources might be possible if the overall economic efficient use of renewable resources has been investigated.

  9. The Canadian nuclear fuel waste management program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report, the fifth of a series of annual reports, reviews the progress that has been made in the research and development program for the safe management and disposal of Canada's nuclear fuel waste. The report summarizes activities over the past year in the following areas: public interaction; used fuel storage and transportation; immobilization of used fuel and fuel recycle waste; geoscience research related to deep underground disposal; environmental research; and environmental and safety assessment

  10. General Motors automotive fuel cell program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fronk, M.H.

    1995-08-01

    The objectives of the second phase of the GM/DOE fuel cell program is to develop and test a 30 kW fuel cell powerplant. This powerplant will be based on a methanol fuel processor and a proton exchange membrane PM fuel cell stack. In addition, the 10 kW system developed during phase I will be used as a {open_quotes}mule{close_quotes} to test automotive components and other ancillaries, needed for transient operation.

  11. The Alcohol Intervention Training Program (AITP: A response to alcohol misuse in the farming community

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ricciardelli Lina A

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Farm men and women in Australia have higher levels of problematic alcohol use than their urban counterparts and experience elevated health risks associated with excessive alcohol consumption. The Sustainable Farm Families (SFF program has worked successfully with farm men and women to address health, well- being and safety and has identified that further research and training is required to understand and address alcohol misuse behaviours. This project will add an innovative component to the program by training health professionals working with farm men and women to discuss and respond to alcohol-related physical and mental health problems. Methods/Design A mixed method design with multi-level evaluation will be implemented following the development and delivery of a training program (The Alcohol Intervention Training Program {AITP} for Sustainable Farm Families health professionals. Pre-, post- and follow-up surveys will be used to assess both the impact of the training on the knowledge, confidence and skills of the health professionals to work with alcohol misuse and associated problems, and the impact of the training on the attitudes, behaviour and mental health of farm men and women who participate in the SFF project. Evaluations will take a range of forms including self-rated outcome measures and interviews. Discussion The success of this project will enhance the health and well-being of a critical population, the farm men and women of Australia, by producing an evidence-based strategy to assist them to adopt more positive alcohol-related behaviours that will lead to better physical and mental health.

  12. Ambiguities of fighting inflation: structure of alcohol fuel prices; Os equivocos do combate a inflacao

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nastari, Plinio Mario [Fundacao Getulio Vargas (FGV), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    1993-12-31

    The control of consumer prices of alcohol fuel and gasoline has been used by the Brazilian government as a tool for fighting inflation. The production of alcohol fuel from biomass and the use of its by-products is one of the few strategies that will permit economic development and environmental preservation at the same time. While the pricing policy continues to determine the energy policy, it will be almost impossible to promote the production and the use of alcohol fuel in the country 8 figs.

  13. High burnup fuel development program in Japan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A step wise burnup extension program has been progressing in Japan to reduce the LWR fuel cycle cost. At present, the maximum assembly burnup limit of BWR 8 Χ 8 type fuel (B. Step II fuel) is 50GWd/t and a limited numbers of 9 Χ 9 type fuel (B. Step III fuel) with 55GWd/t maximum assembly burnup has been licensed by regulatory agencies recently. Though present maximum assembly burnup limit for PWR fuel is 48GWd/t (P. Step I fuel), the licensing work has been progressing for irradiation testing on a limited number of fuel assemblies with extended burnup of up to 55GWd/t (p. Step II fuel) Design of high burnup fuel and fabrication test are carried out by vendors, and subsequent irradiation test of fuel rods is conducted jointly by utilities and vendors to prepare for licensing. It is usual to make an irradiation test for vectarion, using lead use assemblies by government to confirm fuel integrity and reliability and win the public confidence. Nuclear Power Engineering Corporation (NUPE C) is responsible for verification test. The fuel are subjected to post irradiation examination (PIE) and no unfavorable indications of fuel behavior have found both in NUPE C verification test and joint irradiation test by utilities and vendors. Burnup extension is an urgent task for LWR fuel in Japan in order to establish the domestic fuel cycle. It is conducted in joint efforts of industries, government and institutes. However, watching a situation of burnup extension in the world, we are not going ahead of other countries in the achievement of burnup extension. It is due to a conservative policy in the nuclear safety of the country. This is the reason why the burnup extension program in Japan is progressing 'slow and steady' As for the data obtained, no unfavorable indications of fuel behavior have found both in NUPE C verification test and joint irradiation test by utilities and vendors until now

  14. Effectiveness of alcohol prevention program for pre-adolescents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bobrowski, Krzysztof Jan

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Aim. The aim of this research was to assess the delayed effects of a two-year alcohol prevention program implemented in Polish primary schools. Method. The program comprised two curricula implemented the school and in family houses: Program Domowych Detektywów and Fantastyczne Możliwości. Both curricula were the Polish versions of two American school-based prevention programs which belonged to Project Northland. The initial study sample (N=802 comprised 10 to 11 years old pupils (fourth and fifth-grade from eight primary schools in Warsaw. Schools were randomly assigned to the intervention (n=421 and the reference group (n=381. A self-completion questionnaire was administered to students four times: at the baseline, seven, fifteen and twenty seven months after. Results. The program had an expected influence on the students’ attitudes, knowledge and resistance skills towards alcohol. The effects on the participants’ initiation of drunkenness and their first experience in alcohol use with their peers have also been reported. Most of the positive effects remained significant over time. Conclusions. The effectiveness of the program, as shown by the outcome evaluation, supports an argument for its wide implementation in Polish schools. Further progress in the fieldof alcohol and drug prevention in Poland depends on overcoming the existing barriers in this area of public health.

  15. CLIMATE CHANGE FUEL CELL PROGRAM

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Steven A. Gabrielle

    2004-12-03

    This report discusses the first year of operation of a fuel cell power plant located at the Sheraton Edison Hotel, Edison, New Jersey. PPL EnergyPlus, LLC installed the plant under a contract with the Starwood Hotels & Resorts Worldwide, Inc. A DFC{reg_sign}300 fuel cell, manufactured by FuelCell Energy, Inc. of Danbury, CT was selected for the project. The fuel cell successfully operated from June 2003 to May 2004. This report discusses the performance of the plant during this period.

  16. Alcohol fueled farm tractors compete favorably, with diesel in Brazil tests

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Finch, E.O.; Brandini, A.

    1984-08-01

    Heavy duty alcohol powered engines are suitable to tractors. In Brazil diesel and alcohol tractors of the same configuration, weight, and engine size running side by side, indicated superior field performance of the alcohol tractor and a time saving of about 5-10% for the same work schedule. Lifetime and maintenance factors, chemical energy to mechanical work conversion efficiencies, thermal efficiency, fuel consumption, starting procedure and other considerations are discussed.

  17. Catalytic synthesis of alcoholic fuels for transportation from syngas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Qiongxiao Wu

    2012-12-15

    carbon and reaches a maximum over bulk Mo2C, while the selectivity to methanol follows the opposite trend. The effect of Mo2C loading on the alcohol selectivity at a fixed K/Mo molar ratio of 0.14 could be related to the amount of K2CO3 actually on the active Mo2C phase and the size, structure, and composition of the supported carbide clusters. Unpromoted, active carbon supported Mo2C exhibits a high activity in CO hydrogenation with hydrocarbons as the dominant products. The K2CO3 promoter plays an essential role in directing the selectivity to alcohols rather than to hydrocarbons. The optimum selectivity towards higher alcohols and alcohols in general is obtained at a K/Mo molar ratio of 0.21 over the active carbon supported Mo2C (20 wt %). Combined in situ XAS and XRD have been used to follow directly the carburization process and formation of bulk and supported molybdenum carbides (20 wt % and 40 wt % Mo2C on active carbon). The bulk Mo2C prepared by temperature programmed carburization in flow of 20 mol % CH4 in H2 most likely adopts an orthorhombic structure (a-Mo2C). A two-step mechanism is discovered during the in situ carburization process, composed of the initial reduction of Mo(VI) oxide to Mo(IV) oxide followed by a succeeding conversion to carbide. The necessary carburization temperature is to a significant extent determined by the crystal sizes. A decrease on particle size can initiate the onset of carburization at a lower temperature. (LN)

  18. Program of monitoring PWR fuel in Spain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the year 2000 the PWR utilities: Centrales Nucleares Almaraz-Trillo (CNAT) and Asociacion Nuclear Asco-Vandellos (ANAV), and ENUSA Industrias Avanzadas developed and executed a coordinated strategy named PIC (standing for Coordinated Research Program), for achieving the highest level of fuel reliability. The paper will present the scope and results of this program along the years and will summarize the way the changes are managed to ensure fuel integrity. The excellent performance of the ENUSA manufactured fuel in the PWR Spanish NPPs is the best indicator that the expectations on this program are being met. (Author)

  19. Ex situ and in situ characterization of Direct Alcohol Fuel Cell anode materials

    OpenAIRE

    Santasalo-Aarnio, Annukka

    2012-01-01

    With direct alcohol fuel cells (DAFC) the chemical energy of the reactants can be directly converted to electrical energy that can be used for instance in portable applications, independent of the electrical network. Liquid fuels such as organic alcohols are interesting for customer applications because they are more facile to use and relatively safe when compared with gaseous hydrogen. However, the obstacles to commercialization are the expensive cell components, catalysts and electrolyte me...

  20. Process Model of Grief Therapy in an Alcohol Treatment Program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Sherri; Privette, Gayle

    1989-01-01

    Discusses a psychoeducational, experiential group for members of an alcohol treatment program which addressed loss, personal reaction to loss, and grief as a healing process. Explores the relationship between grieving and addiction, and presents the protocol for the group experience. (Author)

  1. Ansaldo programs on fuel cell vehicles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marcenaro, B.G.; Federici, F. [Ansaldo Ricerche Srl, Genova (Italy)

    1996-12-31

    The growth in traffic and the importance of maintaining a stable ecology at the global scale, particularly with regard to atmospheric pollution, raises the necessity to realize a new generation of vehicles which are more efficient, more economical and compatible with the environment. At European level, the Car of Tomorrow task force has identified fuel cells as a promising alternative propulsion system. Ansaldo Ricerche has been involved in the development of fuel cell vehicles since the early nineties. Current ongoing programs relates to: (1) Fuel cell bus demonstrator (EQHEPP BUS) Test in 1996 (2) Fuel cell boat demonstrator (EQHHPP BOAT) Test in 1997 (3) Fuel cell passenger car prototype (FEVER) Test in 1997 (4) 2nd generation Fuel cell bus (FCBUS) 1996-1999 (5) 2nd generation Fuel cell passenger car (HYDRO-GEN) 1996-1999.

  2. Climate Change Fuel Cell Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Paul Belard

    2006-09-21

    Verizon is presently operating the largest Distributed Generation Fuel Cell project in the USA. Situated in Long Island, NY, the power plant is composed of seven (7) fuel cells operating in parallel with the Utility grid from the Long Island Power Authority (LIPA). Each fuel cell has an output of 200 kW, for a total of 1.4 mW generated from the on-site plant. The remaining power to meet the facility demand is purchased from LIPA. The fuel cell plant is utilized as a co-generation system. A by-product of the fuel cell electric generation process is high temperature water. The heat content of this water is recovered from the fuel cells and used to drive two absorption chillers in the summer and a steam generator in the winter. Cost savings from the operations of the fuel cells are forecasted to be in excess of $250,000 per year. Annual NOx emissions reductions are equivalent to removing 1020 motor vehicles from roadways. Further, approximately 5.45 million metric tons (5 millions tons) of CO2 per year will not be generated as a result of this clean power generation. The project was partially financed with grants from the New York State Energy R&D Authority (NYSERDA) and from Federal Government Departments of Defense and Energy.

  3. Mixed fuel based on hydrocarbon-alcohol compositions

    OpenAIRE

    В.В. Єфіменко; Ю.М. Ващенко

    2010-01-01

     Due to oil production slowdown that is causing increasing cost of petroleum products there is a need to find alternative fuels, their production methods and usage. There are three groups of conditional fuel differentiated by origin and properties, which determine their application: petroleum fuels with additive of non oil origin components, with operation properties similar to conventional petroleum fuel; synthetic liquid fuel similar to conventional petroleum fuels; non oil fuels – all they...

  4. Iraq spent fuel removal program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The paper describes the preparation and operations associated with the removal of the 208 spent fuel assemblies from Iraq, with emphasis on the technical challenges that were overcome during this removal process. (author)

  5. Can Handling E85 Motor Fuel Cause Positive Breath Alcohol Test Results?

    OpenAIRE

    Ran, Ran; Mullins, Michael E.

    2013-01-01

    Hand-held breath alcohol analyzers are widely used by police in traffic stops of drivers suspected of driving while intoxicated (DWI). E85 is a motor fuel consisting of 85% ethanol and 15% gasoline or other hydrocarbons, and is available at nearly 2,600 stations in the USA. We sought to determine whether handling E85 fuel could produce measurable breath alcohol results using a hand-held analyzer and to see if this would be a plausible explanation for a positive breath alcohol test. Five healt...

  6. KUR fuels: Spent fuel return and reduced enrichment program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Research Reactor Institute of Kyoto University (KURRI) has more than 250 MTR-type HEU spent fuel elements. They have been stored in water pools after irradiation in the Kyoto University Research Reactor (KUR) core. The longest pool residence time is 25 years. In accordance with the Foreign Research Reactor Spent Nuclear Fuel Receipt Program of the United States, sixty KUR spent fuel elements were shipped from KURRI to the Savannah River Site of the US DOE in August 1999. This shipment was done successfully through a public port in Osaka Prefecture, Japan. This is the first shipment in the past twenty-six years after the last shipment through the Yokohama Port. Concerning the use of a public port, we had to solve many issues for public acceptance. In this paper, we describe how we have stored the spent fuels for a long time with high integrity and how we have obtained public acceptance for the transport. So far we have HEU fuels to be used until March 2004, which is already agreed by US DOE. We are looking for candidate LEU fuel materials after HEU, and also spent fuel handling of the new LEU fuel. (author)

  7. Potential health and safety impacts from distribution and storage of alcohol fuels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rosenberg, S.E.; Gasper, J.R.

    1980-06-01

    This assessment includes three major sections. Section 1 is a synopsis of literature on the health and safety aspects of neat alcohols, alcohol-gasoline blends, and typical gasoline. Section 2 identifies the toxic properties of each fuel type and describes existing standards and regulations and suggests provisions for establishing others. Section 3 analyzes the major safety and health risks that would result from the increased use of each type of alcohol fuel. Potential accidents are described and their probable impacts on occupational and public populations are determined. An attempt was made to distill the important health and safety issues and to define gaps in our knowledge regarding alcohol fuels to highlight the further research needed to circumvent potential helth and safety problems.

  8. Alcohol fuels. 1978-June, 1980 (citations from the NTIS Data Base). Report for 1978-Jun 80

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cavagnaro, D.M.

    1980-07-01

    The bibliography covers Federally-funded research on alcohol based fuels that may be used in the future as a fuel source. The citations cover synthesis, chemical analysis, performance testing, processing, pollution, economics, environmental effects, and feasibility. (This updated bibliography contains 245 citations, 110 of which are new entries to the previous edition.)

  9. Consolidated Fuel Reprocessing Program: National Program Plan, FY 1983

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This FY 1983 National Program Plan for the Consolidated Fuel Reprocessing Program (CFRP) provides specific guidance from the Department of Energy (DOE) for FY 1983 CFRP activities and a baseline for future year activities. This initial issue of the Plan, which will be updated annually, summarizes program objectives, summary plans and schedules, budget allocations, contractor involvement, and interfaces with other research programs. The National Program Plan is a controlling document for the Technical Program Plan, which is prepared annually by the CFRP at ORNL and is one of a hierarchical group of planning documents. The CFRP is a part of the DOE's program of research and development (R and D) on nuclear fission systems and is directed by the LMFBR Fuel Cycle Projects Division, Office of Spent Fuel Management and Reprocessing Systems at DOE-Headquarters through the Oak Ridge Operations Office (ORO). The strategy of the program is to maintain the capability to commit to a breeder option through a strong R and D program on breeder reprocessing and alternate fuels and fuel cycles to achieve operating and economic advantages

  10. Consolidated Fuel Reprocessing Program. National Program Plan FY 1984

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This FY 1984 National Program Plan for the Consolidated Fuel Reprocessing Program (CFRP) provides specific guidance from the Department of Energy (DOE) for FY 1984 CFRP activities and a baseline for activities in future years. This is the second issue of the Plan, which is updated anually and summarizes program objectives, summary plans and schedules, budget allocations, contractor involvement, and interfaces with other research programs. The National Program Plan is a controlling document for the Technical Program Plan, which is prepared annually by the CFRP at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) and is one of the hierarchical group of planning documents. The CFRP is a part of the DOE's program of research and development (R and D) on nuclear fission systems and is directed by the LMFBR Fuel Cycle Projects Division, Office of Spent Fuel Management and Reprocessing Systems at DOE-Headquarters through the Oak Ridge Operations Office (ORO). The strategy of the program is to maintain the capability to commit to a breeder option through a strong R and D program on breeder reprocessing and alternate fuels and fuel cycles in order to achieve operating and economic advantages

  11. Evaluation of an Elementary School-Based Alcohol Misuse Prevention Program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shope, Jean T.; And Others

    The Alcohol Misuse Prevention Study (AMPS) presented an alcohol education program to fifth and sixth grade students based on social learning theory. The AMPS program introduced students to the concept of social pressure (especially peer pressure) to misuse alcohol and to strategies to effectively counter such pressure. The program was evaluated in…

  12. Spent Nuclear Fuel Storage Program user's guide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The purpose of this manual is to present procedures to execute the Spent Nuclear Fuel Storage Model (SNFSM) program. This manual includes an overview of the model, operating environment, input and output specifications and user procedures. An example of the execution of the program is included to assist potential users

  13. Chrysler Pentastar direct hydrogen fuel cell program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kimble, M.; Deloney, D.

    1995-08-01

    The Chrysler Pentastar Electronics, Inc. Direct Hydrogen Fueled PEM Fuel Cell Hybrid Vehicle Program (DPHV) was initiated 1 July, 1994 with the following mission, {open_quotes}Design, fabricate, and test a Direct Hydrogen Fueled Proton Exchange Membrane (PEM) Fuel Cell System including onboard hydrogen storage, an efficient lightweight fuel cell, a gas management system, peak power augmentation and a complete system controls that can be economically mass produced and comply with all safety environmental and consumer requirements for vehicle applications for the 21st century.{close_quotes} The Conceptual Design for the entire system based upon the selection of an applicable vehicle and performance requirements that are consistent with the PNGV goals will be discussed. A Hydrogen Storage system that has been selected, packaged, and partially tested in accordance with perceived Hydrogen Safety and Infrastructure requirements will be discussed in addition to our Fuel Cell approach along with design of the {open_quotes}real{close_quotes} module. The Gas Management System and the Load Leveling System have been designed and the software programs have been developed and will be discussed along with a complete fuel cell test station that has the capability to test up to a 60 kW fuel cell system.

  14. Feasibility study of fuel grade ethanol plant for Alcohol Fuels of Mississippi, Inc. , Vicksburg, Mississippi

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1981-01-01

    The results are presented of a feasibility study performed to determine the technical and economic viability of constructing an alcohol plant utilizing the N.Y.U. continuous acid hydrolysis process to convert wood wastes to fuel grade alcohol. The following is a summary of the results: (1) The proposed site in the Vicksburg Industrial Foundation Corporation Industrial Park is adequate from all standpoints, for all plant capacities envisioned. (2) Local hardwood sawmills can provide adequate feedstock for the facility. The price per dry ton varies between $5 and $15. (3) Sale of fuel ethanol would be made primarily through local distributors and an adequate market exists for the plant output. (4) With minor modifications to the preparation facilities, other waste cellulose materials can also be utilized. (5) There are no anticipated major environmental, health, safety or socioeconomic risks related to the construction and operation of the proposed facility. (6) The discounted cash flow and rate of return analysis indicated that the smallest capacity unit which should be built is the 16 million gallon per year plant, utilizing cogeneration. This facility has a 3.24 year payback. (7) The 25 million gallon per year plant utilizing cogeneration is an extremely attractive venture, with a zero interest break-even point of 1.87 years, and with a discounted rate of return of 73.6%. (8) While the smaller plant capacities are unattractive from a budgetary viewpoint, a prudent policy would dictate that a one million gallon per year plant be built first, as a demonstration facility. This volume contains process flowsheets and maps of the proposed site.

  15. Consolidated Fuel Reprocessing Program. National Program Plan, FY 1985

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This FY 1985 National Program Plan for the Consolidated Fuel Reprocessing Program (CFRP) provides specific guidance from the Department of Energy (DOE) for FY 1985 CFRP activities and a baseline for activities in future years. This is the third issue of the Plan, which is updated annually and summarizes program objectives, plans, and schedules, budget allocations, contractor involvements, and interfaces with other research programs. The National Program Plan is a controlling document for the Technical Program Plan, which is prepared annually by the CFRP at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) and is one of a hierarchical group of planning documents. The CFRP is a part of the DOE's program of research and development (R and D) on nuclear fission systems and is directed by the LMFBR Fuel Cycle Projects Division, Office of Spent Fuel Management and Reprocessing Systems at DOE-Headquarters through the Oak Ridge Operations Office (ORO). The strategy of the program is to maintain the capability to commit to a breeder option through a strong fuel cycle R and D program and international technical exchanges

  16. Alcohol

    Science.gov (United States)

    If you are like many Americans, you drink alcohol at least occasionally. For many people, moderate drinking ... risky. Heavy drinking can lead to alcoholism and alcohol abuse, as well as injuries, liver disease, heart ...

  17. Effectiveness of the home-based alcohol prevention program "In control: No alcohol!": study protocol of a randomized controlled trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Verdurmen Jacqueline EE

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In the Netherlands, children start to drink at an early age; of the Dutch 12-year olds, 40% reports lifetime alcohol use, while 9.7% reports last-month drinking. Starting to drink at an early age puts youth at risk of developing several alcohol-related problems later in life. Recently, a home-based prevention program called "In control: No alcohol!" was developed to delay the age of alcohol onset in children. The main aim of this project is to conduct a Randomized Controlled Trial (RCT to evaluate the effectiveness of the program. Methods/Design The prevention program will be tested with an RCT among mothers and their 6 grade primary school children (11-12 years old, randomly assigned to the prevention or control condition. The program consists of five printed magazines and an activity book designed to improve parental alcohol-specific socialization. Parent-child dyads in the control group receive a factsheet information brochure, which is the standard alcohol brochure of the Trimbos Institute (the Netherlands Institute for Mental Health and Addiction. Outcome measures are initiation of alcohol use (have been drinking at least one glass of alcohol, alcohol-specific parenting, susceptibility to drinking alcohol, alcohol expectancies, self-efficacy, and frequency and intensity of child alcohol use. Questionnaires will be administered online on secured Internet webpages, with personal login codes for both mothers and children. Mothers and children in both the experimental and control condition will be surveyed at baseline and after 6, 12, and 18 months (follow-ups. Discussion The present study protocol presents the design of an RCT evaluating the effectiveness of the home-based "In control: No alcohol!" program for 6 grade primary school children (11-12 years old. It is hypothesized that children in the prevention condition will be less likely to have their first glass of alcohol, compared to the control condition. When the

  18. The low-enrichment fuel development program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the 1950s and 1960s, low-power research reactors were built around the world utilized MTR-type fuel elements containing 20% enriched uranium. However, the demand for higher specific power created a need for greater uranium-235 concentrations. Early difficulties in increasing uranium content led to the substitution of highly enriched uranium in place of the 20% enriched fuel previously utilized. The highly enriched material also yielded other benefits including longer core residence time, higher specific reactivity, and somewhat lower cost. Highly enriched material then became readily available and was used for high-power reactors as well as in low-power reactors where 20% enriched material would have sufficed. The trend toward higher and higher specific power also led to the development of the dispersion-type fuels which utilized highly enriched uranium at a concentration of about 40 wt%. In the 1970's, however, concerns were raised about the proliferation resistance of fuels and fuel cycles. As a consequence, the U.S. Department of State has recently prohibited the foreign shipment of highly enriched material, except where prior contractual obligation or special merit exists. This will impact on the availability and utilization of highly enriched uranium for research and test reactor fuel. It has also stimulated development programs on fuels with higher uranium content which would allow the use of uranium of lower enrichment. The purpose of this report is to briefly describe the overall fuel development program which is coordinated by Argonne National Laboratory for the Department of Energy, and to indicate the current and potential uranium loadings. Other reports will address the individual fuel-development activities in greater detail

  19. The low-enrichment fuel development program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the 1950s and 1960s, low-power research reactors were built around the world utilized MTR-type fuel elements containing 20% enriched uranium. However, the demand for higher specific power created a need for greater uranium-235 concentrations. Early difficulties in increasing uranium content led to the substitution of highly enriched uranium in place of the 20% enriched fuel previously utilized. The highly enriched material also yielded other benefits including longer core residence time, higher specific reactivity, and somewhat lower cost. Highly enriched material then became readily available and was used for high-power reactors as well as in low-power reactors where 20% enriched material would have sufficed. The trend toward higher and higher specific power also led to the development of the dispersion-type fuels which utilized highly enriched uranium at a concentration of about 40 wt%. In the 1970's, however, concerns were raised about the proliferation resistance of fuels and fuel cycles. As a consequence, the U.S. Department of State has recently prohibited the foreign shipment of highly enriched material, except where prior contractual obligation or special merit exists. This will impact on the availability and utilization of highly enriched uranium for research and test reactor fuel. It has also stimulated development programs on fuels with higher uranium content which would allow the use of uranium of lower enrichment. The purpose of this report is to briefly describe the overall fuel-development program which is coordinated by Argonne National Laboratory for the Department of Energy, and to indicate the current and potential uranium loadings. Other reports will address the individual fuel-development activities in greater detail

  20. DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program Plan (September 2011)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    none,

    2011-09-01

    The Department of Energy Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program Plan outlines the strategy, activities, and plans of the DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program, which includes hydrogen and fuel cell activities within the EERE Fuel Cell Technologies Program and the DOE offices of Nuclear Energy, Fossil Energy, and Science.

  1. 14 CFR 121.1113 - Fuel tank system maintenance program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Fuel tank system maintenance program. 121... Improvements § 121.1113 Fuel tank system maintenance program. (a) Except as provided in paragraph (g) of this... systems. (d) The proposed fuel tank system maintenance program revisions must be based on fuel tank...

  2. 14 CFR 129.113 - Fuel tank system maintenance program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Fuel tank system maintenance program. 129... Continued Airworthiness and Safety Improvements § 129.113 Fuel tank system maintenance program. (a) Except... limitations for fuel tank systems. (d) The proposed fuel tank system maintenance program revisions must...

  3. Effectiveness of the home-based alcohol prevention program "In control: No alcohol!": study protocol of a randomized controlled trial

    OpenAIRE

    Verdurmen Jacqueline EE; Schulten Ingrid; Lichtwarck-Aschoff Anna; van der Vorst Haske; Mares Suzanne HW; Otten Roy; Engels Rutger CME

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Background In the Netherlands, children start to drink at an early age; of the Dutch 12-year olds, 40% reports lifetime alcohol use, while 9.7% reports last-month drinking. Starting to drink at an early age puts youth at risk of developing several alcohol-related problems later in life. Recently, a home-based prevention program called "In control: No alcohol!" was developed to delay the age of alcohol onset in children. The main aim of this project is to conduct a Randomized Controll...

  4. Oil-fueled equipment research: program plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hutchinson, R.A.

    1986-09-01

    The purpose of this document is to define the basis for a US Department of Energy (DOE) program for oil-fueled equipment research. The needs for an benefits of the technical research are explained, and a research plan is presented. This program was developed by Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) with assistance from Steven Winters Associates and input from Brookhaven National Laboratory, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, and many representatives of the heating-oil and oil-fueled equipment industries. The private sector input was extensive, obtained through a series of workshops and formal and informal surveys. The planning effort was directed by the Building Equipment Division of the DOE Office of Buildings and Community Systems. The objective of the oil-fueled equipment research program is to develop the technological basis for new equipment and operating strategies based on improved understanding of oil-burning fundamentals. The program will provide the oil-fueled equipment industry with the basis for developing a new, high-tech generation of equipment, and the oil distributors and equipment installers and consumers with improved knowledge of how best to install and operate such equipment.

  5. Fuel Flexible Turbine System (FFTS) Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2012-12-31

    In this fuel flexible turbine system (FFTS) program, the Parker gasification system was further optimized, fuel composition of biomass gasification process was characterized and the feasibility of running Capstone MicroTurbine(TM) systems with gasification syngas fuels was evaluated. With high hydrogen content, the gaseous fuel from a gasification process of various feed stocks such as switchgrass and corn stover has high reactivity and high flashback propensity when running in the current lean premixed injectors. The research concluded that the existing C65 microturbine combustion system, which is designed for natural gas, is not able to burn the high hydrogen content syngas due to insufficient resistance to flashback (undesired flame propagation to upstream within the fuel injector). A comprehensive literature review was conducted on high-hydrogen fuel combustion and its main issues. For Capstone?s lean premixed injector, the main mechanisms of flashback were identified to be boundary layer flashback and bulk flow flashback. Since the existing microturbine combustion system is not able to operate on high-hydrogen syngas fuels, new hardware needed to be developed. The new hardware developed and tested included (1) a series of injectors with a reduced propensity for boundary layer flashback and (2) two new combustion liner designs (Combustion Liner Design A and B) that lead to desired primary zone air flow split to meet the overall bulk velocity requirement to mitigate the risk of core flashback inside the injectors. The new injector designs were evaluated in both test apparatus and C65/C200 engines. While some of the new injector designs did not provide satisfactory performance in burning target syngas fuels, particularly in improving resistance to flashback. The combustion system configuration of FFTS-4 injector and Combustion Liner Design A was found promising to enable the C65 microturbine system to run on high hydrogen biomass syngas. The FFTS-4 injector was

  6. Statement on the Consolidated Fuel Reprocessing Program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oak Ridge National Laboratory has chosen the following objectives for future reprocessing plant design: reduced radiation exposure to workers; minimal environmental impact; improved plant operation and maintenance; improved accountability; no plutonium diversion; and reduced overall capital and operating cost. These objectives lead to a plant with totally remote operation. The Breeder Reactor Engineering Test (BRET) has been designed to perform a key role in demonstrating advanced reprocessing technology. It has been scheduled to be available to reprocess spent fuel from the Fast Flux Test Facility. The principal features of the Consolidated Fuel Reprocessing Program and of the BRET facility are appropriate for all reactor types

  7. NP-MHTGR Fuel Development Program Results

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maki, John Thomas; Petti, David Andrew; Hobbins, Richard Redfield; McCardell, Richard K.; Shaber, Eric Lee; Southworth, Finis Hio

    2002-10-01

    In August 1988, the Secretary of Energy announced a strategy to acquire New Production Reactor capacity for producing tritium. The strategy involved construction of a New Production Modular High Temperature Gas-Cooled Reactor (NP-MHTGR) where the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL) was selected as the Management and Operations contractor for the project. Immediately after the announcement in August 1988, tritium target particle development began with the INEEL selected as the lead laboratory. Fuel particle development was initially not considered to be on a critical path for the project, therefore, the fuel development program was to run concurrently with the design effort of the NP-MHTGR.

  8. HTGR Spent Fuel Treatment Program. HTGR Spent Fuel Treatment Development Program Plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The spent fuel treatment (SFT) program plan addresses spent fuel volume reduction, packaging, storage, transportation, fuel recovery, and disposal to meet the needs of the HTGR Lead Plant and follow-on plants. In the near term, fuel refabrication will be addressed by following developments in fresh fuel fabrication and will be developed in the long term as decisions on the alternatives dictate. The formulation of this revised program plan considered the implications of the Nuclear Waste Policy Act of 1982 (NWPA) which, for the first time, established a definitive national policy for management and disposal of nuclear wastes. Although the primary intent of the program is to address technical issues, the divergence between commercial and government interests, which arises as a result of certain provisions of the NWPA, must be addressed in the economic assessment of technically feasible alternative paths in the management of spent HTGR fuel and waste. This new SFT program plan also incorporates a significant cooperative research and development program between the United States and the Federal Republic of Germany. The major objective of this international program is to reduce costs by avoiding duplicate efforts

  9. The environmental performance of three alcohol fuel plants producers of small, medium and big scale

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The article discusses the following issues of alcohol fuel plants producers: sizing; performance; natural resources; environmental aspects; and electric power generation. The environmental performance concept is introduced and a performance evaluation methodology are presented and applied. The results are also presented and criticized

  10. 78 FR 9938 - Ethyl Alcohol for Fuel Use: Determination of the Base Quantity of Imports

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-12

    ... recent previous determination for the 2012 amount in the Federal Register on December 30, 2011 (76 FR... COMMISSION Ethyl Alcohol for Fuel Use: Determination of the Base Quantity of Imports AGENCY: United States.... Section 423(c) of the Tax Reform Act of 1986 (``the Act''), as amended (19 U.S.C. 2703 note), required...

  11. Coordinated irradiation plan for the Fuel Refabrication and Development Program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Department of Energy's Fuel Refabrication and Development (FRAD) Program is developing a number of proliferation-resistant fuel systems and forms for alternative use in nuclear reactors. A major portion of the program is the development of irradiation behavioral information for the fuel system/forms with the ultimate objective of qualifying the design for licensing and commercial utilization. The nuclear fuel systems under development include denatured thoria--urania fuels and spiked urania--plutonia or thoria--plutonia fuels. The fuel forms being considered include pellet fuel produced from mechanically mixed or coprecipitated feed materials, pellet fuel fabricated from partially calcined gel-derived or freeze-dried spheres (hybrid fuel) and packed-particle fuel produced from sintered gel-derived spheres (sphere-pac). This document describes the coordinated development program that will be used to test and demonstrate the irradiation performance of alternative fuels

  12. Intermediate Alcohol-Gasoline Blends, Fuels for Enabling Increased Engine Efficiency and Powertrain Possibilities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Splitter, Derek A [ORNL; Szybist, James P [ORNL

    2014-01-01

    The present study experimentally investigates spark-ignited combustion with 87 AKI E0 gasoline in its neat form and in mid-level alcohol-gasoline blends with 24% vol./vol. iso-butanol-gasoline (IB24) and 30% vol./vol. ethanol-gasoline (E30). A single-cylinder research engine is used with a low and high compression ratio of 9.2:1 and 11.85:1 respectively. The engine is equipped with hydraulically actuated valves, laboratory intake air, and is capable of external exhaust gas recirculation (EGR). All fuels are operated to full-load conditions with =1, using both 0% and 15% external cooled EGR. The results demonstrate that higher octane number bio-fuels better utilize higher compression ratios with high stoichiometric torque capability. Specifically, the unique properties of ethanol enabled a doubling of the stoichiometric torque capability with the 11.85:1 compression ratio using E30 as compared to 87 AKI, up to 20 bar IMEPg at =1 (with 15% EGR, 18.5 bar with 0% EGR). EGR was shown to provide thermodynamic advantages with all fuels. The results demonstrate that E30 may further the downsizing and downspeeding of engines by achieving increased low speed torque, even with high compression ratios. The results suggest that at mid-level alcohol-gasoline blends, engine and vehicle optimization can offset the reduced fuel energy content of alcohol-gasoline blends, and likely reduce vehicle fuel consumption and tailpipe CO2 emissions.

  13. The economic production of alcohol fuels from coal-derived synthesis gas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kugler, E.L.; Dadyburjor, D.B.; Yang, R.Y.K. [West Virginia Univ., Morgantown, WV (United States)] [and others

    1995-12-31

    The objectives of this project are to discover, (1) study and evaluate novel heterogeneous catalytic systems for the production of oxygenated fuel enhancers from synthesis gas. Specifically, alternative methods of preparing catalysts are to be investigated, and novel catalysts, including sulfur-tolerant ones, are to be pursued. (Task 1); (2) explore, analytically and on the bench scale, novel reactor and process concepts for use in converting syngas to liquid fuel products. (Task 1); (3) simulate by computer the most energy efficient and economically efficient process for converting coal to energy, with primary focus on converting syngas to fuel alcohols. (Task 2); (4) develop on the bench scale the best holistic combination of chemistry, catalyst, reactor and total process configuration integrated with the overall coal conversion process to achieve economic optimization for the conversion of syngas to liquid products within the framework of achieving the maximum cost effective transformation of coal to energy equivalents. (Tasks 1 and 2); and (5) evaluate the combustion, emission and performance characteristics of fuel alcohols and blends of alcohols with petroleum-based fuels. (Task 2)

  14. Alcohol

    OpenAIRE

    World Bank

    2003-01-01

    Alcohol abuse is one of the leading causes of death and disability worldwide. Alcohol abuse is responsible for 4 percent of global deaths and disability, nearly as much as tobacco and five times the burden of illicit drugs (WHO). In developing countries with low mortality, alcohol is the leading risk factor for males, causing 9.8 percent of years lost to death and disability. Alcohol abuse...

  15. The American 'severe fuel damage program'

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The TMI-2 accident has initiated a new phase of safety research. It is necessary to consider severe accidents with degraded or molten core. For NRC there was a need for an improved understanding of this reactor behaviour and the 'Severe Fuel Dage Program' was initiated. Planned are in-pile experiments in PBF, NRU and ESSOR and in addition separate effects tests and results from TMI-2. The analytical component of the program is the development of different versions of the code SCDAP for the detailed analysis during severe accident transients. (Author)

  16. Thermionic fuel element Verification Program - Overview

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bohl, Richard J.; Dahlberg, Richard C.; Dutt, Dale S.; Wood, John T.

    The TFE Verification Program is in the sixth year of a program to demonstrate the performance and lifetime of thermionic fuel elements for high power space applications. Data from accelerated tests in FETF and EBR-II show component lifetimes longer than 7 yr. Alumina insulators have shown good performance at high fast fluence. Graphite-cesium reservoirs based on isotropic graphite also meet requirements. Three TFEs are currently operating in the TRIGA reactor, the oldest having accumulated 15,000 hr of irradiation as of 1 October 1990.

  17. Canadian fuel development program in 1997/98

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper describes the CANDU fuel development activities in Canada during 1997 through 1998. The activities include those of the Fuel Technology Program sponsored by the CANDU Owners Group. The goal of the Fuel Technology Program is to maintain and improve the reliability, economics and safety of CANDU fuel in operating reactors. These activities, therefore, concentrate on the present designs of 28-element and 37-element fuel bundles. The Canadian fuel development activities also include those of the Advanced Fuel and Fuel Cycle Technology Program at AECL. These activities concentrate on the development of advanced fuel designs and advanced fuel cycles, which among other advantages, can reduce the capital and fuelling costs, maintain operating margins in aging reactors, improve natural-uranium utilization, and reduce the amount of spent fuel. (author)

  18. Irradiated fuel storage program in Ontario Hydro

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The primary objective of Ontario Hydro's irradiated fuel storage program is to manage the used fuel discharged from their existing and future nuclear generating stations in a safe and economical manner until it is ready for reprocessing or disposal. While current irradiated fuel handling and storage systems are adequate, some modifications will be required to integrate them with eventual transportation and disposal systems. A secondary objective of the storage program, therefore, is to review and modify existing facilities and to develop future facilities using a total systems approach. Alternate storage concepts are being evaluated as part of a study which looks into the feasibility of storing irradiated fuel for periods greater than 50 years. The main requirements considered for extended storage of irradiated fuel are long-term retrievability, long-lasting structures, and long-term maintainability and control. The basic criteria governing the study are: safety, responsibility, current technology, environmental impact, economics, and public and social acceptability. The extended storage concepts considered are: (1) engineered air- or water-cooled vaults aboveground, near surface, or deep underground; (2) borehole emplacement aboveground, near surface, or deep underground; and (3) concrete canisters aboveground. Technical descriptions of the concepts from which the assessments will be made are now being prepared. So-called hybrid storage systems are also being investigated. The hybrid strategies consider changing from a wet storage system to a dry storage system, relocation from at surface to underground, and/or changing from an active cooling system to a passive cooling system after an initial storage period of 100 to 200 years. The final report, with evaluations of extended storage strategies, is scheduled for completion in early 1981

  19. NETGOR - a neutronic fuel management program for PWRs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    NETGOR program is a neutronic fuel management code for PWRs. It uses input data from a cell burnup program and gives output data for multi batch, multicycle fuel cycle cost calculations. Nodal theory is used for the solution of two dimensional neutron balance equations. With given fuel design characteristics, cell burnup data, batch sizes and initial enrichments of previously irradiated fuel, NETGOR calculates cycle length or fresh fuel enrichments. (author)

  20. Catalytic synthesis of alcoholic fuels for transportation from syngas

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wu, Qiongxiao

    This work has investigated the catalytic conversion of syngas into methanol and higher alcohols. Based on input from computational catalyst screening, an experimental investigation of promising catalyst candidates for methanol synthesis from syngas has been carried out. Cu-Ni alloys of different...... composition have been identified as potential candidates for methanol synthesis. These Cu-Ni alloy catalysts have been synthesized and tested in a fixed-bed continuous-flow reactor for CO hydrogenation. The metal area based activity for a Cu-Ni/SiO2 catalyst is at the same level as a Cu/ZnO/Al2O3 model...... catalyst. The high activity and selectivity of silica supported Cu-Ni alloy catalysts agrees with the fact that the DFT calculations identified Cu-Ni alloys as highly active and selective catalysts for the hydrogenation of CO to form methanol. This work has also provided a systematic study of Cu...

  1. Development and engineering plan for graphite spent fuels conditioning program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Irradiated (or spent) graphite fuel stored at the Idaho Chemical Processing Plant (ICPP) includes Fort St. Vrain (FSV) reactor and Peach Bottom reactor spent fuels. Conditioning and disposal of spent graphite fuels presently includes three broad alternatives: (1) direct disposal with minimum fuel packaging or conditioning, (2) mechanical disassembly of spent fuel into high-level waste and low-level waste portions to minimize geologic repository requirements, and (3) waste-volume reduction via burning of bulk graphite and other spent fuel chemical processing of the spent fuel. A multi-year program for the engineering development and demonstration of conditioning processes is described. Program costs, schedules, and facility requirements are estimated

  2. Tubular solid oxide fuel cell development program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-08-01

    This paper presents an overview of the Westinghouse Solid Oxide Fuel Cell (SOFC) development activities and current program status. The Westinghouse goal is to develop a cost effective cell that can operate for 50,000 to 100,000 hours. Progress toward this goal will be discussed and test results presented for multiple single cell tests which have now successfully exceeded 56,000 hours of continuous power operation at temperature. Results of development efforts to reduce cost and increase power output of tubular SOFCs are described.

  3. Synthesis and characterization of neodymium oxide modified nafion membrane for direct alcohol fuel cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nafion composite membranes were prepared by incorporating neodymium oxide (Nd2O3), a hygroscopic rare earth oxide and a dopant for H+ ion conduction, into the nafion structure. Five different loadings of Nd2O3 were used to fabricate Nd2O3/nafion composite membranes and characterized extensively for possible use in direct alcohol fuel cells. The proton conductivity, ion exchange capacity, water uptake, tensile strength, and oxidation stability of the composite membrane were higher than pure cast nafion membrane. Nd2O3/nafion composite membrane exhibited reduced methanol and ethanol crossover as compared to pure cast nafion membrane and thus has potential to use in direct alcohol fuel cells.

  4. Alcohol fuels. 1973-July, 1980 (citations from the American Petroleum Institute Data Base). Report for 1973-July 1980

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cavagnaro, D.M.

    1980-10-01

    Research on alcohol fuels are cited. The citations cover synthesis, chemical analysis, performance testing, processing, pollution, economics, environmental effects, and feasibility. (This updated bibliography contains 260 citations, 82 of which are new entries to the previous edition.)

  5. Alcohol

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Date reviewed: January 2014 previous 1 • 2 For Teens For Kids For Parents MORE ON THIS TOPIC Word! Alcoholism What You Need to Know About Drugs What You Need to Know About Drugs: Depressants What Kids Say About: Drinking Alcohol Dealing With Peer Pressure Contact Us Print Resources Send to a friend ...

  6. Alcohol fuels. 1970-June, 1980 (citations from the Engineering Index Data Base). Report for 1970-Jun 80

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cavagnaro, D.M.

    1980-07-01

    The cited reports from a worldwide literature survey discuss new technology in the field of alcohol fuels. The bibliography covers the different blends, synthesis, processes used, properties, engine performance evaluations, economics, safety measures, pollution effects, and combustion studies. The research also covers sources from which alcohol fuels can be obtained, such as coal, solid wastes, industrial by-products, and agricultural wastes. (This updated bibliography contains 156 citations, 21 of which are new entries to the previous edition.)

  7. Application of Alcohols to Dual - Fuel Feeding the Spark-Ignition and Self-Ignition Engines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stelmasiak Zdzisław

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper concerns analysis of possible use of alcohols for the feeding of self - ignition and spark-ignition engines operating in a dual- fuel mode, i.e. simultaneously combusting alcohol and diesel oil or alcohol and petrol. Issues associated with the requirements for application of bio-fuels were presented with taking into account National Index Targets, bio-ethanol production methods and dynamics of its production worldwide and in Poland. Te considerations are illustrated by results of the tests on spark- ignition and self- ignition engines fed with two fuels: petrol and methanol or diesel oil and methanol, respectively. Te tests were carried out on a 1100 MPI Fiat four- cylinder engine with multi-point injection and a prototype collector fitted with additional injectors in each cylinder. Te other tested engine was a SW 680 six- cylinder direct- injection diesel engine. Influence of a methanol addition on basic operational parameters of the engines and exhaust gas toxicity were analyzed. Te tests showed a favourable influence of methanol on combustion process of traditional fuels and on some operational parameters of engines. An addition of methanol resulted in a distinct rise of total efficiency of both types of engines at maintained output parameters (maximum power and torque. In the same time a radical drop in content of hydrocarbons and nitrogen oxides in exhaust gas was observed at high shares of methanol in feeding dose of ZI (petrol engine, and 2-3 fold lower smokiness in case of ZS (diesel engine. Among unfavourable phenomena, a rather insignificant rise of CO and NOx content for ZI engine, and THC and NOx - for ZS engine, should be numbered. It requires to carry out further research on optimum control parameters of the engines. Conclusions drawn from this work may be used for implementation of bio-fuels to feeding the combustion engines.

  8. The Canadian nuclear fuel waste management program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An overview is presented of the status of the research and development program, under rsponsibility of the Atomic Energy of Canada Limited (AECL), for assessing the concept of nuclear fuel waste disposal deep in plutonic rock of the Canadian Shield. A passive multi-barrier concept has been adopted for disposal that combines the containment provided by the structural, hydraulic and geochemical characteristics of the rock mass with a series of engineered barriers. The conceptual disposal vault consists of an array of disposal rooms excavated in plutonic rock at a depth between 500 and 1000 m. Prior to disposal, the waste would be placed in cylindrical containers surrounded by a buffer, which is a mixture of bentonite cla and sand. The rooms would be backfilled with mixture of clay, and crushed granite or san. Bulkheads would seal the entrances. Closure would be achieved by backfilling the access tunnels in the same manner as the rooms and than backfilling the shafts with compacted clay and crushed granite separated by a series of supporting bulkheads. Very preliminary results from the case study indicate that the good rock provides the most effective barrier to movement of radionuclides to the surface. The most significant pathways through the geosphere involve diffusion through the good rock to the major fracture intersecting the vault, convection upward along the fracture, and discharge either at topographic lows or through a domestic water supply well used by the critical group. Long-lived non-sorbing radionuclides, available in the gaps between the fuel pellets and the fuel cladding or at the grain boundaries, contribute most to the radiological dose. With appropriate constraints on the location of the waste packages relative to the major fracture zones, radiological risk is expected to satisfy the regulatory criteria. (H.W.) 5 figs

  9. Alcohol-fueled vehicles: An alternative fuels vehicle, emissions, and refueling infrastructure technology assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McCoy, G.A.; Kerstetter, J.; Lyons, J.K. [and others

    1993-06-01

    Interest in alternative motor vehicle fuels has grown tremendously over the last few years. The 1990 Clean Air Act Amendments, the National Energy Policy Act of 1992 and the California Clean Air Act are primarily responsible for this resurgence and have spurred both the motor fuels and vehicle manufacturing industries into action. For the first time, all three U.S. auto manufacturers are offering alternative fuel vehicles to the motoring public. At the same time, a small but growing alternative fuels refueling infrastructure is beginning to develop across the country. Although the recent growth in alternative motor fuels use is impressive, their market niche is still being defined. Environmental regulations, a key driver behind alternative fuel use, is forcing both car makers and the petroleum industry to clean up their products. As a result, alternative fuels no longer have a lock on the clean air market and will have to compete with conventional vehicles in meeting stringent future vehicle emission standards. The development of cleaner burning gasoline powered vehicles has signaled a shift in the marketing of alternative fuels. While they will continue to play a major part in the clean vehicle market, alternative fuels are increasingly recognized as a means to reduce oil imports. This new role is clearly defined in the National Energy Policy Act of 1992. The Act identifies alternative fuels as a key strategy for reducing imports of foreign oil and mandates their use for federal and state fleets, while reserving the right to require private and municipal fleet use as well.

  10. School-Based Alcohol and Other Drug Prevention Programs: Guidelines for the Special Educator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elmquist, Donna L.

    1991-01-01

    The primary approaches of programs to prevent alcohol and other drug abuse are discussed, along with general problems of these programs. Key weaknesses of program evaluations are discussed, and suggestions and recommendations are made for special educators to implement prevention programs with their students with disabilities. (JDD)

  11. The Effectiveness of an Alcohol Abuse Prevention Program among High School Students in Rural Missouri.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dixon, David J.; McLearen, Alix M.

    2002-01-01

    A three-pronged program to prevent underage drinking delivered alcohol education and anti-drinking messages to high school students and their parents and distributed pertinent information to local alcohol retailers in a rural community. Compared to a control community, students in the intervention community were less likely to develop risky…

  12. Professional Counseling versus Specialized Programs for Alcohol and Drug Abuse Treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polcin, Douglas L.

    2000-01-01

    Reviews major recent studies supporting the effectiveness of professional counseling, Alcoholics Anonymous, and specialty programs for treating alcohol and drug problems. Describes the American Society of Addiction Medicine's guidelines for referral to substance abuse services and examples of integrated treatment approaches. (Contains 35…

  13. Dieting Behavior and Alcohol Use Behaviors among National Eating Disorders Screening Program Participants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heidelberg, Natalie F.; Correia, Christopher J.

    2009-01-01

    Objective: Research has shown that college students have elevated rates of alcohol use and problematic eating behaviors. The current study focused on the relationships between dieting behaviors and alcohol use among a sample of undergraduates attending National Eating Disorder Screening Program. Method: All participants (n=70, 100% female, average…

  14. Ethyl-tertiary-butyl-ether (ETBE) as an aviation fuel: Eleventh international symposium on alcohol fuels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maben, G.D.; Shauck, M.E.; Zanin, M.G.

    1996-12-31

    This paper discusses the preliminary flight testing of an aircraft using neat burning ethyl-tertiary-butyl-ether (ETBE) as a fuel. No additional changes were made to the fuel delivery systems which had previously been modified to provide the higher fuel flow rates required to operate the engine on neat ethanol. Air-fuel ratios were manually adjusted with the mixture control. This system allows the pilot to adjust the mixture to compensate for changes in air density caused by altitude, pressure and temperature. The engine was instrumented to measure exhaust gas temperatures (EGT), cylinder head temperatures (CHT), and fuel flows, while the standard aircraft instruments were used to collect aircraft performance data. Baseline engine data for ETBE and Avgas are compared. Preliminary data indicates the technical and economic feasibility of using ETBE as an aviation fuel for the piston engine fleet. Furthermore, the energy density of ETBE qualifies it as a candidate for a turbine engine fuel of which 16.2 billion gallons are used in the US each year.

  15. 1990 fuel cell seminar: Program and abstracts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1990-12-31

    This volume contains author prepared short resumes of the presentations at the 1990 Fuel Cell Seminar held November 25-28, 1990 in Phoenix, Arizona. Contained herein are 134 short descriptions organized into topic areas entitled An Environmental Overview, Transportation Applications, Technology Advancements for Molten Carbonate Fuel Cells, Technology Advancements for Solid Fuel Cells, Component Technologies and Systems Analysis, Stationary Power Applications, Marine and Space Applications, Technology Advancements for Acid Type Fuel Cells, and Technology Advancement for Solid Oxide Fuel Cells.

  16. LOFT fuel modules design, characterization, and fabrication program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Russell, M. L.

    1977-06-01

    The loss-of-fluid test (LOFT) fuel modules have evolved from a comprehensive five-year design, characterization, and fabrication program which has resulted in the accomplishment of many technical activities of interest in pressurized water reactor fuel design development and safety research. Information is presented concerning: determination of fundamental high-temperature reactor material properties; design invention related to in-core instrumentation attachment; implementation of advanced and/or unique fuel bundle characterization techniques; implementation of improved fuel bundle fabrication techniques; and planning and execution of a multimillion dollar design, characterization, and fabrication program for pressurized water reactor fuel.

  17. Fuel cell energy service Enron`s commerical program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jacobson, M.W.

    1996-04-01

    Enron, the premier provider of clean fuels worldwide, has launched a unique energy service based on fuel cell technology. The goal of this program is to bring the benefits of fuel cell power to the broad commercial marketplace. Enron`s Energy Service is currently based on a 200 kilowatt phosphoric acid power plant manufactured by ONSI Corporation. This plant is fueled by natural gas or propane, and exhibits superior performance. Enron offers a `no hassle` package that provides customers with immediate benefits with no upfront capital or technical risks. This paper describes Enron`s fuel cell commercial program.

  18. National Fire Plan - Hazardous Fuels Reduction Program - Direct Download

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This map layer portrays county level data for the fiscal-year-2004 National Fire Plan - Hazardous Fuels Reduction Program. The purpose of this program is to reduce...

  19. Comparative exergy analysis of direct alcohol fuel cells using fuel mixtures

    OpenAIRE

    Leo Mena, Teresa de Jesus; Raso García, Miguel Ángel; Navarro Arevalo, Emilio; Sánchez de la Blanca, Emilia

    2011-01-01

    Within the last years there has been increasing interest in direct liquid fuel cells as power sources for portable devices and, in the future, power plants for electric vehicles and other transport media as ships will join those applications. Methanol is considerably more convenient and easy to use than gaseous hydrogen and a considerable work is devoted to the development of direct methanol fuel cells. But ethanol has much lower toxicity and from an ecological viewpoint ethanol is exceptiona...

  20. Alcohols/Ethers as Oxygenates in Diesel Fuel: Properties of Blended Fuels and Evaluation of Practiacl Experiences

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nylund, N.; Aakko, P. [TEC Trans Energy Consulting Ltd (Finland); Niemi, S.; Paanu, T. [Turku Polytechnic (Finland); Berg, R. [Befri Konsult (Sweden)

    2005-03-15

    Oxygenates blended into diesel fuel can serve at least two purposes. Components based on renewable feedstocks make it possible to introduce a renewable component into diesel fuel. Secondly, oxygenates blended into diesel fuel might help to reduce emissions. A number of different oxygenates have been considered as components for diesel fuel. These oxygenates include various alcohols, ethers, esters and carbonates. Of the oxygenates, ethanol is the most common and almost all practical experiences have been generated from the use of diesel/ethanol blends (E-diesel). Biodiesel was not included in this study. Adding ethanol to diesel will reduce cetane, and therefore, both cetane improver and lubricity additives might be needed. Diesel/ethanol emulsions obtained with emulsifiers or without additives are 'milky' mixtures. Micro-emulsions of ethanol and diesel can be obtained using additives containing surfactants or co-solvents. The microemulsions are chemically and thermodynamically stable, they are clear and bright blends, unlike the emulsions. Storage and handling regulations for fuels are based on the flash point. The problem with, e.g., ethanol into diesel is that ethanol lowers the flash point of the blend significantly even at low concentrations. Regarding safety, diesel-ethanol blends fall into the same category as gasoline. Higher alcohols are more suitable for diesel blending than ethanol. Currently, various standards and specifications set rather tight limits for diesel fuel composition and properties. It should be noted that, e.g., E-diesel does not fulfil any current diesel specification and it cannot, thus, be sold as general diesel fuel. Some blends have already received approvals for special applications. The critical factors of the potential commercial use of these blends include blend properties such as stability, viscosity and lubricity, safety and materials compatibility. The effect of the fuel on engine performance, durability and emissions

  1. Fuel Cell Seminar, 1992: Program and abstracts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1992-12-31

    This year`s theme, ``Fuel Cells: Realizing the Potential,`` focuses on progress being made toward commercial manufacture and use of fuel cell products. Fuel cell power plants are competing for market share in some applications and demonstrations of market entry power plants are proceeding for additional applications. Development activity on fuel cells for transportation is also increasing; fuel cell products have potential in energy and transportation industries, with very favorable environmental impacts. This Seminar has the purpose of fostering communication by providing a forum for the international community interested in development, application, and business opportunities related fuel cells. Over 190 technical papers are included, the majority being processed for the data base.

  2. RERTR program progress in qualifying reduced-enrichment fuels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In order to provide the technical means for reducing the enrichment of uranium used to fuel research and test reactors, the U.S. Reduced Enrichment Research and Test Reactor (RERTR) Program has been engaged in the development and testing of higher-uranium-density fuels than had been used previously. This fuel development effort included work to increase the density of fuels which were being used at the time the Program began and work on a fuel with the potential for much higher density. The ultimate goal of the fuel development and testing phase of the Program is to 'qualify' the fuel for use. A fuel is considered qualified when a sufficient data base for the fuel exists that it can be approved by regulating bodies for use in reactors. To convert a core to the use of reduced-enrichment fuel it is necessary to show that the core will behave properly during normal and off-normal operating conditions and to show that the fuel will behave properly to a reasonable margin beyond the conditions expected during normal operation. It is this latter area that this paper will address. The main characteristics to be considered in evaluating the performance of a fuel are its swelling, its blister-threshold temperature, and its metallurgical appearance. Data for the qualification of the reduced-enrichment fuels being developed by the RERTR Program are obtained from examination of miniature fuel plates (miniplates) which successfully pass the irradiation screening tests and from examinations of full-sized fuel elements. This paper will summarize the miniplate data reported in other papers presented during this meeting and will give the status of full-sized element irradiations. Finally, the current status of qualification of the various fuel types will be discussed and some projections of the future will be given

  3. Ciclon: A neutronic fuel management program for PWR's consecutive cycles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The program description and user's manual of a new computer code is given. Ciclon performs the neutronic calculation of consecutive reload cycles for PWR's fuel management optimization. Fuel characteristics and burnup data, region or batch sizes, loading schemes and state of previously irradiated fuel are input to the code. Cycle lengths or feed enrichments and burnup sharing for each region or batch are calculate using different core neutronic models and printed or punched in standard fuel management format. (author)

  4. Nuclear fuel cycle programs of Argonne's Chemical Engineering Division

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Argonne National Laboratory's Chemical Engineering Division is actively involved in the research, development and demonstration of nuclear fuel cycle technologies for the United States Department of Energy Advanced Fuel Cycle Initiative, Generation IV, and Yucca Mountain programs. This paper summarizes current technology development initiatives within the Division that address the needs of the United States' advanced nuclear energy programs. (authors)

  5. 2015 Annual Progress Report: DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2015-12-23

    The 2015 Annual Progress Report summarizes fiscal year 2015 activities and accomplishments by projects funded by the DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program. It covers the program areas of hydrogen production; hydrogen delivery; hydrogen storage; fuel cells; manufacturing R&D; technology validation; safety, codes and standards; systems analysis; and market transformation.

  6. Apparatus and method for continuous production of beverage spirits, industrial alcohol and/or fuel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ramos de Mattos, A.

    1981-10-13

    A process and apparatus for the continuous production of spirits, industrial EtOH, or fuel, characterized by maintaining the fermenting yeast in the fermenting tank at all times. Periodic treatment with antiseptics and yeast stimulants are performed within the fermentor tank to reactivate the yeast. Optionally, the yeasts can be recovered into an external tank without interrupting the fermentation. The CO/sub 2/ produced during the fermentation is channeled into a tank which contains water to trap any alcohol present. A diagram of the apparatus is given. The advantages of this process and apparatus in terms of efficiency and practicality are discussed.

  7. Methanol and ethanol from lignocellulosic Swedish wood fuels - Main report. Comparison of the costs of alcohols from biomass

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Swedish wood fuel has a considerable volume and, apart from the utilization today, its use in year 2010 is estimated to amount to 75 TWh/year. Wood fuel can be converted to the alcohols methanol or ethanol and, as such, can be utilized as fuels or components capable of replacing petrol or diesel. This comparison of costs in producing methanol or ethanol from 250 000 tonnes DM of wood fuel using technology available today, or similar levels of technology, shows that methanol can be produced for about 2 SEK/1 (about 450 SEK/MWh) and ethanol for about 4,85 SEK/1 (825 SEK/MWh). The world market price today is around 1 SEK/1 for methanol and 2.60-2.80 SEK/1 for ethanol. Investment and production costs for the two types of production plants do not differ to any particular extent. The investment cost in the methanol plant is about 20 per cent higher, whereas production and maintenance costs are more than 20 per cent higher for ethanol. The explanation of considerable difference in production costs is, instead, primarily the difference in alcohol yield and secondarily the difference in the total efficiency. The valuation of secondary products, particularly lignin fuel from the ethanol process, is also important. The alcohols can be used as propellant fuels in several different ways as admixture components or as pure fuels. It is concluded that there are quality differences between the alcohols that can influence the driving capacity, emissions and which also affect the value of the alcohols. Among the uncertainties that particularly require more penetrating studies are questions dealing with health aspects related to the higher emissions of formaldehyde when used as an engine fuel, total environmental and health influence of ethanol emission, and the contents of polluting substances in lignin fuel that affect its range of use and its value. 25 figs, 29 tabs

  8. Methanol and ethanol from lignocellulosic Swedish wood fuels. Appendices. Comparison of the costs of alcohols from biomass

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Swedish wood fuel has a considerable volume and, apart from the utilization today, its use in year 2010 is estimated to amount to 75 TWh/year. Wood fuel can be converted to the alcohols methanol or ethanol and, as such, can be utilized as fuels or components capable of replacing petrol or diesel. This comparison of costs in producing methanol or ethanol from 250 000 tonnes DM of wood fuel using technology available today, or similar levels of technology, shows that methanol can be produced for about 2 SEK/1 (about 450 SEK/MWh) and ethanol for about 4,85 SEK/1 (825 SEK/MWh). The world market price today is around 1 SEK/1 for methanol and 2.60-2.80 SEK/1 for ethanol. Investment and production costs for the two types of production plants do not differ to any particular extent. The investment cost in the methanol plant is about 20 per cent higher, whereas production and maintenance costs are more than 20 per cent higher for ethanol. The explanation of considerable difference in production costs is, instead, primarily the difference in alcohol yield and secondarily the difference in the total efficiency. The valuation of secondary products, particularly lignin fuel from the ethanol process, is also important. The alcohols can be used as propellant fuels in several different ways as admixture components or as pure fuels. It is concluded that there are quality differences between the alcohols that can influence the driving capacity, emissions and which also affect the value of the alcohols. Among the uncertainties that particularly require more penetrating studies are questions dealing with health aspects related to the higher emissions of formaldehyde when used as an engine fuel, total environmental and health influence of ethanol emission, and the contents of polluting substances in lignin fuel that affect its range of use and its value

  9. Romanian nuclear fuel program: past, present and future

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Budan, O.; Rotaru, I. [RENEL-GEN, Romanian Electricity Authority, Nuclear Power Group (Romania); Galeriu, C.A. [RENEL-FCN, Romanian Electricity Authority, Nuclear Fuel Plant (Romania)

    1997-07-01

    The paper presents and comments the policy adopted in Romania for the production of CANDU-6 nuclear fuel before and after 1990. In this paper the word 'past' refers to the period before 1990 and 'present' to the 1990-1997 period. The CANDU-6 nuclear fuel manufacturing started in Romania in December 1983. Neither AECL nor any Canadian nuclear fuel manufacturer were involved in the Romanian industrial nuclear fuel production before 1990. After January 1990, the new created Romanian Electricity Authority (RENEL) assumed the responsibility for the Romanian Nuclear Power Program. It was RENEL's decision to stop, in June 1990, the nuclear fuel production at the Institute for Nuclear Power Reactors (IRNE) Pitesti. This decision was justified by the Canadian specialists team findings, revealed during a general, but well enough technically founded analysis performed at IRNE in the spring of 1990. All fuel manufactured before June 1990 was quarantined as it was considered of suspect quality. By that time more than 31,000 fuel bundles had already been manufactured. This fuel was stored for subsequent assessment. The paper explains the reasons which provoked this decision. The paper also presents the strategy adopted by RENEL after 1990 regarding the Romanian Nuclear Fuel Program. After a complex program done by Romanian and Canadian partners, in November 1994, AECL issued a temporary certification for the Romanian nuclear fuel plant. During the demonstration manufacturing run, as an essential milestone for the qualification of the Romanian fuel supplier for CANDU-6 reactors, 202 fuel bundles were produced. Of these fuel bundles, 66 were part of the Cernavoda NGS Unit 1 first fuel load (the balance was supplied by Zircatec Precision Industries Inc. - ZPI). The industrial nuclear fuel fabrication re-started in Romania in January 1995 under AECL's periodical monitoring. In December 1995, AECL issued a permanent certificate, stating the Romanian

  10. Korea's CANDU fuel R and D program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    As the first R and D activity led to the nuclear fuel industrialization in Korea, KAERI had successfully developed the CANDU-6 fuel bundle in the period of 1981 to 1986 and has commercially produced more than 35,000 fuel bundles for the use in Wolsong Unit 1 since 1987. The commercial production of the CANDU-6 fuel in KAERI will be terminated on the end of 1997 and KNFC will take over the mission of CANDU-6 fuel production with a capacity of 400 tons of uranium per year form 1998. (author)

  11. Careers in Drug and Alcohol Research: AN Innovative Program for Young Appalachian Women

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noland, Melody Powers; Leukefeld, Carl; Reid, Caroline

    Supported by a grant from the National Institute on Drug Abuse, the University of Kentucky's Center on Drug and Alcohol Research developed the Young Women in Science Program to encourage young women from Appalachia to pursue scientific careers гп drug and alcohol research. This 3-year program, which involved 26 young women entering the ninth grade in 13 counties in southeastern Kentucky, included a summer residential program, community educational sessions, and matching students with mentors. When participants' scores prior to and after the 3-week residential program were compared, it was found that participants increased their science knowledge and improved their scores on confidence in science. Other significant changes occurred as well. These preliminary data indicated that some positive changes resulted from the program, even though contact time with the young women has been modest to date. The program shows considerable promise for providing the encouragement and skills needed for these young women to pursue careers in drug and alcohol research.

  12. RERTR program progress in qualifying reduced-enrichment fuels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Snelgrove, J.L.

    1982-01-01

    In order to provide the technical means for reducing the enrichment of uranium used to fuel research and test reactors, the US Reduced Enrichment Research and Test Reactor (RERTR) Program has been engaged in the development and testing of higher-uranium-density fuels than had been used previously. The main characteristics to be considered in evaluating the performance of a fuel are its swelling, its blister-threshold temperature, and its metallurgical appearance. Data for the qualification of the reduced-enrichment fuels being developed by the RERTR Program are obtained from examination of minature fuel plates (miniplates) which successfully pass the irradiation screening tests and from examinations of full-sized fuel elements. This paper will summarize the miniplate data and will give the status of full-sized element irradiations. Finally, the current status of qualification of the various fuel types will be discussed and some projections of the future will be given.

  13. Spent fuel disassembly and canning programs at the Barnwell Nuclear Fuel Plant (BNFP)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Methods of disassembling and canning spent fuel to allow more efficient storage are being investigated at the BNFP. Studies and development programs are aimed at dry disassembly of fuel to allow storage and shipment of fuel pins rather than full fuel assemblies. Results indicate that doubling existing storage capacity or tripling the carrying capacity of existing transportation equipment is achievable. Disassembly could be performed in the BNFP hot cells at rates of about 12 to 15 assemblies per day

  14. Spent fuel disassembly and canning programs at the Barnwell Nuclear Fuel Plant (BNFP)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Methods of disassembling and canning spent fuel to allow more efficient storage are being investigated at the BNFP. Studies and development programs are aimed at dry disassembly of fuel to allow storage and shipment of fuel pins rather than complete fuel assemblies. Results indicate that doubling existing storage capacity or tripling the carrying capacity of existing transportation equipment is achievable. Disassembly could be performed in the BNFP hot cells at rates of about 12 to 15 assemblies per day

  15. Nuclear fuel cycles of WWER-1000 at Kozloduy NPP: a program for transition to advanced fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A systematical approach for WWER nuclear fuel utilization improvement is applied at the Kozloduy NPP while observing safety requirements. The fuel assemblies utilization for 4 years, higher burnup and reducing of high-activity radioactive waste will be achieved by realization of Activities program for transition of Units 5 and 6 of Kozloduy NPP to operating with Alternative Fuel Assemblies (AFA). The specified results from advanced fuel introduction also will improve the economic indices of Units 5 and 6 operation at Kozloduy NPP

  16. Update on the Vancouver Fuel Cell Vehicle Program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    'Full text:' The Vancouver Fuel Cell Vehicle Program (VFCVP) is a $5.8 million initiative designed to test four Ford Focus Fuel Cell Vehicles for three years in the Lower Mainland of British Columbia. The project is the first of its kind in Canada and is led by Fuel Cells Canada (FCC), the Ford Motor Company (Ford), and the Governments of Canada and British Columbia. This presentation will provide program details and an update on activities leading up to currently planned delivery to Vancouver in November 2004. The VFCVP will test the performance, durability and reliability of the Ford fuel cell vehicle cars in real-world conditions and will examine fuelling issues and solutions, the reduction of greenhouse gas emissions and public acceptance of hydrogen fuel cell vehicles. The program will generate data to help evolve the technology and develop international codes and standards E cents Epnd the implementation and adoption of fuel cell technology. (author)

  17. Heterogeneous catalytic process for alcohol fuels from syngas. Second quarterly technical progress report, April--June 1992

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1992-12-31

    The principal objectives of this project are to discover and evaluate novel heterogeneous catalysts for conversion of syngas to oxygenates having use as fuel enhancers, to explore novel reactor and process concepts applicable in this process, and to develop the best total process for converting syngas to liquid fuels. The project is being pursued as two concurrent tasks. Task I involves catalyst research and development and is being largely conducted by catalyst chemists and analytical specialists. Task 2 is largely an engineering activity, and includes process conceptualization and economics and bench-scale process evaluation of systems developed in Task 1. The current goal of the catalyst development program is to increase selectivities to oxygenates to greater than 90% with methanol making up less than 70% of the oxygenates, increase rates to 20 lb/ft{sup 3}/hr, and have conversions of greater than 20%. Earlier work in this organization has shown that a potassium-modified Zn-Or-Mn-0 based catalyst system had alcohol selectivities as high as 70-80 wt %, but the overall alcohol yield was only 11 lb/ft{sup 3}/hr. The effects of the precipitation pH on surface area, porosity, and thermal characteristics of the mixed metal oxide component were examined. A designed experiment showed that the precipitation pH was an important factor influencing the BET surface area, and the calcination temperature had a negative effect on the surface area as expected. The optimal surface area for a given calcination temperature would be achieved at a pH of around 10.2. Other interesting results from the models were that calcination time did not affect any of the physical properties measured and only calcination temperature affected the mean pore diameter of the solid.

  18. Status of the Canadian Nuclear Fuel Waste Management Program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Canadian Nuclear Fuel Waste Management Program is in the fifth year of a ten-year generic research and development phase. The major objective of this phase of the program is to assess the basic safety and environmental aspects of the concept of isolating immobilized fuel waste by deep underground disposal in plutonic rock. The major scientific and engineering components of the program, namely immobilization studies, geoscience research, and environmental and safety assessment, are well established

  19. Review of Ontario Hydro program to reduce fuel channel gap

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The consultant was contracted to review the 'Pressure Tube Fretting and Power Pulse Program' undertaken by Ontario Hydro. They were requested to report primarily on the adequacy of quality assurance activities in the project management, engineering, and manufacturing parts of the project, but in addition were asked to review and comment on the technical adequacy of the methods. The program involved three potential solutions or approaches. Each was designed to prevent fuel bundles shifting into the reactor core if there is fuel channel flow reversal. Each approach was also intended to reduce or eliminate fuel vibration and the consequential fretting observed in fuel channels with significant creep. (author). 4 figs

  20. Fuels irradiation testing for the SP-100 program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An SP-100 fuel pin irradiation testing program is well on the way to providing data for performance correlations and demonstrating the lifetime and safety of the fule system of the compact lithium-cooled reactor. Key SP-100 fuel performance issues addressed are the need for low fuel swelling and low fission gas release to minimize cladding strain, and the need for barrier integrity to prevent fuel/cladding chemical interaction. This paper provides a description of the irradiation test program that addresses these key issues and summarizes recent results of post-test examinations including data obtained at 6 atom percent goal burnup

  1. The importance of aeration strategy in fuel alcohol fermentations contaminated with Dekkera/Brettanomyces yeasts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abbott, D A; Ingledew, W M

    2005-11-01

    Whole corn mash fermentations infected with industrially-isolated Brettanomyces yeasts were not affected even when viable Brettanomyces yeasts out-numbered Saccharomyces yeasts tenfold at the onset of fermentation. Therefore, aeration, a parameter that is pivotal to the physiology of Dekkera/Brettanomyces yeasts, was investigated in mixed culture fermentations. Results suggest that aeration strategy plays a significant role in Dekkera/Brettanomyces-mediated inhibition of fuel alcohol fermentations. Although growth of Saccharomyces cerevisiae was not impeded, mixed culture fermentations aerated at rates of > or =20 ml air l(-1) mash min(-1) showed decreased ethanol yields and an accumulation of acetic acid. The importance of aeration was examined further in combination with organic acid(s). Growth of Saccharomyces occurred more rapidly than growth of Brettanomyces yeasts in all conditions. The combination of 0.075% (w/v) acetic acid and contamination with Brettanomyces TK 1404W did not negatively impact the final ethanol yield under fermentative conditions. Aeration, however, did prove to be detrimental to final ethanol yields. With the inclusion of aeration in the control condition (no organic acid stress) and in each fermentation containing organic acid(s), the final ethanol yields were decreased. It was therefore concluded that aeration strategy is the key parameter in regards to the negative effects observed in fuel alcohol fermentations infected with Dekkera/Brettanomyces yeasts. PMID:15782293

  2. Poly (vinyl alcohol) hydrogel membrane as electrolyte for direct borohydride fuel cells

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    N A Choudhury; S K Prashant; S Pitchumani; P Sridhar; A K Shukla

    2009-09-01

    A direct borohydride fuel cell (DBFC) employing a poly (vinyl alcohol) hydrogel membrane electrolyte (PHME) is reported. The DBFC employs an AB5 Misch metal alloy as anode and a goldplated stainless steel mesh as cathode in conjunction with aqueous alkaline solution of sodium borohydride as fuel and aqueous acidified solution of hydrogen peroxide as oxidant. Room temperature performances of the PHME-based DBFC in respect of peak power outputs; ex-situ cross-over of oxidant, fuel, anolyte and catholyte across the membrane electrolytes; utilization efficiencies of fuel and oxidant, as also cell performance durability are compared with a similar DBFC employing a Nafion®-117 membrane electrolyte (NME). Peak power densities of ∼30 and ∼40 mW cm-2 are observed for the DBFCs with PHME and NME, respectively. The crossover of NaBH4 across both the membranes has been found to be very low. The utilization efficiencies of NaBH4 and H2O2 are found to be ∼24 and ∼59%, respectively for the PHME-based DBFC; ∼18 and ∼62%, respectively for the NME-based DBFC. The PHME and NME-based DBFCs exhibit operational cell potentials of ∼ 1.2 and ∼ 1.4 V, respectively at a load current density of 10 mA cm-2 for ∼100 h.

  3. Reducing Children's Susceptibility to Alcohol Use: Effects of a Home-Based Parenting Program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackson, Christine; Ennett, Susan T; Reyes, H Luz McNaughton; Hayes, Kim A; Dickinson, Denise M; Choi, Seulki; Bowling, J Michael

    2016-07-01

    This 4-year efficacy trial tested whether a home-based, self-administered parenting program could have a long-term effect on children's cognitive susceptibility to alcohol use, and it tested hypothesized moderators and mediators of any such program effect. Using a two-group randomized controlled design, 1076 children (540 treatment; 536 control; mean age of 9.2 years at baseline) completed telephone interviews prior to randomization and follow-up interviews 12, 24, 36, and 48 months post-baseline. Mothers of children randomized to treatment received a 5-month-long parenting program during year 1, followed by two 1-month-long boosters in years 2 and 3. Exposure to the program was significantly inversely associated with susceptibility to alcohol use 48 months post-baseline (b = -0.03, p = .04), with no variation in program effects by parental alcohol use or mother's race/ethnicity or education, suggesting broad public health relevance of the parenting program. Path analyses of simple indirect effects through each hypothesized mediator showed that program exposure positively influenced parental communication to counter pro-drinking influences in the family and media domains and parental rule setting 36 months post-baseline; these variables, in turn, predicted reduced susceptibility to alcohol use 48 months post-baseline. Parallel (multiple) mediation analysis showed that the program had a significant indirect effect on susceptibility through parental rule setting. Together, the findings indicate that internalization of protective alcohol-related expectancies and intentions is possible among children whose mothers provide early exposure to alcohol-specific socialization. Additional research is needed to link alcohol-specific socialization during childhood with adolescent drinking outcomes. PMID:27154767

  4. The DOE Advanced Gas Reactor Fuel Development and Qualification Program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The high outlet temperatures and high thermal-energy conversion efficiency of modular High Temperature Gas-cooled Reactors (HTGRs) enable an efficient and cost effective integration of the reactor system with non-electricity generation applications, such as process heat and/or hydrogen production, for the many petrochemical and other industrial processes that require temperatures between 300 C and 900 C. The Department of Energy (DOE) has selected the HTGR concept for the Next Generation Nuclear Plant (NGNP) Project as a transformative application of nuclear energy that will demonstrate emissions-free nuclear-assisted electricity, process heat, and hydrogen production, thereby reducing greenhouse-gas emissions and enhancing energy security. The objective of the DOE Advanced Gas Reactor (AGR) Fuel Development and Qualification program is to qualify tristructural isotropic (TRISO)-coated particle fuel for use in HTGRs. The Advanced Gas Reactor Fuel Development and Qualification Program consists of five elements: fuel manufacture, fuel and materials irradiations, post-irradiation examination (PIE) and safety testing, fuel performance modeling, and fission-product transport and source term evaluation. An underlying theme for the fuel development work is the need to develop a more complete, fundamental understanding of the relationship between the fuel fabrication process and key fuel properties, the irradiation and accident safety performance of the fuel, and the release and transport of fission products in the NGNP primary coolant system. An overview of the program and recent progress is presented.

  5. An investigation into the electro-oxidation of ethanol and 2-propanol for application in direct alcohol fuel cells (DAFCs)

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Sagar Sen Gupta; Jayati Datta

    2005-07-01

    A comparative study of the electro-oxidation of ethanol and 2-propanol was carried out on carbon-supported platinum particles. Cyclic voltammetry, steady state polarisation, and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy were used to investigate the oxidation reactions. A difference in the mechanistic behaviour of the oxidation of ethanol and 2-propanol on Pt was observed, thereby highlighting the fact that the molecular structure of the alcohol has great influence on its electroreactivity. The study emphasizes the fact that 2-propanol is a promising fuel candidate for a direct alcohol fuel cell.

  6. Commercial waste and spent fuel packaging program. Annual report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This document is a report of activities performed by Westinghouse Advanced Energy Systems Division - Nevada Operations in meeting subtask objectives described in the Nevada Nuclear Waste Storage Investigations (NNWSI) Project Plan and revised planning documentation for Fiscal Year (FY) 1981. Major activities included: completion of the first fuel exchange in the Spent Fuel Test - Climax program; plasma arc welder development; modification and qualification of a canister cutter; installation, and activation of a remote area monitor, constant air monitor and an alpha/beta/gamma counting system; qualification of grapples required to handle pressurized water reactor or boiling water reactor fuel and high level waste (HLW) logs; data acquisition from the 3 kilowatt soil temperature test, 2 kw fuel temperature test, and 2 kw drywell test; calorimetry of the fuel assembly used in the fuel temperature test; evaluation of moisture accumulation in the drywells and recommendations for proposed changes; revision of safety assessment document to include HLW log operations; preparation of quality assurance plan and procedures; development and qualification of all equipment and procedures to receive, handle and encapsulate both the HLW log and spent fuel for the basalt waste isolation program/near surface test facility program; preliminary studies of both the requirements to perform waste packaging for the test and evaluation facility and a cask storage program for the DOE Interim Spent Fuel Management program; and remote handling operations on radioactive source calibration in support of other contractors

  7. Review of the nuclear fuel waste management program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Progress over the previous year in the nuclear fuel waste management program is reviewed. Universities, industry and consultants have become increasingly involved, and the work is being overseen by a Technical Advisory Committee. The program has also been investigated by Ontario's Porter Commission and Select Committe on Ontario Hydro Affairs. A public information program has been extended to cover most of the Canadian Shield region of Ontario. Ontario Hydro is studying spent fuel storage and transportation, while AECL is covering immobilization of spent fuel or processing wastes, geotechnical and geochemical research in the laboratory and in the field, design of disposal facilities, and environmental and safety assessments. (L.L.)

  8. U-Mo fuel qualification program in HANARO

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Atomized U-Mo fuel has shown good performance from the results of previous out-of-pile tests and post-irradiation examinations. A qualification program of rod type U-Mo fuel is in progress and the fuel will be irradiated in HANARO. 6 gU/cm3 U-7Mo, U-8Mo and U-9Mo are considered in this program. The laboratory test results of porosity, mechanical property, thermal conductivity, and thermal compatibility test are discussed in this paper. In parallel with this qualification program, the feasibility study on the core conversion from the present U3Si fuel to U-Mo in HANARO will be initiated to provide technical bases for the policy making. Several options of core conversion for HANARO are proposed and each option will be addressed briefly in terms of the operation policy, fuel management, and licensing of HANARO. (author)

  9. U-Mo fuel qualification program in HANARO

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, K.H.; Lee, C.S.; Kim, H.R.; Kuk, I.H.; Kim, C.K. [KAERI, Taejon (Korea, Republic of)

    2000-07-01

    Atomized U-Mo fuel has shown good performance from the results of previous out-of-pile tests and post-irradiation examinations. A qualification program of rod type U-Mo fuel is in progress and the fuel will be irradiated in HANARO. 6 gU/cm{sup 3} U-7Mo, U-8Mo and U-9Mo are considered in this program. The laboratory test results of porosity, mechanical property, thermal conductivity, and thermal compatibility test are discussed in this paper. In parallel with this qualification program, the feasibility study on the core conversion from the present U{sub 3}Si fuel to U-Mo in HANARO will be initiated to provide technical bases for the policy making. Several options of core conversion for HANARO are proposed and each option will be addressed briefly in terms of the operation policy, fuel management, and licensing of HANARO. (author)

  10. Drug and alcohol abuse: the bases for employee assistance programs in the nuclear-utility industry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Radford, L.R.; Rankin, W.L.; Barnes, V.; McGuire, M.V.; Hope, A.M.

    1983-07-01

    This report describes the nature, prevalence, and trends of drug and alcohol abuse among members of the US adult population and among personnel in non-nuclear industries. Analogous data specific to the nuclear utility industry are not available, so these data were gathered in order to provide a basis for regulatory planning. The nature, prevalence, and trend inforamtion was gathered using a computerized literature, telephone discussions with experts, and interviews with employee assistance program representatives from the Seattle area. This report also evaluates the possible impacts that drugs and alcohol might have on nuclear-related job performance, based on currently available nuclear utility job descriptions and on the scientific literature regarding the impairing effects of drugs and alcohol on human performance. Employee assistance programs, which can be used to minimize or eliminate job performance decrements resulting from drug or alcohol abuse, are also discussed.

  11. A full program for a worldwide qualified UMo fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An important development program for an UMo MTR fuel has been launched in France. The goal of the French working group is to develop a high performing and reprocessable fuel before the end of the US return policy for spent fuel. This paper is focused on the fabrication of full-sized UMo plates with LEU (Low Enriched Enrichment) and their irradiation in the OSIRIS reactor, which was started in September 99. (author)

  12. Computerised programming of the Dragon reactor fuel handling operations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Two suites of FORTRAN IV computer programs have been written to produce check lists for the operation of the two remote control fuel handling machines of the Dragon Reactor. This document describes the advantages of these programs over the previous manual system of writing check lists, and provides a detailed guide to the programs themselves. (author)

  13. 14 CFR 91.1507 - Fuel tank system inspection program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Fuel tank system inspection program. 91.1507 Section 91.1507 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF... developed for auxiliary fuel tanks, if any, installed under supplemental type certificates or other...

  14. Breeder Spent Fuel Handling Program multipurpose cask design basis document

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Breeder Spent Fuel Handling (BSFH) Program multipurpose cask Design Basis Document defines the performance requirements essential to the development of a legal weight truck cask to transport FFTF spent fuel from reactor to a reprocessing facility and the resultant High Level Waste (HLW) to a repository. 1 ref

  15. The French development program for a UMo fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Until now high density U3Si2 fuels were satisfactory for LEU conversion of certain reactors, but their use is limited because their density is physically limited to 5,8 gU/cm3 and they have very poor reprocessing capacities. After the end of the present US return policy in may 2006, the reactor operators will be indeed in a very difficult position with silicides. The international community is thus interested in a very high density fuel with good reprocessing capacities in order to convert most reactors and to find a back end solution. In France, CEA, CERCA, and COGEMA have thus launched an important program in order to sort potential candidates of uranium alloys. UMo is one of the most interesting candidates. After the selection of UMo alloys, France has pooled different skills to start an important program on UMo fuels: CEA has started an important project for a new reactor (Jules Horowitz); CERCA is the main manufacturer for MTR fuel; TECHNICATOME is the design expert for research reactors and associated cores; FRAMATOME is the parent company of CERCA and is interested in the development of new reactors; COGEMA is interested in reprocessing spent fuels. This new fuel has three aims: to allow reactors to benefit from a high performing fuel; to have a reprocessable fuel to limit the fuel storage period and the associate safety problem, and solve the back end issue; to support the international effort for non proliferation involving the end of the use of HEU. This high density fuel will decrease the number of fuel assemblies needed to run the reactors and decrease the global cost of the fuel cycle as the back end management cost is in proportion with the quantity of fuel. Reactor operators will thus derive an advantage from this new fuel, in terms of economy

  16. Preventing Alcohol-Related Problems on Campus: Acquaintance Rape. A Guide for Program Coordinators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finn, Peter

    This is a guide for college and university program coordinators and planning committees on how to establish, expand, or improve a program on the prevention of acquaintance rape. Information is given for Presidents, Vice Presidents, and Deans on the relationship between acquaintance rape and alcohol, reasons for top administrators to become…

  17. Alcohol Use Problems Mediate the Relation between Cannabis Use Frequency and College Functioning among Students Mandated to an Alcohol Diversion Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    McChargue, Dennis E.; Klanecky, Alicia K.; Anderson, Jennifer

    2012-01-01

    The present study examined the degree to which alcohol use problems explained the relationship between cannabis use frequency and college functioning. Undergraduates (N = 546) mandated to an alcohol diversion program at a Midwestern United States university completed screening questionnaires between October 2003 and April 2006. Sobel's (1982) test…

  18. The US advanced fuel cycle program: Objectives and accomplishments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: The US Department of Energy has been running for approximately a decade an advanced fuel cycle program (currently named the Fuel Cycle R and D Program) devoted to lessening both the environmental burden of nuclear energy and the proliferation risk of accumulating Used Nuclear Fuel. Until very recently, this program was technically focused on achieving an optimized symbiosis between fuel cycle options on one hand, and the US geological repository on the other, with a relatively short term deployment focus. Following detailed technical analyses, this focus led to the selection of a limited set of technologies that were expected to both meet specific geology related criteria, and would be based on limited extrapolations of existing technologies. Recent developments in the US indicate that the Yucca Mountain repository might not be anymore the geology of reference; furthermore, the need for advanced fuel cycles has been postponed to the middle part of the century, with increased reliance on temporary storage of Used Nuclear Fuel in the interim. Consequently, the Fuel Cycle R and D Program is being redirected towards a science based, goal oriented focus, driven by the following three considerations: 1. the program is currently examining a broad set of options, including different geologic media and transmutation technologies, in order to understand their relationships and provide information for later decisions. 2. the R and D component of the program is focused on acquiring the basic understanding of key phenomena, defining the relevant challenges, and acquiring the basic tools necessary to resolve them. 3. the timeline of the program allows for a deployment of the successfully demonstrated technology in the 2040-2050 timeframe; this allows us to consider technologies that are not yet mature, but that might provide significant improvements in performances. The technical program is articulated along the following elements: - a systems integration task that

  19. Program on fuels for transmutation: present status and prospects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rouault, J.; Garnier, J.C.; Chauvin, N.; Pillon, S. [CEA Cadarache, 13 - Saint-Paul-lez-Durance (France). Dept. d' Etudes des Combustibles

    2001-07-01

    The performance calculations of appropriate fuel cycle facilities and reactor configurations (scenarios) relying on current reactor technologies (Pressurized Water Reactor and Fast neutrons Reactors) or innovative reactors (Accelerator Driven Systems) have proved the scientific feasibility of some P and T strategies. To insure the technological feasibility, a large program on fuels and materials is underway, including advanced concepts for PWRs and the development of specific targets (dispersed fuels) for transmutation in Fast Reactors. Experiments in different reactors including Phenix are being prepared. The program is presented and recent results are given. (author)

  20. The US Army Foreign Comparative Test fuel cell program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bostic, Elizabeth; Sifer, Nicholas; Bolton, Christopher; Ritter, Uli; Dubois, Terry

    The US Army RDECOM initiated a Foreign Comparative Test (FCT) Program to acquire lightweight, high-energy dense fuel cell systems from across the globe for evaluation as portable power sources in military applications. Five foreign companies, including NovArs, Smart Fuel Cell, Intelligent Energy, Ballard Power Systems, and Hydrogenics, Inc., were awarded competitive contracts under the RDECOM effort. This paper will report on the status of the program as well as the experimental results obtained from one of the units. The US Army has interests in evaluating and deploying a variety of fuel cell systems, where these systems show added value when compared to current power sources in use. For low-power applications, fuel cells utilizing high-energy dense fuels offer significant weight savings over current battery technologies. This helps reduce the load a solider must carry for longer missions. For high-power applications, the low operating signatures (acoustic and thermal) of fuel cell systems make them ideal power generators in stealth operations. Recent testing has been completed on the Smart Fuel Cell A25 system that was procured through the FCT program. The "A-25" is a direct methanol fuel cell hybrid and was evaluated as a potential candidate for soldier and sensor power applications.

  1. GCFR Fuels and Materials Program at Argonne National Laboratory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The F-5 fuel-pin irradiation experiment in EBR-II is a cornerstone of the GCFR program. It is the largest-scale fuel-pin experiment in the present program and will provide data on the performance of pins and a pin-support structure that are prototypic of the GCFR Demonstration Plant. The fuel pins are presently undergoing interim examination after successfully achieving 4.6 at.% burnup. Studies of the thermodynamics and kinetics of the U--Cs--O system, supplemented by analysis of the results of previously irradiated fuel pins, have led to the incorporation of fuel-design modifications in the F-5 experiment to insure adequate performance of the vented fuel. The effect of ribbing, as well as the ribbing process, on the short- and long-term structural performance of fuel-pin cladding is being evaluated via in-reactor and out-of-reactor tests and with the fuel-element modeling code LIFE-GCFR and the finite element program, ADINA

  2. Casting of Poly Hydroxybutarate/Poly (vinyl alcohol)Membranes for Proton Exchange Fuel Cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: This work included, • Casting phosphprylated poly vinyl alcohol and poly hydroxyl butarate and phosphonate-terminated silica nanoparticles. • The membranes were characterized using FT-IR, XRD, TGA and SEM, proton conductivity and positron annihilation life time tech. • The 3% PHB casted membranes can be successfully used into (PEMFC) compared to Nafion-NR- 212. - Abstract: Gamma irradiation was used efficiently for casting poly hydroxybutarate(PHB) and phosphorylated poly (vinyl alcohol)(PVA) with different ratios. The optimum gamma irradiation dose for attaining finally crosslinking was 10 kGy. It was found that adding 0.5% phosphate-terminated silica nanoparticles (SiO2-P NPs) in the cast mixture was enough for membranes reinforcement. Membranes characterizations are carried out using FT-IR and tensile strength for examining their chemical and physical properties. Morphological properties of the casted membranes were studied using scanning electron microscope while their crystallinity was investigated using x-ray diffraction. Thermal characterization was performed using thermal gravimetric analysis. Water uptake and ion exchange capacity are determined as well. The prepared membranes' highest proton conductivity value was 8.6 × 10−2 S/cm while their free volume sizes were measured using positron annihilation lifetime technique (PALS). The casted membranes are strongly recommended to be used into the proton exchange membrane fuel cell (PEMFC) from performance and durability point of view

  3. Molten fuel moderator interaction program at Chalk River Laboratories

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nitheanandan, T.; Kyle, G.; O' Connor, R.; Sanderson, D.B. [Atomic Energy of Canada Limited, Chalk River, Ontario (Canada)

    2006-12-15

    The Canadian nuclear power generation industry, represented by the CANDU Owners Group (COG), has been funding an experimental program at Chalk River Laboratories (CRL) to study the interaction between molten material ejected from a fuel channel and the moderator. These experiments were designed to address one of the very low probability postulated accident events considered for CANDU Pressurized Heavy Water Reactors. The reactor consists of an array of horizontal fuel channels that contain the UO{sub 2}, nuclear fuel and high-temperature, high-pressure heavy water coolant. Under severely restricted flow blockage conditions, approaching 100% reduction of the flow area, postulated in a fuel channel, the temperature excursion could result in fuel melting, consequential failure of the fuel channel, and ejection of the molten fuel at high pressures into the heavy water moderator at near atmospheric pressure. In preparation for these tests, a chemical mixture called a thermite, that could produce a simulated molten fuel when ignited, was developed in partnership with Argonne National Laboratory (USA). Following this thermite development, two base-case reference tests were completed. The two base-case reference tests, with no molten material present, were performed in the Molten-Fuel Moderator-Interaction (MFMI) facility at CRL. Following the base-case reference tests, a high-pressure melt ejection test using prototypical corium was conducted. The objectives of this paper are to provide an overview of the MFMI program and present the results obtained from thermite development, base-case and melt ejection experiments. (author)

  4. Molten fuel moderator interaction program at Chalk River Laboratories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Canadian nuclear power generation industry, represented by the CANDU Owners Group (COG), has been funding an experimental program at Chalk River Laboratories (CRL) to study the interaction between molten material ejected from a fuel channel and the moderator. These experiments were designed to address one of the very low probability postulated accident events considered for CANDU Pressurized Heavy Water Reactors. The reactor consists of an array of horizontal fuel channels that contain the UO2, nuclear fuel and high-temperature, high-pressure heavy water coolant. Under severely restricted flow blockage conditions, approaching 100% reduction of the flow area, postulated in a fuel channel, the temperature excursion could result in fuel melting, consequential failure of the fuel channel, and ejection of the molten fuel at high pressures into the heavy water moderator at near atmospheric pressure. In preparation for these tests, a chemical mixture called a thermite, that could produce a simulated molten fuel when ignited, was developed in partnership with Argonne National Laboratory (USA). Following this thermite development, two base-case reference tests were completed. The two base-case reference tests, with no molten material present, were performed in the Molten-Fuel Moderator-Interaction (MFMI) facility at CRL. Following the base-case reference tests, a high-pressure melt ejection test using prototypical corium was conducted. The objectives of this paper are to provide an overview of the MFMI program and present the results obtained from thermite development, base-case and melt ejection experiments. (author)

  5. Low NOx heavy fuel combustor concept program

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, D. J.; Kubasco, A. J.

    1982-01-01

    Three simulated coal gas fuels based on hydrogen and carbon monoxide were tested during an experimental evaluation with a rich lean can combustor: these were a simulated Winkler gas, Lurgi gas and Blue Water gas. All three were simulated by mixing together the necessary pure component species, to levels typical of fuel gases produced from coal. The Lurgi gas was also evaluated with ammonia addition. Fuel burning in a rich lean mode was emphasized. Only the Blue Water gas, however, could be operated in such fashion. This showed that the expected NOx signature form could be obtained, although the absolute values of NOx were above the 75 ppm goals for most operating conditions. Lean combustion produced very low NOx well below 75 ppm with the Winkler and Lurgi gases. In addition, these low levels were not significantly impacted by changes in operating conditions.

  6. Taipower's spent fuel interim storage program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Taipower has three twin-unit nuclear power stations in operation-2 BWR stations and one PWR station. The spent fuel pool reracking project at the Maanshan Nuclear Power Station (PWR) is scheduled to be completed by 1993. Its pool storage capacity will be expanded to accommodate storage of spent fuel generated throughout the plant's 40-year operation. For the Chinshan and Kuosheng Nuclear Power Stations (all BWRS), reracking operation at Chinshan spent fuel pools was completed in 1987 while the other is scheduled to be completed by end 1991. In summary, after reracking, the time of losing the full core dump (FCR) capacity will be extended to about the year 1999, 2004 and 2016 for Chinshan, Kuosheng and Maanshan plants respectively

  7. Brazilian Alcohol Program (Proalcool): economic re-evaluation and demand adjustments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The aim of this paper is to discuss the economic impact on the Brazilian National Alcohol Programme caused by changes in the energy scenery, in view of recent oil price fall in the international market, and evaluate the necessary adjustments of the Programme according to the new Brazilian economic reality. The economic analysis concludes that the alcohol production, considering current production capacity and its investments, could be economically feasible at international oil prices near US$ 30.00. Excluding investments, its feasibility would be between US$ 18.00 and US$ 20.00 per equivalent oil barrel. Based on these conclusions, proposals for adjusting the PROALCOOL are discussed, including alternative pricing, fiscal and credit policies to control the alcohol-fuel demand. (author)

  8. Results of 200 KW fuel cell evaluation programs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Torrey, J.M.; Merten, G.P. [SAIC, San Diego, CA (United States); Binder, M.J. [Army Construction Engineering Research Labs., Champaign, IL (United States)] [and others

    1996-12-31

    Science Applications International Corporation (SAIC) has installed six monitoring systems on ONSI Corporation 200 kW phosphoric acid fuel cells. Three of the systems were installed for the U.S. Army Construction Engineering Research Laboratories (USACERL) which is coordinating the Department of Defense (DoD) fuel cell Demonstration Program and three were installed under a contract with the New York State Energy Research and Development Authority (NYSERDA). Monitoring of the three NYSERDA sites has been completed. Monitoring systems for the DoD fuel cells were installed in August, 1996 and thus no operating data was available at the time of this writing, but will be presented at the Fuel Cell Seminar. This paper will present the monitoring configuration and research approach for each program. Additionally, summary performance data is presented for the completed NYSERDA program.

  9. INDHAN: an auto fuel program for PHWRS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The objective of operating a pressurised heavy water reactor at the designed power level can be achieved only by a successful refuelling strategy. This requires careful analysis of the data of simulation of reactor operation and operating station data as well. The fuel scheduling is then carried out following some guidelines. This report describes a computer code INDHAN written for the purpose of selecting fuel channels for refuelling in PHWR based upon an analysis of theoretical and operational data. (author). 6 refs., 2 tabs., 3 figs

  10. Fuel rod welding (LWBR development program)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Procedures were developed to weld both ends of approximately 25,000 fuel rods for the Light Water Breeder Reactor (LWBR) core. The rods were welded using the gas tungsten arc (GTA) method in high-purity helium at 1 atmosphere. Welding parameters, including weld current, arc gap, and speed of rotation, were established to control the size of the weld. Electrode and chill positioning with respect to the endclosure/tube joint controlled the location of the weld. Weld quality of the fuel rods was ensured by 100-percent nondestructive testing by ultrasonic and radiographic inspection and the destructive evaluation of process control samples in each weld lot

  11. Irradiation testing of miniature fuel plates for the RERTR program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An irradiation test facility, which provides a test bed for irradiating a variety of miniature fuel plates (mini-plates) for the Reduced Enrichment Research and Test Reactors (RERTR) program, has been placed into operation. The objective of these tests is to screen various candidate fuel materials as to their suitability for replacing the highly-enriched uranium fuel materials currently used by the world's test and research reactors with a lower enrichment fuel material, without significantly degrading reactor operating characteristics and power levels. The use of low-uranium enrichment of about 20% 235U in place of highly enriched fuel for these reactors would reduce the potential for 235U diversion. Fuel materials currently being evaluated in this first phase of these screening tests include aluminium-base dispersion-type fuel plates with fuel cores of: (1) high uranium content U3O8-Al being developed by ORNL; (2) high uranium content UAl/sub x/-Al being developed by EG and G Idaho, Inc.; and (3) very high uranium content U3Si-Al being developed by ANL. The irradiation test facility, designated as HFED-1, is operating in core position E-7 in the Oak Ridge Research Reactor (ORR), a 30-MW water-moderated reactor. Ultimately, fuel plate types with suitable characteristics will be manufactured into full-sized plate-type fuel elements suitable for testing in the ORR. Specifications for these elements are described in Appendix A

  12. 2012 Annual Progress Report: DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2012-12-01

    In the past year, the DOE Hydrogen Program (the Program) made substantial progress toward its goals and objectives. The Program has conducted comprehensive and focused efforts to enable the widespread commercialization of hydrogen and fuel cell technologies in diverse sectors of the economy. With emphasis on applications that will effectively strengthen our nation's energy security and improve our stewardship of the environment, the Program engages in research, development, and demonstration of critical improvements in the technologies. Highlights of the Program's accomplishments can be found in the sub-program chapters of this report.

  13. 2015 Annual Progress Report: DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Popovich, Neil

    2015-12-01

    In the past year, the DOE Hydrogen Program (the Program) made substantial progress toward its goals and objectives. The Program has conducted comprehensive and focused efforts to enable the widespread commercialization of hydrogen and fuel cell technologies in diverse sectors of the economy. With emphasis on applications that will effectively strengthen our nation's energy security and improve our stewardship of the environment, the Program engages in research, development, and demonstration of critical improvements in the technologies. Highlights of the Program's accomplishments can be found in the sub-program chapters of this report.

  14. 2011 Annual Progress Report: DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Satyapal, Sunita [Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE), Washington, DC (United States)

    2011-11-01

    The 2011 Annual Progress Report summarizes fiscal year 2011 activities and accomplishments by projects funded by the DOE Hydrogen Program. It covers the program areas of hydrogen production and delivery; hydrogen storage; fuel cells; manufacturing; technology validation; safety, codes and standards; education; market transformation; and systems analysis.

  15. 2014 Annual Progress Report: DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    none,

    2014-11-01

    The 2014 Annual Progress Report summarizes fiscal year 2014 activities and accomplishments by projects funded by the DOE Hydrogen Program. It covers the program areas of hydrogen production and delivery; hydrogen storage; fuel cells; manufacturing; technology validation; safety, codes and standards; market transformation; and systems analysis.

  16. 2013 Annual Progress Report: DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    none,

    2013-12-01

    The 2013 Annual Progress Report summarizes fiscal year 2013 activities and accomplishments by projects funded by the DOE Hydrogen Program. It covers the program areas of hydrogen production and delivery; hydrogen storage; fuel cells; manufacturing; technology validation; safety, codes and standards; market transformation; and systems analysis.

  17. 76 FR 79114 - Tire Fuel Efficiency Consumer Information Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-21

    ..., Tire Fuel Efficiency Consumer Information Program, 74 FR 29542 (June 22, 2009); Docket No. NHTSA-2008... Efficiency Consumer Information Program, 75 FR 15894 (Mar. 30, 2010); Docket No. NHTSA-2010-0036- 001. \\4... after the sale of a new vehicle at no cost to the consumer. According to Bridgestone, these tires...

  18. Alternative Fuel Cycle Evaluation Program. Volume IV. International Fuel Service Center evaluation. Revision 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jacobson, L D [comp.

    1979-11-01

    This Alternative Fuel Cycle Evaluation Program (AFCEP) study presents the technical, economic and social aspects of the International Fuel Service Center (IFSC) as an institutional approach to nuclear fuel cycle development and is provided in support of the Nonproliferation Alternative Systems Assessment program (NASAP). Four types of IFSCs are described and evaluated in terms of three different twenty-year nuclear growth scenarios. Capital costs for each IFSC and comparable dispersed facility costs are discussed. Finally, the possible impact of each scenario and IFSC on the environmental and socio-economic structure is examined. 14 refs., 33 figs., 15 tabs.

  19. Overview of the United States spent nuclear fuel program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    As a result of the end of the Cold War, the mission of the US Department of Energy (DOE) has shifted from an emphasis on nuclear weapons development and production to an emphasis on the safe management and disposal of excess nuclear materials including spent nuclear fuel from both production and research reactors. Within the US, there are two groups managing spent nuclear fuel. Commercial nuclear power plants are managing their spent nuclear fuel at the individual reactor sites until the planned repository is opened. All other spent nuclear fuel, including research reactors, university reactors, naval reactors, and legacy material from the Cold War is managed by DOE. DOE's mission is to safely and efficiently manage its spent nuclear fuel and prepare it for disposal. This mission involves correcting existing vulnerabilities in spent fuel storage; moving spent fuel from wet basins to dry storage; processing at-risk spent fuel; and preparing spent fuel in road-ready condition for repository disposal. Most of DOE's spent nuclear fuel is stored in underwater basins (wet storage). Many of these basins are outdated, and spent fuel is to be removed and transferred to more modern basins or to new dry storage facilities. In 1995, DOE completed a complex-wide environmental impact analysis that resulted in spent fuel being sent to one of three principal DOE sites for interim storage (up to 40 years) prior to shipment to a repository. This regionalization by fuel type will allow for economies of scale yet minimize unnecessary transportation. This paper discusses the national SNF program, ultimate disposition of SNF, and the technical challenges that have yet to be resolved, namely, release rate testing, non-destructive assay, alternative treatments, drying, and chemical reactivity

  20. Advanced Coal-Fueled Gas Turbine Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Horner, M.W.; Ekstedt, E.E.; Gal, E.; Jackson, M.R.; Kimura, S.G.; Lavigne, R.G.; Lucas, C.; Rairden, J.R.; Sabla, P.E.; Savelli, J.F.; Slaughter, D.M.; Spiro, C.L.; Staub, F.W.

    1989-02-01

    The objective of the original Request for Proposal was to establish the technological bases necessary for the subsequent commercial development and deployment of advanced coal-fueled gas turbine power systems by the private sector. The offeror was to identify the specific application or applications, toward which his development efforts would be directed; define and substantiate the technical, economic, and environmental criteria for the selected application; and conduct such component design, development, integration, and tests as deemed necessary to fulfill this objective. Specifically, the offeror was to choose a system through which ingenious methods of grouping subcomponents into integrated systems accomplishes the following: (1) Preserve the inherent power density and performance advantages of gas turbine systems. (2) System must be capable of meeting or exceeding existing and expected environmental regulations for the proposed application. (3) System must offer a considerable improvement over coal-fueled systems which are commercial, have been demonstrated, or are being demonstrated. (4) System proposed must be an integrated gas turbine concept, i.e., all fuel conditioning, all expansion gas conditioning, or post-expansion gas cleaning, must be integrated into the gas turbine system.

  1. Fumed Silica Nanoparticles Incorporated in Quaternized Poly(Vinyl Alcohol Nanocomposite Membrane for Enhanced Power Densities in Direct Alcohol Alkaline Fuel Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Selvaraj Rajesh Kumar

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available A nanocomposite polymer membrane based on quaternized poly(vinyl alcohol/fumed silica (QPVA/FS was prepared via a quaternization process and solution casting method. The physico-chemical properties of the QPVA/FS membrane were investigated. Its high ionic conductivity was found to depend greatly on the concentration of fumed silica in the QPVA matrix. A maximum conductivity of 3.50 × 10−2 S/cm was obtained for QPVA/5%FS at 60 °C when it was doped with 6 M KOH. The permeabilities of methanol and ethanol were reduced with increasing fumed silica content. Cell voltage and peak power density were analyzed as functions of fumed silica concentration, temperature, methanol and ethanol concentrations. A maximum power density of 96.8 mW/cm2 was achieved with QPVA/5%FS electrolyte using 2 M methanol + 6 M KOH as fuel at 80 °C. A peak power density of 79 mW/cm2 was obtained using the QPVA/5%FS electrolyte with 3 M ethanol + 5 M KOH as fuel. The resulting peak power densities are higher than the majority of published reports. The results confirm that QPVA/FS exhibits promise as a future polymeric electrolyte for use in direct alkaline alcoholic fuel cells.

  2. Program Area of Interest: Fuel Transformer Solid Oxide Fuel Cell

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Norman Bessette; Douglas S. Schmidt; Jolyon Rawson; Rhys Foster; Anthony Litka

    2006-02-01

    The following report documents the technical approach and conclusions made by Acumentrics Corporation during latest budget period toward the development of a low cost 10kW tubular SOFC power system. The present program, guided under direction from the National Energy Technology Laboratory of the US DOE, is a nine-year cost shared Cooperative Agreement totaling close to $74M funded both by the US DOE as well as Acumentrics Corporation and its partners. The latest budget period ran from July of 2005 through December 2005. Work focused on cell technology enhancements as well as BOP and power electronics improvements and overall system design. Significant progress was made in increasing cell power enhancements as well as decreasing material cost in a drive to meet the SECA cost targets. The following report documents these accomplishments in detail as well as the layout plans for further progress in next budget period.

  3. General overview of CANDU advanced fuel cycles program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The R and D program for CANDU advanced fuel cycles may be roughly divided into two components which have a near-and long-term focus, respectively. The near-term focus is on the technology to implement improved once-through cycles and mixed oxide (plutonium-uranium oxides) recycle in CANDU and on technologies to separate zirconium isotopes. Included is work on those technologies which would allow a CANDU-LWR strategy to be developed in a growing nuclear power system. For the longer-term, activities are focused on those technologies and fuel cycles which would be appropriate in a period when nuclear fuel demand significantly exceeds mined uranium supplies. Fuel cycles and systems under study are thorium recycle, CANDU fast breeder systems and electro-nuclear fissile breeders. The paper will discuss the rationale underlying these activities, together with a brief description of activities currently under way in each of the fuel cycle technology areas

  4. [Gas cooled fuel cell systems technology development program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1988-03-01

    Objective is the development of a gas-cooled phosphoric acid fuel cell for electric utility power plant application. Primary objectives are to: demonstrate performance endurance in 10-cell stacks at 70 psia, 190 C, and 267 mA/cm[sup 2]; improve cell degradation rate to less than 8 mV/1000 hours; develop cost effective criteria, processes, and design configurations for stack components; design multiple stack unit and a single 100 kW fuel cell stack; design a 375 kW fuel cell module and demonstrate average cell beginning-of-use performance; manufacture four 375-kW fuel cell modules and establish characteristics of 1.5 MW pilot power plant. The work is broken into program management, systems engineering, fuel cell development and test, facilities development.

  5. Program Administrator's Handbook. Strategies for Preventing Alcohol and Other Drug Problems. The College Series.

    Science.gov (United States)

    CSR, Inc., Washington, DC.

    This handbook is for administrators of programs in higher education settings which deal with alcohol and other drug (AOD) related problems. Chapter 1, "Defining the Problem, Issues, and Trends" examines the problem from various perspectives and presents the latest statistics on the extent of AOD use on campuses, specific problems affecting…

  6. Promoting Bio-Ethanol in the United States by Incorporating Lessons from Brazil's National Alcohol Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du, Yangbo

    2007-01-01

    Current U.S. energy policy supports increasing the use of bio-ethanol as a gasoline substitute, which Brazil first produced on a large scale in response to the 1970s energy crises. Brazil's National Alcohol Program stood out among its contemporaries regarding its success at displacing a third of Brazil's gasoline requirements, primarily due to…

  7. 'Responsible drinking' programs and the alcohol industry in Brazil: killing two birds with one stone?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pantani, Daniela; Sparks, Robert; Sanchez, Zila M; Pinsky, Ilana

    2012-10-01

    Over the last decade, the Brazilian alcohol industry - which for years has ignored alcohol problems - inaugurated responsible drinking programs (RDPs). This paper reports findings from an exploratory study that investigated the RDP-related activities of six leading alcohol companies in Brazil (three national, three transnational) focusing on program goals and components, target populations and evaluation methods. Interviews were conducted from October 2007 to February 2008 with nine key-informants, and 71 corporate documents were collected along with additional web information about the programs. Content analysis of interviews and institutional documents was used to identify the companies' RDP activities. Three types of RDPs were found that focused respectively on institutional action, drinking and driving, and underage drinking. All three transnational firms were involved in RDPs, whereas national firms demonstrated limited involvement. The majority of RDPs were implemented using television. No targeted research appears to have been undertaken by the companies to assess the efficacy of the strategies in terms of changes in drinking behavior. The evidence for both national and transnational firms means that is difficult to confirm that the responsible drinking programs produced so far in Brazil have been undertaken to systematically reduce alcohol problems, or mainly as part of a public relations strategy to reduce criticism and potentially forestall government regulations (Babor, 2006, 2009; Jernigan, 2009). PMID:22800917

  8. A National Survey of State-Sponsored Programs to Prevent Fetal Alcohol Syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baumeister, Alfred A.; Hamlett, Carol L.

    1986-01-01

    Results of questionnaires and follow-up interviews with public health departments in each state and the District of Columbia revealed that, as a whole, state governments have not made a sustained commitment to the prevention of fetal alcohol syndrome. Several states have initiated programs that could serve as a model for national effort.…

  9. Long-Term Effects of the Strong African American Families Program on Youths' Alcohol Use

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brody, Gene H.; Chen, Yi-Fu; Kogan, Steven M.; Murry, Velma McBride; Brown, Anita C.

    2010-01-01

    Objective:This report extends earlier accounts by addressing the effects of the Strong African American Families (SAAF) program across 65 months. Two hypotheses were tested: (a) Rural African American youths randomly assigned to participate in SAAF would demonstrate lower rates of alcohol use than would control youths more than 5 years later, and…

  10. Russian research reactor fuel return program starts shipping fuel to Russia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    For almost four years the United States (U.S), the Russian Federation (R.F.), and the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) have been discussing an initiative to return Soviet/Russian-origin research reactor fuel to the Russian Federation. In a series of bilateral and trilateral meetings in Vienna and Moscow, considerable progress has been made toward defining the Russian Research Reactor Fuel Return Program as well as obtaining the necessary technical data to facilitate the return. More than 20 research reactors in 17 countries that have Soviet- or Russian-supplied fuel have identified. Most of these reactors have stocks of both fresh and irradiated HEU fuel that must be carefully stored and managed for many years to come. On September 21, 2003 the Russian Research Reactor Fuel Return program shipped 14 kg of fresh Russian-origin HEU fuel from Romania to the nuclear fuel fabrication facility in Russia, which represented the beginning of the practical implementation of the program. (author)

  11. DOE-owned spent nuclear fuel program plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Department of Energy (DOE) has produced spent nuclear fuel (SNF) for many years as part of its various missions and programs. The historical process for managing this SNF was to reprocess it whereby valuable material such as uranium or plutonium was chemically separated from the wastes. These fuels were not intended for long-term storage. As the need for uranium and plutonium decreased, it became necessary to store the SNF for extended lengths of time. This necessity resulted from a 1992 DOE decision to discontinue reprocessing SNF to recover strategic materials (although limited processing of SNF to meet repository acceptance criteria remains under consideration, no plutonium or uranium extraction for other uses is planned). Both the facilities used for storage, and the fuel itself, began experiencing aging from this extended storage. New efforts are now necessary to assure suitable fuel and facility management until long-term decisions for spent fuel disposition are made and implemented. The Program Plan consists of 14 sections as follows: Sections 2--6 describe objectives, management, the work plan, the work breakdown structure, and the responsibility assignment matrix. Sections 7--9 describe the program summary schedules, site logic diagram, SNF Program resource and support requirements. Sections 10--14 present various supplemental management requirements and quality assurance guidelines

  12. Regulatory review of the CANDU fuel modification program in Canada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aging of a CANDU nuclear power plant affects various safety margins of the plant. Margin to fuel sheath dryout is one of the safety margins that have been detrimentally affected, leading to a reduced margin to dryout with time. If no proactive actions are taken, the plant will have to de-rate its operation at an earlier time. To postpone the de-rating, the Canadian nuclear Industry has taken multi-initiatives to restore, or partially restore the safety margins that have been eroded due to plant aging. One of the initiatives is modification/re-optimization of the current fuel design, in order to improve the fuel thermalhydraulic performance, i.e., to suppress fuel sheath dryout, whereby offset partially the erosion of margin to fuel sheath dryout. Several Canadian utilities have already proceeded with the fuel modification program and requested approval of the Canadian Nuclear Safety Commission (CNSC) to load the modified fuel into their reactors. This paper summarizes the CNSC requirements, the review processes, the current status, and the technical challenges associated with licensing review of the fuel modification in Canada. (author)

  13. Low NOx heavy fuel combustor concept program, phase 1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cutrone, M. B.

    1981-01-01

    Combustion tests were completed with seven concepts, including three rich/lean concepts, three lean/lean concepts, and one catalytic combustor concept. Testing was conducted with ERBS petroleum distillate, petroleum residual, and SRC-II coal-derived liquid fuels over a range of operating conditions for the 12:1 pressure ratio General Electric MS7001E heavy-duty turbine. Blends of ERBS and SRC-II fuels were used to vary fuel properties over a wide range. In addition, pyridine was added to the ERBS and residual fuels to vary nitrogen level while holding other fuel properties constant. Test results indicate that low levels of NOx and fuel-bound nitrogen conversion can be achieved with the rich/lean combustor concepts for fuels with nitrogen contents up to 1.0% by weight. Multinozzle rich/lean Concept 2 demonstrated dry low Nox emissions within 10-15% of the EPA New Source Performance Standards goals for SRC-II fuel, with yields of approximately 15%, while meeting program goals for combustion efficiency, pressure drop, and exhaust gas temperature profile. Similar, if not superior, potential was demonstrated by Concept 3, which is a promising rich/lean combustor design.

  14. Biobutanol as Fuel for Direct Alcohol Fuel Cells-Investigation of Sn-Modified Pt Catalyst for Butanol Electro-oxidation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puthiyapura, Vinod Kumar; Brett, Dan J L; Russell, Andrea E; Lin, Wen-Feng; Hardacre, Christopher

    2016-05-25

    Direct alcohol fuel cells (DAFCs) mostly use low molecular weight alcohols such as methanol and ethanol as fuels. However, short-chain alcohol molecules have a relative high membrane crossover rate in DAFCs and a low energy density. Long chain alcohols such as butanol have a higher energy density, as well as a lower membrane crossover rate compared to methanol and ethanol. Although a significant number of studies have been dedicated to low molecular weight alcohols in DAFCs, very few studies are available for longer chain alcohols such as butanol. A significant development in the production of biobutanol and its proposed application as an alternative fuel to gasoline in the past decade makes butanol an interesting candidate fuel for fuel cells. Different butanol isomers were compared in this study on various Pt and PtSn bimetallic catalysts for their electro-oxidation activities in acidic media. Clear distinctive behaviors were observed for each of the different butanol isomers using cyclic voltammetry (CV), indicating a difference in activity and the mechanism of oxidation. The voltammograms of both n-butanol and iso-butanol showed similar characteristic features, indicating a similar reaction mechanism, whereas 2-butanol showed completely different features; for example, it did not show any indication of poisoning. Ter-butanol was found to be inactive for oxidation on Pt. In situ FTIR and CV analysis showed that OHads was essential for the oxidation of primary butanol isomers which only forms at high potentials on Pt. In order to enhance the water oxidation and produce OHads at lower potentials, Pt was modified by the oxophilic metal Sn and the bimetallic PtSn was studied for the oxidation of butanol isomers. A significant enhancement in the oxidation of the 1° butanol isomers was observed on addition of Sn to the Pt, resulting in an oxidation peak at a potential ∼520 mV lower than that found on pure Pt. The higher activity of PtSn was attributed to the

  15. Predicting Head Start parent involvement in an alcohol and other drug prevention program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hahn, E J

    1995-01-01

    This study examined Health Belief Model predictors of parent involvement with preschool children in an alcohol and other drug (AOD) prevention program. Over 300 Head Start parents were invited to participate in BABES (Beginning Alcohol and Addictions Basic Education Studies) with their children once a week for 7 weeks. Two hundred parents completed self-report instruments prior to participation in BABES. Previous classroom involvement, barriers, county, and race predicted high attendance (3 to 7 lessons). AOD use severity, benefits, and role modeling predicted low attendance (1 to 2 lessons). Further research involving manipulation of external cues, parent involvement in nonclassroom settings, and race-homogeneous samples is recommended. PMID:7862545

  16. 40 CFR 88.304-94 - Clean-fuel Fleet Vehicle Credit Program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... contained in 40 CFR part 88, subpart A. (b) Program administration. (1)(i) Each state in which there is all... 40 Protection of Environment 20 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Clean-fuel Fleet Vehicle Credit...) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) CLEAN-FUEL VEHICLES Clean-Fuel Fleet Program § 88.304-94 Clean-fuel...

  17. Fuel: a computer program for systematic estimation of nuclear fuel cycle cost

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A computer program FUEL was developed that calculates the fuel cycle cost in chronological order. The results are also given for every component of the cost such as: uranium, enrichment, fabrication cost, etc. The logic of the program is described. The fuel cost is divided into two main components: the depreciation which is the difference between the initial and final investment in the fuel and the carrying charges which include investment return, insurance and taxes. FUEL has been run on IBM 370/135 DOS/VS system for a PWR reactor rated at 620MWe net, with technical data from a typical Westinghouse reactor, and economic assumption updated to the beginning of 1975. The data and assumptions are summarized in Table 1. Two typical problems of the nuclear fuel cycle were analyzed: tails enrichment that yields a minimum nuclear fuel cycle cost and economic break-even point for reprocessing. With the data presented in the work the optimum tails enrichment is 0.20% (which is the toll tails enrichment used today); the break-even point for reprocessing is at 81 $/KguU (this cost does not include shipping and reconversion costs). (B.G.)

  18. Secondary Effects of an Alcohol Prevention Program Targeting Students and/or Parents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koning, Ina M; Vollebergh, Wilma A M

    2016-08-01

    The secondary effects of an alcohol prevention program (PAS) on onset of weekly smoking and monthly cannabis use are examined among >3000 Dutch early adolescents (M age=12.64) randomized over four conditions: 1) parent intervention (PI), 2) student intervention (SI), 3) combined intervention (CI) and 4) control condition (CC). Rules about alcohol, alcohol use, and adolescents' self-control were investigated as possible mediators. PI had a marginal aversive effect, slightly increasing the risk of beginning to smoke at T1, and increased the likelihood of beginning to use cannabis use at T1 and T2. SI delayed the onset of monthly cannabis use at T3. CI increased the risk to use cannabis at T3. No mediational processes were found. In conclusion, though this study show mixed results, negative side effects of the PI were found, particularly at earlier ages. Moreover, these results indicate the need for multi-target interventions. PMID:27296663

  19. Hydrocarbon raw emission characterization of a direct-injection spark ignition engine operated with alcohol and furan-based bio fuels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thewes, Matthias [FEV GmbH, Aachen (Germany); Mauermann, Peter; Pischinger, Stefan [RWTH Aachen Univ. (Germany). Inst. for Combustion Engines; Bluhm, Kerstin; Hollert, Henner [RWTH Aachen Univ. (Germany). Inst. for Environmental Research, Dept. of Ecosystem Analysis

    2013-06-01

    Within the Cluster of Excellence ''Tailor-Made Fuels from Biomass'' the impact of various potential bio fuels on engine combustion is studied. Besides alcohols, furan-based bio fuels have come into the focus with novel production routes to transform biomass into 2-Methylfuran or 2,5-Dimethylfuran. In the present study, the influence of these and other bio fuels on the hydrocarbon raw emission spectrum of a direct-injection spark-ignition single cylinder engine is studied experimentally by means of gas chromatographic and mass spectroscopic analysis of exhaust gas samples. The results obtained are compared to operation with conventional EN 228 gasoline fuel. This fuel showed slip of partially carcinogenic aromatic fuel molecule(s) in warm and in cold engine conditions. For the bio fuels, slip was found to be significant for the alcohol fuels. The carcinogenic molecule 1,3-Butadiene was present in the exhaust gas of all fuels. Furan as another possibly carcinogenic molecule was found at significantly higher concentrations in the exhaust gas of the furan-based bio fuels compared to conventional gasoline fuel but not in the exhaust gas of the alcohol fuels. (orig.)

  20. Certification for copper concentration in reference material for fuel anhydro ethylic alcohol; Certificacao da concentracao de cobre em material de referencia para alcool etilico anidro combustivel (AEC)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reis, Lindomar Augusto dos; Rocha, Marcia Silva da; Mesko, Marcia Foster; Silva, Fagner Francisco da; Quaresma, Maria Cristina Baptista; Araujo, Thiago Oliveira [Instituto Nacional de Metrologia, Normalizacao e Qualidade Industrial (DIMCI/INMETRO), Duque de Caxias, RJ (Brazil). Diretoria de Metrologia Cientifica e Industrial], E-mail: lareis@inmetro.gov.br

    2009-07-01

    This work aiming to obtain the first certified reference material for fuel anhydro ethylic alcohol relative to the copper concentration, which has his maximum limit determined by the in force legislation providing traceability and reliability for the measurement results.

  1. Alcohol fuels. 1970-1978 (citations from the Engineering Index Data Base). Report for 1970-78

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cavagnaro, D.M.

    1980-06-01

    The cited reports from a worldwide literature survey, include such topics as blends, synthesis, processes used, properties, engine performance evaluations, economics, safety measures, pollution effects, and combustion studies. Also covered are the sources from which alcohol fuels can be obtained, such as coal, solid wastes, industry by-products, and agricultural wastes. (This updated bibliography contains 220 citations, none of which are new entries to the previous edition.)

  2. Carbon-Supported PtRuMo Electrocatalysts for Direct Alcohol Fuel Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José L.G. Fierro

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available The review article discusses the current status and recent findings of our investigations on the synthesis and characterization of carbon-supported PtRuMo electrocatalysts for direct alcohol fuel cells. In particular, the effect of the carbon support and the composition on the structure, stability and the activity of the PtRuMo nanoparticles for the electrooxidation of CO, methanol and ethanol have been studied. Different physicochemical techniques have been employed for the analysis of the catalysts structures: X-ray analytical methods (XRD, XPS, TXRF, thermogravimetry (TGA and transmission electron microscopy (TEM, as well as a number of electrochemical techniques like CO adsorption studies, current-time curves and cyclic voltammetry measurements. Furthermore, spectroscopic methods adapted to the electrochemical systems for in situ studies, such as Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIRS and differential electrochemical mass spectrometry (DEMS, have been used to evaluate the oxidation process of CO, methanol and ethanol over the carbon-supported PtRuMo electrocatalysts.

  3. Conception and analysis of a direct-injection, alcohol-fuel, stratified-charge engine. Konzeption und Analyse eines direkteinspritzenden Alkohol-Schichtladungsmotors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weissermel, V.

    1987-01-16

    The author investigated the applicability of alcohol fuels in small diesel engines with modified combustion chamber configuration and with spark plugs. A thermodynamic analysis was carried out for the mixing and combustion processes with alcohol fuel. Preparatory activities, experiments (parameters, basic experiments with diesel fuel and methanol, ignition problems), and methods of evaluation and calculation for process analysis purposes are gone into. Finally, the experimental results of diesel fuel, methanol and ethanol are compared. The possibility of applying the engine concept to a 4-cylinder, full-scale engine is discussed. (HWJ).

  4. Turning to alcohol?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brazil is examining whether turning to alcohol could solve its problems. The fuel alcohol producers are lobbying hard for the government to increase the use of alcohol to fuel the country's cars. Not only does using alcohol reduce CO2, runs the argument, but the Kyoto agreement might just attract international financing for the project. (author)

  5. Underlying chemistry research for the nuclear fuel waste management program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This document reviews the underlying chemistry research part of the Canadian Nuclear Fuel Waste Management Program, carried out in the Research Chemistry Branch. This research is concerned with developing the basic chemical knowledge and under-standing required in other parts of the Program. There are four areas of underlying research: Waste Form Chemistry, Solute and Solution Chemistry, Rock-Water-Waste Interactions, and Abatement and Monitoring of Gas-Phase Radionuclides

  6. Spent Fuel and Waste Management Technology Development Program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report provides information on the progress of activities during fiscal year 1993 in the Spent Fuel and Waste Management Technology Development Program (SF ampersand WMTDP) at the Idaho Chemical Processing Plant (ICPP). As a new program, efforts are just getting underway toward addressing major issues related to the fuel and waste stored at the ICPP. The SF ampersand WMTDP has the following principal objectives: Investigate direct dispositioning of spent fuel, striving for one acceptable waste form; determine the best treatment process(es) for liquid and calcine wastes to minimize the volume of high level radioactive waste (HLW) and low level waste (LLW); demonstrate the integrated operability and maintainability of selected treatment and immobilization processes; and assure that implementation of the selected waste treatment process is environmentally acceptable, ensures public and worker safety, and is economically feasible

  7. Consolidated fuel reprocessing. Program progress report, April 1-June 30, 1980

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1980-09-01

    This progress report is compiled from major contributions from three programs: (1) the Advanced Fuel Recycle Program at ORNL; (2) the Converter Fuel Reprocessing Program at Savannah River Laboratory; and (3) the reprocessing components of the HTGR Fuel Recycle Program, primarily at General Atomic and ORNL. The coverage is generally overview in nature; experimental details and data are limited.

  8. Fuel channel in-service inspection programs program design for maximum cost effectiveness

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Inspection is an integral part of fuel channel life management strategy. Inspection data is used to assess the state of reactor core integrity and provide the information necessary to optimize long term maintenance programs. This paper will provide an overview of the structured approach to developing fuel channel inspection programs within OHN. The inspection programs are designed to balance the resources utilized (cost, outage time, and dose expenditure) with the benefits provided by the inspection data obtained (improved knowledge of component status, degradation mechanisms and rates, etc..). The CANDU community has yet to have a fuel channel operate for a full 30 year design life. Since research programs can not fully simulate reactor operating conditions, inspections become an essential feature of the life management strategy as the components age. Inspection programs often include activities designed to develop predictive capability for long term fuel channel behaviour and provide early warning of changes in behaviour. It should be noted that although this paper addresses the design of fuel channel inspection programs, the basic principles presented can be applied to the design of inspection programs for any major power plant component or system. (author)

  9. Optimization of the Korean nuclear fuel cycle using linear programming

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Korean optimal nuclear fuel cycle strategy from the year 2000 to 2030 is searched using linear programming. Three criteria are considered: fuel cycle cost, economic risk, and natural uranium consumption. The three objectives are compromised by fuzzy decision technique which maximizes the minimum degree of satisfaction of the three objectives. The options of the back-end nuclear fuel cycle of Korea are direct disposal, reprocessing, and DUPIC. The annual maximum capacities of reprocessing and DUPIC are limited to 800 tons per year as a reference case and 400 tons per year as a lower case and 1,200 tons per year as a upper case. The optimal strategy of reference case is to start operation in 2010 and reach the maximum capacity in 2024. The transportation of spent fuel to interim storage starts in 2003. Considering the economic risk and natural uranium consumption as well as fuel cycle cost, the economic risk and natural uranium consumption of Korean nuclear fuel cycle strategy are reduced to 7.1% and 6.1% respectively at a cost penalty of 5.4%. In all cases the recovered uranium is recycled in CANDU

  10. Advanced PWR fuel assembly development programs in Korea

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Both KNFC and Westinghouse have continued to focus on developing products that will meet the challenge of increasing fuel duty requirements in Korea. These higher duty conditions include higher energy core designs through improved plant capacity factors, power uprate, extended fuel burnup, peaking factor increases, and more severe coolant chemistry (including high lithium concentration). Recent advanced fuel development activities in Korea include implementation of the 17x17 Robust Fuel Assembly (RFA), which is currently in operation with excellent performance in the United States and Europe, as well as the 16x16 PLUS7TM fuel assembly for use in KSNP plants. KNFC and Westinghouse are jointly developing advanced fuel that will meet future fuel duty challenges of 17x17 and 16x16 Westinghouse type plants. This paper focuses on advanced fuel assembly development programs that are underway and how these designs demonstrate improved margins under high duty plant operating conditions. In designing for these high duty conditions key design considerations for the various operational modes (i.e. power uprating, high burnup, long cycles, etc.) must be identified. These design considerations will include the traditional factors such as safety margin (DNB and LOCA), fuel rod design margin (e.g. corrosion, internal pressure, etc.) and mechanical design margins, among others. In addressing these design considerations, the fundamental approach is to provide additional design margin through materials, mechanical, and thermal performance enhancements, to assure flawless fuel performance. The foundation of all fuel designs is the product development process used to meet the demands of modern high duty operation including power uprating, high burnup, longer cycles, and high-lithium coolant chemistries. These advanced fuel assembly designs incorporate features that provide improved mechanical design margin, as well as thermal performance margin (DNB). Enhanced grid designs result in a

  11. The Chilean LEU fuel fabrication program. Status report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The U3Si2 LEU fuel manufacturing program started in 1998 for Chile's RECH-1 reactor, being completed this year with the assembly of four fuel elements (FE) and thus resulting in 48 FE delivered to the reactor. These FE have a density of 3.4 MgU/m3. Four of them, called 'leaders', were early introduced into the reactor core for qualification purposes, two in December 1998 and two in July 1999. Up to date, they have achieved a burn-up of 32% and 30% respectively, and have shown excellent irradiation behavior at inspections scheduled by the RECH-1 irradiation follow-up program. During 2002 a reference nucleus comprising 32 LEU fuel elements was configured at the RECH-1, thus achieving the LEU conversion goal. In March 2003, Chile's Fuel Fabrication Plant delivered one FE to the Petten-HFR, and its irradiation, which started in May 2003, will end by August 2004 after achieving 55% burn up. This irradiation qualification service will finish in the year 2005 with PIE tests, as established in a contractual agreement between the IAEA, NRG, and CCHEN. These fabrication and irradiation efforts are the final results of an internal R and D program, that nowadays has an U-7% Mo alloy development in progress. Finally, all these fabrication activities have comprised quality issues that have been addressed via the implementation of a QMS that has resulted in an ISO 9001 Certification obtained in March 2003. (author)

  12. Trans-Atlantic Fuel Fabrication Security of Supply Program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The present paper describes one of the latest initiatives put in place by the nuclear industry to secure the supply of nuclear fuel for LWR. The project presented here is focused on the manufacturing phase of the supply chain and is the result of a cooperation between US and Spanish entities - nuclear power plant as well as fuel manufacturers - with the added value of the participation of other facilities located in Europe. The main objectives, challenges and characteristics of the program are discussed as well as the expected results. (authors)

  13. Comparison of Alcohol Abusers Who Seek Traditional Treatment Versus Those Who Use An Online Program

    OpenAIRE

    Huang, Suena W.; Lieberman, Daniel Z.

    2006-01-01

    The majority of individuals with alcohol use disorders do not receive treatment. Access to treatment for substance abuse disorders is limited, and practical strategies are needed to expand opportunities for individuals to receive effective interventions. A recently developed online program was designed to increase users’ motivation for change and offer treatment options. Utilization of the unique strengths of the Internet allowed a hidden, currently untreated population to be reached.

  14. Tailoring the key fuel properties using different alcohols (C2–C6) and their evaluation in gasoline engine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • Optimized C2–C6 alcohols–gasoline blends achieved better properties than E15. • Optimum blends improved torque and reduced BSFC than that of E15 fuel. • Higher peak in-cylinder pressure obtained for alcohol gasoline blends. • Compared to E15, optimum blends reduced BSCO, BSHC and BSNOx emission. - Abstract: The use of ethanol as a fuel for internal combustion engines has been given much attention mostly because of its possible environmental and long-term economical advantages over fossil fuel. Higher carbon number alcohols, such as propanol, butanol, pentanol and hexanol also have the potential to use as alternatives as they have higher energy content, octane number and can displace more petroleum gasoline than that of ethanol. Therefore, this study focuses on improvement of different physicochemical properties using multiple alcohols at different ratios compared to that of the ethanol–gasoline blend (E10/E15). To optimize the properties of multiple alcohol–gasoline blends, properties of each fuel were measured. An optimization tool of Microsoft Excel “Solver” was used to find out the optimum blend. Three optimum blends with maximum heating value (MaxH), maximum research octane number (MaxR) and maximum petroleum displacement (MaxD) are selected for testing in a four cylinder gasoline engine. Tests were conducted under the wide open throttle condition with varying speeds and compared results with that of E15 (Ethanol 15% with gasoline 85%) as well as gasoline. Optimized blends have shown higher brake torque than gasoline. In the terms of BSFC (Brake specific fuel consumption), optimized blends performed better than that of E15. In-cylinder pressure started to rise earlier for all alcohol–gasoline blends than gasoline. The peak in-cylinder pressure and peak heat release rate obtained higher for alcohol gasoline blend than that of gasoline. On the other hand, the use of optimized blends reduces BSCO (Brake specific carbon monoxide

  15. US DOE CASL Program Fuel Performance Modeling for Steady State and Transient Analysis of LWR Fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The US DOE’s Consortium for Advanced Simulation of LWRs (CASL) program has undertaken an effort to enhance and develop modeling and simulation tools for a virtual reactor application, including high fidelity neutronics, fluid flow/thermal hydraulics, and fuel and material behavior. An important goal of this effort is to provide methods for multi-physics coupling, including full core modeling of neutronics, coolant channel flow, and fuel behavior. The fuel performance analysis efforts in the CASL program aim to provide 3-dimensional capabilities for single and multiple rods to assess safety margins and the impact of plant operation and fuel rod design on the fuel thermomechanical- chemical behavior, including Pellet-Cladding Interaction (PCI) failures, CRUD-induced Power Shift (CIPS) and CRUD-Induced Localized Corrosion (CILC) failures in PWRs. These capabilities will accurately calculate the thermal, mechanical, and chemical conditions throughout a single fuel rod during operation in a LWR reactor. To this end, two engineering scale codes have been developed by the CASL efforts to date: the Peregrine fuel rod performance code and the MAMBA CRUD formation and boron deposition code. Each of these codes address the multi-physics material behavior aspects of the phenomena being represented, provide the interface to the neutronics and thermalhydraulics tools, and establish a framework for employing microscale models through a variety of methods, including direct use, improved mechanistic or empirical models, or limited parameter response surfaces. Recent activities to demonstrate the capabilities of Peregrine and MAMBA for LWR fuel performance modeling have successfully shown that these codes are approaching or exceed the capabilities of industry standards, such as the EPRI Falcon and BOA codes. MAMBA and Peregrine are able to reliably calculate CRUD distributions, cladding and fuel temperatures, cladding deformations, and fission gas release as a function of the

  16. IAEA activities related to research reactor fuel conversion and spent fuel return programs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The IAEA has been involved for more than twenty years in supporting international nuclear non-proliferation efforts associated with reducing the amount of highly enriched uranium (HEU) in international commerce. IAEA projects and activities have directly supported the Reduced Enrichment for Research and Test Reactors (RERTR) programme, as well as directly associated efforts to return research reactor fuel to the country where it was originally enriched. IAEA efforts have included the development and maintenance of several data bases with information related to research reactors and research reactor spent fuel inventories that have been essential in planning and managing both RERTR and spent fuel return programmes. Other IAEA regular budget programs have supported research reactor fuel conversion from HEU to low enriched uranium (LEU), and in addressing issues common to many member states with spent fuel management problems and concerns. The paper briefly describes IAEA involvement since the early 1980's in these areas, including regular budget and Technical Co-operation programme activities, and focuses on efforts in the past five years to continue to support and accelerate U.S. and Russian research reactor spent fuel return programmes. (author)

  17. In-core fuel management programs for nuclear power reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In response to the interest shown by Member States, the IAEA organized a co-ordinated research programme to develop and make available in the open domain a set of programs to perform in-core fuel management calculations. This report summarizes the work performed in the context of the CRP. As a result of this programme, complete in-core fuel management packages for three types of reactors, namely PWR's, BWR's and PHWR are now available from the NEA Data Bank. For some reactor types, these program packages are available with three levels of sophistication ranging from simple methods for educational purposes to more comprehensive methods that can be used for reactor design and operation. In addition some operating data have been compiled to allow code validation. (author)

  18. Nuclear fuel waste management - biosphere program highlights - 1978 to 1996

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The biosphere program in support of the development of the disposal concept for Canadian nuclear fuel waste since 1978 is scheduled for close-out. AECL's Environmental Science Branch (ESB) was mainly responsible for work in this program. In order to preserve as much information as possible, this report highlights many of the key achievements of the program, particularly those related to the development of the BIOTRAC biosphere model and its supporting research. This model was used for the assessment and review of the disposal concept in an environmental impact statement (EIS). The report also treats highlights related to alternative models, external scientific/technical reviews, EIS feedback, and the international BIOMOVS model validation program. Furthermore, it highlights basic aspects of future modelling and research needs in relation to siting a disposal facility. In this, feedback from the various reviews and the EIS is taken into account. Appendices of the report include listings of key ESB staff involved in the program, all the scientific/technical reports and papers produced under the program, contracts let to outside agencies, and issues raised by various participants or intervenors during the EIS review. Although the report is concerned with close-out of the biosphere program, it also provides valuable information for a continuing program concerned with siting a disposal facility. One of the conclusions of the report is that such a program is essential for successfully siting such a facility. (author)

  19. Current status of Westinghouse tubular solid oxide fuel cell program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Parker, W.G. [Westinghouse Science and Technology Center, Pittsburgh, PA (United States)

    1996-04-01

    In the last ten years the solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) development program at Westinghouse has evolved from a focus on basic material science to the engineering of fully integrated electric power systems. Our endurance for this cell is 5 to 10 years. To date we have successfully operated at power for over six years. For power plants it is our goal to have operated before the end of this decade a MW class power plant. Progress toward these goals is described.

  20. 76 FR 67287 - Alternative Fuel Transportation Program; Alternative Fueled Vehicle Credit Program (Subpart F...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-31

    ... and Plug-In Hybrid Electric Vehicles C. Investments 1. Alternative Fuel Infrastructure 2. Alternative... plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (PHEV) are commercialized (see Part IV.B.2 below). Except in those... EPAct 1992, as amended, as ``an electric, hybrid electric, or plug-in hybrid electric vehicle with...

  1. Methods and computer programs for PWR's fuel management: Programs Sothis and Ciclon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Methos and computer programs developed at JEN for fuel management in PWR are discussed, including scope of model, procedures for sistematic selection of alternatives to be evaluated, basis of model for neutronic calculation, methods for fuel costs calculation, procedures for equilibrium and trans[tion cycles calculation with Soth[s and Ciclon codes and validation of methods by comparison of results with others of reference (author) '

  2. Development of Dual Cooled Annular Fuel Temperature Analysis Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang, Yong Sik; Shin, C. H.; Bang, J. G.; Kim, D. H.; Kim, S. K.; Lim, I. S.; Koo Yang Hyun [KAERI, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2010-09-15

    To calculate the temperature distribution of dual cooled annular fuel, the DUOS program has been developed. Various thermal hydraulic models to determine the inner channel and outer channel flow distribution were established based on equal pressure drop condition at the top of fuel rod. The effect of gap width change was considered by employing thermal deformation model of pellet and claddings. Heat conduction model in the pellet was solved by finite difference method to consider burnup and power difference according to pellet radius. Pellet temperature model was validated by comparison with calculated temperature profile, which was determined by analytical solution of heat conduction equation under controlled input condition. Accuracy of thermal hydraulic models of DUOS were validated by core sub-channel analysis code MATRA-AF. Coolant bulk temperature of inner/outer channel and pressure drop prediction results of DUOS program show good agreement with that of MATRA-AF. Further models should be added in DUOS program to describe dual cooled annular fuel in-pile behavior, but basic thermal analysis structure has been established successfully

  3. Development of Dual Cooled Annular Fuel Temperature Analysis Program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To calculate the temperature distribution of dual cooled annular fuel, the DUOS program has been developed. Various thermal hydraulic models to determine the inner channel and outer channel flow distribution were established based on equal pressure drop condition at the top of fuel rod. The effect of gap width change was considered by employing thermal deformation model of pellet and claddings. Heat conduction model in the pellet was solved by finite difference method to consider burnup and power difference according to pellet radius. Pellet temperature model was validated by comparison with calculated temperature profile, which was determined by analytical solution of heat conduction equation under controlled input condition. Accuracy of thermal hydraulic models of DUOS were validated by core sub-channel analysis code MATRA-AF. Coolant bulk temperature of inner/outer channel and pressure drop prediction results of DUOS program show good agreement with that of MATRA-AF. Further models should be added in DUOS program to describe dual cooled annular fuel in-pile behavior, but basic thermal analysis structure has been established successfully

  4. 75 FR 26025 - Regulation of Fuels and Fuel Additives: Modifications to Renewable Fuel Standard Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-10

    ... to the disposal of the specified recyclable materials. 80.1426(f)(5)(vi) Corrected typographical... certain of the Renewable Fuel Standard regulations published on March 26, 2010, at 75 FR 14670 (the ``RFS2... commenced construction prior to December 19, 2007, but that did not operate prior to 2008, should be...

  5. Heterogeneous catalytic process for alcohol fuels from syngas. Quarterly technical progress report No. 8, October--December 1993

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-12-31

    The novel heterogeneous catalysts for conversion of syngas to oxygenates having use as fuel enhancers, to explore novel reactor and process concepts applicable in this process, and to develop the best total process for converting syngas to liquid fuels. Our current targets for isobutanol-producing catalysts are to produce an equimolar mixture of methanol and isobutanol with a productivity for isobutanol of > 50 g/Kg-hr. Reactor system modifications, undertaken to improve data quality, have been completed. The changes should help eliminate differences between the two reactors and allow for more accurate determination of higher molecular weight products. To calibrate our new reactor system, we have retested our ``best`` isobutanol catalyst, 10-DAN-54 (a promoted Zn/Cr/Mn spinel oxide). Under standard test conditions (400{degrees}C, 1000 psi, 12000 GHSV and syngas ratio = 1:1), this catalyst produces 200--252 g/kg-hr of total alcohols (total alcohol selectivities of 57--68%) with an isobutanol rate of 94--130 g/kg-hr and a MeOH/i-BuOH product mole ratio of 3. These results compare with a productivity of 112 g/kg-hr of total alcohols (total alcohol selectivity of 86%) with an isobutanol rate of 38 g/kg-hr and a MeOH/i-BuOH product mole ratio of 3 observed in the original microreactor system configuration. It should be remembered that the test apparatus is designed for screening only. Detailed, more reliable data for kinetic modeling must be generated using larger catalyst charges (> 10g) and in larger scale test equipment.

  6. Strategies and national programs of closed fuel cycles: Russian vision

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nowadays, a transition to a full-scale closure of nuclear fuel cycle (NFC) is becoming an actual and key task for any long-term scenarios and nuclear power engineering development strategies. Only successful solution of these tasks and effective industrial implementation of closed NFC are acceptable from the public and ecological viewpoint allows the transition to advanced development of nuclear power engineering both on a national and regional scale and at the world level. It allows the transition of nuclear power engineering from accompanying and alternative component of the fuel energy balance to a primary and basic status, i.e. it makes nuclear power engineering a base for the world power engineering free of greenhouse gases and provided with resources available for millenniums (U-238 and in the future - thorium). The report includes an expert review and analysis of strategies and national programs of leading nuclear countries (France, Japan, USA, China and India) compared to the Russian plans and programs for the period upto 2050 on the basis of the public press materials. It covers the following key positions and directions of the closed NFC development: Start-up dates, scope and objectives of thermal reactor SNF reprocessing; Closed NFC technologies; Dates of putting into operation of pilot industrial fast reactors; Fast reactor fuel cycles; Plans and dates of fast reactor building start-up; Transition to high-density types of fast reactor fuel; Utilization of Pu-bearing fuel in thermal reactor; Nuclear Fuel Cycle closure on MAs; RAW management strategy; National policy, international cooperation and competition in the market of NFC services. In Russia, main system problems of large-scale nuclear power engineering relate to high and continuously growing volumes of SNF and a limited raw material base of the existing nuclear power engineering with thermal neutron reactors. To solve these problems, Federal Target Program 'Nuclear Energy Technologies of New

  7. Studies and research concerning BNFP: spent fuel disassembly and canning programs at the Barnwell Nuclear Fuel Plant (BNFP)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Methods of disassembling and canning spent fuel to allow more efficient storage are being investigated at the BNFP. Studies and development programs are aimed at dry disassembly of fuel to allow storage and shipment of fuel pins rather than complete fuel assemblies. Results indicate that doubling existing storage capacity or tripling the carrying capacity of existing transportation equipment is achievable. Disassembly could be performed in the BNFP hot cells at rates of about 12 to 15 assemblies per day

  8. The Australian Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Education Program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The next generation of engineers and scientists will face great technical, economic and political challenges to satisfy increasing demands for a secure, reliable and affordable global energy system that maintains and enhances current standards of living. The Australian Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Education Program aims to bolster the quality and relevance of primary and secondary school teaching in emerging areas of science, technology and environmental/sustainability studies using hydrogen, in its capacity as a versatile energy carrier, as the educational basis for teacher and student learning. Critical advances in specific areas of hydrogen production, distribution, storage and end-use technologies arise when students are engaged to develop and apply a broad range of disciplinary and interdisciplinary knowledge and practical skills. A comprehensive hydrogen and fuel cell technology teaching module will be developed to complement existing fuels and energy curricula across Australian schools. The pilot program will be delivered via the collaboration of nine trial schools, a broad range of technical and pedagogy experts and representatives of professional bodies and industry. The program features essential and extensive teacher consultation, a professional learning and development course, industry site visits and a dedicated research and evaluation study. This initiative aims to bolster teacher literacy and student participation in the design, construction and operation of various hydrogen and fuel cell devices and extended activities. Students will reflect on and formally present their learning experiences via several dedicated fora including an awards ceremony where outstanding performance of leading schools, teachers and student groups within the cluster will be acknowledged. (authors)

  9. The Australian Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Education Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Luigi Bonadio [Senior Consultant Luigi Bonadio and Associates (Australia)

    2006-07-01

    The next generation of engineers and scientists will face great technical, economic and political challenges to satisfy increasing demands for a secure, reliable and affordable global energy system that maintains and enhances current standards of living. The Australian Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Education Program aims to bolster the quality and relevance of primary and secondary school teaching in emerging areas of science, technology and environmental/sustainability studies using hydrogen, in its capacity as a versatile energy carrier, as the educational basis for teacher and student learning. Critical advances in specific areas of hydrogen production, distribution, storage and end-use technologies arise when students are engaged to develop and apply a broad range of disciplinary and interdisciplinary knowledge and practical skills. A comprehensive hydrogen and fuel cell technology teaching module will be developed to complement existing fuels and energy curricula across Australian schools. The pilot program will be delivered via the collaboration of nine trial schools, a broad range of technical and pedagogy experts and representatives of professional bodies and industry. The program features essential and extensive teacher consultation, a professional learning and development course, industry site visits and a dedicated research and evaluation study. This initiative aims to bolster teacher literacy and student participation in the design, construction and operation of various hydrogen and fuel cell devices and extended activities. Students will reflect on and formally present their learning experiences via several dedicated fora including an awards ceremony where outstanding performance of leading schools, teachers and student groups within the cluster will be acknowledged. (authors)

  10. Liquid Tin Anode Direct Coal Fuel Cell Final Program Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tao, Thomas

    2012-01-26

    This SBIR program will result in improved LTA cell technology which is the fundamental building block of the Direct Coal ECL concept. As described below, ECL can make enormous efficiency and cost contributions to utility scale coal power. This program will improve LTA cells for small scale power generation. As described in the Commercialization section, there are important intermediate military and commercial markets for LTA generators that will provide an important bridge to the coal power application. The specific technical information from this program relating to YSZ electrolyte durability will be broadly applicable SOFC developers working on coal based SOFC generally. This is an area about which very little is currently known and will be critical for successfully applying fuel cells to coal power generation.

  11. Alcoholism and Alcohol Abuse

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... their drinking causes distress and harm. It includes alcoholism and alcohol abuse. Alcoholism, or alcohol dependence, is a disease that causes ... groups. NIH: National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism

  12. Development of models and programs for LWR-fuel rod design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A computer program for BWR fuel has been developed on the basis of the fast breeder reactor fuel rod code SATURN. The LWR fuel rod code CARO has been further developed, in particular it has been extended for BWR fuel rod application. The computer program TAVAS has been set up for detailed thermal analyzes. It allows studying the influence of non-concentric position of pellet and clad. The behaviour of different fuel rod types during mechanical fuel clad interaction has been studied on the basis of a simplified stress-strain analysis and a so called interference model has been developed for the interpretation of the fuel rod ramp behaviour. (orig.)

  13. A summary of the program and progress to 1984 December of the Canadian nuclear fuel waste management program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Canadian Nuclear Fuel Waste Management Program involves research into the storage and transportation of used nuclear fuel, immobilization of fuel waste, and deep geological disposal of the immobilized waste. The program is now in the fifth year of a ten-year generic research and development phase. The objective of this phase of the program is to assess the safety and environmental aspects of the deep underground disposal of immobilized fuel waste in plutonic rock. The objectives of the research for each component of the program and the progress made to the end of 1984 are described in this report. 74 refs

  14. Consolidated Fuel Reprocessing Program. Progress report, January 1 to March 31, 1979

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Unger, W.E. (comp.)

    1979-06-01

    On Oct. 1, 1978, a transition phase was begun to concentrate all US fuel reprocessing research in one major program, the Consolidated Fuel Reprocessing Program (CFRP). The CFRP is organized into the following: process R and D, engineering research, engineering systems, technical support, HTGR fuel reprocessing, and pyrochemical and dry processing methods. Progress is reported in each area. (DLC)

  15. ENRESA's R and D Programs on irradiated fuel and separation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Enresa, The Spanish Radioactive Waste Management Agency was set up in spain 1984 as a state-owned company, in order to be responsible for management of this type of wastes in the country. The company is supervised by the government, to whom is obliged to submit an Annual Report of Activities and a Proposal for general Radioactive Waste plan on a yearly basis. During the assumed 40-year lifetime of Spanish nuclear power plants the nuclear electricity production will generate 6800 tU of irradiated fuel and 84 canisters of vitrified HLW from reprocessing Vandellos I NPP (GCR) spent fuel ( the reactor currently is in dismantling process). Also it is responsible of the following points: Management of low, intermediate and high level radioactive wastes (spent nuclear fuel) Operation of a facility for low and intermediate level waste deposal in el Cabril (Cordoba) Develop a program for selection and construction of a repository (spent nuclear fuel) Dismantling of nuclear installations After creation of Enresa (1985) there was a change of strategy for HLW, LWR spent fuel is considered a waste. In different radioactive waste plants approved by the Government and in R and D programmes geological disposal is the only option. In 98/1/29 the government takes decision of delay up to 2010 the approval by the Parliament of the option more convenient for final deposal according with the state of the technology. The Research and Development programmes of Enresa linked to the general radioactive waste management plans are based in: Financing and management by Enresa. Development and creation of experimental research external groups (Universities, companies, institutions...). Closed linked to EU and international RDT programmes. From 1986 up to 1999 ENRESA has implemented 3 R and D programmes. The principal objective of those plans was the development of technologies for the final wast management based in a deep geological disposal (AGP). Those plans were closely linked to the 3 '' rd

  16. Reducing Alcohol and Other Drug-Related Harm in Young People: Evaluation of a Youth Engagement Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKenzie, Stephen; Droste, Nic; Hickford, Salli; Miller, Peter

    2011-01-01

    Deakin University's RuralLife alcohol and other drug (AOD) research initiative was commissioned by St John of God Hospital and Barwon Youth to evaluate their Youth Engagement Program (YEP), which is an AOD harm-reduction program intended to engage young people with AOD problems in a region that has a higher-than-state-average proportion of young…

  17. Do Girls Profit More? Gender-Specific Effectiveness of a Life Skills Program against Alcohol Consumption in Early Adolescence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weichold, Karina; Brambosch, Anett; Silbereisen, Rainer K.

    2012-01-01

    This study investigated the effectiveness of a life skills program with regard to alcohol consumption, life skills, knowledge, and school bonding for young adolescents. The focus was on the moderating role of gender, based on the assumption that life skills programs may address specific needs of adolescent girls better than those of boys. The…

  18. If You Feed Them, Will They Come? The Use of Social Marketing to Increase Interest in Attending a College Alcohol Program

    OpenAIRE

    Palmer, Rebekka S.; Kilmer, Jason R.; Larimer, Mary E.

    2006-01-01

    The authors used social marketing to design and test advertisement components aimed at increasing students’ interest in attending an alcohol program focused on reaching students who drink heavily, although the authors offered no such program. Participants were undergraduate students in introductory psychology courses (N = 551). Questionnaires included measures assessing demographic information, alcohol use and negative consequences, and interest in attending an alcohol program in response to ...

  19. 40 CFR 600.206-93 - Calculation and use of fuel economy values for gasoline-fueled, diesel-fueled, electric, alcohol...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) ENERGY POLICY FUEL ECONOMY AND CARBON-RELATED EXHAUST EMISSIONS OF MOTOR VEHICLES Fuel Economy Regulations for 1977 and Later Model Year Automobiles-Procedures... 40 Protection of Environment 29 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Calculation and use of fuel...

  20. Alcohol Use and Antisocial Behavior in Late Adolescence: Characteristics of a Sample Attending a GED Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Owens, Meredith Reesman; Bergman, Andrea

    2010-01-01

    This study examined peer deviance, disinhibition, and ADHD symptoms as differential predictors of alcohol use, alcohol use disorder symptoms, and antisocial behavior. It was hypothesized that peer deviance would most strongly predict alcohol use while disinhibition and ADHD would predict alcohol use disorder symptoms and antisocial behavior.…

  1. Microbial studies in the Canadian nuclear fuel waste management program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Atomic Energy of Canada Limited (AECL) has developed a concept for permanent geological disposal of nuclear fuel waste in Canada. An accelerated program was initiated in 1991 to address and quantify the potential effects of microbial action on the integrity of the disposal concept's multiple barrier system. This microbial program focuses on answering specific questions in areas such as the survival of bacteria in compacted clay-based buffer materials under relevant radiation and desiccation conditions; mobility of microbes in compacted buffer materials; the potential for microbially-influenced corrosion of containers; microbial gas production in backfill material; introduction of nutrients as a result of vault excavation and operation; the presence and activity of microbes in deep granitic groundwaters; and the effects of biofilms on radionuclide migration in the geosphere. This paper summarizes the current research activities at AECL in these areas. (author)

  2. Pathways to Commercial Success. Technologies and Products Supported by the Fuel Cell Technologies Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    none,

    2010-08-01

    This report identifies the commercial and near-commercial (emerging) hydrogen and fuel cell technologies and products that resulted from Department of Energy support through the Fuel Cell Technologies Program in the Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy.

  3. The breeder spent fuel packaging and transportation program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Breeder Spent Fuel Handling and Transportation Program of the United States Department of Energy (DOE) was established in 1983 in order to develop a reliable planning base for interface development at the back end of the liquid metal fast breeder reactor (LMFBR) fuel cycle. It began by addressing the immediate interface needs between the planned Clinch River Breeder Reactor, near Oak Ridge, Tennessee, and the proposed Breeder Reprocessing Engineering Test Facility at Richland, Washington, and concluded by providing a developmental plan leading to a sodium-cooled spent breeder fuel transportation cask for a mature 20-reactor LMFBR industry in the year 2025. During the formulation of this plan, as well as during the technology development that constituted the programme, liaison between the DOE and the concerned private industry operations was maintained by frequent meetings. As a result of functional considerations, it was decided that a legal truck-weight stainless steel multi-assembly package would both be economical and would have unlimited routine possibilities and facility access. As the detailed conceptual design emerged, it included remotely workable, spring-loaded, captive bolts to reduce occupational exposure, internal integral impact limiters and a structurally promising depleted uranium gamma shield. Modular baskets of a boron-aluminium alloy, produced by Fonderies Montupet of France, would enhance criticality control and heat transfer, as well as allowing for either a spent fuel or high level waste payload. While preliminary calculations have qualified the structure and shielding, heat transfer from a six-assembly payload still poses problems. Details are discussed in the paper. (author)

  4. Update on Canada's nuclear fuel waste management program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Canadian Nuclear Fuel Waste Management Program (CNFWMP) was launched in 1978 as a joint initiative by the governments of Canada and Ontario. Under the program, AECL has been developing and assessing a generic concept to dispose of nuclear fuel waste in plutonic rock of the Canadian Shield. The disposal concept has been referred for review under the Environmental Assessment and Review Process. AECL will submit an Environmental Impact Statement (EIS) to an Environmental Assessment Panel, which was appointed in late 1989. Hearings will be held in areas that have a particular interest in the concept and its application. At the end of the review, the Panel will make recommendations as to the acceptability of the concept and the course of future action. The federal government will decide on the next steps to be taken. In the spring of 1990 public open houses were held to tell prospective participants how to enter the process. Sessions designed to assist the Panel in determining the scope of the EIS took place in the autumn of 1990. In June 1991 the Panel issued for comment a set of draft guidelines for the EIS. More than 30 groups and individuals submitted comments. The final guidelines were issued in March 1992, and AECL expects to submit its EIS to the Panel in 1993. If the concept review is completed by 1995 and if the concept is approved, disposal could begin some time after 2025. (L.L.) (12 refs.)

  5. Fuel-performance-improvement program. Semiannual progress report, October 1980-March 1981

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Progress on the Fuel Performance Improvement Program's fuel test and demonstration irradiations is reported for the period of October 1980-March 1981. The purpose of the program is to test and demonstrate improved light water reactor fuel concepts that are more resistant to failure from pellet-cladding interaction during power increases than standard pellet fuel. This would also offer extended burnup potential and, hence, improved uranium utilization

  6. Optimization through experiment planning for determination of experimental conditions which guarantees the metrological reliability for analysis of chloride and sulfate in fuel alcohol; Otimizacao via planejamento de experimento para determinar as condicoes experimentais que garantam confiabilidade metrologica para analise de cloreto e sulfato em alcool combustivel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Souza e Silva, Renata; Araujo, Thiago de Oliveira [Instituto Nacional de Metrologia, Normalizacao e Qualidade Industrial (INMETRO), Duque de Caxias, RJ (Brazil)], Emails: rsouza@inmetro.gov.br, toaraujo@inmetro.gov.br; Aguiar, Paula Fernandes de [Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro (UFRJ), RJ (Brazil)], E-mail: pfaguiar@ufrj.br

    2009-07-01

    This work presents a method of analysis to determine chloride and sulfate in fuel alcohol which allowed eliminate or minimized the matrix effect in sample of fuel alcohol, using the Doehlert planning for the stage of optimization.

  7. An in-pile testing program to study the performance characteristics of coated particle fuels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sandia National Laboratories is actively involved in testing coated particle nuclear fuels for the Space Nuclear Thermal Propulsion (SNTP) program managed by Phillips Laboratory. The testing program integrates the results of numerous in-pile and out-of-pile tests with modeling efforts to qualify fuel and fuel elements for the SNTP program. This paper briefly describes the capabilities of the Annular Core Research Reactor (in which the experiments are performed), the major in-pile tests, and the models used to determine the performance characteristics of the fuel and fuel elements

  8. Alkaline direct ethanol fuel cell performance using alkali-impregnated polyvinyl alcohol/functionalized carbon nano-tube solid electrolytes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Chien-Yi; Lin, Jia-Shiun; Pan, Wen-Han; Shih, Chao-Ming; Liu, Ying-Ling; Lue, Shingjiang Jessie

    2016-01-01

    This study investigates the application of a polyvinyl alcohol (PVA)/functionalized carbon nano-tubes (m-CNTs) composite in alkaline direct ethanol fuel cells (ADEFC). The m-CNTs are functionalized with PVA using the ozone mediation method, and the PVA composite containing the modified CNTs is prepared. Adding m-CNT into the PVA matrix enhances the alkaline uptake and the ionic conductivity of the KOH-doped electrolyte. Meanwhile, the m-CNT-containing membrane exhibited a lower swelling ratio and suppressed ethanol permeability compared to the pristine PVA film. The optimal condition for the ADEFC is determined to be under operation at an anode feed of 3 M ethanol in a 5 M KOH solution (at a flow rate of 5 cm3 min-1) with a cathode feed of moisturized oxygen (with a flow rate of 100 cm3 min-1) and the KOH-doped PVA/m-CNT electrolyte. We achieved a peak power density value of 65 mW cm-2 at 60 °C, which is the highest among the ADEFC literature data and several times higher than the proton-exchange direct ethanol fuel cells using sulfonated membrane electrolytes. Therefore, the KOH-doped PVA/m-CNT electrolyte is a suitable solid electrolyte for ADEFCs and has potential for commercialization in alkaline fuel cell applications.

  9. Effect of alcohol addition on the movement of petroleum hydrocarbon fuels in soil

    OpenAIRE

    Adam, Gillian; Gamoh, Keijij; Morrison, David G.; Duncan, Harry

    2002-01-01

    Groundwater contamination by fuel spills from aboveground and underground storage tanks has been of growing concern in recent years. This problem has been magnified by the addition of oxygenates, such as ethanol and methyl-tertiary-butyl ether (MTBE) to fuels to reduce vehicular emissions to the atmosphere. These additives, although beneficial in reducing atmospheric pollution, may, however, increase groundwater contamination due to the co-solvency of petroleum hydrocarbons and by the provisi...

  10. Using the second law of thermodynamics for enrichment and isolation of microorganisms to produce fuel alcohols or hydrocarbons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kohn, Richard A; Kim, Seon-Woo

    2015-10-01

    Fermentation of crops, waste biomass, or gases has been proposed as a means to produce desired chemicals and renewable fuels. The second law of thermodynamics has been shown to determine the net direction of metabolite flow in fermentation processes. In this article, we describe a process to isolate and direct the evolution of microorganisms that convert cellulosic biomass or gaseous CO2 and H2 to biofuels such as ethanol, 1-butanol, butane, or hexane (among others). Mathematical models of fermentation elucidated sets of conditions that thermodynamically favor synthesis of desired products. When these conditions were applied to mixed cultures from the rumen of a cow, bacteria that produced alcohols or alkanes were isolated. The examples demonstrate the first use of thermodynamic analysis to isolate bacteria and control fermentation processes for biofuel production among other uses. PMID:26231417

  11. Extended burnup demonstration: reactor fuel program. Pre-irradiation characterization and summary of pre-program poolside examinations. Big Rock Point extended burnup fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report is a resource document characterizing the 64 fuel rods being irradiated at the Big Rock Point reactor as part of the Extended Burnup Demonstration being sponsored jointly by the US Department of Energy, Consumers Power Company, Exxon Nuclear Company, and General Public Utilities. The program entails extending the exposure of standard BWR fuel to a discharge average of 38,000 MWD/MTU to demonstrate the feasibility of operating fuel of standard design to levels significantly above current limits. The fabrication characteristics of the Big Rock Point EBD fuel are presented along with measurement of rod length, rod diameter, pellet stack height, and fuel rod withdrawal force taken at poolside at burnups up to 26,200 MWD/MTU. A review of the fuel examination data indicates no performance characteristics which might restrict the continued irradiation of the fuel

  12. Characteristics of used CANDU fuel relevant to the Canadian nuclear fuel waste management program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Literature data on the characteristics of used CANDU power reactor fuel that are relevant to its performance as a waste form have been compiled in a convenient handbook. Information about the quantities of used fuel generated, burnup, radionuclide inventories, fission gas release, void volume and surface area, fuel microstructure, fuel cladding properties, changes in fuel bundle properties due to immobilization processes, radiation fields, decay heat and future trends is presented for various CANDU fuel designs. (author). 199 refs., 39 tabs., 100 figs

  13. Evaluation of an Educational Program on the Fetal Alcohol Syndrome for Health Professionals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russell, Marcia; And Others

    1983-01-01

    Describes knowledge, attitudes and intervention policies regarding fetal alcohol syndrome (FAS) and fetal alcohol effects among obstetricians and gynecologists (N=1,128) in New York State. Survey results showed that subjects were well-informed about FAS, and almost all advised their obstetric patients to abstain or limit their alcohol intake. (LLL)

  14. Program description for the program Fuel program supply July 1, 2011 up to June 30, 2015; Programbeskrivning foer programmet Braensleprogrammet tillfoersel 1 juli 2011 till 30 juni 2015

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2011-04-15

    The Fuel program supply is included as one of three programs in a cohesive commitment to increased, sustainable and efficient production and use of indigenous and renewable fuels that are implemented by the Swedish Energy Agency from July 1, 2011 to June 30, 2015. The program focuses on growing, maintenance and harvesting of biomass from forestry and agriculture. The program consists of three areas: - The sub-area Efficient forest fuel system consists of efforts to reduce costs, improve quality and increase the supply of forest fuels. - The sub-area Energy crops from agriculture consists of investments in issues related to tillage, construction, maintenance, harvesting and logistics for energy crops, and by an ongoing project on more efficient plant breeding of willow for new markets. - The sub-area Silviculture for increased biofuel production includes both forestry measures and new forms of cultivation of fast growing tree species for energy purposes. It does not address environmental issues, processing of fuels, fuel quality or processes in which fuel is converted to heat, electricity or fuel. Questions about conversion and processing as well as sustainability, environment and resource use are treated in the two parallel running programs, the Fuel program conversion and the Fuel program sustainability

  15. Thorium utilization program quarterly progress report for the period ending February 29, 1976. [HTGR Fuel Recycle

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1976-03-31

    This publication presents results of work performed under the National HTGR Fuel Recycle Program Thorium Utilization Program. The work reported includes the development of unit processes and equipment for reprocessing of HTGR fuel and the design and development of an integrated line to demonstrate the head end of HTGR reprocessing using unirradiated fuel materials. Work is also described on the development of the conceptual design of recycle facilities to identify the requirements of large-scale recycle of HTGR fuels and to incorporate the results of these studies in guidance of development activities for HTGR fuel recycle.

  16. Implementing an Alcohol and Other Drug Use Prevention Program Using University-High School Partnerships: Challenges and Lessons Learned

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milroy, Jeffrey J.; Orsini, Muhsin Michael; Wyrick, David L.; Fearnow-Kenney, Melodie; Wagoner, Kimberly G.; Caldwell, Rebecca

    2015-01-01

    Background: School-based alcohol and other drug use prevention remains an important national strategy. Collaborative partnerships between universities and high schools have the potential to enhance prevention programming; however, there are challenges to sustaining such partnerships. Purpose: The purpose of this commentary is to underscore…

  17. One Size (Never) Fits All: Segment Differences Observed Following a School-Based Alcohol Social Marketing Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dietrich, Timo; Rundle-Thiele, Sharyn; Leo, Cheryl; Connor, Jason

    2015-01-01

    Background: According to commercial marketing theory, a market orientation leads to improved performance. Drawing on the social marketing principles of segmentation and audience research, the current study seeks to identify segments to examine responses to a school-based alcohol social marketing program. Methods: A sample of 371 year 10 students…

  18. Examining the Differential Effectiveness of a Life Skills Program (IPSY) on Alcohol Use Trajectories in Early Adolescence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spaeth, Michael; Weichold, Karina; Silbereisen, Rainer K.; Wiesner, Margit

    2010-01-01

    Objective: This study investigated whether a universal school-based life skills program--IPSY (Information + Psychosocial Competence = Protection)--against substance misuse exerted the same effectiveness for young adolescents (10.5-13 years) from distinct alcohol use trajectories characterized by late childhood risk factors (temperament,…

  19. Diesel-alcohol-castor oil fuel blend as an alternative fuel for compression ignition motors; Misturas diesel-alcool-oleo de ricina como um combustivel alternativo para motores de ignicao por compressao

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peralta, Eduardo Gagliuffi; Bastos, Jose Guilherme R.R.; Barbosa, Cleiton Rubens Formiga [Rio Grande do Norte Univ., Natal, RN (Brazil). Centro de Tecnologia. Dept. de Engenharia Mecanica]. E-mail: eduardo@dem.ufrn.br

    2000-07-01

    This work evaluates some characteristics of the diesel-alcohol-castor oil ternary blends, where the castor oil is used as co-solvent viewing the using in compression ignition motors. The obtained results present the possibility of using those ternary blends as alternative fuels in compression ignition motors to be adopted in regions where the blend components are available.

  20. VANTAGE 5 PWR fuel assembly demonstration program at Virgil C. Summer nuclear station

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    VANTAGE 5 is an improved PWR fuel product designed and manufactured by Westinghouse Electric Corporation. The VANTAGE 5 fuel design features integral fuel burnable absorbers, intermediate flow mixer grids, axial blankets, high burnup capability, and a reconstitutable top nozzle. A demonstration program for this fuel design commenced in late 1984 in cycle 2 of the Virgil C. Summer Nuclear Station. Objectives for VANTAGE 5 fuel are reduced fuel cycle costs, better core operating margins, and increased design and operating flexibility. Inspections of the VANTAGE 5 demonstration assemblies are planned at each refueling outage

  1. Clean/alternative fueled fleet programs - 1990 Amendments to the Clean Air Act, the Colorado Air Pollution Prevention and Control Act, and Denver City and County regulations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Despite substantial regulations for nearly two decades, attainment of this ambient standards for ozone and carbon monoxide (CO) remain difficult goals to achieve, Even with of ozone precursors and CO. The 1990 Amendments to the Clean Air Act (CAA90) prescribe further reductions of mobile source emissions. One such reduction strategy is using clean fuels, such as methanol, ethanol, or other alcohols (in blends of 85 percent or more alcohol with gasoline or other fuel), reformulated gasoline or diesel, natural gas, liquified petroleum gas, hydrogen, or electricity. There are regulatory measures involving special fuels which will be required in areas heavily polluted with ozone and CO. The state of Colorado recently passed the 1992 Air Pollution Prevention and Control Act which included provisions for the use of alternative fuels which will be implemented in 1994. In addition to adhering to the Colorado state regulations, the city and county of Denver also have regulations pertaining to the use of alternative fuels in fleets of 10 or more vehicles. Denver's program began in 1992. This paper will address the issue of fleet conversion and its impact on industry in Colorado, and Denver in particular

  2. Second annual report of the Canadian nuclear fuel waste management program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report, the second of a series of annual reports, reviews in general terms the progress which has been achieved in the research and development program for the safe, permanent disposal of Canada's nuclear fuel wastes. The report summarizes activities over the past year, in the areas of public interaction, used fuel storage and transportation, immobilization of used fuel and fuel reprocessing wastes, research and development associated with deep underground disposal, and environmental and safety assessment. (auth)

  3. Third annual report of the Canadian nuclear fuel waste management program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report, the third of a series of annual reports, reviews the progress that has been made in the research and development program for the safe management and disposal of Canada's nuclear fuel wastes. The report summarizes activities over the past year, in the areas of public interaction, irradiated fuel storage and transportation, immobilization of irradiated fuel and fuel recycle wastes, research and development associated with deep underground disposal, and environmental and safety assessment

  4. Fourth annual report of the Canadian nuclear fuel waste management program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report, the fourth of a series of annual reports, reviews the progress that has been made in the research and development program for the safe management and disposal of Canada's nuclear fuel waste. The report summarizes activities over the past year in the following areas: public interaction, used fuel storage and transportation, immobilization of used fuel and fuel recycle waste, geoscience research associated with deep underground disposal, environmental research, environmental and safety assessment

  5. Alcohol Use, Alcohol-Related Outcome Expectancies, and Partner Aggression Among Males Court-Mandated to Batterer Intervention Programs: A Brief Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brasfield, Hope; Morean, Meghan E; Febres, Jeniimarie; Shorey, Ryan C; Moore, Todd M; Zuckosky Zapor, Heather; Elmquist, JoAnna; Wolford-Clevenger, Caitlin; Labrecque, Lindsay; Plasencia, Maribel; Stuart, Gregory L

    2016-01-01

    Additional work is needed to determine how and/or why the relationship between alcohol use and increased risk of partner aggression (PA) exists. Researchers have begun to examine whether alcohol-related outcome expectancies (i.e., beliefs about the cognitive and behavioral effects of alcohol) are associated with PA irrespective of alcohol use. We examined the relationship between alcohol use, alcohol expectancies, and PA among 360 males arrested for a domestic violence offense and court-mandated to treatment. Results indicate that certain alcohol expectancies do play a role in the relationship between alcohol use and some forms of PA. PMID:25519237

  6. 2013 DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program Annual Merit Review and Peer Evaluation Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    none,

    2013-10-01

    This report summarizes comments from the Peer Review Panel at the 2013 DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program Annual Merit Review, held on May 13-17, 2013, in Arlington, Virginia. It covers the program areas of hydrogen production and delivery; hydrogen storage; fuel cells; manufacturing R&D; technology validation; safety, codes, and standards; market transformation; and systems analysis.

  7. 2012 DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program Annual Merit Review and Peer Evaluation Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    none,

    2012-09-01

    This report summarizes comments from the Peer Review Panel at the 2012 DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program Annual Merit Review, held on May 14-18, 2012, in Arlington, Virginia. It covers the program areas of hydrogen production and delivery; hydrogen storage; fuel cells; manufacturing R&D; technology validation; safety, codes, and standards; education; market transformation; and systems analysis.

  8. 2015 DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program Annual Merit Review and Peer Evaluation Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    none,

    2015-10-01

    This report summarizes comments from the Peer Review Panel at the 2015 DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program Annual Merit Review, held on June 8-12, 2015, in Arlington, Virginia. It covers the program areas of hydrogen production and delivery; hydrogen storage; fuel cells; manufacturing R&D; technology validation; safety, codes, and standards; market transformation; and systems analysis.

  9. 2011 DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program Annual Merit Review and Peer Evaluation Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    none,

    2011-09-01

    This report summarizes comments from the Peer Review Panel at the 2011 DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program Annual Merit Review, held on May 9-13, 2011, in Arlington, Virginia. It covers the program areas of hydrogen production and delivery; hydrogen storage; fuel cells; manufacturing R&D; technology validation; safety, codes, and standards; education; market transformation; and systems analysis.

  10. 40 CFR 52.351 - United States Postal Service substitute Clean Fuel Fleet Program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false United States Postal Service substitute Clean Fuel Fleet Program. 52.351 Section 52.351 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION... § 52.351 United States Postal Service substitute Clean Fuel Fleet Program. Revisions to the...

  11. 2014 DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program Annual Merit Review and Peer Evaluation Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    none,

    2014-10-01

    This report summarizes comments from the Peer Review Panel at the 2014 DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program Annual Merit Review, held on June 16-20, 2014, in Washington, DC. It covers the program areas of hydrogen production and delivery; hydrogen storage; fuel cells; manufacturing R&D; technology validation; safety, codes, and standards; market transformation; and systems analysis.

  12. Thermionic Fuel Element performance: TFE Verification Program. Final test report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-06-01

    The program objective is to demonstrate the technology readiness of a Thermionic Fuel Element (TFE) suitable for use as the basic element in a thermionic reactor with electric power output in the 0.5 to 5.0 MW(e) range, and a full power life of 7 years. A TFE was designed that met the reliability and lifetime requirements for a 2 MW(e) conceptual reactor design. Analysis showed that this TFE could be used over the range of 0.5 to 5 megawatts. This was used as the basis for designing components for test and evaluation. The demonstration of a 7-year component lifetime capability was through the combined use of analytical models and accelerated, confirmatory tests in a fast test reactor. Iterative testing was performed in which the results of one test series led to evolutionary improvements in the next test specimens. The TFE components underwent screening and initial development testing in ex-reactor tests. Several design and materials options were considered for each component. As screening tests permitted, down selection occurred to very specific designs and materials. In parallel with ex-reactor testing, and fast reactor component testing, components were integrated into a TFE and tested in the TRIGA test reactor at GA. Realtime testing of partial length TFEs was used to test support, alignment and interconnective TFE components, and to verify TFE performance in-reactor with integral cesium reservoirs. Realtime testing was also used to verify the relation between TFE performance and fueled emitter swelling, to test the durability of intercell insulation, to check temperature distributions, and to verify the adequacy over time of the fission gas venting channels. Predictions of TFE lifetime rested primarily on the accelerated component testing results, as correlated and extended to realtime by the use of analytical models.

  13. Mathematical Modeling of HC Emissions Released by Oil Film for Gasoline and Alcohol Fuels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. İhsan KARAMANGİL

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Oil film on cylinder liner has been suggested as a major source of engine-out hydrocarbon emissions. So in the present study, the rate of absorption/desorption of the fuel in the oil film has been investigated numerically in a spark ignition engine by using gasoline, ethanol and methanol fuels. To aim this purpose, a thermodynamic cycle model has been developed and then a mathematical modeling for the rate of absorption/desorption of the fuel in the oil film has been developed and adapted for this thermodynamic cycle model.It was seen that the absorption/desorption mechanism of ethanol and methanol into the oil film were lower than gasoline. It was determined that the most dominant parameter of this difference was Henry’s constant, which was related to solubility. As interaction time of oil filmfuel vapor was longer at low engine speeds, the quantities of HC absorbed/desorbed increased. The quantities of HC absorbed/desorbed increased with increasing inlet pressure and compression ratio

  14. Low NOx heavy fuel combustor concept program addendum: Low/mid heating value gaseous fuel evaluation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Novick, A. S.; Troth, D. L.

    1982-01-01

    The combustion performance of a rich/quench/lean (RQL) combustor was evaluated when operated on low and mid heating value gaseous fuels. Two synthesized fuels were prepared having lower heating values of 10.2 MJ/cu m. (274 Btu/scf) and 6.6 MJ/cu m (176 Btu/scf). These fuels were configured to be representative of actual fuels, being composed primarily of nitrogen, hydrogen, carbon monoxide, and carbon dioxide. A liquid fuel air assist fuel nozzle was modified to inject both of the gaseous fuels. The RQL combustor liner was not changed from the configuration used when the liquid fuels were tested. Both gaseous fuels were tested over a range of power levels from 50 percent load to maximum rated power of the DDN Model 570-K industrial gas turbine engine. Exhaust emissions were recorded for four power level at several rich zone equivalence ratios to determine NOx sensitivity to the rich zone operating point. For the mid Btu heating value gas, ammonia was added to the fuel to simulate a fuel bound nitrogen type gaseous fuel. Results at the testing showed that for the low heating value fuel NOx emissions were all below 20 ppmc and smoke was below a 10 smoke number. For the mid heating value fuel, NOx emissions were in the 50 to 70 ppmc range with the smoke below a 10 smoke number.

  15. FAPMAN-IC, LWR Fuel Cost Analysis with Program ORSIM Interface

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1 - Description of problem or function: FAPMAN-IC is a set of sub- routines that calculates the nuclear fuel cost and associated incremental fuel cost of LWR (Light Water moderated Reactors) power stations. It is based on the same FAPMAN model as FAPMAN-8 program, but with the interfacing capabilities to the more overall system planning model like ORSIM. The major parameters on the interface are plant operating schedule, demand electric power, plant thermal efficiency, annual discount factor and plant rating power, that must be provided on calling the subroutine. The major return parameters are cycle fuel cost and cycle incremental fuel cost. 2 - Method of solution: Iterative Linear Programming. 3 - Restrictions on the complexity of the problem: Though fuel loading is represented in terms of fuel batches having various shuffling histories, the fuel assembly allocation within a region is not dealt with

  16. Initiation of depleted uranium oxide and spent fuel testing for the spent fuel sabotage aerosol ratio program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We provide a detailed overview of an ongoing, multinational test program that is developing aerosol data for some spent fuel sabotage scenarios on spent fuel transport and storage casks. Experiments are being performed to quantify the aerosolized materials plus volatilized fission products generated from actual spent fuel and surrogate material test rods, due to impact by a high energy density device, HEDD. The program participants in the U.S. plus Germany, France, and the U.K., part of the international Working Group for Sabotage Concerns of Transport and Storage Casks, WGSTSC have strongly supported and coordinated this research program. Sandia National Laboratories, SNL, has the lead role for conducting this research program; test program support is provided by both the U.S. Department of Energy and Nuclear Regulatory Commission. WGSTSC partners need this research to better understand potential radiological impacts from sabotage of nuclear material shipments and storage casks, and to support subsequent risk assessments, modeling, and preventative measures. We provide a summary of the overall, multi-phase test design and a description of all explosive containment and aerosol collection test components used. We focus on the recently initiated tests on ''surrogate'' spent fuel, unirradiated depleted uranium oxide, and forthcoming actual spent fuel tests. The depleted uranium oxide test rodlets were prepared by the Institut de Radioprotection et de Surete Nucleaire, in France. These surrogate test rodlets closely match the diameter of the test rodlets of actual spent fuel from the H.B. Robinson reactor (high burnup PWR fuel) and the Surry reactor (lower, medium burnup PWR fuel), generated from U.S. reactors. The characterization of the spent fuels and fabrication into short, pressurized rodlets has been performed by Argonne National Laboratory, for testing at SNL. The ratio of the aerosol and respirable particles released from HEDD-impacted spent fuel to the aerosol

  17. Aerobic Exercise for Alcohol Recovery: Rationale, Program Description, and Preliminary Findings

    OpenAIRE

    Brown, Richard A.; Abrantes, Ana M.; Read, Jennifer P.; Marcus, Bess H.; Jakicic, John; Strong, David R.; Oakley, Julie R.; Ramsey, Susan E.; Kahler, Christopher W.; Stuart, Gregory G.; Dubreuil, Mary Ella; Gordon, Alan A.

    2008-01-01

    Alcohol use disorders are a major public health concern. Despite the demonstrated efficacy of a number of different treatments for alcohol dependence, relapse remains a major problem. Healthy lifestyle changes may contribute to long-term maintenance of recovery and interventions targeting physical activity, in particular, may be especially valuable as an adjunct to alcohol treatment. In this paper, we discuss the rationale and review potential mechanisms of action whereby exercise might benef...

  18. Fuel utilization potential in light water reactors with once-through fuel irradiation (AWBA Development Program)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Current commercial light water reactor cores operate without recylce of fuel, on a once-through fuel cycle. To help conserve the limited nuclear fuel resources, there is interest in increasing the energy yield and, hence, fuel utilization from once-through fuel irradiation. This report evaluates the potential increase in fuel utilization of light water reactor cores operating on a once-through cycle assuming 0.2% enrichment plant tails assay. This evaluation is based on a large number of survey calculations using techniques which were verified by more detailed calculations of several core concepts. It is concluded that the maximum fuel utilization which could be achieved by practical once-through pressurized light water reactor cores with either uranium or thorium is about 17 MWYth/ST U3O8 (Megawatt Years Thermal per Short Ton of U3O8). This is about 50% higher than that of current commercial light water reactor cores. Achievement of this increased fuel utilization would require average fuel burnup beyond 50,000 MWD/MT and incorporation of the following design features to reduce parasitic losses of neutrons: reflector blankets to utilize neutrons that would otherwise leak out of the core; fuel management practices in which a smaller fraction of the core is replaced at each refueling; and neutron economic reactivity control, such as movable fuel control rather than soluble boron control. For a hypothetical situation in which all neutron leakage and parasitic losses are eliminated and fuel depletion is not limited by design considerations, a maximum fuel utilization of about 20 MWYth/ST U3O8 is calculated for either uranium or thorium. It is concluded that fuel utilization for comparable reactor designs is better with uranium fuel than with thorium fuel for average fuel depletions of 30,000 to 35,000 MWD/MT which are characteristic of present light water reactor cores

  19. 2011 Annual Progress Report: DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program (Book)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2011-11-01

    In the past year, the DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program (the Program) made substantial progress toward its goals and objectives. The Program has conducted comprehensive and focused efforts to enable the widespread commercialization of hydrogen and fuel cell technologies in diverse sectors of the economy. With emphasis on applications that will effectively strengthen our nation's energy security and improve our stewardship of the environment, the Program engages in research, development, and demonstration of critical improvements in the technologies. Highlights of the Program's accomplishments can be found in the sub-program chapters of this report.

  20. Chemical Engineering Division Fuel Cycle Programs: October--December 1976

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fuel-cycle studies reported for this period include pyrochemical separation of plutonium and americium oxides from contaminated materials of construction such as steel. The actinides are partitioned to a high degree into slags that are contacted by the molten metal. Studies of advanced solvent extraction techniques focussed on the development of centrifugal contactors for use in Purex processes. A miniature contactor is to be used for performance studies applicable to larger units. Review of literature on the process chemistry of zirconium and ruthenium has been carried out to aid in improving the process when fast contactors are used. A review of information on the dispersion of reagents during accidents in reprocessing has been initiated to develop systematic data useful in identifying source terms. A review and evaluation of the encapsulation of high level waste in a metal matrix has been initiated. The data will be used to identify the state of the art and the importance of selected features of this process. Criteria for the handling of hulls are being developed on the basis of past work on the pyrophoricity of zirconium alloys and related criteria from several sources. These suggested criteria will be assembled together with the necessary technical rationalization, into a package for review by interested parties. A brief program to explore the disposal of noble gas fission products by deep-well injection has been started

  1. Advances and highlights of the CNEA qualification program as high density fuel manufacturer for research reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    One of the main objectives of CNEA regarding the fuel for research reactors is the development and qualification of the manufacturing of LEU high-density fuels. The qualification programs for both types of fuels, Silicide fuel and U- x Mo fuel, are similar. They include the following activities: development and set up of the fissile compound manufacturing technology, set up of fuel plate manufacturing, fabrication and irradiation of mini plates and plates, design and fabrication of fuel assembly prototypes for irradiation, post-irradiation examination and feedback for manufacturing improvements. This paper describes the different activities performed within each program during the last year and the main advances and achievements of the programs within this period. The main achievements may be summarized in the following activities: Continuation of the irradiation of the first silicide fuel element in the R A3. Completion of the manufacturing of the second silicide fuel element, licensing and beginning of its irradiation in the R A3. Development of the HMD Process to manufacture U-Mo powder (pUMA project). Set up of fuel plates manufacturing at industrial level using U-Mo powder. Preliminary studies and the design for the irradiation of mini plates, plates and full scale fuel elements with U-Mo and 7 g U/cm3. PIE destructive studies for the P-04 silicide fuel prototype (accurate burnup determination through chemical analysis, metallography and SEM of samples from the irradiated fuel plates). Improvement and development of new characterization techniques for high density fuel plates quality control including US testing and densitometric analysis of X-ray examinations. The results obtained in this period are encouraging and also allow to foresee a wider participation of CNEA in the international effort to qualify U-Mo as a new material for the manufacturing of research reactor fuels. (author)

  2. Thorium utilization program. Quarterly progress report for the period ending November 30, 1976. [HTGR fuel recycle

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1976-12-01

    This publication continues the quarterly series presenting results of work performed under the National HTGR Fuel Recycle Program (also known as the Thorium Utilization Program). Results of work on this program prior to June 1974 were included in a quarterly series on the HTGR Base Program. The work reported includes the development of unit processes and equipment for reprocessing of HTGR fuel, the design and development of an integrated pilot line to demonstrate the head end of HTGR reprocessing using unirradiated fuel materials, and design work in support of Hot Engineering Tests (HET). Work is also described on trade-off studies concerning the required design of facilities and equipment for the large-scale recycle of HTGR fuels in order to guide the development activities for HTGR fuel recycle.

  3. Spent nuclear fuel removal program at the West Valley Demonstration Project: Topical report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The spent nuclear fuel removal program at the West Valley Demonstration Project (WVDP) consisted of removing the spent nuclear fuel (SNF) assemblies from the storage pool in the plant, loading them in shielded casks, and preparing the casks for transportation. So far, four fuel removal campaigns have been completed with the return of 625 spent nuclear fuel assemblies to their four utility owners. A fifth campaign, which is not yet completed, will transfer the remaining 125 fuel assemblies to a government site in Idaho. A spent fuel rod consolidation demonstration has been completed, and the storage canisters and their racks are being removed from the fuel receiving and storage pool to make way for installation of the size reduction equipment. A brief history of the West Valley reprocessing plant and the events leading to the storage and ownership of the spent nuclear fuel assemblies and their subsequent removal from West Valley are also recorded as background information. 3 refs., 16 figs., 9 tabs

  4. First annual report of the Canadian nuclear fuel waste management program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The research and development program for the safe, permanent disposal of Canada's nuclear fuel wastes has been established. This report, the first of a series of annual reports, reviews in general terms the progress which has been achieved. After briefly reviewing the rationale and organization of the program, the report summarizes activities in the area of public information, used fuel storage and transportation, immobilization of used fuel and fuel reprocessing wastes, research and development associated with deep underground disposal, and environmental and safety assessment. (auth)

  5. Fuel performance improvement program. Quarterly/annual progress report, October 1977--September 1978

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This quarterly/annual report reviews and summarizes the activities performed in support of the Fuel Performance Improvement Program (FPIP) during Fiscal Year 1978 with emphasis on those activities that transpired during the quarter ending September 30, 1978. Significant progress has been made in achieving the primary objectives of the program, i.e., to demonstrate commercially viable fuel concepts with improved fuel - cladding interaction (FCI) behavior. This includes out-of-reactor experiments to support the fuel concepts being evaluated, initiation of instrumented test rod experiments in the Halden Boiling Water Reactor (HBWR), and fabrication of the first series of demonstration rods for irradiation in the Big Rock Point Reactor

  6. Fuel performance improvement program. Quarterly/annual progress report, October 1977--September 1978. [BWR; PWR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Crouthamel, C.E. (comp.)

    1978-10-01

    This quarterly/annual report reviews and summarizes the activities performed in support of the Fuel Performance Improvement Program (FPIP) during Fiscal Year 1978 with emphasis on those activities that transpired during the quarter ending September 30, 1978. Significant progress has been made in achieving the primary objectives of the program, i.e., to demonstrate commercially viable fuel concepts with improved fuel - cladding interaction (FCI) behavior. This includes out-of-reactor experiments to support the fuel concepts being evaluated, initiation of instrumented test rod experiments in the Halden Boiling Water Reactor (HBWR), and fabrication of the first series of demonstration rods for irradiation in the Big Rock Point Reactor (BRPR).

  7. HTGR Fuel Technology Program. Semiannual report for the period ending March 31, 1981

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This document reports the technical accomplishments on the HTGR Fuel Technology Program at General Atomic during the first half of FY-81. The activities include the fuel process, fuel materials, fuel cycle, fission product transport, and core component verification testing tasks necessary to support the design and development of a steam cycle/cogeneration (SC/C) version of the HTGR with a follow-on reformer (R) version. An important effort which was initiated during this period was the preparation of input data for a long-range technology program plan

  8. RU fuel development program for an advanced fuel cycle in Korea

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Korea is a unique country, having both PWR and CANDU reactors. Korea can therefore exploit the natural synergism between the two reactor types to minimize overall waste production, and maximize energy derived from the fuel, by ultimately burning the spent fuel from its PWR reactors in CANDU reactors. As one of the possible fuel cycles, Recovered Uranium (RU) fuel offers a very attractive alternative to the use of Natural Uranium (NU) and slightly enriched uranium (SEU) in CANDU reactors. Potential benefits can be derived from a number of stages in the fuel cycle: no enrichment required, therefore no enrichment tails, direct conversion to UO2, lower sensitivity to 234U and 236U absorption in the CANDU reactor, and expected lower cost relative to NU and SEU. These benefits all fit well with the PWR-CANDU fuel cycle synergy. RU arising from the conventional reprocessing of European and Japanese oxide spent fuel by 2000 is projected to be approaching 25,000 te. The use of RU fuel in a CANDU 6 reactor should result in no serious radiological difficulties and no requirements for special precautions and should not require any new technologies for the fuel fabrication and handling. The use of the CANDU Flexible Fueling (CANFLEX) bundle as the carrier for RU will be fully compatible with the reactor design, current safety and operational requirements, and there will be improved fuel performance compared with the CANDU 37-element NU fuel bundle. Compared with the 37-element NU bundle, the RU fuel has significantly improved fuel cycle economics derived from increased burnups, a large reduction in both fuel requirements and spent fuel, arisings, and the potential lower cost for RU material. There is the potential for annual fuel cost savings in the range of one-third to two-thirds, with enhanced operating margins using RU in the CANFLEX bundle design. These benefits provide the rationale for justifying R and D efforts on the use of RU fuel for advanced fuel cycles in CANDU

  9. Russian RERTR program: Advanced LEU fuel development for research reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pin-type fuel elements of new generation have been developed for conversion of Russian-built research reactors to LEU. This paper contains the main results of out-of-pile investigations during manufacturing of experimental batches of mini- and full size fuel elements for irradiation tests in 'MIR' (Dmitrovgrad) and VVR-M (Gatchina) reactor respectively. U-Mo LEU fuel granules have been manufactured both by centrifugal atomization and by hydride-dehydride process. Loading of mini-fuel elements made 4 and 6 g U/cm3, whereas full size ones were loaded to 5.3 g U/cm3. All fuel elements went through quality control of cladding thickness and uniformity of fuel granules distribution through the length of each one. (author)

  10. Fuel development activities of the US RERTR Program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Progress in the development and irradiation testing of high-density fuels for use with low-enriched uranium in research and test reactors is reported. Swelling and blister-threshold temperature data obtained from the examination of miniature fuel plates containing UAl/sub x/, U3O8, U3Si2, or U3Si dispersed in an aluminum matrix are presented. Combined with the results of metallurgical examinations, these data show that these four fuel types will perform adequately to full burnup of the 235U contained in the low-enriched fuel. The exothermic reaction of the uranium-silicide fuels with aluminum has been found to occur at about the same temperature as the melting of the aluminum matrix and cladding and to be essentially quenched by the melting endotherm. A new series of miniature fuel plate irradiations is also discussed

  11. Site investigations for the disposal of spent fuel - investigation program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Industrial Power Company Ltd (TVO) is making preparations for the final disposal of spent nuclear fuel into the Finnish bedrock. The revised site investigation program for the years 1986-2010 is presented in this report. The objectives and activities in the near future are described in more detail. The main objectives and frame programs for the investigations in the more distant future are described. The program planning of these investigations are being developed in the preceding site investigations. The investigations for the site selection are divided into four phases: 1983-1985 selection of the investigation areas, preparations for the field investigations, drilling and investigations in a deep test borehole; 1986-1992 preliminary site investigations in 5-10 investigation areas; 1993-2000 detailed site investigations in 2-3 investigation areas. Site selection in the year 2000; 2001-2010 complementary investigations on the selected site. The first investigation phase will be carried out as planned. In this phase a 1001 m deep test borehole was drilled at Lavia in western Finland. With the investigations in the borehole and related development work, preparations were made for the future field investigations. The equipment and investigation methods are being developed during the site investigations. The equipment for taking groundwater samples and the unit for hydraulic testing have been developed. In the future the emphasis in the work will be in developing equipment for monitoring of the hydraulic head and measuring the volumetric flow. In groundwater sampling the present procedure can be improved by adding the test for the in-situ measurements. The results of the field investigations will be stored and processed in a centralized data base. The data base will transmit the results for the interpretation and then the interpreted results transmitted for model calculations and reporting. The cost estimate for the investigations in 1986-2010 is 110-125 million

  12. Fuel Performance Improvement Program. Semiannual progress report, October 1979-March 1980

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Progress on the Fuel Performance Improvement Program's fuel design tests and demonstration irradiations for October 1979 through March 1980 is reported. Included are the results of out-of-reactor experiments with Zircaloy cladding using a device that simulates the interaction between fuel and cladding. Also included are reports on the irradiation of the advanced LWR fuel designs in the Halden Boiling Water Reactor and in Consumers Power Company's Big Rock Point Reactor. The establishment of the technical bases and licensing requirements for the advanced fuel concepts are also described

  13. Progress of U-Mo dispersion rod fuel qualification program in Korea

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the irradiation test performed in HANARO since June in 2001 relating to a qualification program of atomized U-Mo dispersion rod fuel for HANARO, a failure happened from the cleavage of cladding under the influence of the fuel meat swelling. An examination on the cross sections showed that the Al matrix of fuel meat at high power region had almost interacted with fuel particles. The depletion of the Al matrix deteriorated the thermal conductivity of fuel meat and resulted in the very high temperature around the center region of fuel meat. Swelling calculations using the Al matrix fractions of fuel meats showed a relatively good agreement with the measured swellings by immersion densities. The swelling in the failure region of about 15% does not seem to be enough to affect the rupture of the pure aluminum cladding. A failure reason could be attributed to the fabrication defects of the cladding. The next irradiation test for U-Mo dispersion rod fuels was planned and the fuel fabrication is under way. The loading density was changed from 6.0 g-U/cc to 4.5 g-U/cc and the smaller fuel meat diameter of 5.49 mm was chosen in the viewpoint of the centerline temperature of fuel meat to be lower than 2000C. The next irradiation will include the various tests for the following rods; 1) a fuel rod containing U-Mo hollow cylinder, 2) two different particle size fuel rods to investigate the particle size effect, 3) a fuel rod coated with Ni to prevent corrosion, 3) a fuel rod added with poison material of Er2O3 relating to fuel life extension, 4) a fuel rod dispersed with U-9wt.Mo particles, 5) A U3Si dispersion fuel rod for a reference. It is scheduled that the loading in HANARO will be done around the end of November. (author)

  14. DoD Climate Change Fuel Cell Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Steven A. Gabrielle

    2007-04-30

    A grant was awarded to PPL EnergyPlus, LLC for two (2) 250kW Molten Carbonate Fuel Cells at Pepperidge Farm, Inc. on 9/30/03. Pepperidge Farm subsequently signed a contract for one 250kW fuel cell. A request was made and granted to apply the award for the second fuel cell to the Sheraton New York Hotel & Towers (see attached email). This report discusses the first year of operation of a fuel cell power plant located at Pepperidge Farm, Inc., Bloomfield, Connecticut and a fuel cell power plant located at Sheraton New York Hotel & Towers, New York, New York. PPL EnergyPlus, LLC installed the plants under a contract with Pepperidge Farm and Starwood Hotels & Resorts Worldwide, Inc. Two DFC 300 fuel cells, manufactured by FuelCell Energy, Inc. of Danbury, CT were selected for the project. The fuel cell located at Pepperidge Farm successfully operated from January 16, 2006 to January 15, 2007. The fuel cell located at Sheraton New York Hotel & Tower successfully operated from May 19, 2005 to May 18, 2006.This report discusses the performance of these plants during these periods.

  15. CANFLEX-RU fuel development programs as one option of advanced fuel cycles in Korea

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    As one of the possible fuel cycles in Korea, RU (Recycled Uranium) fuel offers a very attractive alternative to the use of NU (Natural Uranium) and SEU in the CANDU reactors, because Korea is a unique country having both PWR and CANDU reactors. Korea can therefore exploit the natural synergism between the two reactor types to minimise overall waste production, and maximise energy derived from the fuel, by burning the spent fuel from its PWR reactors in CANDU reactors. Potential benefits can be derived from a number of stages in the fuel cycle: no enrichment required, no enrichment tails, direct conversion to UO2 lower sensitivity to 234U and 236U absorption in the CANDU reactor, expected lower cost relative to NU and SEU. These benefits all fit well with the PWR-CANDU fuel cycle synergy. RU arising from the reprocessing of European and Japanese oxide spent fuel by 2000 is projected to be approaching 25,000 te. The use of RU fuel in a CANDU-6 reactor should result in no serious radiological difficulties and no requirements for special precautions and should not require any new technologies for the fuel fabrication and handling. A KAERI's feasibility shows that the use of the CANFLEX bundle as the carrier for RU will be compatible with the reactor design, current safety and operational requirements, and there will be no significant fuel performance difference from the CANDU 37-element NU fuel bundle. Compared with the 37-element NU bundle, the RU fuel has significantly improved fuel cycle economics derived from increased burnups, a large reduction in fuel requirements and spent fuel arisings and the potential lower cost for RU material. There is the potential for annual fuel cost savings to be in the range of one-third to two-thirds, with enhanced operating margins using RU in the CANFLEX bundle design. These benefits provide the rationale for justifying R and D effort on the use of RU fuel for advanced fuel cycles in the CANDU reactors of Korea. The RU fuel

  16. EPAct Alternative Fuel Transportation Program: State and Alternative Fuel Provider Fleet Compliance Annual Report; Fleet Compliance Results for MY 2013/FY 2014

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2015-09-01

    Compliance rates for covered state government and alternative fuel provider fleets under the Alternative Fuel Transportation Program (pursuant to the Energy Policy Act or EPAct) are reported for MY 2013/FY 2014 in this publication.

  17. Aerobic Exercise for Alcohol Recovery: Rationale, Program Description, and Preliminary Findings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Richard A.; Abrantes, Ana M.; Read, Jennifer P.; Marcus, Bess H.; Jakicic, John; Strong, David R.; Oakley, Julie R.; Ramsey, Susan E.; Kahler, Christopher W.; Stuart, Gregory; Dubreuil, Mary Ella; Gordon, Alan A.

    2009-01-01

    Alcohol use disorders are a major public health concern. Despite the demonstrated efficacy of a number of different treatments for alcohol dependence, relapse remains a major problem. Healthy lifestyle changes may contribute to long-term maintenance of recovery, and interventions targeting physical activity, in particular, may be especially…

  18. Let them experience a ride under the influence of alcohol; A successful intervention program?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brookhuis, K. A.; de Waard, D.; Steyvers, F. J. J. M.; Bijsterveld, H.

    2011-01-01

    A considerable amount of all traffic accidents can be attributed to driving under the influence of alcohol. In particular the group of drivers aged 18-24 years is involved in many serious traffic accidents where alcohol turns out to be a major factor. In fact this age group shows about three times a

  19. Voluntary Truck and Bus Fuel-Economy-Program marketing plan. Final technical report, September 29, 1980-January 29, 1982

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1982-01-01

    The aim of the program is to improve the utilization of fuel by commercial trucks and buses by updating and implementing specific approaches for educating and monitoring the trucking industry on methods and means of conserving fuels. The following outlines the marketing plan projects: increase use of program logo by voluntary program members and others; solicit trade publication membership and support; brief Congressional delegations on fuel conservation efforts; increase voluntary program presence before trade groups; increase voluntary program presence at truck and trade shows; create a voluntary program display for use at trade shows and in other areas; review voluntary program graphics; increase voluntary program membership; and produce placemats carrying fuel conservation messages; produce a special edition of Fuel Economy News, emphasizing the driver's involvement in fuel conservation; produce posters carrying voluntary program fuel conservation message. Project objectives, activities, and results for each project are summarized.

  20. Poly(vinyl alcohol) separators improve the coulombic efficiency of activated carbon cathodes in microbial fuel cells

    KAUST Repository

    Chen, Guang

    2013-09-01

    High-performance microbial fuel cell (MFC) air cathodes were constructed using a combination of inexpensive materials for the oxygen reduction cathode catalyst and the electrode separator. A poly(vinyl alcohol) (PVA)-based electrode separator enabled high coulombic efficiencies (CEs) in MFCs with activated carbon (AC) cathodes without significantly decreasing power output. MFCs with AC cathodes and PVA separators had CEs (43%-89%) about twice those of AC cathodes lacking a separator (17%-55%) or cathodes made with platinum supported on carbon catalyst (Pt/C) and carbon cloth (CE of 20%-50%). Similar maximum power densities were observed for AC-cathode MFCs with (840 ± 42 mW/m2) or without (860 ± 10 mW/m2) the PVA separator after 18 cycles (36 days). Compared to MFCs with Pt-based cathodes, the cost of the AC-based cathodes with PVA separators was substantially reduced. These results demonstrated that AC-based cathodes with PVA separators are an inexpensive alternative to expensive Pt-based cathodes for construction of larger-scale MFC reactors. © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Evaluation of alcohol dehydrogenase and aldehyde dehydrogenase enzymes as bi-enzymatic anodes in a membraneless ethanol microfluidic fuel cell

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galindo-de-la-Rosa, J.; Arjona, N.; Arriaga, L. G.; Ledesma-García, J.; Guerra-Balcázar, M.

    2015-12-01

    Alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH) and aldehyde dehydrogenase (AldH) enzymes were immobilized by covalent binding and used as the anode in a bi-enzymatic membraneless ethanol hybrid microfluidic fuel cell. The purpose of using both enzymes was to optimize the ethanol electro-oxidation reaction (EOR) by using ADH toward its direct oxidation and AldH for the oxidation of aldehydes as by-products of the EOR. For this reason, three enzymatic bioanode configurations were evaluated according with the location of enzymes: combined, vertical and horizontally separated. In the combined configuration, a current density of 16.3 mA cm-2, a voltage of 1.14 V and a power density of 7.02 mW cm-2 were obtained. When enzymes were separately placed in a horizontal and vertical position the ocp drops to 0.94 V and to 0.68 V, respectively. The current density also falls to values of 13.63 and 5.05 mA cm-2. The decrease of cell performance of bioanodes with separated enzymes compared with the combined bioanode was of 31.7% and 86.87% for the horizontal and the vertical array.

  2. Drinking Alone? The Effect of an Alcohol Treatment Program on Relationship Stability for Convicted Drunk Drivers in Denmark

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andersen, Signe Hald

    2016-01-01

    This article tests whether an alcohol treatment program for drunk drivers in Denmark increased the stability of their relationships with spouses or cohabiting partners. The treatment program, implemented in 1990, allowed a group of offenders to avoid prison and participate in a rehabilitation program. I use it here as a natural experiment, exploiting a rich administrative dataset to show that the program marginally increases offenders’ relationship stability. I also test whether increased relationship stability observed among the treated offenders results from their pardon from prison or from their participation in the rehabilitation program. Results suggest that the rehabilitation program drives the effect. These findings contribute to the literature on what alternative sanctions could be offered to offenders to improve their long-term social outcomes.

  3. Monitoring instrumentation spent fuel management program. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1979-01-01

    Preliminary monitoring system methodologies are identified as an input to the risk assessment of spent fuel management. Conceptual approaches to instrumentation for surveillance of canister position and orientation, vault deformation, spent fuel dissolution, temperature, and health physics conditions are presented. In future studies, the resolution, reliability, and uncertainty associated with these monitoring system methodologies will be evaluated.

  4. Monitoring instrumentation spent fuel management program. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Preliminary monitoring system methodologies are identified as an input to the risk assessment of spent fuel management. Conceptual approaches to instrumentation for surveillance of canister position and orientation, vault deformation, spent fuel dissolution, temperature, and health physics conditions are presented. In future studies, the resolution, reliability, and uncertainty associated with these monitoring system methodologies will be evaluated

  5. PND fuel handling decontamination program: specialized techniques and results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The use of various decontamination techniques and equipment has become a critical part of Fuel Handling maintenance work at the Pickering Nuclear Station, an eight unit CANDU station located about 30 km east of Toronto. This paper presents an overview of the set up and techniques used for cleaning in the PND Fuel Handling Maintenance Facility, and the results achieved. (author)

  6. Spent nuclear fuel project quality assurance program plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lacey, R.E.

    1997-05-09

    This main body of this document describes how the requirements of 10 CFR 830.120 are met by the Spent Nuclear Fuel Project through implementation of WHC-SP-1131. Appendix A describes how the requirements of DOE/RW-0333P are met by the Spent Nuclear Fuel Project through implementation of specific policies, manuals, and procedures.

  7. Darlington NGD fuel handling head wight acceptance program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Darlington NGD requires eight fuelling machine heads to fuel the 4*932MW reactors. Six heads are used on the three fuelling machine trolleys for normal fuelling operations. A further two heads are required to allow for maintenance and to provide for such reactor face activities as PIPE and CIGAR. Seven heads were successfully delivered to site from the head supplier. During acceptance testing, stalls on the charge tube screw assembly of the eighth and final head prevented its delivery to site. Replacement of the charge tube screw with a spare screw did not alleviate the problem. An in depth series of tests were undertaken at site, at the supplier and at the screw sub-supplier to determine the root cause of the problem. These tests included taking torque measurements under different operating conditions and using different components to assess the effects of the changes on torque levels. An assessment of the effects of changing chemical conditions (particularly crud levels) was also made. To ensure that the results of the testing were well understood, additional torque testing was also completed on a head and screw assembly at site that was known to work well. Based on all of the above series of tests, a recommendation was made to re-machine the charge tube screw(s). The original charge tube screw from Head eight was subsequently returned to the sub-supplier for re-work. Follow-up torque measurements and acceptance testing showed that the screw re-work was effective and that Head eight could be successfully delivered to site. This paper focuses on the results of the head/screw test program. Results of the acceptance testing are also discussed. (author)

  8. Darlington NGD fuel handling head eight acceptance program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Darlington NGD requires eight fuelling machine heads to fuel the four 932 MW reactors. Six heads are used on the three fuelling machine trolleys for normal fuelling operations. A further two heads are required to allow for maintenance and to provide for such reactor face activities as PIPE and CIGAR. Seven heads were successfully delivered to site from the head supplier. During acceptance testing, stalls on the charge tube screw assembly of the eighth and final head prevented its delivery to site. Replacement of the charge tube screw with a spare screw did not alleviate the problem. An in depth series of tests were undertaken at site, at the supplier and at the screw sub-supplier to determine the root cause of the problem. These tests included taking torque measurements under different operating conditions and using different components to assess the effects of the changes on torque levels. An assessment of the effects of changing chemical conditions (particularly crud levels) was also made. To ensure that the results of the testing were well understood, additional torque testing was also completed on a head and screw assembly at site that was known to work well. Based on all of the above series of tests, a recommendation was made to re-machine the charge tube screw(s). The original charge tube screw from Head eight was subsequently returned to the sub-supplier for re-work. Follow-up torque measurements and acceptance testing showed that the screw rework was effective and that Head eight could be successfully delivered to site. This paper focuses on the results of the head/screw test program. Results of the acceptance testing are also discussed. (author). 2 refs., 4 figs

  9. Integration of the Brief Behavioral Activation Treatment for Depression (BATD) Into a College Orientation Program: Depression and Alcohol Outcomes

    OpenAIRE

    Reynolds, Elizabeth K.; MacPherson, Laura; Baruch, David E.; Tull, Matthew T.; Lejuez, C.W.

    2011-01-01

    College freshmen face a variety of academic and social challenges as they adjust to college life that can place them at risk for a number of negative outcomes, including depression and alcohol-related problems. Orientation classes that focus on teaching incoming students how to better cope with college-oriented stress may provide an opportunity to prevent the development of these adjustment problems. This article outlines a program based on behavioral activation that can be integrated into co...

  10. Technical Basis - Spent Nuclear Fuel (SNF) Project Radiation and Contamination Trending Program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report documents the technical basis for the Spent Nuclear Fuel (SNF) Program radiation and contamination trending program. The program consists of standardized radiation and contamination surveys of the KE Basin, radiation surveys of the KW basin, and radiation surveys of the Cold Vacuum Drying Facility (CVD) with the associated tracking. This report also discusses the remainder of radiological areas within the SNFP that do not have standardized trending programs and the basis for not having this program in those areas

  11. Technical Basis Spent Nuclear Fuel (SNF) Project Radiation and Contamination Trending Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    KURTZ, J.E.

    2000-05-10

    This report documents the technical basis for the Spent Nuclear Fuel (SNF) Program radiation and contamination trending program. The program consists of standardized radiation and contamination surveys of the KE Basin, radiation surveys of the KW basin, and radiation surveys of the Cold Vacuum Drying Facility (CVD) with the associated tracking. This report also discusses the remainder of radiological areas within the SNFP that do not have standardized trending programs and the basis for not having this program in those areas.

  12. The relationship between viewing US-produced television programs and intentions to drink alcohol among a group of Norwegian adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomsen, Steven R; Rekve, Dag

    2006-02-01

    The aim of this study was to examine the influence of exposure to US-produced television programs and family rules prohibiting alcohol use on the development of normative beliefs, expectancies, and intentions to drink alcohol in the next 12 months among a group of Norwegian adolescents who reported that they had not previously consumed alcohol. Data were collected via a survey administered to 622 eighth and ninth graders enrolled at ten junior highs in southeastern Norway. To examine these relationships we tested the fit of a structural equation model which was based on the Theory of Planned Behavior (Ajzen, 1988). Data from the non-drinkers (n= 392, 63% of the respondents) were used. To control for the influence of peer drinking on behavioral intentions, our model was tested under two group conditions: (1) those subjects reporting that they have no friends who drink alcohol and (2) those subjects reporting that they have one or more friends who drink. The findings indicate that the influence of TV exposure was a significant predictor (directly) of normative beliefs, expectancies (indirectly) and intentions to drink (both directly and indirectly) only for those subjects who reported having no friends who drink. For the group with non-drinking friends, family rules constrain intentions only indirectly by influencing normative beliefs. For those with friends who drink, however, family rules have a direct (inverse) effect on intentions. It is concluded that exposure to US-produced television programs functions as a limited knowledge source only for those subjects who had little or no personal experience with alcohol while the presence of family rules have limited impact on behavioral intentions. PMID:16433660

  13. Summary of non-US national and international fuel cycle and radioactive waste management programs 1982

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brief program overviews of fuel cycle, spent fuel, and waste management activities in the following countries are provided: Argentina, Australia, Austria, Belgium, Brazil, Canada, China, Denmark, Finland, France, German Federal Republic, India, Italy, Japan, Republic of Korea, Mexico, Netherlands, Pakistan, South Africa, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland, Taiwan, USSR, and the United Kingdom. International nonproliferation activities, multilateral agreements and projects, and the international agencies specifically involved in the nuclear fuel cycle are also described

  14. Fuel performance improvement program. Semiannual progress report, April-September 1980

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Progress on the Fuel Performance Improvement Program's fuel test and demonstration irradiations is reported for the period April-September, 1980. Included are results of out-of-reactor experiments with zircaloy cladding on the iodine assisted stress corrosion cracking mechanism. Preliminary results from the first eight ramp tests performed in the Halden Boiling Water Reactor are reported. The status of demonstration fuel irradiations in the Big Rock Point Reactor is described

  15. Summary of non-US national and international fuel cycle and radioactive waste management programs 1982

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harmon, K.M.; Kelman, J.A.

    1982-08-01

    Brief program overviews of fuel cycle, spent fuel, and waste management activities in the following countries are provided: Argentina, Australia, Austria, Belgium, Brazil, Canada, China, Denmark, Finland, France, German Federal Republic, India, Italy, Japan, Republic of Korea, Mexico, Netherlands, Pakistan, South Africa, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland, Taiwan, USSR, and the United Kingdom. International nonproliferation activities, multilateral agreements and projects, and the international agencies specifically involved in the nuclear fuel cycle are also described.

  16. Guide to the Canadian nuclear fuel waste management program. 2.ed

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This document describes the administrative structure and major research and development components of the Canadian Nuclear Fuel Waste Management Program. It outlines the participating organizations, summarizes the program statistics, and describes the international cooperation and external review aspects of the program

  17. Electrostatic atomization of hydrocarbon fuels and bio-alcohols for engine applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: ► Butanol e-spray phenomenology and structure was studied and compared to ethanol and heptane. ► An unsteady behavior that resulted in lack of monodispersity was observed for all cases. ► Sprays emanated from oscillating menisci, which is incompatible with steady cone-jet operation. ► Droplet Weber numbers were measured to be substantial, pointing to secondary droplet break-up. ► Coulombic fission was investigated, but the droplets were charged well below the Rayleigh limit. - Abstract: Electrostatically assisted sprays of butanol were established and compared with the ones of fuels of automotive interest, namely ethanol and heptane. First, electrospray phenomenology was investigated through high-speed visualization for a variety of conditions. Then, spray structure was studied through droplet size and velocity measurements, using Phase Doppler Anemometry, for a wide range of flow rates and applied voltages. Particular emphasis was placed on the determination of the dependence of droplet size and velocity on mass flow rate and applied electric field. Visualization and measurements of droplet size and speed revealed an unstable and polydisperse electrospray behavior for most conditions. Several factors were identified as responsible for this unstable behavior and were investigated experimentally for the butanol case. These included: oscillations of e-spray menisci, droplet disruption due to Coulombic fission and secondary droplet break-up because of high Weber numbers.

  18. International safeguards concerns of Spent Fuel Disposal Program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The purpose of this paper is to stimulate discussions on the subjects of safeguarding large quantities of plutonium contained in spent fuels to be disposed of in geologic respositories. All the spent fuel disposal scenarios examined here pose a variety of safeguards problems, none of which are adequately addressed by the international safeguards community. The spent fuels from once-through fuel cycles in underground repositories would become an increasingly attractive target for diversion because of their plutonium content and decreasing radioactivity. Current design of the first geologic repository in the US will have the capacity to accommodate wastes equivalent to 70,000 Mt of uranium from commercial and defense fuel cycles. Of this, approximately 62,000 Mt uranium equivalent will be commerical spent fuel, containing over 500 Mt of plutonium. International safeguards commitments may require us to address the safeguards issues of disposing of such large quanities of plutonium in a geologic repository, which has the potential to become a plutonium mine in the future. This paper highlights several issues that should be addressed in the near term by US industries and the DOE before geologic repositories for spent fuels become a reality

  19. Comorbid psychiatric diagnoses among individuals presenting to an addiction treatment program for alcohol dependence.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Lyne, John Paul

    2011-01-01

    A retrospective patient record review was conducted to examine comorbid psychiatric diagnoses, and comorbid substance use, among 465 patients below 45 years of age, presenting to a national alcohol addiction treatment unit in Dublin, between 1995 and 2006. Rates were high for depressive disorder (25.3%) particularly among females (35.4%). Lifetime reported use of substances other than alcohol was 39.2%, and further analysis showed significantly higher rates of deliberate self-harm among this group. Lifetime reported use of ecstasy was also significantly associated with depression in this alcohol-dependent population using logistic regression analysis. Implications and limitations of the findings are discussed.

  20. A cost analysis of Colorado's 1991-92 oxygenated fuels program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper discusses the methodology used to conduct a cost analysis of Colorado's 1991-92 Oxygenated Fuels Program. This program requires the use of oxygenated fuels during the winter season in Denver and surrounding areas. The cost analysis was conducted as part of an overall cost-effectiveness study of the 1991-92 program conducted by PRC Environmental Management, Inc. (PRC). The paper, however, focuses on cost analysis and does not consider potential benefits of the program. The study analyzed costs incurred by different segments of society, including government, industry, and consumers. Because the analysis focused on a specific program year, neither past nor future costs were studied. The discussion of government costs includes the agencies interviewed and the types of costs associated with government administration and enforcement of the program. The methodology used to calculate costs to private industry is also present. The study examined the costs to fuel refineries, pipelines, and blenders, as well as fuel retailers and automobile fleet operators. Finally, the paper discusses the potential costs incurred by the consumer purchasing oxygenated fuels. Costs associated with issues such as vehicle driveability, automobile parts durability and performance, and fuel economy are also examined. A summary of all costs by category is presented along with an analysis of the major cost components. These include costs which are sensitive to specific circumstances and which may vary among programs

  1. Alternative bio-based fuels for aviation: the clean airports program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Renewable Aviation Fuels Development Center at Baylor University in Waco, Texas, has been designated as the national coordinator of the Clean Airports Program. The U.S. Dept. of Energy (US DOE) conferred this designation in March 1996. This program, a spin-off of the Clean Cities Program, was initiated to increase the use of alternative fuels in aviation. The two major fuels used in aviation are the current piston engine aviation gasoline and the current turbine engine fuel. The environmental impact of each of these fuels is significant. Aviation gasoline (100LL), currently used in the general aviation piston engine fleet, contributes 100% of the emissions containing lead in the U.S. today. Turbine engine fuel (jet fuel) produces two major environmental impacts: a local one, in the vicinity of the airports, and a global impact on climate change. The Clean Airports Program was established to achieve and maintain clean air at and in the vicinity of airports, through the use of alternative fuel-powered air and ground transportation vehicles. (author)

  2. Records of Temperature and Heat (ROTAH) IBM Programs for Fuel Calculations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This document describes the Records of Temperature and Heat (ROTAH) programs (one each for single and two-piece fuel elements) and the equations used in them. This code was the ultimate goal of the series and was used to calculate the operating conditions within a fuel assembly

  3. Bachelor of Science-Engineering Technology Program and Fuel Cell Education Program Concentration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Block, David L.; Sleiti, Ahmad

    2011-09-19

    The Hydrogen and Fuel Cell Technology education project has addressed DOE goals by supplying readily available, objective, technical, and accurate information that is available to students, industry and the public. In addition, the program has supplied educated trainers and training opportunities for the next generation workforce needed for research, development, and demonstration activities in government, industry, and academia. The project has successfully developed courses and associated laboratories, taught the new courses and labs and integrated the HFCT option into the accredited engineering technology and mechanical engineering programs at the University of North Carolina at Charlotte (UNCC). The project has also established ongoing collaborations with the UNCC energy related centers of the Energy Production & Infrastructure Center (EPIC), the NC Motorsports and Automotive Research Center (NCMARC) and the Infrastructure, Design, Environment and Sustainability Center (IDEAS). The results of the project activities are presented as two major areas – (1) course and laboratory development, offerings and delivery, and (2) program recruitment, promotions and collaborations. Over the project period, the primary activity has been the development and offering of 11 HFCT courses and accompanying laboratories. This process has taken three years with the courses first being developed and then offered each year over the timeframe.

  4. The hydrogen and the fuel cells in the world. Programs and evolutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    HyPac is a french platform on the hydrogen and fuel cells, created in 2008. The author presents the opportunity of such a platform facing the world research programs and other existing platforms. (A.L.B.)

  5. Vehicle Technologies and Fuel Cell Technologies Program: Prospective Benefits Assessment Report for Fiscal Year 2016

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stephens, T. S. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Taylor, C. H. [TA Engineering, Inc., Catonsville, MD (United States); Moore, J. S. [TA Engineering, Inc., Catonsville, MD (United States); Ward, J. [United States Department of Energy, Washington, DC (United States). Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy

    2016-02-23

    Under a diverse set of programs, the Vehicle Technologies and Fuel Cell Technologies offices of DOE’s Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy invest in research, development, demonstration, and deployment of advanced vehicle, hydrogen production, delivery and storage, and fuel cell technologies. This report estimates the benefits of successfully developing and deploying these technologies (a “Program Success” case) relative to a base case (the “No Program” case). The Program Success case represents the future with completely successful deployment of Vehicle Technologies Office (VTO) and Fuel Cell Technologies Office (FCTO) technologies. The No Program case represents a future in which there is no contribution after FY 2016 by the VTO or FCTO to these technologies. The benefits of advanced vehicle, hydrogen production, delivery and storage, and fuel cell technologies were estimated on the basis of differences in fuel use, primary energy use, and greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions from light-, medium- and heavy-duty vehicles, including energy and emissions from fuel production, between the base case and the Program Success case. Improvements in fuel economy of various vehicle types, growth in the stock of fuel cell vehicles and other advanced technology vehicles, and decreased GHG intensity of hydrogen production and delivery in the Program Success case over the No Program case were projected to result in savings in petroleum use and GHG emissions. Benefits were disaggregated by individual program technology areas, which included the FCTO program and the VTO subprograms of batteries and electric drives; advanced combustion engines; fuels and lubricants; materials (for reduction in vehicle mass, or “lightweighting”); and, for medium- and heavy-duty vehicles, reduction in rolling and aerodynamic resistance. Projections for the Program Success case indicate that by 2035, the average fuel economy of on-road, light-duty vehicle stock could be 47% to 76

  6. Fuel Gas Demonstration Plant Program. Volume I. Demonstration plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1979-01-01

    The objective of this project is for Babcock Contractors Inc. (BCI) to provide process designs, and gasifier retort design for a fuel gas demonstration plant for Erie Mining Company at Hoyt Lake, Minnesota. The fuel gas produced will be used to supplement natural gas and fuel oil for iron ore pellet induration. The fuel gas demonstration plant will consist of five stirred, two-stage fixed-bed gasifier retorts capable of handling caking and non-caking coals, and provisions for the installation of a sixth retort. The process and unit design has been based on operation with caking coals; however, the retorts have been designed for easy conversion to handle non-caking coals. The demonstration unit has been designed to provide for expansion to a commercial plant (described in Commercial Plant Package) in an economical manner.

  7. FCI: remedy development for the fuel performance improvement program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Out-of-reactor experiments and irradiations are being utilized to develop and demonstrate the efficacy of specific advanced fuel designs to improve FCI behavior. The advanced light water reactor fuel designs being evaluated combine annular pellets, graphite coating on the inner surface of the cladding, and helium pressurization. A sphere-pac fuel design is also being developed. Characterization of the graphite coatings includes studies of composition, application methods, thickness control, moisture control, thermal conductivity, compatibility with the zircaloy cladding, strain-to-failure, and friction and wear characteristics. Rods of the different fuel designs, as well as reference rods, are being irradiated in the Halden Boiling Water Reactor and the Big Rock Point Reactor to accumulate burnup prior to ramping tests

  8. Spent LWR fuel leach tests: Waste Isolation Safety Assessment program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spent light-water-reactor (LWR) fuels with burnups of 54.5, 28 and 9 MWd/kgU were leach-tested in deionized water at 250C. Fuel burnup has no apparent effect on the calculated leach rates based upon the behavior of 137Cs and 239+240Pu. A leach test of 54.5 MWd/kgU spent fuel in synthetic sea brine showed that the cesium-based leach rate is lower in sea brine than in deionized water. A rise in the leach rate was observed after approximately 600 d of cumulative leaching. During the rise, the leach rate for all the measured radionuclides become nearly equal. Evidence suggests that exposure of new surfaces to the leachant may cause the increase. As a result, experimental work to study leaching mechanisms of spent fuel has been initiated. 22 figures

  9. Mixed oxide fuel dissolution: Program of studies and first results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aiming at decreasing enriched uranium needs and at a valorization of plutonium from reprocessing of PWR spent fuels, Electricite de France decided, since fall 1987, to introduce mixed oxide UO2 - PuO2 fuel elements at a ratio Pu/(U+Pu) between 5 and 9 %. 1/3 of reactor load is so replaced by recycled plutonium. It was necessary to verify that the dissolution of these fuels in industrial conditions does not PuO2 residues. First tests show that dissolution kinetics and relative losts in U and Pu (respectively 0.01 % and 0.03 % after 3 hours in boiling nitric acid) are close to those obtained with standard enriched UO2 fuels

  10. Development and application of 3D core fuel management program for HFETR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The author introduces the principle and function of the 3D core fuel management program HFM for the High Flux Engineering Test Reactor (HFETR). Calculations are performed for five reactor core on HFETR critical assembly and first three cycles of HFETR. Results show the adopted cell and core calculation model and method are correct. Good consistency is obtained in calculational results with experimental values. Therefore, HFM program could be used in core fuel management of HFETR rapidly and exactly

  11. Exploration for fossil and nuclear fuels from orbital altitudes. [results of ERTS program for oil exploration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Short, N. M.

    1974-01-01

    Results from the ERTS program pertinent to exploration for oil, gas, and uranium are discussed. A review of achievements in relevant geological studies from ERTS, and a survey of accomplishments oriented towards exploration for energy sources are presented along with an evaluation of the prospects and limitations of the space platform approach to fuel exploration, and an examination of continuing programs designed to prove out the use of ERTS and other space system in exploring for fuel resources.

  12. Status of the demonstration irradiation program of the new fuel bundle CANFLEX-NU in Korea

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the late part of 1999, the Korea Electric Power Corporation has initiated a program CANFLEX-NU (Natural Uranium) fuel in the Wolsong Generating Station (WGS) - no.1 which has been operating since 1983, because the CANFLEX could be used to recover some of a CANDU heat transport system operation margins that had decreased due to The Korea Ministry of Science and Technology (MOST) has recognized the successful demonstration irradiation of 24 CANFLEX bundles at the Pt. Lepreau Generating Station in Canada, as final verification of the CANFLEX design in preparation for full core conversion. Therefore, MOST has pushed and gave a financial support to a KEPRI/KAERI Joint Industrialization Program of CANFLEX-NU Fuel, which will be for 3 years from 2000 November, to validate CANFLEX-NU fuel bundle performance in direct conditions of relevance under the Korean licensing requirements as well as to evaluate the fuel fabrication capability, and to produce a safety analysis report for the full-core implementation. The economic benefits of CANFLEX-NU fuel are directly dependent on the thermalhydraulic performance. Switching from the existing 37-element fuel to the CANFLEX fuel will be largely driven by the economic benefits to be realized. Showing a positive result in the economic evaluation as well as successfully demonstrating the CANFLEX fuel irradiation in WGS-no. 1, the full-core implementation of the fuel at the WGS-no.1 in Korea will proceed by starting the licensing process at around 2003 April because the safety report for the full-core conversion will be ready by 2003 March. This paper describes the status of CANFLEX-NU fuel industrialization program in Korea, as well as the fuel design features. It summarizes the plan of CANFLEX-NU fuel demonstration irradiation at the WGS-no. 1 in Korea and the status of documentation for the demonstration irradiation as well as for the CANFLEX-NU full-core implementation. (author)

  13. The Economical Production of Alcohol Fuels From Coal-Derived Synthesis Gas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    During this time period, at WVU, we tried several methods to eliminate problems related to condensation of heavier products when reduced Mo-Ni-K/C materials were used as catalysts. We then resumed our kinetic study on the reduced Mo-Ni-K/C catalysts. We have also obtained same preliminary results in our attempts to analyze quantitatively the temperature-programmed reduction (TPR) spectra for C-supported Mo-based catalysts. We have completed the kinetic study for the sulfided Co-K-MoS /C catalyst. We have compared the results of methanol synthesis 2 using the membrane reactor with those using a simple plug-flow reactor. At UCC, the complete characterization of selected catalysts has been completed. The results suggest that catalyst pretreatment under different reducing conditions yield different surface compositions and thus different catalytic reactivities

  14. Alternative-fueled truck demonstration natural gas program: Caterpillar G3406LE development and demonstration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-06-01

    In 1990, the California Energy Commission, the South Coast Air Quality Management District, and the Southern California Gas Company joined together to sponsor the development and demonstration of compressed natural gas engines for Class 8 heavy-duty line-haul trucking applications. This program became part of an overall Alternative-Fueled Truck Demonstration Program, with the goal of advancing the technological development of alternative-fueled engines. The demonstration showed natural gas to be a technically viable fuel for Class 8 truck engines.

  15. Alternative fuels for vehicles fleet demonstration program. Final report, volume 2: Appendices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-06-01

    The Alternative Fuels for Vehicles Fleet Demonstration Program (AFV-FDP) was a multiyear effort to collect technical data for use in determining the costs and benefits of alternative-fuel vehicles (AFVs) in typical applications in New York State. This report, Volume 2, includes 13 appendices to Volume 1 that expand upon issues raised therein. Volume 1 provides: (1) Information about the purpose and scope of the AFV-FDP; (2) A summary of AFV-FDP findings organized on the basis of vehicle type and fuel type; (3) A short review of the status of AFV technology development, including examples of companies in the State that are active in developing AFVs and AFV components; and (4) A brief overview of the status of AFV deployment in the State. Volume 3 provides expanded reporting of AFV-FDP technical details, including the complete texts of the brochure Garage Guidelines for Alternative Fuels and the technical report Fleet Experience Survey Report, plus an extensive glossary of AFV terminology. The appendices cover a wide range of issues including: emissions regulations in New York State; production and health effects of ozone; vehicle emissions and control systems; emissions from heavy-duty engines; reformulated gasoline; greenhouse gases; production and characteristics of alternative fuels; the Energy Policy Act of 1992; the Clean Fuel Fleet Program; garage design guidelines for alternative fuels; surveys of fleet managers using alternative fuels; taxes on conventional and alternative fuels; and zero-emission vehicle technology.

  16. FREC-3: a computer program to analyze stress and strain of fuel rods in accordance with fuel-rod irradiation history

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    FREC-3 (Fuel Realiability Evaluation Code Version-3) analyzes the changes of fuel-rod design parameters in accordance with irradiation history, and evaluates the cladding strain, important fuel rods safety. The program is based on reports of the CYGRO developed by Westinghouse Electric Corporation (U.S.). This report describes the calculation procedure and models in FREC-3. (author)

  17. HEXBU-3D, a three-dimensional PWR-simulator program for hexagonal fuel assemblies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    HEXBU-3D is a three-dimensional nodal simulator program for PWR reactors. It is designed for a reactor core that consists of hexagonal fuel assemblies and of big follower-type control assemblies. The program solves two-group diffusion equations in homogenized fuel assembly geometry by a sophisticated nodal method. The treatment of feedback effects from xenon-poisoning, fuel temperature, moderator temperature and density and soluble boron concentration are included in the program. The nodal equations are solved by a fast two-level iteration technique and the eigenvalue can be either the effective multiplication factor or the boron concentration of the moderator. Burnup calculations are performed by tabulated sets of burnup-dependent cross sections evaluated by a cell burnup program. HEXBY-3D has been originally programmed in FORTRAN V for the UNIVAC 1108 computer, but there is also another version which is operable on the CDC CYBER 170 computer. (author)

  18. RERTR program activities related to the development and application of new LEU fuels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The statue of the U.S. Reduced Enrichment Research and Test Reactor (RERTR) Program is reviewed. After a brief outline of RERTR Program objectives and goals, program accomplishments are discussed with emphasis on the development, demonstration and application of new LEU fuels. Most program activities have proceeded as planned, and a combination of two silicide fuels (U3Si2-Al and U3Si-Al) holds excellent promise for achieving the long-term program goals. Current plans and schedules project the uranium density of qualified RERTR fuels for plate-type reactors to grow by approximately 1 g U/cm3 each year, from the current 1.7 g U/cm3 to the 7.0 g U/cm3 which will be reached in late 1988. The technical needs of research and test reactors for HEU exports are also forecasted to undergo a gradual but dramatic decline in the coming years

  19. Progress of the United States foreign research reactor spent nuclear fuel acceptance program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The United States Department of Energy (DOE), in consultation with the Department of State (DOS), adopted the Nuclear Weapons Nonproliferation Policy Concerning Foreign Research Reactor Spent Nuclear Fuel in May 1996. To date, the Foreign Research Reactor (FRR) Spent Nuclear Fuel (SNF) Acceptance Program has completed 23 shipments. Almost 5000 spent fuel assemblies from eligible research reactors throughout the world have been accepted into the United States under this program. Over the past year, another cross-country shipment of fuel was accomplished, as well as two additional shipments in the fourth quarter of calendar year 2001. These shipments attracted considerable safeguards oversight since they occurred post September 11. Recent guidance from the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) pertaining to security and safeguards issues deals directly with the transport of nuclear material. Since the Acceptance Program has consistently applied above regulatory safety enhancements in transport of spent nuclear fuel, this guidance did not adversely effect the Program. As the Program draws closer to its termination date, an increased number of requests for program extension are received. Currently, there are no plans to extend the policy beyond its current expiration date; therefore, eligible reactor operators interested in participating in this program are strongly encouraged to evaluate their inventory and plan for future shipments as soon as possible. (author)

  20. Validation results based on the spent fuel demonstration program at FCF

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Over the last decade Argonne National Laboratory has developed reactor depletion methods and models to determine radionuclide inventories of irradiated EBR-II fuels. A brief description of these burnup methodologies is presented herein. Predicted masses for the irradiated Zirconium-alloy driver fuel based on these calculational methodologies have been validated using available data from destructive measurements--first from measurements of lead EBR-II experimental test assemblies and later using data obtained from processing irradiated EBR-II fuel assemblies in the Fuel Conditioning Facility. The results of Analytical Laboratory measurements obtained for EBR-II driver fuel samples obtained over the duration of the Spent Fuel Demonstration Program are compared with calculated values. These validation results demonstrate these methods meet the FCF operations and material control and accountancy requirements

  1. Optimization of fuel management and control poison of a nuclear power reactor by dynamic programming

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The distribution of fuel and control poison in a nuclear reactor was optimized by the method of Dynamic Programming. A 620 M We Pressurized Water Reactor similar to Angra-1 was studied. The reactor operation was simulated in a IBM-1130 computer. Two fuel shuffling schemes and three poison management schemes were simultaneously employed in the reactor divided into three regions of equal volume and two consecutive stages were studied in order to determine the influence of poison management on the optimum fuel management policy. When uniform poisoning on all the three regions was permitted the traditional out-in fuel management policy proved to be more economic. On introducing simultaneous poison management, the optimum fuel management sequence was found to be different. The results obtained indicate a stronger interaction between the fuel management and the poison management than anticipated in previous works. (author)

  2. Irradiation testing of miniature fuel plates for the RERTR program. [Reduced Enrichment Research and Test Reactors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Senn, R.L.; Martin, M.M.

    1981-07-01

    An irradiation test facility, which provides a test bed for irradiating a variety of miniature fuel plates (miniplates) for the Reduced Enrichment Research and Test Reactors (RERTR) program, has been placed into operation. These tests screen various candidate fuel materials on their suitability for replacing the highly enriched uranium fuel materials currently used by the world's test and research reactors with a lower enrichment fuel material, without significantly degrading reactor operating characteristics and power levels. The use of low uranium enrichment of about 20% /sup 235/U in place of highly enriched fuel for these reactors would reduce the potential for /sup 235/U diversion. The irradiation test facility, designated as HFED, is operating in core position E-7 in the Oak Ridge Research Reactor (ORR), a 30-MW water-moderated reactor. The miniplates will achieve burnups of up to approx. 2.2 x 10/sup 27/ fissions/m/sup 3/ of fuel.

  3. LTA'S manufacturing for JHR fuel qualification program in BR2 reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the frame of the JHR fuel qualification program, CEA awarded to AREVA-CERCA an order for the manufacture and delivery of twelve Lead Test Assemblies. These assemblies are made in MEU U3Si2 type fuel plates using AlFeNi cladding. They are dedicated to experimental tests performed in the BR2 reactor, with the purpose of demonstrating the good behaviour of the fuel elements under operating conditions representative of the JHR normal operation. The main challenges were to manufacture new designed fuel assemblies with specific constraints on the geometry and on the manufacturing margins, due to the high performances required for the JHR reactor; as well as to deal with the insertion of burnable poisons in the U3Si2 type fuel plates. This paper is focused on manufacturing developments performed along the project so as to finally successfully produce the LTA's fuel elements. (author)

  4. Application of linear programming and perturbation theory in optimization of fuel utilization in a nuclear reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Proposed optimization procedure is fast due to application of linear programming. Non-linear constraints which demand iterative application of linear programming are slowing down the calculation. Linearization can be done by different procedures starting from simple empirical rules for fuel in-core management to complicated general perturbation theory with higher order of corrections. A mathematical model was formulated for optimization of improved fuel cycle. A detailed algorithm for determining minimum of fresh fuel at the beginning of each fuel cycle is shown and the problem is linearized by first order perturbation theory and it is optimized by linear programming. Numerical illustration of the proposed method was done for the experimental reactor mostly for saving computer time

  5. Fast calculation program for nuclear fuel lattice design of boiling water reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A methodology for 10 x 10 fuel lattice design for BWR's was developed. A linear equation based on a matrix of coefficients (change ratio of relative power due to U-235 enrichment changes) was proposed for estimating pin by pin relative powers of a fuel lattice. Based on above description the fast calculation program PreDiCeldas was developed which allows diminishing the maximum Local Power peaking Factor (LPPF). This program uses a simple search algorithm varying the distribution of U-235 within the fuel lattice, and also maintaining its average enrichment as a constant. The pin relative power estimation accuracy is of the order of 0.04% with respect to HELIOS transport code calculations. With PreDiCeldas program it was possible, in a short calculation time, to redesign a reference fuel lattice diminishing the maximum LPPF, at the beginning of the life, from 1.405 to 1.225. (authors)

  6. Out-of-pile bundle experiments on severe fuel damage (CORA-program): Objectives, test matrix and facility description

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    As part of the Severe Fuel Damage Program by the German Nuclear Safety Project, out-of-pile experiments are being conducted at the Kernforschungszentrum Karlsruhe to investigate the damage behaviour of PWR fuel rod bundles under Severe Fuel Damage conditions (CORA-Program). This report describes the objectives, the test matrix and the CORA-facility. (orig.)

  7. Summary of NRC LWR safety research programs on fuel behavior, metallurgy/materials and operational safety

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The NRC light-water reactor safety-research program is part of the NRC regulatory program for ensuring the safety of nuclear power plants. This paper summarizes the results of NRC-sponsored research into fuel behavior, metallurgy and materials, and operational safety. The fuel behavior research program provides a detailed understanding of the response of nuclear fuel assemblies to postulated off-normal or accident conditions. Fuel behavior research includes studies of basic fuel rod properties, in-reactor tests, computer code development, fission product release and fuel meltdown. The metallurgy and materials research program provides independent confirmation of the safe design of reactor vessels and piping. This program includes studies on fracture mechanics, irradiation embrittlement, stress corrosion, crack growth, and nondestructive examination. The operational safety research provides direct assistance to NRC officials concerned with the operational and operational-safety aspects of nuclear power plants. The topics currently being addressed include qualification testing evaluation, fire protection, human factors, and noise diagnostics

  8. K Basin Fuel Characterization Program Technical Baseline Summary

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This document provides a summary of the systematic process used by the SNF Project to characterize K-Basin spent fuel, and to develop and apply the appropriate conservative safety margins to the resulting parameters for technical designs and safety analyses

  9. Executive Functioning in Alcoholics Following an mHealth Cognitive Stimulation Program: Randomized Controlled Trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliveira, Jorge; Lopes, Paulo; Brito, Rodrigo; Morais, Diogo; Silva, Diana; Silva, Ana; Rebelo, Sara; Bastos, Marta; Deus, Alberto

    2014-01-01

    Background The consequences of alcohol dependence are severe and may range from physical disease to neuropsychological deficits in several cognitive domains. Alcohol abuse has also been related to brain dysfunction specifically in the prefrontal cortex. Conventional neuropsychological interventions (paper-and-pencil cognitive stimulation training) have a positive effect but are time-consuming, costly, and not motivating for patients. Objective Our goal was to test the cognitive effects of a novel approach to neuropsychological intervention, using mobile technology and serious games, on patients with alcohol dependence. Methods The trial design consisted of a two-arm study assessing the cognitive outcomes of neuropsychological intervention with mobile serious games (mHealth) versus control (treatment-as-usual with no neuropsychological intervention) in patients undergoing treatment for alcohol dependence syndrome. Sixty-eight patients were recruited from an alcohol-rehab clinic and randomly assigned to the mHealth (n=33) or control condition (n=35). The intervention on the experimental group consisted of a therapist-assisted cognitive stimulation therapy for 4 weeks on a 2-3 days/week basis. Results Fourteen patients dropped out of the study. The results of the neuropsychological assessments with the remaining 54 patients showed an overall increase (Pgames for neuropsychological stimulation to overcome executive dysfunction in patients with alcohol dependence. This trial was negative on two neuropsychological/cognitive tests, and positive on one. Trial Registration ClinicalTrials.gov NCT01942954; http://www.clinicaltrials.gov/ct2/show/NCT01942954 (Archived by WebCite at http://www.webcitation.org/6OYDqHLwB). PMID:24742381

  10. Surrogate/spent fuel sabotage : aerosol ratio test program and Phase 2 test results.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Borek, Theodore Thaddeus III; Thompson, N. Slater (U.S. Department of Energy); Sorenson, Ken Bryce; Hibbs, R.S. (U.S. Department of Energy); Nolte, Oliver (Fraunhofer Institut fur Toxikologie und Experimentelle Medizin, Germany); Molecke, Martin Alan; Autrusson, Bruno (Institut de Radioprotection et de Surete Nucleaire, France); Young, F. I. (U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission); Koch, Wolfgang (Fraunhofer Institut fur Toxikologie und Experimentelle Medizin, Germany); Brochard, Didier (Institut de Radioprotection et de Surete Nucleaire, France); Pretzsch, Gunter Guido (Gesellschaft fur Anlagen- und Reaktorsicherheit, Germany); Lange, Florentin (Gesellschaft fur Anlagen- und Reaktorsicherheit, Germany)

    2004-05-01

    A multinational test program is in progress to quantify the aerosol particulates produced when a high energy density device, HEDD, impacts surrogate material and actual spent fuel test rodlets. This program provides needed data that are relevant to some sabotage scenarios in relation to spent fuel transport and storage casks, and associated risk assessments; the program also provides significant political benefits in international cooperation. We are quantifying the spent fuel ratio, SFR, the ratio of the aerosol particles released from HEDD-impacted actual spent fuel to the aerosol particles produced from surrogate materials, measured under closely matched test conditions. In addition, we are measuring the amounts, nuclide content, size distribution of the released aerosol materials, and enhanced sorption of volatile fission product nuclides onto specific aerosol particle size fractions. These data are crucial for predicting radiological impacts. This document includes a thorough description of the test program, including the current, detailed test plan, concept and design, plus a description of all test components, and requirements for future components and related nuclear facility needs. It also serves as a program status report as of the end of FY 2003. All available test results, observations, and analyses - primarily for surrogate material Phase 2 tests using cerium oxide sintered ceramic pellets are included. This spent fuel sabotage - aerosol test program is coordinated with the international Working Group for Sabotage Concerns of Transport and Storage Casks, WGSTSC, and supported by both the U.S. Department of Energy and Nuclear Regulatory Commission.

  11. Spent fuel sabotage aerosol ratio program : FY 2004 test and data summary.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brucher, Wenzel (Gesellschaft fur Anlagen- und Reaktorsicherheit, Germany); Koch, Wolfgang (Fraunhofer Institut fur Toxikologie und Experimentelle Medizin, Germany); Pretzsch, Gunter Guido (Gesellschaft fur Anlagen- und Reaktorsicherheit, Germany); Loiseau, Olivier (Institut de Radioprotection et de Surete Nucleaire, France); Mo, Tin (U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission, Washington, DC); Billone, Michael C. (Argonne National Laboratory, Argonne, IL); Autrusson, Bruno A. (Institut de Radioprotection et de Surete Nucleaire, France); Young, F. I. (U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission, Washington, DC); Coats, Richard Lee; Burtseva, Tatiana (Argonne National Laboratory, Argonne, IL); Luna, Robert Earl; Dickey, Roy R.; Sorenson, Ken Bryce; Nolte, Oliver (Fraunhofer Institut fur Toxikologie und Experimentelle Medizin, Germany); Thompson, Nancy Slater (U.S. Department of Energy, Washington, DC); Hibbs, Russell S. (U.S. Department of Energy, Washington, DC); Gregson, Michael Warren; Lange, Florentin (Gesellschaft fur Anlagen- und Reaktorsicherheit, Germany); Molecke, Martin Alan; Tsai, Han-Chung (Argonne National Laboratory, Argonne, IL)

    2005-07-01

    This multinational, multi-phase spent fuel sabotage test program is quantifying the aerosol particles produced when the products of a high energy density device (HEDD) interact with and explosively particulate test rodlets that contain pellets of either surrogate materials or actual spent fuel. This program has been underway for several years. This program provides data that are relevant to some sabotage scenarios in relation to spent fuel transport and storage casks, and associated risk assessments. The program also provides significant technical and political benefits in international cooperation. We are quantifying the Spent Fuel Ratio (SFR), the ratio of the aerosol particles released from HEDD-impacted actual spent fuel to the aerosol particles produced from surrogate materials, measured under closely matched test conditions, in a contained test chamber. In addition, we are measuring the amounts, nuclide content, size distribution of the released aerosol materials, and enhanced sorption of volatile fission product nuclides onto specific aerosol particle size fractions. These data are the input for follow-on modeling studies to quantify respirable hazards, associated radiological risk assessments, vulnerability assessments, and potential cask physical protection design modifications. This document includes an updated description of the test program and test components for all work and plans made, or revised, during FY 2004. It also serves as a program status report as of the end of FY 2004. All available test results, observations, and aerosol analyses plus interpretations--primarily for surrogate material Phase 2 tests, series 2/5A through 2/9B, using cerium oxide sintered ceramic pellets are included. Advanced plans and progress are described for upcoming tests with unirradiated, depleted uranium oxide and actual spent fuel test rodlets. This spent fuel sabotage--aerosol test program is coordinated with the international Working Group for Sabotage Concerns of

  12. Spent fuel sabotage aerosol ratio program : FY 2004 test and data summary

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This multinational, multi-phase spent fuel sabotage test program is quantifying the aerosol particles produced when the products of a high energy density device (HEDD) interact with and explosively particulate test rodlets that contain pellets of either surrogate materials or actual spent fuel. This program has been underway for several years. This program provides data that are relevant to some sabotage scenarios in relation to spent fuel transport and storage casks, and associated risk assessments. The program also provides significant technical and political benefits in international cooperation. We are quantifying the Spent Fuel Ratio (SFR), the ratio of the aerosol particles released from HEDD-impacted actual spent fuel to the aerosol particles produced from surrogate materials, measured under closely matched test conditions, in a contained test chamber. In addition, we are measuring the amounts, nuclide content, size distribution of the released aerosol materials, and enhanced sorption of volatile fission product nuclides onto specific aerosol particle size fractions. These data are the input for follow-on modeling studies to quantify respirable hazards, associated radiological risk assessments, vulnerability assessments, and potential cask physical protection design modifications. This document includes an updated description of the test program and test components for all work and plans made, or revised, during FY 2004. It also serves as a program status report as of the end of FY 2004. All available test results, observations, and aerosol analyses plus interpretations--primarily for surrogate material Phase 2 tests, series 2/5A through 2/9B, using cerium oxide sintered ceramic pellets are included. Advanced plans and progress are described for upcoming tests with unirradiated, depleted uranium oxide and actual spent fuel test rodlets. This spent fuel sabotage--aerosol test program is coordinated with the international Working Group for Sabotage Concerns of

  13. Considerations for a national program on spent fuel management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The spent fuel discharged from the two LWR's that are in operation (Zorita, 160 MW PWR, and Santa Maria de Garona, 460 MW BWR) is being reprocessed under contracts with BNFL; these contracts will expire in the next few years. The fuel discharged from Vandelos (50 MW GCR) is being reprocessed by Cogema under a long-term contract. No new reprocessing contracts for LWR's in operation, under construction, or planned have been signed or are being considered for the near future. The plutonium and the residual uranium contained in LWR spent fuel are considered important potential energy resources. They are especially valuable for countries such as Spain, which is short of energy resources, and they might be used in the future in fast breeder or thermal reactors. This is the reason that, until reprocessing is justified and appropriate solutions to make reprocessing available are developed, Spain has decided to build the appropriate capacity for the temporary storage of spent fuel. The capacity is being achieved, on short term, by the extension of AR storage capacity. It is being achieved, at medium or longer term, by the construction of centralized AFR facilities to serve all Spanish nuclear power plants. Spanish utilities are undertaking the expansion of reactor storage capacities, using densified racks, to increment capacity to at least 8 to 10 reloads, in addition to full core discharge capacity. Spain has the time and the financial and technical resources to implement a national solution for spent fuel storage. Financial strategy, technology choice, and licensing considerations are under examination in order to make a decision for medium- and long-term storage alternatives

  14. Improving low temperature properties of synthetic diesel fuels derived from oil shale. Alternative fuels utilization program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Frankenfeld, J.W.; Taylor, W.F.

    1980-11-01

    The ability of additives to improve the cold flow properties of shale oil derived fuels boiling in the diesel fuel range was evaluated. Because a commercial shale oil industry did not exist to provide actual samples of finished fuels, a representative range of hydroprocessed shale oil fractions was prepared for use in the additive testing work. Crude oil shale from Occidental Shale Company was fractionated to give three liquids in the diesel fuel boiling range. The initial boiling point in each case was 325/sup 0/F (163/sup 0/C). The final boiling points were 640/sup 0/F (338/sup 0/C), 670/sup 0/F (354/sup 0/C) and 700/sup 0/F (371/sup 0/F). Each fraction was hydrotreated to three different severities (800, 1200 and 1500 psi total pressure) over a Shell 324 nickel molybdate on alumina catalyst at 710 to 750/sup 0/F to afford 9 different model fuels. A variety of commercial and experimental additives were evaluated as cold flow improvers in the model fuels at treat levels of 0.04 to 0.4 wt %. Both the standard pour point test (ASTM D97) and a more severe low temperature flow test (LTFT) were employed. Reductions in pour points of up to 70/sup 0/F and improvements in LTFT temperatures up to 16/sup 0/F were achieved. It is concluded that flow improver additives can play an important role in improving the cold flow properties of future synthetic fuels of the diesel type derived from oil shale.

  15. Pathways to Commercial Success. Technologies and Products Supported by the Fuel Cell Technologies Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    none,

    2011-09-01

    This FY 2011 report updates the results of an effort to identify and characterize commercial and near-commercial (emerging) technologies and products that benefited from the support of the Fuel Cell Technologies Program and its predecessor programs within DOE's Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy.

  16. Pathways to Commercial Success. Technologies and Products Supported by the Fuel Cell Technologies Program - 2012

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    none,

    2012-09-01

    This FY 2012 report updates the results of an effort to identify and characterize commercial and near-commercial (emerging) technologies and products that benefited from the support of the Fuel Cell Technologies Program and its predecessor programs within DOE's Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy.

  17. FREC-4A: a computer program to predict fuel rod performance under normal reactor operation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The program FREC-4A (Fuel Reliability Evaluation Code-version 4A) is used for predicting fuel rod performance in normal reactor operation. The performance is calculated in accordance with the irradiation history of fuel rods. Emphasis is placed on the prediction of the axial elongation of claddings induced by pellet-cladding mechanical interaction, including the influence of initially preloaded springs inserted in fuel rod lower plenums. In the FREC-4A, an fuel rod is divided into axial segments. In each segment, it is assumed that the temperature, stress and strain are axi-symmetrical, and the axial strain in constant in fuel pellets and in a cladding, though the values in the pellets and in the cladding are different. The calculation of the contact load and the clearance along the length of a fuel rod and the stress and strain in each segment is explained. The method adopted in the FREC-4A is simple, and suitable to predict the deformation of fuel rods over their full length. This report is described on the outline of the program, the method of solving the stiffness equations, the calculation models, the input data such as irradiation history, output distribution, material properties and pores, the printing-out of input data and calculated results. (Kako, I.)

  18. Fuel cycle industrialization program prepared by N-Fuel Research Committee, ANRE

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To meet the new situation resulting from the scaling down of nuclear power development plan in Japan, and the changes due to the new U.S. nuclear non-proliferation policy, the Nuclear Fuel Research Committee of the Agency of Natural Resources and Energy of MITI has prepared the ''Interim Report on the Nuclear Fuel Cycle''. It sets out in precise terms the methods that should be followed for establishing the nuclear fuel cycle in Japan. Major items treated in this report are; uranium ore development, promotion of uranium stockpiling, construction of domestic uranium enrichment plant, promotion of the construction of a nuclear fuel park, Pu utilization and cooperation in international movement for nuclear non-proliferation, and the establishment of measures for radioactive waste management. Discussions are made from technological, economical, and political view points. Also attached are a table of the comprehensive industrialization plan up to the year 2000 and a table of estimated nuclear fuel demand and supply in Japan. (Aoki, K.)

  19. Research program (VEGA) on the fission product release from irradiated fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fission product release from overheated fuel is one of the key phenomena controlling the source terms in hypothetical severe accidents. In-pile and out-of-pile heating tests of the fuel have been conducted to study the release behavior in the world. In-pile tests covered a wide range of accident conditions up to fuel melting under high pressure. The uncertainty and variation of the test conditions in the in-pile test, however, made the interpretation very difficult. The out-of-pile tests under better controlled conditions, on the other hand, was limited below 2425degC under the atmospheric pressure. Thus, considerable uncertainties still remain, especially in the areas under high temperature and/or high pressure conditions. An experimental and analytical program, Verification Experiment of Gas/Aerosol release (VEGA), was initiated at JAERI to study the fission product release behavior from light water reactor fuels irradiated in Japanese power reactors. A short fuel segment will be inductively heated to high temperatures in a hot cell under simulated accident conditions. In the program, less understood release and transport behavior of low volatile and short life fission products will be studied, 1. under high temperature conditions, covering melting temperature of the fuel, and, 2. at high pressure conditions up to 1.0 MPa. The program will be carried out keeping a close corporation with the NSRR RIA program, sharing the test fuel specimens and examination results. This way, irradiated fuel behavior and characteristics under various accident conditions are studied comprehensively. This report describes background, status and outlines of the VEGA program. (author)

  20. Research program (VEGA) on the fission product release from irradiated fuel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nakamura, Takehiko; Hidaka, Akihide; Hashimoto, Kazuichiro; Harada, Yuhei; Nishino, Yasuharu; Kanazawa, Hiroyuki; Uetsuka, Hiroshi; Sugimoto, Jun [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Tokai, Ibaraki (Japan). Tokai Research Establishment

    1999-03-01

    Fission product release from overheated fuel is one of the key phenomena controlling the source terms in hypothetical severe accidents. In-pile and out-of-pile heating tests of the fuel have been conducted to study the release behavior in the world. In-pile tests covered a wide range of accident conditions up to fuel melting under high pressure. The uncertainty and variation of the test conditions in the in-pile test, however, made the interpretation very difficult. The out-of-pile tests under better controlled conditions, on the other hand, was limited below 2425degC under the atmospheric pressure. Thus, considerable uncertainties still remain, especially in the areas under high temperature and/or high pressure conditions. An experimental and analytical program, Verification Experiment of Gas/Aerosol release (VEGA), was initiated at JAERI to study the fission product release behavior from light water reactor fuels irradiated in Japanese power reactors. A short fuel segment will be inductively heated to high temperatures in a hot cell under simulated accident conditions. In the program, less understood release and transport behavior of low volatile and short life fission products will be studied, 1. under high temperature conditions, covering melting temperature of the fuel, and, 2. at high pressure conditions up to 1.0 MPa. The program will be carried out keeping a close corporation with the NSRR RIA program, sharing the test fuel specimens and examination results. This way, irradiated fuel behavior and characteristics under various accident conditions are studied comprehensively. This report describes background, status and outlines of the VEGA program. (author)

  1. Cracow clean fossil fuels and energy efficiency program. Progress report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-10-01

    Since 1990 the US Department of Energy has been involved in a program aimed at reducing air pollution caused by small, coal-fired sources in Poland. The program focuses on the city of Cracow and is designed so that results will be applicable and extendable to the entire region. This report serves both as a review of the progress which has been made to date in achieving the program objectives and a summary of work still in progress.

  2. Advanced Fuel Cycle Initiative University Fellowship Program. Final Progress Report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2004-2011 Final Report for AFCI University Fellowship Program. The goal of this effort was to be supportive of university students and university programs - particularly those students and programs that will help to strengthen the development of nuclear-related fields. The program also supported the stability of the nuclear infrastructure and developed research partnerships that are helping to enlarge the national nuclear science technology base. In this fellowship program, the U.S. Department of Energy sought master's degree students in nuclear, mechanical, or chemical engineering, engineering/applied physics, physics, chemistry, radiochemistry, or fields of science and engineering applicable to the AFCI/Gen IV/GNEP missions in order to meet future U.S. nuclear program needs. The fellowship program identified candidates and selected full time students of high-caliber who were taking nuclear courses as part of their degree programs. The DOE Academic Program Managers encouraged fellows to pursue summer internships at national laboratories and supported the students with appropriate information so that both the fellows and the nation's nuclear energy objectives were successful.

  3. Parent and Child Characteristics Related to Chosen Adolescent Alcohol and Drug Prevention Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Brenda A.; Aalborg, Annette E.; Byrnes, Hilary F.; Bauman, Karl; Spoth, Richard

    2012-01-01

    Mothers were allowed to choose between two different family-based adolescent alcohol-drug prevention strategies and the choice was examined in relation to parent and teen characteristics. Under real world conditions, parents are making choices regarding health promotion strategies for their adolescents and little is known about how parent and teen…

  4. Status of the inert matrix fuel program at PSI

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Incineration of plutonium by a once-through cycle in LWRs utilising an inert matrix based fuel may prove to be an attractive way of making use of the energy of fissile plutonium and reducing both the hazard potential and the volumes of the waste. Yttria stabilised zirconia forms a solid solution with oxides of rare earth elements (e.g. erbium, cerium) and some actinides. The small absorption cross section, the excellent stability under irradiation, and the insolubility in acids and water recommends this material as an inert matrix. Neutronics calculations with erbium as burnable poison show that these compositions would be optimal from the reactivity point of view. A fuel element with an improved reactivity behaviour over its life cycle has been designed for possible introduction into a heterogeneous LWR core. (author). 16 refs., 1 tab., 10 figs

  5. Evaluation of bioassay program at uranium fuel fabrication plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Results of a comprehensive study of urinalysis, lung burden and personal air sample measurements for workers at a uranium fuel fabrication plant are presented. Correlations between measurements were found and regression models used to explain the relationship between lung burden, daily intakes and urinary excretions of uranium. Assuming the ICRP lung model, the lung burden histories of ten workers were used to estimate the amounts in each of the long-term compartments of the lung. Estimates of the half lives of each compartment and of the maximum relative contributions to the urine from each compartment are given. These values were then used to predict urinary excretions from the long-term compartments for workers at another fuel fabrication plant. The standard error of estimate compared well with the daily variation in urinary excretion. (author)

  6. US RERTR program, its fuel-development activities, and application in the KUHFR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Travelli, A.; Stahl, D.

    1981-01-01

    The goals, structure, and accomplishments to date of the Reduced Enrichment Research and Test Reactor (RERTR) Program are described in detail. Plans and schedules for future program activities are outlined with the effect which these activities may potentially have on the research-reactor community. The fuel-development activities of the program are discussed in detail, with particular emphasis on the new low-enrichment, high-uranium-density fuels which the RERTR Program is developing for application in research reactors in the near future. The results of a joint study program between the RERTR Program and the Kyoto University Research Reactor Institute (KURRI), aimed at converting the Kyoto University High-Flux Reactor (KUHFR) to the use of reduced-enrichment uranium, are presented. It is shown that the study has resulted in a positive decision and in a cooperative, well-structured plan for the KUHFR conversion.

  7. Advanced Coal-Fueled Gas Turbine Program. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Horner, M.W.; Ekstedt, E.E.; Gal, E.; Jackson, M.R.; Kimura, S.G.; Lavigne, R.G.; Lucas, C.; Rairden, J.R.; Sabla, P.E.; Savelli, J.F.; Slaughter, D.M.; Spiro, C.L.; Staub, F.W.

    1989-02-01

    The objective of the original Request for Proposal was to establish the technological bases necessary for the subsequent commercial development and deployment of advanced coal-fueled gas turbine power systems by the private sector. The offeror was to identify the specific application or applications, toward which his development efforts would be directed; define and substantiate the technical, economic, and environmental criteria for the selected application; and conduct such component design, development, integration, and tests as deemed necessary to fulfill this objective. Specifically, the offeror was to choose a system through which ingenious methods of grouping subcomponents into integrated systems accomplishes the following: (1) Preserve the inherent power density and performance advantages of gas turbine systems. (2) System must be capable of meeting or exceeding existing and expected environmental regulations for the proposed application. (3) System must offer a considerable improvement over coal-fueled systems which are commercial, have been demonstrated, or are being demonstrated. (4) System proposed must be an integrated gas turbine concept, i.e., all fuel conditioning, all expansion gas conditioning, or post-expansion gas cleaning, must be integrated into the gas turbine system.

  8. Development of a Computer Program for the Analysis Logistics of PWR Spent Fuels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    It is expected that the temporary storage facilities at the nuclear power plants will be full of the spent fuels within 10 years. Provided that a centralized interim storage facility is constructed along the coast of the Korean peninsula to solve this problem, a substantial amount of spent fuels should be transported by sea or by land every year. In this paper we developed a computer program for the analysis of transportation logistics of the spent fuels from 4 different nuclear power plant sites to the hypothetical centralized interim storage facility and the final repository. Mass balance equations were used to analyze the logistics between the nuclear power plants and the interim storage facility. To this end a computer program, CASK, was developed by using the VISUAL BASIC language. The annual transportation rates of spent fuels from the four nuclear power plant sites were determined by using the CASK program. The parameter study with the program illustrated the easiness of logistics analysis. The program could be used for the cost analysis of the spent fuel transportation as well.

  9. The fuel pin design and control program system MERKUR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An interactive APL-program system for pin design and specification was developed, which only needs limited activities of the user. All material properties, which are frequently used, are selected by key words from a data bank, i.e. for the clad material '1,4970' and are built into the program. At the time being the program gives an accurate thermal and neutronic and a rough mechanical specification for the pin with prescribed values for the plutonium distribution and stoichiometry distribution. The nuclear specification comprises a one group transport calculation from the clad surface inward. The system contains in addition to the calculational programs some conversational programs, which support the user during input and output and enable the plotting of the generated datas. (orig.)

  10. Alternative fuels for vehicles fleet demonstration program final report. Volume 1: Summary

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-03-01

    The Alternative Fuels for Vehicles Fleet Demonstration Program (AFV-FDP) was a multiyear effort to collect technical data for use in determining the costs and benefits of alternative-fuel vehicles in typical applications in New York State. During 3 years of collecting data, 7.3 million miles of driving were accumulated, 1,003 chassis-dynamometer emissions tests were performed, 862,000 gallons of conventional fuel were saved, and unique information was developed about garage safety recommendations, vehicle performance, and other topics. Findings are organized by vehicle and fuel type. For light-duty compressed natural gas (CNG) vehicles, technology has evolved rapidly and closed-loop, electronically-controlled fuel systems provide performance and emissions advantages over open-loop, mechanical systems. The best CNG technology produces consistently low tailpipe emissions versus gasoline, and can eliminate evaporative emissions. Reduced driving range remains the largest physical drawback. Fuel cost is low ($/Btu) but capital costs are high, indicating that economics are best with vehicles that are used intensively. Propane produces impacts similar to CNG and is less expensive to implement, but fuel cost is higher than gasoline and safety codes limit use in urban areas. Light-duty methanol/ethanol vehicles provide performance and emissions benefits over gasoline with little impact on capital costs, but fuel costs are high. Heavy-duty CNG engines are evolving rapidly and provide large reductions in emissions versus diesel. Capital costs are high for CNG buses and fuel efficiency is reduced, but the fuel is less expensive and overall operating costs are about equal to those of diesel buses. Methanol buses provide performance and emissions benefits versus diesel, but fuel costs are high. Other emerging technologies were also evaluated, including electric vehicles, hybrid-electric vehicles, and fuel cells.

  11. Identification and Analysis of Critical Gaps in Nuclear Fuel Cycle Codes Required by the SINEMA Program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The current state of the art in nuclear fuel cycle (NFC) modeling is an eclectic mixture of codes with various levels of applicability, flexibility, and availability. In support of the advanced fuel cycle systems analyses, especially those by the Advanced Fuel Cycle Initiative (AFCI), University of Cincinnati in collaboration with Idaho State University carried out a detailed review of the existing codes describing various aspects of the nuclear fuel cycle and identified the research and development needs required for a comprehensive model of the global nuclear energy infrastructure and the associated nuclear fuel cycles. Relevant information obtained on the NFC codes was compiled into a relational database that allows easy access to various codes' properties. Additionally, the research analyzed the gaps in the NFC computer codes with respect to their potential integration into programs that perform comprehensive NFC analysis.

  12. Identification and Analysis of Critical Gaps in Nuclear Fuel Cycle Codes Required by the SINEMA Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Adrian Miron; Joshua Valentine; John Christenson; Majd Hawwari; Santosh Bhatt; Mary Lou Dunzik-Gougar: Michael Lineberry

    2009-10-01

    The current state of the art in nuclear fuel cycle (NFC) modeling is an eclectic mixture of codes with various levels of applicability, flexibility, and availability. In support of the advanced fuel cycle systems analyses, especially those by the Advanced Fuel Cycle Initiative (AFCI), Unviery of Cincinnati in collaboration with Idaho State University carried out a detailed review of the existing codes describing various aspects of the nuclear fuel cycle and identified the research and development needs required for a comprehensive model of the global nuclear energy infrastructure and the associated nuclear fuel cycles. Relevant information obtained on the NFC codes was compiled into a relational database that allows easy access to various codes' properties. Additionally, the research analyzed the gaps in the NFC computer codes with respect to their potential integration into programs that perform comprehensive NFC analysis.

  13. Fatty acid ethyl esters (FAEEs) as markers for alcohol in meconium: method validation and implementation of a screening program for prenatal drug exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hastedt, Martin; Krumbiegel, Franziska; Gapert, René; Tsokos, Michael; Hartwig, Sven

    2013-09-01

    Alcohol consumption during pregnancy is a widespread problem and can cause severe fetal damage. As the diagnosis of fetal alcohol syndrome is difficult, the implementation of a reliable marker for alcohol consumption during pregnancy into meconium drug screening programs would be invaluable. A previously published gas chromatography mass spectrometry method for the detection of fatty acid ethyl esters (FAEEs) as alcohol markers in meconium was optimized and newly validated for a sample size of 50 mg. This method was applied to 122 cases from a drug-using population. The meconium samples were also tested for common drugs of abuse. In 73 % of the cases, one or more drugs were found. Twenty percent of the samples tested positive for FAEEs at levels indicating significant alcohol exposure. Consequently, alcohol was found to be the third most frequently abused substance within the study group. This re-validated method provides an increase in testing sensitivity, is reliable and easily applicable as part of a drug screening program. It can be used as a non-invasive tool to detect high alcohol consumption in the last trimester of pregnancy. The introduction of FAEEs testing in meconium screening was found to be of particular use in a drug-using population. PMID:23124415

  14. ZZ FUELS-DATA, Data Library for LWR Fuel Behaviour for FRAP Program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1 - Description of problem or function: FUELS DATA is a collection of machine-readable fuel behavior data from domestic and foreign water reactor test facilities developed for use in model verification of the Nuclear Regulatory Commission FRAP codes. 2 - Method of solution: Measurements have been formatted and stored to facilitate computer application. The storage format for each fuel rod entry provides identification data, design parameters, power history, and corresponding measurement history. The verification data base is expanded prior to evaluating each new version of the model to enable verification runs to have continuing independent benchmark significance because there is always the chance that empiricism in the model based on previous experiments may be mis- directed. The storage structure is made up of 11 separate file types, 10 of these corresponding to different card types and associated card formats. The identification and design block includes the first four card types: types 1, 2, and 3 appear for each entry. Card type 1 provides the rod designation and run number and experiment and reference report designation. Type 2 contains data availability flags for the 15 measurement parameters which follow and specifies the number of measurement locations. Type 3 represents the main design, fabrication, and system condition data. If local measurements are available, card type 4 gives the instrument location. Card types 5 and 6 describe the rod operation history. Type 5 specifies the heat rating and cumulative irradiation time at the end of an operating step and the associated step power and burnup condition measurements. Type 6 describes normalized axial power distributions during different operation history periods. The rod measurement history is defined by card types 7 through 11. Types 7 and 8 contain instrumented rod measurements corresponding to operating steps defined by card types 5 (e.g., integral measurements for fuel and cladding length change, rod

  15. Summary report on fuel development and miniplate fabrication for the RERTR Program, 1978 to 1990

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wiencek, T.C. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States). Energy Technology Div.

    1995-08-01

    This report summarizes the efforts of the Fabrication Technology Section at Argonne National Laboratory in the program of Reduced Enrichment Research and Test Reactors (RERTR). The main objective of this program was to reduce the amount of high enriched ({approx}93% {sup 235}U) uranium (HEU) used in nonpower reactors. Conversion from low-density (0.8--1.6 g U/cm{sup 3}) HEU fuel elements to highly loaded (up to 7 g U/cm{sup 3}) low-enrichment (<20% {sup 235}U) uranium (LEU) fuel elements allows the same reactor power levels, core designs and sizes to be retained while greatly reducing the possibility of illicit diversion of HEU nuclear fuel. This document is intended as an overview of the period 1978--1990, during which the Section supported this project by fabricating mainly powder metallurgy uranium-silicide dispersion fuel plates. Most of the subjects covered in detail are fabrication-related studies of uranium silicide fuels and fuel plate properties. Some data are included for out-of-pile experiments such as corrosion and compatibility tests. Also briefly covered are most other aspects of the RERTR program such as irradiation tests, full-core demonstrations, and technology transfer. References included are for further information on most aspects of the entire program. A significant portion of the report is devoted to data that were never published in their entirety. The appendices contain a list of previous RERTR reports, ANL fabrication procedures, calculations for phases present in two-phase fuels, chemical analysis of fuels, miniplate characteristics, and a summary of bonding runs made by hot isostatic pressing.

  16. Summary report on fuel development and miniplate fabrication for the RERTR Program, 1978 to 1990

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report summarizes the efforts of the Fabrication Technology Section at Argonne National Laboratory in the program of Reduced Enrichment Research and Test Reactors (RERTR). The main objective of this program was to reduce the amount of high enriched (∼93% 235U) uranium (HEU) used in nonpower reactors. Conversion from low-density (0.8--1.6 g U/cm3) HEU fuel elements to highly loaded (up to 7 g U/cm3) low-enrichment (235U) uranium (LEU) fuel elements allows the same reactor power levels, core designs and sizes to be retained while greatly reducing the possibility of illicit diversion of HEU nuclear fuel. This document is intended as an overview of the period 1978--1990, during which the Section supported this project by fabricating mainly powder metallurgy uranium-silicide dispersion fuel plates. Most of the subjects covered in detail are fabrication-related studies of uranium silicide fuels and fuel plate properties. Some data are included for out-of-pile experiments such as corrosion and compatibility tests. Also briefly covered are most other aspects of the RERTR program such as irradiation tests, full-core demonstrations, and technology transfer. References included are for further information on most aspects of the entire program. A significant portion of the report is devoted to data that were never published in their entirety. The appendices contain a list of previous RERTR reports, ANL fabrication procedures, calculations for phases present in two-phase fuels, chemical analysis of fuels, miniplate characteristics, and a summary of bonding runs made by hot isostatic pressing

  17. Spent fuel sabotage aerosol test program :FY 2005-06 testing and aerosol data summary.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gregson, Michael Warren; Brockmann, John E.; Nolte, O. (Fraunhofer institut fur toxikologie und experimentelle Medizin, Germany); Loiseau, O. (Institut de radioprotection et de Surete Nucleaire, France); Koch, W. (Fraunhofer institut fur toxikologie und experimentelle Medizin, Germany); Molecke, Martin Alan; Autrusson, Bruno (Institut de radioprotection et de Surete Nucleaire, France); Pretzsch, Gunter Guido (Gesellschaft fur anlagen- und Reaktorsicherheit, Germany); Billone, M. C. (Argonne National Laboratory, USA); Lucero, Daniel A.; Burtseva, T. (Argonne National Laboratory, USA); Brucher, W (Gesellschaft fur anlagen- und Reaktorsicherheit, Germany); Steyskal, Michele D.

    2006-10-01

    This multinational, multi-phase spent fuel sabotage test program is quantifying the aerosol particles produced when the products of a high energy density device (HEDD) interact with and explosively particulate test rodlets that contain pellets of either surrogate materials or actual spent fuel. This program has been underway for several years. This program provides source-term data that are relevant to some sabotage scenarios in relation to spent fuel transport and storage casks, and associated risk assessments. This document focuses on an updated description of the test program and test components for all work and plans made, or revised, primarily during FY 2005 and about the first two-thirds of FY 2006. It also serves as a program status report as of the end of May 2006. We provide details on the significant findings on aerosol results and observations from the recently completed Phase 2 surrogate material tests using cerium oxide ceramic pellets in test rodlets plus non-radioactive fission product dopants. Results include: respirable fractions produced; amounts, nuclide content, and produced particle size distributions and morphology; status on determination of the spent fuel ratio, SFR (the ratio of respirable particles from real spent fuel/respirables from surrogate spent fuel, measured under closely matched test conditions, in a contained test chamber); and, measurements of enhanced volatile fission product species sorption onto respirable particles. We discuss progress and results for the first three, recently performed Phase 3 tests using depleted uranium oxide, DUO{sub 2}, test rodlets. We will also review the status of preparations and the final Phase 4 tests in this program, using short rodlets containing actual spent fuel from U.S. PWR reactors, with both high- and lower-burnup fuel. These data plus testing results and design are tailored to support and guide, follow-on computer modeling of aerosol dispersal hazards and radiological consequence

  18. Occupational Alcoholism Programs Under Federal Contracts, 1978; Joint Hearing Before the Subcommittee on Alcoholism and Drug Abuse of the Committee on Human Resources and the Subcommittee on Federal Spending Practices and Open Government of the Committee on Governmental Affairs, United States Senate, Ninety-Fifth Congress, Second Session on S. 2525.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Congress of the U.S., Washington, DC. Senate Committee on Human Resources.

    These hearings, representing the testimony before the Subcommittee on Alcoholism and Drug Abuse in August, 1978, sought to require government contractors to establish and operate alcohol abuse and alcoholism programs and services, or to arrange for referral to such services. Statements are included from witnesses representing such agencies as the…

  19. Technical Basis - Spent Nuclear Fuels (SNF) Project Radiation and Contamination Trending Program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report documents the technical basis for the Spent Nuclear Fuel (SNF) Program radiation and contamination trending program. The program consists of standardized radiation and contamination surveys of the KE Basin, radiation surveys of the KW basin, radiation surveys of the Cold Vacuum Drying Facility (CVD), and radiation surveys of the Canister Storage Building (CSB) with the associated tracking. This report also discusses the remainder of radiological areas within the SNFP that do not have standardized trending programs and the basis for not having this program in those areas

  20. Technical Basis Spent Nuclear Fuel (SNF) Project Radiation and Contamination Trending Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    ELGIN, J.C.

    2000-10-02

    This report documents the technical basis for the Spent Nuclear Fuel (SNF) Program radiation and contamination trending program. The program consists of standardized radiation and contamination surveys of the KE Basin, radiation surveys of the KW basin, radiation surveys of the Cold Vacuum Drying Facility (CVD), and radiation surveys of the Canister Storage Building (CSB) with the associated tracking. This report also discusses the remainder of radiological areas within the SNFP that do not have standardized trending programs and the basis for not having this program in those areas.

  1. Efficacy of a Web-based, Tailored, Alcohol Prevention/Intervention Program for College Students: Three-Month Follow-up

    OpenAIRE

    Bingham, C. Raymond; Barretto, Andrea Ippel; Walton, Maureen A.; Bryant, Christopher M.; Shope, Jean T.; Raghunathan, Trivellore E.

    2011-01-01

    This study presents the results of an efficacy evaluation of a Web-based brief motivational alcohol prevention/intervention program called Michigan Prevention and Alcohol Safety for Students (M-PASS). Four on-line sessions providing individually-tailored feedback were delivered to first-year college students over nine weeks. Non- and low-risk drinking participants received risk prevention, while high-risk drinking participants received a risk-reduction intervention. Both int...

  2. Sphere-pac fuel development program. First semi-annual progress report, October 1979-March 1980

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Development of processes by Exxon Nuclear Company, Inc. for fabricating spherical particle nuclear fuel (sphere-pac) during October 1979 through March 1980 is reported. The program surveyed available technology to develop an initial flowsheet as a design basis for process development. An 0.1 ton/day pilot plant was built to develop and demonstrate the fabrication of sphere-pac fuel. Process and equipment efforts have been directed towards the demonstration of processes and equipment necessary to fabricate sphere-pac fuel on a commercial scale

  3. Criticality safety analyses for the Spent-Fuel Handling and Packaging Program Demonstration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The major process steps performed to place the spent-fuel assemblies into storage were described to provide a perspective of the overall operation conducted at E-MAD. Using both numerical calculations and published data, it is concluded that no single accident can result in the achievement of criticality. Based on the evaluation of postulated double accident conditions, it is concluded that no double accident having any reasonable probability of occurrence can result in criticality at the E-MAD site. Therefore, all proposed fuel handling and storage activities in the Spent-Fuel Handling and Packaging Program Demonstration meet basic nuclear criticality safety standards. 9 figures

  4. Sphere-pac fuel development program. First semi-annual progress report, October 1979-March 1980

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Felt, R.E.

    1980-05-01

    Development of processes by Exxon Nuclear Company, Inc. for fabricating spherical particle nuclear fuel (sphere-pac) during October 1979 through March 1980 is reported. The program surveyed available technology to develop an initial flowsheet as a design basis for process development. An 0.1 ton/day pilot plant was built to develop and demonstrate the fabrication of sphere-pac fuel. Process and equipment efforts have been directed towards the demonstration of processes and equipment necessary to fabricate sphere-pac fuel on a commercial scale.

  5. High-Uranium-Loaded U3O8-Al fuel element development program. Part 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The High-Uranium-Loaded U3O8-Al Fuel Element Development Program supports Argonne National Laboratory efforts to develop high-uranium-density research and test reactor fuel to accommodate use of low-uranium enrichment. The goal is to fuel most research and test reactors with uranium of less than 20% enrichment for the purpose of lowering the potential for diversion of highly-enriched material for nonpeaceful usages. The specific objective of the program is to develop the technological and engineering data base for U3O8-Al plate-type fuel elements of maximal uranium content to the point of vendor qualification for full scale fabrication on a production basis. A program and management plan that details the organization, supporting objectives, schedule, and budget is in place and preparation for fuel and irradiation studies is under way. The current programming envisions a program of about four years duration for an estimated cost of about two million dollars. During the decades of the fifties and sixties, developments at Oak Ridge National Laboratory led to the use of U3O8-Al plate-type fuel elements in the High Flux Isotope Reactor, Oak Ridge Research Reactor, Puerto Rico Nuclear Center Reactor, and the High Flux Beam Reactor. Most of the developmental information however applies only up to a uranium concentration of about 55 wt % (about 35 vol % U3O8). The technical issues that must be addressed to further increase the uranium loading beyond 55 wt % U involve plate fabrication phenomena of voids and dogboning, fuel behavior under long irradiation, and potential for the thermite reaction between U3O8 and aluminum

  6. Industry perspectives on the U.S. used nuclear fuel management program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The U.S. used nuclear fuel management program is at a critical juncture. It has been 17 years since the U.S. Congress authorized geologic disposal of used nuclear fuel and 12 years since Congress elected to study Yucca Mountain, Nevada, as the nation's lone long-term disposal option. During this period, Yucca Mountain's ability to isolate long-lived radionuclides was the subject of considerable scientific study. Concurrently, specialists expended significant design effort on the engineered barriers that work in conjunction with the proposed repository's natural features to ensure that health protection standards are met. Confidence as to the soundness of the geologic disposal option is high. While technical progress on geologic disposal is substantial, policy level decision-making needed to move the program forward remains lacking. A number of important policy questions concerning used fuel management remain unanswered as this fuel accumulates at 103 operating U.S. commercial nuclear power reactors at 65 sites. Wet fuel storage space at those locations is becoming increasingly scarce. This paper will review both the scientific successes and policy challenges on the road to geologic disposal. It will outline the nation's used nuclear fuel storage needs, highlight what the nation's scientists have learned about geologic disposal, discuss what is being done to meet near-term interim storage requirements, describe the emerging regulatory framework associated with the program and summarize the ongoing policy debate. (author)

  7. Future nuclear fuel cycles: main guidelines of the French program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nuclear energy, it's day after day more and more obvious, will play an outstanding role in the future. Many facts (economics, fossil resource possible rarefaction, fears about climate change lead us today to consider that nuclear energy should bring a significant, reliable and sustainable contribution to meet the drastically increasing energy needs of the global community. Nuclear energy, it's both nuclear power plants and the associated fuel cycle. And the fuel cycle policy, the management we decide for nuclear materials, is a key-point when we address either near-term development or long-term sustainability issues. It appears clearly that long- lasting nuclear options will be recycling options. At first, saving uranium resource lead to recycle uranium and plutonium into reactors able to take full advantage of these elements; Recycling MOX fuel into water reactors, as currently operated in France, can be seen as the first step. The next one, starting within the next decades, will be multi-recycle into fast neutron reactors (which seem better-suited to this purpose). Fast neutron reactors offer other interesting opportunities, considering waste long term toxicity; they seem able to provide also efficient burning of minor actinide, which could be multi-recycled too (but probably in a later step). All these future potential recycling options are matter of research at CEA today. This is done in the frame of an Act, voted by the French parliament in 2006, which confirms recycling as a main guideline for future nuclear systems, and presents a road map, with an assessment of the diverse foreseen systems by 2012, in view of a reactor prototype (ASTRID) which could be commissioned around 2020. (author)

  8. The United States Foreign Research Reactor Spent Nuclear Fuel Acceptance Program: Progress at the midpoint

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The United States Department of Energy (DOE), in consultation with the Department of State (DOS), adopted the Nuclear Weapons Nonproliferation Policy Concerning Foreign Research Reactor Spent Nuclear Fuel in May 1996. To date, the Foreign Research Reactor (FRR) Spent Nuclear Fuel (SNF) Acceptance Program has completed 25 shipments. Over 5,500 spent fuel elements from eligible research reactors throughout the world have been accepted into the United States under this program. Shipments are continuing on schedule, although a climate of increased security now exists following the terrorist attacks of September 11, 2001. Shipments of all types of radioactive material, both internationally and within the United States, are encountering greater public scrutiny and generally increased security and physical protection. The Acceptance Program has now reached the approximate midpoint of its duration; the current Acceptance Policy will expire in 2009 (fuel must not be irradiated after May 12, 2006). As the Acceptance Program draws closer to its termination date, an increased number of requests for program extension have been received. Currently, there are no plans to extend the policy beyond its current expiration date; therefore, eligible reactor operators interested in participating in this program are strongly encouraged to evaluate their inventory and plan for future shipments as soon as possible. (author)

  9. If You Feed Them, Will They Come? The Use of Social Marketing to Increase Interest in Attending a College Alcohol Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palmer, Rebekka S.; Kilmer, Jason R.; Larimer, Mary E.

    2006-01-01

    The authors used social marketing to design and test advertisement components aimed at increasing students' interest in attending an alcohol program focused on reaching students who drink heavily, although the authors offered no such program. Participants were undergraduate students in introductory psychology courses (N = 551). Questionnaires…

  10. Project Self-Esteem: A Parent Involvement Program for Improving Self-Esteem and Preventing Drug and Alcohol Abuse, K-6. Revised.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDaniel, Sandy; Bielen, Peggy

    This guide presents Project Self-Esteem, a program for improving self-esteem and preventing drug and alcohol abuse in kindergarten through grade 6. Chapter I presents the team leader's guide and discusses introducing the program to the principal, school staff, and parents. Chapter II focuses on kindergarten and includes lessons on being a friend…

  11. Transient behaviour study program of research reactors fuel elements at the Hydra Pulse Reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Program on behavior study of research reactor Fuel Elements (FE) under transient regimes initiated by excessive reactivity insertion is being presented. Program would be realized at HYDRA pulse reactor at Russian Research Center 'Kurchatov Institute' (RRC 'K1'). HYDRA uses aqueous solution of uranyl sulfate (UO2SO4) as a fuel. Up to 30 MJ of energy can be released inside the core during the single pulse, effective power pulse width varying from 2 to 10 ms. Reactor facility allows to investigate behaviour of FE consisting of different types of fuel composition, being developed according to Russian RERTR. First part of program is aimed at transient behaviour studying of FE MR, IRT-3M, WWR-M5 types containing meats based on dioxide uranium in aluminum matrix. Mentioned FEs use 90% and 36% enriched uranium. (author)

  12. Extending the foreign spent fuel acceptance program: Policy and implementation issues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The May 2006 expiration date of the Foreign Research Reactor Spent Nuclear Fuel (FRR SNF) Acceptance Program is fast approaching. In April 2004, Energy Secretary Spencer Abraham instructed the Energy Department to 'initiate actions necessary to extend .... the fuel acceptance deadline'. However, extending the deadline may not be a simple task. The limits on the original program resulted from a delicate negotiation among many stakeholders. Any proposal to increase the duration and scope of the program will have to be considered in the context of DOE's failure since 1996 to develop viable treatment, packaging and long-term disposal options for FRR SNF. It is also unclear whether accepting additional low-enriched uranium FRR SNF can be justified on security grounds. This paper will propose criteria for acceptance of spent fuel under an extension that are intended to minimize controversy and ensure consistency with a threat-based prioritization of homeland security expenditures. (author)

  13. Clean, Efficient, and Reliable Heat and Power for the 21st Century, Fuel Cell Technologies Program (FCTP) (Fact Sheet)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2010-05-01

    This overview of the U.S. Department of Energy's Fuel Cell Technologies Program describes the program's focus and goals, along with current fuel cell applications and future potential. The program focuses on research and development of fuel cell systems for diverse applications in the stationary power, portable power, and transportation sectors. It works to reduce costs and improve technologies to advance fuel cell uses in areas such as combined heat and power, auxiliary power units, portable power systems, and stationary and backup power. To help ensure that fuel cell advances are realized, the program rigorously analyzes energy efficiency, economic, and environmental benefits of fuel cells and seeks to optimize synergies among fuel cell applications and other renewable technologies.

  14. Results from the DOE Advanced Gas Reactor Fuel Development and Qualification Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    David Petti

    2014-06-01

    Modular HTGR designs were developed to provide natural safety, which prevents core damage under all design basis accidents and presently envisioned severe accidents. The principle that guides their design concepts is to passively maintain core temperatures below fission product release thresholds under all accident scenarios. This level of fuel performance and fission product retention reduces the radioactive source term by many orders of magnitude and allows potential elimination of the need for evacuation and sheltering beyond a small exclusion area. This level, however, is predicated on exceptionally high fuel fabrication quality and performance under normal operation and accident conditions. Germany produced and demonstrated high quality fuel for their pebble bed HTGRs in the 1980s, but no U.S. manufactured fuel had exhibited equivalent performance prior to the Advanced Gas Reactor (AGR) Fuel Development and Qualification Program. The design goal of the modular HTGRs is to allow elimination of an exclusion zone and an emergency planning zone outside the plant boundary fence, typically interpreted as being about 400 meters from the reactor. To achieve this, the reactor design concepts require a level of fuel integrity that is better than that claimed for all prior US manufactured TRISO fuel, by a few orders of magnitude. The improved performance level is about a factor of three better than qualified for German TRISO fuel in the 1980’s. At the start of the AGR program, without a reactor design concept selected, the AGR fuel program selected to qualify fuel to an operating envelope that would bound both pebble bed and prismatic options. This resulted in needing a fuel form that could survive at peak fuel temperatures of 1250°C on a time-averaged basis and high burnups in the range of 150 to 200 GWd/MTHM (metric tons of heavy metal) or 16.4 to 21.8% fissions per initial metal atom (FIMA). Although Germany has demonstrated excellent performance of TRISO-coated UO

  15. Experimental RA reactor operation with 80% enriched fuel - Program of experimental operation: a) Program of experimental operation with 80% enriched fuel at low power, b) contents of the experimental operation with 80% enriched fuel at higher power levels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highly enriched (80%) uranium oxide fuel was regularly used in the mixed reactor core with the 2% enriched fuel since 1976. The most important changes related to reactor operation, in comparison with the original design project were related to reactor core fuelling schemes. At the end of 1979 reactor was shutdown due to the corrosion coating noticed on some fuel elements and due to decrease quality of the heavy water. Subsequently the Sanitary inspector of Serbia has prohibited further reactor operation. Restart of the reactor will not be a simple continuation of operation. It is indispensable to perform complete experimental program including measurements of critical parameters at different power levels for the core with fresh 80% enriched fuel. The aim of this document is to obtain working permission and its contents are in agreement with the procedure demanded by the Safety Committee of the Institute. It includes results of optimization and safety analysis for the initial reactor core. Since the permission for restart is not obtained, a separate RA reactor safety report is prepared in addition to the program for experimental operation. This report includes: detailed program for reactor experimental operation with 80% enriched fuel in the core at low power levels, and contents of the experimental operation with 80% enriched fuel in the core at higher power levels

  16. United States Department of Energy commercial reactor spent fuel programs being conducted at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In 1982, the Congress of the United States enacted the Nuclear Waste Policy Act (NWPA). This act stated that in exchange for one mil per kilowatt of electricity generated by nuclear power, the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) would take possession of the Utilities' nuclear spent fuel and provide for permanent disposal. The act also provided for establishment of the Office of Civilian Radioactive Waste Management (OCRWM) within the DOE to manage the NWPA programs. The Idaho National Engineering Laboratory participation in OCRWM programs includes the Spent Fuel Storage Cask Testing Program, Dry Rod Consolidation Technology Program, Prototypical Consolidation Demonstration Program, the Nuclear Fuel Services Project, and the Cask Systems Acquisition Program. The Dry Rod Consolidation Technology Program demonstrates dry consolidation of PWR fuel assemblies and develops and documents technology associated with the dry consolidation process. The Prototypical Consolidation Demonstration Program develops and demonstrates production-scale equipment for the dry consolidation and packaging of spent fuel rods contained in BWR and PWR spent fuel assemblies and reports the results of these activities. The Nuclear Fuel Services Project will demonstrate the feasibility of packaging, transporting, and storing commercial spent fuel in the same dry storage cask. The Cask System Acquistion Program will develop a complement of NRC certified prototype casks for shipment of spent PWR and BWR fuels and hardware from existing and proposed reactor facilities and solidified high-level waste to a repository or an MRS

  17. Non-Alcoholic Fatty Pancreas Disease Pathogenesis: A Role for Developmental Programming and Altered Circadian Rhythms

    OpenAIRE

    Carter, R; Mouralidarane, A.; Soeda, J.; S Ray; Pombo, J.; Saraswati, R.; Novelli, M; Fusai, G.; Rappa, F.; Saracino, C; Pazienza, V; L. Poston; Taylor, PD; Vinciguerra, M Oben JA.

    2014-01-01

    Objectives Emerging evidence suggests that maternal obesity (MO) predisposes offspring to obesity and the recently described non-alcoholic fatty pancreas disease (NAFPD) but involved mechanisms remain unclear. Using a pathophysiologically relevant murine model, we here investigated a role for the biological clock - molecular core circadian genes (CCG) in the generation of NAFPD. Design Female C57BL6 mice were fed an obesogenic diet (OD) or standard chow (SC) for 6 weeks, prior to pregnancy an...

  18. Environmental impacts from the Brazilian Alcohol Program in the State of Rio de Janeiro

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This work intends to analyze the environmental impacts from the Brazilian Alcohol Programme (PROALCOOL), specially for the State of Rio de Janeiro. Two distinct phases of the Programme were analyzed: production and consumption. For the former, priority was given to the industrial process, trying to identify the main pollutants and their quantities which are dropped into the rivers and launched to the atmosphere. In the same manner, we try to identify the main pollutants and their quantities for the consumption phase. (author)

  19. The post irradiation examination of fuel in support of Bruce A nuclear division fueling with flow program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bruce A Nuclear Division (BAND) units are operating at ∼ 75% of full power, because of the potential of a power pulse in the event of an inlet header break. As a result, BAND is converting to fueling with flow, to eliminate the potential of a power pulse and to allow for full-power operation. Concerns regarding the integrity of the end-of-life (EOL) bundles interacting with the latch at the downstream end of the fuel channel were raised. BAND carried out a test program in which EOL bundles in the upstream position 13 of Unit 2 were cascaded into the downstream latch position 1 of another channel. Six of twelve cascaded bundles and two typical EOL position 13 (benchmark) bundles were selected for post-irradiation examination (PIE). Incipient cracks were found in the assembly welds (endplateto-endcap welds) of all six cascaded bundles. No incipient cracks were found in the benchmark bundles. Metallographic and fractographic examination, along with crack dating, and hydrogen and deuterium analyses, indicated that the incipient cracks were the result of delayed-hydride assisted cracking at the EOL. Consequently, Ontario Hydro changed the design of the outlet shield plug to support all three rings of the fuel bundle, to minimize stress and prevent endplate cracking. Also, an ultrasonic endplate inspection tool (UT) was developed and located in the fuel bay. to inspect fuelbundle endplates for cracks. A second test was done involving a series of four bundle cascades in BAND Unit 4 channels that had new outlet shield plugs. The latch bundles were discharged after a hot shutdown. The cascaded Unit 2 and Unit 4 latch bundles were checked for cracks using the UT. The PIE found incipient cracks or less-than-ideal welds in the assembly welds of fuel elements from Unit 2 (latch-supported fuel bundles) that had been identified by the UT as having incipient cracks. No incipient cracks were found in the assembly welds of fuel elements from Unit 4 (new outlet shield

  20. Impacts of the Weatherization Assistance Program in fuel-oil heated houses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Levins, W.P.; Ternes, M.P.

    1994-10-01

    In 1990, the US Department of Energy (DOE) initiated a national evaluation of its lowincome Weatherization Assistance Program. This report, which is one of five parts of that evaluation, evaluates the energy savings and cost-effectiveness of the Program as it had been applied to single-family houses heated primarily by fuel-oil. The study was based upon a representative sample (41 local weatherization agencies, 222 weatherized and 115 control houses) from the nine northeastern states during 1991 and 1992 program years. Dwelling-specific and agency-level data on measures installed, costs, and service delivery procedures were collected from the sampled agencies. Space-heating fuel-oil consumption, indoor temperature, and outdoor temperature were monitored at each house. Dwelling characteristics, air-leakage measurements, space-heating system steady-state efficiency measurements, safety inspections, and occupant questionnaires were also collected or performed at each monitored house. We estimate that the Program weatherized a total of 23,400 single-family fuel-oil heated houses in the nine northeastern states during program years 1991 and 1992. Annual fuel-oil savings were calculated using regression techniques to normalize the savings to standard weather conditions. For the northeast region, annual net fuel-oil savings averaged 160 gallons per house, or 17.7% of pre-weatherization consumption. Although indoor temperatures changed in individual houses following weatherization, there was no average change and no significant difference as compared to the control houses; thus, there was no overall indoor temperature takeback effect influencing fuel-oil savings. The weatherization work was performed cost effectively in these houses from the Program perspective, which included both installation costs and overhead and management costs but did not include non-energy benefits (such as employment and environmental).

  1. Selected concrete spent fuel storage cask concepts and the DOE/PSN Cooperative Cask Testing Program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To date, water pools, metal casks, horizontal concrete modules, and modular vaults have been used to store the major quantity of commercial light water reactor spent nuclear fuel. Recently, vertical concrete dry storage casks have received consideration for storage of spent nuclear fuel. This paper reviews the evolution of the development of selected vertical concrete dry storage casks and outlines a cooperative cask testing (heat transfer and shielding) program involving the US Department of Energy and Pacific Sierra Nuclear Associates. Others participating in the cooperative program are Pacific Northwest Laboratory; EG ampersand G Idaho, Inc.; Wisconsin Electric Power Company; and the Electric Power Research Institute. 28 refs., 14 figs

  2. Chemical Reactivity Testing for the National Spent Nuclear Fuel Program. Quality Assurance Project Plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Newsom, H.C.

    1999-01-24

    This quality assurance project plan (QAPjP) summarizes requirements used by Lockheed Martin Energy Systems, Incorporated (LMES) Development Division at Y-12 for conducting chemical reactivity testing of Department of Energy (DOE) owned spent nuclear fuel, sponsored by the National Spent Nuclear Fuel Program (NSNFP). The requirements are based on the NSNFP Statement of Work PRO-007 (Statement of Work for Laboratory Determination of Uranium Hydride Oxidation Reaction Kinetics.) This QAPjP will utilize the quality assurance program at Y-12, QA-101PD, revision 1, and existing implementing procedures for the most part in meeting the NSNFP Statement of Work PRO-007 requirements, exceptions will be noted.

  3. Implementation of the utilization program for the fuel elements of the Atucha I nuclear power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The programming operation for the use of the fuel elements in the Atucha-1 nuclear power plant was initially under the responsibility of the KWU Company, as part of the services rendered due for the manufacturing of said elements. This job was done with the help of the TRISIC program, developed in the early seventies by CNEA and SIEMENS staff. From april 21, 1979 on, CNEA took over the responsibility and strategy of the interchange of fuel elements. The several stages carried out for the implementation of this service are detailed. (M.E.L.)

  4. Chemical Reactivity Testing for the National Spent Nuclear Fuel Program. Quality Assurance Project Plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This quality assurance project plan (QAPjP) summarizes requirements used by Lockheed Martin Energy Systems, Incorporated (LMES) Development Division at Y-12 for conducting chemical reactivity testing of Department of Energy (DOE) owned spent nuclear fuel, sponsored by the National Spent Nuclear Fuel Program (NSNFP). The requirements are based on the NSNFP Statement of Work PRO-007 (Statement of Work for Laboratory Determination of Uranium Hydride Oxidation Reaction Kinetics.) This QAPjP will utilize the quality assurance program at Y-12, QA-101PD, revision 1, and existing implementing procedures for the most part in meeting the NSNFP Statement of Work PRO-007 requirements, exceptions will be noted

  5. Spent fuel sabotage test program, characterization of aerosol dispersal : interim final report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gregson, Michael Warren; Brockmann, John E.; Loiseau, Olivier (Institut de Radioprotection et de Surete Nucleaire, France); Klennert, Lindsay A.; Nolte, Oliver (Fraunhofer Institut fur Toxikologie und Experimentelle Medizin, Germany); Molecke, Martin Alan; Autrusson, Bruno A. (Institut de Radioprotection et de Surete Nucleaire, France); Koch, Wolfgang (Fraunhofer Institut fur Toxikologie und Experimentelle Medizin, Germany); Pretzsch, Gunter Guido (Gesellschaft fur Anlagen- und Reaktorsicherheit, Germany); Brucher, Wenzel (Gesellschaft fur Anlagen- und Reaktorsicherheit, Germany); Steyskal, Michele D.

    2008-03-01

    This multinational, multi-phase spent fuel sabotage test program is quantifying the aerosol particles produced when the products of a high energy density device (HEDD) interact with and explosively particulate test rodlets that contain pellets of either surrogate materials or actual spent fuel. This program provides source-term data that are relevant to plausible sabotage scenarios in relation to spent fuel transport and storage casks and associated risk assessments. We present details and significant results obtained from this program from 2001 through 2007. Measured aerosol results include: respirable fractions produced; amounts, nuclide content, and produced particle size distributions and morphology; measurements of volatile fission product species enhanced sorption--enrichment factors onto respirable particles; and, status on determination of the spent fuel ratio, SFR, needed for scaling studies. Emphasis is provided on recent Phase 3 tests using depleted uranium oxide pellets plus non-radioactive fission product dopants in surrogate spent fuel test rodlets, plus the latest surrogate cerium oxide results and aerosol laboratory supporting calibration work. The DUO{sub 2}, CeO{sub 2}, plus fission product dopant aerosol particle results are compared with available historical data. We also provide a status review on continuing preparations for the final Phase 4 in this program, tests using individual short rodlets containing actual spent fuel from U.S. PWR reactors, with both high- and lower-burnup fuel. The source-term data, aerosol results, and program design have been tailored to support and guide follow-on computer modeling of aerosol dispersal hazards and radiological consequence assessments. This spent fuel sabotage, aerosol test program was performed primarily at Sandia National Laboratories, with support provided by both the U.S. Department of Energy and the Nuclear Regulatory Commission. This program has significant input from, and is cooperatively

  6. CERCA LEU fuel assemblies testing in Maria Reactor - safety analysis summary and testing program scope

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The presented paper contains neutronic and thermal-hydraulic (for steady and unsteady states) calculation results prepared to support annex to Safety Analysis Report for MARIA reactor in order to obtain approval for program of testing low-enriched uranium (LEU) lead test fuel assemblies (LTFA) manufactured by CERCA. This includes presentation of the limits and operational constraints to be in effect during the fuel testing investigations. Also, the scope of testing program (which began in August 2009), including additional measurements and monitoring procedures, is described.

  7. A COMPUTATIONAL SOFTWARE PROGRAM FOR DETERMINING THE COMBUSTION TEMPERATURES OF SOLID FUELS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marta Kowalik

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The combustion temperature is one of parameters influencing the efficiency of combustion process. The analytical, model and design calculations of processes related to fuel combustion and heat exchange intensity require the combustion temperature to be correctly determined. These are, however, complex, and, as a consequence, burdensome and time-consuming requirements. Developing an appropriate software program will considerably streamline the calculation procedure. Based on analytical relationships for the combustion process, a computational software program has been developed within this study, which enables the determination of the calorimetric, theoretical and actual combustion temperatures of solid fuels.

  8. Alcoholism and Alcohol Abuse

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... drinking once you've started Physical dependence - withdrawal symptoms Tolerance - the need to drink more alcohol to feel the same effect With alcohol abuse, you are not physically dependent, but you still ...

  9. Advanced teleoperation in nuclear applications: consolidated fuel reprocessing program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A new generation of integrated remote maintenance systems is being developed to meet the needs of future nuclear fuel reprocessing at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory. Development activities cover all aspects of an advanced teleoperated maintenance system with particular emphasis on a new force-reflecting servomanipulator concept. The new manipulator, called the advanced servomanipulator, is microprocessor controlled and is designed to achieve force-reflection performance near that of mechanical master/slave manipulators. The advanced servomanipulator uses a gear-drive transmission which permits modularization for remote maintainability (by other advanced servomanipulators) and increases reliability. Human factors analysis has been used to develop an improved man/machine interface concept based upon colographic displays and menu-driven touch screens. Initial test and evaluation of two advanced servomanipulator slave arms and several other development components have begun. 9 references, 5 figures

  10. Coated Particle Fuel and Deep Burn Program Monthly Highlights March 2011

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Snead, Lance Lewis [ORNL; Bell, Gary L [ORNL; Besmann, Theodore M [ORNL

    2011-04-01

    During FY 2011 the CP & DB Program will report Highlights on a monthly basis, but will no longer produce Quarterly Progress Reports. Technical details that were previously included in the quarterly reports will be included in the appropriate Milestone Reports that are submitted to FCRD Program Management. These reports will also be uploaded to the Deep Burn website. The Monthly Highlights report for February 2011, ORNL/TM-2011/71, was distributed to program participants on March 8, 2011. As reported previously, the final Quarterly for FY 2010, Deep Burn Program Quarterly Report for July - September 2010, ORNL/TM-2010/301, was announced to program participants and posted to the website on December 28, 2010. This report discusses the following: (1) Thermochemical Data and Model Development - (a) Thermochemical Modeling, (b) Thermomechanical Behavior, (c) Actinide and Fission Product Transport, (d) Radiation Damage and Properties; (2) TRU (transuranic elements) TRISO (tri-structural isotropic) Development - (a) TRU Kernel Development, (b) Coating Development; (3) Advanced TRISO Applications - Metal Matrix Fuels for LWR; (4) LWR Fully Ceramic Fuel - (a) FCM Fabrication Development, (b) FCM Irradiation Testing; and (5) Fuel Performance and Analytical Analysis - Fuel Performance Modeling.

  11. The development of a method for the determination of trace elements in fuel alcohol by electrothermal vaporization-inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry using external calibration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A method for the determination of Ag, As, Cd, Cu, Co, Fe, Mn, Ni, Pb, Sn and Tl in fuel alcohol by electrothermal vaporization inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry is proposed. The determinations were carried out by external calibration against ethanolic solutions, without a chemical modifier, employing the following pyrolysis and vaporization temperatures: 400 deg. C and 2300 deg. C for the more volatile analytes and 1000 deg. C and 2500 deg. C for the less volatile analytes. The determination of As, Cd, Pb, Sn and Tl was additionally carried out using Pd as modifier at 800 deg. C pyrolysis and 2400 deg. C vaporization temperatures. The temperatures were optimized through pyrolysis and vaporization curves. Seven common fuel ethanol, one fuel ethanol with additive and one anhydrous fuel ethanol sample have been analyzed. The measured concentrations were at the μg L-1 level or lower. Since there is no certified reference material for fuel ethanol, the accuracy of the method was checked by the recovery test, with recoveries from 75% to 124%. The limits of detection (LODs), in μg L-1, and the relative standard deviations for 5 replicates were, for the elements in the conditions without modifier: Ag: 0.015 and 9.1%, Co: 0.002 and 10%, Cu: 0.22 and 6.6%, Fe: 0.72 and 4.3%, Mn: 0.025 and 12%, Ni: 0.026 and 9.3%, and for the elements with Pd: As: 0.02 and 2.9%, Cd: 0.07 and 25%, Pb: 0.02 and 3.1%, Sn: 0.010 and 6.0%, Tl: 0.0008 and 2.5%. Electrothermal vaporization avoids the loading of the plasma with organics, allowing the analysis of fuel ethanol by ICP-MS with good accuracy and reasonable precision

  12. 75 FR 15893 - Tire Fuel Efficiency Consumer Information Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-30

    ... establishes the test procedures to be used by tire manufacturers in a new consumer information program to... Displays, 70 FR 18136 (April 8, 2005). \\4\\ Transportation Research Board Special Report 286, Tires and... testing, NHTSA will publish a new proposal for the consumer information and consumer education portions...

  13. Computer programs for the in-core fuel management of power reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This document gives a survey of the presently tested and used computer programs applicable to the in-core fuel management of light and heavy water moderated nuclear power reactors. Each computer program is described (provided that enough information was supplied) such that the nature of the physical problem solved and the basic mathematical or calculational approach are evident. In addition, further information regarding computer requirements, up-to-date applications and experiences and specific details concerning implementation, staff requirements, etc., are provided. Program procurement conditions, possible program implementation assistance and commercial conditions (where applicable) are given. (author)

  14. Atomics International fuel fabrication facility and low enrichment program [contributed by T.A. Moss, AI

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The AI facility is approximately 30,000 square feet in area and consists of four general areas. One area is devoted to the production of UAlx powder. It consists of a series of arc melting furnaces, crushing lines, glove boxes, and compacting presses. The second area is used for the rolling of fuel plates. The third area is used for the machining of the plates to final size and also the machining of the fuel elements. In the fourth area the fuel plates are swaged into assemblies, and all welding and inspection operations are performed. As part of the lower enrichment program we are scheduled to put a second UAlx powder line into operation and we have had to expand some of our storage area. Under the low enrichment program the AI fuel facility will be modified to accommodate a separate low enrichment Alx production line and compacting line. This facility modification should be done by the end of the fiscal year. We anticipate producing fuel with an enrichment slightly less than 20% We anticipate powder being available for plate production shortly after the facility is completed. Atomics International is scheduled to conduct plate LEU verification work using fully enriched material in the June-July time period, at which time we will investigate what level of uranium loadings we can go to using the current process. It is anticipated that 55 volume percent uranium compound in our fuel form can be achieved

  15. Fuel Cell Development for NASA's Human Exploration Program: Benchmarking with "The Hydrogen Economy"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scott, John H.

    2007-01-01

    The theoretically high efficiency and low temperature operation of hydrogen-oxygen fuel cells has motivated them to be the subject of much study since their invention in the 19th Century, but their relatively high life cycle costs kept them as a "solution in search of a problem" for many years. The first problem for which fuel cells presented a truly cost effective solution was that of providing a power source for NASA's human spaceflight vehicles in the 1960 s. NASA thus invested, and continues to invest, in the development of fuel cell power plants for this application. This development program continues to place its highest priorities on requirements for minimum system mass and maximum durability and reliability. These priorities drive fuel cell power plant design decisions at all levels, even that of catalyst support. However, since the mid-1990's, prospective environmental regulations have driven increased governmental and industrial interest in "green power" and the "Hydrogen Economy." This has in turn stimulated greatly increased investment in fuel cell development for a variety of commercial applications. This investment is bringing about notable advances in fuel cell technology, but, as these development efforts place their highest priority on requirements for minimum life cycle cost and field safety, these advances are yielding design solutions quite different at almost every level from those needed for spacecraft applications. This environment thus presents both opportunities and challenges for NASA's Human Exploration Program

  16. Alternatives for energy savings at plant level for the production of alcohol for use as automotive fuel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Espinosa, R.; Cojulun, V.; Marroquin, F.

    1978-01-01

    Some countries have developed extensive projects for the massive production of alcohol from carbohydrates to be utilized as a partial substitute for gasoline. Central American countries like Guatamala base their economy of agriculture. The market trend in the sugar cane industry will set the pace for the introduction of the various technological advances in alcohol production, but a new image is developing in the sugar cane processing itself, that is bypass the sugar manufacturing and ferment directly the cane juice. The implicit advantage is the steam generation by the onsite-producted bagasse. The search for better ways to convert the sugar into the alcohol led to experiments and tests of both continuous and yeast recycle fermentation system. A comparison of a batch fermentation and a batch with recycled yeast fermentation was included. 6 figures.

  17. Coupling the core analysis program DeCART to the fuel performance application BISON

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gleicher, F. N.; Spencer, B.; Novascone, S.; Williamson, R.; Martineau, R. C. [Idaho National Laboratory, 2525 N. Fremont Avenue, Idaho Falls, ID 83415 (United States); Rose, M.; Downar, T. J.; Collins, B. [Department of Nuclear Engineering and Radiological Sciences, University of Michigan, 2355 Bonisteel Blvd., Ann Arbor, MI 48105 (United States)

    2013-07-01

    The 3D neutron transport and core analysis program DeCART was coupled to the fuels performance application BISON to provide a higher fidelity tool for fuel performance simulation. This project is motivated by the desire to couple a high fidelity core analysis program (based on the method of characteristics) to a high fidelity fuel performance program, both of which can simulate 3D problems. DeCART provides sub-pin level resolution of the multigroup neutron flux, with resonance treatment, during burnup or a fast transient. BISON implicitly solves coupled thermomechanical equations for the fuel on a sub-millimeter level finite element mesh. A method was developed for mapping the fission rate density and fast neutron flux from DeCART to BISON. Multiple depletion cases were run with one-way data transfer from DeCART to BISON. The one-way data transfer of fission rate density is shown to agree with the fission rate density obtained from an internal Lassman-style model in BISON. One-way data transfer was also demonstrated in a 3D case in which azimuthal asymmetry was induced in the fission rate density profile of a fuel rod modeled in DeCART. Two-way data transfer was established by mapping the temperature distribution from BISON to DeCART. A Picard iterative algorithm was developed for the loose coupling with two-way data transfer. (authors)

  18. Coupling the core analysis program DeCART to the fuel performance application BISON

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The 3D neutron transport and core analysis program DeCART was coupled to the fuels performance application BISON to provide a higher fidelity tool for fuel performance simulation. This project is motivated by the desire to couple a high fidelity core analysis program (based on the method of characteristics) to a high fidelity fuel performance program, both of which can simulate 3D problems. DeCART provides sub-pin level resolution of the multigroup neutron flux, with resonance treatment, during burnup or a fast transient. BISON implicitly solves coupled thermomechanical equations for the fuel on a sub-millimeter level finite element mesh. A method was developed for mapping the fission rate density and fast neutron flux from DeCART to BISON. Multiple depletion cases were run with one-way data transfer from DeCART to BISON. The one-way data transfer of fission rate density is shown to agree with the fission rate density obtained from an internal Lassman-style model in BISON. One-way data transfer was also demonstrated in a 3D case in which azimuthal asymmetry was induced in the fission rate density profile of a fuel rod modeled in DeCART. Two-way data transfer was established by mapping the temperature distribution from BISON to DeCART. A Picard iterative algorithm was developed for the loose coupling with two-way data transfer. (authors)

  19. Engineering program in order to increase the irradiated fuel storage capacity in pool facilities of Juragua

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In 1993, a technical program in the spent fuel storage area of Nuclear Plant Juragua was launched. Such a program tries to carry out an engineering assessment of the possibility of increasing the spent fuel storage capacity in pool storage facilities by using high density racks (re-racking) instead of the original (non-compact) ones. The purpose of the above-mentioned program is to evaluate possible solutions that can be applied to the construction works prior to plant operation. The first stage of the program for the 1994-95 period is an ongoing Engineering-Economic Feasibility Study (EEFS), which endeavors to examine the capabilities of the reloading pool in Unit-1 Reactor building and long-term storage pool in auxiliary building in high density storage conditions. Technical details of the EEFS and reached results and difficulties are described. (author). 5 refs., 2 figs

  20. The Krakow clean fossil fuels and energy efficiency program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Feibus, H.

    1995-12-31

    The joint effort by Polish and American organizations in Krakow has accomplished a great deal in just a few years. In particular, the low emission sources program has had major successes. Poland and America have a lot to learn from each other in the clean and economical use of coal. Both our countries are major producers and users of coal. Both have had to deal with the emissions of particulate and organics from coal combustion. We were fortunate, since our free market economy and democratic government helped us deal with a lot of these problems in the 1950s. In Poland, the freedom to solve these problems has evolved only in the last few years. In the first phase of the program, Polish and American engineers ran combustion tests on boilers and stoves in Krakow. They also performed analyses on the cost and feasibility of various equipment changes. The results of the first phase were used in refining the spreadsheet model to give better estimates of costs emissions. The first phase also included analyses of incentives for proceeding with needed changes. These analyses identified actions needed to create a market for the goods and services which control pollution. Such actions could include privatization, regulation, or financial incentives. The second phase of the program consisted of public meetings in Chicago, Washington, and Krakow. The purpose of the meetings was to inform U.S. and Polish firms about the results of phase 1 and to encourage them to compete to take part in phase 3. The third phase currently underway consists of the commercial ventures that were competitively selected. These ventures were consistent with recommendations unanimously made by the BSC. The three phases of the Polish-American program are discussed.

  1. The application of the goal programming to CANDU fuel management optimization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A Goal Programming formulation to CANDU fuel management optimization is proposed. Four objectives are considered, respectively : the feed rate, CPPF (Channel Power Peaking Factor), BPPF (Bundle Power Peaking Factor) and CPR (Critical Power Ratio). This problem is investigated using a numerical approach to optimization established on STepMethod and the use of loss matrix. The optimization technique developed is more adequate for fuel management analysis for fissile enriched fuel cycles, in which cases the relative importance of the objectives could be modified. Numerical results are presented for 0.93% SEU fuelled CANDU 6Mk1 core and weapons-grade plutonium burning in CANDU 6Mk1 core, using standard 37 rod fuel bundle. (author). 12 refs., 3 tabs., 7 figs

  2. Fuel cell programs in the United States for stationary power applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Singer, M.

    1996-04-01

    The Department of Energy (DOE), Office of Fossil Energy, is participating with the private sector in sponsoring the development of molten carbonate fuel cell (MCFC) and solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) technologies for application in the utility, commercial and industrial sectors. Phosphoric acid fuel cell (PAFC) development was sponsored by the Office of Fossil Energy in previous years and is now being commercialized by the private sector. Private sector participants with the Department of Energy include the Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI), the Gas Research institute (GRI), electric and gas utilities, universities, manufacturing companies and their suppliers. through continued government and private sector support, fuel cell systems are emerging power generation technologies which are expected to have significant worldwide impacts. An industry with annual sales of over a billion dollars is envisioned early in the 21st century. PAFC power plants have begun to enter the marketplace and MCFC and SOFC power plants are expected to be ready to enter the marketplace in the late 1990s. In support of the efficient and effective use of our natural resources, the fuel cell program seeks to increase energy efficiency and economic effectiveness of power generation. This is to be accomplished through effectiveness of power generation. This is accomplished through the development and commercialization of cost-effective, efficient and environmentally desirable fuel cell systems which will operate on fossil fuels in multiple and end use sectors.

  3. Status of uranium-silicon alloy fuel development for the RERTR program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    As part of the national Reduced Enrichment Research and Test Reactor (RERTR) Program, Argonne National Laboratory (ANL) is engaged in a fuel-alloy development project. The fuel alloys are dispersed in an aluminum matrix and metallurgically roll-bonded within 6061 Al alloy. To date, miniplates with up to 40 vol. % fuel alloy have been successfully fabricated. Thirty-one of these plates have been or are being irradiated in the Oak Ridge Reactor (ORR). Three different fuels have been used in the ANL miniplates: U3Si, U3Si2, or U3SiAl. All three are candidates for permitting higher fuel loadings and thus lower enrichments than would be possible with either UAl/sub x/ or U3O8, the current fuels for plate-type elements. The enrichment level employed at ANL is approx. 19.8%. Continuing effort involves the production of miniplates with up to approx. 60 vol. % fuel, the development of a technology for full-size plate fabrication, and post-irradiation examination of miniplates already removed from the ORR Reactor

  4. Instrumentation program for rock mechanics and spent fuel tests at the Nevada Test Site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pratt, H.R.; Hustrulid, W.H.; Simonson, R.

    1978-08-01

    This report contains a discussion of an instrumentation and rock mechanics program recommended for consideration as part of the overall Lawrence Livermore nuclear waste storage program at NTS. It includes a discussion of (1) rationale for the heater tests, spent fuel facility evaluation, heated room tests, (2) recommended instrumentation types together with estimated delivery schedules, (3) recommended instrumentation layouts, (4) other proposed rock mechanics tests both laboratory and in situ, and (5) data acquisition and reduction requirements.

  5. Instrumentation program for rock mechanics and spent fuel tests at the Nevada Test Site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report contains a discussion of an instrumentation and rock mechanics program recommended for consideration as part of the overall Lawrence Livermore nuclear waste storage program at NTS. It includes a discussion of (1) rationale for the heater tests, spent fuel facility evaluation, heated room tests, (2) recommended instrumentation types together with estimated delivery schedules, (3) recommended instrumentation layouts, (4) other proposed rock mechanics tests both laboratory and in situ, and (5) data acquisition and reduction requirements

  6. Update on Canada's fuel waste management program: preparing for the environmental review of the concept

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Canadian Nuclear Fuel Waste Program was established in 1978 as a joint initiative by the governments of Canada and Ontario. Under the program, Atomic Energy of Canada Ltd. (AECL) is responsible for developing and assessing a concept to dispose of nuclear fuel wastes in plutonic rocks of the Canadian Shield. A series of engineered and natural barriers will isolate the nuclear fuel waste from the biosphere. The ultimate choice of methods, materials, and designs will depend on the site chosen, availability, cost, and practicality. AECL has submitted the Environmental Impact Statement (EIS) on the concept for review by the Environmental Assessment Panel appointed by the federal Minister of the Environment. Three reasons for implementing the concept if accepted are as follows: to show environmental leadership by reducing the burden on future generation, to foster public confidence in nuclear energy, and to forestall 'inaction by default'. 19 refs

  7. New high density MTR fuel. The CEA-CERCA-COGEMA development program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The development of a new generation of LEU, high in density and with reprocessing capacities MTR fuel, is a key issue to provide reactor operators with a smooth operation which is necessary for a long term development of Nuclear Energy. In the RRFM'98 meeting, a joint contribution of CEA, CERCA and COGEMA presented a technical classification of the potential candidates uranium alloys. In this paper this MTR working group presents the development program of a new high density fuel. This program is composed of three main steps: Basic Data analysis and collection, Plate Tests (Irradiation and Post Irradiation Examinations) and Lead Test Assemblies (Irradiation and Post Irradiation Examinations). The goal to be reached is to make this new fuel available before the end of the present US return policy. (author)

  8. New high density MTR fuel. The CEA-CERCA-COGEMA development program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Languille, A. [CEA/DEC Centre de Cadarache, St. Paul lez Durance (France); Durand, J.P. [CEDRCA, ZI les Berauds, Romans (France); Gay, A. [COGEMA/BCR, St. Quentin en Yvelines (France)

    1999-07-01

    The development of a new generation of LEU, high in density and with reprocessing capacities MTR fuel, is a key issue to provide reactor operators with a smooth operation which is necessary for a long term development of Nuclear Energy. In the RRFM'98 meeting, a joint contribution of CEA, CERCA and COGEMA presented a technical classification of the potential candidates uranium alloys. In this paper this MTR working group presents the development program of a new high density fuel. This program is composed of three main steps: Basic Data analysis and collection, Plate Tests (Irradiation and Post Irradiation Examinations) and Lead Test Assemblies (Irradiation and Post Irradiation Examinations). The goal to be reached is to make this new fuel available before the end of the present US return policy. (author)

  9. Lead test program of Gd-2n fuel assemblies on Paks NPP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Paks NPP in Hungary operates 4 Units of VVER-440 reactors now with up-rated nominal power to 510 MW. In order to improve fuel cycle economy on the up-rated power, 4.2 wt% enriched fuel is planned to use from 2010. Before start the application with full reload batch, a lead test program of 18 assemblies is planned on Unit 4 in 2009. The purpose of test is to verify advanced coolant mixing model to describe outlet temperature reading precisely. Coolant mixing in the assembly head of VVER-440 fuel is still an open question, recently new model is developed in Hungary with the help of CFD calculations as well as using huge amount of operational data. This paper will shortly describe the model and also show the first test results from the Unit 4 lead test program. (authors)

  10. Industrial Fuel Gas Demonstration Plant Program: environmental permit compliance plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bodamer, Jr., James W.; Bocchino, Robert M.

    1979-11-01

    This Environmental Permit Compliance Plan is intended to assist the Memphis Light, Gas and Water Division in acquiring the necessary environmental permits for their proposed Industrial Fuel Gas Demonstration Plant in a time frame consistent with the construction schedule. Permits included are those required for installation and/or operation of gaseous, liquid and solid waste sources and disposal areas. Only those permits presently established by final regulations are described. The compliance plan describes procedures for obtaining each permit from identified federal, state and local agencies. The information needed for the permit application is presented, and the stepwise procedure to follow when filing the permit application is described. Information given in this plan was obtained by reviewing applicable laws and regulations and from telephone conversations with agency personnel on the federal, state and local levels. This Plan also presents a recommended schedule for beginning the work necessary to obtain the required environmental permits in order to begin dredging operations in October, 1980 and construction of the plant in September, 1981. Activity for several key permits should begin as soon as possible.

  11. Fuel cell program - Overview reports 2007; Programm Brennstoffzellen inkl. Wasserstoff - Ueberblicksberichte der BFE-Programmleiter 2007

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Luzzi, A.; Spirig, M.

    2008-07-01

    This report for the Swiss Federal Office of Energy (SFOE) presents the overview reports made by SFOE Heads of Program on work done in 2007. Projects reported on in the natural gas-fired fuel cell area include the EU-project REAL-SFOC, the long-term testing of anode-supported SOFC stacks, intermediate-temperature fuel cells based on proton conducting electrolytes, the interdisciplinary ONEBAT project and lifetime-enhancement of SOFC stacks for CHP applications. In the polymer-electrolyte fuel cell (PEFC) area, projects concerning proton-conducting polymer membranes, factors limiting the lifetime of fuel cell membranes, a new highly active oxygen reduction electrode for PEM fuel cell and zinc/air battery applications, the enhancement of PEFC durability and reliability, model-based investigation of PEFC performance, and local gas analysis of PE fuel cells are briefly reported on. Long-term research activities in the hydrogen technology area reported on include those concerning the photo-chemical conversion and storage of solar energy and the storage of hydrogen in metallic and complex hydrides. Further projects reported on include those concerning the physical aspects of hydrides for system integration and safety and new, complex metal hydrides. Swiss national and international co-ordination is reviewed in the areas of fuel cell technology and hydrogen technology. Work done in several projects run within the framework of the IEA's Advanced Fuel Cells Program is reviewed. Several pilot and demonstration (P and D) projects are also reported on in the natural-gas SOFC and PEFC areas. Comments on the 2007 results and a review of work to be done in 2008, along with a list of R, D, P and D projects, complete the report.

  12. EPAct Alternative Fuel Transportation Program: State and Alternative Fuel Provider Fleet Compliance Annual Report, Fleet Compliance Results for MY 2014/ FY 2015

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2016-04-01

    This annual report of the Alternative Fuel Transportation Program, which ensures compliance with DOE regulations covering state government and alternative fuel provider fleets pursuant to the Energy Policy Act of 1992 (EPAct), as amended, provides fleet compliance results for manufacturing year 2014 / fiscal year 2015.

  13. Pathways to Commercial Success: Technologies and Products Supported by the Fuel Cell Technologies Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weakley, Steven A.

    2012-09-28

    The purpose of the project described in this report is to identify and document the commercial and emerging (projected to be commercialized within the next 3 years) hydrogen and fuel cell technologies and products that resulted from Department of Energy support through the Fuel Cell Technologies (FCT) Program in the Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE). Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) undertook two efforts simultaneously to accomplish this project. The first effort was a patent search and analysis to identify patents related to hydrogen and fuel cells that are associated with FCT-funded projects (or projects conducted by DOE-EERE predecessor programs) and to ascertain the patents’ current status, as well as any commercial products that may have used the technology documented in the patent. The second effort was a series of interviews with current and past FCT personnel, a review of relevant program annual reports, and an examination of grants made under the Small Business Innovation Research and Small Business Technology Transfer Programs that are related to hydrogen and fuel cells.

  14. Pathways to Commercial Success: Technologies and Products Supported by the Fuel Cell Technologies Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weakley, Steven A.; Brown, Scott A.

    2011-09-29

    The purpose of the project described in this report is to identify and document the commercial and emerging (projected to be commercialized within the next 3 years) hydrogen and fuel cell technologies and products that resulted from Department of Energy support through the Fuel Cell Technologies (FCT) Program in the Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE). To do this, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) undertook two efforts simultaneously to accomplish this project. The first effort was a patent search and analysis to identify hydrogen- and fuel-cell-related patents that are associated with FCT-funded projects (or projects conducted by DOE-EERE predecessor programs) and to ascertain the patents current status, as well as any commercial products that may have used the technology documented in the patent. The second effort was a series of interviews with current and past FCT personnel, a review of relevant program annual reports, and an examination of hydrogen- and fuel-cell-related grants made under the Small Business Innovation Research and Small Business Technology Transfer Programs, and within the FCT portfolio.

  15. Operational experience using the OSTR flip fuel self-protection program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Recent changes in NRC Physical Security regulations make it highly desirable for a small number of TRIGA research reactor establishments to maintain each of the fuel elements in their reactor core above the self-protection dose rate criterion. OSTR operations personnel have written a computer program (SPOOF) which calculates the exposure rate (in Rhr-1) from an irradiated fuel element at 3 feet in air using the actual operating history of the reactor. The purpose of this current paper is to describe the operational experience gained over the last year and a half while using the SPOOF computer program, and while performing the quarterly dose rate measurements needed to confirm the continuing accuracy of the program, and, most importantly, the self-protection status of the OSTR fuel. The computer program in association with the quarterly dose rate measurements have been accepted by the NRC, and allow the OSTR to take credit for self-protecting FLIP fuel under the current physical security regulations

  16. Quality Assurance Program Plan for Project W-379: Spent Nuclear Fuels Canister Storage Building Projec

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This document describes the Quality Assurance Program Plan (QAPP) for the Spent Nuclear Fuels (SNF) Canister Storage Building (CSB) Project. The purpose of this QAPP is to control project activities ensuring achievement of the project mission in a safe, consistent and reliable manner

  17. Characterization program management plan for Hanford K basin spent nuclear fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The program management plan for characterization of the K Basin spent nuclear fuel was revised to incorporate corrective actions in response to SNF Project QA surveillance 1K-FY-99-060. This revision of the SNF Characterization PMP replaces Duke Eng

  18. Building on success. The foreign research reactor spent nuclear fuel acceptance program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The second year of implementation of the research reactor spent nuclear fuel acceptance program was marked by significant challenges and achievements. In July 1998, the Department of Energy completed by significant challenges and achievements. In July 1998, the Department of Energy completed its first shipment of spent fuel from Asia via the Concord Naval Weapons Station in California to the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental (INEEL). This shipment, which consisted of three casks of spent nuclear fuel from two research reactors in the Republic of Korea, presented significant technical, legal, and political challenges in the United States and abroad. Lessons learned will be used in the planning and execution of our next significant milestone, a shipment of TRIGA spent fuel from research reactors in Europe to INEEL, scheduled for the summer of 1999. This shipment will include transit across the United States for over 2,000 miles. Other challenges and advances include: clarification of the fee policy to address changes in the economic status of countries during the life of the program; resolution of issues associated with cask certification and the specific types and conditions of spent fuel proposed for transport; revisions to standard contract language in order to more clearly address unique shipping situations; and priorization and scheduling of shipments to most effectively implement the program. As of this meeting, eight shipments, consisting of nearly 2,000 spent fuel assemblies from fifteen countries, have been successfully completed. With the continued cooperation of the international research reactor community, we are committed to building on this success in the remaining years of the program. (author)

  19. 76 FR 49494 - National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-10

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice... intramural programs and projects conducted by the NATIONAL INSTITUTE ON ALCOHOL ABUSE AND ALCOHOLISM... Neuroimaging. Place: National Institutes of Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism, 5635 Fishers Lane, Terrance...

  20. 78 FR 35042 - National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-11

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice... intramural programs and projects conducted by the National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism... Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism, 5635 Fishers Lane, Room 3061, Rockville, MD 20852, 301- 443-6076....

  1. Energy poverty reduction by fuel switching. Impact evaluation of the LPG conversion program in Indonesia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In low- and middle-income countries, Liquefied Petroleum Gas (LPG) can be an attractive alternative to the widespread use of traditional kerosene. Not only is LPG a relatively clean, safe and cost-effective fuel for households, its large-scale adoption also reduces the heavy burden of kerosene consumption subsidies on government budgets. Against this background, we evaluate the impact of a large government program to substitute LPG for kerosene in Indonesia. Using a household survey across urban, suburban and rural regions we find that this program was very effective in causing a large scale shift from kerosene to LPG. This shift was positively influenced by level of education, household size and household income. Contradicting the energy-ladder model, the LPG program, reinforced by an increase in the price of kerosene, led to increased stacking of fuels, including increasing consumption of both electricity and traditional biomass. In addition, our analysis shows that the LPG program failed to substantially reduce the overall number of energy-poor people, but it has been effective in alleviating extreme energy-poverty. Finally, we find that medium and higher income households in suburban areas benefitted most from the LPG program. - Highlights: • Impact evaluation of a government program to substitute LPG for kerosene in Indonesia. • The program caused a large scale shift from kerosene to LPG. • Contradicting the energy-ladder model, the program led to increased stacking of fuels. • The program did not substantially reduce overall energy poverty, but alleviated extreme energy-poverty. • Medium and higher income households in suburban areas benefitted most from the LPG program

  2. 22000C fuel centerline thermocouples for the LOFT program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The technology as well as commercial suppliers have been developed for high temperature thermocouples for the Loss-of-Fluid-Test (LOFT) program. Two types of thermocouples were developed and tested. Model B units contained a 1/16-inch OD 24-inch long Mo/Re sheath probe and were capable of temperature measurement to 15500C. Model A units contained a 1/16-inch OD 41-inch long W/Re-augmented sheath probe and were capable of temperature measurement to 22000C

  3. 75 FR 43522 - Notice of Supplemental Determination for Renewable Fuels Produced Under the Final RFS2 Program...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-26

    ... Renewable Fuel Standard (RFS) program as required by the Energy Independence and Security Act (EISA) of 2007...) published changes to the Renewable Fuel Standard program as required by the Energy Independence and Security... available through the docket. Dated: July 13, 2010. Margo T. Oge, Director, Office of Transportation &...

  4. Policy implications for improved cook stove programs-A case study of the importance of village fuel use variations

    OpenAIRE

    Vahlne, Niklas; Ahlgren, Erik

    2014-01-01

    Despite the long history of cook stove programs, very few have been successful, often only in areas where biomass is purchased or there is a biomass shortage. Several studies have described how rural households generally rely on several different fuels; which fuels are used may depend on various household characteristics such as location and income. This article explores possible consequences of variations in fuel usage for improved cook stove programs and how this may vary between different ...

  5. HEDL contribution to SRL fuel recycle program. Quarterly report, January--March 1977. [Sensitivity analysis of LMFBR fuel fabrication cost

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fletcher, J.F.

    1977-08-01

    Research on LWR fuel cycle is being done in the following categories: economic studies (sensitivity analysis of LMFBR fuel fabrication costs), spent fuel receipt and storage (failure of PWR and BWR fuel assemblies), fuel materials preparation or finishing processes, reduction of TRU waste generation, and environmental impacts. 12 tables. (DLC)

  6. Characterization of the brazilian alcohol program in the State of Sao Paulo: production costs to plants and distillery homogeneous groups

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The ethanol producing plants in the State of Sao Paulo present variation in scale of production, productivity and cost structure. This paper presents production costs and analyses the competitiveness of neat ethanol with respect to gasoline, for each of the eight homogeneous groups of distilleries in operation in the State of Sao Paulo. The study shows that, at prices of march 1986, there is a variation of operational costs in the range of 1.46 to 1.95 cruzados per liter of hydrous ethanol. The reference price, including operational costs and interest on capital, varies from 2.47 to 3.15 cruzados per liter. These prices do not consider subsidies given by the Government under the Brazilian National Alcohol Program. The price of hydrous ethanol in Barrel Equivalent of Oil goes from 33.3 to 43.1 american dollars, showing that ethanol is not currently competitive with gasoline. (author)

  7. The U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Fossil Energy Stationary Fuel Cell Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Mark C.; Strakey, Joseph P.; Surdoval, Wayne A.

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Fossil Energy's (FE) National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL), in partnership with private industries, is leading a program for the development and demonstration of high efficiency solid oxide fuel cells (SOFCs) and fuel cell/turbine hybrid power generation systems for near-term distributed generation markets, with emphasis on premium power and high reliability. NETL is partnering with Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) in developing new directions for research under the Solid State Energy Conversion Alliance (SECA) initiative to develop and commercialize modular, low cost, and fuel flexible SOFC systems. Through advanced materials, processing and system integration research and development (R&D), the SECA initiative will reduce the fuel cell cost to $400 kW -1 for stationary and auxiliary power unit markets. The SECA industry teams and core program have made significant progress in scale-up and performance. Presidential initiatives are focusing research toward a new hydrogen economy. The movement to a hydrogen economy would accomplish several strategic goals, namely that SOFCs have no emissions, and hence figure significantly in DOE strategies. The SOFC hybrid is a key part of the FutureGen plant, a major new DOE FE initiative to produce hydrogen from coal. The highly efficient SOFC hybrid plant will produce electric power while other parts of the plant could produce hydrogen and sequester CO 2. The produced hydrogen can be used in fuel cell cars and for SOFC distributed generation applications.

  8. A computer program for nuclear fuel burnup determination using gamma spectrometric methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the end of its service life in the reactor, the fuel needs to be characterized for reasons relating both to safety and economy. The main investigations carried out are oriented towards verifying the fuel cladding integrity and determining the fissile content and the fuel burnup. A computer program for fast burnup evaluation was developed at the Post-Irradiation Examination Laboratory (PIEL) from INR Pitesti, the only laboratory of this kind in Romania. The input data consists, on one hand, of axial and radial gamma-scanning profiles (for the experimental evaluation of the number of nuclei of a given fission product - selected as burnup monitor - in the end of irradiation) and, on the other hand, of the history of irradiation (the time length and relative value of the neutron flux for each step of irradiation). Using the equation for the build-up and decay of the burnup monitor during irradiation the flux value is iteratively adjusted until the calculated number of nucleus is equal to the experimental one. Then the flux value is used in the equations of evolution of the fissile and fertile nuclei to determine the number of fissions and consequently the fuel burnup. The program was successfully used in the analysis of more then one hundred of TRIGA and CANDU-type fuel rods. An experimental result is reported in some details. (authors)

  9. Information on the evolution of severe LWR fuel element damage obtained in the CORA program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the CORA program a series of out-of-pile experiments on LWR severe accidental situations is being performed, in which test bundles of LWR typical components and arrangements (PWR, BWR) are exposed to temperature transients up to about 2400deg C under flowing steam. The individual features of the facility, the test conduct, and the evaluation will be presented. In the frame of the international cooperation in severe fuel damage (SFD) programs the CORA tests are contributing confirmatory and complementary informations to the results from the limited number of in-pile tests. The identification of basic phenomena of the fuel element destruction, observed as a function of temperature, is supported by separate-effects test results. Most important mechanisms are the steam oxidation of the Zircaloy cladding, which determines the temperature escalation, the chemical interaction between UO2 fuel and cladding, which dominates fuel liquefaction, relocation and resulting blockage formation, as well as chemical interactions with Inconel spacer grids and absorber units ((Ag, In, Cd) alloy or B4C), which are leading to extensive low-temperature melt formation around 1200deg C. Interrelations between those basic phenomena, resulting for example in cladding deformation ('flowering') and the dramatic hydrogen formation in response to the fast cooling of a hot bundle by cold water ('quenching') are determining the evolution paths of fuel element destruction, which are to be identified. (orig.)

  10. Coated Particle Fuel and Deep Burn Program Monthly Highlights June 2011

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Snead, Lance Lewis [ORNL; Bell, Gary L [ORNL; Besmann, Theodore M [ORNL

    2011-07-01

    During FY 2011 the CP & DB Program will report Highlights on a monthly basis, but will no longer produce Quarterly Progress Reports. Technical details that were previously included in the quarterly reports will be included in the appropriate Milestone Reports that are submitted to FCRD Program Management. These reports will also be uploaded to the Deep Burn website. The Monthly Highlights report for May 2011, ORNL/TM-2011/126, was distributed to program participants on June 9, 2011. As reported previously, the final Quarterly for FY 2010, Deep Burn Program Quarterly Report for July - September 2010, ORNL/TM-2010/301, was announced to program participants and posted to the website on December 28, 2010. This report discusses the following: (1) Fuel Performance Modeling - Fuel Performance Analysis; (2) Thermochemical Data and Model Development - (a) Thermochemical Behavior, (b) Thermomechanical Modeling, (c) Actinide and Fission Product Transport; (3) TRU (transuranic elements) TRISO (tri-structural isotropic) Development - (a) TRU Kernel Development, (b) Coating Development; and (4) LWR Fully Ceramic Fuel - (a) FCM Fabrication Development, (b) FCM Irradiation Testing.

  11. Alcohol Alert

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Us You are here Home » Alcohol Alert Alcohol Alert The NIAAA Alcohol Alert is a quarterly bulletin that disseminates important research ... text. To order single copies of select Alcohol Alerts, see ordering Information . To view publications in PDF ...

  12. 78 FR 63484 - National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-10-24

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice... personal privacy. Name of Committee: National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism Special Emphasis... 2013. (Catalogue of Federal Domestic Assistance Program No. 93.273, Alcohol Research Programs;...

  13. 78 FR 17680 - National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Closed Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-22

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Closed... of Committee: National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism, Special Emphasis Panel, NIAAA... . (Catalogue of Federal Domestic Assistance Program Nos. 93.273, Alcohol Research Programs; National...

  14. 77 FR 72873 - National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-12-06

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice... personal privacy. Name of Committee: National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism Special Emphasis... Domestic Assistance Program Nos. 93.273, Alcohol Research Programs; National Institutes of Health,...

  15. 77 FR 61769 - National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-11

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice... personal privacy. Name of Committee: National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism Special Emphasis... Federal Domestic Assistance Program Nos. 93.273, Alcohol Research Programs, National Institutes of...

  16. SOLID STATE ENERGY CONVERSION ALLIANCE (SECA) SOLID OXIDE FUEL CELL PROGRAM

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Unknown

    2003-06-01

    This report summarizes the progress made during the September 2001-March 2002 reporting period under Cooperative Agreement DE-FC26-01NT41245 for the U. S. Department of Energy, National Energy Technology Laboratory (DOE/NETL) entitled ''Solid State Energy Conversion Alliance (SECA) Solid Oxide Fuel Cell Program''. The program focuses on the development of a low-cost, high-performance 3-to-10-kW solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) system suitable for a broad spectrum of power-generation applications. The overall objective of the program is to demonstrate a modular SOFC system that can be configured to create highly efficient, cost-competitive, and environmentally benign power plants tailored to specific markets. When fully developed, the system will meet the efficiency, performance, life, and cost goals for future commercial power plants.

  17. Chemical reactivity testing for the National Spent Nuclear Fuel Program. Revision 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This quality assurance project plan (QAPjP) summarizes requirements used by Lockheed Martin Energy Systems, Incorporated (LMES) Development Division at Y-12 for conducting chemical reactivity testing of Department of Energy (DOE) owned spent nuclear fuel, sponsored by the National Spent Nuclear Fuel Program (NSNFP). The requirements are based on the NSNFP Statement of work PRO-007 (Statement of Work for Laboratory Determination of Uranium Hydride Oxidation Reaction Kinetics.) This QAPjP will utilize the quality assurance program at Y-12, Y60-101PD, Quality Program Description, and existing implementing procedures for the most part in meeting the NSNFP Statement of Work PRO-007 requirements, exceptions will be noted. The project consists of conducting three separate series of related experiments, ''Passivation of Uranium Hydride Powder With Oxygen and Water'', ''Passivation of Uranium Hydride Powder with Surface Characterization'', and ''Electrochemical Measure of Uranium Hydride Corrosion Rate''

  18. Nuclear energy advance modeling and simulation program-Fuels integrated performance and safety code program - A multi-scale approach to modeling and simulations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The increased use of nuclear energy in the nations energy portfolio has been suggested recently by various social, economical and political organizations. Several options for the extension of nuclear energy being considered are; 1- Life Extension of Current Nuclear Reactors (operations at high burn ups), 2-Advanced New Generation Reactors (Gen III systems), 3- Generation IV Nuclear Energy Systems (particularly Next Generation Nuclear Plant (NGNP) concentrating on high temperature applications), and Advance Fuel Cycle Initiatives (AFCI) (fast reactor and advanced transmutation fuels). These new technology concepts will require new types of fuels (except the first option that may require more understanding of fuel behavior than development or minor modifications of fuels), and the new fuels have be developed and qualified. In the Nuclear Energy Advanced Modeling and Simulation (NEAMS) fuels Integrated Performance and Safety Code (IPSC) program we initially focus to the multi-scale modeling and simulation of new fuel types that AFCI Transmutation Fuel Campaign (TFC) program is developing. TFC is a natural customer of the NEMAS fuels IPSC project and a strong interaction and integration between the campaign and IPSC must be implemented. The program plan in terms of approach is general enough to be applicable to other fuel types of the future nuclear technology solutions. Requirements, however, may need to be updated for fuels not considered by TFC, depending upon the new physics findings. The advanced fuels of interest to AFCI programs are more complex than the traditional fuels previously and currently used in existing reactors. It is clear that using a traditional, heavily empirical approach to develop and qualify fuels over the entire range of variables pertinent to AFCI on a timely basis with available funds would be very challenging and costly, if not impossible. As a result, AFCI TFC has launched an advanced modeling and simulation campaign to revolutionize fuel

  19. Spent Fuel Management Program in the 3MW TRIGA MARK-II Research Reactor of Bangladesh

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bangladesh Atomic Energy Commission (BAEC) has been operating a 3 MW TRIGA MARK II research reactor since 1986. The reactor was installed in the campus of the Atomic Energy Research Establishment (AERE) at Savar, Dhaka. It is one of the main nuclear research facilities in the country. The reactor uses TRIGA LEU fuel with uranium content of 20% by weight. The enrichment level of the fuel is 19.7%. The reactor has so far been operated for 7834 hours with a total cumulative burn up of 15898 MWh (662.5 MWd). The total burn up life of the present core is 1200 MWd. The main areas of use are: training of man-power for nuclear power plant applications, radioisotope (RI) production, neutron activation analysis (NAA), neutron radiography (NR) and neutron scattering. The government of Bangladesh has taken decision to establish nuclear power programme in the country. There is an ADP (Annual Development Project) to accomplish necessary activities for construction of medium size nuclear power plant (NPP) in the western zone of the country. Now, with regard to the safe management, storage of spent fuel and disposal of radioactive waste arising from operation of the research reactor and also from the proposed NPP expected to be constructed in future, BAEC is drawing up short and long-term plans and programs. At present, there does not exist any spent fuel element in the reactor facility. It is to be mentioned that Bangladesh is aware of the US DOE’s ‘Take Back Program’ in connection with the research reactor spent fuel of US origin, and is very much interested to take part in this program. The paper presents the current status of handling and storage facilities available for spent fuel and strategy for the safe management of spent fuel to be generated from the research reactor in near future. (author)

  20. Spent fuel reprocessing: A vital link in Indian nuclear power program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The success of the three stage Indian nuclear energy program is inter-linked with the establishment of an efficient closed fuel cycle approach with recycling of both fissile and fertile components of the spent fuel to appropriate reactor systems. The Indian reprocessing journey was started way back in 1964 with the commissioning of a plant based on PUREX technology to reprocess aluminum clad natural uranium spent fuel from the research reactor CIRUS. After achieving the basic skills, a power reactor reprocessing facility was built to reprocess spent fuel from power reactors. Adequate design and operating experience was gained from these two plants for mastering the reprocessing technology. The first plant, being the maiden venture, based on indigenous technology had to undergo many modifications during its operation and finally needed refurbishment for continued operation. Decommissioning and decontamination of this plant was carried out meticulously to allow unrestricted access to the cells for fresh installation. A third plant was built for power reactor spent fuel reprocessing to serve as a design standard for future plants with the involvement of industry. Over the years, spent fuel reprocessing based on PUREX technology has reached a matured status and can be safely deployed to meet the additional reprocessing requirements to cater to the expanding nuclear energy program. Side by side with the developments in the spent natural uranium fuel reprocessing, irradiated thoria reprocessing is also perused to develop THOREX into a robust process. The additional challenges in this domain are being addressed to evolve appropriate technological solutions. Advancements in the field of science and technology are being absorbed to meet the challenges of higher recovery combined with reduced exposure and environmental discharges

  1. An economic analysis of a major bio-fuel program undertaken by OECD countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Biofuels such as ethanol and bio-diesel are creating a new demand for agricultural output and for agriculture land in Canada. However, the participation of other large countries with a large demand potential is necessary for bio-fuels to have a significant impact on the price of grains and oilseeds. This paper quantified the potential impact that a major bio-fuel program initiated by OECD countries has on grain and oilseed prices. The program was initiated for the period 1999 to 2006. There is considerable interest by Canadian producers to stimulate grain and oilseed prices by increasing demand of biofuels. This renewable energy source produces fewer greenhouse gas emissions than petroleum products. The analysis presented in this paper only considered ethanol from corn or wheat and bio-diesel from vegetable oils. It also focused only on the use of bio-fuels in the OECD transportation sector. The analysis was undertaken with AGLINK, a multi-commodity multi-country policy-specific dynamic model of the international agricultural markets built by the OECD with member countries. It was shown that the increase in world and domestic prices for grains and vegetable oils will remain strong, particularly toward 2006. It was also shown that a major bio-fuel program for all OECD countries would be beneficial to Canadian agriculture. It was concluded that ultimately, an increase in OECD bio-fuels usage has a direct impact on the demand for grains and oilseeds which are important feed-stocks in biofuel production. The analysis presumes an increase in renewable fuel use, but does not consider factors such as financial incentives and regulatory requirements that could bring about this increase. 7 refs., 6 tabs., 4 figs

  2. Application of a quality control program for developing fuel elements for research reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The development of nuclear fuel elements for the IEAR-1 research reactor is a task that is being pursued by IPEN/CNEN-SP for several years. The studies included the development of U3O8-Al Nuclear cermets, rolling of U3O8-Al brickets using the picture frame technique for the obtension of Nuclear fuel plates as well as the fabrication of components and the final assembling of the fuel elements. The prototypes are made to conform to stringent quality control specifications. These specifications cover various aspects such as the metallurgical, ceramical, and mechanical properties of the materials involved as well as non-destructive tests and dimensional and visual requirements of the various components. In this context, an extensive specification of the materials and components used have been compiled and are periodically reviewed and revised. An extensive quality control program was planned and is being tested in practice simultaneously to the fuel element development. During the elaboration of the procedures for the characterization tests, special attention has been devoted to the storage of data that could be used for the analysis of the irradiation behaviour of the fuel element. The various procedures used during implementation of the system required for the quality control of the nuclear fuel elements for the IEAR-1 Nuclear reactor are presented. (Author)

  3. Large-scale irradiated fuel experiments at proteus research program - 126

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The LIFE'at'PROTEUS joint experimental program between the Paul Scherrer Institut and the Swiss nuclear utilities aims at studying the interface between highly burnt and fresh fuel assemblies in pressurized and boiling water reactors using the PROTEUS zero power research reactor. In a first phase, compositions, burnups and reactivity worths of burnt (40 and 60 GWd/t) PWR fuel pins next to fresh ones will be measured. Reaction rates distributions across the fresh/burnt fuel pins interface will also be measured using newly developed techniques in PROTEUS. The techniques are based on delayed neutrons or high energy gamma-rays emitted by short lived fission products, both produced in pins re-irradiated in PROTEUS. LIFE'at'PROTEUS started in 2006 and will require a two year refurbishment of PROTEUS to operate with highly burnt fuels. Today, in parallel to the effort for the submittal of the construction license request to the safety authorities, future core loading configurations are predicted with MCNPX and CASMO-4E. Preliminary results show that a 6x6 burnt fuel bundle should adequately represent the interface between fresh and burnt PWR fuel assemblies, and that CASMO-4E appears suitable to analyze this complex experiment. (authors)

  4. Hydropyrolysis of biomass to produce liquid hydrocarbon fuels. Final report. Biomass Alternative-Fuels Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fujita, R K; Bodle, W W; Yuen, P C

    1982-10-01

    The ojective of the study is to provide a process design and cost estimates for a biomass hydropyrolysis plant and to establish its economic viability for commercial applications. A plant site, size, product slate, and the most probable feedstock or combination of feedstocks were determined. A base case design was made by adapting IGT's HYFLEX process to Hawaiian biomass feedstocks. The HYFLEX process was developed by IGT to produce liquid and/or gaseous fuels from carbonaceous materials. The essence of the process is the simultaneous extraction of valuable oil and gaseous products from cellulosic biomass feedstocks without forming a heavy hard-to-handle tar. By controlling rection time and temperature, the product slate can be varied according to feedstock and market demand. An optimum design and a final assessment of the applicability of the HYFLEX process to the conversion of Hawaiian biomass was made. In order to determine what feedstocks could be available in Hawaii to meet the demands of the proposed hydropyrolysis plant, various biomass sources were studied. These included sugarcane and pineapple wastes, indigenous and cultivated trees and indigenous and cultivated shrubs and grasses.

  5. The computer program 'TOBAS' for nuclear fuel production and power generation industry optimization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The program TOBAS aims at optimizing the activities in separate industry branches which are functionally linked. It generates in an automatic mode the models of industries of any configuration (nuclear power generation, uranium ore mining and enrichment, uranium inversion and separation of its isotopes, fuel rods and assemblies fabrication, chemical treatment of irradiated materials, etc.). The parameters describing the problem are introduced as input data and an optimum decision based on the given input data is generated as output data, namely the technology intensities, technology and resources costs. The algorithms included in TOBAS are able to solve very sophisticated optimization task, as for instance, nonlinear, partly integer dynamic task of non convex mathematical programming. An optimization task is illustrated by the case of nuclear fuel industry. All the branches of the fuel industry are described by complicate nonlinear models and include: the branch of mining and natural U ore enrichment, the branch of U isotope separation, the branch of fuel, shielding elements and assemblies fabrication and the branch of chemical reprocessing of irradiated materials which are unloaded from nuclear reactors. If, in designing a new mechanism or creating a new technology, the designer has the optimum system prices of all the resources involved in the project, the market induced risks will be avoided. At present the program TOBAS is used for accumulation of data base containing the optimum plans of Russian and foreign power industries and of database for optimum system prices of resources. (author)

  6. Irradiation program of slightly enriched fuel elements at the Atucha I nuclear power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An irradiation program of fuel elements with slightly enriched uranium is implemented, tending to the homogenization of core at Atucha I nuclear power plant. The main benefits of the enrichment program are: a) to extend the average discharge burnup of fuel elements, reducing the number of elements used to generate the same amount of energy. This implies a smaller annual consumption of elements and consequently the reduction of transport and replacement operations and of the storage pool systems as well as that of radioactive wastes; b) the saving of uranium and structural materials (Zircaloy and others). In the initial stage of program an homogeneous core enrichment of 0.85% by weight of U-235 is anticipated. The average discharge burnup of fuel elements, as estimated by previous studies, is approximately 11.6 MW d/kg U. The annual consumption of fuel elements is reduced from 396 of natural uranium to 205, with a load factor of 0.85. It is intended to reach the next equilibrium steps with an enrichment of 1.00 and 1.20% in U-235. (Author)

  7. FREG-4: a computer program to predict the fuel-to-cladding heat transfer coefficient in accordance with the fuel-rod irradiation history

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Program FREG series calculate temperature distribution in a fuel rod and the stored energy based on the distribution. The temperature distribution is calculated accordance with the fuel rod irradiation history. The temperature in the fuel rod is severely influenced with gap heat transfer coefficients between fuel pellet surface and cladding inner surface. Enphasis is placed on how to find the gap heat transfer coefficients. FREG-4 is a version-up program of FREG-3. Major modification from FREG-3 is handlings of fission product gas release, which have influences on the gap heat transfer. FREG-4 distingushed fission-product isotopes remained in pellets and fission-product gaseous isotopes released from the pellets, and considers that the released isotopes are transported for plenums to balance whole fuel rod internal pressure and transformed into another isotopes due to decay and the nuetron absorptions. The present report describes modified models from FREG-3 and user's manual for FREG-4. (author)

  8. The use of burnup credit in criticality control for the Korean spent fuel management program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    More than 25% k-eff saving effect is observed in this burnup credit analysis. This mainly comes from the adoption of actinide nuclides and fission products in the criticality analysis. By taking burnup credit, the high capacity of the storage and transportation can be more fully utilized, reducing the space of storage and the number of shipments. Larger storage and fewer shipments for a given inventory of spent fuel result should in remarkable cost savings and more importantly reduce the risks to the public and occupational workers for the Korean Spent Fuel Management Program

  9. High-density U-Mo fuels - Latest results and reoriented qualifications programs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    As a result of unstable swelling (pillowing) experienced during tests of U-Mo dispersed in aluminum under high-power conditions in 2003, the programs to develop, qualify, and license U-Mo dispersion fuels carried out in the United States, France, Argentina, and Russia have been reoriented. During the past year, a major effort has been carried out to determine the cause(s) of the failures and to find potential remedies for the problem. The past year's activities are summarized and updated plans and schedules for the qualification of U-Mo fuels are presented. (author)

  10. U. S. Fuel Cycle Technologies R and D Program for Next Generation Nuclear Materials Management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The U. S. Department of Energy's Fuel Cycle Technologies R and D program under the Office of Nuclear Energy is working to advance technologies to enhance both the existing and future fuel cycles. One thrust area is in developing enabling technologies for next generation nuclear materials management under the Materials Protection, Accounting and Control Technologies (MPACT) Campaign where advanced instrumentation, analysis and assessment methods, and security approaches are being developed under a framework of Safeguards and Security by Design. An overview of the MPACT campaign's activities and recent accomplishments is presented along with future plans

  11. Deep borehole testing techniques developed for Canada's nuclear fuel waste management program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Atomic energy of Canada Limited's nuclear fuel waste management program is presently centred around the concept of deep burial of immobilized fuel waste within igneous plutons of the Archaean Canadian Shield. Contaminant transport within this host medium would be by movement through rock fractures. Consequently, as part of the overall concept assessment phase, hydrogeological research has been initiated to assess potential pathways for contaminant leaks to the biosphere. Determination of accurate rock mass and fracture hydraulic conductivities and travel times are essential to the deep burial concept. The techniques used and the preliminary results are described. (Auth.)

  12. Liquefied Gaseous Fuels Safety and Environmental Control Assessment Program: second status report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1980-10-01

    This document is arranged in three volumes and reports on progress in the Liquefied Gaseous Fuels (LGF) Safety and Environmental Control Assessment Program made in fiscal Year (FY)-1979 and early FY-1980. Volume 3 contains reports from 6 government contractors on LPG, anhydrous ammonia, and hydrogen energy systems. Report subjects include: simultaneous boiling and spreading of liquefied petroleum gas (LPG) on water; LPG safety research; state-of-the-art of release prevention and control technology in the LPG industry; ammonia: an introductory assessment of safety and environmental control information; ammonia as a fuel, and hydrogen safety and environmental control assessment.

  13. Program of quality management when fabricating fast reactor vibropack oxide fuel pins

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    There are presented main principles of creation and operation of Quality Management Program in fabricating vibropack oxide fuel pins for BOR-60 and BN-600 being in force in SSC RF RIAR. There is given structure of documentation for QS principal elements. Under Quality System there are defined all the procedures, assuring that fuel pin meets the normative requirements. The system model is complied with the standard model IS 9001. There are shown technologic flowchart and check operation, statistic results of pin critical parameter check as well as main results of in-pile tests. (author)

  14. Towards programs for alcohol consumption prevention in college students in Bogota, Colombia [Elementos para programas de prevención en consumo de alcohol en universitarios en Bogotá, Colombia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Liliana Muñoz Ortega

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available This non–experimental study, aimed to propose from university students items for prevention programs of alcohol consumption obtain by examining levels, situations and characteristics of alcohol consumption of 2910 students in ten universities of Bogotá – Colombia who answered the features tab in consumption, the Ceal and the Isca, participating in 15 focus groups, 80 students. Consumption is high, begins at early ages, approved by parents, associated by academic pressures loneliness and culture. There are indexes of abuse and dependence. The situations associated with consumption are emotions and good times, the urge to consume and social pressure. Preventive programs should be implemented by youth-oriented, responsible consumption using a variety of activities with responsibility from the actors.

  15. Summary of national and international fuel cycle and radioactive waste management programs, 1984

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Worldwide activities related to nuclear fuel cycle and radioactive waste management programs are summarized. Several trends have developed in waste management strategy: All countries having to dispose of reprocessing wastes plan on conversion of the high-level waste (HLW) stream to a borosilicate glass and eventual emplacement of the glass logs, suitably packaged, in a deep geologic repository. Countries that must deal with plutonium-contaminated waste emphasize pluonium recovery, volume reduction and fixation in cement or bitumen in their treatment plans and expect to use deep geologic repositories for final disposal. Commercially available, classical engineering processing are being used worldwide to treat and immobilize low- and intermediate-level wastes (LLW, ILW); disposal to surface structures, shallow-land burial and deep-underground repositories, such as played-out mines, is being done widely with no obvious technical problems. Many countries have established extensive programs to prepare for construction and operation of geologic repositories. Geologic media being studied fall into three main classes: argillites (clay or shale); crystalline rock (granite, basalt, gneiss or gabbro); and evaporates (salt formations). Most nations plan to allow 30 years or longer between discharge of fuel from the reactor and emplacement of HLW or spent fuel is a repository to permit thermal and radioactive decay. Most repository designs are based on the mined-gallery concept, placing waste or spent fuel packages into shallow holes in the floor of the gallery. Many countries have established extensive and costly programs of site evaluation, repository development and safety assessment. Two other waste management problems are the subject of major R and D programs in several countries: stabilization of uranium mill tailing piles; and immobilization or disposal of contaminated nuclear facilities, namely reactors, fuel cycle plants and R and D laboratories

  16. Thermal Hydraulic Fortran Program for Steady State Calculations of Plate Type Fuel Research Reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The safety assessment of Research and Power Reactors is a continuous process over their life and that requires verified and validated codes. Power Reactor codes all over the world are well established and qualified against a real measuring data and qualified experimental facilities. These codes are usually sophisticated, require special skills and consume much more running time. On the other hand, most of the Research Reactor codes still requiring more data for validation and qualification. Therefore it is benefit for a regulatory body and the companies working in the area of Research Reactor assessment and design to have their own program that give them a quick judgment. The present paper introduces a simple one dimensional Fortran program called THDSN for steady state best estimate Thermal Hydraulic (TH) calculations of plate type fuel RRs. Beside calculating the fuel and coolant temperature distribution and pressure gradient in an average and hot channel the program calculates the safety limits and margins against the critical phenomena encountered in RR such as the burnout heat flux and the onset of flow instability. Well known TH correlations for calculating the safety parameters are used. THDSN program is verified by comparing its results for 2 and 10 MW benchmark reactors with that published in IAEA publications and good agreement is found. Also the program results are compared with those published for other programs such as PARET and TERMIC. An extension for this program is underway to cover the transient TH calculations

  17. Crosslinked poly(vinyl alcohol)/sulfonated poly(ether ether ketone) blend membranes for fuel cell applications - Surface energy characteristics and proton conductivity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kanakasabai, P.; Vijay, P.; Deshpande, Abhijit P.; Varughese, Susy [Department of Chemical Engineering, Indian Institute of Technology Madras, Chennai 600 036 (India)

    2011-02-01

    Ionic polymers, their blends and composites are considered potential candidates for application as electrolytes in fuel cells. While developing new materials for membranes, it is important to understand the interactions of these electrolytic materials with electrodes/catalysts and with reactants/products. Some of these interactions can be understood by estimating the surface energy and wettability of the membrane materials. In this work, polyvinyl alcohol with varying degrees of sulfonation and its blend with sulfonated poly(ether ether ketone) are prepared and studied for their wettability characteristics using goniometry. The surface energy and its components are estimated using different approaches and compared. Properties such as the ion-exchange capacity, the proton conductivity and the water sorption/desorption behaviour are also investigated to understand the relationship with wettability and surface energy and its components. Among the different methods, the van Oss acid-base and the modified Berthelot approaches yield comparable estimates for the total surface energy. (author)

  18. Improvements in Empathy and Cognitive Flexibility after Court-Mandated Intervention Program in Intimate Partner Violence Perpetrators: The Role of Alcohol Abuse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romero-Martínez, Ángel; Lila, Marisol; Martínez, Manuela; Pedrón-Rico, Vicente; Moya-Albiol, Luis

    2016-04-01

    Research assessing the effectiveness of intervention programs for intimate partner violence (IPV) perpetrators has increased considerably in recent years. However, most of it has been focused on the analysis of psychological domains, neglecting neuropsychological variables and the effects of alcohol consumption on these variables. This study evaluated potential neuropsychological changes (emotional decoding, perspective taking, emotional empathy and cognitive flexibility) and their relationship with alcohol consumption in a mandatory intervention program for IPV perpetrators, as well as how these variables affect the risk of IPV recidivism. The sample was composed of 116 individuals with high alcohol (n = 55; HA) and low alcohol (n = 61; LA) consumption according to self-report screening measures who received treatment in a IPV perpetrator intervention program developed in Valencia (Spain). IPV perpetrators with HA consumption were less accurate in decoding emotional facial signals and adopting others' perspective, and less cognitively flexible than those with LA consumption before the IPV intervention. Further, the effectiveness of the intervention program was demonstrated, with increases being observed in cognitive empathy (emotional decoding and perspective taking) and in cognitive flexibility. Nevertheless, the HA group showed a smaller improvement in these skills and higher risk of IPV recidivism than the LA group. Moreover, improvement in these skills was related to a lower risk of IPV recidivism. The study provides guidance on the targeting of cognitive domains, which are key factors for reducing IPV recidivism. PMID:27043602

  19. Improvements in Empathy and Cognitive Flexibility after Court-Mandated Intervention Program in Intimate Partner Violence Perpetrators: The Role of Alcohol Abuse

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ángel Romero-Martínez

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Research assessing the effectiveness of intervention programs for intimate partner violence (IPV perpetrators has increased considerably in recent years. However, most of it has been focused on the analysis of psychological domains, neglecting neuropsychological variables and the effects of alcohol consumption on these variables. This study evaluated potential neuropsychological changes (emotional decoding, perspective taking, emotional empathy and cognitive flexibility and their relationship with alcohol consumption in a mandatory intervention program for IPV perpetrators, as well as how these variables affect the risk of IPV recidivism. The sample was composed of 116 individuals with high alcohol (n = 55; HA and low alcohol (n = 61; LA consumption according to self-report screening measures who received treatment in a IPV perpetrator intervention program developed in Valencia (Spain. IPV perpetrators with HA consumption were less accurate in decoding emotional facial signals and adopting others’ perspective, and less cognitively flexible than those with LA consumption before the IPV intervention. Further, the effectiveness of the intervention program was demonstrated, with increases being observed in cognitive empathy (emotional decoding and perspective taking and in cognitive flexibility. Nevertheless, the HA group showed a smaller improvement in these skills and higher risk of IPV recidivism than the LA group. Moreover, improvement in these skills was related to a lower risk of IPV recidivism. The study provides guidance on the targeting of cognitive domains, which are key factors for reducing IPV recidivism.

  20. Improvements in Empathy and Cognitive Flexibility after Court-Mandated Intervention Program in Intimate Partner Violence Perpetrators: The Role of Alcohol Abuse

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romero-Martínez, Ángel; Lila, Marisol; Martínez, Manuela; Pedrón-Rico, Vicente; Moya-Albiol, Luis

    2016-01-01

    Research assessing the effectiveness of intervention programs for intimate partner violence (IPV) perpetrators has increased considerably in recent years. However, most of it has been focused on the analysis of psychological domains, neglecting neuropsychological variables and the effects of alcohol consumption on these variables. This study evaluated potential neuropsychological changes (emotional decoding, perspective taking, emotional empathy and cognitive flexibility) and their relationship with alcohol consumption in a mandatory intervention program for IPV perpetrators, as well as how these variables affect the risk of IPV recidivism. The sample was composed of 116 individuals with high alcohol (n = 55; HA) and low alcohol (n = 61; LA) consumption according to self-report screening measures who received treatment in a IPV perpetrator intervention program developed in Valencia (Spain). IPV perpetrators with HA consumption were less accurate in decoding emotional facial signals and adopting others’ perspective, and less cognitively flexible than those with LA consumption before the IPV intervention. Further, the effectiveness of the intervention program was demonstrated, with increases being observed in cognitive empathy (emotional decoding and perspective taking) and in cognitive flexibility. Nevertheless, the HA group showed a smaller improvement in these skills and higher risk of IPV recidivism than the LA group. Moreover, improvement in these skills was related to a lower risk of IPV recidivism. The study provides guidance on the targeting of cognitive domains, which are key factors for reducing IPV recidivism. PMID:27043602